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Sample records for mexican tropical dry

  1. Sources and Sinks of Diversification and Conservation Priorities for the Mexican Tropical Dry Forest

    PubMed Central

    Becerra, Judith X.; Venable, D. Lawrence

    2008-01-01

    Elucidating the geographical history of diversification is critical for inferring where future diversification may occur and thus could be a valuable aid in determining conservation priorities. However, it has been difficult to recognize areas with a higher likelihood of promoting diversification. We reconstructed centres of origin of lineages and identified areas in the Mexican tropical dry forest that have been important centres of diversification (sources) and areas where species are maintained but where diversification is less likely to occur (diversity sinks). We used a molecular phylogeny of the genus Bursera, a dominant member of the forest, along with information on current species distributions. Results indicate that vast areas of the forest have historically functioned as diversity sinks, generating few or no extant Bursera lineages. Only a few areas have functioned as major engines of diversification. Long-term preservation of biodiversity may be promoted by incorporation of such knowledge in decision-making. PMID:18927613

  2. DNA barcoding species inventory of Microgastrinae wasps (Hymenoptera, Braconidae) from a Mexican tropical dry forest.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Flores, S; Fernández-Triana, J L; Martínez, J J; Zaldívar-Riverón, A

    2013-11-01

    The cosmopolitan Microgastrinae is probably the most diverse braconid subfamily of parasitoid wasps, yet its species diversity is far from being known. As part of a global initiative for DNA barcoding Microgastrinae species, here we show the results of a study that assessed the species richness of this subfamily in a Mexican tropical dry forest located in the Chamela region, near the Pacific coast of Jalisco. Barcoding sequences of a total of 551 microgastrine specimens were generated, corresponding to 238 haplotypes. Performance of two species delineation approaches, a 2% corrected pairwise distance criterion and the general mixed Yule-coalescent (GMYC) method, yielded 100 and 112 putative species, respectively, which belong to 13 genera. The species delimited by the above two approaches were mostly congruent with our morphospecies identification. Ten molecular operational taxonomic units (MOTUs) were split into twenty-two species by the GMYC approach. We found morphological differences between the GMYC species corresponding to three of these MOTUs. Thus, a total of 103 microgastrine species were confirmed for the region of study. Thirty-three species were only represented by males, and therefore, their generic assignment is only tentatively proposed. Fornicia, Dolichogenoidea, Distatrix, Glyptapanteles and Pholetesor represent new generic records for the Mexican territory. A new record for the country is also provided for the Diolcogaster-basimacula species group. Based on a comparison of nearly 20 000 barcoding sequences released for Microgastrinae from 75 countries, only five microgastrine species from Chamela were found to occur in other countries, four in Costa Rica and one in Canada and the United States.

  3. Reconstructing the Mexican Tropical Dry Forests via an Autoecological Niche Approach: Reconsidering the Ecosystem Boundaries.

    PubMed

    Prieto-Torres, David A; Rojas-Soto, Octavio R

    2016-01-01

    We used Ecological Niche Modeling (ENM) of individual species of two taxonomic groups (plants and birds) in order to reconstruct the climatic distribution of Tropical Dry Forests (TDFs) in Mexico and to analyze their boundaries with other terrestrial ecosystems. The reconstruction for TDFs' distribution was analyzed considering the prediction and omission errors based upon the combination of species, obtained from the overlap of individual models (only plants, only birds, and all species combined). Two verifications were used: a primary vegetation map and 100 independent TDFs localities. We performed a Principal Component (PCA) and Discriminant Analysis (DA) to evaluate the variation in the environmental variables and ecological overlap among ecosystems. The modeling strategies showed differences in the ecological patterns and prediction areas, where the "all species combined" model (with a threshold of ≥10 species) was the best strategy to use in the TDFs reconstruction. We observed a concordance of 78% with the primary vegetation map and a prediction of 98% of independent locality records. Although PCA and DA tests explained 75.78% and 97.9% of variance observed, respectively, we observed an important overlap among the TDFs with other adjacent ecosystems, confirming the existence of transition zones among them. We successfully modeled the distribution of Mexican TDFs using a number of bioclimatic variables and co-distributed species. This autoecological niche approach suggests the necessity of rethinking the delimitations of ecosystems based on the recognition of transition zones among them in order to understand the real nature of communities and association patterns of species.

  4. Reconstructing the Mexican Tropical Dry Forests via an Autoecological Niche Approach: Reconsidering the Ecosystem Boundaries

    PubMed Central

    Prieto-Torres, David A.; Rojas-Soto, Octavio R.

    2016-01-01

    We used Ecological Niche Modeling (ENM) of individual species of two taxonomic groups (plants and birds) in order to reconstruct the climatic distribution of Tropical Dry Forests (TDFs) in Mexico and to analyze their boundaries with other terrestrial ecosystems. The reconstruction for TDFs’ distribution was analyzed considering the prediction and omission errors based upon the combination of species, obtained from the overlap of individual models (only plants, only birds, and all species combined). Two verifications were used: a primary vegetation map and 100 independent TDFs localities. We performed a Principal Component (PCA) and Discriminant Analysis (DA) to evaluate the variation in the environmental variables and ecological overlap among ecosystems. The modeling strategies showed differences in the ecological patterns and prediction areas, where the “all species combined” model (with a threshold of ≥10 species) was the best strategy to use in the TDFs reconstruction. We observed a concordance of 78% with the primary vegetation map and a prediction of 98% of independent locality records. Although PCA and DA tests explained 75.78% and 97.9% of variance observed, respectively, we observed an important overlap among the TDFs with other adjacent ecosystems, confirming the existence of transition zones among them. We successfully modeled the distribution of Mexican TDFs using a number of bioclimatic variables and co-distributed species. This autoecological niche approach suggests the necessity of rethinking the delimitations of ecosystems based on the recognition of transition zones among them in order to understand the real nature of communities and association patterns of species. PMID:26968031

  5. Molecular phylogenetics and species delimitation of leaf-toed geckos (Phyllodactylidae: Phyllodactylus) throughout the Mexican tropical dry forest.

    PubMed

    Blair, Christopher; Méndez de la Cruz, Fausto R; Law, Christopher; Murphy, Robert W

    2015-03-01

    Methods and approaches for accurate species delimitation continue to be a highly controversial subject in the systematics community. Inaccurate assessment of species' limits precludes accurate inference of historical evolutionary processes. Recent evidence suggests that multilocus coalescent methods show promise in delimiting species in cryptic clades. We combine multilocus sequence data with coalescence-based phylogenetics in a hypothesis-testing framework to assess species limits and elucidate the timing of diversification in leaf-toed geckos (Phyllodactylus) of Mexico's dry forests. Tropical deciduous forests (TDF) of the Neotropics are among the planet's most diverse ecosystems. However, in comparison to moist tropical forests, little is known about the mode and tempo of biotic evolution throughout this threatened biome. We find increased speciation and substantial, cryptic molecular diversity originating following the formation of Mexican TDF 30-20million years ago due to orogenesis of the Sierra Madre Occidental and Mexican Volcanic Belt. Phylogenetic results suggest that the Mexican Volcanic Belt, the Rio Fuerte, and Isthmus of Tehuantepec may be important biogeographic barriers. Single- and multilocus coalescent analyses suggest that nearly every sampling locality may be a distinct species. These results suggest unprecedented levels of diversity, a complex evolutionary history, and that the formation and expansion of TDF vegetation in the Miocene may have influenced subsequent cladogenesis of leaf-toed geckos throughout western Mexico.

  6. Flowpaths, source water contributions and water residence times in a Mexican tropical dry forest catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrick, Kegan K.; Branfireun, Brian A.

    2015-10-01

    Runoff in forested tropical catchments has been frequently described in the literature as dominated by the rapid translation of rainfall to runoff through surface and shallow subsurface pathways. However, studies examining runoff generation in tropical catchments with highly permeable soils have received little attention, particularly in tropical dry forests. We present a study focused on identifying the dominant flowpaths, water sources and stream water residence times in a tropical dry forest catchment near the Pacific coast of central Mexico. During the wet season, pre-event water contributions to stormflow ranged from 72% to 97%, with the concentrations of calcium, magnesium, sodium and potassium closely coupling the geochemistry of baseflow and groundwater from the narrow riparian/near-stream zone. Baseflow from the intermittent stream showed a strongly damped isotopic signature and a mean baseflow residence time of 52-110 days was estimated. These findings all suggest that instead of the surface and near-surface subsurface lateral pathways observed over many tropical catchments, runoff is generated through vertical flow processes and the displacement and discharge of stored water from the saturated zone. As the wet season progressed, contributions from the saturated zone persisted; however, the stormflow and baseflow geochemistry suggests that the contributing area of the catchment increased. Our results show that during the early part of the wet season, runoff originated primarily from the headwater portion of the catchment. As the wet season progressed and catchment wetness increased, connectivity among sub-basin was improved, resulting in runoff contributions from across the entire catchment.

  7. Response of the endangered tropical dry forests to climate change and the role of Mexican Protected Areas for their conservation.

    PubMed

    Prieto-Torres, David A; Navarro-Sigüenza, Adolfo G; Santiago-Alarcon, Diego; Rojas-Soto, Octavio R

    2016-01-01

    Assuming that co-distributed species are exposed to similar environmental conditions, ecological niche models (ENMs) of bird and plant species inhabiting tropical dry forests (TDFs) in Mexico were developed to evaluate future projections of their distribution for the years 2050 and 2070. We used ENM-based predictions and climatic data for two Global Climate Models, considering two Representative Concentration Pathway scenarios (RCP4.5/RCP8.5). We also evaluated the effects of habitat loss and the importance of the Mexican system of protected areas (PAs) on the projected models for a more detailed prediction of TDFs and to identify hot spots that require conservation actions. We identified four major distributional areas: the main one located along the Pacific Coast (from Sonora to Chiapas, including the Cape and Bajío regions, and the Balsas river basin), and three isolated areas: the Yucatán peninsula, central Veracruz, and southern Tamaulipas. When considering the effect of habitat loss, a significant reduction (~61%) of the TDFs predicted area occurred, whereas climate-change models suggested (in comparison with the present distribution model) an increase in area of 3.0-10.0% and 3.0-9.0% for 2050 and 2070, respectively. In future scenarios, TDFs will occupy areas above its current average elevational distribution that are outside of its present geographical range. Our findings show that TDFs may persist in Mexican territory until the middle of the XXI century; however, the challenges about long-term conservation are partially addressed (only 7% unaffected within the Mexican network of PAs) with the current Mexican PAs network. Based on our ENM approach, we suggest that a combination of models of species inhabiting present TDFs and taking into account change scenarios represent an invaluable tool to create new PAs and ecological corridors, as a response to the increasing levels of habitat destruction and the effects of climate change on this ecosystem.

  8. Dispersal limitation of Tillandsia species correlates with rain and host structure in a central Mexican tropical dry forest

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Seed dispersal permits the colonization of favorable habitats and generation of new populations, facilitating escape from habitats that are in decline. There is little experimental evidence of the factors that limit epiphyte dispersion towards their hosts. In a tropical dry forest in central Mexico, we monitored the phenology of dispersion of epiphyte species of the genus Tillandsia; we tested experimentally whether precipitation could cause failures in seed dispersal and whether seed capture differs among vertical strata and between host species with high (Bursera copallifera) and low (Conzattia multiflora) epiphyte loads. With the exception of one species that presents late dispersion and low abundance, all of the species disperse prior to the onset of the rainy season. However, early rains immobilize the seeds, affecting up to 24% of the fruits in species with late dispersion. We observed that Tillandsia seeds reach both Bursera and Conzattia hosts, but found that adherence to the host is 4–5 times higher in Bursera. Furthermore, seeds liberated from Bursera travel shorter distances and up to half may remain within the same crown, while the highest seed capture takes place in the upper strata of the trees. We conclude that dispersion of Tillandsia seeds is limited by early rains and by the capture of seeds within the trees where populations concentrate. This pattern of capture also helps to explain the high concentrations of epiphytes in certain hosts, while trees with few epiphytes can be simultaneously considered deficient receivers and efficient exporters of seeds. PMID:28158320

  9. Dispersal limitation of Tillandsia species correlates with rain and host structure in a central Mexican tropical dry forest.

    PubMed

    Victoriano-Romero, Elizabeth; Valencia-Díaz, Susana; Toledo-Hernández, Víctor Hugo; Flores-Palacios, Alejandro

    2017-01-01

    Seed dispersal permits the colonization of favorable habitats and generation of new populations, facilitating escape from habitats that are in decline. There is little experimental evidence of the factors that limit epiphyte dispersion towards their hosts. In a tropical dry forest in central Mexico, we monitored the phenology of dispersion of epiphyte species of the genus Tillandsia; we tested experimentally whether precipitation could cause failures in seed dispersal and whether seed capture differs among vertical strata and between host species with high (Bursera copallifera) and low (Conzattia multiflora) epiphyte loads. With the exception of one species that presents late dispersion and low abundance, all of the species disperse prior to the onset of the rainy season. However, early rains immobilize the seeds, affecting up to 24% of the fruits in species with late dispersion. We observed that Tillandsia seeds reach both Bursera and Conzattia hosts, but found that adherence to the host is 4-5 times higher in Bursera. Furthermore, seeds liberated from Bursera travel shorter distances and up to half may remain within the same crown, while the highest seed capture takes place in the upper strata of the trees. We conclude that dispersion of Tillandsia seeds is limited by early rains and by the capture of seeds within the trees where populations concentrate. This pattern of capture also helps to explain the high concentrations of epiphytes in certain hosts, while trees with few epiphytes can be simultaneously considered deficient receivers and efficient exporters of seeds.

  10. Interactions among three trophic levels and diversity of parasitoids: a case of top-down processes in Mexican tropical dry forest.

    PubMed

    Cuevas-Reyes, Pablo; Quesada, Mauricio; Hanson, Paul; Oyama, Ken

    2007-08-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the relationship between plant hosts, galling insects, and their parasitoids in a tropical dry forest at Chamela-Cuixmala Biosphere Reserve in western Mexico. In 120 transects of 30 by 5 m (60 in deciduous forest and 60 in riparian habitats), 29 galling insects species were found and represented in the following order: Diptera (Cecidomyiidae, which induced the greatest abundance of galls with 22 species; 76%), Homoptera (Psylloidea, 6.9%; Psyllidae, 6.9%; Triozidae, 3.4%), Hymenoptera (Tanaostigmatidae, 3.4%; which were rare), and one unidentified morphospecies (3.4%). In all cases, there was a great specificity between galling insect species and their host plant species; one galling insect species was associated with one specific plant species. In contrast, there was no specificity between parasitoid species and their host galling insect species. Only 11 species of parasitoids were associated with 29 galling insect species represented in the following families: Torymidae (18.2%), Eurytomidae (18.2%), Eulophidae (18.2%), Eupelmidae (9.1%), Pteromalidae (9.1%), family Braconidae (9.1%), Platygastridae (9.1%), and one unidentified (9.1%). Most parasitoid species parasitized several gall species (Torymus sp.: 51.1%, Eurytoma sp.: 49.7%, Torymoides sp.: 46.9%). Therefore, the effects of variation in plant defenses do not extend to the third trophic level, because a few species of parasitoids can determine the community structure and composition of galling insect species in tropical plants, and instead, top-down processes seem to be regulating trophic interactions of galling insect species in tropical gall communities.

  11. Interannual variability in the extent and intensity of tropical dry forest deciduousness in the Mexican Yucatan (2000-2016): Drivers and Links to Regional Atmospheric Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuba, Nicholas Joseph

    The dry topical forests of the southern Yucatan Peninsula experience multiple natural and anthropogenic disturbances, as well as substantial interannual climate variability that can result in stark interannual differences in vegetation phenology. Dry season deciduousness is a typical response to limit tree water loss during prolonged periods of hot and dry conditions, and this behavior has both direct implications for ecosystem functioning, and the potential to indicate climate conditions when observed using remotely-sensed data. The first research paper of this dissertation advances methods to assess the accuracy of remotely-sensed measurements of canopy conditions using in-situ observations. Linear regression models show the highest correlation (R2 = 0.751) between in-situ canopy gap fraction and Landsat NDWISWIR2. MODIS time series NDWISWIR2 are created for the period March 2000-February 2011, and exhibit stronger correlation with time series of TRMM precipitation data than do MODIS EVI time series (R2= 0.48 vs. R2 = 0.43 in deciduous forest areas). The second paper examines differences between the deciduous phenology of young forest stands and older forest stands. Land-cover maps are overlaid to determine whether forested areas are greater than or less than 22 years old in 2010, and metrics related to deciduous phenology are derived from MODIS EVI2 time series in three years, 2008 to 2011. Statistical tests that compare matched pairs of young (12-22 years) and older (>22 years) forest stand age class samples are used to detect significant differences in metrics related to the intensity and timing of deciduousness. In all three years, younger forests exhibit significantly more intense deciduousness, measured as total seasonal change of EVI2 normalized by annual maximum EVI2 (p<0.001), and exhibit larger EVI2 declines at successive 32-day periods during dry season months (p<0.02), than nearby older forests that are assumed to share similar environmental

  12. Precipitation: Sub-tropical drying explained

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chadwick, Robin

    2017-01-01

    The sub-tropics are some of Earth's driest regions, and are expected to get even drier under climate change. Now research overturns our previous understanding of this drying, and suggests that it will affect the oceans much more than the land.

  13. Low Carbon Costs of Nitrogen Fixation in Tropical Dry Forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gei, M. G.; Powers, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    Legume tree species with the ability to fix nitrogen (N) are highly diverse and widespread across tropical forests but in particular in the dry tropics. Their ecological success in lower latitudes has been called a "paradox": soil N in the tropics is thought to be high, while acquiring N through fixation incurs high energetic costs. However, the long held assumptions that N fixation is limited by photosynthate and that N fixation penalizes plant productivity have rarely been tested, particularly in legume tree species. We show results from three different experiments where we grew eleven species of tropical dry forest legumes. We quantified plant biomass and N fixation using nodulation and the 15N natural isotope abundance (Ndfa or nitrogen derived from fixation). These data show little evidence for costs of N fixation in seedlings grown under different soil fertility, light regimes, and with different microbial communities. Seedling productivity did not incur major costs because of N fixation: indeed, the average slope between Ndfa and biomass was positive (range in slopes: -0.03 to 0.3). Moreover, foliar N, which varied among species, was tightly constrained and not correlated with Ndfa. This finding implies that legume species have a target N that does not change depending on N acquisition strategies. The process of N fixation in tropical legumes may be more carbon efficient than previously thought. This view is more consistent with the hyperabundance of members of this family in tropical ecosystems.

  14. Propagation of dry tropical forest trees in Mexico

    Treesearch

    Martha A. Cervantes Sanchez

    2002-01-01

    There is a distinct lack of technical information on the propagation of native tree species from the dry tropical forest ecosystem in Mexico. This ecosystem has come under heavy human pressures to obtain several products such as specialty woods for fuel, posts for fences and construction, forage, edible fruits, stakes for horticulture crops, and medicinal products. The...

  15. Dry kiln schedules for commercial woods : temperate and tropical

    Treesearch

    R. Sidney Boone; Charles J. Kozlik; Paul J. Bois; Eugene M. Wengert

    1988-01-01

    This report contains suggested dry kiln schedules for over 500 commercial woods, both temperate and tropical. Kiln schedules are completely assembled and written out for easy use. Schedules for several thicknesses and specialty products (e.g. squares, handle stock, gunstock blanks) are given for many species. The majority of the schedules are from the world literature...

  16. Persistent drying in the tropics linked to natural forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, Amos; Zanchettin, Davide; Kushnir, Yochanan; Black, David; Breitenbach, Sebastian; Cheng, Hai; Miller, Thomas; Haug, Gerald

    2015-04-01

    Climate projections for the future indicate a regional contrast in tropical hydrologic trends between areas that are slated to dry and those that may become wet. While much of the tropical ocean under the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) is projected to see an increase in rainfall, a wide area of Central America and surrounding oceans is expected to experience severe drying. Approximately half the world's population lives in the tropics, and future changes in the hydrological cycle will impact not just freshwater supplies but also energy production in areas dependent upon hydroelectric power. It is vital that we understand tropical forcing mechanisms and the eventual hydrological response in order to better assess projected future regional precipitation trends and variability. Paleoclimate proxies are a valuable source of information for this purpose as they provide long time series that pre-date and complement the present, often short instrumental observations. Here we present paleo-precipitation data from a speleothem located in Mesoamerica that reveal large multi-decadal declines in regional precipitation whose onset coincides with clusters of large volcanic eruptions during the 19th and 20th centuries. This reconstruction provides new independent evidence of robust long-lasting volcanic effects on climate and elucidates key aspects of the causal chain of physical processes determining the tropical climate response to global radiative forcing.

  17. Dry season aerosol iron solubility in tropical northern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winton, V. Holly L.; Edwards, Ross; Bowie, Andrew R.; Keywood, Melita; Williams, Alistair G.; Chambers, Scott D.; Selleck, Paul W.; Desservettaz, Maximilien; Mallet, Marc D.; Paton-Walsh, Clare

    2016-10-01

    Marine nitrogen fixation is co-limited by the supply of iron (Fe) and phosphorus in large regions of the global ocean. The deposition of soluble aerosol Fe can initiate nitrogen fixation and trigger toxic algal blooms in nitrate-poor tropical waters. We present dry season soluble Fe data from the Savannah Fires in the Early Dry Season (SAFIRED) campaign in northern Australia that reflects coincident dust and biomass burning sources of soluble aerosol Fe. The mean soluble and total aerosol Fe concentrations were 40 and 500 ng m-3 respectively. Our results show that while biomass burning species may not be a direct source of soluble Fe, biomass burning may substantially enhance the solubility of mineral dust. We observed fractional Fe solubility up to 12 % in mixed aerosols. Thus, Fe in dust may be more soluble in the tropics compared to higher latitudes due to higher concentrations of biomass-burning-derived reactive organic species in the atmosphere. In addition, biomass-burning-derived particles can act as a surface for aerosol Fe to bind during atmospheric transport and subsequently be released to the ocean upon deposition. As the aerosol loading is dominated by biomass burning emissions over the tropical waters in the dry season, additions of biomass-burning-derived soluble Fe could have harmful consequences for initiating nitrogen-fixing toxic algal blooms. Future research is required to quantify biomass-burning-derived particle sources of soluble Fe over tropical waters.

  18. Strengthening contrast between precipitation in tropical wet and dry regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polson, D.; Hegerl, G. C.

    2017-01-01

    The wet-gets-wetter, dry-gets-drier paradigm (WWDD) is widely used to summarize the expected response of the hydrological cycle to global warming. While some studies find that changes in observations and climate models support the WWDD paradigm, others find that it is more complicated at local scales and over land. This discrepancy is partly explained by differences in model climatologies and by movement of the wet and dry regions. Here we show that by tracking changes in wet and dry regions as they shift over the tropics and vary in models, mean precipitation changes follow the WWDD pattern in observations and models over land and ocean. However, this signal is reduced and disappears in model dry regions, when these factors are not accounted for. Accounting for seasonal and interannual shifts of the regions and climatological differences between models reduces uncertainty in predictions of future precipitation changes and makes these changes detectable earlier.

  19. The dry intrusion perspective of extra-tropical cyclone development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Browning, K. A.

    1997-12-01

    The dry intrusion is a coherent region of air descending from near tropopause-level. It often has a clear signature in satellite imagery, especially in the water vapour channel, where it is seen as a ‘dark zone’. Parts of dry intrusions are characterised by high potential vorticity and, upon approaching a low-level baroclinic zone, rapid cyclogenesis may be expected to ensue. The leading edges of dry intrusions are defined by cold [theta]w-fronts (moisture fronts). In some places the dry intrusion undercuts rearward-ascending warm air to give an ana-cold front. In other places it overruns the warm air to produce an upper cold [theta]w-front in advance of the surface cold front. Here the dry intrusion is associated with the generation of potential instability and its eventual release as showers or thunderstorms. Identification of dry intrusions provides the forecaster with additional nowcasting evidence that is especially helpful when issuing severe weather warnings. The identification of water vapour dark zones associated with dry intrusions can also form the basis of methods for validating NWP models. Through their relationship to high potential vorticity, they can provide guidance for bogussing NWP models in situations of potentially severe weather. This article provides an introduction to the structure and behaviour of dry intrusions and their relationship to other aspects of extra-tropical cyclones.

  20. The Moistening and Drying Effect of Tropical Cyclones in Mexico Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domínguez Sarmiento, C.; Magaña Rueda, V.

    2013-05-01

    Tropical Cyclones (TCs) are supplying mechanisms of water to the country and allow recharging aquifers, rivers, lakes and stratus of groundwater. TCs play a more important role in the hydrological cycle of northern Mexico and they are such an essential elements during summer rainfall seasons in Mexico that if they did not exist, summer rainfall would decrease its amount by half in numerous Mexican regions. For instance, there could be a high TC activity both Atlantic and Pacific Ocean, a rainfall season could not be enough to become important if TCs do not pass over Mexico. We examine the two opposite effects of Tropical Cyclones (TCs) on Mexico, during the period 1979-2009, by means of a probabilistic clustering technique. One TC effect is their contribution to summer rainfall, which is defined as "the moistening effect". The other effect is to dry regions due to subsidence induced by their circulation, which is defined as "the drying effect". The TCs tracks for the North Atlantic and Eastern North Pacific Oceans are obtained from the best-track database of National Hurricane Centre (HURDAT and EPA). Four principal types of tracks (clusters) in both basins are defined and each cluster has a different impact on Mexico. Consequently, this shows how important defining clusters are to analyze TC effects. We conclude that, climatologically, TCs may contribute up to 30% of summer rainfall depending on the cluster. In addition, the subsidence effect is not large, compared to the generated amount of precipitation in a region, but acts to produce negative precipitation anomalies over Mexican regions that depend on their distance of the system to Mexico.

  1. Water cycle of a seasonally dry tropical forest (Southern Vietnam)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuricheva, O. A.; Avilov, V. C.; Dinh, Duy Ba; Kurbatova, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    How does the activity of the ecosystem of monsoon tropical forest decrease during the dry season of more than 4 months? To answer this question, the dynamics of evapotranspiration is analyzed in the national park of Cát Tiên (Southern Vietnam) using continuous eddy covariance and meteorological dataset for 2012-2013. A comparison of evapotranspiration between Cát Tiên and 21 sites in different tropical forests over the world is performed. It is shown that the abundance of resources of energy and moisture in the annual cycle, as well as the storage of water from the rainy season allows monsoon ecosystem to implement the proactive vegetation during the dry season and make specificity of ecosystem energy and water fluxes in Cát Tiên forest similar to the rainforests.

  2. Cryptic speciation in the Caesalpinia hintonii complex (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioideae) in a seasonally dry Mexican forest.

    PubMed

    Sotuyo, Solange; Delgado-Salinas, Alfonso; Chase, Mark W; Lewis, Gwilym P; Oyama, Ken

    2007-12-01

    [corrected] The Caesalpinia hintonii group comprises six species of endemic shrubs or trees, C. epifanioi, C. hintonii, C. laxa, C. macvaughii, C. melanadenia and C. oyamae, found in scattered patches of seasonally dry forest in the Río Balsas depression and the neighbouring Tehuacán-Cuicatlán valley, which are part of the Mexican morphotectonic province of Sierra Madre del Sur. An evaluation is made of phylogeographic patterns and genetic diversity with a phylogenetic analysis of the C. hintonii complex in order to study the dynamics of speciation in this endemic group of legumes. A phylogeographic study based on four highly variable non-coding plastid regions (trnL intron, trnL-F intergenic spacer, trnH-psbA intergenic spacer, and accD-psaI intergenic spacer) was carried out for the Caesalpinia hintonii complex. Five of the six taxa of the C. hintonii complex were included. The plastid analyses involving multiple accessions of each taxon from throughout their ranges resolved C. epifanioi and C. hintonii as well-supported clusters, but C. oyamae has two unexpectedly divergent lineages. Two well-supported geographic clades: eastern (C. epifanioi, C. melanadenia and C. oyamae) and western (C. hintonii and C. macvaughii) were established. The analyses performed provide evidence of recent morphostatic radiation in C. oyamae resulting from isolation and local adaptation. This pattern of genetic differentiation without morphological divergence may be a model that fits many groups of tropical woody taxa inhabiting similarly dry forests subjected to shifting selection.

  3. Cryptic Speciation in the Caesalpinia hintonii Complex (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioideae) in a Seasonally Dry Mexican Forest

    PubMed Central

    Sotuyo, Solange; Delgado-Salinas, Alfonso; Chase, Mark W.; Lewis, Gwilym P.; Oyama, Ken

    2007-01-01

    Backgroud and Aims The Caesalpinia hintonii group comprises six species of endemic shrubs or trees, C. epifanioi, C. hintonii, C. laxa, C. macvaughii, C. melanadenia and C. oyamae, found in scattered patches of seasonally dry forest in the Río Balsas depression and the neighbouring Tehuacán–Cuicatlán valley, which are part of the Mexican morphotectonic province of Sierra Madre del Sur. An evaluation is made of phylogeographic patterns and genetic diversity with a phylogenetic analysis of the C. hintonii complex in order to study the dynamics of speciation in this endemic group of legumes. Methods A phylogeographic study based on four highly variable non-coding plastid regions (trnL intron, trnL-F intergenic spacer, trnH-psbA intergenic spacer, and accD-psaI intergenic spacer) was carried out for the Caesalpinia hintonii complex. Five of the six taxa of the C. hintonii complex were included. Key Results and Conclusions The plastid analyses involving multiple accessions of each taxon from throughout their ranges resolved C. epifanioi and C. hintonii as well-supported clusters, but C. oyamae has two unexpectedly divergent lineages. Two well-supported geographic clades: eastern (C. epifanioi, C. melanadenia and C. oyamae) and western (C. hintonii and C. macvaughii) were established. The analyses performed provide evidence of recent morphostatic radiation in C. oyamae resulting from isolation and local adaptation. This pattern of genetic differentiation without morphological divergence may be a model that fits many groups of tropical woody taxa inhabiting similarly dry forests subjected to shifting selection. PMID:17913727

  4. A warming tropical central Pacific dries the lower stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Qinghua; Fu, Qiang

    2017-06-01

    The amount of water vapor in the tropical lower stratosphere (TLS), which has an important influence on the radiative energy budget of the climate system, is modulated by the temperature variability of the tropical tropopause layer (TTL). The TTL temperature variability is caused by a complex combination of the stratospheric quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO), tropospheric convective processes in the tropics, and the Brewer-Dobson circulation (BDC) driven by mid-latitude and subtropical atmospheric waves. In 2000, the TLS water vapor amount exhibited a stepwise transition to a dry phase, apparently caused by a change in the BDC. In this study, we present observational and modeling evidence that the epochal change of water vapor between the periods of 1992-2000 and 2001-2005 was also partly caused by a concurrent sea surface temperature (SST) warming in the tropical central Pacific. This SST warming cools the TTL above by enhancing the equatorial wave-induced upward motion near the tropopause, which consequently reduces the amount of water vapor entering the stratosphere. The QBO affects the TLS water vapor primarily on inter-annual timescales, whereas a classical El Niño southern oscillation (ENSO) event has small effect on tropical mean TLS water vapor because its responses are longitudinally out of phase. This study suggests that the tropical central Pacific SST is another driver of TLS water vapor variability on inter-decadal timescales and the tropical SST changes could contribute to about 30% of the step-wise drop of the lower stratospheric water vapor from 1992-2000 to 2001-2005.

  5. A Novel Tropical Dry Forests: A Response to Environmental Change.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lugo, A. E.; Molina, S.

    2015-12-01

    Dry Forest environments are favorable to human settlement and activities, leading to deforestation, agricultural enterprises, land degradation, and abandonment. As a result, tropical dry forests are vulnerable and experience a high rate of cover loss, which often requires restoration activities. We have studied the natural regeneration of dry forests in Puerto Rico following a variety of human activities including farming, cattle pasturing, charcoal production, and human dwellings. Our results show a high level of forest resilience to anthropogenic disturbances but also a change of species composition relative to undisturbed native forests. This novelty of forest composition represents a natural response to environmental changes induced by human activity and pre-adapts forests to conditions in the Anthropocene.

  6. Wet and dry spell characteristics of global tropical rainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratan, R.; Venugopal, V.

    2013-06-01

    In this study, we analyze satellite-based daily rainfall observations to compare and contrast the wet and dry spell characteristics of tropical rainfall. Defining a wet (dry) spell as the number of consecutive rainy (nonrainy) days, we find that the distributions of wet spells appear to exhibit universality in the following sense. While both ocean and land regions with high seasonal rainfall accumulation (humid regions; e.g., India, Amazon, Pacific Ocean) show a predominance of 2-4 day wet spells, those regions with low seasonal rainfall accumulation (arid regions; e.g., South Atlantic, South Australia) exhibit a wet spell duration distribution that is essentially exponential in nature, with a peak at 1 day. The behavior that we observed for wet spells is reversed for the dry spell characteristics. In other words, the main contribution to the dry part of the season, in terms of the number of nonrainy days, appears to come from 3-4 day dry spells in the arid regions, as opposed to 1 day dry spells in the humid regions. The total rainfall accumulated in each wet spell has also been analyzed, and we find that the major contribution to seasonal rainfall for arid regions comes from 1-5 day wet spells; however, for humid regions, this contribution comes from wet spells of duration as long as 30 days. We also explore the role of chance as well as the influence of organized convection in determining some of the observed features.

  7. The Impact of Dry Saharan Air on Tropical Cyclone Intensification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braun, Scott A.

    2012-01-01

    The controversial role of the dry Saharan Air Layer (SAL) on tropical storm intensification in the Atlantic will be addressed. The SAL has been argued in previous studies to have potential positive influences on storm development, but most recent studies have argued for a strong suppressing influence on storm intensification as a result of dry air, high stability, increased vertical wind shear, and microphysical impacts of dust. Here, we focus on observations of Hurricane Helene (2006), which occurred during the NASA African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Activities (NAMMA) experiment. Satellite and airborne observations, combined with global meteorological analyses depict the initial environment of Helene as being dominated by the SAL, although with minimal evidence that the SAL air actually penetrated to the core of the disturbance. Over the next several days, the SAL air quickly moved westward and was gradually replaced by a very dry, dust-free layer associated with subsidence. Despite the wrapping of this very dry air around the storm, Helene intensified steadily to a Category 3 hurricane suggesting that the dry air was unable to significantly slow storm intensification. Several uncertainties remain about the role of the SAL in Helene (and in tropical cyclones in general). To better address these uncertainties, NASA will be conducting a three year airborne campaign called the Hurricane and Severe Storm Sentinel (HS3). The HS3 objectives are: To obtain critical measurements in the hurricane environment in order to identify the role of key factors such as large-scale wind systems (troughs, jet streams), Saharan air masses, African Easterly Waves and their embedded critical layers (that help to isolate tropical disturbances from hostile environments). To observe and understand the three-dimensional mesoscale and convective-scale internal structures of tropical disturbances and cyclones and their role in intensity change. The mission objectives will be achieved using

  8. Utilization of geothermal heat in tropical fruit-drying process

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, B.H.; Lopez, L.P.; King, R.; Fujii, J.; Tanaka, M.

    1982-10-01

    The power plant utilizes only the steam portion of the HGP-A well production. There are approximately 50,000 pounds per hour of 360/sup 0/F water produced (approximately 10 million Btu per hour) and the water is currently not used and is considered a waste. This tremendous resource could very well be used in applications such as food processing, food dehydration and other industrial processing that requires low-grade heat. One of the applications is examined, namely the drying of tropical fruits particularly the papaya. The papaya was chosen for the obvious reason that it is the biggest crop of all fruits produced on the Big Island. A conceptual design of a pilot plant facility capable of processing 1000 pounds of raw papaya per day is included. This facility is designed to provide a geothermally heated dryer to dehydrate papayas or other tropical fruits available on an experimental basis to obtain data such as drying time, optimum drying temperature, etc.

  9. Soil N fluxes in three contrasting dry tropical forests.

    PubMed

    Tokuchi, N; Nakanishi, A; Wachirinrat, C; Takeda, H

    2001-11-20

    A comparative study of N fluxes in soil among a dry dipterocarp forest (DDF), a dry evergreen forest (DEF), and a hill evergreen forest (HEF) in Thailand was done. N fluxes in soil were estimated using an ion exchange resin core method and a buried bag method. Soil C and N pools were 38 C Mg/ha/30 cm and 2.5 N Mg/ha/30 cm in DDF, 82 C Mg/ha/30 cm and 6.2 N Mg/ha/30 cm in DEF, and 167 C Mg/ha/30 cm and 9.3 N Mg/ha/30 cm in HEF. Low C concentration in the DDF and DEF sites was compensated by high fine soil content. In the highly weathered tropical soil, fine soil content seemed to be important for C accumulation. Temporal and vertical fluctuations of N fluxes were different among the sites. The highest N flux was exhibited at the onset of the wet season in DDF, whereas inorganic N production and estimated uptake of N were relatively stable during the wet season in DEF and HEF. It is suggested that N cycling in soil becomes stable in dry tropical forests to intermediate in temperate forests. N deposition may result in large changes of N cycling in the DDF and DEF due to low accumulations of C and N.

  10. Biological Nitrogen Fixation In Tropical Dry Forests Of Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gei, M. G.; Powers, J. S.

    2012-12-01

    Evidence suggests that tropical dry forests (TDF) are not nitrogen (N) deficient. This evidence includes: high losses of gaseous nitrogen during the rainy season, high ecosystem soil N stocks and high N concentrations in leaves and litterfall. Its been commonly hypothesized that biological nitrogen fixation is responsible for the high availability of N in tropical soils. However, the magnitude of this flux has rarely if ever been measured in tropical dry forests. Because of the high cost of fixing N and the ubiquity of N fixing legume trees in the TDF, at the individual tree level symbiotic fixation should be a strategy down-regulated by the plant. Our main goal was to determine the rates of and controls over symbiotic N fixation. We hypothesized that legume tree species employ a facultative strategy of nitrogen fixation and that this process responds to changes in light availability, soil moisture and nutrient supply. We tested this hypothesis both on naturally established trees in a forest and under controlled conditions in a shade house by estimating the quantities of N fixed annually using the 15N natural abundance method, counting nodules, and quantifying (field) or manipulating (shade house) the variation in important environmental variables (soil nutrients, soil moisture, and light). We found that in both in our shade house experiment and in the forest, nodulation varied among different legume species. For both settings, the 15N natural abundance approach successfully detected differences in nitrogen fixation among species. The legume species that we studied were able to regulate fixation depending on the environmental conditions. They showed to have different strategies of nitrogen fixation that follow a gradient of facultative to obligate fixation. Our data suggest that there exists a continuum of nitrogen fixation strategies among species. Any efforts to define tropical legume trees as a functional group need to incorporate this variation.

  11. Biological N Fixation Rates in a Tropical Dry Forest Ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santiago, L. S.; Dawson, T. E.

    2005-12-01

    Because tropical legumes are usually the dominant family in forests of the Neotropics and Africa, they represent the greatest potential terrestrial cover of N-fixing species globally. Tropical dry forests therefore may have the greatest rates of biological N-fixation of any ecosystem type. Our objective was to determine the number of legume species that fix N along a successional gradient (10, 20, and 30 years) using a combination of nodule excavation, nodule incubations, and N isotopic composition of foliage. We also quantified non-symbiotic N-fixation by free-living fixers in litter and soil. We found that 21 out of 23 legume species were nodulated. Calculations of percent N from fixation, based on N isotopic composition, ranged from 1-78 percent for individual species. At the stand level, estimates of symbiotic N-fixation was 13.9, 23.1, and 27.8 kg N/ha/yr in 10, 20, and 30 year old forest, respectively. Total non-symbiotic N-fixation, based on acetylne reduction incubations of leaf litter, fine woody debris and surface soil, was 7.5 kg N/ha/yr during the dry season and 17.1 kg N/ha/yr during the wet season. Total ecosystem estimates were 38.5, 47.7, and 52.4 kg N/ha/yr in 10, 20, and 30 year old forest, respectively. Overall, we found that non-symbiotic N-fixation was a greater proportion of total biological N-fixation than has been reported in other tropical dry forests and savanas, but our total biological N-fixation values were similar.

  12. Morphological and physiological differentiation of seedlings between dry and wet habitats in a tropical dry forest.

    PubMed

    Pineda-García, Fernando; Paz, Horacio; Tinoco-Ojanguren, Clara

    2011-09-01

    A common observation in tropical dry forests is the habitat preference of tree species along spatial soil water gradients. This pattern of habitat partitioning might be a result of species differentiation in their strategy for using water, along with competing functions such as maximizing water exploitation and tolerating soil water stress. We tested whether species from drier soil conditions exhibited a tolerance strategy compared with that of wet-habitat species. In a comparison of 12 morphophysiological traits in seedlings of 10 closely related dry and wet-habitat species pairs, we explored what trade-offs guide differentiation between habitats and species. Contrary to our expectations, dry-habitat species showed mostly traits associated with an exploitation strategy (higher carbon assimilation capacity, specific leaf area and leaf-specific conductivity and lower water-use efficiency). Strikingly, dry-habitat species tended to retain their leaves longer during drought. Additionally, we detected multiple strategies to live within each habitat, in part due to variation of strategies among lineages, as well as functional differentiation along the water storage capacity-stem density (xylem safety) trade-off. Our results suggest that fundamental trade-offs guide functional niche differentiation among tree species expressed both within and between soil water habitats in a tropical dry forest.

  13. [Ants: species-area relationship in tropical dry forest fragments].

    PubMed

    Lozano-Zambrano, Fabio H; Ulloa-Chacón, Patricia; Armbrecht, Inge

    2009-01-01

    We analyzed the effect of fragmentation on ant species-area and specimen frequency-area relationships in nine patches of tropical dry forest in the middle Cauca river basin in Colombia. Species richness and specimen relative frequency of ants were positively correlated with area, whereas no significant correlation was found between species richness and the degree of isolation calculated for the forest patches. As the fragmentation affects different functional groups in different ways, we analyzed the species-area relationship for separate functional groups of ants. According to the habitat requirements we found that the species richness increased faster as area increased for ants inhabiting decomposing wood, followed by ants associated with trees, while species richness of ants living under dead leaves did not correlate with area. According to the food preference, species richness was positively correlated with area for the army ant group, while no significant correlation was found for solitary hunters or for leaf-cutting ants. Ant species richness and specimen density were calculated from equal size samples and examined in relation to the habitat area. An inverse correlation was found only for specimen density, the opposite of what was expected. To our knowledge this is one of the first studies showing differential responses of functional groups of ants to habitat loss. Moreover, it emphasizes the conservation value of small forest fragments for ants in a tropical dry forest.

  14. Light Diffusion in the Tropical Dry Forest of Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvo-Rodriguez, S.; Sanchez-Azofeifa, G. A.

    2016-06-01

    Leaf Area Index (LAI) has been defined as the total leaf area (one-sided) in relation to the ground. LAI has an impact on tree growth and recruitment through the interception of light, which in turn affects primary productivity. Even though many instruments exist for estimating LAI from ground, they are often laborious and costly to run continuously. Measurements of LAI from the field using traditional sensors (e.g., LAI-2000) require multiple visits to the field under very specific sky conditions, making them unsuitable to operate in inaccessible areas and forests with dense vegetation, as well as areas where persistent sunny conditions are the norm like tropical dry forests. With this context, we proposed a methodology to characterize light diffusion based on NDVI and LAI measurements taken from the field in two successional stages in the tropical dry forest of Santa Rosa National Park in Costa Rica. We estimate a "K" coefficient to characterize light diffusion by the canopy, based on field NDVI measurements derived from optical phenology instruments and MODIS NDVI. From the coefficients determined, we estimated LAI values and compared them with ground measurements of LAI. In both successional stages ground measurements of LAI had no significant difference to the tower-derived LAI and the estimated LAI from MODIS NDVI.

  15. Tropical drying trends in global warming models and observations.

    PubMed

    Neelin, J D; Münnich, M; Su, H; Meyerson, J E; Holloway, C E

    2006-04-18

    Anthropogenic changes in tropical rainfall are evaluated in a multimodel ensemble of global warming simulations. Major discrepancies on the spatial distribution of these precipitation changes remain in the latest-generation models analyzed here. Despite this uncertainty, we find a number of measures, both global and local, on which reasonable agreement is obtained, notably for the regions of drying trend (negative precipitation anomalies). Models agree on the overall amplitude of the precipitation decreases that occur at the margins of the convective zones, with percent error bars of magnitude similar to those for the tropical warming. Similar agreement is found on a precipitation climate sensitivity defined here and on differential moisture increase inside and outside convection zones, a step in a hypothesized causal path leading to precipitation changes. A measure of local intermodel agreement on significant trends indicates consistent predictions for particular regions. Observed rainfall trends in several data sets show a significant summer drying trend in a main region of intermodel agreement: the Caribbean/Central-American region.

  16. Modeling multiple resource limitation in tropical dry forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medvigy, D.; Xu, X.; Zarakas, C.

    2015-12-01

    Tropical dry forests (TDFs) are characterized by a long dry season when little rain falls. At the same time, many neotropical soils are highly weathered and relatively nutrient poor. Because TDFs are often subject to both water and nutrient constraints, the question of how they will respond to environmental perturbations is both complex and highly interesting. Models, our basic tools for projecting ecosystem responses to global change, can be used to address this question. However, few models have been specifically parameterized for TDFs. Here, we present a new version of the Ecosystem Demography 2 (ED2) model that includes a new parameterization of TDFs. In particular, we focus on the model's framework for representing limitation by multiple resources (carbon, water, nitrogen, and phosphorus). Plant functional types are represented in terms of a dichotomy between "acquisitive" and "conservative" resource acquisition strategies. Depending on their resource acquisition strategy and basic stoichiometry, plants can dynamically adjust their allocation to organs (leaves, stem, roots), symbionts (e.g. N2-fixing bacteria), and mycorrhizal fungi. Several case studies are used to investigate how resource acquisition strategies affect ecosystem responses to environmental perturbations. Results are described in terms of the basic setting (e.g., rich vs. poor soils; longer vs. shorter dry season), and well as the type and magnitude of environmental perturbation (e.g., changes in precipitation or temperature; changes in nitrogen deposition). Implications for ecosystem structure and functioning are discussed.

  17. Effect of Extreme Drought on Tropical Dry Forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, Saulo; Sanchez-Azofeifa, Arturo; Sato, Hiromitsu; Cowling, Sharon; Vega-Araya, Mauricio

    2017-04-01

    Tropical dry forests (TDFs) hold a strong economic and cultural connection to human development in the Neotropics. Historically, TDFs not only represent a source of agricultural and urban land but also an important source of goods and ecosystem services for the communities that live around them. Such is the close connection of TDFs to human activity that they are considered the most heavily utilized and disturbed ecosystem in the world. However, TDF have been largely understudied and represent only a fraction of research devoted to globally tropical ecosystems. Thus we lack the framework to properly project how predicted increases in drought events due to climate change will impact TDFs and human society which depend on its services. Our study aims to show the effect of extreme drought on water, food security, and tropical dry forest productivity in the Guanacaste province of Costa Rica. Two pre-ENSO years (2013-2014) and an ENSO year (2015) were compared. The 2013 and 2014 pre-ENSO years were classified as a normal precipitation (1470 mm) and drought year (1027mm), respectively. The 2015 ENSO year was classified as a severe drought (654mm), with amplified effects resulting by the drought experienced during the previous (2014) growing cycle. Effects of the ENSO drought on agriculture and livestock sectors in the province included losses of US13million and US6.5million, respectively. Crop land losses equaled 2,118 hectares and 11,718 hectares were affected. Hydroelectricity generation decreased by 10% and potable water shortages were observed. The Agriculture and Livestock Ministry (MAG) and the National Emergency Commission (CNE) distributed animal feed and supplies to 4,000 farmers affected by the extreme droughts. Eddy covariance flux measurements were used to identify productivity changes during the extreme drought. Changes in phenologic stages and the transitions between CO2 sink to source during mid-growing cycle were observed. Drought significantly delayed

  18. Hydroregulation in a tropical dry-skinned ectotherm.

    PubMed

    Pintor, Anna F V; Schwarzkopf, Lin; Krockenberger, Andrew K

    2016-12-01

    While temperature effects on species' vulnerability to climate change are well studied, desiccation effects receive comparatively little attention. In addition, we poorly understand the capacity of ectotherms, and especially reptiles, to control water loss rates behaviourally by selecting suitable microhabitats. This study examined water loss rates and behavioural hydroregulation in the tropical rainforest skink Carlia rubrigularis to assess whether this dry-skinned ectotherm actively avoids desiccation and whether trade-offs occur between desiccation avoidance and selection of optimal temperatures, as previously shown in amphibians. Higher temperatures elicited humid refuge choice despite placing individuals in suboptimal thermal conditions, as indicated by preferred substrate temperatures. This finding emphasizes the importance of water loss even for taxa traditionally assumed to be highly desiccation resistant, and highlights this factor's potential influence on vulnerability to climate change by limiting activity times or by restricting individuals to thermally suboptimal microhabitats.

  19. Modeling seasonal surface temperature variations in secondary tropical dry forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Sen; Sanchez-Azofeifa, Arturo

    2017-10-01

    Secondary tropical dry forests (TDFs) provide important ecosystem services such as carbon sequestration, biodiversity conservation, and nutrient cycle regulation. However, their biogeophysical processes at the canopy-atmosphere interface remain unknown, limiting our understanding of how this endangered ecosystem influences, and responds to the ongoing global warming. To facilitate future development of conservation policies, this study characterized the seasonal land surface temperature (LST) behavior of three successional stages (early, intermediate, and late) of a TDF, at the Santa Rosa National Park (SRNP), Costa Rica. A total of 38 Landsat-8 Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS) data and the Surface Reflectance (SR) product were utilized to model LST time series from July 2013 to July 2016 using a radiative transfer equation (RTE) algorithm. We further related the LST time series to seven vegetation indices which reflect different properties of TDFs, and soil moisture data obtained from a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN). Results showed that the LST in the dry season was 15-20 K higher than in the wet season at SRNP. We found that the early successional stages were about 6-8 K warmer than the intermediate successional stages and were 9-10 K warmer than the late successional stages in the middle of the dry season; meanwhile, a minimum LST difference (0-1 K) was observed at the end of the wet season. Leaf phenology and canopy architecture explained most LST variations in both dry and wet seasons. However, our analysis revealed that it is precipitation that ultimately determines the LST variations through both biogeochemical (leaf phenology) and biogeophysical processes (evapotranspiration) of the plants. Results of this study could help physiological modeling studies in secondary TDFs.

  20. Satellite observations of the role and impacts of dry season climate limitations on tropical forest fates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huete, A. R.; Restrepo-Coupe, N.; Wu, J.; Devadas, R.; Guan, K.; Liu, Y.; Ratana, P.; Sun, Q.; Schaaf, C.; Saleska, S. R.

    2015-12-01

    Climate change scenarios projected for the 21st century predict drying of the Amazon, greening of monsoon tropical Asia and no change in the tropics of Australia. Dry season variability is increasing with complex associated forest responses and feedbacks as they become exposed to longer and/or more intense dry seasons. The functional response of tropical forests to dry seasonal periods is thus crucial to forest resilience, as forests may respond with either enhanced photosynthesis (due to more sunlight) or may dry down with greater susceptibility to fires and release of greenhouse gases and severe public health haze alerts. In this study, we use multiple satellite remote sensing datasets representing forest canopy states, environmental drivers (light and water status), and disturbance (fires), along with in situ flux tower measures of photosynthesis to assess whole ecosystem patterns and test mechanisms of forest- dry season climate interactions. We compare photosynthesis patterns and dry season responses of Asia-Oceania tropical forests with neotropical forests to better understand forest resilience to climate change and human impacts. In contrast to the neotropics, human activities in monsoon tropical Asia have resulted in intensive transformations of tropical forests. We find forest disturbance exerts a strong influence on tropical forest functioning and a partial loss or degradation of tropical forests can reverse dry seasonal responses with substantial impacts on carbon fluxes. Neotropical forests displayed large variations in dry season forest responses due to spatially variable dry season lengths and magnitude, whereas most of monsoon Asia tropical forests lacked well-defined dry seasons, yet were highly sensitive to shorter term, intense drought events that impacted severely upon the disturbed forests. Our results highlight the interactions among rainfall, radiation and forest health with the relative importance of each factor varying with the

  1. Spatial variability of soils in a seasonally dry tropical forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulla, Sandeep; Riotte, Jean; Suresh, Hebbalalu; Dattaraja, Handanakere; Sukumar, Raman

    2016-04-01

    Soil structures communities of plants and soil organisms in tropical forests. Understanding the controls of soil spatial variability can therefore potentially inform efforts towards forest restoration. We studied the relationship between soils and lithology, topography, vegetation and fire in a seasonally dry tropical forest in southern India. We extensively sampled soil (available nutrients, Al, pH, and moisture), rocks, relief, woody vegetation, and spatial variation in fire burn frequency in a permanent 50-ha plot. Lower elevation soils tended to be less moist and were depleted in several nutrients and clay. The availability of several nutrients was, in turn, linked to whole-rock chemical composition differences since some lithologies were associated with higher elevations, while the others tended to dominate lower elevations. We suggest that local-scale topography in this region has been shaped by the spatial distribution of lithologies, which differ in their susceptibility to weathering. Nitrogen availability was uncorrelated with the presence of trees belonging to Fabaceae, a family associated with N-fixing species. No effect of burning on soil parameters could be discerned at this scale.

  2. Towards restoration of Hawaiian tropical dry forests: the Kaupulehu outplanting programme

    Treesearch

    Susan Cordell; Moana McClellan; Yvonne Yarber Carter; Lisa J. Hadway

    2008-01-01

    Hawaiian tropical dry forests contain diverse assemblages of woody canopy species, including many endemic and endangered species that warrant conservation attention before completely disappearing. Today, tropical dry forests in Hawaii are not viable ecosystems. Poor land use practices, fragmentation, non-native plant invasions, and inadequate native vegetation...

  3. Deforestation trends of tropical dry forests in central Brazil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bianchi, Carlos A.; Haig, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    Tropical dry forests are the most threatened forest type in the world yet a paucity of research about them stymies development of appropriate conservation actions. The Paranã River Basin has the most significant dry forest formations in the Cerrado biome of central Brazil and is threatened by intense land conversion to pastures and agriculture. We examined changes in Paranã River Basin deforestation rates and fragmentation across three time intervals that covered 31 yr using Landsat imagery. Our results indicated a 66.3 percent decrease in forest extent between 1977 and 2008, with an annual rate of forest cover change of 3.5 percent. Landscape metrics further indicated severe forest loss and fragmentation, resulting in an increase in the number of fragments and reduction in patch sizes. Forest fragments in flatlands have virtually disappeared and the only significant forest remnants are mostly found over limestone outcrops in the eastern part of the basin. If current patterns persist, we project that these forests will likely disappear within 25 yr. These patterns may be reversed with creation of protected areas and involvement of local people to preserve small fragments that can be managed for restoration.

  4. Ant Foraging As an Indicator of Tropical Dry Forest Restoration.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Flores, J; Osorio-Beristain, M; Martínez-Garza, C

    2016-08-01

    Variation in foraging behavior may indicate differences in food availability and allow assessment of restoration actions. Ants are prominent bioindicators used in assessing ecological responses to disturbance. However, behavioral data have been poorly incorporated as an index. The foraging performance of red harvester ants was quantified in order to evaluate the success of a restoration ecology experiment in the tropical dry forest of Sierra de Huautla, Morelos, in central Mexico. Foraging performance by granivorous, Pogonomyrmex barbatus, ants was diminished after 6 and 8 years of cattle grazing and wood harvest were excluded as part of a restoration experiment in a highly degraded biome. Despite investing more time in foraging, ant colonies in exclusion plots showed lower foraging success and acquired less seed biomass than colonies in control plots. In line with the predictions of optimal foraging theory, in restored plots where ant foraging performance was poor, ants harvested a higher diversity of seeds. Reduced foraging success and increased harvest of non-preferred foods in exclusion plots were likely due to the growth of herbaceous vegetation, which impedes travel by foragers. Moreover, by 8 years of exclusion, 37% of nests in exclusion plots had disappeared compared to 0% of nests in control plots. Ants' foraging success and behavior were sensitive to changes in habitat quality due to the plant successional process triggered by a restoration intervention. This study spotlights on the utility of animal foraging behavior in the evaluation of habitat restoration programs.

  5. Controls of Soil Spatial Variability in a Dry Tropical Forest

    PubMed Central

    Pulla, Sandeep; Riotte, Jean; Suresh, H. S.; Dattaraja, H. S.; Sukumar, Raman

    2016-01-01

    We examined the roles of lithology, topography, vegetation and fire in generating local-scale (<1 km2) soil spatial variability in a seasonally dry tropical forest (SDTF) in southern India. For this, we mapped soil (available nutrients, Al, total C, pH, moisture and texture in the top 10cm), rock outcrops, topography, all native woody plants ≥1 cm diameter at breast height (DBH), and spatial variation in fire frequency (times burnt during the 17 years preceding soil sampling) in a permanent 50-ha plot. Unlike classic catenas, lower elevation soils had lesser moisture, plant-available Ca, Cu, Mn, Mg, Zn, B, clay and total C. The distribution of plant-available Ca, Cu, Mn and Mg appeared to largely be determined by the whole-rock chemical composition differences between amphibolites and hornblende-biotite gneisses. Amphibolites were associated with summit positions, while gneisses dominated lower elevations, an observation that concurs with other studies in the region which suggest that hillslope-scale topography has been shaped by differential weathering of lithologies. Neither NO3−-N nor NH4+-N was explained by the basal area of trees belonging to Fabaceae, a family associated with N-fixing species, and no long-term effects of fire on soil parameters were detected. Local-scale lithological variation is an important first-order control over soil variability at the hillslope scale in this SDTF, by both direct influence on nutrient stocks and indirect influence via control of local relief. PMID:27100088

  6. Effects of Drought on Carbon Sequestration of Tropical Dry Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro-Contreras, S.; Sanchez-Azofeifa, G. A.

    2015-12-01

    The lack of knowledge associated with the controls on CO2 exchange and responses to climate change of tropical dry forests (TDF) represent substantial uncertainties in global climate models. These ecosystems contain large stores of biomass, which lead to rapid cycling of carbon pools through photosynthesis and respiration. The projected increase in severe drought in a climate change environment is expected to affect the mechanisms and total amounts of carbon sequestered by TDFs. Using eddy covariance CO2 and H2O flux measurements in Santa Rosa National Park, Costa Rica, we investigated the relationship between phenology and productivity in normal year, followed by two sequential drought years, in terms of net and gross ecosystem exchange (NEE and GEE, respectively). Eddy covariance measurements were used to derive phenologic indicators. Inflection points displaying the transition points between CO2 source and sink were determined using NEE flux measurements as well as the onset of phenologic stages (green-up, maturity, senescence and dormancy). Onset of green-up was significantly delayed due to drought; however, the total green-up period remained unchanged in length, compared to the normal year. Thus, the integrated carbon sequestration during green-up was significantly lower during drought. To compensate for this, in drought, the length of maturity and senescence were extended, allowing the ecosystem to reach similar carbon accumulation levels as observed during normal conditions. An increase in physiological activity seems to have also occurred. However, as drought persists in subsequent years and resources become limiting, we expect this activity to decrease, resulting in a reduction of total ecosystem carbon sequestration. The highly dynamic changes occurring in TDFs, make these ecosystems significantly important as we try to better understand the global carbon cycle in a climate change environment.

  7. Forest structure in low diversity tropical forests: a study of Hawaiian wet and dry forests

    Treesearch

    R. Ostertag; F. Inman-Narahari; S. Cordell; C.P. Giardina; L. Sack

    2014-01-01

    The potential influence of diversity on ecosystem structure and function remains a topic of significant debate, especially for tropical forests where diversity can range widely. We used Center for Tropical Forest Science (CTFS) methodology to establish forest dynamics plots in montane wet forest and lowland dry forest on Hawai‘i Island. We compared the species...

  8. Quantifying tropical dry forest type and succession: substantial improvement with LiDAR

    Treesearch

    Sebastian Martinuzzi; William A. Gould; Lee A. Vierling; Andrew T. Hudak; Ross F. Nelson; Jeffrey S. Evans

    2012-01-01

    Improved technologies are needed to advance our knowledge of the biophysical and human factors influencing tropical dry forests, one of the world’s most threatened ecosystems. We evaluated the use of light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data to address two major needs in remote sensing of tropical dry forests, i.e., classification of forest types and delineation of...

  9. Nutrient addition effects on tropical dry forests: a mini-review from microbial to ecosystem scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powers, Jennifer; Becklund, Kristen; Gei, Maria; Iyengar, Siddarth; Meyer, Rebecca; O'Connell, Christine; Schilling, Erik; Smith, Christina; Waring, Bonnie; Werden, Leland

    2015-06-01

    Humans have more than doubled inputs of reactive nitrogen globally and greatly accelerated the biogeochemical cycles of phosphorus and metals. However, the impacts of increased element mobility on tropical ecosystems remain poorly quantified, particularly for the vast tropical dry forest biome. Tropical dry forests are characterized by marked seasonality, relatively little precipitation, and high heterogeneity in plant functional diversity and soil chemistry. For these reasons, increased nutrient deposition may affect tropical dry forests differently than wet tropical or temperate forests. Here we review studies that investigated how nutrient availability affects ecosystem and community processes from the microsite to ecosystem scales in tropical dry forests. The effects of N and P addition on ecosystem carbon cycling and plant and microbial dynamics depend on forest successional stage, soil parent material and rainfall regime. Responses may depend on whether overall productivity is N- versus P-limited, although data to test this hypothesis are limited. These results highlight the many important gaps in our understanding of tropical dry forest responses to global change. Large-scale experiments are required to resolve these uncertainties.

  10. Impact of Hydraulic Redistribution on Present and Future Vegetation Competition in Tropical Dry Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, G.; Mei, R.; Alo, C. A.

    2009-12-01

    Hydraulic redistribution (HR) is generally considered to increase plant water availability thus buffer plants against seasonal drought. This study uses the NCAR CLM3-DGVM to investigate the long-term impact of HR on tropical vegetation composition and how that influence vegetation resonse to climate changes, using as example the Amazon region. HR is found to increase the percentage of tropical broadleaf drought deciduous trees at the expense of tropical broadleaf evergreen trees. While HR increases the long-term mean of dry season transpiration, it reduces dry season transpiration in extremely dry years when the HR-induced acceleration of moisture depletion leaves less water available later in the dry season. Such negative hydrological impact of HR can lead to extremely low or negative NPP later in the dry season that limits the growth of trees that are not in dry-season senescence, i.e., evergreen trees. As a result, HR leads to a shift in vegetation competition, favoring tropical broadleaf drought deciduous trees at the expense of tropical broadleaf evergreen trees. Projected future climate changes are expected to cause a gradual shift of vegetation in tropical forest towards more drought deciduous trees. Hydraulic redistribution enhances or accelerate the projected future vegetation response, due primarily to the increased frequency of extreme droughts in the projected future climate.

  11. Study of gastrointestinal parasites in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) reared under Mexican humid tropical conditions.

    PubMed

    Ojeda-Robertos, Nadia Florencia; Torres-Chablé, Oswaldo Margarito; Peralta-Torres, Jorge Alonso; Luna-Palomera, Carlos; Aguilar-Cabrales, Aguilar; Chay-Canul, Alfonso Juventino; González-Garduño, Roberto; Machain-Williams, Carlos; Cámara-Sarmiento, Ramón

    2017-03-01

    The objective was to determine the frequency of gastrointestinal parasites (GP) genera affecting water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) reared under humid tropical conditions of Mexico. Three hundred eighty-three Munrah breed water buffalo were included, 251 adult females and 132 calves. Feces were directly collected form the rectum of the animals and processed by the McMaster technique. Coprocultures were made to identify the genera of the nematodes. The frequency of GP in B. bubalis was 42%, independently of their age, 60% of calves resulted parasitized. Age had a strong association with the presence of GP (Xi(2) = 77.4014, d.f. = 1, p = 0.001). The family Trichostrongylidae was found in both age groups. The genera identified were Strongyloides sp. (47.2%), Cooperia sp. (33.9%), and Haemonchus sp. (10.4%), as well as Eimeria sp., Moniezia sp., Trichuris sp., and Strongyloides sp. The highest parasite burden corresponded to the genus Strongyloides sp. with 1108.9 EPG. There is a need to carry out further studies in order to know the prevalence and incidence of nematode affecting to B. bubalis as an introduced animal species to Mexican tropics.

  12. Former land-use and tree species affect nitrogen oxide emissions from a tropical dry forest.

    Treesearch

    Heather Erickson; Eric A. Davidson; Michael Keller

    2002-01-01

    Species composition in successional dry forests in the tropics varies widely, but the effect of this variation on biogeochemical processes is not well known. We examined fluxes of N oxides (nitrous and nitric oxide), soil N cycling, and litter chemistry (C/N ratio) in four successional dry forests on similar soils in western Puerto Rico with differing species...

  13. Economic injury levels and sequential sampling plans for Mexican bean beetle (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) on dry beans.

    PubMed

    Barrigossi, José A F; Hein, Gary L; Higley, Leon G

    2003-08-01

    Field studies were conducted during the growing seasons of 1995 and 1996, in Scotts-bluff, Nebraska, to determine yield-loss relationships for Mexican bean beetle (Epilachna varivestis Mulsant) on dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Results of those experiments were combined with data from other studies previously conducted to develop economic injury levels (EILs), economic thresholds (ETs), and a sequential sampling program for Mexican bean beetle. Yield loss was regressed against larvae/row-m, and the slope of the linear regression (113 kg/ha per larvae/row-m) was used as the DI (yield loss/insect density) variable in EIL calculations. The EILs calculated in larvae/row-m were converted to egg masses/row-m and adjusted to reflect average survivorship to the adult stage. An example EIL for esfenvalerate at 0.509 (formulation) liter/ha (0.0453 gal/a) and crop value of 0.44 dollars/kg (20 dollars/100 lbs) was 17.78 larvae/row-m. The corresponding ET is 1.04 egg masses/row-m, which reflects an average of 54.6 eggs/egg mass and 33% survival rate from egg to injurious stages. Sequential sampling plans were calculated based on a negative binomial distribution using parameter k estimated from previous research. Because sampling is based on egg masses, growers can make management decisions and take management actions before significant injury occurs. Also, ETs can be adjusted to include the occurrence of natural mortality in the egg and early instars. Analyses demonstrated that relatively minor variation in ETs has substantial impact on sequential sampling plans, including parameters such as average sample number. An interactive spreadsheet was developed that allows users to input economic and other data specific to their situation to calculate Mexican bean beetle EILs, ETs, and sequential sampling plans.

  14. Reappearance of Mecistocirrus digitatus in cattle from the Mexican tropics: prevalence, molecular, and scanning electron microscopy identification.

    PubMed

    von Son-de Fernex, Elke; Alonso-Díaz, Miguel Ángel; Mendoza-de-Gives, Pedro; Valles-de la Mora, Braulio; Liébano-Hernández, Enrique; López-Arellano, María Eugenia; Aguilar-Marcelino, Liliana

    2014-06-01

    Mecistocirrus digitatus is a hematophagous abomasal nematode which causes significant blood and production losses in cattle. The objectives of the present study were to: (1) report the reappearance of M. digitatus in cattle from the Mexican tropics using microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and molecular identification, and (2) determine the prevalence of M. digitatus in slaughtered adult cattle from the Mexican tropics. Gastroinestinal nematodes (GIN) were recovered from the abomasum of an 8-yr-old cow (Holstein × Zebu) previously diagnosed with Johne's disease. Of 1,254 GIN, 98.8% were identified as M. digitatus and 1.2% as Haemonchus sp. SEM was used to identify ultrastructure features of M. digitatus (oral cavity, cervical papillae, bursa, bursa lobes papillae, male spicules, anus, and female vulva). A conventional PCR method was used to corroborate the morphological findings. The prevalence of adult cattle infected with M. digitatus and Haemonchus sp., determined from 68 adult cattle from different grazing tropical herds, was 38.2% and 8.8%, respectively. Ninety-eight percent of animals infected with M. digitatus presented lesions in their abomasum such as mucosal inflammation, hemorrhage, and ulcers; some of them had necrosis. The current reappearance of M. digitatus in a Mexican herd suggests the possibility of an underestimated prevalence of this nematode amongst grazing cattle.

  15. CO2 flux in the oxygen minimum zone of the Mexican Tropical Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco-Novela, A. C.; Hernandez-Ayon, M.; Beier, E.; Sosa-Ávalos, R.; Castro, R.; Farber-Lorda, J.; Siqueiros-Valencia, A.

    2012-12-01

    The contribution of the coastal ocean to the global carbon budget is still in debate, as these regions may work either as a source or sink of carbon dioxide (CO2). Particularly, there is a lack of studies in the coastal zone off the Mexican Tropical Pacific (MTP), which is characterized by a prominent Oxygen Minimum Zone (OMZ). In this region, very low oxygen concentrations (< 20 μmol/kg) and high values of partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) are present below the thermocline/oxycline, generally very strong and shallow (~ 70 m). The main purpose of this work is to calculate the sea - air CO2 flux in the OMZ of the MTP. High positive fluxes (from sea to air) are expected due to the influence of the high carbon concentration of the subsurface waters. In order to assess this, two cruises were conducted in the MTP, and samples of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and total alkalinity (TA) were measured. From this measurements the pCO2 and the sea - air CO2 flux were calculated. The results showed that the high carbon content of the subsurface water does not have any influence on the surface carbon exchange. However, it was found that the main factor controlling these variables is the horizontal advection of the surface water masses, and that the presence of Surface Tropical Water favored that the region acted as a sink of CO2, while in the presence of Subtropical Surface Water the zone was in equilibrium with the atmosphere.

  16. The Mexican Coastal Current: A subsurface seasonal bridge that connects the tropical and subtropical Northeastern Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez-Valdivia, F.; Parés-Sierra, A.; Flores-Morales, A. L.

    2015-11-01

    We used a three-dimensional numerical model to analyze the seasonal variability of the coastal circulation off SW Mexico. In agreement with previous research, our model reproduced a Mexican Coastal Current (MCC) that dominates the regional poleward circulation. The modeled dynamics evidenced an energetic semiannual component that governed the subsurface seasonal variability of this poleward flow. Below the thermocline the MCC was stronger during spring and fall, when it reached subsurface seasonal-averaged velocities of ∼10 cms-1 and flowed continuously from the Gulf of Tehuantepec to the entrance of the Gulf of California. There, the subsurface MCC bifurcated in one branch that continued along the coast of mainland Mexico and a second branch that crossed the gulf and joined the California Undercurrent. Instead of the local wind, the semiannual MCC variability was induced by the transit of equatorial Kelvin waves whose upwelling (downwelling) phase propagation strengthen (weakened) the subsurface poleward circulation along the Tropical Pacific off Mexico. The MCC dynamics reported in this study accounts for the, previously reported, semiannual variability of the alongshore transport and salinity content in the southern Gulf of California. Moreover, the subsurface bridge between the MCC and the California Current System represents an external source of momentum that helps to explain the intensification of the California Undercurrent during spring and fall.

  17. How tropical humidity self-organizes into moist and dry regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2013-09-01

    Numerical simulations have shown that the moisture in the tropical troposphere has a tendency to spontaneously aggregate, forming separate wet and dry regions. To learn more about how this self-organization occurs, Craig and Mack introduced a simple equation for the tropical troposphere moisture budget and conducted numerical simulations that included convective moistening and horizontal mixing. Based on their simulations, the authors propose that a feedback process in the troposphere causes moisture to aggregate, beginning on small scales and then coarsening to larger scales. Wet regions become wetter and dry regions become drier as the self-organization continues.

  18. Persistent drying in the tropics linked to natural forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, Amos; Zanchettin, Davide; Miller, Thomas; Kushnir, Yochanan; Black, David; Lohmann, Gerrit; Burnett, Allison; Haug, Gerald H.; Estrella-Martínez, Juan; Breitenbach, Sebastian F. M.; Beaufort, Luc; Rubino, Angelo; Cheng, Hai

    2015-07-01

    Approximately half of the world's population lives in the tropics, and future changes in the hydrological cycle will impact not just the freshwater supplies but also energy production in areas dependent upon hydroelectric power. It is vital that we understand the mechanisms/processes that affect tropical precipitation and the eventual surface hydrological response to better assess projected future regional precipitation trends and variability. Paleo-climate proxies are well suited for this purpose as they provide long time series that pre-date and complement the present, often short instrumental observations. Here we present paleo-precipitation data from a speleothem located in Mesoamerica that reveal large multi-decadal declines in regional precipitation, whose onset coincides with clusters of large volcanic eruptions during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. This reconstruction provides new independent evidence of long-lasting volcanic effects on climate and elucidates key aspects of the causal chain of physical processes determining the tropical climate response to global radiative forcing.

  19. Persistent drying in the tropics linked to natural forcing.

    PubMed

    Winter, Amos; Zanchettin, Davide; Miller, Thomas; Kushnir, Yochanan; Black, David; Lohmann, Gerrit; Burnett, Allison; Haug, Gerald H; Estrella-Martínez, Juan; Breitenbach, Sebastian F M; Beaufort, Luc; Rubino, Angelo; Cheng, Hai

    2015-07-14

    Approximately half of the world's population lives in the tropics, and future changes in the hydrological cycle will impact not just the freshwater supplies but also energy production in areas dependent upon hydroelectric power. It is vital that we understand the mechanisms/processes that affect tropical precipitation and the eventual surface hydrological response to better assess projected future regional precipitation trends and variability. Paleo-climate proxies are well suited for this purpose as they provide long time series that pre-date and complement the present, often short instrumental observations. Here we present paleo-precipitation data from a speleothem located in Mesoamerica that reveal large multi-decadal declines in regional precipitation, whose onset coincides with clusters of large volcanic eruptions during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. This reconstruction provides new independent evidence of long-lasting volcanic effects on climate and elucidates key aspects of the causal chain of physical processes determining the tropical climate response to global radiative forcing.

  20. Coordinated evolution of leaf and stem economics in tropical dry forest trees.

    PubMed

    Méndez-Alonzo, Rodrigo; Paz, Horacio; Cruz Zuluaga, Rossana; Rosell, Julieta A; Olson, Mark E

    2012-11-01

    With data from 15 species in eight families of tropical dry forest trees, we provide evidence of coordination between the stem and leaf economic spectra. Species with low-density, flexible, breakable, hydraulically efficient but cavitationally vulnerable wood shed their leaves rapidly in response to drought and had low leaf mass per area and dry mass content. In contrast, species with the opposite xylem syndrome shed their costlier but more drought-resistant leaves late in the dry season. Our results explain variation in the timing of leaf shedding in tropical dry forests: selection eliminates combinations such as low-productivity leaves atop highly vulnerable xylem or water-greedy leaves supplied by xylem of low conductive efficiency. Across biomes, rather than a fundamental trade-off underlying a single axis of trait covariation, the relationship between leaf and stem economics is likely to occupy a wide space in which multiple combinations are possible.

  1. FPL design for lumber dry kiln using solar/wood energy in tropical latitudes

    Treesearch

    J. L. Tschernitz; W. T. Simpson

    1985-01-01

    Developing countries with a timber resource that can be manufactured into finished products either for local use or export often lack the capital to build high-cost dry kilns. Many of these countries are in the tropics where solar radiation and ambient temperatures are high. The low-cost solar/wood energy lumber dry kiln described in this report was designed and tested...

  2. Tropical land-cover change alters biogeochemical inputs to ecosystems in a Mexican montane landscape.

    PubMed

    Ponette-González, A G; Weathers, K C; Curran, L M

    2010-10-01

    In tropical regions, the effects of land-cover change on nutrient and pollutant inputs to ecosystems remain poorly documented and may be pronounced, especially in montane areas exposed to elevated atmospheric deposition. We examined atmospheric deposition and canopy interactions of sulfate-sulfur (SO4(2-)-S), chloride (Cl-), and nitrate-nitrogen (NO(3-)-N) in three extensive tropical montane land-cover types: clearings, forest, and coffee agroforest. Bulk and fog deposition to clearings was measured as well as throughfall (water that falls through plant canopies) ion fluxes in seven forest and five coffee sites. Sampling was conducted from 2005 to 2008 across two regions in the Sierra Madre Oriental, Veracruz, Mexico. Annual throughfall fluxes to forest and coffee sites ranged over 6-27 kg SO4(2-)-S/ha, 12-69 kg Cl-/ha, and 2-6 kg NO(3-)-N/ha. Sulfate-S in forest and coffee throughfall was higher or similar to bulk S deposition measured in clearings. Throughfall Cl- inputs, however, were consistently higher than Cl- amounts deposited to cleared areas, with net Cl- fluxes enhanced in evergreen coffee relative to semi-deciduous forest plots. Compared to bulk nitrate-N deposition, forest and coffee canopies retained 1-4 kg NO(3-)-N/ha annually, reducing NO(3-)-N inputs to soils. Overall, throughfall fluxes were similar to values reported for Neotropical sites influenced by anthropogenic emissions, while bulk S and N deposition were nine- and eightfold greater, respectively, than background wet deposition rates for remote tropical areas. Our results demonstrate that land-cover type significantly alters the magnitude and spatial distribution of atmospheric inputs to tropical ecosystems, primarily through canopy-induced changes in fog and dry deposition. However, we found that land cover interacts with topography and climate in significant ways to produce spatially heterogeneous patterns of anion fluxes, and that these factors can converge to create deposition hotspots

  3. Growth, yield and yield components of dry bean as influenced by phosphorus in a tropical acid soil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Phosphorus deficiency is one of the most yield limiting factors for dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) production in tropical acid soils. Dry beans are invariably grown as mono crops or as inter crops under the perennial tropical crops. Information is limited regarding the influence of phosphorus fertili...

  4. Modeling carbon stocks in a secondary tropical dry forest in the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico

    Treesearch

    Zhaohua Dai; Richard A. Birdsey; Kristofer D. Johnson; Juan Manuel Dupuy; Jose Luis Hernandez-Stefanoni; Karen. Richardson

    2014-01-01

    The carbon balance of secondary dry tropical forests of Mexico’s Yucatan Peninsula is sensitive to human and natural disturbances and climate change. The spatially explicit process model Forest-DeNitrification-DeComposition (DNDC) was used to estimate forest carbon dynamics in this region, including the effects of disturbance on carbon stocks. Model evaluation using...

  5. SRTM-DEM and Landsat ETM+ data for mapping tropical dry forest cover and biodiversity assessment in Nicaragua

    Treesearch

    S.E. Sesnie; S.E. Hagell; S.M. Otterstrom; C.L. Chambers; B.G. Dickson

    2008-01-01

    Tropical dry and deciduous forest comprises as much as 42% of the world’s tropical forests, but has received far less attention than forest in wet tropical areas. Land use change threatens to greatly reduce the extent of dry forest that is known to contain high levels of plant and animal diversity. Forest fragmentation may further endanger arboreal mammals that play...

  6. Collective action in the management of a tropical dry forest ecosystem: effects of Mexico's property rights regime.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Natalia Mariel; Castillo, Alicia

    2013-04-01

    Dilemmas of natural resources governance have been a central concern for scholars, policy makers, and users. Major debates occur over the implications of property rights for common resources management. After the Mexican Revolution (1910-1917), land was distributed mainly as ejidos conceived as a hereditary but unalienable collective form of property. In 1992, a new Agrarian Law was decreed that allows individual ownership by removing various restrictions over the transfer of land. Scholars have examined the reform mainly focusing on land-tenure changes and environmental fragmentation. This study examines how the new ownership regime is affecting collective decision-making in ejidos located in a tropical dry forest (TDF) ecosystem. Information on decision-making processes before and after the 1992 reform was gathered through 52 interviews conducted in four ejidos selected along a gradient including agricultural, cattle-raising, and TDF use. The new individualized land property system reduced collective action in ejidos but did not trigger it. Collective action responses to the 1992 reform were buffered by self-organization each ejido already had. Heterogeneous users who shared a short history and showed little understanding of TDF and low dependence on its resources seemed to explain why ejidos have not been able to share a sense of community that would shape the construction of institutions for the collective management of forest resources. However, when a resource is scarce and highly valuable such as water the same users showed capacities for undertaking costly co-operative activities.

  7. Collective Action in the Management of a Tropical Dry Forest Ecosystem: Effects of Mexico's Property Rights Regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroeder, Natalia Mariel; Castillo, Alicia

    2013-04-01

    Dilemmas of natural resources governance have been a central concern for scholars, policy makers, and users. Major debates occur over the implications of property rights for common resources management. After the Mexican Revolution (1910-1917), land was distributed mainly as ejidos conceived as a hereditary but unalienable collective form of property. In 1992, a new Agrarian Law was decreed that allows individual ownership by removing various restrictions over the transfer of land. Scholars have examined the reform mainly focusing on land-tenure changes and environmental fragmentation. This study examines how the new ownership regime is affecting collective decision-making in ejidos located in a tropical dry forest (TDF) ecosystem. Information on decision-making processes before and after the 1992 reform was gathered through 52 interviews conducted in four ejidos selected along a gradient including agricultural, cattle-raising, and TDF use. The new individualized land property system reduced collective action in ejidos but did not trigger it. Collective action responses to the 1992 reform were buffered by self-organization each ejido already had. Heterogeneous users who shared a short history and showed little understanding of TDF and low dependence on its resources seemed to explain why ejidos have not been able to share a sense of community that would shape the construction of institutions for the collective management of forest resources. However, when a resource is scarce and highly valuable such as water the same users showed capacities for undertaking costly co-operative activities.

  8. Rainfall and labile carbon availability control litter nitrogen dynamics in a tropical dry forest.

    PubMed

    Anaya, Carlos A; García-Oliva, Felipe; Jaramillo, Víctor J

    2007-01-01

    N cycling in tropical dry forests is driven by rainfall seasonality but the mechanisms involved are not well understood. We studied the seasonal variation in N dynamics and microbial biomass in the surface litter of a tropical dry forest ecosystem in Mexico over a 2-year period. Litter was collected at 4 different times of the year to determine changes in total, soluble, and microbial C and N concentrations. Additionally, litter from each sampling date was incubated under laboratory conditions to determine potential C mineralization rate, net N mineralization, net C and N microbial immobilization, and net nitrification. Litter C concentrations were highest in the early-dry season and lowest in the rainy season, while the seasonal changes in N concentrations varied between years. Litter P was higher in the rainy than in the early-dry season. Water-soluble organic C (WSOC) and water-soluble N concentrations were highest during the early- and late-dry seasons and represented up to 4.1 and 5.9% of the total C and N, respectively. NH (4) (+) and NO (3) (-) showed different seasonal and annual variations. They represented an average 23% of soluble N. Microbial C was generally higher in the dry than in the wet seasons, while microbial N was lowest in the late-dry and highest in the early-rainy seasons. Incubations showed that lowest potential C mineralization rates and C and N microbial immobilization occurred in rainy season litter, and were positively correlated to WSOC. Net nitrification was highest in rainy season litter. Our results showed that the seasonal pattern in N dynamics was influenced by rainfall seasonality and labile C availability, and not by microbial biomass. We propose a conceptual model to hypothesize how N dynamics in the litter layer of the Chamela tropical dry forest respond to the seasonal variation in rainfall.

  9. The establishment of Central American migratory corridors and the biogeographic origins of seasonally dry tropical forests in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Willis, Charles G.; Franzone, Brian F.; Xi, Zhenxiang; Davis, Charles C.

    2014-01-01

    Biogeography and community ecology can mutually illuminate the formation of a regional species pool or biome. Here, we apply phylogenetic methods to a large and diverse plant clade, Malpighiaceae, to characterize the formation of its species pool in Mexico, and its occupancy of the seasonally dry tropical forest (SDTF) biome that occurs there. We find that the ~162 species of Mexican Malpighiaceae represent ~33 dispersals from South America beginning in the Eocene and continuing until the Pliocene (~46.4–3.8 Myr). Furthermore, dispersal rates between South America and Mexico show a significant six-fold increase during the mid-Miocene (~23.9 Myr). We hypothesize that this increase marked the availability of Central America as an important corridor for Neotropical plant migration. We additionally demonstrate that this high rate of dispersal contributed substantially more to the phylogenetic diversity of Malpighiaceae in Mexico than in situ diversification. Finally, we show that most lineages arrived in Mexico pre-adapted with regard to one key SDTF trait, total annual precipitation. In contrast, these lineages adapted to a second key trait, precipitation seasonality, in situ as mountain building in the region gave rise to the abiotic parameters of extant SDTF. The timing of this in situ adaptation to seasonal precipitation suggests that SDTF likely originated its modern characteristics by the late Oligocene, but was geographically more restricted until its expansion in the mid-Miocene. These results highlight the complex interplay of dispersal, adaptation, and in situ diversification in the formation of tropical biomes. Our results additionally demonstrate that these processes are not static, and their relevance can change markedly over evolutionary time. This has important implications for understanding the origin of SDTF in Mexico, but also for understanding the temporal and spatial origin of biomes and regional species pools more broadly. PMID:25566320

  10. The Dry Season Shuffle: Gorges Provide Refugia for Animal Communities in Tropical Savannah Ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Doody, J. Sean; Clulow, Simon; Kay, Geoff; D’Amore, Domenic; Rhind, David; Wilson, Steve; Ellis, Ryan; Castellano, Christina; McHenry, Colin; Quayle, Michelle; Hands, Kim; Sawyer, Graeme; Bass, Michael

    2015-01-01

    In the wet-dry tropics, animal species face the major challenges of acquiring food, water or shelter during an extended dry season. Although large and conspicuous animals such as ungulates and waterfowl migrate to wetter areas during this time, little is known of how smaller and more cryptic animal species with less mobility meet these challenges. We fenced off the entire entrance of a gorge in the Australian tropical savanna, offering the unique opportunity to determine the composition and seasonal movement patterns of the small vertebrate community. The 1.7 km-long fence was converted to a trapline that was deployed for 18-21 days during the early dry season in each of two years, and paired traps on both sides of the fence allowed us to detect the direction of animal movements. We predicted that semi-aquatic species (e.g., frogs and turtles) would move upstream into the wetter gorge during the dry season, while more terrestrial species (e.g., lizards, snakes, mammals) would not. The trapline captured 1590 individual vertebrates comprising 60 species. There was a significant bias for captures on the outside of the fence compared to the inside for all species combined (outside/inside = 5.2, CI = 3.7-7.2), for all vertebrate classes, and for specific taxonomic groups. The opposite bias (inside/outside = 7.3, N= 25) for turtles during the early wet season suggested return migration heading into the wet season. Our study revealed that the small vertebrate community uses the gorge as a dry season refuge. The generality of this unreplicated finding could be tested by extending this type of survey to tropical savannahs worldwide. A better understanding of how small animals use the landscape is needed to reveal the size of buffer zones around wetlands required to protect both semi-aquatic and terrestrial fauna in gorges in tropical savannah woodland, and thus in ecosystems in general. PMID:26135472

  11. The Dry Season Shuffle: Gorges Provide Refugia for Animal Communities in Tropical Savannah Ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Doody, J Sean; Clulow, Simon; Kay, Geoff; D'Amore, Domenic; Rhind, David; Wilson, Steve; Ellis, Ryan; Castellano, Christina; McHenry, Colin; Quayle, Michelle; Hands, Kim; Sawyer, Graeme; Bass, Michael

    2015-01-01

    In the wet-dry tropics, animal species face the major challenges of acquiring food, water or shelter during an extended dry season. Although large and conspicuous animals such as ungulates and waterfowl migrate to wetter areas during this time, little is known of how smaller and more cryptic animal species with less mobility meet these challenges. We fenced off the entire entrance of a gorge in the Australian tropical savanna, offering the unique opportunity to determine the composition and seasonal movement patterns of the small vertebrate community. The 1.7 km-long fence was converted to a trapline that was deployed for 18-21 days during the early dry season in each of two years, and paired traps on both sides of the fence allowed us to detect the direction of animal movements. We predicted that semi-aquatic species (e.g., frogs and turtles) would move upstream into the wetter gorge during the dry season, while more terrestrial species (e.g., lizards, snakes, mammals) would not. The trapline captured 1590 individual vertebrates comprising 60 species. There was a significant bias for captures on the outside of the fence compared to the inside for all species combined (outside/inside = 5.2, CI = 3.7-7.2), for all vertebrate classes, and for specific taxonomic groups. The opposite bias (inside/outside = 7.3, N= 25) for turtles during the early wet season suggested return migration heading into the wet season. Our study revealed that the small vertebrate community uses the gorge as a dry season refuge. The generality of this unreplicated finding could be tested by extending this type of survey to tropical savannahs worldwide. A better understanding of how small animals use the landscape is needed to reveal the size of buffer zones around wetlands required to protect both semi-aquatic and terrestrial fauna in gorges in tropical savannah woodland, and thus in ecosystems in general.

  12. Short dry spells in the wet season increase mortality of tropical pioneer seedlings.

    PubMed

    Engelbrecht, Bettina M J; Dalling, James W; Pearson, Timothy R H; Wolf, Robert L; Gálvez, David A; Koehler, Tobias; Tyree, Melvin T; Kursar, Thomas A

    2006-06-01

    Variation in plant species performance in response to water availability offers a potential axis for temporal and spatial habitat partitioning and may therefore affect community composition in tropical forests. We hypothesized that short dry spells during the wet season are a significant source of mortality for the newly emerging seedlings of pioneer species that recruit in treefall gaps in tropical forests. An analysis of a 49-year rainfall record for three forests across a rainfall gradient in central Panama confirmed that dry spells of > or = 10 days during the wet season occur on average once a year in a deciduous forest, and once every other year in a semi-deciduous moist and an evergreen wet forest. The effect of wet season dry spells on the recruitment of pioneers was investigated by comparing seedling survival in rain-protected dry plots and irrigated control plots in four large artificially created treefall gaps in a semi-deciduous tropical forest. In rain-protected plots surface soil layers dried rapidly, leading to a strong gradient in water potential within the upper 10 cm of soil. Seedling survival for six pioneer species was significantly lower in rain-protected than in irrigated control plots after only 4 days. The strength of the irrigation effect differed among species, and first became apparent 3-10 days after treatments started. Root allocation patterns were significantly, or marginally significantly, different between species and between two groups of larger and smaller seeded species. However, they were not correlated with seedling drought sensitivity, suggesting allocation is not a key trait for drought sensitivity in pioneer seedlings. Our data provide strong evidence that short dry spells in the wet season differentially affect seedling survivorship of pioneer species, and may therefore have important implications to seedling demography and community dynamics.

  13. Impact of livestock on a mosquito community (Diptera: Culicidae) in a Brazilian tropical dry forest.

    PubMed

    Santos, Cleandson Ferreira; Borges, Magno

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of cattle removal on the Culicidae mosquito community structure in a tropical dry forest in Brazil. Culicidae were collected during dry and wet seasons in cattle presence and absence between August 2008 and October 2010 and assessed using multivariate statistical models. Cattle removal did not significantly alter Culicidae species richness and abundance. However, alterations were noted in Culicidae community composition. This is the first study to evaluate the impact of cattle removal on Culicidae community structure in Brazil and demonstrates the importance of assessing ecological parameters such as community species composition.

  14. Forest structure in low-diversity tropical forests: a study of Hawaiian wet and dry forests.

    PubMed

    Ostertag, Rebecca; Inman-Narahari, Faith; Cordell, Susan; Giardina, Christian P; Sack, Lawren

    2014-01-01

    The potential influence of diversity on ecosystem structure and function remains a topic of significant debate, especially for tropical forests where diversity can range widely. We used Center for Tropical Forest Science (CTFS) methodology to establish forest dynamics plots in montane wet forest and lowland dry forest on Hawai'i Island. We compared the species diversity, tree density, basal area, biomass, and size class distributions between the two forest types. We then examined these variables across tropical forests within the CTFS network. Consistent with other island forests, the Hawai'i forests were characterized by low species richness and very high relative dominance. The two Hawai'i forests were floristically distinct, yet similar in species richness (15 vs. 21 species) and stem density (3078 vs. 3486/ha). While these forests were selected for their low invasive species cover relative to surrounding forests, both forests averaged 5->50% invasive species cover; ongoing removal will be necessary to reduce or prevent competitive impacts, especially from woody species. The montane wet forest had much larger trees, resulting in eightfold higher basal area and above-ground biomass. Across the CTFS network, the Hawaiian montane wet forest was similar to other tropical forests with respect to diameter distributions, density, and aboveground biomass, while the Hawai'i lowland dry forest was similar in density to tropical forests with much higher diversity. These findings suggest that forest structural variables can be similar across tropical forests independently of species richness. The inclusion of low-diversity Pacific Island forests in the CTFS network provides an ∼80-fold range in species richness (15-1182 species), six-fold variation in mean annual rainfall (835-5272 mm yr(-1)) and 1.8-fold variation in mean annual temperature (16.0-28.4°C). Thus, the Hawaiian forest plots expand the global forest plot network to enable testing of ecological theory for

  15. A Late Holocene Record of Human Impact in the Tropical Lowlands of the Mexican Gulf Coast: Lago Verde.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Socorro, L.; Sosa, S.; Caballero, M.; Rodriguez, A.; Ortega, B.

    2005-05-01

    Lago Verde is a maar lake (18 36 43 N; 95 20 52 W) located on the Gulf Coast of Mexico in "Los Tuxtlas" region. The area was cover by tropical rain forest and is part of the core area of the earliest Mesoamerican cultures. A 6 m sediment core was obtained in order to document vegetation and lake level history of this area. Lago Verde is a shallow, eutrophic lake (max. 4 m), the natural vegetation has been removed and grasslands with some tropical trees such Bursera grows around the lake. According with the radiocarbon chronology the sequence covers the last 2500 yr BP. At the base of the sequence low abundance of tropical trees is record, with intermediate lake levels. A sudden change in the pollen stratigraphy occurs at ca. 2000 yr BP, with important presence of Poaceae, Ambrosia and Cheno.-Am. along with Zea mays indicating human activity in the area. This is associated with a change in limnological conditions, recording turbid, shallow environments. This pollen signals correlates with dry phases in Yucatan, suggesting that this dry climatic signal probably had effect on an ample area of Mexico. However, at 1200 yr BP, no more Zea mays pollen is recovered suggesting the abandonment of the area. Lake levels recover as well as the tropical forest. The last 150 yr BP is characterized by the reduction in the pollen of tropical forest trees, presence of Zea mays, increased erosion rates, turbidity and eutrophication in the lake, all related to deforestation.

  16. Evaluation drought response of tropical dry forests using advanced wireless sensor networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Azofeifa, G. A.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding of the effects of persistent drought in tropical dry forests has not been fully studied until today. In this presentation we will discuss one of the first results on the response of tropical dry forests to drought using advanced wireless sensor networks and canopy phenology towers, that provide hyper-temporal information on micro-meteorological variables such Temperature, relative humidity, and Vapor Pressure Deficit (VPD). In addition, we will evaluate drought response to as function of the Fraction of the Photosynthetic Active Radiation (FPAR), and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). Our work is conducted at the Santa Rosa Environmental Monitoring Super Site (NR-EMSS) located at the Guancaste Province, Costa Rica, Central America. Our results indicate significant changes in terms of FPAR, VPD manifested via strong changes on NDVI. Our results pose questions about the resilience of these understudied tropical ecosystems and their long-term survival under severe and persistent drought conditions. This results provide a reference framework for the need of more integrated research on the Central American Dry Forest corridor where just between Costa Rica and Nicaragua over 100,000 families are facing strong drought conditions.

  17. Myiarchus flycatchers are the primary seed dispersers of Bursera longipes in a Mexican dry forest

    PubMed Central

    Almazán-Núñez, R. Carlos; Eguiarte, Luis E.; Arizmendi, María del Coro

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the seed dispersal of Bursera longipes by birds along a successional gradient of tropical dry forest (TDF) in southwestern Mexico. B. longipes is an endemic tree to the TDF in the Balsas basin. The relative abundance of frugivorous birds, their frequency of visits to B. longipes and the number of removed fruits were recorded at three study sites with different stages of forest succession (early, intermediate and mature) characterized by distinct floristic and structural elements. Flycatchers of the Myiarchus and Tyrannus genera removed the majority of fruits at each site. Overall, visits to B. longipes were less frequent at the early successional site. Birds that function as legitimate dispersers by consuming whole seeds and regurgitating or defecating intact seeds in the process also remove the pseudoaril from seeds, thereby facilitating the germination process. The highest germination percentages were recorded for seeds that passed through the digestive system of two migratory flycatchers: M. cinerascens and M. nutingii. Perch plants, mainly composed of legumes (e.g., Eysenhardtia polystachya, Acacia cochliacantha, Calliandra eryophylla, Mimosa polyantha), serve also as nurse plants since the number of young individuals recruited from B. longipes was higher under these than expected by chance. This study shows that Myiarchus flycatchers are the most efficient seed dispersers of B. longipes across all successional stages. This suggests a close mutualistic relationship derived from adaptive processes and local specializations throughout the distribution of both taxa, as supported by the geographic mosaic theory of coevolution. PMID:27326382

  18. Myiarchus flycatchers are the primary seed dispersers of Bursera longipes in a Mexican dry forest.

    PubMed

    Almazán-Núñez, R Carlos; Eguiarte, Luis E; Arizmendi, María Del Coro; Corcuera, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the seed dispersal of Bursera longipes by birds along a successional gradient of tropical dry forest (TDF) in southwestern Mexico. B. longipes is an endemic tree to the TDF in the Balsas basin. The relative abundance of frugivorous birds, their frequency of visits to B. longipes and the number of removed fruits were recorded at three study sites with different stages of forest succession (early, intermediate and mature) characterized by distinct floristic and structural elements. Flycatchers of the Myiarchus and Tyrannus genera removed the majority of fruits at each site. Overall, visits to B. longipes were less frequent at the early successional site. Birds that function as legitimate dispersers by consuming whole seeds and regurgitating or defecating intact seeds in the process also remove the pseudoaril from seeds, thereby facilitating the germination process. The highest germination percentages were recorded for seeds that passed through the digestive system of two migratory flycatchers: M. cinerascens and M. nutingii. Perch plants, mainly composed of legumes (e.g., Eysenhardtia polystachya, Acacia cochliacantha, Calliandra eryophylla, Mimosa polyantha), serve also as nurse plants since the number of young individuals recruited from B. longipes was higher under these than expected by chance. This study shows that Myiarchus flycatchers are the most efficient seed dispersers of B. longipes across all successional stages. This suggests a close mutualistic relationship derived from adaptive processes and local specializations throughout the distribution of both taxa, as supported by the geographic mosaic theory of coevolution.

  19. Unraveling the mechanisms underlying pulse dynamics of soil respiration in tropical dry forests

    SciTech Connect

    Waring, Bonnie G.; Powers, Jennifer S.

    2016-10-14

    Tropical dry forests are already undergoing changes in the quantity and timing of rainfall, but there is great uncertainty over how these shifts will affect belowground carbon (C) cycling. While it has long been known that dry soils quickly release carbon dioxide (CO2) upon rewetting, the mechanisms underlying the so-called 'Birch effect' are still debated. Here, we quantified soil respiration pulses and their biotic predictors in response to simulated precipitation events in a regenerating tropical dry forest in Costa Rica. We also simulated the observed rewetting CO2 pulses with two soil carbon models: a conventional model assuming first-order decay rates of soil organic matter, and an enzyme-catalyzed model with Michaelis–Menten kinetics. We found that rewetting of dry soils produced an immediate and dramatic pulse of CO2, accompanied by rapid immobilization of nitrogen into the microbial biomass. However, the magnitude of the rewetting CO2 pulse was highly variable at fine spatial scales, and was well correlated with the size of the dissolved organic C pool prior to rewetting. Both the enzyme-catalyzed and conventional models were able to reproduce the Birch effect when respiration was coupled directly to microbial C uptake, although models differed in their ability to yield realistic estimates of SOC and microbial biomass pool sizes and dynamics. Lastly, our results suggest that changes in the timing and intensity of rainfall events in tropical dry forests will exert strong influence on ecosystem C balance by affecting the dynamics of microbial biomass growth.

  20. Unraveling the mechanisms underlying pulse dynamics of soil respiration in tropical dry forests

    DOE PAGES

    Waring, Bonnie G.; Powers, Jennifer S.

    2016-10-14

    Tropical dry forests are already undergoing changes in the quantity and timing of rainfall, but there is great uncertainty over how these shifts will affect belowground carbon (C) cycling. While it has long been known that dry soils quickly release carbon dioxide (CO2) upon rewetting, the mechanisms underlying the so-called 'Birch effect' are still debated. Here, we quantified soil respiration pulses and their biotic predictors in response to simulated precipitation events in a regenerating tropical dry forest in Costa Rica. We also simulated the observed rewetting CO2 pulses with two soil carbon models: a conventional model assuming first-order decay ratesmore » of soil organic matter, and an enzyme-catalyzed model with Michaelis–Menten kinetics. We found that rewetting of dry soils produced an immediate and dramatic pulse of CO2, accompanied by rapid immobilization of nitrogen into the microbial biomass. However, the magnitude of the rewetting CO2 pulse was highly variable at fine spatial scales, and was well correlated with the size of the dissolved organic C pool prior to rewetting. Both the enzyme-catalyzed and conventional models were able to reproduce the Birch effect when respiration was coupled directly to microbial C uptake, although models differed in their ability to yield realistic estimates of SOC and microbial biomass pool sizes and dynamics. Lastly, our results suggest that changes in the timing and intensity of rainfall events in tropical dry forests will exert strong influence on ecosystem C balance by affecting the dynamics of microbial biomass growth.« less

  1. Unraveling the mechanisms underlying pulse dynamics of soil respiration in tropical dry forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waring, Bonnie G.; Powers, Jennifer S.

    2016-10-01

    Tropical dry forests are already undergoing changes in the quantity and timing of rainfall, but there is great uncertainty over how these shifts will affect belowground carbon (C) cycling. While it has long been known that dry soils quickly release carbon dioxide (CO2) upon rewetting, the mechanisms underlying the so-called ‘Birch effect’ are still debated. Here, we quantified soil respiration pulses and their biotic predictors in response to simulated precipitation events in a regenerating tropical dry forest in Costa Rica. We also simulated the observed rewetting CO2 pulses with two soil carbon models: a conventional model assuming first-order decay rates of soil organic matter, and an enzyme-catalyzed model with Michaelis-Menten kinetics. We found that rewetting of dry soils produced an immediate and dramatic pulse of CO2, accompanied by rapid immobilization of nitrogen into the microbial biomass. However, the magnitude of the rewetting CO2 pulse was highly variable at fine spatial scales, and was well correlated with the size of the dissolved organic C pool prior to rewetting. Both the enzyme-catalyzed and conventional models were able to reproduce the Birch effect when respiration was coupled directly to microbial C uptake, although models differed in their ability to yield realistic estimates of SOC and microbial biomass pool sizes and dynamics. Our results suggest that changes in the timing and intensity of rainfall events in tropical dry forests will exert strong influence on ecosystem C balance by affecting the dynamics of microbial biomass growth.

  2. Extrapolating carbon dynamics of tropical dry forests into future climates: improving simulation models with empirical observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medvigy, David; Waring, Bonnie; Vargas, German; Xu, Xiangtao; Smith, Christina; Becknell, Justin; Trierweiler, Annette; Brodribb, Timothy; Powers, Jennifer

    2017-04-01

    Tropical dry forests occur in areas with warm temperatures and a pronounced dry season with little to no rainfall that lasts 3 to 7 months. The potential area covered by this biome is vast: globally, 47% of all forest occurs in tropical and subtropical latitudes, and of all tropical forests approximately 42% are classified as dry forests. Throughout the last several centuries, the area covered by tropical dry forests has been dramatically reduced through conversion to grazing and croplands, and they are now considered the most threatened tropical biome. However, in many regions, tropical dry forests are now growing back. There is growing concern that this recovery process will be strongly impacted by climate variability and change. Observations show that climate is changing in the seasonal tropics, and climate models forecast that neotropical dry forests will receive significantly less rainfall in the 21st century than in the 20th century. Rates of nitrogen deposition are also changing rapidly in this sector, and the fertility of some soils may still be recovering from past land use. We are engaged in several efforts to understand how water and nutrients limit the productivity of these forests, including manipulative experiments, modeling, and investigation of responses to natural climate variability. In 2015, at a well-characterized site in Guanacaste, Costa Rica, we established a full-factorial fertilization experiment with N and P in diverse mature forest stands. Initial responses highlight stronger ecosystem sensitivity to P addition than to N addition. Intriguingly, pre-experiment numerical simulations with a mechanistic ecosystem model had indicated the reverse. Work is ongoing to use field observations to better represent critical processes in the model, and ultimately to improve the model's sensitivity to nutrients and water. In addition, in 2016, we established a full factorial nutrient addition and drought experiment in plantations. Thus far, soil

  3. Analyzing the edge effects in a Brazilian seasonally dry tropical forest.

    PubMed

    Arruda, D M; Eisenlohr, P V

    2016-01-22

    Due to the deciduous nature of dry forests (widely known as seasonally dry tropical forests) they are subject to microclimatic conditions not experienced in other forest formations. Close examinations of the theory of edge effects in dry forests are still rare and a number of questions arise in terms of this topic. In light of this situation we examined a fragment of the dry forest to respond to the following questions: (I) Are there differences in canopy cover along the edge-interior gradient during the dry season? (II) How does the microclimate (air temperature, soil temperature, and relative humidity) vary along that gradient? (III) How does the microclimate influence tree species richness, evenness and abundance along that gradient? (IV) Are certain tree species more dominant closer to the forest edges? Regressions were performed to address these questions. Their coefficients did not significantly vary from zero. Apparently, the uniform openness of the forest canopy caused a homogeneous internal microclimate, without significant differentiation in habitats that would allow modifications in biotic variables tested. We conclude that the processes of edge effect commonly seen in humid forests, not was shared with the dry forest assessed.

  4. Analyzing the edge effects in a Brazilian seasonally dry tropical forest.

    PubMed

    Arruda, D M; Eisenlohr, P V

    2016-02-01

    Due to the deciduous nature of dry forests (widely known as seasonally dry tropical forests) they are subject to microclimatic conditions not experienced in other forest formations. Close examinations of the theory of edge effects in dry forests are still rare and a number of questions arise in terms of this topic. In light of this situation we examined a fragment of the dry forest to respond to the following questions: (I) Are there differences in canopy cover along the edge-interior gradient during the dry season? (II) How does the microclimate (air temperature, soil temperature, and relative humidity) vary along that gradient? (III) How does the microclimate influence tree species richness, evenness and abundance along that gradient? (IV) Are certain tree species more dominant closer to the forest edges? Regressions were performed to address these questions. Their coefficients did not significantly vary from zero. Apparently, the uniform openness of the forest canopy caused a homogeneous internal microclimate, without significant differentiation in habitats that would allow modifications in biotic variables tested. We conclude that the processes of edge effect commonly seen in humid forests, not was shared with the dry forest assessed.

  5. Observed effects of an exceptional drought on tree mortality in a tropical dry forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medvigy, D.; Vargas, G.; Xu, X.; Smith, C. M.; Becknell, J.; Brodribb, T.; Powers, J. S.

    2016-12-01

    Climate models predict that the coming century will bring reduced rainfall to Neotropical dry forests. It is unknown how tropical dry forest trees will respond to such rainfall reductions. Will there be increased mortality? If so, what will be the dominant mechanism of mortality? Will certain functional groups or size classes be more susceptible to unusually dry conditions and do functional traits underlie these patterns? With these questions in mind, we analyzed the response of trees from 18 Costa Rican tropical dry forest inventory plots and from additional transects to the exceptional 2015 drought that coincided with a strong ENSO event. We compared stand-level mortality rates observed during pre-drought years (2008-2014) and during the drought year of 2015 in the inventory plots. For both inventory plots and transects, we analyzed whether particular functional groups or size classes experienced exceptional mortality after the drought. We found that mortality rates were two to three times higher during the drought than before the drought. In contrast to observations at moist tropical forests, tree size had little influence on mortality. In terms of functional groups, mortality rates of evergreen oaks growing on nutrient-poor soils particularly increased during drought. Legumes seemed less affected by the drought than non-legumes. However, elevated mortality rates were not clearly correlated with commonly-measured traits like wood density or specific leaf area. Instead, hydraulic traits like P50 or turgor loss point may be better predictors of drought-driven mortality. In addition, trees that died during the drought tended to have smaller relative growth rate prior to the drought than trees that survived the drought.

  6. [Environmental factors associated with habitat preferences by caddisfly larvae in tropical dry forest watersheds (Tolima, Colombia)].

    PubMed

    Vásquez-Ramos, Jesús M; Guevara-Cardona, Giovany; Reinoso-Flórez, Gladys

    2014-04-01

    River ecosystems, mainly those draining tropical dry forests, are among the most endangered tropical ecosystems and a major conservation priority in South America, as elsewhere. In this study, we assessed the influence of environmental factors (e.g., precipitation) and riparian vegetation on Trichoptera larval assemblages colonizing four substrates (rock, gravel, sand, and litter) in the Venadillo and Opia watersheds (Tolima, Colombia). In each river, five 20m reaches nested into two 100m segments (one at -550 and another at -250masl), were surveyed for benthic invertebrates in the above mentioned substrates. In addition, water samples were collected for physicochemical analyses and the QBR index ("qualitat del bosc de ribera" or riparian forest quality) was applied in both rivers. A total of 6,282 larvae were collected, belonging to 11 families and 22 genera, representing 73.30% and 43.13% of the Trichoptera fauna reported to Colombia, respectively. The most abundant families were Hydropsychidae (49.86%) and Philopotamidae (25.44%) and the least abundant Odontoceridae (0.16%) and Hydrobiosidae (0.06%). The genera Smicridea, Chimarra, Protoptila, Neotrichia, and Leptonema, were common during dry and rainy seasons. The main factors related to changes in composition, richness, and abundance of larval Trichoptera were seasonality and riparian vegetation, which can influence organic matter supply, availability and stability of substrates, and colonization and population dynamics. Trichoptera assemblages showed no significant differences among substrates. However sampling points located at high elevation and in non-urbanized areas offered the largest variety of substrates and richness. Our results indicate that Trichoptera larvae are an important biotic element in freshwater ecosystems and that they are sensitive to environmental changes. Hence, our study suggests that caddisflies may be used as potential organisms for the biomonitoring of tropical dry forest rivers

  7. Catastrophic ecosystem shifts in dry tropical forest: evidence, mechanisms and implications for climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, D.; D'Odorico, P.; Runyan, C.; Diekmann, L.; DeLonge, M. S.; Das, R.; Eaton, J.; Vandecar, K.; Schmook, B.

    2015-12-01

    Tropical dry forests have long been used by humans. Has it been sustainable? Not in the southern Yucatan. Biomass accumulation declines with each cycle of shifting cultivation with implications for both internal recycling of nutrients and external inputs of nutrients. We detail the evidence for a decline in P inputs from biomass burning (aboveground biomass, litter, and coarse woody debris), an increase in leaching losses from deep soils, and a decline in atmospheric inputs of new P from Saharan dust following the transition from mature to secondary forest. Canopy trapping of dust is critical to maintaining P balance in this system. Effective trapping is diminished by changes in the structure of secondary forest--loss of height, leaf area and basal area. Experimental studies show that it is atmospheric transport of dust, not microbial shedding or leaching from live tissues, that explains the difference between throughfall P and P in bulk deposition. Because of net losses in P, uptake of carbon during regrowth is slower with each cycle of shifting cultivation. As much of the tropics has moved beyond a mature forest frontier, the decline in carbon sequestration is likely widespread over both dry and wet forests. The terrestrial carbon sink in the tropics may be declining. The capacity to sequester carbon through afforestation, reforestation and restoration has certainly diminished over time, limiting the effectiveness of such efforts to help mitigate climate change.

  8. Dispersal, isolation and diversification with continued gene flow in an Andean tropical dry forest.

    PubMed

    Toby Pennington, R; Lavin, Matt

    2017-07-01

    The Andes are the world's longest mountain chain, and the tropical Andes are the world's richest biodiversity hot spot. The origin of the tropical Andean cordillera is relatively recent because the elevation of the mountains was relatively low (400-2500 m palaeoelevations) only 10 MYA with final uplift being rapid. These final phases of the Andean orogeny are thought to have had a fundamental role in shaping processes of biotic diversification and biogeography, with these effects reaching far from the mountains themselves by changing the course of rivers and deposition of mineral-rich Andean sediments across the massive Amazon basin. In a recent issue of Molecular Ecology, Oswald, Overcast, Mauck, Andersen, and Smith (2017) investigate the biogeography and diversification of bird species in the Andes of Peru and Ecuador. Their study is novel in its focus on tropical dry forests (Figure 1) rather than more mesic biomes such as rain forests, cloud forests and paramos, which tend to be the focus of science and conservation in the Andean hot spot. It is also able to draw powerful conclusions via the first deployment of genomic approaches to a biogeographic question in the threatened dry forests of the New World. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Incised channel fills containing conifers indicate that seasonally dry vegetation dominated Pennsylvanian tropical lowlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Falcon-Lang, H. J.; Nelson, W.J.; Elrick, S.; Looy, C.V.; Ames, P.R.; DiMichele, W.A.

    2009-01-01

    The idea that the Pennsylvanian tropical lowlands were temporally dominated by rainforest (i.e., the Coal Forest) is deeply ingrained in the literature. Here we challenge two centuries of research by suggesting that this concept is based on a taphonomic artifact, and that seasonally dry vegetation dominated instead. This controversial finding arises from the discovery of a new middle Pennsylvanian (Moscovian) fossil plant assemblage in southeast Illinois, United States. The assemblage, which contains xerophytic walchian conifers, occurs in channels incised into a calcic Vertisol below the Baker Coal. These plants grew on seasonally dry tropical lowlands inferred to have developed during a glacial phase. This xerophytic flora differs markedly from that of the typical clubmoss-dominated Coal Forest developed during deglaciation events. Although preserved only very rarely, we argue that such xerophytic floras were temporally as dominant, and perhaps more dominant, than the iconic Coal Forests, which are overrepresented in the fossil record due to taphonomic megabias. These findings require the iconography of Pennsylvanian tropical lowlands to be redrawn. ?? 2009 Geological Society of America.

  10. Spatio-Temporal Distribution of Bark and Ambrosia Beetles in a Brazilian Tropical Dry Forest.

    PubMed

    Macedo-Reis, Luiz Eduardo; Novais, Samuel Matos Antunes de; Monteiro, Graziela França; Flechtmann, Carlos Alberto Hector; Faria, Maurício Lopes de; Neves, Frederico de Siqueira

    2016-01-01

    Bark and the ambrosia beetles dig into host plants and live most of their lives in concealed tunnels. We assessed beetle community dynamics in tropical dry forest sites in early, intermediate, and late successional stages, evaluating the influence of resource availability and seasonal variations in guild structure. We collected a total of 763 beetles from 23 species, including 14 bark beetle species, and 9 ambrosia beetle species. Local richness of bark and ambrosia beetles was estimated at 31 species. Bark and ambrosia composition was similar over the successional stages gradient, and beta diversity among sites was primarily determined by species turnover, mainly in the bark beetle community. Bark beetle richness and abundance were higher at intermediate stages; availability of wood was the main spatial mechanism. Climate factors were effectively non-seasonal. Ambrosia beetles were not influenced by successional stages, however the increase in wood resulted in increased abundance. We found higher richness at the end of the dry and wet seasons, and abundance increased with air moisture and decreased with higher temperatures and greater rainfall. In summary, bark beetle species accumulation was higher at sites with better wood production, while the needs of fungi (host and air moisture), resulted in a favorable conditions for species accumulation of ambrosia. The overall biological pattern among guilds differed from tropical rain forests, showing patterns similar to dry forest areas.

  11. Water flow and energy balance for a tropical dry semideciduous forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, J. L.; Garruña-Hernandez, R.; Leon-Palomo, M.; Us-Santamaria, R.; Sima, J. L.

    2013-05-01

    Tropical forests cool down locally because increase water evaporation from the soil to the atmosphere, reduce albedo and help forming clouds that reflect solar radiation back to the atmosphere; this, aligned to the carbon catchment, increase forests value. We will present an estimation of the sap flow and energy balance for the tropical dry semideciduous forest at Kiuic, Yucatan, Mexico during a year. We use a meteorological tower equipped with a rain gauge, temperature and relative humidity, heat flow plates, thermocouples and volumetric soil water content. We recorded net radiation and soil heat flux and estimated sensible heat and latent heat. Besides, we estimated latent heat by measuring sap flow directly in tres using disispation constant heat probes during the rainy season. Results show the influence of the seasonality on net radiation, air temperatura and vapor pressure deficit, because during the dry season his variables were higher and with more duation than during the rainy and early dry season. Sap flow was different for trees belonging to the family Fabaceae compared to trees from other families.

  12. Spatio-Temporal Distribution of Bark and Ambrosia Beetles in a Brazilian Tropical Dry Forest

    PubMed Central

    de Novais, Samuel Matos Antunes; Monteiro, Graziela França; Flechtmann, Carlos Alberto Hector; de Faria, Maurício Lopes; Neves, Frederico de Siqueira

    2016-01-01

    Bark and the ambrosia beetles dig into host plants and live most of their lives in concealed tunnels. We assessed beetle community dynamics in tropical dry forest sites in early, intermediate, and late successional stages, evaluating the influence of resource availability and seasonal variations in guild structure. We collected a total of 763 beetles from 23 species, including 14 bark beetle species, and 9 ambrosia beetle species. Local richness of bark and ambrosia beetles was estimated at 31 species. Bark and ambrosia composition was similar over the successional stages gradient, and beta diversity among sites was primarily determined by species turnover, mainly in the bark beetle community. Bark beetle richness and abundance were higher at intermediate stages; availability of wood was the main spatial mechanism. Climate factors were effectively non-seasonal. Ambrosia beetles were not influenced by successional stages, however the increase in wood resulted in increased abundance. We found higher richness at the end of the dry and wet seasons, and abundance increased with air moisture and decreased with higher temperatures and greater rainfall. In summary, bark beetle species accumulation was higher at sites with better wood production, while the needs of fungi (host and air moisture), resulted in a favorable conditions for species accumulation of ambrosia. The overall biological pattern among guilds differed from tropical rain forests, showing patterns similar to dry forest areas. PMID:27271969

  13. Relative drying times of 650 tropical woods : estimation by green moisture content, specific gravity, and green weight density

    Treesearch

    William T. Simpson; John A. Sagoe

    1991-01-01

    Many tropical species are underutilized because of their varied and frequently unknown drying properties. When handling a large number of species, harvesting and processing the species individually is impractical, and grouping species by similar drying properties is difficult. This report examines the relationship between green moisture content and specific gravity of...

  14. Effect of freeze-drying on the antioxidant compounds and antioxidant activity of selected tropical fruits.

    PubMed

    Shofian, Norshahida Mohamad; Hamid, Azizah Abdul; Osman, Azizah; Saari, Nazamid; Anwar, Farooq; Dek, Mohd Sabri Pak; Hairuddin, Muhammad Redzuan

    2011-01-01

    The effects of freeze-drying on antioxidant compounds and antioxidant activity of five tropical fruits, namely starfruit (Averrhoa carambola L.), mango (Mangifera indica L.), papaya (Carica papaya L.), muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.), and watermelon Citruluss lanatus (Thunb.) were investigated. Significant (p < 0.05) differences, for the amounts of total phenolic compounds (TPC), were found between the fresh and freeze-dried fruit samples, except muskmelon. There was no significant (p > 0.05) change, however, observed in the ascorbic acid content of the fresh and freeze-dried fruits. Similarly, freeze-drying did not exert any considerable effect on β-carotene concentration of fruits, except for mango and watermelon, where significantly (p < 0.05) higher levels were detected in the fresh samples. The results of DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging and reducing power assays revealed that fresh samples of starfruit and mango had relatively higher antioxidant activity. In case of linoleic acid peroxidation inhibition measurement, a significant (p < 0.05) but random variation was recorded between the fresh and freeze-dried fruits. Overall, in comparison to β-carotene and ascorbic acid, a good correlation was established between the result of TPC and antioxidant assays, indicating that phenolics might have been the dominant compounds contributing towards the antioxidant activity of the fruits tested.

  15. Effect of Freeze-Drying on the Antioxidant Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Selected Tropical Fruits

    PubMed Central

    Shofian, Norshahida Mohamad; Hamid, Azizah Abdul; Osman, Azizah; Saari, Nazamid; Anwar, Farooq; Dek, Mohd Sabri Pak; Hairuddin, Muhammad Redzuan

    2011-01-01

    The effects of freeze-drying on antioxidant compounds and antioxidant activity of five tropical fruits, namely starfruit (Averrhoa carambola L.), mango (Mangifera indica L.), papaya (Carica papaya L.), muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.), and watermelon Citruluss lanatus (Thunb.) were investigated. Significant (p < 0.05) differences, for the amounts of total phenolic compounds (TPC), were found between the fresh and freeze-dried fruit samples, except muskmelon. There was no significant (p > 0.05) change, however, observed in the ascorbic acid content of the fresh and freeze-dried fruits. Similarly, freeze-drying did not exert any considerable effect on β-carotene concentration of fruits, except for mango and watermelon, where significantly (p < 0.05) higher levels were detected in the fresh samples. The results of DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging and reducing power assays revealed that fresh samples of starfruit and mango had relatively higher antioxidant activity. In case of linoleic acid peroxidation inhibition measurement, a significant (p < 0.05) but random variation was recorded between the fresh and freeze-dried fruits. Overall, in comparison to β-carotene and ascorbic acid, a good correlation was established between the result of TPC and antioxidant assays, indicating that phenolics might have been the dominant compounds contributing towards the antioxidant activity of the fruits tested. PMID:21845104

  16. Can terrestrial laser scanners (TLSs) and hemispherical photographs predict tropical dry forest succession with liana abundance?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Azofeifa, Gerardo Arturo; Guzmán-Quesada, J. Antonio; Vega-Araya, Mauricio; Campos-Vargas, Carlos; Milena Durán, Sandra; D'Souza, Nikhil; Gianoli, Thomas; Portillo-Quintero, Carlos; Sharp, Iain

    2017-03-01

    Tropical dry forests (TDFs) are ecosystems with long drought periods, a mean temperature of 25 °C, a mean annual precipitation that ranges from 900 to 2000 mm, and that possess a high abundance of deciduous species (trees and lianas). What remains of the original extent of TDFs in the Americas remains highly fragmented and at different levels of ecological succession. It is estimated that one of the main fingerprints left by global environmental and climate change in tropical environments is an increase in liana coverage. Lianas are non-structural elements of the forest canopy that eventually kill their host trees. In this paper we evaluate the use of a terrestrial laser scanner (TLS) in combination with hemispherical photographs (HPs) to characterize changes in forest structure as a function of ecological succession and liana abundance. We deployed a TLS and HP system in 28 plots throughout secondary forests of different ages and with different levels of liana abundance. Using a canonical correlation analysis (CCA), we addressed how the VEGNET, a terrestrial laser scanner, and HPs could predict TDF structure. Likewise, using univariate analyses of correlations, we show how the liana abundance could affect the prediction of the forest structure. Our results suggest that TLSs and HPs can predict the differences in the forest structure at different successional stages but that these differences disappear as liana abundance increases. Therefore, in well known ecosystems such as the tropical dry forest of Costa Rica, these biases of prediction could be considered as structural effects of liana presence. This research contributes to the understanding of the potential effects of lianas in secondary dry forests and highlights the role of TLSs combined with HPs in monitoring structural changes in secondary TDFs.

  17. Trait Variation Along a Forest Successional Gradient in Dry Tropical Forest, Florida Keys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subedi, S.; Ross, M. S.

    2016-12-01

    In most part of South Florida tropical dry forests, the early colonized trees on disturbed uplands are mostly deciduous species cable of surviving for several years after establishment. However, trees in mature forests are generally characterized by a suite of evergreen species, most of which are completely absent in younger stands even in seedling stage. This complete transition from one functional group to another in the course of stand development suggests a distinct change in the underlying environment during the course of succession. Such change in hammock functional groups as a function of the changing environmental drivers during succession in tropical dry forests is unknown and addressing this question may help to understand which drivers of change act as filters that select for and against particular groups of species and traits. In this study, we evaluate number of important functional traits (specific leaf area, wood density, leaf d13C, leaf N:P ratio, and architectural traits such as height, crown dimensions, diameter at breast height) for woody plant species occurring along a successional gradient across three ecological scales, community, species, and individual. A significant change in the overall trait distribution across the successional gradient is found. Intraspecific trait variation within the community is increased with increase in forest age. Most of these traits have shown correlation with stand age and showed preference to a certain environment. Stand age is the most important variable explaining the distribution of community characteristics. It is found that early successional forest are mostly shaped by environmental driven processes, and as forest get older and structurally more complex, they are increasingly shaped by competitively driven processes leading to limiting similarity. This study has shown that the patterns of trait shift can be predictable and can be used to characterize habitats and stage of forest succession in dry tropical

  18. Forest Structure in Low-Diversity Tropical Forests: A Study of Hawaiian Wet and Dry Forests

    PubMed Central

    Ostertag, Rebecca; Inman-Narahari, Faith; Cordell, Susan; Giardina, Christian P.; Sack, Lawren

    2014-01-01

    The potential influence of diversity on ecosystem structure and function remains a topic of significant debate, especially for tropical forests where diversity can range widely. We used Center for Tropical Forest Science (CTFS) methodology to establish forest dynamics plots in montane wet forest and lowland dry forest on Hawai‘i Island. We compared the species diversity, tree density, basal area, biomass, and size class distributions between the two forest types. We then examined these variables across tropical forests within the CTFS network. Consistent with other island forests, the Hawai‘i forests were characterized by low species richness and very high relative dominance. The two Hawai‘i forests were floristically distinct, yet similar in species richness (15 vs. 21 species) and stem density (3078 vs. 3486/ha). While these forests were selected for their low invasive species cover relative to surrounding forests, both forests averaged 5–>50% invasive species cover; ongoing removal will be necessary to reduce or prevent competitive impacts, especially from woody species. The montane wet forest had much larger trees, resulting in eightfold higher basal area and above-ground biomass. Across the CTFS network, the Hawaiian montane wet forest was similar to other tropical forests with respect to diameter distributions, density, and aboveground biomass, while the Hawai‘i lowland dry forest was similar in density to tropical forests with much higher diversity. These findings suggest that forest structural variables can be similar across tropical forests independently of species richness. The inclusion of low-diversity Pacific Island forests in the CTFS network provides an ∼80-fold range in species richness (15–1182 species), six-fold variation in mean annual rainfall (835–5272 mm yr−1) and 1.8-fold variation in mean annual temperature (16.0–28.4°C). Thus, the Hawaiian forest plots expand the global forest plot network to enable testing of

  19. Dry layers in the tropical troposphere observed during CONTRAST and global behavior from GFS analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randel, William J.; Rivoire, Louis; Pan, Laura L.; Honomichl, Shawn B.

    2016-12-01

    The Convective Transport of Active Species in the Tropics (CONTRAST) experiment was an aircraft-based field campaign conducted from Guam (14°N, 145°E) during January-February 2014. Aircraft measurements included over 80 vertical profiles from the boundary layer to the upper troposphere ( 15 km). A large fraction of these profiles revealed layered structures with very low water vapor (relative humidity <20%) and enhanced ozone, primarily in the lower-middle troposphere ( 3-9 km). Comparing CONTRAST water vapor measurements with co-located profiles from National Centers for Environmental Prediction Global Forecast System (GFS) analyses, we find good agreement for dry layers, including profile-by-profile comparisons and statistical behavior. We then utilize GFS data to evaluate the frequency of occurrence and 3-D structure of dry layers for the CONTRAST period to provide perspective to the campaign measurements and evaluate the global climatological behavior based on a longer record. GFS data show that dry layers occur 50-80% of the time in the subtropical troposphere, maximizing on the equatorward side of the subtropical jets in the winter hemisphere. Subtropical dry layers occur most frequently over isentropic levels 320-340 K, which extend into the extratropical upper troposphere-lower stratosphere (UTLS). Similar statistical behavior of dry, ozone-rich layers is found in long-term balloon measurements from Reunion Island (21°S, 56°E). The climatologically frequent occurrence of dry, ozone-rich layers, plus their vertical and spatial structures linked to the subtropical jets, all suggest that dry layers are linked to quasi-isentropic transport from the extratropical UTLS and suggest a ubiquitous UTLS influence on the subtropical middle troposphere.

  20. Diverse patterns of stored water use among saplings in seasonally dry tropical forests.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Brett T; Kursar, Thomas A

    2015-12-01

    Tree species in seasonally dry tropical forests likely vary in their drought-survival mechanisms. Drought-deciduousness, which reduces water loss, and low wood density, which may permit dependence on stored water, are considered key traits. For saplings of six species at two distinct sites, we studied these and two associated traits: the seasonal amount of water released per stem volume ("water released") and the hydraulic capacitance of the stem (C). Two deciduous species with low stem density, Cavanillesia platanifolia and Bursera simaruba, had high C and high dry-season stem water potential (Ψ(stem)), but differed in dry-season water released. C. platanifolia did not use stored water during the dry season whereas B. simaruba, in a drier forest, released stored water. In both, water released was highest while flushing leaves, suggesting that stored water supports leaf flushing. In contrast, two deciduous species with intermediate stem density, Annona hayesii and Genipa americana, had intermediate C, low dry-season Ψ(stem), and high seasonal change in water released. Meanwhile, two evergreen species with intermediate stem density, Cojoba rufescens and Astronium graveolens, had relatively low C, low dry-season Ψ(stem), and intermediate seasonal change in water released. Thus, at least three, distinct stored-water-use strategies were observed. Additionally, bark relative water content (RWC) decreased along with Ψ(stem) during the dry season while xylem RWC did not change, suggesting that bark-stored water buffers Ψ(stem) seasonally. Together these results suggest that seasonal use of stored water and change in Ψ(stem) are associated with functional groups that are characterized by combinations of deciduousness and stem density.

  1. Inter-annual Variability of Aboveground Net Primary Productivity in Regenerating Tropical Dry Forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powers, J. S.; Becknell, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    Globally, there are now more secondary forests regenerating following anthropogenic disturbance than primary forests. However, carbon dynamics in secondary tropical forests in general, and seasonally dry forests in particular, have not been as well studied as primary wet forests. Young, regenerating forests may be more sensitive to climatic variability than older forests because of their dynamic demographic rates. Similarly, seasonally dry tropical forests may be particularly sensitive to changes in precipitation, as tree growth is highly constrained by water availability. We examined how inter-annual variability in precipitation affected above-ground net primary productivity in chronosequences of dry forest in Costa Rica. Our sites included three forest cover types, whose distribution is linked to edaphic variation. Over our 6-yr dataset, annual rainfall varied from 1110 to 3040mm, with a 5-6 month dry season. ANPP ranged from 2.96 to 18.98 Mg ha-1 across sites that have been recovering for 7 to 67 years. Fine litter production dominated ANPP, and increased with forest age but not annual rainfall. By contrast, woody stem growth did not vary among forests that differed in age, but increased as a function of annual rainfall. These results differed by forest type. Lowland oak forests on low fertility soil had the lowest productivity and responses to rainfall, whereas forests on the highest fertility soils showed large increases in woody production with rainfall. Consistent with our expectation, younger forests on the intermediate soil type had higher variability in ANPP than older forests, but this was not significant for forests on the poor or high fertility soils. Our results highlight several important findings: 1) different components of ANPP vary in their responses to inter-annual variation in rainfall, 2) forest responses to climatic variability depend on species composition, which varies consistently with soil type in this landscape.

  2. Partitioning of soil water among canopy trees in a seasonally dry tropical forest.

    PubMed

    Meinzer, F C; Andrade, José Luis; Goldstein, Guillermo; Holbrook, N Michele; Cavelier, Jaime; Wright, S Joseph

    1999-11-01

    Little is known about partitioning of soil water resources in species-rich, seasonally dry tropical forests. We assessed spatial and temporal patterns of soil water utilization in several canopy tree species on Barro Colorado Island, Panama, during the 1997 dry season. Stable hydrogen isotope composition (δD) of xylem and soil water, soil volumetric water content (θv), and sap flow were measured concurrently. Evaporative fractionation near the soil surface caused soil water δD to decrease from about -15‰ at 0.1 m to -50 to -55‰ at 1.2 m depth. Groundwater sampled at the sources of nearby springs during this period yielded an average δD value of -60‰. θv increased sharply and nearly linearly with depth to 0.7 m, then increased more slowly between 0.7 and 1.05 m. Based on xylem δD values, water uptake in some individual plants appeared to be restricted largely to the upper 20 cm of the soil profile where θv dropped below 20% during the dry season. In contrast, other individuals appeared to have access to water at depths greater than 1 m where θv remained above 45% throughout the dry season. The depths of water sources for trees with intermediate xylem δD values were less certain because variation in soil water δD between 20 and 70 cm was relatively small. Xylem water δD was also strongly dependent on tree size (diameter at breast height), with smaller trees appearing to preferentially tap deeper sources of soil water than larger trees. This relationship appeared to be species independent. Trees able to exploit progressively deeper sources of soil water during the dry season, as indicated by increasingly negative xylem δD values, were also able to maintain constant or even increase rates of water use. Seasonal courses of water use and soil water partitioning were associated with leaf phenology. Species with the smallest seasonal variability in leaf fall were also able to tap increasingly deep sources of soil water as the dry season progressed

  3. The sensitivity of wet and dry tropical forests to climate change in Bolivia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seiler, C.; Hutjes, R. W. A.; Kruijt, B.; Hickler, T.

    2015-03-01

    Bolivia's forests contribute to the global carbon and water cycle, as well as to global biodiversity. The survival of these forests may be at risk due to climate change. To explore the associated mechanisms and uncertainties, a regionally adapted dynamic vegetation model was implemented for the Bolivian case, and forced with two contrasting climate change projections. Changes in carbon stocks and fluxes were evaluated, factoring out the individual contributions of atmospheric carbon dioxide ([CO2]), temperature, and precipitation. Impacts ranged from a strong increase to a severe loss of vegetation carbon (cv), depending on differences in climate projections, as well as the physiological response to rising [CO2]. The loss of cv simulated for an extremely dry projection was primarily driven by a reduction in gross primary productivity, and secondarily by enhanced emissions from fires and autotrophic respiration. In the wet forest, less precipitation and higher temperatures equally reduced cv, while in the dry forest, the impact of precipitation was dominating. The temperature-related reduction of cv was mainly due to a decrease in photosynthesis and only to lesser extent because of more autotrophic respiration and less stomatal conductance as a response to an increasing atmospheric evaporative demand. Under an extremely dry projection, tropical dry forests were simulated to virtually disappear, regardless of the potential fertilizing effect of rising [CO2]. This suggests a higher risk for forest loss along the drier southern fringe of the Amazon if annual precipitation will decrease substantially.

  4. Depth of soil water uptake by tropical rainforest trees during dry periods: does tree dimension matter?

    PubMed

    Stahl, Clément; Hérault, Bruno; Rossi, Vivien; Burban, Benoit; Bréchet, Claude; Bonal, Damien

    2013-12-01

    Though the root biomass of tropical rainforest trees is concentrated in the upper soil layers, soil water uptake by deep roots has been shown to contribute to tree transpiration. A precise evaluation of the relationship between tree dimensions and depth of water uptake would be useful in tree-based modelling approaches designed to anticipate the response of tropical rainforest ecosystems to future changes in environmental conditions. We used an innovative dual-isotope labelling approach (deuterium in surface soil and oxygen at 120-cm depth) coupled with a modelling approach to investigate the role of tree dimensions in soil water uptake in a tropical rainforest exposed to seasonal drought. We studied 65 trees of varying diameter and height and with a wide range of predawn leaf water potential (Ψpd) values. We confirmed that about half of the studied trees relied on soil water below 100-cm depth during dry periods. Ψpd was negatively correlated with depth of water extraction and can be taken as a rough proxy of this depth. Some trees showed considerable plasticity in their depth of water uptake, exhibiting an efficient adaptive strategy for water and nutrient resource acquisition. We did not find a strong relationship between tree dimensions and depth of water uptake. While tall trees preferentially extract water from layers below 100-cm depth, shorter trees show broad variations in mean depth of water uptake. This precludes the use of tree dimensions to parameterize functional models.

  5. How Dry is the Tropical Free Troposphere? Implications for Global Warming Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spencer, Roy W.; Braswell, William D.

    1997-01-01

    The humidity of the free troposphere is being increasingly scrutinized in climate research due to its central role in global warming theory through positive water vapor feedback. This feedback is the primary source of global warming in general circulation models (GCMs). Because the loss of infrared energy to space increases nonlinearly with decreases in relative humidity, the vast dry zones in the Tropics are of particular interest. These dry zones are nearly devoid of radiosonde stations, and most of those stations have, until recently, ignored the low humidity information from the sondes. This results in substantial uncertainty in GCM tuning and validation based on sonde data. While satellite infrared radiometers are now beginning to reveal some information about the aridity of the tropical free troposphere, the authors show that the latest microwave humidity sounder data suggests even drier conditions than have been previously reported. This underscores the importance of understanding how these low humidity levels are controlled in order to tune and validate GCMs, and to predict the magnitude of water vapor feedback and thus the magnitude of global warming.

  6. Intermediate tree cover can maximize groundwater recharge in the seasonally dry tropics

    PubMed Central

    Ilstedt, U.; Bargués Tobella, A.; Bazié, H. R.; Bayala, J.; Verbeeten, E.; Nyberg, G.; Sanou, J.; Benegas, L.; Murdiyarso, D.; Laudon, H.; Sheil, D.; Malmer, A.

    2016-01-01

    Water scarcity contributes to the poverty of around one-third of the world’s people. Despite many benefits, tree planting in dry regions is often discouraged by concerns that trees reduce water availability. Yet relevant studies from the tropics are scarce, and the impacts of intermediate tree cover remain unexplored. We developed and tested an optimum tree cover theory in which groundwater recharge is maximized at an intermediate tree density. Below this optimal tree density the benefits from any additional trees on water percolation exceed their extra water use, leading to increased groundwater recharge, while above the optimum the opposite occurs. Our results, based on groundwater budgets calibrated with measurements of drainage and transpiration in a cultivated woodland in West Africa, demonstrate that groundwater recharge was maximised at intermediate tree densities. In contrast to the prevailing view, we therefore find that moderate tree cover can increase groundwater recharge, and that tree planting and various tree management options can improve groundwater resources. We evaluate the necessary conditions for these results to hold and suggest that they are likely to be common in the seasonally dry tropics, offering potential for widespread tree establishment and increased benefits for hundreds of millions of people. PMID:26908158

  7. Intermediate tree cover can maximize groundwater recharge in the seasonally dry tropics.

    PubMed

    Ilstedt, U; Bargués Tobella, A; Bazié, H R; Bayala, J; Verbeeten, E; Nyberg, G; Sanou, J; Benegas, L; Murdiyarso, D; Laudon, H; Sheil, D; Malmer, A

    2016-02-24

    Water scarcity contributes to the poverty of around one-third of the world's people. Despite many benefits, tree planting in dry regions is often discouraged by concerns that trees reduce water availability. Yet relevant studies from the tropics are scarce, and the impacts of intermediate tree cover remain unexplored. We developed and tested an optimum tree cover theory in which groundwater recharge is maximized at an intermediate tree density. Below this optimal tree density the benefits from any additional trees on water percolation exceed their extra water use, leading to increased groundwater recharge, while above the optimum the opposite occurs. Our results, based on groundwater budgets calibrated with measurements of drainage and transpiration in a cultivated woodland in West Africa, demonstrate that groundwater recharge was maximised at intermediate tree densities. In contrast to the prevailing view, we therefore find that moderate tree cover can increase groundwater recharge, and that tree planting and various tree management options can improve groundwater resources. We evaluate the necessary conditions for these results to hold and suggest that they are likely to be common in the seasonally dry tropics, offering potential for widespread tree establishment and increased benefits for hundreds of millions of people.

  8. Forest composition modifies litter dynamics and decomposition in regenerating tropical dry forest.

    PubMed

    Schilling, Erik M; Waring, Bonnie G; Schilling, Jonathan S; Powers, Jennifer S

    2016-09-01

    We investigated how forest composition, litter quality, and rainfall interact to affect leaf litter decomposition across three successional tropical dry forests in Costa Rica. We monitored litter stocks and bulk litter turnover in 18 plots that exhibit substantial variation in soil characteristics, tree community structure, fungal communities (including forests dominated by ecto- or arbuscular mycorrhizal host trees), and forest age. Simultaneously, we decomposed three standard litter substrates over a 6-month period spanning an unusually intense drought. Decay rates of standard substrates depended on the interaction between litter identity and forest type. Decomposition rates were correlated with tree and soil fungal community composition as well as soil fertility, but these relationships differed among litter types. In low fertility soils dominated by ectomycorrhizal oak trees, bulk litter turnover rates were low, regardless of soil moisture. By contrast, in higher fertility soils that supported mostly arbuscular mycorrhizal trees, bulk litter decay rates were strongly dependent on seasonal water availability. Both measures of decomposition increased with forest age, as did the frequency of termite-mediated wood decay. Taken together, our results demonstrate that soils and forest age exert strong control over decomposition dynamics in these tropical dry forests, either directly through effects on microclimate and nutrients, or indirectly by affecting tree and microbial community composition and traits, such as litter quality.

  9. Effect of rainfall seasonality on carbon storage in tropical dry ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohr, Tyler; Manzoni, Stefano; Feng, Xue; Menezes, Rômulo S. C.; Porporato, Amilcare

    2013-07-01

    seasonally dry conditions are typical of large areas of the tropics, their biogeochemical responses to seasonal rainfall and soil carbon (C) sequestration potential are not well characterized. Seasonal moisture availability positively affects both productivity and soil respiration, resulting in a delicate balance between C deposition as litterfall and C loss through heterotrophic respiration. To understand how rainfall seasonality (i.e., duration of the wet season and rainfall distribution) affects this balance and to provide estimates of long-term C sequestration, we develop a minimal model linking the seasonal behavior of the ensemble soil moisture, plant productivity, related C inputs through litterfall, and soil C dynamics. A drought-deciduous caatinga ecosystem in northeastern Brazil is used as a case study to parameterize the model. When extended to different patterns of rainfall seasonality, the results indicate that for fixed annual rainfall, both plant productivity and soil C sequestration potential are largely, and nonlinearly, dependent on wet season duration. Moreover, total annual rainfall is a critical driver of this relationship, leading at times to distinct optima in both production and C storage. These theoretical predictions are discussed in the context of parameter uncertainties and possible changes in rainfall regimes in tropical dry ecosystems.

  10. Intermediate tree cover can maximize groundwater recharge in the seasonally dry tropics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilstedt, U.; Bargués Tobella, A.; Bazié, H. R.; Bayala, J.; Verbeeten, E.; Nyberg, G.; Sanou, J.; Benegas, L.; Murdiyarso, D.; Laudon, H.; Sheil, D.; Malmer, A.

    2016-02-01

    Water scarcity contributes to the poverty of around one-third of the world’s people. Despite many benefits, tree planting in dry regions is often discouraged by concerns that trees reduce water availability. Yet relevant studies from the tropics are scarce, and the impacts of intermediate tree cover remain unexplored. We developed and tested an optimum tree cover theory in which groundwater recharge is maximized at an intermediate tree density. Below this optimal tree density the benefits from any additional trees on water percolation exceed their extra water use, leading to increased groundwater recharge, while above the optimum the opposite occurs. Our results, based on groundwater budgets calibrated with measurements of drainage and transpiration in a cultivated woodland in West Africa, demonstrate that groundwater recharge was maximised at intermediate tree densities. In contrast to the prevailing view, we therefore find that moderate tree cover can increase groundwater recharge, and that tree planting and various tree management options can improve groundwater resources. We evaluate the necessary conditions for these results to hold and suggest that they are likely to be common in the seasonally dry tropics, offering potential for widespread tree establishment and increased benefits for hundreds of millions of people.

  11. The Relation Between Dry Vortex Merger and Tropical Cyclone Genesis over the Atlantic Ocean

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Shu-Hua; Liu, Yi-Chin

    2014-10-27

    A strong, convective African tropical disturbance has a greater chance to develop into a Tropical 23 Depression (TD) if it merges with a shallow, dry vortex (D-vortex) from the north of the African 24 easterly jet (AEJ) after leaving the western coast. Using 11-year reanalysis data we found that the 25 western tip of a vortex strip at northwestern Africa can serve as dry vortices for the D-vortex 26 merger if it shifts southward. Another source of D-vortices is the westward propagating lows 27 along the southern edge of the Saharan air. The D-vortex merger process occurred for 63.5% of 28 tropical cyclones (TCs) or developing systems over the main development region of the Atlantic 29 Ocean, while it occurred for 54% of non-developing systems. TC genesis could be largely 30 controlled by the large-scale environment, but the differences in characteristics of vortices 31 associated with the D-vortex merger between developing and non-developing systems could 32 potentially help determine their destinies; in general, developing systems were dominated by a 33 more intense and moist south vortex, while non-developing systems were dominated by a north 34 vortex which was more intense, drier, and larger in size. Analysis also shows that 74% of intense 35 developing systems were involved with the D-vortex merger process. More attention needs to be 36 paid to the D-vortex merger and the characteristics of those vortices as they can play significant 37 roles or have a strong indication in Atlantic TC genesis.

  12. Resource partitioning by evergreen and deciduous species in a tropical dry forest.

    PubMed

    Álvarez-Yépiz, Juan C; Búrquez, Alberto; Martínez-Yrízar, Angelina; Teece, Mark; Yépez, Enrico A; Dovciak, Martin

    2017-02-01

    Niche differentiation can lead to coexistence of plant species by partitioning limiting resources. Light partitioning promotes niche differentiation in tropical humid forests, but it is unclear how niche partitioning occurs in tropical dry forests where both light and soil resources can be limiting. We studied the adult niche of four dominant evergreen (cycad, palm) and drought-deciduous (legume, oak) species co-occurring along environmental gradients. We analyzed light intensity and soil fertility effects on key functional traits related to plant carbon and water economy, how these traits determine species' functional strategies, and how these strategies relate to relative species abundance and spatial patterns. Light intensity was negatively associated with a key trait linked to plant water economy (leaf δ (13) C, a proxy for long-term water-use efficiency-WUE), while soil fertility was negatively associated with a key trait for plant carbon economy (LNC, leaf nitrogen content). Evergreens were highly sclerophyllous and displayed an efficient water economy but poor carbon economy, in agreement with a conservative resource-use strategy (i.e., high WUE but low LNC, photosynthetic rates and stature). Conversely, deciduous species, with an efficient carbon economy but poor water economy, exhibited an exploitative resource-use strategy (i.e., high LNC, photosynthetic rates and stature, but low WUE). Evergreen and deciduous species segregated spatially, particularly at fine-scales, as expected for species with different resource-use strategies. The efficient water economy of evergreens was related to their higher relative abundance, suggesting a functional advantage against drought-deciduous species in water-limited environments within seasonally dry tropical forests.

  13. [Diversity, structure and regeneration of the seasonally dry tropical forest of Yucatán Peninsula, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Hernández-Ramírez, Angélica María; García-Méndez, Socorro

    2015-09-01

    Seasonally dry tropical forests are considered as the most endangered ecosystem in lowland tropics. The aim of this study was to characterize the floristic composition, richness, diversity, structure and regeneration of a seasonally dry tropical forest landscape constituted by mature forest, secondary forest and seasonally inundated forest located in the Northeastern part of the Yucatán Peninsula, Mexico. We used the Gentry's standard inventory plot methodology (0.1 ha per forest type in 2007) for facilitating comparison with other Mesoamerican seasonally dry tropical forests. A total of 77 species belonging to 32 families were observed in the study area. Fabaceae and Euphorbiaceae were the families with the largest taxonomic richness in the three forest types. Low levels of β diversity were observed among forest types (0.19-0.40), suggesting a high turnover of species at landscape level. The non-regenerative species were dominant (50-51 %), followed by regenerative species (30- 28 %), and colonizer species (14-21 %) in the three forest types. Zoochory was the most common dispersal type in the study area. The 88 % of the observed species in the study area were distributed in Central America. Some floristic attributes of the seasonally dry tropical forest of the Yucatán Peninsula, fall into the values reported for Mesoamerican seasonally dry tropical forests. Natural disturbances contributed to explain the high number of individuals, the low number of liana species, as well as the low values of basal area observed in this study. Our results suggested that the seasonally dry tropical forest of Yucatán Peninsula seems to be resilient to natural disturbances (hurricane) in terms of the observed number of species and families, when compared with the reported values in Mesoamerican seasonally dry tropical forests. Nonetheless, the recovery and regeneration of vegetation in long-term depends on animal-dispersed species. This study highlights the importance of

  14. In Vitro Evaluation of the Probiotic Potential of Halotolerant Lactobacilli Isolated from a Ripened Tropical Mexican Cheese.

    PubMed

    Melgar-Lalanne, Guiomar; Rivera-Espinoza, Yadira; Reyes Méndez, Ana Itzel; Hernández-Sánchez, Humberto

    2013-12-01

    Three halotolerant lactobacilli (Lactobacillus plantarum, L. pentosus, and L. acidipiscis) isolated from a ripened Mexican tropical cheese (double cream Chiapas cheese) were evaluated as potential probiotics and compared with two commercial probiotic strains (L. casei Shirota and L. plantarum 299v) from human origin. All the strains survived the in vitro gastrointestinal simulation from the oral cavity to the ileum. During the stomach simulation, all the strains survived in satiety conditions (60 min, pH 3.0, 3 g/L pepsin, 150 rpm) and only L. pentosus could not survive under fasting conditions (60 min, pH 2.0, 3 g/L pepsin, 150 rpm). All the strains showed a strong hydrophilic character with low n-hexadecane and a variable chloroform affinity. L. plantarum showed a mucin adhesion rate similar to that of L. plantarum 299v and L. casei Shirota, while L. pentosus and L. acidipiscis had a lower mucin adhesion. The isolated halotolerant lactobacilli exhibited similar antimicrobial activity against some gram-positive and gram-negative pathogens in comparison with the two commercial strains. In addition, the proteinaceous character of the antimicrobial agents against the most pathogenic strains was demonstrated. The compounds showed a low molecular weight (less than 10 kDa). Besides, L. plantarum and L. acidipiscis were able to produce the enzyme β-galactosidase. Finally, L. pentosus was able to deconjugate taurocholic, taurodeoxycholic, glycocholic, and glycodeoxycholic acids better than the two commercial strains analyzed. All these results suggest that the halotolerant lactobacilli isolated from this ripened Mexican cheese could be potentially probiotic. This is the first time that halotolerant lactic acid bacteria have been shown to have probiotic properties.

  15. Poinsettia's wild ancestor in the Mexican dry tropics: Historical, genetic, and environmental evidence.

    PubMed

    Trejo, Laura; Feria Arroyo, Teresa Patricia; Olsen, Kenneth M; Eguiarte, Luis E; Arroyo, Baruch; Gruhn, Jennifer A; Olson, Mark E

    2012-07-01

    The poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima) is the world's most economically important potted plant, but despite its preeminence it is not clear which wild populations are ancestral to the varieties cultivated around the world. Tradition holds that the U.S. envoy to Mexico J. R. Poinsett collected the progenitors of the over 300 varieties in global cultivation on an 1828 excursion to northern Guerrero State, Mexico. It is unknown whether the contemporary cultivars are descended from plants from Guerrero or whether germplasm from other parts of poinsettia's 2000 km long distribution entered into cultivation during the nearly 200 yr of subsequent poinsettia horticulture. To identify the wild populations that likely gave rise to the cultivars and test this historical account, we sequenced plastid and nuclear DNA regions and modeled poinsettia's potential distribution. The combination of nuclear and plastid haplotypes characterizing cultivars was found only in northern Guerrero. Distribution modeling indicated that suitable habitat conditions for wild poinsettias are present in this area, consistent with their likely wild status. Our data pinpoint the area of northern Guerrero as the cultivated poinsettia's probable ancestral region, congruent with the traditional account attributing the original collections to Poinsett. Abundant genetic variation likely offers raw material for improving the many shortcomings of cultivars, including vulnerability to cold, stem breakage, and pathogens such as Pythium and Phytophthora. However, genetic differences between populations make conservation of all of poinsettia's diversity difficult.

  16. Contribution of glomalin to dissolve organic carbon under different land uses and seasonality in dry tropics.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ashutosh Kumar; Rai, Apurva; Pandey, Vivek; Singh, Nandita

    2017-05-01

    Glomalin related soil protein (GRSP) is a hydrophobic glycoprotein that is significant for soil organic carbon (SOC) persistence and sequestration, owing to its large contribution to SOC pool and long turnover time. However, the contribution of GRSP to dissolve OC (DOC) leach from soil is not yet comprehensively explored, though it could have implication in understanding SOC dynamics. We, therefore, aim to measure the contribution of GRSP to DOC, in a range of land uses and climatic seasons in the dry tropical ecosystem. Our results demonstrated that a significant proportion of GRSP (water soluble GRSP; WS-GRSP) leached with DOC (7.9-21.9 mg kg(-1)), which accounts for 0.2-0.23% of soils total GRSP (T-GRSP). Forest exhibited significantly higher WS-GRSP and DOC leaching than fallow and agriculture. WS-GRSP and DOC accumulations were higher in the dry season (summer and winter) than in rainy. The extent of seasonal variations was higher in forest than in other two land uses, indicating the role of vegetation and biological activity in soil dissolve organic matter (DOM) dynamics. The regression analysis among WS-GRSP, T-GRSP, DOC and SOC prove that the accumulations and leaching of GRSP and other soil OM (SOM) depend on similar factors. The ratio of WS-GRSP-C to DOC was higher in agriculture soil than in forest and fallow, likely a consequence of altered soil chemistry, and organic matter quantity and quality due to soil management practices. Multivariate analysis reflects a strong linkage among GRSP and SOC storage and leaching, soil nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) and other important soil properties (pH and bulk density), suggesting that improving GRSP and other SOM status is an urgent need for the both SOC sequestration and soil health in dry tropical agro-ecosystems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Will seasonally dry tropical forests be sensitive or resistant to future changes in rainfall regimes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Kara; Dupuy, Juan Manuel; Gei, Maria G.; Hulshof, Catherine; Medvigy, David; Pizano, Camila; Salgado-Negret, Beatriz; Smith, Christina M.; Trierweiler, Annette; Van Bloem, Skip J.; Waring, Bonnie G.; Xu, Xiangtao; Powers, Jennifer S.

    2017-02-01

    Seasonally dry tropical forests (SDTF) are located in regions with alternating wet and dry seasons, with dry seasons that last several months or more. By the end of the 21st century, climate models predict substantial changes in rainfall regimes across these regions, but little is known about how individuals, species, and communities in SDTF will cope with the hotter, drier conditions predicted by climate models. In this review, we explore different rainfall scenarios that may result in ecological drought in SDTF through the lens of two alternative hypotheses: 1) these forests will be sensitive to drought because they are already limited by water and close to climatic thresholds, or 2) they will be resistant/resilient to intra- and inter-annual changes in rainfall because they are adapted to predictable, seasonal drought. In our review of literature that spans microbial to ecosystem processes, a majority of the available studies suggests that increasing frequency and intensity of droughts in SDTF will likely alter species distributions and ecosystem processes. Though we conclude that SDTF will be sensitive to altered rainfall regimes, many gaps in the literature remain. Future research should focus on geographically comparative studies and well-replicated drought experiments that can provide empirical evidence to improve simulation models used to forecast SDTF responses to future climate change at coarser spatial and temporal scales.

  18. Freshwater security in agricultural watersheds of the wet-dry tropics, Guanacaste, Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hund, S. V.; Johnson, M. S.; Morillas, L.; Allen, D. M.

    2016-12-01

    In agricultural watersheds of the wet-dry tropics in Central America, communities often experience water scarcity. During the long dry season, water conflicts between household water use and agricultural water use emerge. Despite the frequent water shortages, scientific knowledge on the response of the coupled surface water-groundwater system to the high inter-annual rainfall variability and to societal water use is limited. Using a socio-hydrological system approach, we studied the surface water - groundwater system for the Potrero and Caimital rivers and aquifer in Guanacaste, Costa Rica. High frequency monitoring of 5 river stations, 3 groundwater wells and a meteorological station including eddy covariance measurements of evapotranspiration began in June 2014. Urban and rural household water extraction data was obtained from water agencies. Agricultural water use was estimated using evapotranspiration measurements and extraction estimates from local farms. The dataset is further supplemented with MODIS evapotranspiration estimates and vegetation indices. Here we present responses between water use and the hydrological system as conditioned by rainfall variability throughout the wet and dry seasons. This approach will allow exploring feedback processes between rainfall variability, water use and water availability, such enabling the development of water management strategies and improve the freshwater security of communities.

  19. The effect of management factors on the seroprevalence of Anaplasma marginale in Bos indicus cattle in the Mexican tropics.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Vivas, R I; Mata-Mendez, Y; Pérez-Gutierrez, E; Wagner, G

    2004-02-01

    A cross-sectional study with a two-stage design and proportional distribution was carried out to determine the effect of management factors on the seroprevalence of Anaplasma marginale in Bos indicus cattle in the Mexican tropics. Serum was obtained from 384 cattle aged 1-2 years on 92 farms. The number of samples was proportionally distributed according to the number of farms in eastern Yucatan. Antibody activity against A. marginale was assessed using the card agglutination test. A primary screening using a 2 x K contingency table of the exposed variables with the outcomes was performed. All variables for which p < 0.20 were included in a fixed-effects log regression. The seroprevalence in the cattle was 69.75% (SE +/- 0.02). Sixty-four per cent of the farms had a seroprevalence > or = 75%. The risks related to managemental factors were stocking density ( > or = 1 animal/ha, OR = 10.94), type of acaricide (pyrethroids, OR = 3.8), dipping interval ( > 60 days, OR = 0.13) and type of veterinary instruments used (needles, scalpels, ear tattoos, and dehorners, OR = 0.17).

  20. Parasite-host interactions of bat flies (Diptera: Hippoboscoidea) in Brazilian tropical dry forests.

    PubMed

    de Vasconcelos, Pedro Fonseca; Falcão, Luiz Alberto Dolabela; Graciolli, Gustavo; Borges, Magno Augusto Zazá

    2016-01-01

    Studies on the parasitology of ectoparasitic bat flies are scarce, and they are needed to identify patterns in parasitism. Hence, in the present study, we assessed community composition, prevalence, average infestation intensity, and specificity in the fly-bat associations in Brazilian tropical dry forests. In order to do that, we used the parasitological indices known as prevalence and average infestation intensity, along with an index of host specificity. We collected 1098 bat flies of 38 species. Five of the associations found are new to Brazil, 9 are new to southeastern Brazil, and 10 are new to science. Average infestation intensity varied from 1 to 9 and prevalence 0 to 100 %. In terms of specificity, 76 % of the bat flies were associated to a single host (monoxenic). These results highlight the low capacity of bat flies to survive on a not usual host especially due to an immunological incompatibility between parasites and hosts and dispersal barriers.

  1. Landscape Genetics of Leaf-Toed Geckos in the Tropical Dry Forest of Northern Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Blair, Christopher; Jiménez Arcos, Victor H.; Mendez de la Cruz, Fausto R.; Murphy, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    Habitat fragmentation due to both natural and anthropogenic forces continues to threaten the evolution and maintenance of biological diversity. This is of particular concern in tropical regions that are experiencing elevated rates of habitat loss. Although less well-studied than tropical rain forests, tropical dry forests (TDF) contain an enormous diversity of species and continue to be threatened by anthropogenic activities including grazing and agriculture. However, little is known about the processes that shape genetic connectivity in species inhabiting TDF ecosystems. We adopt a landscape genetic approach to understanding functional connectivity for leaf-toed geckos (Phyllodactylus tuberculosus) at multiple sites near the northernmost limit of this ecosystem at Alamos, Sonora, Mexico. Traditional analyses of population genetics are combined with multivariate GIS-based landscape analyses to test hypotheses on the potential drivers of spatial genetic variation. Moderate levels of within-population diversity and substantial levels of population differentiation are revealed by FST and Dest. Analyses using structure suggest the occurrence of from 2 to 9 genetic clusters depending on the model used. Landscape genetic analysis suggests that forest cover, stream connectivity, undisturbed habitat, slope, and minimum temperature of the coldest period explain more genetic variation than do simple Euclidean distances. Additional landscape genetic studies throughout TDF habitat are required to understand species-specific responses to landscape and climate change and to identify common drivers. We urge researchers interested in using multivariate distance methods to test for, and report, significant correlations among predictor matrices that can impact results, particularly when adopting least-cost path approaches. Further investigation into the use of information theoretic approaches for model selection is also warranted. PMID:23451230

  2. Landscape genetics of leaf-toed geckos in the tropical dry forest of northern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Blair, Christopher; Jiménez Arcos, Victor H; Mendez de la Cruz, Fausto R; Murphy, Robert W

    2013-01-01

    Habitat fragmentation due to both natural and anthropogenic forces continues to threaten the evolution and maintenance of biological diversity. This is of particular concern in tropical regions that are experiencing elevated rates of habitat loss. Although less well-studied than tropical rain forests, tropical dry forests (TDF) contain an enormous diversity of species and continue to be threatened by anthropogenic activities including grazing and agriculture. However, little is known about the processes that shape genetic connectivity in species inhabiting TDF ecosystems. We adopt a landscape genetic approach to understanding functional connectivity for leaf-toed geckos (Phyllodactylus tuberculosus) at multiple sites near the northernmost limit of this ecosystem at Alamos, Sonora, Mexico. Traditional analyses of population genetics are combined with multivariate GIS-based landscape analyses to test hypotheses on the potential drivers of spatial genetic variation. Moderate levels of within-population diversity and substantial levels of population differentiation are revealed by FST and Dest. Analyses using structure suggest the occurrence of from 2 to 9 genetic clusters depending on the model used. Landscape genetic analysis suggests that forest cover, stream connectivity, undisturbed habitat, slope, and minimum temperature of the coldest period explain more genetic variation than do simple Euclidean distances. Additional landscape genetic studies throughout TDF habitat are required to understand species-specific responses to landscape and climate change and to identify common drivers. We urge researchers interested in using multivariate distance methods to test for, and report, significant correlations among predictor matrices that can impact results, particularly when adopting least-cost path approaches. Further investigation into the use of information theoretic approaches for model selection is also warranted.

  3. X-ray fluorescence analysis of Mexican varieties of dried chili peppers II: Commercial and home-grown specimens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero-Dávila, E.; Miranda, J.; Pineda, J. C.

    2015-07-01

    Elemental analyses of samples of Mexican varieties of dried chili peppers were carried out using X-ray Fluorescence (XRF). Several specimens of Capsicum annuum L., Capsicum chinense, and Capsicum pubescens were analyzed and the results compared to previous studies of elemental contents in other varieties of Capsicum annuum (ancho, morita, chilpotle, guajillo, pasilla, and árbol). The first set of samples was bought packaged in markets. In the present work, the study focuses on home-grown samples of the árbol and chilpotle varieties, commercial habanero (Capsicum chinense), as well as commercial and home-grown specimens of manzano (Capsicum pubescencs). Samples were freeze dried and pelletized. XRF analyses were carried out using a spectrometer based on an Rh X-ray tube, using a Si-PIN detector. The system detection calibration was performed through the analysis of the NIST certified reference materials 1547 (peach leaves) and 1574 (tomato leaves), while accuracy was checked with the reference material 1571 (orchard leaves). Elemental contents of all elements in the new set of samples were similar to those of the first group. Nevertheless, it was found that commercial samples contain high amounts of Br, while home-grown varieties do not.

  4. Subtidal Hydrodynamics in a Tropical Lagoon During the Transition from Dry to Wet Seasons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez-Valdes, J.; Tenorio-Fernandez, L.; Valle-Levinson, A.

    2016-02-01

    This study examined the subtidal hydrodynamics in a tropical costal lagoon determined by the tides and density gradients competition. A dimensional analysis was motivated by observations in Chelem lagoon, a tropical system in the Yucatan peninsula. The subtidal hydrodynamics was associated with transition from dry to wet season, which modifies the evaporation, precipitation and groundwater system, thus the Chelem lagoon exhibited seasonal and spatial density variations. To diagnose the relative importance of the dominant subtidal driving forces, tidal forcing was compared to baroclinic forcing through the ratio of tidal stress to longitudinal baroclinic pressure gradient, known as the tidal Froude number (Fr0). Subtidal flows were driven mainly by advective accelerations during spring tides (log(Fr0)>>0), and by baroclinicity during neap tides (log(Fr0)<<0). The maximum value of log(Fr0) was around the fortnightly declinational period (13.6 days). Chelem lagoon had 3 different zones: main channel, west channel and east channel. Each zone exhibited a different subtidal response to the ratio of tidal stress and to the longitudinal baroclinic pressure gradient, which depended on the zone's spring-neap cycle tide, the location in the system and the freshwater inflows into it. In addition, wind stress was compared to baroclinicity, through the Wedderburn number. Furthermore, a combination of the Froude and Wedderburn numbers was explored.

  5. Ant diversity in Brazilian tropical dry forests across multiple vegetation domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueiredo Silva, Luciana; Mello Souza, Rayana; Solar, Ricardo R. C.; de Siqueira Neves, Frederico

    2017-03-01

    Understanding the environmental drivers of biodiversity persistence and community organization in natural ecosystems is of great importance for planning the conservation of those ecosystems. This comprehension is even more important in severely threatened ecosystems. In this context, we analyzed ant communities in tropical dry forests (TDFs) in Brazil. These forests are embedded within other biomes, such as Cerrado and Caatinga. In this study, we asked whether (i) ant species richness and composition changes between TDFs within different vegetation domains; (ii) whether ant species richness and β-diversity increase north-to-south, possibly related to changes in tree richness and tree density; and (iii) species replacement contributes relatively more to β-diversity than does nestedness. We found that species composition is unique to each TDF within different biomes, and that species richness and β-diversity differ among the vegetation domains, being smaller in the Caatinga. We also found that replacement contributes most to β-diversity, although this contribution is lower in Caatinga than in Cerrado. We show that regional context is the main driver of species diversity, which is likely to be driven by both historical and ecological mechanisms. By analyzing large spatial scale variation in TDF environmental characteristics, we were able to evaluate how ant diversity changes along an environmental gradient. The high levels of species replacement and unique species composition of each region indicates that, to fully conserve TDFs, we need to have various conservation areas distributed across the entire range of vegetation domains in which these forests can be found. Thus, we demonstrate that a landscape-wise planning is urgent and necessary in order to preserve tropical dry forests.

  6. Factors influencing dry season ozone distributions over the tropical South Atlantic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, B. E.; Gregory, G. L.; Barrick, J. D. W.; Collins, J. E.; Sachse, G. W.; Hudgins, C. H.; Bradshaw, J. D.; Sandholm, S. T.

    1993-01-01

    Airborne measurements of trace gas and aerosol species were obtained in the lower troposphere (less than 5 km) over the western Atlantic Ocean between 13 deg S and 40 deg N during the August/September 1990 NASA Chemical Instrument Test and Evaluation (CITE 3) experiment. The largest background O3 mixing ratios, averaging 35 and 70 ppbv within the mixed layer (ML) and free troposphere (FT; altitudes greater than 2.4 km), respectively, were found over the tropical South Atlantic. Several competing processes were observed to regulate O3 budgets in this region. Within the ML, rapid photochemical destruction produced a diurnal O3 variation of 8 ppbv and an O3/altitude gradient between the surface and 5 km of almost 10 ppbv (O3)/km. ML O3 concentrations were replenished by atmospheric downwelling which occurred at rates of up to and exceeding 1 cm/s. Ozone values within the subsiding FT air were enriched both by long-range transport of O3 produced photochemically within biomass combustion plumes and the downward propagation of dry, upper tropospheric air masses. Overall, the tropospheric O3 column below 3.3 km averaged 13.5 Dobson units (DU) over the South Atlantic region, which is 8-9 DU higher than observed during CITE 3 ferry flights over the northern tropical Atlantic Ocean or measured by ozonesondes over coastal Brazil during the wet season. An examination of simultaneous dew point and combustion tracer (e.g., CO) measurements suggests that the dry subsiding layers and biomass burning layers make approximately equal contributions to the observed O3 enhancement.

  7. Dry Layers in the Tropical West Pacific as Observed with GPS Radio Occultation and CONTRAST Aircraft Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieckh, T.; Ho, S. P.; Randel, W. J.; Foelsche, U.; Kuo, Y. H.

    2015-12-01

    The generally moist region of the tropical West Pacific Ocean hostslower- and mid-tropospheric intrusions of dry air. Throughtheir thermal structure, dry layers inhibit vertical cloud developmentand deep convection. Subtropical dry layers play an important role inthe troposphere through radiative cooling.Case studies of tropical dry air intrusions have been conducted withdata from in-situ and remotely sensed observations as well as modeldata. In this work we show that observations from GPS RadioOccultation (RO) are capable of detecting dry layers.GPS RO is a limb sounding technique that provides accurate and precisemeasurements of atmospheric refractivity, which is related to density,with high vertical resolution and global coverage. Vertical profilesof water vapor pressure can be derived through a One-DimensionalVariation retrieval (1DVAR) using model data as the first guess.In this work, we compare RO data from the COSMIC mission to aircraftmeasurements from the CONTRAST campaign, conducted from Guam in thetropical West Pacific during January and February 2014. We derived therelative humidity from both data sets to investigate dry layers in thelower and mid troposphere.It is shown that GPS RO observations have the ability to robustlydetect tropospheric dry layers with a relative humidity of only a fewpercent. Together with the high vertical resolution, globalavailability, and 14 years of GPS RO data record, this opens theopportunity to study the spatio-temporal pattern of dry layersglobally and their dependency on climatological phenomena such as ElNiño-Southern Oscillation.

  8. Home range use and movement patterns of non-native feral goats in a tropical island montane dry landscape

    Treesearch

    Mark W. Chynoweth; Christopher A. Lepczyk; Creighton M. Litton; Steven C. Hess; James R. Kellner; Susan Cordell; Lalit Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Advances in wildlife telemetry and remote sensing technology facilitate studies of broad-scale movements of ungulates in relation to phenological shifts in vegetation. In tropical island dry landscapes, home range use and movements of non-native feral goats (Capra hircus) are largely unknown, yet this information is important to help guide the...

  9. Calibration and assessment of seasonal changes in leaf area index of a tropical dry forest in different stages of succession.

    PubMed

    Kalácska, M; Calvo-Alvarado, J C; Sánchez-Azofeifa, G A

    2005-06-01

    A simple measure of the amount of foliage present in a forest is leaf area index (LAI; the amount of foliage per unit ground surface area), which can be determined by optical estimation (gap fraction method) with an instrument such as the Li-Cor LAI-2000 Plant Canopy Analyzer. However, optical instruments such as the LAI-2000 cannot directly differentiate between foliage and woody components of the canopy. Studies investigating LAI and its calibration (extracting foliar LAI from optical estimates) in tropical forests are rare. We calibrated optical estimates of LAI from the LAI-2000 with leaf litter data for a tropical dry forest. We also developed a robust method for determining LAI from leaf litter data in a tropical dry forest environment. We found that, depending on the successional stage of the canopy and the season, the LAI-2000 may underestimate LAI by 17% to over 40%. In the dry season, the instrument overestimated LAI by the contribution of the woody area index. Examination of the seasonal variation in LAI for three successional stages in a tropical dry forest indicated differences in timing of leaf fall according to successional stage and functional group (i.e., lianas and trees). We conclude that when calculating LAI from optical estimates, it is necessary to account for the differences between values obtained from optical and semi-direct techniques. In addition, to calculate LAI from litter collected in traps, specific leaf area must be calculated for each species rather than from a mean value for multiple species.

  10. Carbon dioxide and water vapour exchange in a tropical dry forest as influenced by the North American Monsoon System (NAMS)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To better understand the effects and relationship between precipitation, net ecosystem carbon dioxide (NEE) and water vapor exchange (ET), we report a study conducted in the tropical dry forest (TDF) in the northwest of Mexico. Ecosystem gas exchange was measured using the eddy correlation technique...

  11. Secondary forest succession in a tropical dry forest: patterns of development across a 50-year chronosequence in lowland Bolivia

    Treesearch

    Deborah K. Kennard

    2002-01-01

    Stand structure, species richness and population structures of tree species were characterized in 12 stands representing 50 y of succession following slash-and-burn agriculture in a tropical dry forest in lowland Bolivia. Estimates of tree species richness, canopy cover and basal area reached or surpassed 75% of mature forest levels in the 5-, 8-, and 23-y-old stands...

  12. Decay of aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) wood in moist and dry boreal, temperate, and tropical forest fragments

    Treesearch

    Grizelle Gonzalez; William Gould; Andrew T. Hudak; Teresa Nettleton Hollingsworth

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we set up a wood decomposition experiment to i) quantify the percent of mass remaining, decay constant and performance strength of aspen stakes (Populus tremuloides) in dry and moist boreal (Alaska and Minnesota, USA), temperate (Washington and Idaho, USA), and tropical (Puerto Rico) forest types, and ii) determine the effects of...

  13. Water uptake and transport in lianas and co-occurring trees of a seasonally dry tropical forest.

    Treesearch

    José Luis Andrade; Frederick C. Meinzer; Guillermo Goldstein; Stefan A. Schnitzer

    2005-01-01

    Water uptake and transport were studied in eight liana species in a seasonally dry tropical forest on Barro Colorado Island, Panama. Stable hydrogen isotope composition (δD) of xylem and soil water, soil volumetric water content (θv), and basal sap flow were measured during the 1997 and...

  14. Fire, climate and vegetation linkages in the Bolivian Chiquitano seasonally dry tropical forest.

    PubMed

    Power, M J; Whitney, B S; Mayle, F E; Neves, D M; de Boer, E J; Maclean, K S

    2016-06-05

    South American seasonally dry tropical forests (SDTFs) are critically endangered, with only a small proportion of their original distribution remaining. This paper presents a 12 000 year reconstruction of climate change, fire and vegetation dynamics in the Bolivian Chiquitano SDTF, based upon pollen and charcoal analysis, to examine the resilience of this ecosystem to drought and fire. Our analysis demonstrates a complex relationship between climate, fire and floristic composition over multi-millennial time scales, and reveals that moisture variability is the dominant control upon community turnover in this ecosystem. Maximum drought during the Early Holocene, consistent with regional drought reconstructions, correlates with a period of significant fire activity between 8000 and 7000 cal yr BP which resulted in a decrease in SDTF diversity. As fire activity declined but severe regional droughts persisted through the Middle Holocene, SDTFs, including Anadenanthera and Astronium, became firmly established in the Bolivian lowlands. The trend of decreasing fire activity during the last two millennia promotes the idea among forest ecologists that SDTFs are threatened by fire. Our analysis shows that the Chiquitano seasonally dry biome has been more resilient to Holocene changes in climate and fire regime than previously assumed, but raises questions over whether this resilience will continue in the future under increased temperatures and drought coupled with a higher frequency anthropogenic fire regime.This article is part of the themed issue 'The interaction of fire and mankind'.

  15. Wildfires, Ecosystem Services, and Biodiversity in Tropical Dry Forest in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmerbeck, Joachim; Fiener, Peter

    2015-08-01

    This review is intended to contribute to the understanding of the interlinkage between wildfire in India's tropical dry forest (TDF) and selected ecosystem services (ES), namely forest provisioning and water regulating services, as well as biodiversity. TDF covers approximately 146,000 km2 (4.4 %) of India, whereas according to the MODIS fire product about 2200 km2 (1.4 %) burns per year. As studies on wildfire effects upon ESs and biodiversity in Indian TDFs are rare we partly transferred findings from other (dry) forest areas to the environmental situation in India. In India (intentionally lit) wildfires have a very important connection to local livelihoods and the availability of non-wood forest products. Very important adverse long-term effects are the deterioration of forest ecosystems and soil degradation. The potential for TDF to regulate hydrological cycles is expected to be greater in the absence of fire than with it. A general judgment on the effect of fire on biodiversity is difficult as it depends on the community and species involved but a loss of biodiversity under regular burnings is apparent. Consequently, forest managers need sound knowledge regarding the interplay of wildfires and ecosystem behavior in general and more specific knowledge regarding the effects on taxa being considered for conservation efforts. Generally, much more research is needed to understand the trade-offs between the short-term benefits gained from forest provisioning services and long-term adverse effects.

  16. Controls on phytoplankton productivity in a wet-dry tropical estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burford, M. A.; Webster, I. T.; Revill, A. T.; Kenyon, R. A.; Whittle, M.; Curwen, G.

    2012-11-01

    Flood events typically enhance primary productivity in estuaries via the increased nutrient inputs from land runoff. This study examined the drivers of phytoplankton biomass accumulation and productivity in a tropical estuary with a distinct wet-dry seasonality, i.e. months of little or no rainfall, and a highly episodic extended wet season. The study found that over two wet seasons, there was little evidence of freshwater inputs increasing nutrient concentrations, and chlorophyll a concentrations and phytoplankton productivity rates decreased in the water column, probably due to low water residence times. The magnitude and duration of freshwater flows in the wet season appeared to affect the scale of reduction of phytoplankton productivity and biomass accumulation. In contrast to many studies, there was also no evidence of post-flooding stimulation of chlorophyll a concentration with net export of nutrients in both the wet and dry seasons. Nitrogen (N) and light appeared to be key limiting factors for phytoplankton growth with estuarine DIN rapidly turned over by phytoplankton, no evidence of N fixation by phytoplankton, and a response to N, but not phosphorus (P), in algal bioassays. Tidal resuspension of sediments was an important physical process that limited light availability for primary productivity. The lack of higher nutrient concentrations as a result of freshwater inputs, and lack of post-flood algal growth stimulation contrasts with the findings of studies in eutrophied systems.

  17. Persistence of dengue virus RNA in dried Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) exposed to natural tropical conditions.

    PubMed

    Bangs, Michael J; Pudiantari, Ratna; Gionar, Yoyo R

    2007-01-01

    Aedes aegypti (L.) is the primary vector of dengue viruses, a group of four serotypic single-stranded RNA viruses. Dengue virus RNA can be readily detected in fresh or dried infected mosquitoes by using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The current study examined the persistence and limit of dengue virus RNA detection in infected Ae. aegypti killed and exposed to natural ambient tropical conditions of temperature and humidity. Under relatively harsh conditions, dengue RNA retained sufficient integrity to be detected in dried mosquitoes up to 13 wk after exposure to relatively high ambient temperatures (26.3-31.7 degrees C) and relative humidity (49.4-69.9%). These findings confirm that the necessity for testing either fresh or frozen mosquitoes is not a prerequisite when using RT-PCR as the viral detection method, and under particular epidemiological circumstances it allows for a more convenient means of conducting vector-virus surveillance activities where collection methods and logistics may preclude immediate testing or access to a cold chain.

  18. Diptera of Medico-Legal Importance Associated With Pig Carrion in a Tropical Dry Forest.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, S D; Salgado, R L; Barbosa, T M; Souza, J R B

    2016-06-20

    The diversity of necrophagous Diptera is largely unknown in seasonally dry tropical forests, despite their medical, veterinary, and forensic relevance. We performed a study in the dry Caatinga forest exclusive to Brazil in order to assess the diversity and temporal pattern of Diptera species using pig carcasses as substrates. Adults were collected daily until complete skeletonization. We collected 17,142 adults from 18 families, 10 of which comprise species with known necrophagous habits. The most abundant families were Calliphoridae (47.3% of specimens), Sarcophagidae (20.8%), and Muscidae (15.5%), whereas Sarcophagidae stood out in terms of richness with 21 species. The native Cochliomyia macellaria (F.) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and the invasive Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedmann) (Calliphoridae) were the dominant species. A total of 18 species reached the carcass during the first 48 h postdeath. The bloated and active decay stages had the highest richness and abundance of dipterans. From a forensic standpoint, C. macellaria and C. albiceps are likely to aid in establishing postmortem interval due to their early arrival and high abundance on the carcass. Despite harsh environmental conditions, the Caatinga harbors a rich assemblage of dipterans that play a key role in carrion decomposition. Their medico-veterinary importance is strengthened by the poor local sanitary conditions.

  19. Energetics and environmental costs of agriculture in a dry tropical region of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, V. P.; Singh, J. S.

    1992-07-01

    The present article, based on a study of five village ecosystems, assesses the energy efficiency of rain-fed agriculture in a dry tropical environment and the impact of agricultural activity on the surrounding natural ecosystems. Agronomic yield is insufficient to meet the food requirement of the human population, hence 11.5%-49.7% of the required amount of food grains are imported from the market. Energy requirements of five studied agroecosystems are subsidized considerably by the surrounding forest in the form of fodder and firewood. Natural ecosystems supply about 80%-95% of fodder needs and 81%-100% of fuelwood needs. The output-input ratio of agriculture indicated that, on average, 4.1 units of energy are expended to obtain one unit of agronomic energy. Of this, 3.9 units are supplied by the natural ecosystem. In addition, 38% of the extracted firewood is marketed. The illegal felling and lopping of trees result in ever-increasing concentric circles of forest destruction around the villages and together with excessive grazing results in savannization. The forests can be conserved by encouraging fuelwood plantations (0.7 ha/ha cultivated land) and developing village pastures (1.6 ha/ha cultivated land) and reducing the livestock numbers. Agricultural production in the region can be stabilized by introducing improved dry farming techniques such as intercropping, planned rainwater management, and adequate use of fertilizers.

  20. Wildfires, Ecosystem Services, and Biodiversity in Tropical Dry Forest in India.

    PubMed

    Schmerbeck, Joachim; Fiener, Peter

    2015-08-01

    This review is intended to contribute to the understanding of the interlinkage between wildfire in India's tropical dry forest (TDF) and selected ecosystem services (ES), namely forest provisioning and water regulating services, as well as biodiversity. TDF covers approximately 146,000 km(2) (4.4%) of India, whereas according to the MODIS fire product about 2200 km(2) (1.4%) burns per year. As studies on wildfire effects upon ESs and biodiversity in Indian TDFs are rare we partly transferred findings from other (dry) forest areas to the environmental situation in India. In India (intentionally lit) wildfires have a very important connection to local livelihoods and the availability of non-wood forest products. Very important adverse long-term effects are the deterioration of forest ecosystems and soil degradation. The potential for TDF to regulate hydrological cycles is expected to be greater in the absence of fire than with it. A general judgment on the effect of fire on biodiversity is difficult as it depends on the community and species involved but a loss of biodiversity under regular burnings is apparent. Consequently, forest managers need sound knowledge regarding the interplay of wildfires and ecosystem behavior in general and more specific knowledge regarding the effects on taxa being considered for conservation efforts. Generally, much more research is needed to understand the trade-offs between the short-term benefits gained from forest provisioning services and long-term adverse effects.

  1. FRNA Bacteriophages as Viral Indicators of Faecal Contamination in Mexican Tropical Aquatic Systems.

    PubMed

    Arredondo-Hernandez, Luis Jose Rene; Diaz-Avalos, Carlos; Lopez-Vidal, Yolanda; Castillo-Rojas, Gonzalo; Mazari-Hiriart, Marisa

    2017-01-01

    A particular challenge to water safety in populous intertropical regions is the lack of reliable faecal indicators to detect microbiological contamination of water, while the numerical relationships of specific viral indicators remain largely unexplored. The aim of this study was to investigate the numerical relationships of FRNA-bacteriophage genotypes, adenovirus 41, and human adenoviruses (HADV) in Mexican surface water systems to assess sewage contamination. We studied the presence of HADV, HADV41 and FRNA bacteriophage genotypes in water samples and quantified by qPCR and RT-qPCR. Virus and water quality indicator variances, as analyzed by principal component analysis and partial least squared regression, followed along the major percentiles of water faecal enterococci. FRNA bacteriophages adequately deciphered viral and point source water contamination. The strongest correlation for HADV was with FRNA bacteriophage type II, in water samples higher than the 50th percentiles of faecal enterococci, thus indicating urban pollution. FRNA bacteriophage genotypes I and III virus indicator performances were assisted by their associations with electrical conductivity and faecal enterococci. In combination, our methods are useful for inferring water quality degradation caused by sewage contamination. The methods used have potential for determining source contamination in water and, specifically, the presence of enteric viruses where clean and contaminated water have mixed.

  2. FRNA Bacteriophages as Viral Indicators of Faecal Contamination in Mexican Tropical Aquatic Systems

    PubMed Central

    Diaz-Avalos, Carlos; Lopez-Vidal, Yolanda; Castillo-Rojas, Gonzalo; Mazari-Hiriart, Marisa

    2017-01-01

    A particular challenge to water safety in populous intertropical regions is the lack of reliable faecal indicators to detect microbiological contamination of water, while the numerical relationships of specific viral indicators remain largely unexplored. The aim of this study was to investigate the numerical relationships of FRNA-bacteriophage genotypes, adenovirus 41, and human adenoviruses (HADV) in Mexican surface water systems to assess sewage contamination. We studied the presence of HADV, HADV41 and FRNA bacteriophage genotypes in water samples and quantified by qPCR and RT-qPCR. Virus and water quality indicator variances, as analyzed by principal component analysis and partial least squared regression, followed along the major percentiles of water faecal enterococci. FRNA bacteriophages adequately deciphered viral and point source water contamination. The strongest correlation for HADV was with FRNA bacteriophage type II, in water samples higher than the 50th percentiles of faecal enterococci, thus indicating urban pollution. FRNA bacteriophage genotypes I and III virus indicator performances were assisted by their associations with electrical conductivity and faecal enterococci. In combination, our methods are useful for inferring water quality degradation caused by sewage contamination. The methods used have potential for determining source contamination in water and, specifically, the presence of enteric viruses where clean and contaminated water have mixed. PMID:28114378

  3. Decomposition of New Woody Inputs as a Dry Tropical Forest Regenerates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schilling, J. S.; Powers, J. S.; Ayres, A.; Kaffenberger, J. T.

    2015-12-01

    Modeling deadwood dynamics is limited by our empirical understanding of decomposition patterns and drivers. This gap is significant in dry tropical forests (and in the tropics, broadly) where forest regeneration is a management priority but where decision-making lacks resources. Our goal was to track decomposition and its biological drivers in tree boles added to the forest floor of a regenerating dry forest. We cut and then placed logs (~18 cm dia) of eight representative tree species in ground contact at two different sites (n=8, per site). We tracked density loss and element import/export in both sapwood and heartwood each 6 months over two years. We measured initial and final lignin, structural carbohydrates, nitrogen, and extractives. We also quantified insect gallery volumes, and used two residue 'signatures' to determine dominant fungal rot type: 1) dilute alkali solubility (DAS) and lignin:glucan loss. By year 2, mean density losses in sapwood were 11.6 - 44.4% among tree species, excluding one species that decomposed completely. The best predictor of density loss in sapwood was initial pH, but the correlation was negative rather than positive, as has been reported in temperate systems. Decay was consistently more advanced in sapwood than in heartwood, and although extractives were as high as 16.4% in heartwood, trait-density loss correlations were insignificant. Insects contributed little at this stage to density loss (<3%), and both lignin:glucan loss and DAS confirmed that white rot fungi dominated decomposition. Although element import dynamics broadly resembled those from temperate studies (e.g., Ca gain, P, K loss), there was high spatial variability. This perhaps related to zone line (spalting) complexity, suggesting intense competition among fungi colonizing small territories within the wood. Estimated CO2 fluxes from the test logs ranged from ~25 to 75% of the annual fluxes from litter fall at these sites. Collectively, these results implicate wood

  4. Multi-Temporal Monitoring Of Ecological Succession In Tropical Dry Forests Using Angular - Hyperspectral Data (Chris/Proba)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia Millan, V. E.

    2015-12-01

    The tropical dry forest is the largest and most threatened ecosystem in Latin America. Remote sensing can effectively contribute to the surveillance of conservation measurements and laws through the monitoring of natural protected areas, at the required temporal and spatial scales. CHRIS/PROBA is the only satellite that presents quasi-simultaneous multi-angular pointing and hyperspectral spectroscopy. These two characteristics permit the study of structural and compositional traces of successional stages within the tropical dry forest. The current study presents the results of mapping the succession of tropical dry forest in the Parque Estadual de la Mata-Seca, in Minas Gerais, Brazil, using a temporal analysis of CHRIS/PROBA images in a time frame of 7 years, between 2008 and 2014. For the purpose the -55° angle of observation has been used, which enhances spectral differences between successional stages. Spectral Angle Mapper has been used for mapping succession of tropical dry forest and afterwards Change Detection Analysis has been performed. Based on our observations, the tropical dry forest in the Parque Estadual de la Mataseca recovers at a fast rate, for the observed period (2008-2014). More than the 50% of the early and intermediate forests has been recovered to a mature forest. Significantly, around a 12% of old pastures have been converted into forest. The spatial analysis also reveals that the areas that recover most rapidly are located in the east of the Park, close to mature forests. The provision of seeds from these forests might be the cause for the fast recovery.

  5. Modeling Soil Water in the Caatinga Tropical Dry Forest of Northeastern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, C.; Wilcox, B.; Souza, E.; Lima, J. R. D. S.; West, J. B.

    2015-12-01

    The Caatinga is a tropical dry forest unique to northeastern Brazil. It has a relatively high degree of endism and supports a population of about 20 million subsistence farmers. However, it is poorly understood, under-researched and often over-looked in regards to other Brazilian ecosystems. It is a highly perturbed system that suffers from deforestation, land use change, and may be threatened by climate change. How these perturbations affect hydrology is unknown, but may have implications for biodiversity and ecosystem services and resiliency. Therefore, understanding key hydrological processes is critical, particularly as related to deforestation. In this study, Hydrus 1D, which is based on van Genuchten parameters to describe the soil water curve and Richard's Equation to describe flow in the vadose zone, was used to model soil moisture in the Caatinga ecosystem. The aim was 1) to compare hydraulic characterization between a forested Caatinga site and a deforested pasture site, 2) to analyze inter-annual variability, and 3) to compare with observed soil moisture data. Hydraulic characterization included hydraulic conductivity, infiltration, water content and pressure head trends. Van Genuchten parameters were derived using the Beerkan method, which is based on soil texture, particle distribution, as well as in-situ small-scale infiltration experiments. Observational data included soil moisture and precipitation logged every half-hour from September 2013 to April 2014 to include the dry season and rainy season. It is expected that the forested Caatinga site will have a higher hydraulic conductivity as well as retain higher soil moisture values. These differences may be amplified during the dry season, as water resources become scarce. Deviations between modeled data and observed data will allow for further hypothesis to be proposed, especially those related to soil water repellency. Hence, these results may indicate difference in soil water dynamics between a

  6. The Sensitivity of Wet and Dry Tropical Forests to Climate Change in Bolivia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seiler, C.; Hutjes, R. W. A.; Kruijt, B.; Hickler, T.

    2014-12-01

    Bolivia's forests contribute to the global carbon and water cycle, as well as to global biodiversity. The survival of these forests may be at risk due to climate change. To explore the associated mechanisms and uncertainties, a regionally adapted dynamic vegetation model (LPJ-GUESS) was implemented for the Bolivian case, and forced with two contrasting CMIP5 RCP8.5 climate change projections. The CNRM-CM5 projects an rainfall increase of about 5% in lowland Bolivia, while IPSL-CM5A-LR projects a decrease of about 17-26%. Changes in carbon stocks and fluxes were evaluated, factoring out the individual contributions of atmospheric carbon dioxide ([CO2]), temperature and precipitation. Special attention was paid to the effect of rising temperatures on photosynthesis, respiration, and the atmospheric demand for transpiration. Impacts ranged from a strong increment to a severe loss of vegetation carbon (Cv), depending on differences in climate projections, as well as the physiological response to rising [CO2], see figure. The simulated loss Cv was primarily driven by a reduction in gross primary productivity, and secondarily by enhanced emissions from fires and autotrophic respiration. In the wet forest, less precipitation and higher temperatures equally reduced Cv, while in the dry forest, the impact of precipitation was dominating. The temperature-related reduction of Cv was mainly due to a decrease in photosynthesis, and only to lesser extent because of more autotrophic respiration and less stomatal conductance as a response to an increasing atmospheric demand. Tropical dry forests were simulated to virtually disappear, regardless of the fertilizing effect of rising [CO2], suggesting a higher risk for dry forest loss along the drier southern fringe of the Amazon. Implications for climate change adaptation and mitigation measures are discussed.

  7. Insect herbivores associated with an evergreen tree Goniorrhachis marginata Taub. (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioideae) in a tropical dry forest.

    PubMed

    Silva, J O; Neves, F S

    2014-08-01

    Goniorrhachis marginata Taub. (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioideae) is a tree species found in Brazilian tropical dry forests that retain their leaves during the dry season. That being, we addressed the following question: i) How do insect diversity (sap-sucking and chewing), leaf herbivory and defensive traits (tannin and leaf sclerophylly) vary on the evergreen tree species G. marginata between seasons? The abundance of sap-sucking insects was higher in the dry season than in the rainy season. However, we did not verify any difference in the species richness and abundance of chewing insects between seasons. Leaf herbivory was higher in the rainy season, whereas leaf sclerophylly was higher in the dry season. However, herbivory was not related to sclerophylly. Insect herbivores likely decrease their folivory activity during the dry season due to life history patterns or changes in behaviour, possibly entering diapause or inactivity during this period. Therefore, G. marginata acts as a likely keystone species, serving as a moist refuge for the insect fauna during the dry season in tropical dry forest, and the presence of this evergreen species is crucial to conservation strategies of this threatened ecosystem.

  8. Ecohydrological Response of Trees to Leaf Wetness Gradients Under Wet and Dry Canopy Conditions in a Montane Tropical Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aparecido, L. M. T.; Moore, G. W.; Miller, G. R.; Cahill, A. T.

    2014-12-01

    Wet canopy evaporation is a significant component of the water budget in rainforests. Frequent precipitation events followed by drying produce spatial and temporal variation in wet/dry forest canopy conditions that influence processes such as photosynthesis and growth. Upper canopies contribute a disproportionately large fraction of transpiration and carbon assimilation relative to lower canopy layers as exposed leaves dry more rapidly following each rain event. However, the partitioning between wet canopy evaporation and dry canopy transpiration has not been extensively studied in tropical forests. As part of a larger study in central Costa Rica aimed at improving land-surface modeling of evapotranspiration (ET) processes in tropical montane forests, we compared transpiration among trees with exposed and shaded crowns under both wet and dry canopy conditions. Transpiration was measured using 33 sap flow sensors in 20 trees (7 dominant and co-dominant, 8 mid-story, and 5 suppressed) in a mature forest stand surrounding a 40-m tower equipped with eddy covariance and micrometeorological sensors. During the wet month of July, leaves were dry 53% of the time in the upper canopy compared with only 16% of the time in the lower canopy. Dominant and co-dominant trees contributed 68% to total transpiration at this site (23% mid-story, 9% suppressed). Under dry conditions, sap flow rates of dominant and co-dominant trees were about double that of suppressed trees, while suppressed trees differed little between wet and dry days. On partially wet days, all trees had similar sap flow rates, regardless of canopy exposure, with rates nearly as low as days that were entirely wet. This behavior is due to rapid individual tree responses to the transition between wet and dry conditions, indicating that persistently wet tropical environments are uniquely adapted to short-term dryness. ET has important influence on precipitation in tropical forests through land-atmosphere interactions

  9. Floral Traits and Pollination Systems in the Caatinga, a Brazilian Tropical Dry Forest

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Isabel Cristina; Lopes, Ariadna Valentina

    2004-01-01

    • Background and aims Pollination is a critical stage in plant reproduction and thus in the maintenance and evolution of species and communities. The Caatinga is the fourth largest ecosystem in Brazil, but despite its great extent and its importance few studies providing ecological information are available, with a notable lack of work focusing on pollination biology. Here, general data are presented regarding the frequency of pollination systems within Caatinga communities, with the aim of characterizing patterns related to floral attributes in order to make possible comparisons with data for plant communities in other tropical areas, and to test ideas about the utility of syndromes. This paper also intends to provide a reference point for further studies on pollination ecology in this threatened ecosystem. • Methods The floral traits and the pollination systems of 147 species were analysed in three areas of Caatinga vegetation in northeastern Brazil, and compared with world-wide studies focusing on the same subject. For each species, floral attributes were recorded as form, size, colour, rewards and pollination units. The species were grouped into 12 guilds according to the main pollinator vector. Analyses of the frequencies of the floral traits and pollination systems were undertaken. • Key Results Nectar and pollen were the most common floral resources and insect pollination was the most frequent, occurring in 69·9 % of the studied species. Of the entomophilous species, 61·7 % were considered to be melittophilous (43·1 % of the total). Vertebrate pollination occurred in 28·1 % of the species (ornithophily in 15·0 % and chiropterophily in 13·1 %), and anemophily was recorded in only 2·0 %. • Conclusions The results indicated that the pollination systems in Caatinga, despite climatic restrictions, are diversified, with a low percentage of generalist flowers, and similar to other tropical dry and wet forest communities, including those with high

  10. Seasonal Precipitation Variability Effects on Carbon Exchange in a Tropical Dry Forest of Northwest Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vesala, T.; Mammarella, I.; Heiskanen, J. J.; Provenzale, M.; Rantakari, M.; Tu, M.; Pumpanen, J. S.; Back, J. K.; Lykosov, V. N.; Repina, I.; Stepanenko, V.; Terzhevik, A.; Ojala, A.

    2014-12-01

    The Tropical Dry Forest (TDF) cover a large area in tropical and subtropical regions in the Americas and its productivity is thought to have an important contribution to the atmospheric carbon fluxes. However, due to this ecosystem complex dynamics, our understanding about the mechanisms controlling net ecosystem exchange is limited. In this study, five years of continue water and carbon fluxes measurements from eddy covariance complemented with remotely sensed vegetation greenness were used to investigate the ecosystem carbon balance of a TDF in the North American Monsoon region under different hydro climatic conditions. We identified a large CO2 efflux at the start of the summer season that is strongly related to the preceding winter precipitation and greenness. Since this CO2 efflux occurs prior to vegetation green-up, we infer a predominant heterotrophic control owed to high decomposition of accumulated labile soil organic matter from prior growing season. Overall, ecosystem respiration has an important effect on the net ecosystem production over the year, but can be overwhelmed by the strength of the primary productivity during the monsoon season. Precipitation characteristics during the monsoon have significant controls on sustaining carbon fixation in the TDF ecosystem into the fall season. A threshold of ~350 to 400 mm of summer precipitation was identify to switch the annual carbon balance in the TDF ecosystem from a net source (+102 g C/m2/yr) to a net sink (-249 g C/m2/yr). This research points at the needs for understanding the potential effects of changing seasonal precipitation patterns on ecosystem dynamics and carbon sequestration in subtropical regions.

  11. Seasonal Precipitation Variability Effects on Carbon Exchange in a Tropical Dry Forest of Northwest Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verduzco, V.; Garatuza-Payan, J.; Yépez, E. A.; Watts, C. J.; Rodriguez, J. C.; Robles-Morua, A.; Vivoni, E. R.

    2015-12-01

    The Tropical Dry Forest (TDF) cover a large area in tropical and subtropical regions in the Americas and its productivity is thought to have an important contribution to the atmospheric carbon fluxes. However, due to this ecosystem complex dynamics, our understanding about the mechanisms controlling net ecosystem exchange is limited. In this study, five years of continue water and carbon fluxes measurements from eddy covariance complemented with remotely sensed vegetation greenness were used to investigate the ecosystem carbon balance of a TDF in the North American Monsoon region under different hydro climatic conditions. We identified a large CO2 efflux at the start of the summer season that is strongly related to the preceding winter precipitation and greenness. Since this CO2 efflux occurs prior to vegetation green-up, we infer a predominant heterotrophic control owed to high decomposition of accumulated labile soil organic matter from prior growing season. Overall, ecosystem respiration has an important effect on the net ecosystem production over the year, but can be overwhelmed by the strength of the primary productivity during the monsoon season. Precipitation characteristics during the monsoon have significant controls on sustaining carbon fixation in the TDF ecosystem into the fall season. A threshold of ~350 to 400 mm of summer precipitation was identify to switch the annual carbon balance in the TDF ecosystem from a net source (+102 g C/m2/yr) to a net sink (-249 g C/m2/yr). This research points at the needs for understanding the potential effects of changing seasonal precipitation patterns on ecosystem dynamics and carbon sequestration in subtropical regions.

  12. Mulga, a major tropical dry open forest of Australia: recent insights to carbon and water fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eamus, Derek; Huete, Alfredo; Cleverly, James; Nolan, Rachael H.; Ma, Xuanlong; Tarin, Tonantzin; Santini, Nadia S.

    2016-12-01

    Mulga, comprised of a complex of closely related Acacia spp., grades from a low open forest to tall shrublands in tropical and sub-tropical arid and semi-arid regions of Australia and experiences warm-to-hot annual temperatures and a pronounced dry season. This short synthesis of current knowledge briefly outlines the causes of the extreme variability in rainfall characteristic of much of central Australia, and then discusses the patterns and drivers of variability in carbon and water fluxes of a central Australian low open Mulga forest. Variation in phenology and the impact of differences in the amount and timing of precipitation on vegetation function are then discussed. We use field observations, with particular emphasis on eddy covariance data, coupled with modelling and remote sensing products to interpret inter-seasonal and inter-annual patterns in the behaviour of this ecosystem. We show that Mulga can vary between periods of near carbon neutrality to periods of being a significant sink or source for carbon, depending on both the amount and timing of rainfall. Further, we demonstrate that Mulga contributed significantly to the 2011 global land sink anomaly, a result ascribed to the exceptional rainfall of 2010/2011. Finally, we compare and contrast the hydraulic traits of three tree species growing close to the Mulga and show how each species uses different combinations of trait strategies (for example, sapwood density, xylem vessel implosion resistance, phenological guild, access to groundwater and Huber value) to co-exist in this semi-arid environment. Understanding the inter-annual variability in functional behaviour of this important arid-zone biome and mechanisms underlying species co-existence will increase our ability to predict trajectories of carbon and water balances for future changing climates.

  13. Organismal responses to habitat change: herbivore performance, climate and leaf traits in regenerating tropical dry forests.

    PubMed

    Agosta, Salvatore J; Hulshof, Catherine M; Staats, Ethan G

    2017-05-01

    The ecological effects of large-scale climate change have received much attention, but the effects of the more acute form of climate change that results from local habitat alteration have been less explored. When forest is fragmented, cut, thinned, cleared or otherwise altered in structure, local climates and microclimates change. Such changes can affect herbivores both directly (e.g. through changes in body temperature) and indirectly (e.g. through changes in host plant traits). We advance an eco-physiological framework to understand the effects of changing forests on herbivorous insects. We hypothesize that if tropical forest caterpillars are climate and resource specialists, then they should have reduced performance outside of mature forest conditions. We tested this hypothesis with a field experiment contrasting the performance of Rothschildia lebeau (Saturniidae) caterpillars feeding on the host plant Casearia nitida (Salicaceae) in two different aged and structured tropical dry forests in Area de Conservación Guanacaste, Costa Rica. Compared to more mature closed-canopy forest, in younger secondary forest we found that: (1) ambient conditions were hotter, drier and more variable; (2) caterpillar growth and development were reduced; and (3) leaves were tougher, thicker and drier. Furthermore, caterpillar growth and survival were negatively correlated with these leaf traits, suggesting indirect host-mediated effects of climate on herbivores. Based on the available evidence, and relative to mature forest, we conclude that reduced herbivore performance in young secondary forest could have been driven by changes in climate, leaf traits (which were likely climate induced) or both. However, additional studies will be needed to provide more direct evidence of cause-and-effect and to disentangle the relative influence of these factors on herbivore performance in this system. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2017 British Ecological Society.

  14. Water source partitioning among trees growing on shallow karst soils in a seasonally dry tropical climate.

    PubMed

    Querejeta, José Ignacio; Estrada-Medina, Héctor; Allen, Michael F; Jiménez-Osornio, Juan José

    2007-05-01

    The sources of water used by woody vegetation growing on karst soils in seasonally dry tropical regions are little known. In northern Yucatan (Mexico), trees withstand 4-6 months of annual drought in spite of the small water storage capacity of the shallow karst soil. We hypothesized that adult evergreen trees in Yucatan tap the aquifer for a reliable supply of water during the prolonged dry season. The naturally occurring concentration gradients in oxygen and hydrogen stable isotopes in soil, bedrock, groundwater and plant stem water were used to determine the sources of water used by native evergreen and drought-deciduous tree species. While the trees studied grew over a permanent water table (9-20 m depth), pit excavation showed that roots were largely restricted to the upper 2 m of the soil/bedrock profile. At the peak of the dry season, the delta(18)O signatures of potential water sources for the vegetation ranged from 4.1 +/- 1.1 per thousand in topsoil to -4.3 +/- 0.1 per thousand in groundwater. The delta(18)O values of tree stem water ranged from -2.8 +/- 0.3 per thousand in Talisia olivaeformis to 0.8 +/- 1 per thousand in Ficus cotinifolia, demonstrating vertical partitioning of soil/bedrock water among tree species. Stem water delta(18)O values were significantly different from that of groundwater for all the tree species investigated. Stem water samples plotted to the right of the meteoric water line, indicating utilization of water sources subject to evaporative isotopic enrichment. Foliar delta(13)C in adult trees varied widely among species, ranging from -25.3 +/- 0.3 per thousand in Enterolobium cyclocarpum to -28.7 +/- 0.4 per thousand in T. olivaeformis. Contrary to initial expectations, data indicate that native trees growing on shallow karst soils in northern Yucatan use little or no groundwater and depend mostly on water stored within the upper 2-3 m of the soil/bedrock profile. Water storage in subsurface soil-filled cavities and in the

  15. Seed rain dynamics following disturbance exclusion in a secondary tropical dry forest in Morelos, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Ceccon, Eliane; Hernández, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    In most of the legally protected areas in Mexico local inhabitants use natural resources, such as fire wood or cattle grazing. These frequent but low-intensity disturbances have consequences at various levels of the tropical ecosystems and strongly impact forest structure and its regeneration capacity. Despite their importance, the effects of these perturbations in many aspects of tropical forest ecology and in the forest's capacity to recover after disturbance exclusion remain poorly understood. Understanding the impact of these processes on tropical forests is necessary for rehabilitating these forests and enhancing their productivity. In this study, we evaluate the impact of twelve years of exclusion (E) of cattle grazing and fire wood extraction in the composition and dynamics of seed rain, and compare this assessment to a similar analysis in an area where these perturbations continued (without exclusion, WE). We found a strong seasonality in seed rain (96% of seeds fell in the dry season) in both areas. There were no significant differences between E and WE sites in relation to overall seed density, species richness and diversity. However, the distribution along the year of seed species density was significantly different among the E and WE sites. The Jaccard's similarity index between E and WE sites was relatively low (0.57). Barochory was the most common dispersal mode observed among the 23 species in terms of seed species density (48%), followed by anemochory (39%) and zoochory (13%). In relation to seed density, anemochory was the most frequent dispersal mode (88%). Most species in the zone were categorized as small seeds (92%), and there were no significant differences in the distribution of seed size between E and WE. The spatial pattern of dispersal of the four species with the highest relative importance value index, in both areas, was aggregated. Twelve years of disturbance exclusion were not enough to fully restore the seed rain of the area; some

  16. ENSO-Driven Predictability of Tropical Dry Autumns Using the Seasonal ENSEMBLES Multimodel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzanas, R.; Gutiérrez, J. M.; Cofiño, A. S.; Frías, M. D.

    2010-09-01

    The interest on running seasonal forecasting systems has grown rapidly all around the world in recent times, making necessary the development of appropriate validation methods. Here, we present a systematic and rigorous statistical procedure to assess the skill of the state-of-the-art seasonal forecasting. To that aim, the seasonal ENSEMBLES multimodel (MME), constructed from the five global coupled models within STREAM 2, is validated in the whole Globe for the period 1961-2000. The methodology used is that introduced by Frías et al. 2010. Observations and hindcasts are divided into three categories, according to their terciles: less than normal, normal and above normal precipitation. Then, a probability is assigned to each tercile depending on the number of members forecasting it. The series with these probabilities and the real occurrence/non occurrence of the target tercile permit to calculate skill scores. Two metrics are used: the Roc Skill Area (RSA) and the Hit Rate (HIR). In a first step, validations are performed for the whole period 1961-2000 in terms of RSA, obtaining a large predictability of the dry tercile over the tropics, especially intense in the northeastern parts of South America and Australia and in the Malay-archipelago in Autumn (at one-month leadtime). Then, since ENSO is known to affect seasonal predictability in these latitudes, validations are performed only in ENSO years, in order to check if this skill changes in the presence of this phenomenon. Results show that skill increases strongly in the ENSO-conditioned validations, manifesting an important tropical predictability. Furthermore, a global study of ENSO-teleconnections is performed, concluding that ENSO-teleconnected areas are basically those in which predictability is largest. This fact points out the existence of a physical cause behind the skill. Finally, using HIR, it is proved that this tropical predictability has a different origin in non-ENSO years and in ENSO ones

  17. Plant water resource partitioning and isotopic fractionation during transpiration in a seasonally dry tropical climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Wispelaere, Lien; Bodé, Samuel; Hervé-Fernández, Pedro; Hemp, Andreas; Verschuren, Dirk; Boeckx, Pascal

    2017-01-01

    Lake Chala (3°19' S, 37°42' E) is a steep-sided crater lake situated in equatorial East Africa, a tropical semiarid area with a bimodal rainfall pattern. Plants in this region are exposed to a prolonged dry season, and we investigated if (1) these plants show spatial variability and temporal shifts in their water source use; (2) seasonal differences in the isotopic composition of precipitation are reflected in xylem water; and (3) plant family, growth form, leaf phenology, habitat and season influence the xylem-to-leaf water deuterium enrichment. In this study, the δ2H and δ18O of precipitation, lake water, groundwater, plant xylem water and plant leaf water were measured across different plant species, seasons and plant habitats in the vicinity of Lake Chala. We found that plants rely mostly on water from the short rains falling from October to December (northeastern monsoon), as these recharge the soil after the long dry season. This plant-available, static water pool is only slightly replenished by the long rains falling from February to May (southeastern monsoon), in agreement with the two water worlds hypothesis, according to which plants rely on a static water pool while a mobile water pool recharges the groundwater. Spatial variability in water resource use exists in the study region, with plants at the lakeshore relying on a water source admixed with lake water. Leaf phenology does not affect water resource use. According to our results, plant species and their associated leaf phenology are the primary factors influencing the enrichment in deuterium from xylem water to leaf water (ɛl/x), with deciduous species giving the highest enrichment, while growth form and season have negligible effects. Our observations have important implications for the interpretation of δ2H of plant leaf wax n-alkanes (δ2Hwax) from paleohydrological records in tropical East Africa, given that the temporal variability in the isotopic composition of

  18. Fires in Seasonally Dry Tropical Forest: Testing the Varying Constraints Hypothesis across a Regional Rainfall Gradient

    PubMed Central

    Mondal, Nandita; Sukumar, Raman

    2016-01-01

    The “varying constraints hypothesis” of fire in natural ecosystems postulates that the extent of fire in an ecosystem would differ according to the relative contribution of fuel load and fuel moisture available, factors that vary globally along a spatial gradient of climatic conditions. We examined if the globally widespread seasonally dry tropical forests (SDTFs) can be placed as a single entity in this framework by analyzing environmental influences on fire extent in a structurally diverse SDTF landscape in the Western Ghats of southern India, representative of similar forests in monsoonal south and southeast Asia. We used logistic regression to model fire extent with factors that represent fuel load and fuel moisture at two levels—the overall landscape and within four defined moisture regimes (between 700 and1700 mm yr-1)—using a dataset of area burnt and seasonal rainfall from 1990 to 2010. The landscape scale model showed that the extent of fire in a given year within this SDTF is dependent on the combined interaction of seasonal rainfall and extent burnt the previous year. Within individual moisture regimes the relative contribution of these factors to the annual extent burnt varied—early dry season rainfall (i.e., fuel moisture) was the predominant factor in the wettest regime, while wet season rainfall (i.e., fuel load) had a large influence on fire extent in the driest regime. Thus, the diverse structural vegetation types associated with SDTFs across a wide range of rainfall regimes would have to be examined at finer regional or local scales to understand the specific environmental drivers of fire. Our results could be extended to investigating fire-climate relationships in STDFs of monsoonal Asia. PMID:27441689

  19. Fires in Seasonally Dry Tropical Forest: Testing the Varying Constraints Hypothesis across a Regional Rainfall Gradient.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Nandita; Sukumar, Raman

    2016-01-01

    The "varying constraints hypothesis" of fire in natural ecosystems postulates that the extent of fire in an ecosystem would differ according to the relative contribution of fuel load and fuel moisture available, factors that vary globally along a spatial gradient of climatic conditions. We examined if the globally widespread seasonally dry tropical forests (SDTFs) can be placed as a single entity in this framework by analyzing environmental influences on fire extent in a structurally diverse SDTF landscape in the Western Ghats of southern India, representative of similar forests in monsoonal south and southeast Asia. We used logistic regression to model fire extent with factors that represent fuel load and fuel moisture at two levels-the overall landscape and within four defined moisture regimes (between 700 and1700 mm yr-1)-using a dataset of area burnt and seasonal rainfall from 1990 to 2010. The landscape scale model showed that the extent of fire in a given year within this SDTF is dependent on the combined interaction of seasonal rainfall and extent burnt the previous year. Within individual moisture regimes the relative contribution of these factors to the annual extent burnt varied-early dry season rainfall (i.e., fuel moisture) was the predominant factor in the wettest regime, while wet season rainfall (i.e., fuel load) had a large influence on fire extent in the driest regime. Thus, the diverse structural vegetation types associated with SDTFs across a wide range of rainfall regimes would have to be examined at finer regional or local scales to understand the specific environmental drivers of fire. Our results could be extended to investigating fire-climate relationships in STDFs of monsoonal Asia.

  20. Water relations of evergreen and drought-deciduous trees along a seasonally dry tropical forest chronosequence

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Michael F.; Santiago, Louis S.

    2010-01-01

    Seasonally dry tropical forests (SDTF) are characterized by pronounced seasonality in rainfall, and as a result trees in these forests must endure seasonal variation in soil water availability. Furthermore, SDTF on the northern Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico, have a legacy of disturbances, thereby creating a patchy mosaic of different seral stages undergoing secondary succession. We examined the water status of six canopy tree species, representing contrasting leaf phenology (evergreen vs. drought-deciduous) at three seral stages along a fire chronosequence in order to better understand strategies that trees use to overcome seasonal water limitations. The early-seral forest was characterized by high soil water evaporation and low soil moisture, and consequently early-seral trees exhibited lower midday bulk leaf water potentials (ΨL) relative to late-seral trees (−1.01 ± 0.14 and −0.54 ± 0.07 MPa, respectively). Although ΨL did not differ between evergreen and drought-deciduous trees, results from stable isotope analyses indicated different strategies to overcome seasonal water limitations. Differences were especially pronounced in the early-seral stage where evergreen trees had significantly lower xylem water δ18O values relative to drought-deciduous trees (−2.6 ± 0.5 and 0.3 ± 0.6‰, respectively), indicating evergreen species used deeper sources of water. In contrast, drought-deciduous trees showed greater enrichment of foliar 18O (∆18Ol) and 13C, suggesting lower stomatal conductance and greater water-use efficiency. Thus, the rapid development of deep roots appears to be an important strategy enabling evergreen species to overcome seasonal water limitation, whereas, in addition to losing a portion of their leaves, drought-deciduous trees minimize water loss from remaining leaves during the dry season. PMID:20658152

  1. Water relations of evergreen and drought-deciduous trees along a seasonally dry tropical forest chronosequence.

    PubMed

    Hasselquist, Niles J; Allen, Michael F; Santiago, Louis S

    2010-12-01

    Seasonally dry tropical forests (SDTF) are characterized by pronounced seasonality in rainfall, and as a result trees in these forests must endure seasonal variation in soil water availability. Furthermore, SDTF on the northern Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico, have a legacy of disturbances, thereby creating a patchy mosaic of different seral stages undergoing secondary succession. We examined the water status of six canopy tree species, representing contrasting leaf phenology (evergreen vs. drought-deciduous) at three seral stages along a fire chronosequence in order to better understand strategies that trees use to overcome seasonal water limitations. The early-seral forest was characterized by high soil water evaporation and low soil moisture, and consequently early-seral trees exhibited lower midday bulk leaf water potentials (Ψ(L)) relative to late-seral trees (-1.01 ± 0.14 and -0.54 ± 0.07 MPa, respectively). Although Ψ(L) did not differ between evergreen and drought-deciduous trees, results from stable isotope analyses indicated different strategies to overcome seasonal water limitations. Differences were especially pronounced in the early-seral stage where evergreen trees had significantly lower xylem water δ(18)O values relative to drought-deciduous trees (-2.6 ± 0.5 and 0.3 ± 0.6‰, respectively), indicating evergreen species used deeper sources of water. In contrast, drought-deciduous trees showed greater enrichment of foliar (18)O (∆(18)O(l)) and (13)C, suggesting lower stomatal conductance and greater water-use efficiency. Thus, the rapid development of deep roots appears to be an important strategy enabling evergreen species to overcome seasonal water limitation, whereas, in addition to losing a portion of their leaves, drought-deciduous trees minimize water loss from remaining leaves during the dry season.

  2. Effects of an exotic plant invasion on native understory plants in a tropical dry forest.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Ayesha E

    2010-06-01

    The dry forests of southern India, which are endangered tropical ecosystems and among the world's most important tiger (Panthera tigris) habitats, are extensively invaded by exotic plants. Yet, experimental studies exploring the impacts of these invasions on native plants in these forests are scarce. Consequently, little is known about associated implications for the long-term conservation of tigers and other biodiversity in these habitats. I studied the impacts of the exotic plant Lantana camara on understory vegetation in a dry-forest tiger habitat in southern India. I compared the richness, composition, and abundance of tree seedlings, herbs, and shrubs and the abundance of grass among plots in which Lantana was cleared or left standing. These plots were distributed across two blocks-livestock free and livestock grazed. Removal of Lantana had an immediate positive effect on herb-shrub richness in the livestock-free block, but had no effect on that of tree seedlings in either livestock block. Tree-seedling and herb-shrub composition differed significantly between Lantana treatment and livestock block, and Lantana removal significantly decreased survival of tree seedlings. Nevertheless, the absence of trees, in any stage between seedling and adult, indicates that Lantana may stall tree regeneration. Lantana removal decreased the abundance of all understory strata, probably because forage plants beneath Lantana are less accessible to herbivores, and plants in Lantana-free open plots experienced greater herbivory. Reduced access to forage in invaded habitats could negatively affect ungulate populations and ultimately compromise the ability of these forests to sustain prey-dependent large carnivores. Additional research focused on understanding and mitigating threats posed by exotic plants may be crucial to the long-term protection of these forests as viable tiger habitats.

  3. Plant diversity in live fences and pastures, two examples from the Mexican humid tropics.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Guerra, Betsabé; Rosas, Noé Velázquez; López-Acosta, Juan Carlos

    2014-09-01

    This study analyzes the potential uses of live fences and pastures as reservoirs of plant diversity for two regions with different management histories, Los Tuxtlas (LT) and Uxpanapa (UX), Veracruz, México. We studied two habitats, live fences and pastures, analyzed their species richness, diversity, structure and plant composition and classified species according to plant regeneration modes (light-demanding and shade tolerant), seed dispersal syndrome and their local uses. We recorded 62 species of trees at LT and 48 at UX. Live fences were more diverse than pastures in both regions. The LT site showed to analyze the relationship a higher diversity of plants in regeneration stages than the one at UX. However, UX had higher diversity of adult plants in the pastures than LT. Composition and structure of live fences were different between regions, as well as within live fences and pastures, 53 % of species were light-demanding and 40 % were shade tolerant; 70 % of the species were dispersed by birds. Differences between sites are associated with the modifications in live fences structure, which changed according to managerial practices and the use of local species; this may influence plant regeneration modes as well as the visits of avian dispersal agents. In LT, all species found in live fences were useful to humans, whereas in UX, less than half were used by the local population. Our results underline the importance of live fences and isolated trees in pasture habitats as potential sites to host native and useful species from tropical rain forests in livestock landscapes.

  4. Plant Diversity in Live Fences and Pastures, Two Examples from the Mexican Humid Tropics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Guerra, Betsabé; Rosas, Noé Velázquez; López-Acosta, Juan Carlos

    2014-09-01

    This study analyzes the potential uses of live fences and pastures as reservoirs of plant diversity for two regions with different management histories, Los Tuxtlas (LT) and Uxpanapa (UX), Veracruz, México. We studied two habitats, live fences and pastures, analyzed their species richness, diversity, structure and plant composition and classified species according to plant regeneration modes (light-demanding and shade tolerant), seed dispersal syndrome and their local uses. We recorded 62 species of trees at LT and 48 at UX. Live fences were more diverse than pastures in both regions. The LT site showed to analyze the relationship a higher diversity of plants in regeneration stages than the one at UX. However, UX had higher diversity of adult plants in the pastures than LT. Composition and structure of live fences were different between regions, as well as within live fences and pastures, 53 % of species were light-demanding and 40 % were shade tolerant; 70 % of the species were dispersed by birds. Differences between sites are associated with the modifications in live fences structure, which changed according to managerial practices and the use of local species; this may influence plant regeneration modes as well as the visits of avian dispersal agents. In LT, all species found in live fences were useful to humans, whereas in UX, less than half were used by the local population. Our results underline the importance of live fences and isolated trees in pasture habitats as potential sites to host native and useful species from tropical rain forests in livestock landscapes.

  5. Fluctuations in richness and abundance of social wasps during the dry and wet seasons in three phyto-physiognomies at the tropical dry forest of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos, G M de M; Bispo, P C; Aguiar, C M L

    2009-12-01

    The social wasp nests were quantified in three different plant physiognomies (forested Caatinga, shrubby Caatinga, and agricultural systems) to analyze the effect of environmental seasonality and plant physiognomy on the richness, nest abundance, and species composition of social wasps in the region of tropical dry forest of Brazil. The forested Caatinga physiognomy had the greatest richness of species (S = 16), followed by shrubby Caatinga (S = 13) and by agricultural system (S = 12). The first axis of detrended correspondence analysis (DCA) explained 67.8% of the variability and shows a gradient of the fauna from agricultural system and shrubby Caatinga to forested Caatinga. In the first axis, wet season scores were much higher than those for the dry season in forested Caatinga. The second axis explained 18.7% of the variability and shows a separation of samples collected during the wet or the dry periods in shrubby Caatinga. This separation was less evident in the agricultural system. Variations in nest abundance were more intense in arbustive caatinga (45% decrease in number of active nests in the dry period), moderate in forested Caatinga (24% decrease in number of active nests in the dry period), and low in agricultural systems (8% decrease in the dry period).

  6. Impact of post-mining subsidence on nitrogen transformation in southern tropical dry deciduous forest, India

    SciTech Connect

    Tripathi, N.; Singh, R.S.; Singh, J.S.

    2009-04-15

    The goal of our research was to assess the impact of post-mining land subsidence, caused due to underground coal mining operations, on fine root biomass and root tips count; plant available nutrient status, microbial biomass N (MBN) and N-mineralization rates of a Southern tropical dry deciduous forest of Singareni Coalfields of India. The changes were quantified in all the three (rainy, winter and summer) seasons, in slope and depression microsites of the subsided land and an adjacent undamaged forest microsite. Physico-chemical characteristics were found to be altered after subsidence, showing a positive impact of subsidence on soil moisture, bulk density, water holding capacity, organic carbon content, total N and total P. The increase in all the parameters was found in depression microsites, while in slope microsites, the values were lower. Fine root biomass and root tips count increased in the subsided depression microsites, as demonstrated by increases of 62% and 45%, respectively. Soil nitrate-N and phosphate-P concentrations were also found to be higher in depression microsite, showing an increase of 35.68% and 24.74%, respectively. Depression microsite has also shown the higher MBN value with an increase over control. Net nitrification, net N-mineralization and MBN were increased in depression microsite by 29.77%, 25.72% and 34%, respectively. There was a positive relation of microbial N with organic C, fine root biomass and root tips.

  7. Predictors of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Communities in the Brazilian Tropical Dry Forest.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Natália M F; Veresoglou, Stavros D; Oehl, Fritz; Rillig, Matthias C; Maia, Leonor C

    2017-08-04

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are symbiotic fungi with a broad distribution, and many taxa have physiological and ecological adaptations to specific environments, including semiarid ecosystems. Our aim was to address regional distribution patterns of AMF communities in such semiarid environments based on spore morphological techniques. We assessed AMF spores at the bottom and top of inselbergs distributed throughout the tropical dry forest in the Northeast region of Brazil. Across 10 replicate inselbergs and the surrounding area, spanning a range of altitude between 140 and 2000 m, we scored the AMF soil diversity and properties in 52 plots. We fitted parsimonious ordination analyses and variance partitioning models to determine the environmental factors which explained the variation in AMF community, based on morphological spore analysis. The diversity of AMF was similar at the bottom and top of inselbergs; however, we detected high variation in abundance and richness across sites. We formulated a parsimonious richness model that used physical soil factors as predictors. The AMF community structure could be best explained through the variables coarse and total sand, iron, organic matter, potassium, silt, and sodium which together accounted for 17.8% of total variance. Several AMF species were indicators of either deficiency or high values of specific soil properties. We demonstrated that habitat isolation of the inselbergs compared with surrounding areas did not trigger differences in AMF communities in semiarid regions of Brazil. At the regional scale, soil predictors across sites drove the distribution of symbiotic mycorrhizal fungi.

  8. Ecological feedbacks following deforestation create the potential for a catastrophic ecosystem shift in tropical dry forest

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Deborah; D'Odorico, Paolo; Diekmann, Lucy; DeLonge, Marcia; Das, Rishiraj; Eaton, James

    2007-01-01

    The long-term ecological response to recurrent deforestation associated with shifting cultivation remains poorly investigated, especially in the dry tropics. We present a study of phosphorus (P) dynamics in the southern Yucatán, highlighting the possibility of abrupt shifts in biogeochemical cycling resulting from positive feedbacks between vegetation and its limiting resources. After three cultivation–fallow cycles, available soil P declines by 44%, and one-time P inputs from biomass burning decline by 76% from mature forest levels. Interception of dust-borne P (“canopy trapping”) declines with lower plant biomass and leaf area, limiting deposition in secondary forest. Potential leaching losses are greater in secondary than in mature forest, but the difference is very small compared with the difference in P inputs. The decline in new P from atmospheric deposition creates a long-term negative ecosystem balance for phosphorus. The reduction in soil P availability will feed back to further limit biomass recovery and may induce a shift to sparser vegetation. Degradation induced by hydrological and biogeochemical feedbacks on P cycling under shifting cultivation will affect farmers in the near future. Without financial support to encourage the use of fertilizer, farmers could increase the fallow period, clear new land, or abandon agriculture for off-farm employment. Their response will determine the regional balance between forest loss and forest regrowth, as well as the frequency of use and rate of recovery at a local scale, further feeding back on ecological processes at multiple scales. PMID:18093931

  9. Ecological feedbacks following deforestation create the potential for a catastrophic ecosystem shift in tropical dry forest.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Deborah; D'Odorico, Paolo; Diekmann, Lucy; Delonge, Marcia; Das, Rishiraj; Eaton, James

    2007-12-26

    The long-term ecological response to recurrent deforestation associated with shifting cultivation remains poorly investigated, especially in the dry tropics. We present a study of phosphorus (P) dynamics in the southern Yucatán, highlighting the possibility of abrupt shifts in biogeochemical cycling resulting from positive feedbacks between vegetation and its limiting resources. After three cultivation-fallow cycles, available soil P declines by 44%, and one-time P inputs from biomass burning decline by 76% from mature forest levels. Interception of dust-borne P ("canopy trapping") declines with lower plant biomass and leaf area, limiting deposition in secondary forest. Potential leaching losses are greater in secondary than in mature forest, but the difference is very small compared with the difference in P inputs. The decline in new P from atmospheric deposition creates a long-term negative ecosystem balance for phosphorus. The reduction in soil P availability will feed back to further limit biomass recovery and may induce a shift to sparser vegetation. Degradation induced by hydrological and biogeochemical feedbacks on P cycling under shifting cultivation will affect farmers in the near future. Without financial support to encourage the use of fertilizer, farmers could increase the fallow period, clear new land, or abandon agriculture for off-farm employment. Their response will determine the regional balance between forest loss and forest regrowth, as well as the frequency of use and rate of recovery at a local scale, further feeding back on ecological processes at multiple scales.

  10. INVENTORY OF MOSQUITOES (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE) IN CONSERVATION UNITS IN BRAZILIAN TROPICAL DRY FORESTS

    PubMed Central

    SANTOS, Cleandson Ferreira; SILVA, Alex Chavier; RODRIGUES, Raquel Andrade; de JESUS, Jamilli Sanndy Ramos; BORGES, Magno Augusto Zazá

    2015-01-01

    In Brazil, most studies of the Culicidae family are concentrated in rainforest regions. As such, there is a lack of knowledge regarding the diversity of Culicidae in regions with different climatic and vegetational characteristics. The aim of this study was to compile an inventory of Culicidae in protected areas of the semi-arid region of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, in order to better understand the diversity of the family within this region. The study was conducted across four protected areas in the northern region of the state, in tropical dry forest (TDF) fragments. Sampling methods included Shannon trap and CDC light trap, as well as active collection. A total of 11,219 mosquito specimens were collected between August 2008 and July 2012, belonging to 11 genera and 45 species; 15 new records for the state of Minas Gerais were registered, as well as 26 new records for semi-arid regions within the state. The high number of new Culicidae records in this region demonstrates the importance of inventory studies for increasing the knowledge of culicid biodiversity in Minas Gerais, and in particular within semi-arid regions of the state. PMID:26200963

  11. Understanding spatial heterogeneity in soil carbon and nitrogen cycling in regenerating tropical dry forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waring, B. G.; Powers, J. S.; Branco, S.; Adams, R.; Schilling, E.

    2015-12-01

    Tropical dry forests (TDFs) currently store significant amounts of carbon in their biomass and soils, but these highly seasonal ecosystems may be uniquely sensitive to altered climates. The ability to quantitatively predict C cycling in TDFs under global change is constrained by tremendous spatial heterogeneity in soil parent material, land-use history, and plant community composition. To explore this variation, we examined soil carbon and nitrogen dynamics in 18 permanent plots spanning orthogonal gradients of stand age and soil fertility. Soil C and N pools, microbial biomass, and microbial extracellular enzyme activities were most variable at small (m2) spatial scales. However, the ratio of organic vs. inorganic N cycling was consistently higher in forest stands dominated by slow-growing, evergreen trees that associate with ectomycorrhizal fungi. Similarly, although bulk litter stocks and turnover rates varied greatly among plots, litter decomposition tended to be slower in ectomycorrhizae-dominated stands. Soil N cycling tended to be more conservative in older plots, although the relationship between stand age and element cycling was weak. Our results emphasize that microscale processes, particularly interactions between mycorrhizal fungi and free-living decomposers, are important controls on ecosystem-scale element cycling.

  12. Ecological and evolutionary variation in community nitrogen use traits during tropical dry forest secondary succession.

    PubMed

    Bhaskar, Radika; Porder, Stephen; Balvanera, Patricia; Edwards, Erika J

    2016-05-01

    We assessed the role of ecological and evolutionary processes in driving variation in leaf and litter traits related to nitrogen (N) use among tropical dry forest trees in old-growth and secondary stands in western Mexico. Our expectation was that legumes (Fabaceae), a dominant component of the regional flora, would have consistently high leaf N and therefore structure phylogenetic variation in N-related traits. We also expected ecological selection during succession for differences in nitrogen use strategies, and corresponding shifts in legume abundance. We used phylogenetic analyses to test for trait conservatism in foliar and litter N, C:N, and N resorption. We also evaluated differences in N-related traits between old-growth and secondary forests. We found a weak phylogenetic signal for all traits, partly explained by wide variation within legumes. Across taxa we observed a positive relationship between leaf and litter N, but no shift in resorption strategies along the successional gradient. Despite species turnover, N-resorption, and N-related traits showed little change across succession, suggesting that, at least for these traits, secondary forests rapidly recover ecosystem function. Collectively, our results also suggest that legumes should not be considered a single functional group from a biogeochemical perspective.

  13. Solar drying and organoleptic characteristics of two tropical African fish species using improved low-cost solar driers.

    PubMed

    Mustapha, Moshood K; Ajibola, Taiye B; Salako, Abdulbashir F; Ademola, Sunmola K

    2014-05-01

    This study was done to evaluate the drying performance, efficiency, and effectiveness of five different types of improved low-cost solar driers in terms of moisture loss from two tropical African fish species Clarias gariepinus (African sharp tooth catfish) and Oreochromis niloticus (Nile tilapia) and testing the organoleptic characteristics of the dried samples. The driers used were made from plastic, aluminum, glass, glass with black igneous stone, and mosquito net, with traditional direct open-sun drying as a control. A significant (P < 0.05) decrease in weight resulting from moisture loss in the two fish species was observed in all the driers, with the highest reduction occurring in the glass drier containing black stone. The rate of weight loss was faster in the first 4 days of drying with black stone-inserted glass drier showing the fastest drying rate with a constant weight in C. gariepinus attained on the 11th day and in O. niloticus on the eighth day. The slowest drier was plastic where a constant weight of the species were recorded on and 13th day and 11th day, respectively. Volunteers were used to assess the organoleptic characteristics of the dried samples and they showed lowest acceptability for the open-sun drying, while samples from the glass drier containing black stone had the highest acceptability in terms of the taste, flavor, appearance, texture, odor, palatability, and shelf-life. The low-cost solar driers were effective found in removing water from the fish resulting in significant loss of weight and moisture. The highest drying time, efficient performance, drying effectiveness, and high acceptability of the organoleptic parameters of the dried products from the black stone-inserted glass drier were due to the ability of the glass and the black stone to retain, transmit, and radiate heat to the fish sample all the time (day and night). These low-cost driers are simple to construct, materials for its construction readily available, easy to

  14. Inventorying and Monitoring of Tropical Dry Forests Tree Diversity in Jalisco, Mexico Using a Geographical Information System

    Treesearch

    Efren Hernandez-Alvarez; Dieter R. Pelz; Carlos Rodriguez Franco

    2006-01-01

    Tropical dry forests in Mexico are an outstanding natural resource, due to the large surface area they cover. This ecosystem can be found from Baja California Norte to Chiapas on the eastern coast of the country. On the Gulf of Mexico side it grows from Tamaulipas to Yucatan. This is an ecosystem that is home to a wide diversity of plants, which include 114 tree...

  15. Comparative studies on Enterococcus, Clostridium perfringens and Staphylococcus aureus as quality indicators in tropical seawater at a Pacific Mexican beach resort.

    PubMed

    Curiel-Ayala, F; Quiñones-Ramírez, E I; Pless, R C; González-Jasso, Eva

    2012-10-01

    Three microorganisms were assayed to evaluate the microbiological quality in the seawater at a resort on the Mexican Pacific coast, and to test for possible associations among the titers of the various bacteria, their possible correlations with environmental conditions, and with the location of potential wastewater outflows. Significant microorganism levels were found (at Caletilla beach, Hornos beach, and Papagayo beach, respectively: for Enterococcus 157, 153, and 149, for C. perfringens 35, 89, and 56, for S. aureus 244,137, and 279CFU/100ml), often in excess of the presently set guideline values. In general, bacterial titers were higher during rainy season than in dry season. For S. aureus, in both seasons, highest concentrations were found at 3pm, the time of highest tourist presence at the beaches. Our results argue for the use of these three microorganisms as part of a set of indicators in the routine microbiological evaluation of Mexican beachwaters. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Exploiting water versus tolerating drought: water-use strategies of trees in a secondary successional tropical dry forest.

    PubMed

    Pineda-García, Fernando; Paz, Horacio; Meinzer, Frederick C; Angeles, Guillermo

    2016-02-01

    In seasonal plant communities where water availability changes dramatically both between and within seasons, understanding the mechanisms that enable plants to exploit water pulses and to survive drought periods is crucial. By measuring rates of physiological processes, we examined the trade-off between water exploitation and drought tolerance among seedlings of trees of a tropical dry forest, and identified biophysical traits most closely associated with plant water-use strategies. We also explored whether early and late secondary successional species occupy different portions of trade-off axes. As predicted, species that maintained carbon capture, hydraulic function and leaf area at higher plant water deficits during drought had low photosynthetic rates, xylem hydraulic conductivity and growth rate under non-limiting water supply. Drought tolerance was associated with more dense leaf, stem and root tissues, whereas rapid resource acquisition was associated with greater stem water storage, larger vessel diameter and larger leaf area per mass invested. We offer evidence that the water exploitation versus drought tolerance trade-off drives species differentiation in the ability of tropical dry forest trees to deal with alternating water-drought pulses. However, we detected no evidence of strong functional differentiation between early and late successional species along the proposed trade-off axes, suggesting that the environmental gradient of water availability across secondary successional habitats in the dry tropics does not filter out physiological strategies of water use among species, at least at the seedling stage.

  17. Shift from ecosystem P to N limitation at precipitation gradient in tropical dry forests at Yucatan, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campo, Julio

    2016-09-01

    The effect of precipitation regime on N and P cycles in tropical forests is poorly understood, despite global climate models project total precipitation reductions during the 21st Century. I investigated the influence of variation in annual precipitation (1240-642 mm yr-1) on N and P intra-system cycling along a precipitation regime gradient at Yucatan including 12 mature, tropical dry forests (TDFs) growing under otherwise similar conditions (similar annual temperature, rainfall seasonality and geological substrate). I analyzed N and P storage and turnover in the forest floor and mineral soil and explored the dependence of these processes and pools on precipitation level. The study findings indicate that with decreasing precipitation the litterfall decreases slightly (10%), while nutrient use efficiency increases by 20% for N, and by 40% for P. Decomposition rate and nutrient release was smallest in the dry extremity of precipitation regime. The difference between N and P turnover times in the forest floor and in organic matter indicates that different nutrients control the ecosystem function across the precipitation gradient. The data from this study reveals a pattern of limitation shifting from P towards N with decreasing annual precipitation. I suggest that the long-term consequences of the expected decrease in precipitation in many tropical dry regions would changes N and P supply could have long-term negative effects on primary productivity and future carbon storage in TDFs.

  18. Emerging deforestation trends in tropical dry forests ecoregions of Mexico and Central America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez-Rodriguez, I. M.; Sievert, S. M.; Fogel, M. L.; Foustoukos, D.

    2014-12-01

    Neotropical dry forests (TDF) have experienced an unprecedented deforestation that is leading to the loss of tropical biodiversity at a rapid pace, but information on deforestation dynamics in TDF is scarce. In this study, we present a sub-continental and national level assessment of TDF loss patterns in Mexico and Central America at high spatial and temporal resolution using remote sensing and GIS technologies. We used the Global Forest Change (GFC) dataset published by Hansen et al. (2013) which shows results from time-series analysis of Landsat images in characterizing global forest extent and change from 2000 through 2013. We analyzed forest loss within and around mapped TDF cover mapped by Portillo-Quintero et al. 2010. In order to minimize errors in source data, we overlaid a 25 x 25 km grid on top of the regional dataset and conducted a cell by cell and country by country inspection at multiple scales using high resolution ancillary data. We identified trends in the clustering of space-time TDF deforestation data using ArcGIS, categorizing trends in: new, consecutive, intensifying, persistent, diminishing, sporadic, oscillating and historical hotspots (high frequency of deforestation events) and cold spots (low frequency of deforestation). In general, the region is experiencing less frequent deforestation events with a higher number of intensifying and new cold spots across TDF landscapes. However, an important number of intensifying and persistent hotspots exist so no general trend in forest loss was detected for the period 2001-2013, except for El Salvador which shows a significant decreasing trend in forest loss. Mexico, Nicaragua, Honduras and Guatemala are the major sources of intensifying, persistent and new deforestation hot spots. These were identified in the southern pacific coast and the Yucatan Peninsula in Mexico, northwestern Guatemala, both western and eastern Honduras and around Lake Nicaragua in Nicaragua.

  19. Searching for putative avian malaria vectors in a Seasonally Dry Tropical Forest in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Francisco C; Rodrigues, Raquel A; Sato, Yukita; Borges, Magno A Z; Braga, Érika M

    2016-11-16

    Haemosporidian parasites of the genera Plasmodium and Haemoproteus can have detrimental effects on individual birds and populations. Despite recent investigations into the distribution and richness of these parasites and their vertebrate hosts, little is known about their dipteran vectors. The Neotropics has the highest diversity of mosquitoes in the world, but few studies have tried to identify vectors in this area, hampering the understanding of the ecology of avian malaria in the highly diverse Neotropical environments. Shannon traps and active collection were used to capture 27,110 mosquitoes in a Seasonally Dry Tropical Forest in southeastern Brazil, a highly endangered ecosystem. We screened 17,619 mosquito abdomens from 12 different species and several unidentified specimens of Culex, grouped into 1,913 pools, for the presence of haemosporidians. Two pools (out of 459) of the mosquito Mansonia titillans and one pool (out of 29) of Mansonia pseudotitillans were positive for Plasmodium parasites, with the detection of a new parasite lineage in the former species. Detected Plasmodium lineages were distributed in three different clades within the phylogenetic tree revealing that Mansonia mosquitoes are potential vectors of genetically distant parasites. Two pools of Culex spp. (out of 43) were positive for Plasmodium gallinaceum and closely related lineages. We found a higher abundance of these putative vectors in pasture areas, but they were also distributed in areas at intermediate and late successional stages. One pool of the mosquito Psorophora discrucians (out of 173) was positive for Haemoproteus. The occurrence of different Plasmodium lineages in Mansonia mosquitoes indicates that this genus encompasses potential vectors of avian malaria parasites in Brazil, even though we did not find positive thoraces among the samples tested. Additional evidence is required to assign the role of Mansonia mosquitoes in avian malaria transmission and further studies

  20. β-Diversity of Functional Groups of Woody Plants in a Tropical Dry Forest in Yucatan

    PubMed Central

    López-Martínez, Jorge Omar; Sanaphre-Villanueva, Lucía; Dupuy, Juan Manuel; Hernández-Stefanoni, José Luis; Meave, Jorge Arturo; Gallardo-Cruz, José Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Two main theories have attempted to explain variation in plant species composition (β-diversity). Niche theory proposes that most of the variation is related to environment (environmental filtering), whereas neutral theory posits that dispersal limitation is the main driver of β-diversity. In this study, we first explored how α- and β-diversity of plant functional groups defined by growth form (trees, shrubs and lianas, which represent different strategies of resource partitioning), and dispersal syndrome (autochory, anemochory and zoochory, which represent differences in dispersal limitation) vary with successional age and topographic position in a tropical dry forest. Second, we examined the effects of environmental, spatial, and spatially-structured environmental factors on β-diversity of functional groups; we used the spatial structure of sampling sites as a proxy for dispersal limitation, and elevation, soil properties and forest stand age as indicators of environmental filtering. We recorded 200 species and 22,245 individuals in 276 plots; 120 species were trees, 41 shrubs and 39 lianas. We found that β-diversity was highest for shrubs, intermediate for lianas and lowest for trees, and was slightly higher for zoochorous than for autochorous and anemochorous species. All three dispersal syndromes, trees and shrubs varied in composition among vegetation classes (successional age and topographic position), whilst lianas did not. β-diversity was influenced mostly by proxies of environmental filtering, except for shrubs, for which the influence of dispersal limitation was more important. Stand age and topography significantly influenced α-diversity across functional groups, but showed a low influence on β-diversity –possibly due to the counterbalancing effect of resprouting on plant distribution and composition. Our results show that considering different plant functional groups reveals important differences in both α- and β-diversity patterns and

  1. Predicting tropical dry forest successional attributes from space: is the key hidden in image texture?

    PubMed

    Gallardo-Cruz, J Alberto; Meave, Jorge A; González, Edgar J; Lebrija-Trejos, Edwin E; Romero-Romero, Marco A; Pérez-García, Eduardo A; Gallardo-Cruz, Rodrigo; Hernández-Stefanoni, José Luis; Martorell, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Biodiversity conservation and ecosystem-service provision will increasingly depend on the existence of secondary vegetation. Our success in achieving these goals will be determined by our ability to accurately estimate the structure and diversity of such communities at broad geographic scales. We examined whether the texture (the spatial variation of the image elements) of very high-resolution satellite imagery can be used for this purpose. In 14 fallows of different ages and one mature forest stand in a seasonally dry tropical forest landscape, we estimated basal area, canopy cover, stem density, species richness, Shannon index, Simpson index, and canopy height. The first six attributes were also estimated for a subset comprising the tallest plants. We calculated 40 texture variables based on the red and the near infrared bands, and EVI and NDVI, and selected the best-fit linear models describing each vegetation attribute based on them. Basal area (R(2) = 0.93), vegetation height and cover (0.89), species richness (0.87), and stand age (0.85) were the best-described attributes by two-variable models. Cross validation showed that these models had a high predictive power, and most estimated vegetation attributes were highly accurate. The success of this simple method (a single image was used and the models were linear and included very few variables) rests on the principle that image texture reflects the internal heterogeneity of successional vegetation at the proper scale. The vegetation attributes best predicted by texture are relevant in the face of two of the gravest threats to biosphere integrity: climate change and biodiversity loss. By providing reliable basal area and fallow-age estimates, image-texture analysis allows for the assessment of carbon sequestration and diversity loss rates. New and exciting research avenues open by simplifying the analysis of the extent and complexity of successional vegetation through the spatial variation of its spectral

  2. Recovering more than tree cover: herbivores and herbivory in a restored tropical dry forest.

    PubMed

    Juan-Baeza, Iris; Martínez-Garza, Cristina; Del-Val, Ek

    2015-01-01

    Intense and chronic disturbance may arrest natural succession, reduce environmental quality and lead to ecological interaction losses. Where natural succession does not occur, ecological restoration aims to accelerate this process. While plant establishment and diversity is promoted by restoration, few studies have evaluated the effect of restoration activities on ecological processes and animal diversity. This study assessed herbivory and lepidopteran diversity associated with two pioneer tree species growing in 4-year-old experimental restoration plots in a tropical dry forest at Sierra de Huautla, in Morelos, Mexico. The study was carried out during the rainy season of 2010 (July-October) in eleven 50 x 50 m plots in three different habitats: cattle-excluded, cattle-excluded with restoration plantings, and cattle grazing plots. At the beginning of the rainy season, 10 juveniles of Heliocarpus pallidus (Malvaceae) and Ipomoea pauciflora (Convolvulaceae) were selected in each plot (N = 110 trees). Herbivory was measured in 10 leaves per plant at the end of the rainy season. To evaluate richness and abundance of lepidopteran larvae, all plants were surveyed monthly. Herbivory was similar among habitats and I. pauciflora showed a higher percentage of herbivory. A total of 868 lepidopteran larvae from 65 morphospecies were recorded. The family with the highest number of morphospecies (9 sp.) was Geometridae, while the most abundant family was Saturnidae, with 427 individuals. Lepidopteran richness and abundance were significantly higher in H. pallidus than in I. pauciflora. Lepidopteran richness was significantly higher in the cattle-excluded plots, while abundance was significantly higher in the non-excluded plots. After four years of cattle exclusion and the establishment of plantings, lepidopteran richness increased 20 -fold in the excluded plots compared to the disturbed areas, whereas herbivory levels were equally high in both restored and disturbed sites

  3. Predicting Tropical Dry Forest Successional Attributes from Space: Is the Key Hidden in Image Texture?

    PubMed Central

    Gallardo-Cruz, J. Alberto; Meave, Jorge A.; González, Edgar J.; Lebrija-Trejos, Edwin E.; Romero-Romero, Marco A.; Pérez-García, Eduardo A.; Gallardo-Cruz, Rodrigo; Hernández-Stefanoni, José Luis; Martorell, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Biodiversity conservation and ecosystem-service provision will increasingly depend on the existence of secondary vegetation. Our success in achieving these goals will be determined by our ability to accurately estimate the structure and diversity of such communities at broad geographic scales. We examined whether the texture (the spatial variation of the image elements) of very high-resolution satellite imagery can be used for this purpose. In 14 fallows of different ages and one mature forest stand in a seasonally dry tropical forest landscape, we estimated basal area, canopy cover, stem density, species richness, Shannon index, Simpson index, and canopy height. The first six attributes were also estimated for a subset comprising the tallest plants. We calculated 40 texture variables based on the red and the near infrared bands, and EVI and NDVI, and selected the best-fit linear models describing each vegetation attribute based on them. Basal area (R2 = 0.93), vegetation height and cover (0.89), species richness (0.87), and stand age (0.85) were the best-described attributes by two-variable models. Cross validation showed that these models had a high predictive power, and most estimated vegetation attributes were highly accurate. The success of this simple method (a single image was used and the models were linear and included very few variables) rests on the principle that image texture reflects the internal heterogeneity of successional vegetation at the proper scale. The vegetation attributes best predicted by texture are relevant in the face of two of the gravest threats to biosphere integrity: climate change and biodiversity loss. By providing reliable basal area and fallow-age estimates, image-texture analysis allows for the assessment of carbon sequestration and diversity loss rates. New and exciting research avenues open by simplifying the analysis of the extent and complexity of successional vegetation through the spatial variation of its spectral

  4. β-Diversity of functional groups of woody plants in a tropical dry forest in Yucatan.

    PubMed

    López-Martínez, Jorge Omar; Sanaphre-Villanueva, Lucía; Dupuy, Juan Manuel; Hernández-Stefanoni, José Luis; Meave, Jorge Arturo; Gallardo-Cruz, José Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Two main theories have attempted to explain variation in plant species composition (β-diversity). Niche theory proposes that most of the variation is related to environment (environmental filtering), whereas neutral theory posits that dispersal limitation is the main driver of β-diversity. In this study, we first explored how α- and β-diversity of plant functional groups defined by growth form (trees, shrubs and lianas, which represent different strategies of resource partitioning), and dispersal syndrome (autochory, anemochory and zoochory, which represent differences in dispersal limitation) vary with successional age and topographic position in a tropical dry forest. Second, we examined the effects of environmental, spatial, and spatially-structured environmental factors on β-diversity of functional groups; we used the spatial structure of sampling sites as a proxy for dispersal limitation, and elevation, soil properties and forest stand age as indicators of environmental filtering. We recorded 200 species and 22,245 individuals in 276 plots; 120 species were trees, 41 shrubs and 39 lianas. We found that β-diversity was highest for shrubs, intermediate for lianas and lowest for trees, and was slightly higher for zoochorous than for autochorous and anemochorous species. All three dispersal syndromes, trees and shrubs varied in composition among vegetation classes (successional age and topographic position), whilst lianas did not. β-diversity was influenced mostly by proxies of environmental filtering, except for shrubs, for which the influence of dispersal limitation was more important. Stand age and topography significantly influenced α-diversity across functional groups, but showed a low influence on β-diversity -possibly due to the counterbalancing effect of resprouting on plant distribution and composition. Our results show that considering different plant functional groups reveals important differences in both α- and β-diversity patterns and

  5. Mapping tropical dry forest succession using multiple criteria spectral mixture analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Sen; Yu, Qiuyan; Sanchez-Azofeifa, Arturo; Feng, Jilu; Rivard, Benoit; Gu, Zhujun

    2015-11-01

    Tropical dry forests (TDFs) in the Americas are considered the first frontier of economic development with less than 1% of their total original coverage under protection. Accordingly, accurate estimates of their spatial extent, fragmentation, and degree of regeneration are critical in evaluating the success of current conservation policies. This study focused on a well-protected secondary TDF in Santa Rosa National Park (SRNP) Environmental Monitoring Super Site, Guanacaste, Costa Rica. We used spectral signature analysis of TDF ecosystem succession (early, intermediate, and late successional stages), and its intrinsic variability, to propose a new multiple criteria spectral mixture analysis (MCSMA) method on the shortwave infrared (SWIR) of HyMap image. Unlike most existing iterative mixture analysis (IMA) techniques, MCSMA tries to extract and make use of representative endmembers with spectral and spatial information. MCSMA then considers three criteria that influence the comparative importance of different endmember combinations (endmember models): root mean square error (RMSE); spatial distance (SD); and fraction consistency (FC), to create an evaluation framework to select a best-fit model. The spectral analysis demonstrated that TDFs have a high spectral variability as a result of biomass variability. By adopting two search strategies, the unmixing results showed that our new MCSMA approach had a better performance in root mean square error (early: 0.160/0.159; intermediate: 0.322/0.321; and late: 0.239/0.235); mean absolute error (early: 0.132/0.128; intermediate: 0.254/0.251; and late: 0.191/0.188); and systematic error (early: 0.045/0.055; intermediate: -0.211/-0.214; and late: 0.161/0.160), compared to the multiple endmember spectral mixture analysis (MESMA). This study highlights the importance of SWIR in differentiating successional stages in TDFs. The proposed MCSMA provides a more flexible and generalized means for the best-fit model determination

  6. Vegetation response to rainfall seasonality and interannual variability in tropical dry forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, X.; Silva Souza, R. M.; Souza, E.; Antonino, A.; Montenegro, S.; Porporato, A. M.

    2015-12-01

    We analyzed the response of tropical dry forests to seasonal and interannual rainfall variability, focusing on the caatinga biome in semi-arid in Northeast Brazil. We selected four sites across a gradient of rainfall amount and seasonality and analyzed daily rainfall and biweekly Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) in the period 2000-2014. The seasonal and interannual rainfall statistics were characterized using recently developed metrics describing duration, location, and intensity of wet season and compared them with those of NDVI time series and modelled soil moisture. A model of NDVI was also developed and forced by different rainfall scenarios (combination amount of rainfall and duration of wet season). The results show that the caatinga tends to have a more stable response characterized by longer and less variable growing seasons (of duration 3.1±0.1 months) compared to the rainfall wet seasons (2.0±0.5 months). Even for more extreme rainfall conditions, the ecosystem shows very little sensitivity to duration of wet season in relation to the amount of rainfall, however the duration of wet season is most evident for wetter sites. This ability of the ecosystem in buffering the interannual variability of rainfall is corroborated by the stability of the centroid location of the growing season compared to the wet season for all sites. The maximal biomass production was observed at intermediate levels of seasonality, suggesting a possible interesting trade-off in the effects of intensity (i.e., amount) and duration of the wet season on vegetation growth.

  7. Recovering More than Tree Cover: Herbivores and Herbivory in a Restored Tropical Dry Forest

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Intense and chronic disturbance may arrest natural succession, reduce environmental quality and lead to ecological interaction losses. Where natural succession does not occur, ecological restoration aims to accelerate this process. While plant establishment and diversity is promoted by restoration, few studies have evaluated the effect of restoration activities on ecological processes and animal diversity. This study assessed herbivory and lepidopteran diversity associated with two pioneer tree species growing in 4-year-old experimental restoration plots in a tropical dry forest at Sierra de Huautla, in Morelos, Mexico. The study was carried out during the rainy season of 2010 (July-October) in eleven 50 x 50 m plots in three different habitats: cattle-excluded, cattle-excluded with restoration plantings, and cattle grazing plots. At the beginning of the rainy season, 10 juveniles of Heliocarpus pallidus (Malvaceae) and Ipomoea pauciflora (Convolvulaceae) were selected in each plot (N = 110 trees). Herbivory was measured in 10 leaves per plant at the end of the rainy season. To evaluate richness and abundance of lepidopteran larvae, all plants were surveyed monthly. Herbivory was similar among habitats and I. pauciflora showed a higher percentage of herbivory. A total of 868 lepidopteran larvae from 65 morphospecies were recorded. The family with the highest number of morphospecies (9 sp.) was Geometridae, while the most abundant family was Saturnidae, with 427 individuals. Lepidopteran richness and abundance were significantly higher in H. pallidus than in I. pauciflora. Lepidopteran richness was significantly higher in the cattle-excluded plots, while abundance was significantly higher in the non-excluded plots. After four years of cattle exclusion and the establishment of plantings, lepidopteran richness increased 20 –fold in the excluded plots compared to the disturbed areas, whereas herbivory levels were equally high in both restored and disturbed sites

  8. [Chronology of tropical dry forest regeneration in Santa Rosa, Guanacaste, Costa Rica. I. Edaphic characteristics].

    PubMed

    Leiva, Jorge A; Mata, Rafael; Rocha, Oscar J; Gutiérrez Soto, Marco V

    2009-09-01

    We characterized soil chemical and physical properties in eight tropical dry forest (TDF) successional sites along a time sequence (10, 15, 20, 40, 60 and >100 years) in Santa Rosa, Costa Rica. Seventeen soils were identified, described, and classified in six orders. Most soils were classified as Entisols and Vertisols, but Mollisols, Alfisols, Inceptisols and Ultisols were also present. All soils showed good fertility that did not constrain species richness. High edaphic variation seemed the result of complex interactions among the pyroclastic origin of Santa Rosa ignimbritic plateau (SRIP), the lithological composition and acidity of ignimbritic rocks, the strong seasonality in rainfall, intense hydric and aeolic erosion, topographic variations within the SRIP, and past human intervention. Correlations performed on soils classified as Entisols (<60 cm deep) showed a depletion of soil cations (Ca, Mg, K, Na and CEC) during the first 20 years of forest regeneration, that later recovered in mature TDF sites. Organic matter content did not change significantly along the TDF chrono-sequence. Substantial increments in macro-pores and soil hydraulic conductivity were observed, probably resulting from higher root biomass and turnover in older successional sites. Soil available water and meso-pore abundance were negatively correlated with TDF successional age. Our results indicate that edaphic changes observed along TDF regeneration might have been due to annual fires in pastures and young TDF sites, addition of decaying litter and fine roots as regeneration progressed, milder microclimate conditions during late regeneration in mature TDF sites, increased nutrient cycling, and the predominance of sandy loam textures among the soils examined. These changes in the soil environment with succession may have physiological and phenological consequences on the species appearing at different stages of TDF regeneration.

  9. Emerging deforestation trends in tropical dry forests ecoregions of Mexico and Central America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portillo, C. A.; Cao, G.; Smith, V.

    2015-12-01

    Neotropical dry forests (TDF) have experienced an unprecedented deforestation that is leading to the loss of tropical biodiversity at a rapid pace, but information on deforestation dynamics in TDF is scarce. In this study, we present a sub-continental and national level assessment of TDF loss patterns in Mexico and Central America at high spatial and temporal resolution using remote sensing and GIS technologies. We used the Global Forest Change (GFC) dataset published by Hansen et al. (2013) which shows results from time-series analysis of Landsat images in characterizing global forest extent and change from 2000 through 2013. We analyzed forest loss within and around mapped TDF cover mapped by Portillo-Quintero et al. 2010. In order to minimize errors in source data, we overlaid a 25 x 25 km grid on top of the regional dataset and conducted a cell by cell and country by country inspection at multiple scales using high resolution ancillary data. We identified trends in the clustering of space-time TDF deforestation data using ArcGIS, categorizing trends in: new, consecutive, intensifying, persistent, diminishing, sporadic, oscillating and historical hotspots (high frequency of deforestation events) and cold spots (low frequency of deforestation). In general, the region is experiencing less frequent deforestation events with a higher number of intensifying and new cold spots across TDF landscapes. However, an important number of intensifying and persistent hotspots exist so no general trend in forest loss was detected for the period 2001-2013, except for El Salvador which shows a significant decreasing trend in forest loss. Mexico, Nicaragua, Honduras and Guatemala are the major sources of intensifying, persistent and new deforestation hot spots. These were identified in the southern pacific coast and the Yucatan Peninsula in Mexico, northwestern Guatemala, both western and eastern Honduras and around Lake Nicaragua in Nicaragua.

  10. Biodiversity and functional regeneration during secondary succession in a tropical dry forest: from microorganisms to mammals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    do Espírito Santo, M. M.; Neves, F. S.; Valério, H. M.; Leite, L. O.; Falcão, L. A.; Borges, M.; Beirão, M.; Reis, R., Jr.; Berbara, R.; Nunes, Y. R.; Silva, A.; Silva, L. F.; Siqueira, P. R.

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we aimed to determine the changes on soil traits, forest structure and species richness and composition of multiple groups of organisms along secondary succession in a tropical dry forest (TDF) in southeastern Brazil. We defined three successional stages based in forest vertical and horizontal structure and age: early (18-25 years), intermediate (50-60 years) and late (no records of clearing). Five plots of 50 x 20 m were established per stage, and the following groups were sampled using specific techniques: rhizobacteria, mycorrhiza, trees and lianas, butterflies, ants, dung beetles, mosquitoes (Culicidae), birds and bats. We also determined soil chemical and physical characteristics and forest structure (tree height, density and basal area). Soil fertility increased along the successional gradient, and the same pattern was observed for all the forest structure variables. However, species richness and composition showed mixed results depending on the organism group. Three groups usually considered as good bioindicators of habitat quality did not differ in species richness and composition between stages: butterflies, ants and dung beetles. On the other hand, rizhobacteria and mycorrhiza differed both in species richness and composition between stages and may be more sensitive to changes in environmental conditions in TDFs. The other five groups differed either in species richness or composition between one or two pairs of successional stages. Although changes in abiotic conditions and forest structure match the predictions of classical successional models, the response of each group of organism is idiosyncratic in terms of diversity and ecological function, as a consequence of specific resource requirements and life-history traits. In general, diversity increased and functional groups changed mostly from early to intermediate-late stages, strengthening the importance of secondary forests to the maintenance of ecosystem integrity of TDFs.

  11. Germination, survival and growth of three vascular plants on biological soil crusts from a Mexican tropical desert.

    PubMed

    Godínez-Alvarez, H; Morín, C; Rivera-Aguilar, V

    2012-01-01

    Information about the effects of biological soil crusts (BSC) on germination, seedling survival and growth of vascular plants is controversial because they can have positive, neutral or negative effects. This controversy may be because most studies conducted until now have just analysed one or two recruitment stages independently. To understand the BSC effects on vascular plants, it is necessary to consider each stage of the recruitment process and synthesise all this information. The goal of this study was twofold. First, we analyse germination, seedling survival and growth of three vascular plants (Agave marmorata, Prosopis laevigata and Neobuxbaumia tetetzo) on BSC (cyanobacteria and mixed crust) from a tropical desert region of south-central México. Second, we synthesise the information to determine the total effect of BSC on plant species performance. We conducted experiments under controlled conditions to evaluate the proportion of germinated seeds, proportion of surviving seedlings and seedling dry weight in BSC and bare soil. Results showed that BSC have different effects on germination, seedling survival and growth of plant species. Plant species performance was qualitatively higher on BSC than bare soil. The highest performance of A. marmorata and P. laevigata was observed on cyanobacteria and mixed crusts, respectively. The highest performance of N. tetetzo was on both crust types.

  12. Evolutionary trade-offs between drought resistance mechanisms across a precipitation gradient in a seasonally dry tropical oak (Quercus oleoides).

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Valiente, Jose A; Cavender-Bares, Jeannine; Tissue, David

    2017-07-01

    In seasonally dry tropical forest regions, drought avoidance during the dry season coupled with high assimilation rates in the wet season is hypothesized to be an advantageous strategy for forest trees in regions with severe and long dry seasons. In contrast, where dry seasons are milder, drought tolerance coupled with a conservative resource-use strategy is expected to maximize carbon assimilation throughout the year. Tests of this hypothesis, particularly at the intraspecific level, have been seldom conducted. In this study, we tested the extent to which drought resistance mechanisms and rates of carbon assimilation have evolved under climates with varying dry season length and severity within Quercus oleoidesCham. and Schlect., a tropical dry forest species that is widely distributed in Central America. For this purpose, we conducted a greenhouse experiment where seedlings originating from five populations that vary in rainfall patterns were grown under different watering treatments. Our results revealed that populations from xeric climates with more severe dry seasons exhibited large mesophyllous leaves (with high specific leaf area, SLA), and leaf abscission in response to drought, consistent with a drought-avoidance strategy. In contrast, populations from more mesic climates with less severe dry seasons had small and thick sclerophyllous leaves with low SLA and reduced water potential at the turgor loss point (πtlp), consistent with a drought-tolerance strategy. Mesic populations also showed high plasticity in πtlp in response to water availability, indicating that osmotic adjustment to drought is an important component of this strategy. However, populations with mesophyllous leaves did not have higher maximum carbon assimilation rates under well-watered conditions. Furthermore, SLA was negatively associated with mass-based photosynthetic rates, contrary to expectations of the leaf economics spectrum, indicating that drought-resistance strategies are not

  13. Synthesis of the Ecohydrology of a Mexican Tropical Montane Cloud Forest and Implications of Land Use and Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asbjornsen, H.; Alvarado-Barrientos, M. S.; Bruijnzeel, L. A.; Dawson, T. E.; Geissert, D.; Goldsmith, G. R.; Gomez-Cardenas, M.; Gomez-Tagle, A.; Gotsch, S. F.; Holwerda, F.; McDonnell, J. J.; Munoz Villers, L. E.; Tobon, C.

    2013-05-01

    Land use conversion and climate change threaten the hydrological services from tropical montane cloud forests (TMCFs), but knowledge about cloud forest ecohydrology and the effects of global change drivers is limited. Here, we present a synthesis of research that traced the hydrologic sources, fluxes and flowpaths under different land cover types degraded pasture, regenerating forest, mature forest, pine reforestation) in a seasonally dry TMCF in Veracruz, Mexico. We used hydrological (cloud water interception, CWI; streamflow) and ecophysiological measurements (transpiration, E; foliar uptake, FU) in combination with stable isotope techniques to elucidate to these ecohydrological processes. Results revealed that CWI was ≤2% of total annual rainfall due to low fog occurrence and wind speeds. Fog without rainfall reduced E by a factor of 4-5 relative to sunny conditions and by a factor of 2 relative to overcast conditions; the water 'gained' from fog suppression was ~80-100 mm year-1 relative to sunny conditions. At the canopy scale, FU resulted in the recovery of 9% of total E, suggesting a crucial role in alleviating water deficit; but not sufficient to offset the 17% water loss from nighttime E. Trees primarily utilized water from 30-50 cm soil depth, while water reaching the stream was derived from deep, 'old' water that was distinct from 'new' rainwater and plant water. Soils had high infiltration rates and water storage capacity, which contributed to the relatively low rainfall-runoff response, mainly generated from deep subsurface flowpaths. Conversion of mature forest to pasture or forest regeneration on former TMCF increased annual water yield by 600 mm and 300 mm, respectively, while planting pine on degraded pastures reduced water yield by 365 mm. Our results suggest that the ecophysiological effects of fog via suppressed E and FU have a greater impact on water yield than direct inputs from CWI in this TMCF. Rapid vertical rainfall percolation and

  14. Attaining the canopy in dry and moist tropical forests: strong differences in tree growth trajectories reflect variation in growing conditions

    PubMed Central

    Zuidema, Pieter A.; Martínez-Ramos, Miguel

    2009-01-01

    Availability of light and water differs between tropical moist and dry forests, with typically higher understorey light levels and lower water availability in the latter. Therefore, growth trajectories of juvenile trees—those that have not attained the canopy—are likely governed by temporal fluctuations in light availability in moist forests (suppressions and releases), and by spatial heterogeneity in water availability in dry forests. In this study, we compared juvenile growth trajectories of Cedrela odorata in a dry (Mexico) and a moist forest (Bolivia) using tree rings. We tested the following specific hypotheses: (1) moist forest juveniles show more and longer suppressions, and more and stronger releases; (2) moist forest juveniles exhibit wider variation in canopy accession pattern, i.e. the typical growth trajectory to the canopy; (3) growth variation among dry forest juveniles persists over longer time due to spatial heterogeneity in water availability. As expected, the proportion of suppressed juveniles was higher in moist than in dry forest (72 vs. 17%). Moist forest suppressions also lasted longer (9 vs. 5 years). The proportion of juveniles that experienced releases in moist forest (76%) was higher than in dry forest (41%), and releases in moist forests were much stronger. Trees in the moist forest also had a wider variation in canopy accession patterns compared to the dry forest. Our results also showed that growth variation among juvenile trees persisted over substantially longer periods of time in dry forest (>64 years) compared to moist forest (12 years), most probably because of larger persistent spatial variation in water availability. Our results suggest that periodic increases in light availability are more important for attaining the canopy in moist forests, and that spatial heterogeneity in water availability governs long-term tree growth in dry forests. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s

  15. Attaining the canopy in dry and moist tropical forests: strong differences in tree growth trajectories reflect variation in growing conditions.

    PubMed

    Brienen, Roel J W; Zuidema, Pieter A; Martínez-Ramos, Miguel

    2010-06-01

    Availability of light and water differs between tropical moist and dry forests, with typically higher understorey light levels and lower water availability in the latter. Therefore, growth trajectories of juvenile trees--those that have not attained the canopy--are likely governed by temporal fluctuations in light availability in moist forests (suppressions and releases), and by spatial heterogeneity in water availability in dry forests. In this study, we compared juvenile growth trajectories of Cedrela odorata in a dry (Mexico) and a moist forest (Bolivia) using tree rings. We tested the following specific hypotheses: (1) moist forest juveniles show more and longer suppressions, and more and stronger releases; (2) moist forest juveniles exhibit wider variation in canopy accession pattern, i.e. the typical growth trajectory to the canopy; (3) growth variation among dry forest juveniles persists over longer time due to spatial heterogeneity in water availability. As expected, the proportion of suppressed juveniles was higher in moist than in dry forest (72 vs. 17%). Moist forest suppressions also lasted longer (9 vs. 5 years). The proportion of juveniles that experienced releases in moist forest (76%) was higher than in dry forest (41%), and releases in moist forests were much stronger. Trees in the moist forest also had a wider variation in canopy accession patterns compared to the dry forest. Our results also showed that growth variation among juvenile trees persisted over substantially longer periods of time in dry forest (>64 years) compared to moist forest (12 years), most probably because of larger persistent spatial variation in water availability. Our results suggest that periodic increases in light availability are more important for attaining the canopy in moist forests, and that spatial heterogeneity in water availability governs long-term tree growth in dry forests.

  16. Tropospheric dry layers in the tropical western Pacific: comparisons of GPS radio occultation with multiple data sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieckh, Therese; Anthes, Richard; Randel, William; Ho, Shu-Peng; Foelsche, Ulrich

    2017-03-01

    We use GPS radio occultation (RO) data to investigate the structure and temporal behavior of extremely dry, high-ozone tropospheric air in the tropical western Pacific during the 6-week period of the CONTRAST (CONvective TRansport of Active Species in the Tropics) experiment (January and February 2014). Our analyses are aimed at testing whether the RO method is capable of detecting these extremely dry layers and evaluating comparisons with in situ measurements, satellite observations, and model analyses. We use multiple data sources as comparisons, including CONTRAST research aircraft profiles, radiosonde profiles, AIRS (Atmospheric Infrared Sounder) satellite retrievals, and profiles extracted from the ERA (ERA-Interim reanalysis) and the GFS (US National Weather Service Global Forecast System) analyses, as well as MTSAT-2 satellite images. The independent and complementary radiosonde, aircraft, and RO data provide high vertical resolution observations of the dry layers. However, they all have limitations. The coverage of the radiosonde data is limited by having only a single station in this oceanic region; the aircraft data are limited in their temporal and spatial coverage; and the RO data are limited in their number and horizontal resolution over this period. However, nearby observations from the three types of data are highly consistent with each other and with the lower-vertical-resolution AIRS profiles. They are also consistent with the ERA and GFS data. We show that the RO data, used here for the first time to study this phenomenon, contribute significant information on the water vapor content and are capable of detecting layers in the tropics and subtropics with extremely low humidity (less than 10 %), independent of the retrieval used to extract moisture information. Our results also verify the quality of the ERA and GFS data sets, giving confidence to the reanalyses and their use in diagnosing the full four

  17. Home range use and movement patterns of non-native feral goats in a tropical island montane dry landscape

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chynoweth, Mark W.; Lepczyk, Christopher A.; Litton, Creighton M.; Hess, Steve; Kellner, James; Cordell, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Advances in wildlife telemetry and remote sensing technology facilitate studies of broad-scale movements of ungulates in relation to phenological shifts in vegetation. In tropical island dry landscapes, home range use and movements of non-native feral goats (Capra hircus) are largely unknown, yet this information is important to help guide the conservation and restoration of some of the world’s most critically endangered ecosystems. We hypothesized that feral goats would respond to resource pulses in vegetation by traveling to areas of recent green-up. To address this hypothesis, we fitted six male and seven female feral goats with Global Positioning System (GPS) collars equipped with an Argos satellite upload link to examine goat movements in relation to the plant phenology using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). Movement patterns of 50% of males and 40% of females suggested conditional movement between non-overlapping home ranges throughout the year. A shift in NDVI values corresponded with movement between primary and secondary ranges of goats that exhibited long-distance movement, suggesting that vegetation phenology as captured by NDVI is a good indicator of the habitat and movement patterns of feral goats in tropical island dry landscapes. In the context of conservation and restoration of tropical island landscapes, the results of our study identify how non-native feral goats use resources across a broad landscape to sustain their populations and facilitate invasion of native plant communities.

  18. Home range use and movement patterns of non-native feral goats in a tropical island montane dry landscape.

    PubMed

    Chynoweth, Mark W; Lepczyk, Christopher A; Litton, Creighton M; Hess, Steven C; Kellner, James R; Cordell, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Advances in wildlife telemetry and remote sensing technology facilitate studies of broad-scale movements of ungulates in relation to phenological shifts in vegetation. In tropical island dry landscapes, home range use and movements of non-native feral goats (Capra hircus) are largely unknown, yet this information is important to help guide the conservation and restoration of some of the world's most critically endangered ecosystems. We hypothesized that feral goats would respond to resource pulses in vegetation by traveling to areas of recent green-up. To address this hypothesis, we fitted six male and seven female feral goats with Global Positioning System (GPS) collars equipped with an Argos satellite upload link to examine goat movements in relation to the plant phenology using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). Movement patterns of 50% of males and 40% of females suggested conditional movement between non-overlapping home ranges throughout the year. A shift in NDVI values corresponded with movement between primary and secondary ranges of goats that exhibited long-distance movement, suggesting that vegetation phenology as captured by NDVI is a good indicator of the habitat and movement patterns of feral goats in tropical island dry landscapes. In the context of conservation and restoration of tropical island landscapes, the results of our study identify how non-native feral goats use resources across a broad landscape to sustain their populations and facilitate invasion of native plant communities.

  19. Home Range Use and Movement Patterns of Non-Native Feral Goats in a Tropical Island Montane Dry Landscape

    PubMed Central

    Chynoweth, Mark W.; Lepczyk, Christopher A.; Litton, Creighton M.; Hess, Steven C.; Kellner, James R.; Cordell, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Advances in wildlife telemetry and remote sensing technology facilitate studies of broad-scale movements of ungulates in relation to phenological shifts in vegetation. In tropical island dry landscapes, home range use and movements of non-native feral goats (Capra hircus) are largely unknown, yet this information is important to help guide the conservation and restoration of some of the world’s most critically endangered ecosystems. We hypothesized that feral goats would respond to resource pulses in vegetation by traveling to areas of recent green-up. To address this hypothesis, we fitted six male and seven female feral goats with Global Positioning System (GPS) collars equipped with an Argos satellite upload link to examine goat movements in relation to the plant phenology using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). Movement patterns of 50% of males and 40% of females suggested conditional movement between non-overlapping home ranges throughout the year. A shift in NDVI values corresponded with movement between primary and secondary ranges of goats that exhibited long-distance movement, suggesting that vegetation phenology as captured by NDVI is a good indicator of the habitat and movement patterns of feral goats in tropical island dry landscapes. In the context of conservation and restoration of tropical island landscapes, the results of our study identify how non-native feral goats use resources across a broad landscape to sustain their populations and facilitate invasion of native plant communities. PMID:25807275

  20. Tree species effects on pathogen-suppressive capacities of soil bacteria across two tropical dry forests in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Becklund, Kristen; Powers, Jennifer; Kinkel, Linda

    2016-11-01

    Antibiotic-producing bacteria in the genus Streptomyces can inhibit soil-borne plant pathogens, and have the potential to mediate the impacts of disease on plant communities. Little is known about how antibiotic production varies among soil communities in tropical forests, despite a long history of interest in the role of soil-borne pathogens in these ecosystems. Our objective was to determine how tree species and soils influence variation in antibiotic-mediated pathogen suppression among Streptomyces communities in two tropical dry forest sites (Santa Rosa and Palo Verde). We targeted tree species that co-occur in both sites and used a culture-based functional assay to quantify pathogen-suppressive capacities of Streptomyces communities beneath 50 focal trees. We also measured host-associated litter and soil element concentrations as potential mechanisms by which trees may influence soil microbes. Pathogen-suppressive capacities of Streptomyces communities varied within and among tree species, and inhibitory phenotypes were significantly related to soil and litter element concentrations. Average proportions of inhibitory Streptomyces in soils from the same tree species varied between 1.6 and 3.3-fold between sites. Densities and proportions of pathogen-suppressive bacteria were always higher in Santa Rosa than Palo Verde. Our results suggest that spatial heterogeneity in the potential for antibiotic-mediated disease suppression is shaped by tree species, site, and soil characteristics, which could have significant implications for understanding plant community composition and diversity in tropical dry forests.

  1. Seasonality in the dung beetle community in a Brazilian tropical dry forest: Do small changes make a difference?

    PubMed

    Medina, Anderson Matos; Lopes, Priscila Paixão

    2014-01-01

    Dung beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea: Scarabaeinae) activity is influenced by rainfall seasonality. We hypothesized that rainfall might also play a major role in regulating the community structure of this group. In this study, we describe seasonal changes in the richness, composition, and structure of the Scarabaeinae community in a Brazilian tropical dry forest. A fragment of arboreal Caatinga was sampled using baited pitfall traps during the early dry season (EDS), late dry season (LDS), early wet season (EWS), and middle wet season (MWS). We compared the dung beetle community in each season in relationship to species richness, rank-dominance, curves, and composition. We collected 1352 Scarabaeinae individuals , belonging to 15 species. Dichotomius aff. laevicollis Felsche (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) was the dominant species, representing 73.89% of the individuals. There were no seasonal changes in the rank dominance curves; all had a single dominant species and a few species with low abundance, typical for arid areas. Estimated richness was highest in MWS, followed by EWS. Dry-season samples (EDS and LDS) had lower richness, with no significant difference between the dry seasons. Although species richness increased as the habitat became wetter, the difference between the wet and dry seasons was small, which differs completely from the findings of other studies in Neotropical dry forests, where almost all species cease activities in the dry season. Species composition changes were found in non-metric multidimensional scaling and sustained by analysis of similarity. All the seasons had pairwise differences in composition, with the exception of EDS and MWS, which indicates that the dung beetle community in this fragment requires more than three months of drought to trigger changes in species composition; this is probably due to small changes in the forest canopy. There was no difference in composition between EDS and MWS. As in other tropical dry forests, although

  2. Seasonality in the Dung Beetle Community in a Brazilian Tropical Dry Forest: Do Small Changes Make a Difference?

    PubMed Central

    Medina, Anderson Matos; Lopes, Priscila Paixão

    2014-01-01

    Dung beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea: Scarabaeinae) activity is influenced by rainfall seasonality. We hypothesized that rainfall might also play a major role in regulating the community structure of this group. In this study, we describe seasonal changes in the richness, composition, and structure of the Scarabaeinae community in a Brazilian tropical dry forest. A fragment of arboreal Caatinga was sampled using baited pitfall traps during the early dry season (EDS), late dry season (LDS), early wet season (EWS), and middle wet season (MWS). We compared the dung beetle community in each season in relationship to species richness, rank-dominance, curves, and composition. We collected 1352 Scarabaeinae individuals , belonging to 15 species. Dichotomius aff. laevicollis Felsche (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) was the dominant species, representing 73.89% of the individuals. There were no seasonal changes in the rank dominance curves; all had a single dominant species and a few species with low abundance, typical for arid areas. Estimated richness was highest in MWS, followed by EWS. Dry-season samples (EDS and LDS) had lower richness, with no significant difference between the dry seasons. Although species richness increased as the habitat became wetter, the difference between the wet and dry seasons was small, which differs completely from the findings of other studies in Neotropical dry forests, where almost all species cease activities in the dry season. Species composition changes were found in non-metric multidimensional scaling and sustained by analysis of similarity. All the seasons had pairwise differences in composition, with the exception of EDS and MWS, which indicates that the dung beetle community in this fragment requires more than three months of drought to trigger changes in species composition; this is probably due to small changes in the forest canopy. There was no difference in composition between EDS and MWS. As in other tropical dry forests, although

  3. [Distribution patterns of wild felids (Carnivora: Felidae) in the dry tropics of Central-Western Mexico].

    PubMed

    Charre-Medellín, Juan Felipe; Monterrubio-Rico, Tiberio Cesar; Guido-Lemus, Daniel; Mendoza, Eduardo

    2015-09-01

    The Michoacán state is characterized by the existence of important environmental heterogeneity in terms of climate, topography and types of vegetation, which includes the worldwide endangered tropical dry forest. Some reports indicating the presence of the six species of felids occurring in Mexico in this region have been made; however, evidence to support these reports is scant, and filling this lack of information is particularly critical in the case of threatened species or habitats. The aim of this study was to systematize and analyze data distribution patterns of felids in the state of Michoacán, in the Central-Western Mexico. We conducted a review of literature and databases to compile species presence records in the study region. Moreover, we analyzed data obtained from ten years of field work conducted in the region, in which complementary methods (detection of direct and indirect evidence of species occurrence along transects, camera-trapping and interviews to local people) were applied to detect the presence of felid species. We compiled a total of 29 presence records of felids in the region from our review. Additionally, field work, which accumulated 1,107.5 km of walked transects, and 8 699 camera-trap days, produced 672 records of species presence. Lynx rufus was the species with the lowest number of records and the most restricted distribution. In contrast, the species with the greatest number of records was Leoparduspardalis (n = 343). In general, 89% of felids records occurred below 1,000 masl. Overall mean annual temperature of presence records was 24 °C and mean annual precipitation was 1,040 mm. The species whose presence records showed the most distinctive pattern, in terms of temperature and precipitation associated, was L. rufus (15.8 ± 1.3°C and 941 ± 171 mm). Results of a cluster analysis showed that areas supporting different combinations of eco-regions and types of vegetation could be grouped in five clusters having different

  4. [Seed germination of four tree species from the tropical dry forest of Valle del Cauca, Colombia].

    PubMed

    Vargas Figueroa, Jhon Alexander; Duque Palacio, Olga Lucía; Torres González, Alba Marina

    2015-03-01

    The ecological restoration strategies for highly threatened ecosystems such as the tropical dry forest, depend on the knowledge of limiting factors of biological processes for the different species. Some of these include aspects such as germination and seed longevity of typical species present in those forests. In this study, we evaluated the effect of light and temperature on seed germination of two Fabaceae (Samanea saman and Jacaranda caucana) and two Bignoniaceae (Pithecellobium dulce and Tabebuia rosea) species having potential use in restoration, and we analyzed the seed storage behavior of these species for a three months period. To study the light effect, four levels of light quality on seeds were used (photoperiod of 12 hours of white light, darkness and light enriched in red and far-red, both for an hour each day), and we combined them with three levels of alternated temperatures (20/25, 20/30 and 25/30*C-16/8h). For the storage behavior, two levels of seed moisture content particular for each species were used (low: 3.5-6.1% and high: 8.3-13.8%), with three storage temperatures (20, 5 and -20 degrees C) and two storage times (one and three months). The criterion for germination was radicle emergence which was measured in four replicates per treatment, and was expressed as percentage of germination (PG). There were significant differences in germination of Samanea saman and Jacaranda caucana among light and temperature treatments, with the lowest value in darkness treatments, whereas germination of Pithecellobium dulce and Tabebuia rosea did not differ between treatments (PG>90%). The most suitable temperature regime to promote germination in all species was 25/30 degrees C. These four species showed an orthodox seed storage behavior. We concluded that seeds of R dulce, J. caucana and T. rosea did not have an apparent influence of all light conditions tested in their germination response, which might confer advantages in colonization and establishment

  5. Mapping tropical dry forest habitats integrating landsat NDVI, Ikonos imagery, and topographic information in the Caribbean island of Mona.

    PubMed

    Martinuzzi, Sebastiáin; Gould, William A; Ramos Gonzalez, Olga M; Martinez Robles, Alma; Calle Maldonado, Paulina; Pérez-Buitrago, Néstor; Fumero Caban, José J

    2008-06-01

    Assessing the status of tropical dry forest habitats using remote sensing technologies is one of the research priorities for Neotropical forests. We developed a simple method for mapping vegetation and habitats in a tropical dry forest reserve, Mona Island, Puerto Rico, by integrating the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) from Landsat, topographic information, and high-resolution Ikonos imagery. The method was practical for identifying vegetation types in areas with a great variety of plant communities and complex relief, and can be adapted to other dry forest habitats of the Caribbean Islands. NDVI was useful for identifying the distribution of forests, woodlands, and shrubland, providing a natural representation of the vegetation patterns on the island. The use of Ikonos imagery allowed increasing the number of land cover classes. As a result, sixteen land-cover types were mapped over the 5500 ha area, with a kappa coefficient of accuracy equal to 79%. This map is a central piece for modeling vertebrate species distribution and biodiversity patterns by the Puerto Rico Gap Analysis Project, and it is of great value for assisting research and management actions in the island.

  6. Methane oxidation in compost-based landfill cover with vegetation during wet and dry conditions in the tropics.

    PubMed

    Tanthachoon, Nathiya; Chiemchaisri, Chart; Chiemchaisri, Wilai; Tudsri, Sayan; Kumar, Sunil

    2008-05-01

    The effect of compost and vegetation on methane (CH4) oxidation was investigated during wet and dry conditions in a tropical region. A laboratory-scale experiment was conducted to examine the performance of nonvegetated and vegetated landfill cover systems in terms of CH4 oxidation efficiency. Two types of landfill cover materials (compost and sandy loam) and two species of tropical grasses (Sporobolus virginicus and Panicum repens) were studied for their effect on the CH4 oxidation reaction. It was found that the use of compost as cover material could maintain a high methane oxidation rate (MOR) of 12 mol CH4/m3 x day over a 250-day period. Leachate application showed a positive effect on promoting methanotrophic activity and increasing MOR. A high MOR of 12 mol CH4/m3 x day was achieved when using compost cover with P. repens during wet and dry seasons when leachate irrigation was practiced. In dry conditions, a lower MOR of 8 mol CH4/m3 x day was observed for 80 days.

  7. Climate change effects on the geographic distribution of specialist tree species of the Brazilian tropical dry forests.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, P M S; Silva, J O; Eisenlohr, P V; Schaefer, C E G R

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the ecological niche models (ENMs) for three specialist trees (Anadenanthera colubrina, Aspidosperma pyrifolium and Myracrodruon urundeuva) in seasonally dry tropical forests (SDTFs) in Brazil, considering present and future pessimist scenarios (2080) of climate change. These three species exhibit typical deciduousness and are widely distributed by SDTF in South America, being important in studies of the historical and evolutionary processes experienced by this ecosystem. The modeling of the potential geographic distribution of species was done by the method of maximum entropy (Maxent).We verified a general expansion of suitable areas for occurrence of the three species in future (c.a., 18%), although there was reduction of areas with high environmental suitability in Caatinga region. Precipitation of wettest quarter and temperature seasonality were the predictor variables that most contributed to our models. Climatic changes can provide more severe and longer dry season with increasing temperature and tree mortality in tropics. On this scenario, areas currently occupied by rainforest and savannas could become more suitable for occurrence of the SDTF specialist trees, whereas regions occupied by Caatinga could not support the future level of unsustainable (e.g., aridity). Long-term multidisciplinary studies are necessary to make reliable predictions of the plant's adaptation strategies and responses to climate changes in dry forest at community level. Based on the high deforestation rate, endemism and threat, public policies to minimize the effects of climate change on the biodiversity found within SDTFs must be undertaken rapidly.

  8. The impact of an invasive African bunchgrass (Pennisetum setaceum) on water availability and productivity of canopy trees within a tropical dry forest in Hawaii

    Treesearch

    Susan Cordell; D. R. Sandquist

    2008-01-01

    Tropical dry forests are among the Earth's most threatened ecosystems. On the Island of Hawaii the African bunchgrass Pennisetum setaceum (fountain grass) dominates the understorey of the few remaining fragments of native dry forests and is contributing to the degradation of this once diverse ecosystem. In this study, we...

  9. Plant Sexual Systems and a Review of the Breeding System Studies in the Caatinga, a Brazilian Tropical Dry Forest

    PubMed Central

    MACHADO, ISABEL CRISTINA; LOPES, ARIADNA VALENTINA; SAZIMA, MARLIES

    2006-01-01

    • Backgrounds and Aims The reproductive biology of a community can provide answers to questions related to the maintenance of the intraspecific pollen flow and reproductive success of populations, sharing and competition for pollinators and also questions on conservation of natural habitats affected by fragmentation processes. This work presents, for the first time, data on the occurrence and frequency of plant sexual systems for Caatinga communities, and a review of the breeding system studies of Caatinga species. • Methods The sexual systems of 147 species from 34 families and 91 genera occurring in three Caatinga areas in north-eastern Brazil were analysed and compared with worldwide studies focusing on reproductive biology of different tropical communities. • Key Results The frequency of hermaphrodite species was 83·0 % (122 species), seven of these (or 4·8 % of the total) being heterostylous. Monoecy occurred in 9·5 % (14) of the species, and andromonoecy in 4·8 % (seven). Only 2·7 % (four) of the species were dioecious. A high percentage of hermaphrodite species was expected and has been reported for other tropical ecosystems. With respect to the breeding system studies with species of the Caatinga, the authors' data for 21 species and an additional 18 species studied by others (n = 39) revealed a high percentage (61·5 %) of obligatory self-incompatibility. Agamospermy was not recorded among the Caatinga studied species. • Conclusions The plant sexual systems in the Caatinga, despite the semi-arid climate, are similar to other tropical dry and wet forest communities, including those with high rainfall levels, except for the much lower percentage of dioecious species. The high frequency of self-incompatible species is similar to that reported for Savanna areas in Brazil, and also for dry (deciduous and semideciduous) and humid tropical forest communities. PMID:16377654

  10. Plant sexual systems and a review of the breeding system studies in the Caatinga, a Brazilian tropical dry forest.

    PubMed

    Machado, Isabel Cristina; Lopes, Ariadna Valentina; Sazima, Marlies

    2006-02-01

    The reproductive biology of a community can provide answers to questions related to the maintenance of the intraspecific pollen flow and reproductive success of populations, sharing and competition for pollinators and also questions on conservation of natural habitats affected by fragmentation processes. This work presents, for the first time, data on the occurrence and frequency of plant sexual systems for Caatinga communities, and a review of the breeding system studies of Caatinga species. The sexual systems of 147 species from 34 families and 91 genera occurring in three Caatinga areas in north-eastern Brazil were analysed and compared with worldwide studies focusing on reproductive biology of different tropical communities. The frequency of hermaphrodite species was 83.0 % (122 species), seven of these (or 4.8 % of the total) being heterostylous. Monoecy occurred in 9.5 % (14) of the species, and andromonoecy in 4.8 % (seven). Only 2.7 % (four) of the species were dioecious. A high percentage of hermaphrodite species was expected and has been reported for other tropical ecosystems. With respect to the breeding system studies with species of the Caatinga, the authors' data for 21 species and an additional 18 species studied by others (n = 39) revealed a high percentage (61.5 %) of obligatory self-incompatibility. Agamospermy was not recorded among the Caatinga studied species. The plant sexual systems in the Caatinga, despite the semi-arid climate, are similar to other tropical dry and wet forest communities, including those with high rainfall levels, except for the much lower percentage of dioecious species. The high frequency of self-incompatible species is similar to that reported for Savanna areas in Brazil, and also for dry (deciduous and semideciduous) and humid tropical forest communities.

  11. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of cypermethrin, amitraz, and piperonyl butoxide mixtures for the control of resistant Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) in the Mexican tropics.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Vivas, R I; Li, A Y; Ojeda-Chi, M M; Trinidad-Martinez, I; Rosado-Aguilar, J A; Miller, R J; Pérez de León, A A

    2013-10-18

    A study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of cypermethrin, amitraz, and piperonyl butoxide (PBO) mixtures, through in vitro laboratory bioassays and in vivo on-animal efficacy trials, for the control of resistant Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus on cattle in the Mexican tropics. Also, to examine mechanisms of resistance to cypermethrin in this tick population, the frequency of a mutated sodium channel gene (F1550I) was determined using a PCR assay. Results of laboratory bioassays using modified larval packet tests revealed that cypermethrin toxicity was synergized by PBO (from 46.6-57.0% to 83.7-85.0% larval mortality; P<0.05). The cypermethrin and amitraz mixture showed an additive effect (from 46.6-57.0% to 56.0-74.3% larval mortality). Strong synergism was observed with the mixture of cypermethrin+amitraz+PBO and this mixture was the most effective killing resistant tick larvae in vitro (96.7-100% of larval mortality). Tick larvae surviving exposure to cypermethrin or mixtures either with amitraz and PBO in vitro showed 2.9-49.6 higher probability to present the mutated allele than those killed by acaricide treatment (P<0.05). In the in vivo trial, the mixtures containing cypermethrin+PBO (80.6-97.3%), and cypermethrin+amitraz (87.0-89.7%) were more efficacious than cypermethrin alone (76.3-80.5%). The highest level of efficacy was obtained with the mixture of cypermethrin+amitraz+PBO, which yielded >95% control that persisted for 28 days post-treatment against R. microplus infesting cattle when tested under field conditions in the Mexican tropics. Although this mixture is a potentially useful tool to combat pyrethroid resistance, a product based on an acaricide mixture like the one tested in this study has to be used rationally.

  12. Estimation of tiger densities in the tropical dry forests of Panna, Central India, using photographic capture-recapture sampling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karanth, K.Ullas; Chundawat, Raghunandan S.; Nichols, James D.; Kumar, N. Samba

    2004-01-01

    Tropical dry-deciduous forests comprise more than 45% of the tiger (Panthera tigris) habitat in India. However, in the absence of rigorously derived estimates of ecological densities of tigers in dry forests, critical baseline data for managing tiger populations are lacking. In this study tiger densities were estimated using photographic capture–recapture sampling in the dry forests of Panna Tiger Reserve in Central India. Over a 45-day survey period, 60 camera trap sites were sampled in a well-protected part of the 542-km2 reserve during 2002. A total sampling effort of 914 camera-trap-days yielded photo-captures of 11 individual tigers over 15 sampling occasions that effectively covered a 418-km2 area. The closed capture–recapture model Mh, which incorporates individual heterogeneity in capture probabilities, fitted these photographic capture history data well. The estimated capture probability/sample, p̂= 0.04, resulted in an estimated tiger population size and standard error (N̂(SÊN̂)) of 29 (9.65), and a density (D̂(SÊD̂)) of 6.94 (3.23) tigers/100 km2. The estimated tiger density matched predictions based on prey abundance. Our results suggest that, if managed appropriately, the available dry forest habitat in India has the potential to support a population size of about 9000 wild tigers.

  13. Estimation of aboveground net primary productivity in secondary tropical dry forests using the Carnegie-Ames-Stanford approach (CASA) model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, S.; Sanchez-Azofeifa, GA; Duran, SM; Calvo-Rodriguez, S.

    2016-07-01

    Although tropical dry forests (TDFs) cover roughly 42% of all tropical ecosystems, extensive deforestation and habitat fragmentation pose important limitations for their conservation and restoration worldwide. In order to develop conservation policies for this endangered ecosystem, it is necessary to quantify their provision of ecosystems services such as carbon sequestration and primary production. In this paper we explore the potential of the Carnegie-Ames-Stanford approach (CASA) for estimating aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP) in a secondary TDF located at the Santa Rosa National Park (SRNP), Costa Rica. We calculated ANPP using the CASA model (ANPPCASA) in three successional stages (early, intermediate, and late). Each stage has a stand age of 21 years, 32 years, and 50+ years, respectively, estimated as the age since land abandonment. Our results showed that the ANPPCASA for early, intermediate, and late successional stages were 3.22 Mg C ha-1 yr-1, 8.90 Mg C ha-1 yr-1, and 7.59 Mg C ha-1 yr-1, respectively, which are comparable with rates of carbon uptake in other TDFs. Our results indicate that key variables that influence ANPP in our dry forest site were stand age and precipitation seasonality. Incident photosynthetically active radiation and temperature were not dominant in the ANPPCASA. The results of this study highlight the potential of the use of remote sensing techniques and the importance of incorporating successional stage in accurate regional TDF ANPP estimation.

  14. Contrasting seasonal leaf habits of canopy trees between tropical dry-deciduous and evergreen forests in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Atsushi; Diloksumpun, Sapit; Ladpala, Phanumard; Staporn, Duriya; Panuthai, Samreong; Gamo, Minoru; Yazaki, Kenichi; Ishizuka, Moriyoshi; Puangchit, Ladawan

    2006-05-01

    We compared differences in leaf properties, leaf gas exchange and photochemical properties between drought-deciduous and evergreen trees in tropical dry forests, where soil nutrients differed but rainfall was similar. Three canopy trees (Shorea siamensis Miq., Xylia xylocarpa (Roxb.) W. Theob. and Vitex peduncularis Wall. ex Schauer) in a drought-deciduous forest and a canopy tree (Hopea ferrea Lanessan) in an evergreen forest were selected. Soil nutrient availability is lower in the evergreen forest than in the deciduous forest. Compared with the evergreen tree, the deciduous trees had shorter leaf life spans, lower leaf masses per area, higher leaf mass-based nitrogen (N) contents, higher leaf mass-based photosynthetic rates (mass-based P(n)), higher leaf N-based P(n), higher daily maximum stomatal conductance (g(s)) and wider conduits in wood xylem. Mass-based P(n) decreased from the wet to the dry season for all species. Following onset of the dry season, daily maximum g(s) and sensitivity of g(s) to leaf-to-air vapor pressure deficit remained relatively unchanged in the deciduous trees, whereas both properties decreased in the evergreen tree during the dry season. Photochemical capacity and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) of photosystem II (PSII) also remained relatively unchanged in the deciduous trees even after the onset of the dry season. In contrast, photochemical capacity decreased and NPQ increased in the evergreen tree during the dry season, indicating that the leaves coped with prolonged drought by down-regulating PSII. Thus, the drought-avoidant deciduous species were characterized by high N allocation for leaf carbon assimilation, high water use and photoinhibition avoidance, whereas the drought-tolerant evergreen was characterized by low N allocation for leaf carbon assimilation, conservative water use and photoinhibition tolerance.

  15. Design and operation of a solarheated dry kiln for tropical latitudes

    Treesearch

    Brian Bond; Omar Espinoza; Philip Araman

    2011-01-01

    Lumber is usually dried to a specific moisture content prior to further manufacturing or use. While lumber can be air-dried, the ambient humidity in most localities prevents the lumber from reaching the moisture content necessary for dimensional stability and use, especially for interior use. Solar kilns are an inexpensive alternative to conventional steam-heated kilns...

  16. Variations in soil carbon sequestration and their determinants along a precipitation gradient in seasonally dry tropical forest ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Campo, Julio; Merino, Agustín

    2016-05-01

    The effect of precipitation regime on the C cycle of tropical forests is poorly understood, despite the existence of models that suggest a drier climate may substantially alter the source-sink function of these ecosystems. Along a precipitation regime gradient containing 12 mature seasonally dry tropical forests growing under otherwise similar conditions (similar annual temperature, rainfall seasonality, and geological substrate), we analyzed the influence of variation in annual precipitation (1240 to 642 mm) and duration of seasonal drought on soil C. We investigated litterfall, decomposition in the forest floor, and C storage in the mineral soil, and analyzed the dependence of these processes and pools on precipitation. Litterfall decreased slightly - about 10% - from stands with 1240 mm yr(-1) to those with 642 mm yr(-1), while the decomposition decreased by 56%. Reduced precipitation strongly affected C storage and basal respiration in the mineral soil. Higher soil C storage at the drier sites was also related to the higher chemical recalcitrance of litter (fine roots and forest floor) and the presence of charcoal across sites, suggesting an important indirect influence of climate on C sequestration. Basal respiration was controlled by the amount of recalcitrant organic matter in the mineral soil. We conclude that in these forest ecosystems, the long-term consequences of decreased precipitation would be an increase in organic layer and mineral soil C storage, mainly due to lower decomposition and higher chemical recalcitrance of organic matter, resulting from changes in litter composition and, likely also, wildfire patterns. This could turn these seasonally dry tropical forests into significant soil C sinks under the predicted longer drought periods if primary productivity is maintained. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Dry Season Impact on Physiological Functioning of Two Tropical Tree Species in the Daintree Rainforest, Northeast Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cernusak, L. A.; Dempsey, R.; Cheesman, A.; Meir, P.; Laurance, S.

    2016-12-01

    We measured leaf gas exchange, leaf biochemistry, and stem growth in two tropical tree species in the Daintree rainforest. The site experiences an average dry season length of three months, with global climate change predictions indicating that this could increase. Of the two studied species, Elaeocarpus angustifolius is wide-spread and early-successional, whereas Endiandra microneura is locally endemic and late-successional. Measurements started in 2014 and ended in 2015, thus encompassing the 2014 dry season. Upper canopy foliage was accessed from a 48 m tall canopy crane. Photosynthetic rates were higher during the wet season in Elaeocarpus than in Endiandra, consistent with its pioneering habit. Elaeocarpus showed larger reductions in both photosynthesis and stomatal conductance in response to the dry season than did Endiandra. Dry season depression of photosynthesis was associated with reduced intercellular carbon dioxide concentrations in Endiandra, but not in Elaeocarpus, indicating a role for photo-inhibition in restricting photosynthesis during the dry season in the early successional species, but not in the late successional species. Consistently, Endiandra invested more heavily in photoprotective and anti-oxidative compounds in its upper canopy foliage than did Elaeocarpus. Stem growth rates were four-fold higher in Elaeocarpus than in Endiandra during the wet season, reflecting the successional status of the two species. Stem growth slowed in both species in response to the dry season, and all but ceased by the late dry season. With the onset of the early wet season, stem growth increased markedly, and Elaeocarpus again maintained much faster growth than Endiandra. Overall, our results indicate that at the leaf level, biochemical and physiological processes associated with photosynthesis were more vulnerable to dry season stress in Elaeocarpus than in Endiandra; however, at the whole-plant level, our measurements and the geographic distribution of

  18. Hydrological niche separation explains seasonal and inter-annual variations of vegetation dynamics in seasonally dry tropical forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, X.; Medvigy, D.; Powers, J. S.; Becknell, J. M.; Guan, K.

    2015-12-01

    Despite ample water supply, vegetation dynamics are subject to seasonal water stress in large fraction of tropical forests. These seasonally dry tropical forests (SDTFs) account for over 40% of tropical forests, harbor high biodiversity, have large potential carbon sink due to forest recovery from human disturbance and also play a critical role in global carbon budget and inter-annual variations. Plants in this biome display notably diverse responses to seasonal and inter-annual variations of water availability, especially inter-specific variations in canopy seasonality and biomass growth. Current process-based dynamic vegetation models cannot represent these diversities and are shown to perform poorly on simulating drought responses of tropical forests, calling into question of their ability to accurately simulate future changes in SDTFs. Accumulated field observations, suggest that hydrological niche separation driven by coordinated plant functional traits is associated with plants' performance under drought. Yet, it remains not clear whether the physiology-level hydrological niche separation can explain the ecosystem-level diversity observed in SDTFs. Here, we test the theory with a model-data fusion approach. We implemented a new plant hydrodynamic module that is able to track leaf water potential at sub-daily scale in ED2 model. We further incorporated a hydrological niche separation scheme based on a meta-data analysis of key functional traits in SDTFs. Simulated ecological patterns with and without hydrological niche separation were then compared with remote-sensing and long-term field observations from an SDTF site in Palo Verde, Costa Rica. Using several numerical experiments, we specifically examine the following questions: (i) Whether hydrological niche separation can explain the diversity in canopy seasonality and biomass growth? (ii) How important are the yet uncertain belowground functional traits, especially root profile in determining canopy

  19. High but not dry: diverse epiphytic bromeliad adaptations to exposure within a seasonally dry tropical forest community.

    PubMed

    Reyes-García, C; Mejia-Chang, M; Griffiths, H

    2012-02-01

    • Vascular epiphytes have developed distinct lifeforms to maximize water uptake and storage, particularly when delivered as pulses of precipitation, dewfall or fog. The seasonally dry forest of Chamela, Mexico, has a community of epiphytic bromeliads with Crassulacean acid metabolism showing diverse morphologies and stratification within the canopy. We hypothesize that niche differentiation may be related to the capacity to use fog and dew effectively to perform photosynthesis and to maintain water status. • Four Tillandsia species with either 'tank' or 'atmospheric' lifeforms were studied using seasonal field data and glasshouse experimentation, and compared on the basis of water use, leaf water δ(18) O, photosynthetic and morphological traits. • The atmospheric species, Tillandsia eistetteri, with narrow leaves and the lowest succulence, was restricted to the upper canopy, but displayed the widest range of physiological responses to pulses of precipitation and fog, and was a fog-catching 'nebulophyte'. The other atmospheric species, Tillandsia intermedia, was highly succulent, restricted to the lower canopy and with a narrower range of physiological responses. Both upper canopy tank species relied on tank water and stomatal closure to avoid desiccation. • Niche differentiation was related to capacity for water storage, dependence on fog or dewfall and physiological plasticity. © 2011 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2011 New Phytologist Trust.

  20. Photoprotection of evergreen and drought-deciduous tree leaves to overcome the dry season in monsoonal tropical dry forests in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Atsushi; Yamazaki, Jun-Ya; Harayama, Hisanori; Yazaki, Kenichi; Ladpala, Phanumard; Nakano, Takashi; Adachi, Minaco; Yoshimura, Kenichi; Panuthai, Samreong; Staporn, Duriya; Maeda, Takahisa; Maruta, Emiko; Diloksumpun, Sapit; Puangchit, Ladawan

    2014-01-01

    In tropical dry forests, uppermost-canopy leaves of evergreen trees possess the ability to use water more conservatively compared with drought-deciduous trees, which may result from significant differences in the photoprotective mechanisms between functional types. We examined the seasonal variations in leaf gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence and the amounts of photosynthetic pigments within lamina of the uppermost-canopy leaves of three drought-deciduous trees (Vitex peduncularis Wall., Xylia xylocarpa (Roxb.) W. Theob., Shorea siamensis Miq.), a semi-deciduous tree (Irvingia malayana Miq.) and two evergreen trees (Hopea ferrea Lanessan and Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels) in Thailand. Area-based maximum carbon assimilation rates (Amax) decreased during the dry season, except in S. siamensis. The electron transport rate (ETR) remained unchanged in deciduous trees, but decreased during the dry season in evergreen and semi-deciduous trees. In the principal component analysis, the first axis (Axis 1) accounted for 44.3% of the total variation and distinguished deciduous from evergreen trees. Along Axis 1, evergreen trees were characterized by a high Stern-Volmer non-photochemical quenching coefficient (NPQ), high xanthophyll cycle pigments/chlorophyll and a high de-epoxidation state of the xanthophyll cycle, whereas the deciduous trees were characterized by a high ETR, a high quantum yield of PSII (ΦPSII = (Fm(') -F)/Fm(')) and a high mass-based Amax under high-light conditions. These findings indicate that drought-deciduous trees showing less conservative water use tend to dissipate a large proportion of electron flow through photosynthesis or alternative pathways. In contrast, the evergreens showed more conservative water use, reduced Amax and ETR and enhanced NPQ and xanthophyll cycle pigments/chlorophyll during the dry season, indicating that down-regulated photosynthesis with enhanced thermal dissipation of excess light energy played an important role in

  1. Functional Trait Strategies of Trees in Dry and Wet Tropical Forests Are Similar but Differ in Their Consequences for Succession

    PubMed Central

    Lohbeck, Madelon; Lebrija-Trejos, Edwin; Martínez-Ramos, Miguel; Meave, Jorge A.; Poorter, Lourens; Bongers, Frans

    2015-01-01

    Global plant trait studies have revealed fundamental trade-offs in plant resource economics. We evaluated such trait trade-offs during secondary succession in two species-rich tropical ecosystems that contrast in precipitation: dry deciduous and wet evergreen forests of Mexico. Species turnover with succession in dry forest largely relates to increasing water availability and in wet forest to decreasing light availability. We hypothesized that while functional trait trade-offs are similar in the two forest systems, the successful plant strategies in these communities will be different, as contrasting filters affect species turnover. Research was carried out in 15 dry secondary forest sites (5-63 years after abandonment) and in 17 wet secondary forest sites (<1-25 years after abandonment). We used 11 functional traits measured on 132 species to make species-trait PCA biplots for dry and wet forest and compare trait trade-offs. We evaluated whether multivariate plant strategies changed during succession, by calculating a ‘Community-Weighted Mean’ plant strategy, based on species scores on the first two PCA-axes. Trait spectra reflected two main trade-off axes that were similar for dry and wet forest species: acquisitive versus conservative species, and drought avoiding species versus evergreen species with large animal-dispersed seeds. These trait associations were consistent when accounting for evolutionary history. Successional changes in the most successful plant strategies reflected different functional trait spectra depending on the forest type. In dry forest the community changed from having drought avoiding strategies early in succession to increased abundance of evergreen strategies with larger seeds late in succession. In wet forest the community changed from species having mainly acquisitive strategies to those with more conservative strategies during succession. These strategy changes were explained by increasing water availability during dry forest

  2. Functional trait strategies of trees in dry and wet tropical forests are similar but differ in their consequences for succession.

    PubMed

    Lohbeck, Madelon; Lebrija-Trejos, Edwin; Martínez-Ramos, Miguel; Meave, Jorge A; Poorter, Lourens; Bongers, Frans

    2014-01-01

    Global plant trait studies have revealed fundamental trade-offs in plant resource economics. We evaluated such trait trade-offs during secondary succession in two species-rich tropical ecosystems that contrast in precipitation: dry deciduous and wet evergreen forests of Mexico. Species turnover with succession in dry forest largely relates to increasing water availability and in wet forest to decreasing light availability. We hypothesized that while functional trait trade-offs are similar in the two forest systems, the successful plant strategies in these communities will be different, as contrasting filters affect species turnover. Research was carried out in 15 dry secondary forest sites (5-63 years after abandonment) and in 17 wet secondary forest sites (<1-25 years after abandonment). We used 11 functional traits measured on 132 species to make species-trait PCA biplots for dry and wet forest and compare trait trade-offs. We evaluated whether multivariate plant strategies changed during succession, by calculating a 'Community-Weighted Mean' plant strategy, based on species scores on the first two PCA-axes. Trait spectra reflected two main trade-off axes that were similar for dry and wet forest species: acquisitive versus conservative species, and drought avoiding species versus evergreen species with large animal-dispersed seeds. These trait associations were consistent when accounting for evolutionary history. Successional changes in the most successful plant strategies reflected different functional trait spectra depending on the forest type. In dry forest the community changed from having drought avoiding strategies early in succession to increased abundance of evergreen strategies with larger seeds late in succession. In wet forest the community changed from species having mainly acquisitive strategies to those with more conservative strategies during succession. These strategy changes were explained by increasing water availability during dry forest

  3. Successional changes in functional composition contrast for dry and wet tropical forest.

    PubMed

    Lohbeck, Madelon; Poorter, Lourens; Lebrija-Trejos, Edwin; Martínez-Ramos, Miguel; Meave, Jorge A; Paz, Horacio; Pérez-García, Eduardo A; Romero-Pérez, I Eunice; Tauro, Alejandra; Bongers, Frans

    2013-06-01

    We tested whether and how functional composition changes with succession in dry deciduous and wet evergreen forests of Mexico. We hypothesized that compositional changes during succession in dry forest were mainly determined by increasing water availability leading to community functional changes from conservative to acquisitive strategies, and in wet forest by decreasing light availability leading to changes from acquisitive to conservative strategies. Research was carried out in 15 dry secondary forest plots (5-63 years after abandonment) and 17 wet secondary forest plots (< 1-25 years after abandonment). Community-level functional traits were represented by community-weighted means based on 11 functional traits measured on 132 species. Successional changes in functional composition are more marked in dry forest than in wet forest and largely characterized by different traits. During dry forest succession, conservative traits related to drought tolerance and drought avoidance decreased, as predicted. Unexpectedly acquisitive leaf traits also decreased, whereas seed size and dependence on biotic dispersal increased. In wet forest succession, functional composition changed from acquisitive to conservative leaf traits, suggesting light availability as the main driver of changes. Distinct suites of traits shape functional composition changes in dry and wet forest succession, responding to different environmental filters.

  4. Seed production timing influences seedling fitness in the tropical live oak Quercus oleoides of Costa Rican dry forests.

    PubMed

    Center, Alyson; Etterson, Julie R; Deacon, Nicholas John; Cavender-Bares, Jeannine

    2016-08-01

    Reproductive phenology is important for tree species that occur in seasonally dry environments, particularly for those with desiccation-sensitive, nondormant seeds. In this study, we compared germination, growth, and survival of seeds of the evergreen tropical live oak Quercus oleoides produced at different times during the wet season at two sites that differ in rainfall along an elevation gradient. Our goal was to determine the effects of reproductive timing on germination and juvenile fitness for this widespread species in seasonally dry forests of northwestern Costa Rica. We collected seeds early and late in a single wet season from two populations with contrasting rainfall and reciprocally planted them into common gardens. Two watering treatments (ambient and supplemental watering) were established at the drier low-elevation garden. Seeds were exposed to ambient rainfall at the wetter high-elevation garden. We conducted selection analyses using aster models to examine variation in selection on seed size and timing of germination. Trees of Q. oleoides had higher fitness when seeds were produced, dispersed and germinated late in the wet season. Postgermination, water limitation during the dry season reduced seedling fitness by decreasing survival but not growth. In contrast to studies in temperate climates where earlier germination is typically favored, we show that selection on days to germination is temporally and spatially heterogeneous. Selection was found to favor either rapid or delayed germination depending on seed cohort and habitat. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.

  5. Seasonal variability in physiological and anatomical traits contributes to invasion success of Prosopis juliflora in tropical dry forest.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Marciel T; Souza, Gustavo M; Pereira, Silvia; Oliveira, Deborah A S; Figueiredo-Lima, Karla V; Arruda, Emília; Santos, Mauro G

    2017-01-05

    We investigated whether there were consistent differences in the physiological and anatomical traits and phenotypic variability of an invasive (Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) DC.) and native species (Anadenanthera colubrina (Vell.) Brenan) in response to seasonality in a tropical dry forest. The water potential, organic solutes, gas exchange, enzymes of the antioxidant system, products of oxidative stress and anatomical parameters were evaluated in both species in response to seasonality. An analysis of physiological responses indicated that the invasive P. juliflora exhibited higher response in net photosynthetic rate to that of the native species between seasons. Higher values of water potential of the invasive species than those of the native species in the dry season indicate a more efficient mechanism for water regulation in the invasive species. The invasive species exhibits a thicker cuticle and trichomes, which can reduce transpiration. In combination, the increased epidermal thickness and the decreased thickness of the parenchyma in the dry season may contribute to water saving. Our data suggest a higher variability in anatomical traits in the invasive species as a response to seasonality, whereas physiological traits did not present a clear pattern of response.

  6. Surface energy balance measurements at a tropical site in West Africa during the transition from dry to wet season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauder, M.; Jegede, O. O.; Okogbue, E. C.; Wimmer, F.; Foken, T.

    2007-07-01

    In one of the first micrometeorological experiments at a tropical site in West Africa, direct measurements of all surface energy balance components were carried out. The experiment NIMEX-1 in Ile-Ife, Nigeria (7°33' N, 4°33' E), was conducted from February 19, 2004 to March 9, 2004, during the transition from the dry to the wet season. Three typical weather situations could be observed: firstly, monsoonal winds from the southwest blew over desiccated soils. Almost 100% of the available energy at the surface was transformed into sensible heat flux. Secondly, after several thundershowers, monsoonal winds swept over soils of increased water content, which led to a partitioning of the available energy corresponding to Bowen ratios between 0.3 and 0.5. Thirdly, harmattan winds advected dry dusty air from northern directions, which reduced the incoming shortwave radiation. Again, Bowen ratios range from 0.3 to 0.5 during daytime, whereas latent heat fluxes are still high during the night due to the advection of very dry air. No systematic non-closure of the surface energy balance could be found for the NIMEX-1 dataset. Unlike other experiments in Europe, most of the ogives for the sensible and latent heat flux were found to be convergent during NIMEX-1 in Ile-Ife. This can be attributed to the homogeneity of the surrounding bush, which lacks the defined borders found in agriculturally cultivated landscapes.

  7. The potential of using Landsat time-series to extract tropical dry forest phenology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, X.; Helmer, E.

    2016-12-01

    Vegetation phenology is the timing of seasonal developmental stages in plant life cycles. Due to the persistent cloud cover in tropical regions, current studies often use satellite data with high frequency, such as AVHRR and MODIS, to detect vegetation phenology. However, the spatial resolution of these data is from 250 m to 1 km, which does not have enough spatial details and it is difficult to relate to field observations. To produce maps of phenology at a finer spatial resolution, this study explores the feasibility of using Landsat images to detect tropical forest phenology through reconstructing a high-quality, seasonal time-series of images, and tested it in Mona Island, Puerto Rico. First, an automatic method was applied to detect cloud and cloud shadow, and a spatial interpolator was use to retrieve pixels covered by clouds, shadows, and SLC-off gaps. Second, enhanced vegetation index time-series derived from the reconstructed Landsat images were used to detect 11 phenology variables. Detected phenology is consistent with field investigations, and its spatial pattern is consistent with the rainfall distribution on this island. In addition, we may expect that phenology should correlate with forest biophysical attributes, so 47 plots with field measurement of biophysical attributes were used to indirectly validate the phenology product. Results show that phenology variables can explain a lot of variations in biophysical attributes. This study suggests that Landsat time-series has great potential to detect phenology in tropical areas.

  8. Increased pollen flow counteracts fragmentation in a tropical dry forest: An example from Swietenia humilis Zuccarini

    PubMed Central

    White, G. M.; Boshier, D. H.; Powell, W.

    2002-01-01

    Habitat destruction and the resultant fragmentation of the remaining forest are a common phenomenon in the tropics. Most investigations emphasize the potential dangers of fragmentation in isolating patches of forest and exposing populations to loss of species diversity through founder effects, genetic drift, inbreeding, and restricted gene flow. However, a limited number of studies have shown that gene flow may be extensive in tropical trees, suggesting that it may occur between forest fragments and also “isolated” remnant trees. There is an urgent need to quantify pollen flow within and between forest fragments to test the veracity of such views and determine the genetic value of such fragments for in situ conservation. Microsatellite markers are used to genotype individuals of Swietenia humilis from a highly fragmented forest mosaic to directly quantify pollen-mediated gene flow. Distances of pollen flow more than 10 times greater than previously reported were detected. Our results show that some tropical angiosperm tree species may be much more adaptable and resilient to habitat destruction and fragmentation than previously considered. The description of many remnant trees as isolated or “living dead” may be more a conditioning of human perception than a true reflection of their potential conservation value. PMID:11842203

  9. Nematodes parasites of the gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus Schreber, 1775) in the seasonally dry tropical highlands of central Mexico.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Camacho, Norma; Pineda-López, Raul; López-González, Carlos A; Jones, Robert W

    2011-06-01

    The gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus Schreber, 1775) is the most abundant and opportunistic wild canid in Mexico. However, the parasites of this canid in Mexico are poorly known, and an intensive parasite survey is lacking. A survey of gray fox parasitological feces was conducted in El Cimatario National Park, a protected area representative of the seasonally dry, tropical highlands of Mexico. Feces were collected in six 1-km-length transects during the summer of 2003 and spring of 2004. The coproparasitoscopical survey registered nine species of nematodes, typical of wild and domestic canids such as Strongyloides stercoralis, Uncinaria stenocephala, Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina, Dioctophyme renale, Trichuris vulpis, Trichuris sp., and Capillaria sp. Ecological factors such as temperature and humidity appear to play a more important role in the establishment of these species of parasites in this protected area than the presence of domestic dogs.

  10. Patterns of loss and regeneration of tropical dry forest in Madagascar: the social institutional context.

    PubMed

    Elmqvist, Thomas; Pyykönen, Markku; Tengö, Maria; Rakotondrasoa, Fanambinantsoa; Rabakonandrianina, Elisabeth; Radimilahy, Chantal

    2007-05-02

    Loss of tropical forests and changes in land-use/land-cover are of growing concern worldwide. Although knowledge exists about the institutional context in which tropical forest loss is embedded, little is known about the role of social institutions in influencing regeneration of tropical forests. In the present study we used Landsat images from southern Madagascar from three different years (1984, 1993 and 2000) and covering 5500 km(2), and made a time-series analysis of three distinct large-scale patterns: 1) loss of forest cover, 2) increased forest cover, and 3) stable forest cover. Institutional characteristics underlying these three patterns were analyzed, testing the hypothesis that forest cover change is a function of strength and enforcement of local social institutions. The results showed a minor decrease of 7% total forest cover in the study area during the whole period 1984-2000, but an overall net increase of 4% during the period 1993-2000. The highest loss of forest cover occurred in a low human population density area with long distances to markets, while a stable forest cover occurred in the area with highest population density and good market access. Analyses of institutions revealed that loss of forest cover occurred mainly in areas characterized by insecure property rights, while areas with well-defined property rights showed either regenerating or stable forest cover. The results thus corroborate our hypothesis. The large-scale spontaneous regeneration dominated by native endemic species appears to be a result of a combination of changes in precipitation, migration and decreased human population and livestock grazing pressure, but under conditions of maintained and well-defined property rights. Our study emphasizes the large capacity of a semi-arid system to spontaneously regenerate, triggered by decreased pressures, but where existing social institutions mitigate other drivers of deforestation and alternative land-use.

  11. Patterns of Loss and Regeneration of Tropical Dry Forest in Madagascar: The Social Institutional Context

    PubMed Central

    Elmqvist, Thomas; Pyykönen, Markku; Tengö, Maria; Rakotondrasoa, Fanambinantsoa; Rabakonandrianina, Elisabeth; Radimilahy, Chantal

    2007-01-01

    Loss of tropical forests and changes in land-use/land-cover are of growing concern worldwide. Although knowledge exists about the institutional context in which tropical forest loss is embedded, little is known about the role of social institutions in influencing regeneration of tropical forests. In the present study we used Landsat images from southern Madagascar from three different years (1984, 1993 and 2000) and covering 5500 km2, and made a time-series analysis of three distinct large-scale patterns: 1) loss of forest cover, 2) increased forest cover, and 3) stable forest cover. Institutional characteristics underlying these three patterns were analyzed, testing the hypothesis that forest cover change is a function of strength and enforcement of local social institutions. The results showed a minor decrease of 7% total forest cover in the study area during the whole period 1984–2000, but an overall net increase of 4% during the period 1993–2000. The highest loss of forest cover occurred in a low human population density area with long distances to markets, while a stable forest cover occurred in the area with highest population density and good market access. Analyses of institutions revealed that loss of forest cover occurred mainly in areas characterized by insecure property rights, while areas with well-defined property rights showed either regenerating or stable forest cover. The results thus corroborate our hypothesis. The large-scale spontaneous regeneration dominated by native endemic species appears to be a result of a combination of changes in precipitation, migration and decreased human population and livestock grazing pressure, but under conditions of maintained and well-defined property rights. Our study emphasizes the large capacity of a semi-arid system to spontaneously regenerate, triggered by decreased pressures, but where existing social institutions mitigate other drivers of deforestation and alternative land-use. PMID:17476324

  12. Patterns of plant functional variation and specialization along secondary succession and topography in a tropical dry forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanaphre-Villanueva, Lucía; Dupuy, Juan Manuel; Andrade, José Luis; Reyes-García, Casandra; Jackson, Paula C.; Paz, Horacio

    2017-05-01

    Long-term human disturbance of tropical forests may favor generalist plant species leading to biotic homogenization. We aimed to a) assess if generalist species dominate across different successional ages and topographical positions in a tropical dry forest with a long history of human disturbance, b) to characterize functional traits associated with generalist and specialist species, and c) to assess if a predominance of generalists leads to a homogeneous functional structure across the landscape. We used a multinomial model of relative abundances to classify 118 woody species according to their successional/topographic habitat. Three species were classified as secondary-forest specialists, five as mature-forest specialists, 35 as generalists, and 75 as too rare to classify. According to topography, six species were hill specialists, eight flat-site specialists, 35 generalists, and 70 too rare. Generalists dominated across the landscape. Analysis of 14 functional traits from 65 dominant species indicated that generalists varied from acquisitive strategies of light and water early in succession to conservative strategies in older forests and on hills. Long-term human disturbance may have favored generalist species, but this did not result in functional homogenization. Further analyses considering other functional traits, and temporal and fine-scale microenvironmental variation are needed to better understand community assembly.

  13. DNA Barcode Authentication of Wood Samples of Threatened and Commercial Timber Trees within the Tropical Dry Evergreen Forest of India

    PubMed Central

    Nithaniyal, Stalin; Newmaster, Steven G.; Ragupathy, Subramanyam; Krishnamoorthy, Devanathan; Vassou, Sophie Lorraine; Parani, Madasamy

    2014-01-01

    Background India is rich with biodiversity, which includes a large number of endemic, rare and threatened plant species. Previous studies have used DNA barcoding to inventory species for applications in biodiversity monitoring, conservation impact assessment, monitoring of illegal trading, authentication of traded medicinal plants etc. This is the first tropical dry evergreen forest (TDEF) barcode study in the World and the first attempt to assemble a reference barcode library for the trees of India as part of a larger project initiated by this research group. Methodology/Principal Findings We sampled 429 trees representing 143 tropical dry evergreen forest (TDEF) species, which included 16 threatened species. DNA barcoding was completed using rbcL and matK markers. The tiered approach (1st tier rbcL; 2nd tier matK) correctly identified 136 out of 143 species (95%). This high level of species resolution was largely due to the fact that the tree species were taxonomically diverse in the TDEF. Ability to resolve taxonomically diverse tree species of TDEF was comparable among the best match method, the phylogenetic method, and the characteristic attribute organization system method. Conclusions We demonstrated the utility of the TDEF reference barcode library to authenticate wood samples from timber operations in the TDEF. This pilot research study will enable more comprehensive surveys of the illegal timber trade of threatened species in the TDEF. This TDEF reference barcode library also contains trees that have medicinal properties, which could be used to monitor unsustainable and indiscriminate collection of plants from the wild for their medicinal value. PMID:25259794

  14. Terrestrial Macrofungal Diversity from the Tropical Dry Evergreen Biome of Southern India and Its Potential Role in Aerobiology

    PubMed Central

    Priyamvada, Hema; Akila, M.; Singh, Raj Kamal; Ravikrishna, R.; Verma, R. S.; Philip, Ligy; Marathe, R. R.; Sahu, L. K.; Sudheer, K. P.; Gunthe, S. S.

    2017-01-01

    Macrofungi have long been investigated for various scientific purposes including their food and medicinal characteristics. Their role in aerobiology as a fraction of the primary biological aerosol particles (PBAPs), however, has been poorly studied. In this study, we present a source of macrofungi with two different but interdependent objectives: (i) to characterize the macrofungi from a tropical dry evergreen biome in southern India using advanced molecular techniques to enrich the database from this region, and (ii) to assess whether identified species of macrofungi are a potential source of atmospheric PBAPs. From the DNA analysis, we report the diversity of the terrestrial macrofungi from a tropical dry evergreen biome robustly supported by the statistical analyses for diversity conclusions. A total of 113 macrofungal species belonging to 54 genera and 23 families were recorded, with Basidiomycota and Ascomycota constituting 96% and 4% of the species, respectively. The highest species richness was found in the family Agaricaceae (25.3%) followed by Polyporaceae (15.3%) and Marasmiaceae (10.8%). The difference in the distribution of commonly observed macrofungal families over this location was compared with other locations in India (Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, and West Bengal) using two statistical tests. The distributions of the terrestrial macrofungi were distinctly different in each ecosystem. We further attempted to demonstrate the potential role of terrestrial macrofungi as a source of PBAPs in ambient air. In our opinion, the findings from this ecosystem of India will enhance our understanding of the distribution, diversity, ecology, and biological prospects of terrestrial macrofungi as well as their potential to contribute to airborne fungal aerosols. PMID:28072853

  15. Terrestrial Macrofungal Diversity from the Tropical Dry Evergreen Biome of Southern India and Its Potential Role in Aerobiology.

    PubMed

    Priyamvada, Hema; Akila, M; Singh, Raj Kamal; Ravikrishna, R; Verma, R S; Philip, Ligy; Marathe, R R; Sahu, L K; Sudheer, K P; Gunthe, S S

    2017-01-01

    Macrofungi have long been investigated for various scientific purposes including their food and medicinal characteristics. Their role in aerobiology as a fraction of the primary biological aerosol particles (PBAPs), however, has been poorly studied. In this study, we present a source of macrofungi with two different but interdependent objectives: (i) to characterize the macrofungi from a tropical dry evergreen biome in southern India using advanced molecular techniques to enrich the database from this region, and (ii) to assess whether identified species of macrofungi are a potential source of atmospheric PBAPs. From the DNA analysis, we report the diversity of the terrestrial macrofungi from a tropical dry evergreen biome robustly supported by the statistical analyses for diversity conclusions. A total of 113 macrofungal species belonging to 54 genera and 23 families were recorded, with Basidiomycota and Ascomycota constituting 96% and 4% of the species, respectively. The highest species richness was found in the family Agaricaceae (25.3%) followed by Polyporaceae (15.3%) and Marasmiaceae (10.8%). The difference in the distribution of commonly observed macrofungal families over this location was compared with other locations in India (Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, and West Bengal) using two statistical tests. The distributions of the terrestrial macrofungi were distinctly different in each ecosystem. We further attempted to demonstrate the potential role of terrestrial macrofungi as a source of PBAPs in ambient air. In our opinion, the findings from this ecosystem of India will enhance our understanding of the distribution, diversity, ecology, and biological prospects of terrestrial macrofungi as well as their potential to contribute to airborne fungal aerosols.

  16. Long-Term Environmental Correlates of Invasion by Lantana camara (Verbenaceae) in a Seasonally Dry Tropical Forest

    PubMed Central

    Ramaswami, Geetha; Sukumar, Raman

    2013-01-01

    Invasive species, local plant communities and invaded ecosystems change over space and time. Quantifying this change may lead to a better understanding of the ecology and the effective management of invasive species. We used data on density of the highly invasive shrub Lantana camara (lantana) for the period 1990–2008 from a 50 ha permanent plot in a seasonally dry tropical forest of Mudumalai in southern India. We used a cumulative link mixed-effects regression approach to model the transition of lantana from one qualitative density state to another as a function of biotic factors such as indicators of competition from local species (lantana itself, perennial grasses, invasive Chromolaena odorata, the native shrub Helicteres isora and basal area of native trees) and abiotic factors such as fire frequency, inter-annual variability of rainfall and relative soil moisture. The density of lantana increased substantially during the study period. Lantana density was negatively associated with the density of H. isora, positively associated with basal area of native trees, but not affected by the presence of grasses or other invasive species. In the absence of fire, lantana density increased with increasing rainfall. When fires occurred, transitions to higher densities occurred at low rainfall values. In drier regions, lantana changed from low to high density as rainfall increased while in wetter regions of the plot, lantana persisted in the dense category irrespective of rainfall. Lantana seems to effectively utilize resources distributed in space and time to its advantage, thus outcompeting local species and maintaining a population that is not yet self-limiting. High-risk areas and years could potentially be identified based on inferences from this study for facilitating management of lantana in tropical dry forests. PMID:24167555

  17. Long-term environmental correlates of invasion by Lantana camara (Verbenaceae) in a seasonally dry tropical forest.

    PubMed

    Ramaswami, Geetha; Sukumar, Raman

    2013-01-01

    Invasive species, local plant communities and invaded ecosystems change over space and time. Quantifying this change may lead to a better understanding of the ecology and the effective management of invasive species. We used data on density of the highly invasive shrub Lantana camara (lantana) for the period 1990-2008 from a 50 ha permanent plot in a seasonally dry tropical forest of Mudumalai in southern India. We used a cumulative link mixed-effects regression approach to model the transition of lantana from one qualitative density state to another as a function of biotic factors such as indicators of competition from local species (lantana itself, perennial grasses, invasive Chromolaena odorata, the native shrub Helicteres isora and basal area of native trees) and abiotic factors such as fire frequency, inter-annual variability of rainfall and relative soil moisture. The density of lantana increased substantially during the study period. Lantana density was negatively associated with the density of H. isora, positively associated with basal area of native trees, but not affected by the presence of grasses or other invasive species. In the absence of fire, lantana density increased with increasing rainfall. When fires occurred, transitions to higher densities occurred at low rainfall values. In drier regions, lantana changed from low to high density as rainfall increased while in wetter regions of the plot, lantana persisted in the dense category irrespective of rainfall. Lantana seems to effectively utilize resources distributed in space and time to its advantage, thus outcompeting local species and maintaining a population that is not yet self-limiting. High-risk areas and years could potentially be identified based on inferences from this study for facilitating management of lantana in tropical dry forests.

  18. Reduced heat stress in offices in the tropics using solar powered drying of the supply air.

    PubMed

    Gunnarsen, L; Santos, A M B

    2002-12-01

    Many solutions to indoor climate problems known from developed countries may have prohibitive installation and running costs in developing countries. The purpose was to develop a low-cost solution to heat stress in a hot and humid environment based on solar powered drying of supply air. Dry supply air may facilitate personal cooling by increased evaporation of sweat. Heat acclimatized people with efficient sweating may in particular benefit from this cooling. A prototype solar powered supply system for dried-only air was made. Air from the system was mixed with room air, heated to six different combinations of temperature and humidity and led to Personal Units for Ventilation and Cooling (PUVAC) in six cubicles simulating office workplaces. A total of 123 heat acclimatized subjects were exposed 45 min in each of the cubicles. A model for the combined effect of operative temperature of room, moisture content of room air, temperature of supply air and moisture content of supply air was developed based on the experiments. Reduction of moisture content in the supply air by 1.6 g/kg had the same effect as lowering the operative temperature by 1 degree C. The solar-powered system for supplying dry air is a low-cost alternative to traditional air conditioning in hot and humid regions.

  19. Assessing the effect of climate change on carbon sequestration in a Mexican dry forest in the Yucatan Peninsula

    Treesearch

    Z. Dai; K.D. Johnson; R.A. Birdsey; J.L. Hernandez-Stefanoni; J.M. Dupuy

    2015-01-01

    Assessing the effect of climate change on carbon sequestration in tropical forest ecosystems is important to inform monitoring, reporting, and verification (MRV) for reducing deforestation and forest degradation (REDD), and to effectively assess forest management options under climate change. Two process-based models, Forest-DNDC and Biome-BGC, with different spatial...

  20. Drought resistance in early and late secondary successional species from a tropical dry forest: the interplay between xylem resistance to embolism, sapwood water storage and leaf shedding

    Treesearch

    Fernando Pineda-Garcia; Horacio Paz; Frederick C. Meinzer

    2013-01-01

    The mechanisms of drought resistance that allow plants to successfully establish at different stages of secondary succession in tropical dry forests are not well understood. We characterized mechanisms of drought resistance in early and late-successional species and tested whether risk of drought differs across sites at different successional stages, and whether early...

  1. Symbiosis with AMF and leaf Pi supply increases water deficit tolerance of woody species from seasonal dry tropical forest.

    PubMed

    Frosi, Gabriella; Barros, Vanessa A; Oliveira, Marciel T; Santos, Mariana; Ramos, Diego G; Maia, Leonor C; Santos, Mauro G

    2016-12-01

    In seasonal dry tropical forests, plants are subjected to severe water deficit, and the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) or inorganic phosphorus supply (Pi) can mitigate the effects of water deficit. This study aimed to assess the physiological performance of Poincianella pyramidalis subjected to water deficit in combination with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and leaf inorganic phosphorus (Pi) supply. The experiment was conducted in a factorial arrangement of 2 water levels (+H2O and -H2O), 2 AMF levels (+AMF and -AMF) and 2Pi levels (+Pi and -Pi). Leaf primary metabolism, dry shoot biomass and leaf mineral nutrients were evaluated. Inoculated AMF plants under well-watered and drought conditions had higher photosynthesis and higher shoot biomass. Under drought, AMF, Pi or AMF+Pi plants showed metabolic improvements in photosynthesis, leaf biochemistry and higher biomass compared to the plants under water deficit without AMF or Pi. After rehydration, those plants submitted to drought with AMF, Pi or AMF+Pi showed a faster recovery of photosynthesis compared to treatment under water deficit without AMF or Pi. However, plants under the drought condition with AMF showed a higher net photosynthesis rate. These findings suggest that AMF, Pi or AMF+Pi increase the drought tolerance in P. pyramidalis, and AMF associations under well-watered conditions increase shoot biomass and, under drought, promoted faster recovery of photosynthesis.

  2. Stress tolerance and ecophysiological ability of an invader and a native species in a seasonally dry tropical forest.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Marciel Teixeira; Matzek, Virginia; Dias Medeiros, Camila; Rivas, Rebeca; Falcão, Hiram Marinho; Santos, Mauro Guida

    2014-01-01

    Ecophysiological traits of Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) DC. and a phylogenetically and ecologically similar native species, Anadenanthera colubrina (Vell.) Brenan, were studied to understand the invasive species' success in caatinga, a seasonally dry tropical forest ecosystem of the Brazilian Northeast. To determine if the invader exhibited a superior resource-capture or a resource-conservative strategy, we measured biophysical and biochemical parameters in both species during dry and wet months over the course of two years. The results show that P. juliflora benefits from a flexible strategy in which it frequently outperforms the native species in resource capture traits under favorable conditions (e.g., photosynthesis), while also showing better stress tolerance (e.g., antioxidant activity) and water-use efficiency in unfavorable conditions. In addition, across both seasons the invasive has the advantage over the native with higher chlorophyll/carotenoids and chlorophyll a/b ratios, percent N, and leaf protein. We conclude that Prosopis juliflora utilizes light, water and nutrients more efficiently than Anadenanthera colubrina, and suffers lower intensity oxidative stress in environments with reduced water availability and high light radiation.

  3. Stress Tolerance and Ecophysiological Ability of an Invader and a Native Species in a Seasonally Dry Tropical Forest

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira Oliveira, Marciel; Matzek, Virginia; Dias Medeiros, Camila; Rivas, Rebeca; Marinho Falcão, Hiram; Santos, Mauro Guida

    2014-01-01

    Ecophysiological traits of Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) DC. and a phylogenetically and ecologically similar native species, Anadenanthera colubrina (Vell.) Brenan, were studied to understand the invasive species’ success in caatinga, a seasonally dry tropical forest ecosystem of the Brazilian Northeast. To determine if the invader exhibited a superior resource-capture or a resource-conservative strategy, we measured biophysical and biochemical parameters in both species during dry and wet months over the course of two years. The results show that P. juliflora benefits from a flexible strategy in which it frequently outperforms the native species in resource capture traits under favorable conditions (e.g., photosynthesis), while also showing better stress tolerance (e.g., antioxidant activity) and water-use efficiency in unfavorable conditions. In addition, across both seasons the invasive has the advantage over the native with higher chlorophyll/carotenoids and chlorophyll a/b ratios, percent N, and leaf protein. We conclude that Prosopis juliflora utilizes light, water and nutrients more efficiently than Anadenanthera colubrina, and suffers lower intensity oxidative stress in environments with reduced water availability and high light radiation. PMID:25137048

  4. Effects of precipitation regime and soil nitrogen on leaf traits in seasonally dry tropical forests of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Roa-Fuentes, Lilia L; Templer, Pamela H; Campo, Julio

    2015-10-01

    Leaf traits are closely associated with nutrient use by plants and can be utilized as a proxy for nutrient cycling processes. However, open questions remain, in particular regarding the variability of leaf traits within and across seasonally dry tropical forests. To address this, we considered six leaf traits (specific area, thickness, dry matter content, N content, P content and natural abundance (15)N) of four co-occurring tree species (two that are not associated with N2-fixing bacteria and two that are associated with N2-fixing bacteria) and net N mineralization rates and inorganic N concentrations along a precipitation gradient (537-1036 mm per year) in the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. Specifically we sought to test the hypothesis that leaf traits of dominant plant species shift along a precipitation gradient, but are affected by soil N cycling. Although variation among different species within each site explains some leaf trait variation, there is also a high level of variability across sites, suggesting that factors other than precipitation regime more strongly influence leaf traits. Principal component analyses indicated that across sites and tree species, covariation in leaf traits is an indicator of soil N availability. Patterns of natural abundance (15)N in foliage and foliage minus soil suggest that variation in precipitation regime drives a shift in plant N acquisition and the openness of the N cycle. Overall, our study shows that both plant species and site are important determinants of leaf traits, and that the leaf trait spectrum is correlated with soil N cycling.

  5. Flowering phenology, growth forms, and pollination syndromes in tropical dry forest species: Influence of phylogeny and abiotic factors.

    PubMed

    Cortés-Flores, Jorge; Hernández-Esquivel, Karen Beatriz; González-Rodríguez, Antonio; Ibarra-Manríquez, Guillermo

    2017-01-01

    Analyses of the influence of temporal variation in abiotic factors on flowering phenology of tropical dry forest species have not considered the possible response of species with different growth forms and pollination syndromes, while controlling for phylogenetic relationships among species. Here, we investigated the relationship between flowering phenology, abiotic factors, and plant functional attributes, while controlling for phylogenetic relationship among species, in a dry forest community in Mexico. We characterized flowering phenology (time and duration) and pollination syndromes of 55 tree species, 49 herbs, 24 shrubs, 15 lianas, and 11 vines. We tested the influence of pollination syndrome, growth form, and abiotic factors on flowering phenology using phylogenetic generalized least squares. We found a relationship between flowering duration and time. Growth form was related to flowering time, and the pollination syndrome had a more significant relationship with flowering duration. Flowering time variation in the community was explained mainly by abiotic variables, without an important phylogenetic effect. Flowering time in lianas and trees was negatively and positively correlated with daylength, respectively. Functional attributes, environmental cues, and phylogeny interact with each other to shape the diversity of flowering patterns. Phenological differentiation among species groups revealed multiples strategies associated with growth form and pollination syndromes that can be important for understanding species coexistence in this highly diverse plant community. © 2017 Botanical Society of America.

  6. Soil emissions of nitric oxide in a seasonally dry tropical forest of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, Eric A.; Vitousek, Peter M.; Riley, Ralph; Matson, Pamela A.; Garcia-Mendez, Georgina; Maass, J. M.

    1991-08-01

    Soil emissions of NO were measured at the Chamela Biological Station, Mexico, using soil covers and a field apparatus of NO detection based on CrO3 conversion of NO to NO2 and detection of NO2 by chemiluminescence with Luminol. Mean NO fluxes from forest soils ranged from 0.14 to 0.52 ng NO-N/sq cm/hr during the dry season and from 0.73 to 1.27 ng NO-N/sq cm/hr during the wet season. A fertilized floodplain pasture exhibited higher fluxes, but an unfertilized upland pasture, which represents the fastest growing land use in the region, had flux rates similar to the forest sites. Wetting experiments at the end of the dry season caused large pulses of NO flux, equaling 10 percent to 20 percent of the estimated annual NO emissions of 0.5-1.0 kg N/ha from the forest sites. Absence of a forest canopy during the dry season and the first wet season rain probably results in substantial NO(x) export from the forest system that may be important to regional atmospheric chemical processes. Wetting experiments during the wet season and a natural rain event had little or no stimulatory effect on NO flux rates.

  7. Chemical composition monitoring of tropical rainwater during an atypical dry year

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mimura, A. M. S.; Almeida, J. M.; Vaz, F. A. S.; de Oliveira, M. A. L.; Ferreira, C. C. M.; Silva, J. C. J.

    2016-03-01

    The effects of an atypical dry year on the rainwater chemical composition were investigated. Conductivity, pH, major inorganic ions (Na+, K+, Mg2 +, Ca2 +, H+, Cl-, NO3-, SO42 - and HCO3-) and trace-elements (As, Cd, Cu, Mn and Pb) were determined in 53 rainwater samples, which were collected on a daily basis over 12 months, in a meteorological station from Juiz de Fora city, Southeast Brazil. The rainwater conductivity ranged from 3.9 a 46.5 μS cm- 1 and the pH ranged from 5.04 to 7.10. The analytes concentrations decreased in the following order: Ca2 + > Na+ > K+ > Mg2 + > H+ for cations, NO3- > Cl- > HCO3- > SO42 - for anions and Cu > Mn > Pb > Cd > As for trace-elements. In general, higher analytes concentrations were observed during the dry season. The total annual rainfall in 2014 was 964.4 mm. This value is significantly lower than the historic annual mean of Juiz de Fora, which is 1550 mm. Therefore, the year 2014 was characterized as a very dry year.

  8. Soil emissions of nitric oxide in a seasonally dry tropical forest of Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, Eric A.; Vitousek, Peter M.; Riley, Ralph; Matson, Pamela A.; Garcia-Mendez, Georgina; Maass, J. M.

    1991-01-01

    Soil emissions of NO were measured at the Chamela Biological Station, Mexico, using soil covers and a field apparatus of NO detection based on CrO3 conversion of NO to NO2 and detection of NO2 by chemiluminescence with Luminol. Mean NO fluxes from forest soils ranged from 0.14 to 0.52 ng NO-N/sq cm/hr during the dry season and from 0.73 to 1.27 ng NO-N/sq cm/hr during the wet season. A fertilized floodplain pasture exhibited higher fluxes, but an unfertilized upland pasture, which represents the fastest growing land use in the region, had flux rates similar to the forest sites. Wetting experiments at the end of the dry season caused large pulses of NO flux, equaling 10 percent to 20 percent of the estimated annual NO emissions of 0.5-1.0 kg N/ha from the forest sites. Absence of a forest canopy during the dry season and the first wet season rain probably results in substantial NO(x) export from the forest system that may be important to regional atmospheric chemical processes. Wetting experiments during the wet season and a natural rain event had little or no stimulatory effect on NO flux rates.

  9. Soil emissions of nitric oxide in a seasonally dry tropical forest of Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, Eric A.; Vitousek, Peter M.; Riley, Ralph; Matson, Pamela A.; Garcia-Mendez, Georgina; Maass, J. M.

    1991-01-01

    Soil emissions of NO were measured at the Chamela Biological Station, Mexico, using soil covers and a field apparatus of NO detection based on CrO3 conversion of NO to NO2 and detection of NO2 by chemiluminescence with Luminol. Mean NO fluxes from forest soils ranged from 0.14 to 0.52 ng NO-N/sq cm/hr during the dry season and from 0.73 to 1.27 ng NO-N/sq cm/hr during the wet season. A fertilized floodplain pasture exhibited higher fluxes, but an unfertilized upland pasture, which represents the fastest growing land use in the region, had flux rates similar to the forest sites. Wetting experiments at the end of the dry season caused large pulses of NO flux, equaling 10 percent to 20 percent of the estimated annual NO emissions of 0.5-1.0 kg N/ha from the forest sites. Absence of a forest canopy during the dry season and the first wet season rain probably results in substantial NO(x) export from the forest system that may be important to regional atmospheric chemical processes. Wetting experiments during the wet season and a natural rain event had little or no stimulatory effect on NO flux rates.

  10. Diatom Evidence for Climatic Changes Associated With the Slowdown of the Meridional Overturning Circulation in the Last 50 Years in the Mexican Tropical Pacific.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machain-Castillo, M. L.; Almaraz-Ruiz, L.; Esparza-Alvarez, M. A.; Ruiz-Fernandez, A. C.; Sanchez-Cabeza, J. A.; Hernandez-Becerril, D. U.

    2016-12-01

    Laminated sediments from the Gulf of Tehuantepec, Mexican Tropical Pacific, reveal climatic variability during the last 50 years. The Gulf of Tehuantepec is characterized by strong upwelling during the autumn-winter season due to intense northern winds. Upwelling supplies high nutrient concentrations and cold water to the ocean surface, resulting in high biological productivity, including diatom blooms. The rest of the year winds are relatively calm and currents predominantly flow to the Northeast. A box core collected in the area beneath the wind axes (750m water depth) showed sub-millimeter to millimeter scale laminated sediments. Laminae were separated and analyzed for diatoms. Chronology was obtained by 210Pb dating. Three diatom associations were recognized in the sediments studied: a cold water association dominated by Thalasionema nitzschioides, T. nitzchioides var. parva, Lioloma pacificum and Chaetoceros spores; an association dominated by Fragilariopsis doliolus, T. bacillare and Thalassiosira oestrupii, more characteristic of temperate waters, and an association of warm waters characterized by Neodelphineis pelagica, T. pseudonitzschioides, Actinocyclus ellipticus, Cyclotella litoralis and Thalassiosira decipiens. Abundance of diatoms is higher (up to 344 106 valves g-1) in the coldest association and lowest (83 106 valves g-1) in the warmer one. Although upwelling species are present throughout the core, we observed a decrease in diatom abundance and an increase in temperate and warm water taxa from the 1960's-1970's. This trend is coincident with the climatic changes produced by the slowdown of the meridional overturning circulation proposed for the past century and global warming.

  11. African Swine Fever Diagnosis Adapted to Tropical Conditions by the Use of Dried-blood Filter Papers.

    PubMed

    Randriamparany, T; Kouakou, K V; Michaud, V; Fernández-Pinero, J; Gallardo, C; Le Potier, M-F; Rabenarivahiny, R; Couacy-Hymann, E; Raherimandimby, M; Albina, E

    2016-08-01

    The performance of Whatman 3-MM filter papers for the collection, drying, shipment and long-term storage of blood at ambient temperature, and for the detection of African swine fever virus and antibodies was assessed. Conventional and real-time PCR, viral isolation and antibody detection by ELISA were performed on paired samples (blood/tissue versus dried-blood 3-MM filter papers) collected from experimentally infected pigs and from farm pigs in Madagascar and Côte d'Ivoire. 3-MM filter papers were used directly in the conventional and real-time PCR without previous extraction of nucleic acids. Tests that performed better with 3-MM filter papers were in descending order: virus isolation, real-time UPL PCR and conventional PCR. The analytical sensitivity of real-time UPL PCR on filter papers was similar to conventional testing (virus isolation or conventional PCR) on organs or blood. In addition, blood-dried filter papers were tested in ELISA for antibody detection and the observed sensitivity was very close to conventional detection on serum samples and gave comparable results. Filter papers were stored up to 9 months at 20-25°C and for 2 months at 37°C without significant loss of sensitivity for virus genome detection. All tests on 3-MM filter papers had 100% specificity compared to the gold standards. Whatman 3-MM filter papers have the advantage of being cheap and of preserving virus viability for future virus isolation and characterization. In this study, Whatman 3-MM filter papers proved to be a suitable support for the collection, storage and use of blood in remote areas of tropical countries without the need for a cold chain and thus provide new possibilities for antibody testing and virus isolation.

  12. Species Richness and Abundance of Cerambycidae (Coleoptera) in Huatulco, Oaxaca, Mexico; Relationships with Phenological Changes in the Tropical Dry Forest.

    PubMed

    Noguera, F A; Ortega-Huerta, M A; Zaragoza-Caballero, S; González-Soriano, E; Ramírez-García, E

    2017-07-26

    Cerambycidae have an important ecological role in initiating the degradation process of dead wood, but few studies have evaluated Cerambycidae community attributes in relation to ecosystem phenology. We surveyed the cerambicid fauna of the tropical dry forest in Huatulco, Oaxaca, Mexico, and explored the relationship of Cerambycidae species richness and abundance with phenological changes in vegetation. We applied three collecting methods of light traps, direct collection, and Malaise traps to survey Cerambycidae throughout 2005. To determine seasonal variations, we collected samples in the dry season month of February in the rainy season of May-July and August-September, and in the transition months of October and November through. We collected and identified 145 species, 88 genera, 37 tribes, and four subfamilies. The subfamily with the highest number of species was Cerambycinae (100 species), and the tribe with the highest number of genera and species was Elaphidiini with 13 genera and 33 species. The ICE non-parametric estimator determined an overall expected richness of 373 species, while the overall Shannon Diversity Index was 4.1. Both species richness and abundance varied seasonally, with the highest values recorded in the rainy season and the lowest in the dry season. Overall species abundance was not significantly correlated to monthly rainfall or EVI neither, only for "direct collecting" the EVI vs Richness and EVI vs Shannon Diversity Index were significantly correlated. We propose that the seemingly contradictory relationships between seasonal richness patterns of Cerambycidae and the greening/senescence of vegetation (EVI) may be explained by the seasonal availability of dead organic matter, flowers, or leafy vegetation that may be synchronized with the behavior of different cerambycid species.

  13. Do Reductions in Dry Season Transpiration Allow Shallow Soil Water Uptake to Persist in a Tropical Lower Montane Cloud Forest?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munoz Villers, L. E.; Holwerda, F.; Alvarado-Barrientos, M. S.; Goldsmith, G. R.; Geissert Kientz, D. R.; González Martínez, T. M.; Dawson, T. E.

    2016-12-01

    Tropical montane cloud forests (TMCF) are ecosystems particularly sensitive to climate change; however, the effects of warmer and drier conditions on TMCF water cycling remain poorly understood. To investigate the plant functional response to reduced water availability, we conducted a study during the mid to late dry season (2014) in the lower limit (1,325 m asl) of the TMCF belt (1200-2500 m asl) in central Veracruz, Mexico. The temporal variation of transpiration rates of dominant upper canopy and mid-story tree species, depth of water uptake, as well as tree water sources were examined using micrometeorological, sapflow and soil moisture measurements, in combination with data on stable isotope (δ18O and δ2H) composition of rain, tree xylem, soil (bulk and low suction-lysimeter) and stream water. The sapflow data suggest that crown conductances decreased as temperature and vapor pressure deficit increased, and soil moisture decreased from the mid to late dry season. Across all samplings (January 21, April 12 and 26), upper canopy species (Quercus spp.) showed more depleted (negative) isotope values compared to mid-story trees (Carpinus tropicalis). Overall, we found that the evaporated soil water pool was the main source for the trees. Furthermore, our MixSIAR Bayesian mixing model results showed that the depth of tree water uptake changed over the course of the dry season. Unexpectedly, a shift in water uptake from deeper (60-120 cm depth) to shallower soil water (0-30 cm) sources was observed, coinciding with the decreases in transpiration rates towards the end of the dry season. A larger reduction in deep soil water contributions was observed for upper canopy trees (from 70±14 to 22±15%) than for mid-story species (from 10±13 to 7±10%). The use of shallow soil water by trees during the dry season seems consistent with the greater root biomass and higher macronutrient concentrations found in the first 10 cm of the soil profiles. These findings are an

  14. Factors associated with long-term species composition in dry tropical forests of Central India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwala, M.; DeFries, R. S.; Qureshi, Q.; Jhala, Y. V.

    2016-10-01

    The long-term future of species composition in forests depends on regeneration. Many factors can affect regeneration, including human use, environmental conditions, and species’ traits. This study examines the influence of these factors in a tropical deciduous forest of Central India, which is heavily used by local, forest-dependent residents for livestock grazing, fuel-wood extraction, construction and other livelihood needs. We measure size-class proportions (the ratio of abundance of a species at a site in a higher size class to total abundance in both lower and higher size classes) for 39 tree species across 20 transects at different intensities of human use. The size-class proportions for medium to large trees and for small to medium-sized trees were negatively associated with species that are used for local construction, while size class proportions for saplings to small trees were positively associated with those species that are fire resistant and negatively associated with livestock density. Results indicate that grazing and fire prevent non-fire resistant species from reaching reproductive age, which can alter the long term composition and future availability of species that are important for local use and ecosystem services. Management efforts to reduce fire and forest grazing could reverse these impacts on long-term forest composition.

  15. Morphotype-based characterization of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities in a restored tropical dry forest, Margarita island-Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Fajardo, Laurie; Loveral, Milagros; Arrindell, Pauline; Aguilar, Victor Hugo; Hasmy, Zamira; Cuenca, Gisela

    2015-09-01

    The mycorrhizal component of revegetated areas after ecological restoration or rehabilitation in arid and semiarid tropical areas has been scarcely assessed, particularly those made after mining disturbance. We evaluated and compared the presence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi of a small area of restored tropical dry forest destroyed by sand extraction, with a non-restored area of similar age, at the peninsula of Macanao, Margarita Island (Venezuela). Our study was undertaken in 2009, four years after planting, and the mycorrhizal status was evaluated in four restored plots (8 x 12.5 m) (two were previously treated with hydrogel (R2 and R2'), and two were left untreated (R1 and R1'), and four non-restored plots of similar size (NR1 and NR1' with graminoid physiognomy with some scattered shrubs; and NR2 and NR2', with a more species rich plant community). Apparently the restoration management promoted higher arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) species richness and diversity, particularly in restored soils where the hydrogel was added (R2 treatment). Soil of the NRI treatment (with a higher herbaceous component) showed the highest spore density, compared to samples of soils under the other treatments. Considering species composition, Claroideoglomus etunicatum and Rhizophagus intraradices were found in all treatments; besides, Diversispora spurca and Funnefformis geosporum were only found in non-restored plots, while members of the Gigasporaceae (a family associated with little disturbed sites) were commonly observed in the plots with restored soils. Mycorrhizal colonization was similar in the restored and non-restored areas, being a less sensitive indicator of the ecosystem recovery. The trend of higher richness and diversity of AMF in the restored plot with hydrogel suggests that this management strategy contributes to accelerate the natural regeneration in those ecosystems where water plays an essential role.

  16. Morphological and ecophysiological traits shaping altitudinal distribution of three Polylepis treeline species in the dry tropical Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macek, Petr; Macková, Jana; de Bello, Francesco

    2009-11-01

    Numerous species of the genus Polylepis form the highest treeline in the world, with striking dissimilarities in their upper altitudinal limits. The commonly accepted hypothesis is that growth at a treeline is limited by temperature. Here, using in situ records of various morphological and ecophysiological traits, we aimed to identify other factors influencing altitudinal distribution of three congeneric species from the dry tropical Andes: Polylepis rugulosa, Polylepis tarapacana and Polylepis tomentella. While P. tarapacana and P. tomentella reach their altitudinal limit at around 5000 m asl, P. rugulosa does not thrive above 4300 m, but precipitation is markedly lower in its distribution area. The three species responded to altitude by a change of morphological (e.g. decreased tree height and leaf size) and ecophysiological (e.g. decrease of transpiration rate, nutrient concentration or enrichment in the 13C isotope) traits, and this response was generally more pronounced in P. rugulosa. In comparison with P. tarapacana and P. tomentella, P. rugulosa displayed higher transpiration rates. Waxes from the abaxial (stomatous) leaf side of P. rugulosa were most strongly enriched in 13C. Furthermore, leaves of all species studied here had exceptionally low N and P concentrations. Trade-offs linked to changes in leaf area (e.g. bigger leaves, higher photosynthetic capacity but elevated transpiration) seem to drive differentiation and adaptations to altitude among these three congeneric species. We hypothesize that, while the upper distribution limit of P. tarapacana and P. tomentella is largely driven by low temperature, water is an important additional factor controlling the altitudinal distribution of P. rugulosa. Our results suggest that water stress needs to be taken into account among the factors shaping the altitudinal distribution of tropical treeline species.

  17. Variations of net ecosystem production due to seasonal precipitation differences in a tropical dry forest of northwest Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verduzco, Vivian S.; Garatuza-Payán, Jaime; Yépez, Enrico A.; Watts, Christopher J.; Rodríguez, Julio C.; Robles-Morua, Agustin; Vivoni, Enrique R.

    2015-10-01

    Due to their large extent and high primary productivity, tropical dry forests (TDF) are important contributors to atmospheric carbon exchanges in subtropical and tropical regions. In northwest Mexico, a bimodal precipitation regime that includes winter precipitation derived from Pacific storms and summer precipitation from the North American monsoon (NAM) couples water availability with ecosystem processes. We investigated the net ecosystem production of a TDF ecosystem using a 4.5 year record of water and carbon fluxes obtained from the eddy covariance method complemented with remotely sensed data. We identified a large CO2 efflux at the start of the summer season that is strongly related to the preceding winter precipitation and greenness. Since this CO2 efflux occurs prior to vegetation green-up, we infer that respiration is mainly due to decomposition of soil organic matter accumulated from the prior growing season. Overall, ecosystem respiration has an important effect on the net ecosystem production but can be overwhelmed by the strength of the primary productivity during the NAM. Precipitation characteristics during NAM have significant controls on sustaining carbon fixation in the TDF into the fall season. We identified that a threshold of ~350 to 400 mm of monsoon precipitation leads to a switch in the annual carbon balance in the TDF ecosystem from a net source (+102 g C/m2/yr) to a net sink (-249 g C/m2/yr). This monsoonal precipitation threshold is typically exceeded one out of every 2 years. The close coupling of winter and summer periods with respect to carbon fluxes suggests that the annual carbon balance is dependent on precipitation amounts in both seasons in TDF ecosystems.

  18. High density of tree-cavities and snags in tropical dry forest of western Mexico raises questions for a latitudinal gradient.

    PubMed

    Vázquez, Leopoldo; Renton, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    It has been suggested that a latitudinal gradient exists of a low density of snags and high density of naturally-formed tree-cavities in tropical vs. temperate forests, though few cavities may have characteristics suitable for nesting by birds. We determined snag and cavity density, characteristics, and suitability for birds in a tropical dry forest biome of western Mexico, and evaluated whether our data fits the trend of snag and cavity density typically found in tropical moist and wet forests. We established five 0.25-ha transects to survey and measure tree-cavities and snags in each of three vegetation types of deciduous, semi-deciduous, and mono-dominant Piranhea mexicana forest, comprising a total of 3.75 ha. We found a high density of 77 cavities/ha, with 37 cavities suitable for birds/ha, where density, and characteristics of cavities varied significantly among vegetation types. Lowest abundance of cavities occurred in deciduous forest, and these were in smaller trees, at a lower height, and with a narrower entrance diameter. Only 8.6% of cavities were excavated by woodpeckers, and only 11% of cavities were occupied, mainly by arthropods, though 52% of all cavities were unsuitable for birds. We also found a high density of 56 snags/ha, with greatest density in deciduous forest (70 snags/ha), though these were of significantly smaller diameter, and snags of larger diameter were more likely to contain cavities. The Chamela-Cuixmala tropical dry forest had the highest density of snags recorded for any tropical or temperate forest, and while snag density was significantly correlated with mean snag dbh, neither latitude nor mean dbh predicted snag density in ten forest sites. The high spatial aggregation of snag and cavity resources in tropical dry forest may limit their availability, particularly for large-bodied cavity adopters, and highlights the importance of habitat heterogeneity in providing resources for primary and secondary cavity-nesters.

  19. High Density of Tree-Cavities and Snags in Tropical Dry Forest of Western Mexico Raises Questions for a Latitudinal Gradient

    PubMed Central

    Vázquez, Leopoldo; Renton, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    It has been suggested that a latitudinal gradient exists of a low density of snags and high density of naturally-formed tree-cavities in tropical vs. temperate forests, though few cavities may have characteristics suitable for nesting by birds. We determined snag and cavity density, characteristics, and suitability for birds in a tropical dry forest biome of western Mexico, and evaluated whether our data fits the trend of snag and cavity density typically found in tropical moist and wet forests. We established five 0.25-ha transects to survey and measure tree-cavities and snags in each of three vegetation types of deciduous, semi-deciduous, and mono-dominant Piranhea mexicana forest, comprising a total of 3.75 ha. We found a high density of 77 cavities/ha, with 37 cavities suitable for birds/ha, where density, and characteristics of cavities varied significantly among vegetation types. Lowest abundance of cavities occurred in deciduous forest, and these were in smaller trees, at a lower height, and with a narrower entrance diameter. Only 8.6% of cavities were excavated by woodpeckers, and only 11% of cavities were occupied, mainly by arthropods, though 52% of all cavities were unsuitable for birds. We also found a high density of 56 snags/ha, with greatest density in deciduous forest (70 snags/ha), though these were of significantly smaller diameter, and snags of larger diameter were more likely to contain cavities. The Chamela-Cuixmala tropical dry forest had the highest density of snags recorded for any tropical or temperate forest, and while snag density was significantly correlated with mean snag dbh, neither latitude nor mean dbh predicted snag density in ten forest sites. The high spatial aggregation of snag and cavity resources in tropical dry forest may limit their availability, particularly for large-bodied cavity adopters, and highlights the importance of habitat heterogeneity in providing resources for primary and secondary cavity-nesters. PMID:25615612

  20. Comparative Characterisation of Maritime Clouds between Dry and Wet Season Over the Tropical North Atlantic by Airborne Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacob, Marek; Ament, Felix; Crewell, Susanne; Ehrlich, André; Wolf, Kevin; Mech, Mario; Orlandi, Emiliano; Schnitt, Sabrina

    2017-04-01

    tropical dry and wet seasons as revealed based on measurements of 70 flight hours during the dry season and 85 flight hours during the wet season.

  1. Effects of shifting seasonal rainfall patterns on net primary productivity and carbon storage in tropical seasonally dry ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohr, T.; Manzoni, S.; Feng, X.; Menezes, R.; Porporato, A. M.

    2013-12-01

    Although seasonally dry ecosystems (SDEs), identified by prolonged drought followed by a short, but intense, rainy season, cover large regions of the tropics, their biogeochemical response to seasonal rainfall and soil carbon (C) sequestration potential are not well characterized. Both productivity and soil respiration are positively affected by seasonal soil moisture availability, creating a delicate balance between C deposition through litterfall and C losses through heterotrophic respiration. As climate change projections for the tropics predict decreased annual rainfall and increased dry season length, it is critical to understand how variations in seasonal rainfall distributions control this balance. To address this question, we develop a minimal model linking the seasonal behavior of the ensemble soil moisture, plant productivity, the related soil C inputs through litterfall, and soil C dynamics. The model is parameterized for a case study from a drought-deciduous caatinga ecosystem in northeastern Brazil. Results indicate that when altering the seasonal rainfall patterns for a fixed annual rainfall, both plant productivity and soil C sequestration potential are largely, and nonlinearly, dependent on wet season duration. Moreover, total annual rainfall plays a dominant role in describing this relationship, leading at times to the emergence of distinct optima in both primary production and C sequestration. Examining these results in the context of climate-driven changes to wet season duration and mean annual precipitation indicate that the initial hydroclimatic regime of a particular ecosystem is an important factor to predict both the magnitude and direction of the effects of shifting seasonal distributions on productivity and C storage. Although highly productive ecosystems will likely experience declining C storage with predicted climate shifts, those currently operating well below peak production can potentially see improved C stocks with the onset of

  2. Evaporation and transpiration differences among successional stages of Tropical Dry Forest, Santa Rosa National Park, Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez-Rodríguez, César D.; Calvo-Alvarado, Julio

    2016-04-01

    Seasonal environments in the tropics show strong responses to changes in precipitation regimes. The monthly water availability is the main trigger for ecological responses as flowering, fructification, leaf sprouting and senescence. Among these environments, the tropical dry forests (TDF) depends directly on the soil water availability, defining the forest growing season despite the forest characteristics. However, within the same ecosystem is possible to find differences in the water fluxes due to forest age. The TDF located in Santa Rosa National Park (SRNP) in Costa Rica; shows a particular matrix of secondary forest patches varying in age, structure, and species composition allowing us to evaluate the water fluxes differences among successional stages of TDF. Three permanent plots of 1000.0 m2 were selected from the Tropi-Dry project. Each plot characterized a specific successional stage of this ecosystem varying in forest structure and age. Every location was equipped to measure the hourly soil water content and forest growth, while the meteorological conditions were collected by the meteorological station of the national park. The data was collected from December 2005 to June 2009 however, due to data gaps and quality control the data analysis includes only the hydrological years between 2006 and 2009. The soil water content was measured at three depths in each plot (10, 30 and 40 cm) to determine the real evapotranspiration from the forest. The precipitation along these three years shows strong variations registering 326.5 mm-1yr-1 in the first year up to 3004.0 mm-1yr-1 during the last year, these strong changes are influenced by the ENOS phenomena in the region. Regardless the precipitation amounts the evapotranspiration do not differ strongly on a yearly basis, were 726.7 mm-1yr-1, 675.1 mm-1yr-1 and 751.6 mm-1yr-1 were exported to the atmosphere by the early, intermediate and late stages of TDF secondary forest. The yearly strong differences in

  3. Antioxidant content in two CAM bromeliad species as a response to seasonal light changes in a tropical dry deciduous forest.

    PubMed

    González-Salvatierra, Claudia; Luis Andrade, José; Escalante-Erosa, Fabiola; García-Sosa, Karlina; Manuel Peña-Rodríguez, Luis

    2010-07-01

    Plants have evolved photoprotective mechanisms to limit photodamage; one of these mechanisms involves the biosynthesis of antioxidant metabolites to neutralize reactive oxygen species generated when plants are exposed to excess light. However, it is known that exposure of plants to conditions of extreme water stress and high light intensity results in their enhanced susceptibility to over-excitation of photosystem II and to photooxidative stress. In this investigation we used the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl reduction assay to conduct a broad survey of the effect of water availability and light exposure conditions on the antioxidant activity of the leaf extracts of two bromeliad species showing crassulacean acid metabolism. One of these was an epiphyte, Tillandsia brachycaulos, and the other a terrestrial species, Bromelia karatas. Both species were found growing wild in the tropical dry deciduous forest of Dzibilchaltún National Park, México. The microenvironment of T. brachycaulos and B. karatas experiences significant diurnal and seasonal light variations as well as changes in temperature and water availability. The results obtained showed that, for both bromeliads, increases in antioxidant activity occurred during the dry season, as a consequence of water stress and higher light conditions. Additionally, in T. brachycaulos there was a clear correlation between high light intensity conditions and the content of anthocyanins which accumulated below the leaf epidermis. This result suggests that the role of these pigments is as photoprotective screens in the leaves. The red coloration below the leaf epidermis of B. karatas was not due to anthocyanins but to other unidentified pigments. 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. [Chronology of tropical dry forest regeneration in Santa Rosa, Guanacaste, Costa Rica. II. Vegetation in relation to the soil].

    PubMed

    Leiva, Jorge A; Rocha, Oscar J; Mata, Rafael; Gutiérrez-Soto, Marco V

    2009-09-01

    Tropical dry forest (TDF) succession was monitored in Santa Rosa, Costa Rica. We analyzed the effect of soil type on forest structure and diversity. Eight seasonally-dry TDF sites located along a successional chrono-sequence (10, 15, 20, 40, 60 and >100 years) were examined in relation to 17 soil pedons and six soil orders. Soils had moderate to high fertility and were classified as Entisols and Vertisols, although Mollisols, Alfisols, Inceptisols and Ultisols were also present. One-hundred and thirty 500 m2 plots were established, 20 plots in secondary and 10 plots in mature TDF sites. Diameter at breast height (dbh) and total tree height were measured for saplings (dbh > or = 1 and <5 cm), shrubs and trees (dbh > or = 5 cm). With the exception of two sites (40 and 60 years), soil type did not have significant effects on forest structure. However, tree diversity measured with Shannon-Wiener's H' and Fisher's alpha rarefaction curves, showed substantial differences among soil types, which became accentuated in mature forests. This pattern might be explained by non-random distributions of TDF trees, the scale of the study, the plot shape, and the use of systematic sampling designs. Low-fertility sites in general had higher species richness, consistent with idea that more restrictive soils reduce competition among trees and allow co-existence of species with contrasting growth rates. Changes in soil properties along a chrono-sequence of Entisols indicated that trees may experience more severe water stress as succession progresses, which may require adjustments in biomass allocation and phenological behavior of the dominant species. Our results suggest that edaphic specialization is more pronounced in mature TDF forests, and that most TDF trees are generalists in relation to soil type, highly tolerant to site heterogeneity, and show little physiological specializations in response to edaphic heterogeneity.

  5. Arbuscular mycorrhizae of the palm Astrocaryum mexicanum in disturbed and undisturbed stands of a Mexican tropical forest.

    PubMed

    Núñez-Castillo, O; Alvarez-Sánchez, F J

    2003-10-01

    Tropical forests are dynamic systems with extensive natural disturbance, gaps in the canopy being one of the most important types. Tree and branch fall are often the principal cause of natural disturbance. This research was done on adult individuals of a very abundant palm ( Astrocaryum mexicanum Liebm, Arecaceae), which is found in the understorey of the forest at Los Tuxtlas, Mexico. Percentages of colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizae were determined for individuals selected randomly from plots located both in gaps and under closed canopy. The highest percentages of total colonization, as well as those of hyphae and vesicles, were recorded for gaps. In forest with closed canopy, arbuscules had the highest percentages of colonization; on these sites the palm has been observed to grow less. The higher production of arbuscules may favour nutrient capture in this microenvironment, which is characterized by strong competition.

  6. Paratrechina longicornis ants in a tropical dry forest harbor specific Actinobacteria diversity.

    PubMed

    Reyes, Ruth D Hernández; Cafaro, Matías J

    2015-01-01

    The diversity of Actinobacteria associated with Paratrechina longicornis, an ant species that prefers a high protein diet, in a subtropical dry forest (Guánica, Puerto Rico) was determined by culture methods and by 16S rDNA clone libraries. The results of both methodologies were integrated to obtain a broader view of the diversity. Streptomyces, Actinomadura, Nocardia, Ornithinimicrobium, Tsukamurella, Brevibacterium, Saccharopolyspora, Nocardioides, Microbacterium, Leifsonia, Pseudonocardia, Corynebacterium, Geodermatophilus, Amycolatopsis, and Nonomuraea were found associated with the ants. The genera Streptomyces and Actinomadura were the most abundant. Also, the diversity of Actinobacteria associated with the soil surrounding the nest was determined using 16S rDNA clone libraries. In total, 27 genera of Actinobacteria were associated with the nest soils. A dominant genus was not observed in any of the soil samples. We compared statistically the Actinobacteria communities among P. longicornis nests and each nest with its surrounding soil using the clone libraries data. We established that the communities associated with the ants were consistent and significantly different from those found in the soil in which the ants live.

  7. Secondary stem anatomy and uses of four drought-deciduous species of a tropical dry forest in México.

    PubMed

    Isaias, Alejandra Quintanar; Velázquez Núñez, Mariana; Solares Arenas, Fortunato; de la Paz Pérez Olvera, Carmen; Torre-Blanco, Alfonso

    2005-01-01

    Wood and bark anatomy and histochemistry of Acacia bilimekii Humb. & Bonpl., Acacia cochliacantha Mcbride, Conzatia nultiflora (Rob) Stand. and Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. are described from stem samples collected in a tropical dry forest (Morelos, Mexico). Enzyme activities were tested in tangential, radial and transverse cuts of fresh material. Histochemistry and stem anatomy were studied on similar cuts previously softened in a solution of water-glicerol-PEG. Our results show that the anatomical patterns of bark and wood, as well as the histochemical patterns and specific gravity, are influenced by water accessibility and climate; these patterns could guarantee mechanical and anti-infection strategies to support extreme conditions. Enzyme cytochemistry reveals biochemical activities probably related to lipid utilization routes for the lignification processes and for synthesis of extractives; these results suggest that the formation and maturation of woody tissue is very active at the beginning of the rainy season. These species are widely used by the local population. Traditional uses include firewood, dead and live fences, fodder, construction, supporting stakes, handcrafts, farming tools, extraction of tanning products, and medicine. There is no relationship between use and abundance. Alternative uses are proposed according to a density index.

  8. Genomic sequencing and microsatellite marker development for Boswellia papyrifera, an economically important but threatened tree native to dry tropical forests

    PubMed Central

    Addisalem, A. B.; Esselink, G. Danny; Bongers, F.; Smulders, M. J. M.

    2015-01-01

    Microsatellite (or simple sequence repeat, SSR) markers are highly informative DNA markers often used in conservation genetic research. Next-generation sequencing enables efficient development of large numbers of SSR markers at lower costs. Boswellia papyrifera is an economically important tree species used for frankincense production, an aromatic resinous gum exudate from bark. It grows in dry tropical forests in Africa and is threatened by a lack of rejuvenation. To help guide conservation efforts for this endangered species, we conducted an analysis of its genomic DNA sequences using Illumina paired-end sequencing. The genome size was estimated at 705 Mb per haploid genome. The reads contained one microsatellite repeat per 5.7 kb. Based on a subset of these repeats, we developed 46 polymorphic SSR markers that amplified 2–12 alleles in 10 genotypes. This set included 30 trinucleotide repeat markers, four tetranucleotide repeat markers, six pentanucleotide markers and six hexanucleotide repeat markers. Several markers were cross-transferable to Boswellia pirrotae and B. popoviana. In addition, retrotransposons were identified, the reads were assembled and several contigs were identified with similarity to genes of the terpene and terpenoid backbone synthesis pathways, which form the major constituents of the bark resin. PMID:25573702

  9. Diversity in plant hydraulic traits explains seasonal and inter-annual variations of vegetation dynamics in seasonally dry tropical forests.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiangtao; Medvigy, David; Powers, Jennifer S; Becknell, Justin M; Guan, Kaiyu

    2016-10-01

    We assessed whether diversity in plant hydraulic traits can explain the observed diversity in plant responses to water stress in seasonally dry tropical forests (SDTFs). The Ecosystem Demography model 2 (ED2) was updated with a trait-driven mechanistic plant hydraulic module, as well as novel drought-phenology and plant water stress schemes. Four plant functional types were parameterized on the basis of meta-analysis of plant hydraulic traits. Simulations from both the original and the updated ED2 were evaluated against 5 yr of field data from a Costa Rican SDTF site and remote-sensing data over Central America. The updated model generated realistic plant hydraulic dynamics, such as leaf water potential and stem sap flow. Compared with the original ED2, predictions from our novel trait-driven model matched better with observed growth, phenology and their variations among functional groups. Most notably, the original ED2 produced unrealistically small leaf area index (LAI) and underestimated cumulative leaf litter. Both of these biases were corrected by the updated model. The updated model was also better able to simulate spatial patterns of LAI dynamics in Central America. Plant hydraulic traits are intercorrelated in SDTFs. Mechanistic incorporation of plant hydraulic traits is necessary for the simulation of spatiotemporal patterns of vegetation dynamics in SDTFs in vegetation models. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  10. Restoring lepidopteran diversity in a tropical dry forest: relative importance of restoration treatment, tree identity and predator pressure

    PubMed Central

    Solis-Gabriel, Lizet; Mendoza-Arroyo, Wendy

    2017-01-01

    Tropical dry forests (TDFs) have been widely transformed by human activities worldwide and the ecosystem services they provide are diminishing. There has been an urgent call for conservation and restoration of the degraded lands previously occupied by TDFs. Restoration experiences aim to recover species diversity and ecological functions. Different restoration strategies have been used to maximize plant performance including weeding, planting or using artificial mulching. In this investigation, we evaluated whether different restoration practices influence animal arrival and the reestablishment of biotic interactions. We particularly evaluated lepidopteran larvae diversity and caterpillar predation on plants established under different restoration treatments (mulching, weeding and control) in the Pacific West Coast of México. This study corroborated the importance of plant host identity for lepidopteran presence in a particular area. Lepidopteran diversity and herbivory rates were not affected by the restoration treatment but they were related to tree species. In contrast, caterpillar predation marks were affected by restoration treatment, with a greater number of predation marks in control plots, while caterpillar predation marks among plant species were not significantly different. This study highlights the importance of considering the introduction of high plant species diversity when planning TDF restoration to maximize lepidopteran diversity and ecosystem functioning. PMID:28560101

  11. Restoring lepidopteran diversity in a tropical dry forest: relative importance of restoration treatment, tree identity and predator pressure.

    PubMed

    Solis-Gabriel, Lizet; Mendoza-Arroyo, Wendy; Boege, Karina; Del-Val, Ek

    2017-01-01

    Tropical dry forests (TDFs) have been widely transformed by human activities worldwide and the ecosystem services they provide are diminishing. There has been an urgent call for conservation and restoration of the degraded lands previously occupied by TDFs. Restoration experiences aim to recover species diversity and ecological functions. Different restoration strategies have been used to maximize plant performance including weeding, planting or using artificial mulching. In this investigation, we evaluated whether different restoration practices influence animal arrival and the reestablishment of biotic interactions. We particularly evaluated lepidopteran larvae diversity and caterpillar predation on plants established under different restoration treatments (mulching, weeding and control) in the Pacific West Coast of México. This study corroborated the importance of plant host identity for lepidopteran presence in a particular area. Lepidopteran diversity and herbivory rates were not affected by the restoration treatment but they were related to tree species. In contrast, caterpillar predation marks were affected by restoration treatment, with a greater number of predation marks in control plots, while caterpillar predation marks among plant species were not significantly different. This study highlights the importance of considering the introduction of high plant species diversity when planning TDF restoration to maximize lepidopteran diversity and ecosystem functioning.

  12. Biochemical responses in tree foliage exposed to coal-fired power plant emission in seasonally dry tropical environment.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Atul Prakash; Tripathi, B D

    2009-11-01

    A biomonitoring study was conducted to investigate the responses of plants exposed to power plant emission in a dry tropical environment. For this purpose, five sampling sites were selected in the prevailing wind direction (NE) at different distance to thermal power plant (TPP) within 8.0 km range and a reference site was selected in eastern direction at a distance of 22.0 km. The two most common tree species, Ficus benghalensis L. (Evergreen tree) and Dalbergia sisso Roxb. (deciduous tree) were selected as test plants. Ambient sulphur dioxide (SO(2)), nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)), suspended particulate matter (SPM), respirable suspended particulate matter (RSPM), dust-fall rate (DFR) and plant responses such as leaf pigments (chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and carotenoids), ascorbic acid, sugar and sulphate-sulphur (SO4(2-)-S) contents were measured. Ambient SO(2), NO(2), SPM, RSPM and DFR showed significant spatial and temporal variation at different sites. Considerable reduction in pigment (chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and carotenoids) and sugar contents were observed at sites receiving higher pollution load. Ascorbic acid exhibited significant positive correlation with pollution load. Accumulation of SO4(2-)-S in leaf tissue showed significant positive correlation with ambient SO(2) concentration at all the sites. At the same time, SO4(2-)-S showed significant negative correlation with pigment and sugar content. D. sisso Roxb. tree was found to be more sensitive as compared to F. benghalensis L. tree.

  13. Ectomycorrhizal diversity and community structure in stands of Quercus oleoides in the seasonally dry tropical forests of Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desai, Nikhilesh S.; Wilson, Andrew W.; Powers, Jennifer S.; Mueller, Gregory M.; Egerton-Warburton, Louise M.

    2016-12-01

    Most conservation efforts in seasonally dry tropical forests have overlooked less obvious targets for conservation, such as mycorrhizal fungi, that are critical to plant growth and ecosystem structure. We documented the diversity of ectomycorrhizal (EMF) and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AMF) fungal communities in Quercus oleoides (Fagaceae) in Guanacaste province, Costa Rica. Soil cores and sporocarps were collected from regenerating Q. oleoides plots differing in stand age (early vs late regeneration) during the wet season. Sequencing of the nuclear ribosomal ITS region in EMF root tips and sporocarps identified 37 taxa in the Basidiomycota; EMF Ascomycota were uncommon. The EMF community was dominated by one species (Thelephora sp. 1; 70% of soil cores), more than half of all EMF species were found only once in an individual soil core, and there were few conspecific taxa. Most EMF taxa were also restricted to either Early or Late plots. Levels of EMF species richness and diversity, and AMF root colonization were similar between plots. Our results highlight the need for comprehensive spatiotemporal samplings of EMF communities in Q. oleoides to identify and prioritize rare EMF for conservation, and document their genetic and functional diversity.

  14. Dietary overlap and seasonality in three species of mormoopid bats from a tropical dry forest.

    PubMed

    Salinas-Ramos, Valeria B; Herrera Montalvo, L Gerardo; León-Regagnon, Virginia; Arrizabalaga-Escudero, Aitor; Clare, Elizabeth L

    2015-10-01

    Competing hypotheses explaining species' use of resources have been advanced. Resource limitations in habitat and/or food are factors that affect assemblages of species. These limitations could drive the evolution of morphological and/or behavioural specialization, permitting the coexistence of closely related species through resource partitioning and niche differentiation. Alternatively, when resources are unlimited, fluctuations in resources availability will cause concomitant shifts in resource use regardless of species identity. Here, we used next-generation sequencing to test these hypotheses and characterize the diversity, overlap and seasonal variation in the diet of three species of insectivorous bats of the genus Pteronotus. We identified 465 prey (MOTUs) in the guano of 192 individuals. Lepidoptera and Diptera represented the most consumed insect orders. Diet of bats exhibited a moderate level of overlap, with the highest value between Pteronotus parnellii and Pteronotus personatus in the wet season. We found higher dietary overlap between species during the same seasons than within any single species across seasons. This suggests that diets of the three species are driven more by prey availability than by any particular predator-specific characteristic. P. davyi and P. personatus increased their dietary breadth during the dry season, whereas P. parnellii diet was broader and had the highest effective number of prey species in all seasons. This supports the existence of dietary flexibility in generalist bats and dietary niche overlapping among groups of closely related species in highly seasonal ecosystems. Moreover, the abundance and availability of insect prey may drive the diet of insectivores.

  15. Restoring diversity after cattail expansion: disturbance, resilience, and seasonality in a tropical dry wetland.

    PubMed

    Osland, Michael J; González, Eugenio; Richardson, Curtis J

    2011-04-01

    As the human footprint expands, ecologists and resource managers are increasingly challenged to explain and manage abrupt ecosystem transformations (i.e., regime shifts). In this study, we investigated the role of a mechanical disturbance that has been used to restore and maintain local wetland diversity after a monotypic regime shift in northwestern Costa Rica [specifically, an abrupt landscape-scale cattail (Typha) expansion]. The study was conducted in Palo Verde Marsh (Palo Verde National Park; a RAMSAR Wetland of International Importance), a seasonally flooded freshwater wetland that has historically provided habitat for large populations of wading birds and waterfowl. A cattail (T. domingensis) expansion in the 1980s greatly altered the plant community and reduced avian habitat. Since then, Typha has been managed using a form of mechanical disturbance called fangueo (a Spanish word, pronounced "fahn-gay-yo" in English). We applied a Typha removal treatment at three levels (control, fangueo, and fangueo with fencing to exclude cattle grazing). Fangueo resulted in a large reduction in Typha dominance (i.e., decreased aboveground biomass, ramet density, and ramet height) and an increase in habitat heterogeneity. As in many ecosystems that have been defined by multiple and frequent disturbances, a large portion of the plant community regenerated after disturbance (via propagule banking) and fangueo resulted in a more diverse plant community that was strongly dictated by seasonal processes (i.e., distinct wet- and dry-season assemblages). Importantly, the mechanical disturbance had no apparent short-term impact on any of the soil properties we measured (including bulk density). Interestingly, low soil and foliar N:P values indicate that Palo Verde Marsh and other wetlands in the region may be nitrogen limited. Our results quantify how, in a cultural landscape where the historical disturbance regime has been altered and diversity has declined, a mechanical

  16. Creation of Alternate Stable States in Tropical Dry Forests as a Consequence of Human Disturbance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Bloem, S. J.; Whitmire, S. L.; Thaxton, J.

    2015-12-01

    Anthropogenic disturbances in Caribbean subtropical dry forests of the Caribbean lead to either novel species assemblages in post-disturbance forest, or stable degraded grassland states. Among these disturbances are fire and clearing. Short-term responses to both disturbances include sharp increases in nutrient fluxes, shifts in soil moisture availability, and the spread of invasive grass species if seed sources are nearby. In Guánica Forest, Puerto Rico, our studies in sites that were frequently burned and a chronosequence of once-burned sites beginning 30 years ago showed that fire is associated with invasion by exotic grass species and that once invaded, grass dominated sites do not revert to forest. After 30 years, single burn sites were still ≥65% lower in basal area and species richness than native forest. Frequently burned sites had 60-75% lower soil N, 50-65% lower S, and 56-68% lower C, as well as elevated Fe and pH. A single burn in a previously unburned forest elevated NO3 flux ~6-fold for at least the next year. Once dominated by grass, tree seed rain is extremely low (7 seeds/m2/y). Low dispersal rates combined with low germination rates makes forest regeneration unlikely. In contrast, sites that cleared or plowed without grass invasion regain structural characteristics of native forests in approximately 40 years. However, these sites are typically dominated by Leucaena leucocephala, a naturalized tree introduced to the island in the 1700s. The proportion of native-species saplings in the understory of Leucaena-dominated forests increased by 0.85%/yr in stands >35 years old until reaching ~95% in 76 yr old stands, suggesting that Leucaena facilitated the reestablishment of native species. We conclude that when anthropogenic disturbance creates grass-dominated sites, these areas will remain stable degraded states. Leucaena can serve as an alternate pathway to forest restoration, facilitating the return of forest cover with a novel combination of

  17. Edge effects on foliar stable isotope values in a Madagascan tropical dry forest.

    PubMed

    Crowley, Brooke E; McGoogan, Keriann C; Lehman, Shawn M

    2012-01-01

    Edge effects represent an inevitable and important consequence of habitat loss and fragmentation. These effects include changes in microclimate, solar radiation, or temperature. Such abiotic effects can, in turn, impact biotic factors. They can have a substantial impact on species, communities, and ecosystems. Here we examine clinal variations in stable carbon and nitrogen isotope values for trees along an edge-interior gradient in the dry deciduous forest at Ankarafantsika National Park. We predicted that soil respiration and differences in solar irradiance would result in stratified δ¹³C values where leaves collected close to the forest floor would have lower δ¹³C values than those growing higher up in the canopy. We also anticipated that plants growing at the savannah-forest boundary would have higher δ¹³C and δ¹⁵N values than plants growing in the forest interior. As expected, we detected a small but significant canopy effect. Leaves growing below 2 m from the forest floor exhibit δ¹³C values that are, on average, 1.1‰ lower than those growing above this threshold. We did not, however, find any relationship between foliar δ¹³C and distance from the edge. Unpredictably, we detected a striking positive relationship between foliar δ¹⁵N values and increasing distance into the forest interior. Variability in physiology among species, anthropogenic influence, organic input, and rooting depth cannot adequately explain this trend. Instead, this unexpected relationship most likely reflects decreasing nutrient or water availability, or a shift in N-sources with increasing distance from the savannah. Unlike most forest communities, the trees at Ampijoroa are growing in nutrient-limited sands. In addition to being nutrient poor, these well-drained soils likely decrease the amount of soil water available to forest vegetation. Continued research on plant responses to edge effects will improve our understanding of the conservation biology of forest

  18. Pollination ecology of Agave macroacantha (Agavaceae) in a Mexican tropical desert. I. Floral biology and pollination mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Arizaga, S; Ezcurra, E; Peters, E; de Arellano, F R; Vega, E

    2000-07-01

    In a study of sexual reproduction in long-lived semelparous plants, we observed Agave macroacantha in the tropical desert of Tehuacán-Cuicatlán, Mexico, describing duration of flowering, flower phenology, and nectar production patterns. We also performed two manipulative experiments evaluating (a) the seed production efficiency of different crossing systems (selfing, cross-pollination, apomixis, and control), and (b) the effect of different pollinators (diurnal exposure to pollinators, nocturnal exposure, exclusion, and control) on the seeds produced. Flowering occurred from early May to late July and had a mean duration of 29 days in the individual rosettes. The flowers were protandrous; anthesis occurred in the afternoon of the third day after floral opening, and the pistils matured in the afternoon of the fifth day. The stigmas remained receptive from dusk to the following morning. Pollination was mostly allogamous. Nectar was produced principally during the night, from the first stages of floral aperture until the stigmas wilted and flowering ceased. The flowers were visited during the day by hymenoptera, butterflies, and hummingbirds and during the night by bats and moths. Only the nocturnal visitors, however, were successful pollinators. Agave macroacantha is extremely dependent on nocturnal pollinators for its reproductive success.

  19. Topographic position, but not slope aspect, drives the dominance of functional strategies of tropical dry forest trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Méndez-Toribio, M.; Ibarra-Manríquez, G.; Navarrete-Segueda, A.; Paz, H.

    2017-08-01

    In seasonal plant communities, it is recognized that topography-related variation in water availability and solar radiation determine vegetation structure and community composition; however, the effects on functional structure, particularly through changes in resource use strategies of plants are still poorly understood. This study examines the effects of slope aspect and topographic position on functional trait dominance in a tropical dry forest landscape and explores whether strategies for coping with drought (avoidance vs. tolerance) segregate spatially along the water stress gradient created by the interaction of these two topographic factors. The study was conducted in the Balsas river basin in south-central Mexico. Functional traits were evaluated in 63 species of trees (≥ 2.5 cm diameter at breast height) dominant in plots located at three topographic positions (low, medium and high) and on two slope aspects (north and south). Eight leaf and four stem functional traits, relating to the plants’ ability to avoid or tolerate water and temperature stress, were measured. Community-level functional traits were strongly affected by topographic position while only a weak signal was detected by the slope aspect. Contrary to our expectations, attributes associated with drought tolerance predominated on the lower topographic positions of the slopes, (moister and warmer sites), while on the upper parts with drier soil, but cooler air, attributes associated with water stress avoidance dominated. In addition, variation in the dominance of leaf pulvini and trichomes along the topographic gradient suggests environmental filtering by elevated air temperatures and water stress, respectively. Overall, our results suggest that the upper topographic positions that generate a shorter and more fluctuating water-availability window, favor readily-deciduous plants with high levels of water storage in their tissues, traits allowing for a rapid avoid of water stress, whereas on

  20. Effects of forest fragmentation on phenological patterns and reproductive success of the tropical dry forest tree Ceiba aesculifolia.

    PubMed

    Herrerías-Diego, Yvonne; Quesada, Mauricio; Stoner, Kathryn E; Lobo, Jorge A

    2006-08-01

    Spatial isolation caused by forest fragmentation and temporal isolation caused by asynchronous flowering of plants have been proposed as important factors that affect the reproduction ofplant populations. In a 4-year study, we determined the effects of forest fragmentation and spatial isolation on flowering phenology and reproductive success of the tropical tree Ceiba aesculifolia ([Kunth] Britton & Rose). We conducted our study in the dry forest of Mexico and compared populations in two habitat conditions based on density and environmental conditions: (1) disturbed habitat (four populations of < or =3 reproductive individuals/ha surrounded by agriculturalfields or pastures) and (2) undisturbed habitat (three populations of groups of >6 reproductive individuals/ha surrounded by undisturbed mature forest). We compared the following variables within these populations over 4 years: flowering overlap, proportion of individuals with flowers and fruit, total flower production, total fruit production, fruit set, seed production, and seed abortion. Little overlap in flowering occurred among the populations in the two habitat conditions. The flowering period of trees in the disturbed habitat initiated between 15 to 20 days before the flowering period of trees in the undisturbed habitat during 3 years. Flowering of trees in the undisturbed habitat peaked at the end of the flowering period of the trees in the disturbed habitat. The proportion of trees that flowered was greater in the undisturbed habitat. Nevertheless, total flower production was greater in the disturbed habitat and these differences were maintained across 3 years. The proportion of individuals that produced fruit did not differ across habitat conditions but did differ across years. Total fruit production was greater in the disturbed habitat, but fruit set and seed production were the same across years and between habitat conditions. Seed abortion varied over years between habitats. We concluded that forest

  1. The Role of Edaphic Environment and Climate in Structuring Phylogenetic Pattern in Seasonally Dry Tropical Plant Communities

    PubMed Central

    Moro, Marcelo Freire; Silva, Igor Aurélio; de Araújo, Francisca Soares; Nic Lughadha, Eimear; Meagher, Thomas R.; Martins, Fernando Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Seasonally dry tropical plant formations (SDTF) are likely to exhibit phylogenetic clustering owing to niche conservatism driven by a strong environmental filter (water stress), but heterogeneous edaphic environments and life histories may result in heterogeneity in degree of phylogenetic clustering. We investigated phylogenetic patterns across ecological gradients related to water availability (edaphic environment and climate) in the Caatinga, a SDTF in Brazil. Caatinga is characterized by semiarid climate and three distinct edaphic environments – sedimentary, crystalline, and inselberg –representing a decreasing gradient in soil water availability. We used two measures of phylogenetic diversity: Net Relatedness Index based on the entire phylogeny among species present in a site, reflecting long-term diversification; and Nearest Taxon Index based on the tips of the phylogeny, reflecting more recent diversification. We also evaluated woody species in contrast to herbaceous species. The main climatic variable influencing phylogenetic pattern was precipitation in the driest quarter, particularly for herbaceous species, suggesting that environmental filtering related to minimal periods of precipitation is an important driver of Caatinga biodiversity, as one might expect for a SDTF. Woody species tended to show phylogenetic clustering whereas herbaceous species tended towards phylogenetic overdispersion. We also found phylogenetic clustering in two edaphic environments (sedimentary and crystalline) in contrast to phylogenetic overdispersion in the third (inselberg). We conclude that while niche conservatism is evident in phylogenetic clustering in the Caatinga, this is not a universal pattern likely due to heterogeneity in the degree of realized environmental filtering across edaphic environments. Thus, SDTF, in spite of a strong shared environmental filter, are potentially heterogeneous in phylogenetic structuring. Our results support the need for scientifically

  2. How Does Dung Beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) Diversity Vary Along a Rainy Season in a Tropical Dry Forest?

    PubMed Central

    Novais, Samuel M. A.; Evangelista, Lucas A.; Reis-Júnior, Ronaldo; Neves, Frederico S.

    2016-01-01

    Dung beetle community dynamics are determined by regional rainfall patterns. However, little is known about the temporal dynamics of these communities in tropical dry forests (TDFs). This study was designed to test the following predictions: 1) Peak diversity of dung beetle species occurs early in the wet season, with a decrease in diversity (α and β) and abundance throughout the season; 2) Nestedness is the primary process determining β-diversity, with species sampled in the middle and the end of the wet season representing subsets of the early wet season community. Dung beetles were collected in a TDF in the northern Minas Gerais state, Brazil over three sampling events (December 2009, February and April 2010). We sampled 2,018 dung beetles belonging to 39 species and distributed among 15 genera. Scarabaeinae α-diversity and abundance were highest in December and equivalent between February and April, while β-diversity among plots increased along the wet season. The importance of nestedness and species turnover varies between pairs of sample periods as the main process of temporal β-diversity. Most species collected in the middle and end of the wet season were found in greater abundance in early wet season. Thus, the dung beetle community becomes more homogeneous at the beginning of the wet season, and as the season advances, higher resource scarcity limits population size, which likely results in a smaller foraging range, increasing β-diversity. Our results demonstrate high synchronism between the dung beetle life cycle and seasonality of environmental conditions throughout the wet season in a TDF, where the onset of rains determines adult emergence for most species. PMID:27620555

  3. Maintenance of Leaf Water Potential by Tropical Dry Forest Tree and Liana Species During a Severe Drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werden, L. K.; Waring, B. G.; Smith, C. M.; Powers, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    In 2014, tropical dry forest (TDF) ecosystems in northwestern Costa Rica experienced the most severe drought on record since 1950, in which precipitation in the first four months of the rainy season (May-August) was 43% of normal. We used this opportunity to quantify the impact of soil water availability on the maintenance of diurnal leaf water potential (LWP) in a diverse set of tree and liana taxa. Across sites spanning a large soil texture and water potential gradient, we measured pre-dawn (pdLWP) and mid-day leaf water potential (mdLWP) of 79 individuals of 14 tree and 7 liana species both during the peak of the drought (early August), and well after the onset of wet season rains (late September). In addition, we quantified a suite of resource-acquisition related leaf traits for every individual. The maintenance of leaf water potential throughout the day (deltaLWP = mdLWP - pdLWP) varied dramatically among species (Figure 1). During the drought, evergreen species experienced significantly higher drought stress overall (larger deltaLWP) than deciduous species, but trees did not differ from lianas in their responses. The ability of TDF trees or lianas to maintain LWP did not depend on site-specific soil water potential, indicating that soil water retaining characteristics may not be good predictors of overall community responses to drought. We found that TDF tree and liana species have a wide range of responses to severe drought, and future integration of both leaf trait and physiological data (turgor loss point, stomatal conductance) will allow us to determine if specific leaf traits or physiological metrics are good predictors of tree and liana drought responses in TDF.

  4. Mating system, population growth, and management scenario for Kalanchoe pinnata in an invaded seasonally dry tropical forest.

    PubMed

    González de León, Salvador; Herrera, Ileana; Guevara, Roger

    2016-07-01

    Ecological invasions are a major issue worldwide, where successful invasion depends on traits that facilitate dispersion, establishment, and population growth. The nonnative succulent plant Kalanchoe pinnata, reported as invasive in some countries, is widespread in remnants of seasonally dry tropical forest on a volcanic outcrop with high conservation value in east-central Mexico where we assessed its mating system and demographic growth and identified management strategies. To understand its local mating system, we conducted hand-pollination treatments, germination, and survival experiments. Based on the experimental data, we constructed a life-stage population matrix, identified the key traits for population growth, weighted the contributions of vegetative and sexual reproduction, and evaluated management scenarios. Hand-pollination treatments had slight effects on fruit and seed setting, as well as on germination. With natural pollination treatment, the successful germination of seeds from only 2/39 fruit suggests occasional effective natural cross-pollination. The ratios of the metrics for self- and cross-pollinated flowers suggest that K. pinnata is partially self-compatible. Most of the pollinated flowers developed into fruit, but the seed germination and seedling survival rates were low. Thus, vegetative propagation and juvenile survival are the main drivers of population growth. Simulations of a virtual K. pinnata population suggest that an intense and sustained weeding campaign will reduce the population within at least 10 years. Synthesis and applications. The study population is partially self-compatible, but sexual reproduction by K. pinnata is limited at the study site, and population growth is supported by vegetative propagation and juvenile survival. Demographic modeling provides key insights and realistic forecasts on invasion process and therefore is useful to design management strategies.

  5. The role of edaphic environment and climate in structuring phylogenetic pattern in seasonally dry tropical plant communities.

    PubMed

    Moro, Marcelo Freire; Silva, Igor Aurélio; de Araújo, Francisca Soares; Nic Lughadha, Eimear; Meagher, Thomas R; Martins, Fernando Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Seasonally dry tropical plant formations (SDTF) are likely to exhibit phylogenetic clustering owing to niche conservatism driven by a strong environmental filter (water stress), but heterogeneous edaphic environments and life histories may result in heterogeneity in degree of phylogenetic clustering. We investigated phylogenetic patterns across ecological gradients related to water availability (edaphic environment and climate) in the Caatinga, a SDTF in Brazil. Caatinga is characterized by semiarid climate and three distinct edaphic environments - sedimentary, crystalline, and inselberg -representing a decreasing gradient in soil water availability. We used two measures of phylogenetic diversity: Net Relatedness Index based on the entire phylogeny among species present in a site, reflecting long-term diversification; and Nearest Taxon Index based on the tips of the phylogeny, reflecting more recent diversification. We also evaluated woody species in contrast to herbaceous species. The main climatic variable influencing phylogenetic pattern was precipitation in the driest quarter, particularly for herbaceous species, suggesting that environmental filtering related to minimal periods of precipitation is an important driver of Caatinga biodiversity, as one might expect for a SDTF. Woody species tended to show phylogenetic clustering whereas herbaceous species tended towards phylogenetic overdispersion. We also found phylogenetic clustering in two edaphic environments (sedimentary and crystalline) in contrast to phylogenetic overdispersion in the third (inselberg). We conclude that while niche conservatism is evident in phylogenetic clustering in the Caatinga, this is not a universal pattern likely due to heterogeneity in the degree of realized environmental filtering across edaphic environments. Thus, SDTF, in spite of a strong shared environmental filter, are potentially heterogeneous in phylogenetic structuring. Our results support the need for scientifically

  6. How Does Dung Beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) Diversity Vary Along a Rainy Season in a Tropical Dry Forest?

    PubMed

    Novais, Samuel M A; Evangelista, Lucas A; Reis-Júnior, Ronaldo; Neves, Frederico S

    2016-01-01

    Dung beetle community dynamics are determined by regional rainfall patterns. However, little is known about the temporal dynamics of these communities in tropical dry forests (TDFs). This study was designed to test the following predictions: 1) Peak diversity of dung beetle species occurs early in the wet season, with a decrease in diversity (α and β) and abundance throughout the season; 2) Nestedness is the primary process determining β-diversity, with species sampled in the middle and the end of the wet season representing subsets of the early wet season community. Dung beetles were collected in a TDF in the northern Minas Gerais state, Brazil over three sampling events (December 2009, February and April 2010). We sampled 2,018 dung beetles belonging to 39 species and distributed among 15 genera. Scarabaeinae α-diversity and abundance were highest in December and equivalent between February and April, while β-diversity among plots increased along the wet season. The importance of nestedness and species turnover varies between pairs of sample periods as the main process of temporal β-diversity. Most species collected in the middle and end of the wet season were found in greater abundance in early wet season. Thus, the dung beetle community becomes more homogeneous at the beginning of the wet season, and as the season advances, higher resource scarcity limits population size, which likely results in a smaller foraging range, increasing β-diversity. Our results demonstrate high synchronism between the dung beetle life cycle and seasonality of environmental conditions throughout the wet season in a TDF, where the onset of rains determines adult emergence for most species. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  7. An Overview of a Decade of the Floo Project (fluxes Linking the Offshore and the Onshore): Ecological Implications of the Internal Tide on the Mexican Coastline in Temperate, Subtropical and Tropical Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valencia, A.; Ladah, L. B.

    2016-02-01

    High-frequency internal waves and the internal tide have been shown to have strong effects on nearshore ecology and productivity along the Mexican coastline over the past decade of the FLOO (Fluxes Linking the Offshore and the Onshore) project. I will review examples of these effects, ranging from the long term importance of internal wave supply-side ecology of invertebrate larvae to the coast and their post-settlement fate after competition and predation, to nutrient provision at small temporal and spatial scales for different species of macroalgae, to food provision for mussels and corals from various sites along the Mexican Pacific. Internal waves may also alleviate coral bleaching events in areas of strong internal tidal forcing. Temperate, subtropical and tropical sites will be discussed. Solitons, high-frequency internal waves and the internal tide have all been shown to have a stronger and faster than predicted effect on nearshore ecology and productivity, and may be more ecologically important than upwelling for transport of scalars and coastal productivity in certain areas of the Mexican Pacific. Implications of these results will be discussed and speculation of their importance in a future ocean climate will be presented.

  8. Use of Dried Plasma Spots for HIV-1 Viral Load Determination and Drug Resistance Genotyping in Mexican Patients.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Auad, Juan Pablo; Rojas-Montes, Othon; Maldonado-Rodriguez, Angelica; Alvarez-Muñoz, Ma Teresa; Muñoz, Onofre; Torres-Ibarra, Rocio; Vazquez-Rosales, Guillermo; Lira, Rosalia

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring antiretroviral therapy using measurements of viral load (VL) and the genotyping of resistance mutations is not routinely performed in low- to middle-income countries because of the high costs of the commercial assays that are used. The analysis of dried plasma spot (DPS) samples on filter paper may represent an alternative for resource-limited settings. Therefore, we evaluated the usefulness of analyzing DPS samples to determine VL and identify drug resistance mutations (DRM) in a group of HIV-1 patients. The VL was measured from 22 paired plasma and DPS samples. In these samples, the average VL was 4.7 log10 copies/mL in liquid plasma and 4.1 log10 copies/mL in DPS, with a correlation coefficient of R = 0.83. A 1.1 kb fragment of HIV pol could be amplified in 14/22 (63.6%) of the DPS samples and the same value was amplified in plasma samples. A collection of ten paired DPS and liquid plasma samples was evaluated for the presence of DRM; an excellent correlation was found in the identification of DRM between the paired samples. All HIV-1 pol sequences that were obtained corresponded to HIV subtype B. The analysis of DPS samples offers an attractive alternative for monitoring ARV therapy in resource-limited settings.

  9. Use of Dried Plasma Spots for HIV-1 Viral Load Determination and Drug Resistance Genotyping in Mexican Patients

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Auad, Juan Pablo; Rojas-Montes, Othon; Maldonado-Rodriguez, Angelica; Alvarez-Muñoz, Ma. Teresa; Muñoz, Onofre; Torres-Ibarra, Rocio; Vazquez-Rosales, Guillermo

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring antiretroviral therapy using measurements of viral load (VL) and the genotyping of resistance mutations is not routinely performed in low- to middle-income countries because of the high costs of the commercial assays that are used. The analysis of dried plasma spot (DPS) samples on filter paper may represent an alternative for resource-limited settings. Therefore, we evaluated the usefulness of analyzing DPS samples to determine VL and identify drug resistance mutations (DRM) in a group of HIV-1 patients. The VL was measured from 22 paired plasma and DPS samples. In these samples, the average VL was 4.7 log10 copies/mL in liquid plasma and 4.1 log10 copies/mL in DPS, with a correlation coefficient of R = 0.83. A 1.1 kb fragment of HIV pol could be amplified in 14/22 (63.6%) of the DPS samples and the same value was amplified in plasma samples. A collection of ten paired DPS and liquid plasma samples was evaluated for the presence of DRM; an excellent correlation was found in the identification of DRM between the paired samples. All HIV-1 pol sequences that were obtained corresponded to HIV subtype B. The analysis of DPS samples offers an attractive alternative for monitoring ARV therapy in resource-limited settings. PMID:26779533

  10. Acaricide and ivermectin resistance in a field population of Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) collected from red deer (Cervus elaphus) in the Mexican tropics.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Vivas, R I; Miller, R J; Ojeda-Chi, M M; Rosado-Aguilar, J A; Trinidad-Martínez, I C; Pérez de León, A A

    2014-02-24

    In the Neotropics the control of tick infestations in red deer (Cervus elaphus) is achieved primarily through the use of acaricides and macrocyclic lactones. In Mexico, resistance to one or multiple classes of acaricides has been reported in Rhipicephalus microplus infesting cattle, but information on acaricide susceptibility in R. microplus infesting red deer is lacking. In this study we report the level of resistance to different classes of acaricides and ivermectin in R. microplus collected from red deer in the Mexican tropics. Engorged R. microplus females were collected from a red deer farm in Yucatan, Mexico. The larval packet test was used to detect resistance to the organophosphates (OPs) chlorpyrifos and coumaphos, synthetic pyrethroids (SPs) cypermethrin and permethrin, and the phenylpyrazol, fipronil. Resistance to the formamidine amitraz (Am), and ivermectin was ascertained using the larval immersion test. Data were subjected to probit analysis to determine lethal concentrations and resistance ratios to kill 50% (RR50) and 99% (RR99) of the tick population under evaluation in relation to susceptible reference strains. Additionally, allele specific polymerase chain reaction was used to detect the sodium channel F1550I mutation associated with SP resistance in R. microplus. The R. microplus population from red deer in Yucatan showed very high resistance to the two SPs evaluated (RRs>72.2 for cypermethrin; RR for permethrin resistance was so high a dose-response curve was not possible). All individual larvae tested to detect the sodium channel F1550I mutation associated with SP resistance in R. microplus were homozygous. The same tick population showed different levels of resistance to OPs (chlorpyrifos: RR50=1.55, RR99=0.63; coumaphos: RR50=6.8, RR99=5.9), fipronil (RR50=1.8, RR99=0.9), and amitraz (RR50=2.3, RR99=4.4). Resistance to ivermectin was regarded as moderate (RR50=7.1, RR99=5.0). This is the first report of R. microplus ticks collected from red

  11. Relations between water balance, wood traits and phenological behavior of tree species from a tropical dry forest in Costa Rica--a multifactorial study.

    PubMed

    Worbes, Martin; Blanchart, Sofie; Fichtler, Esther

    2013-05-01

    Drought tolerance is a key factor for the establishment and survival of tree species in tropical ecosystems. Specific mechanisms of drought resistance can be grouped into four functional ecotypes based on differences in leaf fall behavior: deciduous, brevi-deciduous, stem succulent and evergreen. To identify the key factors influencing phenology and cambial activity and thus drought tolerance, we tested the stomatal conductance, leaf water potential and stable carbon isotopes in the leaves and wood of 12 species from a tropical dry forest in Costa Rica. With wood anatomical techniques, we further studied seasonal cambial activity and a suite of wood traits related to water transport for each of the functional ecotypes. Using a principal component analysis, we identified two groups of variables that can be related to (i) hydraulic conductivity and (ii) control of transpiration and water loss. Hydraulic conductivity is controlled by vessel size as the limiting variable, water potential as the driving force and wood density as the stabilizing factor of the anatomical structure of an effective water transport system. Stomatal control plays a major role in terms of water loss or saving and is the dominant factor for differences in phenological behavior. Stem succulent species in particular developed a rarely identified but highly effective strategy against drought stress, which makes it a successful pioneer species in tropical dry forests.

  12. On-farm evaluation of the effect of coffee pulp supplementation on milk yield and dry matter intake of dairy cows grazing tropical grasses in central Mexico.

    PubMed

    Pedraza-Beltrán, Paulina; Estrada-Flores, Julieta G; Martínez-Campos, Angel R; Estrada-López, Isael; Rayas-Amor, Adolfo A; Yong-Angel, Gilberto; Figueroa-Medina, Marisol; Nova, Francisca Avilés; Castelán-Ortega, Octavio A

    2012-02-01

    Tropical grasses are the primary nutrient resource for cattle production in the tropics, and they provide low-cost nutrients to cattle. However, its production is constrained by seasonal changes and quality; hence, appropriate usage of relatively inexpensive agricultural by-products is important to profitable livestock production. The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of supplementing coffee pulp to dairy cows grazing tropical grasses on milk yield and forage intake. Four multiparous crossed Holstein-Brown Swiss-Zebu cows of similar weight and milk yield were used. The effect of 10%, 15% and 20% inclusion of coffee pulp in dairy concentrates on milk yield and forage intake was analysed using a 4 × 4 Latin square design. Results showed that there were no significant effects (P > 0.05) in grass dry matter intake, milk yield, milk composition body weight and body condition score due to the inclusion of coffee pulp in the dairy concentrates. It is concluded that coffee pulp can be included at levels of 20% in the concentrate without compromising significantly (P > 0.05) milk yield, milk composition and grass dry matter intake. It also was concluded that cost of concentrate is reduced in 20% by the inclusion of coffee pulp.

  13. Forgotten forests - issues and prospects in biome mapping using Seasonally Dry Tropical Forests as a case study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background South America is one of the most species diverse continents in the world. Within South America diversity is not distributed evenly at both local and continental scales and this has led to the recognition of various areas with unique species assemblages. Several schemes currently exist which divide the continental-level diversity into large species assemblages referred to as biomes. Here we review five currently available biome maps for South America, including the WWF Ecoregions, the Americas basemap, the Land Cover Map of South America, Morrone's Biogeographic regions of Latin America, and the Ecological Systems Map. The comparison is performed through a case study on the Seasonally Dry Tropical Forest (SDTF) biome using herbarium data of habitat specialist species. Results Current biome maps of South America perform poorly in depicting SDTF distribution. The poor performance of the maps can be attributed to two main factors: (1) poor spatial resolution, and (2) poor biome delimitation. Poor spatial resolution strongly limits the use of some of the maps in GIS applications, especially for areas with heterogeneous landscape such as the Andes. Whilst the Land Cover Map did not suffer from poor spatial resolution, it showed poor delimitation of biomes. The results highlight that delimiting structurally heterogeneous vegetation is difficult based on remote sensed data alone. A new refined working map of South American SDTF biome is proposed, derived using the Biome Distribution Modelling (BDM) approach where georeferenced herbarium data is used in conjunction with bioclimatic data. Conclusions Georeferenced specimen data play potentially an important role in biome mapping. Our study shows that herbarium data could be used as a way of ground-truthing biome maps in silico. The results also illustrate that herbarium data can be used to model vegetation maps through predictive modelling. The BDM approach is a promising new method in biome mapping, and could be

  14. Improving resilience against natural gastrointestinal nematode infections in browsing kids during the dry season in tropical Mexico.

    PubMed

    Torres-Acosta, J F J; Jacobs, D E; Aguilar-Caballero, A J; Sandoval-Castro, C; Cob-Galera, L; May-Martínez, M

    2006-01-30

    The objective was to determine the effect of supplementary feeding on the resilience and resistance of Criollo kids against natural gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infections, when browsing native vegetation during the dry season in tropical Mexico. Thirty-three two-month-old Criollo kids, raised nematode free, were included at weaning in a 20-week trial. The kids were placed into four groups. Two groups of eight kids were offered 100g/day soybean and sorghum meal (26%:74% respectively fresh basis) (treated/supplemented (T-S) and infected/supplemented (I-S)). Two groups remained with no supplement for the duration of the trial (infected/non-supplemented (I-NS) (n=9) and treated/non-supplemented (T-NS) (n=8)). Kids in groups T-S and T-NS were drenched with 0.2mg of moxidectin/kg body weight orally (Cydectin, Fort Dodge) every 28 days. Groups I-S and I-NS were naturally infected with GIN. The animals browsed native vegetation for an average of 7h/day together with a herd of 120 naturally infected adult goats. Cumulative live weight gain (CLWG), packed cell volume (PCV), haemoglobin (Hb), total plasma protein and plasma albumin were recorded every 14 days as measurements of resilience. Resistance parameters (faecal egg counts (FEC) and peripheral eosinophil counts (PEC)) were also measured. Bulk faecal cultures were made for each group every 28 days. Every month a new pair of initially worm-free tracer kids assessed the infectivity of the vegetation browsed by the animals. Tracer kids and faecal cultures showed that kids faced low mixed infections (Haemonchus contortus, Trichostrongylus colubriformis and Oesophagostomum columbianum). Under conditions of scarce vegetation, such as those in the present study, supplemented groups (I-S and T-S) had higher growth rates compared to the non-supplemented groups independently of the control of GIN infection with anthelmintic (AH) treatment (P<0.001). Supplementary feeding did not affect FEC or PEC. In the absence of

  15. High compatibility between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities and seedlings of different land use types in a tropical dry ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Gavito, Mayra E; Pérez-Castillo, Daniel; González-Monterrubio, César F; Vieyra-Hernández, Teresa; Martínez-Trujillo, Miguel

    2008-12-01

    We conducted this study to explore limitations for the establishment of mycorrhizal associations in disturbed areas of the tropical dry ecosystem in the Chamela region of Jalisco, Mexico. Specifically, we: (1) assessed the diversity and composition of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) communities through spore morphospecies identification in three common land uses (primary forest, secondary forest, and pasture), (2) tested the inoculum potential of the AMF communities and the effect of water stress on the establishment of mycorrhizal associations in seedlings of various plant species, and (3) explored the importance of AMF community composition on early seedling development. Soil and root samples were taken from 15 random points in each of three plots established in two primary forests, two 26-year-old secondary forests, and two 26-year-old pastures. We expected that because of soil degradation and management, pastures would have the lowest and primary forests the highest AMF species richness. We found evidence for changes in AMF species composition due to land use and for higher morphospecies richness in primary forests than in secondary forests and pastures. We expected also that water stress limited plant and mycorrhizal development and that plants and AMF communities from secondary forests and pastures would be less affected by (better adapted to) water stress than those from the primary forest. We found that although all plant species showed biomass reductions under water stress, only some of the plant species had lower mycorrhizal development under water stress, and this was regardless of the AMF community inoculated. The third hypothesis was that plant species common to all land use types would respond similarly to all AMF communities, whereas plant species found mainly in one land use type would grow better when inoculated with the AMF community of that specific land use type. All plant species were however equally responsive to the three AMF communities

  16. Stem hydraulic traits and leaf water-stress tolerance are co-ordinated with the leaf phenology of angiosperm trees in an Asian tropical dry karst forest.

    PubMed

    Fu, Pei-Li; Jiang, Yan-Juan; Wang, Ai-Ying; Brodribb, Tim J; Zhang, Jiao-Lin; Zhu, Shi-Dan; Cao, Kun-Fang

    2012-07-01

    The co-occurring of evergreen and deciduous angiosperm trees in Asian tropical dry forests on karst substrates suggests the existence of different water-use strategies among species. In this study it is hypothesized that the co-occurring evergreen and deciduous trees differ in stem hydraulic traits and leaf water relationships, and there will be correlated evolution in drought tolerance between leaves and stems. A comparison was made of stem hydraulic conductivity, vulnerability curves, wood anatomy, leaf life span, leaf pressure-volume characteristics and photosynthetic capacity of six evergreen and six deciduous tree species co-occurring in a tropical dry karst forest in south-west China. The correlated evolution of leaf and stem traits was examined using both traditional and phylogenetic independent contrasts correlations. It was found that the deciduous trees had higher stem hydraulic efficiency, greater hydraulically weighted vessel diameter (D(h)) and higher mass-based photosynthetic rate (A(m)); while the evergreen species had greater xylem-cavitation resistance, lower leaf turgor-loss point water potential (π(0)) and higher bulk modulus of elasticity. There were evolutionary correlations between leaf life span and stem hydraulic efficiency, A(m), and dry season π(0). Xylem-cavitation resistance was evolutionarily correlated with stem hydraulic efficiency, D(h), as well as dry season π(0). Both wood density and leaf density were closely correlated with leaf water-stress tolerance and A(m). The results reveal the clear distinctions in stem hydraulic traits and leaf water-stress tolerance between the co-occurring evergreen and deciduous angiosperm trees in an Asian dry karst forest. A novel pattern was demonstrated linking leaf longevity with stem hydraulic efficiency and leaf water-stress tolerance. The results show the correlated evolution in drought tolerance between stems and leaves.

  17. Stem hydraulic traits and leaf water-stress tolerance are co-ordinated with the leaf phenology of angiosperm trees in an Asian tropical dry karst forest

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Pei-Li; Jiang, Yan-Juan; Wang, Ai-Ying; Brodribb, Tim J.; Zhang, Jiao-Lin; Zhu, Shi-Dan; Cao, Kun-Fang

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims The co-occurring of evergreen and deciduous angiosperm trees in Asian tropical dry forests on karst substrates suggests the existence of different water-use strategies among species. In this study it is hypothesized that the co-occurring evergreen and deciduous trees differ in stem hydraulic traits and leaf water relationships, and there will be correlated evolution in drought tolerance between leaves and stems. Methods A comparison was made of stem hydraulic conductivity, vulnerability curves, wood anatomy, leaf life span, leaf pressure–volume characteristics and photosynthetic capacity of six evergreen and six deciduous tree species co-occurring in a tropical dry karst forest in south-west China. The correlated evolution of leaf and stem traits was examined using both traditional and phylogenetic independent contrasts correlations. Key Results It was found that the deciduous trees had higher stem hydraulic efficiency, greater hydraulically weighted vessel diameter (Dh) and higher mass-based photosynthetic rate (Am); while the evergreen species had greater xylem-cavitation resistance, lower leaf turgor-loss point water potential (π0) and higher bulk modulus of elasticity. There were evolutionary correlations between leaf life span and stem hydraulic efficiency, Am, and dry season π0. Xylem-cavitation resistance was evolutionarily correlated with stem hydraulic efficiency, Dh, as well as dry season π0. Both wood density and leaf density were closely correlated with leaf water-stress tolerance and Am. Conclusions The results reveal the clear distinctions in stem hydraulic traits and leaf water-stress tolerance between the co-occurring evergreen and deciduous angiosperm trees in an Asian dry karst forest. A novel pattern was demonstrated linking leaf longevity with stem hydraulic efficiency and leaf water-stress tolerance. The results show the correlated evolution in drought tolerance between stems and leaves. PMID:22585930

  18. An objective tropical Atlantic sea surface temperature gradient index for studies of south Amazon dry-season climate variability and change.

    PubMed

    Good, Peter; Lowe, Jason A; Collins, Mat; Moufouma-Okia, Wilfran

    2008-05-27

    Future changes in meridional sea surface temperature (SST) gradients in the tropical Atlantic could influence Amazon dry-season precipitation by shifting the patterns of moisture convergence and vertical motion. Unlike for the El Niño-Southern Oscillation, there are no standard indices for quantifying this gradient. Here we describe a method for identifying the SST gradient that is most closely associated with June-August precipitation over the south Amazon. We use an ensemble of atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) integrations forced by observed SST from 1949 to 2005. A large number of tropical Atlantic SST gradient indices are generated randomly and temporal correlations are examined between these indices and June-August precipitation averaged over the Amazon Basin south of the equator. The indices correlating most strongly with June-August southern Amazon precipitation form a cluster of near-meridional orientation centred near the equator. The location of the southern component of the gradient is particularly well defined in a region off the Brazilian tropical coast, consistent with known physical mechanisms. The chosen index appears to capture much of the Atlantic SST influence on simulated southern Amazon dry-season precipitation, and is significantly correlated with observed southern Amazon precipitation. We examine the index in 36 different coupled atmosphere-ocean model projections of climate change under a simple compound 1% increase in CO2. Within the large spread of responses, we find a relationship between the projected trend in the index and the Amazon dry-season precipitation trends. Furthermore, the magnitude of the trend relationship is consistent with the inter-annual variability relationship found in the AGCM simulations. This suggests that the index would be of use in quantifying uncertainties in climate change in the region.

  19. Photoprotection related to xanthophyll cycle pigments in epiphytic orchids acclimated at different light microenvironments in two tropical dry forests of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico.

    PubMed

    de la Rosa-Manzano, Edilia; Andrade, José Luis; García-Mendoza, Ernesto; Zotz, Gerhard; Reyes-García, Casandra

    2015-12-01

    Epiphytic orchids from dry forests of Yucatán show considerable photoprotective plasticity during the dry season, which depends on leaf morphology and host tree deciduousness. Nocturnal retention of antheraxanthin and zeaxanthin was detected for the first time in epiphytic orchids. In tropical dry forests, epiphytes experience dramatic changes in light intensity: photosynthetic photon flux density may be up to an order of magnitude higher in the dry season compared to the wet season. To address the seasonal changes of xanthophyll cycle (XC) pigments and photosynthesis that occur throughout the year, leaves of five epiphytic orchid species were studied during the early dry, dry and wet seasons in a deciduous and a semi-deciduous tropical forests at two vertical strata on the host trees (3.5 and 1.5 m height). Differences in XC pigment concentrations and photosynthesis (maximum quantum efficiency of photosystem II; F v/F m) were larger among seasons than between vertical strata in both forests. Antheraxanthin and zeaxanthin retention reflected the stressful conditions of the epiphytic microhabitat, and it is described here in epiphytes for the first time. During the dry season, both XC pigment concentrations and photosystem II heat dissipation of absorbed energy increased in orchids in the deciduous forest, while F v/F m and nocturnal acidification (ΔH(+)) decreased, clearly as a response to excessive light and drought. Concentrations of XC pigments were higher than those in orchids with similar leaf shape in semi-deciduous forest. There, only Encyclia nematocaulon and Lophiaris oerstedii showed somewhat reduced F v/F m. No changes in ΔH(+) and F v/F m were detected in Cohniella ascendens throughout the year. This species, which commonly grows in forests with less open canopies, showed leaf tilting that diminished light interception. Light conditions in the uppermost parts of the canopy probably limit the distribution of epiphytic orchids and the retention of

  20. Comparative water use by the riparian trees Melaleuca argentea and Corymbia bella in the wet-dry tropics of northern Australia.

    PubMed

    O'Grady, A P; Eamus, D; Cook, P G; Lamontagne, S

    2006-02-01

    We examined sources of water and daily and seasonal water use patterns in two riparian tree species occupying contrasting niches within riparian zones throughout the wet-dry tropics of northern Australia: Corymbia bella Hill and Johnson is found along the top of the levee banks and Melaleuca argentea W. Fitzg. is restricted to riversides. Patterns of tree water use (sap flow) and leaf water potential were examined in four trees of each species at three locations along the Daly River in the Northern Territory. Predawn leaf water potential was higher than -0.5 MPa throughout the dry season in both species, but was lower at the end of the dry season than at the beginning of the dry season. Contrary to expectations, predawn leaf water potential was lower in M. argentea trees along the river than in C. bella trees along the levees. In contrast, midday leaf water potential was lower in the C. bella trees than in M. argentea trees. There were no seasonal differences in tree water use in either species. Daily water use was lower in M. argentea trees than in C. bella trees. Whole-tree hydraulic conductance, estimated from the slope of the relationship between leaf water potential and sap flow, did not differ between species. Xylem deuterium concentrations indicated that M. argentea trees along the riverbank were principally reliant on river water or shallow groundwater, whereas C. bella trees along the levee were reliant solely on soil water reserves. This study demonstrated strong gradients of tree water use within tropical riparian communities, with implications for estimating riparian water use requirements and for the management of groundwater resources.

  1. Wash durability and optimal drying regimen of four brands of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets after repeated washing under tropical conditions.

    PubMed

    Atieli, Francis K; Munga, Stephen O; Ofulla, Ayub V; Vulule, John M

    2010-08-30

    The current study was undertaken to determine the optimal wash-drying regimen and the effects of different washing procedures on the efficacy, and durability of four brands of newly introduced long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs) under tropical conditions. In the current study, the following four LLINs were tested: Olyset, PermaNet 2.0, BASF and TNT. Nets were divided into three sets; one set was washed by hand rubbing and air-dried either hanging or spread on the ground in direct sunlight or hanging or spread on the ground under the shade. A second set was washed using the WHO protocol (machine) and the third set was washed by beating the nets on rocks. The biological activities of the nets were assessed by a three-minute bioassay cone test and the residual insecticide contents were determined using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) procedure. Nets that were dried hanging under the shade retained more insecticide, 62.5% and recorded higher mortality compared to nets which were dried lying on the ground in direct sunlight 58.8%, nets dried under the shade spread on the ground 56.3%, and 57.8% for nets dried hanging in direct sunlight. It was also observed that nets washed by the standard WHO protocol, retained more insecticide and were more effective in killing mosquitoes compared to nets washed by local methods of hand rubbing and beating on rocks. There were significant differences between drying regimens (p < 0.0001) and between washing procedures (p < 0.001) respectively. However, the effect of net type was statistically insignificant. The statistical differences on individual nets were also compared, for PermaNet and TNT there were no significant differences observed between the four drying regimens (p = 0.7944 and 0.4703) respectively). For BASF and Olyset, the differences were significant (p < 0.001 and p > 0.0001). The results of this study suggest that washing and drying regimen influence the insecticidal activity of LLINs. The

  2. Wash durability and optimal drying regimen of four brands of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets after repeated washing under tropical conditions

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The current study was undertaken to determine the optimal wash-drying regimen and the effects of different washing procedures on the efficacy, and durability of four brands of newly introduced long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs) under tropical conditions. Methods In the current study, the following four LLINs were tested: Olyset®, PermaNet ®2.0, BASF® and TNT®. Nets were divided into three sets; one set was washed by hand rubbing and air-dried either hanging or spread on the ground in direct sunlight or hanging or spread on the ground under the shade. A second set was washed using the WHO protocol (machine) and the third set was washed by beating the nets on rocks. The biological activities of the nets were assessed by a three-minute bioassay cone test and the residual insecticide contents were determined using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) procedure. Results Nets that were dried hanging under the shade retained more insecticide, 62.5% and recorded higher mortality compared to nets which were dried lying on the ground in direct sunlight 58.8%, nets dried under the shade spread on the ground 56.3%, and 57.8% for nets dried hanging in direct sunlight. It was also observed that nets washed by the standard WHO protocol, retained more insecticide and were more effective in killing mosquitoes compared to nets washed by local methods of hand rubbing and beating on rocks. There were significant differences between drying regimens (p < 0.0001) and between washing procedures (p < 0.001) respectively. However, the effect of net type was statistically insignificant. The statistical differences on individual nets were also compared, for PermaNet® and TNT there were no significant differences observed between the four drying regimens (p = 0.7944 and 0.4703) respectively). For BASF and Olyset, the differences were significant (p < 0.001 and p > 0.0001). Conclusion The results of this study suggest that washing and drying regimen influence

  3. Large-scale carbon stock assessment of woody vegetation in tropical dry deciduous forest of Sathanur reserve forest, Eastern Ghats, India.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Durai Sanjay; Sundarapandian, Somaiah

    2017-04-01

    Tropical dry forests are one of the most widely distributed ecosystems in tropics, which remain neglected in research, especially in the Eastern Ghats. Therefore, the present study was aimed to quantify the carbon storage in woody vegetation (trees and lianas) on large scale (30, 1 ha plots) in the dry deciduous forest of Sathanur reserve forest of Eastern Ghats. Biomass of adult (≥10 cm DBH) trees was estimated by species-specific allometric equations using diameter and wood density of species whereas in juvenile tree population and lianas, their respective general allometric equations were used to estimate the biomass. The fractional value 0.4453 was used to convert dry biomass into carbon in woody vegetation of tropical dry forest. The mean aboveground biomass value of juvenile tree population was 1.86 Mg/ha. The aboveground biomass of adult trees ranged from 64.81 to 624.96 Mg/ha with a mean of 245.90 Mg/ha. The mean aboveground biomass value of lianas was 7.98 Mg/ha. The total biomass of woody vegetation (adult trees + juvenile population of trees + lianas) ranged from 85.02 to 723.46 Mg/ha, with a mean value of 295.04 Mg/ha. Total carbon accumulated in woody vegetation in tropical dry deciduous forest ranged from 37.86 to 322.16 Mg/ha with a mean value of 131.38 Mg/ha. Adult trees accumulated 94.81% of woody biomass carbon followed by lianas (3.99%) and juvenile population of trees (1.20%). Albizia amara has the greatest biomass and carbon stock (58.31%) among trees except for two plots (24 and 25) where Chloroxylon swietenia contributed more to biomass and carbon stock. Similarly, Albizia amara (52.4%) showed greater carbon storage in juvenile population of trees followed by Chloroxylon swietenia (21.9%). Pterolobium hexapetalum (38.86%) showed a greater accumulation of carbon in liana species followed by Combretum albidum (33.04%). Even though, all the study plots are located within 10 km radius, they show a significant spatial variation among

  4. Causes and implications of dry season control of tropical wet forest tree growth at very high water levels: direct vs. indirect limitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dierick, D.; Oberbauer, S. F.; O'Brien, J. J.

    2012-12-01

    Despite the importance of tropical rain forests in the global carbon cycle, uncertainty remains on how these ecosystems will be affected by climate change. Previous studies in a Costa Rican lowland tropical rain forest (La Selva Biological Station, Sarapiqui, Costa Rica) revealed a significant, positive relationship between tree diameter increment and January to April dry season precipitation that extended up to high rainfall totals (Clark et al. 2010). Proposed mechanisms include a direct limitation of water availability or closely linked indirect controls such as altered micrometeorological conditions (direct vs. diffuse light, atmospheric humidity) and changes in plant phenology or C-allocation. Using an experimental approach we aim to test the hypothesis that water availability in the dry season directly controls tree diameter growth despite the high precipitation levels normally encountered (long term average for Jan-Apr is 890 mm). At three sites within the La Selva Biological Station a paired experimental and control plot were established. Each plot was 900 m2 in size and had at least 20 trees with diameter at breast height (dbh) over 10 cm. In the experimental plots we used irrigation to simulate a minimum daily precipitation equivalent to 10 mm.d-1 during the dry seasons of 2011 and 2012. This simulated precipitation amount matches the highest dry season total recorded for the years 1998 to 2009. The main response variables measured in experimental and control plots were monthly dendrometer-band diameter growth of trees above 10 cm dbh, sap flux density of a subset of trees and bi-weekly leaf litter production. Belowground variables included soil moisture, fine root production and soil respiration. Soil moisture data confirmed that experimental plots experienced consistently high water availability in the top 30 cm of the soil profile during the dry season, while control plots experienced repeated drying and rewetting of the soil. This difference in water

  5. Root depth and morphology in response to soil drought: comparing ecological groups along the secondary succession in a tropical dry forest.

    PubMed

    Paz, Horacio; Pineda-García, Fernando; Pinzón-Pérez, Luisa F

    2015-10-01

    Root growth and morphology may play a core role in species-niche partitioning in highly diverse communities, especially along gradients of drought risk, such as that created along the secondary succession of tropical dry forests. We experimentally tested whether root foraging capacity, especially at depth, decreases from early successional species to old-growth forest species. We also tested for a trade-off between two mechanisms for delaying desiccation, the capacity to forage deeper in the soil and the capacity to store water in tissues, and explored whether successional groups separate along such a trade-off. We examined the growth and morphology of roots in response to a controlled-vertical gradient of soil water, among seedlings of 23 woody species dominant along the secondary succession in a tropical dry forest of Mexico. As predicted, successional species developed deeper and longer root systems than old-growth forest species in response to soil drought. In addition, shallow root systems were associated with high plant water storage and high water content per unit of tissue in stems and roots, while deep roots exhibited the opposite traits, suggesting a trade-off between the capacities for vertical foraging and water storage. Our results suggest that an increased capacity of roots to forage deeper for water is a trait that enables successional species to establish under the warm-dry conditions of the secondary succession, while shallow roots, associated with a higher water storage capacity, are restricted to the old-growth forest. Overall, we found evidence that the root depth-water storage trade-off may constrain tree species distribution along secondary succession.

  6. Effects of ENSO and temporal rainfall variation on the dynamics of successional communities in old-field succession of a tropical dry forest.

    PubMed

    Maza-Villalobos, Susana; Poorter, Lourens; Martínez-Ramos, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    The effects of temporal variation of rainfall on secondary succession of tropical dry ecosystems are poorly understood. We studied effects of inter-seasonal and inter-year rainfall variation on the dynamics of regenerative successional communities of a tropical dry forest in Mexico. We emphasized the effects caused by the severe El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) occurred in 2005. We established permanent plots in sites representing a chronosequence of Pasture (abandoned pastures, 0-1 years fallow age), Early (3-5), Intermediate (8-12), and Old-Growth Forest categories (n = 3 per category). In total, 8210 shrubs and trees 10 to 100-cm height were identified, measured, and monitored over four years. Rates of plant recruitment, growth and mortality, and gain and loss of species were quantified per season (dry vs. rainy), year, and successional category, considering whole communities and separating seedlings from sprouts and shrubs from trees. Community rates changed with rainfall variation without almost any effect of successional stage. Mortality and species loss rates peaked during the ENSO year and the following year; however, after two rainy years mortality peaked in the rainy season. Such changes could result from the severe drought in the ENSO year, and of the outbreak of biotic agents during the following rainy years. Growth, recruitment and species gain rates were higher in the rainy season but they were significantly reduced after the ENSO year. Seedlings exhibited higher recruitment and mortality rate than sprouts, and shrubs showed higher recruitment than trees. ENSO strongly impacted both the dynamics and trajectory of succession, creating transient fluctuations in the abundance and species richness of the communities. Overall, there was a net decline in plant and species density in most successional stages along the years. Therefore, strong drought events have critical consequences for regeneration dynamics, delaying the successional process and

  7. Seasonality of nitrogen partitioning (non-structural vs structural) in the leaves and woody tissues of tropical eucalypts experiencing a marked dry season.

    PubMed

    Gérant, Dominique; Pluchon, Morgane; Mareschal, Louis; Koutika, Lydie Stella; Epron, Daniel

    2017-06-01

    Numerous studies have shown that internal nitrogen (N) translocation in temperate tree species is governed by photoperiod duration and temperature. For tropical tree species, the seasonality of rainfall is known to affect growth and foliage production, suggesting that efficient internal N recycling also occurs throughout the year. We tested this hypothesis by comparing the N budgets and N partitioning (non-structural vs structural N) in the different organs of 7-year-old Eucalyptus urophylla (S.T. Blake) × E. grandis (W. Hill ex Maiden) trees from a plantation in coastal Congo on poor sandy soil. The trees were sampled at the end of the dry season and late in the rainy season. Lower N concentrations and N investment in the non-structural fraction were observed in leaves during the dry season, which indicates resorption of non-structural N from senescing leaves. Stem wood, which contributes to about 60% of the total biomass of the trees, accumulated high amounts of non-structural N at the end of the dry season, most of which was remobilized during the following rainy season. These results support the hypothesis of efficient internal N recycling, which may be an important determinant for the growth potential of eucalypts on N-poor soils. Harvesting trees late in the rainy season when stem wood is depleted in non-structural N should be recommended to limit the export of nutrients off-site and to improve the sustainability of tropical eucalypt plantations. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Effects of ENSO and Temporal Rainfall Variation on the Dynamics of Successional Communities in Old-Field Succession of a Tropical Dry Forest

    PubMed Central

    Maza-Villalobos, Susana; Poorter, Lourens; Martínez-Ramos, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    The effects of temporal variation of rainfall on secondary succession of tropical dry ecosystems are poorly understood. We studied effects of inter-seasonal and inter-year rainfall variation on the dynamics of regenerative successional communities of a tropical dry forest in Mexico. We emphasized the effects caused by the severe El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) occurred in 2005. We established permanent plots in sites representing a chronosequence of Pasture (abandoned pastures, 0–1 years fallow age), Early (3–5), Intermediate (8–12), and Old-Growth Forest categories (n = 3 per category). In total, 8210 shrubs and trees 10 to 100-cm height were identified, measured, and monitored over four years. Rates of plant recruitment, growth and mortality, and gain and loss of species were quantified per season (dry vs. rainy), year, and successional category, considering whole communities and separating seedlings from sprouts and shrubs from trees. Community rates changed with rainfall variation without almost any effect of successional stage. Mortality and species loss rates peaked during the ENSO year and the following year; however, after two rainy years mortality peaked in the rainy season. Such changes could result from the severe drought in the ENSO year, and of the outbreak of biotic agents during the following rainy years. Growth, recruitment and species gain rates were higher in the rainy season but they were significantly reduced after the ENSO year. Seedlings exhibited higher recruitment and mortality rate than sprouts, and shrubs showed higher recruitment than trees. ENSO strongly impacted both the dynamics and trajectory of succession, creating transient fluctuations in the abundance and species richness of the communities. Overall, there was a net decline in plant and species density in most successional stages along the years. Therefore, strong drought events have critical consequences for regeneration dynamics, delaying the successional process

  9. Effect of land cover and use on dry season river runoff, runoff efficiency, and peak storm runoff in the seasonal tropics of Central Panama

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ogden, Fred L.; Crouch, Trey D.; Stallard, Robert F.; Hall, Jefferson S.

    2013-01-01

    A paired catchment methodology was used with more than 3 years of data to test whether forests increase base flow in the dry season, despite reduced annual runoff caused by evapotranspiration (the “sponge-effect hypothesis”), and whether forests reduce maximum runoff rates and totals during storms. The three study catchments were: a 142.3 ha old secondary forest, a 175.6 ha mosaic of mixed age forest, pasture, and subsistence agriculture, and a 35.9 ha actively grazed pasture subcatchment of the mosaic catchment. The two larger catchments are adjacent, with similar morphology, soils, underlying geology, and rainfall. Annual water balances, peak runoff rates, runoff efficiencies, and dry season recessions show significant differences. Dry season runoff from the forested catchment receded more slowly than from the mosaic and pasture catchments. The runoff rate from the forest catchment was 1–50% greater than that from the similarly sized mosaic catchment at the end of the dry season. This observation supports the sponge-effect hypothesis. The pasture and mosaic catchment median runoff efficiencies were 2.7 and 1.8 times that of the forest catchment, respectively, and increased with total storm rainfall. Peak runoff rates from the pasture and mosaic catchments were 1.7 and 1.4 times those of the forest catchment, respectively. The forest catchment produced 35% less total runoff and smaller peak runoff rates during the flood of record in the Panama Canal Watershed. Flood peak reduction and increased streamflows through dry periods are important benefits relevant to watershed management, payment for ecosystem services, water-quality management, reservoir sedimentation, and fresh water security in the Panama Canal watershed and similar tropical landscapes.

  10. Effects of land use change and seasonality of precipitation on soil nitrogen in a dry tropical forest area in the Western Llanos of Venezuela.

    PubMed

    González-Pedraza, Ana Francisca; Dezzeo, Nelda

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated changes of different soil nitrogen forms (total N, available ammonium and nitrate, total N in microbial biomass, and soil N mineralization) after conversion of semideciduous dry tropical forest in 5- and 18-year-old pastures (YP and OP, resp.) in the western Llanos of Venezuela. This evaluation was made at early rainy season, at end rainy season, and during dry season. With few exceptions, no significant differences were detected in the total N in the three study sites. Compared to forest soils, YP showed ammonium losses from 4.2 to 62.9% and nitrate losses from 20.0 to 77.8%, depending on the season of the year. In OP, the ammonium content increased from 50.0 to 69.0% at the end of the rainy season and decreased during the dry season between 25.0 and 55.5%, whereas the nitrate content increased significantly at early rainy season. The net mineralization and the potentially mineralizable N were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in OP than in forest and YP, which would indicate a better quality of the substrate in OP for mineralization. The mineralization rate constant was higher in YP than in forest and OP. This could be associated with a reduced capacity of these soils to preserve the available nitrogen.

  11. Effects of Land Use Change and Seasonality of Precipitation on Soil Nitrogen in a Dry Tropical Forest Area in the Western Llanos of Venezuela

    PubMed Central

    González-Pedraza, Ana Francisca; Dezzeo, Nelda

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated changes of different soil nitrogen forms (total N, available ammonium and nitrate, total N in microbial biomass, and soil N mineralization) after conversion of semideciduous dry tropical forest in 5- and 18-year-old pastures (YP and OP, resp.) in the western Llanos of Venezuela. This evaluation was made at early rainy season, at end rainy season, and during dry season. With few exceptions, no significant differences were detected in the total N in the three study sites. Compared to forest soils, YP showed ammonium losses from 4.2 to 62.9% and nitrate losses from 20.0 to 77.8%, depending on the season of the year. In OP, the ammonium content increased from 50.0 to 69.0% at the end of the rainy season and decreased during the dry season between 25.0 and 55.5%, whereas the nitrate content increased significantly at early rainy season. The net mineralization and the potentially mineralizable N were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in OP than in forest and YP, which would indicate a better quality of the substrate in OP for mineralization. The mineralization rate constant was higher in YP than in forest and OP. This could be associated with a reduced capacity of these soils to preserve the available nitrogen. PMID:25610907

  12. River and Wetland Food Webs in Australia's Wet-Dry Tropics: General Principles and Implications for Management.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglas, M. M.; Bunn, S. E.; Davies, P. M.

    2005-05-01

    The tropical rivers of northern Australia are internationally recognised for their high ecological and cultural values. They have largely unmodified flow regimes and are comparatively free of the impacts associated with intensive land use. However, there is growing demand for agricultural development and existing pressures, such as weeds and feral animals, threaten their ecological integrity. Using the international literature to provide a conceptual framework and drawing on limited published and unpublished data on rivers in northern Australia, we have derived five general principles about food webs and related ecosystem processes that both characterise tropical rivers of northern Australia and have important implications for their management. These are: (1) Seasonal hydrology is a strong driver of ecosystem processes and food web structure; (2) Hydrological connectivity is largely intact and underpins important terrestrial-aquatic food web subsidies; (3) River and wetland food webs are strongly dependent on algal production; (4) A few common macroconsumers species have a strong influence on benthic food webs; (5) Omnivory is widespread and food chains are short. These principles have implications for the management and protection of tropical rivers and wetlands of northern Australia and provide a framework for the formation of testable hypotheses in future research programs.

  13. Going beyond the green: senesced vegetation material predicts basal area and biomass in remote sensing of tree cover conditions in an African tropical dry forest (miombo woodland) landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayes, Marc; Mustard, John; Melillo, Jerry; Neill, Christopher; Nyadzi, Gerson

    2017-08-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), tropical dry forests and savannas cover over 2.5 million km2 and support livelihoods for millions in fast-growing nations. Intensifying land use pressures have driven rapid changes in tree cover structure (basal area, biomass) that remain poorly characterized at regional scales. Here, we posed the hypothesis that tree cover structure related strongly to senesced and non-photosynthetic (NPV) vegetation features in a SSA tropical dry forest landscape, offering improved means for satellite remote sensing of tree cover structure compared to vegetation greenness-based methods. Across regrowth miombo woodland sites in Tanzania, we analyzed relationships among field data on tree structure, land cover, and satellite indices of green and NPV features based on spectral mixture analyses and normalized difference vegetation index calculated from Landsat 8 data. From satellite-field data relationships, we mapped regional basal area and biomass using NPV and greenness-based metrics, and compared map performances at landscape scales. Total canopy cover related significantly to stem basal area (r 2 = 0.815, p < 0.01) and biomass (r 2 = 0.635, p < 0.01), and NPV dominated ground cover (> 60%) at all sites. From these two conditions emerged a key inverse relationship: skyward exposure of NPV ground cover was high at sites with low tree basal area and biomass, and decreased with increasing stem basal area and biomass. This pattern scaled to Landsat NPV metrics, which showed strong inverse correlations to basal area (Pearson r = -0.85, p < 0.01) and biomass (r = -0.86, p < 0.01). Biomass estimates from Landsat NPV-based maps matched field data, and significantly differentiated landscape gradients in woody biomass that greenness metrics failed to track. The results suggest senesced vegetation metrics at Landsat scales are a promising means for improved monitoring of tree structure across disturbance and ecological gradients

  14. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of cypermethrin, amitraz, and piperonyl butoxide mixtures for the control of resistant Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) in the Mexican tropics

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The southern cattle fever tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini), is a haematophagous arachnid (Acari: Ixodidae) recognized globally as an economically important ectoparasite of cattle in tropical and subtropical agroecosystems. Populations of this invasive tick species around the wo...

  15. The role of climate and environmental variables in structuring bird assemblages in the Seasonally Dry Tropical Forests (SDTFs)

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Gabriela Silva Ribeiro; Cerqueira, Pablo Vieira; Brasil, Leandro Schlemmer; Santos, Marcos Pérsio Dantas

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the processes that influence species diversity is still a challenge in ecological studies. However, there are two main theories to discuss this topic, the niche theory and the neutral theory. Our objective was to understand the importance of environmental and spatial processes in structuring bird communities within the hydrological seasons in dry forest areas in northeastern Brazil. The study was conducted in two National Parks, the Serra da Capivara and Serra das Confusões National Parks, where 36 areas were sampled in different seasons (dry, dry/rainy transition, rainy, rainy/dry transition), in 2012 and 2013. We found with our results that bird species richness is higher in the rainy season and lower during the dry season, indicating a strong influence of seasonality, a pattern also found for environmental heterogeneity. Richness was explained by local environmental factors, while species composition was explained by environmental and spatial factors. The environmental factors were more important in explaining variations in composition. Climate change predictions have currently pointed out frequent drought events and a rise in global temperature by 2050, which would lead to changes in species behavior and to increasing desertification in some regions, including the Caatinga. In addition, the high deforestation rates and the low level of representativeness of the Caatinga in the conservation units negatively affects bird communities. This scenario has demonstrated how climatic factors affect individuals, and, therefore, should be the starting point for conservation initiatives to be developed in xeric environments. PMID:28441412

  16. The role of climate and environmental variables in structuring bird assemblages in the Seasonally Dry Tropical Forests (SDTFs).

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Gabriela Silva Ribeiro; Cerqueira, Pablo Vieira; Brasil, Leandro Schlemmer; Santos, Marcos Pérsio Dantas

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the processes that influence species diversity is still a challenge in ecological studies. However, there are two main theories to discuss this topic, the niche theory and the neutral theory. Our objective was to understand the importance of environmental and spatial processes in structuring bird communities within the hydrological seasons in dry forest areas in northeastern Brazil. The study was conducted in two National Parks, the Serra da Capivara and Serra das Confusões National Parks, where 36 areas were sampled in different seasons (dry, dry/rainy transition, rainy, rainy/dry transition), in 2012 and 2013. We found with our results that bird species richness is higher in the rainy season and lower during the dry season, indicating a strong influence of seasonality, a pattern also found for environmental heterogeneity. Richness was explained by local environmental factors, while species composition was explained by environmental and spatial factors. The environmental factors were more important in explaining variations in composition. Climate change predictions have currently pointed out frequent drought events and a rise in global temperature by 2050, which would lead to changes in species behavior and to increasing desertification in some regions, including the Caatinga. In addition, the high deforestation rates and the low level of representativeness of the Caatinga in the conservation units negatively affects bird communities. This scenario has demonstrated how climatic factors affect individuals, and, therefore, should be the starting point for conservation initiatives to be developed in xeric environments.

  17. The chemical composition and bacteria communities in acid and metalliferous drainage from the wet-dry tropics are dependent on season.

    PubMed

    Streten-Joyce, Claire; Manning, Judy; Gibb, Karen S; Neilan, Brett A; Parry, David L

    2013-01-15

    Acid and metalliferous drainage (AMD) occurs when sulphidic minerals, such as arsenopyrite, chalcopyrite and pyrite, are exposed to oxygen and water. Climate, geology and mine site practices can have a significant impact on AMD composition. The elemental composition of the AMD can also affect the bacterial community. Our hypothesis was that in the dry season the AMD at two mine sites, Rum Jungle and Mt Todd, in the Northern Territory, Australia, has a higher concentration of dissolved metals because standing water evaporates during the extended dry period. Our second hypothesis was that the wet and dry season bacteria community in AMD at Rum Jungle and Mt Todd are different, and this difference is correlated to seasonally specific changes in physicochemistry. The first hypothesis was tested by measuring elemental concentrations in AMD during the wet and dry seasons at Mt Todd and Rum Jungle mine sites. The physicochemical properties such as temperature, pH and dissolved oxygen were also measured. To test the second hypothesis, we extracted DNA from AMD samples collected at Rum Jungle and Mt Todd during the wet and dry seasons. The hypervariable V6 region of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene was sequenced by 454 pyrosequencing. The bacterial community composition was examined and related to physiochemical variables. The elemental concentrations in Rum Jungle AMD were higher in the dry season compared to the wet season, but at Mt Todd the elemental composition of AMD changed with year, rather than season. The bacteria community in AMD at Rum Jungle changed between the wet and dry season while in Mt Todd AMD the bacteria community from year 1 was significantly different from year 2. The data showed that the elemental composition and bacteria communities of AMD at Rum Jungle and Mt Todd are influenced by season, mine site practices and geological characteristics of the ore body. In addition, the iron oxidising bacteria Leptospirillum and Acidithiobacillus typically

  18. Patterns of infection by intestinal parasites in sympatric howler monkey (Alouatta palliata) and spider monkey (Ateles geoffroyi) populations in a tropical dry forest in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Maldonado-López, Selene; Maldonado-López, Yurixhi; Gómez-Tagle Ch, Alberto; Cuevas-Reyes, Pablo; Stoner, Kathryn E

    2014-07-01

    In primate populations, endoparasite species richness and prevalence are associated with host traits such as reproductive and social status, age, sex, host population density, and environmental factors such as humidity. We analyzed the species richness and prevalence of intestinal parasites in two sympatric primate populations, one of Alouatta palliata and one of Ateles geoffroyi, found in a tropical dry forest in Costa Rica. We identified three species of intestinal parasites (Controrchis sp., Trypanoxyuris sp., and Strongyloides sp.) in these two primate species. We did not find any differences in species richness between the primate species. However, the prevalences of Controrchis sp. and Trypanoxyuris sp. were higher in Alouatta palliata. Similarly, males and lactating females of Alouatta palliata showed higher Controrchis sp. prevalences. We did not observe any differences in parasite richness and prevalence between seasons. Infectious diseases in endangered primate populations must be considered in conservation strategies, especially when defining protected areas.

  19. Land application of mine water causes minimal uranium loss offsite in the wet-dry tropics: Ranger Uranium Mine, Northern Territory, Australia.

    PubMed

    Mumtaz, Saqib; Streten, Claire; Parry, David L; McGuinness, Keith A; Lu, Ping; Gibb, Karen S

    2015-11-01

    Ranger Uranium Mine (RUM) is situated in the wet-dry tropics of Northern Australia. Land application (irrigation) of stockpile (ore and waste) runoff water to natural woodland on the mine lease is a key part of water management at the mine. Consequently, the soil in these Land Application Areas (LAAs) presents a range of uranium (U) and other metals concentrations. Knowledge of seasonal and temporal changes in soil U and physicochemical parameters at RUM LAAs is important to develop suitable management and rehabilitation strategies. Therefore, soil samples were collected from low, medium, high and very high U sites at RUM LAAs for two consecutive years and the effect of time and season on soil physicochemical parameters particularly U and other major solutes applied in irrigation water was measured. Concentrations of some of the solutes applied in the irrigation water such as sulphur (S), iron (Fe) and calcium (Ca) showed significant seasonal and temporal changes. Soil S, Fe and Ca concentration decreased from year 1 to year 2 and from dry to wet seasons during both years. Soil U followed the same pattern except that we recorded an increase in soil U concentrations at most of the RUM LAAs after year 2 wet season compared to year 2 dry season. Thus, these sites did not show a considerable decrease in soil U concentration from year 1 to year 2. Sites which contained elevated U after wet season 2 also had higher moisture content which suggests that pooling of U containing rainwater at these sites may be responsible for elevated U. Thus, U may be redistributed within RUM LAAs due to surface water movement. The study also suggested that a decrease in U concentrations in LAA soils at very high U (>900 mg kg(-1)) sites is most likely due to transport of particulate matter bound U by surface runoff and U may not be lost from the surface soil due to vertical movement through the soil profile. Uranium attached to particulate matter may reduce its potential for environmental

  20. Withstanding a record drought: Dry season sap flow and safety margins of canopy epiphytes in three sites along an elevation gradient in a tropical montane cloud forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gotsch, S. G.; Darby, A.; Glunk, A.; Murray, J.; Draguljic, D.

    2016-12-01

    Tropical montane cloud forests (TMCFs) are projected to experience shifts in microclimate due to changes in precipitation patterns and cloud base heights. Understanding how the TMCF will be affected by such changes is critical since these forests harbor a great number of endemic species and the intact forest plays an important role in local and regional hydrology. The epiphyte community is one of the characteristic components of this unique ecosystem. Epiphytes contribute greatly to the biomass and diversity of the forest, and play an important role in the TMCF water cycle. The ecosystem role played by the epiphyte community may be lost if these species, which lack roots to the ground, cannot withstand projected changes in climate. We measured dry season sap flow in canopy epiphytes in three sites along an elevation gradient, in Monteverde Costa Rica during an extreme drought event. In addition, we measured predawn and midday leaf water potentials, and dry season pressure-volume curves on focal species. We found that during a month-long dry period, species in all sites reduced transpiration considerably, and for a two-week period, sap flow rates were close to zero. During this time, predawn and midday leaf water potentials remained high (> -1.0 MPa) due to the utilization of stored leaf water and strong stomatal regulation. At the end of the dry season, midday leaf water potentials were approximately 2x lower in the driest versus the wettest site (AVG: -0.94 vs. -0.47 MPa) although hydraulic safety margins were greater at the driest sites. Our results indicate that epiphyte communities vary in their water use strategies and that the epiphyte community in wetter sites is more likely to experience hydraulic failure if there are increases in the number of days without precipitation and/or increases in temperature.

  1. Effects of soil type and light on height growth, biomass partitioning, and nitrogen dynamics on 22 species of tropical dry forest tree seedlings: Comparisons between legumes and nonlegumes.

    PubMed

    Smith-Martin, Christina M; Gei, Maria G; Bergstrom, Ellie; Becklund, Kristen K; Becknell, Justin M; Waring, Bonnie G; Werden, Leland K; Powers, Jennifer S

    2017-03-01

    The seedling stage is particularly vulnerable to resource limitation, with potential consequences for community composition. We investigated how light and soil variation affected early growth, biomass partitioning, morphology, and physiology of 22 tree species common in tropical dry forest, including eight legumes. Our hypothesis was that legume seedlings are better at taking advantage of increased resource availability, which contributes to their successful regeneration in tropical dry forests. We grew seedlings in a full-factorial design under two light levels in two soil types that differed in nutrient concentrations and soil moisture. We measured height biweekly and, at final harvest, biomass partitioning, internode segments, leaf carbon, nitrogen, δ(13)C, and δ(15)N. Legumes initially grew taller and maintained that height advantage over time under all experimental conditions. Legumes also had the highest final total biomass and water-use efficiency in the high-light and high-resource soil. For nitrogen-fixing legumes, the amount of nitrogen derived from fixation was highest in the richer soil. Although seed mass tended to be larger in legumes, seed size alone did not account for all the differences between legumes and nonlegumes. Both belowground and aboveground resources were limiting to early seedling growth and function. Legumes may have a different regeneration niche, in that they germinate rapidly and grow taller than other species immediately after germination, maximizing their performance when light and belowground resources are readily available, and potentially permitting them to take advantage of high light, nutrient, and water availability at the beginning of the wet season. © 2017 Botanical Society of America.

  2. Population regulation of a tropical damselfly in the larval stage by food limitation, cannibalism, intraguild predation and habitat drying.

    PubMed

    Fincke, Ola M

    1994-11-01

    experimentally prevented, competition for food reduced the growth of one or both larvae relative to controls. Holes that were watered during the dry season supported larval densities similar to those in the wet season. Thus, dry season mortality could not be attributed to a decrease in available prey. Rather, M. coerulatus larvae could not survive more than 1 month of complete drying. Because the dry season typically lasts more than 6 weeks, habitat drying is a secondary source of mortality, affecting second- or third-generation larvae that fail to emerge before tree holes dry out completely.

  3. Drought resistance in early and late secondary successional species from a tropical dry forest: the interplay between xylem resistance to embolism, sapwood water storage and leaf shedding.

    PubMed

    Pineda-García, Fernando; Paz, Horacio; Meinzer, Frederick C

    2013-02-01

    The mechanisms of drought resistance that allow plants to successfully establish at different stages of secondary succession in tropical dry forests are not well understood. We characterized mechanisms of drought resistance in early and late-successional species and tested whether risk of drought differs across sites at different successional stages, and whether early and late-successional species differ in resistance to experimentally imposed soil drought. The microenvironment in early successional sites was warmer and drier than in mature forest. Nevertheless, successional groups did not differ in resistance to soil drought. Late-successional species resisted drought through two independent mechanisms: high resistance of xylem to embolism, or reliance on high stem water storage capacity. High sapwood water reserves delayed the effects of soil drying by transiently decoupling plant and soil water status. Resistance to soil drought resulted from the interplay between variations in xylem vulnerability to embolism, reliance on sapwood water reserves and leaf area reduction, leading to a tradeoff of avoidance against tolerance of soil drought, along which successional groups were not differentiated. Overall, our data suggest that ranking species' performance under soil drought based solely on xylem resistance to embolism may be misleading, especially for species with high sapwood water storage capacity. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Impact of an Unusual Dry Spell on the Energy Balance of a Residential Neighbourhood in a Tropical City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velasco, E.; Harshan, S.; Roth, M.

    2014-12-01

    Singapore experienced an unprecedented 2-month dry spell at the beginning of 2014. A paltry 0.2 mm of rain in February, compared to the long-term monthly average of 161 mm, resulted in the driest month since 1869. Clear symptoms of water stress were observed in the evergreen vegetation of Singapore's garden city, a number of bush fires broke out in vegetated areas, water reservoirs shrank substantially in size, and the dry weather in the region triggered wildfires in neighboring countries. The fires in peninsular Malaysia combined with the prevailing north-easterly winds generated hazy conditions with subsequent deterioration of the local air quality. In response to this rare climatological event, and contrary to other countries in the region, little action was taken to preserve water in Singapore. Water consumption actually increased 5%, likely due to increased bathing for relief during the hot and hazy days and increased watering of managed green spaces. The reasons which resulted in increased water consumption are investigated in this paper from a climatological point of view. Using eddy covariance flux measurements of the different radiative and non-radiate (latent and sensible heat) fluxes conducted over a low-rise neighborhood, the changes in the components of the energy balance associated with the dry spell are investigated. An increase of 17% in net radiation and drier daytime conditions produced an increase of 45% in sensible and reduction of 14% in latent heat fluxes, respectively. The heat stored in the urban canopy increased by 3% compared to previous years. Although the projected impacts of climate change for Singapore are uncertain, an increase in frequency of dry periods like the 2014 episode are possible in Southeast Asia. A holistic approach, which includes aspects of the urban microclimate, is necessary to implement effective measures to reduce water demand and assure the water resilience of Singapore.

  5. Dynamics of viable nitrifier community, N-mineralization and nitrification in seasonally dry tropical forests and savanna.

    PubMed

    Singh, J S; Kashyap, A K

    2006-01-01

    The study was conducted in Vindhyan region, to assess the N-mineralization, nitrification and size of viable community of ammonium- and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria as affected by different sites and seasons. Six different ecosystems (four forests and two savannas), which differ in terms of topography, vegetation and moisture status, were selected for the present study. The soils of the study sites differ significantly in its physico-chemical properties. The savanna site had significantly higher pH (7.2), bulk density (1.37 g cm(-3)) and silt content (67.80%) but lower water holding capacity (1.37%), total-C (16,356 microg g(-1) dry soil), N (1090 microg g(-1) dry soil) and P (213 microg g(-1) dry soil) than forest sites. The soil moisture content, N-mineralization, nitrification rates and numbers of ammonium- and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria were highest in the wet season and lowest in dry season, while the size of mineral-N (NH4(+)-N and NO3(-)-N) showed a reverse trend at the sites. The N-mineralization, nitrification and nitrifier population size differ significantly across the site and season. The numbers of free-living cells of ammonium- and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria were significantly related to each other and to N-mineralization, nitrification, soil moisture and mineral-N components. The N-mineralization, nitrification and the viable number of nitrifying cells were consistently higher for forest soils compared to savanna sites. It was concluded that soil microbial process (N-mineralization and nitrification) and nitrifier population size were dependent on site topography, vegetation cover and soil moisture status.

  6. Aspergillus and Penicillium (Eurotiales: Trichocomaceae) in soils of the Brazilian tropical dry forest: diversity in an area of environmental preservation.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Renan do Nascimento; Bezerra, Jadson Diogo Pereira; Costa, Phelipe Manoel Oller; de Lima-Júnior, Nelson Correia; Alves de Souza Galvão, Ivana Roberta Gomes; Alves dos Santos-Júnior, Anthony; Fernandes, Maria José; de Souza-Motta, Cristina Maria; Oliveira, Neiva Tinti

    2016-03-01

    Soil is a complex biological system that plays a key role for plants and animals, especially in dry forests such as the Caatinga. Fungi from soils, such as Aspergillus and Penicillium, can be used as bioindica- tors for biodiversity conservation. The aim of this study was to isolate and identify species of Aspergillus and Penicillium in soil, from the municipalities of Tupanatinga and Ibimirim, with dry forests, in the Catimbau National Park. Five collections were performed in each area during the drought season of 2012, totaling 25 soil samples per area. Fungi were isolated by suspending soil samples in sterile distilled water and plating on Sabouraud Agar media plus Chloramphenicol and Rose Bengal, and Glycerol Dicloran Agar. Isolates were identified by morphological taxonomy in the Culture Collection Laboratory and confirmed by sequencing of the Internal Transcribed Spacer of rDNA. A total of 42 species were identified, of which 22 belong to the genus Aspergillus and 20 to Penicillium. Penicillium isolates showed uniform distribution from the collecting area in Tupanatinga, and the evenness indices found were 0.92 and 0.88 in Tupanatinga and Ibimirim, respectively. Among isolates of Aspergillus evenness, the value found in Tupanatinga (0.85) was very close to that found in Ibimirim (0.86). High diversity and low dominance of fungi in soil samples was observed. These results con- tributed to the estimation of fungal diversity in dry environments of the Caatinga, where diversity is decreasing in soils that have undergone disturbance.

  7. Land product validation of MODIS derived FPAR product over the tropical dry-forest of Santa Rosa National Park, Guanacaste, Costa Rica.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharp, Iain; Sanchez, Arturo

    2017-04-01

    Land-product validation of the MODIS derived FPAR product over the tropical dry-forest of Santa Rosa National Park, Guanacaste, Costa Rica. By Iain Sharp & Dr. Arturo Sanchez-Azofeifa In remote sensing, being able to ensure the accuracy of the satellite data being produced remains an issue; this is especially true for phenological variables such as the Fraction of Photosynthetically Active Radiation (FPAR). FPAR, which is considered an essential climate variable by the Global Terrestrial Observation System (GTOS), utilizes the 400-700 nm wavelength range to quantify the total amount of solar radiation available for photosynthetic use. It is a variable that is strongly influenced by the seasonal, diurnal, and optic properties of vegetation making it an accurate representation of vegetation health. Measurements of ground level FPAR can be completed using flux towers along with a limited number of wireless ground sensors, but due to the finite number and location of these towers, many research initiatives instead use the Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) FPAR product, which converts Leaf Area Index (LAI) to a FPAR value using Beer's Law. This is done despite there being little consensus on whether this is the best method to use for all ecosystems and vegetation types. One particular ecosystem that has had limited study to determine the accuracy of the MODIS derived FPAR products are the Tropical Dry Forests (TDFs) of Latin America. This ecosystem undergoes drastic seasonal changes from leaf off during the dry season to green-up during the wet seasons. This study aims to test the congruency between the MODIS derived FPAR values and ground-based FPAR values in relation to growing season length, growing season start and end dates, the peak and mean of FPAR values, and overall growth/phenological trends at the Santa Rosa National Park Environmental Monitoring Super Site (SR-EMSS) in Costa Rica and FPAR MODIS products. We derive our FPAR from a Wireless

  8. Diversified Native Species Restoration for Recovery of Multiple Ecosystem Services in a Highly Disturbed Tropical Dry Forest Landscape of Southwestern Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams-Guillen, K.; Otterstrom, S.; Perla, C.

    2015-12-01

    Tropical dry forests have been reduced to a fraction of their original extent in the Neotropics due to conversion to agriculture and cattle pasture. While TDF can recover via natural regeneration, resulting forests are dominated by wind-dispersed pioneer species of limited value for frugivorous wildlife. Additionally, passive restoration can be perceived as "abandonment" resulting in neighbors casually invading property to rear livestock and extract timber. In 2007, the NGO Paso Pacífico initiated restoration in a highly degraded tropical dry forest landscape of southwestern Nicaragua; funded by an ex-ante carbon purchase, the project was designed to integrate multiple native tree species known to provide resources used by local wildlife. We restored roughly 400 hectares spanning a rainfall gradient from dry to transitional moist forest, using reforestation (planting 70 species of tree seedlings in degraded pastures on a 4x4 m grid, leaving occurring saplings) and assisted regeneration (clearing vines and competing vegetation from saplings in natural regeneration and strategically managing canopy cover). In just over seven years, mean carbon increased nearly threefold, from to 21.5±5.0 to 57.9±9.6 SE tonnes/ha. Current carbon stocks match those of 20-year-old forests in the area, accumulated in less than a decade. Stem density per 15-m radius plot decreased from 16.3±2.3 to 12.5±0.9 SE, while species richness increased from 3.9±0.4 to 18.4±1.4 SE. Alpha richness of woody stems across plots increased from 36 to 94 species, and over 20 tree species established as a result of natural dispersal and recruitment. We have observed sensitive species such as spider monkeys and parrots foraging in restoration areas. Managed reforestation is a highly effective method for rapidly restoring the functionality of multiple ecosystem services in degraded TDF, particularly when social and political realities force restoration to coexist with human productive activities

  9. Identity and relationships of the Arboreal Caatinga among other floristic units of seasonally dry tropical forests (SDTFs) of north-eastern and Central Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Rubens M; Oliveira-Filho, Ary T; Eisenlohr, Pedro V; Queiroz, Luciano P; Cardoso, Domingos B O S; Rodal, Maria J N

    2012-01-01

    The tree species composition of seasonally dry tropical forests (SDTF) in north-eastern and central Brazil is analyzed to address the following hypotheses: (1) variations in species composition are related to both environment (climate and substrate) and spatial proximity; (2) SDTF floristic units may be recognized based on peculiar composition and environment; and (3) the Arboreal Caatinga, a deciduous forest occurring along the hinterland borders of the Caatinga Domain, is one of these units and its flora is more strongly related to the caatinga vegetation than to outlying forests. The study region is framed by the Brazilian coastline, 50th meridian west and 21st parallel south, including the Caatinga Domain and extensions into the Atlantic Forest and Cerrado Domains. Multivariate and geostatistic analyses were performed on a database containing 16,226 occurrence records of 1332 tree species in 187 georeferenced SDTF areas and respective environmental variables. Tree species composition varied significantly with both environmental variables and spatial proximity. Eight SDTF floristic units were recognized in the region, including the Arboreal Caatinga. In terms of species composition, its tree flora showed a stronger link with that of the Cerrado Dry Forest Enclaves. On the other hand, in terms of species frequency across sample areas, the links were stronger with two other units: Rock Outcrops Caatinga and Agreste and Brejo Dry Forests. There is a role for niche-based control of tree species composition across the SDTFs of the region determined primarily by the availability of ground water across time and secondarily by the amount of soil mineral nutrients. Spatial proximity also contributes significantly to the floristic cohesion of SDTF units suggesting a highly dispersal-limited tree flora. These units should be given the status of eco-regions to help driving the conservation policy regarding the protection of their biodiversity. PMID:22423333

  10. Identity and relationships of the Arboreal Caatinga among other floristic units of seasonally dry tropical forests (SDTFs) of north-eastern and Central Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos, Rubens M; Oliveira-Filho, Ary T; Eisenlohr, Pedro V; Queiroz, Luciano P; Cardoso, Domingos B O S; Rodal, Maria J N

    2012-02-01

    The tree species composition of seasonally dry tropical forests (SDTF) in north-eastern and central Brazil is analyzed to address the following hypotheses: (1) variations in species composition are related to both environment (climate and substrate) and spatial proximity; (2) SDTF floristic units may be recognized based on peculiar composition and environment; and (3) the Arboreal Caatinga, a deciduous forest occurring along the hinterland borders of the Caatinga Domain, is one of these units and its flora is more strongly related to the caatinga vegetation than to outlying forests. The study region is framed by the Brazilian coastline, 50th meridian west and 21st parallel south, including the Caatinga Domain and extensions into the Atlantic Forest and Cerrado Domains. Multivariate and geostatistic analyses were performed on a database containing 16,226 occurrence records of 1332 tree species in 187 georeferenced SDTF areas and respective environmental variables. Tree species composition varied significantly with both environmental variables and spatial proximity. Eight SDTF floristic units were recognized in the region, including the Arboreal Caatinga. In terms of species composition, its tree flora showed a stronger link with that of the Cerrado Dry Forest Enclaves. On the other hand, in terms of species frequency across sample areas, the links were stronger with two other units: Rock Outcrops Caatinga and Agreste and Brejo Dry Forests. There is a role for niche-based control of tree species composition across the SDTFs of the region determined primarily by the availability of ground water across time and secondarily by the amount of soil mineral nutrients. Spatial proximity also contributes significantly to the floristic cohesion of SDTF units suggesting a highly dispersal-limited tree flora. These units should be given the status of eco-regions to help driving the conservation policy regarding the protection of their biodiversity.

  11. Chronic progressive disseminated histoplasmosis in a Mexican cockfighter.

    PubMed

    Flores-Franco, René Agustín; Gómez-Díaz, Antonio; de Jesús Fernández-Alonso, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    We present illustrative images from a Mexican 58-year-old man who had the occupation of cockfighting from childhood and presented with chronic progressive disseminated histoplasmosis with primarily cutaneous manifestations. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  12. Experimental and model analysis of evapotranspiration and percolation losses in present and future rainfall scenarios in seasonally dry tropics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, J. D.; Gondim, P. S.; Silva, R. A.; Gomes, C. A.; Souza, E. S.; Vico, G.; Soares, W. A.; Feng, X.; Montenegro, S. M.; Antonino, A. C.; Porporato, A.

    2013-12-01

    Evapotranspiration losses with their link to the surface energy balance are a major determinant of the ecohydrological conditions of vegetation, especially in semi-arid ecosystems and crops. Grassland ecosystems account for approximately 32% of global natural vegetation, and cover 170 million ha in Brazil, with 2.5 million ha in the Pernambuco State of the semiarid-NE Brazil. The water balance (WB) and Bowen ratio - energy balance (EB) methods were used in conjunction to lysimeters and eddy covariance methods to come up with reliable estimates for water fluxes in the conditions of extreme seasonal and interannual variability of NE Brazil. The SiSPAT (Simple Soil-Plant-Atmosphere Transfer Model) model was also used to help quantify the seasonal and diurnal variations in energy and water vapour exchanges over grasslands. The ET estimates were obtained with WB and EB methods during the wet and dry season in a grassland in NE Brazil, using a rain gauge, a pyranometer, a net radiometer and sensors for measuring air temperature and relative humidity at two levels, as well as automated sensors for measuring soil water content at depths of 0.10, 0.20, 0.30 and 0.40 m. During the dry period, the low stored soil water limited the grass production and LAI, and as a consequence most of the net radiation (62%) was consumed in sensible heat flux (H) compared to during the wet period (52%). In both seasons, the water flow in the lower limit of soil (z = 0.30 m) occurred only in the downward direction, losing 23.68 mm by drainage in wet period and only 0.19 mm in dry period. The best results for evapotranspiration were obtained with the EB method and the SiSPAT model. These results were then used to estimate the hydrologic partitioning in future climatic conditions where seasonal and interannual rainfall variability is predicted to increase.

  13. Micro irrigation of tropical fruit crops

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In most tropical regions, tropical fruits are grown either in wet-and-dry climates characterized by erratic rainfall patterns and prolonged dry periods or in fertile but semiarid lands under irrigation. Little is known about water requirements of tropical crops grown in the tropics. This book chapt...

  14. Water vapour isotopic exchange by epiphytic bromeliads in tropical dry forests reflects niche differentiation and climatic signals.

    PubMed

    Reyes-García, Casandra; Mejia-Chang, Monica; Jones, Glyn D; Griffiths, Howard

    2008-06-01

    The 18O signals in leaf water (delta18O(lw)) and organic material were dominated by atmospheric water vapour 18O signals (delta18O(vap)) in tank and atmospheric life forms of epiphytic bromeliads with crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM), from a seasonally dry forest in Mexico. Under field conditions, the mean delta18O(lw) for all species was constant during the course of the day and systematically increased from wet to dry seasons (from 0 to +6 per thousand), when relative water content (RWC) diminished from 70 to 30%. In the greenhouse, progressive enrichment from base to leaf tip was observed at low night-time humidity; under high humidity, the leaf tip equilibrated faster with delta18O(vap) than the other leaf sections. Laboratory manipulations using an isotopically depleted water source showed that delta18O(vap) was more rapidly incorporated than liquid water. Our data were consistent with a Craig-Gordon (C-G) model as modified by Helliker and Griffiths predicting that the influx and exchange of delta18O(vap) control delta18O(lw) in certain epiphytic life forms, despite progressive tissue water loss. We use delta18O(lw) signals to define water-use strategies for the coexisting species which are consistent with habitat preference under natural conditions and life form. Bulk organic matter (delta18O(org)) is used to predict the deltaO18(vap) signal at the time of leaf expansion.

  15. Pollination ecology of Stenocereus queretaroensis (Cactaceae), a chiropterophilous columnar cactus, in a tropical dry forest of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Ibarra-Cerdeña, Carlos N; Iñiguez-Dávalos, Luis I; Sánchez-Cordero, Víctor

    2005-03-01

    Flowers of columnar cacti are animal-pollinated, often displaying a chiropterophylic syndrome. This study examined if the columnar cactus Stenocereus queretaroensis, a tropical species endemic to western Mexico, is bat-pollinated, by studying its pollination biology and the foraging behavior of potential pollinators. Flowers were produced in winter through spring, peaking in April. Anthesis was nocturnal, and stigma and anther turgidity began around 2200 hours. Production of nectar secretion and highest sugar concentration and energy supply were nocturnal, peaking between 2200 and 2400 hours. Manual auto-pollination and exclusion experiments showed that self-pollination yielded no fruits, while nocturnal pollinators resulted in high fruit set and seed set compared to diurnal pollination treatments. The nectar-feeding bat Leptonycteris curasoae (Phyllostomidae) was the main nocturnal pollinator with the highest effective pollination. Peak bat visitation coincided with peaks in nectar production. The high abundance of L. curasoae throughout the 4-yr study, suggests that it is a seasonally reliable pollinator for this columnar cactus. While pollination syndromes have been increasingly called into question in recent years, this study suggests that at least for this system, there is a fairly close fit between pollinator and pollination syndrome.

  16. The role of nurse trees in mitigating fire effects on tropical dry forest restoration: a case study.

    PubMed

    Santiago-García, Ricardo J; Colón, Sandra Molina; Sollins, Phillip; Van Bloem, Skip J

    2008-12-01

    The threat of fire is always a consideration when establishing a forest restoration program. Two wildfires occurred in 2006 and 2007 in an established dry forest restoration project in Puerto Rico. The original goal of the project was to determine differential growth responses of native trees under the nurse tree Leucaena leucocephala versus in open sites. Tree species growth, mortality and response to the fires were evaluated according to their leaf habit, successional status, and prefire tolerance to environmental conditions. Results showed that regardless of a species' leaf habit and successional status, trees attained greater height and lower mortality under nurse trees. In open sites, sprouting was the most common fire response and mature-forest and evergreen species had greater postfire survival than pioneers and deciduous species. Although nurse trees are typically used to help manage nutrient or light environments in reforestation projects, these trees also appear to provide a secondary benefit of limiting fire damage by reducing fuel load.

  17. Radon-222 exhalation from open ground on and around a uranium mine in the wet-dry tropics.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Cameron E; Akber, Riaz A; Bollhöfer, Andreas; Martin, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Radon-222 exhalation from the ground surface depends upon a number of variables such as the 226Ra activity concentration and its distribution in soil grains; soil grain size; soil porosity, temperature and moisture; atmospheric pressure, rainfall and temperature. In this study, 222Rn exhalation flux density measurements within and around the Ranger uranium mine in northern Australia were performed to investigate the effect of these variables within a tropical region. Measurements were taken at the waste rock dumps, ore stockpiles, mine pits, and at sites where effluent water with elevated 226Ra concentration has been spray irrigated over land, as well as at sites outside the mine. The sites selected represented a variety of geomorphic regions ranging from uranium-bearing rocks to ambient soils. Generally, wet season rains reduced 222Rn exhalation but at a few sites the onset of rains caused a step rise in exhalation flux densities. The results show that parameters such as 226Ra activity concentration, soil grain size and soil porosity have a marked effect on 222Rn flux densities. For similar geomorphic sites, 226Ra activity concentration is a dominant factor, but soil grain size and porosity also influence 222Rn exhalation. Surfaces with vegetation showed higher exhalation flux densities than their barren counterparts, perhaps because the associated root structure increases soil porosity and moisture retention. Repeated measurements over one year at eight sites enabled an analysis of precipitation and soil moisture effects on 222Rn exhalation. Soil moisture depth profiles varied both between seasons and at different times during the wet season, indicating that factors such as duration, intensity and time between precipitation events can influence 222Rn flux densities considerably.

  18. Isotopic variation in N2O emitted from soils forming a texture gradient in Amazonian Tropical Forest during the dry season of 2001.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, T. J.; Trumbore, S. E.; Tyler, S. C.; deCamargo, P. B.; Keller, M.; Crill, P.; Davidson, E. A.

    2002-05-01

    Tropical rain forest soils are the largest natural source of N2O to the atmosphere. Measurements of stable isotopes in N2O provide useful constraints for the global N2O budget because of large differences in the various sources of N2O to the atmosphere. Variations in the flux and isotopic signature of N2O from tropical soils reflect microbiological processes that produce and consume N2O, and physical controls of the rate at which N2O escapes from the soil pore space to the overlying atmosphere. Our previous work in the Amazon basin and in a Costa Rican forest suggested that soil texture affects the isotopic composition of the N2O emitted from the soil surface. We present here measurements of N2O isotopic composition across a soil texture gradient during the dry season of 2001 in the Tapajos National Forest (TNF), Pará State Brazil. We selected three soil types within the TNF (km 83 site) for study: sandy, transitional (sand + clay) and clay soils. Soil pits (0 to 2 m) were dug at each site and sampled for soil characteristics, and tubes for sampling soil gases were installed in each pit. We also collected samples at a dry down experiment (TNF, km 67) at 4 pits (0-11 m depth) to compare variability in the N2O isotopic composition affected by drought and at greater depths. During the dry season at all sites the N2O mixing ratio in soil air increased with depth from ~340 ppb near the surface to ~600 ppb in the sandy soil (2 m depth) and to ~2000 ppb in the transition and clay soils (2 m depth) of the km 83 site. At the km 67 site the mixing ratio increased to 1000 ppb at 11 m. The isotopic signature of 15N and 18O in N2O became more depleted in heavy isotopes with depth at all sites. The δ 15N-N2O values ranged from 3 to 4 ‰ in the surface to ~2 ‰ at 2 m in the sandy soil and to ~-4 ‰ in the transition and clay soils at 2 m in the km 83 site. We suggest that little N2O is produced in these soils during the dry season and that most of the N2O emitted during

  19. Mexican environments

    SciTech Connect

    Babcock, L.; Nieder, P.

    1995-06-01

    This paper addresses the broad Mexican demographic/economic environment as it influences/interacts with the Mexican physical environment. Mexico is relatively resource-rich, but a high population yields a low per capita income, one sixth that of the United States an Canada, still above levels of most other American countries. The Mexican population has become highly urbanized, and population will continue to increase well into the next century. Mexico City will continue to dominate the Mexican urban hierarchy into the future, and the heavy concentration of people has resulted in a heavy concentration of environmental problems in the Mexico City region. A multi-billion-dollar program has been implemented with a goal of limiting air emissions in 2010 to the levels experienced in 1990. Numerous Mexican environmental problems exist beyond Mexico City, in border areas, and throughout Mexico, but qualified professionals and other resources needed for assessments and management are lacking. The authors conclude that continued economic/environmental cooperation among Canada, the United States, and Mexico will help Mexico to acquire resources needed to improve its infrastructure, environmental education, and environmental education, and environmental management, but the authors question whether Mexico, even with reduced population growth, will be able to attain levels of affluence currently enjoyed in the United State and Canada. They raise, but leave unanswered, the larger question of the level of environmentally sound development which is achievable, appropriate, and sustainable for Mexico and for the North American continent as a whole.

  20. Assessing the Effects of Multiple Stressors on the Recruitment of Fruit Harvested Trees in a Tropical Dry Forest, Western Ghats, India

    PubMed Central

    Varghese, Anita; Ticktin, Tamara; Mandle, Lisa; Nath, Snehlata

    2015-01-01

    The harvest of non-timber forest products (NTFPs), together with other sources of anthropogenic disturbance, impact plant populations greatly. Despite this, conservation research on NTFPs typically focuses on harvest alone, ignoring possible confounding effects of other anthropogenic and ecological factors. Disentangling anthropogenic disturbances is critical in regions such as India’s Western Ghats, a biodiversity hotspot with high human density. Identifying strategies that permit both use and conservation of resources is essential to preserving biodiversity while meeting local needs. We assessed the effects of NTFP harvesting (fruit harvest from canopy and lopping of branches for fruit) in combination with other common anthropogenic disturbances (cattle grazing, fire frequency and distance from village), in order to identify which stressors have greater effects on recruitment of three tropical dry forest fruit tree species. Specifically, we assessed the structure of 54 populations of Phyllanthus emblica, P. indofischeri and Terminalia chebula spread across the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve, Western Ghats to ask: (1) How are populations recruiting? and (2) What anthropogenic disturbance and environmental factors, specifically forest type and elevation, are the most important predictors of recruitment status? We combined participatory research with an information-theoretic model-averaging approach to determine which factors most affect population structure and recruitment status. Our models illustrate that for T. chebula, high fire frequency and high fruit harvest intensity decreased the proportion of saplings, while lopping branches or stems to obtain fruit increased it. For Phyllanthus spp, recruitment was significantly lower in plots with more frequent fire. Indices of recruitment of both species were significantly higher for plots in more open-canopy environments of savanna woodlands than in dry forests. Our research illustrates an approach for identifying which

  1. Effects of feeding ground pods of Enterolobium cyclocarpum Jacq. Griseb on dry matter intake, rumen fermentation, and enteric methane production by Pelibuey sheep fed tropical grass.

    PubMed

    Albores-Moreno, S; Alayón-Gamboa, J A; Ayala-Burgos, A J; Solorio-Sánchez, F J; Aguilar-Pérez, C F; Olivera-Castillo, L; Ku-Vera, J C

    2017-04-01

    An experiment was carried out to determine the effect of supplementing ground pods of Enterolobium cyclocarpum in a basal ration of Pennisetum purpureum grass on feed intake, rumen volatile fatty acids (VFAs), and protozoa and methane (CH4) production by hair sheep. Four male sheep (Pelibuey × Katahdin) with a mean live weight of 27.0 kg (SD ± 0.5) were supplemented with 0.00, 0.15, 0.30, and 0.45 kg of dry matter (DM) of E. cyclocarpum pods daily; equivalent to 0.00, 4.35, 8.70, and 13.05 g of crude saponins, respectively. Dry matter intake (DMI), organic matter intake (OMI), and molar proportions of propionic acid increased linearly (P < 0.05) as pods of E. cyclocarpum in the ration were increased. Higher intakes of DM and OM were found when lambs were fed 0.45 kg DM per day of E. cyclocarpum, and the highest proportion of propionic acid (0.21 and 0.22, respectively) was obtained with 0.15 and 0.30 kg of DM per lamb of E. cyclocarpum, while apparent digestibility of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and molar proportion of acetic acid were reduced (P < 0.05). Rumen CH4 production decreased (P < 0.05) when 0.30 and 0.45 kg of DM/lamb/day of E. cyclocarpum were fed (21.8 and 25.3 L CH4/lamb/day, respectively). These results suggest that to improve the feeding of sheep fed tropical grass, it is advisable to supplement the basal ration with up to 0.30 kg DM of E. cyclocarpum pods.

  2. Assessing the effects of multiple stressors on the recruitment of fruit harvested trees in a tropical dry forest, Western Ghats, India.

    PubMed

    Varghese, Anita; Ticktin, Tamara; Mandle, Lisa; Nath, Snehlata

    2015-01-01

    The harvest of non-timber forest products (NTFPs), together with other sources of anthropogenic disturbance, impact plant populations greatly. Despite this, conservation research on NTFPs typically focuses on harvest alone, ignoring possible confounding effects of other anthropogenic and ecological factors. Disentangling anthropogenic disturbances is critical in regions such as India's Western Ghats, a biodiversity hotspot with high human density. Identifying strategies that permit both use and conservation of resources is essential to preserving biodiversity while meeting local needs. We assessed the effects of NTFP harvesting (fruit harvest from canopy and lopping of branches for fruit) in combination with other common anthropogenic disturbances (cattle grazing, fire frequency and distance from village), in order to identify which stressors have greater effects on recruitment of three tropical dry forest fruit tree species. Specifically, we assessed the structure of 54 populations of Phyllanthus emblica, P. indofischeri and Terminalia chebula spread across the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve, Western Ghats to ask: (1) How are populations recruiting? and (2) What anthropogenic disturbance and environmental factors, specifically forest type and elevation, are the most important predictors of recruitment status? We combined participatory research with an information-theoretic model-averaging approach to determine which factors most affect population structure and recruitment status. Our models illustrate that for T. chebula, high fire frequency and high fruit harvest intensity decreased the proportion of saplings, while lopping branches or stems to obtain fruit increased it. For Phyllanthus spp, recruitment was significantly lower in plots with more frequent fire. Indices of recruitment of both species were significantly higher for plots in more open-canopy environments of savanna woodlands than in dry forests. Our research illustrates an approach for identifying which

  3. Toward a Mexican eddy covariance network for carbon cycle science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas, Rodrigo; Yépez, Enrico A.

    2011-09-01

    First Annual MexFlux Principal Investigators Meeting; Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico, 4-8 May 2011; The carbon cycle science community has organized a global network, called FLUXNET, to measure the exchange of energy, water, and carbon dioxide (CO2) between the ecosystems and the atmosphere using the eddy covariance technique. This network has provided unprecedented information for carbon cycle science and global climate change but is mostly represented by study sites in the United States and Europe. Thus, there is an important gap in measurements and understanding of ecosystem dynamics in other regions of the world that are seeing a rapid change in land use. Researchers met under the sponsorship of Red Temática de Ecosistemas and Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia (CONACYT) to discuss strategies to establish a Mexican eddy covariance network (MexFlux) by identifying researchers, study sites, and scientific goals. During the meeting, attendees noted that 10 study sites have been established in Mexico with more than 30 combined years of information. Study sites span from new sites installed during 2011 to others with 9 to 6 years of measurements. Sites with the longest span measurements are located in Baja California Sur (established by Walter Oechel in 2002) and Sonora (established by Christopher Watts in 2005); both are semiarid ecosystems. MexFlux sites represent a variety of ecosystem types, including Mediterranean and sarcocaulescent shrublands in Baja California; oak woodland, subtropical shrubland, tropical dry forest, and a grassland in Sonora; tropical dry forests in Jalisco and Yucatan; a managed grassland in San Luis Potosi; and a managed pine forest in Hidalgo. Sites are maintained with an individual researcher's funds from Mexican government agencies (e.g., CONACYT) and international collaborations, but no coordinated funding exists for a long-term program.

  4. Evaluation of Biological and Enzymatic Activity of Soil in a Tropical Dry Forest: Desierto de la Tatacoa (Colombia) with Potential in Mars Terraforming and Other Similar Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno Moreno, A. N.

    2009-12-01

    Desierto de la Tatacoa has been determined to be a tropical dry forest bioma, which is located at 3° 13" N 75° 13" W. It has a hot thermal floor with 440 msnm of altitude; it has a daily average of 28° C, and a maximum of 40° C, Its annual rainfall total can be upwards of 1250 mm. Its solar sheen has a daily average of 5.8 hours and its relative humidity is between 60% and 65%. Therefore, the life forms presents are very scant, and in certain places, almost void. It was realized a completely random sampling of soil from its surface down to 6 inches deep, of zones without vegetation and with soils highly loaded by oxides of iron in order to determine the number of microorganisms per gram and its subsequent identification. It was measured the soil basal respiration. Besides, it was determined enzymatic activity (catalase, dehydrogenase, phosphatase and urease). Starting with the obtained results, it is developes an alternative towards the study of soil genesis in Mars in particular, and recommendations for same process in other planets. Although the information found in the experiments already realized in Martian soil they demonstrate that doesnt exist any enzymatic activity, the knowledge of the same topic in the soil is proposed as an alternative to problems like carbonic fixing of the dense Martian atmosphere of CO2, the degradation of inorganic compounds amongst other in order to prepare the substratum for later colonization by some life form.

  5. Development of ground vegetation under exotic tree plantations on restored coal mine spoil land in a dry tropical region of India.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Raman Kumar; Agrawal, Madhoolika

    2005-10-01

    Restoration of mine spoil is a prime need for coal industry. The study of ground cover vegetation provides essential information about the species diversity and their successional trends during the restoration. The present study was conducted to analyze the structure and biomass accumulation of ground vegetation developing in different plantation stands of an opencast coal mine spoil in a dry tropical region. Different plantation stands showed variations in species diversities. Exotic herbs were more dominant in comparison to native herbs. Pennisetum pedicillatum, an exotic herb showed maximum Importance Value Index in most of the plantation stands. Total number of species varied between 12-18 in different plantation stands. Speces richness and evenness increased with increasing age of the plantations. Variations in total biomass accumulation of ground vegetation were also significant among different plantations. These results suggest that reforestation programme with exotic species on coal mine spoil has been successful in colonization of ground vegetation under different plantations. Gravellia pteridifolia plantations showed most successful ground cover among different plantation stands.

  6. Scale-dependent variation in nitrogen cycling and soil fungal communities along gradients of forest composition and age in regenerating tropical dry forests.

    PubMed

    Waring, Bonnie G; Adams, Rachel; Branco, Sara; Powers, Jennifer S

    2016-01-01

    Rates of ecosystem nitrogen (N) cycling may be mediated by the presence of ectomycorrhizal fungi, which compete directly with free-living microbes for N. In the regenerating tropical dry forests of Central America, the distribution of ectomycorrhizal trees is affected by succession and soil parent material, both of which may exert independent influence over soil N fluxes. In order to quantify these interacting controls, we used a scale-explicit sampling strategy to examine soil N cycling at scales ranging from the microsite to ecosystem level. We measured fungal community composition, total and inorganic N pools, gross proteolytic rate, net N mineralization and microbial extracellular enzyme activity at multiple locations within 18 permanent plots that span dramatic gradients of soil N concentration, stand age and forest composition. The ratio of inorganic to organic N cycling was correlated with variation in fungal community structure, consistent with a strong influence of ectomycorrhiza on ecosystem-scale N cycling. However, on average, > 61% of the variation in soil biogeochemistry occurred within plots, and the effects of forest composition were mediated by this local-scale heterogeneity in total soil N concentrations. These cross-scale interactions demonstrate the importance of a spatially explicit approach towards an understanding of controls on element cycling. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  7. Genetic diversity and structure of wild populations of the tropical dry forest tree Jacaratia mexicana (Brassicales: Caricaceae) at a local scale in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Arias, Dulce M; Albarrán-Lara, Ana L; González-Rodríguez, Antonio; Peñaloza-Ramírez, Juan; Dorado, Oscar; Leyva, Esaú

    2012-03-01

    The tropical dry forest is a greatly endangered ecosystem, from which Jacaratia mexicana is a native tree. With the aim to assess the levels of genetic variation and population structure, four wild populations of J. mexicana were studied in the Sierra de Huautla Biosphere Reserve, Morelos, Mexico. For this, DNA was extracted from 159 individuals and were amplified with six random primers using the Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD). A total of 54 bands were obtained, of which 50 (92.6%) were polymorphic. The total genetic diversity found within the four populations was 0.451 when estimated by Shannon's index. An AMOVA analysis showed that 84% of the total genetic variation was found within populations and 16% was among populations. The UPGMA dendrogram showed that all individuals from one of the populations (Huaxtla) formed one distinct genetic group, while the rest of the individuals did not cluster according to population. A Mantel test did not show an association between genetic and geographical distances among populations (r=0.893, p=0.20). A Bayesian cluster analysis performed with STRUCTURE, showed that the most probable number of genetic groups in the data was four (K=4), and confirmed the distinctness of Huaxtla population. Our results showed that important genetic differentiation among populations can occur even at this small geographic scale and this has to be considered in conservation actions for this genetic resource.

  8. Microbial biomass at land water interface and its role in regulating ecosystem properties of a fresh water dry tropical woodland lake.

    PubMed

    Pandey, J

    2008-05-01

    This study was aimed at determining microbial biomass at land water interface and the role it plays in regulating ecosystem properties of a fresh water dry tropical woodland lake. Four microbial variables namely biomass-C (Cmic), fumigated CO2-C, substrate induced respiration (SIR) and basal respiration (BR) were measured in humus samples collected from land water interface over a period of one year Microbial biomass (Cmic) was maximum during February (718 micorg CO2-C g(-1)). Similar was the case of fumigated CO2-C (560 microg CO2-C g(-1) 10 d(-1)), SIR (2900 microg CO2-C g(-1)) and BR (480 microg CO2-C g(-1)). Humus-N appeared maximum (1.60%) during November and phenolics (204 microg g(-1)) during December Gross primary productivity (GPP) was found maximum (3.30 g Cm(-2)d(-1)) during March. Almost similar trend appeared for chlorophyll and phytoplankton density. Variation in microbial biomass at land water interface can be explained by seasonality and the quality of substrate material. Asynchrony in the peaks of microbial variables with phytoplankton pulsation and GPP suggested that the microbial biomass through nutrient mineralization regulates ecosystem functioning of a fresh water woodland lake. This has relevance for evaluating the nature of anthropogenic perturbations and for maintenance of fresh water lakes void of human disturbances.

  9. Concentration-discharge patterns in a small urban headwater stream in a seasonally dry water-limited tropical environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwenzi, Willis; Chinyama, Shyleen R.; Togarepi, Sydney

    2017-07-01

    The simplicity of the hydrochemical stationarity concept renders it attractive for partitioning solutes between geogenic and anthropogenic sources. The current study used a small urban headwater stream in a seasonally dry environment to address two research questions: (1) What concentration (C)-discharge (Q) patterns exist in small urban headwater streams?; and (2) Do the C-Q patterns persist across C-Q metrics and temporal scales? Four C-Q metrics were tested: concentration-discharge (C-Q), concentration-cumulative discharge (C-ΣQ), load (L)-discharge (L-Q) and normalized concentration-normalized discharge (NC-NQ). C-Q and NC-NQ revealed discharge-invariant behaviour for Ca, two linear relationships with threshold-like transitions from negative to positive slopes for Mg, K and Na, and positive linear relationships for Fe, Pb and PO43-. The threshold-like transitions with distinct breakpoints were more apparent in C-ΣQ patterns for all solutes. These patterns are consistent with three hypotheses: (1) negative linear to zero slope relationships indicate dilution followed by discharge-invariant behaviour (Ca); (2) negative to positive linear relationships (Mg, K and Na) point to dilution followed by solute enrichment or flushing; and (3) positive to negative linear relationships (Pb, Fe and PO43-) suggest initial solute mobilization followed by dilution. The three dominant behaviours were robust across weekly, fortnightly and monthly timescales. Significant linear L-Q relationships were observed for all solutes, suggesting that loads can be predicted from discharge. Our findings suggest that C-Q relationships are highly dynamic, and multiple processes control streamflow hydrochemistry at different times depending on antecedent discharge. The application of multiple C-Q metrics provided additional insights not apparent by using a single metric. The insights are critical to understanding of catchment hydrology and conceptual representation of hydrochemical processes

  10. Thelephora versatilis and Thelephora pseudoversatilis: two new cryptic species with polymorphic basidiomes inhabiting tropical deciduous and sub-perennial forests of the Mexican Pacific coast.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-López, Itzel; Villegas-Ríos, Margarita; Salas-Lizana, Rodolfo; Garibay-Orijel, Roberto; Alvarez-Manjarrez, Julieta

    2015-01-01

    Thelephora is a genus of ectomycorrhizal basidiomycetes with basidiomes of varied shape which has been poorly studied in tropical ecosystems. In this paper, we present Thelephora versatilis and Thelephora pseudoversatilis, two new species collected in the same localities of deciduous and sub-perennial tropical forests of Jalisco, Mexico. Basidiomes of both species are brownish gray to violet brown with clavarioid-mesopodal, sub-resupinate or completely resupinate growth forms. In turn, phylogenetic analyses using nrDNA ITS sequences showed that these species are not closed related, nevertheless they are part of a well-supported clade conformed by several species of Thelephora, Tomentella and some undescribed Thelephorales. Morphological segregation of these species was attained by analyzing spore and hyphae characters using a wide sample. Significant statistical differences between the new species were observed regarding spore size, spine size and context hyphae width. This work exemplifies the relevance of integrating both morphological and molecular data, as well of the use of an appropriate sample size in order to discriminate among morphological cryptic species. © 2015 by The Mycological Society of America.

  11. Mapping tropical dry forest height, foliage height profiles and disturbance type and age with a time series of cloud-cleared Landsat and ALI image mosaics to characterize avian habitat

    Treesearch

    E.H. Helmer; Thomas S. Ruzycki; Jr. Joseph M. Wunderle; Shannon Vogesser; Bonnie Ruefenacht; Charles Kwit; Thomas J. Brandeis; David N. Ewert

    2010-01-01

    Remote sensing of forest vertical structure is possible with lidar data, but lidar is not widely available. Here we map tropical dry forest height (RMSE=0.9 m, R2=0.84, range 0.6–7 m), and we map foliage height profiles, with a time series of Landsat and Advanced Land Imager (ALI) imagery on the island of Eleuthera, The Bahamas, substituting time for vertical canopy...

  12. Assessing the impacts of climate change and dams on floodplain inundation and wetland connectivity in the wet-dry tropics of northern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karim, Fazlul; Dutta, Dushmanta; Marvanek, Steve; Petheram, Cuan; Ticehurst, Catherine; Lerat, Julien; Kim, Shaun; Yang, Ang

    2015-03-01

    Floodplain wetlands and their hydrological connectivity with main river channels in the Australian wet-dry tropics are under increasing pressure from global climate change and water resource development, and there is a need for modelling tools to estimate the time dynamics of connectivity. This paper describes an integrated modelling framework combining conceptual rainfall-runoff modelling, river system modelling and hydrodynamic (HD) modelling to estimate hydrological connectivity between wetlands and rivers in the Flinders and Gilbert river catchments in northern Australia. Three historical flood events ranging from a mean annual flood to a 35-year return period flood were investigated using a two dimensional HD model (MIKE 21). Inflows from upstream catchments were estimated using a river network model. Local runoff within the HD modelling domain was simulated using the Sacramento rainfall-runoff model. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) derived 30 m DEM was used to reproduce floodplain topography, stream networks and wetlands in the HD model. The HD model was calibrated using stream gauge data and inundation maps derived from satellite (MODIS: MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) imagery. An algorithm was developed to combine the simulated water heights with the DEM to quantify inundation and flow connection between wetlands and rivers. The connectivity of 18 ecologically important wetlands on the Flinders floodplain and 7 on the Gilbert floodplain were quantified. The impacts of climate change and water resource development on connectivity to individual wetlands were assessed under a projected dry climate (2nd driest of 15 GCMs), wet climate (2nd wettest of 15 GCMs) and dam conditions. The results indicate that changes in rainfall under a wetter and drier future climate could have large impacts on area, duration and frequency of inundation and connectivity. Topographic relief, river bank elevation and flood magnitude were found to be the key

  13. Wet season water distribution in a tropical Andean cloud forest of Boyacá (Colombia) during the dry climate of El Niño

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Santos, G.; Berdugo, M. B.

    2010-07-01

    Fog has been demonstrated as the only source of moisture during the dry climate of El Niño in the tropical Andean cloud forest of Boyacá region in Colombia, yet its importance for the forest is virtually unknown. We assessed fog water distribution during the wet season inside the forest and outside in a practically deforested area. Water intercepted by plant was measured at different vertical stratus. Soil moisture in the first centimetres was also measured. During the anomalous drier wet season there was lack of rainfall and the total recorded cloud water was lower compared with the same period during the previous year. Our results indicated that the upper part of the forest mass intercepts most of the fog water compared with lower stratus when the fog event starts. However upper most stratus became rapidly drier after the event, which is explained because water is released to the atmosphere due to high heat atmosphere-leaves interface fluctuations caused by wind and solar radiation, flows towards a different water potential and drips from the leaves. Low amount of fog dripped from tree foliage into the soil, indicating a large water storage capacity of the epiphyte and bryophyte vegetation. Despite the small amount of throughfall, understory vegetation and litter remained wet, which might be explained by the water flowing through the epiphyte vegetation or the high capacity of the understory to absorb moisture from the air. Soil water did not infiltrate in depth, which underlines the importance of fog as water and cool source for seedling growth and shallow rooted understory species, especially during drier conditions.

  14. Differential Growth Responses to Water Balance of Coexisting Deciduous Tree Species Are Linked to Wood Density in a Bolivian Tropical Dry Forest

    PubMed Central

    Mendivelso, Hooz A.; Camarero, J. Julio; Royo Obregón, Oriol; Gutiérrez, Emilia; Toledo, Marisol

    2013-01-01

    A seasonal period of water deficit characterizes tropical dry forests (TDFs). There, sympatric tree species exhibit a diversity of growth rates, functional traits, and responses to drought, suggesting that each species may possess different strategies to grow under different conditions of water availability. The evaluation of the long-term growth responses to changes in the soil water balance should provide an understanding of how and when coexisting tree species respond to water deficit in TDFs. Furthermore, such differential growth responses may be linked to functional traits related to water storage and conductance. We used dendrochronology and climate data to retrospectively assess how the radial growth of seven coexisting deciduous tree species responded to the seasonal soil water balance in a Bolivian TDF. Linear mixed-effects models were used to quantify the relationships between basal area increment and seasonal water balance. We related these relationships with wood density and sapwood production to assess if they affect the growth responses to climate. The growth of all species responded positively to water balance during the wet season, but such responses differed among species as a function of their wood density. For instance, species with a strong growth response to water availability averaged a low wood density which may facilitate the storage of water in the stem. By contrast, species with very dense wood were those whose growth was less sensitive to water availability. Coexisting tree species thus show differential growth responses to changes in soil water balance during the wet season. Our findings also provide a link between wood density, a trait related to the ability of trees to store water in the stem, and wood formation in response to water availability. PMID:24116001

  15. Effect of diets with different energy concentrations on growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat chemical composition of broiler chickens in dry tropics.

    PubMed

    Infante-Rodríguez, F; Salinas-Chavira, J; Montaño-Gómez, M F; Manríquez-Nuñez, O M; González-Vizcarra, V M; Guevara-Florentino, O F; Ramírez De León, J A

    2016-01-01

    Diets with increasing levels of energy were fed for 42 days to 200, 1-day old male broiler chickens to evaluate growth performance, carcass characteristics and chemical composition of meat. The study was performed in the subtropical area of northeastern Mexico. Treatments diets (T) for starter and finisher phases had apparent metabolizable energy (AME; kcal/kg) of: 2960 and 3040 (T1); 3000 and 3080 (T2); 3040 and 3120 (T3); 3080 and 3160 (T4), respectively. Within each of the growing phases the four treatment diets were formulated to contain similar levels of crude protein, amino acids, and other nutrients. In a completely randomized design, birds were allocated to the four treatments with five replicates (floor pens) of 10 birds each. The trial was divided in two phases (starter and finisher) of 21 days each (42 days total). Weight gain was not influenced by energy level; however, feed conversion efficiency was improved in the diets with 3040 and 3120 kcal/kg AME (T3; P < 0.05). There was no influence of treatment on total carcass weight or carcass cuts (P > 0.05). Meat from breast muscle had similar crude protein percentages among treatments; ether extract was higher in T1 than T4 (P < 0.05). The percentages of water, ether extract, ash and crude protein in thigh meat were not significantly different (P > 0.05) among treatments. For this study carried out in a dry tropical area, the moderate increase in dietary energy concentration (diet with 3040 and 3120 kcal/kg AME, T3) enhanced feed conversion efficiency of broiler chickens.

  16. Synchrony, compensatory dynamics, and the functional trait basis of phenological diversity in a tropical dry forest tree community: effects of rainfall seasonality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasky, Jesse R.; Uriarte, María; Muscarella, Robert

    2016-11-01

    Interspecific variation in phenology is a key axis of functional diversity, potentially mediating how communities respond to climate change. The diverse drivers of phenology act across multiple temporal scales. For example, abiotic constraints favor synchronous reproduction (positive covariance among species), while biotic interactions can favor synchrony or compensatory dynamics (negative covariance). We used wavelet analyses to examine phenology of community flower and seed production for 45 tree species across multiple temporal scales in a tropical dry forest in Puerto Rico with marked rainfall seasonality. We asked three questions: (1) do species exhibit synchronous or compensatory temporal dynamics in reproduction, (2) do interspecific differences in phenology reflect variable responses to rainfall, and (3) is interspecific variation in phenology and response to a major drought associated with functional traits that mediate responses to moisture? Community-level flowering was synchronized at seasonal scales (˜5-6 mo) and at short scales (˜1 mo, following rainfall). However, seed rain exhibited significant compensatory dynamics at intraseasonal scales (˜3 mo), suggesting interspecific variation in temporal niches. Species with large leaves (associated with sensitivity to water deficit) peaked in reproduction synchronously with the peak of seasonal rainfall (˜5 mo scale). By contrast, species with high wood specific gravity (associated with drought resistance) tended to flower in drier periods. Flowering of tall species and those with large leaves was most tightly linked to intraseasonal (˜2 mo scale) rainfall fluctuations. Although the 2015 drought dramatically reduced community-wide reproduction, functional traits were not associated with the magnitude of species-specific declines. Our results suggest opposing drivers of synchronous versus compensatory dynamics at different temporal scales. Phenology associations with functional traits indicated that

  17. Differential growth responses to water balance of coexisting deciduous tree species are linked to wood density in a Bolivian tropical dry forest.

    PubMed

    Mendivelso, Hooz A; Camarero, J Julio; Royo Obregón, Oriol; Gutiérrez, Emilia; Toledo, Marisol

    2013-01-01

    A seasonal period of water deficit characterizes tropical dry forests (TDFs). There, sympatric tree species exhibit a diversity of growth rates, functional traits, and responses to drought, suggesting that each species may possess different strategies to grow under different conditions of water availability. The evaluation of the long-term growth responses to changes in the soil water balance should provide an understanding of how and when coexisting tree species respond to water deficit in TDFs. Furthermore, such differential growth responses may be linked to functional traits related to water storage and conductance. We used dendrochronology and climate data to retrospectively assess how the radial growth of seven coexisting deciduous tree species responded to the seasonal soil water balance in a Bolivian TDF. Linear mixed-effects models were used to quantify the relationships between basal area increment and seasonal water balance. We related these relationships with wood density and sapwood production to assess if they affect the growth responses to climate. The growth of all species responded positively to water balance during the wet season, but such responses differed among species as a function of their wood density. For instance, species with a strong growth response to water availability averaged a low wood density which may facilitate the storage of water in the stem. By contrast, species with very dense wood were those whose growth was less sensitive to water availability. Coexisting tree species thus show differential growth responses to changes in soil water balance during the wet season. Our findings also provide a link between wood density, a trait related to the ability of trees to store water in the stem, and wood formation in response to water availability.

  18. Using a prescribed fire to test custom and standard fuel models for fire behaviour prediction in a non-native, grass-invaded tropical dry shrubland

    Treesearch

    Andrew D. Pierce; Sierra McDaniel; Mark Wasser; Alison Ainsworth; Creighton M. Litton; Christian P. Giardina; Susan Cordell; Ralf Ohlemuller

    2014-01-01

    Questions: Do fuel models developed for North American fuel types accurately represent fuel beds found in grass-invaded tropical shrublands? Do standard or custom fuel models for firebehavior models with in situ or RAWS measured fuel moistures affect the accuracy of predicted fire behavior in grass-invaded tropical shrublands? Location: Hawai’i Volcanoes National...

  19. Dry-Reagent-Based PCR as a Novel Tool for Laboratory Confirmation of Clinically Diagnosed Mycobacterium ulcerans-Associated Disease in Areas in the Tropics Where M. ulcerans Is Endemic

    PubMed Central

    Siegmund, V.; Adjei, O.; Racz, P.; Berberich, C.; Klutse, E.; van Vloten, F.; Kruppa, T.; Fleischer, B.; Bretzel, G.

    2005-01-01

    After tuberculosis and leprosy, Buruli ulcer (BU), caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans, is the third most common mycobacterial disease in immunocompetent humans. The disease occurs in tropical countries, with foci in West Africa, Central Africa, and the western Pacific. BU is defined as an infectious disease involving the skin and the subcutaneous adipose tissue characterized by a painless nodule, papule, plaque, or edema, evolving into a painless ulcer with undermined edges and often leading to invalidating sequelae. Due to the fundamental lack of understanding of modes of transmission, disease control in endemic countries is limited to early case detection through improved active surveillance and surgical treatment. The laboratory confirmation of BU is complicated by the absence of a diagnostic “gold standard.” Therefore, misclassification and delayed diagnosis of BU may occur frequently, causing a considerable socioeconomic impact in terms of treatment costs due to prolonged hospitalization. In order to respond to the urgent need to develop reliable tools for early case detection and to overcome technical difficulties accompanying the implementation of diagnostic PCR procedures in tropical countries, a dry-reagent-based PCR formulation for the detection of M. ulcerans in diagnostic specimens has been developed at the Bernhard Nocht Institute for Tropical Medicine. Following technical and clinical validation, the assay has been successfully installed and field tested at the Kumasi Centre for Collaborative Research in Tropical Medicine, Kumasi, Ghana. Preliminary results show an excellent diagnostic sensitivity of >95%. PMID:15634982

  20. Process-based modeling of coupled energy and water cycle under dry tropical conditions: an experiment at local scale in the cultivated Sahel (South-West Niger)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velluet, C.; Demarty, J.; Cappelaere, B.; Braud, I.; Boulain, N.; Charvet, G.; Chazarin, J.-P.; Mainassara, I.; Boucher, M.; Issoufou, H. B.-A.; Ibrahim, M.; Oi, M.; Ramier, D.; Benarrosh, N.; Yahou, H.

    2012-04-01

    In the dry tropics in general and, particularly in the African Sahel, agro-ecosystems and hydrosystems are very sensitive to climate variability and land management. In turn, it has been shown that soil moisture, vegetation and surface fluxes produce substantial feedback effects on rainfall-producing atmospheric convection. Therefore, it is of prime importance to understand and to model the dynamics of the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum in response to contrasted meteorological and terrestrial conditions for this area. The objective of this study is to produce a process-based model of water and energy transfers in the soil and land-atmosphere interface over an entire 5-year period, at local scale, for the two main land cover types of South-West Niger: millet-crop and fallow savannah. A comprehensive dataset is available over that whole period in two such fields of the Wankama catchment, making it a rather unique asset for West Africa. This area is typical of the central Sahel conditions, with ~400-600 mm annual rainfall concentrated in the 4-5 months wet season, followed by the 7-8 months dry season. Soils are essentially sandy and prone to surface crusting, which induces a strong vertical contrast in hydrodynamic properties. The dataset used here includes 5 years of atmospheric forcing (rainfall, wind speed, sun and atmosphere radiation, air temperature and moisture) and validation variables (net radiation, turbulent fluxes and soil temperature and moisture profiles), recorded every 30 min. The seasonal course of vegetation phenology (LAI, height, biomass) and soil characteristics (particle size and density profiles) are also available. The SiSPAT (Simple Soil-Plant-Atmosphere Transfer, Braud et al., 1995) physically-based model is used for this study. It solves the mass and heat transfer system of equations in the soil, with vapour phase, coupled with a two-component (bare soil and one vegetation layer) water and energy budget at the surface-atmosphere interface

  1. Dry Air Entrainment into Hurricane Earl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guillory, Anthony R.; Jedlovec, Gary J.; Atkinson, Robert J.; Hood, Robbie E.; LaFontaine, Frank J.

    2000-01-01

    Hurricane Earl formed in the Gulf of Mexico in September 1998. It quickly was upgraded from a tropical disturbance to tropical storm status and then to a hurricane. Earl possessed hybrid (tropical and extratropical) characteristics throughout its lifetime. The system maintained and erratic track, which led to wide variability in the operational track forecasts. It eventually made landfall on the Florida panhandle on 2 September and raced northeastward. During August and September 1998, NASA conducted the third Convection and Moisture Experiment (CAMEX-3). The experiment was focused on studying hurricanes with an emphasis toward developing a better understanding of their intensification and motion. Earl provides a unique opportunity to utilize high spatial and temporal resolution data collected from the DC-8 and high altitude ER-2 NASA platforms, which flew over Earl as it made landfall. These data can also be put into broader view provided by other instruments from the Geosychronous Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) and the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellites. Hurricane Earl was affected by entrainment of dry air from the northwest. Hurricane Isis was intensifying and approaching the Mexican Pacific coast with its associated outflow potentially affecting the inflow into Earl as the storm neared Florida. In addition, a longwave synoptic trough circulation was present over the eastern U.S. Either or both of these could be responsible for the dry air into the system. This paper will focus on identifying the source of the dry by using upper-level wind and moisture fields derived from the GOES 6.7 um water vapor imagery. We will attempt to relate the large-scale observations to those from the NASA aircraft. An infrared instrument onboard the ER-2 also has a similar wavelength and may be able to confirm some of the GOES findings. In addition, a microwave radiometer with 4 channels focused on measuring precipitation and its associated ice

  2. Dry Air Entrainment into Hurricane Earl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guillory, Anthony R.; Jedlovec, Gary J.; Atkinson, Robert J.; Hood, Robbie E.; LaFontaine, Frank J.

    2000-01-01

    Hurricane Earl formed in the Gulf of Mexico in September 1998. It quickly was upgraded from a tropical disturbance to tropical storm status and then to a hurricane. Earl possessed hybrid (tropical and extratropical) characteristics throughout its lifetime. The system maintained and erratic track, which led to wide variability in the operational track forecasts. It eventually made landfall on the Florida panhandle on 2 September and raced northeastward. During August and September 1998, NASA conducted the third Convection and Moisture Experiment (CAMEX-3). The experiment was focused on studying hurricanes with an emphasis toward developing a better understanding of their intensification and motion. Earl provides a unique opportunity to utilize high spatial and temporal resolution data collected from the DC-8 and high altitude ER-2 NASA platforms, which flew over Earl as it made landfall. These data can also be put into broader view provided by other instruments from the Geosychronous Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) and the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellites. Hurricane Earl was affected by entrainment of dry air from the northwest. Hurricane Isis was intensifying and approaching the Mexican Pacific coast with its associated outflow potentially affecting the inflow into Earl as the storm neared Florida. In addition, a longwave synoptic trough circulation was present over the eastern U.S. Either or both of these could be responsible for the dry air into the system. This paper will focus on identifying the source of the dry by using upper-level wind and moisture fields derived from the GOES 6.7 um water vapor imagery. We will attempt to relate the large-scale observations to those from the NASA aircraft. An infrared instrument onboard the ER-2 also has a similar wavelength and may be able to confirm some of the GOES findings. In addition, a microwave radiometer with 4 channels focused on measuring precipitation and its associated ice

  3. [Nutrients in 39 Mexican coastal lagoons].

    PubMed

    Contreras, F; Castañeda, O; Torres-Alvarado, R; Gutiérrez, F

    1996-08-01

    An analysis of 39 Mexican coastal lagoons most in tropical environments, shows no nutrient limitation for primary productivity: even minimum nutrient values are higher than those of similar systems (mostly of temperate zones). In some cases, nutrient variations are large and indicative of heterogeneity. The N:P ratio is more important than simple nutrient concentrations. Using this ratio, coastal lagoons are classified as limited in nitrogen (< 5) or phosphorus (> 10).

  4. Mexican Parenting Questionnaire (MPQ)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halgunseth, Linda C.; Ispa, Jean M.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was conducted in four phases and constructed a self-report parenting instrument for use with Mexican immigrant mothers of children aged 6 to 10. The 14-item measure was based on semistructured qualitative interviews with Mexican immigrant mothers (N = 10), was refined by a focus group of Mexican immigrant mothers (N = 5), and was…

  5. Mexican Parenting Questionnaire (MPQ)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halgunseth, Linda C.; Ispa, Jean M.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was conducted in four phases and constructed a self-report parenting instrument for use with Mexican immigrant mothers of children aged 6 to 10. The 14-item measure was based on semistructured qualitative interviews with Mexican immigrant mothers (N = 10), was refined by a focus group of Mexican immigrant mothers (N = 5), and was…

  6. Ecological Speciation in Nolina parviflora (Asparagaceae): Lacking Spatial Connectivity along of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Sanchez, Eduardo; Specht, Chelsea D.

    2014-01-01

    The hypothesis of ecological speciation states that as populations diverge in different niches, reproductive isolation evolves as a by-product of adaptation to these different environments. In this context, we used Nolina parviflora as a model to test if this species evolved via ecological speciation and to explore current and historical gene flow among its populations. Nolina parviflora is a montane species endemic to Mexico with its geographical distribution restricted largely to the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. This mountain range is one of the most complex geological regions in Mexico, having undergone volcanism from the mid-Miocene to the present. Ecologically, the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt possesses different types of vegetation, including tropical dry forest; oak, pine, pine-oak, and pine-juniper forests; and xerophytic scrub - all of which maintain populations of N. parviflora. Using species distribution models, climatic analyses, spatial connectivity and morphological comparisons, we found significant differences in climatic and morphological variables between populations of N. parviflora in two distinct Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt regions (east vs. west). This could mean that the geographically isolated populations diverged from one another via niche divergence, indicating ecological speciation. Spatial connectivity analysis revealed no connectivity between these regions under the present or last glacial maximum climate models, indicating a lack of gene flow between the populations of the two regions. The results imply that these populations may encompass more than a single species. PMID:24905911

  7. Ecological speciation in Nolina parviflora (Asparagaceae): lacking spatial connectivity along of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Sanchez, Eduardo; Specht, Chelsea D

    2014-01-01

    The hypothesis of ecological speciation states that as populations diverge in different niches, reproductive isolation evolves as a by-product of adaptation to these different environments. In this context, we used Nolina parviflora as a model to test if this species evolved via ecological speciation and to explore current and historical gene flow among its populations. Nolina parviflora is a montane species endemic to Mexico with its geographical distribution restricted largely to the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. This mountain range is one of the most complex geological regions in Mexico, having undergone volcanism from the mid-Miocene to the present. Ecologically, the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt possesses different types of vegetation, including tropical dry forest; oak, pine, pine-oak, and pine-juniper forests; and xerophytic scrub--all of which maintain populations of N. parviflora. Using species distribution models, climatic analyses, spatial connectivity and morphological comparisons, we found significant differences in climatic and morphological variables between populations of N. parviflora in two distinct Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt regions (east vs. west). This could mean that the geographically isolated populations diverged from one another via niche divergence, indicating ecological speciation. Spatial connectivity analysis revealed no connectivity between these regions under the present or last glacial maximum climate models, indicating a lack of gene flow between the populations of the two regions. The results imply that these populations may encompass more than a single species.

  8. DNA barcoding a highly diverse group of parasitoid wasps (Braconidae: Doryctinae) from a Mexican nature reserve.

    PubMed

    Zaldívar-Riverón, Alejandro; Martínez, Juan José; Ceccarelli, Fadia Sara; De Jesús-Bonilla, Vladimir Salvador; Rodríguez-Pérez, Ana Cecilia; Reséndiz-Flores, Andrés; Smith, M Alex

    2010-12-01

    The preliminary results of a DNA barcoding study of the doryctine fauna of parasitoid wasps from the Chamela-Cuixmala Biosphere Reserve in Mexico, a region dominated by tropical dry forest, are presented. So far, three field trips have been carried out to the reserve and 468 specimens have been collected, of which 407 cox1 sequences were obtained. The general mixed Yule-coalescent model was applied to a phylogram to investigate the number of evolutionary units that can be detected from the DNA sequence data examined. A total of 185 barcoding species assigned to 20 identified doryctine genera were discriminated using the above model, 115 of which belong to the speciose genus Heterospilus, pointing out the extraordinary species richness of this subfamily of insects in a Mexican tropical dry forest. On the basis of the DNA barcodes generated, Ptesimogastroides Braet & van Achterberg is proposed to be a junior synonym of Ptesimogaster Marsh syn. nov. Neoheterospilus was also found deeply nested within a large Heterospilus clade, suggesting the paraphyly of the latter genus.

  9. Dry Mouth

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Dry Mouth What Is Dry Mouth? Dry mouth is the feeling that there is ... when a person has dry mouth. How Dry Mouth Feels Dry mouth can be uncomfortable. Some people ...

  10. Water level fluctuations in a tropical reservoir: the impact of sediment drying, aquatic macrophyte dieback, and oxygen availability on phosphorus mobilization.

    PubMed

    Keitel, Jonas; Zak, Dominik; Hupfer, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Reservoirs in semi-arid areas are subject to water level fluctuations (WLF) that alter biogeochemical processes in the sediment. We hypothesized that wet-dry cycles may cause internal eutrophication in such systems when they affect densely vegetated shallow areas. To assess the impact of WLF on phosphorus (P) mobilization and benthic P cycling of iron-rich sediments, we tested the effects of (i) sediment drying and rewetting, (ii) the impact of organic matter availability in the form of dried Brazilian Waterweed (Egeria densa), and (iii) alternating redox conditions in the surface water. In principle, drying led to increased P release after rewetting both in plant-free and in plant-amended sediments. Highest P mobilization was recorded in plant amendments under oxygen-free conditions. After re-establishment of aerobic conditions, P concentrations in surface water decreased substantially owing to P retention by sediments. In desiccated and re-inundated sediments, P retention decreased by up to 30% compared to constantly inundated sediments. We showed that WLF may trigger biochemical interactions conducive to anaerobic P release. Thereby, E. densa showed high P release and even P uptake that was redox-controlled and superimposed sedimentary P cycling. Macrophytes play an important role in the uptake of P from the water but may be also a significant source of P in wet-dry cycles. We estimated a potential for the abrupt release of soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) by E. densa of 0.09-0.13 g SRP per m(2) after each wet-dry cycle. Released SRP may exceed critical P limits for eutrophication, provoking usage restrictions. Our results have implications for management of reservoirs in semi-arid regions affected by WLF.

  11. Natural and near natural tropical forest values

    Treesearch

    Daniel H. Henning

    2011-01-01

    This paper identifies and describes some of the values associated with tropical rain forests in their natural and near-natural conditions. Tropical rain forests are moist forests in the humid tropics where temperature and rainfall are high and the dry season is short. These closed (non-logged) and broad-leaved forests are a global resource. Located almost entirely in...

  12. Seasonal variation of N[sub 2]O fluxes at a tropical Savannah site: Soil consumption of N[sub 2]O during the dry season

    SciTech Connect

    Donoso, L.; Santana, R.; Sanhueza, E.

    1993-07-09

    This paper reports measurements of the N[sub 2]O soil fluxes in a scrub-grass savannah, and in a semideciduous forest in the savannah climatic region of Venezuela. Nitrous oxide plays an important role in the catalytic destruction of ozone, and in atmospheric radiative balance. Globally its concentration is higher than in preindustrial times, and it is presently growing, which cannot be explained based on known anthropogenic sources. Here the authors measure the soil uptake of nitrous oxide in a particular climatic and soil profile region. Global studies have shown it is very difficult to quantify this information. They find that when the grass savannah soil is dry, it takes up nitrous oxide at a rate of approximately -2.6 [+-] 2.7[times]10[sup 9] molecules cm[sup [minus]2]s[sup [minus]1]. This is to be contrasted with the observation that when the soil is watered, or during the rainy season, it is found to give up nitrous oxide. In the forested areas, the soil gives up nitrous oxide during the dry period, but at a slower rate than during the rainy season. The authors do not know how the soil consumes the gas when dry. The distinction between dry and wet conditions is thought to be due to the density and/or activity of bacteria in the soil which produce the gas.

  13. The ghost of a recent invasion in the reduced feeding rates of spitting cobras during the dry season in a rainforest region of tropical Africa?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luiselli, Luca

    2001-12-01

    Two species of cobras ( Naja melanoleuca and Naja nigricollis) are known to occur in south eastern Nigeria, where much of the pristine rainforest surface has been felled in the last thirty years, and where the actual landscape is generally constituted by a mosaic of farmlands, plantations, suburban areas, with a few remnant forest fragments. In this region, Naja nigricollis is currently extending its range, especially by exploiting recently deforested areas. Based on the known general distribution range of this species and on the available literature data, it appears that Naja nigricollis has been colonizing the forested region of south eastern Nigeria, starting from the relatively arid savannas of central Nigeria, where this species aestivates during the driest months. In the forest region, however, snakes do not need to aestivate during the dry season. Nevertheless, whereas Naja melanoleuca has a foraging activity extended all-the-year round, Naja nigricollis reduces feeding rates during the dry months, although it does not suspend above-ground activity in these months. I suggest that rainforest spitting cobras suspend feeding during the dry months because their behaviour is just a 'ghost' of their recent past, when they were 'normal' spitting cobras of dry savana regions, which were thus constrained to aestivate during the dry season as it is the rule in this species in central and northern Nigeria. The 'gost-of-the-past hypothesis' seems to fit well with the 'invading' presence of Naja nigricollis in Nigerian areas where they were reported as rare or, even, absent, up to a few decades ago. Other hypotheses are discussed, and rejected.

  14. Tropical forecasting - Predictability perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shukla, J.

    1989-01-01

    Results are presented of classical predictability studies and forecast experiments with observed initial conditions to show the nature of initial error growth and final error equilibration for the tropics and midlatitudes, separately. It is found that the theoretical upper limit of tropical circulation predictability is far less than for midlatitudes. The error growth for a complete general circulation model is compared to a dry version of the same model in which there is no prognostic equation for moisture, and diabatic heat sources are prescribed. It is found that the growth rate of synoptic-scale errors for the dry model is significantly smaller than for the moist model, suggesting that the interactions between dynamics and moist processes are among the important causes of atmospheric flow predictability degradation. Results are then presented of numerical experiments showing that correct specification of the slowly varying boundary condition of SST produces significant improvement in the prediction of time-averaged circulation and rainfall over the tropics.

  15. Long-term effects of habitat fragmentation on mating patterns and gene flow of a tropical dry forest tree, Ceiba aesculifolia (Malvaceae: Bombacoideae).

    PubMed

    Quesada, Mauricio; Herrerías-Diego, Yvonne; Lobo, Jorge A; Sánchez-Montoya, Gumersindo; Rosas, Fernando; Aguilar, Ramiro

    2013-06-01

    Tropical forest loss and fragmentation isolate and reduce the size of remnant populations with negative consequences for mating patterns and genetic structure of plant species. In a 4-yr study, we determined the effect of fragmentation on mating patterns and pollen pool genetic structure of the tropical tree Ceiba aesculifolia in two habitat conditions: isolated trees in disturbed areas (≤3 trees/ha), and trees (≥6 trees/ha) in undisturbed mature forest. • Using six allozyme loci, we estimated the outcrossing rate (tm), the mean relatedness of progeny (rp) within and between fruits, the degree of genetic structure of pollen pools (Φft), and the effective number of pollen donors (Nep). • The outcrossing rates reflected a strict self-incompatible species. Relatedness of progeny within fruits was similar for all populations, revealing single sires within fruits. However, relatedness of progeny between fruits within trees was consistently greater for trees in fragmented conditions across 4 yr. We found high levels of genetic structure of pollen pools in all populations with more structure in isolated trees. The effective number of pollen donors was greater for trees in undisturbed forest than in disturbed conditions. • Our study showed that the progeny produced by isolated trees in disturbed habitats are sired by a fraction of the diversity of pollen donors found in conserved forests. The foraging behavior of bats limits the exchange of pollen between trees, causing higher levels of progeny relatedness in isolated trees.

  16. Comparison of torula yeast and various grape juice products as attractants for Mexican fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Early research during the 1930’s focused on attractants for the Mexican fruit fly indicated that fermentation products were effective attractants for Mexican fruit flies and other tropical Tephritidae, but that attraction to fruit components was only of academic interest. Tests reported here were ca...

  17. Mexican Society of Bioelectromagnetism

    SciTech Connect

    Canedo, Luis

    2008-08-11

    In July 2007 physicians, biologists and physicists that have collaborated in previous meetings of the medical branch of the Mexican Physical Society constituted the Mexican Society of Bioelectromagnetism with the purpose of promote scientific study of the interaction of electromagnetic energy (at frequencies ranging from zero Hertz through those of visible light) and acoustic energy with biological systems. A second goal was to increase the contribution of medical and biological professionals in the meetings of the medical branch of the Mexican Physical Society. The following paragraphs summarize some objectives of the Mexican Society of Bioelectromagnetism for the next two years.

  18. Beetle succession and diversity between clothed sun-exposed and shaded pig carrion in a tropical dry forest landscape in Southern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Caballero, Ubaldo; León-Cortés, Jorge L

    2014-12-01

    Over a 31-day period, the decomposition process, beetle diversity and succession on clothed pig (Sus scrofa L.) carcasses were studied in open (agricultural land) and shaded habitat (secondary forest) in Southern Mexico. The decomposition process was categorised into five stages: fresh, bloated, active decay, advanced decay and remains. Except for the bloated stage, the elapsed time for each decomposition stage was similar between open and shaded habitats, all carcasses reached an advanced decay stage in seven days, and the fifth stage (remains) was not recorded in any carcass during the time of this study. A total of 6344 beetles, belonging to 130 species and 21 families, were collected during the entire decomposition process, and abundances increased from fresh to advanced decay stages. Staphylinidae, Scarabaeidae and Histeridae were taxonomically and numerically dominant, accounting for 61% of the species richness and 87% of the total abundance. Similar numbers of species (87 and 88 species for open and shaded habitats, respectively), levels of diversity and proportions (open 49%; shaded 48%) of exclusive species were recorded at each habitat. There were significantly distinct beetle communities between habitats and for each stage of decomposition. An indicator species analysis ("IndVal") identified six species associated to open habitats, 10 species to shaded habitats and eight species to advanced decay stages. In addition, 23 beetle species are cited for the first time in the forensic literature. These results showed that open and shaded habitats both provide suitable habitat conditions for the carrion beetle diversity with significant differences in community structure and identity of the species associated to each habitat. This research provides the first empirical evidence of beetle ecological succession and diversity on carrion in Mexican agro-pastoral landscapes.

  19. Dry root rot of chickpea

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Dry root rot of chickpea is a serious disease under dry hot summer conditions, particularly in the semi-arid tropics of Ethiopia, and in central and southern India. It usually occurs at reproductive stages of the plant. Symptoms include drooping of petioles and leaflets of the tips, but not the low...

  20. Changes in Hydraulic Gradient, Hyporheic Exchange, and Patterns of Nutrient Concentration between Dry and Wet Season Flows for a Tropical Mountain Stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabian, M.; Endreny, T.; Lautz, L.; Siegel, D.

    2009-05-01

    Mountain streams are a common source in Central America for community water supplies (CWS). These streams become dewatered by the CWS during dry season low flows, with potential impacts on hydraulic gradients, hyporheic exchange flow, terrestrial-aquatic linkages, and nutrient dynamics, which may ultimately affect aquatic and riparian micro-ecosystems. We are presenting preliminary results of a study conducted in Buena Vista, a village in Yoro, Honduras where the mountain stream was instrumented and manipulated to measure impacts of a CWS. Piezometric head and stream water levels were taken at 7 cross-sections along 30 m of step-pool stream, and water quality samples were retrieved from 48 pairs of riparian and stream piezometers and monitoring wells. We computed vertical hydraulic gradients, zones of hyporheic upwelling and downwelling, and nutrient patterns, and their change with streamflow. Streamflow ranged from 30 L/s in the wet-season high flow to about 2 L/s in the dry-season low flow, and were dewatered to about 1 L/s. A HEC- RAS water-surface profile model was calibrated to observed stages to establish gradients along the entire reach, and river head was then input as a boundary condition into a MODFLOW groundwater model to examine patterns of hyporheic exchange. Changes in hydraulic gradients and fluxes are compared with baseline conditions during the dry season low flow without dewatering. Noticeable changes in hydraulic gradient occurred between high and low flows, but changes in low flow to dewatered flow were negligible. Lengths and location of hyporheic upwelling and downwelling zones shifted slightly with changes in flow, but again the dewatering had a minor impact. Concentrations of nitrate, sulfate, chloride, fluoride and dissolved oxygen were detected in the hyporheic zone, the stream water, and adjacent ground water. We are exploring mixing models to assess the extent to which hyporheic exchange migrated to and from the creek to adjacent

  1. Landsat-Scale Phenology Detection for Tropical Forest Composition, Structure and Productivity Assessment from Dry to Wet Ecological Zones in Puerto Rico and us Virgin Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwenzi, D.; Helmer, E.; Zhu, X.; Lefsky, M. A.; Marcano-Vega, H.

    2016-12-01

    For tropical forests that include deciduous species, we expect that seasonal patterns in spectral measures of canopy greenness should correlate with field measurements of forest attributes. However, few studies exist on the relationships among tropical forest phenology, as observed with spaceborne remote sensing, and ecosystem attributes like forest composition, structure and productivity. One reason for this understudy is persistent cloud cover that limits the use of low temporal resolution data, yet the noise and coarse spatial resolution of high temporal resolution data renders it unsuitable for fine scale studies. In this paper we used new and improved algorithms to repair gap, cloud and shadow contaminated Landsat 7 Scan Line Corrector Off (SCL-off) images and generate high quality time series data from which phenology was detected. We investigated the relative contribution of fine scale phenology in modelling forest composition, structure and productivity measured in the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) plots in Puerto Rico and United Stated Virgin Islands (PRVI). Phenology variables moderately explained variation in forest composition (R2 = 0.36). For forest aboveground biomass modeling, including phenology variables to structural variables like canopy height and crown area resulted in up to 12 % more variation explained. Including phenology to structural variables also explained up to 25 % more variation in Annual Net Primary Productivity (herein NPP). In all the models phenology contributed more as interaction terms than as single effect terms. Overall, models run on 100 % forest plots performed better than models run on all plots. For forest productivity, the models produced better results when analysis was run on only those plots with a positive growth (t1 to t2) compared to when all plots were considered, thus suggesting a higher complexity in mortality drivers compared to growth drivers. With the lesser amount of noise in the phenology products and

  2. The Mexican American.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowan, Helen

    The purpose of this paper, prepared for the U. S. Commission on Civil Rights, is to indicate the types and ranges of problems facing the Mexican American community and to suggest ways in which these problems are peculiar to Mexican Americans. Specific examples are cited to illustrate major problems and personal experiences. Topics covered in the…

  3. Cultural Vignette: Mexican Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer, Mary Ellen; And Others

    Developed as part of a multicultural research project in the San Diego Community College District, this booklet presents the findings of a 10-member research team about various elements of Mexican-American culture. The areas covered are: (1) historical background on the Mexican heritage of the United States from pre-colonial times to the present…

  4. Ovarian evaluation of Girolando (Holstein × Gir) heifers submitted to a GnRH-PGF2α-GnRH protocol in the dry or rainy seasons in the tropical savannah.

    PubMed

    Bilego, Ubirajara O; Santos, Fabricio C; Porto, Regiani N G; Pires, Bruno C; Oliveira Filho, Benedito D; Viu, Marco Antonio O; Gambarini, Maria Lúcia

    2013-10-01

    The Girolando breed is used in pasture-based dairy production systems in Brazil to associate the high production of Bos taurus to the rusticity and thermal adaptation of Bos indicus. This study was designed to evaluate the physiological response to a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)-prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α)-GnRH protocol to synchronize the ovulation in 40 Girolando heifers of a pasture-based dairy production system and its relationships with the temperature and humidity index (THI) during the dry (DS) and rainy season (RS) in the tropical savannah-Brazil's cerrado biome. Responses were characterized by follicular and corpus luteum number and diameter, ovulation (D9), and pregnancy rates after first AI. Total follicle number (8.1 ± 0.3 × 8.8 ± 0.3), D9 ovulatory follicle diameter (11.9 ± 0.4 × 10.1 ± 0.4 mm), corpus luteum diameter (8.6 ± 1.3 × 3.9 ± 1.5 mm), corpus luteum score (3.7 ± 0.8 × 1.8 ± 1.0), corpus luteum diameter after AI (9.6 ± 1.6 × 3.9 ± 1.5 mm), and corpus luteum score after AI (3.2 ± 0.4 × 0.9 ± 0.6) in DS and RS differed (P < 0.01). D9 ovulation rate was 40 % (DS) and 20 % (RS), without differences (P > 0.05). Pregnancy rate was 45 % (DS) and 11 % (RS), with differences (P < 0.01). THI differed between DS and RS (P < 0.01). THI may interfere in the follicular and luteal dynamics and in the response of Girolando heifers to the GnRH-PGF2α protocol in the tropical savannah, thus reducing the chances of pregnancy at the first artificial insemination.

  5. Evidence of hydraulic lift for pre-rainy season leaf out and dry-season stem water enrichment in Sclerocarya birrea, a tropical agroforestry tree

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceperley, Natalie; Mande, Theophile; Rinaldo, Andrea; Parlange, Marc B.

    2014-05-01

    We use stable isotopes of water as tracers to follow water use by five Sclerocarya birrea trees in a catchment in South Eastern Burkina Faso interspersed with millet fields, gallery forest, Sudanian savanna, and fallow fields. Isotopic ratios were determined from water extracted from stems of the trees and sub-canopy soil of two of them, while nearby ground water, precipitation, and surface water was sampled weekly. A unique configuration of sensors connected with a wireless sensor network of meteorological stations measured sub-canopy shading, the temperature and humidity in the canopy, through-fall, and soil moisture under two of the trees. Both water extracted from sap and water extracted from soil is extremely enriched in the dry season, but drop to levels close to the ground water in February or March, which coincides with the growth of leaves. Dates of leaf out were confirmed by changes in δDH and δO18 concentrations of water, photographic documentation & pixel analysis, and analysis of sub-canopy radiation and proceeded the rise in humidity and flow that was later detected in the sub-canopy soil, the trunk of the tree (sap-flow), and atmosphere (canopy VPD). Examination of the isotopic signature suggests that size of tree plays an important role in duration and timing of this leaf-out as well as the degree of enrichment during the peak of the dry season. Further examination of the isotopic signatures of the roots suggested that the trees are performing hydraulic redistribution, or lifting the ground water and "sharing it" with the soil in the rooting zone in the dry season. The enriched level of xylem in this case is a product of water loss, and enrichment, along the travel path of the water from the roots to the tip of the stem, as evidenced by the variation according to size of tree. Vapor pressure deficit, soil water, and soil moisture interactions support this picture of interacting controls, separate from hydrologic triggers on the water movement in

  6. Accumulation of heavy metals in dietary vegetables and cultivated soil horizon in organic farming system in relation to atmospheric deposition in a seasonally dry tropical region of India.

    PubMed

    Pandey, J; Pandey, Usha

    2009-01-01

    Increasing consciousness about future sustainable agriculture and hazard free food production has lead organic farming to be a globally emerging alternative farm practice. We investigated the accumulation of air-borne heavy metals in edible parts of vegetables and in cultivated soil horizon in organic farming system in a low rain fall tropical region of India. The factorial design of whole experiment consisted of six vegetable crops (tomato, egg plant, spinach, amaranthus, carrot and radish) x two treatments (organic farming in open field and organic farming in glasshouse (OFG)) x seven independent harvest of each crop. The results indicated that except for Pb, atmospheric deposition of heavy metals increased consistently on time scale. Concentrations of heavy metals in cultivated soil horizon and in edible parts of open field grown vegetables increased over time and were significantly higher than those recorded in OFG plots. Increased contents of heavy metals in open field altered soil porosity, bulk density, water holding capacity, microbial biomass carbon, substrate-induced respiration, alkaline phosphatase and fluorescein diacetate hydrolytic activities. Vegetable concentrations of heavy metal appeared in the order Zn > Pb > Cu > Ni > Cd and were maximum in leaves (spinach and amaranths) followed by fruits (tomato and egg plant) and minimum in roots (carrot and radish). Multiple regression analysis indicated that the major contribution of most heavy metals to vegetable leaves was from atmosphere. For roots however, soil appeared to be equally important. The study suggests that if the present trend of atmospheric deposition is continued, it will lead to a destabilizing effect on this sustainable agricultural practice and will increase the dietary intake of toxic metals.

  7. Tropical malabsorption

    PubMed Central

    Ramakrishna, B S; Venkataraman, S; Mukhopadhya, A

    2006-01-01

    Malabsorption is an important clinical problem both in visitors to the tropics and in native residents of tropical countries. Infections of the small intestine are the most important cause of tropical malabsorption. Protozoal infections cause malabsorption in immunocompetent hosts, but do so more commonly in the setting of immune deficiency. Helminth infections occasionally cause malabsorption or protein‐losing enteropathy. Intestinal tuberculosis, chronic pancreatitis and small‐bowel bacterial overgrowth are important causes of tropical malabsorption. In recent years, inflammatory bowel disease and coeliac disease have become major causes of malabsorption in the tropics. Sporadic tropical sprue is still an important cause of malabsorption in adults and in children in South Asia. Investigations to exclude specific infective, immunological or inflammatory causes are important before considering tropical sprue as a diagnosis. This article briefly reviews the management of tropical sprue and presents an algorithm for its investigation and management. PMID:17148698

  8. Tropical Rainforests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nigh, Ronald B.; Nations, James D.

    1980-01-01

    Presented is a summary of scientific knowledge about the rainforest environment, a tropical ecosystem in danger of extermination. Topics include the current state of tropical rainforests, the causes of rainforest destruction, and alternatives of rainforest destruction. (BT)

  9. Tropical Rainforests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nigh, Ronald B.; Nations, James D.

    1980-01-01

    Presented is a summary of scientific knowledge about the rainforest environment, a tropical ecosystem in danger of extermination. Topics include the current state of tropical rainforests, the causes of rainforest destruction, and alternatives of rainforest destruction. (BT)

  10. Tropical malabsorption.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishna, B S; Venkataraman, S; Mukhopadhya, A

    2006-12-01

    Malabsorption is an important clinical problem both in visitors to the tropics and in native residents of tropical countries. Infections of the small intestine are the most important cause of tropical malabsorption. Protozoal infections cause malabsorption in immunocompetent hosts, but do so more commonly in the setting of immune deficiency. Helminth infections occasionally cause malabsorption or protein-losing enteropathy. Intestinal tuberculosis, chronic pancreatitis and small-bowel bacterial overgrowth are important causes of tropical malabsorption. In recent years, inflammatory bowel disease and coeliac disease have become major causes of malabsorption in the tropics. Sporadic tropical sprue is still an important cause of malabsorption in adults and in children in South Asia. Investigations to exclude specific infective, immunological or inflammatory causes are important before considering tropical sprue as a diagnosis. This article briefly reviews the management of tropical sprue and presents an algorithm for its investigation and management.

  11. Entrainment of Upper Level Dry Air Into Hurricane Earl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guillory, Anthony R.; Jedlovec, Gary J.; Hood, Robbie E.; Atkinson, Robert J.; LaFontaine, Frank J.

    1999-01-01

    Hurricane Earl formed in the Gulf of Mexico in September 1998. It quickly was upgraded from a tropical disturbance to tropical storm status and then to a hurricane. Earl possessed hybrid (tropical and extratropical) characteristics throughout its lifetime. The system maintained and erratic track, which led to wide variability in the operational track forecasts. It eventually made landfall on the Florida panhandle on 2 September and raced northeastward. During August and September 1998, NASA conducted the third Convection and Moisture Experiment (CAMEX-3). The experiment was focused on studying hurricanes with an emphasis toward developing a better understanding of their intensification and motion. Earl provides a unique opportunity to utilize high spatial and temporal resolution data collected from the DC-8 and high altitude ER-2 NASA platforms, which flew over Earl as it made landfall. These data can also be put into broader view provided by other instruments from the Geosynchronous Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) and the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellites. Hurricane Earl was affected by entrainment of dry air from the northwest. Hurricane Isis was intensifying and approaching the Mexican Pacific coast with its associated outflow potentially affecting the inflow into Earl as the storm neared Florida. In addition, a longwave synoptic trough circulation was present over the eastern U.S. Either or both of these could be responsible for the dry air into the system. This paper will focus on identifying the source of the dry by using upper-level wind and moisture fields derived from the GOES 6.7 um water vapor imagery. We will attempt to relate the large-scale observations to those from the NASA aircraft. An infrared instrument onboard the ER-2 also has a similar wavelength and may be able to confirm some of the GOES findings. In addition, a microwave radiometer with 4 channels focused on measuring precipitation and its associated ice

  12. Entrainment of Upper Level Dry Air Into Hurricane Earl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guillory, Anthony R.; Jedlovec, Gary J.; Hood, Robbie E.; Atkinson, Robert J.; LaFontaine, Frank J.

    1999-01-01

    Hurricane Earl formed in the Gulf of Mexico in September 1998. It quickly was upgraded from a tropical disturbance to tropical storm status and then to a hurricane. Earl possessed hybrid (tropical and extratropical) characteristics throughout its lifetime. The system maintained and erratic track, which led to wide variability in the operational track forecasts. It eventually made landfall on the Florida panhandle on 2 September and raced northeastward. During August and September 1998, NASA conducted the third Convection and Moisture Experiment (CAMEX-3). The experiment was focused on studying hurricanes with an emphasis toward developing a better understanding of their intensification and motion. Earl provides a unique opportunity to utilize high spatial and temporal resolution data collected from the DC-8 and high altitude ER-2 NASA platforms, which flew over Earl as it made landfall. These data can also be put into broader view provided by other instruments from the Geosynchronous Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) and the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellites. Hurricane Earl was affected by entrainment of dry air from the northwest. Hurricane Isis was intensifying and approaching the Mexican Pacific coast with its associated outflow potentially affecting the inflow into Earl as the storm neared Florida. In addition, a longwave synoptic trough circulation was present over the eastern U.S. Either or both of these could be responsible for the dry air into the system. This paper will focus on identifying the source of the dry by using upper-level wind and moisture fields derived from the GOES 6.7 um water vapor imagery. We will attempt to relate the large-scale observations to those from the NASA aircraft. An infrared instrument onboard the ER-2 also has a similar wavelength and may be able to confirm some of the GOES findings. In addition, a microwave radiometer with 4 channels focused on measuring precipitation and its associated ice

  13. A conceptual model of the dehydration of air due to freeze-drying by optically thin, laminar cirrus rising slowly across the tropical tropopause

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, Eric J.; Pfister, Leonhard; Ackerman, Andrew S.; Tabazadeh, Azadeh; Toon, Owen B.

    2001-01-01

    tropopause depends upon both the effectiveness of upper tropospheric aerosols as ice nuclei and the occurrence of wave motions in the tropopause region. In situ humidity observations from tropical aircraft campaigns and balloon launches over the past several years have provided a few examples of ice-supersaturated air near the tropopause. However, given the scarcity of data and the uncertainties in water vapor measurements, we lack definitive evidence that air entering the stratosphere is supersaturated with respect to ice.

  14. Operationalizing measurement of forest degradation: Identification and quantification of charcoal production in tropical dry forests using very high resolution satellite imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dons, K.; Smith-Hall, C.; Meilby, H.; Fensholt, R.

    2015-07-01

    Quantification of forest degradation in monitoring and reporting as well as in historic baselines is among the most challenging tasks in national REDD+ strategies. However, a recently introduced option is to base monitoring systems on subnational conditions such as prevalent degradation activities. In Tanzania, charcoal production is considered a major cause of forest degradation, but is challenging to quantify due to sub-canopy biomass loss, remote production sites and illegal trade. We studied two charcoal production sites in dry Miombo woodland representing open woodland conditions near human settlements and remote forest with nearly closed canopies. Supervised classification and adaptive thresholding were applied on a pansharpened QuickBird (QB) image to detect kiln burn marks (KBMs). Supervised classification showed reasonable detection accuracy in the remote forest site only, while adaptive thresholding was found acceptable at both locations. We used supervised classification and manual digitizing for KBM delineation and found acceptable delineation accuracy at both sites with RMSEs of 25-32% compared to ground measurements. Regression of charcoal production on KBM area delineated from QB resulted in R2s of 0.86-0.88 with cross-validation RMSE ranging from 2.22 to 2.29 Mg charcoal per kiln. This study demonstrates, how locally calibrated remote sensing techniques may be used to identify and delineate charcoal production sites for estimation of charcoal production and associated extraction of woody biomass.

  15. Interviews with Mexican midwives.

    PubMed

    Bortin, S

    1993-01-01

    Mexican society contains a variety of indigenous cultures as well as European influences. Most babies in rural areas are delivered by midwives. Traditional midwives, government-trained and empirical midwives, nurse-midwives, and foreign-trained midwives all practice in Mexico. Nurse-midwives in one project are demonstrating their ability to meet the needs of urban childbearing women. A midwifery organization is developing under the leadership of midwives influenced by the contemporary midwifery movement in the United States. In this article, some traditional Mexican midwifery practices are discussed and interviews with several different Mexican midwives from a variety of backgrounds are presented.

  16. Seasonal and spatial distributions and dry deposition fluxes of atmospheric total and labile iron over the tropical and subtropical North Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ying; Siefert, Ronald L.

    2004-05-01

    The tropical and subtropical region of the North Atlantic Ocean is under the influence of mineral dust plumes transported from North Africa, resulting in high atmospheric iron (Fe) deposition. Atmospheric Fe, as a major Fe source to this open oceanic region, may influence the rate of nitrogen fixation since Fe is a critical nutrient cofactor for the nitrogenase enzyme in diazotrophic microorganisms. Field measurements of Fe concentrations and Fe speciation in aerosols provide crucial information to understanding the biological role of this atmospheric Fe flux to the ocean. In this study, 24-hour aerosol samples were collected during winter (6 January 2001 to 18 February 2001) and summer (27 June 2001 to 15 August 2001) research cruises over this North Atlantic region. Three labile Fe species, that included ferrous iron (Fe(II)) and reducible ferric iron (Fe(III)) species, were measured in aerosol samples using a sequential aqueous extraction method. Microwave digestion of the aerosol samples followed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry was used to quantify total elemental concentrations. A spatial gradient of over nearly 3 orders of magnitude in the total Fe concentrations (from 1.6 ng m-3 at 28.6°N to 1688 ng m-3 at 10.9°N) was observed during the winter, while this gradient was not as strong in the summer. The mean total Fe concentrations were approximately a factor of 2 higher during the winter (mean value of 670 ng m-3 between 5°N and 26°N) than in the summer (mean value of 324 ng m-3 between 6°N and 26°N). The highest percentage of labile Fe to total Fe was observed between 26°N and 30°N in the winter with a mean value of 32%, which corresponded to low concentrations of total Fe. At latitude 0°N to 10°N, where the lowest Fe concentrations were observed in the summer, the labile Fe fraction with a mean of 5.0% was similar to the region from 10°N to 20°N where there were much higher mineral aerosol concentrations. Air mass back

  17. Tropical Glaciers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fountain, Andrew

    The term "tropical glacier" calls to mind balmy nights and palm trees on one hand and cold, blue ice on the other. Certainly author Gabriel Garcia Marqez exploited this contrast in One Hundred Years of Solitude. We know that tropical fish live in warm, Sun-kissed waters and tropical plants provide lush, dense foliage populated by colorful tropical birds. So how do tropical glaciers fit into this scene? Like glaciers everywhere, tropical glaciers form where mass accumulation—usually winter snow—exceeds mass loss, which is generally summer melt. Thus, tropical glaciers exist at high elevations where precipitation can occur as snowfall exceeds melt and sublimation losses, such as the Rwenzori Mountains in east Africa and the Maoke Range of Irian Jaya.

  18. Tropical ecotoxicology: The state of the environment in the tropics

    SciTech Connect

    Lacher, T.E. Jr. |; Goldstein, M.I.

    1995-12-31

    Ecotoxicology has focused almost exclusively on temperate zone countries and ecosystems. Tropical ecosystems, including rain forest, tropical dry forest, savanna, wetlands and freshwater ecosystems, have been neglected. These ecosystems combined might contain as much as 75% of global biodiversity. Tropical ecosystems are under increasing threat of development and alteration. The major causes of habitat degradation in the tropics include population growth and urbanization, agricultural expansion, deforestation, and mining. Some of these activities (in particular agriculture, mining, and the manufacturing and chemical industries) also lead to the release of toxic substances into the environment. Little research in ecotoxicology has been done in tropical environments and techniques and procedures developed for temperate environments are often applied, even though physical and chemical environmental parameters in the tropics can be very different. The regulatory environment also varies from country to country. The authors present an extensive literature review of tropical ecotoxicology, with a focus on Latin America and the Caribbean. Most research has focused on water quality and aquatic toxicology. Virtually no research has been done on the effects of toxic substance on tropical wildlife. They present a protocol for tropical ecotoxicology that addresses the special problems associated with doing ecotoxicological research in the tropics. The authors discuss the issue of adapting temperate zone principles and methods to tropical environments. Finally, they discuss priority areas for immediate research. These include large scale agricultural activities, especially bananas, pineapples, and soybeans and gold mining with the associated heavy use of mercury. The authors also present a prioritization of tropical wildlife that appear to be at highest risk of exposure to toxic substances.

  19. Mexican Intellectuals' Perceptions of Mexican Americans and Chicanos, 1920-Present.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griswold del Castillo, Richard

    2002-01-01

    Mexican public opinion about emigrants to the United States has gradually changed from that of "cultural traitors." The Mexican government has increasingly come to see Chicano political leaders as important to Mexico's relationship with the United States, while Mexican intellectuals increasingly regard Chicano academics as their allies…

  20. Tropical myelopathies.

    PubMed

    Román, Gustavo C

    2014-01-01

    A large number of causal agents produce spinal cord lesions in the tropics. Most etiologies found in temperate regions also occur in the tropics including trauma, herniated discs, tumors, epidural abscess, and congenital malformations. However, infectious and nutritional disorders occur with higher prevalence in tropical regions. Among the most common infectious etiologies are tuberculous Pott's disease, brucellosis, and neuroborreliosis. Parasitic diseases such as schistosomiasis, neurocysticercosis, and eosinophilic meningitis are frequent causes of nontraumatic paraplegia. The retrovirus HTLV-1 is a cause of tropical spastic paraparesis. Nutritional causes of paraparesis include deficiencies of vitamin B12 and folate; endemic clusters of konzo and tropical ataxic myeloneuropathy are associated in Africa with malnutrition and excessive consumption of cyanide-containing bitter cassava. Other toxic etiologies of tropical paraplegia include lathyrism and fluorosis. Nutritional forms of myelopathy are associated often with optic and sensory neuropathy, hence the name tropical myeloneuropathies. Acute transverse myelopathy is seen in association with vaccination, infections, and fibrocartilaginous embolism of the nucleus pulposus. Multiple sclerosis and optic myelopathy occur in the tropics but with lesser prevalence than in temperate regions. The advent of modern imaging in the tropics, including computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, has allowed better diagnosis and treatment of these conditions that are a frequent cause of death and disability.

  1. Biomass Carbon in the South Mexican Pacific Coast: Exploring Mangrove Potential to REDD+ Mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bejarano, M.; Amezcua-Torrijos, I.

    2014-12-01

    Mangroves have the highest carbon stocks amongst tropical forests. In Mexico, however, little is known about their potential to mitigate climate change. In this work, we estimated biomass carbon stocks in the Southern Mexican Pacific Coast (~69,000 ha). We quantified above and belowground biomass carbon stocks at (1) the regional scale along two environmental strata (i.e. dry and wet), and (2) at the local scale along three geomorphological types of mangroves (i.e. fringe, estuarine and basin). Regional strata were defined using intensity and influence of rivers and, the mean annual precipitation and evapotranspiration ratio (i.e., wet < 1 > dry). By lowering the stressing environmental conditions (e.g., low salinity and high sediment accumulation), we expected the highest stocks in mangroves growing in wet and estuarine strata at the regional scale and local scale, respectively. Quantifications were carried out in sixty-six sites chosen through stratified randomized design in which six strata were obtained by a full combination of regional and local strata. In all strata, aboveground carbon represents 64-67% of total carbon. Total biomass carbon was higher in wet than dry stratum (W: 87.3 ± 6.9, D: 47.0 ± 5.0, p<0.001). While at local scale, total biomass carbon was high in estuarine mangroves of both wet and dry regions (W: 91.6 ± 7.8, D: 77.6 ± 14.8, p<0.001), and these were statistically similar to fringe wet mangroves (110.9 ± 24.2, p<0.001), the stratum with the highest total carbon. Following a conservative approach, the Mexican Southern Pacific Coast is storing near 20,344 Gg CO2e. If the historical annual deforestation rate of 0.54% continues, this region could emit between 0.03 and 14.4 Gg of CO2e ha/year, out of which wet estuarine mangroves would have the highest emission values. Evidence suggests that these mangroves are the most important strata in which REDD+ mechanisms could be implemented due to (1) their carbon stocks, and (2) their highest

  2. Demythologizing the Mexican American Father

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saracho, Olivia N.; Spodek, Bernard

    2008-01-01

    This review presents recent studies on Mexican American fathers in the United Sates to provide researchers with an understanding of contemporary fatherhood of Mexican American individuals. It describes the myths that create methodological and conceptual problems in conducting research studies to characterize Mexican American fathers. It also…

  3. The Wealth of Mexican Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb-Clark, Deborah A.; Hildebrand, Vincent A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzes the sources of disparities in the relative wealth position of Mexican Americans. Results reveal that--unlike the racial wealth gap--Mexican Americans' wealth disadvantage is in large part not the result of differences in wealth distributions conditional on the underlying determinants of wealth. Rather, Mexican Americans' wealth…

  4. The Prevalence of Hypertension in Older Mexicans and Mexican Americans

    PubMed Central

    Salinas, Jennifer J.; Eschbach, Karl A.; Markides, Kyriakos S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the prevalence of hypertension in older Mexicans in the United States and Mexico. Design Stratified by sex, logistic regression models to predict physician diagnosed hypertension were conducted using the Hispanic EPESE (wave 3) and the Mexican Health and Aging Study (MHAS- 70 years and older) datasets. Setting Five Southwestern States of Texas, Arizona, California, Colorado, and New Mexico in the United States. Participants Older Mexican and Mexican Americans ages 70 and over living in the United States and Mexico. Main Outcome Measures Physician diagnosed hypertension. Results Older Mexican and Mexican American women have a greater prevalence of hypertension than their male counterparts. Mexican women, who have migrated to the United States and returned to Mexico, have similarly high rates of hypertension as their female counterparts in the United States. After adjusting for demographic characteristics, obesity, and smoking, older Mexican and Mexican American women who have migrated or immigrated to the United States are at increased risk for hypertension. Conclusions Gender differences exist in hypertension risk for older Mexicans and Mexican Americans living in the United States and Mexico. Older women who migrate to the United States are at a particular risk for hypertension in both the United States and Mexico. PMID:18785442

  5. Tropical and subtropical humid forests

    Treesearch

    S.J. Hall

    2011-01-01

    Tropical humid forests of the United States are located below 1000 m in elevation and experience average year-round temperatures between 20 °C to 26 °C, receive more than 1500 mm of precipitation annually, and experience fewer than three dry months per year.

  6. Caribbean dry forest networking: an opportunity for conservation

    Treesearch

    K. Banda-Rodriguez; J. Weintritt; R.T. Pennington

    2016-01-01

    Seasonally dry tropical forest is the most threatened tropical forest in the world. Though its overall plant species diversity is lower than in neighboring biomes such as rain forest, species endemism can be high, and its conservation has often been neglected. Caribbean dry forests face diverse threats including tourism, agriculture, and climate change. The Latin...

  7. Response of Thalassia Testudinum Morphometry and Distribution to Environmental Drivers in a Pristine Tropical Lagoon.

    PubMed

    Medina-Gómez, Israel; Madden, Christopher J; Herrera-Silveira, Jorge; Kjerfve, Björn

    2016-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the relationships between the biomass, morphometry, and density of short shoots (SS) of the tropical seagrass Thalassia testudinum and the physical-environmental forcing in the region. Seasonal sampling surveys were undertaken four times in Bahia de la Ascension, a shallow estuary in the western Mexican Caribbean, to measure plant morphology and environmental variables. The estuary has a fresh water-influenced inner bay, a large central basin and a marine zone featuring a barrier reef at the seaward margin. Leaf size was positively correlated with increasing salinity, but total biomass was not, being similar across most of the sites. Aboveground biomass exhibited seasonal differences in dry and rainy seasons along the bay, most markedly in the brackish inner bay where an abrupt decline in biomass coincided with the rainy season. The relationship between nutrients and biomass indicates that the aboveground/belowground biomass ratio increases as nutrient availability increases. Areal cover was inversely correlated with SS density during both dry and rainy seasons. Maximum SS recruitment coincided with the rainy season. Peaks in SS density were recorded in the freshwater-influenced inner bay during an ENSO cold phase in 2007 ("La Niña") which is associated with a wetter dry season and following a strong storm (Hurricane Dean). The onset of the rainy season influences both shoot density and T. testudinum biomass by controlling the freshwater input to the bay and thus, the system's salinity gradient and external nutrients supply from the coastal wetland.

  8. What's Values Got to Do with It? Thriving among Mexican/Mexican American College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan Consoli, Melissa L.; Llamas, Jasmín; Consoli, Andrés J.

    2016-01-01

    The authors examined traditional Mexican/Mexican American and perceived U.S. mainstream cultural values as predictors of thriving. One hundred twenty-four (37 men, 87 women) self-identified Mexican/Mexican American college students participated in the study. The traditional Mexican/Mexican American cultural values of family support and religion…

  9. What's Values Got to Do with It? Thriving among Mexican/Mexican American College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan Consoli, Melissa L.; Llamas, Jasmín; Consoli, Andrés J.

    2016-01-01

    The authors examined traditional Mexican/Mexican American and perceived U.S. mainstream cultural values as predictors of thriving. One hundred twenty-four (37 men, 87 women) self-identified Mexican/Mexican American college students participated in the study. The traditional Mexican/Mexican American cultural values of family support and religion…

  10. Associations between soil variables and vegetation structure and composition of Caribbean dry forests

    Treesearch

    Elvia M. Melendez-Ackerman; Julissa Rojas-Sandoval; Danny S. Fernandez; Grizelle Gonzalez; Hana Lopez; Jose Sustache; Mariely Morales; Miguel Garcia-Bermudez; Susan Aragon

    2016-01-01

    Soil–vegetation associations have been understudied in tropical dry forests when compared to the amount of extant research on this issue in tropical wet forests. Recent studies assert that vegetation in tropical dry forests is highly heterogeneous and that soil variability may be a contributing factor. In this study, we evaluated the relationship between soil variables...

  11. The Mexican Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steiner, Stan

    For more than 400 years the ancestors of the Mexican American have contributed to the spiritual and material wealth of this land, yet recognition of their cultural and national rights has been slow to come. Like the American Indians, Chicanos can claim, "We did not come to America, America came to us". As a conquered people, they have…

  12. Notable Mexican American Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Judith

    This paper describes the careers of four notable Mexican American women, including their educational and family backgrounds, achievements, and importance as role models for young Hispanic women. Marie Acosta-Colon's political activism began as a college student volunteering for presidential candidate Eugene McCarthy in 1968. Active in political…

  13. Mexican Folkart for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dominguez, Graciela; And Others

    Directions, suggested materials, and illustrations are given for making paper mache pinatas and masks, cascarones, Ojos de Dios, maracas, dresser scarf embroidery, burlap murals, yarn designs, paper plate trays, paper cut designs, the poppy, sarape aprons, and paper Mexican dolls. Filled with candy and broken, the pinata is used on most Mexican…

  14. Mexican Folkart for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dominguez, Graciela; And Others

    Directions, suggested materials, and illustrations are given for making paper mache pinatas and masks, cascarones, Ojos de Dios, maracas, dresser scarf embroidery, burlap murals, yarn designs, paper plate trays, paper cut designs, the poppy, sarape aprons, and paper Mexican dolls. Filled with candy and broken, the pinata is used on most Mexican…

  15. Carbon, nitrogen cycling and land cover changes during regrowth in African dry tropical forests: integrating perspectives from field and satellite data across a chronosequence in the Miombo Woodlands of western Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayes, M. T.; Melillo, J. M.; Mustard, J. F.; Neill, C.; Nyadzi, G.

    2015-12-01

    Seasonally dry tropical forests in Africa (SDTFs), such as forests in Miombo Woodlands, are experiencing high rates of deforestation, degradation and regrowth. Increasing proportions of forest are disturbed or composed of young regrowth stands (<40 yr), yet the degree and dynamics of how forest structure, biogeochemical and hydrological cycling recover with regrowth are poorly understood. Here, we examine how forest structure, carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling change with regrowth following cultivation in forests of western Tanzania's Miombo. This work addresses 3 questions: (1) What are the timescales of aboveground tree C stock recovery and patterns of soil mineral N availability with regrowth; (2) How does N demand for tree leaf production compare to indicators of available mineral N in surface soils from young to mature forest sites; (3) How does canopy structure vary with regrowth and disturbance and scale to Landsat-style satellite data? We established a chronosequence of 18 sites with ages 3 to >40 years since abandonment. At each, we inventoried trees to quantify aboveground tree C stocks, sampled soils to 100 cm to measure C, total and mineral N (NH4+, NO3-), and surveyed canopy cover with point-line transects, spherical densiometer and photometric leaf area measures. We also conducted soil incubations to determine nitrogen mineralization potentials. Tree C stocks ranged from 0.4 ± 0.1 Mg C ha-1 for 3-4 year sites to 27.2 ± 5.2 Mg C ha-1 for 30-40 year sites, and were 44.5 ± 7.4 Mg C ha-1 for mature forest sites. Rates of aboveground tree C stock changes (0.78 - 0.89 Mg C ha-1 yr-1) were comparable to the few published for Miombo forests. However, tree C stocks at 10 - 24 year sites (5.2 ± 1.1 Mg C ha -1) were much lower than those reported in comparable studies. Only sites > 30-40 years had C stocks approaching mature forests. Further analyses will compare N dynamics from leaves and soil across the chronosequence, and relate them to the trends in

  16. Physiological, morphological and biochemical studies of glyphosate tolerance in Mexican Cologania (Cologania broussonetii (Balb.) DC.).

    PubMed

    Alcántara de la Cruz, Ricardo; Barro, Francisco; Domínguez-Valenzuela, José Alfredo; De Prado, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, glyphosate-tolerant legumes have been used as cover crops for weed management in tropical areas of Mexico. Mexican cologania (Cologania broussonetii (Balb.) DC.) is an innate glyphosate-tolerant legume with a potential as a cover crop in temperate areas of the country. In this work, glyphosate tolerance was characterized in two Mexican cologania (a treated (T) and an untreated (UT)) populations as being representatives of the species, compared in turn to a glyphosate-susceptible hairy fleabane (S) (Conyza bonariensis (L.) Cronq.) population. Experiments revealed that T and UT Mexican cologania populations had a higher tolerance index (TI), and a lower shikimic acid accumulation and foliar retention than the hairy fleabane S population. Absorption and translocation, leaf morphology and metabolism studies were only carried out in the Mexican cologania T population and the hairy fleabane S population. The latter absorbed 37% more (14)C-glyphosate compared to the Mexican cologania T at 96 h after treatment (HAT). Mexican cologania T translocated less herbicide from the treated leaf to the remainder of the plant than hairy fleabane S. The Mexican cologania T presented a greater epicuticular wax coverage percentage than the hairy fleabane S. This morphological characteristic contributed to the low glyphosate absorption observed in the Mexican cologania. In addition, the Mexican cologania T metabolized glyphosate mainly into AMPA, formaldehyde and sarcosine. These results indicate that the high glyphosate tolerance observed in Mexican cologania is mainly due to the poor penetration and translocation of glyphosate into the active site, and the high glyphosate degradation into non-toxic substances.

  17. Mexican rice borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) oviposition site selection stimuli on sugarcane, and potential field applications.

    PubMed

    Showler, Allan T; Castro, Boris A

    2010-08-01

    The Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), a key pest of sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) and rice, Oryza sativa L., in Texas, has not been controlled with chemical insecticides or biological agents, but some sugarcane varieties have shown degrees of resistance. Assessment of selected sugarcane leaf characteristics indicate that preference for oviposition sites is mostly determined by the presence of a leaf fold and secondarily by the availability of dry leaf tissue, both of which are antixenotic nonchemical stimuli. We suggest that breeding sugarcane lines bearing leaves that do not fold on drying could provide substantial antixenotic resistance against the Mexican rice borer. Previously identified antixenotic chemical stimuli, i.e., low quantities or absence of important nutrients in green leaf tissue, only become apparent when resistant and susceptible sugarcane varieties are compared. Varietal differences in oviposition preference, however, were not observed on excised dry leaf tissue, indicating that expression of resistance in terms of chemical stimuli requires detection of biochemicals in nearby living leaf tissue. Excised dry sugarcane leaves retain the two dominant nonchemical oviposition preference stimuli for Mexican rice borers, and the leaves effectively trapped eggs away from intact plants when dry leaves were used as "mulch" at the bottom of greenhouse cages. Under commercial sugarcane field conditions, bundled dry leaves also collected Mexican rice borer eggs. Possible applications of dry sugarcane leaf substrate for egg scouting and for trapping eggs are discussed.

  18. Dry Mouth

    MedlinePlus

    Dry mouth is the feeling that there is not enough saliva in your mouth. Everyone has a dry mouth once in a while - if they are nervous, ... under stress. But if you have a dry mouth all or most of the time, it can ...

  19. The prevalence of hypertension in older Mexicans and Mexican Americans.

    PubMed

    Salinas, Jennifer J; Eschbach, Karl A; Markides, Kyriakos S

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of hypertension in older Mexicans in the United States and Mexico. Stratified by sex, logistic regression models to predict physician-diagnosed hypertension were conducted by using the Hispanic Established Populations for Epidemiologic Study of the Elderly (wave 3) and the Mexican Health and Aging Study (age > or =70 years) datasets. Older Mexican and Mexican American women have a greater prevalence of hypertension than their male counterparts. Mexican women who have migrated to the United States and returned to Mexico have similarly high rates of hypertension as their female counterparts in the United States. After adjusting for demographic characteristics, diabetes, obesity, alcohol use, and smoking, older Mexican women who have migrated to the United States are at increased risk for hypertension. Conversely, immigrant older Mexican American men are at significantly lower odds of hypertension. Sex differences exist in hypertension risk for older Mexicans and Mexican Americans living in the United States and Mexico. Older women who migrate to the United States are at a particular risk for hypertension in Mexico.

  20. Mexican Migration: Assessing Root Causes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    66 Figure 4 is derived from John Scott, “Metas y Mecanismo ,” Centro de Investigacion y Docencia Economicas...John Scott, “Metas y Mecanismo ,” 4. 31 Another explanation for the increase in migration concerns neither the Mexican economy nor the Mexican...Dominant Regime,” 135. 82 John Scott, “Metas y Mecanismo ,” 5. 83 World Bank: Mexican Health Foundation, “Trends and Empirical Causes of Violent

  1. Effect of Robusta (Coffea canephora P.) coffee cherries quantity put out for sun drying on contamination by fungi and ochratoxin A (OTA) under tropical humid zone (Côte d'Ivoire).

    PubMed

    Kouadio, Irène Ahou; Koffi, Louis Ban; Nemlin, Jean Gnopo; Dosso, Mireille Bretin

    2012-06-01

    The effect of coffee cherries quantity put out for sun drying on the kinetics of the drying, chemical components variation, fungal growth and ochratoxin A production was evaluated. The results showed that the more coffee cherries quantity on the drying area was important, the slower they dried. Indeed, the drying durations were 12, 17, 21, 26, 31 and 32 days respectively for the lots of 10 kg, 20 kg, 30 kg, 40 kg, 50 kg and 60 kg of cherries by square meter of drying area. The slowness of the drying led to the increasing of fungal development and ochratoxin A production in the cherries. Indeed, samples more contaminated were those from the lots of 50 kg and 60 kg of cherries by square meter of drying area with between 10% and 100% of infected beans and with levels of ochratoxin A ranging from 0.92 to 118.47 and 1.4 to 131.33 μg kg(-1) respectively. The slowness of the drying led also to the acidification of the cherries (pH=5.55-4.54) and the degradation of their chlorogenic acids content (13.03-11.69) while for their caffeine content (2.52-2.54), any significant difference was observed whatever the drying duration.

  2. Video annotations of Mexican nature in a collaborative environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oropesa Morales, Lester Arturo; Montoya Obeso, Abraham; Hernández García, Rosaura; Cocolán Almeda, Sara Ivonne; García Vázquez, Mireya Saraí; Benois-Pineau, Jenny; Zamudio Fuentes, Luis Miguel; Martinez Nuño, Jesús A.; Ramírez Acosta, Alejandro Alvaro

    2015-09-01

    Multimedia content production and storage in repositories are now an increasingly widespread practice. Indexing concepts for search in multimedia libraries are very useful for users of the repositories. However the search tools of content-based retrieval and automatic video tagging, still do not have great consistency. Regardless of how these systems are implemented, it is of vital importance to possess lots of videos that have concepts tagged with ground truth (training and testing sets). This paper describes a novel methodology to make complex annotations on video resources through ELAN software. The concepts are annotated and related to Mexican nature in a High Level Features (HLF) from development set of TRECVID 2014 in a collaborative environment. Based on this set, each nature concept observed is tagged on each video shot using concepts of the TRECVid 2014 dataset. We also propose new concepts, -like tropical settings, urban scenes, actions, events, weather, places for name a few. We also propose specific concepts that best describe video content of Mexican culture. We have been careful to get the database tagged with concepts of nature and ground truth. It is evident that a collaborative environment is more suitable for annotation of concepts related to ground truth and nature. As a result a Mexican nature database was built. It also is the basis for testing and training sets to automatically classify new multimedia content of Mexican nature.

  3. Climate Adaptation of Tropical Cattle.

    PubMed

    Barendse, W

    2017-02-08

    There is sustained growth in the number of tropical cattle, which represent more than half of all cattle worldwide. By and large, most research in tropical areas is still focused on breeds of cattle, their particular advantages or disadvantages in tropical areas, and the tropical forages or feeds that could be usefully fed to them. A consistent issue for adaptation to climate is the heat of tropical environments. Changing the external characteristics of the animal, such as color and coat characteristics, is one way to adapt, and there are several major genes for these traits. However, further improvement in heat tolerance and other adaptation traits will need to use the entire genome and all physical and physiological systems. Apart from the response to heat, climate forcing through methane emission identifies dry season weight loss as an important if somewhat neglected trait in climate adaptation of cattle. The use of genome-estimated breeding values in tropical areas is in its infancy and will be difficult to implement, but will be essential for rapid, coordinated genetic improvement. The difficulty of implementation cannot be exaggerated and may require major improvements in methodology.

  4. [On Mexican medicinal plants].

    PubMed

    de Micheli, Alfredo; Izaguirre-Avila, Raúl

    2009-12-01

    During the XVIII century, two Spanish scientific expeditions arrived here led, respectively, by the naturalist Martín Sessé and by the Italian mariner Alessandro Malaspina di Mulazzo, dependent from the Spanish Government. The members collected a rich scientific material, which was carried to Madrid in 1820. At the end of XVIII century, the Franciscan friar Juan Navarro depicted and described several Mexican medicinal plants in the fifth volume of his "American Garden". In the last years of the Colonial period, fundamental works of Humboldt and Bonpland, on the geographic distribution of the American plants, were published. At the end of the XIX century, the first researches on the Mexican medicinal botany were performed at the laboratory of the "Instituto Médico Nacional" under the leadership of doctor Fernando Altamirano, starting pharmacological studies in our country. During the first half of the XX century, trials of cardiovascular pharmacology were performed in the small laboratories of the cardiological unit at the General Hospital of Mexico, due to doctor Ignacio Chávez, initiative. Mexican botanical-pharmacological tradition remains alive and vigorous in the modern scientific institutes of the country.

  5. Toward Quality Education for Mexican Americans. Mexican American Education Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Burciaga, Cecilia Preciado; And Others

    The 6th and final report of the Mexican American Education Study (MAES) focuses on specific educational problems of Mexican American children in the Southwest and recommends actions at various governmental and educational levels to alleviate these. Information was gathered from: (1) a 1969 survey and 1970-71 field study; (2) a literature review;…

  6. How Mexican Is a Spanish-Speaking Mexican American?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patella, Victoria M.

    To investigate the validity of language usage as an indicator of identification with the Mexican American subculture, this study hypothesized that greater use of Spanish than English would be correlated with characteristics consistent with the ideal, typical, Mexican American family in terms of family of orientation and aspirations for future…

  7. Converging Forces: Mexican Culture and Clinical Issues of Mexican Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinkelman, Jeanne M.

    Mexican women tend to have limited access to medical and mental health care resources. Some of the common clinical issues experienced by Mexican woman are psychological conflict, depression, anxiety, and psychosomatic symptoms. Appropriate treatment approaches for therapy varies depending on the nature of the presenting problem. If clinical issues…

  8. Evolution of tropical plumes in VAS water vapor imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcguirk, James P.; Ulsh, David J.

    1990-01-01

    Synoptic scale tropical plumes are analyzed using satellite data and outgoing longwave radiation data. The evolution of plumes is described and their precursor signals are examined. The horizontal moisture patterns of the plumes are compared with nonplume climatology, and the predictability of plumes based solely on satellite imagery is assessed. The results show that a plume evolves as a stationary, tropical, dry or moist dipole, separated by an exceptionally strong cloud or moisture gradient. Tropical plume evolution is accompanied by a systematic drying of the tropical eastern Pacific atmosphere before development, and moistening and increased cloudiness with development.

  9. Tropical Deforestation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raven, Peter H.

    1988-01-01

    Outlines the deforestation problem and some efforts for solving the problem. Considers the impact of population growth, poverty, and ignorance. Includes a discussion of the current rapid decline in tropical forests, the consequences of destruction, and an outlook for the future. (YP)

  10. Tropical Deforestation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raven, Peter H.

    1988-01-01

    Outlines the deforestation problem and some efforts for solving the problem. Considers the impact of population growth, poverty, and ignorance. Includes a discussion of the current rapid decline in tropical forests, the consequences of destruction, and an outlook for the future. (YP)

  11. Mexican Americans in Comparative Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connor, Walker, Ed.

    The outgrowth of a conference intended to broaden the base of objective information about the Mexican American community, this collection of 13 papers examines the effects of immigration by people of Mexican origin on the economic, educational, social, political, and linguistic systems of the United States. Walker Connor's introduction puts the…

  12. [Mexican migration policies after IRCA].

    PubMed

    Alba, F

    1999-01-01

    The evolution since 1964 of Mexican government policy regarding migrant workers in the US is discussed. For a decade after the "bracero" program was terminated by the US, the Mexican government attempted to encourage creation of another legal framework for migration, regarded as inevitable whether legal or clandestine. Around 1974-75, a more distant attitude, termed the "policy of no policy," acquired considerable support in Mexican government and academic circles. The no-policy strategy allowed Mexico to achieve certain objectives regarding migration without prompting US intervention in its internal affairs, as for example by a linkage of US migration policy to specific Mexican government actions. The 1986 passage of the US Immigration Reform and Control Act effectively ended the no-policy strategy that had allowed the Mexican government to count on the continued emigration of Mexican workers without compromising its position of promoting respect for migrant rights. The unilateral change in the status quo by the US led to substitution of the "policy of dialogue," a clear signal of the Mexican government's search for a new migration agreement. The policy of dialogue has entailed greater discussion of the two traditional Mexican objectives regarding migration. Some progress has apparently been made concerning migrant rights, but the second and less explicit objective, that of preventing abrupt changes in US immigration policy and in migratory flows, is harder to judge. The atmosphere of freer public debate in Mexico is politicizing migratory policy.

  13. On Being a Mexican American.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendoza, Joe I.

    1994-01-01

    A well-acculturated migrant education program director reminisces about his Mexican upbringing in the United States, noting the persistence of his cultural heritage and the scars left by acts of segregation, prejudice, and racism. It is important for Mexican Americans to recognize that they are a unique group at a crossroads. They are not all…

  14. On Being a Mexican American.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendoza, Joe I.

    1994-01-01

    A well-acculturated migrant education program director reminisces about his Mexican upbringing in the United States, noting the persistence of his cultural heritage and the scars left by acts of segregation, prejudice, and racism. It is important for Mexican Americans to recognize that they are a unique group at a crossroads. They are not all…

  15. The Chicanos; Mexican American Voices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludwig, Edward W., Ed.; Santibanez, James, Ed.

    Articles, fiction, and poetry that form a picture of Chicano life today are presented in this anthology of writings about Mexican Americans. Included are reminiscences of Mexican American childhood, accounts of Chicanos in the American school system, reports on strikes by Chicano workers, and poems and stories that reflect the hard realities of…

  16. The Chicanos; Mexican American Voices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludwig, Edward W., Ed.; Santibanez, James, Ed.

    Articles, fiction, and poetry that form a picture of Chicano life today are presented in this anthology of writings about Mexican Americans. Included are reminiscences of Mexican American childhood, accounts of Chicanos in the American school system, reports on strikes by Chicano workers, and poems and stories that reflect the hard realities of…

  17. Dry Mouth

    MedlinePlus

    ... protect your teeth may also help your dry mouth condition: Brush with a fluoride toothpaste and floss your teeth. Ask your dentist ... acids. Use a fluoride rinse or brush-on fluoride gel before ... historically to treat dry mouth, such as teas made from marshmallow or slippery ...

  18. Evaluation of a Heuristic Model for Tropical Cyclone Resilience

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-26

    1 Evaluation of a Heuristic Model for Tropical Cyclone Resilience Paul D. Reasor1 and Michael T. Montgomery2 1NOAA/AOML/Hurricane...2015 to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Evaluation of a Heuristic Model for Tropical Cyclone Resilience 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER...heuristic model for the 4 temporal evolution of the small-amplitude tilt of a tropical cyclone -like vortex under 5 vertical-shear forcing for both a dry and

  19. Immigration and Suicidal Behavior Among Mexicans and Mexican Americans

    PubMed Central

    Breslau, Joshua; Su, Maxwell; Miller, Matthew; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We examined migration to the United States as a risk factor for suicidal behavior among people of Mexican origin. Methods. We pooled data from 2 nationally representative surveys in the United States (2001–2003; n = 1284) and Mexico (2001–2002; n = 5782). We used discrete time survival models to account for time-varying and time-invariant characteristics, including psychiatric disorders. Results. Risk for suicidal ideation was higher among Mexicans with a family member in the United States (odds ratio [OR] = 1.50; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.06, 2.11), Mexican-born immigrants who arrived in the United States at 12 years or younger (OR = 1.84; 95% CI = 1.09, 3.09), and US-born Mexican Americans (OR = 1.56; 95% CI = 1.03, 2.38) than among Mexicans with neither a history of migration to the United States nor a family member currently living there. Risk for suicide attempts was also higher among Mexicans with a family member in the United States (OR = 1.68; 95% CI = 1.13, 2.52) and US-born Mexican Americans (OR = 1.97; 95% CI = 1.06, 3.65). Selection bias caused by differential migration or differential return migration of persons at higher risk of suicidal ideation or attempt did not account for these findings. Conclusions. Public health efforts should focus on the impact of Mexico–US migration on family members of migrants and on US-born Mexican Americans. PMID:19150909

  20. Experimental defoliation affects male but not female reproductive performance of the tropical monoecious plant Croton suberosus (Euphorbiaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Narbona, Eduardo; Dirzo, Rodolfo

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims Monoecious plants have the capacity to allocate resources separately to male and female functions more easily than hermaphrodites. This can be advantageous against environmental stresses such as leaf herbivory. However, studies showing effects of herbivory on male and female functions and on the interaction with the plant's pollinators are limited, particularly in tropical plants. Here, the effects of experimental defoliation were examined in the monoecious shrub Croton suberosus (Euphorbiaceae), a wasp-pollinated species from a Mexican tropical dry forest. Methods Three defoliation treatments were applied: 0 % (control), 25 % (low) or 75 % (high) of plant leaf area removed. Vegetative (production of new leaves) and reproductive (pistillate and staminate flower production, pollen viability, nectar production, fruit set, and seed set) performance variables, and the abundance and activity of floral visitors were examined. Key Results Defoliated plants overcompensated for tissue loss by producing more new leaves than control plants. Production of staminate flowers gradually decreased with increasing defoliation and the floral sex ratio (staminate : pistillate flowers) was drastically reduced in high-defoliation plants. In contrast, female reproductive performance (pistillate flower production, fruit set and seed set) and pollinator visitation and abundance were not impacted by defoliation. Conclusions The asymmetrical effects of defoliation on male and female traits of C. suberosus may be due to the temporal and spatial flexibility in the allocation of resources deployed by monoecious plants. We posit that this helps to maintain the plant's pollination success in the face of leaf herbivory stress. PMID:20519239

  1. century drying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Benjamin I.; Smerdon, Jason E.; Seager, Richard; Coats, Sloan

    2014-11-01

    Global warming is expected to increase the frequency and intensity of droughts in the twenty-first century, but the relative contributions from changes in moisture supply (precipitation) versus evaporative demand (potential evapotranspiration; PET) have not been comprehensively assessed. Using output from a suite of general circulation model (GCM) simulations from phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, projected twenty-first century drying and wetting trends are investigated using two offline indices of surface moisture balance: the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) and the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI). PDSI and SPEI projections using precipitation and Penman-Monteith based PET changes from the GCMs generally agree, showing robust cross-model drying in western North America, Central America, the Mediterranean, southern Africa, and the Amazon and robust wetting occurring in the Northern Hemisphere high latitudes and east Africa (PDSI only). The SPEI is more sensitive to PET changes than the PDSI, especially in arid regions such as the Sahara and Middle East. Regional drying and wetting patterns largely mirror the spatially heterogeneous response of precipitation in the models, although drying in the PDSI and SPEI calculations extends beyond the regions of reduced precipitation. This expansion of drying areas is attributed to globally widespread increases in PET, caused by increases in surface net radiation and the vapor pressure deficit. Increased PET not only intensifies drying in areas where precipitation is already reduced, it also drives areas into drought that would otherwise experience little drying or even wetting from precipitation trends alone. This PET amplification effect is largest in the Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes, and is especially pronounced in western North America, Europe, and south