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Sample records for mg ca zn

  1. The synthesis and characterization of Mg-Zn-Ca alloy by powder metallurgy process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Annur, Dhyah; Franciska P., L.; Erryani, Aprilia; Amal, M. Ikhlasul; Sitorus, Lyandra S.; Kartika, Ika

    2016-04-01

    Known for its biodegradation and biocompatible properties, magnesium alloys have gained many interests to be researched as implant material. In this study, Mg-3Zn-1Ca, Mg-29Zn-1Ca, and Mg-53Zn-4.3Ca (in wt%) were synthesized by means of powder metallurgy method. The compression strength and corrosion resistance of magnesium alloy were thoroughly examined. The microstructures of the alloy were characterized using optical microscopy, Scanning Electron Microscope, and also X-ray diffraction analysis. The corrosion resistance were evaluated using electrochemical analysis. The result indicated that Mg- Zn- Ca alloy could be synthesized using powder metallurgy method. This study showed that Mg-29Zn-1Ca would make the highest mechanical strength up to 159.81 MPa. Strengthening mechanism can be explained by precipitation hardening and grain refinement mechanism. Phase analysis had shown the formation of α Mg, MgO, and intermetallic phases: Mg2Zn11 and also Ca2Mg6Zn3. However, when the composition of Zn reach 53% weight, the mechanical strength will be decreasing. In addition, all of Mg-Zn-Ca alloy studied here had better corrosion resistance (Ecorr around -1.4 VSCE) than previous study of Mg. This study indicated that Mg- 29Zn- 1Ca alloy can be further analyzed to be a biodegradable implant material.

  2. High-Strength Low-Alloy (HSLA) Mg-Zn-Ca Alloys with Excellent Biodegradation Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofstetter, J.; Becker, M.; Martinelli, E.; Weinberg, A. M.; Mingler, B.; Kilian, H.; Pogatscher, S.; Uggowitzer, P. J.; Löffler, J. F.

    2014-04-01

    This article deals with the development of fine-grained high-strength low-alloy (HSLA) magnesium alloys intended for use as biodegradable implant material. The alloys contain solely low amounts of Zn and Ca as alloying elements. We illustrate the development path starting from the high-Zn-containing ZX50 (MgZn5Ca0.25) alloy with conventional purity, to an ultrahigh-purity ZX50 modification, and further to the ultrahigh-purity Zn-lean alloy ZX10 (MgZn1Ca0.3). It is shown that alloys with high Zn-content are prone to biocorrosion in various environments, most probably because of the presence of the intermetallic phase Mg6Zn3Ca2. A reduction of the Zn content results in (Mg,Zn)2Ca phase formation. This phase is less noble than the Mg-matrix and therefore, in contrast to Mg6Zn3Ca2, does not act as cathodic site. A fine-grained microstructure is achieved by the controlled formation of fine and homogeneously distributed (Mg,Zn)2Ca precipitates, which influence dynamic recrystallization and grain growth during hot forming. Such design scheme is comparable to that of HSLA steels, where low amounts of alloying elements are intended to produce a very fine dispersion of particles to increase the material's strength by refining the grain size. Consequently our new, ultrapure ZX10 alloy exhibits high strength (yield strength R p = 240 MPa, ultimate tensile strength R m = 255 MPa) and simultaneously high ductility (elongation to fracture A = 27%), as well as low mechanical anisotropy. Because of the anodic nature of the (Mg,Zn)2Ca particles used in the HSLA concept, the in vivo degradation in a rat femur implantation study is very slow and homogeneous without clinically observable hydrogen evolution, making the ZX10 alloy a promising material for biodegradable implants.

  3. Microstructures, mechanical properties and corrosion resistances of extruded Mg-Zn-Ca-xCe/La alloys.

    PubMed

    Tong, L B; Zhang, Q X; Jiang, Z H; Zhang, J B; Meng, J; Cheng, L R; Zhang, H J

    2016-09-01

    Magnesium alloys are considered as good candidates for biomedical applications, the influence of Ce/La microalloying on the microstructure, mechanical property and corrosion performance of extruded Mg-5.3Zn-0.6Ca (wt%) alloy has been investigated in the current study. After Ce/La addition, the conventional Ca2Mg6Zn3 phases are gradually replaced by new Mg-Zn-Ce/La-(Ca) phases (T1'), which can effectively divide the Ca2Mg6Zn3 phase. The Ca2Mg6Zn3/T1' structure in Mg-Zn-Ca-0.5Ce/La alloy is favorably broken into small particles during the extrusion, resulting in an obvious refinement of secondary phase. The dynamic recrystallized grain size is dramatically decreased after 0.5Ce/La addition, and the tensile yield strength is improved, while further addition reverses the effect, due to the grain coarsening. However, the corrosion resistance of extruded Mg-Zn-Ca alloy deteriorates after Ce/La addition, because the diameter of secondary phase particle is remarkably decreased, which increases the amount of cathodic sites and accelerates the galvanic corrosion process. PMID:27179307

  4. Microstructures, mechanical properties and corrosion resistances of extruded Mg-Zn-Ca-xCe/La alloys.

    PubMed

    Tong, L B; Zhang, Q X; Jiang, Z H; Zhang, J B; Meng, J; Cheng, L R; Zhang, H J

    2016-09-01

    Magnesium alloys are considered as good candidates for biomedical applications, the influence of Ce/La microalloying on the microstructure, mechanical property and corrosion performance of extruded Mg-5.3Zn-0.6Ca (wt%) alloy has been investigated in the current study. After Ce/La addition, the conventional Ca2Mg6Zn3 phases are gradually replaced by new Mg-Zn-Ce/La-(Ca) phases (T1'), which can effectively divide the Ca2Mg6Zn3 phase. The Ca2Mg6Zn3/T1' structure in Mg-Zn-Ca-0.5Ce/La alloy is favorably broken into small particles during the extrusion, resulting in an obvious refinement of secondary phase. The dynamic recrystallized grain size is dramatically decreased after 0.5Ce/La addition, and the tensile yield strength is improved, while further addition reverses the effect, due to the grain coarsening. However, the corrosion resistance of extruded Mg-Zn-Ca alloy deteriorates after Ce/La addition, because the diameter of secondary phase particle is remarkably decreased, which increases the amount of cathodic sites and accelerates the galvanic corrosion process.

  5. Degradation behavior of Ca-Mg-Zn intermetallic compounds for use as biodegradable implant materials.

    PubMed

    Hagihara, Koji; Shakudo, Shuhei; Fujii, Kenta; Nakano, Takayoshi

    2014-11-01

    With the goal of developing new biodegradable implant materials, we have investigated the degradation behavior of (Ca, Mg)-based intermetallic compounds. The degradation behavior of the compounds within the Ca-Mg-Zn system was roughly classified into four groups, and their behaviors were strongly influenced by the compositions of the compounds. For example, the Ca3MgxZn(15-x) compound exhibited a large solubility region with varying the Mg/Zn ratio, and the Ca3Mg12Zn3 phase alloy with the lowest Zn content was rapidly broken apart within 6h of immersion. Alternatively, the Ca3Mg4.6Zn10.4 phase alloy with the highest Zn content retained the bulk shape even after 250 h of immersion. These varying degradation behaviors were ascribed to the difference in the formability of Zn oxide as a protective layer against corrosion on the specimen surfaces, depending on the Zn content. The gained results suggest that there is a feasibility on developing new biodegradable materials based on intermetallic compounds in which the degradation rate can be controlled by their compositions.

  6. Development of biodegradable Zn-1X binary alloys with nutrient alloying elements Mg, Ca and Sr.

    PubMed

    Li, H F; Xie, X H; Zheng, Y F; Cong, Y; Zhou, F Y; Qiu, K J; Wang, X; Chen, S H; Huang, L; Tian, L; Qin, L

    2015-01-01

    Biodegradable metals have attracted considerable attentions in recent years. Besides the early launched biodegradable Mg and Fe metals, Zn, an essential element with osteogenic potential of human body, is regarded and studied as a new kind of potential biodegradable metal quite recently. Unfortunately, pure Zn is soft, brittle and has low mechanical strength in the practice, which needs further improvement in order to meet the clinical requirements. On the other hand, the widely used industrial Zn-based alloys usually contain biotoxic elements (for instance, ZA series contain toxic Al elements up to 40 wt.%), which subsequently bring up biosafety concerns. In the present work, novel Zn-1X binary alloys, with the addition of nutrition elements Mg, Ca and Sr were designed (cast, rolled and extruded Zn-1Mg, Zn-1Ca and Zn-1Sr). Their microstructure and mechanical property, degradation and in vitro and in vivo biocompatibility were studied systematically. The results demonstrated that the Zn-1X (Mg, Ca and Sr) alloys have profoundly modified the mechanical properties and biocompatibility of pure Zn. Zn-1X (Mg, Ca and Sr) alloys showed great potential for use in a new generation of biodegradable implants, opening up a new avenue in the area of biodegradable metals. PMID:26023878

  7. Development of biodegradable Zn-1X binary alloys with nutrient alloying elements Mg, Ca and Sr

    PubMed Central

    Li, H. F.; Xie, X. H.; Zheng, Y. F.; Cong, Y.; Zhou, F. Y.; Qiu, K. J.; Wang, X.; Chen, S. H.; Huang, L.; Tian, L.; Qin, L.

    2015-01-01

    Biodegradable metals have attracted considerable attentions in recent years. Besides the early launched biodegradable Mg and Fe metals, Zn, an essential element with osteogenic potential of human body, is regarded and studied as a new kind of potential biodegradable metal quite recently. Unfortunately, pure Zn is soft, brittle and has low mechanical strength in the practice, which needs further improvement in order to meet the clinical requirements. On the other hand, the widely used industrial Zn-based alloys usually contain biotoxic elements (for instance, ZA series contain toxic Al elements up to 40 wt.%), which subsequently bring up biosafety concerns. In the present work, novel Zn-1X binary alloys, with the addition of nutrition elements Mg, Ca and Sr were designed (cast, rolled and extruded Zn-1Mg, Zn-1Ca and Zn-1Sr). Their microstructure and mechanical property, degradation and in vitro and in vivo biocompatibility were studied systematically. The results demonstrated that the Zn-1X (Mg, Ca and Sr) alloys have profoundly modified the mechanical properties and biocompatibility of pure Zn. Zn-1X (Mg, Ca and Sr) alloys showed great potential for use in a new generation of biodegradable implants, opening up a new avenue in the area of biodegradable metals. PMID:26023878

  8. Development of biodegradable Zn-1X binary alloys with nutrient alloying elements Mg, Ca and Sr.

    PubMed

    Li, H F; Xie, X H; Zheng, Y F; Cong, Y; Zhou, F Y; Qiu, K J; Wang, X; Chen, S H; Huang, L; Tian, L; Qin, L

    2015-05-29

    Biodegradable metals have attracted considerable attentions in recent years. Besides the early launched biodegradable Mg and Fe metals, Zn, an essential element with osteogenic potential of human body, is regarded and studied as a new kind of potential biodegradable metal quite recently. Unfortunately, pure Zn is soft, brittle and has low mechanical strength in the practice, which needs further improvement in order to meet the clinical requirements. On the other hand, the widely used industrial Zn-based alloys usually contain biotoxic elements (for instance, ZA series contain toxic Al elements up to 40 wt.%), which subsequently bring up biosafety concerns. In the present work, novel Zn-1X binary alloys, with the addition of nutrition elements Mg, Ca and Sr were designed (cast, rolled and extruded Zn-1Mg, Zn-1Ca and Zn-1Sr). Their microstructure and mechanical property, degradation and in vitro and in vivo biocompatibility were studied systematically. The results demonstrated that the Zn-1X (Mg, Ca and Sr) alloys have profoundly modified the mechanical properties and biocompatibility of pure Zn. Zn-1X (Mg, Ca and Sr) alloys showed great potential for use in a new generation of biodegradable implants, opening up a new avenue in the area of biodegradable metals.

  9. Investigation on microstructure characterization and property of rapidly solidified Mg-Zn-Ca-Ce-La alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou Tao; Chen Zhenhua; Yang Mingbo; Hu Jianjun; Xia Hua

    2012-01-15

    Rapidly solidified (RS) Mg-Zn-Ca-Ce-La (wt.%) alloys have been produced via atomizing the alloy melt and subsequent splat-quenching on the water-cooled copper twin-rollers in the form of flakes. Microstructure characterization, phase compositions and thermal stability of the alloys have been systematically investigated. The results showed that with addition of RE (Ce and La) to the Mg-6Zn-5Ca alloy, the stable intermetallic compounds i.e. the Mg{sub x}Zn{sub y}RE{sub z} phase with a few Ca (about 3 at.%), shortened as the T Prime phase, were formed at the expense of the binary Mg-Zn and Ca{sub 2}Mg{sub 6}Zn{sub 3} phases, which was possibly beneficial to the enhanced thermal stability of the alloy. In the Mg-6Zn-5Ca-3Ce-0.5La alloy, the composition of the T Prime phase in the grain interior was different from that at the grain boundaries, in which the segregation of the La elements was found, and the atomic percentage ratio of Zn to Ce in the T Prime phase within the grains was close to 2. Moreover, the stable Mg{sub 2}Ca phases were detected around the T Prime phases at the grain boundaries in the alloy. - Research Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The phase constitution of RS Mg-6Zn-5Ca alloy can be improved by RE additions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In the Mg-Zn-Ca-Ce-La alloys, the Mg{sub x}Zn{sub y}RE{sub z} phase with a few Ca (T Prime phase) is formed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The formation of the T Prime phase leads to the loss of the Mg-Zn and Ca{sub 2}Mg{sub 6}Zn{sub 3} phases. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The composition of the T Prime phase differs from the grain interior to the grain boundary.

  10. Damping Capacities of Mg-4 Pct Zn-(0-0.5) Pct Ca Biomedical Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jun, Joong-Hwan; Hwang, In-Je

    2016-07-01

    This study is intended to investigate the damping capacities of cast Mg-4 pct Zn-(0-0.5) pct Ca biomedical alloys. The Mg-4 pct Zn-(0-0.5) pct Ca alloys had similar damping levels regardless of Ca content in the strain-amplitude-independent region, but showed a decreasing tendency with an increase in Ca content in the strain-amplitude-dependent region. Almost identical concentration of solutes in the α-(Mg) matrix and the increased number density of the precipitate particles are responsible for the damping behaviors in the strain-amplitude-independent and strain-amplitude-dependent regions, respectively.

  11. Damping Capacities of Mg-4 Pct Zn-(0-0.5) Pct Ca Biomedical Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jun, Joong-Hwan; Hwang, In-Je

    2016-10-01

    This study is intended to investigate the damping capacities of cast Mg-4 pct Zn-(0-0.5) pct Ca biomedical alloys. The Mg-4 pct Zn-(0-0.5) pct Ca alloys had similar damping levels regardless of Ca content in the strain-amplitude-independent region, but showed a decreasing tendency with an increase in Ca content in the strain-amplitude-dependent region. Almost identical concentration of solutes in the α-(Mg) matrix and the increased number density of the precipitate particles are responsible for the damping behaviors in the strain-amplitude-independent and strain-amplitude-dependent regions, respectively.

  12. In vitro degradation and electrochemical corrosion evaluations of microarc oxidized pure Mg, Mg-Ca and Mg-Ca-Zn alloys for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yaokun; He, Siyu; Wang, Diangang; Huang, Danlan; Zheng, Tingting; Wang, Siqi; Dong, Pan; Chen, Chuanzhong

    2015-02-01

    Calcium phosphate (CaP) ceramic coatings were fabricated on pure magnesium (Mg) and self-designed Mg-0.6Ca, Mg-0.55Ca-1.74Zn alloys by microarc oxidation (MAO). The coating formation, growth and biomineralization mechanisms were discussed. The coating degradability and bioactivity were evaluated by immersion tests in trishydroxymethyl-aminomethane hydrochloric acid (Tris-HCl) buffer and simulated body fluid (SBF) solutions, respectively. The coatings and corrosion products were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffractometer (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectrometer (XPS) and fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR). The electrochemical workstation was used to investigate the electrochemical corrosion behaviors of substrates and coatings. Results showed that Mg-0.55Ca-1.74Zn alloy exhibits the highest mechanical strength and electrochemical corrosion resistance among the three alloys. The MAO-coated Mg-0.55Ca-1.74Zn alloy has the potential to be served as a biodegradable implant.

  13. Addition of Zn to the ternary Mg-Ca-Sr alloys significantly improves their antibacterial property

    PubMed Central

    He, Guanping; Wu, Yuanhao; Zhang, Yu; Zhu, Ye; Liu, Yang; Li, Nan; Li, Mei; Zheng, Guan; He, Baohua; Yin, Qingshui; Zheng, Yufeng; Mao, Chuanbin

    2015-01-01

    Most of the magnesium (Mg) alloys possess excellent biocompatibility, mechanical property and biodegradability in orthopedic applications. However, these alloys may suffer from bacterial infections due to their insufficient antibacterial capability. In order to reduce the post-surgical infections, a series of biocompatible Mg–1Ca-0.5Sr-xZn (x=0, 2, 4, 6) alloys were fabricated with the addition of antibacterial Zn with variable content and evaluated in terms of their biocompatibility and antibacterial property. The in vitro corrosion study showed that Mg-1Ca-0.5Sr-6Zn alloys exhibited a higher hydrogen evolution volume after 100 h immersion and resulted in a higher pH value of the immersion solution. Our work indicated that Zn-containing Mg alloys exhibited good biocompatibility with high cell viability. The antibacterial studies reveal that the number of bacteria adhered on all of these Mg alloy samples diminished remarkably compared to the Ti-6Al-4V control group. We also found that the proliferation of the bacteria was inhibited by these Mg alloys extracts. Among the prepared alloys, Mg-1Ca-0.5Sr-6Zn alloy not only exhibited a strong antibacterial effect, but also promoted the proliferation of MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts, suggesting that it is a promising alloy with both good antibacterial property and good biocompatibility for use as an orthopedic implant. PMID:26693010

  14. The Influence of Zn Content on the Corrosion and Wear Performance of Mg-Zn-Ca Alloy in Simulated Body Fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hua; Liu, Debao; Zhao, Yue; Jin, Feng; Chen, Minfang

    2016-07-01

    Mg-Zn-Ca alloy has been attracting increasing attention as a potential biodegradable implant material. In this paper, Mg-3Zn-0.2Ca and Mg-4Zn-0.2Ca alloys were prepared by means of vacuum melting and subsequent hot extrusion process. The influences of Zn content on the microstructure, mechanical properties, and corrosion and wear behavior of Mg-Zn-Ca alloys in simulated body fluid (SBF) were studied. The results show that with increased Zn content, the grain size and corrosion resistance were decreased, while the mechanical strength and wear resistance were increased, under both dry sliding and SBF-lubricated conditions. For the same Mg-Zn-Ca alloy, the wear loss rate under SBF lubrication was higher than dry sliding condition, indicating a strong corrosion-assisted wear effect of SBF to the Mg-Zn-Ca alloy.

  15. The Influence of Zn Content on the Corrosion and Wear Performance of Mg-Zn-Ca Alloy in Simulated Body Fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hua; Liu, Debao; Zhao, Yue; Jin, Feng; Chen, Minfang

    2016-09-01

    Mg-Zn-Ca alloy has been attracting increasing attention as a potential biodegradable implant material. In this paper, Mg-3Zn-0.2Ca and Mg-4Zn-0.2Ca alloys were prepared by means of vacuum melting and subsequent hot extrusion process. The influences of Zn content on the microstructure, mechanical properties, and corrosion and wear behavior of Mg-Zn-Ca alloys in simulated body fluid (SBF) were studied. The results show that with increased Zn content, the grain size and corrosion resistance were decreased, while the mechanical strength and wear resistance were increased, under both dry sliding and SBF-lubricated conditions. For the same Mg-Zn-Ca alloy, the wear loss rate under SBF lubrication was higher than dry sliding condition, indicating a strong corrosion-assisted wear effect of SBF to the Mg-Zn-Ca alloy.

  16. Cytotoxicity assessment of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells on synthesized biodegradable Mg-Zn-Ca alloys.

    PubMed

    Fazel Anvari-Yazdi, Abbas; Tahermanesh, Kobra; Hadavi, Seyed Mohammad Mehdi; Talaei-Khozani, Tahereh; Razmkhah, Mahboobeh; Abed, Seyedeh Mehr; Mohtasebi, Maryam Sadat

    2016-12-01

    Magnesium (Mg)-based alloys have been extensively considered as biodegradable implant materials for orthopedic surgery. Mg and its alloys are metallic biomaterials that can degrade in the body and promote new bone formation. In this study, the corrosion behavior and cytotoxicity of Mg-Zn-Ca alloys are evaluated with adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs). Mg-2Zn and Mg-2Zn-xCa (x=1, 2 and 3wt.%) alloys were designated. Mg alloys were analyzed with scanning electron microscopy and potentiodynamic polarization. To understand the in-vitro biocompatibility and cytotoxicity of Mg-2Zn and Mg-2Zn-xCa alloys, ASCs were cultured for 24 and 72h in contact with 10%, 50% and 100% extraction of all alloys prepared in DMEM. Cell cytotoxicity and viability of ASCs were examined by MTT assay. Alloying elements including Zn and Ca improved the corrosion resistance of alloys were compared with pure Mg. The cytotoxicity results showed that all alloys had no significant adverse effects on cell viability in 24h. After 72h, cell viability and proliferation increased in the cells exposed to pure Mg and Mg-2Zn-1Ca extracts. The release of Mg, Zn and Ca ions in culture media had no toxic impacts on ASCs viability and proliferation. Mg-2Zn-1Ca alloy can be suggested as a good candidate to be used in biomedical applications.

  17. Cytotoxicity assessment of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells on synthesized biodegradable Mg-Zn-Ca alloys.

    PubMed

    Fazel Anvari-Yazdi, Abbas; Tahermanesh, Kobra; Hadavi, Seyed Mohammad Mehdi; Talaei-Khozani, Tahereh; Razmkhah, Mahboobeh; Abed, Seyedeh Mehr; Mohtasebi, Maryam Sadat

    2016-12-01

    Magnesium (Mg)-based alloys have been extensively considered as biodegradable implant materials for orthopedic surgery. Mg and its alloys are metallic biomaterials that can degrade in the body and promote new bone formation. In this study, the corrosion behavior and cytotoxicity of Mg-Zn-Ca alloys are evaluated with adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs). Mg-2Zn and Mg-2Zn-xCa (x=1, 2 and 3wt.%) alloys were designated. Mg alloys were analyzed with scanning electron microscopy and potentiodynamic polarization. To understand the in-vitro biocompatibility and cytotoxicity of Mg-2Zn and Mg-2Zn-xCa alloys, ASCs were cultured for 24 and 72h in contact with 10%, 50% and 100% extraction of all alloys prepared in DMEM. Cell cytotoxicity and viability of ASCs were examined by MTT assay. Alloying elements including Zn and Ca improved the corrosion resistance of alloys were compared with pure Mg. The cytotoxicity results showed that all alloys had no significant adverse effects on cell viability in 24h. After 72h, cell viability and proliferation increased in the cells exposed to pure Mg and Mg-2Zn-1Ca extracts. The release of Mg, Zn and Ca ions in culture media had no toxic impacts on ASCs viability and proliferation. Mg-2Zn-1Ca alloy can be suggested as a good candidate to be used in biomedical applications. PMID:27612751

  18. Unique antitumor property of the Mg-Ca-Sr alloys with addition of Zn

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yuanhao; He, Guanping; Zhang, Yu; Liu, Yang; Li, Mei; Wang, Xiaolan; Li, Nan; Li, Kang; Zheng, Guan; Zheng, Yufeng; Yin, Qingshui

    2016-01-01

    In clinical practice, tumor recurrence and metastasis after orthopedic prosthesis implantation is an intensely troublesome matter. Therefore, to develop implant materials with antitumor property is extremely necessary and meaningful. Magnesium (Mg) alloys possess superb biocompatibility, mechanical property and biodegradability in orthopedic applications. However, whether they possess antitumor property had seldom been reported. In recent years, it showed that zinc (Zn) not only promote the osteogenic activity but also exhibit good antitumor property. In our present study, Zn was selected as an alloying element for the Mg-1Ca-0.5Sr alloy to develop a multifunctional material with antitumor property. We investigated the influence of the Mg-1Ca-0.5Sr-xZn (x = 0, 2, 4, 6 wt%) alloys extracts on the proliferation rate, cell apoptosis, migration and invasion of the U2OS cell line. Our results show that Zn containing Mg alloys extracts inhibit the cell proliferation by alteration the cell cycle and inducing cell apoptosis via the activation of the mitochondria pathway. The cell migration and invasion property were also suppressed by the activation of MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) pathway. Our work suggests that the Mg-1Ca-0.5Sr-6Zn alloy is expected to be a promising orthopedic implant in osteosarcoma limb-salvage surgery for avoiding tumor recurrence and metastasis. PMID:26907515

  19. Unique antitumor property of the Mg-Ca-Sr alloys with addition of Zn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yuanhao; He, Guanping; Zhang, Yu; Liu, Yang; Li, Mei; Wang, Xiaolan; Li, Nan; Li, Kang; Zheng, Guan; Zheng, Yufeng; Yin, Qingshui

    2016-02-01

    In clinical practice, tumor recurrence and metastasis after orthopedic prosthesis implantation is an intensely troublesome matter. Therefore, to develop implant materials with antitumor property is extremely necessary and meaningful. Magnesium (Mg) alloys possess superb biocompatibility, mechanical property and biodegradability in orthopedic applications. However, whether they possess antitumor property had seldom been reported. In recent years, it showed that zinc (Zn) not only promote the osteogenic activity but also exhibit good antitumor property. In our present study, Zn was selected as an alloying element for the Mg-1Ca-0.5Sr alloy to develop a multifunctional material with antitumor property. We investigated the influence of the Mg-1Ca-0.5Sr-xZn (x = 0, 2, 4, 6 wt%) alloys extracts on the proliferation rate, cell apoptosis, migration and invasion of the U2OS cell line. Our results show that Zn containing Mg alloys extracts inhibit the cell proliferation by alteration the cell cycle and inducing cell apoptosis via the activation of the mitochondria pathway. The cell migration and invasion property were also suppressed by the activation of MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) pathway. Our work suggests that the Mg-1Ca-0.5Sr-6Zn alloy is expected to be a promising orthopedic implant in osteosarcoma limb-salvage surgery for avoiding tumor recurrence and metastasis.

  20. Exploring Mg-Zn-Ca-Based Bulk Metallic Glasses for Biomedical Applications Based on Thermodynamic Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramya, M.; Sarwat, Syed Ghazi; Udhayabanu, V.; Raj, Baldev; Ravi, K. R.

    2015-12-01

    Magnesium (Mg)-based metallic glasses are considered as possible candidates in orthopedic implant applications. This paper aims to theoretically predict the glass-forming ability (GFA) in Mg-Zn-Ca alloy using a newly proposed thermodynamic model ( P HHS), and the consistency of this model is verified through experimental analysis. P HHS is based on thermodynamic parameters such as enthalpy of chemical mixing, elastic enthalpy, and configurational entropy, thus incorporating the pivotal effects, i.e., electron transfer effects, effect of atomic size mismatch, and effect of randomness, which aid to high GFA. In essence, P HHS can be visualized as the energy barrier that exists between the transformations of random atomic structure of glass to ordered crystalline structure. When the P HHS value is more negative, the energy barrier will be high, supporting easy glass formation. Various Mg-Zn-Ca metallic glass compositions displayed almost an expected and supporting trend, where the critical diameter of the metallic glass rod increased with a more negative P HHS value. Among the predicted Mg-Zn-Ca systems, the Mg60Zn35Ca5 composition shows deviation from the expected trend. This discrepancy has been clearly elucidated using a eutectic phase diagram. In addition to the consistency of the P HHS parameter to verifying the GFA of various compositions, the unique ability of this model is to predict unexplored Mg-Zn-Ca glass-forming compositions using contour development. Thus, proving P HHS parameter to be used as an efficient tool in predicting new glass-forming compositions.

  1. On the biodegradability, mechanical behavior, and cytocompatibility of amorphous Mg72 Zn23 Ca5 and crystalline Mg70 Zn23 Ca5 Pd2 alloys as temporary implant materials.

    PubMed

    Pellicer, E; González, S; Blanquer, A; Suriñach, S; Baró, M D; Barrios, L; Ibáñez, E; Nogués, C; Sort, J

    2013-02-01

    The evolution of microstructure and mechanical properties of almost fully amorphous Mg(72) Zn(23) Ca(5) and crystalline Mg(70) Zn(23) Ca(5) Pd(2) alloys during immersion in Hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS), as well as their cytocompatibility, are investigated in order to assess the feasibility of both materials as biodegradable implants. Though the crystalline Mg(70) Zn(23) Ca(5) Pd(2) sample shows lower wettability and more positive corrosion potential, this sample degrades much faster upon incubation in HBSS as a consequence of the formation of micro-galvanic couples between the nobler Pd-rich dendrites and the surrounding phases. After 22-h immersion, the concentration of Mg ions in the HBSS medium containing the Mg(70) Zn(23) Ca(5) Pd(2) sample is six times larger than for Mg(72) Zn(23) Ca(5) . Due to the Zn enrichment and the incipient porosity, the mechanical properties of the Mg(72) Zn(23) Ca(5) sample improve within the first stages of biodegradation (i.e., hardness increases while the Young's modulus decreases, thus rendering an enhanced wear resistance). Cytocompatibility studies reveal that neither Mg(72) Zn(23) Ca(5) nor Mg(70) Zn(23) Ca(5) Pd(2) are cytotoxic, although preosteoblast cell adhesion is to some extent precluded, particularly onto the surface of Mg(70) Zn(23) Ca(5) Pd(2) , because of the relatively high hydrophobicity. Because of their outstanding properties and their time-evolution, the use of the Pd-free alloy in temporary implants such as screws, stents, and sutures is envisioned.

  2. Influence of Cu content on the mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of Mg-Zn-Ca bulk metallic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yan-feng; Zhu, Jian; Chang, Li; Song, Jing-guo; Chen, Xiao-hua; Hui, Xi-dong

    2014-05-01

    (Mg66.2Zn28.8Ca5)100- x Cu x (at%, x = 0, 1, 3, and 5) bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) of 2 mm in diameter were prepared by the conventional copper mold injection casting method. Besides, the influence of Cu content on the microstructure, thermal stability, mechanical properties, and corrosion behavior of Mg-Zn-Ca BMGs was investigated. It is found that the addition of Cu decreases the glass-forming ability of Mg-Zn-Ca BMGs. Crystalline phases are precipitated at a higher Cu content, larger than 3at%. The compressive fracture strength of Mg-Zn-Ca BMGs is enhanced by the addition of Cu. With the formation of in-situ composites, the compressive strength of the Mg-Zn-Ca alloy with 3at% Cu reaches 979 MPa, which is the highest strength among the Mg-Zn-Ca alloys. Furthermore, the addition of Cu also results in the increase of corrosion potential and the decrease of corrosion current density in Mg-Zn-Ca BMGs, thereby delaying their biodegradability.

  3. Antioxidant response and carboxylate metabolism in Brassica rapa exposed to different external Zn, Ca, and Mg supply.

    PubMed

    Blasco, Begoña; Graham, Neil S; Broadley, Martin R

    2015-03-15

    Zinc (Zn), calcium (Ca), and magnesium (Mg) malnutrition are common deficiencies in many developed and developing countries, resulting in a widespread health problem. Biofortification of food crops is an agricultural strategy that can be used to increase the levels of these elements in the edible portions of crops. Deficiency or toxicity of these cations in soils reduces plant growth, crop yield, and the quality of plant foodstuff. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of external Zn, Ca, and Mg supply on accumulation and distribution of this elements as well as antioxidant response and organic acid composition of Brassica rapa ssp. trilocularis line R-o-18. Plants were grown at low Zn (0.05 μM Zn) and high Zn (500 μM Zn), low Ca (0.4 mM) and high Ca (40 mM), and low Mg (0.2 mM), and high Mg (20 mM) to simulate deficiency and toxicity conditions. Larger shoot biomass reductions were observed under high Zn, Ca and Mg treatments, and superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), H2O2, malondialdehyde (MDA), and total ascorbate (AA) showed a marked increase in these treatments. Therefore, Brassica plants might be more sensitive to excess of these elements in the nutrient solution. The translocation factor (TF) and distribution coefficient (DC) values of Zn, Ca, and Mg indicated higher translocation and accumulation in deficient conditions. High biosynthesis and citrate content in Brassica plants may be associated mainly with a high-nutrient solution extraction ability of these plants. These results provide background data, which will be used to characterize TILLING mutants to study the effects of mutations in genes involved in regulating Zn, Ca, and Mg distribution and accumulation in plants. PMID:25544655

  4. Antioxidant response and carboxylate metabolism in Brassica rapa exposed to different external Zn, Ca, and Mg supply.

    PubMed

    Blasco, Begoña; Graham, Neil S; Broadley, Martin R

    2015-03-15

    Zinc (Zn), calcium (Ca), and magnesium (Mg) malnutrition are common deficiencies in many developed and developing countries, resulting in a widespread health problem. Biofortification of food crops is an agricultural strategy that can be used to increase the levels of these elements in the edible portions of crops. Deficiency or toxicity of these cations in soils reduces plant growth, crop yield, and the quality of plant foodstuff. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of external Zn, Ca, and Mg supply on accumulation and distribution of this elements as well as antioxidant response and organic acid composition of Brassica rapa ssp. trilocularis line R-o-18. Plants were grown at low Zn (0.05 μM Zn) and high Zn (500 μM Zn), low Ca (0.4 mM) and high Ca (40 mM), and low Mg (0.2 mM), and high Mg (20 mM) to simulate deficiency and toxicity conditions. Larger shoot biomass reductions were observed under high Zn, Ca and Mg treatments, and superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), H2O2, malondialdehyde (MDA), and total ascorbate (AA) showed a marked increase in these treatments. Therefore, Brassica plants might be more sensitive to excess of these elements in the nutrient solution. The translocation factor (TF) and distribution coefficient (DC) values of Zn, Ca, and Mg indicated higher translocation and accumulation in deficient conditions. High biosynthesis and citrate content in Brassica plants may be associated mainly with a high-nutrient solution extraction ability of these plants. These results provide background data, which will be used to characterize TILLING mutants to study the effects of mutations in genes involved in regulating Zn, Ca, and Mg distribution and accumulation in plants.

  5. Understanding corrosion behavior of Mg-Zn-Ca alloys from subcutaneous mouse model: effect of Zn element concentration and plasma electrolytic oxidation.

    PubMed

    Jang, Yongseok; Tan, Zongqing; Jurey, Chris; Xu, Zhigang; Dong, Zhongyun; Collins, Boyce; Yun, Yeoheung; Sankar, Jagannathan

    2015-03-01

    Mg-Zn-Ca alloys are considered as suitable biodegradable metallic implants because of their biocompatibility and proper physical properties. In this study, we investigated the effect of Zn concentration of Mg-xZn-0.3Ca (x=1, 3 and 5wt.%) alloys and surface modification by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) on corrosion behavior in in vivo environment in terms of microstructure, corrosion rate, types of corrosion, and corrosion product formation. Microstructure analysis of alloys and morphological characterization of corrosion products were conducted using x-ray computed tomography (micro-CT) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Elemental composition and crystal structure of corrosion products were determined using x-ray diffraction (XRD) and electron dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The results show that 1) as-cast Mg-xZn-0.3Ca alloys are composed of Mg matrix and a secondary phase of Ca2Mg6Zn3 formed along grain boundaries, 2) the corrosion rate of Mg-xZn-0.3Ca alloys increases with increasing concentration of Zn in the alloy, 3) corrosion rates of alloys treated by PEO sample are decreased in in vivo environment, and 4) the corrosion products of these alloys after in vivo tests are identified as brucite (Mg(OH)2), hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2), and magnesite (MgCO3·3H2O).

  6. Microstructure, mechanical and bio-corrosion properties of Mn-doped Mg-Zn-Ca bulk metallic glass composites.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingfeng; Huang, Song; Li, Yang; Wei, Yiyun; Xi, Xingfeng; Cai, Kaiyong

    2013-10-01

    The effects of Mn substitution for Mg on the microstructure, mechanical properties, and corrosion behavior of Mg69-xZn27Ca4Mnx (x=0, 0.5 and 1at.%) alloys were investigated using X-ray diffraction, compressive tests, electrochemical treatments, and immersion tests, respectively. Microstructural observations showed that the Mg69Zn27Ca4 alloy was mainly amorphous. The addition of Mn decreases the glass-forming ability, which results in a decreased strength from 545 MPa to 364 MPa. However, this strength is still suitable for implant application. Polarization and immersion tests in the simulated body fluid at 37 °C revealed that the Mn-doped Mg-Zn-Ca alloys have significantly higher corrosion resistance than traditional ZK60 and pure Mg alloys. Cytotoxicity test showed that cell viabilities of osteoblasts cultured with Mn-doped Mg-Zn-Ca alloys extracts were higher than that of pure Mg. Mg68.5Zn27Ca4Mn0.5 exhibits the highest bio-corrosion resistance, biocompatibility and has desirable mechanical properties, which could suggest to be used as biomedical materials in the future.

  7. Introducing Mg-4Zn-3Gd-1Ca/ZnO nanocomposite with compressive strengths matching/exceeding that of mild steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y.; Tekumalla, S.; Guo, Y. B.; Gupta, M.

    2016-08-01

    This work introduces Mg-4Zn-3Gd-1Ca/2ZnO (wt.%) nanocomposite fabricated using the technique of disintegrated melt deposition and extrusion. Addition of ZnO nanoparticles enhanced the compressive strengths of alloy by ~100 MPa. Nanocomposite samples display high strength and good ductility: 0.2% compressive yield stress of 355 MPa, ultimate compressive stress of 703 MPa, and compressive failure strain of 10.6%. The significant enhancement of compressive yield stress is mainly attributed to the grain refinement by adding nanoparticles. The strength levels exceed that of commercial magnesium alloys (i.e. WE43, WE54, ZK60, and ME21) and mild steels (i.e. S275 and S355), making Mg-4Zn-3Gd-1Ca/2ZnO a very promising material for multiple engineering and biomedical applications.

  8. Introducing Mg-4Zn-3Gd-1Ca/ZnO nanocomposite with compressive strengths matching/exceeding that of mild steel

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Y.; Tekumalla, S.; Guo, Y. B.; Gupta, M.

    2016-01-01

    This work introduces Mg-4Zn-3Gd-1Ca/2ZnO (wt.%) nanocomposite fabricated using the technique of disintegrated melt deposition and extrusion. Addition of ZnO nanoparticles enhanced the compressive strengths of alloy by ~100 MPa. Nanocomposite samples display high strength and good ductility: 0.2% compressive yield stress of 355 MPa, ultimate compressive stress of 703 MPa, and compressive failure strain of 10.6%. The significant enhancement of compressive yield stress is mainly attributed to the grain refinement by adding nanoparticles. The strength levels exceed that of commercial magnesium alloys (i.e. WE43, WE54, ZK60, and ME21) and mild steels (i.e. S275 and S355), making Mg-4Zn-3Gd-1Ca/2ZnO a very promising material for multiple engineering and biomedical applications. PMID:27572903

  9. Introducing Mg-4Zn-3Gd-1Ca/ZnO nanocomposite with compressive strengths matching/exceeding that of mild steel.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y; Tekumalla, S; Guo, Y B; Gupta, M

    2016-01-01

    This work introduces Mg-4Zn-3Gd-1Ca/2ZnO (wt.%) nanocomposite fabricated using the technique of disintegrated melt deposition and extrusion. Addition of ZnO nanoparticles enhanced the compressive strengths of alloy by ~100 MPa. Nanocomposite samples display high strength and good ductility: 0.2% compressive yield stress of 355 MPa, ultimate compressive stress of 703 MPa, and compressive failure strain of 10.6%. The significant enhancement of compressive yield stress is mainly attributed to the grain refinement by adding nanoparticles. The strength levels exceed that of commercial magnesium alloys (i.e. WE43, WE54, ZK60, and ME21) and mild steels (i.e. S275 and S355), making Mg-4Zn-3Gd-1Ca/2ZnO a very promising material for multiple engineering and biomedical applications. PMID:27572903

  10. In vitro bioaccessibility of β-carotene, Ca, Mg and Zn in landrace carrots (Daucus carota, L.).

    PubMed

    Zaccari, Fernanda; Cabrera, María Cristina; Ramos, Ana; Saadoun, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Four landrace carrots ("Becaria", "CRS", "González" and "Rodríguez") and two marketable cultivars (Kuroda and Brasilia), raw and steamed, were characterised by the total content of β-carotene Ca, Mg and Zn, in vitro bioaccessibility and by colour and were evaluated to determine the effect of particle size in nutrient bioaccessibility. Steaming increased the content of β-carotene extracted from "CRS" and Brasilia (29% and 75%) and decreased the content of β-carotene extracted from "CRS" by 23% in "Rodríguez." In addition, steaming caused a loss of Ca (21%) but did not change the amount of Mg and Zn. The bioaccessibility of β-carotene in raw and pulped carrots was very low (<0.5%). Furthermore, steaming and a smaller particle size increased the bioaccessibility of β-carotene by 3-16 times. Additionally, cooking increased the in vitro bioaccessibility of Ca and Zn but had no effect on Mg. Moreover, homogenisation increased the bioaccessibility by 20% in Ca, 17% in Mg, and 10% in Zn compared to pulping.

  11. In vitro and in vivo studies on biodegradable CaMgZnSrYb high-entropy bulk metallic glass.

    PubMed

    Li, H F; Xie, X H; Zhao, K; Wang, Y B; Zheng, Y F; Wang, W H; Qin, L

    2013-11-01

    In order to enhance the corrosion resistance of the Ca65Mg15Zn20 bulk metallic glass, which has too fast a degradation rate for biomedical applications, we fabricated the Ca20Mg20Zn20Sr20Yb20 high-entropy bulk metallic glass because of the unique properties of high-entropy alloys. Our results showed that the mechanical properties and corrosion behavior were enhanced. The in vitro tests showed that the Ca20Mg20Zn20Sr20Yb20 high-entropy bulk metallic glass could stimulate the proliferation and differentiation of cultured osteoblasts. The in vivo animal tests showed that the Ca20Mg20Zn20Sr20Yb20 high-entropy bulk metallic glass did not show any obvious degradation after 4 weeks of implantation, and they can promote osteogenesis and new bone formation after 2 weeks of implantation. The improved mechanical properties and corrosion behavior can be attributed to the different chemical composition as well as the formation of a unique high-entropy atomic structure with a maximum degree of disorder.

  12. In vitro bioaccessibility of β-carotene, Ca, Mg and Zn in landrace carrots (Daucus carota, L.).

    PubMed

    Zaccari, Fernanda; Cabrera, María Cristina; Ramos, Ana; Saadoun, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Four landrace carrots ("Becaria", "CRS", "González" and "Rodríguez") and two marketable cultivars (Kuroda and Brasilia), raw and steamed, were characterised by the total content of β-carotene Ca, Mg and Zn, in vitro bioaccessibility and by colour and were evaluated to determine the effect of particle size in nutrient bioaccessibility. Steaming increased the content of β-carotene extracted from "CRS" and Brasilia (29% and 75%) and decreased the content of β-carotene extracted from "CRS" by 23% in "Rodríguez." In addition, steaming caused a loss of Ca (21%) but did not change the amount of Mg and Zn. The bioaccessibility of β-carotene in raw and pulped carrots was very low (<0.5%). Furthermore, steaming and a smaller particle size increased the bioaccessibility of β-carotene by 3-16 times. Additionally, cooking increased the in vitro bioaccessibility of Ca and Zn but had no effect on Mg. Moreover, homogenisation increased the bioaccessibility by 20% in Ca, 17% in Mg, and 10% in Zn compared to pulping. PMID:25053069

  13. Microstructure and Fatigue Behavior of Friction Stir-welded Noncombustive Mg-9Al-Zn-Ca Magnesium Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, L.; Li, Z. Y.; Nakata, K.; Feng, J. C.; Huang, Y. X.; Liao, J. S.

    2016-06-01

    Microstructure and fatigue behavior of friction stir-welded noncombustive Mg-9Al-Zn-Ca magnesium alloy were investigated. The as-received hot-extruded material consisted of equiaxed α-Mg grains with β-Mg17Al12 and Al2Ca compounds distributed along the grain boundaries. Friction stir welding produced much refined α-Mg grains accompanied by the dissolution of the eutectic β-Mg17Al12 phase, while Al2Ca phase was dispersed homogenously into the Mg matrix. Friction stir welding produced slightly increased hardness and tensile strength in the defect-free welds compared with the base material due to microstructural refinement and uniform distribution of intermetallic compounds. The load-controlled uniaxial tensile high-cycle fatigue tests indicated that fatigue strength of 90 MPa was obtained for the friction stir-welded joint with fatigue crack initiated basically near the specimen's surface and at the retreating side of the joint. Crack propagation was characterized by cleavage and fatigue striations.

  14. Electrodeposition of hydroxyapatite coating on Mg-4.0Zn-1.0Ca-0.6Zr alloy and in vitro evaluation of degradation, hemolysis, and cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Guan, Ren-Guo; Johnson, Ian; Cui, Tong; Zhao, Tong; Zhao, Zhan-Yong; Li, Xue; Liu, Huinan

    2012-04-01

    A novel biodegradable Mg-4.0Zn-1.0Ca-0.6Zr (wt %) alloy was successfully produced using a series of metallurgical processes; including melting, casting, rolling, and heat treatment. The hardness and ultimate tensile strength of the alloy sheets increased to 71.2HV and 320 MPa after rolling and then aging for 12 h at 175°C. These mechanical properties were sufficient for load-bearing orthopedic implants. A hydroxyapatite (HA) coating was deposited on the Mg-4.0Zn-1.0Ca-0.6Zr (wt %) alloy using a novel coating process combining alkali heat pretreatment, electrodeposition, and alkali heat posttreatment. The microstructure, composition, and phases of the Mg-4.0Zn-1.0Ca-0.6Zr (wt %) alloy and HA coating were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The degradation, hemolysis, and cytocompatibility of the HA-coated and uncoated Mg-4.0Zn-1.0Ca-0.6Zr (wt %) alloy were studied in vitro. The corrosion potential (E(corr)) of Mg-4.0Zn-1.0Ca-0.6Zr alloy (-1.72 V) was higher than Mg (-1.95 V), Mg-0.6Ca alloy (-1.91 V) and Mg-1.0Ca alloy (-1.97 V), indicating the Mg-Zn-Ca-Zr alloy would be more corrosion resistant. The initial corrosion potential of the HA-coated Mg alloy sample (-1.51 V) was higher than the uncoated sample (-1.72 V). The hemolysis rates of the HA-coated and uncoated Mg-4.0Zn-1.0Ca-0.6Zr (wt %) alloy samples were both <5%, which met the requirements for implant materials. The HA-coated and uncoated Mg-4.0Zn-1.0Ca-0.6Zr (wt %) alloy samples demonstrated the same cytotoxicity score as the negative control. The HA-coated samples showed a slightly greater relative growth rate (RGR%) of fibroblasts than the uncoated samples. Both the HA-coated and uncoated Mg-4.0Zn-1.0Ca-0.6Zr (wt %) alloy provided evidence of acceptable cytocompatibility for medical applications.

  15. Effects of secondary phase and grain size on the corrosion of biodegradable Mg-Zn-Ca alloys.

    PubMed

    Lu, Y; Bradshaw, A R; Chiu, Y L; Jones, I P

    2015-03-01

    The bio-corrosion behaviour of Mg-3Zn-0.3Ca (wt.%) alloy in simulated body fluid (SBF) at 37°C has been investigated using immersion testing and electrochemical measurements. Heat treatment has been used to alter the grain size and secondary phase volume fraction; the effects of these on the bio-corrosion behaviour of the alloy were then determined. The as-cast sample has the highest bio-corrosion rate due to micro-galvanic corrosion between the eutectic product (Mg+Ca2Mg6Zn3) and the surrounding magnesium matrix. The bio-corrosion resistance of the alloy can be improved by heat treatment. The volume fraction of secondary phases and grain size are both key factors controlling the bio-corrosion rate of the alloy. The bio-corrosion rate increases with volume fraction of secondary phase. When this is lower than 0.8%, the dependence of bio-corrosion rate becomes noticeable: large grains corrode more quickly.

  16. A Ca(2+)-, Mg(2+)-, and Zn(2+)-Based Dendritic Contractile Nanodevice with Two pH-Dependent Motional Functions.

    PubMed

    Stadler, Adrian-Mihail; Karmazin, Lydia; Bailly, Corinne

    2015-11-23

    A contractile dendritic motional device is reported where metal ions with biological importance--Ca(2+) (the main regulatory and signaling species of the natural muscles), Mg(2+), and Zn(2+)--initiate two kinds of motional functions. The first motional function is the metal-ion-induced contraction of a linear strand into a Z-shaped dinuclear complex, and the second one is the change of the height of Z-shaped complexes via transmetalation. By means of the pH-dependent counterligand tren, the two motional features of the machine can depend on alternate additions of acid and base. An optical response is associated with the conversion of the linear form (which is yellow) into the metalated Z-shaped one (which is red).

  17. Contributions of different strengthening mechanisms to the shear strength of an extruded Mg-4Zn-0.5Ca alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naghdi, F.; Mahmudi, R.; Kang, J. Y.; Kim, H. S.

    2015-11-01

    The shear deformation behaviour of an extruded Mg-4Zn-0.5Ca alloy was studied using shear punch testing at room temperature. The extrusion process effectively refined the microstructure, leading to a grain size of 4.6 ± 1.4 μm. Contributions of different strengthening mechanisms to the room temperature shear yield stress, and overall flow stress of the material, were calculated. These mechanisms include dislocation strengthening, grain boundary strengthening, solid solution hardening and strengthening resulting from second-phase particles. Grain boundary strengthening and solid solution hardening made significant contributions to the overall strength of the material, while the contributions of second-phase particles and dislocations were trivial. The observed differences between calculated and experimental strength values were discussed based on the textural softening of the material.

  18. Dissolution and precipitation behaviors of silicon-containing ceramic coating on Mg-Zn-Ca alloy in simulated body fluid.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yaokun; Chen, Chuanzhong; Wang, Diangang; Huang, Danlan

    2014-10-01

    We prepared Si-containing and Si-free coatings on Mg-1.74Zn-0.55Ca alloy by micro-arc oxidation. The dissolution and precipitation behaviors of Si-containing coating in simulated body fluid (SBF) were discussed. Corrosion products were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffractometer (XRD), fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR) and X-ray photoelectron spectrometer (XPS). Electrochemical workstation, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES), flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS) and pH meter were employed to detect variations of electrochemical parameter and ions concentration respectively. Results indicate that the fast formation of calcium phosphates is closely related to the SiOx(n-) groups, which induce the heterogeneous nucleation of amorphous hydroxyapatite (HA) by sorption of calcium and phosphate ions. PMID:25174544

  19. Effect of Mg(2+), Ca(2+), Sr(2+) and Ba(2+) metal ions on the antifungal activity of ZnO nanoparticles tested against Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Haja Hameed, Abdulrahman Syedahamed; Karthikeyan, Chandrasekaran; Senthil Kumar, Venugopal; Kumaresan, Subramanian; Sasikumar, Seemaisamy

    2015-01-01

    The antifungal ability of pure and alkaline metal ion (Mg(2+), Ca(2+), Sr(2+) and Ba(2+)) doped ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) prepared by the co-precipitation method was tested against the pathogenic yeast, Candida albicans (C. albicans), and the results showed that the Mg-doped ZnO NPs possessed greater effect than the other alkaline metal ion doped ZnO NPs. The impact of the concentration of Mg doped ZnO sample on the growth of C. albicans was also studied. The Minimal Fungicidal Concentration (MFC) of the Mg doped ZnO NPs was found to be 2000 μg/ml for which the growth of C. albicans was completely inhibited. The ZnO:Mg sample (1.5mg/ml) with various concentrations of histidine reduced the fungicidal effect of the nanoparticles against C. albicans, which was deliberately explained by the role of ROS. The ZnO:Mg sample added with 5mM of histidine scavenged the ample amount of generated ROS effectively. The binding of the NPs with fungi was observed by their FESEM images and their electrostatic attraction is confirmed by the zeta potential measurement. PMID:25953555

  20. Influence of trace impurities on the in vitro and in vivo degradation of biodegradable Mg-5Zn-0.3Ca alloys.

    PubMed

    Hofstetter, J; Martinelli, E; Pogatscher, S; Schmutz, P; Povoden-Karadeniz, E; Weinberg, A M; Uggowitzer, P J; Löffler, J F

    2015-09-01

    The hydrogen evolution method and animal experiments were deployed to investigate the effect of trace impurity elements on the degradation behavior of high-strength Mg alloys of type ZX50 (Mg-5Zn-0.3Ca). It is shown that trace impurity elements increase the degradation rate, predominantly in the initial period of the tests, and also increase the material's susceptibility to localized corrosion attack. These effects are explained on the basis of the corrosion potential of the intermetallic phases present in the alloys. The Zn-rich phases present in ZX50 are nobler than the Mg matrix, and thus act as cathodic sites. The impurity elements Fe and Mn in the alloy of conventional purity are incorporated in these Zn-rich intermetallic phases and therefore increase their cathodic efficiency. A design rule for circumventing the formation of noble intermetallic particles and thus avoiding galvanically accelerated dissolution of the Mg matrix is proposed.

  1. Influence of Applied Voltage and Film-Formation Time on Microstructure and Corrosion Resistance of Coatings Formed on Mg-Zn-Zr-Ca Bio-magnesium Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yandong, Yu; Shuzhen, Kuang; Jie, Li

    2015-09-01

    The influence of applied voltage and film-formation time on the microstructure and corrosion resistance of coatings formed on a Mg-Zn-Zr-Ca novel bio-magnesium alloy has been investigated by micro-arc oxidation (MAO) treatment. Phase composition and microstructure of as-coated samples were analyzed by the x-ray diffraction, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. And the porosity and average of micro-pore aperture of the surface on ceramic coatings were analyzed by general image software. Corrosion microstructure of as-coated samples was caught by a microscope digital camera. The long-term corrosion resistance of as-coated samples was tested in simulated body fluid for 30 days. The results showed that the milky white smooth ceramic coating formed on the Mg-Zn-Zr-Ca novel bio-magnesium alloy was a compound of MgO, Mg2SiO4 and MgSiO3, and its corrosion resistance was significantly improved compared with that of the magnesium substrate. In addition, when the MAO applied voltage were 450 V and 500 V and film-formation time were 9 min and 11 min, the surface micro-morphology and the corrosion resistance of as-coated samples were relatively improved. The results provided a theoretical foundation for the application of the Mg-Zn-Zr-Ca novel bio-magnesium alloy in biomedicine.

  2. Influence of Ca/Mg ratio on phytoextraction properties of Salix viminalis I. The effectiveness of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn bioaccumulation and plant growth.

    PubMed

    Mleczek, Mirosław; Kozlowska, Monika; Kaczmarek, Zygmunt; Chadzinikolau, Tamara; Golinski, Piotr

    2012-01-01

    Phytoremediation and its efficiency--influenced by several factors-is prime concern in reduction of environment contamination with heavy metals. The aim of the study was to estimate in controlled conditions--in relation to the natural Ca/Mg ratio 4:1--the influence of different Ca/Mg ratios (1:1/4, 20:1, 1:10) on selected heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn) accumulation efficiency shown by three morphological parts of Salix viminalis 'Cinamomea' (cane bark, shoots and roots). Accumulation of heavy metals in experimental conditions was significantly Ca/Mg ratio dependent, and occurred in the following order: 1:10 > 4:1 > 20:1 > 1:1/4. The highest accumulation under 0.5 mM solutions (as compared to 0.1 mM) was noted for copper and zinc, and the lowest for cadmium. Biometric parameters of Salix viminalis cuttings revealed the highest biomass productivity under 20:1 and 4:1 Ca/Mg ratios. In the case of shoot length increase, both metal concentration and kind of metal present in the solution were important. The results indicate that higher calcium ion concentration in solution (Ca/Mg 20:1) stimulates Salix viminalis growth by 3 fold when compared to other Ca/Mg ratio. It can be an important factor in remediation of the environment with this plant.

  3. In vitro metal ion release and biocompatibility of amorphous Mg67Zn28Ca5 alloy with/without gelatin coating.

    PubMed

    Chan, W Y; Chian, K S; Tan, M J

    2013-12-01

    Amorphous zinc-rich Mg-Zn-Ca alloys have exhibited good tissue compatibility and low hydrogen evolution in vivo. However, suboptimal cell-surface interaction on magnesium alloy surface observed in vitro could lead to reduced integration with host tissue for regenerative purpose. This study aims to improve cell-surface interaction of amorphous Mg67Zn28Ca5 alloy by coating a gelatin layer by electrospinning. Coated/uncoated alloys were immersed and extracted for 3 days under different CO2. The immersion results showed that pH and metal ion release in the alloy extracts were affected by gelatin coating and CO2, suggesting their roles in alloy biocorrosion and a mechanism has been proposed for the alloy-CO2 system with/without coating. Cytotoxicity results are evident that gelatin-coated alloy with 2-day crosslinking not only exhibited no indirect cytotoxicity, but also supported attachment of L929 and MG63 cell lines around/on the alloy with high viability. Therefore, amorphous Mg67Zn28Ca5 alloy coated with gelatin by electrospinning technique provides a useful method to improve alloy biocompatibility.

  4. Biological and mechanical properties of an experimental glass-ionomer cement modified by partial replacement of CaO with MgO or ZnO.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Ae; Abo-Mosallam, Hany; Lee, Hye-Young; Lee, Jung-Hwan; Kim, Hae-Won; Lee, Hae-Hyoung

    2015-01-01

    Some weaknesses of conventional glass ionomer cement (GIC) as dental materials, for instance the lack of bioactive potential and poor mechanical properties, remain unsolved.Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the partial replacement of CaO with MgO or ZnO on the mechanical and biological properties of the experimental glass ionomer cements.Material and Methods Calcium fluoro-alumino-silicate glass was prepared for an experimental glass ionomer cement by melt quenching technique. The glass composition was modified by partial replacement (10 mol%) of CaO with MgO or ZnO. Net setting time, compressive and flexural properties, and in vitrorat dental pulp stem cells (rDPSCs) viability were examined for the prepared GICs and compared to a commercial GIC.Results The experimental GICs set more slowly than the commercial product, but their extended setting times are still within the maximum limit (8 min) specified in ISO 9917-1. Compressive strength of the experimental GIC was not increased by the partial substitution of CaO with either MgO or ZnO, but was comparable to the commercial control. For flexural properties, although there was no significance between the base and the modified glass, all prepared GICs marked a statistically higher flexural strength (p<0.05) and comparable modulus to control. The modified cements showed increased cell viability for rDPSCs.Conclusions The experimental GICs modified with MgO or ZnO can be considered bioactive dental materials. PMID:26398508

  5. Biological and mechanical properties of an experimental glass-ionomer cement modified by partial replacement of CaO with MgO or ZnO.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Ae; Abo-Mosallam, Hany; Lee, Hye-Young; Lee, Jung-Hwan; Kim, Hae-Won; Lee, Hae-Hyoung

    2015-01-01

    Some weaknesses of conventional glass ionomer cement (GIC) as dental materials, for instance the lack of bioactive potential and poor mechanical properties, remain unsolved.Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the partial replacement of CaO with MgO or ZnO on the mechanical and biological properties of the experimental glass ionomer cements.Material and Methods Calcium fluoro-alumino-silicate glass was prepared for an experimental glass ionomer cement by melt quenching technique. The glass composition was modified by partial replacement (10 mol%) of CaO with MgO or ZnO. Net setting time, compressive and flexural properties, and in vitrorat dental pulp stem cells (rDPSCs) viability were examined for the prepared GICs and compared to a commercial GIC.Results The experimental GICs set more slowly than the commercial product, but their extended setting times are still within the maximum limit (8 min) specified in ISO 9917-1. Compressive strength of the experimental GIC was not increased by the partial substitution of CaO with either MgO or ZnO, but was comparable to the commercial control. For flexural properties, although there was no significance between the base and the modified glass, all prepared GICs marked a statistically higher flexural strength (p<0.05) and comparable modulus to control. The modified cements showed increased cell viability for rDPSCs.Conclusions The experimental GICs modified with MgO or ZnO can be considered bioactive dental materials.

  6. Estimated equilibrated dietary intakes for nine minerals (Na, K, Ca, Mg, P, Fe, Zn, Cu, and Mn) adjusted by mineral balance medians in young Japanese females.

    PubMed

    Nishimuta, Mamoru; Kodama, Naoko; Shimada, Mieko; Yoshitake, Yutaka; Matsuzaki, Nobue; Morikuni, Eiko

    2012-01-01

    The present study sought to determine estimated equilibrated dietary intakes (EEDIs) for nine essential minerals: sodium (Na), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), phosphorus (P), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), and manganese (Mn), using data from 17 human mineral balance studies conducted from 1986 to 2007 (subjects=178). Among these studies, two used male subjects, two subjected some or all subjects to sodium restriction, and one study utilized a low protein diet; these subjects were not included in the present analysis. Consequently, data from 13 studies of young female subjects (n=131) consuming a standard diet were selected. Balance distribution medians for six of the minerals (Na, K, Mg, Fe, Zn and Cu) were positive, so the data were adjusted to set the medians of the balances to zero. Medians for the other minerals (Ca, P and Mn) were close to zero and were not adjusted. Intake and balance for each mineral were divided by body weight (BW), lean body mass (LBM), and standard body weight (SBW), which was calculated using height and standard body mass index (BMI=22), and EEDIs were calculated as the intercept of a simple regression equation. When relationships between intake and balance of a mineral were not significant in the regression equation, a significant regression equation comparing intake and balance of another mineral was used to calculate the intercept. Significant simple regression equations were not obtained from any of the three parameters of Na or Zn, or for two of the parameters of P; thus, K, Fe and Ca balances were used to determine the intercepts for Na, Zn and P, respectively. EEDIs for the minerals were: Na (67.9, 89.0, 62.5), K (39.5, 53.5, 37.4), Ca (11.0, 14.4, 10.1), Mg (4.18, 5.51, 3.86), P (18.7, 24.6, 17.3) (mg/kg BW/d, mg/kg LBM/d, mg/kg SBW/d), Fe (180, 237, 165), Zn (181, 241, 166), [corrected] Cu (32.3, 42.6, 29.7), [corrected] Mn (55.1, 72.1, 50.7) (µg/kg BW/d, µg/kg LBM/d, µg/kg SBW/d), respectively. These values

  7. Ultrafiltration of skimmed goat milk increases its nutritional value by concentrating nonfat solids such as proteins, Ca, P, Mg, and Zn.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Montoro, Miriam; Olalla, Manuel; Giménez-Martínez, Rafael; Bergillos-Meca, Triana; Ruiz-López, María Dolores; Cabrera-Vique, Carmen; Artacho, Reyes; Navarro-Alarcón, Miguel

    2015-11-01

    Goat milk has been reported to possess good nutritional and health-promoting properties. Usually, it must be concentrated before fermented products can be obtained. The aim of this study was to compare physicochemical and nutritional variables among raw (RM), skimmed (SM), and ultrafiltration-concentrated skimmed (UFM) goat milk. The density, acidity, ash, protein, casein, whey protein, Ca, P, Mg, and Zn values were significantly higher in UFM than in RM or SM. Dry extract and fat levels were significantly higher in UFM than in SM, and Mg content was significantly higher in UFM than in RM. Ultrafiltration also increased the solubility of Ca and Mg, changing their distribution in the milk. The higher concentrations of minerals and proteins, especially caseins, increase the nutritional value of UFM, which may therefore be more appropriate for goat milk yogurt manufacturing in comparison to RM or SM. PMID:26342988

  8. Seven dietary minerals (Ca, P, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu, and Mn) and their relationship with blood pressure and blood lipids in healthy adults with self-selected diet.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi-Hyun; Choi, Mi-Kyeong

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the dietary intakes of calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), magnesium (Mg), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), and manganese (Mn) and investigate their correlation with blood pressure and blood lipids. Targeting 258 healthy men and women, blood pressure was measured, and blood samples were collected to analyze serum lipids, and then the intakes of seven minerals were assessed through a food intake survey for 3 days using a 24-h recall method. The average age of the men and women was 49.55 and 49.19, respectively. The daily energy intake of the men was 1,830.57 kcal, which was significantly higher than that of women, 1,476.23 kcal (p < 0.001). The mineral intake of the subjects was as follows: 450.95 mg/day for Ca, 915.24 mg/day for P, 279.23 mg/day for Mg, 12.60 mg/day for Fe, 8.25 mg/day for Zn, 1.23 mg/day for Cu, and 4.22 mg/day for Mn. These accounted for 63.83, 130.76, 90.74, 129.75, 97.50, 154.49, and 113.50 % of adequate intake or the recommended intake of each mineral, respectively. Subjects who did not satisfy the estimated average requirement were 74.00 % for Ca, 63.18 % for Mg, and 41.86 % for Zn. After adjusting for age, sex, BMI, and energy intake, Mg intake had a negative correlation with systolic blood pressure (SBP), and Cu intake had a significant negative correlation with SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP). Also, Mn intake was negatively correlated with DBP, serum total cholesterol, and triglycerides. Thus, it is concluded that the dietary intakes of Mg, Cu, and Mn may play an important role in controlling blood pressure and lipids in Korean adults.

  9. Competitive inhibition and selectivity enhancement by Ca in the uptake of inorganic elements (Be, Na, Mg, K, Ca, Sc, Mn, Co, Zn, Se, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Ce, Pm, Gd, Hf) by carrot (Daucus carota cv. U.S. harumakigosun).

    PubMed

    Ozaki, Takuo; Ambe, Shizuko; Abe, Tomoko; Francis, Arokiasamy J

    2005-01-01

    We investigated the uptake of inorganic elements (Be, Na, Mg, K, Ca, Sc, Mn, Co, Zn, Se, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Ce, Pm, Gd, and Hf) and the effect of Ca on their uptake in carrots (Daucus carota cv. U.S. harumakigosun) by the radioactive multitracer technique. The experimental results suggested that Na, Mg, K, and Rb competed for the functional groups outside the cells in roots with Ca but not for the transporter-binding sites on the plasma membrane of the root cortex cells. In contrast, Y, Ce, Pm, and Gd competed with Ca for the transporters on the plasma membrane. The selectivity, which was defined as the value obtained by dividing the concentration ratio of an elemental pair, K/Na, Rb/Na, Be/Sr, and Mg/Sr, in the presence of 0.2 and 2 ppm Ca by that of the corresponding elemental pair in the absence of Ca in the solution was estimated. The selectivity of K and Rb in roots was increased in the presence of Ca. The selectivity of Be in roots was not affected, whereas the selectivity of Mg was increased by Ca. These observations suggest that the presence of Ca in the uptake solution enhances the selectivity in the uptake of metabolically important elements against unwanted elements. PMID:15695849

  10. [Mineral composition of different types of Canarian gofio; factors affecting the presence of Na, K, Mg, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cn and Zn].

    PubMed

    Caballero, J M; Tejera, R L; Caballero A, A; Rubio, C; González-Weller, D; Gutiérrez, A J; Hardisson, A

    2014-03-01

    The contents of Na, K, Mg, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu and Zn were analyzed and evaluated in 181 samples of various types of gofio produced from different roasted cereal grains. Samples were analyzed by ICP-OES. Based on a daily gofio intake of 30 g/day for adults and 15 g/day for children, the daily intake of each metal, and its percentage contribution to the RDAs established for the Spanish population, were estimated. The metal with the highest concentration was K (2189 ± 766 mg/kg). The lowest concentration was observed for Cu in corn gofio samples (2.05 ± 0.36 mg/kg). With respect to daily intake, it is noteworthy that gofio contributes significantly to the recommended allowance of copper (53.77%-71.45% of the RDI), depending on the population group considered and on the type of gofio.

  11. Determination of Ca, Mg, Na, Cd, Cu, Fe, K, Li and Zn in acid mine and reference water samples by inductively coupled plasma atomic fluorescence spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sanzolone, R.F.; Meier, A.L.

    1986-01-01

    An inductively coupled plasma atomic fluorescence spectrometric (ICP-AFS) method was used for the determination of nine elements in natural water. Reference and acid mine water samples were analysed by this method to demonstrate its usefulness for hydrogeochemical exploration. The elements were determined in two groups based on the compatibility of operating conditions and consideration of element abundance levels in natural water. Ca, Mg and Na were determined as a group using one set of instrumental conditions and a 1 + 99 dilution of the sample, and Cd, Cu, Fe, K, Li and Zn were determined using another set of conditions and the undiluted sample. The detection limits for the elements are as follows: Ca, 1.4; Mg, 1.7; Na, 2.0; Cd, 1.8; Cu, 6.2; Fe, 15.8; K, 3.5; Li, 0.3; and Zn, 1.2 ng m1-1. Each element has a linear range spanning about four orders of magnitude. The method has good precision and accuracy, as shown by statistics on replicate analyses and by the agreement between values obtained and those recommended for the reference water samples, and also those obtained by atomic absorption spectrometry for the acid mine water samples.

  12. High-Temperature Vaporization Behavior of Oxides II. Oxides of Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, B, Al, Ga, In, Tl, Si, Ge, Sn, Pb, Zn, Cd, and Hg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamoreaux, R. H.; Hildenbrand, D. L.; Brewer, L.

    1987-07-01

    In order to assess the high-temperature vaporization behavior and equilibrium gas phase compositions over the condensed oxides of Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, B, Al, Ga, In, Tl, Si, Ge, Sn, Pb, Zn, Cd, and Hg, the relevant thermodynamic and molecular constant data have been compiled and critically evaluated. Selected values of the Gibbs energy functions of condensed and vapor phases are given in the form of equations valid over wide temperature ranges, along with the standard entropies and enthalpies of formation. These data were used to generate plots of equilibrium partial pressures of vapor species as functions of temperature for representative environmental conditions ranging from reducing to oxidizing. The calculated partial pressures and compositions agree, for the most part, with experimental results obtained under comparable conditions. Maximum vaporization rates have been calculated using the Hertz-Knudsen equation. Literature references are given.

  13. Crystal Structures of the Trifluoromethyl Sulfonates M(SO3CF3)2 (M = Mg, Ca, Ba, Zn, Cu) from Synchrotron X-ray Powder Diffraction Data

    SciTech Connect

    Dinnebier,R.; Sofina, N.; Hildebrandt, L.; Jansen, M.

    2006-01-01

    The crystal structures of divalent metal salts of trifluoromethyl sulfonic acid ('trifluoromethyl sulfonates') M(SO{sub 3}CF{sub 3}){sub 2} (M = Mg, Ca, Ba, Zn, Cu) were determined from high-resolution X-ray powder diffraction data. Magnesium, calcium and zinc trifluoromethyl sulfonate crystallize in the rhombohedral space group R{bar 3}. Barium trifluoromethyl sulfonate crystallizes in the monoclinic space group I2/a(C2/c) and copper trifluoromethyl sulfonate crystallizes in the triclinic group P{bar 1}. Within the crystal structures the trifluoromethyl sulfonate anions are arranged in double layers with the apolar CF{sub 3} groups pointing towards each other. The cations are located next to the SO{sub 3} groups. The symmetry relations between the different crystal structures have been analyzed.

  14. Effect of phosphate additives on the microstructure, bioactivity, and degradability of microarc oxidation coatings on Mg-Zn-Ca-Mn alloy.

    PubMed

    Dou, Jinhe; You, Qiongya; Gu, Guochao; Chen, Chuanzhong; Zhang, Xihua

    2016-01-01

    Calcium phosphate coatings were prepared on the surface of self-designed Mg-Zn-Ca-Mn alloy using microarc oxidization technology. To characterize the microstructures, cross-section morphologies, and compositions of the coatings, the authors used scanning electron microscopy equipped with an energy-disperse spectrometer, x-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Potentiodynamic polarization in the simulated body fluid (SBF) was used to evaluate the corrosion behaviors of the samples. An SBF immersion test was used to evaluate the coating bioactivity and degradability. After the immersion tests, some bonelike apatite formed on the coating surfaces indicate that bioactivity of the coatings is excellent. The coating prepared in electrolyte containing (NaPO3)6 had slower degradation rate after immersion test for 21 days. PMID:27440396

  15. Ab initio study of the structural phase transitions of the double perovskites Sr2MWO6 (M=Zn, Ca, Mg)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petralanda, U.; Etxebarria, I.

    2014-02-01

    We study the interplay of structural distortions in double perovskites Sr2MWO6 (M = Zn, Ca, Mg) by means of first-principles calculations and group theoretical analysis. Structure relaxations of the cubic, tetragonal, and monoclinic phases show that the ground states of the three compounds are monoclinic, although the energy difference between the monoclinic and tetragonal structures is very small in the case of Sr2MgWO6. The symmetry analysis of the distortions involved in the experimental and calculated low-temperature structures shows that the amplitude of two primary distortions associated to rigid rotations of the MX6 and WO6 octahedra are dominant, although the amplitude of a third mode related to deformations of the MX6 groups can not be neglected. The energy maps of the space spanned by the three relevant modes are calculated, and the couplings among the modes are evaluated, showing that the role of a hard secondary mode (in the Landau sense) coupled trilinearly to the two primary instabilities is crucial to stabilize the monoclinic ground state. Results suggest that the key role of the trilinear coupling among three modes could be rather common. A phenomenological theory including the effects of the chemical pressure is also developed. We find that the evolution of the stiffness constants in terms of the atomic substitution follows an accurate linear dependence and that the influence of quantum saturation of the order parameters could stabilize the tetragonal phase of Sr2MgWO6.

  16. Tululite, Ca14(Fe3+,Al)(Al,Zn,Fe3+,Si,P,Mn,Mg)15O36: a new Ca zincate-aluminate from combustion metamorphic marbles, central Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoury, Hani N.; Sokol, Ella V.; Kokh, Svetlana N.; Seryotkin, Yurii V.; Nigmatulina, Elena N.; Goryainov, Sergei V.; Belogub, Elena V.; Clark, Ian D.

    2016-02-01

    Tululite (Ca14(Fe3+,Al)(Al,Zn,Fe3+,Si,P,Mn,Mg)15O36 (the hypothetical end-member formula Ca14{Fe3+O6}[SiO4][Zn5Al9]O26) (IMA2014-065) is a new natural Ca zincate-aluminate, identified in medium-temperature (800-850 °C) combustion metamorphic (CM) spurrite-fluorellestadite marbles from central Jordan. The type locality (Tulul Al Hammam area) is situated in the northern part of the Siwaqa complex, the largest area of the "Mottled Zone" Formation in the Dead Sea region. The marbles originated from bitumen-rich chalky marine sediments of the Maastrichtian-Paleogene Muwaqqar Chalk Marl Formation, which have low clay content (and, consequently, low Al) and high Zn, Cd, and U enrichments. The bulk CM rocks derived from the low-Al protolith have unusually high (Zn + Cd)/Al ratios ( 0.2) and, as a result, a mineralogy with negligibly small percentages of Ca aluminates having low Ca:Al molar ratios (minerals of mayenite supergroup, Ca:Al = 6:7) common to most of calcareous CM rocks in the Mottled Zone. Instead, the mineral assemblage of the Zn-rich marbles contains tululite, with high Ca:Al = 2.55 molar ratios and Zn substituting for a large portion of Al (Zn:Al = 1.1). Tululite occurs in thin clusters as irregular grains with indented outlines (20-100 μm in size), having typical open-work textures associated with rock-forming calcite, fluorellestadite, spurrite, and accessory Zn-rich periclase, lime-monteponite solid solutions, calcium uranates, and zincite. Marbles also bear brownmillerite, dorrite, fluormayenite, high-fluorine Ca aluminate, and lakargiite. Secondary phases are brucite, gel-like calcium silicate hydrates and calcium silicate aluminate hydrates, including Zn- and U-bearing and Cd-rich compounds, Si-bearing hydrated compounds after calcium uranates, and basic Cd chlorides. The empirical formula of the holotype tululite (a mean of 32 analyses) is (Ca13.29Cd0.75)Σ14.04(Al5.46Zn5.20Fe3+ 2.23Si0.95Mn3+ 1.01Mg0.78P0.41)Σ16.04O36. Tululite is cubic, space

  17. Wavelengths and transition rates for nl-n'l' transitions in Be-, B-, Mg-, Al-, Ca-, Zn-, Ag- and Yb-like tungsten ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safronova, U. I.; Safronova, A. S.

    2010-04-01

    We present a comprehensive theoretical study of atomic characteristics of eight isoelectronic sequences of tungsten ions in a broad range of wavelengths and transitions. In particular, excitation energies, oscillator strengths and transition probabilities are calculated for nl-n'l' transitions in W70 +, W69 +, W62 +, W61 +, W54 +, W44 +, W27 + and W4 + ions. Atomic structure and radiative characteristics of Be-like ([He]2lnl', n = 2, 3), B-like ([He]2l2l'2l''), Mg-like ([Ne]3l3l'), Al-like ([Ne]3l3l'3l''), Ca-like ([Ar]3d4l), Zn-like ([Ni]4l4l'), Ag-like [Kr]4d10nl) and Yb-like ([Xe]4f145l6l') tungsten ions are computed by the relativistic many-body perturbation theory (RMBPT) method. The calculations start from a 1s2 Dirac-Fock potential for Be- and B-like W, from the 1s22s22p6 Dirac-Fock potential for Mg- and Al-like W; from the 1s22s22p63s23p6 and 1s22s22p63s23p63d10 Dirac-Fock potentials for Ca- and Zn-like W, respectively. Evaluation of properties of Ag-like and Yb-like ions starts from a Dirac-Fock potential with only partially filled n = 4 shell (1s22s22p63s23p63d104s24p64d10) and n = 5 shell (1s22s22p63s23p63d104s24p64d104f145s25p6), respectively. First-order perturbation theory is used to obtain intermediate coupling coefficients, and second-order RMBPT is used to determine the matrix elements. The contributions from negative-energy states are included in the second-order E1 matrix elements to achieve agreement between length-form and velocity-form amplitudes. Our calculations present benchmark data for many yet unmeasured properties of tungsten ions and are in particular important in diagnostics of tungsten plasma of a broad range of temperatures as well as for future ITER plasmas.

  18. In vitro investigation of biodegradable polymeric coating for corrosion resistance of Mg-6Zn-Ca alloy in simulated body fluid.

    PubMed

    Gaur, Swati; Singh Raman, R K; Khanna, A S

    2014-09-01

    A silane-based biodegradable coating was developed and investigated to improve corrosion resistance of an Mg-6Zn-Ca magnesium alloy to delay the biodegradation of the alloy in the physiological environment. Conditions were optimized to develop a stable and uniform hydroxide layer on the alloys surface-known to facilitate silane-substrate adhesion. A composite coating of two silanes, namely, diethylphosphatoethyltriethoxysilane (DEPETES) and bis-[3-(triethoxysilyl) propyl] tetrasulfide (BTESPT), was developed, by the sol-gel route. Corrosion resistance of the coated alloy was characterized in a modified-simulated body fluid (m-SBF), using potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The silane coating provided significant and durable corrosion resistance. During the course of this, hydrogen evolution and pH variation, if any, were monitored for both bare and coated alloys. The coating morphology was characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) and the cross-linking in the coating was studied using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). As indicated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) results, an important finding was the presence of hydrated magnesium phosphate on the sample that was subjected to immersion in m-SBF for 216h. Magnesium phosphate is reported to support osteoblast formation and tissue healing.

  19. Sodium, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, and Zn concentrations in molluscs from the Magellan Strait (Chile): their contribution to dietary intake.

    PubMed

    España, M S Astorga; Rodríguez, E M Rodríguez; Romero, C Díaz

    2005-08-01

    The concentrations of the essential metals Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, and Zn were determined in 126 specimens of molluscs belonging to five different species: Mytilus chilensis, n=47; Nacella deaurata, n=65; Aulacomya ater, n=4; Fissurella picta, n=4; Acanthina monodon, n=6, collected from the coastline of the Magellan Strait. Significant differences were obtained among the mean metal concentrations in the mollusc species considered. The contribution to the dietary daily intake of these metals for the consumption of one serving of these molluscs was high, especially the contribution to the Fe intake for the consumption of N. deaurata. Some significant differences were observed among the mean concentrations for the studied metals according to the zone of sampling. The influence of the zone of sampling on the mean concentration of metals in N. deaurata was higher than in M. chilensis. The application of lineal discriminant analysis (LDA) made it possible to differentiate statistically between specimens according to the mollusc species. Within the each mollusc species, the LDA helped to identify specimens according to the zone of sampling and weight/length ratio.

  20. Synthesis of layered double hydroxides containing Mg2+, Zn2+, Ca2+ and Al3+ layer cations by co-precipitation methods-A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theiss, Frederick L.; Ayoko, Godwin A.; Frost, Ray L.

    2016-10-01

    Co-precipitation is a common method for the preparation of layered double hydroxides (LDHs) and related materials. This review article is aimed at providing newcomers to the field with some examples of the types of co-precipitation reactions that have been reported previously and to briefly investigate some of the properties of the products of these reactions. Due to the sheer volume of literature on the subject, the authors have had to limit this article to the synthesis of Mg/Al, Zn/Al and Ca/Al LDHs by co-precipitation and directly related methods. LDHs have been synthesised from various reagents including metal salts, oxides and hydroxides. Co-precipitation is also useful for the direct synthesis of LDHs with a wide range of interlayer anions and various bases have been successfully employed to prepare LDHs. Examples of other synthesis techniques including the urea method, hydrothermal synthesis and various mechanochemical methods that are undoubtedly related to co-precipitation have also been included in this review. The effect of post synthesis hydrothermal has also been summarised.

  1. High resolution structures of p-aminobenzamidine- and benzamidine-VIIa/soluble tissue factor: unpredicted conformation of the 192-193 peptide bond and mapping of Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, and Zn2+ sites in factor VIIa.

    PubMed

    Bajaj, S Paul; Schmidt, Amy E; Agah, Sayeh; Bajaj, Madhu S; Padmanabhan, Kaillathe

    2006-08-25

    Factor VIIa (FVIIa) consists of a gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla) domain, two epidermal growth factor-like domains, and a protease domain. FVIIa binds seven Ca(2+) ions in the Gla, one in the EGF1, and one in the protease domain. However, blood contains both Ca(2+) and Mg(2+), and the Ca(2+) sites in FVIIa that could be specifically occupied by Mg(2+) are unknown. Furthermore, FVIIa contains a Na(+) and two Zn(2+) sites, but ligands for these cations are undefined. We obtained p-aminobenzamidine-VIIa/soluble tissue factor (sTF) crystals under conditions containing Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Na(+), and Zn(2+). The crystal diffracted to 1.8A resolution, and the final structure has an R-factor of 19.8%. In this structure, the Gla domain has four Ca(2+) and three bound Mg(2+). The EGF1 domain contains one Ca(2+) site, and the protease domain contains one Ca(2+), one Na(+), and two Zn(2+) sites. (45)Ca(2+) binding in the presence/absence of Mg(2+) to FVIIa, Gla-domainless FVIIa, and prothrombin fragment 1 supports the crystal data. Furthermore, unlike in other serine proteases, the amide N of Gly(193) in FVIIa points away from the oxyanion hole in this structure. Importantly, the oxyanion hole is also absent in the benzamidine-FVIIa/sTF structure at 1.87A resolution. However, soaking benzamidine-FVIIa/sTF crystals with d-Phe-Pro-Arg-chloromethyl ketone results in benzamidine displacement, d-Phe-Pro-Arg incorporation, and oxyanion hole formation by a flip of the 192-193 peptide bond in FVIIa. Thus, it is the substrate and not the TF binding that induces oxyanion hole formation and functional active site geometry in FVIIa. Absence of oxyanion hole is unusual and has biologic implications for FVIIa macromolecular substrate specificity and catalysis. PMID:16757484

  2. Nonlinear optical properties and glass structure for MO-Nb 2O 5-TeO 2 (M = Zn, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba) glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayakawa, Tomokatsu; Hayakawa, Masahiko; Nogami, Masayuki; Thomas, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    The third-order nonlinear optical susceptibilities χ(3) of tellurite(TeO 2)-based ternary glasses of MO-Nb 2O 5-TeO 2 (M = Zn, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba) were investigated by Z-scan measurement using Ti:Sapphire femtosecond laser pulses. The relationship between the nonlinear optical properties and the glass structures estimated by Raman spectroscopy was discussed. The nonlinear susceptibilities χ(3) of these tellurite glasses increased as the stretching Raman band of Te IV-O ax in TeO 4 (trigonal bipyramids (tbp), the roman superscript denotes the coordination number) increased, while the stretching band of Te III-O in TeO 3 (trigonal pyramid (tp)) decreased. This indicates that the amount of TeO 4 (tbp) units was deeply related to the value of χ(3), which was consistent with the theoretical calculation of higher hyperpolarizabilities of TeO 4 than TeO 3 unit. It was also found that higher χ(3) was obtained with decreasing Te IV- eqO ax-Te IV Raman band, indicating that when divalent cations (M 2+) was doped in Nb 2O 5-TeO 2 binary network system the cleavage of Te IV- eqO ax-Te IV chain structure necessarily occurred but the terminations of -Te IV- eqO - M 2+-O-Nb VI-O ax-Te IV-, which importantly stabilized TeO 4 units even in the presence of the network modifier M 2+, were more preferentially induced with an assist of NbO 6 octahedron than -Te IV- eqO - M 2+ O = Te III-O-.

  3. Analysis of six elements (Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu, and Mn) in several wild vegetables and evaluation of their intakes based on Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010-2011.

    PubMed

    Bae, Yun-Jung; Kim, Mi-Hyun; Lee, Je-Hyuk; Choi, Mi-Kyeong

    2015-03-01

    Wild vegetables, those edible among naturally grown vegetables, have been reported to contain many bioactive substances, dietary fibers, vitamins, and minerals. The purpose of this study is to examine the six elements of the wild vegetables frequently consumed by Koreans and assess the element intakes through them. Contents of six kinds of elements (Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu, and Mn) in 11 wild vegetables were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. Using these analysis data, the 6-element intakes from the wild vegetables were evaluated in healthy Korean adults aged 19-64 years from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010-2011). Sedum and shepherd's purse contained over 100 mg of Ca in 100 g of their edible portion. The Mg content per 100 g of the 11 wild vegetables ranged from 12.1 mg to 43.4 mg. The wild vegetable with the highest mineral content per 100 g was sedum for Ca, spinach for Mg, shepherd's purse for Fe, spinach for Zn, bracken for Cu, and fragrant edible wild aster for Mn. The element intakes from the 11 wild vegetables compared with dietary reference intakes in the healthy Koreans were 1.0 % for Ca, 2.1 % for Mg, 5.3 % for Fe, 1.4 % for Zn, 0.3 % for Cu, and 1.8 % for Mn. Considering the low intake ratio (1.2 %) of the wild vegetable to total food intake, wild vegetables may contribute to some element intakes. Our results show the nutritional value of the wild vegetables in the aspect of mineral nutrition; however, further research is needed to evaluate the bioavailability of various elements in wild vegetables.

  4. Analysis of six elements (Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu, and Mn) in several wild vegetables and evaluation of their intakes based on Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010-2011.

    PubMed

    Bae, Yun-Jung; Kim, Mi-Hyun; Lee, Je-Hyuk; Choi, Mi-Kyeong

    2015-03-01

    Wild vegetables, those edible among naturally grown vegetables, have been reported to contain many bioactive substances, dietary fibers, vitamins, and minerals. The purpose of this study is to examine the six elements of the wild vegetables frequently consumed by Koreans and assess the element intakes through them. Contents of six kinds of elements (Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu, and Mn) in 11 wild vegetables were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. Using these analysis data, the 6-element intakes from the wild vegetables were evaluated in healthy Korean adults aged 19-64 years from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010-2011). Sedum and shepherd's purse contained over 100 mg of Ca in 100 g of their edible portion. The Mg content per 100 g of the 11 wild vegetables ranged from 12.1 mg to 43.4 mg. The wild vegetable with the highest mineral content per 100 g was sedum for Ca, spinach for Mg, shepherd's purse for Fe, spinach for Zn, bracken for Cu, and fragrant edible wild aster for Mn. The element intakes from the 11 wild vegetables compared with dietary reference intakes in the healthy Koreans were 1.0 % for Ca, 2.1 % for Mg, 5.3 % for Fe, 1.4 % for Zn, 0.3 % for Cu, and 1.8 % for Mn. Considering the low intake ratio (1.2 %) of the wild vegetable to total food intake, wild vegetables may contribute to some element intakes. Our results show the nutritional value of the wild vegetables in the aspect of mineral nutrition; however, further research is needed to evaluate the bioavailability of various elements in wild vegetables. PMID:25524523

  5. Chemical stability and dielectric properties of RO-La{sub 2}O{sub 3}-B{sub 2}O{sub 3} (R = Ca, Mg, Zn)-based ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Jo, Yeon Hwa; Kang, Min Soo; Chung, Kyung Won; Cho, Yong Soo

    2008-02-05

    New lanthanum borate (La{sub 2}O{sub 3}-B{sub 2}O{sub 3}) glasses modified with divalent oxides, such as CaO, MgO and ZnO were investigated as potential low temperature dielectrics by understanding compositional dependence of dielectric properties and chemical leaching resistance. Firing behavior, such as densification and crystallization, depended strongly on the glass composition and is found to influence the resultant dielectric performance. Specifically, the dielectric composition of 20ZnO-20La{sub 2}O{sub 3}-60B{sub 2}O{sub 3} glass with 40 wt% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} as a filler showed distinct enhancements of dielectric properties, i.e., k {approx} 8.3 and Q {approx} 1091 at the resonant frequency of 17.1 GHz, as a result of 850 deg. C firing. The result was believed related to earlier densification and unexpected evolvements of ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} and La(BO{sub 2}){sub 3} phases during firing. The Mg-containing glass sample was most stable in strong acid solutions and did not show any significant changes in microstructure even after 300 min exposure. The Ca-containing glass sample was not regarded as a promising candidate for low temperature dielectrics from the observed low quality factor and weak chemical durability.

  6. Primary fragmentation pathways of gas phase [M(uracil-H)(uracil)]+ complexes (M=Zn, Cu, Ni, Co, Fe, Mn, Cd, Pd , Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, and Pb): loss of uracil versus HNCO.

    PubMed

    Ali, Osama Y; Randell, Nicholas M; Fridgen, Travis D

    2012-04-23

    Complexes formed between metal dications, the conjugate base of uracil, and uracil are investigated by sustained off-resonance irradiation collision-induced dissociation (SORI-CID) in a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) mass spectrometer. Positive-ion electrospray spectra show that [M(Ura-H)(Ura)](+) (M=Zn, Cu, Ni, Co, Fe, Mn, Cd, Pd, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, or Pb) is the most abundant ion even at low concentrations of uracil. SORI-CID experiments show that the main primary decomposition pathway for all [M(Ura-H)(Ura)](+) , except where M=Ca, Sr, Ba, or Pb, is the loss of HNCO. Under the same SORI-CID conditions, when M is Ca, Sr, Ba, or Pb, [M(Ura-H)(Ura)](+) are shown to lose a molecule of uracil. Similar results were observed under infrared multiple-photon dissociation excitation conditions, except that [Ca(Ura-H)(Ura)](+) was found to lose HNCO as the primary fragmentation product. The binding energies between neutral uracil and [M(Ura-H)](+) (M=Zn, Cu, Ni, Fe, Cd, Pd ,Mg, Ca, Sr Ba, or Pb) are calculated by means of electronic-structure calculations. The differences in the uracil binding energies between complexes which lose uracil and those which lose HNCO are consistent with the experimentally observed differences in fragmentation pathways. A size dependence in the binding energies suggests that the interaction between uracil and [M(Ura-H)](+) is ion-dipole complexation and the experimental evidence presented supports this. PMID:22447672

  7. Diffusion of Ca and Mg in Calcite

    SciTech Connect

    Cygan, R.T.; Fisler, D.K.

    1999-02-10

    The self-diffusion of Ca and the tracer diffusion of Mg in calcite have been experimentally measured using isotopic tracers of {sup 25}Mg and {sup 44}Ca. Natural single crystals of calcite were coated with a thermally-sputtered oxide thin film and then annealed in a CO{sub 2} gas at one atmosphere total pressure and temperatures from 550 to 800 C. Diffusion coefficient values were derived from the depth profiles obtained by ion microprobe analysis. The resultant activation energies for Mg tracer diffusion and Ca self-diffusion are respectively: E{sub a}(Mg) = 284 {+-} 74 kJ/mol and E{sub a}(Ca) = 271 {+-} 80 kJ/mol. For the temperature ranges in these experiments, the diffusion of Mg is faster than Ca. The results are generally consistent in magnitude with divalent cation diffusion rates obtained in previous studies and provide a means of interpreting the thermal histories of carbonate minerals, the mechanism of dolomitization, and other diffusion-controlled processes. The results indicate that cation diffusion in calcite is relatively slow and cations are the rate-limiting diffusing species for the deformation of calcite and carbonate rocks. Application of the calcite-dolomite geothermometer to metamorphic assemblages will be constrained by cation diffusion and cooling rates. The direct measurement of Mg tracer diffusion in calcite indicates that dolomitization is unlikely to be accomplished by Mg diffusion in the solid state but by a recrystallization process.

  8. Mg/Ca of Continental Ostracode Shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, E.; Forester, R. M.; Marco-Barba, J.; Mezquita, F.

    2007-12-01

    Marine ionic chemistry is thought to remain constant. This, together with the belief that marine calcifiers partition Mg/Ca in a systematic manner as functions of temperature (and Mg/Ca) of water forms the basis of the Mg/Ca thermometer. In continental settings both of these assumptions are usually not true. Continental waters contain a wide variety of solutes in absolute and relative ion concentrations. Hence, waters with identical Mg/Ca may have very different concentrations of Mg and Ca and very different anions. Here we use two examples to focus on the effects of ion chemistry on Mg/Ca partitioning in continental ostracode shells and we ignore the complexities of solute evolution, which can change Mg/Ca over timescales of minutes to millennia. Palacios-Fest and Dettman (2001) conducted a monthly study of ,Cypridopsis vidua at El Yeso Lake in Sonora, Mexico. They established a relation between temperature and average shell Mg/Ca using regression analyses on averaged data. When their Mg/Ca-temperature relation is applied to monthly ,C. vidua data from Page Pond near Cleveland, Ohio, water temperatures of -8 to -1°C are obtained. The observed Mg/Ca ranges for El Yeso Lake (0.31 to 0.46) and Page Pond (0.33 to 0.46) are similar, as are their specific conductivities (700 to 850μS for El Yeso Lake; 400 to 600μS for Page Pond). However, [Ca] is 140-260 mg/L for El Yeso, but only 70-90 mg/L for Page Pond. Page Pond data, in fact, shows a good temperature shell Mg/Ca relation for .C. vidua, but the relation is different from that at El Yeso. Hence, shell Mg/Ca is a multi-valued, family of curves function of temperature and Mg/Ca of water that depends on the [Mg] and [Ca] values in water and perhaps other factors. Our second example comes from sites near Valencia, Spain and involves shell data for ,Cyprideis torosa, an estuarine ostracode that is tolerant of a wide range of salinity and can live in continental waters as long as the carbonate alkalinity to Ca ratio is

  9. Fast sequential multi-element determination of Ca, Mg, K, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn for foliar diagnosis using high-resolution continuum source flame atomic absorption spectrometry: Feasibility of secondary lines, side pixel registration and least-squares background correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveira, Silvana Ruella; Raposo, Jorge Luiz, Jr.; Gomes Neto, José Anchieta

    2009-06-01

    The fast sequential multi-element determination of Ca, Mg, K, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn in plant tissues by high-resolution continuum source flame atomic absorption spectrometry is proposed. For this, the main lines for Cu (324.754 nm), Fe (248.327 nm), Mn (279.482 nm) and Zn (213.857 nm) were selected, and the secondary lines for Ca (239.856 nm), Mg (202.582 nm) and K (404.414 nm) were evaluated. The side pixel registration approach was studied to reduce sensitivity and extend the linear working range for Mg by measuring at wings (202.576 nm; 202.577 nm; 202.578 nm; 202.580 nm; 202.585 nm; 202.586 nm; 202.587 nm; 202.588 nm) of the secondary line. The interference caused by NO bands on Zn at 213.857 nm was removed using the least-squares background correction. Using the main lines for Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn, secondary lines for Ca and K, and line wing at 202.588 nm for Mg, and 5 mL min - 1 sample flow-rate, calibration curves in the 0.1-0.5 mg L - 1 Cu, 0.5-4.0 mg L - 1 Fe, 0.5-4.0 mg L - 1 Mn, 0.2-1.0 mg L - 1 Zn, 10.0-100.0 mg L - 1 Ca, 5.0-40.0 mg L - 1 Mg and 50.0-250.0 mg L - 1 K ranges were consistently obtained. Accuracy and precision were evaluated after analysis of five plant standard reference materials. Results were in agreement at a 95% confidence level (paired t-test) with certified values. The proposed method was applied to digests of sugar-cane leaves and results were close to those obtained by line-source flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Recoveries of Ca, Mg, K, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn in the 89-103%, 84-107%, 87-103%, 85-105%, 92-106%, 91-114%, 96-114% intervals, respectively, were obtained. The limits of detection were 0.6 mg L - 1 Ca, 0.4 mg L - 1 Mg, 0.4 mg L - 1 K, 7.7 µg L - 1 Cu, 7.7 µg L - 1 Fe, 1.5 µg L - 1 Mn and 5.9 µg L - 1 Zn.

  10. An electrochemical study of Ni/2+/, Co/2+/, and Zn/2+/ ions in melts of composition CaMgSi2O6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Semkow, K. W.; Haskin, L. A.; Lindstrom, D. J.; Rizzo, R. A.

    1982-01-01

    Results are reported for a study of the behavior of Ni(2+), Co(2+), and Zn(2+) in molten diopside, determined by cyclic voltametry, as a first step in adapting electrochemical methods for use in experimental geochemistry. The techniques used are described, the theory is briefly discussed, and it is demonstrated that Ni(2+), Co(2+), and Zn(2+) can be reduced, then reoxidized in an uncomplicated case of reversible charge transfer at the Pt electrode. This implies that the neutral metal atoms remain undissolved in the melt. The kinetics of the reduction process, the effects of concentration, the standard reduction potentials, and the diffusion coefficients are discussed in detail. The observations are consistent with the mechanism of Ni(2+) diffusion by transport from site to site. As the proportion of SiO2 in the melt increases, a higher activation energy is required for Ni(2+) to move, and the rate of diffusion is lowered.

  11. ZnO/(ZnMg)O single quantum wells with high Mg content graded barriers

    SciTech Connect

    Laumer, Bernhard; Schuster, Fabian; Wassner, Thomas A.; Stutzmann, Martin; Rohnke, Marcus; Schoermann, Joerg; Eickhoff, Martin

    2012-06-01

    ZnO/Zn{sub 1-x}Mg{sub x}O single quantum wells (SQWs) were grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy on c-plane sapphire substrates. Compositional grading allows the application of optimized growth conditions for the fabrication of Zn{sub 1-x}Mg{sub x}O barriers with high crystalline quality and a maximum Mg content of x = 0.23. High resolution x-ray diffraction reveals partial relaxation of the graded barriers. Due to exciton localization, the SQW emission is found to consist of contributions from donor-bound and free excitons. While for narrow SQWs with well width d{sub W}{<=}2.5nm, the observed increase of the exciton binding energy is caused by quantum confinement, the drop of the photoluminescence emission below the ZnO bulk value found for wide SQWs is attributed to the quantum-confined Stark effect. For a Mg content of x = 0.23, a built-in electric field of 630 kV/cm is extracted, giving rise to a decrease of the exciton binding energy and rapid thermal quenching of the SQW emission characterized by an activation energy of (24 {+-} 4) meV for d{sub W} = 8.3 nm.

  12. Diffusion Couple Investigation of the Mg-Zn System

    SciTech Connect

    Brennan, Sarah; Bermudez, Katrina; Sohn, Yong Ho; Kulkarni, Nagraj S

    2012-01-01

    Phase layer growth and interdiffusion in the binary Mg-Zn system was investigated utilizing solid-to-solid diffusion couples annealed at 295 , 315 and 325 C for 21, 7 and 5 days, respectively. The diffusion microstructure was examined by scanning electron microscopy and concentration profiles were determined using X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy and electron microprobe analysis. The Mg solid solution, Mg2Zn11, MgZn2 and Mg2Zn3 in all three couples were observed in addition to the high temperature, Mg51Zn20 phase at 325 C. The MgZn2 phase was observed to grow the thickest layer, followed by the Mg2Zn3 and the Mg2Zn11 phases. Activation energies for the parabolic growth were calculated to be 105 kJ/mol and 207 kJ/mol for the Mg2Zn3 and MgZn2, respectively. Relevant interdiffusion coefficients were calculated for the phases present by analyses of concentration profiles. This study was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Program (DE-AC05-00OR22725).

  13. Mg Content Dependence of EML-PVD Zn-Mg Coating Adhesion on Steel Strip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Woo Sung; Lee, Chang Wook; Kim, Tae Yeob; De Cooman, Bruno C.

    2016-09-01

    The effect of coating thickness and Mg concentration on the adhesion strength of electromagnetic levitation physical vapor deposited Zn-Mg alloy coatings on steel strip was investigated. The phase fraction of Zn, Mg2Zn11, and MgZn2 was determined for a coating Mg concentration in the 0 to 15 wt pct range. Coatings with a Mg content less than 5 pct consisted of an Zn and Mg2Zn11 phase mixture. The coatings showed good adhesion strength and ductile fracture behavior. Coatings with a higher Mg concentration, which consisted of a Mg2Zn11 and MgZn2 phase mixture, had a poor adhesion strength and a brittle fracture behavior. The adhesion strength of PVD Zn-Mg alloy coatings was found to be related to the pure Zn phase fraction. The effect of coating thickness on adhesion strength was found to be negligible. The microstructure of the interface between steel and Zn-Mg alloy coatings was investigated in detail by electron microscopy, electron diffraction, and atom probe tomography.

  14. Ab initio simulation of elastic and mechanical properties of Zn- and Mg-doped hydroxyapatite (HAP).

    PubMed

    Aryal, Sitaram; Matsunaga, Katsuyuki; Ching, Wai-Yim

    2015-07-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HAP) is an important bioceramic which constitutes the mineral components of bones and hard tissues in mammals. It is bioactive and used as bioceramic coatings for metallic implants and bone fillers. HAP readily absorbs a large amount of impurities. Knowledge on the elastic and mechanical properties of impurity-doped HAP is a subject of great importance to its potential for biomedical applications. Zn and Mg are the most common divalent cations HAP absorbs. Using density function theory based ab initio methods, we have carried out a large number of ab initio calculations to obtain the bulk elastic and mechanical properties of HAP with Zn or Mg doped in different concentration at the Ca1 and Ca2 sites using large 352-atom supercells. Detailed information on their dependece on the concetraion of the substitued impurity is obtained. Our results show that Mg enhances overall elastic and bulk mechanical properties whereas Zn tends to degrade except at low concentrations. At a higher concentration, the mechanical properties of Zn and Mg doped HAP also depend significantly on impurity distribution between the Ca1 and Ca2 sites. There is a strong evidence that Zn prefers Ca2 site for substituion whereas Mg has no such preference. These results imply that proper control of dopant concentration and their site preference must carefully considered in using doped HAP for specific biomedical applications.

  15. Energy band bowing parameter in MgZnO alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xu; Saito, Katsuhiko; Tanaka, Tooru; Nishio, Mitsuhiro; Guo, Qixin; Nagaoka, Takashi; Arita, Makoto

    2015-07-13

    We report on bandgap bowing parameters for wurtzite and cubic MgZnO alloys from a study of high quality and single phase films in all Mg content range. The Mg contents in the MgZnO films were accurately determined using the energy dispersive spectrometer and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The measurement of bandgap energies by examining the onset of inelastic energy loss in core-level atomic spectra from XPS is proved to be valid for determining the bandgap of MgZnO films. The dependence of the energy bandgap on Mg content is found to deviate downwards from linearity. Fitting of the bandgap data resulted in two bowing parameters of 2.01 ± 0.04 eV and 1.48 ± 0.11 eV corresponding to wurtzite and cubic MgZnO films, respectively.

  16. Distribution of calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) in the leaves of Brassica rapa under varying exogenous Ca and Mg supply

    PubMed Central

    Rios, Juan Jose; Ó Lochlainn, Seosamh; Devonshire, Jean; Graham, Neil S.; Hammond, John P.; King, Graham J.; White, Philip J.; Kurup, Smita; Broadley, Martin R.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Leafy vegetable Brassica crops are an important source of dietary calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) and represent potential targets for increasing leaf Ca and Mg concentrations through agronomy or breeding. Although the internal distribution of Ca and Mg within leaves affects the accumulation of these elements, such data are not available for Brassica. The aim of this study was to characterize the internal distribution of Ca and Mg in the leaves of a vegetable Brassica and to determine the effects of altered exogenous Ca and Mg supply on this distribution. Methods Brassica rapa ssp. trilocularis ‘R-o-18’ was grown at four different Ca:Mg treatments for 21 d in a controlled environment. Concentrations of Ca and Mg were determined in fully expanded leaves using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Internal distributions of Ca and Mg were determined in transverse leaf sections at the base and apex of leaves using energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) with cryo-scanning electron microscopy (cryo-SEM). Key Results Leaf Ca and Mg concentrations were greatest in palisade and spongy mesophyll cells, respectively, although this was dependent on exogenous supply. Calcium accumulation in palisade mesophyll cells was enhanced slightly under high Mg supply; in contrast, Mg accumulation in spongy mesophyll cells was not affected by Ca supply. Conclusions The results are consistent with Arabidopsis thaliana and other Brassicaceae, providing phenotypic evidence that conserved mechanisms regulate leaf Ca and Mg distribution at a cellular scale. The future study of Arabidopsis gene orthologues in mutants of this reference B. rapa genotype will improve our understanding of Ca and Mg homeostasis in plants and may provide a model-to-crop translation pathway for targeted breeding. PMID:22362665

  17. Thermal Parameters and Microstructural Development in Directionally Solidified Zn-Rich Zn-Mg Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vida, Talita A.; Freitas, Emmanuelle S.; Brito, Crystopher; Cheung, Noé; Arenas, Maria A.; Conde, Ana; De Damborenea, Juan; Garcia, Amauri

    2016-06-01

    Transient directional solidification experiments have been carried out with Zn-Mg hypoeutectic alloys under an extensive range of cooling rates with a view to analyzing the evolution of microstructure. It is shown that the microstructure is formed by a Zn-rich matrix of different morphologies and competitive eutectic mixtures (Zn-Zn11Mg2 and Zn-Zn2Mg). For 0.3 wt-pct Mg and 0.5 wt-pct Mg alloys, the Zn-rich matrix is shown to be characterized by high-cooling rates plate-like cells (cooling rates >9.5 and 24 K/s, respectively), followed by a granular-dendritic morphological transition for lower cooling rates. In contrast, a directionally solidified Zn1.2 wt-pct Mg alloy casting is shown to have the Zn-rich matrix formed only by dendritic equiaxed grains. Experimental growth laws are proposed relating the plate-like cellular interphase, the secondary dendritic arm spacing, and the eutectic interphase spacings to solidification thermal parameters, i.e., cooling rate and growth rate. The experimental law for the growth of secondary dendritic spacings under unsteady-state solidifications is also shown to encompass results of hypoeutectic Zn-Mg alloys subjected to steady-state Bridgman growth.

  18. Distribution of P, K, Ca, Mg, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn in wood and bark age classes of willows and poplars used for phytoextraction on soils contaminated by risk elements.

    PubMed

    Zárubová, Pavla; Hejcman, Michal; Vondráčková, Stanislava; Mrnka, Libor; Száková, Jiřina; Tlustoš, Pavel

    2015-12-01

    Fast-growing clones of Salix and Populus have been studied for remediation of soils contaminated by risk elements (RE) using short-rotation coppice plantations. Our aim was to assess biomass yield and distributions of elements in wood and bark of highly productive willow (S1--[Salix schwerinii × Salix viminalis] × S. viminalis, S2--Salix × smithiana clone S-218) and poplar (P1--Populus maximowiczii × Populus nigra, P2--P. nigra) clones with respect to aging. The field experiment was established in April 2008 on moderately Cd-, Pb- and Zn- contaminated soil. Shoots were harvested after four seasons (February 2012) and separated into annual classes of wood and bark. All tested clones grew on contaminated soils, with highest biomass production and lowest mortality exhibited by P1 and S2. Concentrations of elements, with exception of Ca and Pb, decreased with age and were higher in bark than in wood. The Salix clones were characterised by higher removal of Cd, Mn and Zn compared to the Populus clones. Despite generally higher RE content in young shoots, partly due to lower wood/bark ratios and higher RE concentrations in bark, the overall removal of RE was higher in older wood classes due to higher biomass yield. Thus, longer rotations seem to be more effective when phytoextraction strategy is considered. Of the four selected clones, S1 exhibited the best removal of Cd and Zn and is a good candidate for phytoextraction.

  19. ZnCdMgSe-Based Semiconductors for Intersubband Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Tamargo, Maria C.

    2008-11-13

    This paper presents a review of recent results on the application of ZnCdMgSe-based wide bandgap II-VI compounds to intersubband devices such as quantum cascade lasers and quantum well infrared photodetectors operating in the mid-infrared region. The conduction band offset of ZnCdSe/ZnCdMgSe quantum well structures was determined from contactless electroreflectance measurements to be as high as 1.12 eV. FT-IR was used to measure intersubband absorption in multi-quantum well structures in the mid-IR range. Electroluminescence at 4.8 {mu}m was observed from a quantum cascade emitter structure made from these materials. Preliminary results are also presented on self assembled quantum dots of CdSe on ZnCdMgSe, and novel quantum well structures with metastable binary MgSe barriers.

  20. Theoretical studies on the two-dimensional electron-gas properties of MgZnO/MgO/ZnO heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Seoung-Hwan; Hong, Woo-Pyo; Kim, Jong-Jae

    2016-07-01

    The polarization effects on the two-dimensional electron-gas (2DEG) of the ZnO/MgO/MgZnO heterostructure were theoretically investigated. The carrier confinement in the MgZnO/MgO/ZnO high-electron-mobility transistor (HEMT) structure is shown to be superior to that in the conventional MgZnO/ZnO HEMT structure. The electron density is shown to be very sensitive to the layer thickness and to become a maximum at a layer thickness of 2 nm. Also, the MgZnO/MgO/ZnO HEMT structure shows a larger saturation drain current than the conventional MgZnO/ZnO HEMT structure does. This is mainly due to the increased channel electron density induced by the enhanced polarization charge with the inclusion of the MgO layer.

  1. Ultraviolet emission from a multi-layer graphene/MgZnO/ZnO light-emitting diode

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Jang-Won; Choi, Yong-Seok; Goo Kang, Chang; Hun Lee, Byoung; Kim, Byeong-Hyeok; Tu, C. W.; Park, Seong-Ju

    2014-02-03

    We report on ultraviolet emission from a multi-layer graphene (MLG)/MgZnO/ZnO light-emitting diodes (LED). The p-type MLG and MgZnO in the MLG/MgZnO/ZnO LED are used as transparent hole injection and electron blocking layers, respectively. The current-voltage characteristics of the MLG/MgZnO/ZnO LED show that current transport is dominated by tunneling processes in the MgZnO barrier layer under forward bias conditions. The holes injected from p-type MLG recombine efficiently with the electrons accumulated in ZnO, and the MLG/MgZnO/ZnO LED shows strong ultraviolet emission from the band edge of ZnO and weak red-orange emission from the deep levels of ZnO.

  2. In Vitro Degradation Behavior of Ternary Mg-Zn-Se and Mg-Zn-Cu Alloys as Biomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Persaud-Sharma, Dharam; Budiansky, Noah

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the corrosion behavior of Mg-Zn-Se and Mg-Zn-Cu alloys was investigated to evaluate their corrosion behavior related to use as implantable biomaterials. The corrosion behavior of these alloys and a commercially available Mg-Zn alloy were examined using static solution electrochemical testing, dynamic solution gravimetric testing, ion leaching testing, and microscopic evaluation. Fluctuations in the pH of the Dulbecco’s Modified Eagles Medium (DMEM) used for the gravimetric and ion leaching immersion testing were also recorded over the 30-day duration to assess whether the media conditions induced by the alloy degradation would permit for cellular survival. Weight loss experimentation and electrochemical tests revealed the Mg-Zn-Cu alloy to have the greatest corrosion rate. PMID:24465245

  3. A SIMS Calibration of Benthic Foraminiferal Mg/Ca

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curry, W. B.; Marchitto, T. M.

    2005-12-01

    Using a suite of multi-core tops, we have produced a calibration of C. pachyderma Mg/Ca versus temperature spanning the temperature range of 5 to 18 °C. The core tops are located along the Florida margin south of Dry Tortugas (KNR166), along the Bahamas west of Andros Island and Great Bahama Bank (KNR166), and along the southeastern margin of Brazil (KNR159). Water depths range from about 200 to 800 m for the Florida Straits multi-cores and 400 to 800 m for the Brazil margin multi-cores. Five of the KNR166 core tops contain post-1950 bomb radiocarbon with Fmodern> 1; several others have bomb radiocarbon mixed in with pre-bomb sediments to give ages less than 0 BP. Core top ages are generally older for the KNR159 multi-cores, but each is from a location with a well documented Holocene section. Sedimentation rates for KNR166 multi-cores vary from 10 to 100 cm kyr-1; for KNR159 multi-cores, sedimentation rates vary from 5 to 10 cm kyr-1. Elemental ratios were determined by Secondary Ionization Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) using a Cameca IMS 3f ion probe calibrated for Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca using two standards which were independently measured using ICP-MS. Using SIMS, the external precision of the calibration standards averages ±3.5% (1σ RSD) for Mg/Ca and ± 1.7% (1σ RSD) for Sr/Ca. SIMS elemental measurements were performed on one to three individual C. pachyderma tests in each core top; more than 30 tests have been measured from 18 multi-core tops. Mg/Ca variability within C. pachyderma tests averages ± 20% (1σ RSD) with a small but significant trend toward higher variability at higher Mg/Ca. Higher Mg/Ca is observed in warmer waters, but the Mg/Ca values are generally lower (at comparable warm temperatures) than observed in previous calibration studies. At temperatures below 8 °C, C. pachyderma Mg/Ca values are less than 2 mmole/mole. At temperatures warmer than 15 °C, C. pachyderma Mg/Ca values exceed 3 mmole/mole. The slope of Mg/Ca versus temperature (~0.14 mmole

  4. Effect of (Ca0.8Sr0.2)0.6La0.267TiO3 on Phase, Microstructure, and Microwave Dielectric Properties of Mg0.95Zn0.05TiO3 Synthesized by Polymeric Precursor Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naeem, Abdul; Ullah, Asad; Mahmood, Tahira; Iqbal, Yaseen; Mahmood, Asad; Hamayun, Muhammad

    2016-08-01

    A number of compounds in the (1 - x)Mg0.95Zn0.05TiO3- x(Ca0.8Sr0.2)0.6 La0.267TiO3 ( x = 0 to 0.25) composition series have been obtained via a polymeric precursor route to investigate the effect of increasing (Ca0.8Sr0.2)0.6La0.267TiO3 proportion on the phase, microstructure, and microwave dielectric properties of the sintered ceramics. Composite powders having nanometric particles were obtained by calcining the precursors at 700°C. Refinement results revealed that these samples comprised a mixture of Mg0.95Zn0.05TiO3 and (Ca0.8Sr0.2)0.6La0.267TiO3 ceramics. A combination of optimum microwave dielectric properties, i.e., dielectric constant of 25.17, quality factor of 58,754 GHz, and temperature coefficient of resonant frequency of -5.8 ppm/°C, was achieved for the x = 0.2 composition sintered at 1200°C.

  5. Nanoscale order in ZnSe:(Mg, O)

    SciTech Connect

    Elyukhin, Vyacheslav A.

    2014-02-21

    Self-assembling of 1O4Mg identical tetrahedral clusters resulting in the nanoscale order in ZnSe:(Mg, O) is presented. Co-doping transforms ZnSe into Mg{sub x}Zn{sub 1−x}O{sub y}Se{sub 1−y} alloy of MgO, MgSe, ZnO and ZnSe. The decrease of a sum of the enthalpies of the constituent compounds and diminution of the strain energy are the causes of this phenomenon. The self-assembling conditions are obtained from the free energy minimum when magnesium and oxygen are in the dilute and ultra dilute limits, correspondingly. The occurrence of 1O4Mg clusters and completion of self-assembling when all oxygen atoms are in clusters are results of the continuous phase transitions. The self-assembling occurrence temperature does not depend on the oxygen content and it is a function of magnesium concentration. Mg{sub x}Zn{sub 1−x}O{sub y}Se{sub 1−y} with all oxygen atoms in clusters can be obtained in temperature ranges from T = 206 °C (x = 0.001, y = 1×10{sup −4}) to T = 456 °C (x = 0.01, y = 1×10{sup −4}) and from T = 237 °C (x = 0.001, y = 1×10{sup −6}) to T = 462 °C (x = 0.01, y = 1×10{sup −6})

  6. Blood compatibility of zinc-calcium phosphate conversion coating on Mg-1.33Li-0.6Ca alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Yu-Hong; Zeng, Rong-Chang; Wang, Qing-Zhao; Liu, Li-Jun; Xu, Qian-Qian; Wang, Chuang; Liu, Zhi-Wei

    2016-09-01

    Magnesium alloys as a new class of biomaterials possess biodegradability and biocompatibility in comparison with currently used metal implants. However, their rapid corrosion rates are necessary to be manipulated by appropriate coatings. In this paper, a new attempt was used to develop a zinc-calcium phosphate (Zn-Ca-P) conversion coating on Mg-1.33Li-0.6Ca alloys to increase the biocompatibility and improve the corrosion resistance. In vitro blood biocompatibility of the alloy with and without the Zn-Ca-P coating was investigated to determine its suitability as a degradable medical biomaterial. Blood biocompatibility was assessed from the hemolysis test, the dynamic cruor time test, blood cell count and SEM observation of the platelet adhesion to membrane surface. The results showed that the Zn-Ca-P coating on Mg-1.33Li-0.6Ca alloys had good blood compatibility, which is in accordance with the requirements for medical biomaterials.

  7. Tunable zinc interstitial related defects in ZnMgO and ZnCdO films

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Wanjun; Qin, Guoping; Fang, Liang E-mail: kchy@163.com; Ye, Lijuan; Wu, Fang; Ruan, Haibo; Zhang, Hong; Kong, Chunyang E-mail: kchy@163.com; Zhang, Ping

    2015-04-14

    We report tunable band gap of ZnO thin films grown on quartz substrates by radio frequency magnetron sputtering. The zinc interstitial (Zn{sub i}) defects in ZnO films were investigated by X-ray diffraction, Raman scattering, Auger spectra, first-principle calculations, and Hall measurement. Undoped ZnO film exhibits an anomalous Raman mode at 275 cm{sup −1}. We first report that 275 cm{sup −1} mode also can be observed in ZnO films alloyed with Mg and Cd, whose Raman intensities, interestingly, decrease and increase with increasing Mg and Cd alloying content, respectively. Combined with the previous investigations, it is deduced that 275 cm{sup −1} mode is attributed to Zn{sub i} related defects, which is demonstrated by our further experiment and theoretical calculation. Consequently, the concentration of Zn{sub i} related defects in ZnO can be tuned by alloying Mg and Cd impurity, which gives rise to different conductivity in ZnO films. These investigations help to further understand the controversial origin of the additional Raman mode at 275 cm{sup −1} and also the natural n-type conductivity in ZnO.

  8. ZnO and MgZnO Nanocrystalline Flexible Films: Optical and Material Properties

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Huso, Jesse; Morrison, John L.; Che, Hui; Sundararajan, Jency P.; Yeh, Wei Jiang; McIlroy, David; Williams, Thomas J.; Bergman, Leah

    2011-01-01

    An emore » merging material for flexible UV applications is Mg x Zn 1 − x O which is capable of tunable bandgap and luminescence in the UV range of ~3.4 eV–7.4 eV depending on the composition x . Studies on the optical and material characteristics of ZnO and Mg 0.3 Zn 0.7 O nanocrystalline flexible films are presented. The analysis indicates that the ZnO and Mg 0.3 Zn 0.7 O have bandgaps of 3.34 eV and 4.02 eV, respectively. The photoluminescence (PL) of the ZnO film was found to exhibit a structural defect-related emission at ~3.316 eV inherent to the nanocrystalline morphology. The PL of the Mg 0.3 Zn 0.7 O film exhibits two broad peaks at 3.38 eV and at 3.95 eV that are discussed in terms of the solubility limit of the ZnO-MgO alloy system. Additionally, external deformation of the film did not have a significant impact on its properties as indicated by the Raman LO-mode behavior, making these films attractive for UV flexible applications.« less

  9. Structures and unimolecular chemistry of M(Pro2-H)(+) (M = Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn) by IRMPD spectroscopy, SORI-CID, and theoretical studies.

    PubMed

    Jami-Alahmadi, Yasaman; Fridgen, Travis D

    2016-01-21

    M(Pro2-H)(+) complexes were electrosprayed and isolated in an FTICR cell where their unimolecular chemistries and structures were explored using SORI-CID and IRMPD spectroscopy. These experiments were augmented by computational methods such as electronic structure, simulated annealing, and atoms in molecules (AIM) calculations. The unimolecular chemistries of the larger metal cation (Ca(2+), Sr(2+) and Ba(2+)) complexes predominantly involve loss of neutral proline whereas the complexes involving the smaller Mg(2+) and transition metal dications tend to lose small neutral molecules such as water and carbon dioxide. Interestingly, all complexes involving transition metal dications except for Cu(Pro2-H)(+) lose H2 upon collisional or IRMPD activation. IRMPD spectroscopy shows that the intact proline in the transition metal complexes and Cu(Pro2-H)(+) is predominantly canonical (charge solvated) while for the Ca(2+), Sr(2+), and Ba(2+) complexes, proline is in its zwitterionic form. The IRMPD spectra for both Mg(Pro2-H)(+) and Mn(Pro2-H)(+) are concluded to have contributions from both charge-solvated and canonical structures.

  10. Enhanced biocorrosion resistance and biocompatibility of degradable Mg-Nd-Zn-Zr alloy by brushite coating.

    PubMed

    Niu, Jialin; Yuan, Guangyin; Liao, Yi; Mao, Lin; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Yongping; Huang, Feng; Jiang, Yao; He, Yaohua; Ding, Wenjiang

    2013-12-01

    To further improve the corrosion resistance and biocompatibility of Mg-Nd-Zn-Zr alloy (JDBM), a biodegradable calcium phosphate coating (Ca-P coating) with high bonding strength was developed using a novel chemical deposition method. The main composition of the Ca-P coating was brushite (CaHPO4·2H2O). The bonding strength between the coating and the JDBM substrate was measured to be over 10 MPa, and the thickness of the coating layer was about 10-30 μm. The in vitro corrosion tests indicated that the Ca-P treatment improved the corrosion resistance of JDBM alloy in Hank's solution. Ca-P treatment significantly reduced the hemolysis rate of JDBM alloy from 48% to 0.68%, and induced no toxicity to MC3T3-E1 cells. The in vivo implantation experiment in New Zealand's rabbit tibia showed that the degradation rate was reduced obviously by the Ca-P treatment and less gas was produced from Ca-P treated JDBM bone plates and screws in early stage of the implantation, and at least 10weeks degradation time can be prolonged by the present coating techniques. Both Ca-P treated and untreated JDBM Mg alloy induced bone growth. The primary results indicate that the present Ca-P treatment is a promising technique for the degradable Mg-based biomaterials for orthopedic applications.

  11. Biodegradable Mg-Zn-Y alloys with long-period stacking ordered structure: optimization for mechanical properties.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xu; Shi, Ling-ling; Xu, Jian

    2013-02-01

    To optimize the mechanical properties for biodegradable orthopedic implant, microstructures and tensile properties of Mg-Zn-Y alloys containing long period stacking ordered (LPSO) phase were investigated. For the as-cast Mg(100-3x)(Zn(1)Y(2))(x) (1 ≤ x ≤ 3) alloys, volume fraction of 18R LPSO phase increases with increasing the contents of Zn and Y. Mg(97)Zn(1)Y(2) alloy exhibits the optimal combination of strength and plasticity. Substitution of bioactive element Ca for Y in the Mg(97)Zn(1)Y(2) does not favor the formation of LPSO phase, but involving the formation of Mg(2)Ca phase. By micro-alloying with Zr as grain refinement agent, morphology of α-Mg in the Mg(96.83)Zn(1)Y(2)Zr(0.17) alloy is changed into the equiaxial shape, together with a significant refinement in grain size to 30 μm. It brings about an improvement not only in strength but also in plasticity, in contrast to the Zr-free alloy. In comparison with the as-cast state, warm-extruded alloys manifest significantly improved properties not only in strength but also in plasticity due to the refinement of α-Mg grain by dynamic recrystallization and the alignment of LPSO phase along extrusion direction.

  12. Propagation loss reduction of ZnMgTe/ZnTe waveguide devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Wei-Che; Kazami, Fukino; Wang, Jing; Nakasu, Taizo; Hattori, Shota; Kizu, Takeru; Hashimoto, Yuki; Kobayashi, Masakazu; Asahi, Toshiaki

    2016-08-01

    A ZnMgTe/ZnTe electro-optic (EO) waveguide has great potential to be utilized for practical applications. A low-dislocation ZnMgTe/ZnTe waveguide can be fabricated when the cladding layer thickness is below 20-fold the calculated critical layer thickness (CCLT × 20). To improve optical confinement, a waveguide with a thicker cladding layer or a higher Mg% should be considered. However, the device performance might be affected because of crystal quality deterioration since the lattice mismatch between MgTe and ZnTe was around 4.1%. In this study, optical confinement and propagation loss were examined by changing the dimensions of the ZnMgTe/ZnTe waveguide structure. The propagation loss, EO characteristics, and crystal quality of the fabricated waveguides were mainly studied. A waveguide with a cladding layer thickness of around 1.5-fold the 1/e penetration depth of the evanescent wave (d p 1/e × 1.5, corresponding to CCLT × 100) showed better optical properties than other waveguides, although its interface defect density was reasonably high.

  13. CaO segregation in MnZn-ferrite

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, I.N.; Mishra, R.K.; Thomas, G.

    1982-06-01

    The reaction between CaO and MnZn ferrite is investigated by in-situ heating in a scanning electron microscope. The existence of an intermediate phase and a eutectic liquid at about 1300/sup 0/C is observed. The CaO segregation behavior of low loss MnZn ferrite is studies by in-situ heating in transmission electron microscope and Auger electron spectroscopy. The Ca is observed to stay at the grain boundaries in the form of amorphous intermediate phase at low temperatures and in a liquid phase at the sintering temperature. 5 figures.

  14. Homoepitaxy of ZnO and MgZnO Films at 90 °C

    SciTech Connect

    Ehrentraut, Dirk; Goh, Gregory K.L.; Fujii, Katsushi; Ooi, Chin Chun; Quang, Le Hong; Fukuda, Tsuguo; Kano, Masataka; Zhang, Yuantao; Matsuoka, Takashi

    2014-06-01

    The aqueous synthesis of uniform single crystalline homoepitaxial zinc oxide, ZnO, and magnesium zinc oxide, Mg{sub x}Zn{sub 1−x}O, films under very low temperature conditions at T=90 °C and ambient pressure has been explored. A maximum Mg content of 1 mol% was recorded by energy dispersive spectroscopy. The growth on the polar (0 0 0 1) and (0 0 0 1¯) faces resulted in films that are strongly different in their structural and optical quality as evidenced by high-resolution X-ray diffraction, secondary electron microscopy, and photoluminescence. This is a result of the chemistry and temperature of the solution dictating the stability range of growth-governing metastable species. The use of trisodium citrate, Na{sub 3}C{sub 6}H{sub 5}O{sub 7}, yielded coalesced, mirror-like homoepitaxial films whereas adding magnesium nitrate hexahydrate, Mg(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}·6H{sub 2}O, favors the growth of films with pronounced faceting. - Graphical abstract: Homoepitaxial ZnO films grown from aqueous solution below boiling point of water on a ZnO substrate with off-orientation reveal parallel grooves that are characterized by (1 0 1{sup ¯} 1) facets. Adding trisodium citrate yields closed, single-crystalline ZnO films, which can further be functionalized. Alloying with MgO yields MgZnO films with low Mg content only. - Highlights: • A simple method to synthesize uniform single crystalline homoepitaxial ZnO and MgZnO films. • ZnO growth on (0 0 0 1) and (0 0 0 1{sup ¯}) face resulted in films that are strongly different in their structural and optical quality. • Single crystalline MgZnO film was fabricated under mild conditions (90 °C and ambient pressure). • Mg incorporation of nearly 1 mol% was obtained while maintaining single phase wurtzite structure.

  15. Phosphate Capacities of CaF2-MgO and CaF2-CaO-MgO Slags

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbari, F.; Pickles, C. A.

    2015-02-01

    Previously published sulphide capacity data and thermodynamic arguments have been employed to calculate the phosphate capacities and the phosphorus partition ratios between a molten carbon saturated iron alloy and binary CaF2-MgO slags and also ternary CaF2 -CaO-MgO slags at 1450 °C. For the CaF2-MgO binary system, a linear relationship was found between the phosphate and the sulphide capacities as follows: log ? = 1.2 log Cs + 25.2. For the ternary CaF2-CaO-MgO system at 1450 °C, the logarithm of the calculated phosphate capacities ranged from 19.47 to 20.15. With the addition of CaO, the phosphate capacities initially increased, reached a maximum and then decreased slightly. The addition of MgO to the CaF2-CaO system resulted in a decrease in the phosphate capacity. The calculated phosphorus partition ratios increased slightly with increasing mole fraction of CaO in the ternary system.

  16. Preparation and magnetic properties of MgZn and MnZn ferrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skołyszewska, B.; Tokarz, W.; Przybylski, K.; Kaķol, Z.

    2003-05-01

    Synthesis of magnesium-zinc [(Mg 0.63Zn 0.37)(Mn 0.1Fe 1.8)O 3.85] and manganese-zinc [(Mn 0.55Zn 0.35Fe 0.1)Fe 2O 4] ferrites by solid-state reaction method is described. Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface areas of the ferrite powders used for synthesis were 2.63 m 2/g for magnesium-zinc ferrite and 2.86 m 2/g for manganese-zinc ferrite respectively. The dense sintered bodies of MgZn and MnZn ferrites obtained at 1250-1300 °C were characterized by the presence of Fe 2O 3 particles uniformly dispersed through a cross-section. Saturation magnetization and hysteresis loops of MgZn and MnZn ferrites were measured using a vibrating magnetometer for both powdered and sintered samples. The samples were distinguished by small core losses and small coercive forces characteristic for soft magnetic materials. The hysteresis loops width for powdered materials were of the order of 15-35 Oe, whereas for sintered specimens they were less than 1 Oe. The saturation magnetization for powders were different from that for sintered samples. The microstructure, chemical, and phase analyses of powders and sintered bodies of ferrites were conducted by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), by energy dispersion X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD).

  17. Synthesis and Characterization of Mg-doped ZnO Nanorods for Biomedical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gemar, H.; Das, N. C.; Wanekaya, A.; Delong, R.; Ghosh, K.

    2013-03-01

    Nanomaterials research has become a major attraction in the field of advanced materials research in the area of Physics, Chemistry, and Materials Science. Bio-compatible and chemically stable metal nanoparticles have biomedical applications that includes drug delivery, cell and DNA separation, gene cloning, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This research is aimed at the fabrication and characterization of Mg-doped ZnO nanorods. Hydrothermal synthesis of undoped ZnO and Mg-doped ZnO nanorods is carried out using aqueous solutions of Zn(NO3)2 .6H2O, MgSO4, and using NH4OH as hydrolytic catalyst. Nanomaterials of different sizes and shapes were synthesized by varying the process parameters such as molarity (0.15M, 0.3M, 0.5M) and pH (8-11) of the precursors, growth temperature (130°C), and annealing time during the hydrothermal Process. Structural, morphological, and optical properties are studied using various techniques such as XRD, SEM, UV-vis and PL spectroscopy. Detailed structural, and optical properties will be discussed in this presentation. This work is partially supported by National Cancer Institute (1 R15 CA139390-01).

  18. Growth rate effects on Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca ratios constrained by belemnite calcite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinzenz Ullmann, Clemens

    2016-04-01

    Multiple temperature proxies from single species are important to achieve robust palaeotemperature estimates. Besides the commonly employed oxygen isotope thermometer, also Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca ratios perform well as proxies for calcification temperature in the shells of some species. While salinity changes affect the ratios of earth alkaline elements much less than the δ18O thermometer, metabolic effects may exert a strong control on the expression of element ratios. Such effects are hard to study because biomineralization experiments have to overcome large intraspecific variability and can hardly ever isolate the controls of a single parameter on shell geochemistry. The unique geometry of the belemnite rostrum constitutes an exception to this rule. Its shape, large size, and the visibility of growth increments as bands enable the analysis of multiple, correlatable, high resolution geochemical profiles in a single fossil. The effects of the growth rate variability amongst these profiles on Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca ratios has been tested here. Within a specimen of Passaloteuthis bisulcata (Early Toarcian, Cleveland Basin, UK), Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca data were obtained from four profiles. With respect to growth rate in the first profile, which was taken as a reference, the relative growth rates in the remaining three profiles varied by a factor of 0.9 to 2.7. Results suggest that relative growth rate is linearly correlated with Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca, with a decrease of Mg/Ca by 8 % and increase of Sr/Ca by 6 % per 100 % increase in relative growth rate. The observed trends are consistent with abiogenic precipitation experiments and suggest that crystal precipitation rate exerts a significant, predictable control on the element distribution in biogenic calcite.

  19. A Bayesian, multivariate calibration for Globigerinoides ruber Mg/Ca

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khider, D.; Huerta, G.; Jackson, C.; Stott, L. D.; Emile-Geay, J.

    2015-09-01

    The use of Mg/Ca in marine carbonates as a paleothermometer has been challenged by observations that implicate salinity as a contributing influence on Mg incorporation into biotic calcite and that dissolution at the sea-floor alters the original Mg/Ca. Yet, these factors have not yet been incorporated into a single calibration model. We introduce a new Bayesian calibration for Globigerinoides ruber Mg/Ca based on 186 globally distributed core top samples, which explicitly takes into account the effect of temperature, salinity, and dissolution on this proxy. Our reported temperature, salinity, and dissolution (here expressed as deep-water ΔCO32-) sensitivities are (±2σ) 8.7±0.9%/°C, 3.9±1.2%/psu, and 3.3±1.3%/μmol.kg-1 below a critical threshold of 21 μmol/kg in good agreement with previous culturing and core-top studies. We then perform a sensitivity experiment on a published record from the western tropical Pacific to investigate the bias introduced by these secondary influences on the interpretation of past temperature variability. This experiment highlights the potential for misinterpretations of past oceanographic changes when the secondary influences of salinity and dissolution are not accounted for. Multiproxy approaches could potentially help deconvolve the contributing influences but this awaits better characterization of the spatio-temporal relationship between salinity and δ18Osw over millennial and orbital timescales.

  20. 491-nm ZnCeSe/ZnSe/ZnMgSSe SCH Laser Diode with a Low Operating Voltage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoh, Satoshi; Nakayama, Norikazu; Ohata, Toyoharu; Ozawa, Masafumi; Okuyama, Hiroyuki; Nakano, Kazushi; Ishibashi, Akira; Ikeda, Masao; Mori, Yoshifumi

    1993-10-01

    Room temperature pulsed operation of ZnCdSe/ZnSe/ZnMgSSe separate-confinement heterostructure lasers has been achieved at a wavelength of 491 nm, which is the shortest wavelength at room temperature ever reported. The laser structure was made by molecular beam epitaxy on n-GaAs substrate. The operating current density was 3.8 kA/cm2 for a diode with a 720 μm long and 10 μm wide stripe. An operating voltage of 9 V has been obtained at the threshold current using improved contact layers and ohmic metals.

  1. SrZn2Sn2 and Ca2Zn3Sn6 — two new Ae-Zn-Sn polar intermetallic compounds (Ae: alkaline earth metal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stegmaier, Saskia; Fässler, Thomas F.

    2012-08-01

    SrZn2Sn2 and Ca2Zn3Sn6, two closely related new polar intermetallic compounds, were obtained by high temperature reactions of the elements. Their crystal structures were determined with single crystal XRD methods, and their electronic structures were analyzed by means of DFT calculations. The Zn-Sn structure part of SrZn2Sn2 comprises (anti-)PbO-like {ZnSn4/4} and {SnZn4/4} layers. Ca2Zn3Sn6 shows similar {ZnSn4/4} layers and {Sn4Zn} slabs constructed of a covalently bonded Sn scaffold capped by Zn atoms. For both phases, the two types of layers are alternatingly stacked and interconnected via Zn-Sn bonds. SrZn2Sn2 adopts the SrPd2Bi2 structure type, and Ca2Zn3Sn6 is isotypic to the R2Zn3Ge6 compounds (R=La, Ce, Pr, Nd). Band structure calculations indicate that both SrZn2Sn2 and Ca2Zn3Sn6 are metallic. Analyses of the chemical bonding with the electron localization function (ELF) show lone pair like basins at Sn atoms and Zn-Sn bonding interactions between the layers for both title phases, and covalent Sn-Sn bonding within the {Sn4Zn} layers of Ca2Zn3Sn6.

  2. The modulation of grain boundary barrier in ZnMgO/ZnO heterostructure by surface polar liquid

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Xu; Zhu, Yuan; Chen, Mingming; Su, Longxing; Chen, Anqi; Gui, Xuchun; Xiang, Rong; Tang, Zikang

    2014-01-01

    Modulation of grain boundary barrier in ZnO layer by polar liquid, was investigated in ZnMgO/ZnO heterostructures grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. Traditionally, surface adsorbates can only affect the surface atoms or surface electronic states. However, it was found that the electronic conduction property of ZnO far from the surface could be tailored obviously by the polar liquid adsorbed on the ZnMgO surface. Physically, this phenomenon is supposed to be caused by the electrostatical couple between the liquid polarity and the grain boundary barrier in the ZnO layer through crystal polarization field. PMID:24566523

  3. Liquation Cracking in Arc and Friction-Stir Welding of Mg-Zn Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Dustin C.; Chai, Xiao; Tang, Xin; Kou, Sindo

    2015-01-01

    As compared to Al alloys, which are known to be susceptible to liquation ( i.e., liquid formation) and liquation-induced cracking, most Mg alloys have a lower eutectic temperature and thus are likely to be even more susceptible. The present study was conducted to study liquation and liquation cracking in Mg alloys during arc welding and friction-stir welding (FSW). Binary Mg-Zn alloys were selected as a model material in view of their very low eutectic temperature of 613 K (340 °C). Mg-Zn alloys with 2, 4, and 6 wt pct of Zn were cast and welded in the as-cast condition by both gas-tungsten arc welding (GTAW) and FSW. A simple test for liquation cracking was developed, which avoided interference by solidification cracking in the nearby fusion zone. Liquation and liquation cracking in GTAW were found to be in the decreasing order of Mg-6Zn, Mg-4Zn, and Mg-2Zn. Liquation cracking occurred in FSW of Mg-6Zn but not Mg-4Zn or Mg-2Zn. Instead of a continuous ribbon-like flash connected to the weld edge, small chips, and powder covered the weld surface of Mg-6Zn. The results from GTAW and FSW were discussed in light of the binary Mg-Zn phase diagram and the curves of temperature vs fraction solid during solidification.

  4. Biocompatibility Assessment of Novel Bioresorbable Alloys Mg-Zn-Se and Mg-Zn-Cu for Endovascular Applications: In- Vitro Studies

    PubMed Central

    Budiansky, Noah; McGoron, Anthony J.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that using biodegradable magnesium alloys such as Mg-Zn and Mg-Zn-Al possess the appropriate mechanical properties and biocompatibility to serve in a multitude of biological applications ranging from endovascular to orthopedic and fixation devices. The objective of this study was to evaluate the biocompatibility of novel as-cast magnesium alloys Mg-1Zn-1Cu wt.% and Mg-1Zn-1Se wt.% as potential implantable biomedical materials, and compare their biologically effective properties to a binary Mg-Zn alloy. The cytotoxicity of these experimental alloys was evaluated using a tetrazolium based- MTS (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium) assay and a lactate dehydrogenase membrane integrity assay (LDH). The MTS assay was performed on extract solutions obtained from a 30-day period of alloy immersion and agitation in simulated body fluid to evaluate the major degradation products eluted from the alloy materials. Human foreskin fibroblast cell growth on the experimental magnesium alloys was evaluated for a 72 hour period, and cell death was quantified by measuring lactate dehydrogenase concentrations. Both Mg-Zn-Se and Mg-Zn-Cu alloys exhibit low cytotoxicity levels which are suitable for biomaterial applications. The Mg-Zn-Cu alloy was found to completely degrade within 72 hours, resulting in lower human foreskin fibroblast cell viability. The Mg-Zn-Se alloy was shown to be less cytotoxic than both the Mg-Zn-Cu and Mg-Zn alloys. PMID:24058329

  5. Influence of valence electron concentration on Laves phases: Structures and phase stability of pseudo-binary MgZn2-xPdx

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Thimmaiah, Srinivasa; Miller, Gordon J.

    2015-06-03

    A series of pseudo-binary compounds MgZn2-xPdx (0.15 ≤ x ≤ 1.0) were synthesized and structurally characterized to understand the role of valence electron concentration (vec) on the prototype Laves phase MgZn2 with Pd-substitution. Three distinctive phase regions were observed with respect to Pd content, all exhibiting fundamental Laves phase structures: 0.1 ≤ x ≤ 0.3 (MgNi2-type, hP24; MgZn1.80Pd0.20(2)), 0.4 ≤ x ≤ 0.6 (MgCu2-type, cF24; MgZn1.59Pd0.41(2)), and 0.62 ≤ x ≤ 0.8 (MgZn2-type, hP12: MgZn1.37Pd0.63(2)). Refinements from single-crystal X-ray diffraction indicated nearly statistical distributions of Pd and Zn atoms among the majority atom sites in these structures. Interestingly, the MgZn2-typemore » structure re-emerges in MgZn2–xPdx at x ≈ 0.7 with the refined composition MgZn1.37(2)Pd0.63 and a c/a ratio of 1.59 compared to 1.64 for binary MgZn2. Electronic structure calculations on a model “MgZn1.25Pd0.75” yielded a density of states (DOS) curve showing enhancement of a pseudogap at the Fermi level as a result of electronic stabilization due to the Pd addition. Moreover, integrated crystal orbital Hamilton population values show significant increases of orbital interactions for (Zn,Pd)–(Zn,Pd) atom pairs within the majority atom substructure, i.e., within the Kagomé nets as well as between a Kagomé net and an apical site, from binary MgZn2 to the ternary “MgZn1.25Pd0.75”. Multi-centered bonding is evident from electron localization function plots for “MgZn1.25Pd0.75”, an outcome which is in accordance with analysis of other Laves phases.« less

  6. The ZnO p-n homojunctions modulated by ZnMgO barriers

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Jing-Jing; Fang, Qing-Qing Wang, Dan-Dan; Du, Wen-Han

    2015-04-15

    In this paper, we fabricated the ultrathin ZnO p-n homojunctions, which modulated by ZnMgO asymmetrical double barriers (ADB). The ADB p-n homojunctions displays step-like curve in the absorption spectrums, this is the first time that quantum confinement effect has been observed in the absorption spectrums at room temperature (RT). The Hall-effect data confirm there is 2-dimensional electron gas in the interface of the ZnMgO ADB p-n junctions. The quantum confinement effect enhances the hall-mobility μ to 10{sup 3} cm{sup 2}V {sup −1}s{sup −1} based on the polarity of the films. There was no rectification property in the ZnO homojunctions with thickness of 250nm, however, when the ADB was added in the n-type layer of the homojunctions, it displays a typical Zener diode rectification property in the I-V curve.

  7. Structural and optical properties of MgO doped ZnO

    SciTech Connect

    Verma, Kavita; Shukla, S.; Varshney, Dinesh; Varshney, M.; Asthana, A.

    2014-04-24

    Samples of ZnO, Zn{sub 0.5}Mg{sub 0.5}O and MgO were prepared by co-precipitation method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern infers that the sample of ZnO is in single-phase wurtzite structure (hexagonal phase, space group P6{sub 3}mc), MgO crystallizes in cubic Fd3m space group and Zn{sub 0.5}Mg{sub 0.5}O represents mixed nature of ZnO and MgO lattices. Similar features were observed from Raman spectroscopy. The energy band gaps estimated from UV-Vis spectroscopy are found to be 4.21 and 3.42 eV for ZnO and Zn{sub 0.5}Mg{sub 0.5}O samples respectively.

  8. NMR study of crystallization in MgO-CaO-SiO 2-P 2O 5 glass-ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Hai-Lan; Yue, Yong; Ye, Chao-Hui; Guo, Li-Ping; Lei, Jia-Heng

    1998-08-01

    29Si and 31P magic-angle-spinning (MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements were employed to investigate crystallization in MgO-CaO-SiO 2-P 2O 5 bioglass-ceramics. The results suggest that wollastonite (β-CaSiO 3) is separated as a new crystalline phase, corresponding to the appearance of a sharp signal in the 29Si MAS NMR spectra, while oxyapatite (Ca 10(PO 4) 6O) forms in the process of the order of the phosphorus-rich phases increasing as a whole, corresponding to the gradual narrowing of 31P MAS NMR spectra. ZnO can make the glass stable and difficult to crystallize at a low temperature, while at a high temperature, ZnO can participate in the crystallization of β-CaSiO 3 and promote it.

  9. Impact of Mg Content on (Mg,Zn)O Native Point Defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ball, Molly; Restrepo, Oscar; Brillson, Leonard; Windl, Wolfgang; Department of Material Science; Engineering Collaboration; Department of Physics Collaboration

    2015-03-01

    The two most thermodynamically stable defects in ZnO are oxygen vacancies (VO) and zinc vacancies (VZn) . These native point defects are electrically charged and can contribute to free carrier densities. Experiment shows that Mg addition to ZnO significantly changes native defect densities. To better understand this dramatic decrease in VZn and VO-related defects with increasing Mg content up to x =0.44 and the subsequent increase, we performed density functional theory (DFT) calculations using PAW potentials within PBE using VASP. The results showed to be very sensitive to DFT method used and chemical-potential calculation. For the latter, the literature shows that one can assume that the oxygen chemical potential equals that of the atoms in the oxygen molecules at a given surrounding partial oxygen pressure. However, one can also postulate that the total defect concentrations conserve the stoichiometry, or limiting potentials from elemental equilibrium phases can be used. The experimentally observed dependence helped identify the correct way to reproduce the experimental dependence of formation energy on Mg concentration, which will be discussed in detail in this presentation.

  10. Dual-color ultraviolet photodetector based on mixed-phase-MgZnO/i-MgO/p-Si double heterojunction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, X. H.; Zhang, Z. Z.; Shan, C. X.; Chen, H. Y.; Shen, D. Z.

    2012-08-01

    We report a dual-color ultraviolet (UV) photodetector based on mixed-phase-MgZnO/i-MgO/p-Si double heterojunction. The device exhibits distinct dominant responses at solar blind (250 nm) and visible blind (around 330 nm) UV regions under different reverse biases. By using the energy band diagram of the structure, it is found that the bias-tunable two-color detection is originated from different valence band offset between cubic MgZnO/MgO and hexagonal MgZnO/MgO. Meanwhile, due to the large conduction band offset at the Si/MgO interface, the visible-light photoresponse from Si substrate is suppressed.

  11. Differential responses of the Mg/Ca Ratio in scleractinians to variations in Mg2+ and Ca2+ content of seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swart, P. K.; Giri, S.; Adkins, J. F.

    2014-12-01

    Although it is well known that the Mg2+/Ca2+ ratio of seawater has varied throughout the Phanerozoic, there is little information on whether the concentration of Ca2+ has changed in conjunction with Mg2+ or whether these two elements have changed independently. In addition while it has been documented that the Mg/Ca has varied within scleractinian corals during certain time periods, there have been no studies which have verified that changing Mg/Ca ratio in corals corresponds with a similar variation in seawater. Here we report studies using Modern corals which have been grown for an extended period of time (10 weeks) in elevated Ca2+and Mg2+ concentrations. While these studies show that the Mg2+/Ca2+ of the seawater is related to the same ratio in the coral skeleton, the slope of the relationship is dependent upon which of the two cations is altered. When the Ca2+ is increased, thereby decreasing the Mg2+/Ca2+ ratio in seawater, then the ratio within the skeleton decreases by ~0.7 mM/M for every 1 M/M decrease in the Mg2+ / Ca2+ ratio in the external seawater. However, when the Mg2+/Ca2+ ratio is altered by adding Mg2+, then there is an increase is ~2 mM/M for every 1 M/M increase in Mg2+/Ca2+. Assuming that such changes can be replicated by the reverse experiment, i.e. reducing the concentration of Ca2+ and Mg2+, then such a finding offers a solution to resolving whether the Mg/Ca ratio in ancient unaltered corals is responding to a change in Mg2+ or a change in Ca2+ in seawater. For example, the Mg/Ca ratios of unaltered corals from a defined time period might only be possible if the Ca2+ of seawater was altered rather than Mg2+. The reverse might be case for other time periods. Further supporting evidence for this hypothesis will be presented by other elements which exhibited unexpected behavior in response to changing Ca2+ and Mg2+.

  12. Experimental and calculated phases in two as-cast and annealed Mg-Zn-Y alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Farzadfar, S.A.; Sanjari, M.; Jung, I.-H.; Essadiqi, E.; Yue, S.

    2012-01-15

    The CALPHAD (Calculation of Phase Diagram) method was used to select ternary alloys from Mg-Zn-Y system, aimed at determining the role of precipitates in the microstructure and texture evolution of Mg during and after deformation. The selected alloys are Mg-6Zn-1.2Y and Mg-5Zn-2Y. The constituent phases in the as-cast Mg-6Zn-1.2Y alloy are {alpha}-Mg solid solution phase and I (Mg{sub 3}YZn{sub 6}) intermetallic phase. The as-cast Mg-5Zn-2Y alloy is composed of {alpha}-Mg, I and W (Mg{sub 3}Y{sub 2}Zn{sub 3}) phases. The intermetallics in the two alloys form by eutectic reaction, which in Mg-5Zn-2Y alloy results in initially W-phase formation and ultimately I-phase formation during solidification. After heat treatment, the Mg-6Zn-1.2Y and Mg-5Zn-2Y alloys contain nearly the same amount of ternary intermetallics (I and W phases, respectively) in equilibrium with {alpha}-Mg solid solution phase. The main solute in {alpha}-Mg phase is Zn with the same amount in the two alloys. The type and quantity of the phases obtained experimentally disagree with the results obtained from the thermodynamic database. One important discrepancy is that, in Mg-6Zn-1.2Y alloy, the I phase is not stable at the temperature of 430 Degree-Sign C, and that the W phase is the stable phase at this temperature. The differences in the experimental and calculated data indicate that the Mg-Zn-Y system requires to be reassessed with more experimental data. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mg-6Zn-1.2Y and Mg-5Zn-2Y alloys were selected by FactSage Trade-Mark-Sign Thermodynamic software. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The I and W intermetallics in the two alloys form by eutectic reaction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The alloys contain similar amounts of different intermetallics in equilibrium with {alpha}-Mg. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In Mg-6Zn-1.2Y, the I phase is not stable at the temperature of 430 Degree-Sign C. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The hardness of W phase is determined to be

  13. In vivo comparative property study of the bioactivity of coated Mg-3Zn-0.8Zr alloy.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jin'e; Wang, Jingbo; Jiang, Hongfeng; Chen, Minfang; Bi, Yanze; Liu, Debao

    2013-08-01

    In this in vivo study, degradable Mg-3Zn-0.8Zr cylinders were coated with a calcium phosphorus compound (Ca-P) layer or a magnesium fluoride (MgF2) layer; uncoated Mg-3Zn-0.8Zr alloy was used as a control. These were then implanted intramedullary into the femora of nine Japanese big-ear white rabbits for implantation periods of 1, 2 and 3 months. During the postoperative observation period with radiographic examination, the results showed that the MgF2-coated implants were tolerated well compared to the Ca-P-coated implants and uncoated implants. Moreover, large amounts of cells, rich fibrillar collagen and calcium and phosphorus products were found on the surface of the MgF2-coated implants using scanning electron microscopy. Micro-computed tomography further showed a slight decrease in volume (23.85%) and a greater increase in new bone mass (new bone volume fraction=11.56%, tissue mineral density=248.81 mg/cm(3)) for the MgF2-coated implants in comparison to uncoated and Ca-P compound-coated implants after 3 months of implantation.

  14. Influence of Ca/Mg ratio on phytoextraction properties of Salix viminalis. II. Secretion of low molecular weight organic acids to the rhizosphere.

    PubMed

    Magdziak, Z; Kozlowska, M; Kaczmarek, Z; Mleczek, M; Chadzinikolau, T; Drzewiecka, K; Golinski, P

    2011-01-01

    A hydroponic experiment in a phytotron was performed to investigate the effect of two different Ca/Mg ratios (4:1 and 1:10) and trace element ions (Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) in solution on the efficiency of low molecular weight organic acid (LMWOA) formation in Salix viminalis rhizosphere. Depending on the Ca/Mg ratio and presence of selected trace elements at 0.5mM concentration, the amount and kind of LMWOAs in the rhizosphere were significantly affected. In physiological 4:1 Ca/Mg ratio the following complex of acids was observed: malonic (Pb, Zn), citric, lactic, maleic and succinic (Zn) acids. Under 1:10 Ca/Mg ratio, citric (Cd, Zn), maleic and succinic (Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn) acids were seen. Additionally, high accumulation of zinc and copper in all systems was observed, with the exception of those where one of the metals was at higher concentration. Summing up, the results indicate a significant role of LMWOAs in Salix phytoremediation abilities. Both effects can be modulated depending on the mutual Ca/Mg ratio.

  15. Effect of Mg diffusion on photoluminescence spectra of MgZnO/ZnO bi-layers annealed at different temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Amit K.; Misra, P.; Ajimsha, R. S.; Bose, A.; Joshi, S. C.; Porwal, S.; Sharma, T. K.; Oak, S. M.; Kukreja, L. M.

    2013-11-01

    MgZnO/ZnO bilayers (Mg concentration of ˜30%) have been grown and subsequently annealed at different temperatures in the range of 600-900 °C with the specific interest of studying the effect of inter-diffusion of Mg on the photoluminescence (PL) properties of the bilayers. The influence of Mg diffusion and material homogenization is evaluated through absorption, PL, and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) measurements. No appreciable change in the spectral positions is seen either in PL or absorption up to an annealing temperature of 700 °C, which is also supported by SIMS. However at higher annealing temperatures, diffusion of Mg into the ZnO layer is clearly evident in SIMS profile, which results in the red-shift (blue-shift) of spectral positions of MgZnO (ZnO) layer, respectively. Finally, for the sample annealed at 900 °C, the two layers are completely merged providing a single peak at ˜3.60 eV in PL/absorption corresponding to a completely homogenized MgZnO layer. Spectroscopic results are corroborated by the numerical simulations based on a simple theoretical model, which correlates the observed PL spectra of the heterostructures with the experimental Mg diffusion profiles across the heterointerface, as measured by SIMS.

  16. Structural, Electronic and Elastic Properties of MgH2, CaH2 and Ca4Mg3H14 for Hydrogen Storage Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djellab, Sihem; Bouhadda, Youcef; Bououdina, Mohamed; Fenineche, Noureddine; Boudouma, Youcef

    2016-08-01

    The structural, electronic and elastic properties of MgH2, CaH2 and Ca4Mg3H14 have been determined using first principles calculation based on density functional theory. The calculated lattice constants were in good agreement with the experimental values. The electronic density of states revealed that these hydrides are insulators. The calculated elastic constants of MgH2, CaH2 and Ca4Mg3H14 indicated that these hydrides are mechanically stable at zero pressure. The bulk modulus B, shear modulus G, Young's modulus E, and Poisson's ratio ν were derived, and the ductility was discussed.

  17. Zn2Mg alkaline phosphatase in an early ptolemeic mummy.

    PubMed

    Kaup, Y; Baumer, U; Koller, J; Hedges, R E; Werner, H; Hartmann, H J; Etspüler, H; Weser, U

    1994-01-01

    Bone samples of a ptolemeic mummy have been employed to study the mode of conservation on the intactness of Zn2Mg alkaline phosphatase in both structure and catalytic activity. A protein of M(r) = 190 +/- 10 kDa being identical to the 200 kDa enzyme of fresh human bones was successfully isolated. Regardless of age 200 kDa protein bands and a distinct subunit at 60 kDa were seen in SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. The 200 kDa band was also monitored by activity staining. The specific activity was 120 mU/mg and 65% of the respective activity obtained in the identical preparation using fresh human tibia or rib. The enzymic activity was inhibited in the presence of 1,10-phenanthroline and L-homoarginine. Radiocarbon dating supported the assignment of the mummy to the early ptolemeic period. Among the many bactericidal and fungicidal components employed for mummification were aromatic alcohols, mono- and sesquiterpenes. Pistachio resin was the major balm resin used. The microbiological sterility of the bone surface was ascertained by independent bacterial and fungal examinations.

  18. Uptake of Ca2+ mediated by the (Ca2+ + Mg2+)-ATPase in reconstituted vesicles.

    PubMed

    Gould, G W; McWhirter, J M; East, J M; Lee, A G

    1987-11-01

    The (Ca2+ + Mg2+)-ATPase was purified from skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum and reconstituted into sealed phospholipid vesicles by solution in cholate and deoxycholate followed by detergent removal on a column of Sephadex G-50. The level of Ca2+ accumulated by these vesicles, either in the presence or absence of phosphate within the vesicles, increased with increasing content of phosphatidylethanolamine in the phospholipid mixture used for the reconstitution. The levels of Ca2+ accumulated in the absence of phosphate were very low for vesicles reconstituted with egg yolk phosphatidylcholine alone at pH 7.4, but increased markedly with decreasing pH to 6.0. Uptake was also relatively low for vesicles reconstituted with dimyristoleoyl- or dinervonylphosphatidylcholine, and addition of cholesterol had little effect. The level of Ca2+ accumulated increased with increasing external K+ concentration, and was also increased by the ionophores FCCP and valinomycin. Vesicle sizes changed little with changing phosphatidylethanolamine content, and the sidedness of insertion of the ATPase was close to random at all phosphatidylethanolamine contents. It is suggested that the effect of phosphatidylethanolamine on the level of Ca2+ accumulation follows from an effect on the rate of Ca2+ efflux mediated by the ATPase.

  19. Air-gap gating of MgZnO/ZnO heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Tambo, T.; Falson, J. Kozuka, Y.; Maryenko, D.; Tsukazaki, A.; Kawasaki, M.

    2014-08-28

    The adaptation of “air-gap” dielectric based field-effect transistor technology to controlling the MgZnO/ZnO heterointerface confined two-dimensional electron system (2DES) is reported. We find it possible to tune the charge density of the 2DES via a gate electrode spatially separated from the heterostructure surface by a distance of 5 μm. Under static gating, the observation of the quantum Hall effect suggests that the charge carrier density remains homogeneous, with the 2DES in the 3 mm square sample the sole conductor. The availability of this technology enables the exploration of the charge carrier density degree of freedom in the pristine sample limit.

  20. Spin-Selective Electron Quantum Transport in Nonmagnetic MgZnO/ZnO Heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Maryenko, D; Falson, J; Bahramy, M S; Dmitriev, I A; Kozuka, Y; Tsukazaki, A; Kawasaki, M

    2015-11-01

    We report magnetotransport measurements on a high-mobility two-dimensional electron system at the nonmagnetic MgZnO/ZnO heterointerface showing distinct behavior for electrons with spin-up and spin-down orientations. The low-field Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations manifest alternating resistance peak heights which can be attributed to distinct scattering rates for different spin orientations. The tilt-field measurements at a half-integer filling factor reveal that the majority spins show usual diffusive behavior, i.e., peaks with the magnitude proportional to the index of the Landau level at the Fermi energy. By contrast, the minority spins develop "plateaus" with the magnitude of dissipative resistivity that is fairly independent of the Landau level index and is of the order of the zero-field resistivity. PMID:26588414

  1. Exciton dynamics in individual semimagnetic (Zn,Mn)Te/(Zn,Mg)Te nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Gałkowski, K.; Papierska, J.; Sawicki, K.; Kossacki, P.; Suffczyński, J.; Wojnar, P.; Janik, E.

    2015-09-07

    Dynamics and mechanisms of photocreated carriers decay in individual core/shell (Zn,Mn)Te/(Zn,Mg)Te semimagnetic nanowires are studied with a high temporal resolution. Exciton lifetime determined to 44 ± 5 ps is found to increase to 78 ± 5 ps upon application of magnetic field of up to 10 T. A quantitative modeling attributes the effects observed in time-resolved and time-integrated micro-photoluminescence to the magnetic field induced quenching of exchange Auger type, non-radiative carrier recombination related to Mn{sup 2+} ions. The reported properties of the semimagnetic nanowires are promising for their implementation in high-speed devices exploiting light-induced conductivity.

  2. On the synthesis, structural, optical and magnetic properties of nano-size Zn-MgO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varshney, Dinesh; Dwivedi, Sonam

    2015-09-01

    Chemical co-precipitation method is employed to synthesize ZnO, MgO and Zn0.5Mg0.5O nanoparticles. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern infers that the sample of ZnO is in single-phase wurtzite structure (hexagonal phase, P63mc), MgO crystallizes in cubic Fd3m space group and Zn0.5Mg0.5O represents mixed nature of ZnO and MgO lattices. MgO nanocrystals band around 1078 cm-1 is ascribed to the TO-LO surface phonon modes in MgO lattice. In case of Zn0.5Mg0.5O lattice illustrating two bands at 436 and 1087 cm-1. FTIR spectra clearly show the broad band within 450-600 cm-1 is associated with the special vibration of magnesium oxide. FT-IR spectrum of Zn0.5Mg0.5O represents the combined bands of both ZnO-MgO oxides. Further the optical study obtained value of MgO (4.08 eV) is much lower than the corresponding bulk value (7.08 eV). All samples show diamagnetic nature at room temperature.

  3. In vitro degradation and cytotoxicity of Mg/Ca composites produced by powder metallurgy.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Y F; Gu, X N; Xi, Y L; Chai, D L

    2010-05-01

    Mg/Ca (1 wt.%, 5 wt.%, 10 wt.% Ca) composites were prepared from pure magnesium and calcium powders using the powder metallurgy method, aiming to enlarge the addition of Ca content without the formation of Mg(2)Ca. The microstructures, mechanical properties and cytotoxicities of Mg/Ca composite samples were investigated. The corrosion of Mg/Ca composites in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) for various immersion intervals was studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements and environmental scanning electron microscope, with the concentrations of released Mg and Ca ions in DMEM for various immersion time intervals being measured. It was shown that the main constitutional phases were Mg and Ca, which were uniformly distributed in the Mg matrix. The ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and elongation of experimental composites decreased with increasing Ca content, and the UTS of Mg/1Ca composite was comparable with that of as-extruded Mg-1Ca alloy. The corrosion potential increased with increasing Ca content, whereas the current density and the impedance decreased. It was found that the protective surface film formed quickly at the initial immersion stage. With increasing immersion time, the surface film became compact, and the corrosion rate of Mg/Ca composites slowed down. The surface film consisted mainly of CaCO(3), MgCO(3)x3H(2)O, HA and Mg(OH)(2) after 72 h immersion in DMEM. Mg/1Ca and Mg/5Ca composite extracts had no significant toxicity (p>0.05) to L-929 cells, whereas Mg/10Ca composite extract induced approximately 40% reduced cell viability.

  4. Controls on Sr/Ca and Mg/Ca in scleractinian corals: The effects of Ca-ATPase and transcellular Ca channels on skeletal chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emif Allison, Nicola; Cohen, Itay; Finch, Adrian A.; Erez, Jonathan

    2011-11-01

    The Sr/Ca of aragonitic coral skeletons is a commonly used palaeothermometer. However skeletal Sr/Ca is typically dominated by weekly-monthly oscillations which do not reflect temperature or seawater composition and the origins of which are currently unknown. To test the impact of transcellular Ca2+ transport processes on skeletal Sr/Ca, colonies of the branching coral, Pocillopora damicornis, were cultured in the presence of inhibitors of Ca-ATPase (ruthenium red) and Ca channels (verapamil hydrochloride). The photosynthesis, respiration and calcification rates of the colonies were monitored throughout the experiment. The skeleton deposited in the presence of the inhibitors was identified (by 42Ca spike) and analysed for Sr/Ca and Mg/Ca by secondary ion mass spectrometry. The Sr/Ca of the aragonite deposited in the presence of either of the inhibitors was not significantly different from that of the solvent (dimethyl sulfoxide) control, although the coral calcification rate was reduced by up to 66% and 73% in the ruthenium red and verapamil treatments, respectively. The typical precision (95% confidence limits) of mean Sr/Ca determinations within any treatment was <±1% and differences in skeletal Sr/Ca between treatments were correspondingly small. Either Ca-ATPase and Ca channels transport Sr2+ and Ca2+ in virtually the same ratio in which they are present in seawater or transcellular processes contribute little Ca2+ to the skeleton and most Ca is derived from seawater transported directly to the calcification site. Variations in the activities of Ca-ATPase and Ca-channels are not responsible for the weekly-monthly Sr/Ca oscillations observed in skeletal chronologies, assuming that the specificities of Ca transcellular transport processes are similar between coral genera.

  5. Controls on Sr/Ca and Mg/Ca in scleractinian corals: The effects of Ca-ATPase and transcellular Ca channels on skeletal chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allison, Nicola; Cohen, Itay; Finch, Adrian A.; Erez, Jonathan; EMIF

    2011-11-01

    The Sr/Ca of aragonitic coral skeletons is a commonly used palaeothermometer. However skeletal Sr/Ca is typically dominated by weekly-monthly oscillations which do not reflect temperature or seawater composition and the origins of which are currently unknown. To test the impact of transcellular Ca 2+ transport processes on skeletal Sr/Ca, colonies of the branching coral, Pocillopora damicornis, were cultured in the presence of inhibitors of Ca-ATPase (ruthenium red) and Ca channels (verapamil hydrochloride). The photosynthesis, respiration and calcification rates of the colonies were monitored throughout the experiment. The skeleton deposited in the presence of the inhibitors was identified (by 42Ca spike) and analysed for Sr/Ca and Mg/Ca by secondary ion mass spectrometry. The Sr/Ca of the aragonite deposited in the presence of either of the inhibitors was not significantly different from that of the solvent (dimethyl sulfoxide) control, although the coral calcification rate was reduced by up to 66% and 73% in the ruthenium red and verapamil treatments, respectively. The typical precision (95% confidence limits) of mean Sr/Ca determinations within any treatment was <±1% and differences in skeletal Sr/Ca between treatments were correspondingly small. Either Ca-ATPase and Ca channels transport Sr 2+ and Ca 2+ in virtually the same ratio in which they are present in seawater or transcellular processes contribute little Ca 2+ to the skeleton and most Ca is derived from seawater transported directly to the calcification site. Variations in the activities of Ca-ATPase and Ca-channels are not responsible for the weekly-monthly Sr/Ca oscillations observed in skeletal chronologies, assuming that the specificities of Ca transcellular transport processes are similar between coral genera.

  6. Superplastic forming by decomposition of (CaCO3 + C) and MgCO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shyu, J. S.; Chuang, T. H.

    1996-06-01

    An innovative method has been developed that replaces argon as the pressure source for superplastic forming. In this new process, several solid materials are placed in a closed system to generate pressure and are capable of forming superplastic alloy plates at specific temperatures. In the present study, the total pressures for the decomposition of ( CaCO3+ C) and MgCO3 have been theoretically calculated from thermodynamics. The results show that a pressure range of 40 to 396 psi can be obtained for the ( CaCO3 + C) system between 850 and 1000 °, which is suitable for the superplastic forming of Ti-6Al-4V and Superdux 64 ( Nippon Yakin Kogy Co., Ltd., Sanei Bridge, Kyobasi 1-5-8, Chyuoku, Tokyo 104, Japan) stainless steel. The pressure for MgCO3 system between 480 and 515 ° ranges from 78 to 160 psi, which is suitable for the superplastic forming of 8090 Al-Li and 7475 Al-Zn-Mg alloys. The calculated temperature dependence of pressure is consistent with the experimentally measured results. Furthermore, the forming rates, wall thickness distributions, tensile properties, and microstructures of the four alloys after forming have been shown to be very similar to those of conventional superplastic forming by argon pressurization.

  7. High Zn Content Single-phase RS-MgZnO Suitable for Solar-blind Frequency Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, H. L.; Mei, Z. X.; Liu, Z. L.; Guo, Y.; Du, X. L.; Azarov, A. Yu.; Kuznetsov, A. Yu.; Hallen, A.

    2010-11-01

    Single-phase rock-salt MgZnO films with high Zn content were successfully fabricated on the templates of MgO (111)/{alpha}-sapphire (0001) by radio-frequency plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy. The influence of growth temperature on epitaxy of MgZnO alloy films was investigated by the combined studies of crystal structures, compositions, and optical properties. It is found that the incorporation of Zn atoms into the rock-salt MgZnO films is greatly enhanced at low temperature, confirmed by in-situ reflection high-energy electron diffraction observations and ex-situ X-ray diffraction characterization. Zn fraction in the single-phase rock-salt Mg{sub 0.53}Zn{sub 0.47}O film was determined by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. Optical properties of the films were investigated by transmittance spectroscopy and reflectance spectroscopy, both of which demonstrate the solar-blind band gap and its dependence on Zn content.

  8. Excitonic transitions in ZnO/MgZnO quantum well heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coli, Giuliano; Bajaj, K. K.

    2001-03-01

    We present a calculation of the excitonic transition energies in ZnO/MgZnO quantum well heterostructures, including the effects of the exciton-optical phonon interaction. The results of our calculations clearly show that the use of the static screened Coulomb potential to describe the electron-hole interaction and of the polaron masses for the electron and the hole leads to a poor agreement with the available experimental data[1]. On the other hand, including the exciton-phonon interaction in the calculation of the exciton binding energies, leads to the values of the excitonic transition energies which agree very well with the recently published experimental data[1]. A critical discussion of the choice of the various physical parameters used in ZnO is also presented. This leads us to suggest a value for the heavy-hole band mass of 0.78m0 and a conduction to valence band offset ratio in the range 60/40-70/30. [1] T. Makino, C. H. Chia, N. T. Tuan, H.D. Sun, Y. Segawa, M. Kawasaki, A. Ohtomo, K. Tamura and H. Koinuma, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 975 (2000)

  9. Synthesis and photoluminescence of quasi-arrayed ZnMgO nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fazhan; Zhao, Chao; Liu, Bo; Yuan, Sicong

    2009-06-01

    Quasi-arrayed ZnMgO single-crystal nanorods with different Mg concentrations have been fabricated by thermal evaporation of Zn and Mg on a Si substrate using Au as a catalyst. The synthesized ZnMgO nanorods had uniform flat hexagonal crystallorgraphic planes with diameters of about 300 nm. It was found that with the increase in the dopant concentration, the peak position of (0 0 2) was shifted towards the high-angle side (from 34.40° to 34. 54°) and the near-band-edge emission was blue-shifted to 364 nm (3.41 eV) from 385 nm (3.22 eV) in comparison with that of pure ZnO. The direct modulation of the band-gap caused by Mg substitution was responsible for the blue shift. The possible growth mechanism of the ZnMgO nanorods was discussed.

  10. Study of ZnO and Mg doped ZnO nanoparticles by sol-gel process

    SciTech Connect

    Ansari, Mohd Meenhaz Arshad, Mohd; Tripathi, Pushpendra

    2015-06-24

    Nano-crystalline undoped and Mg doped ZnO (Mg-ZnO) nanoparticles with compositional formula Mg{sub x}Zn{sub 1-x}O (x=0,1,3,5,7,10 and 12 %) were synthesized using sol-gel process. The XRD diffraction peaks match with the pattern of the standard hexagonal structure of ZnO that reveals the formation of hexagonal wurtzite structure in all samples. SEM images demonstrates clearly the formation of spherical ZnO nanoparticles, and change of the morphology of the nanoparticles with the concentration of the magnesium, which is in close agreement with that estimated by Scherer formula based on the XRD pattern. To investigate the doping effect on optical properties, the UV–VIS absorption spectra was obtained and the band gap of the samples calculated.

  11. Luminescence properties of MgxZn1-xSe prepared by Mg diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Łożykowski, H. J.; Holtz, P. O.; Monemar, B.

    1983-07-01

    The photoluminescence of ZnSe doped with the isoelectronic substituent Mg with a simple diffusion procedure has been studied. It was found that Mg easily enters substitutionally on Zn-site to form MgxZn1-xSe. The diffused samples therefore show a graded bandgap due to a composition gradient in the surface region. In contrast to ZnSe the photoluminescence spectrum of MgxZn1-xSe is dominated by a near bandgap emission at all temperatures between 1.5 and 300 K. The bandgap shift compared with “pure” ZnSe is estimated from photoluminescence excitation spectra. The luminous efficiency of MgxZn1-xSe makes the material promising for future applications as light emitting diodes with a well defined narrow emission band at a wavelength determined by the Mg content x.

  12. Effect of reaction time and (Ca+Mg)/Al molar ratios on crystallinity of Ca-Mg-Al layered double Hydroxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heraldy, E.; Nugrahaningtyas, K. D.; Sanjaya, F. B.; Darojat, A. A.; Handayani, D. S.; Hidayat, Y.

    2016-02-01

    Ca-Mg-Al Layered Double Hydroxides (Ca-Mg-Al-LDH) compounds were successfully synthesized from brine water and AlCl3.6H2O as the starting materials by coprecipitation method. The product result was characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR). The effects of the reaction time and the molar ratios of the raw material on the crystallinity of Ca-Mg-Al-LDH were examining. Results show that increasing reaction time (30; 60 and 90 min.) could improve the crystallinity and monodispersity of layered double hydroxide compounds particles. The well-defined Ca-Mg- Al-LDH could be prepared with (Ca+Mg)/Al molar ratios 0.5.

  13. Solidification of Mg-Zn-Y Alloys at 6 GPa Pressure: Nanostructure, Phases Formed, and Their Stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Haitao; Liu, Keming; Zhang, Li; Atrens, Andrej; Yu, Jiuming; Li, Xiaolong

    2016-09-01

    Mg-Zn-Y alloys solidified under high pressure were characterized using XRD, DTA, SEM, and TEM. After solidification at atmospheric pressure, Mg-6Zn-1Y consisted of α-Mg, Mg7Zn3, and Mg3YZn6, while Mg-6Zn-3Y consisted of α-Mg, Mg3Y2Zn3, and Mg3YZn6. After solidification at 6 GPa pressure, both alloys consisted of α-Mg, MgZn, and Mg12YZn. The size and the shape of the second-phase particles formed for atmospheric solidification were significantly different to those formed for solidification at 6 GPa pressure. In Mg-6Zn-1Y, the second-phase size decreased from 300 to 50 nm, and the shape changed from needle like to blocky. In Mg-6Zn-3Y, the size decreased from 100 to 50 nm and the shape changed from short rod like to small and round. After aging at 200 °C for 12 h, the new MgZn phase transformed into the intermediate MgZn2 phase. Increasing the aging time to 24 h caused the intermediate MgZn2 phase to transform into Mg7Zn3 with a size of 50 nm, while the Mg12YZn phase remained unchanged.

  14. Phosphorus recovery from biogas fermentation liquid by Ca-Mg loaded biochar.

    PubMed

    Fang, Ci; Zhang, Tao; Li, Ping; Jiang, Rongfeng; Wu, Shubiao; Nie, Haiyu; Wang, Yingcai

    2015-03-01

    Shortage in phosphorus (P) resources and P wastewater pollution is considered as a serious problem worldwide. The application of modified biochar for P recovery from wastewater and reuse of recovered P as agricultural fertilizer is a preferred process. This work aims to develop a calcium and magnesium loaded biochar (Ca-Mg/biochar) application for P recovery from biogas fermentation liquid. The physico-chemical characterization, adsorption efficiency, adsorption selectivity, and postsorption availability of Ca-Mg/biochar were investigated. The synthesized Ca-Mg/biochar was rich in organic functional groups and in CaO and MgO nanoparticles. With the increase in synthesis temperature, the yield decreased, C content increased, H content decreased, N content remained the same basically, and BET surface area increased. The P adsorption of Ca-Mg/biochar could be accelerated by nano-CaO and nano-MgO particles and reached equilibrium after 360min. The process was endothermic, spontaneous, and showed an increase in the disorder of the solid-liquid interface. Moreover, it could be fitted by the Freundlich model. The maximum P adsorption amounts were 294.22, 315.33, and 326.63mg/g. The P adsorption selectivity of Ca-Mg/biochar could not be significantly influenced by the typical pH level of biogas fermentation liquid. The nano-CaO and nano-MgO particles of Ca-Mg/biochar could reduce the negative interaction effects of coexisting ions. The P releasing amounts of postsorption Ca-Mg/biochar were in the order of Ca-Mg/B600>Ca-Mg/B450>Ca-Mg/B300. Results revealed that postsorption Ca-Mg/biochar can continually release P and is more suitable for an acid environment.

  15. Study of p-type ZnO and MgZnO Thin Films for Solid State Lighting

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Jianlin

    2015-07-31

    This project on study of p-type ZnO and MgZnO thin films for solid state lighting was carried out by research group of Prof. Jianlin Liu of UCR during the four-year period between August 2011 and July 2015. Tremendous progress has been made on the proposed research. This final report summarizes the important findings.

  16. Effect of Mg doping in ZnO buffer layer on ZnO thin film devices for electronic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giri, Pushpa; Chakrabarti, P.

    2016-05-01

    Zinc Oxide (ZnO) thin films have been grown on p-silicon (Si) substrate using magnesium doped ZnO (Mg: ZnO) buffer layer by radio-frequency (RF) sputtering method. In this paper, we have optimized the concentration of Mg (0-5 atomic percent (at. %)) ZnO buffer layer to examine its effect on ZnO thin film based devices for electronic and optoelectronic applications. The crystalline nature, morphology and topography of the surface of the thin film have been characterized. The optical as well as electrical properties of the active ZnO film can be tailored by varying the concentration of Mg in the buffer layer. The crystallite size in the active ZnO thin film was found to increase with the Mg concentration in the buffer layer in the range of 0-3 at. % and subsequently decrease with increasing Mg atom concentration in the ZnO. The same was verified by the surface morphology and topography studies carried out with scanning electron microscope (SEM) and atomic electron microscopy (AFM) respectively. The reflectance in the visible region was measured to be less than 80% and found to decrease with increase in Mg concentration from 0 to 3 at. % in the buffer region. The optical bandgap was initially found to increase from 3.02 eV to 3.74 eV by increasing the Mg content from 0 to 3 at. % but subsequently decreases and drops down to 3.43 eV for a concentration of 5 at. %. The study of an Au:Pd/ZnO Schottky diode reveals that for optimum doping of the buffer layer the device exhibits superior rectifying behavior. The barrier height, ideality factor, rectification ratio, reverse saturation current and series resistance of the Schottky diode were extracted from the measured current voltage (I-V) characteristics.

  17. Intramitochondrial Zn2+ accumulation via the Ca2+ uniporter contributes to acute ischemic neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Medvedeva, Yuliya V.; Weiss, John H.

    2014-01-01

    Ca2+ and Zn2+ have both been implicated in the induction of acute ischemic neurodegeneration. We recently examined changes in intracellular Zn2+ and Ca2+ in CA1 pyramidal neurons subjected to oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD), and found that Zn2+ rises precede and contribute to the onset of terminal Ca2+ rises (“Ca2+ deregulation”), which are causatively linked to a lethal loss of membrane integrity. The present study seeks to examine the specific role of intramitochondrial Zn2+ accumulation in ischemic injury, using blockers of the mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter (MCU), through which both Zn2+ and Ca2+ appear able to enter the mitochondrial matrix. In physiological extracellular Ca2+, treatment with the MCU blocker, Ruthenium Red (RR), accelerated the Ca2+ deregulation, most likely by disrupting mitochondrial Ca2+ buffering and thus accelerating the lethal cytosolic Ca2+ overload. However, when intracellular Ca2+ overload was slowed, either by adding blockers of major Ca2+ entry channels or by lowering the concentration of Ca2+ in the extracellular buffer, Ca2+ deregulation was delayed, and under these conditions either Zn2+ chelation or MCU blockade resulted in similar further delays of the Ca2+ deregulation. In parallel studies using the reactive oxygen species (ROS) indicator, hydroethidine, lowering Ca2+ surprisingly accelerated OGD induced ROS generation, and in these low Ca2+ conditions, either Zn2+ chelation or MCU block slowed the ROS generation. These studies suggest that, during acute ischemia, Zn2+ entry into mitochondria via the MCU induces mitochondrial dysfunction (including ROS generation) that occurs upstream of, and contributes to the terminal Ca2+ deregulation. PMID:24787898

  18. Intramitochondrial Zn2+ accumulation via the Ca2+ uniporter contributes to acute ischemic neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Medvedeva, Yuliya V; Weiss, John H

    2014-08-01

    Ca(2+) and Zn(2+) have both been implicated in the induction of acute ischemic neurodegeneration. We recently examined changes in intracellular Zn(2+) and Ca(2+) in CA1 pyramidal neurons subjected to oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD), and found that Zn(2+) rises precede and contribute to the onset of terminal Ca(2+) rises ("Ca(2+) deregulation"), which are causatively linked to a lethal loss of membrane integrity. The present study seeks to examine the specific role of intramitochondrial Zn(2+) accumulation in ischemic injury, using blockers of the mitochondrial Ca(2+) uniporter (MCU), through which both Zn(2+) and Ca(2+) appear able to enter the mitochondrial matrix. In physiological extracellular Ca(2+), treatment with the MCU blocker, Ruthenium Red (RR), accelerated the Ca(2+) deregulation, most likely by disrupting mitochondrial Ca(2+) buffering and thus accelerating the lethal cytosolic Ca(2+) overload. However, when intracellular Ca(2+) overload was slowed, either by adding blockers of major Ca(2+) entry channels or by lowering the concentration of Ca(2+) in the extracellular buffer, Ca(2+) deregulation was delayed, and under these conditions either Zn(2+) chelation or MCU blockade resulted in similar further delays of the Ca(2+) deregulation. In parallel studies using the reactive oxygen species (ROS) indicator, hydroethidine, lowering Ca(2+) surprisingly accelerated OGD induced ROS generation, and in these low Ca(2+) conditions, either Zn(2+) chelation or MCU block slowed the ROS generation. These studies suggest that, during acute ischemia, Zn(2+) entry into mitochondria via the MCU induces mitochondrial dysfunction (including ROS generation) that occurs upstream of, and contributes to the terminal Ca(2+) deregulation.

  19. Sr/Ca and Mg/Ca in Aragonitic Bivalves: Do They Record Temperature?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillikin, D. P.; Ulens, H.; Dehairs, F.; Baeyens, W.; Navez, J.; Andre, L.; Keppens, E.; Calmars Group,.

    2003-12-01

    The chemical or isotopic composition of calcareous skeletons have long been recognized as archives of past and present environmental conditions. Oxygen isotopes (d18O) of biogenic carbonates are a powerful proxy of SST, however, although usually dominated by SST, salinity (SSS) also significantly effects the oxygen isotopic signal recorded in the carbonate. This has led researchers to explore new proxies, which are independent of SSS. Generally, Sr/Ca and Mg/Ca of seawater remains unchanged above salinities of 10 and marine animals will commonly live in habitats that do not fluctuate below this salinity. To solve the issue of SSS complicating paleotemperature records, these "new" proxies must be at least as reliable as d18O. If an environmental control is dominant, the proxies should be reproducible between specimens growing under the same field conditions. Both Sr and Mg have been used as paleotemperature proxies in corals and foraminifera, whereas a fewer attempts have been made to use these proxies in bivalves. Some report a clear seasonal periodicity in Sr/Ca profiles of bivalves, which covaries with d18O (i.e., temperature), whereas others have found no clear periodicity. We test the robustness of these proxies by analyzing the shell material from three species of aragonitic clams from around the world using a LA-ICP-MS. Three individuals of M. mercenaria from North Carolina, USA, three individuals of Saxidomus giganteus from Washington, USA and one Arctica islandica from Norway have been analyzed. As expected, there is excellent reproducibility of d18O between specimens (both M. mercenaria and S. giganteus) indicating external environmental conditions control this proxy (i.e. SST and SSS). Preliminary data analysis show that Sr and Mg are not reproducible between specimens from the same site nor do they exhibit a clear seasonal cyclicity, indicating individual metabolic effects (i.e., vital effects) dominate the incorporation of these elements. A. islandica

  20. Fabrication of p-n junctions in as-grown ZnMgO/ZnO films

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Hyuck Soo; Li, Y.; Norton, David P.; Pearton, S. J.; Jang, Soohwan; Ren, F.; Boatner, Lynn A

    2005-01-01

    We achieved p-(Zn,Mg)O by doping with phosphorous and the conduction type was confirmed by capacitance-voltage properties of metal/insulator/p-(Zn,Mg)O:P diode structures as well as Hall measurements. The p-(Zn,Mg)O:P/n-ZnO junction was grown by pulsed laser deposition on bulk ZnO doped with Sn. Without post-growth annealing, the phosphorous-doped ZnMgO showed p-type conductivity (hole density {approx}10{sup 16} cm{sup -3}, mobility {approx}6 cm{sup 2}V{sup -1}s{sup -1}) in the as-grown state. The metal contacts in top-to-bottom p-n junctions were made with Ni/Au as the p-ohmic and Ti/Au as the backside n-ohmic contact. The p-contacts showed improved characteristics after annealing up to 350-400 C, but the n-contacts were ohmic as-deposited. The simple, low temperature growth (<=500 C) and processing sequence (<=400 C) shows the promise of ZnO for applications such as low-cost UV light emitters and transparent electronics.

  1. Possibility of Mg- and Ca-based intermetallic compounds as new biodegradable implant materials.

    PubMed

    Hagihara, Koji; Fujii, Kenta; Matsugaki, Aira; Nakano, Takayoshi

    2013-10-01

    Mg- or Ca-based intermetallic compounds of Mg2Ca, Mg2Si, Ca2Si and CaMgSi are investigated as possible new candidates for biodegradable implant materials, attempting to improve the degradation behavior compared to Mg and Ca alloys. The reactivity of Ca can be indeed reduced by the formation of compounds with Mg and Si, but its reactivity is still high for applications as an implant material. In contrast, Mg2Si shows a higher corrosion resistance than conventional Mg alloys while retaining biodegradability. In cytotoxicity tests under the severe condition conducted in this study, both pure Mg and Mg2Si showed relatively high cytotoxicity on preosteoblast MC3T3-E1. However, the cell viability cultured in the Mg2Si extract medium was confirmed to be better than that in a pure Mg extract medium in all the conditions investigated with the exception of the 10% extract medium, because of the lower corrosion rate of Mg2Si. The cytotoxicity derived from the Si ion was not significantly detected in the Mg2Si extract medium in the concentration level of ~70 mg/l measured in the present study. For aiming the practical application of Mg2Si as an implant material, however, its brittle nature must be improved.

  2. Positron lifetime studies of decomposition in 2024 (Al-Cu-Mg) and 7010 (Al-Zn-Cu-Mg) alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Dlubek, G. |; Lademann, P.; Krause, H.; Krause, S.; Unger, R.

    1998-09-04

    In the current paper, the decomposition behavior of the engineering alloys 2024 (Al-Cu-Mg) and 7010 (Al-Zn-Cu-Mg) is studied using positron lifetime measurements. Positrons probe open volume defects such as vacancies and dislocations. However, they may also be used to investigate coherent zones and incoherent precipitates. In order to understand the rather complicated precipitation sequences and the response of positrons to different type of precipitates occurring in 2024 and 7010 alloys, binary and ternary laboratory alloys were also investigated under the same experimental conditions as the engineering alloys. The interpretations of the results are based on experiences of the group from extensive positron studies of laboratory alloys such as Al-Zn, Al-Zn-Mg, Al-Cu, and further Al alloys (see also the review (4)). Their collected results are shown as lifetimes and curve-shape parameters S of the electron-positron momentum distribution curves characteristic for different precipitates in Al alloys.

  3. Transport and magnetotransport study of Mg doped ZnO thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Agrawal, Arpana; Dar, Tanveer A. Sen, Pratima; Phase, Deodatta M.

    2014-04-14

    We report negative magnetoresistance in pulsed laser deposited single phase ZnO and Mg{sub 0.268}Zn{sub 0.732}O films and attribute it to the presence of oxygen interstitials (O{sub i}) and zinc interstitials (Zn{sub i}) as observed in the X-ray photoelectron spectra of the films. An interesting feature of reduction of negative magnetoresistance at low temperatures and large fields in Mg{sub 0.268}Zn{sub 0.732}O film is observed and is explained by taking into account the localized scattering.

  4. Accuracy, standardization, and interlaboratory calibration standards for foraminiferal Mg/Ca thermometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greaves, Mervyn; Barker, Stephen; Daunt, Caroline; Elderfield, Henry

    2005-02-01

    The use of liquid and solid standards for foraminiferal Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca determinations and interlaboratory calibration has been investigated. Preparation of single element standard solutions from primary solid standard material enables the preparation of mixed standard solutions with Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca ratios of known accuracy to better than 0.1%. We also investigated commercial reference materials to determine whether existing carbonate standards could be used as reference material for Mg/Ca determinations in foraminiferal calcite. We propose that, in the absence of a pure calcium carbonate standard certified for Mg/Ca, ECRM 752-1, a limestone CRM containing Mg/Ca within the range of typical foraminifera, is a suitable solid standard for interlaboratory calibration. Replicate Mg/Ca determinations showed that, provided silicate phases are removed by centrifugation, this material is homogenous within the precision of daily instrumental Mg/Ca determinations over a range of sample weights from 10 to 1000 mg, taken from two separate bottles of ECRM 752-1. Results gave an average value of Mg/Ca = 3.75 mmol/mol (0.015 s.d., 0.41% r.s.d.) on 118 determinations from the two bottles.

  5. Zn- and Mg- Containing Tricalcium Phosphates-Based Adjuvants for Cancer Immunotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiupeng; Li, Xia; Onuma, Kazuo; Sogo, Yu; Ohno, Tadao; Ito, Atsuo

    2013-07-01

    Zn-, and Mg-containing tricalcium phosphates (TCPs) loaded with a hydrothermal extract of a human tubercle bacillus (HTB) were prepared by immersing Zn-TCP and Mg-TCP in HTB-containing supersaturated calcium phosphate solutions. The in vitro and in vivo immunogenic activities of the HTB-loaded Zn-, and Mg-TCPs (Zn-Ap-HTB and Mg-Ap-HTB, respectively) were evaluated as potential immunopotentiating adjuvants for cancer immunotherapy. The Zn-Ap-HTB and Mg-Ap-HTB adjuvants showed no obvious cytotoxicity and more effectively stimulated granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) secretion by macrophage-like cells than unprocessed HTB or HTB-loaded TCP (T-Ap-HTB) in vitro. Zn-Ap-HTB and Mg-Ap-HTB mixed with liquid-nitrogen-treated tumor tissue markedly inhibited the in vivo development of rechallenged Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cells compared with T-Ap-HTB and the unprocessed HTB mixed liquid-nitrogen-treated tumor tissue. Zn-Ap-HTB and Mg-Ap-HTB contributed to eliciting potent systemic antitumor immunity in vivo.

  6. Solidification Paths and Phase Components at High Temperatures of High-Zn Al-Zn-Mg-Cu Alloys with Different Mg and Cu Contents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, W. X.; Hou, L. G.; Liu, J. C.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, F.; Liu, J. T.; Zhuang, L. Z.; Zhang, J. S.

    2015-11-01

    Studies were carried out systematically on a series of Al-8.5 wt pct Zn- xMg- yCu alloys ( x is about 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5 wt pct, and y is about 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, and 2.9 wt pct). The effects of alloying elements Mg and Cu on the microstructures of as-cast and homogenized alloys were investigated using the computational/experimental approach. It shows that Mg(Zn,Al,Cu)2 ( σ) phase can exist in all the as-cast alloys without any observable Mg32(Al,Zn)49/Al2Mg3Zn3 ( T) or Al2CuMg ( S) phase, whereas Al2Cu ( θ) phase is prone to exist in the alloys with low Mg and high Cu contents. Thermodynamic calculation shows that the real solidification paths of the designed alloys fall in between the Scheil and the equilibrium conditions, and close to the former. After the long-time homogenization [733 K (460 °C)/168 hours] and the two-step homogenization [733 K (460 °C)/24 hours + 748 K (475 °C)/24 hours], the phase components of the designed alloys are generally consistent with the calculated phase diagrams. At 733 K (460 °C), the phase components in the thermodynamic equilibrium state are greatly influenced by Mg content, and the alloys with low Mg content are more likely to be in single-Al phase field even if the alloys contain high Cu content. At 748 K (475 °C), the dissolution of the second phases is more effective, and the phase components in the thermodynamic equilibrium state are dominated primarily by (Mg + Cu) content, except the alloys with (Mg + Cu) ≳ 4.35 wt pct, all designed alloys are in single-Al phase field.

  7. In vitro and in vivo corrosion measurements of Mg-6Zn alloys in the bile.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yigang; Yan, Jun; Wang, Zhigang; Yu, Song; Wang, Xiaohu; Yuan, Ziming; Zhang, Xiaonong; Zhao, Changli; Zheng, Qi

    2014-09-01

    Mg-6Zn alloy was studied as candidate biodegradable metallic implants for the common bile duct (CBD) in terms of its in vitro corrosion and in vivo corrosion. Electrochemical measurements, immersion tests and hydrogen evolution were performed in the bile and Hanks' solution to evaluate the in vitro degradation behavior of Mg-6Zn alloy. The results showed that the degradation rate and hydrogen evolution were higher when Mg-6Zn alloy immersed in the bile than in the Hanks' solution. The polarization resistance of the samples in the Hanks' solution was about 1.5 times to that in the bile. In the in vivo experiment, Mg-6Zn alloy stents were inserted in CBD of 42 rabbits, and CT scans, the value of total bilirubin (TB) and in vivo corrosion rate were determined. From the results of CT images and the fluctuations of TB values, it can be seen that the stent was degraded gradually in CBD. After 1 week post-implantation, the majority of the Mg-6Zn alloy sample remained in the CBD. Usually the required support time for CBD stent was approximately 7-10 days, thus the Mg-6Zn alloy stent was very close to the clinical requirement for CBD support materials. After three weeks, the residual weight of the Mg-6Zn alloy was only 9% of the original weight. The in vivo corrosion rate of Mg-6Zn alloy was ~0.107 mm·year(-1), which was much lower than that calculated in vitro (~0.72 mm·year(-1) by electrochemical test). Based on our research, there is promising for the Mg-6Zn alloy in CBD applications.

  8. Interlaboratory comparison study of calibration standards for foraminiferal Mg/Ca thermometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greaves, M.; Caillon, N.; Rebaubier, H.; Bartoli, G.; Bohaty, S.; Cacho, I.; Clarke, L.; Cooper, M.; Daunt, C.; Delaney, M.; Demenocal, P.; Dutton, A.; Eggins, S.; Elderfield, H.; Garbe-Schoenberg, D.; Goddard, E.; Green, D.; Groeneveld, J.; Hastings, D.; Hathorne, E.; Kimoto, K.; Klinkhammer, G.; Labeyrie, L.; Lea, D. W.; Marchitto, T.; MartíNez-Botí, M. A.; Mortyn, P. G.; Ni, Y.; Nuernberg, D.; Paradis, G.; Pena, L.; Quinn, T.; Rosenthal, Y.; Russell, A.; Sagawa, T.; Sosdian, S.; Stott, L.; Tachikawa, K.; Tappa, E.; Thunell, R.; Wilson, P. A.

    2008-08-01

    An interlaboratory study of Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca ratios in three commercially available carbonate reference materials (BAM RS3, CMSI 1767, and ECRM 752-1) was performed with the participation of 25 laboratories that determine foraminiferal Mg/Ca ratios worldwide. These reference materials containing Mg/Ca in the range of foraminiferal calcite (0.8 mmol/mol to 6 mmol/mol) were circulated with a dissolution protocol for analysis. Participants were asked to make replicate dissolutions of the powdered samples and to analyze them using the instruments and calibration standards routinely used in their laboratories. Statistical analysis was performed in accordance with the International Standardization Organization standard 5725, which is based on the analysis of variance (ANOVA) technique. Repeatability (RSDr%), an indicator of intralaboratory precision, for Mg/Ca determinations in solutions after centrifuging increased with decreasing Mg/Ca, ranging from 0.78% at Mg/Ca = 5.56 mmol/mol to 1.15% at Mg/Ca = 0.79 mmol/mol. Reproducibility (RSDR%), an indicator of the interlaboratory method precision, for Mg/Ca determinations in centrifuged solutions was noticeably worse than repeatability, ranging from 4.5% at Mg/Ca = 5.56 mmol/mol to 8.7% at Mg/Ca = 0.79 mmol/mol. Results of this study show that interlaboratory variability is dominated by inconsistencies among instrument calibrations and highlight the need to improve interlaboratory compatibility. Additionally, the study confirmed the suitability of these solid standards as reference materials for foraminiferal Mg/Ca (and Sr/Ca) determinations, provided that appropriate procedures are adopted to minimize and to monitor possible contamination from silicate mineral phases.

  9. Determination of the spontaneous polarization of wurtzite (Mg,Zn)O

    SciTech Connect

    Stölzel, Marko Müller, Alexander; Benndorf, Gabriele; Lorenz, Michael; Grundmann, Marius; Patzig, Christian; Höche, Thomas

    2014-05-12

    We report on the experimental determination of the spontaneous polarization of wurtzite-(Mg,Zn)O by examination of the recombination dynamics of polar ZnO/(Mg,Zn)O quantum wells (QWs). The thickness-dependent decay time of the unscreened single-exciton states inside the QWs was modeled by a self-consistent solution of Schrödinger- and Poisson-equation to deduce the total polarization across the QW for different Mg-contents inside the barriers. By the separation of the piezoelectric components of the polarization, a linear increase in spontaneous polarization with increasing Mg-content x of P/x = (0.151 ± 0.015) C/m{sup 2} was determined for Mg{sub x} Zn{sub 1−x} O.

  10. Room temperature ferromagnetism in Mg-doped ZnO nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Jaspal Vashihth, A.; Gill, Pritampal Singh; Verma, N. K.

    2015-06-24

    Zn{sub 1-x}Mg{sub x}O (x = 0, 0,10) nanoparticles were successfully synthesized using sol-gel method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirms that the synthesized nanoparticles possess wurtzite phase having hexagonal structure. Morphological analysis was carried out using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) which depicts the spherical morphology of ZnO nanoparticles. Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) showed the presence of Mg in ZnO nanoparticles. Electron spin resonance (ESR) signal was found to be decreasing with increasing of Mg-doping concentration. The room temperature ferromagnetism was observed in undoped and Mg-doped ZnO nanoparticles. The increase of Mg-doping concentration resulted in decrease of saturation magnetization value which could be attributed to decrease of oxygen vacancies present in host nanoparticles.

  11. Multi-terminal Two-color ZnCdSe/ZnCdMgSe Based Quantum-well Infrared Photodetector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaya, Yasin; Ravikumar, Arvind; Chen, Guopeng; Tamargo, Maria C.; Shen, Aidong; Gmachl, Claire

    Target recognition and identification applications benefits from two-color infrared (IR) detectors in the mid and long-wavelength IR regions. Currently, InGaAs/AlGaAs and GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum wells (QWs) grown on GaAs substrate are the most commonly used two-color QW IR photodetectors (QWIPs). However, the lattice-mismatch and the buildup of strain limit the number of QWs that can be grown, in turn increasing the dark current noise, and limiting the device detectivity.In this work, we report on two-color QWIPs based on the large conduction band offset (~1.12ev) ZnCdSe/ZnCdMgSe material system lattice matched to InP. QWIPs were designed based on a bound to quasi-bound transition, centered at 4 μm and 7 μm and each QW is repeated 50 times to eliminate the high dark current and a contact layer is inserted between the two stacks of QWs for independent electrical contacts. Wafers are processed into two step rectangular mesas by lithography and wet etching. Experiments showed absorption spectra centered at 4.9 μm and 7.6 μm at 80 K and the full width at half maximums were Δλ / λ = 21 % and Δλ / λ = 23 % , respectively. Current work studies the Johnson and the background noise limited detectivities of these QWIPs. Current address: School of Earth, Energy and Environmental Sciences, Stanford, CA 94305, USA.

  12. Impact of strain on electronic defects in (Mg,Zn)O thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, Florian Müller, Stefan; Wenckstern, Holger von; Benndorf, Gabriele; Pickenhain, Rainer; Grundmann, Marius

    2014-09-14

    We have investigated the impact of strain on the incorporation and the properties of extended and point defects in (Mg,Zn)O thin films by means of photoluminescence, X-ray diffraction, deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS), and deep-level optical spectroscopy. The recombination line Y₂, previously detected in ZnO thin films grown on an Al-doped ZnO buffer layer and attributed to tensile strain, was exclusively found in (Mg,Zn)O samples being under tensile strain and is absent in relaxed or compressively strained thin films. Furthermore a structural defect E3´ can be detected via DLTS measurements and is only incorporated in tensile strained samples. Finally it is shown that the omnipresent deep-level E3 in ZnO can only be optically recharged in relaxed ZnO samples.

  13. Giant spin splitting in optically active ZnMnTe/ZnMgTe core/shell nanowires.

    PubMed

    Wojnar, Piotr; Janik, Elżbieta; Baczewski, Lech T; Kret, Sławomir; Dynowska, Elżbieta; Wojciechowski, Tomasz; Suffczyński, Jan; Papierska, Joanna; Kossacki, Piotr; Karczewski, Grzegorz; Kossut, Jacek; Wojtowicz, Tomasz

    2012-07-11

    An enhancement of the Zeeman splitting as a result of the incorporation of paramagnetic Mn ions in ZnMnTe/ZnMgTe core/shell nanowires is reported. The studied structures are grown by gold-catalyst assisted molecular beam epitaxy. The near band edge emission of these structures, conspicuously absent in the case of uncoated ZnMnTe nanowires, is activated by the presence of ZnMgTe coating. Giant Zeeman splitting of this emission is studied in ensembles of nanowires with various average Mn concentrations of the order of a few percent, as well as in individual nanowires. Thus, we show convincingly that a strong spin sp-d coupling is indeed present in these structures.

  14. The in vitro biocompatibility and macrophage phagocytosis of Mg17Al12 phase in Mg-Al-Zn alloys.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chen; He, Peng; Wan, Peng; Li, Mei; Wang, Kehong; Tan, Lili; Zhang, Yu; Yang, Ke

    2015-07-01

    Mg alloys are gaining interest for applications as biodegradable medical implant, including Mg-Al-Zn series alloys with good combination of mechanical properties and reasonable corrosion resistance. However, whether the existence of second phase particles in the alloys exerts influence on the biocompatibility is still not clear. A deeper understanding of how the particles regulate specific biological responses is becoming a crucial requirement for their subsequent biomedical application. In this work, the in vitro biocompatibility of Mg17Al12 as a common second phase in biodegradable Mg-Al-Zn alloys was investigated via hemolysis, cytotoxicity, cell proliferation, and cell adhesion tests. Moreover, osteogenic differentiation was evaluated by the extracellular matrix mineralization assay. The Mg17Al12 particles were also prepared to simulate the real situation of second phase in the in vivo environment in order to estimate the cellular response in macrophages to the Mg17Al12 particles. The experimental results indicated that no hemolysis was found and an excellent cytocompatibility was also proved for the Mg17Al12 second phase when co-cultured with L929 cells, MC3T3-E1 cells and BMSCs. Macrophage phagocytosis co-culture test revealed that Mg17Al12 particles exerted no harmful effect on RAW264.7 macrophages and could be phagocytized by the RAW264.7 cells. Furthermore, the possible inflammatory reaction and metabolic way for Mg17Al12 phase were also discussed in detail.

  15. Interdiffusion and impurity diffusion in polycrystalline Mg solid solution with Al or Zn

    SciTech Connect

    Kammerer, Catherine; Kulkarni, Nagraj S; Warmack, Robert J Bruce; Sohn, Yong Ho

    2014-01-01

    Interdiffusion and impurity diffusion in Mg binary solid solutions, Mg(Al) and Mg(Zn) were investigated at temperatures ranging from 623 to 723 K. Interdiffusion coef cients were determined via the Boltzmann Matano Method using solid-to-solid diffusion couples assembled with polycrystalline Mg and Mg(Al) or Mg(Zn) solid solutions. In addition, the Hall method was employed to extrapolate the impurity diffusion coef cients of Al and Zn in pure polycrystalline Mg. For all diffusion couples, electron micro-probe analysis was utilized for the measurement of concentration pro les. The interdiffusion coef cient in Mg(Zn) was higher than that of Mg(Al) by an order of magnitude. Additionally, the interdiffusion coef cient increased signi cantly as a function of Al content in Mg(Al) solid solution, but very little with Zn content in Mg(Zn) solid solution. The activation energy and pre-exponential factor for the average effective interdiffusion coef cient in Mg(Al) solid solution were determined to be 186.8 ( 0.9) kJ/mol and 7.69 x 10-1 ( 1.80 x 10-1) m2/s, respectively, while those determined for Mg(Zn) solid solution were 139.5 ( 4.0) kJ/mol and 1.48 x 10-3 ( 1.13 x 10-3) m2/s. In Mg, the Zn impurity diffusion coef cient was an order of magnitude higher than the Al impurity diffusion coef cient. The activation energy and pre-exponential factor for diffusion of Al impurity in Mg were determined to be 139.3 ( 14.8) kJ/mol and 6.25 x 10-5 ( 5.37 x 10-4) m2/s, respectively, while those for diffusion of Zn impurity in Mg were determined to be 118.6 ( 6.3) kJ/mol and 2.90 x 10-5 ( 4.41 x 10-5) m2/s.

  16. Effect of secular variation in oceanic Mg/Ca on calcareous biomineralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ries, J. B.; Stanley, S. M.

    2006-12-01

    The polymorph mineralogy of simple, hypercalcifying marine organisms has generally varied in synchroneity with the polymorph mineralogy of abiotic CaCO3 precipitates (ooids, marine cements) throughout the Phanerozoic Eon. This synchroneity is caused by secular variation in the Mg/Ca ratio of seawater (SW; mMg/Ca > 2 = aragonite + high-Mg calcite; mMg/Ca < 2 = calcite), determined primarily by the mixing rate of mid-ocean-ridge/large-igneous-province hydrothermal brines and river water, driven by the global rate of ocean crust production. Here, we present experiments evaluating the effect of seawater Mg/Ca on the biomineralization and growth of extant representatives of hypercalcifying taxa that have been subjected to fluctuations in oceanic Mg/Ca in the past. Codiacean algae (arag), scleractinian corals (arag), coccolithophores (low-high Mg-calc), coralline algae (high Mg-calc), various reef-dwelling animals (echinoids, crabs, shrimp, calcareous serpulid worms; high Mg- calc), and calcifying microbial mats (arag + high-Mg calc) were grown in artificial SW formulated over the range of mMg/Ca (1.0 to 5.2) that occurred throughout each taxon's history. Codiacean algae and scleractinian corals exhibited higher rates of calcification and growth in artificial SW favoring their aragonite mineralogy and, significantly, produced a portion of their CaCO3 as calcite in the artificial calcite SW. Coccolithophores (low-high Mg calc.) showed higher calcification and growth rates and produced low-Mg calcite in the calcite SW. Likewise, coralline algae and the reef-dwelling animals (high-Mg calc) varied skeletal Mg/Ca with seawater Mg/Ca. The calcifying microbial mats grew equally well in the calcite and aragonite SW and varied their mineral polymorph commensurate with the SW (mMg/Ca<2 = low- Mg calc; mMg/Ca>2 = arag + high-Mg calc), suggesting a nearly abiotic mode of calcification. The precipitation of low-Mg calcite + aragonite by codiacean algae and scleractinian corals (arag

  17. Adsorption and desorption of Zn(II) and Cu(II) on Ca- alginate immobilized activated rice bran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suratman, A.; Kamalia, N. Z.; Kusumawati, W. A.

    2016-02-01

    Ca-alginate immobilized activated rice bran has been used for adsorption of Zn(II) and Cu(II) from aqueous solution. The effect of the pH, kinetics model, adsorption isotherm and desorption on the adsorption performance was investigated. Activated rice bran was immobilized by the entrapment in alginate beads. The adsorption strength of Ca-alginate immobilized activated rice bran was compared to Ca-alginate and non-immobilized activated rice bran. The concentrations of adsorbed ions were analyzed using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). The result showed that pH of 4.0 and the contact time of 120 min are the optimum condition for adsorption of Zn(II) and Cu(II). The adsorption kinetic of Zn(II) and Cu(II) followed the pseudo-second-order model with adsorption rate constant 4.9 x 10-2 and 3.14 g.mg-1.min-1, respectively. The both adsorption processes obeyed Langmuir isotherm with adsorption capacity of 2.03 and 2.42 mg.g-1 of adsorbent, respectively. The strength of Zn adsorption on Ca-alginate immobilized activated rice bran (86.63%) was more effective compared to Ca-alginate beads (60.96%) and activated rice bran (43.85%). The strength of Cu adsorption was 80.00%, 61.50% and 22.10%, respectively. The desorption of Zn(II) and Cu(II) showed that recovery percentage of the adsorption was 76.56% and 57.80% with the condition of using HCl 0.1 M as desorption agent for 1 hour.

  18. Analysis of Band-Edge Dynamics in ZnO and MgZnO Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canul, Amrah

    This work investigates the temperature dependence of electron states at the band-edge in ZnO and Mg0.07Zn0.93O thin films. To investigate the band-edge dynamics, we study in-gap states via temperature dependent absorption spectroscopy in the range 77-500K. The in-gap states at the band-edge were analyzed via the Urbach energy model, where the Urbach Energy is a measure of the extent of states into the bandgap. In parallel, we also analyze the temperature dependent Urbach energy via the Wasim model, which separates the relative contributions of defect states and temperature dependent phonon modes to the in-gap states. It was found that the defect contribution to in-gap states at the band-edge was significantly higher for Mg0.07Zn0.93O than in ZnO. Additionally, the phonon contribution to in-gap states was less in Mg 0.07Zn0.93O than in ZnO. The author gratefully acknowledges the National Science Foundation and the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Science, Division of Materials Science and Engineering under Grant No. DE-FG02-07ER46386.

  19. Corrosion Behavior and Surface Modification of Mg-Zn Implant Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghayad, I. M.; Maamoun, M. A.; Metwally, W. A.; El-Baradie, Z. M.; Abdel-Azim, A. N.

    2016-08-01

    In this study, Mg-Zn alloys (1-4 wt.% Zn) were fabricated with high-purity raw materials using a clean melting process (fluxless method) and a protective atmosphere of CO2 + 0.4 SF6. The as-cast microstructures of the investigated alloys were characterized by optical and scanning electron microscopes, EDS and XRD. Corrosion properties of the prepared alloys were examined in simulated body fluid by electrochemical techniques and immersion test (hydrogen evolution method). Surface modification of the prepared alloys was performed using micro-arc oxidation (MAO) treatment and hydroxyapatite (HA) coating. Microstructure observation revealed that Zn was completely dissolved in the α-Mg matrix up to 2 wt.%. Higher Zn content led to a reduction in the grain size and the development of a second phase (MgZn2). Corrosion testing results revealed that Mg-1,2,3 wt.% Zn have almost the same degradation rate, whereas Mg-4Zn has the highest degradation rate. HA coating on MAO-treated magnesium alloys formed a dense and compact layer on the alloy surface, which had largely improved surface properties and enhanced corrosion resistance of the prepared alloys.

  20. Corrosion Behavior and Surface Modification of Mg-Zn Implant Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghayad, I. M.; Maamoun, M. A.; Metwally, W. A.; El-Baradie, Z. M.; Abdel-Azim, A. N.

    2016-10-01

    In this study, Mg-Zn alloys (1-4 wt.% Zn) were fabricated with high-purity raw materials using a clean melting process (fluxless method) and a protective atmosphere of CO2 + 0.4 SF6. The as-cast microstructures of the investigated alloys were characterized by optical and scanning electron microscopes, EDS and XRD. Corrosion properties of the prepared alloys were examined in simulated body fluid by electrochemical techniques and immersion test (hydrogen evolution method). Surface modification of the prepared alloys was performed using micro-arc oxidation (MAO) treatment and hydroxyapatite (HA) coating. Microstructure observation revealed that Zn was completely dissolved in the α-Mg matrix up to 2 wt.%. Higher Zn content led to a reduction in the grain size and the development of a second phase (MgZn2). Corrosion testing results revealed that Mg-1,2,3 wt.% Zn have almost the same degradation rate, whereas Mg-4Zn has the highest degradation rate. HA coating on MAO-treated magnesium alloys formed a dense and compact layer on the alloy surface, which had largely improved surface properties and enhanced corrosion resistance of the prepared alloys.

  1. Effects of an intensive hog farming operation on groundwater in east Mediterranean (II): a study on K⁺, Na⁺, Cl ⁻, PO₄³⁻-P, Ca²⁺, Mg²⁺, Fe³⁺/Fe²⁺, Mn²⁺, Cu²⁺, Zn²⁺ and Ni²⁺.

    PubMed

    Michalopoulos, Charalampos; Tzamtzis, Nikolaos; Liodakis, Stylianos

    2014-12-01

    The application of treated animal wastewater generated in concentrated animal feeding operations on surface soil (within farm borders) leads to degradation of groundwater. Effects of an intensive hog farming operation, located at a Mediterranean limestone soil coastal area, on groundwater were investigated. Treated animal wastewater was discharged on a small plot (~10.8 ha) with a geologic fault. Samples were taken from seven groundwater monitoring wells close to the farm. A significant increase of K(+), Na(+), Cl(-), PO4 (3-)-P, Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) concentrations was found in monitoring wells which are affected by the subsurface flow of groundwater. Concentrations of Fe(3+)/Fe(2+), Mn(2+), Cu(2+), Zn(2+) and Ni(2+) in all groundwater monitoring wells were extremely low. During the winter, significant increases in concentrations of K(+) and PO4 (3-)-P were noted and attributed to high precipitation, which assisted in the leaching of K and P to groundwater.

  2. Silver ions trigger Ca2+ release by interaction with the (Ca2+-Mg2+)-ATPase in reconstituted systems.

    PubMed

    Gould, G W; Colyer, J; East, J M; Lee, A G

    1987-06-01

    It has been suggested that vesicles derived from the sarcoplasmic reticulum of skeletal muscle contain Ca2+ channels which can be opened by interaction with sulfhydryl reagents such as Ag+ or Hg2+. We show that, in reconstituted vesicles containing the (Ca2+-Mg2+)-ATPase purified from sarcoplasmic reticulum as the only protein, the ATPase can act as a pathway for Ca2+ efflux and that Ag+ induces a rapid release of Ca2+ from such reconstituted vesicles. We also show that Ag+ has a marked inhibitory effect on the ATPase activity of the purified ATPase. We suggest that the (Ca2+-Mg2+)-ATPase can act as a pathway for rapid Ca2+ release from sarcoplasmic reticulum.

  3. Identification and characteristics of ZnO/MgO core-shell nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, S.; Wang, L.; Wang, Y.; Li, L.; Wang, T.; Jiang, Z.

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, ZnO/MgO core-shell nanowires are synthesized based on a one-step chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of core-shell nanowires indicate that Mg addition has little influence on the morphology of the synthesizing products. High crystalline quality ZnO/MgO core-shell nanowires instead of ZnMgO ternary compounds are identified by X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images, selected area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern and photoluminescence (PL) spectra. The experimental results show that the ultraviolet (UV) emission of these samples with MgO shell is 12 times higher than that of the corresponding bare ZnO nanowires, and the suppression of the green emission is only 1/45 of the bare ZnO nanowires. It is also found that PL properties are proportional to Mg ratio. The UV emission enhancement and green emission suppression are due to the passivation of surface defects and the improvement of ZnO crystalline quality. The results are very useful for the development of optical devices based on nanowires.

  4. Identification and characteristics of ZnO/MgO core-shell nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, S. Wang, L.; Wang, Y.; Li, L.; Wang, T.; Jiang, Z.

    2015-03-15

    In this paper, ZnO/MgO core-shell nanowires are synthesized based on a one-step chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of core-shell nanowires indicate that Mg addition has little influence on the morphology of the synthesizing products. High crystalline quality ZnO/MgO core-shell nanowires instead of ZnMgO ternary compounds are identified by X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images, selected area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern and photoluminescence (PL) spectra. The experimental results show that the ultraviolet (UV) emission of these samples with MgO shell is 12 times higher than that of the corresponding bare ZnO nanowires, and the suppression of the green emission is only 1/45 of the bare ZnO nanowires. It is also found that PL properties are proportional to Mg ratio. The UV emission enhancement and green emission suppression are due to the passivation of surface defects and the improvement of ZnO crystalline quality. The results are very useful for the development of optical devices based on nanowires.

  5. Microstructural analysis of dehydrogenation products of the Ca(BH₄)₂-MgH₂ composite.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong-Min; Kim, Yoonyoung; Shim, Jae-Hyeok; Lee, Young-Su; Suh, Jin-Yoo; Ahn, Jae-Pyoung; Kim, Gyeung-Ho; Cho, Young Whan

    2013-08-01

    The microstructural analysis of the dehydrogenation products of the Ca(BH₄)₂-MgH₂ composite was performed using transmission electron microscopy. It was found that nanocrystalline CaB₆ crystallites formed as a dehydrogenation product throughout the areas where the signals of Ca and Mg were simultaneously detected, in addition to relatively coarse Mg crystallites. The uniform distribution of the nanocrystalline CaB₆ crystallites appears to play a key role in the rehydrogenation of the dehydrogenation products, which implies that microstructure is a crucial factor determining the reversibility of reactive hydride composites. PMID:23920195

  6. Controls on shell Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca in cultured planktonic foraminiferan, Globigerinoides ruber (white)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kısakürek, B.; Eisenhauer, A.; Böhm, F.; Garbe-Schönberg, D.; Erez, J.

    2008-09-01

    Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca ratios were determined on a single species of planktonic foraminiferan, Globigerinoides ruber (white), collected from the Gulf of Eilat and cultured in seawater at five different salinities (32 to 44), five temperatures (18 to 30 °C) and four pH values (7.9 to 8.4). The Mg/Ca-temperature calibration of cultured G. ruber (with an exponential slope of 8 ± 3%/°C) agrees well with previously published calibrations from core-tops and sediment traps. However, the dependence of Mg/Ca on salinity (with an exponential slope of 5 ± 3%/psu) is also significant and should be included in the calibration equation. With this purpose, we calculated a calibration equation for G. ruber dependent on both temperature and salinity within the 95% confidence limits: Mg/Ca(mmol/mol)=exp[0.06(±0.02)∗S(psu)+0.08(±0.02)∗T(°C)-2.8(±1.0)],R=0.95 The influence of pH on Mg/Ca ratios is negligible at ambient seawater pH (8.1 to 8.3). However, we observe a dominating pH control on shell Mg/Ca when the pH of seawater is lower than 8.0. Sr/Ca in G. ruber shows a significant positive correlation with average growth rate. Presumably, part of the variability in shell Sr/Ca in the geological record is linked to changes in growth rates of foraminifera as a response to changing environmental conditions.

  7. In situ corrosion analysis of Al-Zn-In-Mg-Ti-Ce sacrificial anode alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Ma Jingling Wen Jiuba; Zhai Wenxia; Li Quanan

    2012-03-15

    The corrosion behaviour of Al-5Zn-0.02In-1Mg-0.05Ti-0.5Ce (wt.%) alloy has been investigated by immersion test, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray detector, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and electrochemical noise. The results show that there exist different corrosion types of the alloy in 3.5% NaCl solution with the immersion time. At the initial stage of immersion, pitting due to the precipitates predominates the corrosion with a typical inductive loop at low frequencies in electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The major precipitates of the alloy are MgZn{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}CeZn{sub 2} particles. The corrosion potentials of the bulk MgZn{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}CeZn{sub 2} alloys are negative with respect to that of {alpha}-Al, so the MgZn{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}CeZn{sub 2} precipitates can act as activation centre and cause the pitting. In the late corrosion, a relative uniform corrosion predominates the corrosion process controlled by the dissolution/precipitation of the In ions and characterized by a capacitive loop at medium-high frequencies in electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The potential noise of the pitting shows larger amplitude fluctuation and lower frequency, but the potential noise of the uniform corrosion occurs with smaller amplitude fluctuation and higher frequency.

  8. Experimental 25Mg and 13C NMR and Computational Modeling Studies of Amorphous Mg-Ca Carbonates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, J. W.; Yazaydin, A. O.; Kirkpatrick, R. J.; Saharay, M.; Bowers, G. M.

    2012-12-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy of synthetic Mg-Ca amorphous carbonates (AMC-ACC) provides direct, element specific structural information about these complicated phases. The 13C, 25Mg, and 43Ca resonances are typically broad and span the chemical shift ranges of all the crystalline polymorphs in the Ca-Mg-CO3-H2O system. In a fashion similar to our previous analysis of 43Ca NMR results for ACC,1 here we integrate new experimental 13C and 25Mg spectra obtained at 20T for samples with Mg/(Ca+Mg) ratios from x=0 to x=1 with quantum chemical calculations of the NMR parameters of the crystalline phases using CASTEP calculations, simulations of the spectra using the SIMPSON software, and classical molecular dynamics calculations. XRD and 13C NMR results are in general agreement with the one-phase/two-phase model of ACC-AMC derived from thermochemical work by others.2 13C-NMR spectra of amorphous materials having intermediate compositions can not be completely fit by mechanical mixing of ACC and AMC end members—requiring a degree of Ca/Mg solid solution. Amorphous samples in two-phase region crystallize to assemblages of dolomite-like (x~0.5) and hydromagnesite-like (x~1) defective structures, but we also observe aragonite co-nucleation in the presence of excess water, indicative of a more complex evolution. While 43Ca NMR of X-ray amorphous materials shows featureless, symmetric, Gaussian line shapes, the large quadrupole moment of 25Mg gives rise to superposition of several quadrupolar line shapes representing different local structural environments. Singularities of static Mg spectra are best explained by local environments similar to nequehonite, hydromagnesite, and landsfordite. The spectra can not exclude minor contributions from anhydrous phases dolomite, huntite, and magnesite. Additional sites having very large quadrupolar coupling and/or site asymmetry are not explained by any known reference phases. CITATIONS (1) Singer, J. W.; Yazaydin, A. O

  9. Lubrication performance and mechanisms of Mg/Al-, Zn/Al-, and Zn/Mg/Al-layered double hydroxide nanoparticles as lubricant additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shuo; Bhushan, Bharat

    2016-08-01

    Solid lubricant particles are commonly used as oil additives for low friction and wear. Mg/Al-, Zn/Al-, and Zn/Mg/Al-layered double hydroxides (LDH) were synthesized by coprecipitation method. The benefits of LDH nanoparticles are that they can be synthesized using chemical methods where size and shape can be controlled, and can be modified organically to allow dispersal in fluids. The LDH nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, thermogravimetry, and differential scanning calorimetry. A pin-on-disk friction and wear tester was used for evaluating the friction and wear properties of LDH nanoparticles as lubricant additives. LDH nanoparticles have friction-reducing and anti-wear properties compared to oil without LDHs. Mg/Al-LDH has the best lubrication, possibly due to better thermal stability in severe conditions.

  10. Luminescence and electrical properties of single ZnO/MgO core/shell nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Grinblat, Gustavo; Comedi, David; Bern, Francis; Barzola-Quiquia, José; Esquinazi, Pablo; Tirado, Mónica

    2014-03-10

    To neutralise the influence of the surface of ZnO nanowires for photonics and optoelectronic applications, we have covered them with insulating MgO film and individually contacted them for electrical characterisation. We show that such a metal-insulator-semiconductor-type nanodevice exhibits a high diode ideality factor of 3.4 below 1 V. MgO shell passivates ZnO surface states and provides confining barriers to electrons and holes within the ZnO core, favouring excitonic ultraviolet radiative recombination, while suppressing defect-related luminescence in the visible and improving electrical conductivity. The results indicate the potential use of ZnO/MgO nanowires as a convenient building block for nano-optoelectronic devices.

  11. Phonon dynamics of Zn(Mg,Cd)O alloy nanostructures and their phase segregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Manoranjan; Dilawar, Nita; Bandyopadhyay, A. K.; Raychaudhuri, A. K.

    2009-10-01

    In this paper we report phonon dynamics in chemically synthesized Zn1-xMgxO (0≤x≤0.07) and Zn1-yCdyO (0≤y≤0.03) alloy nanostructures of sizes ˜10 nm using nonresonant Raman and Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy. Substitution by Mg makes the unit cell compact while Cd substitution leads to unit cell expansion. On alloying, both A1 (LO) and E1 (LO) mode of wurtzite ZnO show blueshift for Zn1-xMgxO and redshift for Zn1-yCdyO alloy nanostructures due to mass defect and volume change induced by the impurity atoms. Significant shift has been observed in E1 (LO) mode for Zn1-xMgxO (73 cm-1 for x=0.07) and Zn1-yCdyO (17 cm-1 for y =0.03) nanostructures. The variation in Zn(Mg,Cd)-O bond length determined from the blue- (red-) shift of IR bands on alloying with Mg (Cd) is consistent with their respective ionic sizes and the structural changes predicted by x-ray diffraction study. However, on progressive alloying one can detect phase segregation (due to presence of interstitial Mg and Cd ions) in the alloy nanostructures for relatively higher Mg and Cd concentrations. This is confirmed by the gradual absence of the characteristic IR and Raman bands of wurtzite ZnO near 400-600 cm-1 as well as by x-ray and TEM studies.

  12. Chamber formation leads to Mg/Ca banding in the planktonic foraminifer Neogloboquadrina pachyderma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonkers, Lukas; Buse, Ben; Brummer, Geert-Jan A.; Hall, Ian R.

    2016-10-01

    Many species of planktonic foraminifera show distinct banding in the intratest distribution of Mg/Ca. This heterogeneity appears biologically controlled and thus poses a challenge to Mg/Ca paleothermometry. The cause of this banding and its relation with chamber formation are poorly constrained and most of what we know about intratest Mg/Ca variability stems from culture studies of tropical, symbiont-bearing foraminifera. Here we present data on the non-spinose, symbiont-barren Neogloboquadrina pachyderma from the subpolar North Atlantic where wintertime mixing removes vertical gradients in temperature and salinity. This allows investigation of biologically controlled Mg/Ca intratest variability under natural conditions. We find that intratest Mg/Ca varies between <0.1 and 7 mmol/mol, even in winter specimens. High Mg/Ca bands occur at the outer edge of the laminae, indicating reduced Mg removal at the end of chamber formation. Our data thus provide new constraints on the timing of the formation of such bands and indicate that their presence is intrinsic to the chamber formation process. Additionally, all specimens are covered with an outer crust consisting of large euhedral crystals. The composition of the crust is similar to the low Mg/Ca bands in the laminar calcite in winter and summer specimens, indicating a tight biological control on crust formation and composition. Nevertheless, despite high intratest variability, the median Mg/Ca of summertime tests is higher than that of wintertime tests. This provides support for Mg/Ca paleothermometry, but to improve the accuracy of paleotemperature estimates biological effects on Mg incorporation need to be better accounted for.

  13. The effect of CaF2 on thermodynamics of CaO-CaF2-SiO2(-MgO) slags

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Chul-Hwan; Jo, Sung-Koo; Kim, Seon-Hyo; Lee, Kwang-Ro; Kim, Jeong-Tae

    2004-02-01

    To address the role of CaF2 in the CaO-CaF2-SiO2(-MgO) slag system employed for the production of low-pressure rotor steels, the thermodynamic aspects of the slag were investigated by equilibrating it with liquid iron at 1873 K in CaO or MgO crucibles. Presaturation of slag with an oxide block piece of CaO or MgO in a Pt crucible and application of a carbon paste to the outside of an oxide crucible were designed to prevent crucible failure during the slag-metal experiments. The liquidus isotherm and phase boundary of the preceding slag system were investigated using the slag-metal equilibria. Also, the effect of CaF2 on the sulfide capacity and the activity coefficient of Fe t O were of particular interest in controlling the sulfur level and cleanliness of low-pressure rotor steels.

  14. Foram Farming in the Mid-Continent: Culturing Low-Mg Benthic Foraminifera to Calibrate the Mg/Ca Paleothermometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jennings, D.; Hasiuk, F.; Thomas, E.; Varekamp, J. C.

    2014-12-01

    The initiation of Cenozoic continental ice sheets and the history of their growth/decay is difficult to reconstruct because of the mixed effects of polar ice volume and temperature on benthic foraminiferal oxygen isotope values. Coupled measurements of foraminiferal δ18O and Mg/Ca are a promising tool to unlock the history of past continental glaciation by calculating the oxygen isotopic composition of paleo-seawater. This method has been applied on Quaternary timescales with success, but uncertainty about secular changes in seawater Mg/Ca and potential changes in carbonate saturation have produced varying results with deeper time data. Currently, no experimentally-calibrated model explains how the Mg/Ca of low-Mg calcite, such as secreted by benthic foraminifera, responds to variations in seawater temperature and Mg/Ca. Our "Foram Farm" is a culture system for low-Mg calcite benthic foraminifera, composed of a colony and an experimental line. Currently, the colony hosts several species of rotaliids, miliolids, and buliminids obtained from Qatar, the Dominican Republic, Scotland, and Long Island Sound, USA. In addition, two tanks contain "live sand," a mixture of sandy material and seawater obtained from tropical reefs, and commonly used to condition hobbyist saltwater aquaria. This sand contains foraminifera and numerous other microorganisms. "Live sand" could be a source for cheap and easy to obtain test subjects. The foram farm gives access to a constant supply and variety of test subjects for the experimental line, which consists of several analytical refrigerators with varying temperatures. Each refrigerator houses petri dishes where forams are grown in water with varying Mg/Ca compositions. Elphidium excavatum, a well-researched, eurytopic taxon, will be the first to be cultured in the experimental line. After growing under experimental conditions, specimens will be analyzed using LA-ICP-MS, in order to model effects of seawater T and Mg/Ca on foram Mg/Ca

  15. Phosphorescence quenching by mechanical stimulus in CaZnOS:Cu

    SciTech Connect

    Tu, Dong; Kamimura, Sunao; Xu, Chao-Nan; Fujio, Yuki; Sakata, Yoshitaro; Ueno, Naohiro

    2014-07-07

    We have found that phosphorescence intensity of CaZnOS:Cu decreased visibly under an applied load. This mechanical quenching (MQ) of phosphorescence in CaZnOS:Cu corresponded to the mechanical stimuli. We have thus demonstrated that the MQ of CaZnOS:Cu could be used for visualizing stress distributions in practical applications. We propose that MQ arises from non-radiative recombination due to electron-transfer from trap levels to non-radiative centers as a result of the mechanical load.

  16. Thermoluminescence studies of γ-irradiated ZnO:Mg2+ nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pushpa, N.; Kokila, M. K.; Nagabhushana, K. R.

    2016-07-01

    Pure and Mg2+ doped ZnO nanoparticles are synthesized by solution combustion method. X-ray diffraction studies of the samples confirm hexagonal phase. Crystallite size is calculated using Scherer formula and found to be ∼30 nm for undoped ZnO and 34-38 nm for Mg2+ doped ZnO. A broad PL emission in the range 400-600 nm with peaks at 400, 450, 468, 483, 492, 517, 553 nm are observed in both pure and Mg2+ doped nanoparticles. Near band edge emission of ZnO is observed at 400 nm. The broad band emissions are due to surface defects. PL emission intensity is found to increase with Mg2+ concentration up to 1.5 mol% and then decreases due to concentration quenching. Samples are irradiated with γ-rays in a dose range 0.05-8 kGy. Gamma irradiation doesn't affect PL properties. Undoped samples exhibit unstructured low intense TL glow with peak at 720 K. Whereas Mg2+ doped samples exhibit well structured TL glow curves with peak at ∼618 K. TL glow peak intensity of Mg2+ doped samples increases with Mg2+ concentration up to 2 mol%, thereafter decreases. TL curves of Mg2+ (2 mol%) doped ZnO exhibit two glows, a high intense peak at 618 K and a weak one with peak at ∼485 K. TL intensity of Mg2+ (2 mol%) doped ZnO samples increases with gamma dose up to 1 kGy and then decreases. Kinetic parameters of TL glows are calculated by deconvolution technique. Activation energy and frequency factor are found to be 1.5 eV and 3.38 × 1011 s-1 respectively.

  17. Influence of ZnO on the crystallization kinetics and properties of diopside-Ca-Tschermak based glasses and glass-ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Goel, Ashutosh; Ferreira, Jose M. F.; Tulyaganov, Dilshat U.; Shaaban, Essam R.; Basu, Rajendra N.

    2008-08-15

    We report on the influence of ZnO on the structural, thermal, and crystallization behavior of the diopside-Ca-Tschermak based glasses, and on the processing, microstructure, and the properties of the sintered glass ceramics. Four glasses with nominal compositions of CaMg{sub 0.8}Al{sub 0.4}Si{sub 1.8}O{sub 6}, CaMg{sub 0.75}Zn{sub 0.05}Al{sub 0.4}Si{sub 1.8}O{sub 6}, CaMg{sub 0.70}Zn{sub 0.10}Al{sub 0.4}Si{sub 1.8}O{sub 6}, and CaMg{sub 0.60}Zn{sub 0.20}Al{sub 0.4}Si{sub 1.8}O{sub 6} were obtained by melting at 1580 deg. C for 1 h. Structural and thermal behavior of the glasses was investigated by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, density measurements, dilatometry, and differential thermal analysis. Nonisothermal crystallization kinetics has been employed to study the crystallization mechanism in the glasses. Sintering, crystallization, microstructure, and properties of the glass ceramics were investigated under nonisothermal heating conditions in the temperature range of 850-1000 deg. C.

  18. Rapid and High-Efficiency Laser-Alloying Formation of ZnMgO Nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Peisheng; Wang, Hao; Chen, Jun; Li, Xiaoming; Zeng, Haibo

    2016-06-01

    Applications of ZnMgO nanocrystals (NCs), especially in photoelectric detectors, have significant limitations because of the unresolved phase separation in the synthesis process. Here, we propose a rapid and highly efficient ZnMgO NC alloying method based on pulsed laser ablation in liquid. The limit value of homogeneous magnesium (Mg) is pushed from 37% to 62%, and the optical band gap is increased to 3.7 eV with high doping efficiency (>100%). Further investigations on the lattice geometry of ZnMgO NCs indicate that all ZnMgO NCs are hexagonal wurtzite structures, and the (002) and (100) peaks shift to higher diffraction angles with the increase in Mg doping content. The calculated results of the lattice constants a and c slightly decrease based on Bragg’s law and lattice geometry equations. Furthermore, the relationship between annealing temperature and the limit value of homogeneous Mg is examined, and the results reveal that the latter decreases with the former because of the phase separation of MgO. A probable mechanism of zinc magnesium alloy is introduced to expound on the details of the laser-alloying process.

  19. Rapid and High-Efficiency Laser-Alloying Formation of ZnMgO Nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peisheng; Wang, Hao; Chen, Jun; Li, Xiaoming; Zeng, Haibo

    2016-01-01

    Applications of ZnMgO nanocrystals (NCs), especially in photoelectric detectors, have significant limitations because of the unresolved phase separation in the synthesis process. Here, we propose a rapid and highly efficient ZnMgO NC alloying method based on pulsed laser ablation in liquid. The limit value of homogeneous magnesium (Mg) is pushed from 37% to 62%, and the optical band gap is increased to 3.7 eV with high doping efficiency (>100%). Further investigations on the lattice geometry of ZnMgO NCs indicate that all ZnMgO NCs are hexagonal wurtzite structures, and the (002) and (100) peaks shift to higher diffraction angles with the increase in Mg doping content. The calculated results of the lattice constants a and c slightly decrease based on Bragg's law and lattice geometry equations. Furthermore, the relationship between annealing temperature and the limit value of homogeneous Mg is examined, and the results reveal that the latter decreases with the former because of the phase separation of MgO. A probable mechanism of zinc magnesium alloy is introduced to expound on the details of the laser-alloying process. PMID:27324296

  20. Rapid and High-Efficiency Laser-Alloying Formation of ZnMgO Nanocrystals

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Peisheng; Wang, Hao; Chen, Jun; Li, Xiaoming; Zeng, Haibo

    2016-01-01

    Applications of ZnMgO nanocrystals (NCs), especially in photoelectric detectors, have significant limitations because of the unresolved phase separation in the synthesis process. Here, we propose a rapid and highly efficient ZnMgO NC alloying method based on pulsed laser ablation in liquid. The limit value of homogeneous magnesium (Mg) is pushed from 37% to 62%, and the optical band gap is increased to 3.7 eV with high doping efficiency (>100%). Further investigations on the lattice geometry of ZnMgO NCs indicate that all ZnMgO NCs are hexagonal wurtzite structures, and the (002) and (100) peaks shift to higher diffraction angles with the increase in Mg doping content. The calculated results of the lattice constants a and c slightly decrease based on Bragg’s law and lattice geometry equations. Furthermore, the relationship between annealing temperature and the limit value of homogeneous Mg is examined, and the results reveal that the latter decreases with the former because of the phase separation of MgO. A probable mechanism of zinc magnesium alloy is introduced to expound on the details of the laser-alloying process. PMID:27324296

  1. Thermoelectric properties of Zintl compound Ca1-xNaxMg2Bi1.98

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuai, Jing; Kim, Hee Seok; Liu, Zihang; He, Ran; Sui, Jiehe; Ren, Zhifeng

    2016-05-01

    Motivated by good thermoelectric performance of Bi-based Zintl compounds Ca1-xYbxMg2Biy, we further studied the thermoelectric properties of Zintl compound CaMg2Bi1.98 by doping Na into Ca as Ca1-xNaxMg2Bi1.98 via mechanical alloying and hot pressing. We found that the electrical conductivity, Seebeck coefficient, power factor, and carrier concentration can be effectively adjusted by tuning the Na concentration. Transport measurement and calculations revealed that an optimal doping of 0.5 at. % Na achieved better average ZT and efficiency. The enhancement in thermoelectric performance is attributed to the increased carrier concentration and power factor. The low cost and nontoxicity of Ca1-xNaxMg2Bi1.98 makes it a potentially promising thermoelectric material for power generation in the mid-temperature range.

  2. Direct determination of the band alignment at the (Zn,Mg)O/CISSe interface

    SciTech Connect

    Erfurth, F.; Reinert, F.; Weinhardt, L.; Grimm, A.; Palm, J.; Niesen, T. P.; Umbach, E.

    2011-04-04

    The electronic and chemical properties of the (Zn{sub 1-x},Mg{sub x})O/CuIn(S,Se){sub 2} interface, prepared by sputtering of thin (Zn,Mg)O layers, were investigated with direct and inverse photoelectron spectroscopy on in situ prepared samples. With the combination of both techniques we have determined the band alignment at this interface as a function of Mg-content in the range 0{<=}x{<=}0.30. We find that the band alignment at the interface can be tailored between a ''cliff'' (downward step) in the conduction band for pure ZnO and a 'spike' (upward step) for high Mg-contents. A direct influence of the band alignment modifications on the solar cell parameters is found.

  3. P- T- X controls on Ca and Na distribution between Mg-Al tourmaline and fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berryman, Eleanor J.; Wunder, Bernd; Rhede, Dieter; Schettler, Georg; Franz, Gerhard; Heinrich, Wilhelm

    2016-04-01

    Ca-Na partitioning between tourmaline and a coexisting fluid is investigated in the system CaO-Na2O-B2O3-Al2O3-MgO-SiO2-H2O-Cl between 0.2-4.0 GPa and 500-700 °C. The synthesis experiments produced a mineral assemblage of tourmaline, coesite/quartz, and in some cases additional phases, typically comprising <1 wt% of the solid product. The synthesized tourmalines are solid solutions of dravite [NaMg3Al6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)], "oxy-uvite" (i.e. "Ca-Mg-O root name") [CaMg3Al6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)3O], and magnesio-foitite [☐(Mg2Al)Al6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)]. Starting materials comprised a fluid of constant ionic strength (2.00 m) and an oxide mixture with a constant Mg/Al ratio. As a result, the number of vacancies at the X site and the Mg/Al ratio of tourmaline crystals synthesized at the same temperature vary only slightly. The major solid solution is Ca-Na exchange at the X site via the exchange vector X Ca W O[ X Na W (OH)]-1, with the exchange vector X (Ca☐)[ X Na2]-1 serving as a secondary Ca-incorporation mechanism. Tourmaline's X-site composition reflects the fluid composition, whereby the Ca (or Na) concentration in the fluid corresponds with the Ca (or Na) content in tourmaline at each pressure and temperature. At 0.2 GPa, 700 °C, Ca preferentially partitions into tourmaline, producing the most Ca-rich tourmaline crystals synthesized here. At pressures >1.0 GPa, Ca partitions preferentially into the fluid, resulting in Na-dominant tourmaline compositions. Temperature has a secondary effect on Ca-Na partitioning, with higher temperatures correlating with increased Ca incorporation in tourmaline. Based on the experimental findings, tourmaline is expected to have Ca-rich compositions when it forms in low pressure, high-temperature Ca-rich rocks, consistent with the current record of tourmaline occurrence. The bulk Mg/Al ratio and the pH of the tourmaline-forming system may also affect Ca incorporation in tourmaline, but remain to be investigated experimentally.

  4. Effect of Ca2+ and Zn2+ on UO2 dissolution rates.

    PubMed

    Cerrato, José M; Barrows, Charles J; Blue, Lisa Y; Lezama-Pacheco, Juan S; Bargar, John R; Giammar, Daniel E

    2012-03-01

    The dissolution of UO(2) in a continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) in the presence of Ca(2+) and Zn(2+) was investigated under experimental conditions relevant to contaminated groundwater systems. Complementary experiments were performed to investigate the effect of adsorption and precipitation reactions on UO(2) dissolution. The experiments were performed under anoxic and oxic conditions. Zn(2+) had a much greater inhibitory effect on UO(2) dissolution than did Ca(2+). This inhibition was most substantial under oxic conditions, where the experimental rate of UO(2) dissolution was 7 times lower in the presence of Ca(2+) and 1450 times lower in the presence of Zn(2+) than in water free of divalent cations. EXAFS and solution chemistry analyses of UO(2) solids recovered from a Ca experiment suggest that a Ca-U(VI) phase precipitated. The Zn carbonate hydrozincite [Zn(5)(CO(3))(2)(OH)(6)] or a structurally similar phase precipitated on the UO(2) solids recovered from experiments performed in the presence of Zn. These precipitated Ca and Zn phases can coat the UO(2) surface, inhibiting the oxidative dissolution of UO(2). Interactions with divalent groundwater cations have implications for the longevity of UO(2) and the mobilization of U(VI) from these solids in remediated subsurface environments, waste disposal sites, and natural uranium ores. PMID:22304297

  5. Effect of Ca2+ and Zn2+ on UO2 dissolution rates.

    PubMed

    Cerrato, José M; Barrows, Charles J; Blue, Lisa Y; Lezama-Pacheco, Juan S; Bargar, John R; Giammar, Daniel E

    2012-03-01

    The dissolution of UO(2) in a continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) in the presence of Ca(2+) and Zn(2+) was investigated under experimental conditions relevant to contaminated groundwater systems. Complementary experiments were performed to investigate the effect of adsorption and precipitation reactions on UO(2) dissolution. The experiments were performed under anoxic and oxic conditions. Zn(2+) had a much greater inhibitory effect on UO(2) dissolution than did Ca(2+). This inhibition was most substantial under oxic conditions, where the experimental rate of UO(2) dissolution was 7 times lower in the presence of Ca(2+) and 1450 times lower in the presence of Zn(2+) than in water free of divalent cations. EXAFS and solution chemistry analyses of UO(2) solids recovered from a Ca experiment suggest that a Ca-U(VI) phase precipitated. The Zn carbonate hydrozincite [Zn(5)(CO(3))(2)(OH)(6)] or a structurally similar phase precipitated on the UO(2) solids recovered from experiments performed in the presence of Zn. These precipitated Ca and Zn phases can coat the UO(2) surface, inhibiting the oxidative dissolution of UO(2). Interactions with divalent groundwater cations have implications for the longevity of UO(2) and the mobilization of U(VI) from these solids in remediated subsurface environments, waste disposal sites, and natural uranium ores.

  6. Using benthic foraminiferal B/Ca to constrain the effect of dissolution on key Pliocene Mg/Ca temperature records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, S. M.; Ravelo, A. C.

    2015-12-01

    The state of the Pliocene tropical Pacific is currently the subject of heated debate. The debate hinges on the veracity of planktic foraminiferal Mg/Ca temperatures from the west Pacific warm pool (WPWP) and the eastern equatorial Pacific (EEP) that show Pliocene WPWP temperatures similar to today but a warmer Pliocene EEP, resulting in a much reduced east-west gradient [Wara et al., 2005]. These findings form the basis of the "permanent El Niño-like state" paradigm of Pliocene climate. However, recent studies using organic biomarker proxies produce temperature records that indicate a WPWP cooling trend since the Pliocene that differs markedly from Mg/Ca-temperature records [O'Brien et al., 2014; Zhang et al., 2014]. Though much of the debate has focused on changes in seawater Mg/Ca, spatial variations in proxy agreement point to dissolution as a key factor. Dissolution, which imparts a cool bias to Mg/Ca temperatures, varies across ocean basins depending on Δ[CO32-], the difference from the carbonate ion concentration needed for calcite saturation. By necessity, dissolution corrections use the modern value of Δ[CO32-] for the entire record, so it is possible that Pliocene proxy discrepancies could stem from varying Δ[CO32-] over time. Here we present benthic foraminiferal B/Ca data (a proxy for Δ[CO32-]) from the EEP and WEP spanning the past 5 Myr, to constrain the effect of dissolution on Pliocene Mg/Ca records. To account for possible changes in seawater B/Ca, we present paired epifaunal-infaunal B/Ca data. Infaunal species are much less sensitive to Δ[CO32-] than epifaunal species, but would still record long-term changes in seawater B/Ca. The true Δ[CO32-] can thus be calculated from the epifaunal-infaunal B/Ca difference [Brown et al., 2011]. Our study is the first to apply this approach downcore; by accounting for long-term changes in seawater, it greatly expands use of the B/Ca proxy and enables a first attempt at correcting for time

  7. Structure and optical properties of ternary alloy BeZnO and quaternary alloy BeMgZnO films growth by molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Longxing; Zhu, Yuan; Zhang, Quanlin; Chen, Mingming; Wu, Tianzhun; Gui, Xuchun; Pan, Bicai; Xiang, Rong; Tang, Zikang

    2013-06-01

    Ternary alloy BeZnO and quaternary alloy BeMgZnO films were prepared on sapphire (0 0 1) substrate by radio-frequency plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (RF-PAMBE). Based on X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, no phase segregation is observed for all the alloys. However, BexZn1-xO alloys exhibit a constantly worse crystal quality than BexMgyZn1-x-yO alloys at the similar incorporation contents (i.e. x in BeZnO approximately equals to x + y in BeMgZnO). Optical transmittance spectra were recorded to determine the energy band gap of the films. BeMgZnO was revealed more effective in widening the band gap. Finally, BeZnO and BeMgZnO based MSM structure UV detectors were fabricated. BeMgZnO alloys with better crystal quality showed a favorable optical response and the cutoff wavelength shifted continuously to deep ultraviolet range, while BeZnO based detectors were found no response. This is the first report on BeMgZnO based UV detector, which is a meaningful step forward to the real application.

  8. Ammonia sensing properties of V-doped ZnO:Ca nanopowders prepared by sol–gel synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Fazio, E.; Hjiri, M.; Dhahri, R.; El Mir, L.; Sabatino, G.; Barreca, F.; Neri, F.; Leonardi, S.G.; Pistone, A.; Neri, G.

    2015-03-15

    V-doped ZnO:Ca nanopowders with different V loading were prepared by sol–gel synthesis and successive drying in ethanol under supercritical conditions. Characterization data of nanopowders annealed at 700 °C in air, revealed that they have the wurtzite structure. Raman features of V-doped ZnO:Ca samples were found to be substantially modified with respect to pure ZnO or binary ZnO:Ca samples, which indicate the substitution of vanadium ions in the ZnO lattice. The ammonia sensing properties of V-doped ZnO:Ca thick films were also investigated. The results obtained demonstrate the possibility of a fine tuning of the sensing characteristics of ZnO-based sensors by Ca and V doping. In particular, their combined effect has brought to an enhanced response towards NH{sub 3} compared to bare ZnO and binary V-ZnO and Ca-ZnO samples. Raman investigation suggested that the presence of Ca play a key role in enhancing the sensor response in these ternary composite nanomaterials. - Graphical abstract: V-doped ZnO:Ca nanopowders prepared by sol–gel synthesis possess enhanced sensing characteristics towards NH{sub 3} compared to bare ZnO. - Highlights: • V-doped ZnO:Ca nanopowders with different V loading were prepared by sol–gel synthesis. • Raman features of V-doped ZnO:Ca samples indicate the substitution of V ions in the ZnO lattice. • Combined effects of dopants have brought to an enhanced response to NH{sub 3} compared to ZnO. • Ca play a key role in enhancing the sensor response of ternary V-doped ZnO:Ca composites.

  9. Ostracode Mg/Ca Ratios from Quaternary Sediments of the Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwyer, G. S.; Caverly, E. K.; Cronin, T. M.; Polyak, L. V.; DeNinno, L.; Rodriguez-Lazaro, J.

    2013-12-01

    We analyzed magnesium/calcium (Mg/Ca) ratios from adult, calcitic shells of the deep-sea ostracode Krithe from the Northwind and Mendeleev Ridges, Arctic Ocean, to reconstruct orbital-scale Quaternary bottom-water temperature history. Results show an early Pleistocene (~1.5 Ma to 500 ka) Mg/CaKrithe pattern with low-amplitude, possibly orbitally controlled, oscillations between 10.5 and 12.5 mmol/mol followed by a progressive trend towards higher ratios (> 17 mmol/mol) during the last 500 ka. This shift coincides with the mid-Pleistocene Transition and mid-Brunhes Event (~ 300-500 ka) recognized in microfaunal proxy records in the Arctic Ocean. Analyses of Mg/CaKrithe from intervals representing marine isotope stage 11 (MIS 11) in 5 cores from water depths from 700 to 1470 m show Mg/Ca ratios ranging from 10.5 to 14 mmol/mol. A 2 mmol/mol excursion in Mg/CaKrithe within MIS 11 seen in all cores likely corresponds to a brief stadial event recognized also in planktic and benthic microfaunas. We will discuss the implications of Mg/Ca paleothermometry for deep Arctic Ocean circulation and the evolution of Arctic sea ice during major Quaternary climatic transitions as well as possible factors other than water temperature that may influence Mg/Ca ratios in Krithe shells from Quaternary sediments from the Arctic Ocean.

  10. Stress corrosion cracking and hydrogen embrittlement of an Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Song, R.G.; Dietzel, W.; Zhang, B.J.; Liu, W.J.; Tseng, M.K.; Atrens, A

    2004-09-20

    The age hardening, stress corrosion cracking (SCC) and hydrogen embrittlement (HE) of an Al-Zn-Mg-Cu 7175 alloy were investigated experimentally. There were two peak-aged states during ageing. For ageing at 413 K, the strength of the second peak-aged state was slightly higher than that of the first one, whereas the SCC susceptibility was lower, indicating that it is possible to heat treat 7175 to high strength and simultaneously to have high SCC resistance. The SCC susceptibility increased with increasing Mg segregation at the grain boundaries. Hydrogen embrittlement (HE) increased with increased hydrogen charging and decreased with increasing ageing time for the same hydrogen charging conditions. Computer simulations were carried out of (a) the Mg grain boundary segregation using the embedded atom method and (b) the effect of Mg and H segregation on the grain boundary strength using a quasi-chemical approach. The simulations showed that (a) Mg grain boundary segregation in Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloys is spontaneous, (b) Mg segregation decreases the grain boundary strength, and (c) H embrittles the grain boundary more seriously than does Mg. Therefore, the SCC mechanism of Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloys is attributed to the combination of HE and Mg segregation induced grain boundary embrittlement.

  11. Effect of Mg doping level on the antibacterial activity of (Mg + F)-doped ZnO nanopowders synthesized using a soft chemical route

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravichandran, K.; Snega, S.; Jabena Begum, N.; Christena, L. Rene; Dheivamalar, S.; Swaminathan, K.

    2014-08-01

    ZnO nanopowders simultaneously doped with fluorine (20 at.%) and magnesium (4, 8, 12 and 16 at.%) (ZnO:F:Mg) have been synthesized using an inexpensive simple soft chemical route for the first time. The effect of Mg doping level on certain physical properties and antibacterial activities of ZnO:F:Mg nanopowders has been investigated and reported. XRD studies showed that the products have the hexagonal wurtzite structure of ZnO. Fourier transform infrared spectra authenticate the presence of MgO stretching vibration, which is responsible for the increased antibacterial activity of the synthesized samples. The antibacterial activity of ZnO:F:Mg nanopowders was found to be enhanced with increase in Mg doping level as it causes a reduction in the grain size.

  12. Structure, Properties, and Crystallization of Mg-Cu-Y-Zn Bulk Metallic Glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babilas, Rafał; Cesarz-Andraczke, Katarzyna; Nowosielski, Ryszard; Burian, Andrzej

    2014-06-01

    The Mg60Cu30Y10 and Mg65Cu20Y10Zn5 bulk metallic glasses in the form of a rod 2 mm in diameter were successfully prepared by the conventional Cu-mold casting method. The addition of Zn caused the decrease in the crystallization and melting temperatures in comparison with the Mg60Cu30Y10 alloy. The crystallization and melting temperatures are crucial factors that influence the casting process. An increase in annealing temperature leads to structural changes by the formation of the crystalline phases and lowers the compressive strength. These results obtained for the Mg-based bulk metallic glasses (Mg-BMGs) are important for some practical reasons, in particular, for developing the fabrication process. It has been shown that minor addition of an alloying element can change glass-forming ability and strength of the Mg-BMGs.

  13. Structure, phase composition, and strengthening of cast Al-Ca-Mg-Sc alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belov, N. A.; Naumova, E. A.; Bazlova, T. A.; Alekseeva, E. V.

    2016-02-01

    The structure and phase composition of Al-Ca-Mg-Sc alloys containing 0.3 wt % Sc, up to 10 wt % Ca, and up to 10 wt % Mg have been investigated in the cast state and state after heat treatment. It has been shown that only binary phases Al4Ca, Al3Sc, and Al3Mg2 can be in equilibrium with the aluminum solid solution. It has been found that the maximum strengthening effect caused by the precipitation of Al3Sc nanoparticles for all investigated alloys is attained after annealing at 300-350°C.

  14. Surface modification of an Mg-1Ca alloy to slow down its biocorrosion by chitosan.

    PubMed

    Gu, X N; Zheng, Y F; Lan, Q X; Cheng, Y; Zhang, Z X; Xi, T F; Zhang, D Y

    2009-08-01

    The surface morphologies before and after immersion corrosion test of various chitosan-coated Mg-1Ca alloy samples were studied to investigate the effect of chitosan dip coating on the slowdown of biocorrosion. It showed that the corrosion resistance of the Mg-Ca alloy increased after coating with chitosan, and depended on both the chitosan molecular weight and layer numbers of coating. The Mg-Ca alloy coated by chitosan with a molecular weight of 2.7 x 10(5) for six layers has smooth and intact surface morphology, and exhibits the highest corrosion resistance in a simulated body fluid.

  15. Compositional tuning of atomic layer deposited MgZnO for thin film transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Wrench, J. S.; Brunell, I. F.; Chalker, P. R.; Jin, J. D.; Shaw, A.; Mitrovic, I. Z.; Hall, S.

    2014-11-17

    Thin film transistors (TFTs) have been fabricated using magnesium zinc oxide (MgZnO) layers deposited by atomic layer deposition at 200 °C. The composition of the MgZnO is systematically modified by varying the ratio of MgO and ZnO deposition cycles. A blue-shift of the near band-edge photoluminescence after post-deposition annealing at 300 °C indicates significant activation of the Mg dopant. A 7:1 ratio of ZnO:MgO deposition cycles was used to fabricate a device with a TFT channel width of 2000 μm and a channel length of 60 μm. This transistor yielded an effective saturation mobility of 4 cm{sup 2}/V s and a threshold voltage of 7.1 V, respectively. The on/off ratio was 1.6×10{sup 6} and the maximum interface state density at the ZnO/SiO{sub 2} interface is ∼6.5×10{sup 12} cm{sup −2}.

  16. A fast passive Ca2+ efflux mediated by the (Ca2+ + Mg2+)-ATPase in reconstituted vesicles.

    PubMed

    Gould, G W; McWhirter, J M; East, J M; Lee, A G

    1987-11-01

    The (Ca2+ + Mg2+)-ATPase from skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum was reconstituted into phospholipid bilayers. The permeability of lipid bilayers to Co2+ and glucose was increased slightly by incorporation of the ATPase, and the permeability of mixed bilayers of phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylcholine increased with increasing content of phosphatidylethanolamine both in the presence and absence of the ATPase. The presence of the ATPase, however, resulted in a marked increase in permeability to Ca2+, the permeability decreasing with increasing phosphatidylethanolamine content. Permeability to Ca2+ was found to be dependent on pH and the external concentrations of Mg2+ and Ca2+, was stimulated by adenine nucleotides but was unaffected by inositol trisphosphate. A kinetic model is presented for Ca2+ efflux mediated by the ATPase. It is shown that the kinetic parameters that describe Ca2+ efflux from vesicles of sarcoplasmic reticulum also describe efflux from the vesicles reconstituted from the purified ATPase and phosphatidylcholine. It is shown that the effects of phosphatidylethanolamine on efflux can be simulated in terms of changes in the rates of the transitions linking conformations of the ATPase with inward- and outward-facing Ca2+-binding sites, and that effects of phosphatidylethanolamine on the ATPase activity of the ATPase can also be simulated in terms of effects on the corresponding conformational transitions. We conclude that the ATPase can act as a specific pathway for Ca2+ efflux from sarcoplasmic reticulum.

  17. Mg/Ca partitioning between aqueous solution and aragonite mineral: a molecular dynamics study.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Hernandez, Sergio E; Grau-Crespo, Ricardo; Almora-Barrios, Neyvis; Wolthers, Mariëtte; Ruiz-Salvador, A Rabdel; Fernandez, Nestor; de Leeuw, Nora H

    2012-08-01

    We have calculated the concentrations of Mg in the bulk and surfaces of aragonite CaCO(3) in equilibrium with aqueous solution, based on molecular dynamics simulations and grand-canonical statistical mechanics. Mg is incorporated in the surfaces, in particular in the (001) terraces, rather than in the bulk of aragonite particles. However, the total Mg content in the bulk and surface of aragonite particles was found to be too small to account for the measured Mg/Ca ratios in corals. We therefore argue that most Mg in corals is either highly metastable in the aragonite lattice, or is located outside the aragonite phase of the coral skeleton, and we discuss the implications of this finding for Mg/Ca paleothermometry. PMID:22744724

  18. Stable isotopes, Sr/Ca, and Mg/Ca in biogenic carbonates from Petaluma Marsh, northern California, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Ingram, B.L.; De Deckker, P.; Chivas, A.R.; Conrad, M.E.; Byrne, A.R.

    2004-10-19

    Stable isotope ({sup 18}O/{sup 16}O and {sup 13}C/{sup 12}C) and minor-element compositions (Sr/Ca and Mg/Ca ratios) of ostracodes and gastropods separated from marsh sediments from San Francisco Bay, Northern California, were used to reconstruct paleoenvironmental changes in Petaluma Marsh over the past 700 yr. The value of {delta}{sup 18}O in the marsh carbonates reflects changes in freshwater inflow, evaporation, and temperature. Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca in ostracode calcite reflect changes in both freshwater inflow and temperature, although primarily reflect temperature changes in the salinity range of about 10-35 {per_thousand}. Ostracode {delta}{sup 18}O values show a gradual increase by 5 {per_thousand} between 500 yr BR and the present, probably reflecting rising sea level and increased evaporation in the marsh. Superimposed on this trend are higher frequency Mg/Ca and {delta}{sup 18}O variations (3-4 {per_thousand}), probably reflecting changes in freshwater inflow and evaporation. A period of low Mg/Ca occurred between about 100-300 cal yr BP, suggesting wetter and cooler conditions during the Little Ice Age. Higher Mg/Ca ratios occurred 600-700 cal yr BP, indicating drier and warmer conditions during the end of the Medieval Warm Period. Both ostracode and gastropod {delta}{sup 13}C values decrease up-core, reflecting decomposition of marsh vegetation, which changes from C{sub 4} ({delta}{sup 13}C {approx} -12{per_thousand}) to CAM ({delta}{sup 13}C = -26 {per_thousand})-type vegetation over time.

  19. A first-principles study on structural stability and mechanical properties of polar intermetallic phases CaZn2 and SrZn2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Wen-Cheng; Liu, Yong; Li, De-Jiang; Li, Ke; Jin, Hua-Lan; Xu, Ying-Xuan; Xu, Chun-Shui; Zeng, Xiao-Qin

    2014-12-01

    Structural stability and electronic properties of polar intermetallic CaZn2 and SrZn2 in both CeCu2-type and MgZn2-type structures have been investigated using first-principles method. The calculated equilibrium lattice parameters agree closely with the available experimental and other theoretical results. In terms of formation enthalpy, it is discovered that the present compounds with CeCu2-type structure are energetically more stable than that with MgZn2-type. They are all mechanically stable according to the criteria of elastic stability. In particular, we have investigated the pressure effect on the compressive behaviour and structural stability of each compound. Subsequently, the bulk modulus, shear modulus, Young's modulus, theoretical hardness, Poisson's ratio and Debye temperature in the ground state can be estimated using Voigt-Reuss-Hill homogenization method. Mechanical anisotropy is characterized by the anisotropic factors and direction-dependent Young's modulus. Finally, the electronic structures are determined to reveal the bonding characteristics of considered phases.

  20. Microstructural analysis of biodegradable Mg-0.9Ca-1.2Zr alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Istrate, B.; Munteanu, C.; Geanta, V.; Baltatu, S.; Focsaneanu, S.; Earar, K.

    2016-08-01

    Magnesium alloys have applications in aerospace and medical applications as biodegradable orthopedic implants. Alloying with biocompatible elements, such as calcium or zirconium contribute to refining the the microstructure and improves corrosion resistance with the formation of an eutectic compound - Mg2Ca at boundary alpha-Mg grains. The purpose of this paper is to present the microstructure throw optical and scanning electron methods and phase and constituents identification with X-ray analysis. The results showed the presence of alpha-Mg grains with formation of a mechanical compound - Mg2Ca and appearance of alpha- Zr phase relatively uniformly distributed in nests.

  1. The ternary system K2SO4MgSO4CaSO4

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rowe, J.J.; Morey, G.W.; Silber, C.C.

    1967-01-01

    Melting and subsolidus relations in the system K2SO4MgSO4CaSO4 were studied using heating-cooling curves, differential thermal analysis, optics, X-ray diffraction at room and high temperatures and by quenching techniques. Previous investigators were unable to study the binary MgSO4CaSO4 system and the adjacent area in the ternary system because of the decomposition of MgSO4 and CaSO4 at high temperatures. This problem was partly overcome by a novel sealed-tube quenching method, by hydrothermal synthesis, and by long-time heating in the solidus. As a result of this study, we found: (1) a new compound, CaSO4??3MgSO4 (m.p. 1201??C) with a field extending into the ternary system; (2) a high temperature form of MgSO4 with a sluggishly reversible inversion. An X-ray diffraction pattern for this polymorphic form is given; (3) the inversion of ??-CaSO4 (anhydrite) to ??-CaSO4 at 1195??C, in agreement with grahmann; (1) (4) the melting point of MgSO4 is 1136??C and that of CaSO4 is 1462??C (using sealed tube methods to prevent decomposition of the sulphates); (5) calcium langbeinite (K2SO4??2CaSO4) is the only compound in the K2SO4CaSO4 binary system. This resolved discrepancies in the results of previous investigators; (6) a continuous solid solution series between congruently melting K2SOP4??2MgSO4 (langbeinite) and incongruently melting K2SO4??2CaSO4 (calcium langbeinite); (7) the liquidus in the ternary system consists of primary phase fields of K2SO4, MgSO4, CaSO4, langbeinite-calcium langbeinite solid solution, and CaSO4??3MgSO4. The CaSO4 field extends over a large portion of the system. Previously reported fields for the compounds (K2SO4??MgSO4??nCaSO4), K2SO4??3CaSO4 and K2SO4??CaSO4 were not found; (8) a minimum in the ternary system at: 740??C, 25% MgSO4, 6% CaSO4, 69% K2SO4; and ternary eutectics at 882??C, 49% MgSO4, 19% CaSO4, 32% K2SO4; and 880??, 67??5% MgSO4, 5% CaSO4, 27??5% K2SO4. ?? 1967.

  2. Computational band-gap engineering in wide-gap MgO-ZnO alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leone, R. Matt; Hart, Gus L. W.

    2006-03-01

    Wide-gap semiconducting materials are extending critical applications in high temperature/power electronics and optoelectronics such as with the continued advancement of blue to ultraviolet LEDs and lasers. MgO-ZnO alloys have been increasingly investigated due to their UV luminescence from 150-400 nm, 3.3-7.8 eV. We have developed a first-principles model Hamiltonian that predicts band gaps of cubic MgO-ZnO alloys for any superlattice type or atomic configuration. First-principles band gap energies were used as input to construct an Ising-like cluster expansion, and the cluster types used were determined using a novel genetic algorithm. The design of specific wide-gap MgO-ZnO alloy superlattices for desired target band gaps is now possible with this resultant model Hamiltonian.

  3. Microstructural evolution in Al-Zn-Mg-Cu-Sc-Zr alloys during short-time homogenization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Tao; He, Chun-nian; Li, Gen; Meng, Xin; Shi, Chun-sheng; Zhao, Nai-qin

    2015-05-01

    Microstructural evolution in a new kind of aluminum (Al) alloy with the chemical composition of Al-8.82Zn-2.08Mg-0.80Cu-0.31Sc-0.3Zr was investigated. It is found that the secondary phase MgZn2 is completely dissolved into the matrix during a short homogenization treatment (470°C, 1 h), while the primary phase Al3(Sc,Zr) remains stable. This is due to Sc and Zr additions into the Al alloy, high Zn/Mg mass ratio, and low Cu content. The experimental findings fit well with the results calculated by the homogenization diffusion kinetics equation. The alloy shows an excellent mechanical performance after the short homogenization process followed by hot-extrusion and T6 treatment. Consequently, a good combination of low energy consumption and favorable mechanical properties is obtained.

  4. Novel Approach for the Reduction of ZnO and MgO Using a Direct Diode-Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmoud, M. S.; Yabe, T.; Iida, E.

    2016-10-01

    In this work, we present the results of using the diode laser with an energy density of 6.6 × 1011 W/m3 for reducing ZnO to Zn in vacuum as a first step. Subsequently, we use the diode laser for the reduction of MgO using Zn as the reducing agent. Although Zn is one of the candidates proposed for the renewable energy cycle, it is more auspicious to use it as a recyclable reducing agent. Herein, the reduction efficiency was measured in terms of moles of Zn or Mg obtained per moles of ZnO or MgO ablated. The energy efficiency is measured in terms of mass of Zn or Mg produced per energy consumed by diode laser. For the first part, the largest reduction rate was 15.8 mg/s, corresponding to reduction and energy efficiencies of 76.6 pct and 16.14 mg/kJ, respectively. The yield for the process was 8.8 pct of the theoretically calculated one, which is only better than the solar ZnO reduction process. For the second part, the reduction of MgO with Zn was attainable by diode laser, the resultant Mg was associated with Zn traces, and the electron probe micro analysis results showed that the MgO reduction efficiency fluctuates between 14.4 and 26.6 pct. Different scenarios were suggested for the mechanism of the reaction.

  5. Effect of Ca addition on the corrosion behavior of Mg-Al-Mn alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jiang; Peng, Jian; Nyberg, Eric A.; Pan, Fu-sheng

    2016-04-01

    The microstructures and corrosion resistance of magnesium-5 wt% aluminum-0.3 wt% manganese alloys (Mg-Al-Mn) with different Ca additions (0.2-4 wt%) were investigated. Results showed that with increasing Ca addition, the grain of the alloys became more refined, whereas the corrosion resistant ability of the alloys initially increased and then decreased. The alloy with 2 wt% Ca addition exhibited the best corrosion resistance, attributed to the effect of the oxide film and (Mg,Al)2Ca phases which were discontinuously distributed on the grain boundaries. These phases acted as micro-victims, they preferentially corroded to protect the α-Mg matrix. The oxide film formed on the alloy surface can hinder the solution further to protect the α-Mg matrix.

  6. Scleractinian corals cultured in low Mg/Ca seawater form aragonite skeleton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolarski, Jaroslaw; Reynaud, Stéphanie; Ferrier-Pages, Christine; Janiszewska, Katarzyna; Domart-Coulon, Isabelle; Beraud, Eric; Marrocchi, Yves; Mazur, Maciej; Szlachetko, Jakub; Meibom, Anders

    2010-05-01

    Scleractinian corals represent a testing ground for ideas regarding biologically vs. environmentally controlled calcification. The morphology of skeletal micro-structural units (arrangement of the skeletal fibers) and their biogeochemical composition have, for a long time, been interpreted from two opposite view points: (1) as a purely physico-chemical process involving simple supersaturation of a fluid close in composition to seawater, hypothesized to exist at the interface between the skeleton and the calicoblastic cell-layer, or (2) a complete physiological control of calcification by the organism by means of a presumed amorphous precursor phase and precisely utilized organic macromolecules that control mineralogy, crystal orientation etc. Paleontological data originally supported the second interpretation because the aragonitic skeletal mineralogy appeared to be stable through geological time despite of changes in seawater chemistry (e.g., the late Mesozoic decrease of Mg/Ca ratio), which was believed to promote inorganic precipitation of calcite. However, Ries et al. (Geology 2006, 34: 525-528) argued that scleractinians are so-called 'hyper-calcifiers' and limited in their mineralogical control. Accordingly, in modern seawater (Mg/Ca molar ratio = 5.2) such organisms form aragonite simply because the Mg/Ca ratio favors this mineralogy. However, if the Mg/Ca ratio drops below 3.5, the mineralogy of such 'hyper-calcifiers' are supposed to become calcitic. In low-Mg/Ca experiments, Ries et al. detected calcite by X-ray diffraction of the bulk skeleton of Acropora, Montipora, and Porites and also indicated, by electron microprobe analyses, the presence of calcite in the uppermost portion of coral skeleton, though the exact position of the mapped areas were not indicated. We have cultured Acropora, Porites, Pavona and Galaxea in low Mg/Ca (compared with normal seawater) artificial seawater (ASW). A low Mg/Ca ratio can be obtained either by lowering the Mg

  7. A simple low temperature synthesis route for ZnO-MgO core-shell nanowires.

    PubMed

    Plank, N O V; Snaith, H J; Ducati, C; Bendall, J S; Schmidt-Mende, L; Welland, M E

    2008-11-19

    We report a hydrothermal synthesis method for MgO shell coatings directly onto the surface of ZnO nanowire arrays. The entire process can be carried out below 100 °C. The MgO shells are produced by the addition of 10 mM magnesium nitrate with 0.2 M sodium hydroxide in water, resulting in a shell thickness of up to 8 nm, verified by high resolution transmission electron microscopy. The viability of the MgO layer as a functional element of optoelectronic devices was tested on solid-state organic hole-transporter based dye-sensitized solar cells. Incorporation of the MgO shell into the solar cell resulted in substantive efficiency improvements of over 400% in comparison to the pristine ZnO nanowire based photovoltaics, indicating that electrons can efficiently tunnel through the 'insulating' MgO shell.

  8. Isotopic Fractionation of Mg2+(aq), Ca2+(aq), and Fe2+(aq) with Carbonate Minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Rustad, James R.; Casey, William H.; Yin, Qing-Zhu; Bylaska, Eric J.; Felmy, Andrew R.; Bogatko, Stuart A.; Jackson, Virgil E.; Dixon, David A.

    2010-11-15

    Density functional electronic structure calculations are used to compute the equilibrium constant (the isotope fractionation factor) for 26Mg/24Mg and 44Ca/40Ca isotope exchange between carbonate minerals and uncomplexed divalent aquo ions. The most reliable calculations at the B3LYP/6-311++G(2d,2p) level predict equilibrium constants K, reported as 103ln(K) at 25 °C, of -5.3, -1.1, and +1.1 for 26Mg/24Mg exchange between calcite (CaCO3), magnesite (MgCO3), and dolomite (Ca0.5Mg0.5CO3), respectively, and Mg2+(aq), with positive values indicating enrichment in the mineral phase. For 44Ca/40Ca exchange between calcite and Ca2+(aq), the calculations predict values of +1.5 for Ca2+(aq) in six-fold coordination and +4.1 for Ca2+(aq) in seven-fold coordination. We find that the reduced partition function ratios can be reliably computed from systems as small as M(CO3)610- and M2+(H2O)6 embedded in a set of fixed atoms representing the 2nd shell (and greater) coordination environment. We find that the aqueous cluster representing the aquo ion is much more sensitive to improvements in the basis set than the calculations on the mineral systems, and that fractionation factors should be computed using 2 the best possible basis set for the aquo complex, even if the reduced partition function ratio calculated with the same basis set is not available for the mineral system. The new calculations show that the previous discrepancies between theory and experiment for Fe3+-hematite and Fe2+-siderite fractionations arise from an insufficiently accurate reduced partition function ratio for the Fe3+(aq) and Fe2+(aq) species.

  9. What is the Right Temperature Sensitivity for Foraminiferal Mg/ca Paleothermometry in Ancient Oceans?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eggins, S.; Holland, K.; Hoenisch, B.; Spero, H. J.; Allen, K. A.

    2013-12-01

    Mg/Ca seawater thermometry has become a cornerstone of modern paleoceanography. Laboratory experiments, seafloor core-top samples, plankton trap and tow collected materials all indicate consistent temperature sensitivity (9-10% increase in Mg/Ca per °C) for a full range of modern planktic foraminifer species. While these results demonstrate the overall robustness of Mg/Ca paleothermometry for the modern ocean, it is an empirical tool for which there is limited understanding of its bio-physio-chemical basis and its applicability to ancient oceans. We have undertaken experimental cultures of Orbulina universa, Globigerinoides sacculifer and Globigerinoides ruber (pink) across a range of seawater compositions (temperature, carbonate chemistry and Mg/Casw) that encompass modern and ancient Paleogene and Cretaceous ocean compositions (Mg/Casw 0.25x to 2x modern and pCO2 = 200 to 1500 ppmv). Our results reveal that the sensitivity of the Mg/Ca-thermometer for planktic foraminifers reduces significantly with Mg/Casw, rather than remaining constant as has been widely assumed or, increasing at lower Mg/Casw as proposed recently by Evans and Müller (2012). These results indicate that the modern sensitivity of 9-10% increase in Mg/Ca per °C cannot yet be applied to obtain reliable relative temperature change estimates to ancient oceans. These results further suggest that variations in foraminiferal Mg/Ca compositions in ancient oceans with lower Mg/Casw may correspond to larger temperature variations than in the modern ocean. Evans D. and Müller W., Paleoceanography, vol. 27, PA4205, doi:10.1029/2012PA002315, 2012

  10. Acoustic-phonon-limited mobility and giant phonon-drag thermopower in MgZnO/ZnO heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Tsaousidou, M.

    2013-12-04

    We present numerical simulations for the acoustic-phonon-limited mobility, μ{sub ac}, in two-dimensional electron gases (2DEGs) confined in MgZnO/ZnO heterostructures for temperatures 0.4–20 K. The calculations are based on the semiclassical Boltzmann equation. We examine two 2DEGs with sheet densities 1.4 and 7×10{sup 15} m{sup −2}. Good agreement is found with recent experimental data without any adjustable parameter. We also calculate the contribution to thermopower that arises due to the phonon wind set up by a temperature gradient (the so-called phonon-drag thermopower, S{sup g}). A giant magnitude of S{sup g} is predicted that exceeds 50–100 mV/K at 5 K depending on the sheet density. Our findings suggest that the ZnO based heterostructures could be promising materials for thermoelectric applications at low temperatures.

  11. Characteristics of Ca2+- and Mg2+-induced tension development in chemically skinned smooth muscle fibers

    PubMed Central

    1978-01-01

    Chemically skinned fibers from guinea pig taenia caecum were prepared by saponin treatment to study the smooth muscle contractile system in a state as close to the living state as posible. The skinned fibers showed tension development with an increase of Ca2+ in the solution, the threshold tension occurring as 5 X 10(-7) M Ca2+. The maximal tension induced with 10(-4) M Ca2+ was as large and rapid as the potassium-induced contracture in the intact fibers. The slope of the pCa tension curve was less steep than that of skeletal muscle fibers and shifted in the direction of lower pCa with an increase of MgATP. The presence of greater than 1 mM Mg2+ was required for Ca2+-induced contraction in the skinned fibers as well as for the activation of ATPase and superprecipitation in smooth muscle myosin B. Mg2+ above 2 mM caused a slow tension development by itself in the absence of Ca2+. Such a Mg2+-induced tension showed a linear relation to concentrations up to 8 mM in the presence of MgATP. Increase of MgATP concentration revealed a monophasic response without inhibition of Ca2+-induced tension development, unlike the biphasic response in striated muscle. When MgATP was removed from the relaxing solution, the tension developed slowly and slightly, even though the Mg2+ concentrations was fixed at 2 mM. These results suggest a substantial difference in the mode of actin-myosin interaction between smooth and skeletal muscle. PMID:151731

  12. Enhancement of Be and Mg incorporation in wurtzite quaternary BeMgZnO alloys with up to 5.1 eV optical bandgap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toporkov, M.; Avrutin, V.; Okur, S.; Izyumskaya, N.; Demchenko, D.; Volk, J.; Smith, D. J.; Morkoç, H.; Özgür, Ü.

    2014-09-01

    A wide range of optical bandgap modulation up to 5.1 eV was achieved for quaternary BeMgZnO thin films prepared using plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy, enabling development of UV emitters and solar-blind photodetectors. The significantly improved structural quality and bandgap widening in BeMgZnO layers as compared to those of BeZnO and MgZnO ternaries indicate enhanced incorporation of both Be and Mg on Zn sites in the wurtzite lattice. Correlation of lattice parameters with optical bandgaps reveals that co-alloying MgO and BeO with ZnO helps overcome the impediment of limited bandgap extension offered by the corresponding ternary compounds due to phase separation and allows lattice-matched or nearly lattice-matched BeMgZnO/ZnO heterostructures. Optimization of growth conditions at higher Mg and/or Be fluxes is expected to provide bandgaps beyond 5.1 eV.

  13. Seawater Mg/Ca controls polymorph mineralogy of microbial CaCO3: a potential proxy for calcite-aragonite seas in Precambrian time.

    PubMed

    Ries, J B; Anderson, M A; Hill, R T

    2008-03-01

    A previously published hydrothermal brine-river water mixing model driven by ocean crust production suggests that the molar Mg/Ca ratio of seawater (mMg/Ca(sw)) has varied significantly (approximately 1.0-5.2) over Precambrian time, resulting in six intervals of aragonite-favouring seas (mMg/Ca(sw) > 2) and five intervals of calcite-favouring seas (mMg/Ca(sw) < 2) since the Late Archaean. To evaluate the viability of microbial carbonates as mineralogical proxy for Precambrian calcite-aragonite seas, calcifying microbial marine biofilms were cultured in experimental seawaters formulated over the range of Mg/Ca ratios believed to have characterized Precambrian seawater. Biofilms cultured in experimental aragonite seawater (mMg/Ca(sw) = 5.2) precipitated primarily aragonite with lesser amounts of high-Mg calcite (mMg/Ca(calcite) = 0.16), while biofilms cultured in experimental calcite seawater (mMg/Ca(sw) = 1.5) precipitated exclusively lower magnesian calcite (mMg/Ca(calcite) = 0.06). Furthermore, Mg/Ca(calcite )varied proportionally with Mg/Ca(sw). This nearly abiotic mineralogical response of the biofilm CaCO3 to altered Mg/Ca(sw) is consistent with the assertion that biofilm calcification proceeds more through the elevation of , via metabolic removal of CO2 and/or H+, than through the elevation of Ca2+, which would alter the Mg/Ca ratio of the biofilm's calcifying fluid causing its pattern of CaCO3 polymorph precipitation (aragonite vs. calcite; Mg-incorporation in calcite) to deviate from that of abiotic calcification. If previous assertions are correct that the physicochemical properties of Precambrian seawater were such that Mg/Ca(sw) was the primary variable influencing CaCO3 polymorph mineralogy, then the observed response of the biofilms' CaCO3 polymorph mineralogy to variations in Mg/Ca(sw), combined with the ubiquity of such microbial carbonates in Precambrian strata, suggests that the original polymorph mineralogy and Mg/Ca(calcite )of well

  14. Seawater Mg/Ca controls polymorph mineralogy of microbial CaCO3: a potential proxy for calcite-aragonite seas in Precambrian time.

    PubMed

    Ries, J B; Anderson, M A; Hill, R T

    2008-03-01

    A previously published hydrothermal brine-river water mixing model driven by ocean crust production suggests that the molar Mg/Ca ratio of seawater (mMg/Ca(sw)) has varied significantly (approximately 1.0-5.2) over Precambrian time, resulting in six intervals of aragonite-favouring seas (mMg/Ca(sw) > 2) and five intervals of calcite-favouring seas (mMg/Ca(sw) < 2) since the Late Archaean. To evaluate the viability of microbial carbonates as mineralogical proxy for Precambrian calcite-aragonite seas, calcifying microbial marine biofilms were cultured in experimental seawaters formulated over the range of Mg/Ca ratios believed to have characterized Precambrian seawater. Biofilms cultured in experimental aragonite seawater (mMg/Ca(sw) = 5.2) precipitated primarily aragonite with lesser amounts of high-Mg calcite (mMg/Ca(calcite) = 0.16), while biofilms cultured in experimental calcite seawater (mMg/Ca(sw) = 1.5) precipitated exclusively lower magnesian calcite (mMg/Ca(calcite) = 0.06). Furthermore, Mg/Ca(calcite )varied proportionally with Mg/Ca(sw). This nearly abiotic mineralogical response of the biofilm CaCO3 to altered Mg/Ca(sw) is consistent with the assertion that biofilm calcification proceeds more through the elevation of , via metabolic removal of CO2 and/or H+, than through the elevation of Ca2+, which would alter the Mg/Ca ratio of the biofilm's calcifying fluid causing its pattern of CaCO3 polymorph precipitation (aragonite vs. calcite; Mg-incorporation in calcite) to deviate from that of abiotic calcification. If previous assertions are correct that the physicochemical properties of Precambrian seawater were such that Mg/Ca(sw) was the primary variable influencing CaCO3 polymorph mineralogy, then the observed response of the biofilms' CaCO3 polymorph mineralogy to variations in Mg/Ca(sw), combined with the ubiquity of such microbial carbonates in Precambrian strata, suggests that the original polymorph mineralogy and Mg/Ca(calcite )of well

  15. Extension of the Optical Absorption Range in Zn-Doped MgO Powders and Its Effect on Antibacterial Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohira, Toshiaki; Kawamura, Mari; Fukuda, Masayuki; Alvarez, Kelly; Özkal, Burak; Yamamoto, Osamu

    2010-04-01

    In order to produce powder samples of Zn-doped MgO, the precursors, MgO and ZnO, were mixed in a molar ratio higher than 1.86 and subsequently treated at 1200 °C for 5 h in air atmosphere. With increasing Zn content in MgO, the lattice constant increased linearly, and the optical absorption intensity increased in the wavelength ranging from 200 to 400 nm. Antibacterial activity of the obtained powder samples was examined by colony count method using Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. In the antibacterial tests, it was found that the antibacterial activity enhanced with increasing Zn content in MgO. Antibacterial action toward S. aureus was greater than that toward E. coli, irrespective of the Zn content in MgO. From these results, the enhancement of the antibacterial activity could be related with the optical absorption of Zn-doped MgO.

  16. Quasicrystal-Crystal Transformation in Zn-Mg-Rare-Earth Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, Eiji; Tsai, An Pang

    1999-07-01

    We report a reversible phase transformation between the icosahedral Zn-Mg-rare-earth(RE) quasicrystal and the hexagonal crystal being not composed of any giant icosahedral atomic cluster. This clearly shows that the large atomic cluster is not an essential atomic configuration for quasicrystal formation. A structural unit of the Zn-Mg-RE icosahedral quasicrystal is suggested to be not an icosahedral atomic cluster such as the Mackay or Bergman type which have been successfully used for the structural description of the Al-based icosahedral quasicrystalline phases.

  17. Testing the cation-hydration effect on the crystallization of Ca-Mg-CO3 systems.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jie; Yan, Chao; Zhang, Fangfu; Konishi, Hiromi; Xu, Huifang; Teng, H Henry

    2013-10-29

    Dolomite and magnesite are simple anhydrous calcium and/or magnesium carbonate minerals occurring mostly at Earth surfaces. However, laboratory synthesis of neither species at ambient temperature and pressure conditions has been proven practically possible, and the lack of success was assumed to be related to the strong solvation shells of magnesium ions in aqueous media. Here, we report the synthesis of MgCO3 and MgxCa(1-x)CO3 (0 < x < 1) solid phases at ambient conditions in the absence of water. Experiments were carried out in dry organic solvent, and the results showed that, although anhydrous phases were readily precipitated in the water-free environment, the precipitates' crystallinity was highly dependent on the Mg molar percentage content in the solution. In specific, magnesian calcite dominated in low [Mg(2+)]/[Ca(2+)] solutions but gave way to exclusive formation of amorphous MgxCa(1-x)CO3 and MgCO3 in high-[Mg(2+)]/[Ca(2+)] and pure-Mg solutions. At conditions of [Mg(2+)]/[Ca(2+)] = 1, both nanocrystals of Ca-rich protodolomite and amorphous phase of Mg-rich MgxCa(1-x)CO3 were formed. These findings exposed a previously unrecognized intrinsic barrier for Mg(2+) and CO3(2-) to develop long-range orders at ambient conditions and suggested that the long-held belief of cation-hydration inhibition on dolomite and magnesite mineralization needed to be reevaluated. Our study provides significant insight into the long-standing "dolomite problem" in geochemistry and mineralogy and may promote a better understanding of the fundamental chemistry in biomineralization and mineral-carbonation processes.

  18. Mechanisms of Rapid Reactive Oxygen Species Generation in Response to Cytosolic Ca2+ or Zn2+ Loads in Cortical Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Clausen, Aaron; McClanahan, Taylor; Ji, Sung G.; Weiss, John H.

    2013-01-01

    Excessive “excitotoxic” accumulation of Ca2+ and Zn2+ within neurons contributes to neurodegeneration in pathological conditions including ischemia. Putative early targets of these ions, both of which are linked to increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, are mitochondria and the cytosolic enzyme, NADPH oxidase (NOX). The present study uses primary cortical neuronal cultures to examine respective contributions of mitochondria and NOX to ROS generation in response to Ca2+ or Zn2+ loading. Induction of rapid cytosolic accumulation of either Ca2+ (via NMDA exposure) or Zn2+ (via Zn2+/Pyrithione exposure in 0 Ca2+) caused sharp cytosolic rises in these ions, as well as a strong and rapid increase in ROS generation. Inhibition of NOX activation significantly reduced the Ca2+-induced ROS production with little effect on the Zn2+- triggered ROS generation. Conversely, dissipation of the mitochondrial electrochemical gradient increased the cytosolic Ca2+ or Zn2+ rises caused by these exposures, consistent with inhibition of mitochondrial uptake of these ions. However, such disruption of mitochondrial function markedly suppressed the Zn2+-triggered ROS, while partially attenuating the Ca2+-triggered ROS. Furthermore, block of the mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter (MCU), through which Zn2+ as well as Ca2+ can enter the mitochondrial matrix, substantially diminished Zn2+ triggered ROS production, suggesting that the ROS generation occurs specifically in response to Zn2+ entry into mitochondria. Finally, in the presence of the sulfhydryl-oxidizing agent 2,2'-dithiodipyridine, which impairs Zn2+ binding to cytosolic metalloproteins, far lower Zn2+ exposures were able to induce mitochondrial Zn2+ uptake and consequent ROS generation. Thus, whereas rapid acute accumulation of Zn2+ and Ca2+ each can trigger injurious ROS generation, Zn2+ entry into mitochondria via the MCU may do so with particular potency. This may be of particular relevance to conditions like ischemia

  19. Mechanisms of rapid reactive oxygen species generation in response to cytosolic Ca2+ or Zn2+ loads in cortical neurons.

    PubMed

    Clausen, Aaron; McClanahan, Taylor; Ji, Sung G; Weiss, John H

    2013-01-01

    Excessive "excitotoxic" accumulation of Ca(2+) and Zn(2+) within neurons contributes to neurodegeneration in pathological conditions including ischemia. Putative early targets of these ions, both of which are linked to increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, are mitochondria and the cytosolic enzyme, NADPH oxidase (NOX). The present study uses primary cortical neuronal cultures to examine respective contributions of mitochondria and NOX to ROS generation in response to Ca(2+) or Zn(2+) loading. Induction of rapid cytosolic accumulation of either Ca(2+) (via NMDA exposure) or Zn(2+) (via Zn(2+)/Pyrithione exposure in 0 Ca(2+)) caused sharp cytosolic rises in these ions, as well as a strong and rapid increase in ROS generation. Inhibition of NOX activation significantly reduced the Ca(2+)-induced ROS production with little effect on the Zn(2+)- triggered ROS generation. Conversely, dissipation of the mitochondrial electrochemical gradient increased the cytosolic Ca(2+) or Zn(2+) rises caused by these exposures, consistent with inhibition of mitochondrial uptake of these ions. However, such disruption of mitochondrial function markedly suppressed the Zn(2+)-triggered ROS, while partially attenuating the Ca(2+)-triggered ROS. Furthermore, block of the mitochondrial Ca(2+) uniporter (MCU), through which Zn(2+) as well as Ca(2+) can enter the mitochondrial matrix, substantially diminished Zn(2+) triggered ROS production, suggesting that the ROS generation occurs specifically in response to Zn(2+) entry into mitochondria. Finally, in the presence of the sulfhydryl-oxidizing agent 2,2'-dithiodipyridine, which impairs Zn(2+) binding to cytosolic metalloproteins, far lower Zn(2+) exposures were able to induce mitochondrial Zn(2+) uptake and consequent ROS generation. Thus, whereas rapid acute accumulation of Zn(2+) and Ca(2+) each can trigger injurious ROS generation, Zn(2+) entry into mitochondria via the MCU may do so with particular potency. This may be of

  20. Fabrication of stable, wide-bandgap thin films of Mg, Zn and O

    DOEpatents

    Katiyar, Ram S.; Bhattacharya, Pijush; Das, Rasmi R.

    2006-07-25

    A stable, wide-bandgap (approximately 6 eV) ZnO/MgO multilayer thin film is fabricated using pulsed-laser deposition on c-plane Al2O3 substrates. Layers of ZnO alternate with layers of MgO. The thickness of MgO is a constant of approximately 1 nm; the thicknesses of ZnO layers vary from approximately 0.75 to 2.5 nm. Abrupt structural transitions from hexagonal to cubic phase follow a decrease in the thickness of ZnO sublayers within this range. The band gap of the thin films is also influenced by the crystalline structure of multilayer stacks. Thin films with hexagonal and cubic structure have band-gap values of 3.5 and 6 eV, respectively. In the hexagonal phase, Mg content of the films is approximately 40%; in the cubic phase Mg content is approximately 60%. The thin films are stable and their structural and optical properties are unaffected by annealing at 750.degree. C.

  1. Single- and dual-wavelength photodetectors with MgZnO/ZnO metal–semiconductor–metal structure by varying the bias voltage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, J. D.; Lin, G. S.

    2016-09-01

    By varying the bias voltage of an Mg x Zn1‑x O/ZnO metal–semiconductor–metal photodetector (MSM-PDs), the detection wavelength can be modulated from a single to a dual wavelength. A long-wavelength band response is caused by the ZnO absorption and a short-wavelength band response is caused by Mg x Zn1‑x O. At a 0 V bias voltage, the photogenerated electrons in ZnO are confined to the Mg x Zn1‑x O/ZnO interface, arising from the piezoelectric polarization. The accumulated electrons hop the Mg x Zn1‑x O layer through the assistance of defects; however, the photogenerated electrons in Mg x Zn1‑x O cannot cross over the large barrier height at the Au/MgZnO interface, resulting in a single-wavelength photodetector with a long-wavelength band (345–400 nm) having a peak wavelength of 370 nm. By increasing the bias voltage to 1–2 V, the barrier height is lowered, enabling the photogenerated electrons in Mg x Zn1‑x O to easily cross over the low barrier height, leading to dual-wavelength photodetectors having peak wavelengths of 370 and 340 nm. On further increasing the bias voltage beyond 2 V, the photogenerated electrons in ZnO sink deeply in the hollow at the Mg x Zn1‑x O/ZnO interface owing to the large applied voltage. These electrons are effectively confined at the Mg x Zn1‑x O/ZnO interface, which retards the tunneling of the photogenerated electrons in ZnO through the Mg x Zn1‑x O layer; hence the MSM-PDs revert back to single wavelength photodetectors; however, the detection wavelength is different from that of the MSM-PDs biased at 0 V. Instead of having a long-wavelength band (345–400 nm), the MSM-PDs demonstrate a short-wavelength band (320–345 nm) at a 3 V bias voltage.

  2. Single- and dual-wavelength photodetectors with MgZnO/ZnO metal-semiconductor-metal structure by varying the bias voltage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, J. D.; Lin, G. S.

    2016-09-01

    By varying the bias voltage of an Mg x Zn1-x O/ZnO metal-semiconductor-metal photodetector (MSM-PDs), the detection wavelength can be modulated from a single to a dual wavelength. A long-wavelength band response is caused by the ZnO absorption and a short-wavelength band response is caused by Mg x Zn1-x O. At a 0 V bias voltage, the photogenerated electrons in ZnO are confined to the Mg x Zn1-x O/ZnO interface, arising from the piezoelectric polarization. The accumulated electrons hop the Mg x Zn1-x O layer through the assistance of defects; however, the photogenerated electrons in Mg x Zn1-x O cannot cross over the large barrier height at the Au/MgZnO interface, resulting in a single-wavelength photodetector with a long-wavelength band (345-400 nm) having a peak wavelength of 370 nm. By increasing the bias voltage to 1-2 V, the barrier height is lowered, enabling the photogenerated electrons in Mg x Zn1-x O to easily cross over the low barrier height, leading to dual-wavelength photodetectors having peak wavelengths of 370 and 340 nm. On further increasing the bias voltage beyond 2 V, the photogenerated electrons in ZnO sink deeply in the hollow at the Mg x Zn1-x O/ZnO interface owing to the large applied voltage. These electrons are effectively confined at the Mg x Zn1-x O/ZnO interface, which retards the tunneling of the photogenerated electrons in ZnO through the Mg x Zn1-x O layer; hence the MSM-PDs revert back to single wavelength photodetectors; however, the detection wavelength is different from that of the MSM-PDs biased at 0 V. Instead of having a long-wavelength band (345-400 nm), the MSM-PDs demonstrate a short-wavelength band (320-345 nm) at a 3 V bias voltage.

  3. Single- and dual-wavelength photodetectors with MgZnO/ZnO metal-semiconductor-metal structure by varying the bias voltage.

    PubMed

    Hwang, J D; Lin, G S

    2016-09-16

    By varying the bias voltage of an Mg x Zn1-x O/ZnO metal-semiconductor-metal photodetector (MSM-PDs), the detection wavelength can be modulated from a single to a dual wavelength. A long-wavelength band response is caused by the ZnO absorption and a short-wavelength band response is caused by Mg x Zn1-x O. At a 0 V bias voltage, the photogenerated electrons in ZnO are confined to the Mg x Zn1-x O/ZnO interface, arising from the piezoelectric polarization. The accumulated electrons hop the Mg x Zn1-x O layer through the assistance of defects; however, the photogenerated electrons in Mg x Zn1-x O cannot cross over the large barrier height at the Au/MgZnO interface, resulting in a single-wavelength photodetector with a long-wavelength band (345-400 nm) having a peak wavelength of 370 nm. By increasing the bias voltage to 1-2 V, the barrier height is lowered, enabling the photogenerated electrons in Mg x Zn1-x O to easily cross over the low barrier height, leading to dual-wavelength photodetectors having peak wavelengths of 370 and 340 nm. On further increasing the bias voltage beyond 2 V, the photogenerated electrons in ZnO sink deeply in the hollow at the Mg x Zn1-x O/ZnO interface owing to the large applied voltage. These electrons are effectively confined at the Mg x Zn1-x O/ZnO interface, which retards the tunneling of the photogenerated electrons in ZnO through the Mg x Zn1-x O layer; hence the MSM-PDs revert back to single wavelength photodetectors; however, the detection wavelength is different from that of the MSM-PDs biased at 0 V. Instead of having a long-wavelength band (345-400 nm), the MSM-PDs demonstrate a short-wavelength band (320-345 nm) at a 3 V bias voltage. PMID:27501372

  4. Effects of Zn impurities on the electronic properties of Pr doped CaTiO 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Ailing; Wang, Jianchuan; Du, Yong; Zhao, Dongdong; Gao, Qiannan

    2012-03-01

    Microcosmic investigations of weak red-emitting materials are crucial for their further development and application. In this work, we have focused on the band structures and electronic properties of Pr mono- and (Zn, Pr) co-doped CaTiO 3 using density functional theory. Zn substitution for Ca or Ti tends to form clusters energetically with Pr substituting for Ca in CaTiO 3. In Pr mono-doped CaTiO 3, the O 2p→Ti 3d transition in CaTiO 3 host corresponds to the centered 330 nm excitation spectra. The gap states above the valence band of ∼1.30 eV and ∼2.06 eV are hybridized by Pr 4f, O 2p and Ti 3d orbitals. They are mainly due to Pr 4f orbitals in CaTiO 3:Pr. The former gap level is related to red emission at 614 nm due to 1D 2→ 3H 4 transition of Pr 3+ activator. The latter is related to the excitation spectra centered at 380 nm due to the low-lying Pr-to-mental intervalence charge transfer transitions (Pr 3+-O 2--Ti 4+⇌Pr 4+-O 2--Ti 3+). The band structures of (Zn, Pr) co-doped CaTiO 3 keep the similar gap levels to those in Pr mono-doped CaTiO 3. The incorporation of Zn brings out the two stronger localized gap states, which are hybridized by Pr 4f, O 2p and Ti 3d orbitals, in comparison with those in Pr mono-doped CaTiO 3. Therefore, when Zn impurities are added into Pr doped CaTiO 3, the present calculations visualize the two enhanced levels and the distorted structures around Pr.

  5. Convergent Ca2+ and Zn2+ signaling regulates apoptotic Kv2.1 K+ currents

    PubMed Central

    McCord, Meghan C.; Aizenman, Elias

    2013-01-01

    A simultaneous increase in cytosolic Zn2+ and Ca2+ accompanies the initiation of neuronal cell death signaling cascades. However, the molecular convergence points of cellular processes activated by these cations are poorly understood. Here, we show that Ca2+-dependent activation of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is required for a cell death-enabling process previously shown to also depend on Zn2+. We have reported that oxidant-induced intraneuronal Zn2+ liberation triggers a syntaxin-dependent incorporation of Kv2.1 voltage-gated potassium channels into the plasma membrane. This channel insertion can be detected as a marked enhancement of delayed rectifier K+ currents in voltage clamp measurements observed at least 3 h following a short exposure to an apoptogenic stimulus. This current increase is the process responsible for the cytoplasmic loss of K+ that enables protease and nuclease activation during apoptosis. In the present study, we demonstrate that an oxidative stimulus also promotes intracellular Ca2+ release and activation of CaMKII, which, in turn, modulates the ability of syntaxin to interact with Kv2.1. Pharmacological or molecular inhibition of CaMKII prevents the K+ current enhancement observed following oxidative injury and, importantly, significantly increases neuronal viability. These findings reveal a previously unrecognized cooperative convergence of Ca2+- and Zn2+-mediated injurious signaling pathways, providing a potentially unique target for therapeutic intervention in neurodegenerative conditions associated with oxidative stress. PMID:23918396

  6. Towards a global calibration and validation of the G. ruber (white) Mg/Ca paleothermometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arbuszewski, J. A.; DeMenocal, P. B.

    2011-12-01

    Paired planktonic foraminiferal Mg/Ca and δ18O analyses are frequently applied to jointly estimate sea surface temperature and δ18Oseawater, a proxy for ocean salinity. Many previous studies found that temperature was the predominant factor influencing the incorporation of Mg2+ ions into foraminiferal calcite. However, recent results suggest that ocean salinity can also significantly influence shell Mg/Ca ratios. This influence was noted in our findings from an Atlantic meridional coretop sample transect, where we found that G. ruber (white) shell Mg/Ca values were significantly elevated in higher salinity gyre waters. This "excess Mg/Ca" (the residual between the observed and expected Mg/Ca composition at the δ18O calcification temperature) proved to be very highly correlated with surface salinity. Here, we will investigate the nature of this "excess Mg/Ca" signal for the planktonic species, G. ruber (white), globally using scanning electron microscope images, flow through ICP-MS data, and electron microprobe elemental mapping techniques. Additionally, using a database composed of a total of 230 cores (comprised of 42 cores new to this study and 188 previously published coretop values including 64 from our published Atlantic transect), we will present a global coretop calibration of surface ocean temperature and salinity using shell Mg/Ca, δ18O, and bottom water delta CO32- as predictors. Our calibration efforts yield accurate and precise estimations for modern coretops. We will discuss the validation of these new equations and their applicability to downcore paleoclimate reconstructions

  7. Evaluating Mg/Ca ratios as a temperature proxy in the estuarine oyster, Crassostrea virginica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surge, Donna; Lohmann, Kyger C.

    2008-06-01

    We examined the potential utility of Mg/CaSHELL ratios recorded in shells of the estuarine oyster Crassostrea virginica as a temperature proxy because oxygen isotope ratios (δ18O) in estuaries are complicated by the simultaneous fluctuation in temperature and salinity, whereas Mg/CaWATER ratios are assumed to be constant above 10 practical salinity units (psu). We tested this assumption and observed a slight mixing effect between 10 psu and normal marine values emphasizing the need to test this assumption in estuarine settings. Microsamples of shell carbonate were analyzed for δ18O, δ13C, and Mg/Ca ratios. Measured δ18OSHELL and δ13CSHELL were compared to predicted values to assign dates to shell samples. Once samples and dates were aligned, corresponding temperature and salinity for a particular sample were known, enabling comparison of Mg/CaSHELL ratios and temperature. When all Mg/CaSHELL data were compared to temperature, a weak but statistically significant correlation was observed (r2 = 0.05, p < 0.01). Because date assignments may become increasingly uncertain further back in time and earlier studies identified ontogenetic effects in juvenile portions of shells from other bivalve species, we examined the relationship from only the last year of growth. When only data from the last year of growth were compared, a slightly stronger positive relationship between Mg/CaSHELL ratios andDMg (the partition coefficient) emerged (Mg/CaSHELL, r2 = 0.30, p < 0.01; DMg, r2 = 0.33, p < 0.01). The improved correlation may result from either ontogenetic effects influencing the incorporation of Mg into the younger portion of the shell and/or inaccurate date assignments. Regardless of the cause, our equations are similar to previously published equations for C. virginica and other taxa. Despite the low correlations, our improved relationship supports further study under controlled experimental conditions.

  8. White-light luminescence properties of Mg and Sn doped ZnO prepared by thermal oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Zeng, Jun; Fan, Huiqing; Xue, Jun; Wang, Yangli

    2014-02-01

    Graphical abstract: The PL spectrum of MgSnZnO was measured at room temperature through multi-peak Gaussian fitting, it is found that the broad emission is composed of six peaks. - Highlights: • Mg and Sn doped ZnO are synthesized by thermal oxidation of MgSnZn alloys. • The structure is characterized by XRD and micro-Raman scattering technology. • The optical properties are characterized by photoluminescence spectrum. • The resulting Mg and Sn doped ZnO shows white photoluminescence. - Abstract: This work reports that Mg and Sn doped ZnO (MgSnZnO) are synthesized by thermal oxidation of MgSnZn alloys. The structure and optical properties are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), micro-Raman scattering technology and photoluminescence spectrum. Interestingly, the resulting MgSnZnO shows white photoluminescence. Additionally, the photoluminescence spectrum of MgSnZnO shows two broad emission bands ranging from 360 to 420 nm and 420 to 630 nm, respectively. Through multi-peak Gaussian fitting, it is found that the broad emission is composed of six Gaussian peaks. The six Gaussian peaks are centrered at 383 nm, 397 nm, 455 nm, 516 nm, 560 nm and 614 nm.

  9. Inter-species and Seasonal Variability in Mg / Ca in Larger Benthic Foraminifera: Implications for Paleo-proxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, A.; Saraswati, P. K.; Pande, K.; Sanyal, P.

    2015-12-01

    The reports of inter-species variability to intra-test heterogeneity in Mg/Ca in several species of foraminifera have raised question about its use in estimation of seawater temperatures and necessitate field and culture studies to verify it for species from different habitats. In this study, we attempt to investigate if Mg/Ca in larger benthic foraminifera (LBF) could be a potential proxy of seawater temperatures for shallow marine carbonates. The samples were collected in different seasons from coral reef at Akajima (Okinawa, Japan). The Ca and Mg of 13 species of LBF and small benthic foraminifera from the same season were determined to examine variation in Mg/Ca among the species calcified under presumably the same temperature and salinity conditions. We also analyzed Amphistegina lessoni from different seasons for Ca, Mg and δ18O to determine variation in Mg/Ca with temperature and see how the two proxies of temperatures, Mg/Ca and δ18O, correlate in the same species. The species cluster about two distinctly separated Mg/Ca values. The first group comprising species of Amphistegina, Gypsina, Ammonia and Elphidium have relatively lower Mg/Ca, varying from 30 to 45 mmol/mol. The second group, having average Mg/Ca ranging from ~110 to 170 mmol/mol, includes species of Schlumbergerella, Baculogypsinoides, Baculogypsina, Heterostegina, Operculina, Calcarina, Amphisorus, Alveolinella and Poroeponides. The result suggests large interspecies variability implying vital effect in foraminiferal Mg/Ca. There is no distinct difference in Mg/Ca values between porcelaneous and hyaline types or symbiont-bearing and symbiont-free types. In Amphistegina lessoni the variation in Mg/Ca between individuals of the same season is as large as variation across the seasons. There is no correlation between Mg/Ca and seawater temperature. Lack of correlation between Mg/Ca and δ18O further suggests that Mg/Ca in the species is not primarily controlled by temperature.

  10. Microstructural characteristics and aging response of Zn-containing Al-Mg-Si-Cu alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Yuan-hua; Wang, Cong; Zhang, Ji-shan

    2013-07-01

    Al-Mg-Si-Cu alloys with and without Zn addition were fabricated by conventional ingot metallurgy method. The microstructures and properties were investigated using optical microscopy (OM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), tensile test, hardness test, and electrical conductivity measurement. It is found that the as-cast Al-Mg-Si-Cu-Zn alloy is composed of coarse dendritic grains, long needle-like β/δ-AlFeSi white intermetallics, and Chinese script-like α-AlFeSi compounds. During high temperature homogenization treatment, only harmful needle-like β-AlFeSi phase undergoes fragmentation and spheroidizing at its tips, and the destructive needle-like δ-phase does not show any morphological and size changes. Phase transitions from β-AlFeSi to α-AlFeSi and from δ-AlFeSi to β-AlFeSi are also not found. Zn addition improves the aging hardening response during the former aging stage and postpones the peak-aged hardness to a long aging time. In T4 condition, Zn addition does not obviously increase the yield strength and decrease the elongation, but it markedly improves paint-bake hardening response during paint-bake cycle. The addition of 0.5wt% Zn can lead to an increment of 99 MPa in yield strength compared with the value of 69 MPa for the alloy without Zn after paint-bake cycle.

  11. Impurity Diffusion Coefficients of Al and Zn in Mg Determined from Solid-to-Solid Diffusion Couples

    SciTech Connect

    Kammerer, Catherine; Kulkarni, Nagraj S; Warmack, Robert J Bruce; Perry, Kelly A; Belova, Irina; Murch, Prof. Graeme; Sohn, Yong Ho

    2013-08-01

    Increasing use and development of lightweight Mgalloys have led to the desire for more fundamental research in and understanding of Mg-based systems. As property enhancing components, Al and Zn are two of the most important and common alloying elements for Mg-alloys. We have investigated the concentration dependent interdiffusion of Al and Zn in Mg using diffusion couples of pure polycrystalline Mg mated to Mg solid solutions containing either <9 at.% Al or <3 at.% Zn. Concentration profiles were determined by electron micro-probe microanalysis of the diffusion zone. The interdiffusion coefficients were determined by the classical Boltzmann-Matano method within the Mg solid solution. As the concentration of Al or Zn approaches the dilute ends, we employ an analytical approach based on the Hall method to estimate the impurity diffusion coefficients. Results of Al and Zn impurity diffusion in Mg are reported and compared to published impurity diffusion coefficients typically determined by thin film techniques.

  12. The effect of Mg/2+/ and Ca/2+/ on urea-catalyzed phosphorylation reactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Handschuk, G. J.; Lohrmann, R.; Orgel, L. E.

    1973-01-01

    The effect of Mg(2+) and Ca(2+) on phosphorylation reactions catalyzed by urea is investigated, showing that Mg(2+) improves markedly the yield of products containing pyrophosphate bonds. Yields of up to 25% of uridine diphosphate can be obtained with struvite at temperatures as low as 65 C.

  13. Tuning the hydrogen desorption of Mg(BH4)2 through Zn alloying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, D.; Thonhauser, T.

    2014-09-01

    We study the effect of Zn alloying on the hydrogen desorption properties of Mg(BH4)2 using ab initio simulations. In particular, we investigate formation/reaction enthalpies/entropies for a number of compounds and reactions at a wide range of temperatures and Zn concentrations in Mg1-xZnx(BH4)2. Our results show that the thermodynamic stability of the resulting material can be significantly lowered through Zn alloying. We find, e.g., that the solid solution Mg2/3Zn1/3(BH4)2 has a reaction enthalpy for the complete hydrogen desorption of only 25.3 kJ/mol H2—a lowering of 15 kJ/mol H2 compared to the pure phase and a corresponding lowering in critical temperature of 123 K. In addition, we find that the enthalpy of mixing is rather small and show that the decrease in reaction enthalpy with Zn concentration is approximately linear.

  14. Reversible Hydrogen Storage Characteristics of Catalytically Enhanced Ca(Li)-nMg-B-N-H System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, Sesha; Emre Demircak, Dervis; Sharma, Prakash; Yogi, Goswami; Stefanakos, Elias

    2013-04-01

    The aim of the present investigation is to study the synergistic effects of multi-walled carbon nanotubes, Nb2O5 and other catalysts for reversible hydrogen storage characteristics of Ca(Li)-nMg-B-N-H systems. Multinary hydride using light weight, high capacity hydride compounds such as Ca(BH4)2, LiBH4, LiNH2, nanoMgH2 in 3:1:8:4 composition was synthesized using high energy planetary milling under Ar/H2 ambient. Various nano additives and bi-metallic catalysts were added in a very small concentration with the host hydride (Ca)Li-nMg-B-N-H. The TGA and DSC results demonstrated that the catalytically enhanced Ca(Li)-nMg-B-N-H with hydrogen release at lower temperatures when compared to the pristine systems such as either Ca-Li-B-H or Ca-Li-Mg-B-H. Analyses of metrological characterization using XRD, SEM and have revealed the effectiveness and the role of the catalytic nanoparticles and their enhanced reversible hydrogen storage behavior on the host hydride matrix. The mass spectrometric investigations employing RGA on these nanocrystalline, multi-component hydride systems exhibit the release of hydrogen in major proportion (˜80-90%) as compared to previously attributed ammonia.

  15. Electron microprobe analyses of Ca, S, Mg and P distribution in incisors of Spacelab-3 rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenberg, G. D.; Simmons, D. J.

    1985-01-01

    The distribution of Ca, S, Mg and P was mapped within the incisors of Spacelab-3 rats using an electron microprobe. The data indicate that Flight rats maintained in orbit for 7 days have significantly higher Ca/Mg ratios in dentin due to both higher Ca and lower Mg content than in dentin of ground-based Controls. There is no statistical difference in distribution of either P or S within Fligth animals and Controls, but there is clear indication that, for P at least, the reason is the greater variability of the Control data. These results are consistent with those obtained on a previous NASA/COSMOS flight of 18.5 days duration, although they are not pronounced. The results further suggest that continuously growing rat incisors provide useful records of the effects of weightlessness on Ca metabolism.

  16. Deep-sea ostracode shell chemistry (Mg:Ca ratios) and late Quaternary Arctic Ocean history

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cronin, T. M.; Dwyer, G.S.; Baker, P.A.; Rodriguez-Lazaro, J.; Briggs, W.M., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    The magnesium:calcium (Mg:Ca) and strontium:calcium (Sr:Ca) ratios were investigated in shells of the benthic ostracode genus Krithe obtained from 64 core-tops from water depths of 73 to 4411 m in the Arctic Ocean and Nordic seas to determine the potential of ostracode shell chemistry for paleoceanographic study. Shells from the abyssal plain and ridges of the Nansen, Amundsen and Makarov basins and the Norwegian and Greenland seas had a wide scatter of Mg:Ca ratios ranging from 0.007 to 0.012 that may signify post-mortem chemical alteration of the shells from Arctic deep-sea environments below about 1000 m water depth. There is a positive correlation (r2=0.59) between Mg:Ca ratios and bottom-water temperature in Krithe shells from water depths <900 m.

  17. In vitro and in vivo corrosion and histocompatibility of pure Mg and a Mg-6Zn alloy as urinary implants in rat model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shiying; Zheng, Yang; Zhang, Liming; Bi, Yanze; Li, Jianye; Liu, Jiao; Yu, Youbin; Guo, Heqing; Li, Yan

    2016-11-01

    Pure Mg and a Mg-6wt.% Zn alloy were investigated as potential candidates for biodegradable implants for the urinary system. The in vitro corrosion behavior was studied by potentiodynamic polarization and immersion tests in simulated body fluid (SBF) at 37°C. The in vivo degradation and histocompatibility were examined through implantation into the bladders of Wistar rats. The alloying element Zn elevated the passivation potential and increased the cathodic current density. Both in vitro and in vivo degradation tests showed a faster corrosion rate for the Mg-6Zn alloy. Tissues stained with hematoxylin and eosin (HE) suggested that both pure Mg and Mg-6Zn alloy exhibited good histocompatibility in the bladder indwelling implantation and no differences between pure Mg and Mg-6Zn groups were found in bladder, liver and kidney tissues during the 2weeks implantation. Overall, this work presented instructive information on the degradation properties and histocompatibility of pure Mg and the Mg-6Zn alloy in the urinary system.

  18. In vitro and in vivo corrosion and histocompatibility of pure Mg and a Mg-6Zn alloy as urinary implants in rat model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shiying; Zheng, Yang; Zhang, Liming; Bi, Yanze; Li, Jianye; Liu, Jiao; Yu, Youbin; Guo, Heqing; Li, Yan

    2016-11-01

    Pure Mg and a Mg-6wt.% Zn alloy were investigated as potential candidates for biodegradable implants for the urinary system. The in vitro corrosion behavior was studied by potentiodynamic polarization and immersion tests in simulated body fluid (SBF) at 37°C. The in vivo degradation and histocompatibility were examined through implantation into the bladders of Wistar rats. The alloying element Zn elevated the passivation potential and increased the cathodic current density. Both in vitro and in vivo degradation tests showed a faster corrosion rate for the Mg-6Zn alloy. Tissues stained with hematoxylin and eosin (HE) suggested that both pure Mg and Mg-6Zn alloy exhibited good histocompatibility in the bladder indwelling implantation and no differences between pure Mg and Mg-6Zn groups were found in bladder, liver and kidney tissues during the 2weeks implantation. Overall, this work presented instructive information on the degradation properties and histocompatibility of pure Mg and the Mg-6Zn alloy in the urinary system. PMID:27524036

  19. Influence of Mg doping on the morphology and optical properties of ZnO films for enhanced H₂ sensing.

    PubMed

    Vijayalakshmi, K; Karthick, K

    2013-11-01

    Highly oriented ZnO and Mg doped ZnO thin films were fabricated on Al2 O3 substrate by sputtering at room temperature. The effect of Mg doping on the structural, optical, and morphological properties of ZnO film was investigated. The intensity of (002) peak in X-ray diffraction measurements revealed the influence of Mg doping on the crystallinity and orientation of ZnO film. Photoluminescence (PL) results show that the Ultraviolet (UV) emission peak was shifted to lower wavelength side for Mg:ZnO film indicating the possibility for quantum confinement. UV-vis-NIR optical absorption revealed an improvement in optical transmittance from 70 to 85%, and corresponding optical band gap from 3.25 to 3.54 eV. Atomic force microscope (AFM) images revealed the nano-size particulate microstructure of the films. The surface topography of Mg doped ZnO film confirmed decreased grain size with large surface roughness and increased surface area, favorable for sensing. Pure ZnO and Mg doped ZnO film were used as active layer and tested for its sensing performance to hydrogen. Compared to undoped ZnO, 22 at.% Mg doped ZnO film showed much higher sensor response to H2 at a concentration as low as 200 ppm and at a lower operating temperature of 180°C. A linear sensor response was observed for H2 concentration in the range of 100-500 ppm.

  20. Structural and optical properties of ZnO nanorods on Mg0.2Zn0.8O seed layers grown by hydrothermal method.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Su; Kim, Do Yeob; Kim, Sung-O; Leem, Jae-Young

    2013-05-01

    ZnO nanorods were grown on the Mg0.2Zn0.8O seed layers with different thickness by hydrothermal method. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and photoluminescence (PL) were carried out to investigate the effects of the Mg0.2Zn0.8O seed layer thickness on the structural and the optical properties of the ZnO nanorods. The residual stress in the Mg0.2Zn0.8O seed layers was depended on the thickness while the texture coefficient of the Mg0.2Zn0.8O seed layers was not affected significantly. The smaller full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the ZnO (002) diffraction and near-band-edge emission (NBE) peak and the larger average grain size were observed from the ZnO nanorods grown on the Mg0.2Zn0.8O seed layers with 5 layers (thickness of 350 nm), which indicate the enhancement the structural and the optical properties of the ZnO nanorods.

  1. Mechanical properties and corrosion behavior of Mg-Gd-Ca-Zr alloys for medical applications.

    PubMed

    Shi, Ling-Ling; Huang, Yuanding; Yang, Lei; Feyerabend, Frank; Mendis, Chamini; Willumeit, Regine; Ulrich Kainer, Karl; Hort, Norbert

    2015-07-01

    Magnesium alloys are promising candidates for biomedical applications. In this work, influences of composition and heat treatment on the microstructure, the mechanical properties and the corrosion behavior of Mg-Gd-Ca-Zr alloys as potential biomedical implant candidates were investigated. Mg5Gd phase was observed at the grain boundaries of Mg-10Gd-xCa-0.5Zr (x=0, 0.3, 1.2wt%) alloys. Increase in the Ca content led to the formation of additional Mg2Ca phase. The Ca additions increased both the compressive and the tensile yield strengths, but reduced the ductility and the corrosion resistance in cell culture medium. After solution heat treatment, the Mg5Gd particles dissolved in the Mg matrix. The compressive strength decreased, while the corrosion resistance improved in the solution treated alloys. After ageing at 200°C, metastable β' phase formed on prismatic planes and a new type of basal precipitates have been observed, which improved the compressive and tensile ultimate strength, but decreased the ductility. PMID:25837343

  2. Mechanical properties and corrosion behavior of Mg-Gd-Ca-Zr alloys for medical applications.

    PubMed

    Shi, Ling-Ling; Huang, Yuanding; Yang, Lei; Feyerabend, Frank; Mendis, Chamini; Willumeit, Regine; Ulrich Kainer, Karl; Hort, Norbert

    2015-07-01

    Magnesium alloys are promising candidates for biomedical applications. In this work, influences of composition and heat treatment on the microstructure, the mechanical properties and the corrosion behavior of Mg-Gd-Ca-Zr alloys as potential biomedical implant candidates were investigated. Mg5Gd phase was observed at the grain boundaries of Mg-10Gd-xCa-0.5Zr (x=0, 0.3, 1.2wt%) alloys. Increase in the Ca content led to the formation of additional Mg2Ca phase. The Ca additions increased both the compressive and the tensile yield strengths, but reduced the ductility and the corrosion resistance in cell culture medium. After solution heat treatment, the Mg5Gd particles dissolved in the Mg matrix. The compressive strength decreased, while the corrosion resistance improved in the solution treated alloys. After ageing at 200°C, metastable β' phase formed on prismatic planes and a new type of basal precipitates have been observed, which improved the compressive and tensile ultimate strength, but decreased the ductility.

  3. Superplastic forming by decomposition of (CaCO{sub 3} + C) and MgCO{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Shyu, J.S.; Chuang, T.H.

    1996-06-01

    An innovative method has been developed that replaces argon as the pressure source for superplastic forming. In this new process, several solid materials are placed in a closed system to generate pressure and are capable of forming superplastic alloy plates at specific temperatures. In the present study, the total pressures for the decomposition of (CaCO{sub 3} + C) and MgCO{sub 3} have been theoretically calculated from thermodynamics. The results show that a pressure range of 40 to 396 psi can be obtained for the (CaCO{sub 3} + C) system between 850 and 1000 C, which is suitable for the superplastic forming of Ti-6Al-4V and Superdux 64 (Nippon Yakin Kogy Co., Ltd., San-ei Bridge, Kyobasi 1-5-8, Chyuoku, Tokyo 104, Japan) stainless steel. The pressure for MgCO{sub 3} system between 480 and 515 C ranges from 78 to 160 psi, which is suitable for the superplastic forming of 8090 Al-Li and 7475 Al-Zn-Mg alloys. The calculated temperature dependence of pressure is consistent with the experimentally measured results. Furthermore, the forming rates, wall thickness distributions, tensile properties, and microstructures of the four alloys after forming have been shown to be very similar to those of conventional superplastic forming by argon pressurization.

  4. Influence of ZnO/MgO substitution on sintering, crystallisation, and bio-activity of alkali-free glass-ceramics.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, Saurabh; Goel, Ashutosh; Correia, Ana Filipa; Pascual, Maria J; Lee, Hye-Young; Kim, Hae-Won; Ferreira, José M F

    2015-08-01

    The present study reports on the influence of partial replacement of MgO by ZnO on the structure, crystallisation behaviour and bioactivity of alkali-free bioactive glass-ceramics (GCs). A series of glass compositions (mol%): 36.07 CaO-(19.24-x) MgO-x ZnO-5.61 P2O5-38.49 SiO2-0.59 CaF2 (x=2-10) have been synthesised by melt-quench technique. The structural changes were investigated by solid-state magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS-NMR), X-ray diffraction and differential thermal analysis. The sintering and crystallisation behaviours of glass powders were studied by hot-stage microscopy and differential thermal analysis, respectively. All the glass compositions exhibited good densification ability resulting in well sintered and mechanically strong GCs. The crystallisation and mechanical behaviour were studied under non-isothermal heating conditions at 850 °C for 1h. Diopside was the primary crystalline phase in all the GCs followed by fluorapatite and rankinite as secondary phases. Another phase named petedunnite was identified in GCs with ZnO content >4 mol. The proliferation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and their alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP) on GCs was revealed to be Zn-dose dependent with the highest performance being observed for 4 mol% ZnO.

  5. Effects of Mg II and Ca II ionization on ab-initio solar chromosphere models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rammacher, W.; Cuntz, M.

    1991-01-01

    Acoustically heated solar chromosphere models are computed considering radiation damping by (non-LTE) emission from H(-) and by Mg II and Ca II emission lines. The radiative transfer equations for the Mg II k and Ca II K emission lines are solved using the core-saturation method with complete redistribution. The Mg II k and Ca II K cooling rates are compared with the VAL model C. Several substantial improvements over the work of Ulmschneider et al. (1987) are included. It is found that the rapid temperature rises caused by the ionization of Mg II are not formed in the middle chromosphere, but occur at larger atmospheric heights. These models represent the temperature structure of the 'real' solar chromosphere much better. This result is a major precondition for the study of ab-initio models for solar flux tubes based on MHD wave propagation and also for ab-initio models for the solar transition layer.

  6. Bandwidth enhancement of MgZnO-based MSM photodetectors by inductive gain peaking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ping; Guo, Xinlu; Guo, Lixin; He, Jingfang; Yang, Yintang; Zhang, Zhiyong

    2016-08-01

    For high-speed optical communication applications, the bandwidth of photodetector would be a key limitation. In this work, the bandwidth property of MgZnO-based Metal-Semiconductor-Metal (MSM) photodetector considering RC and transit limitations is investigated on the basis of the series and enhanced gain peaked photodetector circuits proposed by us with different finger widths. To ensure the accuracy of parameters, the high-filed transportation characteristics of MgZnO are investigated by a three-valley ensemble Monte Carlo simulation combined with first principle calculations. The results show that the gain peaking technique, especially the enhanced gain peaking, can improve the bandwidth of MgZnO MSM photodetector to a maximum value of 61.28 GHz, corresponding to a bandwidth enhancement of 49% without undesired effects. Three-dimensional electromagnetic computation is further performed to design and simulate the on-chip-inductor. The value of the simulated inductor is approximately 0.0529 nH, which is in good agreement with the designed value of 0.0569 nH. This work benefits the development of high speed MgZnO MSM photodetector.

  7. The effects of diagenesis and dolomitization on Ca and Mg isotopes in marine platform carbonates: Implications for the geochemical cycles of Ca and Mg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fantle, Matthew S.; Higgins, John

    2014-10-01

    The Ca, Mg, O, and C isotopic and trace elemental compositions of marine limestones and dolostones from ODP Site 1196A, which range in depth (∼58 to 627 mbsf) and in depositional age (∼5 and 23 Ma), are presented. The objectives of the study are to explore the potential for non-traditional isotope systems to fingerprint diagenesis, to quantify the extent to which geochemical proxies are altered during diagenesis, and to investigate the importance of diagenesis within the global Ca and Mg geochemical cycles. The data suggest that Ca, which has a relatively high solid to fluid mass ratio, can be isotopically altered during diagenesis. In addition, the alteration of Ca correlates with the alteration of Mg in such a way that both can serve as useful tools for deciphering diagenesis in ancient rocks. Bulk carbonate δ44Ca values vary between 0.60 and 1.31‰ (SRM-915a scale); the average limestone δ44Ca is 0.97 ± 0.24‰ (1SD), identical within error to the average dolostone (1.03 ± 0.15 1SD ‰). Magnesium isotopic compositions (δ26Mg, DSM-3 scale) range between -2.59‰ and -3.91‰, and limestones (-3.60 ± 0.25‰) and dolostones (-2.68 ± 0.07‰) are isotopically distinct. Carbon isotopic compositions (δ13C, PDB scale) vary between 0.86‰ and 2.47‰, with average limestone (1.96 ± 0.31‰) marginally offset relative to average dolostone (1.68 ± 0.57‰). The oxygen isotopic compositions (δ18O, PDB scale) of limestones (-1.22 ± 0.94‰) are substantially lower than the dolostones measured (2.72 ± 1.07‰). The isotopic data from 1196A suggest distinct and coherent trends in isotopic and elemental compositions that are interpreted in terms of diagenetic trajectories. Numerical modeling supports the contention that such trends can be interpreted as diagenetic, and suggests that the appropriate distribution coefficient (KMg) associated with limestone diagenesis is ∼1 to 5 × 10-3, distinctly lower than those values (>0.015) reported in laboratory

  8. Effect of Ca addition on the microstructure and mechanical properties of as-cast Mg-Sm alloys.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xiaoping; Fang, Daqing; Chai, Yuesheng; Yang, Bin

    2016-08-01

    This study investigated the effect of Ca addition on the microstructure and mechanical properties of as-cast Mg-4Sm alloys. The addition of 1.0 wt% Ca led to a significant grain refinement of Mg-4.0Sm alloys owing to the formation of rod-like Mg2Ca phases that acted as active nucleates for the Mg matrix. The as-cast Mg-4.0Sm-1.0Ca alloy showed the smallest grain size at 45 μm. Furthermore, the Mg-4.0Sm-1.0Ca alloy exhibited greater hardness, higher tensile strength, and higher yield tensile strength and elongation than the other two alloys with different Ca contents. These results were attributed to the grain refinement and precipitation strengthening of the Mg2Ca and Mg41Sm5 phases. Microsc. Res. Tech. 79:707-711, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Mg/Ca composition of benthic foraminifera Miliolacea as a new tool of paleoceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadekov, Aleksey Yu.; Bush, Flora; Kerr, Joanna; Ganeshram, Raja; Elderfield, Henry

    2014-10-01

    The Mg/Ca compositions of benthic foraminifera from the superfamily Miliolacea have been studied to explore the use of these high-Mg foraminifera as a proxy for deep ocean conditions. Taxonomic analyses, relative abundance, and depth distributions of different Miliolacea species were carried out on a collection of core top samples, covering a depth range of 131 m to 2530 m, along the Australian coast of the Timor Sea. Pyrgo sp., composed of Pyrgo sarsi and Pyrgo murrhina, was found to be the most suitable for proxy studies. Mg/Ca values of this group of foraminifera show a strong correlation with bottom water temperatures and carbonate ion saturation described by the linear relationship: Mg/Ca = 2.53(±0.22) × BWT + 0.129(±0.023) × Δ[CO32-] + 4.63(±0.53), within the -1°C to 8°C temperature range. Absolute Mg/Ca values of Pyrgo sp. calcite and their temperature sensitivity are similar to those observed for inorganic calcite, suggesting that Mg composition of Pyrgo sp. calcite is mainly controlled by inorganic processes. The Mg/Ca composition of Pyrgo sp. calcite provides a new tool for reconstructing both water temperature and carbonate ion saturation when combined with other proxies for one of these parameters. A down core record from the Eastern Equatorial Pacific has been generated to illustrate how Mg/Ca values can be used for paleoclimate studies. This down core record shows large changes in Pacific bottom waters [CO32-] across glacial-interglacial transition, implying an increase in [CO32-] during the glacial period.

  10. Effect of Mg/Ca ratios on microbially induced carbonate precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balci, Nurgul; Demirel, Cansu; Seref Sonmez, M.; Kurt, M. Ali

    2016-04-01

    Influence of Mg/Ca ratios on microbially induced carbonate mineralogy were investigated by series of experiments carried out under various environmental conditions (Mg/Ca ratio, temperature and salinity). Halophilic bacterial cultures used for biomineralization experiments were isolated from hypersaline Lake Acıgöl (Denizli, SW Turkey), displaying extreme water chemistry with an average pH around 8.6 (Balci eta l.,2015). Enriched bacterial culture used in the experiments consisted of Halomonas saccharevitans strain AJ275, Halomonas alimentaria strain L7B; Idiomarina sp. TBZ29, 98% Idiomarina seosensis strain CL-SP19. Biomineralization experiments were set up using above enriched culture with Mg/Ca ratios of 0.05, 1, 4 and 15 and salinity of 8% and 15% experiments at 30oC and 10oC. Additionally, long-term biomineralization experiments were set up to last for a year, for Mg/Ca=4 and Mg/Ca=15 experiments at 30oC. For each experimental condition abiotic experiments were also conducted. Solution chemistry throughout incubation was monitored for Na, K, Mg, Ca, bicarbonate, carbonate, ammonium and phosphate for a month. At the end of the experiments, precipitates were collected and morphology and mineralogy of the biominerals were investigated and results were evaluated using the software DIFFRAC.SUITE EVA. Overall the preliminary results showed chemical precipitation of calcite, halite, hydromagnesite and sylvite. Results obtained from biological experiments indicate that, low Mg/Ca ratios (0.05 and 1) favor chlorapatite precipitation, whereas higher Mg/Ca ratios favor struvite precipitation. Biomineralization of dolomite, huntite and magnesite is favorable at high Mg/Ca ratios (4 and 15), in the presence of halophilic bacteria. Moreover, results indicate that supersaturation with respect to Mg (Mg/Ca=15) combined with NaCl (15%) inhibits biomineralization and forms chemical precipitates. 15% salinity is shown to favor chemical precipitation of mineral phases more than

  11. Mechanochemical synthesis of MgF2 - MF2 composite systems (M = Ca, Sr, Ba)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholz, G.; Breitfeld, S.; Krahl, T.; Düvel, A.; Heitjans, P.; Kemnitz, E.

    2015-12-01

    The capability of mechanochemical synthesis for the formation of MgF2-MF2 (M: Ca, Sr, Ba) composites, solid solutions or well-defined compounds was tested applying a fluorination of different fluorine-free metal sources with NH4F directly at milling. No evidence was found for a substitution of Mg2+ with Ca2+ (Sr2+, Ba2+) ions, or vice versa, in rutile or fluorite structure. However, an equimolar ratio of Mg2+ to the second cation allows the mechanochemical synthesis of tetrafluoromagnesates, MMgF4, which is more and more hampered the smaller the radius of the cation M2+ is. BaMgF4 is formed even phase pure from the acetates, SrMgF4 can only be observed in a mixture accompanied by the binary fluorides. In addition, 19F MAS NMR spectra along with calculations of 19F isotropic chemical shift values according to the superposition model point to the formation of a metastable phase of CaMgF4, which disappears at thermal treatment and decomposes into the binary fluorides CaF2 and MgF2.

  12. Fluorescence signals from the Mg2+/Ca2+ indicator furaptra in frog skeletal muscle fibers.

    PubMed Central

    Konishi, M; Suda, N; Kurihara, S

    1993-01-01

    The fluorescent Mg2+/Ca2+ indicator, furaptra, was injected into single frog skeletal muscle fibers, and the indicator's fluorescence signals were measured and analyzed with particular interest in the free Mg2+ concentration ([Mg2+]) in resting muscle. Based on the fluorescence excitation spectrum of furaptra, the calibrated myoplasmic [Mg2+] level averaged 0.54 mM, if the value of dissociation constant (KD) for Mg2+ obtained in vitro (5.5 mM) was used. However, if the indicator reacts with Mg2+ with a two-fold larger KD in myoplasm, as previously suggested for the furaptra-Ca2+ reaction (M. Konishi, S. Hollingworth, A.B. Harkins, S.M. Baylor. 1991. J. Gen. Physiol. 97:271-301), the calculated [Mg2+] would average 1.1 mM. Thus, the value 1.1 mM probably represents the best estimate from furaptra of [Mg2+] in resting muscle fibers. Extracellular perfusion of muscle fibers with high Mg2+ concentration solution or low Na+ concentration solution did not cause any detectable changes in the [Mg2+]-related furaptra fluorescence within 4 min. The results suggest that the myoplasmic [Mg2+] is highly regulated near the resting level of 1 mM, and that changes only occur with a very slow time course. PMID:8431543

  13. Comparison of serum Concentration of Se, Pb, Mg, Cu, Zn, between MS patients and healthy controls

    PubMed Central

    Alizadeh, Anahita; Mehrpour, Omid; Nikkhah, Karim; Bayat, Golnaz; Espandani, Mahsa; Golzari, Alireza; Jarahi, Lida; Foroughipour, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is defined as one of the inflammatory autoimmune disorders and is common. Its exact etiology is unclear. There are some evidences on the role of environmental factors in susceptible genetics. The aim of this study is to evaluate the possible role of Selenium, Zinc, Copper, Lead and Magnesium metals in Multiple Sclerosis patients. Methods In the present analytical cross-sectional study, 56 individuals including 26 patients and 30 healthy controls were enrolled in the evaluation. The serum level of Se, Zn, Cu, Pb were quantified in graphite furnace conditions and flame conditions by utilizing an atomic absorption Perkin Elmer spectrophotometer 3030. The serum levels of Mg were measured by auto analyzer 1500 BT. The mean level of minerals (Zn, Pb, Cu, Mg, Se) in serum samples were compared in both cases and controls. The mean level of minerals (Zn, Pb, Cu, Mg, Se) in serum samples were compared in both cases and controls by using independent-samples t-test for normal distribution and Mann-Whitney U test as a non-parametric test. All statistical analyses were carried out using SPSS 11.0. Results As well as the Zn, Cu, and Se, there was no significant difference between MS patients and healthy individuals in Pb concentrations (p-value = 0.11, 0.14, 0.32, 0.20 respectively) but the level of Mg was significantly different (p= 0.001). Conclusion All serum concentrations of Zn, Pb, Se, Cu in both groups were in normal ranges and there was no difference in MS patients compared with the healthy group who were matched in genetics. Blood level of Mg was significantly lower in MS patients. But it should be noted that even with the low level of serum magnesium in MS patients, this value is still in the normal range. PMID:27757186

  14. Effects in Mg-Zn-based alloys strengthened by quasicrystalline phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlček, M.; Čížek, J.; Lukáč, F.; Melikhova, O.; Hruška, P.; Procházka, I.; Vlach, M.; Stulíková, I.; Smola, B.; Jäger, A.

    2016-01-01

    Magnesium Mg-based alloys are promising lightweight structural materials for automotive, aerospace and biomedical applications. Recently Mg-Zn-Y system attracted a great attention due to a stable icosahedral phase (I-phase) with quasicrystalline structure which is formed in these alloys. Positron lifetime spectroscopy and in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction were used to study thermal stability of I-phase and precipitation effects in Mg-Zn-Y and Mg- Zn-Al alloys. All alloys containing quasicrystalline I-phase exhibit misfit defects characterized by positron lifetime of ∼ 300 ps. These defects are associated with the interfaces between I- phase particles and Mg matrix. The quasicrystalline I-phase particles were found to be stable up to temperatures as high as ∼ 370°C. The W-phase is more stable and melts at ∼ 420°C. Concentration of defects associated with I-phase decreases after annealing at temperatures above ∼ 300°C.

  15. Enhanced antibacterial properties, biocompatibility, and corrosion resistance of degradable Mg-Nd-Zn-Zr alloy.

    PubMed

    Qin, Hui; Zhao, Yaochao; An, Zhiquan; Cheng, Mengqi; Wang, Qi; Cheng, Tao; Wang, Qiaojie; Wang, Jiaxing; Jiang, Yao; Zhang, Xianlong; Yuan, Guangyin

    2015-06-01

    Magnesium (Mg), a potential biodegradable material, has recently received increasing attention due to its unique antibacterial property. However, rapid corrosion in the physiological environment and potential toxicity limit clinical applications. In order to improve the corrosion resistance meanwhile not compromise the antibacterial activity, a novel Mg alloy, Mg-Nd-Zn-Zr (Hereafter, denoted as JDBM), is fabricated by alloying with neodymium (Nd), zinc (Zn), zirconium (Zr). pH value, Mg ion concentration, corrosion rate and electrochemical test show that the corrosion resistance of JDBM is enhanced. A systematic investigation of the in vitro and in vivo antibacterial capability of JDBM is performed. The results of microbiological counting, CLSM, SEM in vitro, and microbiological cultures, histopathology in vivo consistently show JDBM enhanced the antibacterial activity. In addition, the significantly improved cytocompatibility is observed from JDBM. The results suggest that JDBM effectively enhances the corrosion resistance, biocompatibility and antimicrobial properties of Mg by alloying with the proper amount of Zn, Zr and Nd.

  16. Miscibility and ordered structures of MgO-ZnO alloys under high pressure

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Fubo; Duan, Defang; Li, Da; Chen, Changbo; Sha, Xiaojing; Zhao, Zhonglong; Liu, Bingbing; Cui, Tian

    2014-01-01

    The MgxZn1−xO alloy system may provide an optically tunable family of wide band gap materials that can be used in various UV luminescences, absorption, lighting, and display applications. A systematic investigation of the MgO-ZnO system using ab initio evolutionary simulations shows that MgxZn1−xO alloys exist in ordered ground-state structures at pressures above about 6.5 GPa. Detailed enthalpy calculations for the most stable structures allowed us to construct the pressure-composition phase diagram. In the entire composition, no phase transition from wurzite to rock-salt takes place with increasing Mg content. We also found two different slops occur at near x = 0.75 of Eg-x curves for different pressures, and the band gaps of high pressure ground-state MgxZn1−xO alloys at the Mg concentration of x > 0.75 increase more rapidly than x < 0.75. PMID:25044101

  17. Adaptation of a flow-through leaching procedure for Mg/Ca paleothermometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benway, H. M.; Haley, B. A.; Klinkhammer, G. P.; Mix, A. C.

    2003-02-01

    Mg/Ca ratios in planktonic foraminifera reflect calcification temperatures and are thus useful for sea surface temperature (SST) reconstructions. Despite the obvious utility of this paleoceanographic tracer, problems of dissolution, gametogenic calcification, and contaminant phases have thus far limited confidence in Mg/Ca-based reconstructions. Here we show strong evidence of Mg heterogeneity in foraminiferal calcite by sequentially measuring the composition of different forms of calcite (ontogenetic, gametogenic, diagenetic) in the same shells, while monitoring and removing contaminant phases. A new flow-through method combines chromatographic technology and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) in a series of cleaning and dissolution reactions monitored continuously with time-resolved analysis (TRA). This combination of slow, controlled dissolution and TRA provides a complete elemental description of contaminant phases and sorts the cleaned calcium carbonate based on dissolution sensitivity. Examination of partially dissolved shells with electron microscopy suggests that the flow-through method simulates the natural dissolution sequence and effectively separates the different calcite domains within a single foraminiferal shell. Heterogeneity of Mg/Ca in foraminiferal calcite is clearly demonstrated in flow-through analysis. Foraminiferal shells have initially high Mg levels that decrease steadily throughout dissolution. Later dissolution yields lower Mg/Ca, which is likely due to a combination of subsurface calcification and biomineralization effects. Mg/Ca ratios from the most dissolution-sensitive (high-Mg) portions of surface-dwelling species in core tops are used to calculate calcification temperatures. A comparison of late Holocene core top data with World Ocean Atlas SST data indicates that the flow-through method does yield viable SST estimates. Furthermore, a depth transect in the eastern tropical Pacific suggests that this approach

  18. Influence of Zn Interlayer on Interfacial Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of TIG Lap-Welded Mg/Al Joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Qiong; Wang, Kehong

    2016-03-01

    This study explored 6061 Al alloy and AZ31B Mg alloy joined by TIG lap welding with Zn foils of varying thicknesses, with the additional Zn element being imported into the fusion zone to alloy the weld seam. The microstructures and chemical composition in the fusion zone near the Mg substrate were examined by SEM and EDS, and tensile shear strength tests were conducted to investigate the mechanical properties of the Al/Mg joints, as well as the fracture surfaces, and phase compositions. The results revealed that the introduction of an appropriate amount of Zn transition layer improves the microstructure of Mg/Al joints and effectively reduces the formation of Mg-Al intermetallic compounds (IMCs). The most common IMCs in the fusion zone near the Mg substrate were Mg-Zn and Mg-Al-Zn IMCs. The type and distribution of IMCs generated in the weld zone differed according to Zn additions; Zn interlayer thickness of 0.4 mm improved the sample's mechanical properties considerably compared to thicknesses of less than 0.4 mm; however, any further increase in Zn interlayer thickness of above 0.4 mm caused mechanical properties to deteriorate.

  19. Ca and Mg Incorporation in Siderite at Low Temperatures (< 50° C): Results from Laboratory Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Roman, M.; Romanek, C. S.; Xu, H.; Coleman, M.

    2008-12-01

    Siderite (FeCO3) is a common mineral found in modern environments and in ancient rocks produce usually by microbia mediation [1,2]. It usually forms concretions with strongly varying chemical compositions which are governed by both pore-water origin and by microbial influence. In addition, siderite has also been identified in extraterrestrial material such as meteorites and dust particles [3,4]. The geochemical information stored in siderite provides valuable insights into the environmental conditions of mineral formation and the processes by which it is modified over time [5]. To unerstand the inorganic constraints on precipitation relative to natural compositions we undertook free drift experiments under anaerobic conditions at 25, 35 and 45°C with variable concentrations of Fe, Ca and Mg in solution. Samples of solution and solid were withdrawn at different time intervals (15, 21 and 30 days) during time course experiments to determine the composition of the solution and mineral precipitates, and the morphology and mineralogy of the precipitates. After 15 days of incubation a metastable phase was formed, whereas after 21 and 30 days of incubation siderite, Ca-siderite, Mg-siderite Ca-Mg siderite and/or Fe-pokrovskite (a hydrated magnesium hydroxy carbonate) were formed depending on the aqueous Fe, Ca and Mg concentrations in the solution. The Mg and Ca contents in the siderite increased with increasing Mg and Ca concentrations in the medium and with increasing temperature. Siderite precipitates ranged from 1.5 to 50.81 mol percent CaCO3 and from 0.54 to 41.38 mol percent MgCO3. Pokrovskite precipitates ranged from 48.8 to 57.7 mol percent MgCO3 and from 42.34 to 51.17 mol percent FeCO3. The Fe content in the pokrovskite increased with increasing temperature. These inorganic experiments will help to understand the mechanism of Ca-Mg-Fe carbonate formation in natural systems and they are of fundamental importance not only for understanding modern and

  20. Influence of surface pre-treatment on the cytocompatibility of a novel biodegradable ZnMg alloy.

    PubMed

    Jablonská, Eva; Vojtěch, Dalibor; Fousová, Michaela; Kubásek, Jiří; Lipov, Jan; Fojt, Jaroslav; Ruml, Tomáš

    2016-11-01

    Degradable zinc-based alloys with an appropriate corrosion rate are promising materials for the preparation of temporary orthopaedic implants. Previously, we prepared and characterised a novel Zn1.5Mg alloy. This paper is focused on the characterisation of this alloy after a surface pre-treatment, which should mimic processes occurring in vivo. The samples of the Zn1.5Mg alloy were immersed in a simulated body fluid (SBF) at 37°C for 14days in order to form a protective layer of corrosion products. Thereafter, these samples were used for the corrosion rate determination, an indirect in vitro cytotoxicity test, as well as for a direct contact test and were compared with the non-treated samples. The protective layer was characterized by SEM and its chemical composition was determined by EDS and XPS analysis. The corrosion rate was significantly decreased after the pre-incubation. The protective layer of corrosion products was rich in Ca and P. The pre-incubated samples exhibited increased cytocompatibility in the indirect test (metabolic activity of L929 cells was above 70%) and we also observed osteoblast-like cell growth directly on the samples during the contact tests. Thus, the pre-incubation in SBF leading to improved cytocompatibility could represent more appropriate model to in vivo testing. PMID:27524013

  1. Evaluation of thermochemical data on Fe-Mg olivine, orthopyroxene, spinel and Ca-Fe-Mg-Al garnet

    SciTech Connect

    Chatterjee, N.

    1987-09-01

    Thermochemical data on Fe-Mg olivine, orthopyroxene, spinel and Ca-Fe-Mg garnet have been tested and reevaluated in reproducing experimental equilibrium data. All data (except of spinel) adjusted in this process lie within the error limits of original calorimetric experiments. For spinel, an enthalpy of -2307.2 kJmol and an entropy of 81.5 Jmol-K has been recommended. Recommended interaction parameters for the spinel-hercynite and forsterite-fayalite solutions are as follows: Spinel: W/sub (spinel-hercynite)/= 9124.0 Jmol. W/sub (hercynite-spinel)/ = 0.0 Jmol. Olivine: W = 4500.0 Jmol for 1 cation. Excess entropies (on 1 cation basis) necessary to reproduce phase equilibria for the pyrope-almandine and almandine-grossular solutions are as follows: Mg-Fe garnet: Wsub(pyrope-almandine) = 11.760 - 0.0016T Jmol-K. Wsub(almandine-pyrope) = -10.146 + 0.0037T Jmol-K. Fe-Ca garnet: W/sup s/ = -16.07 + 0.0126T Jmol-K.

  2. Liquidus (Ca+Mg)-rich exsolution phases in low-sulfur fly ash

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connor, J.T.; Meeker, G.M.

    1999-07-01

    Ca- and Mg-rich fly ash samples from an electric power plant burning low-sulfur Powder River Coal were analyzed using optical petrographic microscope (OPM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), electron microprobe analyzer (EMPA), and Gandolfi and bulk-powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. Abundant Ca and Mg in the fly ash, probably originating from dispersed authigenic and residual minerals in the coal feed stock, flux the molten fly ash, effectively allowing many crystalline phases to achieve ordering, to separate from each other, and to grow to appreciable size (>10{micro}m) in the brief time (<20 sec) they spend at high temperature. Phases identified from the (Ca+Mg)-rich fly ash are listed in a table and shown in figures.

  3. MgZnO/ZnO heterostructures with electron mobility exceeding 1 × 10(6) cm(2)/Vs.

    PubMed

    Falson, Joseph; Kozuka, Yusuke; Uchida, Masaki; Smet, Jurgen H; Arima, Taka-Hisa; Tsukazaki, Atsushi; Kawasaki, Masashi

    2016-01-01

    The inherently complex chemical and crystallographic nature of oxide materials has suppressed the purities achievable in laboratory environments, obscuring the rich physical degrees of freedom these systems host. In this manuscript we provide a systematic approach to defect identification and management in oxide molecular beam epitaxy grown MgZnO/ZnO heterostructures which host two-dimensional electron systems. We achieve samples displaying electron mobilities in excess of 1 × 10(6) cm(2)/Vs. This data set for the MgZnO/ZnO system firmly establishes that the crystalline quality has become comparable to traditional semiconductor materials. PMID:27229479

  4. MgZnO/ZnO heterostructures with electron mobility exceeding 1 × 106 cm2/Vs

    PubMed Central

    Falson, Joseph; Kozuka, Yusuke; Uchida, Masaki; Smet, Jurgen H.; Arima, Taka-hisa; Tsukazaki, Atsushi; Kawasaki, Masashi

    2016-01-01

    The inherently complex chemical and crystallographic nature of oxide materials has suppressed the purities achievable in laboratory environments, obscuring the rich physical degrees of freedom these systems host. In this manuscript we provide a systematic approach to defect identification and management in oxide molecular beam epitaxy grown MgZnO/ZnO heterostructures which host two-dimensional electron systems. We achieve samples displaying electron mobilities in excess of 1 × 106 cm2/Vs. This data set for the MgZnO/ZnO system firmly establishes that the crystalline quality has become comparable to traditional semiconductor materials. PMID:27229479

  5. MgZnO/ZnO heterostructures with electron mobility exceeding 1 × 106 cm2/Vs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falson, Joseph; Kozuka, Yusuke; Uchida, Masaki; Smet, Jurgen H.; Arima, Taka-Hisa; Tsukazaki, Atsushi; Kawasaki, Masashi

    2016-05-01

    The inherently complex chemical and crystallographic nature of oxide materials has suppressed the purities achievable in laboratory environments, obscuring the rich physical degrees of freedom these systems host. In this manuscript we provide a systematic approach to defect identification and management in oxide molecular beam epitaxy grown MgZnO/ZnO heterostructures which host two-dimensional electron systems. We achieve samples displaying electron mobilities in excess of 1 × 106 cm2/Vs. This data set for the MgZnO/ZnO system firmly establishes that the crystalline quality has become comparable to traditional semiconductor materials.

  6. H2O2: a Ca(2+) or Mg(2+)-sensing function in statin passive diffusion.

    PubMed

    Guillaume, Yves Claude; Lethier, Lydie; André, Claire

    2015-09-01

    In a previous paper Guillaume's group demonstrated that magnesium (Mg(2+) concentration range 0.00-2.60 mm) increased the passive diffusion of statins and thus played a role in their potential toxicity. In order to confirm an increase in this passive diffusion by divalent salt cations, the role of calcium chloride (CaCl2) on the statin-immobilized artificial membrane (IAM) association was studied. It was demonstrated that calcium supplementation (Ca(2+) concentration range 0.00-3.25 mm) increases the statin passive diffusion. In addition, it was shown that the Ca(2+) effect on the statin-IAM association is higher than that of Mg(2+). These results show that Ca(2+) enhances the passive diffusion of drugs into biological membranes and thus their potential toxicity. Also, addition of H2O2 to the medium showed a hyperbolic response for the statin passive diffusion and this effect was enhanced for the highest Ca(2+) or Mg(2+) concentrations in the medium. H2O2 is likely to interact with the polar head groups of the IAM through dipole-dipole interactions. The conformational changes in H2O2-IAM result in a higher degree of exposure of hydrophobic areas, thus explaining why the binding of pravastatin, which showed the lowest logP value, was less affected by H2O2. This result shows the significant contribution of H2O2 and thus the oxidative stress on the statin passive diffusion. Much of the sensitivity derives from the action of Ca(2+) or Mg(2+), in turn supported the idea that H2O2 may serve a Ca(2+) or Mg(2+) sensing function in statin passive diffusion.

  7. Comparison between Mg II k and Ca II H images recorded by SUNRISE/SuFI

    SciTech Connect

    Danilovic, S.; Hirzberger, J.; Riethmüller, T. L.; Solanki, S. K.; Barthol, P.; Gandorfer, A.; Gizon, L.; Berkefeld, T.; Schmidt, W.; Knölker, M.; Rodríguez, J. Blanco; Iniesta, J. C. Del Toro

    2014-03-20

    We present a comparison of high-resolution images of the solar surface taken in the Mg II k and Ca II H channels of the Filter Imager on the balloon-borne solar observatory SUNRISE. The Mg and Ca lines are sampled with 0.48 nm and 0.11 nm wide filters, respectively. The two channels show remarkable qualitative and quantitative similarities in the quiet Sun, in an active region plage and during a small flare. However, the Mg filtergrams display 1.4-1.7 times higher intensity contrast and appear more smeared and smoothed in the quiet Sun. In addition, the fibrils in a plage are wider. Although the exposure time is 100 times longer for Mg images, the evidence suggests that these differences cannot be explained only with instrumental effects or the evolution of the solar scene. The differences at least partially arise because of different line-formation heights, the stronger response of Mg k emission peaks to the higher temperatures, and the larger height range sampled by the broad Mg filter used here. This is evidently manifested during the flare when a surge in Mg evolves differently than in Ca.

  8. The role of beryllium in the band structure of MgZnO: Lifting the valence band maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, S. S.; Pan, X. H.; Chen, W.; Zhang, H. H.; Dai, W.; Ding, P.; Huang, J. Y.; Lu, B.; Ye, Z. Z.

    2014-09-01

    We investigate the effect of Be on the valence band maximum (VBM) of MgZnO by measuring the band offsets of MgxZn1-xO/BexMgyZn1-x-yO heterojunctions using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements. MgxZn1-xO and BexMgyZn1-x-yO films have been grown on c-plane sapphire substrates by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. The valence band offset ( Δ E V) of Mg0.15Zn0.85O ( E g = 3.62 eV)/Be0.005Mg0.19Zn0.805O ( E g = 3.73 eV) heterojunction is 0.01 eV and Be0.005Mg0.19Zn0.805O has a lower VBM. The increased Mg composition is the main factor for the reduction of VBM. The VBM of MgxZn1-xO is lower by 0.03 eV with the enlargement of E g from 3.62 eV to 3.73 eV by increasing Mg composition. Considering the effect of increased Mg composition, it is concluded that the little amount of Be makes the VBM go up by 0.02 eV when the E g of the alloy is 3.73 eV. The Δ E V of Mg0.11Zn0.89O ( E g = 3.56 eV)/Be0.007Mg0.12Zn0.873O ( E g = 3.56 eV) heterojunction is calculated to be 0.03 eV and Be0.007Mg0.12Zn0.873O has a higher VBM than Mg0.11Zn0.89O, which means that a little amount Be lifts the VBM by 0.03 eV when the E g of the alloy is 3.56 eV. The experimental measurements have offered a strong support for the theoretical research that alloying Be in MgxZn1-xO alloys is hopeful to form a higher VBM and to enhance the p-type dopability of MgZnO.

  9. Automated cleaning of foraminifera shells before Mg/Ca analysis using a pipette robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnstone, Heather J. H.; Steinke, Stephan; Kuhnert, Henning; Bickert, Torsten; Pälike, Heiko; Mohtadi, Mahyar

    2016-08-01

    The molar ratio of magnesium to calcium (Mg/Ca) in foraminiferal calcite is a widely used proxy for reconstructing past seawater temperatures. Thorough cleaning of tests is required before analysis to remove contaminant phases such as clay and organic matter. We have adapted a commercial pipette robot to automate an established cleaning procedure, the "Mg-cleaning" protocol of Barker et al. (2003). Efficiency of the automated nine-step method was assessed through monitoring Al/Ca of trial samples (GeoB4420-2 core catcher). Planktonic foraminifera Globigerinoides ruber, Globigerinoides sacculifer, and Neogloboquadrina dutertrei from this sample gave Mg/Ca consistent with the habitat range of the three species, and 40-60% sample recovery after cleaning. Comparison between manually cleaned and robot-cleaned samples of G. ruber (white) from a sediment core (GeoB16602) showed good correspondence between the two methods for Mg/Ca (r = 0.93, p < 0001, n = 27). Average Al/Ca in robot-cleaned samples was 0.05 mmol/mol, showing that the samples are cleaned effectively by the robot. The robot offers increased sample throughput as batch sizes of up to 88 samples/blanks can be processed in ˜7 h with little intervention.

  10. Mg/Ca and δ18O in the calcite of benthic foraminifera: does size matter?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Nooijer, Lennart; Bijma, Jelle; -Jan Reichart, Gert; Hathorne, Ed

    2010-05-01

    Mg/Ca and del-18O are popular proxies for past sea water temperatures, ice volume and, together, salinity. The biological control that foraminifera have over calcification results in precipitation of calcium carbonate that has an isotope and element composition that is very different from those of inorganically precipitated calcium carbonates. Indications for an effect of ontogeny (i.e. size of a specimen) on the fractionation of oxygen isotopes are contradictory, while for the incorporation of most (trace) elements, data are lacking. The causes of size-based variability in element incorporation and isotope fractionation need to be understood and quantified in order to reliably use them as paleoproxies. In this study, we present Mg/Ca and oxygen isotope data from cultured specimens of the benthic foraminifer Ammonia tepida. When asexual reproduction takes place in this species, 50-300 genetically identical juveniles (i.e. clones) are produced. These juveniles are cultured at constant temperature, carbonate chemistry, salinity, etc to determine inter- and intra-specimen variability in Mg/Ca, Ba/Ca and Sr/Ca. From the same groups of clones, del-18O was determined from specimens with different sizes. Results show that the variability differs greatly between the analysed elements (e.g. relatively constant for Sr and Ba, variable for Mg) and isotopes, underscoring the need for a biological understanding of foraminiferal calcification pathways.

  11. Ca-Mg kutnahorite and struvite production by Idiomarina strains at modern seawater salinities.

    PubMed

    González-Muñoz, María Teresa; De Linares, Concepción; Martínez-Ruiz, Francisca; Morcillo, Fernando; Martín-Ramos, Daniel; Arias, José María

    2008-06-01

    The production of Mg-rich carbonates by Idiomarina bacteria at modern seawater salinities has been investigated. With this objective, four strains: Idiomarina abyssalis (strain ATCC BAA-312), Idiomarina baltica (strain DSM 15154), Idiomarina loihiensis (strains DSM 15497 and MAH1) were used. The strain I. loihiensis MAH1 is a new isolate, identified in the scope of this work. The four moderately halophilic strains precipitated struvite (NH4MgPO4 x 6H2O) crystals that appear encased by small Ca-Mg kutnahorite [CaMg(CO3)2] spheres and dumbbells, which are also regularly distributed in the bacterial colonies. The proportion of Ca-Mg kutnahorite produced by the bacteria assayed ranged from 50% to 20%, and I. abyssalis also produced monohydrocalcite. All precipitated minerals appeared to be related to the bacterial metabolism and, consequently, can be considered biologically induced. Amino acid metabolism resulted in a release of ammonia and CO2 that increase the pH and CO(3)(2-) concentration of the culture medium, creating an alkaline environment that favoured carbonate and struvite precipitation. This precipitation may be also related to heterogeneous nucleation on negatively charged points of biological structures. Because the nature of the organic matrix determines which ion is preferentially adsorbed and, consequently, which mineral phase is formed, the uniquely high content in odd-iso-branched fatty acids of the Idiomarina suggests that their particular membrane characteristics could induce Ca-Mg kutnahorite production. The Ca-Mg kutnahorite, a mineral with a dolomite-ordered structure, production at seawater salinities is noticeable. To date, such precipitation in laboratory cultures, has only been described in hypersaline conditions. It has also been the first time that biomineralization processes have been related to Idiomarina bacteria. PMID:18355891

  12. Distribution of Ca, Fe, Cu and Zn in primary colorectal cancer and secondary colorectal liver metastases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Ebraheem, A.; Mersov, A.; Gurusamy, K.; Farquharson, M. J.

    2010-07-01

    A microbeam synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (μSRXRF) technique has been used to determine the localization and the relative concentrations of Zn, Cu, Fe and Ca in primary colorectal cancer and secondary colorectal liver metastases. 24 colon and 23 liver samples were examined, all of which were formalin fixed tissues arranged as microarrays of 1.0 mm diameter and 10 μm thickness. The distribution of these metals was compared with light transmission images of adjacent sections that were H and E stained to reveal the location of the cancer cells. Histological details were provided for each sample which enable concentrations of all elements in different tissue types to be compared. In the case of liver, significant differences have been found for all elements when comparing tumour, normal, necrotic, fibrotic, and blood vessel tissues (Kruskal Wallis Test, P<0.0001). The concentrations of all elements have also been found to be significantly different among tumour, necrotic, fibrotic, and mucin tissues in the colon samples (Kruskal Wallis Test, P<0.0001). The concentrations of all elements have been compared between primary colorectal samples and colorectal liver metastases. Concentration of Zn, Cu, Fe and Ca are higher in all types of liver tissues compared to those in the colon tissues. Comparing liver tumour and colon tumour samples, significant differences have been found for all elements (Mann Whitney, P<0.0001). For necrotic tissues, significant increase has been found for Zn, Ca, Cu and Fe (Mann Whitney, P<0.0001 for Fe and Zn, 0.014 for Ca, and 0.001 for Cu). The liver fibrotic levels of Zn, Ca, Cu and Fe were higher than the fibrotic colon areas (independent T test, P=0.007 for Zn and Mann Whitney test P<0.0001 for Cu, Fe and Ca). For the blood vessel tissue, the analysis revealed that the difference was only significant for Fe ( P=0.009) from independent T test.

  13. Mg and Ca isotope signatures of authigenic dolomite in siliceous deep-sea sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blättler, Clara L.; Miller, Nathaniel R.; Higgins, John A.

    2015-06-01

    Authigenic carbonates in marine sediments frequently have carbon isotope ratios that reflect local organic carbon processing rather than the δ13C of the global DIC (dissolved inorganic carbon) reservoir, but their contributions to ancient sedimentary sections are difficult to assess. In this study of authigenic dolomite from the Miocene-age Monterey Formation of offshore California, Mg and Ca isotopes are shown to vary with stratigraphic depth as a result of early diagenetic processes. The dolomite is a pre-compaction authigenic phase that occurs as beds and nodules with δ13C ranging from -16 to + 9 ‰. Light δ13C values were likely acquired from the sedimentary zone of microbial sulfate reduction, while heavy δ13C values were acquired from the zone of methanogenesis. Mg and Ca isotopes are roughly anti-correlated, with intervals of negative δ13C associated with low δ26Mg and higher δ 44/40Ca values. The variability is observed over a wide range of length-scales, from 10-2 meters within individual authigenic beds/nodules, to 102 meters over the entire stratigraphic column, and can be understood as the consequence of dolomite precipitation in pore fluids where Mg supply is limited by diffusive transport. The relationship of δ26Mg and δ 44/40Ca to the more common stable isotope measurements of δ13C and δ18O represents a new, diagenetically robust, geochemical fingerprint for identifying synsedimentary authigenic carbonates in the geological record.

  14. Local structures of polar wurtzites Zn1-xMgxO studied by raman and 67Zn/25Mg NMR spectroscopies and by total neutron scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Proffen, Thomas E; Kim, Yiung- Il; Cadars, Sylvian; Shayib, Ramzy; Feigerle, Charles S; Chmelka, Bradley F; Seshadri, Ram

    2008-01-01

    Research in the area of polar semiconductor heterostructures has been growing rapidly, driven in large part by interest in two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) systems. 2DEGs are known to form at heterojunction interfaces that bear polarization gradients. They can display extremely high electron mobilities, especially at low temperatures, owing to spatial confinement of carrier motions. Recent reports of 2DEG behaviors in Ga{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}N/GaN and Zn{sub 1-x}Mg{sub x}O/ZnO heterostructures have great significance for the development of quantum Hall devices and novel high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs). 2DEG structures are usually designed by interfacing a polar semiconductor with its less or more polar alloys in an epitaxial manner. Since the quality of the 2DEG depends critically on interface perfection, as well as the polarization gradient at the heterojunction, understanding compositional and structural details of the parent and alloy semiconductors is an important component in 2DEG design and fabrication. Zn{sub 1-x}Mg{sub x}O/ZnO is one of the most promising heterostructure types for studies of 2DEGs, due to the large polarization of ZnO, the relatively small lattice mismatch, and the large conduction band offsets in the Zn{sub 1-x}Mg{sub x}O/ZnO heterointerface. Although 2DEG formation in Zn{sub 1-x}Mg{sub x}O/ZnO heterostructures have been researched for some time, a clear understanding of the alloy structure of Zn{sub 1-x}Mg{sub x}O is currently lacking. Here, we conduct a detailed and more precise study of the local structure of Zn{sub 1-x}Mg{sub x}O alloys using Raman and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), in conjunction with neutron diffraction techniques.

  15. Sol-Gel Derived Hydroxyapatite Coating on Mg-3Zn Alloy for Orthopedic Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Sanjay; Manoj Kumar, R.; Kuntal, Kishor Kumar; Gupta, Pallavi; Das, Snehashish; Jayaganthan, R.; Roy, Partha; Lahiri, Debrupa

    2015-04-01

    In recent years, magnesium and its alloys have gained a lot of interest as orthopedic implant constituents because their biodegradability and mechanical properties are closer to that of human bone. However, one major concern with Mg in orthopedics is its high corrosion rate that results in the reduction of mechanical integrity before healing the bone tissue. The current study evaluates the sol-gel-derived hydroxyapatite (HA) coating on a selected Mg alloy (Mg-3Zn) for decreasing the corrosion rate and increasing the bioactivity of the Mg surface. The mechanical integrity of the coating is established as a function of the surface roughness of the substrate and the sintering temperature of the coating. Coating on a substrate roughness of 15-20 nm and sintering at 400°C shows the mechanical properties in similar range of bone, thus making it suitable to avoid the stress-shielding effect. The hydroxyapatite coating on the Mg alloy surface also increases corrosion resistance very significantly by 40 times. Bone cells are also found proliferating better in the HA-coated surface. All these benefits together establish the candidature of sol-gel HA-coated Mg-3Zn alloy in orthopedic application.

  16. The Role of Ca and Mg in Controlling the Skeletal Composition of Scleractinian Corals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swart, Peter; Giri, Sharmila; Devlin, Quinn; Adkins, Jess

    2015-04-01

    The concentrations of many trace and minor elements in aragonitic coral skeletons are widely used within the annual banding structure to provide information on a wide range of environmental factors. Such ratios are measured not only in recent corals, but also in well preserved corals collected from rocks as old as the Triassic where they have been interpreted as reflecting changes in the minor element and calcium concentrations of the oceans. In particular the changing Mg/Ca ratio of seawater throughout geological time. Most of these trace elements are believed to substitute for Ca within the skeleton and therefore a principal tenant of this approach is that the ratio of an element being measured relative to Ca responds directly the same ratio in seawater. In order to test the fundamental assumption in corals we have grown specimens of the coral Pocillopora damicornis in seawater spiked with combinations of elevated Ca and Mg for periods of ~ 10 weeks and measured the concentrations of a number of elements in the new skeletal growth. These elements include Ca, Sr, Mg, Ba, Mn, S, P, B, Li, and Fe. These experiments provide evidence that the minor and trace element incorporation is much more complicated than previously believed. For example, while the Sr/Ca ratio of coral skeletons is directly related to the same ratio in seawater over a wide range, is also influenced by the Mg content of the seawater. Hence raising the Mg content lowers the distribution coefficient for Sr in corals. The incorporation of other elements such as Ba, B, S, and P in the skeleton are influenced in other unexpected ways.

  17. Synthesis and characterization of bis(imino)pyridine complexes of divalent Mg and Zn.

    PubMed

    Myers, Thomas W; Sherbow, Tobias J; Fettinger, James C; Berben, Louise A

    2016-04-14

    Phenyl-bis(imino)pyridine (PhI2P) complexes, (PhI2P)ZnCl2 (1), (PhI2P−)ZnCl (2) and (PhI2P−)Zn(py)Cl (3) were obtained with the I2P ligand in both the neutral and the one-electron reduced state. In all examples, the metal ion is Zn(II). Metrical parameters obtained from solid state structures of 2 and 3 indicate that the PhI2P− ligand exists as a radical which is supported at the carbon atom of the imino donor, and this electronic state is also apparent in the analogous one-electron reduced ligand Al(III) complex, (PhI2P−)AlCl2 (4), that we prepared for comparison. We were unable to obtain PhI2P Mg complexes, and so the more electron rich methyl-substituted bis(imino)pyridine ligand, MeI2P, was investigated. Reaction of two-electron reduced MeI2P with MgCl2 and Mg(OTf)2 did afford the two-electron reduced ligand complexes [(MeI2P2−)Mg(THF)]2(μ-MgCl2) (5) and (MeI2P2−)Mg(THF)2 (6), respectively (MeI2P = 2,6-bis(1-methylethyl)-N-(2-pyridinylmethylene)phenylamine). Complex 5 crystallizes as a trinuclear Mg complex consisting of two (MeI2P2−)Mg moieties bridged by MgCl2 and the (MeI2P2−) ligand is symmetric across the pyridine ring, but is not planar. In contrast, the (MeI2P2−) ligand in 6 is asymmetric across the pyridine ring and all atoms in the ligand are coplanar. Cyclic voltammetry measurements reveal that in complexes, 1, 4, 5, 6, the I2P0, I2P−, and I2P2− ligand charge states are accessible electrochemically. PMID:26131621

  18. High Resolution Characterization of the Precipitation Behavior of an Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yi-Yun; Kovarik, Libor; Phillips, Patrick J.; Hsu, Yung-Fu; Wang, Wen-Hsiung; Mills, Michael J.

    2012-04-01

    The metastable particles in an Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy have been examined at atomic-resolution using high-angle annular dark field (HAADF) imaging. In underaged conditions, thin {eta}' plates were formed with a thickness of 7 atomic planes parallel to the {l_brace}111{r_brace}Al planes. The five inner planes of the {eta}' phase appear to be alternatively enriched in Mg and Zn, with two outer planes forming distinct Zn-rich interfacial planes. Similar Zn rich interfacial enrichment has also been identified for the {eta} phase, which is a minimum 11-planes thick structure. In rare instances, particles less than 7 planes were found indicating a very early preference for 7-layer particle formation. Throughout the aging, the plate thickness appears constant, while the plate radius increases and no particles between 7 and 11 planes were observed. Based on the HAADF contrast, our observations do not support the {eta}' models previously set forth by other authors. Clear structural similarities between {eta}' and {eta} were observed, suggesting that drawing distinctions between {eta}' and {eta} phases may not be necessary or useful.

  19. Temperature and frequency-dependent dielectric properties of Zn substituted Li-Mg ferrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaikh, A. M.; Bellad, S. S.; Chougule, B. K.

    1999-05-01

    The DC and AC resistivity ( ρ DC, ρ AC), dielectric constant ( ɛ') and dielectric loss tangent (tan δ) of Zn substituted Li-Mg ferrites having the general formula Li xMg 0.4 Zn 0.6-2 xFe 2+ xO 4 (where x=0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15, 0.2, 0.25 and 0.3) have been investigated as a function of composition, temperature and frequency. The compositional variation of DC resistivity and dielectric constant show the inverse trend with each other. The sample with x=0.15 (Zn=0.3) shows lowest DC resistivity and highest dielectric constant. The dielectric constant increases slowly with temperature in the beginning and then abruptly at about 473 K and above. The AC resistivity and dielectric constant of all the samples decrease with increase in frequency exhibiting normal ferrimagnetic behaviour. The variation of dielectric loss tangent with frequency showed maxima in the 2-40 kHz frequency range. These maxima are also found to shift towards low-frequency region as the content of Zn increases. All the variations are explained on the basis of Fe 2+ and Fe 3+ concentrations on octahedral sites and electronic hopping frequency between Fe 2+ and Fe 3+ ions.

  20. Controlling spin-dependent tunneling by bandgap tuning in epitaxial rocksalt MgZnO films

    PubMed Central

    Li, D. L.; Ma, Q. L.; Wang, S. G.; Ward, R. C. C.; Hesjedal, T.; Zhang, X.-G.; Kohn, A.; Amsellem, E.; Yang, G.; Liu, J. L.; Jiang, J.; Wei, H. X.; Han, X. F.

    2014-01-01

    Widespread application of magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) for information storage has so far been limited by the complicated interplay between tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) ratio and the product of resistance and junction area (RA). An intricate connection exists between TMR ratio, RA value and the bandgap and crystal structure of the barrier, a connection that must be unravelled to optimise device performance and enable further applications to be developed. Here, we demonstrate a novel method to tailor the bandgap of an ultrathin, epitaxial Zn-doped MgO tunnel barrier with rocksalt structure. This structure is attractive due to its good Δ1 spin filtering effect, and we show that MTJs based on tunable MgZnO barriers allow effective balancing of TMR ratio and RA value. In this way spin-dependent transport properties can be controlled, a key challenge for the development of spintronic devices. PMID:25451163

  1. Friction Stir Welding of a Thick Al-Zn-Mg Alloy Plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchibabu, V.; Reddy, G. M.; Kulkarni, D.; De, A.

    2016-03-01

    Al-Zn-Mg alloys are widely used as structural materials due to high strength-to-weight ratio and impact toughness. As fusion welds in these alloys commonly face hot cracking and macro porosity, friction stir welding is increasingly becoming the preferred recourse. We report here a detailed experimental study on friction stir welding of a specific Al-Zn-Mg alloy with its chemical compositions close to AA7039. The effect of tool rotational speed and welding speed on the weld profile, joint microstructure, and mechanical properties is studied extensively. The results show sound weld profiles and joint properties within the selected range of process conditions. Within the selected range of welding conditions, the welds made at a tool rotational speed of 350 rpm and welding speed of 3 mm/s have showed joint structure, tensile, and impact toughness properties fairly close to that of the base material.

  2. Preparation and characterisation of nanophase Sr, Mg, and Zn substituted hydroxyapatite by aqueous precipitation.

    PubMed

    Cox, Sophie C; Jamshidi, Parastoo; Grover, Liam M; Mallick, Kajal K

    2014-02-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) substituted with 2 mol% Sr, 10 mol% Mg, and 2 mol% Zn were precipitated under identical alkaline conditions (pH 11) at 20°C from an aqueous solution. As-synthesised materials were confirmed to be phase pure by XRD and samples prepared in air contained surface adsorbed CO2 as observed by FTIR. SEM studies revealed a globular morphology and agglomeration behaviour, typical of precipitated nHA. EDS spectra confirmed nominal compositions and substitution of Sr, Mg and Zn. At the levels investigated cationic doping was not found to radically influence particle morphology. An indication of the potential in-vivo bioactivity of samples was achieved by analysing samples immersed in SBF for up to 28 days by interferometry and complementary SEM micrographs. Furthermore, a live/dead assay was used and confirmed the viability of seeded MC3T3 osteoblast precursor cells on HA and substituted HA substrates up to 7 days of culture.

  3. Early-stage precipitation in Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy (7050)

    SciTech Connect

    Sha Gang; Cerezo, Alfred

    2004-09-06

    GP zone and metastable {eta}{sup '} formation during the early-stage precipitation of a 7050 Al alloy aged at 121 deg. C has been investigated using transmission electron microscopy, together with 3-dimensional atom probe analysis (of the chemistry and morphology) of individual precipitates. Small Mg-rich clusters (GPI zones) are found in the alloy after short ageing times at 121 deg. C, together with larger GPI zones (Zn/Mg=1.0). Zn-rich {eta}{sup '} platelets are seen to form mainly between 30 and 240 min ageing, coexisting with larger GPI zones. A significant fraction of <1 1 0> elongated clusters have also been observed over this period of ageing. The dominant mechanism for {eta}{sup '} formation at this stage is shown to be by transformation of small GPI zones, via these elongated clusters and not by nucleation on larger zones.

  4. Paramagnetism in the kagome compounds (Zn ,Mg ,Cd ) Cu3(OH) 6Cl2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iqbal, Yasir; Jeschke, Harald O.; Reuther, Johannes; Valentí, Roser; Mazin, I. I.; Greiter, Martin; Thomale, Ronny

    2015-12-01

    Frustrated magnetism on the kagome lattice has been a fertile ground for rich and fascinating physics, ranging from experimental evidence of a spin liquid to theoretical predictions of exotic superconductivity. Among experimentally realized spin-1/2 kagome magnets, herbertsmithite, kapellasite, and haydeeite [(Zn ,Mg ) Cu3(OH) 6Cl2] are all well described by a three-parameter Heisenberg model, but they exhibit distinctly different physics. We address the problem using a pseudofermion functional renormalization-group approach and analyze the low-energy physics in the experimentally accessible parameter range. Our analysis places kapellasite and haydeeite near the boundaries between magnetically ordered and disordered phases, implying that slight modifications could dramatically affect their magnetic properties. Inspired by this, we perform ab initio density functional theory calculations of (Zn,Mg,Cd ) Cu3 (OH) 6Cl2 at various pressures. Our results suggest that by varying pressure and composition one can traverse a paramagnetic regime between different magnetically ordered phases.

  5. Controlling spin-dependent tunneling by bandgap tuning in epitaxial rocksalt MgZnO films

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Li, D. L.; Ma, Q. L.; Wang, S. G.; Ward, R. C. C.; Hesjedal, T.; Zhang, X. -G.; Kohn, A.; Amsellem, E.; Yang, G.; Liu, J. L.; et al

    2014-12-02

    Widespread application of magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) for information storage has so far been limited by the complicated interplay between tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) ratio and the product of resistance and junction area (RA). An intricate connection exists between TMR ratio, RA value and the bandgap and crystal structure of the barrier, a connection that must be unravelled to optimise device performance and enable further applications to be developed. In this paper, we demonstrate a novel method to tailor the bandgap of an ultrathin, epitaxial Zn-doped MgO tunnel barrier with rocksalt structure. This structure is attractive due to its good Δ1more » spin filtering effect, and we show that MTJs based on tunable MgZnO barriers allow effective balancing of TMR ratio and RA value. Finally, in this way spin-dependent transport properties can be controlled, a key challenge for the development of spintronic devices.« less

  6. Ultraviolet random lasing from asymmetrically contacted MgZnO metal-semiconductor-metal device

    SciTech Connect

    Morshed, Muhammad M.; Suja, Mohammad; Zuo, Zheng; Liu, Jianlin

    2014-11-24

    Nitrogen-doped Mg{sub 0.12}Zn{sub 0.88}O nanocrystalline thin film was grown on c-plane sapphire substrate. Asymmetric Ni/Au and Ti/Au Schottky contacts and symmetric Ni/Au contacts were deposited on the thin film to form metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) laser devices. Current-voltage, photocurrent, and electroluminescence characterizations were performed. Evident random lasing with a threshold current of ∼36 mA is demonstrated only from the asymmetric MSM device. Random lasing peaks are mostly distributed between 340 and 360 nm and an output power of 15 nW is measured at 43 mA injection current. The electron affinity difference between the contact metal and Mg{sub 0.12}Zn{sub 0.88}O:N layer plays an important role for electron and hole injection and subsequent stimulated random lasing.

  7. Controlling spin-dependent tunneling by bandgap tuning in epitaxial rocksalt MgZnO films

    SciTech Connect

    Li, D. L.; Ma, Q. L.; Wang, S. G.; Ward, R. C. C.; Hesjedal, T.; Zhang, X. -G.; Kohn, A.; Amsellem, E.; Yang, G.; Liu, J. L.; Jiang, J.; Wei, H. X.; Han, X. F.

    2014-12-02

    Widespread application of magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) for information storage has so far been limited by the complicated interplay between tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) ratio and the product of resistance and junction area (RA). An intricate connection exists between TMR ratio, RA value and the bandgap and crystal structure of the barrier, a connection that must be unravelled to optimise device performance and enable further applications to be developed. In this paper, we demonstrate a novel method to tailor the bandgap of an ultrathin, epitaxial Zn-doped MgO tunnel barrier with rocksalt structure. This structure is attractive due to its good Δ1 spin filtering effect, and we show that MTJs based on tunable MgZnO barriers allow effective balancing of TMR ratio and RA value. Finally, in this way spin-dependent transport properties can be controlled, a key challenge for the development of spintronic devices.

  8. Investigation of the mechanical and degradation properties of Mg-Sr and Mg-Zn-Sr alloys for use as potential biodegradable implant materials.

    PubMed

    Brar, Harpreet S; Wong, Joey; Manuel, Michele V

    2012-03-01

    Magnesium (Mg) has garnered significant interest for its potential use as a biodegradable implant material. Of specific interest in this study is the effect of zinc (Zn) and strontium (Sr) additions on both the mechanical and degradation behaviors in Mg due to their established beneficial effect on strength and microstructural grain refinement while being biocompatible. Three binary Mg-x wt% Sr (x=0.5, 1.0, 1.5) alloys and three ternary Mg-x wt%Zn-0.5 wt% Sr (x=2.0, 4.0, 6.0) were studied to evaluate their mechanical and degradation behavior. Mechanical testing was performed at room temperature on solution-treated and peak aged alloys using microhardness and tensile tests. Degradation was studied using immersion tests in Hanks' solution. Results indicate a decrease in grain size and an increase in strength with increasing Sr and Zn content. When considering degradation behavior Mg-0.5 wt%Sr demonstrated the lowest degradation rate among binary alloys. At constant Sr content at 0.5 wt%, the addition of Zn increased the corrosion rate, with the highest rate for the Mg-6.0 wt%Zn-0.5 wt%Sr. The alloys which best optimized both mechanical and degradation behaviors were Mg-2.0 wt%Zn-0.5 wt%Sr and Mg-4.0 wt%Zn-0.5 wt%Sr. Finally, microstructure and property relationships were evaluated and discussed in reference to each alloy's potential use as a biodegradable implant material.

  9. Mechanical properties and phase composition of potential biodegradable Mg-Zn-Mn-base alloys with addition of rare earth elements

    SciTech Connect

    Stulikova, Ivana; Smola, Bohumil

    2010-10-15

    Mechanical properties and creep resistance of the MgY4Zn1Mn1 alloy in the as cast as well as in the T5 condition were compared to those of the MgCe4Zn1Mn1 alloy in the same conditions. Yield tensile stress and ultimate tensile strength of the MgY4Zn1Mn1 alloy are slightly better in the temperature range 20 deg. C-400 deg. C than these of the MgCe4Zn1Mn1 alloy. Better thermal stability of ultimate tensile strength was observed in the T5 treated MgCe4Zn1Mn1 alloy than in this material in the as cast condition. An outstanding creep resistance at 225 deg. C-350 deg. C found in the MgY4Zn1Mn1 alloy is due to the existence of the 18R long period stacking structure persisting in this alloy even a long heat treatment of 500 deg. C/32 h. No similar stacking effects happen when Ce substitutes Y in approximately the same concentration. The creep resistance deteriorates considerably in the MgCe4Zn1Mn1 alloy. Rectangular particles of the equilibrium Mg{sub 12}Ce phase dominate in the microstructure of as cast as well as of high temperature heat-treated MgCe4Zn1Mn1 alloy. A population of small oval particles containing Mg and Zn develops additionally during annealing of this alloy. These particles pin effectively dislocations and can be responsible for the better thermal stability of the T5 treated material.

  10. Optical properties of NbCl5 and ZnMg intercalated graphite compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Eilho; Lee, Seokbae; Roh, Seulki; Meng, Xiuqing; Tongay, Sefaattin; Kang, Jihoon; Park, Tuson; Hwang, Jungseek

    2014-12-01

    We studied NbCl5 and ZnMg alloy intercalated graphite compounds using an optical spectroscopy technique. These intercalated metallic graphite samples were quite challenging to obtain optical reflectance spectra since they were not flat and quite thin. By using both a new method and an in situ gold evaporation technique we were able to obtain reliable reflectance spectra of our samples in the far and mid infrared range (80-7000 cm-1). We extracted the optical constants including the optical conductivity and the dielectric function from the measured reflectance spectra using a Kramers-Kronig analysis. We also extracted the dc conductivity and the plasma frequencies from the optical conductivity and dielectric functions. NbCl5 intercalated graphite samples show similar optical conductivity spectra as bare highly oriented pyrolytic graphite even though there are some differences in detail. ZnMg intercalated samples show significantly different optical conductivity spectra from the bare graphite. Optical spectroscopy is one of the most reliable experimental techniques to obtain the electronic band structures of materials. The obtained optical conductivities support the recent theoretically calculated electronic band structures of NbCl5 and ZnMg intercalated graphite compounds. Our results also provide important information of electronic structures and charge carrier properties of these two new intercalated materials for applications.

  11. Inversion of absorption anisotropy and bowing of crystal field splitting in wurtzite MgZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neumann, M. D.; Esser, N.; Chauveau, J.-M.; Goldhahn, R.; Feneberg, M.

    2016-05-01

    The anisotropic optical properties of wurtzite MgxZn1-xO thin films (0 ≤x ≤0.45 ) grown on m-plane ZnO substrates by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy are studied using spectroscopic ellipsometry at room temperature. The data analysis provides the dielectric functions for electric field polarizations perpendicular and parallel to the optical axis. The splitting between the absorption edges of the two polarization directions decreases between x = 0 and x = 0.24, while an inverted absorption anisotropy is found at higher Mg content, indicating a sign change of the crystal field splitting Δcr as for the spin orbit parameter. The characteristic energies such as exciton binding energies and band gaps are determined from the analysis of the imaginary parts of the dielectric functions. In particular, these data reveal a bowing parameter of b =-283 meV for describing the compositional dependence of the crystal field splitting and indicate Δcr=-327 meV for wurtzite MgO. The inverted valence band ordering of ZnO ( Γ7-Γ9-Γ7 ) is found to be preserved with increasing Mg content, while the optical selection rules interchange.

  12. Factors Affecting the Hydrogen Environment Assisted Cracking Resistance of an AL-Zn-Mg-(Cu) Alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Young, G A; Scully, J R

    2002-04-09

    Precipitation hardenable Al-Zn-Mg alloys are susceptible to hydrogen environment assisted cracking (HEAC) when exposed to aqueous environments. In Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloys, overaged tempers are used to increase HEAC resistance at the expense of strength but overaging has little benefit in low copper alloys. However, the mechanism or mechanisms by which overaging imparts HEAC resistance is poorly understood. The present research investigated hydrogen uptake, diffusion, and crack growth rate in 90% relative humidity (RH) air for both a commercial copper bearing Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy (AA 7050) and a low copper variant of this alloy in order to better understand the factors which affect HEAC resistance. Experimental methods used to evaluate hydrogen concentrations local to a surface and near a crack tip include nuclear reaction analysis (NRA), focused ion beam, secondary ion mass spectroscopy (FIB/SIMS) and thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS). Results show that overaging the copper bearing alloys both inhibits hydrogen ingress from oxide covered surfaces and decreases the apparent hydrogen diffusion rates in the metal.

  13. Ultrafast intramolecular relaxation dynamics of Mg- and Zn-bacteriochlorophyll a

    SciTech Connect

    Kosumi, Daisuke; Nagaoka, Yuya; Maruta, Satoshi; Sugisaki, Mitsuru; Dewa, Takehisa; Hashimoto, Hideki

    2013-07-21

    Ultrafast excited-state dynamics of the photosynthetic pigment (Mg-)bacteriochlorophyll a and its Zn-substituted form were investigated by steady-state absorption/fluorescence and femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopic measurements. The obtained steady-state absorption and fluorescence spectra of bacteriochlorophyll a in solution showed that the central metal compound significantly affects the energy of the Q{sub x} state, but has almost no effect on the Q{sub y} state. Photo-induced absorption spectra were recorded upon excitation of Mg- and Zn-bacteriochlorophyll a into either their Q{sub x} or Q{sub y} state. By comparing the kinetic traces of transient absorption, ground-state beaching, and stimulated emission after excitation to the Q{sub x} or Q{sub y} state, we showed that the Q{sub x} state was substantially incorporated in the ultrafast excited-state dynamics of bacteriochlorophyll a. Based on these observations, the lifetime of the Q{sub x} state was determined to be 50 and 70 fs for Mg- and Zn-bacteriochlorophyll a, respectively, indicating that the lifetime was influenced by the central metal atom due to the change of the energy gap between the Q{sub x} and Q{sub y} states.

  14. The content of Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg and Mn and antioxidant activity of green coffee brews.

    PubMed

    Stelmach, Ewelina; Pohl, Pawel; Szymczycha-Madeja, Anna

    2015-09-01

    A simple and fast method of the analysis of green coffee infusions was developed to measure total concentrations of Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg and Mn by high resolution-continuum source flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The precision of the method was within 1-8%, while the accuracy was within -1% to 2%. The method was used to the analysis of infusions of twelve green coffees of different geographical origin. It was found that Ca and Mg were leached the easiest, i.e., on average 75% and 70%, respectively. As compared to the mug coffee preparation, the rate of the extraction of elements was increased when infusions were prepared using dripper or Turkish coffee preparation methods. Additionally, it was established that the antioxidant activity of green coffee infusions prepared using the mug coffee preparation was high, 75% on average, and positively correlated with the total content of phenolic compounds and the concentration of Ca in the brew.

  15. The content of Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg and Mn and antioxidant activity of green coffee brews.

    PubMed

    Stelmach, Ewelina; Pohl, Pawel; Szymczycha-Madeja, Anna

    2015-09-01

    A simple and fast method of the analysis of green coffee infusions was developed to measure total concentrations of Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg and Mn by high resolution-continuum source flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The precision of the method was within 1-8%, while the accuracy was within -1% to 2%. The method was used to the analysis of infusions of twelve green coffees of different geographical origin. It was found that Ca and Mg were leached the easiest, i.e., on average 75% and 70%, respectively. As compared to the mug coffee preparation, the rate of the extraction of elements was increased when infusions were prepared using dripper or Turkish coffee preparation methods. Additionally, it was established that the antioxidant activity of green coffee infusions prepared using the mug coffee preparation was high, 75% on average, and positively correlated with the total content of phenolic compounds and the concentration of Ca in the brew. PMID:25842341

  16. Evaluation of foraminiferal trace element cleaning methods on the Mg/Ca of marine ostracoda Krithe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, W. R.; Holmes, J. A.; Shevenell, A.

    2012-12-01

    Mg/Ca of marine ostracod Krithe calcite is a potentially important tool for reconstructing oceanic bottom water (150-4000m) temperatures, as core top studies show ostracod Mg uptake is unaffected by carbonate ion saturation. Rigorous cleaning procedures, routinely used to remove clays, organic matter and Fe-Mn-oxides in trace element studies of foraminifera are not regularly applied to marine ostracods. Here we assess the possibility of reducing the analytical uncertainty in Krithe Mg/Ca analyses by employing foraminiferal trace element cleaning procedures and determining the effects of these cleaning procedures on valve chemistry. Using coretop samples of adult and juvenile male Krithe pernoides valves from boxcore OCE205-50BC (26.23oN, 77.7oW, 817m water depth), we apply methanol sonication, hydrogen peroxide oxidation, and hydrazine reduction to single ostracod valves, and sequentially assess the impact of each cleaning step. We compare the results from each cleaning step to valves cleaned using the traditional ethanol/DI rinse method. Significant correlation between Al/Fe and Mn/Fe respectively indicate that clays and Fe-Mn-oxides are detectable in traditionally cleaned samples. Mn and Al covary with Mg in juvenile but not in adult valves, indicating that clays and Fe-Mn-oxides exert a significant control on the Mg/Ca of low valve weight juveniles. Results of our Krithe cleaning experiments confirm that the removal of clays by sonication in methanol results in a decrease in average Fe, Al and Mn values, as well as a reduction in Mg/Ca by 1 mmol/mol in juveniles and 0.5 mmol/mol in adults. Following hydrogen peroxide oxidation samples show a reduction in Fe, Al and Mn concentrations with no significant change in valve Mg/Ca (±0.15 mmol/mol). After reductive cleaning we observe a significant decrease in valve Mg (>1 mmol/mol in juveniles), however there is little effect on Mn and Fe. Examination of adult and juvenile Krithe valves using scanning electron

  17. Effect of alloying elements Al and Ca on corrosion resistance of plasma anodized Mg alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anawati, Asoh, Hidetaka; Ono, Sachiko

    2016-04-01

    Plasma anodizing is a surface treatment used to form a ceramic-type oxide film on Mg alloys by the application of a high anodic voltage to create intense plasma near the metal surface. With proper selection of the process parameters, the technique can produce high quality oxide with superior adhesion, corrosion resistance, micro-hardness, wear resistance and strength. The effect of alloying element Al on plasma anodizing process of Mg alloys was studied by comparing the anodizing curves of pure Mg, AZ31, and AZ61 alloys while the effect of Ca were studied on AZ61 alloys containing 0, 1, and 2 wt% Ca. Anodizing was performed in 0.5 M Na3PO4 solution at a constant current density of 200 Am-2 at 25°C. Anodic oxide films with lava-like structure having mix composition of amorphous and crystal were formed on all of the alloys. The main crystal form of the oxide was Mg3(PO4)2 as analyzed by XRD. Alloying elements Al and Ca played role in modifying the plasma lifetime during anodization. Al tended to extend the strong plasma lifetime and therefore accelerated the film thickening. The effect of Ca on anodizing process was still unclear. The anodic film thickness and chemical composition were altered by the presence of Ca in the alloys. Electrochemical corrosion test in 0.9% NaCl solution showed that the corrosion behavior of the anodized specimens depend on the behavior of the substrate. Increasing Al and Ca content in the alloys tended to increase the corrosion resistance of the specimens. The corrosion resistance of the anodized specimens improved significantly about two orders of magnitude relative to the bare substrate.

  18. What do we know about the evolution of Mg to Ca ratios in seawater?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broecker, Wally; Yu, Jimin

    2011-09-01

    Although most reconstructions of the evolution of the Mg to Ca ratio in seawater conclude that it has increased during the course of the Cenozoic, they disagree widely regarding the magnitude of this change. On the basis of fluid inclusion and CaCO3 mineralogy observations, the increase was at least threefold. On the basis of Mg content of foraminifera shells it was only a factor of 1.7. A recently published reconstruction based on the Mg content of calcite fillings of voids in ridge flank basalts lends support to the conclusion that the change was severalfold. But as it is very difficult to come up with a plausible geologic scenario which could account for such a large change, we lean toward the smaller estimate based on the magnesium content of foraminifera shells.

  19. SrZn{sub 2}Sn{sub 2} and Ca{sub 2}Zn{sub 3}Sn{sub 6} - two new Ae-Zn-Sn polar intermetallic compounds (Ae: alkaline earth metal)

    SciTech Connect

    Stegmaier, Saskia; Faessler, Thomas F.

    2012-08-15

    SrZn{sub 2}Sn{sub 2} and Ca{sub 2}Zn{sub 3}Sn{sub 6}, two closely related new polar intermetallic compounds, were obtained by high temperature reactions of the elements. Their crystal structures were determined with single crystal XRD methods, and their electronic structures were analyzed by means of DFT calculations. The Zn-Sn structure part of SrZn{sub 2}Sn{sub 2} comprises (anti-)PbO-like {l_brace}ZnSn{sub 4/4}{r_brace} and {l_brace}SnZn{sub 4/4}{r_brace} layers. Ca{sub 2}Zn{sub 3}Sn{sub 6} shows similar {l_brace}ZnSn{sub 4/4}{r_brace} layers and {l_brace}Sn{sub 4}Zn{r_brace} slabs constructed of a covalently bonded Sn scaffold capped by Zn atoms. For both phases, the two types of layers are alternatingly stacked and interconnected via Zn-Sn bonds. SrZn{sub 2}Sn{sub 2} adopts the SrPd{sub 2}Bi{sub 2} structure type, and Ca{sub 2}Zn{sub 3}Sn{sub 6} is isotypic to the R{sub 2}Zn{sub 3}Ge{sub 6} compounds (R=La, Ce, Pr, Nd). Band structure calculations indicate that both SrZn{sub 2}Sn{sub 2} and Ca{sub 2}Zn{sub 3}Sn{sub 6} are metallic. Analyses of the chemical bonding with the electron localization function (ELF) show lone pair like basins at Sn atoms and Zn-Sn bonding interactions between the layers for both title phases, and covalent Sn-Sn bonding within the {l_brace}Sn{sub 4}Zn{r_brace} layers of Ca{sub 2}Zn{sub 3}Sn{sub 6}. - Graphical abstract: Crystal structures of the new Ae-Zn-Sn polar intermetallic phases SrZn{sub 2}Sn{sub 2} and Ca{sub 2}Zn{sub 3}Sn{sub 6}. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New polar intermetallic phases SrZn{sub 2}Sn{sub 2} and Ca{sub 2}Zn{sub 3}Sn{sub 6}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Obtained by high temperature reactions of the elements. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Single crystal XRD structure determination and DFT electronic structure calculations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Closely related crystal and electronic structures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Metallic conductivity coexisting with lone pairs and covalent bonding

  20. Ca and Mg isotope constraints on the origin of Earth's deepest δ13 C excursion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husson, Jon M.; Higgins, John A.; Maloof, Adam C.; Schoene, Blair

    2015-07-01

    Understanding the extreme carbon isotope excursions found in carbonate rocks of the Ediacaran Period (635-541 Ma), where δ13 C of marine carbonates (δ13 Ccarb) reach their minimum (- 12 ‰) for Earth history, is one of the most vexing problems in Precambrian geology. Known colloquially as the 'Shuram' excursion, the event has been interpreted by many as a product of a profoundly different Ediacaran carbon cycle. More recently, diagenetic processes have been invoked, with the very negative δ13 C values of Ediacaran carbonates explained via meteoric alteration, late-stage burial diagenesis or growth of authigenic carbonates in the sediment column, thus challenging models which rely upon a dramatically changing redox state of the Ediacaran oceans. Here we present 257 δ 44 / 40 Ca and 131 δ26 Mg measurements, along with [Mg], [Mn] and [Sr] data, from carbonates of the Ediacaran-aged Wonoka Formation (Fm.) of South Australia to bring new isotope systems to bear on understanding the 'Shuram' excursion. Data from four measured sections spanning the basin reveal stratigraphically coherent trends, with variability of ∼1.5‰ in δ26 Mg and ∼1.2‰ in δ 44 / 40 Ca. This Ca isotope variability dwarfs the 0.2-0.3 ‰ change seen coeval with the Permian-Triassic mass extinction, the largest recorded in the rock record, and is on par with putative changes in the δ 44 / 40 Ca value of seawater seen over the Phanerozoic Eon. Changes in both isotopic systems are too large to explain with changes in the isotopic composition of Ca and Mg in global seawater given modern budgets and residence times, and thus must be products of alternative processes. Relationships between δ 44 / 40 Ca and [Sr] and δ26 Mg and [Mg] are consistent with mineralogical control (e.g., aragonite vs. calcite, limestone vs. dolostone) on calcium and magnesium isotope variability. The most pristine samples in the Wonoka dataset, preserving Sr concentrations (in the 1000s of ppm range) and δ 44 / 40

  1. High Mg-content wurtzite MgZnO alloys and their application in deep-ultraviolet light-emitters pumped by accelerated electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Ni, Pei-Nan; Shan, Chong-Xin E-mail: shendz@ciomp.ac.cn; Li, Bing-Hui; Shen, De-Zhen E-mail: shendz@ciomp.ac.cn

    2014-01-20

    High Mg-content single-phase wurtzite MgZnO alloys with a bandgap of 4.35 eV have been obtained on sapphire substrate by introducing a composition-gradient Mg{sub x}Zn{sub 1−x}O buffer layer. By employing the accelerated electrons obtained in a solid-state structure as an excitation source, an emission at around 285 nm, which is originated from the near-band-edge emission of the Mg{sub 0.51}Zn{sub 0.49}O active layer, has been observed. The results reported in this paper may provide a promising route to high performance deep-ultraviolet light-emitting devices by bypassing the challenging doping issues of wide bandgap semiconductors.

  2. Planktic foraminifera shell chemistry response to seawater chemistry: Pliocene-Pleistocene seawater Mg/Ca, temperature and sea level change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, David; Brierley, Chris; Raymo, Maureen E.; Erez, Jonathan; Müller, Wolfgang

    2016-03-01

    Foraminifera Mg/Ca paleothermometry forms the basis of a substantial portion of ocean temperature reconstruction over the last 5 Ma. Furthermore, coupled Mg/Ca-oxygen isotope (δ18O) measurements of benthic foraminifera can constrain eustatic sea level (ESL) independent of paleo-shoreline derived approaches. However, this technique suffers from uncertainty regarding the secular variation of the Mg/Ca seawater ratio (Mg/Casw) on timescales of millions of years. Here we present coupled seawater-test Mg/Ca-temperature laboratory calibrations of Globigerinoides ruber in order to test the widely held assumptions that (1) seawater-test Mg/Ca co-vary linearly, and (2) the Mg/Ca-temperature sensitivity remains constant with changing Mg/Casw. We find a nonlinear Mg/Catest-Mg/Casw relationship and a lowering of the Mg/Ca-temperature sensitivity at lower than modern Mg/Casw from 9.0% °C-1 at Mg/Casw = 5.2 mol mol-1 to 7.5 ± 0.9% °C-1 at 3.4 mol mol-1. Using our calibrations to more accurately calculate the offset between Mg/Ca and biomarker-derived paleotemperatures for four sites, we derive a Pliocene Mg/Casw ratio of ∼4.3 mol mol-1. This Mg/Casw implies Pliocene ocean temperature 0.9-1.9 °C higher than previously reported and, by extension, ESL ∼30 m lower compared to when one assumes that Pliocene Mg/Casw is the same as at present. Correcting existing benthic foraminifera datasets for Mg/Casw indicates that deep water source composition must have changed through time, therefore seawater oxygen isotope reconstructions relative to present day cannot be used to directly reconstruct Pliocene ESL.

  3. Magnetic field induced third order susceptibility of third order harmonic generation in a ZnMgSe strained quantum well

    SciTech Connect

    Mark, J. Abraham Hudson Peter, A. John

    2014-04-24

    Third order susceptibility of third order harmonic generation is investigated in a Zn{sub 0.1}Mg{sub 0.9}Se/Zn{sub 0.8}Mg{sub 0.2}Se/Zn{sub 0.1}Mg{sub 0.9}Se quantum well in the presence of magnetic field strength. The confinement potential is considered as the addition of energy offsets of the conduction band (or valence band) and the strain-induced potential in our calculations. The material dependent effective mass is followed throughout the computation because it has a high influence on the electron energy levels in low dimensional semiconductor systems.

  4. Chelate titrations of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) using microfluidic paper-based analytical devices.

    PubMed

    Karita, Shingo; Kaneta, Takashi

    2016-06-14

    We developed microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (μPADs) for the chelate titrations of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) in natural water. The μPAD consisted of ten reaction zones and ten detection zones connected through narrow channels to a sample zone located at the center. Buffer solutions with a pH of 10 or 13 were applied to all surfaces of the channels and zones. Different amounts of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) were added to the reaction zones and a consistent amount of a metal indicator (Eriochrome Black T or Calcon) was added to the detection zones. The total concentrations of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) (total hardness) in the water were measured using a μPAD containing a buffer solution with a pH of 10, whereas only Ca(2+) was titrated using a μPAD prepared with a potassium hydroxide solution with a pH of 13. The μPADs permitted the determination of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) in mineral water, river water, and seawater samples within only a few minutes using only the naked eye-no need of instruments. PMID:27181645

  5. Chelate titrations of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) using microfluidic paper-based analytical devices.

    PubMed

    Karita, Shingo; Kaneta, Takashi

    2016-06-14

    We developed microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (μPADs) for the chelate titrations of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) in natural water. The μPAD consisted of ten reaction zones and ten detection zones connected through narrow channels to a sample zone located at the center. Buffer solutions with a pH of 10 or 13 were applied to all surfaces of the channels and zones. Different amounts of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) were added to the reaction zones and a consistent amount of a metal indicator (Eriochrome Black T or Calcon) was added to the detection zones. The total concentrations of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) (total hardness) in the water were measured using a μPAD containing a buffer solution with a pH of 10, whereas only Ca(2+) was titrated using a μPAD prepared with a potassium hydroxide solution with a pH of 13. The μPADs permitted the determination of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) in mineral water, river water, and seawater samples within only a few minutes using only the naked eye-no need of instruments.

  6. Intermonomer flexibility of Ca- and Mg-actin filaments at different pH values.

    PubMed

    Hild, Gábor; Nyitrai, Miklós; Somogyi, Béla

    2002-02-01

    The fluorescence resonance energy transfer parameter, f, is defined as the efficiency of the energy transfer normalized by the quantum yield of the donor in the presence of acceptor. It is possible to characterize the flexibility of the protein matrix between the appropriate fluorescent probes by monitoring the temperature dependence of f. The intermonomer flexibility of the Ca-actin and Mg-actin filaments was characterized by using this method at pH values of 6.5 and 7.4. The protomers were labeled on Cys374 with donor [N-(((iodoacetyl)amino)ethyl)-5-naphthylamine-1-sulfonate; IAEDANS] or acceptor [5-(iodoacetamido)fluorescein; IAF] molecules. The temperature profile of f suggested that the intermonomer flexibility of actin filaments was larger at pH 7.4 than pH 6.5 in the case of Mg-F-actin while this difference was absent in the case of Ca-F-actin. More rigid intermonomer connection was identified at both pH values between the protomers of Mg-F-actin compared to the Ca-F-actin. The results were further supported by time dependent fluorescence measurements made on IAEDANS and IAF labeled Mg- and Ca-actin filaments at pH 6.5 and 7.4. Our spectroscopic results may suggest that the altered function of muscle following the change of pH within the muscle cells under physiological or pathological conditions might be affected by the modified dynamic properties of the magnesium saturated actin filaments. The change of the intracellular pH does not have an effect on the intermonomer flexibility of the Ca-actin filaments.

  7. Stress Corrosion Cracking in Al-Zn-Mg-Cu Aluminum Alloys in Saline Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holroyd, N. J. Henry; Scamans, G. M.

    2013-03-01

    Stress corrosion cracking of Al-Zn-Mg-Cu (AA7xxx) aluminum alloys exposed to saline environments at temperatures ranging from 293 K to 353 K (20 °C to 80 °C) has been reviewed with particular attention to the influences of alloy composition and temper, and bulk and local environmental conditions. Stress corrosion crack (SCC) growth rates at room temperature for peak- and over-aged tempers in saline environments are minimized for Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloys containing less than ~8 wt pct Zn when Zn/Mg ratios are ranging from 2 to 3, excess magnesium levels are less than 1 wt pct, and copper content is either less than ~0.2 wt pct or ranging from 1.3 to 2 wt pct. A minimum chloride ion concentration of ~0.01 M is required for crack growth rates to exceed those in distilled water, which insures that the local solution pH in crack-tip regions can be maintained at less than 4. Crack growth rates in saline solution without other additions gradually increase with bulk chloride ion concentrations up to around 0.6 M NaCl, whereas in solutions with sufficiently low dichromate (or chromate), inhibitor additions are insensitive to the bulk chloride concentration and are typically at least double those observed without the additions. DCB specimens, fatigue pre-cracked in air before immersion in a saline environment, show an initial period with no detectible crack growth, followed by crack growth at the distilled water rate, and then transition to a higher crack growth rate typical of region 2 crack growth in the saline environment. Time spent in each stage depends on the type of pre-crack ("pop-in" vs fatigue), applied stress intensity factor, alloy chemistry, bulk environment, and, if applied, the external polarization. Apparent activation energies ( E a) for SCC growth in Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloys exposed to 0.6 M NaCl over the temperatures ranging from 293 K to 353 K (20 °C to 80 °C) for under-, peak-, and over-aged low-copper-containing alloys (<0.2 wt pct) are typically ranging from

  8. Phosphate recovery from anaerobic digester effluents using CaMg(OH)4.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xueyu; Xu, Zhonghou; Peng, Jianfeng; Song, Yonghui; Meng, Xiaoguang

    2016-06-01

    Dolomite lime (DL) (CaMg(OH)4) was used as an economical source of Mg(2+) for the removal and recovery of phosphate from an anaerobic digester effluent of a municipal wastewater treatment plant (MWWTP) wastewater. Batch precipitation results determined that phosphate was effectively reduced from 87 to less than 4mg-P/L when the effluent water was mixed with 0.3g/L of DL. The competitive precipitation mechanisms of different solids in the treatment system consisting of Ca(2+)-Mg(2+)-NH4(+)-PO4(3-)CO3(2-) were determined by comparing model predictions with experimental results. Thermodynamic model calculations indicated that hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2), Ca4H(PO4)3∙3H2O, Ca3(PO4)2(beta), and Ca3(PO4)2(am2) were more stable than struvite (MgNH4PO3∙6H2O) and calcite (CaCO3). However, X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis determined the formation of struvite and calcite minerals in the treated effluent. Kinetic experimental results showed that most of the phosphate was removed from synthetic effluent containing NH4(+) within 2hr, while only 20% of the PO4(3-) was removed in the absence of NH4(+) after 24hr of treatment. The formation of struvite in the DL-treated effluent was due to the rapid precipitation rate of the mineral. The final pH of the DL-treated effluent significantly influenced the mass ratio of struvite to calcite in the precipitates. Because more calcite was formed when the pH increased from 8.4 to 9.6, a pH range of 8.0-8.5 should be used to produce solid with high PO4(3-) content. This study demonstrated that DL could be used for effective removal of phosphate from the effluent and that resultant precipitates contained high content of phosphate and ammonium. PMID:27266323

  9. Mg/Ca in foraminifera from plankton tows: Evaluation of proxy controls and comparison with core tops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Botí, M. A.; Mortyn, P. G.; Schmidt, D. N.; Vance, D.; Field, D. B.

    2011-07-01

    Calibrations and validations of the Mg/Ca paleothermometer in planktic foraminifera have traditionally been performed by means of core tops, sediment trap samples and culture experiments. In this study, Mg/Ca ratios have been measured in 8 species of planktic foraminifera (non-globorotaliids Globigerina bulloides, Neogloboquadrina incompta, Orbulina universa, Globigerinoides ruber (white) and G. sacculifer, and globorotaliids Globorotalia inflata, G. hirsuta and G. truncatulinoides), collected live from the North Atlantic, the Southeast Atlantic, the Northeast Pacific and the Norwegian Sea. Mg/Ca ratios for N. incompta, O. universa, G. ruber, G. sacculifer and G. truncatulinoides are similar to available North Atlantic core-top studies and consistent with previous calibration equations. In contrast, some G. bulloides, G. inflata and G. hirsuta Mg/Ca ratios are higher than predicted based on δ 18O values, and exhibit considerable scatter. This elevation may be in part related to the impact of potential isotopic disequilibrium effects on δ 18O-derived temperatures, which the Mg/Ca ratios are compared to. Another factor that may affect Mg/Ca ratios in some plankton samples is the lack of low-Mg test components (e.g., final chambers or gametogenic calcite), because of the incompleteness of the life cycle at the time of collection. N. incompta Mg/Ca ratios are correlated with salinity, with Mg/Ca changing about 16% per salinity unit, suggesting that salinity may have an important influence on Mg/Ca of some species even in non-extreme salinity environments. This is the first extensive multispecific plankton tow Mg/Ca data set from different oceanographic regions, which has been used to test the Mg/Ca temperature proxy in the context of published calibration data, highlighting the complex physiological/ecological controls on the acquisition of the proxy signal.

  10. Regional Failure of Intertidal Mussel Mg/Ca as an Independent Temperature Proxy: A Cautionary Tale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, H. L.; Schellenberg, S. A.; Becker, B. J.; Deutschman, D.; Koch, P. L.

    2007-12-01

    Paleoceanographic reconstructions depend upon accurate estimations of mean annual temperature (MAT) and mean annual range in temperature (MART). Mollusk shells may offer an archive of seasonal to decadal data on environmental conditions. However, a suite of factors (e.g., biologic, metabolic, kinetic) may confound interpretations of mollusk records. Mytilus californianus shell chemistry was directly compared to in situ environmental data to inspect the influence of intertidal position and growth rate (ontogeny) on δ18O and Mg/Ca. M. californianus specimens from an ontogenetic spectrum were outplanted from 31 Aug 04 to 17 Sept 05 at low (-0.2 m MLLW) and high (1.1 m MLLW) intertidal positions within Cabrillo National Monument at San Diego, California. Ambient temperature was recorded in situ and water samples were collected at ~2-3 week intervals. After the outplant interval, the prismatic calcite layer of eight specimens spanning the ontogenetic spectrum at each intertidal position were serially microsampled and analyzed for stable-isotope and minor-elemental variations. Average intra-specimen Mg/Ca values for specimens show a strong and significant positive correlation with accretion rate (i.e., younger, faster-growing specimens have higher Mg/Ca). This ontogenetic effect weakens the potential of average intra-specimen Mg/Ca an accurate MAT proxy. In contrast, average intra-specimen. δ18O provided a relatively accurate temperature proxy regardless of ontogenetic stage. To assess the utility of intraskeletal δ18O and Mg/Ca variation as a MART proxy, the observed δ18O record from each specimen was ordinated in the time-domain of the outplant interval and compared to the predicted equilibrium δ18O inorganic calcite record calculated from ambient seawater temperature and δ18O. Observed specimen δ&&18O is well-correlated (r2 = 0.50, p<0.001) with predicted δ18O, but shows an ~+1.05‰ 18O-enrichment relative to inorganic calcite equilibrium precipitation. In

  11. Well-width dependence of the emission linewidth in ZnO/MgZnO quantum wells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Photoluminescence (PL) spectra were measured as a function of well width (LW) and temperature in ZnO/Mg0.1Zn0.9O single quantum wells (QWs) with graded thickness. The emission linewidth (full width at half maximum) was extracted from the emission spectra, and its variation as a function of LW was studied. The inhomogeneous linewidth obtained at 5 K was found to decrease with increasing LW from 1.8 to 3.3 nm due to the reduced potential variation caused by the LW fluctuation. Above 3.3 nm, however, the linewidth became larger with increasing LW, which was explained by the effect related with defect generation due to strain relaxation and exciton expansion in the QW. For the homogenous linewidth broadening, longitudinal optical (LO) phonon scattering and impurity scattering were taken into account. The LO phonon scattering coefficient ΓLO and impurity scattering coefficient Γimp were deduced from the temperature dependence of the linewidth of the PL spectra. Evident reduction of ΓLO with decreasing LW was observed, which was ascribed to the confinement-induced enhancement of the exciton binding energy. Different from ΓLO, a monotonic increase in Γimp was observed with decreasing LW, which was attributed to the enhanced penetration of the exciton wave function into the barrier layers. PMID:23111026

  12. Light polarization sensitive photodetectors with m- and r-plane homoepitaxial ZnO/ZnMgO quantum wells

    SciTech Connect

    Tabares, G.; Hierro, A. Lopez-Ponce, M.; Muñoz, E.

    2015-02-09

    Homoepitaxial ZnO/(Zn,Mg)O multiple quantum wells (MQWs) grown with m- and r-plane orientations are used to demonstrate Schottky photodiodes sensitive to the polarization state of light. In both orientations, the spectral photoresponse of the MQW photodiodes shows a sharp excitonic absorption edge at 3.48 eV with a very low Urbach tail, allowing the observation of the absorption from the A, B and C excitonic transitions. The absorption edge energy is shifted by ∼30 and ∼15 meV for the m- and r-plane MQW photodiodes, respectively, in full agreement with the calculated polarization of the A, B, and C excitonic transitions. The best figures of merit are obtained for the m-plane photodiodes, which present a quantum efficiency of ∼11%, and a specific detectivity D* of ∼6.4 × 10{sup 10} cm Hz{sup 1/2}/W. In these photodiodes, the absorption polarization sensitivity contrast between the two orthogonal in-plane axes yields a maximum value of (R{sub ⊥}/R{sub ||}){sub max} ∼ 9.9 with a narrow bandwidth of ∼33 meV.

  13. Effect of heteroboundary spreading on the properties of exciton states in Zn(Cd)Se/ZnMgSSe quantum wells

    SciTech Connect

    Adiyatullin, A. F. Belykh, V. V.; Kozlovsky, V. I.; Krivobok, V. S. Martovitsky, V. P.; Nikolaev, S. N.

    2012-11-15

    Exciton states in Zn(Cd)Se/ZnMgSSe quantum wells with different diffusion spreading of interfaces are studied by optical spectroscopy methods. It is shown that the emission spectrum of quantum wells at low temperatures is determined by free excitons and bound excitons on neutral donors. The nonlinear dependence of the stationary photoluminescence intensity on the excitation power density and the biexponential luminescence decay are explained by the neutralization of charged defects upon photoexcitation of heterostructures. With the stationary illumination on, durable (about 40 min) reversible changes in the reflection coefficient near the exciton resonances of quantum wells are observed. It is shown that, along with the shift of exciton levels, the spreading of heteroboundaries leads to three effects: an increase in the excitonphonon interaction, an increase in the energy shift between the emission lines of free and bound excitons, and a decrease in the decay time of exciton luminescence in a broad temperature range. The main reasons for these effects are discussed.

  14. Characteristics of Enzyme-Based ZnO/Zn0.7Mg0.3O Heterojunction Field-Effect Transistor as Glucose Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koike, Kazuto; Takagi, Daisuke; Hashimoto, Mitsuhiro; Hashimoto, Takahito; Inoue, Tomoyuki; Ogata, Ken-ichi; Sasa, Shigehiko; Inoue, Masataka; Yano, Mitsuaki

    2009-04-01

    The characteristics of an enzyme-based ZnO/Zn0.7Mg0.3O heterojunction field-effect transistor (HFET) for glucose sensing are reported. The enzyme glucose oxidase (GOD) was immobilized on an amine-modified gate electrode of the ZnO/Zn0.7Mg0.3O HFET, and glucose sensing was performed by detecting biocatalytically yielded protons using an ion-sensitive function of the gate electrode. The chemical bonding states of the amine-modified and GOD-immobilized surfaces were analyzed by X-ray photoemission spectroscopy, and the enzyme activity of GOD was examined by a colorimetric method. In agreement with the promising results of these experiments, this enzyme-based HFET exhibited stable sensing performance with a linear response in a wide range of glucose concentrations from 0 to 4 mg·cm-3 and at a short time constant less than 20 s.

  15. The role of beryllium in the band structure of MgZnO: Lifting the valence band maximum

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, S. S.; Pan, X. H. E-mail: yezz@zju.edu.cn; Chen, W.; Zhang, H. H.; Dai, W.; Ding, P.; Huang, J. Y.; Lu, B.; Ye, Z. Z. E-mail: yezz@zju.edu.cn

    2014-09-22

    We investigate the effect of Be on the valence band maximum (VBM) of MgZnO by measuring the band offsets of Mg{sub x}Zn{sub 1−x}O/Be{sub x}Mg{sub y}Zn{sub 1−x−y}O heterojunctions using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements. Mg{sub x}Zn{sub 1−x}O and Be{sub x}Mg{sub y}Zn{sub 1−x−y}O films have been grown on c-plane sapphire substrates by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. The valence band offset (ΔE{sub V}) of Mg{sub 0.15}Zn{sub 0.85}O (E{sub g} = 3.62 eV)/Be{sub 0.005}Mg{sub 0.19}Zn{sub 0.805}O (E{sub g} = 3.73 eV) heterojunction is 0.01 eV and Be{sub 0.005}Mg{sub 0.19}Zn{sub 0.805}O has a lower VBM. The increased Mg composition is the main factor for the reduction of VBM. The VBM of Mg{sub x}Zn{sub 1−x}O is lower by 0.03 eV with the enlargement of E{sub g} from 3.62 eV to 3.73 eV by increasing Mg composition. Considering the effect of increased Mg composition, it is concluded that the little amount of Be makes the VBM go up by 0.02 eV when the E{sub g} of the alloy is 3.73 eV. The ΔE{sub V} of Mg{sub 0.11}Zn{sub 0.89}O (E{sub g} = 3.56 eV)/Be{sub 0.007}Mg{sub 0.12}Zn{sub 0.873}O (E{sub g} = 3.56 eV) heterojunction is calculated to be 0.03 eV and Be{sub 0.007}Mg{sub 0.12}Zn{sub 0.873}O has a higher VBM than Mg{sub 0.11}Zn{sub 0.89}O, which means that a little amount Be lifts the VBM by 0.03 eV when the E{sub g} of the alloy is 3.56 eV. The experimental measurements have offered a strong support for the theoretical research that alloying Be in Mg{sub x}Zn{sub 1−x}O alloys is hopeful to form a higher VBM and to enhance the p-type dopability of MgZnO.

  16. Identification and separation of Mn-rich contaminating phases of planktonic foraminifer for Mg/Ca analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tachikawa, K.; Toyofuku, T.; Robin, E.

    2009-12-01

    Planktonic foraminiferal Mg/Ca has successfully applied to reconstruction of past seawater temperature although it is still difficult to identify all the Mg contaminant phases and the efficiency of cleanings. We studied in detail Globigerinoides ruber (white) from the sediment intervals characterized by normal and exceptionally high Mn/Ca ratios (0.1 to 2 mmol/mol corresponding to Terminations I and II, respectively) of core MD02-2529 from the Panama Basin. We applied a combination of microanalysis techniques and flow-through time resolved analysis (FT-TRA) coupled with ICP-OES. Electron microprobe mapping of Mn, Mg and Fe as well as scanning electron microscope images of test wall transects demonstrate that 1) Mg distribution is heterogeneous with Mg-rich bands and 2) thin Fe-Mn oxide coating formed on inner chamber wall and spherical framboids pyrite formed inside of chambers do not contain high Mg content. The Mn distribution of the test wall transect is homogeneous for the lower Mn/Ca samples whereas it is very similar to that of Mg for the higher Mn/Ca samples. The Mn-rich parts are characterized by a lower Ca content. FT-TRA reveals that Mg/Ca and Mn/Ca are positively correlated and the elution of minimal Mg/Ca and Mn/Ca appears just after Ca concentration maximum for the higher Mn/Ca samples. We tentatively propose that the Mn-rich phases were formed by diagenetically dissolved Mn penetration into porous test structure followed by in situ precipitation of Mn-bearing carbonates. Based on different solubility between this phase and test calcite, initial Mg/Ca value of G. ruber could be extracted by FT-TRA.

  17. Estimated daily intake of Fe, Cu, Ca and Zn through common cereals in Tehran, Iran.

    PubMed

    Kashian, S; Fathivand, A A

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents the findings of study undertaken to estimate the dietary intake of iron (Fe), copper (Cu), calcium (Ca) and zinc (Zn) through common cereals in Tehran, Iran. 100 samples of rice, wheat and barley were collected from various brands between August and October 2013. The samples were analyzed performing instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The dietary intake for adults was estimated by a total cereal study. Calculations were carried out on the basis of the reported adults' average food consumption rate data. The total daily intake estimated in mgd(-1) for Tehran population were 3.6 (Fe), 10.2 (Zn), 0.3 (Cu) and 234.5 (Ca). Wheat showed the highest contribution to Zn, Cu and Ca intakes. Furthermore, intakes were compared with recommended dietary allowance (RDA). Zn total intake (10.2mgd(-1)) was comparable with RDA values for males (11mgd(-1)) and was higher than recommended value for females (8mgd(-1)). The intakes of other studied elements were below the respective RDAs. PMID:25624223

  18. Study of cesium sorption on Na and Ca-Mg bentonites using batch and diffusion experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vejsada, J.; Vokál, A.; Vopálka, D.; Filipská, H.

    2006-01-01

    In this study the cesium sorption on two different bentonites (Ca-Mg bentonite Rokle and Na bentonite Volclay KWK 20 80) has been compared using two different experimental approaches — batch and diffusion methods. The distribution coefficients (Kds) calculated for variable liquid-to-solid ratio (batch) and dry density (diffusion) were evaluated with respect to the main uncertainties affecting both approaches. It has been concluded that there are significant differences between selected bentonites in mineral composition, cation exchange capacity (CEC) and sorption characteristics. The Kd values calculated from batch sorption and diffusion data were found comparable only for Na bentonite Volclay KWK 20 80. The considerably higher sorption of Cs on Ca-Mg bentonite Rokle was explained by its higher content of cesium-selective sorbents (illite, vermiculite).

  19. Electronic and multiferroic properties of Zn{sub 0.85}Mg{sub 0.15}O thin film

    SciTech Connect

    Devi, Vanita Joshi, B. C.; Kumar, Manish; Wadikar, A. D.; Choudhary, R. J.; Phase, D. M.

    2015-06-24

    Thin film sample of Zn{sub 0.85}Mg{sub 0.15}O was prepared on Si (100) substrate by pulsed laser deposition and its structural, electronic, magnetic and ferroelectric properties were investigated. The Zn{sub 0.85}Mg{sub 0.15}O thin film sample is found to show room temperature multiferroic properties; suitable for device fabrication.

  20. Mg(2+) differentially regulates two modes of mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake in isolated cardiac mitochondria: implications for mitochondrial Ca(2+) sequestration.

    PubMed

    Blomeyer, Christoph A; Bazil, Jason N; Stowe, David F; Dash, Ranjan K; Camara, Amadou K S

    2016-06-01

    The manner in which mitochondria take up and store Ca(2+) remains highly debated. Recent experimental and computational evidence has suggested the presence of at least two modes of Ca(2+) uptake and a complex Ca(2+) sequestration mechanism in mitochondria. But how Mg(2+) regulates these different modes of Ca(2+) uptake as well as mitochondrial Ca(2+) sequestration is not known. In this study, we investigated two different ways by which mitochondria take up and sequester Ca(2+) by using two different protocols. Isolated guinea pig cardiac mitochondria were exposed to varying concentrations of CaCl2 in the presence or absence of MgCl2. In the first protocol, A, CaCl2 was added to the respiration buffer containing isolated mitochondria, whereas in the second protocol, B, mitochondria were added to the respiration buffer with CaCl2 already present. Protocol A resulted first in a fast transitory uptake followed by a slow gradual uptake. In contrast, protocol B only revealed a slow and gradual Ca(2+) uptake, which was approximately 40 % of the slow uptake rate observed in protocol A. These two types of Ca(2+) uptake modes were differentially modulated by extra-matrix Mg(2+). That is, Mg(2+) markedly inhibited the slow mode of Ca(2+) uptake in both protocols in a concentration-dependent manner, but not the fast mode of uptake exhibited in protocol A. Mg(2+) also inhibited Na(+)-dependent Ca(2+) extrusion. The general Ca(2+) binding properties of the mitochondrial Ca(2+) sequestration system were reaffirmed and shown to be independent of the mode of Ca(2+) uptake, i.e. through the fast or slow mode of uptake. In addition, extra-matrix Mg(2+) hindered Ca(2+) sequestration. Our results indicate that mitochondria exhibit different modes of Ca(2+) uptake depending on the nature of exposure to extra-matrix Ca(2+), which are differentially sensitive to Mg(2+). The implications of these findings in cardiomyocytes are discussed.

  1. Mg/Ca ratios in freshwater microbial carbonates: Thermodynamic, kinetic and vital effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saunders, P.; Rogerson, M.; Wadhawan, J. D.; Greenway, G.; Pedley, H. M.

    2014-12-01

    The ratio of magnesium to calcium (Mg/Ca) in carbonate minerals in an abiotic setting is conventionally assumed to be predominantly controlled by (Mg/Ca)solution and a temperature dependant partition coefficient. This temperature dependence suggests that both marine (e.g. foraminiferal calcite and corals) and freshwater (e.g. speleothems and surface freshwater deposits, “tufas”) carbonate deposits may be important archives of palaeotemperature data. However, there is considerable uncertainty in all these settings. In surface freshwater deposits this uncertainty is focussed on the influence of microbial biofilms. Biogenic or “vital” effects may arise from microbial metabolic activity and/or the presence of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). This study addresses this key question for the first time, via a series of unique through-flow microcosm and agitated flask experiments where freshwater calcite was precipitated under controlled conditions. These experiments reveal there is no strong relationship between (Mg/Ca)calcite and temperature, so the assumption of thermodynamic fractionation is not viable. However, there is a pronounced influence on (Mg/Ca)calcite from precipitation rate, so that rapidly forming precipitates develop with very low magnesium content indicating kinetic control on fractionation. Calcite precipitation rate in these experiments (where the solution is only moderately supersaturated) is controlled by biofilm growth rate, but occurs even when light is excluded indicating that photosynthetic influences are not critical. Our results thus suggest the apparent kinetic fractionation arises from the electrochemical activity of EPS molecules, and are therefore likely to occur wherever these molecules occur, including stromatolites, soil and lake carbonates and (via colloidal EPS) speleothems.

  2. Mg/Ca Ratios in Coralline Red Algae as Temperature Proxies for Reconstructing Labrador Current Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamboa, G.; Hetzinger, S.; Halfar, J.; Zack, T.; Kunz, B.; Adey, W.

    2009-05-01

    Marine ecosystems and fishery productivity in the Northwestern Atlantic have been considerably affected by regional climate and oceanographic changes. Fluctuations of North Atlantic marine climate have been linked in part to a dominant pattern of atmospheric circulation known as the North Atlantic Oscillation, which has a strong influence on transport variability of the Labrador Current (LC). The cold LC originates in the Labrador Sea and flows southbound along the Eastern Canadian coastline causing an important cooling effect on marine waters off the Canadian Atlantic provinces. Although interdecadal and interannual variability of sea surface temperatures (SST) in the LC system have been documented, a long-term pattern has not been identified. In order to better understand the observed ecosystem changes and their relationship with climate variability in the Northwestern Atlantic, a century-scale reconstruction of spatial and temporal variations of the LC is needed. This, however, requires reliable long-term and high-resolution SST records, which are not available from short instrumental observations. Here we present the first century-scale SST reconstructions from the Northwest Atlantic using long-lived coralline red algae. Coralline red algae have a high-Mg calcite skeleton, live in shallow water worldwide and develop annual growth bands. It has previously been demonstrated that subannual resolution SSTs can be obtained from coralline red algal Mg/Ca ratios, a commonly used paleotemperature proxy. Specimens of the long-lived coralline red algae Clathromorphum compactum were collected alive in August 2008 along a latitudinal transect spanning the southern extent of LC flow in Nova Scotia and Newfoundland. This collection is supplemented with specimens from the same region collected in the 1960's. In order to reconstruct spatial and temporal patterns of the LC, selected samples of C. compactum were analyzed for Mg/Ca using Laser Ablation Inductively-Coupled Plasma

  3. Lattice parameters and electronic structure of BeMgZnO quaternary solid solutions: Experiment and theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toporkov, M.; Demchenko, D. O.; Zolnai, Z.; Volk, J.; Avrutin, V.; Morkoç, H.; Özgür, Ü.

    2016-03-01

    BexMgyZn1-x-yO semiconductor solid solutions are attractive for UV optoelectronics and electronic devices owing to their wide bandgap and capability of lattice-matching to ZnO. In this work, a combined experimental and theoretical study of lattice parameters, bandgaps, and underlying electronic properties, such as changes in band edge wavefunctions in BexMgyZn1-x-yO thin films, is carried out. Theoretical ab initio calculations predicting structural and electronic properties for the whole compositional range of materials are compared with experimental measurements from samples grown by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy on (0001) sapphire substrates. The measured a and c lattice parameters for the quaternary alloys BexMgyZn1-x with x = 0-0.19 and y = 0-0.52 are within 1%-2% of those calculated using generalized gradient approximation to the density functional theory. Additionally, composition independent ternary BeZnO and MgZnO bowing parameters were determined for a and c lattice parameters and the bandgap. The electronic properties were calculated using exchange tuned Heyd-Scuseria-Ernzerhof hybrid functional. The measured optical bandgaps of the quaternary alloys are in good agreement with those predicted by the theory. Strong localization of band edge wavefunctions near oxygen atoms for BeMgZnO alloy in comparison to the bulk ZnO is consistent with large Be-related bandgap bowing of BeZnO and BeMgZnO (6.94 eV). The results in aggregate show that precise control over lattice parameters by tuning the quaternary composition would allow strain control in BexMgyZn1-x-yO/ZnO heterostructures with possibility to achieve both compressive and tensile strain, where the latter supports formation of two-dimensional electron gas at the interface.

  4. Thermal hysteresis of permeability and transport properties of Mn substituted Mg Cu Zn ferrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manjurul Haque, M.; Huq, M.; Hakim, M. A.

    2008-03-01

    Mn substituted Mg-Cu-Zn ferrites of composition Mg0.35Cu0.20Zn0.45O(Fe2-xMnx O3)0.97 have been prepared by the standard double sintering ceramic technique. X-ray diffraction patterns of the samples showed single phase cubic spinel structure without any detectable impurity phases. The lattice constant is found to increase linearly with increase in Mn3+ ion concentration obeying Vegard's law. The initial permeability (μi) of the Mg-Cu-Zn ferrites exhibits thermal hysteresis when the temperature is cycled from above the Curie temperature TC to below. The sharp decrease of μi at T = TC indicates that the samples have high homogeneity according to Globus et al. The Curie temperature TC of the studied ferrite system was determined from the μi-T curves where the Hopkinson type of effect at the TC has been observed with the manifestation of a sharp fall in permeability. The Curie temperature TC is found to increase with increasing Mn content. Dc electrical resistivity increases significantly with the increase in Mn content. The ac resistivity (ρac) and dielectric constant (ɛ') of the samples are found to decrease with increase in frequency, exhibiting normal ferrimagnetic behaviour. Dielectric relaxation peaks were observed for the frequency dependence of dielectric loss tangent curves. ɛ' increases as the temperature increases, which is the normal dielectric behaviour of the magnetic semiconductor ferrite. The observed variation of electrical and dielectric properties are explained on the basis of Fe2+/Fe3+ ionic concentration as well as the electronic hopping frequency between Fe2+ and Fe3+ ions in the present samples.

  5. Phonon dynamics and Urbach energy studies of MgZnO alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Huso, Jesse Che, Hui; Thapa, Dinesh; Canul, Amrah; Bergman, Leah; McCluskey, M. D.

    2015-03-28

    The Mg{sub x}Zn{sub 1−x}O alloy system is emerging as an environmentally friendly choice in ultraviolet lighting and sensor technologies. Knowledge of defects which impact their optical and material properties is a key issue for utilization of these alloys in various technologies. The impact of phase segregation, structural imperfections, and alloy inhomogeneities on the phonon dynamics and electronic states of Mg{sub x}Zn{sub 1−x}O thin films were studied via selective resonant Raman scattering (SRRS) and Urbach analyses, respectively. A series of samples with Mg composition from 0–68% were grown using a sputtering technique, and the optical gaps were found to span a wide UV range of 3.2–5.8 eV. The extent of the inherent phase segregation was determined via SRRS using two UV-laser lines to achieve resonance with the differing optical gaps of the embedded cubic and wurtzite structural domains. The occurrence of Raman scattering from cubic structures is discussed in terms of relaxation of the selection rules due to symmetry breaking by atomic substitutions. The Raman linewidth and Urbach energy behavior indicate the phase segregation region occurs in the range of 47–66% Mg. Below the phase segregation, the longitudinal optical phonons are found to follow the model of one-mode behavior. The phonon decay model of Balkanski et al. indicates that the major contributor to Raman linewidth arises from the temperature-independent term attributed to structural defects and alloy inhomogeneity, while the contribution from anharmonic decay is relatively small. Moreover, a good correlation between Urbach energy and Raman linewidth was found, implying that the underlying crystal dynamics affecting the phonons also affect the electronic states. Furthermore, for alloys with low Mg composition structural defects are dominant in determining the alloy properties, while at higher compositions alloy inhomogeneity cannot be neglected.

  6. Microwave plasma atomic emission spectrometric determination of Ca, K and Mg in various cheese varieties.

    PubMed

    Ozbek, Nil; Akman, Suleyman

    2016-02-01

    Microwave plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (MP-AES) was used to determine calcium, magnesium and potassium in various Turkish cheese samples. Cheese samples were dried at 100 °C for 2 days and then digested in a mixture of nitric acid/hydrogen peroxide (3:1). Good linearities (R(2) > 0.999) were obtained up to 10 μg mL(-1) of Ca, Mg and K at 445.478 nm, 285.213 nm and 766.491 nm, respectively. The analytes in a certified reference milk powder sample were determined within the uncertainty limits. Moreover, the analytes added to the cheese samples were recovered quantitatively (>90%). All determinations were performed using aqueous standards for calibration. The LOD values for Ca, Mg and K were 0.036 μg mL(-1), 0.012 μg mL(-1) and 0.190 μg mL(-1), respectively. Concentrations of Ca, K and Mg in various types of cheese samples produced in different regions of Turkey were found between 1.03-3.70, 0.242-0.784 and 0.081-0.303 g kg(-1), respectively.

  7. Complex Formation Between Ca(II), Mg(II), Al(III) Ions and Salicylglycine

    PubMed Central

    Kilyén, Melinda; Labádi, lmre; Tombácz, Etelka; Kiss, Tamás

    2003-01-01

    For modelling the interactions of proteins/peptides with hard metal ions the complex formation of salicylglycine (SalGly) with Ca(II), Mg(ll) and AI(III) ions was studied in aqueous solution using pHpotentiometric and UV-vis spectroscopic techniques. Al(lll) ion was found to form more stable complexes with SalGiy than Ca(ll) or Mg(ll) ions. While AI(III) ion forms various 1:1 complexes of different protonation states in the pH range 2-7, Ca(ll), Mg(ll) ions seem to interact with SalGly only in the basic pH range and form mixed hydroxo species MLH-1 at pH ~ 8. According to the UV-vis spectroscopic measurements in the species MLH-1 the carboxylate-O- atom and the phenolate-O- coordinate to the metal ions. SaIGiy is able to keep Al(lll) in solution through inner and outer sphere coordination to metastable amorphous AI(OH)3 particles. Deprotonation of the peptide amide Nil does not occur in these systems. PMID:18365063

  8. Microwave plasma atomic emission spectrometric determination of Ca, K and Mg in various cheese varieties.

    PubMed

    Ozbek, Nil; Akman, Suleyman

    2016-02-01

    Microwave plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (MP-AES) was used to determine calcium, magnesium and potassium in various Turkish cheese samples. Cheese samples were dried at 100 °C for 2 days and then digested in a mixture of nitric acid/hydrogen peroxide (3:1). Good linearities (R(2) > 0.999) were obtained up to 10 μg mL(-1) of Ca, Mg and K at 445.478 nm, 285.213 nm and 766.491 nm, respectively. The analytes in a certified reference milk powder sample were determined within the uncertainty limits. Moreover, the analytes added to the cheese samples were recovered quantitatively (>90%). All determinations were performed using aqueous standards for calibration. The LOD values for Ca, Mg and K were 0.036 μg mL(-1), 0.012 μg mL(-1) and 0.190 μg mL(-1), respectively. Concentrations of Ca, K and Mg in various types of cheese samples produced in different regions of Turkey were found between 1.03-3.70, 0.242-0.784 and 0.081-0.303 g kg(-1), respectively. PMID:26304350

  9. Structure, mechanical characteristics and in vitro degradation, cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and mutagenicity of novel biodegradable Zn-Mg alloys.

    PubMed

    Kubásek, J; Vojtěch, D; Jablonská, E; Pospíšilová, I; Lipov, J; Ruml, T

    2016-01-01

    Zn-(0-1.6)Mg (in wt.%) alloys were prepared by hot extrusion at 300 °C. The structure, mechanical properties and in vitro biocompatibility of the alloys were investigated. The hot-extruded magnesium-based WE43 alloy was used as a control. Mechanical properties were evaluated by hardness, compressive and tensile testing. The cytotoxicity, genotoxicity (comet assay) and mutagenicity (Ames test) of the alloy extracts and ZnCl2 solutions were evaluated with the use of murine fibroblasts L929 and human osteosarcoma cell line U-2 OS. The microstructure of the Zn alloys consisted of recrystallized Zn grains of 12 μm in size and fine Mg2Zn11 particles arranged parallel to the hot extrusion direction. Mechanical tests revealed that the hardness and strength increased with increasing Mg concentration. The Zn-0.8 Mg alloys showed the best combination of tensile mechanical properties (tensile yield strength of 203 MPa, ultimate tensile strength of 301 MPa and elongation of 15%). At higher Mg concentrations the plasticity of Zn-Mg alloys was deteriorated. Cytotoxicity tests with alloy extracts and ZnCl2 solutions proved the maximum safe Zn(2+) concentrations of 120 μM and 80 μM for the U-2 OS and L929 cell lines, respectively. Ames test with extracts of alloys indicated that the extracts were not mutagenic. The comet assay demonstrated that 1-day extracts of alloys were not genotoxic for U-2 OS and L929 cell lines after 1-day incubation. PMID:26478283

  10. Nondestructive atomic compositional analysis of BeMgZnO quaternary alloys using ion beam analytical techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zolnai, Z.; Toporkov, M.; Volk, J.; Demchenko, D. O.; Okur, S.; Szabó, Z.; Özgür, Ü.; Morkoç, H.; Avrutin, V.; Kótai, E.

    2015-02-01

    The atomic composition with less than 1-2 atom% uncertainty was measured in ternary BeZnO and quaternary BeMgZnO alloys using a combination of nondestructive Rutherford backscattering spectrometry with 1 MeV He+ analyzing ion beam and non-Rutherford elastic backscattering experiments with 2.53 MeV energy protons. An enhancement factor of 60 in the cross-section of Be for protons has been achieved to monitor Be atomic concentrations. Usually the quantitative analysis of BeZnO and BeMgZnO systems is challenging due to difficulties with appropriate experimental tools for the detection of the light Be element with satisfactory accuracy. As it is shown, our applied ion beam technique, supported with the detailed simulation of ion stopping, backscattering, and detection processes allows of quantitative depth profiling and compositional analysis of wurtzite BeZnO/ZnO/sapphire and BeMgZnO/ZnO/sapphire layer structures with low uncertainty for both Be and Mg. In addition, the excitonic bandgaps of the layers were deduced from optical transmittance measurements. To augment the measured compositions and bandgaps of BeO and MgO co-alloyed ZnO layers, hybrid density functional bandgap calculations were performed with varying the Be and Mg contents. The theoretical vs. experimental bandgaps show linear correlation in the entire bandgap range studied from 3.26 eV to 4.62 eV. The analytical method employed should help facilitate bandgap engineering for potential applications, such as solar blind UV photodetectors and heterostructures for UV emitters and intersubband devices.

  11. Structure, mechanical characteristics and in vitro degradation, cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and mutagenicity of novel biodegradable Zn-Mg alloys.

    PubMed

    Kubásek, J; Vojtěch, D; Jablonská, E; Pospíšilová, I; Lipov, J; Ruml, T

    2016-01-01

    Zn-(0-1.6)Mg (in wt.%) alloys were prepared by hot extrusion at 300 °C. The structure, mechanical properties and in vitro biocompatibility of the alloys were investigated. The hot-extruded magnesium-based WE43 alloy was used as a control. Mechanical properties were evaluated by hardness, compressive and tensile testing. The cytotoxicity, genotoxicity (comet assay) and mutagenicity (Ames test) of the alloy extracts and ZnCl2 solutions were evaluated with the use of murine fibroblasts L929 and human osteosarcoma cell line U-2 OS. The microstructure of the Zn alloys consisted of recrystallized Zn grains of 12 μm in size and fine Mg2Zn11 particles arranged parallel to the hot extrusion direction. Mechanical tests revealed that the hardness and strength increased with increasing Mg concentration. The Zn-0.8 Mg alloys showed the best combination of tensile mechanical properties (tensile yield strength of 203 MPa, ultimate tensile strength of 301 MPa and elongation of 15%). At higher Mg concentrations the plasticity of Zn-Mg alloys was deteriorated. Cytotoxicity tests with alloy extracts and ZnCl2 solutions proved the maximum safe Zn(2+) concentrations of 120 μM and 80 μM for the U-2 OS and L929 cell lines, respectively. Ames test with extracts of alloys indicated that the extracts were not mutagenic. The comet assay demonstrated that 1-day extracts of alloys were not genotoxic for U-2 OS and L929 cell lines after 1-day incubation.

  12. Deep-cryogenic-treatment-induced phase transformation in the Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chun-mei; Cheng, Nan-pu; Chen, Zhi-qian; Guo, Ning; Zeng, Su-min

    2015-01-01

    An aluminum alloy (Al-Zn-Mg-Cu) subjected to deep cryogenic treatment (DCT) was systematically investigated. The results show that a DCT-induced phase transformation varies the microstructures and affects the mechanical properties of the Al alloy. Both Guinier-Preston (GP) zones and a metastable η' phase were observed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The phenomenon of the second precipitation of the GP zones in samples subjected to DCT after being aged was observed. The viability of this phase transformation was also demonstrated by first-principles calculations.

  13. Impact of Zn, Mg, Ni and Co elements on glass alteration: Additive effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aréna, H.; Godon, N.; Rébiscoul, D.; Podor, R.; Garcès, E.; Cabie, M.; Mestre, J.-P.

    2016-03-01

    The minor elements present in the nuclear glass composition or coming from the groundwater of the future repository may impact glass alteration. In this study, the effects of Zn, Mg, Ni and Co on the International Simple Glass (ISG) alteration were studied throughout 511 days of aqueous leaching experiments. The aim was to determine their additive or competitive effect on glass alteration and the nature of the alteration products. The four elements were introduced separately or altogether in solution as XCl2 chloride salts (X = Zn, Mg, Ni or Co) with monthly additions to compensate for their consumption. The alteration kinetics were determined by leachate analyses (ICP-AES) and alteration products were characterized in terms of composition, morphology and microstructure (SEM, TEM-EDX, ToF-SIMS and XRD). Results indicate that when they are introduced separately, Zn, Mg, Ni and Co have the same qualitative and quantitative effect on glass alteration kinetics and on pH: they form secondary phases leading to a pH decrease and a significant increase in glass alteration. The secondary phases were identified as silicates of the added X element: trioctahedral smectites with a stoichiometry of[(Si(4-a) Ala) (X(3-b) Alb) O10 (OH)2](a+b)- [Xc Nad Cae] (2c+d+2e)+ with a = 0.11 to 0.45, b = 0.00 to 0.29, c = 0, d = 0.19 to 0.74 and e = 0.10 to 0.14. . It was shown that as pH stabilizes at a minimum value, X-silicates no longer precipitate, thus leading to a significant drop in the glass alteration rate. This pH value depends on X and it has been identified as being 8 for Mg-silicates, probably around 7.3 for Ni and Co-silicates and less than 6.2 for Zn-silicates. When tested together, the effects of these four elements on glass alteration are additive and lead to the formation of a mix of X-silicates that precipitate as long as their constitutive elements are available and the pH is above their respective minimum value. This study brings new quantitative information about the

  14. Easy Glide in a Coarse-Grained Mg-2Zn-2Nd Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tong; Jonas, John J.; Yue, Stephen

    2016-10-01

    Compression tests were performed at 673 K (400 °C) on a Mg-2Zn-2Nd alloy at the strain rates of 0.1, 0.01, and 0.001/s. The 0.1 and 0.01/s flow curves displayed work hardening to a peak stress at around 0.2 true strain. However, testing at 0.001/s led to steady-state flow at about 22 MPa from 0.03 true strain onwards. Such a steady-state flow is attributed to the predominance of basal slip under these conditions.

  15. Easy Glide in a Coarse-Grained Mg-2Zn-2Nd Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tong; Jonas, John J.; Yue, Stephen

    2016-08-01

    Compression tests were performed at 673 K (400 °C) on a Mg-2Zn-2Nd alloy at the strain rates of 0.1, 0.01, and 0.001/s. The 0.1 and 0.01/s flow curves displayed work hardening to a peak stress at around 0.2 true strain. However, testing at 0.001/s led to steady-state flow at about 22 MPa from 0.03 true strain onwards. Such a steady-state flow is attributed to the predominance of basal slip under these conditions.

  16. Haldane spin state in Y 2Ba(Ni, Zn or Mg)O 5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batlogg, B.; Cheong, S.-W.; Rupp, L. W.

    1994-02-01

    We have identified Y 2BaNiO 5 as a new Haldane state chain compound with a magnetic excitation gap Δ min/k B of 100±5K and Δ min/|J|≈0.3. Single crystal results of χ(T→0) reveal a splitting of the excited magnetic state. The S=1 chains have been severed in a controlled way by the substitution of Zn or Mg for Ni, and the resulting modifications of χ(T) are presented.

  17. Structural defects in AFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (A = Zn, Mg) spinels

    SciTech Connect

    Gaudon, M. Pailhe, N.; Wattiaux, A.; Demourgues, A.

    2009-03-05

    (Zn{sup 2+}/Mg{sup 2+})[Fe{sup 3+}]{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel oxides can be refined as direct/fully inverted (respectively) spinels but considering cationic and anionic vacancies and/or interstitial atoms instead of a partial inversion rate of the A{sup 2+} and B{sup 3+} cations. The refinements results of the X-ray diffraction patterns and Moessbauer spectroscopy spectra are discussed and show the veracity of the new structural formalism.

  18. Structural and Electronic Properties of a Wide-Gap Quaternary Solid Solution: \\(Zn, Mg\\) \\(S, Se\\)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saitta, A. M.; de Gironcoli, S.; Baroni, S.

    1998-06-01

    The structural properties of the (Zn, Mg) (S, Se) solid solutions are determined by a combination of the computational alchemy and the cluster expansion methods with Monte Carlo simulations. We determine the phase diagram of the alloy and show that the homogeneous phase is characterized by a large amount of short-range order occurring among first-nearest neighbors. Electronic-structure calculations performed using the special quasirandom structure approach indicate that the energy gap of the alloy is rather sensitive to this short-range order.

  19. Nonlinear absorption coefficient of pulsed laser deposited MgZnO thin film

    SciTech Connect

    Agrawal, Arpana Dar, Tanveer A.; Solanki, Ravi; Sen, Pratima; Phase, D. M.

    2015-06-24

    We report the imaginary part of 3{sup rd} order nonlinear susceptibility and the nonlinear absorption coefficient of Mg doped ZnO thin film using standard Z-scan technique. The origin of nonlinear absorption is attributed to the two photon absorption followed by the free carrier absorption because of the presence of oxygen vacancy defects. We have also confirmed the experimental results with the theoretical results obtained by considering the steady state response of a two level atom with the monochromatic field models.

  20. Phase diagram, crystal chemistry and thermoelectric properties of compounds in the Ca-Co-Zn-O system

    SciTech Connect

    Wong-Ng, W; Luo, T; Xie, W; Tang, W H; Kaduk, J A; Huang, Q; Yan, Y; Chattopadhyay, S; Tang, X; Tritt, T

    2011-11-17

    In the Ca-Co-Zn-O system, we have determined the tie-line relationships and the thermoelectric properties, solid solution limits, and structures of two low-dimensional cobaltite series, Ca3(Co, Zn)4O9-z and Ca3(Co,Zn)2O6-z at 885 ºC in air. In Ca3(Co,Zn)4O9-z, which has a misfit layered structure, Zn was found to substitute in the Co site to a limit of Ca3(Co3.8Zn0.2)O9-z. The compound Ca3(Co,Zn)2O6-z (n=1 member of the homologous series, Can+2(Co,Zn)n(Co,Zn)'O3n+3-z) consists of one-dimensional parallel (Co,Zn)2O66- chains that are built from successive alternating face-sharing (Co,Zn)O6 trigonal prisms and 'n' units of (Co,Zn)O6 octahedra along the hexagonal c-axis. Zn substitutes in the Co site of Ca3Co2O6 to a small amount of approximately Ca3(Co1.95Zn0.05)O6-z. In the ZnO-CoOz system, Zn substitutes in the tetrahedral Co site of Co3O4 to the maximum amount of (Co2.49Zn0.51)O4-z and Co substitutes in the Zn site of ZnO to (Zn0.94Co0.06)O. The crystal structures of (Co2.7Zn0.3)O4-z, (Zn0.94Co0.06)O, and Ca3(Co1.95 Zn0.05)O6-z are described. Despite the Ca3(Co, Zn)2O6-z series having reasonably high Seebeck coefficients and relatively low thermal conductivity, the electrical resistivity values of its members are too high to achieve high figure of merit, ZT.

  1. Chemistry of soluble β-diketiminatoalkaline-earth metal complexes with M-X bonds (M=Mg, Ca, Sr; X=OH, Halides, H).

    PubMed

    Sarish, Sankaranarayana Pillai; Nembenna, Sharanappa; Nagendran, Selvarajan; Roesky, Herbert W

    2011-03-15

    Victor Grignard's Nobel Prize-winning preparation of organomagnesium halides (Grignard reagents) marked the formal beginning of organometallic chemistry with alkaline earth metals. Further development of this invaluable synthetic route, RX+Mg→RMgX, with the heavier alkaline earth metals (Ca and Sr) was hampered by limitations in synthetic methodologies. Moreover, the lack of suitable ligands for stabilizing the reactive target molecules, particularly with the more electropositive Ca and Sr, was another obstacle. The absence in the literature, until just recently, of fundamental alkaline earth metal complexes with M-H, M-F, and M-OH (where M is the Group 2 metal Mg, Ca, or Sr) bonds amenable for organometallic reactions is remarkable. The progress in isolating various unstable compounds of p-block elements with β-diketiminate ligands was recently applied to Group 2 chemistry. The monoanionic β-diketiminate ligands are versatile tools for addressing synthetic challenges, as amply demonstrated with alkaline earth complexes: the synthesis and structural characterization of soluble β-diketiminatocalcium hydroxide, β-diketiminatostrontium hydroxide, and β-diketiminatocalcium fluoride are just a few examples of our contribution to this area of research. To advance the chemistry beyond synthesis, we have investigated the reactivity and potential for applications of these species, for example, through the demonstration of dip coating surfaces with CaCO(3) and CaF(2) with solutions of the calcium hydroxide and calcium fluoride complexes, respectively. In this Account, we summarize some recent developments in alkaline earth metal complex chemistry, particularly of Mg, Ca, and Sr, through the utilization of β-diketiminate ligands. We focus on results generated in our laboratory but give due mention to work from other groups as well. We also highlight the closely related chemistry of the Group 12 element Zn, as well as the important chemistry developed by other groups

  2. Tetrahedron dynamics in the icosahedral quasicrystals i-ZnMgSc and i-ZnAgSc and the cubic 1/1-approximant Zn6Sc.

    PubMed

    Euchner, H; Yamada, T; Rols, S; Ishimasa, T; Kaneko, Y; Ollivier, J; Schober, H; Mihalkovic, M; de Boissieu, M

    2013-03-20

    A comparison of periodic approximants and their quasicrystalline counterparts offers the opportunity to better understand the structure, physical properties and stabilizing mechanisms of these complex phases. We present a combined experimental and molecular dynamics study of the lattice dynamics of the icosahedral quasicrystals i-ZnMgSc and i-ZnAgSc and compare it to recently published results obtained for the cubic 1/1-approximant Zn(6)Sc. Both phases, quasicrystal and approximant, are built up from large atomic clusters which contain a tetrahedral shell at the cluster centre and are packed either quasiperiodically or on a bcc lattice. Using quasielastic neutron scattering and atomic scale simulations, we show that in the quasicrystal the tetrahedra display a dynamics similar to that observed in the 1/1-approximant: the tetrahedra behave as a 'single molecule' and reorient dynamically on a timescale of the order of a few ps. The tetrahedra reorientation is accompanied by a large distortion of the surrounding cluster shells which provide a unique dynamical flexibility to the quasicrystal. However, whereas in the 1/1-approximant the tetrahedron reorientation is observed down to T(c) = 160 K, where a phase transition takes place, in the quasicrystal the tetrahedron dynamics is gradually freezing from 550 to 300 K, similarly to a glassy system.

  3. Li/Ca, B/Ca, and Mg/Ca content in sea urchin spines cultured at different temperatures and pCO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, T.; Eagle, R.; Courtney, T.; Ries, J. B.; Brillo, V.; Rollion-Bard, C.; Gabitov, R. I.; Tripati, A. K.

    2012-12-01

    Element/calcium ratios within biogenic calcium carbonate minerals have been used as tools to reconstruct seawater temperature and pH. Most recent studies have focused on examining systematics governing elemental incorporation in coral, foraminifera, and otoliths [1-3, etc.]. In this study we focus on examining Li/Ca, B/Ca, and Mg/Ca ratios in sea urchins cultured at different temperatures and pCO2. We conducted in situ secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) analyses on two different species of sea urchins. A temperate species of sea urchin (Arbacia punctulata) was cultured at variable pCO2 (400, 600, 900, 2850 ppmv) and at a constant temperature (25°C) [4]. We also investigated a tropical species of sea urchins (Echinometra viridis) that was cultured at variable pCO2 (400 and 1000 ppmv) and variable temperature (20°C and 30°C). The highly porous spines were embedded in epoxy and polished with 3 μm diamond suspension. SIMS analyses were performed with an oxygen primary beam and a lateral spatial resolution of about 40 μm. The standard deviation for SIMS spot analysis of Li in the reference synthetic calcite, CAL-HTP, was 3.5 % (1σ). The standard deviation of SIMS spots analyses of coral reference material M93-TB-FC-1 was 9.5 % (1σ). The bulk B content in this reference coral was determined by LA-ICP-MS as 39.3 ppm [6]. The standard deviation for the SIMS spot analysis of Mg in the reference synthetic calcite, UCI, was 1% (1σ). For the temperate species, B/Ca ratios decrease from ~0.39 to 0.29 mmol/mol as pCO2 increase from 400 to 2850 ppmv. This suggests that B/Ca ratios in this species may be a viable proxy for paleo-seawater pH. Other elements such as Li/Ca showed an increase from .047 to .052 mmol/mol as pCO2 increased. However, Mg/Ca did not show any significant trend as pCO2 increased. The tropical species showed a general increase in Li/Ca, B/Ca, Mg/Ca with increasing temperature. When temperature was held constant, there was no significant effect of

  4. Sr/Ca and Mg/Ca vital effects correlated with skeletal architecture in a scleractinian deep-sea coral and the role of Rayleigh fractionation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagnon, Alexander C.; Adkins, Jess F.; Fernandez, Diego P.; Robinson, Laura F.

    2007-09-01

    Deep-sea corals are a new tool in paleoceanography with the potential to provide century long records of deep ocean change at sub-decadal resolution. Complicating the reconstruction of past deep-sea temperatures, Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca paleothermometers in corals are also influenced by non-environmental factors, termed vital effects. To determine the magnitude, pattern and mechanism of vital effects we measure detailed collocated Sr/Ca and Mg/Ca ratios, using a combination of micromilling and isotope-dilution ICP-MS across skeletal features in recent samples of Desmophyllum dianthus, a scleractinian coral that grows in the near constant environment of the deep-sea. Sr/Ca variability across skeletal features is less than 5% (2σ relative standard deviation) and variability of Sr/Ca within the optically dense central band, composed of small and irregular aragonite crystals, is significantly less than the surrounding skeleton. The mean Sr/Ca of the central band, 10.6 ± 0.1 mmol/mol (2σ standard error), and that of the surrounding skeleton, 10.58±0.09 mmol/mol, are statistically similar, and agree well with the inorganic aragonite Sr/Ca-temperature relationship at the temperature of coral growth. In the central band, Mg/Ca is greater than 3 mmol/mol, more than twice that of the surrounding skeleton, a general result observed in the relative Mg/Ca ratios of D. dianthus collected from separate oceanographic locations. This large vital effect corresponds to a ˜ 10 °C signal, when calibrated via surface coral Mg/Ca-temperature relationships, and has the potential to complicate paleoreconstructions. Outside the central band, Mg/Ca ratios increase with decreasing Sr/Ca. We explain the correlated behavior of Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca outside the central band by Rayleigh fractionation from a closed pool, an explanation that has been proposed elsewhere, but which is tested in this study by a simple and general relationship. We constrain the initial solution and effective partition

  5. The Role of Interface Defects on Phase Selection in ZnO/MgO Core/Shell Nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Critchlow, Dominic; Li, Zhineng; Shen, Xiao; Marvinney, Claire; Puzyrev, Yevgeniy; Pan, Lida; McBride, James; Haglund, Richard; Pantelides, Sokrates

    ZnO nanowires, coated with MgO, have potential for optical devices. The optical properties of the ZnO/MgO coreshell structures depend on the properties of the interface. Both epitaxial interface with wurtzite MgO on ZnO and non-epitaxial interface with rocksalt MgO have been observed. Differences in MgO interface structure poses questions to what type of defects must be present to achieve these different crystal structures. Density functional theory calculations are carried out to explore the role of surface oxygen vacancies and the step edges. The results from DFT calculations show that oxygen vacancies have no effect on the crystal structure. On the other hand, the calculations show that the step edges make rocksalt MgO structure more favorable. TEM images taken on the ZnO nanowires that has rocksalt MgO coating revealed steps in the ZnO Nanowire, confirming the theoretical prediction. Vanderbilt Physics Research Experience for Undergraduates funded by the National Science Foundation.

  6. Corrosion Behavior of Mg-6Al-1Zn+XRE Magnesium Alloy with Minor Addition of Yttrium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manivannan, S.; Babu, S. P. Kumaresh; Sundarrajan, Srinivasan

    2015-04-01

    The effect of yttrium addition on the microstructure of Mg-6Al-1Zn alloy was investigated by optical microscopy, x-ray diffraction analysis, and scanning electron microscopy. The experimental alloys were prepared by melting high-purity Mg, Al, Zn, and Y, respectively. Melting was carried out in a Inconel 718 crucible under SF6 and ultra pure Ar (99.999%) gas mixture environment using electric arc furnace. The corrosion behavior of Mg-6Al-1Zn+ xYttrium ( x = 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 wt.% Y) magnesium alloy with different levels of yttrium additions was studied in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution. Microstructure of yttrium-added alloy shows that higher grainrefinement is obtained in Mg-6Al-1Zn+0.5wt.%Y. Increasing yttrium content reduces the size of α-grain and alters the distribution of the β-phase (Mg17Al12) from continuous network morphology to small and dispersive distribution. It forms secondary intermetallic phase Al2Y which has high melting point along the grain boundary. The corrosion resistance of Mg-6Al-1Zn magnesium alloy improved with addition of Yttrium. It was confirmed by the results of electrochemical polarization test. Based on the polarization curves, it is seen that fine precipitates of Al-Y intermetallic phase in Mg-6Al-1Zn alloy decrease the corrosion current density, thereby improving the corrosion resistance of the Mg-6Al-1Zn magnesium alloy.

  7. Orientation-dependent local structural properties of Zn(1-x)Mg(x)O nanorods studied by extended X-ray absorption fine structure.

    PubMed

    Jeong, E S; Park, Changin; Jin, Zhenlan; Yoo, Jinkyoung; Yi, Gyu-Chul; Han, S W

    2013-03-01

    The orientation-dependent structural properties of Zn(1-x)Mg(x)O nanorods with different Mg concentrations were investigated quantitatively using polarization-dependent extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) measurements at the Zn K edge. Vertically-aligned Zn(1-x)Mg(x)O nanorods were synthesized on Si substrates using catalyst free metal organic chemical vapor deposition. Polarization-dependent EXAFS measurements showed that Mg ions mainly occupied the Zn sites of the nanorods. EXAFS revealed that the distance between Zn-Mg pairs in all directions is - 0.2 angstroms shorter than that of Zn-Zn pairs and that there is a substantial amount of disorder in the Mg sites of the nanorods, independent of Mg concentrations.

  8. Measurement of Ca, Zn and Sr in enamel of human teeth by XRF

    SciTech Connect

    Wielopolski, L.; Featherstone, J.D.B.; Cohn, S.H.

    1984-01-01

    Energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) has been employed to measure Ca, Zn, and Sr in enamel of human teeth. The calibration of the EDXRF system was performed by comparing Sr/Ca ratios with values obtained by atomic absorption analysis of acid etched biopsies of the enamel surface. Two calibration lines were obtained, one line for untreated teeth and the second line for teeth immersed (treated) in solutions containing Sr. A simple analytical model demonstrated that the two calibration lines were the result of the difference in the depth of the enamel sampled by EDXRF and by the acid-etched biopsy. The multi-elemental, non-destructive and quantitative aspects of EDXRF permit the sequential monitoring of the effects of Sr and Zn ions on the mineralization and demineralization processes in human enamel. The portability of the system and adaptability to non-invasive measurements makes it suitable for field studies. 26 references, 4 figures.

  9. How strong are Ca2+-heparin and Zn2+-heparin interactions?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remko, Milan; Broer, Ria; Remková, Anna; Van Duijnen, Piet Th.

    2015-02-01

    The formation of the calcium and zinc salts from CaCl2, ZnCl2 and six monomeric structural units of heparin (1-OMe ΔUA-2S, 1-OMe GlcN-S6S, 1,4-DiOMe GlcA, 1,4-DiOMe GlcN-S3S6S, 1,4-DiOMe IdoA-2S, and 1,4-DiOMe GlcN-S6S) have been studied in gas phase and aqueous solution as model reactions for formation of heparin-Ca2+ and heparin-Zn2+ complexes. Gibbs reaction energies computed at the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level of theory for the reactions studied in aqueous solution are positive and range from 20 to 250 kJ/mol.

  10. Nanomesh electrode on MgZnO-based metal-semiconductor-metal ultraviolet photodetectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ching-Ting; Lin, Heng-Yu; Tseng, Chun-Yen

    2015-09-01

    In this work, the nano-scaled mesh electrodes are fabricated by obliquely depositing metals through the highly ordered polystyrene nanosphere mask. Furthermore, the intrinsic MgZnO film is deposited as the absorption layer for the metal-semiconductor-metal ultraviolet photodetectors (MSM-UV-PDs) using the vapor cooling condensation system. The 100-nm-linewidth nanomesh electrodes with metal occupying a roughly 10% of the device surface region consequently render PDs with a high transmittance in the ultraviolet (UV) wavelength range. The photoresponsivity of MgZnO-based MSM-UV-PDs evaluated at the wavelength of 330 nm with the operating bias voltage of 5 V is elevated from 0.135 to 0.248 A/W when the thin metal electrode is replaced by the nanomesh electrode, and the corresponding quantum efficiency is improved from 50.75 to 93.23%. Finally, adopting the nanomesh electrode also helps to enhance the UV-visible rejection ratio (R330nm/R450nm) and the detectivity from 1663 and 1.78 × 1010 cmHz0.5W-1 to 2480 and 2.43 × 1010 cmHz0.5W-1, respectively.

  11. Optical properties of MgZnO alloys: Excitons and exciton-phonon complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Neumann, M. D.; Cobet, C.; Esser, N.; Laumer, B.; Wassner, T. A.; Eickhoff, M.; Feneberg, M.; Goldhahn, R.

    2011-07-01

    The characteristics of the excitonic absorption and emission around the fundamental bandgap of wurtzite Mg{sub x}Zn{sub 1-x}O grown on c-plane sapphire substrates by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy with Mg contents between x = 0 and x = 0.23 are studied using spectroscopic ellipsometry and photoluminescence (PL) measurements. The ellipsometric data were analyzed using a multilayer model yielding the dielectric function (DF). The imaginary part of the DF for the alloys exhibits a pronounced feature which is attributed to exciton-phonon coupling (EPC) similar to the previously reported results for ZnO. Thus, in order to determine reliable transition energies, the spectral dependence is analyzed by a model which includes free excitonic lines, the exciton continuum, and the enhanced absorption due to EPC. A line shape analysis of the temperature-dependent PL spectra yielded in particular the emission-related free excitonic transition energies, which are compared to the results from the DF line-shape analysis. The PL linewidth is discussed within the framework of an alloy disorder model.

  12. Non-alloyed, refractory metal contact optimization with shallow implantations of Zn and Mg

    SciTech Connect

    Lovejoy, M.L.; Zolper, J.C.; Sherwin, M.E.; Baca, A.G.; Shul, R.J.; Rieger, D.J.; Klem, J.F.

    1994-03-22

    Refractory metal contacts to GaAs show great promise for stability during high-temperature processing and for high-reliability. In this paper the authors report a study of sputtered tungsten and tungsten silicide contacts to ion implanted p-GaAs with both Zn and Mg implantations. This study focused on refractory contacts to shallow implanted contact layers that are suitable for devices such as JFETs and HBTs. The very different energy loss mechanisms of Zn and Mg ions result in different levels of implant damage which is studied by varying anneal temperatures and measuring the effects on contact and sheet resistances with the transmission line method. For the fabrication schemes investigated, specific contact resistivity versus anneal temperature with implant doses from 1 {times} 10{sup 14} to 5 {times} 10{sup 15} cm{sup {minus}2} are found to vary from non-ohmic to 10{sup {minus}7} {Omega}-cm{sup 2}. Low resistance contacts to shallow (<800 {angstrom}) implanted layers are achieved.

  13. Pure and Zn-doped Pt Clusters go Flat and Upright on MgO(100)

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Lu; Dadras, Mostafa J.; Alexandrova, Anastassia N.

    2014-12-28

    Pure and doped sub-nanoclusters can exhibit superb catalytic activity, which, however, strongly depends on their size, shape, composition, and the nature of the support. This work is about surface-deposited sub-nano Pt-based clusters, which are promising catalysts for the reactions of dehydrogenation. Using density functional theory and ab initio calculations, and an ab initio genetic algorithm for finding the global minima of clusters, we found a peculiar effect that Pt₅ and Pt₄Zn clusters exhibit upon deposition on MgO(100). Both of them change shapes from the gas phase 3-D form to a planar form, and they stand upright on the support. Several reasons are responsible for this behaviour. In part, clusters go flat due to the electron transfer from the support. Indeed, the anionic Pt₅- and Pt₄Zn- species are flat also in the gas phase. Charging induces the second-order Jahn–Teller effect (or partial covalency) facilitated by the recruitment of the higher-energy 6p atomic orbitals on Pt into the valence manifold, and that is the reason for the planarization of the anions. Secondly, clusters maximize interactions with the surface O atoms (resulting in further favouring of 2-D structures over 3-D), and avoid contacts with surface Mg atoms (resulting in upright morphologies).

  14. Preparation and characterisation of nanophase Sr, Mg, and Zn substituted hydroxyapatite by aqueous precipitation.

    PubMed

    Cox, Sophie C; Jamshidi, Parastoo; Grover, Liam M; Mallick, Kajal K

    2014-02-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) substituted with 2 mol% Sr, 10 mol% Mg, and 2 mol% Zn were precipitated under identical alkaline conditions (pH 11) at 20°C from an aqueous solution. As-synthesised materials were confirmed to be phase pure by XRD and samples prepared in air contained surface adsorbed CO2 as observed by FTIR. SEM studies revealed a globular morphology and agglomeration behaviour, typical of precipitated nHA. EDS spectra confirmed nominal compositions and substitution of Sr, Mg and Zn. At the levels investigated cationic doping was not found to radically influence particle morphology. An indication of the potential in-vivo bioactivity of samples was achieved by analysing samples immersed in SBF for up to 28 days by interferometry and complementary SEM micrographs. Furthermore, a live/dead assay was used and confirmed the viability of seeded MC3T3 osteoblast precursor cells on HA and substituted HA substrates up to 7 days of culture. PMID:24411358

  15. Mg/Ca-temperature and seawater-test chemistry relationships in the shallow-dwelling large benthic foraminifera Operculina ammonoides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, David; Erez, Jonathan; Oron, Shai; Müller, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    The foraminifera Mg/Ca palaeothermometer contributes significantly to our understanding of palaeoceanic temperature variation. However, since seawater Mg/Ca has undergone large secular variation and the relationship between seawater and test Mg/Ca has not been calibrated in detail for any species with a substantial fossil record, it is only possible to assess relative temperature changes in pre-Pleistocene fossil samples. In order to establish the basis of accurate quantitative Mg/Ca-derived deep-time temperature reconstructions, we have calibrated the relationship between test Mg/Ca, seawater chemistry and temperature in laboratory cultures of the shallow-dwelling large benthic species Operculina ammonoides. Operculina has a fossil range extending back to the early Paleogene and is the nearest living relative of the abundant genus Nummulites. We find a temperature sensitivity of 1.7% °C-1 and a linear relationship between the Mg distribution coefficient and seawater Mg/Ca (Mg /Casw) with m = -1.9 × 10-3 , within error of the equivalent slope for inorganic calcite. The higher test Mg/Ca of O. ammonoides compared to inorganic calcite may be explained by an elevated pH of the calcifying fluid, implying that these foraminifera do not modify the Mg/Ca ratio of the seawater from which they calcify, differentiating them in this respect from most other perforate foraminifera. Applying these calibrations to previously published fossil data results in palaeo-Mg /Casw reconstruction consistent with independent proxy evidence. Furthermore, our data enable accurate absolute palaeotemperature reconstructions if Mg /Casw is constrained by another technique (e.g. ridge flank vein carbonate; fluid inclusions). Finally, we examine Li, Na, Sr and Ba incorporation into the test of O. ammonoides and discuss the control exerted by temperature, seawater chemistry, saturation state and growth rate on these emerging proxies.

  16. Influx of extracellular Zn(2+) into the hippocampal CA1 neurons is required for cognitive performance via long-term potentiation.

    PubMed

    Takeda, A; Suzuki, M; Tempaku, M; Ohashi, K; Tamano, H

    2015-09-24

    Physiological significance of synaptic Zn(2+) signaling was examined in the CA1 of young rats. In vivo CA1 long-term potentiation (LTP) was induced using a recording electrode attached to a microdialysis probe and the recording region was locally perfused with artificial cerebrospinal fluid (ACSF) via the microdialysis probe. In vivo CA1 LTP was inhibited under perfusion with CaEDTA and ZnAF-2DA, extracellular and intracellular Zn(2+) chelators, respectively, suggesting that the influx of extracellular Zn(2+) is required for in vivo CA1 LTP induction. The increase in intracellular Zn(2+) was chelated with intracellular ZnAF-2 in the CA1 1h after local injection of ZnAF-2DA into the CA1, suggesting that intracellular Zn(2+) signaling induced during learning is blocked with intracellular ZnAF-2 when the learning was performed 1h after ZnAF-2DA injection. Object recognition was affected when training of object recognition test was performed 1h after ZnAF-2DA injection. These data suggest that intracellular Zn(2+) signaling in the CA1 is required for object recognition memory via LTP. Surprisingly, in vivo CA1 LTP was affected under perfusion with 0.1-1μM ZnCl2, unlike the previous data that in vitro CA1 LTP was enhanced in the presence of 1-5μM ZnCl2. The influx of extracellular Zn(2+) into CA1 pyramidal cells has bidirectional action in CA1 LTP. The present study indicates that the degree of extracellular Zn(2+) influx into CA1 neurons is critical for LTP and cognitive performance. PMID:26204819

  17. Tuning the Mg/Ca Paleothermometer for High-Latitude Species and Insights into Intraspecific and Intrashell Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, C. V.; Fehrenbacher, J. S.; Russell, A. D.; Spero, H. J.; Hill, T. M.

    2015-12-01

    The Mg/Ca of planktic foraminifera shells has become a widely used paleothermometer. However, culture-based calibrations have been confined primarily to low-latitude species with limited data from species growing below 12°C. Some core-top calibrations on high-latitude Neogloboquadrinids raise questions about the influence of [CO3-2] and low Mg/Ca "crusts" on shell geochemistry (e.g. 1). This study seeks to extend the low temperature range of culture-based calibrations to temperatures relevant in high-latitudes and active upwelling areas, taking into account the wide range of [CO3-2] observed in these environments. We further examine whether intrashell geochemical variability in the form of "crusting" poses a limitation to Mg/Ca paleothermometry of crust-forming species. Here we present the results of laboratory experiments with living Neogloboquadrina incompta and Neogloboquadrina pachyderma collected and cultured at UC Davis Bodega Marine Laboratory at temperatures between 6° and 12°C and a range of [CO3-2]. We use a combination of Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Mass Spectrometry and Electron Microprobe mapping, to analyze both intraspecific and intrashell variability in Mg/Ca. We extend existing culture-based temperature calibrations to 6°C, while accounting for the effect of environmental [CO3-2]. Single-shell analyses reveal a high degree of intraspecific variability in the Mg/Ca of calcite grown under stable laboratory conditions. Intrashell analyses identify characteristic low Mg/Ca "crusts" in N. incomptagrown at constant temperature, which record chamber average Mg/Ca within the range of uncrusted conspecifics grown at the same temperature. 1. R. Kozdon et al., Reassessing Mg/Ca temperature calibrations of Neogloboquadrina pachyderma (sinistral) using paired δ44/40Ca and Mg/Ca measurements. Geochem Geophys. 10, Q03005 (2009).

  18. Heat capacities and entropies at 298.15 K of MgTiO3 (geikielite), ZnO (zincite), and ZnCO3 (smithsonite)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robie, R.A.; Haselton, H.T.; Hemingway, B.S.

    1989-01-01

    Heat capacities of synthetic MgTiO3 (geikielite), ZnO (zincite), and natural crystals of smithsonite (ZnCO3) were measured between 9 and 366 K using an automatic adiabatically shielded calorimeter. At 298.15 K the standard molar entropies Smo of MgTiO3, ZnO, and ZnCO3 are (74.64 ?? 0.15), (43.16 ?? 0.09), and (81.19 ?? 0.16) J??K-1??mol-1, respectively. Debye temperatures for MgTiO3 and ZnO calculated from our Cp, mo values below 20 K are (900 ?? 20) K and (440 ?? 25) K respectively. Heat capacities for MgTiO3 and ZnO were combined with enthalpy increments from the literature to derive heat-capacity equations for these phases from 260 to about 1800 K. The heat capacities of MgTiO3 between 260 and 1720 K were fitted with an average deviation of 0.3 per cent by the equation: C??p,m/(J??K-1??mol-1) = 222.5-0.05274(T/K)-6.092x105(T/K)-1-1874.6(T/K) -1/2+1.878x10-5(T/K)2 and for ZnO the equation: C??p,m/(J??K-1??mol-1) = 53.999+7.851x10-4(T/K)-5.868x105(T/K)-2 -127.50(T/K)-:1/2+1.9376x10-6(T/K)2 fits the heat capacities in the temperature interval of 250 to 1800 K with an average deviation of 0.7 per cent. ?? 1989.

  19. Trace metal (Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca) analyses of single coccoliths by Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prentice, Katy; Jones, Tom Dunkley; Lees, Jackie; Young, Jeremy; Bown, Paul; Langer, Gerald; Fearn, Sarah; EIMF

    2014-12-01

    Here we present the first multi-species comparison of modern and fossil coccolith trace metal data obtained from single liths. We present both trace metal analyses (Sr, Ca, Mg and Al) and distribution maps of individual Paleogene fossil coccoliths obtained by Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS). We use this data to determine the effects of variable coccolith preservation and diagenetic calcite overgrowths on the recorded concentrations of strontium and magnesium in coccolith calcite. The analysis of coccoliths from deep-ocean sediments spanning the Eocene/Oligocene transition demonstrates that primary coccolith calcite is resistant to the neomorphism that is common in planktonic foraminifera from similar depositional environments. Instead, where present, diagenetic calcite forms distinct overgrowths over primary coccolith calcite rather than replacing this calcite. Diagenetic overgrowths on coccoliths are easily distinguished in SIMS analyses on the basis of relatively higher Mg and lower Sr concentrations than co-occurring primary coccolith calcite. This interpretation is confirmed by the comparable SIMS analyses of modern cultured coccoliths of Coccolithus braarudii. Further, with diagenetic calcite overgrowth being the principle source of bias in coccolith-based geochemical records, we infer that lithologies with lower carbonate content, deposited below the palaeo-lysocline, are more likely to produce geochemical records dominated by primary coccolith calcite than carbonate-rich sediments where overgrowth is ubiquitous. The preservation of primary coccolith carbonate in low-carbonate lithologies thus provides a reliable geochemical archive where planktonic foraminifera are absent or have undergone neomorphism.

  20. Electronic Structure and Phase Stability of MgO, ZnO, CdO, and Related Ternary Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Y. Z.; Chen, G. D.; Ye, H.; Walsh, A.; Moon, C. Y.; Wei, S. H.

    2008-01-01

    The electronic structure and phase stability of MgO, ZnO, CdO, and related alloys in the rocksalt (B1), zincblende (B3), and wurtzite (B4) crystal structures were examined within first-principles band structure theory; the thermodynamically stable phases are reproduced for each material. The band alignment and band-gap deformation potentials were analyzed, showing an increase in the valence band maximum from Mg to Zn to Cd. Ternary alloy formation was explored through application of the special quasirandom structure method. The B1 structure is stable over all (Mg,Cd)O compositions, as expected from the preferences of the binary oxides. The (Mg,Zn)O alloy undergoes a tetrahedral to octahedral transition above 34% Mg content, in agreement with experiment. For (Zn,Cd)O, a transition is predicted above 62% Cd content. These results imply that band-gap manipulation of ZnO from alloying with Mg (Cd) will be limited to 4.0 eV (1.6 eV), while preserving the tetrahedral coordination of the host.

  1. Effects of electron interference on temperature dependent transport properties of two dimensional electron gas at MgZnO/ZnO interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Amit K. Misra, P.; Ajimsha, R. S.; Joshi, M. P.; Kukreja, L. M.

    2015-09-07

    We report the effects of electron interference on temperature dependent transport properties of two dimensional electron gas (2DEG) confined at the interface in polycrystalline MgZnO/ZnO heterostructures grown by pulsed laser deposition on c-alumina substrates. On increasing Mg concentration in the MgZnO layer, the sheet electron concentration was found to increase and the sheet resistance was found to decrease. In addition, the electron concentration and mobility were almost temperature independent in the range from 4.2 to 300 K, indicating the formation of 2DEG at the interface. The temperature dependent resistivity measurements showed a negative temperature coefficient of resistivity at low temperatures together with negative magnetoresistance. These were found to be caused by electron interference effects, and the experimental data could be explained using the models of quantum corrections to conductivity.

  2. Growth of (1 1 1) and (2 0 0) orientation cubic MgZnO thin films under different oxygen flow rate by PLD method and its difference in element composition and optical absorption characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Han, S.; Shao, Y.K.; Lu, Y.M. Cao, P.J.; Liu, W.J.; Zeng, Y.X.; Jia, F.; Zhu, D.L.

    2015-04-15

    Under different migration energy of reactive Mg, Zn and O atoms from MgZnO target at different oxygen flow rate, (2 0 0) and (1 1 1) orientations MgZnO thin films with cubic structure were fabricated on fused quartz substrate by PLD method. And MgZnO thin film possesses relatively higher Zn composition and lower Mg composition when deposited more along (1 1 1) orientation. The band gap and UV absorption characteristics of MgZnO thin film do not change completely in accordance with the Mg/Zn atom ratio of MgZnO thin films deposited at different oxygen flow rate, but influenced more by the ratio between Mg and Zn atoms that combined with O atoms in MgZnO crystal lattice and the grain boundary density of MgZnO thin films deposited at different oxygen flow rate.

  3. Measuring past changes in ENSO variance using Mg/Ca measurements on individual planktic foraminifera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchitto, T. M.; Grist, H. R.; van Geen, A.

    2013-12-01

    Previous work in Soledad Basin, located off Baja California Sur in the eastern subtropical Pacific, supports a La Niña-like mean-state response to enhanced radiative forcing at both orbital and millennial (solar) timescales during the Holocene. Mg/Ca measurements on the planktic foraminifer Globigerina bulloides indicate cooling when insolation is higher, consistent with an ';ocean dynamical thermostat' response that shoals the thermocline and cools the surface in the eastern tropical Pacific. Some, but not all, numerical models simulate reduced ENSO variance (less frequent and/or less intense events) when the Pacific is driven into a La Niña-like mean state by radiative forcing. Hypothetically the question of ENSO variance can be examined by measuring individual planktic foraminiferal tests from within a sample interval. Koutavas et al. (2006) used d18O on single specimens of Globigerinoides ruber from the eastern equatorial Pacific to demonstrate a 50% reduction in variance at ~6 ka compared to ~2 ka, consistent with the sense of the model predictions at the orbital scale. Here we adapt this approach to Mg/Ca and apply it to the millennial-scale question. We present Mg/Ca measured on single specimens of G. bulloides (cold season) and G. ruber (warm season) from three time slices in Soledad Basin: the 20th century, the warm interval (and solar low) at 9.3 ka, and the cold interval (and solar high) at 9.8 ka. Each interval is uniformly sampled over a ~100-yr (~10-cm or more) window to ensure that our variance estimate is not biased by decadal-scale stochastic variability. Theoretically we can distinguish between changing ENSO variability and changing seasonality: a reduction in ENSO variance would result in narrowing of both the G. bulloides and G. ruber temperature distributions without necessarily changing the distance between their two medians; while a reduction in seasonality would cause the two species' distributions to move closer together.

  4. Interactions of Na+, K+, Mg2+, and Ca2+ with benzene self-assembled monolayers.

    PubMed

    Rimmen, M; Matthiesen, J; Bovet, N; Hassenkam, T; Pedersen, C S; Stipp, S L S

    2014-08-01

    Interactions between cations and organic molecules are found throughout nature, from the functionality and structure of proteins in humans and animals to the exchange of ions in minerals in soil and oil reservoirs with the fluid phases. We have explored the behavior of the s-block elements that are most common in the natural world, namely, Na(+), K(+), Mg(2+), and Ca(2+). Specifically, we investigated how these ions affect the interactions between surfaces covered by self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) terminated with benzene molecules. We used a flat oxidized silicon substrate and an atomic force microscopy (AFM) tip that were both functionalized with 11-phenoxyundecane-1-thiol and measured the adhesion force between them in solutions of each of the four chloride salts. We observed that the adhesion increased in the order of the Hofmeister series: K(+) < Na(+) ≈ Mg(2+) < Ca(2+). Supplementary evidence from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) allowed us to conclude that K(+) binds in the benzene layers, creating a positive surface charge on the benzene-covered surfaces, thus leading to lower adhesion in KCl solutions than in pure water. Evidence suggested that Ca(2+) does not bind to the surfaces but forms bridges between the layers, leading to higher adhesion than in pure water. In Na(+) and Mg(2+) solutions, adhesion is quite similar to that in pure water, indicating a lack of interaction between these two ions and the surfaces, or at least that the interaction is too weak to be detected by our measurements. The results of our studies clearly show that even a nonpolar, hydrophobic molecule, such as benzene, has a role to play in the behavior of aqueous solutions and that it interacts differently depending on which ions are present. Even ions from the same column in the periodic table behave differently. PMID:25003588

  5. Ultrafiltration behavior of major ions (Na, Ca, Mg, F, Cl, and SO4) in natural waters.

    PubMed

    Guo, L; Hunt, B J; Santschi, P H

    2001-04-01

    Aquatic colloids, including macromolecules and microparticles, with sizes ranging between 1 nm to 1 micron, play important roles in the mobility and bioavailability of heavy metals and other contaminants in natural waters. Cross-flow ultrafiltration has become one of the most commonly used techniques for isolating aquatic colloids. However, the ultrafiltration behavior of chemical species remains poorly understood. We report here the permeation behavior of major ions (Na, Ca, Mg, F, Cl, and SO4) in natural waters during ultrafiltration using an Amicon 1 kDa ultrafiltration membrane (S10N1). Water samples across a salinity gradient of 0-20@1000 were collected from the Trinity River and Galveston Bay. The permeation behavior of major ions was well predicted by a permeation model, resulting in a constant permeation coefficient for each ion. The value of the model-derived permeation coefficient (Pc) was 0.99 for Na, 0.97 for Cl, and 0.95 for F, respectively, in Trinity River waters. Values of Pc close to 1 indicate that retention of Na, Cl, and F by the 1 kDa membrane during ultrafiltration was indeed minimal (< 1-5%). In contrast, significant (14-36%) retention was observed for SO4, Ca, and Mg in Trinity River waters, with a Pc value of 0.64, 0.82, and 0.86 for SO4, Ca and Mg, respectively. However, these retained major ions can further permeate through the 1 kDa membrane during diafiltration with ultrapure water. The selective retention of major ions during ultrafiltration may have important implications for the measurement of chemical and physical speciation of trace elements when using cross-flow ultrafiltration membranes to separate colloidal species from natural waters. Our results also demonstrate that the percent retention of major ions during ultrafiltration decreases with increasing salinity or ionic strength. This retention is largely attributed to electrostatic repulsion by the negatively charged cartridge membrane.

  6. Ultrafiltration behavior of major ions (Na, Ca, Mg, F, Cl, and SO4) in natural waters.

    PubMed

    Guo, L; Hunt, B J; Santschi, P H

    2001-04-01

    Aquatic colloids, including macromolecules and microparticles, with sizes ranging between 1 nm to 1 micron, play important roles in the mobility and bioavailability of heavy metals and other contaminants in natural waters. Cross-flow ultrafiltration has become one of the most commonly used techniques for isolating aquatic colloids. However, the ultrafiltration behavior of chemical species remains poorly understood. We report here the permeation behavior of major ions (Na, Ca, Mg, F, Cl, and SO4) in natural waters during ultrafiltration using an Amicon 1 kDa ultrafiltration membrane (S10N1). Water samples across a salinity gradient of 0-20@1000 were collected from the Trinity River and Galveston Bay. The permeation behavior of major ions was well predicted by a permeation model, resulting in a constant permeation coefficient for each ion. The value of the model-derived permeation coefficient (Pc) was 0.99 for Na, 0.97 for Cl, and 0.95 for F, respectively, in Trinity River waters. Values of Pc close to 1 indicate that retention of Na, Cl, and F by the 1 kDa membrane during ultrafiltration was indeed minimal (< 1-5%). In contrast, significant (14-36%) retention was observed for SO4, Ca, and Mg in Trinity River waters, with a Pc value of 0.64, 0.82, and 0.86 for SO4, Ca and Mg, respectively. However, these retained major ions can further permeate through the 1 kDa membrane during diafiltration with ultrapure water. The selective retention of major ions during ultrafiltration may have important implications for the measurement of chemical and physical speciation of trace elements when using cross-flow ultrafiltration membranes to separate colloidal species from natural waters. Our results also demonstrate that the percent retention of major ions during ultrafiltration decreases with increasing salinity or ionic strength. This retention is largely attributed to electrostatic repulsion by the negatively charged cartridge membrane. PMID:11317897

  7. Mg/Ca temperature calibration for the benthic foraminifers Bulimina inflata and Bulimina mexicana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grunert, Patrick; Rosenthal, Yair; Jorissen, Frans; Holbourn, Ann

    2016-04-01

    Bulimina inflata Seguenza 1862 and Bulimina mexicana Cushman 1922 are cosmopolitan, shallow infaunal benthic foraminifers which are common in the fossil record throughout the Neogene and Quaternary. The closely related species share a similar costate shell morphology that differs in the presence or absence of an apical spine. In the present study, we evaluate the temperature dependency of Mg/Ca ratios of these species from an extensive set of core-top samples from the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. The results show no significant offset in Mg/Ca values between B. inflata, B. mexicana, and two other costate morphospecies when present in the same sample. The apparent lack of significant inter-specific/inter-morphotype differences amongst the analysed costate buliminds allows for the combined use of their data-sets for our core-top calibration. Over a bottom-water temperature range of 3-14°C, the Bulimina inflata/mexicana group shows a sensitivity of ˜0.12 mmol/mol/°C which is comparable to the epifaunal Cibicidoides pachyderma and higher than for the shallow infaunal Uvigerina spp., the most commonly used taxa in Mg/Ca-based palaeotemperature reconstruction. B. inflata and B. mexicana might thus be a valuable alternative in mesotrophic settings where many of the commonly used species are diminished or absent, and particularly useful in hypoxic settings where costate buliminds may dominate foraminiferal assemblages. This study was financially supported by the Max-Kade-Foundation and contributes to project P25831-N29 of the Austrian Science Fund (FWF).

  8. Effect of Ca content percentage and sintering temperature on corrosion rate in Mg-Ca composite fabricated using powder metallurgy technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syaza Nabilla, M. S.; Zuraidawani, C. D.; Nazree, D. M.

    2016-07-01

    Magnesium (Mg) is a good element with high potential to be used in various field of work. It has the benefit of lightweight and low density its application is limited for Mg is relatively low in term of strength. Hence, calcium (Ca) is chosen to be mixed with Mg as additional element for it is lightweight and non-toxic. In this research, Mg is prepared with different weight percentage (0, 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 wt. %) of Cavia powder metallurgy (PM) method. The samples were sintered at 500 and 550°Cin argon atmosphere and electrochemically using SBF solution as the electrolyte medium. The effect of Ca content on corrosion rateis investigated by focusing on the microstructure and properties of sintered sample. Increase of Ca content causes reduction in grain structure due to increase Mg2Ca phase at grain boundaries. Subsequently, reduce corrosion resistance. Hence, the amount of Ca content and sintering temperature of Mg-Ca composite is controlled to acquire optimum corrosion rate.

  9. Global dissolution effects on planktonic foraminiferal Mg/Ca ratios controlled by the calcite-saturation state of bottom waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regenberg, Marcus; Regenberg, Anke; Garbe-Schönberg, Dieter; Lea, David W.

    2014-03-01

    Mg/Ca ratios of planktonic foraminiferal tests are important tools for reconstructing past ocean temperatures at different levels of the upper water column. Yet numerous studies suggest a significant influence of calcite dissolution on Mg/Ca ratios lowering their initial signal recorded within a planktonic foraminiferal habitat. To determine the effect of dissolution, this study presents Mg/Ca ratios of eight planktonic foraminiferal species from the South China Sea sediment surface. Continuously decreasing with increasing water depth, the Mg/Ca ratios also decrease with calcite-saturation states close to and below saturation (bottom water Δ[CO3 2-]<30 μmol kg-1) but are stable in well calcite-supersaturated bottom waters (>40 μmol kg-1). This preservation pattern compares well with examples of Mg/Ca dissolution from the tropical Atlantic Ocean and is independent of the foraminiferal species. Merging a global data set by separate normalization of 79 Mg/Ca data sets from the Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian Oceans, which removes thermal differences between the ocean regions and foraminiferal species, enabled us to quantify a global decrease in planktonic foraminiferal Mg/Ca ratios of 0.054 ±0.019 μmol mol-1 per μmol kg-1 below a critical threshold for dissolution of 21.3 ±6.6 μmol kg-1. The absolute decline in Mg/Ca ratios, which is similar for all species, affects temperature estimates from (sub-)thermocline species more strongly than those from shallow dwellers. The water depth of this critical threshold in the global oceans shoals from >3.5 km in the North Atlantic to <0.5 km in the North Pacific based on calculations of the global calcite-saturation state from 6321 hydrographic stations. Above this critical threshold Mg/Ca ratios are well preserved, and paleotemperature estimates are broadly unaffected by dissolution.

  10. Seasonal dripwater Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca variations driven by cave ventilation: Implications for and modeling of speleothem paleoclimate records

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wong, C.I.; Banner, J.L.; Musgrove, M.

    2011-01-01

    A 4-year study in a central Texas cave quantifies multiple mechanisms that control dripwater composition and how these mechanisms vary at different drip sites. We monitored cave-air compositions, in situ calcite growth, dripwater composition and drip rate every 4-6weeks. Three groups of drip sites are delineated (Groups 1-3) based on geochemical variations in dripwater composition. Quantitative modeling of mineral-solution reactions within the host carbonate rock and cave environments is used to identify mechanisms that can account for variations in dripwater compositions. The covariation of Mg/Ca (and Sr/Ca) and Sr isotopes is key in delineating whether Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca variations are dictated by water-rock interaction (i.e., calcite or dolomite recrystallization) or prior calcite precipitation (PCP). Group 1 dripwater compositions reflects a narrow range of the extent of water-rock interaction followed by varying amounts of prior calcite precipitation (PCP). Group 2 dripwater compositions are controlled by varying amounts of water-rock interaction with little to no PCP influence. Group 3 dripwater compositions are dictated by variable extents of both water-rock interaction and PCP. Group 1 drip sites show seasonal variations in dripwater Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca, whereas the other drip sites do not. In contrast to the findings of most previous dripwater Mg/Ca-Sr/Ca studies, these seasonal variations (at Group 1 drip sites) are independent of changes in water flux (i.e., rainfall and/or drip rate), and instead significantly correlate with changes in cave-air CO2 concentrations. These results are consistent with lower cave-air CO2, related to cool season ventilation of the cave atmosphere, enhancing calcite precipitation and leading to dripwater geochemical evolution via PCP. Group 1 dripwater Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca seasonality and evidence for PCP as a mechanism that can account for that seasonality, have two implications for many other regions where seasonal ventilation of caves

  11. Seasonal dripwater Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca variations driven by cave ventilation: Implications for and modeling of speleothem paleoclimate records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Corinne I.; Banner, Jay L.; Musgrove, MaryLynn

    2011-06-01

    A 4-year study in a central Texas cave quantifies multiple mechanisms that control dripwater composition and how these mechanisms vary at different drip sites. We monitored cave-air compositions, in situ calcite growth, dripwater composition and drip rate every 4-6 weeks. Three groups of drip sites are delineated (Groups 1-3) based on geochemical variations in dripwater composition. Quantitative modeling of mineral-solution reactions within the host carbonate rock and cave environments is used to identify mechanisms that can account for variations in dripwater compositions. The covariation of Mg/Ca (and Sr/Ca) and Sr isotopes is key in delineating whether Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca variations are dictated by water-rock interaction (i.e., calcite or dolomite recrystallization) or prior calcite precipitation (PCP). Group 1 dripwater compositions reflects a narrow range of the extent of water-rock interaction followed by varying amounts of prior calcite precipitation (PCP). Group 2 dripwater compositions are controlled by varying amounts of water-rock interaction with little to no PCP influence. Group 3 dripwater compositions are dictated by variable extents of both water-rock interaction and PCP. Group 1 drip sites show seasonal variations in dripwater Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca, whereas the other drip sites do not. In contrast to the findings of most previous dripwater Mg/Ca-Sr/Ca studies, these seasonal variations (at Group 1 drip sites) are independent of changes in water flux (i.e., rainfall and/or drip rate), and instead significantly correlate with changes in cave-air CO 2 concentrations. These results are consistent with lower cave-air CO 2, related to cool season ventilation of the cave atmosphere, enhancing calcite precipitation and leading to dripwater geochemical evolution via PCP. Group 1 dripwater Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca seasonality and evidence for PCP as a mechanism that can account for that seasonality, have two implications for many other regions where seasonal ventilation of

  12. Diagenesis of echinoderm skeletons: Constraints on paleoseawater Mg/Ca reconstructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorzelak, Przemysław; Krzykawski, Tomasz; Stolarski, Jarosław

    2016-09-01

    One of the most profound environmental changes thought to be reflected in chemical composition of numerous geological archives is Mg/Ca ratio of the seawater, which has varied dramatically throughout the Phanerozoic. Echinoderms that today typically form high magnesium calcite skeletons are increasingly being utilized as a proxy for interpreting secular changes in seawater chemistry. However, accurate characterization of the diagenetic changes of their metastable high magnesium calcite skeletons is a prerequisite for assessing their original, major-element geochemical composition. Here we expand the existing models of diagenesis of echinoderm skeleton by integration of various analytical methods that up to now rarely have been used to assess the diagenetic changes of fossil echinoderms. We validated the preservation of a suite of differently preserved echinoderm ossicles, mostly crinoids, ranging in age from the Cambrian through Recent. In 13 of 99 fossil echinoderm ossicles we found well-preserved porous microstructure (stereom), non-luminescent behaviour or blotchy dark color in cathodoluminescence, and distinct nanostructural features (layered and nanocomposite structure). Moreover, in representatives of such preserved samples, distribution of sulphates associated with organic matter is identical to those in Recent echinoderms. Only such ossicles, despite of local micrometer-scale diagenetic changes, were herein considered well-preserved, retaining their original major-element skeletal composition. By contrast, majority of samples show transformation to the stable low magnesium calcite that leads to obliteration of the primary geochemical and micro/nanostructural features and is accompanied with increase in cathodoluminescence emission intensity. Using only well-preserved fossil echinoderm samples, we found purely random variation in Mg/Ca in echinoderm skeletons through the observed time series; any periodicities in echinoderm skeletal Mg/Ca ratio which might

  13. Bulk and surface excitons in alloyed and phase-separated ZnO-MgO particulate systems.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huanjun; Gheisi, Amir R; Sternig, Andreas; Müller, Knut; Schowalter, Marco; Rosenauer, Andreas; Diwald, Oliver; Mädler, Lutz

    2012-05-01

    The rational design of composite nanoparticles with desired optical and electronic properties requires the detailed analysis of surface and bulk contributions to the respective overall function. We use flame spray pyrolysis (FSP) to generate nanoparticles of the ternary Zn-Mg-O system the compositions of which range from solid solutions of Zn(2+) ions in periclase MgO to phase separated particle mixtures which consist of periclase (cubic) MgO and wurtzite (hexagonal) ZnO phases. The structure and composition of the composite Zn(x)Mg(1-x)O (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.3) particles are investigated using X-ray diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, whereas UV diffuse reflectance and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy are used for the investigation of their optical properties. Vacuum annealing has been carried out to track the effects of stepwise elimination of surface adsorbates on the photoexcitation and PL emission properties. We demonstrate that for Zn(0.1)Mg(0.9)O particles, the admixed ZnO suppresses the MgO specific surface excitons and produces a PL emission band at 470 nm. Although gaseous oxygen partially reduces the emission intensity of hydroxylated particles, it leads to entire quenching in completely dehydroxylated samples after vacuum annealing at 1173 K. Consequently, surface hydroxyls at the solid-gas interface play a significant role as protecting groups against the PL-quenching effects of O(2). The obtained results are relevant for the characterization of ZnO-based devices as well as for other metal oxide materials where the impact of the surface composition on the photoelectronic properties is usually neglected. PMID:22530613

  14. Properties of shallow donors in ZnMgO epilayers grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Q. X.; Liu, X. J.; Holtz, P. O.

    2014-11-14

    High quality Zn{sub 1−x}Mg{sub x}O epilayers have been grown by means of metal organic chemical vapor deposition technique on top of ZnO templates. The grown samples were investigated by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and photoluminescence. The magnesium (Mg) concentration was varied between 0% and 3% in order to study the properties of shallow donors. The free and donor bound excitons could be observed simultaneously in our high quality Zn{sub 1−x}Mg{sub x}O epilayers in the photoluminescence spectra. The results indicate that both built-in strain and Mg-concentration influence the donor exciton binding energy. It clearly shows that the donor exciton binding energy decreases with increasing Mg-concentration and with increasing built-in strain. Furthermore, the results indicate that the donor bound exciton transition energy increases with decreasing strength of the built-in strain if the Mg-concentration is kept the same in the Zn{sub 1−x}Mg{sub x}O epilayers.

  15. Factors Affecting the Hydrogen Environment Assisted Cracking Resistance of an Al-Zn-Mg-(Cu) Alloy

    SciTech Connect

    G.A. Young; J.R. Scully

    2001-09-12

    It is well established that Al-Zn-Mg-(Cu) aluminum alloys are susceptible to hydrogen environment assisted cracking (HEAC) when exposed to aqueous environments. In Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloys, overaged tempers are commonly used to increase HEAC resistance at the expense of strength. Overaging has little benefit in low copper alloys. However, the mechanism or mechanisms by which overaging imparts HEAC resistance is poorly understood. The present research investigated hydrogen uptake, diffusion, and crack growth rate in 90% relative humidity (RH) air for both a commercial copper bearing Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy (AA 7050) and a low copper variant of this alloy in order to better understand the factors which affect HEAC resistance. Experimental methods used to evaluate hydrogen concentrations local to a surface and near a crack tip include nuclear reaction analysis (NRA), focused ion beam, secondary ion mass spectroscopy (FIB/SIMS) and thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS). When freshly bared coupons of AA 7050 are exposed to 90 C, 90% RH air, hydrogen ingress follows inverse-logarithmic-type kinetics and is equivalent for underaged (HEAC susceptible) and overaged (HEAC resistant) tempers. However, when the native oxide is allowed to form (24 hrs in 25 C, 40% RH lab air) prior to exposure to 90 C, 90% RH air, underaged alloy shows significantly greater hydrogen ingress than the overaged alloy. Humid air is a very aggressive environment producing local ({approx}1{micro}m) hydrogen concentrations in excess of 10,000 wt. ppm at 90 C. In the copper bearing alloy, overaging also effects the apparent diffusivity of hydrogen. As AA 7050 is aged from underaged {yields} peak aged {yields} overaged, the activation energy for hydrogen diffusion increases and the apparent diffusivity for hydrogen decreases, In the low copper alloy, overaging has little effect on hydrogen diffusion. Comparison of the apparent activation energies for hydrogen diffusion and for K independent (stage II) crack growth

  16. Corrosion and passivation behavior of Mg-Zn-Y-Al alloys prepared by cooling rate-controlled solidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamasaki, Michiaki; Izumi, Shogo; Kawamura, Yoshihito; Habazaki, Hiroki

    2011-07-01

    Highly corrosion-resistant nanocrystalline Mg-Zn-Y-Al multi-phase alloys have been prepared by consolidation of rapidly solidified (RS) ribbons. The relation between corrosion behavior and microstructure evolution of Mg-Zn-Y-Al alloys with a long period stacking ordered phase has been investigated. In order to clarify the influence of rapid solidification on the occurrence of localized corrosion such as filiform corrosion, several Mg 96.75Zn 0.75Y 2Al 0.5 (at.%) alloys with different cooling rates are fabricated by the gravity casting, copper mould injection casting and melt-spinning techniques and their corrosion behavior and microstructures are examined by the salt water immersion test, electrochemical measurements, GDOES, XRD, SEM and TEM. To clarify the effect of aluminium addition on the improvement in corrosion resistance of the alloys, several Mg 97.25- xZn 0.75Y 2Al x alloys with different aluminium contents are fabricated by consolidating RS ribbons and the formation of corroded films on the Mg-Zn-Y-Al alloys have been investigated. Rapid solidification brings about the grain refinement and an increase in the solid solubility of zinc, yttrium and aluminium into the magnesium matrix, enhancing microstructural and electrochemical homogeneity, which in turn enhanced corrosion resistance. The addition of aluminium to magnesium can modify the structure and chemical composition of surface films and improves the resistance to local breakdown of the films.

  17. Epitaxial wurtzite-MgZnO barrier based magnetic tunnel junctions deposited on a metallic ferromagnetic electrode

    SciTech Connect

    Belmoubarik, M. Al-Mahdawi, M.; Sato, H.; Nozaki, T.; Sahashi, M.

    2015-06-22

    An epitaxial wurtzite (WZ) Mg{sub 0.23}Zn{sub 0.77}O barrier based magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ), with electrode-barrier structure of Co{sub 0.30}Pt{sub 0.70} (111)/Mg{sub 0.23}Zn{sub 0.77}O (0001)/Co (0001), was fabricated. The good crystallinity and tunneling properties were experimentally confirmed. Electrical and magnetic investigations demonstrated its high resistance-area product of 1.05 MΩ μm{sup 2}, a maximum tunneling magneto-resistance (TMR) of 35.5%, and the existence of localized states within the tunneling barrier producing TMR rapid decrease and oscillation when increasing the applied bias voltage. The TMR value almost vanished at 200 K, which was attributed to the induced moment and strong spin-orbit coupling in Pt atoms at the Co{sub 0.30}Pt{sub 0.70}/Mg{sub 0.23}Zn{sub 0.77}O interface. Owing to the ferroelectric behavior in WZ-MgZnO materials, the fabrication of WZ-MgZnO barrier based MTJs deposited on a metallic ferromagnetic electrode will open routes for electrically controllable non-volatile devices that are compatible with CMOS technology.

  18. Microstructure evolution of Al/Mg butt joints welded by gas tungsten arc with Zn filler metal

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Fei; Zhang Zhaodong; Liu Liming

    2012-07-15

    Based on the idea of alloying welding seam, Gas tungsten arc welding method with pure Zn filler metal was chosen to join Mg alloy and Al alloy. The microstructures, phases, element distribution and fracture morphology of welding seams were examined. The results indicate that there was a transitional zone in the width of 80-100 {mu}m between the Mg alloy substrate and fusion zone. The fusion zone was mainly composed of MgZn{sub 2}, Zn-based solid solution and Al-based solid solution. The welding seam presented distinct morphology in different location owning to the quite high cooling rate of the molten pool. The addition of Zn metal could prevent the formation of Mg-Al intermetallics and form the alloyed welding seam during welding. Therefore, the tensile strengths of joints have been significantly improved compared with those of gas tungsten arc welded joints without Zn metal added. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mg alloy AZ31B and Al alloy 6061 are welded successfully. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Zinc wire is employed as a filler metal to form the alloyed welding seam. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An alloyed welding seam is benefit for improving of the joint tensile strength.

  19. Extrinsic Proton NMR Studies of Mg(OH)2 and Ca(OH)2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoh, Yutaka; Isobe, Masahiko

    2016-03-01

    We studied narrow 1H NMR spectra of Mg(OH)2 and Ca(OH)2 powders at 100-355 K and 42-59 MHz using pulsed NMR techniques. The Fourier transformed NMR spectra of the proton free-induction signals show the superposition of broad and narrow components, which can be assigned to immobile protons and extrinsic mobile protons, respectively. We found that a narrow spectrum develops on heating above about Tc = 260 K and widens above a Larmor frequency of about νc = 50 MHz for Mg(OH)2. The temperature-induced NMR spectrum and the characteristic frequency νc of 50 MHz are the noteworthy features of the nuclear spin fluctuation spectra of the extrinsic protons.

  20. Impact of Mg content on native point defects in Mg{sub x}Zn{sub 1−x}O (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.56)

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, J.; Foster, G. M.; Myer, M.; Mehra, S.; Chauveau, J. M.; Hierro, A.; Windl, W.; Brillson, L. J.

    2015-06-01

    We used depth-resolved cathodoluminescence spectroscopy and surface photovoltage spectroscopy to measure the densities, energy levels, and spatial distributions of zinc/magnesium cation and oxygen vacancies in isostructural, single-phase, non-polar Mg{sub x}Zn{sub 1−x}O alloys over a wide (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.56) range. Within this wide range, both defect types exhibit strong Mg content-dependent surface segregation and pronounced bulk density minima corresponding to unit cell volume minima, which can inhibit defect formation due to electrostatic repulsion. Mg in ZnO significantly reduces native defect densities and their non-polar surface segregation, both major factors in carrier transport and doping of these oxide semiconductors.

  1. Removal of Ca2+ and Zn2+ from aqueous solutions by zeolites NaP and KP.

    PubMed

    Yusof, Alias Mohd; Malek, Nik Ahmad Nizam Nik; Kamaruzaman, Nurul Asyikin; Adil, Muhammad

    2010-01-01

    Zeolites P in sodium (NaP) and potassium (KP) forms were used as adsorbents for the removal of calcium (Ca2+) and zinc (Zn2+) cations from aqueous solutions. Zeolite KP was prepared by ion exchange of K+ with Na+ which neutralizes the negative charge of the zeolite P framework structure. The ion exchange capacity of K+ on zeolite NaP was determined through the Freundlich isotherm equilibrium study. Characterization of zeolite KP was determined using infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. From the characterization, the structure of zeolite KP was found to remain stable after the ion exchange process. Zeolites KP and NaP were used for the removal of Ca and Zn from solution. The amount of Ca2+ and Zn2+ in aqueous solution before and after the adsorption by zeolites was analysed using the flame atomic absorption spectroscopy method. The removal of Ca2+ and Zn2+ followed the Freundlich isotherm rather than the Langmuir isotherm model. This result also revealed that zeolite KP adsorbs Ca2+ and Zn2+ more than zeolite NaP and proved that modification of zeolite NaP with potassium leads to an increase in the adsorption efficiency of the zeolite. Therefore, the zeolites NaP and KP can be used for water softening (Ca removal) and reducing water pollution/toxicity (Zn removal). PMID:20232677

  2. Experimental Determination of the Liquidus Surface of the Cu-O-ZnO-CaO System in Equilibrium with Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Longgong; Liu, Zhihong; Taskinen, Pekka

    2016-08-01

    Phase relationships of the Cu-O-ZnO-CaO system in equilibrium with air (p tot = 1 atm, p_{O}2} = 0.21 atm) have been studied using the equilibration and quenching technique within the temperature range from 1273 K to 1773 K (1000 °C to 1500 °C). The chemical compositions of the molten oxide and solid phases in equilibrium were analyzed by EPMA. The eutectic point in the Cu-O-ZnO-CaO system was found to be 1293 K ± 2 K (1020 °C ± 2 °C) and 0.6785 mole fraction tenorite (`CuO'), 0.1793 mole fraction halite (CaO), and 0.1422 mole fraction wurtzite (ZnO). The results from the present study have been used in constructing the liquidus surface of the Cu-O-ZnO-CaO system. The liquidus surface expands dramatically along with increasing temperature, and it moves simultaneously toward the primary phase fields of wurtzite (ZnO) and halite (CaO). The constructed liquidus surfaces have been compared with the isothermal sections (`Cu2O'-ZnO-CaO) calculated by MTDATA 5.10 software and its Mtox 8.1 database. Deviations between the thermodynamically assessed diagrams and the experimental results are significant. Thus, the system requires a reassessment.

  3. Mapping wildfire effects on Ca2+ and Mg2+ released from ash. A microplot analisis.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Paulo; Úbeda, Xavier; Martin, Deborah

    2010-05-01

    Wildland fires have important implications in ecosystems dynamic. Their effects depends on many biophysical components, mainly burned specie, ecosystem affected, amount and spatial distribution of the fuel, relative humidity, slope, aspect and time of residence. These parameters are heterogenic across the landscape, producing a complex mosaic of severities. Wildland fires have a heterogenic impact on ecosystems due their diverse biophysical features. It is widely known that fire impacts can change rapidly even in short distances, producing at microplot scale highly spatial variation. Also after a fire, the most visible thing is ash and his physical and chemical properties are of main importance because here reside the majority of the available nutrients available to the plants. Considering this idea, is of major importance, study their characteristics in order to observe the type and amount of elements available to plants. This study is focused on the study of the spatial variability of two nutrients essential to plant growth, Ca2+ and Mg2+, released from ash after a wildfire at microplot scale. The impacts of fire are highly variable even small distances. This creates many problems at the hour of map the effects of fire in the release of the studied elements. Hence is of major priority identify the less biased interpolation method in order to predict with great accuracy the variable in study. The aim of this study is map the effects of wildfire on the referred elements released from ash at microplot scale, testing several interpolation methods. 16 interpolation techniques were tested, Inverse Distance to a Weight (IDW), with the with the weights of 1,2, 3, 4 and 5, Local Polynomial, with the power of 1 (LP1) and 2 (LP2), Polynomial Regression (PR), Radial Basis Functions, especially, Spline With Tension (SPT), Completely Regularized Spline (CRS), Multiquadratic (MTQ), Inverse Multiquadratic (MTQ), and Thin Plate Spline (TPS). Also geostatistical methods were

  4. Post-mesozoic rapid increase of seawater Mg/Ca due to enhanced mantle-seawater interaction.

    PubMed

    Ligi, Marco; Bonatti, Enrico; Cuffaro, Marco; Brunelli, Daniele

    2013-01-01

    The seawater Mg/Ca ratio increased significantly from ~ 80 Ma to present, as suggested by studies of carbonate veins in oceanic basalts and of fluid inclusions in halite. We show here that reactions of mantle-derived peridotites with seawater along slow spreading mid-ocean ridges contributed to the post-Cretaceous Mg/Ca increase. These reactions can release to modern seawater up to 20% of the yearly Mg river input. However, no significant peridotite-seawater interaction and Mg-release to the ocean occur in fast spreading, East Pacific Rise-type ridges. The Mesozoic Pangean superocean implies a hot fast spreading ridge system. This prevented peridotite-seawater interaction and Mg release to the Mesozoic ocean, but favored hydrothermal Mg capture and Ca release by the basaltic crust, resulting in a low seawater Mg/Ca ratio. Continent dispersal and development of slow spreading ridges allowed Mg release to the ocean by peridotite-seawater reactions, contributing to the increase of the Mg/Ca ratio of post-Mesozoic seawater. PMID:24067442

  5. Post-Mesozoic Rapid Increase of Seawater Mg/Ca due to Enhanced Mantle-Seawater Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Ligi, Marco; Bonatti, Enrico; Cuffaro, Marco; Brunelli, Daniele

    2013-01-01

    The seawater Mg/Ca ratio increased significantly from ~ 80 Ma to present, as suggested by studies of carbonate veins in oceanic basalts and of fluid inclusions in halite. We show here that reactions of mantle-derived peridotites with seawater along slow spreading mid-ocean ridges contributed to the post-Cretaceous Mg/Ca increase. These reactions can release to modern seawater up to 20% of the yearly Mg river input. However, no significant peridotite-seawater interaction and Mg-release to the ocean occur in fast spreading, East Pacific Rise-type ridges. The Mesozoic Pangean superocean implies a hot fast spreading ridge system. This prevented peridotite-seawater interaction and Mg release to the Mesozoic ocean, but favored hydrothermal Mg capture and Ca release by the basaltic crust, resulting in a low seawater Mg/Ca ratio. Continent dispersal and development of slow spreading ridges allowed Mg release to the ocean by peridotite-seawater reactions, contributing to the increase of the Mg/Ca ratio of post-Mesozoic seawater. PMID:24067442

  6. Post-mesozoic rapid increase of seawater Mg/Ca due to enhanced mantle-seawater interaction.

    PubMed

    Ligi, Marco; Bonatti, Enrico; Cuffaro, Marco; Brunelli, Daniele

    2013-09-25

    The seawater Mg/Ca ratio increased significantly from ~ 80 Ma to present, as suggested by studies of carbonate veins in oceanic basalts and of fluid inclusions in halite. We show here that reactions of mantle-derived peridotites with seawater along slow spreading mid-ocean ridges contributed to the post-Cretaceous Mg/Ca increase. These reactions can release to modern seawater up to 20% of the yearly Mg river input. However, no significant peridotite-seawater interaction and Mg-release to the ocean occur in fast spreading, East Pacific Rise-type ridges. The Mesozoic Pangean superocean implies a hot fast spreading ridge system. This prevented peridotite-seawater interaction and Mg release to the Mesozoic ocean, but favored hydrothermal Mg capture and Ca release by the basaltic crust, resulting in a low seawater Mg/Ca ratio. Continent dispersal and development of slow spreading ridges allowed Mg release to the ocean by peridotite-seawater reactions, contributing to the increase of the Mg/Ca ratio of post-Mesozoic seawater.

  7. Simultaneous desorption behavior of M borohydrides and Mg2FeH6 reactive hydride composites (M = Mg, then Li, Na, K, Ca)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhary, Anna-Lisa; Li, Guanqiao; Matsuo, Motoaki; Orimo, Shin-ichi; Deledda, Stefano; Sørby, Magnus H.; Hauback, Bjørn C.; Pistidda, Claudio; Klassen, Thomas; Dornheim, Martin

    2015-08-01

    Combinations of complex metal borohydrides ball milled with the transition metal complex hydride, Mg2FeH6, are analysed and compared. Initially, the Reactive Hydride Composite (RHC) of Mg2+ cation mixtures of Mg2FeH6 and γ-Mg(BH4)2 is combined in a range of molar ratios and heated to a maximum of 450 °C. For the molar ratio of 6 Mg2FeH6 + Mg(BH4)2, simultaneous desorption of the two hydrides occurred, which resulted in a single event of hydrogen release. This single step desorption occurred at temperatures between those of Mg2FeH6 and γ-Mg(BH4)2. Keeping this anionic ratio constant, the desorption behavior of four other borohydrides, Li-, Na-, K-, and Ca-borohydrides was studied by using materials ball milled with Mg2FeH6 applying the same milling parameters. The mixtures containing Mg-, Li-, and Ca-borohydrides also released hydrogen in a single event. The Mass Spectrometry (MS) results show a double step reaction within a narrow temperature range for both the Na- and K-borohydride mixtures. This phenomenon, observed for the RHC systems at the same anionic ratio with all five light metal borohydride mixtures, can be described as simultaneous hydrogen desorption within a narrow temperature range centered around 300 °C.

  8. Microstructure and mechanical properties of the micrograined hypoeutectic Zn-Mg alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubásek, J.; Vojtěch, D.; Pospíšilová, I.; Michalcová, A.; Maixner, J.

    2016-10-01

    A biodegradable Zn alloy, Zn-1.6Mg, with the potential medical applications as a promising coating material for steel components was studied in this work. The alloy was prepared by three different procedures: gravity casting, hot extrusion, and a combination of rapid solidification and hot extrusion. The samples prepared were characterized by light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction analysis. Vickers hardness, tensile, and compressive tests were performed to determine the samples' mechanical properties. Structural examination reveals that the average grain sizes of samples prepared by gravity casting, hot extrusion, and rapid solidification followed by hot extrusion are 35.0, 9.7, and 2.1 μm, respectively. The micrograined sample with the finest grain size exhibits the highest hardness (Hv = 122 MPa), compressive yield strength (382 MPa), tensile yield strength (332 MPa), ultimate tensile strength (370 MPa), and elongation (9%). This sample also demonstrates the lowest work hardening in tension and temporary softening in compression among the prepared samples. The mechanical behavior of the samples is discussed in relation to the structural characteristics, Hall-Petch relationship, and deformation mechanisms in fine-grained hexagonal-close-packed metals.

  9. Experimental examination of strain field within GP zone in an Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, P. C.; Liu, F.; Hou, X. H.; Zhao, C. W.; Xing, Y. M.

    2012-11-01

    The strain field of GP zone plays a very important role in strengthening of the precipitation-hardened aluminum alloys by prohibiting movement of dislocations; however, quantitative analysis about the strain field of the GP zone in the aluminum alloys has been seldom reported elsewhere. In this paper, the microstructure of GP zone in an Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy was explored by using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and the displacement field of lattice planes within the GP zone was experimentally measured by geometric phase analysis (GPA) technique; then, the quantitative results about strains of the distorted lattice planes within the GP zone were also obtained. It is found that the GP zone core is convergence region of the strains, and the maximum value of the compressive strains within the GP zone is about 7.6%.

  10. Temperature dependent structural behavior of Mg70Zn30: A molecular dynamics study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mevada, A. D.; Pandya, N. Y.; Gajjar, P. N.

    2016-05-01

    Mg70Zn30 is simplest of metallic glasses having good mechanical properties, biocompatibility with human body and is biodegradable, so it is widely studied material in its class. We present in this paper first principle calculations showing the change in the structure of the system with temperature. The computations are performed using PWSCF tool of Quantum ESPRESSO package, which uses density functional theory for calculations of electronic ground state properties and dynamical structures. With increasing temperature the number of peaks in RDFs reduce in number leaving only a single peak,the system thus makes a transition from non-crystalline solid to liquid state within the range of 300-1000K. First coordination number was found to decrease with rising temperature.

  11. Mg/Ca thermometry in planktic foraminifera: Improving paleotemperature estimations for G. bulloides and N. pachyderma left

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vázquez Riveiros, Natalia; Govin, Aline; Waelbroeck, Claire; Mackensen, Andreas; Michel, Elisabeth; Moreira, Santiago; Bouinot, Thomas; Caillon, Nicolas; Orgun, Ayche; Brandon, Margaux

    2016-04-01

    Planktic foraminiferal Mg/Ca ratios have become a fundamental seawater temperature proxy in past climate reconstructions, due to the temperature dependence of Mg uptake into foraminiferal calcite. However, empirical calibrations for single species from methodologically consistent data are still lacking. Here we present species-specific calibrations of Mg/Ca versus calcification temperature for two commonly used species of planktic foraminifera: Globigerina bulloides and Neogloboquadrina pachyderma left, based on a series of Southern Ocean and North Atlantic core tops. Combining these new data with previously published data, we derive an integrated G. bulloides Mg/Ca-temperature calibration for mid and high latitudes of both hemispheres between 2 and 18°C, where Mg/Ca = 1.006 ± 0.032 * e0.065 ± 0.003*Tiso (R2 = 0.82). G. bulloides is found to calcify deeper in the Southern Ocean (˜ 200 m) than in the North Atlantic (top 50 m). We also propose a Mg/Ca temperature calibration to describe the temperature response in N. pachyderma left that calcified away from the influence of sea ice in the Southern Ocean, valid between ˜ -1 and 9°C, of the form Mg/Ca = 0.580 ± 0.016 * e0.084 ± 0.006*Tiso (R2 = 0.70). These calibrations account for uncertainties on Mg/Ca measurements and calcification temperature that were carefully estimated and propagated using Monte Carlo iterations. The 1σ propagated error in Mg/Ca-derived temperatures is 1.1°C for G. bulloides and 0.9°C for N. pachyderma left for the presented data sets. Geographical extension of genotypes must be assessed when choosing to develop regional or global calibrations.

  12. Intrinsic Proton NMR Studies of Mg(OH)2 and Ca(OH)2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoh, Yutaka; Isobe, Masahiko

    2016-09-01

    We studied the short proton free induction decay signals and the broad 1H NMR spectra of Mg(OH)2 and Ca(OH)2 powders at 77-355 K and 42 MHz using pulsed NMR techniques. Using a Gaussian-type back extrapolation procedure for the obscured data of the proton free induction decay signals, we obtained more precise values of the second moments of the Fourier-transformed broad NMR spectra than those in a previous report [Y. Itoh and M. Isobe, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 84, 113601 (2015)] and compared with the theoretical second moments. The decrease in the second moment could not account for the large decrease in the magnitude of the intrinsic proton spin-lattice relaxation rate 1/T1 from Mg(OH)2 to Ca(OH)2. The analysis of 1/T1 ∝ exp(-Eg/kBT) with Eg ˜ 0.01 eV points to a local hopping mechanism, and that of 1/T1 ∝ Tn with n ˜ 0.5 points to an anharmonic rattling mechanism.

  13. Intrinsic Proton NMR Studies of Mg(OH)2 and Ca(OH)2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoh, Yutaka; Isobe, Masahiko

    2016-09-01

    We studied the short proton free induction decay signals and the broad 1H NMR spectra of Mg(OH)2 and Ca(OH)2 powders at 77-355 K and 42 MHz using pulsed NMR techniques. Using a Gaussian-type back extrapolation procedure for the obscured data of the proton free induction decay signals, we obtained more precise values of the second moments of the Fourier-transformed broad NMR spectra than those in a previous report [Y. Itoh and M. Isobe, http://doi.org/10.7566/JPSJ.84.113601, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 84, 113601 (2015)] and compared with the theoretical second moments. The decrease in the second moment could not account for the large decrease in the magnitude of the intrinsic proton spin-lattice relaxation rate 1/T1 from Mg(OH)2 to Ca(OH)2. The analysis of 1/T1 ∝ exp(-Eg/kBT) with Eg ˜ 0.01 eV points to a local hopping mechanism, and that of 1/T1 ∝ Tn with n ˜ 0.5 points to an anharmonic rattling mechanism.

  14. Glass-ceramic coated Mg-Ca alloys for biomedical implant applications.

    PubMed

    Rau, J V; Antoniac, I; Fosca, M; De Bonis, A; Blajan, A I; Cotrut, C; Graziani, V; Curcio, M; Cricenti, A; Niculescu, M; Ortenzi, M; Teghil, R

    2016-07-01

    Biodegradable metals and alloys are promising candidates for biomedical bone implant applications. However, due to the high rate of their biodegradation in human body environment, they should be coated with less reactive materials, such, for example, as bioactive glasses or glass-ceramics. Fort this scope, RKKP composition glass-ceramic coatings have been deposited on Mg-Ca(1.4wt%) alloy substrates by Pulsed Laser Deposition method, and their properties have been characterized by a number of techniques. The prepared coatings consist of hydroxyapatite and wollastonite phases, having composition close to that of the bulk target material used for depositions. The 100μm thick films are characterized by dense, compact and rough morphology. They are composed of a glassy matrix with various size (from micro- to nano-) granular inclusions. The average surface roughness is about 295±30nm due to the contribution of micrometric aggregates, while the roughness of the fine-texture particulates is approximately 47±4nm. The results of the electrochemical corrosion evaluation tests evidence that the RKKP coating improves the corrosion resistance of the Mg-Ca (1.4wt%) alloy in Simulated Body Fluid.

  15. Glass-ceramic coated Mg-Ca alloys for biomedical implant applications.

    PubMed

    Rau, J V; Antoniac, I; Fosca, M; De Bonis, A; Blajan, A I; Cotrut, C; Graziani, V; Curcio, M; Cricenti, A; Niculescu, M; Ortenzi, M; Teghil, R

    2016-07-01

    Biodegradable metals and alloys are promising candidates for biomedical bone implant applications. However, due to the high rate of their biodegradation in human body environment, they should be coated with less reactive materials, such, for example, as bioactive glasses or glass-ceramics. Fort this scope, RKKP composition glass-ceramic coatings have been deposited on Mg-Ca(1.4wt%) alloy substrates by Pulsed Laser Deposition method, and their properties have been characterized by a number of techniques. The prepared coatings consist of hydroxyapatite and wollastonite phases, having composition close to that of the bulk target material used for depositions. The 100μm thick films are characterized by dense, compact and rough morphology. They are composed of a glassy matrix with various size (from micro- to nano-) granular inclusions. The average surface roughness is about 295±30nm due to the contribution of micrometric aggregates, while the roughness of the fine-texture particulates is approximately 47±4nm. The results of the electrochemical corrosion evaluation tests evidence that the RKKP coating improves the corrosion resistance of the Mg-Ca (1.4wt%) alloy in Simulated Body Fluid. PMID:27127065

  16. Enhanced field emission from ZnO nanowire arrays utilizing MgO buffer between seed layer and silicon substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Si; Chen, Jiangtao; Liu, Jianlin; Qi, Jing; Wang, Yuhua

    2016-11-01

    Field emitters based on ZnO nanowires and other nanomaterials are promising high-brightness electron sources for field emission display, microscopy and other applications. The performance of a ZnO nanowire field emitter is linked to the quality, conductivity and alignment of the nanowires on a substrate, therefore requiring ways to improve these parameters. Here, ZnO nanowire arrays were grown on ZnO seed layer on silicon substrate with MgO buffer between the seed layer and Si. The turn-on field and enhancement factor of these nanowire arrays are 3.79 V/μm and 3754, respectively. These properties are improved greatly compared to those of ZnO nanowire arrays grown on ZnO seed layer without MgO buffer, which are 5.06 V/μm and 1697, respectively. The enhanced field emission properties can be attributed to better electron transport in seed layer, and better nanowire alignment because of MgO buffer.

  17. Mg-Zn based composites reinforced with bioactive glass (45S5) fabricated via powder metallurgy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ab llah, N.; Jamaludin, S. B.; Daud, Z. C.; Zaludin, M. A. F.

    2016-07-01

    Metallic implants are shifting from bio-inert to bioactive and biodegradable materials. These changes are made in order to improve the stress shielding effect and bio-compatibility and also avoid the second surgery procedure. Second surgery procedure is required if the patient experienced infection and implant loosening. An implant is predicted to be well for 15 to 20 years inside patient body. Currently, magnesium alloys are found to be the new biomaterials because of their properties close to the human bones and also able to degrade in the human body. In this work, magnesium-zinc based composites reinforced with different content (5, 15, 20 wt. %) of bioactive glass (45S5) were fabricated through powder metallurgy technique. The composites were sintered at 450˚C. Density and porosity of the composites were determined using the gas pycnometer. Microstructure of the composites was observed using an optical microscope. In-vitro bioactivity behavior was evaluated in the simulated body fluid (SBF) for 7 days. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) was used to characterize the apatite forming on the samples surface. The microstructure of the composite showed that the pore segregated near the grain boundaries and bioglass clustering was observed with increasing content of bioglass. The true density of the composites increased with the increasing content of bioglass and the highest value of porosity was indicated by the Mg-Zn reinforced with 20 wt.% of bioglass. The addition of bio-glass to the Mg-Zn has also induced the formation of apatite layer after soaking in SBF solution.

  18. Major soil element (Ca, Mg, K, Na, Al, Fe) distribution along the Qinghai-Tibet Railway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, H.; Ding, M.; Lin, X.

    2011-12-01

    The Tibetan Plateau (TP), which has been called the third polar region, is the highest plateau in the world. There are a series of special soils present in the TP, which are extremely important in soil sciences for their particularities. Soil chemical composition is one of the necessary indices of soil characteristics. The major element content of the soil, such as Ca, Mg, K, Na, not only can affect the soil pH value and soil fertility but also are the main drivers of soil geochemical processes. It is helpful to understand the TP environmental characteristics, to study the major soil element content.The Qinghai-Tibet Railway (QTR) is the highest-elevation and the longest highland railway on earth. There are nearly all types of TP soil along the QTR. Most of the areas along the QTR are in fairly pristine condition. This offers a good platform to study the natural environmental characteristics of the soil. This study selected 240 soil samples from 28 sample areas along the Qinghai-Tibet Railway, and the aluminum, iron, calcium, sodium, potassium and magnesium content in the soil were measured with ICP-AES. The results indicated: (1) Compared with the national soil background values, the Ca content in soil was higher along the QTR and Al was lower; but the Fe, Mg, K and Na contents were similar. (2) Along the whole QTR, the soil Al, Fe and Mg content showed a decreasing trend from Xining to Lhasa, the changes in K and Na values were relatively complex, and the distribution of Ca could be divided three sections. (3) The soil element contents varied with different soil types and parent materials. Most of the six elements content was minimum in soil, which derived from debris materials for ice and water, and the elements content was maximum in soil, which evolved from debris for flood, and the content of soil Ca developed from debris for lake was maximum. The amount of each element present in the Hapli-Cryic Aridosols and Calci-Cryic Aridosols was relatively higher than

  19. Hyperpolarizabilities of alkaline-earth metal ions Be+, Mg+, and Ca+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Dong; Zhang, Yong-Hui; Li, Cheng-Bin; Gao, Ke-Lin; Shi, Ting-Yun

    2016-09-01

    The knowledge of the hyperpolarizabilities of atoms and ions is helpful for the analysis of the high order effects of the frequency shifts in precision spectroscopy experiments. Liu et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 223001 (2015)] proposed to establish all-optical trapped ion clocks using laser at the magic wavelength for clock transition. To evaluate the high-order frequency shifts in this new scheme of optical clocks, hyperpolarizabilities are needed, but absent. Using the finite field method based on the B-spline basis set and model potentials, we calculated the electric-field-dependent energy shifts of the ground and low-lying excited states in Be+, Mg+, and Ca+ in the field strength range of 0.0-6×10-5 a.u.. The scalar and tensor polarizabilities ( α 0, α 2) and hyperpolarizabilities ( γ 0, γ 2, γ 4) were deduced. The results of the hyperpolarizabilities for Be+ showed good agreement with the values in literature, implying that the present method can be applied for the effective estimation of the atomic hyperpolarizabilities, which are rarely reported but needed in experiments. The feasibility of optical trapping of Ca+ is discussed, and the contributions of hyperpolarizabilities to the transition frequency shift for Ca+ in the optical dipole trap are estimated using quasi-electrostatic approximation.

  20. Characterization of Porous Mg-Zn Alloy Using X-Ray Tomography and its Drug-Loading Behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bing; Li, Kaikai; Zhang, Yuhong; Yan, Biao; Lu, Wei

    2013-07-01

    Porous Mg alloys will be promising orthopedic implants materials. In this study, porous Mg-Zn alloy with a porosity of 30% was prepared by powder metallurgy process. XRD was used to examine the composition of the sample and synchrotron radiation-based X-ray micro-computed tomography (SR-μCT) was used to investigate the pore properties of the sample. The results showed that the sample comprised a single Mg phase and a Mg2Zn11 phase. The SR-μCT results showed that the porosity of the sample is about 30% which is approximate to the theoretical porosity. The pore morphology was irregular and the largest pore was about 200 μm in diameter. And a large pore cluster was identified meaning that most of the pores in the sample were interconnected with each other. This is beneficial for the materials transformation after the implantation of the sample in human body, which will boost the bone regeneration. Drug-loading experiment showed that Ibuprofen can be successfully loaded in porous Mg-Zn alloy, which means that porous Mg-Zn alloy could be an orthopedic drug delivery system (DDS).

  1. Demand for Zn2+ in Acid-Secreting Gastric Mucosa and Its Requirement for Intracellular Ca2+

    PubMed Central

    Liu, JingJing; Kohler, Jonathan E.; Blass, Amy L.; Moncaster, Juliet A.; Mocofanescu, Anca; Marcus, Matthew A.; Blakely, Eleanor A.; Bjornstad, Kathleen A.; Amarasiriwardena, Chitra; Casey, Noel

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Recent work has suggested that Zn2+ plays a critical role in regulating acidity within the secretory compartments of isolated gastric glands. Here, we investigate the content, distribution and demand for Zn2+ in gastric mucosa under baseline conditions and its regulation during secretory stimulation. Methods and Findings Content and distribution of zinc were evaluated in sections of whole gastric mucosa using X-ray fluorescence microscopy. Significant stores of Zn2+ were identified in neural elements of the muscularis, glandular areas enriched in parietal cells, and apical regions of the surface epithelium. In in vivo studies, extraction of the low abundance isotope, 70Zn2+, from the circulation was demonstrated in samples of mucosal tissue 24 hours or 72 hours after infusion (250 µg/kg). In in vitro studies, uptake of 70Zn2+ from media was demonstrated in isolated rabbit gastric glands following exposure to concentrations as low as 10 nM. In additional studies, demand of individual gastric parietal cells for Zn2+ was monitored using the fluorescent zinc reporter, fluozin-3, by measuring increases in free intracellular concentrations of Zn2+ {[Zn2+]i} during exposure to standard extracellular concentrations of Zn2+ (10 µM) for standard intervals of time. Under resting conditions, demand for extracellular Zn2+ increased with exposure to secretagogues (forskolin, carbachol/histamine) and under conditions associated with increased intracellular Ca2+ {[Ca2+]i}. Uptake of Zn2+ was abolished following removal of extracellular Ca2+ or depletion of intracellular Ca2+ stores, suggesting that demand for extracellular Zn2+ increases and depends on influx of extracellular Ca2+. Conclusions This study is the first to characterize the content and distribution of Zn2+ in an organ of the gastrointestinal tract. Our findings offer the novel interpretation, that Ca2+ integrates basolateral demand for Zn2+ with stimulation of secretion of HCl into the lumen of

  2. Ion-Sensitive Characteristics of an Electrolyte-Solution-Gate ZnO/ZnMgO Heterojunction Field-Effect Transistor as a Biosensing Transducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koike, Kazuto; Takagi, Daisuke; Kawasaki, Motoki; Hashimoto, Takahito; Inoue, Tomoyuki; Ogata, Ken-ichi; Sasa, Shigehiko; Inoue, Masataka; Yano, Mitsuaki

    2007-10-01

    Characteristics of an ion-sensitive ZnO/ZnMgO heterojunction field-effect transistor (HFET) with an amine-modified single-crystalline O-polar ZnMgO gate electrode are discussed to develop the application to biosensing transducers. The ion-sensitivity was based on the proton transfer to/from the amino groups on the gate electrode, the amine-modification of which was performed using a silanization technique by immersing the HFET into an aminosilane based solution. Stable operation in electrolyte solution in accordance with the standard FET theory with small hysteresis and small leakage current was confirmed, and the amperometric operation revealed a high pH sensitivity of -20 μA/pH with a reproducible result. A potential application of the ion-sensitive HFET to amperometric biosensing transducers was also demonstrated by immobilizing enzyme molecules of glucose oxidase on the amine-modified gate electrode.

  3. The Effects of Temperature and Salinity on Mg Incorporation in Planktonic Foraminifera Globigerinoides ruber (white): Results from a Global Sediment Trap Mg/Ca Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, W. R.; Weldeab, S.; Lea, D. W.

    2015-12-01

    Mg/Ca in Globigerinoides ruber is arguably the most important proxy for sea surface temperature (SST) in tropical and sub tropical regions, and as such guides our understanding of past climatic change in these regions. However, the sensitivity of Mg/Ca to salinity is debated; while analysis of foraminifera grown in cultures generally indicates a sensitivity of 3 - 6% per salinity unit, core-top studies have suggested a much higher sensitivity of between 15 - 27% per salinity unit, bringing the utility of Mg/Ca as a SST proxy into dispute. Sediment traps circumvent the issues of dissolution and post-depositional calcite precipitation that hamper core-top calibration studies, whilst allowing the analysis of foraminifera that have calcified under natural conditions within a well constrained period of time. We collated previously published sediment trap/plankton tow G. ruber (white) Mg/Ca data, and generated new Mg/Ca data from a sediment trap located in the highly-saline tropical North Atlantic, close to West Africa. Calcification temperature and salinity were calculated for the time interval represented by each trap/tow sample using World Ocean Atlas 2013 data. The resulting dataset comprises >240 Mg/Ca measurements (in the size fraction 150 - 350 µm), that span a temperature range of 18 - 28 °C and 33.6 - 36.7 PSU. Multiple regression of the dataset reveals a temperature sensitivity of 7 ± 0.4% per °C (p < 2.2*10-16) and a salinity sensitivity of 4 ± 1% per salinity unit (p = 2*10-5). Application of this calibration has significant implications for both the magnitude and timing of glacial-interglacial temperature changes when variations in salinity are accounted for.

  4. Microstructures, mechanical and corrosion properties and biocompatibility of as extruded Mg-Mn-Zn-Nd alloys for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ying-Long; Li, Yuncang; Luo, Dong-Mei; Ding, Yunfei; Hodgson, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Extruded Mg-1Mn-2Zn-xNd alloys (x=0.5, 1.0, 1.5 mass %) have been developed for their potential use as biomaterials. The extrusion on the alloys was performed at temperature of 623K with an extrusion ratio of 14.7 under an average extrusion speed of 4mm/s. The microstructure, mechanical property, corrosion behavior and biocompatibility of the extruded Mg-Mn-Zn-Nd alloys have been investigated in this study. The microstructure was examined using X-ray diffraction analysis and optical microscopy. The mechanical properties were determined from uniaxial tensile and compressive tests. The corrosion behavior was investigated using electrochemical measurement. The biocompatibility was evaluated using osteoblast-like SaOS2 cells. The experimental results indicate that all extruded Mg-1Mn-2Zn-xNd alloys are composed of both α phase of Mg and a compound of Mg7Zn3 with very fine microstructures, and show good ductility and much higher mechanical strength than that of cast pure Mg and natural bone. The tensile strength and elongation of the extruded alloys increase with an increase in neodymium content. Their compressive strength does not change significantly with an increase in neodymium content. The extruded alloys show good biocompatibility and much higher corrosion resistance than that of cast pure Mg. The extruded Mg-1Mn-2Zn-1.0Nd alloy shows a great potential for biomedical applications due to the combination of enhanced mechanical properties, high corrosion resistance and good biocompatibility. PMID:25686931

  5. Microstructures, mechanical and corrosion properties and biocompatibility of as extruded Mg-Mn-Zn-Nd alloys for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ying-Long; Li, Yuncang; Luo, Dong-Mei; Ding, Yunfei; Hodgson, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Extruded Mg-1Mn-2Zn-xNd alloys (x=0.5, 1.0, 1.5 mass %) have been developed for their potential use as biomaterials. The extrusion on the alloys was performed at temperature of 623K with an extrusion ratio of 14.7 under an average extrusion speed of 4mm/s. The microstructure, mechanical property, corrosion behavior and biocompatibility of the extruded Mg-Mn-Zn-Nd alloys have been investigated in this study. The microstructure was examined using X-ray diffraction analysis and optical microscopy. The mechanical properties were determined from uniaxial tensile and compressive tests. The corrosion behavior was investigated using electrochemical measurement. The biocompatibility was evaluated using osteoblast-like SaOS2 cells. The experimental results indicate that all extruded Mg-1Mn-2Zn-xNd alloys are composed of both α phase of Mg and a compound of Mg7Zn3 with very fine microstructures, and show good ductility and much higher mechanical strength than that of cast pure Mg and natural bone. The tensile strength and elongation of the extruded alloys increase with an increase in neodymium content. Their compressive strength does not change significantly with an increase in neodymium content. The extruded alloys show good biocompatibility and much higher corrosion resistance than that of cast pure Mg. The extruded Mg-1Mn-2Zn-1.0Nd alloy shows a great potential for biomedical applications due to the combination of enhanced mechanical properties, high corrosion resistance and good biocompatibility.

  6. A new post-treatment process for attaining Ca2+, Mg2+, SO42- and alkalinity criteria in desalinated water.

    PubMed

    Birnhack, Liat; Lahav, Ori

    2007-09-01

    A novel post-treatment approach for desalinated water, aimed at supplying a balanced concentration of alkalinity, Ca(2+), Mg(2+) and SO(4)(2-), is introduced. The process is based on replacing excess Ca(2+) ions generated in the common H(2)SO(4)-based calcite dissolution post-treatment process with Mg(2+) ions originating from seawater. In the first step, Mg(2+) ions are separated from seawater by means of a specific ion exchange resin that has high affinity toward divalent cations (Mg(2+) and Ca(2+)) and an extremely low affinity toward monovalent cations (namely Na(+) and K(+)). In the second step, the Mg(2+)-loaded resin is contacted with the effluent of the calcite dissolution reactor and Mg(2+) and Ca(2+) are exchanged. Consequently, the excess Ca(2+) concentration in the water decreases while the Mg(2+) concentration increases. The process is stopped at a predetermined Ca(2+) to Mg(2+) ratio. All water streams used in the process are internal and form a part of the desalination plant sequence, regardless of the additional ion exchange component. The proposed process allows for the supply of cheap Mg(2+) ions, while at the same time enables the application of the cheap H(2)SO(4)-based calcite dissolution process, thus resulting in higher quality water at a cost-effective price. A case study is presented in which additional cost of supplying a Mg(2+) concentration of 12mg/L using the process is estimated at $0.004/m(3) product water.

  7. Effects of phosphates on microstructure and bioactivity of micro-arc oxidized calcium phosphate coatings on Mg-Zn-Zr magnesium alloy.

    PubMed

    Pan, Y K; Chen, C Z; Wang, D G; Zhao, T G

    2013-09-01

    Calcium phosphate (CaP) coatings were prepared on Mg-Zn-Zr magnesium alloy by micro-arc oxidation (MAO) in electrolyte containing calcium acetate monohydrate (CH3COO)2Ca·H2O) and different phosphates (i.e. disodium hydrogen phosphate dodecahydrate (Na2HPO4·12H2O), sodium phosphate (Na3PO4·H2O) and sodium hexametaphosphate((NaPO3)6)). Scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS) and X-ray diffractometer (XRD) were employed to characterize the microstructure, elemental distribution and phase composition of the CaP coatings. Simulated body fluid (SBF) immersion test was used to evaluate the coating bioactivity and degradability. Systemic toxicity test was used to evaluate the coating biocompatibility. Fluoride ion selective electrode (ISE) was used to measure F(-) ions concentration during 30 days SBF immersion. The CaP coatings effectively reduced the corrosion rate and the surfaces of CaP coatings were covered by a new layer formed of numerous needle-like and scale-like apatites. The formation of these calcium phosphate apatites indicates that the coatings have excellent bioactivity. The coatings formed in (NaPO3)6-containging electrolyte exhibit thicker thickness, higher adhesive strength, slower degradation rate, better apatite-inducing ability and biocompatibility.

  8. Variation of the matter densities of nuclei from /sup 40/Ca to /sup 68/Zn

    SciTech Connect

    Papanicolas, C N; Sumner, W Q; Blair, J S; Bernstein, A M

    1981-01-01

    Analysis is made of elastic scattering of 42 MeV ..cap alpha..-particles from 19 nuclei from /sup 40/Ca to /sup 68/Zn in terms of a folding model, allowing determination of matter densities in the nuclear surface region relative to that of /sup 40/Ca. Specifically, values are deduced for the radii at which the matter density equals 0.016 nucleon/fm/sup 3/ as well as matter RMS radii. The relative sizes vary more slowly than A/sup 1/3/ between /sup 40/Ca and /sup 54/Fe and more rapidly than A/sup 1/3/ between /sup 54/Fe and /sup 68/Zn. The overall trend gives an increase with A/sup 1/3/ but with a bowing effect. The near equality of proton and matter RMS radii indicates that the neutron-proton radii are approximately equal to within the errors of the present analysis. The results are in reasonable agreement with those obtained with other hadronic probes and with calculated Hartree-Fock Bogolyubov densities.

  9. Zn, Ca and Na levels in the prostatic secretion of patients with prostatic adenoma.

    PubMed

    Romics, I; Bach, D

    1991-01-01

    Zinc, calcium and sodium levels of the prostatic secretions in patients with prostatic adenoma were studied. In a control group of 20 patients, two samples of the secretion, taken on the first and the seventh day, were compared and found to show no difference. In the treated group of 20 patients, where a 7-day therapy of ERU (extractum radix urticae) followed upon the first sampling, the 7th-day specimen presented a significant drop in the Zn level. Correlation was found to exist between the Zn and Ca levels. From literary data the inference was drawn that ERU is producing a derangement in the zinc-testosterone metabolism and diminishes the zinc secretion in adenomatous tissue.

  10. Using Mg/Ca on oyster shells as paleoclimatic proxy, example from the Paleogene of Central Asia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bougeois, Laurie; de Rafélis, Marc; Reichart, Gert-Jan; de Nooijer, Lennart; Dupont-Nivet, Guillaume

    2015-04-01

    Due to their large occurrence in sedimentary records from Triassic to Quaternary, their strong resistance to post-mortem alteration, and the incremental nature of their shell growth, oysters are recognized to be a highly powerful tool to infer infra-annual paleoclimate variations. However, the common use of δ18O in biomineralisation to infer paleotemperatures is hindered by the difficulties in valuating δ18O of sea water (δ18Osw). If the δ18Osw values can be fairly well estimated when orking at the million-year time scale, the estimation of the infra-annual variation of the δ18Osw constitutes a considerable barrier for high-resolution paleo-reconstitutions. This issue can be resolved using the Mg/Ca ratio as a suitable and valuable independent high-resolution paleothermometer in oyster shells. However, if numerous studies provided new paleothermometer using Mg/Ca ratio in calcitic bivalve shells, their application to paleo-studies remains to be established. In this study, we combine incremental δ18O analyses with Mg/Ca ratio on Paleogene oyster shells from the Proto-Paratethys (Central Asia) that is characterized by high seasonal variability. We analysed various species growing in different depositional environments throughout late Paleocene to late Eocene times. Results from both proxies show consistent values from oysters of the same age and of the same species, attesting for the consistent Mg incorporation into shells. However, the Mg/Ca-T calibrations tested in this study reveals the importance of specie-specific effect for the incorporation of Mg, as well as the environment. This enables discarding results inappropriate for existing Mg/Ca calibrations and identifying those yielding meaningful paleo-temperatures. In particular, the consistency of the Mg/Ca temperature proxies yielded by the species Ostrea (T.) strictiplicata and Sokolowia buhsii shows that, with careful data selection, Mg/Ca provides a reliable infra-annual paleotemperature proxy.

  11. Improvement of CaFe/sub 2/O/sub 4/ photocathode by doping with Na and Mg

    SciTech Connect

    Matsumoto, Y.; Sugiyama, K.; Sato, E.

    1988-05-01

    The low conductivity of CaFe/sub 2/O/sub 4/ and the nonohmic contact in the CaFe/sub 2/O/sub 4//metal interface, which lead to only a small photocurrent, were improved by doping with Na and Mg. The oxides of the Ca/sub 1-x/Na/sub x/Fe/sub 2-y/Mg/sub y/O/sub 4/ system gave the high conductivity and the ohmic contact of the oxide/Pt-Pd interface, but very small photocurrent. It was judged from the measurement of the Seebeck coefficient that the hopping mechanism is dominant for the conduction of the oxides containing Na. The hopping level is presumed to bring about the ohmic contact and the very small photocurrent because of the small band bending. The CaFe/sub 2/O/sub 4//Na,Mg electrode, where one side of the surfaces was doped with Na and Mg and the interface of CaFe/sub 2/O/sub 4//Na,Mg/Pt-Pd was ohmic contact, gave a large photocurrent. Photoelectrochemical dissolution was observed for the CaFe/sub 2/O/sub 4//Na,Mg electrode in acidic solution but not in neutral solution. The mechanism of the dissolution is also discussed.

  12. Deep levels in a-plane, high Mg-content Mg{sub x}Zn{sub 1-x}O epitaxial layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Guer, Emre; Tabares, G.; Hierro, A.; Chauveau, J. M.

    2012-12-15

    Deep level defects in n-type unintentionally doped a-plane Mg{sub x}Zn{sub 1-x}O, grown by molecular beam epitaxy on r-plane sapphire were fully characterized using deep level optical spectroscopy (DLOS) and related methods. Four compositions of Mg{sub x}Zn{sub 1-x}O were examined with x = 0.31, 0.44, 0.52, and 0.56 together with a control ZnO sample. DLOS measurements revealed the presence of five deep levels in each Mg-containing sample, having energy levels of E{sub c} - 1.4 eV, 2.1 eV, 2.6 V, and E{sub v} + 0.3 eV and 0.6 eV. For all Mg compositions, the activation energies of the first three states were constant with respect to the conduction band edge, whereas the latter two revealed constant activation energies with respect to the valence band edge. In contrast to the ternary materials, only three levels, at E{sub c} - 2.1 eV, E{sub v} + 0.3 eV, and 0.6 eV, were observed for the ZnO control sample in this systematically grown series of samples. Substantially higher concentrations of the deep levels at E{sub v} + 0.3 eV and E{sub c} - 2.1 eV were observed in ZnO compared to the Mg alloyed samples. Moreover, there is a general invariance of trap concentration of the E{sub v} + 0.3 eV and 0.6 eV levels on Mg content, while at least and order of magnitude dependency of the E{sub c} - 1.4 eV and E{sub c} - 2.6 eV levels in Mg alloyed samples.

  13. Effects of vanadium complexes supplementation on V, Cu, Mn, K, Fe, Zn, and Ca concentration in STZ diabetic rats pancreas.

    PubMed

    Krośniak, Mirosław; Kowalska, Joanna; Francik, Renata; Gryboś, Ryszard; Kwiatek, Wojciech M

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the effects of Na[V(V)O(O2)2(2,2'-bpy)] x 8 H2O (complex 1), Na[V(V)O(O2)2(1,10'-phen)] x 5 H2O (complex 2), Na[V(V)O(O2)2(4,4'-Me-2,2'-bpy)] x 8 H2O (complex 3), [V(V)O(SO,)(1,10'-phen)] x 2 H2O, (complex 4), [V(IV)O(SO4)(2,2'-bpy)] x H2O (complex 5), where: 2,2'-bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine, 1.10'-phen = 1,10'-phenanthroline, 4,4'-Me-2,2'-bpy = 4,4'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridine and a small insulin injection on V, Cu, Mn, K, Fe, Zn, and Ca concentration in the STZ (streptozotocin) diabetic rats pancreas during a 5-week treatment with the tested complexes. In all groups of animals metal concentration in the pancreas was investigated by means of Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) method. Maximum concentration of vanadium was observed in the pancreas for complex 5 (1.69 +/- 0.09 mg/kg dry weight), lower for complex 3 (1.51 +/- 0.10 mg/kg dry weight), and the lowest for complex 1 (1.21 +/- 0.27 mg/kg dry weight) supplementation. The influence of vanadium administration on other metals' concentration in the rats' pancreas was also investigated. All vanadium-tested complexes showed an increase of zinc concentration in the examined pancreas in comparison to the diabetic animals not treated with vanadium. The results were the highest for complex 1 and the lowest for complex 5. The concentration of Fe, Cu, Mn, K and Ca in the pancreas is not evidently influenced by administration of the vanadium complexes.

  14. Fabrication and characteristics of Zn2+ doped MgO films prepared by sol-gel method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaoju; Li, Peng; Lin, Zulun; Qi, Kangcheng; Chen, Zexiang; Cao, Guichuan

    2012-10-01

    One of the effective methods to improve the luminous efficiency and reduce power consumption of plasma display panel (PDP) is searching for new high secondary emission discharging materials. In this paper, doped MgO films with different Zn2+ dopant concentration are made on indium tin oxides glass substrates by sol-gel method. The effect of annealing atmosphere on the visible light transmittance is discussed, which indicates that the films annealed in the nitrogen have higher transmittance than that in the air. The discharge characteristics of the fabricated Zn2+ doped MgO thin films are studied in a tube filled with Ne-Xe gas mixtures imitating the real structure of alternating current plasma display panel (AC PDP). When the Zn2+ ratio is 10 %, the firing voltage of doped MgO thin film in Ne-Xe 5 % at the pressure of 10 torr is 378 V, in contrast to the pure MgO film of 390 V. In addition, burr sparks are also observed at the beginning of the test. As time go on, the gas discharge is more stable. The results show that Zn2+ doped MgO thin film, due to its lower firing voltage, can be a promising discharge layer for highly efficient AC PDP.

  15. Synthesis of Mg-Al and Zn-Al-layered double hydroxide nanocrystals using laser ablation in water

    SciTech Connect

    Hur, Tae-Bong; Phuoc, Tran X.; Chyu, Minking K.

    2009-06-01

    In this paper, we report our results on the synthesis of Mg-Al and Zn-Al-layered double hydroxides using the laser ablation in the liquid technique. To prepare these layered double hydroxides (LDH) we first began with the laser generation of a Mg (or zinc) target submerged in deionized water and then ablated an aluminum target submerged in the previously prepared Mg-deionized water suspensions (Mg-dw) to produce Mg-Al LDH and in Zn-dw to prepare Zn-Al LDH. In these ablation tests, the Mg ablation duration was selected to vary from 5 to 60 min, while the Al ablation duration was kept constant at 30 min for all samples. The generated Mg-Al LDH was a gel-like and well crystallized nanoparticles of a rod-like shape and were arranged in a well-organized pattern. When the Mg ablation duration between 25 and 35 min, the synthesized nanocrystals were stoichiometric with a formula of Mg6Al2(OH)(18)4.5 (H2O), the interlayer distance (d((0 0 3))-spacing) was 7.8 angstrom and the average grain size was 8.0 nm. The synthesized Zn-Al LDH revealed various lamellar thin plate-like nanostructures of hexagonal morphologies. The average diameters of these structures was about 500 nm and the thickness of a single layer was approximately about 6.0 nm. The XRD diffraction peaks were indexed in hexagonal lattice with a(o) = 3.07 angstrom and c(o) = 15.12 angstrom. These indexes were (002), (004), and (008) and the corresponding interlayer distances, d-spacing (angstrom), were 7.56 (002), 3.782 (004), and 1.891 (008), respectively.

  16. Effect of Ca:Mg ratio on precipitated P species identified using 31P solid state NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manimel Wadu, M.

    2009-04-01

    M.C.W. Manimel Wadu1, O.O Akinremi1, S. Kroeker2 1Department of Soil Science, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, R3T 2N2, Canada 2Department of Chemistry, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, R3T 2N2, Canada Agronomic efficiency of added P fertilizer is reduced by the precipitation reactions with the exchangeable Ca and Mg in calcareous soils. We hypothesized that the ratio of Ca to Mg on the soil exchange complex will affect the species of P that is precipitated and its solubility in the soil. A laboratory experiment was conducted using a model calcareous soil system which was composed of resin (Amberlite IRP69) and sand coated with CaCO3 packed into a column. The resin was pre saturated with Ca and Mg in order to achieve five different saturation ratios of Ca:Mg approximately as 100:0, 70:30, 50:50, 30:70 and 0:100. Monoammonium Phosphate was applied to the soil surface to simulate one-dimensional diffusive transport. The column was then incubated for 2 weeks. Chemical analysis for water and acid soluble P, pH, NH4, Ca and Mg was performed on 2mm sections of the soil to a depth of 10 cm. This paper will present and discuss the distribution of P along the soil column. Unlike similar studies that have speculated on the precipitation of P, this study will identify and quantify the P species that is formed using 31P solid state NMR technique. Such knowledge will be helpful in understanding the effect of Ca and Mg on P availability in calcareous system and the role of each cation on P precipitation. Key words: P fertilizers, Ca, Mg, model system, solid state NMR

  17. EFFECT OF Sn AND Pb ADDITIONS ON MICROSTRUCTURE OF Mg-6Al-1Zn AS-CAST MAGNESIUM ALLOYS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Haibo; Zhu, Tianping; Wang, Yuxin; Gao, Wei

    2013-07-01

    Much attention has been paid to Mg alloys given that Mg alloys are the most promising lightweight metallic material. They have found applications in automobile and other fields where weight saving is of great significance. Mg-Al-Zn alloy system (AZ series), including AZ91 and AZ61 Mg alloys, is widely used in industry. We have studied the enhancement of mechanical properties by adding alloying elements Sn and Pb. This paper reports our study on the microstructure and element distribution of the alloys with small amounts of tin (Sn) and lead (Pb) additions.

  18. Deep traps and photo-electric properties of p-Si/MgO/n-Zn{sub 1−x}Mg{sub x}O heterojunction

    SciTech Connect

    Placzek-Popko, E. Paradowska, K. M.; Gumienny, Z.; Biegański, P.; Pietrzyk, M. A.; Kozanecki, A.

    2015-08-21

    In the paper, the photoluminescence (PL) measurements, current–voltage–temperature (I-V-T) measurements, space charge techniques (C-V and deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS)), and photocurrent spectral characteristics have been applied to investigate defects in p-Si/MgO/ n-Zn{sub 1−x}Mg{sub x}O heterojunction (HJ). The HJ structure was grown on p-type Si (111) substrate with resistivity equal to 0.1 Ω cm by the plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy technique. A radio-frequency cell was used for the generation of oxygen plasma. PL spectrum let us determine the Mg content ∼10%. Besides the excitonic Zn{sub 0.9}Mg{sub 0.1}O line, the PL spectrum also contains green and yellow emission bands indicating the presence of defect states in the investigated structures. I-V measurements reveal the rectifying properties of the HJ and the current thermally activated with a trap with the activation energy equal to 0.42 eV. DLTS studies yield the majority trap of the activation energy 0.42 eV, confirming the result obtained from the I-V measurements. It was found that the defects related to this trap have a point like behaviour. A spectral characteristic of the photocurrent shows that the p-Si/MgO/n-Zn{sub 1−x}Mg{sub x}O HJ may be applied as a photodiode operating within the wavelength range of 300 nm-1100 nm. The dark current transport and photocurrent spectrum were explained using the Anderson model of a HJ.

  19. Enhanced photocatalytic activity of TiO2-impregnated with MgZnAl mixed oxides obtained from layered double hydroxides for phenol degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Almeida, Marciano Fabiano; Bellato, Carlos Roberto; Mounteer, Ann Honor; Ferreira, Sukarno Olavo; Milagres, Jaderson Lopes; Miranda, Liany Divina Lima

    2015-12-01

    A series of TiO2/MgZnAl photocatalysts were successfully synthesized from ternary (Mg, Zn and Al) layered double hydroxides impregnated with TiO2 nanoparticles by the co-precipitation method at variable pH with different Zn2+/Mg2+ molar ratios. The composite photocatalysts were calcined at 500 °C resulting in the incorporation of oxide zinc, in the calcined MgZnAl LDH structure. Synergistic effect between ZnO and TiO2 lead to significant enhancement of TiO2/MgZnAl photocatalytic activity. Composite photocatalysts were characterized by ICP-MS, N2 adsorption-desorption, XRD, SEM, EDS, IR and UV-vis DRS. Phenol in aqueous solution (50 mg/L) was used as a model compound for evaluation of UV-vis (filter cut-off for λ > 300 nm) photocatalytic activity. The most efficient photocatalyst composite was obtained at a 5% Zn2+/Mg2+ molar ratio, in the catalyst identified as TiO2/MgZnAl-5. This composite catalyst had high photocatalytic activity, completely destroying phenol and removing 80% of total organic carbon in solution after 360 min. The TiO2/MgZnAl-5 catalyst remained relatively stable, presenting a 15% decrease in phenol degradation efficiency after five consecutive photocatalytic cycles.

  20. Studies of Mg2+/Ca2+ complexes of naturally occurring dinucleotides: potentiometric titrations, NMR, and molecular dynamics.

    PubMed

    Stern, Noa; Major, Dan Thomas; Gottlieb, Hugo Emilio; Weizman, Daniel; Sayer, Alon Haim; Blum, Eliav; Fischer, Bilha

    2012-08-01

    Dinucleotides (Np(n)N'; N and N' are A, U, G, or C, n = 2-7) are naturally occurring physiologically active compounds. Despite the interest in dinucleotides, the composition of their complexes with metal ions as well as their conformations and species distribution in living systems are understudied. Therefore, we investigated a series of Mg(2+) and Ca(2+) complexes of Np(n)N's. Potentiometric titrations indicated that a longer dinucleotide polyphosphate (N is A or G, n = 3-5) linker yields more stable complexes (e.g., log K of 2.70, 3.27, and 3.73 for Ap(n)A-Mg(2+), n = 3, 4, 5, respectively). The base (A or G) or ion (Mg(2+) or Ca(2+)) has a minor effect on K(M)(ML) values. In a physiological medium, the longer Ap(n)As (n = 4, 5) are predicted to occur mostly as the Mg(2+)/Ca(2+) complexes. (31)P NMR monitored titrations of Np(n)N's with Mg(2+)/Ca(2+) ions showed that the middle phosphates of the dinucleotides coordinate with Mg(2+)/Ca(2+). Multidimensional potential of mean force (PMF) molecular dynamics (MD) simulations suggest that Ap(2)A and Ap(4)A coordinate Mg(2+) and Ca(2+) ions in both inner-sphere and outer-sphere modes. The PMF MD simulations additionally provide a detailed picture of the possible coordination sites, as well as the cation binding process. Moreover, both NMR and MD simulations showed that the conformation of the nucleoside moieties in Np(n)N'-Mg(2+)/Ca(2+) complexes remains the same as that of free mononucleotides.

  1. Exciton confinement in homo- and heteroepitaxial ZnO/Zn{sub 1-x}Mg{sub x}O quantum wells with x < 0.1

    SciTech Connect

    Laumer, Bernhard; Wassner, Thomas A.; Schuster, Fabian; Stutzmann, Martin; Schoermann, Joerg; Eickhoff, Martin; Rohnke, Marcus; Chernikov, Alexej; Bornwasser, Verena; Koch, Martin; Chatterjee, Sangam

    2011-11-01

    ZnO/Zn{sub 1-x}Mg{sub x}O single quantum well (SQW) structures with well widths d{sub W} between 1.1 nm and 10.4 nm were grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy both heteroepitaxially on c-plane sapphire and homoepitaxially on (0001)-oriented bulk ZnO. A significantly reduced Mg incorporation in the top barrier related to the generation of stacking faults is observed for heteroepitaxial samples. Exciton localization is observed for both types of samples, while an enhancement of the exciton binding energy compared to bulk ZnO is only found for homoepitaxial SQWs for 2 nm {<=} d{sub W} {<=} 4 nm. Consistently, for homoepitaxial samples, the carrier dynamics are mainly governed by radiative recombination and carrier cooling processes at temperatures below 170 K, whereas thermally activated non-radiative recombination dominates in heteroepitaxial samples. The effects of polarization-induced electric fields are concealed for Mg concentrations x < 0.1 due to the reduction of the exciton binding energy, the screening by residual carriers as well as the asymmetric barrier structure in heteroepitaxial wells.

  2. Simultaneous observations of Ca II K and Mg II k in T Tauri stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calvet, N.; Basri, G.; Imhoff, C. L.; Giampapa, M. S.

    1985-01-01

    The first simultaneous, calibrated observations of the Ca II K and Mg II k resonance lines in T Tauri stars are presented. It is found that for T Tauri stars with mass greater than 1.5 solar mass, which have radiative cores and tend to be fast rotators, the k line seems to arise in an extended region (probably also responsible for the H-alpha emission), whereas the K line apparently originates closer to the highly inhomogeneous stellar surface. The lower mass stars, which are fully convective and tend to be slow rotators, are more easily described by a largely chromospheric model, consistent with main-sequence activity structures but at greater values of the nonradiative flux. The strongest emission-line stars in the low-mass group, however, are also likely to have extended k line regions.

  3. K-SHELL PHOTOIONIZATION AND PHOTOABSORPTION OF Ne, Mg, Si, S, Ar, AND Ca

    SciTech Connect

    Witthoeft, M. C.; Kallman, T. R.; Bautista, M. A.; Mendoza, C.; Palmeri, P.; Quinet, P.

    2009-05-15

    We present extensive computations of photoabsorption and photoionization cross sections across the K-edge of Ne, Mg, Si, S, Ar, and Ca ions with less than 11 electrons. The calculations are performed using the Breit-Pauli R-matrix method and include the effects of radiative and Auger damping by means of an optical potential. The wave functions are constructed from single-electron orbital bases obtained using a Thomas-Fermi-Dirac statistical model potential. Configuration interaction is considered among all fine-structure levels within the n = 2 complex. The damping processes affect the resonances converging to the K thresholds causing them to display symmetric profiles of constant width that smear the otherwise sharp edge at the photoionization thresholds.

  4. First-principles prediction of thermodynamically reversible hydrogen storage reactions in the Li-Mg-Ca-B-H system.

    PubMed

    Ozolins, V; Majzoub, E H; Wolverton, C

    2009-01-14

    Introduction of economically viable hydrogen cars is hindered by the need to store large amounts of hydrogen. Metal borohydrides [LiBH(4), Mg(BH(4))(2), Ca(BH(4))(2)] are attractive candidates for onboard storage because they contain high densities of hydrogen by weight and by volume. Using a set of recently developed theoretical first-principles methods, we predict currently unknown crystal structures and hydrogen storage reactions in the Li-Mg-Ca-B-H system. Hydrogen release from LiBH(4) and Mg(BH(4))(2) is predicted to proceed via intermediate Li(2)B(12)H(12) and MgB(12)H(12) phases, while for Ca borohydride two competing reaction pathways (into CaB(6) and CaH(2), and into CaB(12)H(12) and CaH(2)) are found to have nearly equal free energies. We predict two new hydrogen storage reactions that are some of the most attractive among the presently known ones. They combine high gravimetric densities (8.4 and 7.7 wt % H(2)) with low enthalpies [approximately 25 kJ/(mol H(2))] and are thermodynamically reversible at low pressures due to low vibrational entropies of the product phases containing the [B(12)H(12)](2-) anion.

  5. A study on alkaline heat treated Mg-Ca alloy for the control of the biocorrosion rate.

    PubMed

    Gu, X N; Zheng, W; Cheng, Y; Zheng, Y F

    2009-09-01

    To reduce the biocorrosion rate by surface modification, Mg-Ca alloy (1.4wt.% Ca content) was soaked in three alkaline solutions (Na(2)HPO(4), Na(2)CO(3) and NaHCO(3)) for 24h, respectively, and subsequently heat treated at 773K for 12h. Scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive spectroscopy results revealed that magnesium oxide layers with the thickness of about 13, 9 and 26microm were formed on the surfaces of Mg-Ca alloy after the above different alkaline heat treatments. Atomic force microscopy showed that the surfaces of Mg-Ca alloy samples became rough after three alkaline heat treatments. The in vitro corrosion tests in simulated body fluid indicated that the corrosion rates of Mg-Ca alloy were effectively decreased after alkaline heat treatments, with the following sequence: NaHCO(3) heatedMg-Ca alloy samples induced toxicity to L-929 cells during 7days culture.

  6. Calmodulin antagonists have differential effects on Ca/sup 2 +/ uptake, (Ca/sup 2 +/ + Mg/sup 2 +/)-ATPase and Ca/sup 2 +/ release in hepatic endoplasmic reticulum

    SciTech Connect

    Delfert, D.M.; Koepnick, S.; McDonald, J.M.; Chan, K.M.

    1986-05-01

    The effect of calmodulin (CaM) antagonists on Ca/sup 2 +/ handling by hepatic endoplasmic reticulum (ER) was studied. Ca/sup 2 +/ uptake by saponin-permeabilized hepatocytes or isolated ER was measured using /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/ in a filtration assay in the presence of 0.09 ..mu..M free (Ca/sup 2 +/) and inhibitors of mitochondrial Ca/sup 2 +/ transport. Each CaM-antagonist (chlorpromazine, CPZ; trifluoperazine, TFP; calmidazolium, W7 and 48/80) showed a dose-dependent inhibition of Ca/sup 2 +/ accumulation in permeabilized hepatocytes. Both the initial rate and steady state values for Ca/sup 2 +/ uptake were reduced by 50% with 40 ..mu..M calmidazolium, 100 ..mu..M TFP, 150..mu..M W7, 150 ..mu..M CPZ and 300 ..mu..M 48/80. Using isolated ER both calmidazolium (20 ..mu..M) and W7 (150 ..mu..M) inhibited the initial rate and steady state level of Ca/sup 2 +/ accumulation. At this concentration calmidazolium inhibited the initial rate of (Ca/sup 2 +/ + Mg/sup 2 +/)-ATPase activity, and enhanced Ca/sup 2 +/ release. In contrast, W7 had no effect on these parameters. These results suggest that the reduced level of Ca/sup 2 +/ uptake into ER vesicles in the presence of calmidazolium may result from inhibition of the (Ca/sup 2 +/ + Mg/sup 2 +/)-ATPase as well as induction of Ca/sup 2 +/ release, while W7 may act to uncouple Ca/sup 2 +/ transport from its (Ca/sup 2 +/ + Mg/sup 2 +/)-ATPase counterpart.

  7. Conformation of cyclo(-L-Pro-Gly-)(3) and its Ca and Mg complexes.

    PubMed

    Kartha, G; Varughese, K I; Aimoto, S

    1982-07-01

    The synthetic hexapeptide cyclo(-L-Pro-Gly-)(3) is an ionophore that shows interesting conformational changes upon binding metal ions. X-ray crystallographic studies of this peptide show that when it is crystallized from an ethanol/ethyl acetate mixture the ring takes up an asymmetric conformation containing one cis peptide bond. In crystals of a Ca(2+) complex, the cation is sandwiched between two peptide molecules that differ markedly in conformation. However, both exhibit threefold symmetric forms, with all six peptide bonds in the molecule occurring in the usual trans conformation. The Ca(2+) is octahedrally surrounded by six glycyl carbonyl oxygens from the two peptides at an average distance of 2.26 A and can easily be released by the disruption of the peptide sandwich. In the magnesium complex, the peptide forms a 1:1 complex with the ion. The Mg(2+) is octahedrally coordinated to three glycyl carbonyls and three water oxygens. The average coordination distance between magnesium and the peptide oxygens is 2.03 A and that between magnesium and water oxygen is 2.11 A. The two peptide molecules in the asymmetric unit have similar conformations and have approximate threefold symmetry.

  8. Microstructure and characteristics of the metal-ceramic composite (MgCa-HA/TCP) fabricated by liquid metal infiltration.

    PubMed

    Gu, X N; Wang, X; Li, N; Li, L; Zheng, Y F; Miao, Xigeng

    2011-10-01

    In this article, a novel MgCa alloy-hydroxyapatite-tricalcium phosphate (HA/TCP) composite was fabricated using the liquid alloy infiltration technique. The feasibility of the composite for biomedical applications was studied through mechanical testing, electrochemical testing, immersion testing, and cell culture evaluation. It was shown that the composite had a strength about 200-fold higher than that of the original porous HA/TCP scaffold but retained half of the strength of the bulk MgCa alloy. The corrosion test indicated that the resulting composite exhibited an average corrosion rate of 0.029 mL cm⁻² h⁻¹ in the Hank's solution at 37°C, which was slower than that of the bulk MgCa alloy alone. The indirect cytotoxicity evaluation revealed that 100% concentrated (i.e., undiluted or as-collected) extract of the MgCa-HA/TCP composite showed significant toxicity to L-929 and MG63 cells (p < 0.05). In contrast, the diluted extracts with 50 and 10% concentrations of the MgCa-HA/TCP composite exhibited a similar degree of cell viability (p > 0.05), equivalent to the grade I cytotoxicity of the standard ISO 10993-5: 1999.

  9. Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca, and stable isotopes in modern and Holocene Protothaca staminea shells from a northern California coastal upwelling region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Takesue, R.K.; VanGeen, A.

    2004-01-01

    This study explores the potential of intertidal Protothaca staminea shells as high-resolution geochemical archives of environmental change in a coastal upwelling region. Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca ratios were analyzed by excimer laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) at sub-weekly temporal resolution in shells growing ???1 mm per month. Growth patterns of a modern P. staminea shell from Humboldt Bay, California, collected in December 1999 made it possible to infer a lifespan from 1993 to 1998. Growth hiatuses in the shell may have excluded records of extreme events. Mg/Ca ratios appeared to be partly controlled by water temperature; the correlation coefficient between temperature and Mg/Ca was r = 0.71 in one of four growth increments. Significant year-to-year differences in the sensitivity of Mg/Ca to temperature in P. staminea could not be explained, however. Sr/Ca ratios appeared to be more closely related to shell growth rate. Oxygen isotopes, measured at 2-week temporal resolution in the same shell, did not show a clear relation to local temperature in summer, possibly because temperatures were higher and less variable at the King Salmon mudflat, where the shell was collected, than in the main channel of Humboldt Bay, where water properties were monitored. Negative shell ??13C values (<-0.5???) marked spring and summer coastal upwelling events. The Mg contents of P. staminea midden shells dated to ???3 ka and ???9 ka were significantly lower than in the modern shell. This may have resulted from degradation of a Mg-rich shell organic matrix and precluded quantitative interpretation of the older high-resolution records. Elevated ??13C values in the ???3 ka shell suggested that the individual grew in highly productive or stratified environment, such as a shallow coastal embayment or lagoon. Copyright ?? 2004 Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Influence cobalt on microstructural and hardness property of Al-Zn-Mg-Cu-Fe-Cr-Ni P/ M alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naeem, Haider T.; Mohammad, Kahtan S.; Hussin, Kamarudin; Rahmat, Azim; Bashirom, Nurhuda

    2015-05-01

    In this study, influence cobalt additives on the microstructural and hardness properties of an Al-Zn-Mg-Cu-Fe-Cr-Ni PM alloy undergone the retrogression and re-aging treatment were carried out. Green compacts pressed at 370 MPa were then sintered at temperature 650°C in argon atmosphere for two hours. The sintered compacts subjected to a homogenizing treated at 470°C for 1.5 hours then aged at 120°C for 24 hours and retrogressed at 180°C for 30 minutes, and then re-aged at 120°C for 24 hours. Microstructural results of the Al-Zn-Mg-Cu-Fe-Cr-Ni-Co alloys introduced an intermetallics compound in the matrix of alloy, identified as the Al5Co2, Al70Co20Ni10 and Al4Ni3 phases besides to the MgZn2 and Mg2Zn11 phases which produced of the precipitation hardening during heat treatment. These compounds with precipitates provided strengthening of dispersion that led to improved Vickers's hardness and dinsifications properties of the alloy. The highest Vickers hardness of aluminum alloy containing cobalt was gotten after applying the retrogression and re-aging treatment.

  11. Spin Dynamics of a Single Mn Ion in a CdTe/(Cd, Mg, Zn)Te Quantum Dot

    SciTech Connect

    Goryca, Mateusz; Kossacki, Piotr; Golnik, Andrzej; Kazimierczuk, Tomasz; Nawrocki, Michal; Wojnar, Piotr

    2010-01-04

    The spin dynamics of a single Mn ion confined in a CdTe/(Cd, Mg, Zn)Te quantum dot is determined by measurements of photon correlation of photoluminescence. The characteristic time of spin flip is a few nanoseconds and strongly depends on the excitation power.

  12. Research on sintering behavior and microwave dielectric property of (Mg0.95Ca0.05)TiO3 ceramics for cross coupling filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Chunya; Ma, Zhichao; Hu, Laisheng; Hu, Mingzhe; Huang, Xiaomin

    2015-12-01

    The microwave dielectric properties of 0.95%MgTiO3-0.05%CaTiO3 (abbreviated as 95MCT hereafter) ceramics have been studied for application in dielectric cross coupling filters. ZnO and Nb2O5 were selected as liquid sintering aids to lower the sintering temperature and enhance the Qf value of 95MCT and simultaneously we varied the mole ratio of ZnO : Nb2O5 to tune the microwave dielectric properties of 95MCT. When the ZnO : Nb2O5 mole ratio was 1.5 and the co-doping content was 0.25 wt.%, the optimal sintering temperature of 95MCT ceramic could be lowered from 1400∘C to 1320∘C and the Qf value could be improved by about 7.7%. The optimal microwave dielectric properties obtained under this condition were Qf = 72730 GHz (6.8 GHz), ɛr = 20.29 and τf = -6.84ppm/∘C, which demonstrated great potential usage in ceramic industry. High values of Qf ceramic were used to design the dielectric cross coupling filter. The dielectric filter measured at 2.35 GHz exhibited a 6.7% bandwidth (insert loss > -3 dB) of center frequency.

  13. Solidification/stabilization of electrolytic manganese residue using phosphate resource and low-grade MgO/CaO.

    PubMed

    Shu, Jiancheng; Liu, Renlong; Liu, Zuohua; Chen, Hongliang; Du, Jun; Tao, Changyuan

    2016-11-01

    In this study, P-LGMgO (low-grade MgO and NaH2PO4·2H2O), P-CaO (CaO and NaH2PO4·2H2O), and P-MgCa (low-grade MgO, CaO and NaH2PO4·2H2O) were used for the solidification/stabilization (S/S) of electrolytic manganese residue (EMR). Relevant characteristics such as ammonia nitrogen and manganese stabilization behavior, unconfined compressive strength (UCS), probable S/S mechanisms, and EMR leaching test were investigated. The results demonstrate that using P-LGMgO had higher stabilization efficiency than P-CaO and P-MgCa for the S/S of EMR at the same stabilization agent dose. The stabilization efficiency of ammonia nitrogen and manganese in the EMR were 84.0% and 99.9%, respectively, and the UCS of EMR was 5.1MPa using P-LGMgO process after curing for 28 days when the molar ratio of Mg:P was 5:1 and dose of stabilization agent was 12wt%. In this process, ammonia nitrogen was stabilized by struvite (NH4MgPO4·6H2O), and manganese by bermanite (Mn3(PO4)2(OH)2·4H2O) and pyrochroite (Mn(OH)2). The leaching test results show that the values of all the measured metals on the 28th day were within the permitted level for the GB8978-1996 test suggested by China's environmental protection law and the concentration of ammonia nitrogen can be reduced from 504.0mgL(-1) to 76.6mgL(-1).

  14. Modeling regulation of cardiac KATP and L-type Ca2+ currents by ATP, ADP, and Mg2+

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michailova, Anushka; Saucerman, Jeffrey; Belik, Mary Ellen; McCulloch, Andrew D.

    2005-01-01

    Changes in cytosolic free Mg(2+) and adenosine nucleotide phosphates affect cardiac excitability and contractility. To investigate how modulation by Mg(2+), ATP, and ADP of K(ATP) and L-type Ca(2+) channels influences excitation-contraction coupling, we incorporated equations for intracellular ATP and MgADP regulation of the K(ATP) current and MgATP regulation of the L-type Ca(2+) current in an ionic-metabolic model of the canine ventricular myocyte. The new model: 1), quantitatively reproduces a dose-response relationship for the effects of changes in ATP on K(ATP) current, 2), simulates effects of ADP in modulating ATP sensitivity of K(ATP) channel, 3), predicts activation of Ca(2+) current during rapid increase in MgATP, and 4), demonstrates that decreased ATP/ADP ratio with normal total Mg(2+) or increased free Mg(2+) with normal ATP and ADP activate K(ATP) current, shorten action potential, and alter ionic currents and intracellular Ca(2+) signals. The model predictions are in agreement with experimental data measured under normal and a variety of pathological conditions.

  15. Modeling regulation of cardiac KATP and L-type Ca2+ currents by ATP, ADP, and Mg2+.

    PubMed

    Michailova, Anushka; Saucerman, Jeffrey; Belik, Mary Ellen; McCulloch, Andrew D

    2005-03-01

    Changes in cytosolic free Mg(2+) and adenosine nucleotide phosphates affect cardiac excitability and contractility. To investigate how modulation by Mg(2+), ATP, and ADP of K(ATP) and L-type Ca(2+) channels influences excitation-contraction coupling, we incorporated equations for intracellular ATP and MgADP regulation of the K(ATP) current and MgATP regulation of the L-type Ca(2+) current in an ionic-metabolic model of the canine ventricular myocyte. The new model: 1), quantitatively reproduces a dose-response relationship for the effects of changes in ATP on K(ATP) current, 2), simulates effects of ADP in modulating ATP sensitivity of K(ATP) channel, 3), predicts activation of Ca(2+) current during rapid increase in MgATP, and 4), demonstrates that decreased ATP/ADP ratio with normal total Mg(2+) or increased free Mg(2+) with normal ATP and ADP activate K(ATP) current, shorten action potential, and alter ionic currents and intracellular Ca(2+) signals. The model predictions are in agreement with experimental data measured under normal and a variety of pathological conditions. PMID:15738467

  16. Growth and stability of rocksalt Zn1-xMgxO epilayers and ZnO/MgO superlattice on MgO (100) substrate by molecular beam epitaxy.

    PubMed

    Lu, C-Y James; Tu, Y-T; Yan, T; Trampert, A; Chang, L; Ploog, K H

    2016-06-01

    Zn1-xMgxO films with x = 0.04-0.50 grown on MgO (100) substrates by molecular beam epitaxy retain the rocksalt (rs) crystal structure and grow epitaxially for x ≥ 0.17. In addition, the rs-ZnO epilayer is observed to be stable up to a thickness of 5 nm and also in a ZnO/MgO superlattice sample. However, a portion of the superlattice has transformed to wurtzite (wz)-structure islands in a self-accommodated manner during growth. The transformation is a combination of a Bain distortion, an in-plane rotation of 14.5°, and a Peierls distortion, resulting in an orientation relationship of (100)rs//(101̄0)wz and 〈011〉rs ∼//〈1̄21̄3〉wz. In such a manner, the volume expansion is only necessary along the growth direction and the in-plane strains can be minimized. A negative pressure generated during the transformation of ZnO stabilizes the MgO into a wurtzite structure.

  17. Growth and stability of rocksalt Zn1-xMgxO epilayers and ZnO/MgO superlattice on MgO (100) substrate by molecular beam epitaxy.

    PubMed

    Lu, C-Y James; Tu, Y-T; Yan, T; Trampert, A; Chang, L; Ploog, K H

    2016-06-01

    Zn1-xMgxO films with x = 0.04-0.50 grown on MgO (100) substrates by molecular beam epitaxy retain the rocksalt (rs) crystal structure and grow epitaxially for x ≥ 0.17. In addition, the rs-ZnO epilayer is observed to be stable up to a thickness of 5 nm and also in a ZnO/MgO superlattice sample. However, a portion of the superlattice has transformed to wurtzite (wz)-structure islands in a self-accommodated manner during growth. The transformation is a combination of a Bain distortion, an in-plane rotation of 14.5°, and a Peierls distortion, resulting in an orientation relationship of (100)rs//(101̄0)wz and 〈011〉rs ∼//〈1̄21̄3〉wz. In such a manner, the volume expansion is only necessary along the growth direction and the in-plane strains can be minimized. A negative pressure generated during the transformation of ZnO stabilizes the MgO into a wurtzite structure. PMID:27276963

  18. Growth and stability of rocksalt Zn1-xMgxO epilayers and ZnO/MgO superlattice on MgO (100) substrate by molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, C.-Y. James; Tu, Y.-T.; Yan, T.; Trampert, A.; Chang, L.; Ploog, K. H.

    2016-06-01

    Zn1-xMgxO films with x = 0.04-0.50 grown on MgO (100) substrates by molecular beam epitaxy retain the rocksalt (rs) crystal structure and grow epitaxially for x ≥ 0.17. In addition, the rs-ZnO epilayer is observed to be stable up to a thickness of 5 nm and also in a ZnO/MgO superlattice sample. However, a portion of the superlattice has transformed to wurtzite (wz)-structure islands in a self-accommodated manner during growth. The transformation is a combination of a Bain distortion, an in-plane rotation of 14.5°, and a Peierls distortion, resulting in an orientation relationship of ( 100 ) rs / / ( 10 1 ¯ 0 ) wz and < 011 > rs ˜ / / < 1 ¯ 2 1 ¯ 3 > wz . In such a manner, the volume expansion is only necessary along the growth direction and the in-plane strains can be minimized. A negative pressure generated during the transformation of ZnO stabilizes the MgO into a wurtzite structure.

  19. Band alignment and photon extraction studies of Na-doped MgZnO/Ga-doped ZnO heterojunction for light-emitter applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Sushil Kumar; Awasthi, Vishnu; Sengar, Brajendra Singh; Garg, Vivek; Sharma, Pankaj; Kumar, Shailendra; Mukherjee, C.; Mukherjee, Shaibal

    2015-10-01

    Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy is carried out to measure the energy discontinuity at the interface of p-type Na-doped MgZnO (NMZO)/n-type Ga-doped ZnO (GZO) heterojunction grown by dual ion beam sputtering. The offset values at valence band and conduction band of NMZO/GZO heterojunction are calculated to be 1.93 and -2.36 eV, respectively. The p-type conduction in NMZO film has been confirmed by Hall measurement and band structure. Moreover, the effect of Ar+ ion sputtering on the valence band onset values of NMZO and GZO thin films has been investigated. This asymmetric waveguide structure formed by the lower refractive index of GZO than that of NMZO indicates that easy extraction of photons generated in GZO through the NMZO layer into free space. The asymmetric waveguide structure has potential applications to produce ZnO-based light emitters with high extraction efficiency.

  20. Surface compositions of atomic layer deposited Zn{sub 1−x}Mg{sub x}O thin films studied using Auger electron spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Ting; Romero, Danilo; Gomez, Romel D.

    2015-09-15

    In this paper, the authors present Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) studies of Zn{sub 1−x}Mg{sub x}O (ZMO) films grown via interrupted atomic-layer deposition (ALD) techniques. The ZMO films were fabricated by alternating ALD deposition of ZnO and MgO layers up to 1000 cycles. Zn{sub 1−x}Mg{sub x}O films with progressively decreasing Mg/Zn ratios (Mg/Zn = 1/1, 1/2, 1/3, 1/4, 1/5, 1/6, 1/9, and 2/8, 3/12, 4/16, and 5/20) were fabricated for this study. The AES results exhibit an abrupt drop of Mg composition on the ZMO surface when the Mg/Zn < 1/3. Additionally, the surface composition ratios of O to Mg, O to Zn, and Mg to Zn were estimated with known Auger sensitivity factors. The results indicate that Mg ions diffuse into the bulk, forming Zn{sub 1−x}Mg{sub x}O alloys.

  1. Effects of microstructure and CaO addition on the magnetic and mechanical properties of NiCuZn ferrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Sea-Fue; Hsu, Yung-Fu; Liu, Yi-Xin; Hsieh, Chung-Kai

    2015-11-01

    In this study, the effects of grain size and the addition of CaCO3 on the magnetic and mechanical properties of Ni0.5Cu0.3Zn0.2Fe2O4 ceramics were investigated. The bending strength of the ferrites increased from 66 to 84 MPa as the grain size of the sintered ceramics decreased from 10.25 μm to 7.53 μm, while the change in hardness was insignificant. The addition of various amounts of CaCO3 densified the Ni0.5Cu0.3Zn0.2Fe2O4 ceramics at 1075 °C. In the pure Ni0.5Cu0.3Zn0.2Fe2O4 ceramic, second phase CuO was segregated at the grain boundaries. With the CaCO3 content ≥1.5 wt%, a small amount of discrete plate-like second phase Fe2CaO4 was observed, together with the disappearance of the second phase CuO. The grain size of the Ni0.5Cu0.3Zn0.2Fe2O4 ceramic dropped from 7.80 μm to 4.68 μm, and the grain size distribution widened as the CaCO3 content increased from 0 to 5 wt%. Initially rising to 807 after CaCO3 addition up to 2.0 wt%, due to a reduced grain size, the Vickers hardness began to drop as the CaCO3 content increased. The bending strength grew linearly with the CaCO3 content and reached twice the value for the Ni0.5Cu0.3Zn0.2Fe2O4 ceramic with an addition of 5.0 wt% CaCO3. The initial permeability of the Ni0.5Cu0.3Zn0.2Fe2O4 ceramic decreased substantially from 402 to 103 as the addition of CaCO3 in ferrite increased from 0 to 5 wt%, and the quality factor of the Ni0.5Cu0.3Zn0.2Fe2O4 ceramic was maximized at 95 for 1.0 wt% CaCO3 addition.

  2. Assessing the salinity effect on planktonic foraminiferal Mg/Ca: Evidence from Aegean Sea core-top samples (Eastern Mediterranean).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kontakiotis, G.; Antonarakou, A.; Mortyn, P. G.; Triantaphyllou, M. V.; Martínez-Botí, M. À.; Dermitzakis, M. D.

    2009-04-01

    Recent work across the Mediterranean Sea has illustrated a salinity (S) effect on planktonic foraminiferal Mg/Ca, which potentially confounds the use of this as a temperature (T) proxy for paleoceanographic reconstructions. As a likely illustration of this, recent downcore work revealed Mg/Ca values that were unreasonably high to be explained by T variations alone over the last deglaciation and throughout the Holocene. Modern biochemical and oceanographic studies highlight the Aegean Sea as an especially sensitive part of the Mediterranean that is closely connected to global climatic variability. Especially focused on T and S variations in the upper hundred meters of the water column, where energy storage and heat transport occur, we analyse planktonic foraminiferal Mg/Ca from a series of Aegean core tops, spanning a strong S gradient and little T range along a N-S transect. The aim is to isolate and quantify the S influence on the Mg/Ca tracer as well as possible in a field study from the region. We have specifically targeted the tropical spinose species Globigerinoides ruber, since it is the most ubiquitous species in the eastern Mediterranean and generally occurs in a wide range of T and S conditions. From our initially high core-top Mg/Ca measurements, we estimated how much of this was "excess", defined by amount of Mg/Ca exceeding that predicted using modern observed average summer T and a G. ruber calibration equation from the Western Equatorial Pacific (WEP). We then determined excess S values by subtracting WEP salinity values from those observed in our core-top locations. We observed that our results were in close agreement with those previously found for the Mediterranean as a whole, such that excess Mg/Ca is positively correlated with excess S. In the present study we expand on previous core-top results for the Aegean Sea in order to confirm and better quantify the S effect on G. ruber Mg/Ca signatures, such that paleo-records from this region will be

  3. Precipitation in a Ag-Containing Mg-Y-Zn Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Y. M.; Oh-ishi, K.; Wilson, N. C.; Hono, K.; Morton, A. J.; Nie, J. F.

    2016-02-01

    The precipitation in a Mg-6Y-2Ag-1Zn-0.6Zr (wt pct) alloy during isothermal aging at and above 473 K (200 °C) has been examined systematically using conventional transmission electron microscopy, high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy, and three-dimensional atom probe. The precipitation involves the formation of G.P. zones, metastable γ″ and γ' phases, and equilibrium 14H and δ phases. The G.P. zones are a single atomic layer on (0001) α . The γ″ is the key strengthening phase and it has an ordered hexagonal structure ( P6/mmm, a = 0.556 nm, c = 0.424 nm). The γ″ forms as (0001) α plates with a thickness of a single unit cell height and tends to develop into stacks with irregular spacing when the alloy is exposed to longer aging time at 473 K (200 °C). The γ″ is gradually replaced by γ' and 14H during prolonged aging at 473 K (200 °C) and/or temperatures above 473 K (200 °C). The equilibrium δ phase is also found in grain boundaries. The results are compared with findings in other but similar alloy systems, and approaches for enhancing γ″ nucleation rate and hence further improvement in alloy age-hardening response are discussed. The effects of Ag on precipitation are also discussed.

  4. Physically Based Model of the Yield Strength for an Al-Mg-Si-Cu-Zn Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseini-Benhangi, Pooya; Mazinani, Mohammad; Haddad-Sabzevar, Mohsen

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this work is to implement recently developed modeling approaches to predict the mechanical behavior of a precipitation-hardened Al-Mg-Si-Cu-Zn alloy. Assuming that precipitates act as weak or strong obstacles to dislocation motion, a yield strength model, originally introduced for AA6111 alloy, is used to derive the precipitate strengthening formulations. The application of the model provides accurate predictions for the evolution of yield strength of the alloy during artificial aging. The transition point, at which shearable precipitates become non-shearable ones, has been identified directly from the result of tensile tests of AA6011(m) samples at different stages of artificial aging using work-hardening rate model. The linear/non-linear behavior of work-hardening rate of AA6011(m) samples at different stages of artificial aging is also studied. It is explained that high dynamic recovery rate in presence of non-shearable precipitates causes the non-linear work-hardening behavior of massively overaged sample. The modeling results for underaged samples show better agreement with measured values of yield strength when the weak obstacle model has been implemented, while strong obstacle model shows relatively good agreement between the experimental and calculated results for the peak-aged and overaged samples.

  5. Softening Behavior of a New Al-Zn-Mg-Cu Alloy Due to TIG Welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Liang; Li, Xiaoyan; Nie, Zuoren; Huang, Hui; Sun, Jiantong

    2016-05-01

    A new Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy with T6 temper was welded by TIG welding, and the softening behavior of the joint was evaluated. Results show that the ultimate tensile strength of the joint is 436.2 ± 26.4 MPa which is about 64.5% of that of the base metal (BM). Fusion zone (FZ) is the weakest region even though its microhardness increases from 107.6 to 131.3 HV within 90 days after welding. Microhardness of the heat-affected zone (HAZ) adjacent to FZ increases from 125.2 to 162.3 HV within 90 days. However, a valley value of microhardness appears in the rest of the HAZ that increases from 112.1 to 128.1 HV within 90 days. The variation of grain size and precipitates is regarded as the main cause of softening in both FZ and HAZ. The grain size of FZ is about 33.9 μm, whereas 8.7 and 8.4 μm for HAZ and BM, respectively. A large number of η' phases distribute dispersively in BM, whereas precipitates in FZ identified as GPI zones are finer and fewer. Besides, precipitates in HAZ adjacent to FZ are also GPI zones. Precipitates in HAZ far away from FZ are coarser and fewer than those in BM and η phases begin to emerge.

  6. The quasiperiodic average structure of highly disordered decagonal Zn-Mg-Dy and its temperature dependence.

    PubMed

    Ors, Taylan; Takakura, Hiroyuki; Abe, Eiji; Steurer, Walter

    2014-04-01

    A single-crystal X-ray diffraction structure analysis of decagonal Zn-Mg-Dy, a Frank-Kasper-type quasicrystal, was performed using the higher-dimensional approach. For this first Frank-Kasper (F-K) decagonal quasicrystal studied so far, significant differences to the decagonal Al-TM-based (TM: transition metal) phases were found. A new type of twofold occupation domain is located on certain edge centers of the five-dimensional unit cell. The structure can be described in terms of a two-cluster model based on a decagonal cluster (∼ 23 Å diameter) arranged on the vertices of a pentagon-Penrose tiling (PPT) and a star-like cluster covering the remaining space. This model is used for the five-dimensional refinements, which converged to an R value of 0.126. The arrangement of clusters is significantly disordered as indicated by high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM). In order to check the structure and stability at higher temperatures, in-situ high-temperature (HT) single-crystal X-ray diffraction experiments were conducted at 598 and 648 K (i.e. slightly below the decomposition temperature). The structure does not change significantly, however, the best quasiperiodic order is found at 598 K. The implication of these results on the stabilization mechanism of quasicrystals is discussed. PMID:24675601

  7. Quantitative evaluation of precipitates in an Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy after isothermal aging

    SciTech Connect

    Du, Z.W. . E-mail: zhiweidu110@sohu.com; Sun, Z.M.; Shao, B.L.; Zhou, T.T.; Chen, C.Q.

    2006-03-15

    The evolution of microstructure parameters (precipitate size and volume fraction) for an Al-8.0 Zn-2.05 Mg-1.76 Cu alloy during isothermal ageing has been studied by synchrotron-radiation small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) combining transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results show that the precipitates are only a few nanometers even at higher temperature 160 deg. C up to 72 h (5.82 nm). The precipitate volume fraction reaches a plateau except ageing at 120 deg. C and the maximum is about 0.052-0.054 in the range 140-160 deg. C. Models describing the evolution of these two parameters with ageing temperature and time have been constructed for our further predicting the precipitate hardening. The coarsening of precipitate is consistent with LSW (Lifshitz-Slyozov-Wagner) model even in the initial stage where volume fraction is still varying. The activation energy of coarsening regime has been determined to be about 1.25 {+-} 0.02 eV.

  8. Acceptor levels in ZnMgO:N probed by deep level optical spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Kurtz, A.; Hierro, A. Muñoz, E.

    2014-02-24

    A combination of deep level optical spectroscopy and lighted capacitance voltage profiling has been used to analyze the effect of N into the energy levels close to the valence band of Zn{sub 0.9}Mg{sub 0.1}O. Three energy levels at E{sub V} + 0.47 eV, E{sub V} + 0.35 eV, and E{sub V} + 0.16 eV are observed in all films with concentrations in the range of 10{sup 15}–10{sup 18} cm{sup −3}. The two shallowest traps at E{sub V} + 0.35 eV and E{sub V} + 0.16 eV have very large concentrations that scale with the N exposure and are thus potential acceptor levels. In order to correctly quantify the deep level concentrations, a metal-insulator-semiconductor model has been invoked, explaining well the resulting capacitance-voltage curves.

  9. Hydrogen release from dialkylamine-boranes promoted by Mg and Ca complexes: a DFT analysis of the reaction mechanism.

    PubMed

    Butera, Valeria; Russo, Nino; Sicilia, Emilia

    2014-05-12

    Mg and Ca β-diketiminato silylamides [HC{(Me)CN(2,6-iPr2C6H3)}2M(THF)n{N(SiMe3)2}] (M = Mg, n = 0; M = Ca, n = 1) were studied as precatalysts for the dehydrogenation/dehydrocoupling of secondary amine-boranes R2HNBH3 . By reaction with equimolar quantities of amine-boranes, the corresponding amidoborane derivatives are formed, which further react to yield dehydrogenation products such as the cyclic dimer [BH2-NMe2]2. DFT was used here to explore the mechanistic alternatives proposed on the basis of the experimental findings for both Mg and Ca amidoboranes. The influence of the steric demand of amine-boranes on the course of the reaction was examined by performing calculations on the dehydrogenation of dimethylamine-borane (DMAB), pyrrolidine-borane (PB), and diisopropylamine-borane. In spite of the analogies in the catalytic activity of Mg- and Ca-based complexes in the dehydrocoupling of amine-boranes, our theoretical analysis confirmed the experimentally observed lower reactivity of Ca complexes. Differences in catalytic activity of Mg- and Ca-based complexes were examined and rationalized. As a consequence of the increase in ionic radius on going from Mg(2+) to Ca(2+), the dehydrogenation mechanism changes and formation of a key metal hydride intermediate becomes inaccessible. Dimerization is likely to occur off-metal in solution for DMAB and PB, whereas steric hindrance of iPr2NHBH3 hampers formation of the cyclic dimer. The reported results are of particular interest because, although amine-borane dehydrogenation is now well established, mechanistic insight is still lacking for many systems. PMID:24700384

  10. Signatures in magnetites formed by (Ca,Mg,Fe)CO3 thermal decomposition: Terrestrial and extraterrestrial implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jimenez-Lopez, Concepcion; Rodriguez-Navarro, Carlos; Rodriguez-Navarro, Alejandro; Perez-Gonzalez, Teresa; Bazylinski, Dennis A.; Lauer, Howard V.; Romanek, Christopher S.

    2012-06-01

    It has never been demonstrated whether magnetite synthesized through the heat-dependent decomposition of carbonate precursors retains the chemical and structural features of the carbonates. In this study, synthetic (Ca,Mg,Fe)CO3 was thermally decomposed by heating from 25 to 700 °C under 1 atm CO2, and by in situ exposure under vacuum to the electron beam of a transmission electron microscope. In both cases, the decomposition of the carbonate was topotactic and resulted in porous pseudomorphs composed of oriented aggregates of magnetite nanocrystals. Both calcium and magnesium were incorporated into nanophase magnetite, forming (Ca,Mg)-magnetites and (Ca,Mg)-ferrites when these elements were present in the parent material, thus preserving the chemical signature of the precursor. These results show that magnetites synthesized in this way acquire a chemical and structural inheritance from their carbonate precursor that indicates how they were produced. These results are not only important in the determination of the origin of chemically-impure, oriented nanophase magnetite crystals in general, but they also provide important insights into the origin of the large, euhedral, chemically-pure, [111]-elongated magnetites found within Ca-, Mg- and Fe-rich carbonates of the Martian meteorite ALH84001. Based on our experimental results, the chemically-pure magnetites within ALH84001 cannot be genetically related to the Ca-, Mg- and Fe-rich carbonate matrix within which they are embedded, and an alternative explanation for their occurrence is warranted.

  11. Activation of an intense near band edge emission from ZnTe/ZnMgTe core/shell nanowires grown on silicon.

    PubMed

    Wojnar, P; Szymura, M; Zaleszczyk, W; Kłopotowski, L; Janik, E; Wiater, M; Baczewski, L T; Kret, S; Karczewski, G; Kossut, J; Wojtowicz, T

    2013-09-13

    The absence of luminescence in the near band edge energy region of Te-anion based semiconductor nanowires grown by gold catalyst assisted molecular beam epitaxy has strongly limited their applications in the field of photonics. In this paper, an enhancement of the near band edge emission intensity from ZnTe/ZnMgTe core/shell nanowires grown on Si substrates is reported. A special role of the use of Si substrates instead of GaAs substrates is emphasized, which results in an increase of the near band edge emission intensity by at least one order of magnitude accompanied by a simultaneous reduction of the defect related luminescence. A possible explanation of this effect relies on the presence of Ga-related deep level defects in structures grown on GaAs substrates, which are absent when Si substrates are used. Monochromatic mapping of the cathodoluminescence clearly confirms that the observed emission originates, indeed, from the ZnTe/ZnMgTe core/shell nanowires, whereas individual objects are studied by means of microphotoluminescence.

  12. Selective UV radiation detection on the basis of low-dimensional ZnCdS/ZnMgS/GaP and ZnCdS/ZnS/GaP heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Averin, S. V. Kuznetzov, P. I.; Zhitov, V. A.; Zakharov, L. Yu.; Kotov, V. M.; Alkeev, N. V.; Gladisheva, N. B.

    2015-11-15

    The detecting properties of periodic heterostructures with ZnCdS quantum wells separated by ZnMgS or ZnS barrier layers are studied. Heterostructures are grown on semi-insulating GaP substrates by metal organic vapor-phase epitaxy (MOVPE). On their basis, metal–semiconductor–metal (MSM) diodes with interdigital Schottky contacts 3 μm, distances between them of 3 μm, and a total detector area of 100 × 100 μm are fabricated. The detectors have low dark currents (10{sup –12} A); at low bias voltages, they provide a narrow- band response (full-width at half-maximum of FWHM = 18 nm at a wavelength of 350 nm) which is controlled by the ZnCdS quantum-well composition. As bias is increased to 70 V, the maximum detector sensitivity shifts by a wavelength of 450 nm, which is caused by penetration of the external-bias electric field into the semi-insulating GaP substrate. In this case, the narrow-band response of the detector at a wavelength of 350 nm is retained, i.e., the two-color detection of light is provided.

  13. Electron transfer through ordered metallic chains in LiNbO 3 : (Mg, Zn) : Me(3d)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakitina, L. G.; Shanina, B. D.; Corradi, G.; Polgar, K.

    1998-04-01

    In crystal and ceramic LiNbO 3 double doped with Mg or Zn above the threshold concentration ( CMg,Zn⩾4-6 mol%) and with transition metals of the 3d group (Cr, Fe, Mn) non-resonant microwave absorption (NRMA) dependent on the magnetic field was studied. Peak-like dependencies of the NRMA signal intensity on the concentration of dopants and stoichiometry of lithium niobate were found. The EPR line of mobile electrons (Δ B=30 mT) with g=2.0023 was detected. The interaction energy between the substitutional impurities of Mg and Cr was calculated. It was concluded, that in LiNbO 3 : (Mg, Zn) : (Cr, Fe, Mn) ordered metallic chains exist with electron conductivity.

  14. High-pressure decomposition of MCr2O4 spinels (M=Mg, Mn, Zn) by ab initio methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catti, M.; Fava, F. Freyria; Zicovich, C.; Dovesi, R.

    The high-pressure equation of state of the normal spinels MgCr2O4 (picrochromite), MnCr2O4 and ZnCr2O4, and their reaction of decomposition into Cr2O3 (eskolaite) and MO (rocksalt-type) component oxides, were investigated by periodic unrestricted Hartree-Fock calculations. All-electron basis sets, and an a posteriori correction for the electron correlation energy, based on Density-Functional-Theory, were employed. Interpolation of results by the P-V Murnaghan equation of state yielded the equilibrium volume and energy, and the bulk modulus and its pressure derivative, for each of the seven phases (three spinels, three rocksalt oxides and eskolaite) considered. The simulated behaviour of interatomic distances vs pressure shows similar compressibilities of M-O bonds in both octahedral and tetrahedral coordinations. Binding energies and formation enthalpies of spinels from oxides are also computed and compared to available experimental data. The predicted decomposition pressures of Mg, Mn and Zn chromium spinels are 19, 23 and 34 GPa, respectively. The greater stability of ZnCr2O4 is related to Zn2+ being better suited to tetrahedral coordination than the other M2+ cations. Such results are strongly supported by the excellent agreement previously obtained between simulated (11 GPa) and experimental (13 GPa) pressures of the decomposition of MgAl2O4 spinel into corundum and periclase.

  15. Mechanochemical Reduction of MoS2 by Zn in Presence of Lime to Produce Nano-CaMoO4 and -ZnS Simultaneously

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezanaj, Malihe Mohammadi; Khaki, Jalil Vahdati; Hoseinpur, Arman

    2015-12-01

    This research introduces a novel and solid-state free sulfur emission route to roast MoS2. For this purpose, MoS2 was milled in presence of Zn and CaO exposed to the air atmosphere. Results showed that after the synthesis process, the products consisted of CaMoO4 and ZnS, which were successfully separated from each other using a simple hot water leaching. Our results revealed that the main synthesis process consisted of two different steps. At the first step, the zincothermic reduction of MoS2 led to synthesize the elemental Mo. Subsequently in the second step, CaMoO4 was synthesized from the reaction of Mo by CaO in presence of air. In order to investigate the progress of the reaction during the milling process, the milled powders were characterized using X-ray diffraction analysis. Scanning electron microscopy, dynamic laser scattering, and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy techniques were also used to characterize the synthesized powders. Moreover, the PL spectroscopy of the products demonstrated that CaMoO4 and ZnS have PL properties.

  16. Low-Temperature Sintering and Electromagnetic Properties of NiCuZn/CaTiO3 Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Haibo; Yang, Yanyan; Lin, Ying; Zhu, Jianfeng; Wang, Fen

    2012-04-01

    Dense CaTiO3/Ni0.37Cu0.20Zn0.43Fe1.92O3.88 (CTO/NiCuZn) composites were prepared by the conventional solid-state reaction method and sintered at 950°C. The phase compositions and surface morphologies of the composites were investigated using x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. The dielectric and magnetic properties of the composites were also investigated. The results show that the CTO/NiCuZn composites possess high dielectric constants and permeabilities, which can be used in high-frequency communications for capacitor-inductor integrating devices such as electromagnetic interference filters and antennas. With increasing NiCuZn concentration, the permeabilities of the CTO/NiCuZn composites increase, while the dielectric constants and cutoff frequencies decrease.

  17. Optical properties and structural characteristics of ZnMgO grown by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Wassner, Thomas A.; Laumer, Bernhard; Maier, Stefan; Stutzmann, Martin; Laufer, Andreas; Meyer, Bruno K.; Eickhoff, Martin

    2009-01-15

    Wurtzite Zn{sub 1-x}Mg{sub x}O thin films with Mg contents between x=0 and x=0.37 were grown on c-plane sapphire substrates by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy using a MgO/ZnMgO buffer layer. The a-lattice parameter is independent from the Mg concentration, whereas the c-lattice parameter decreases from 5.20 A for x=0 to 5.17 A for x=0.37, indicating pseudomorphic growth. The near band edge photoluminescence shows a blueshift with increasing Mg concentration to an emission energy of 4.11 eV for x=0.37. Simultaneously, the energetic position of the deep defect luminescence shows a linear shift from 2.2 to 2.8 eV. Low temperature transmission measurements reveal strong excitonic features for the investigated composition range and alloy broadening effects for higher Mg contents. The Stokes shift as well as the Urbach energy is increased to values of up to 125 and 54 meV for x=0.37, respectively, indicating exciton localization due to alloy fluctuations.

  18. The role of band alignment in p-type conductivity of Na-doped ZnMgO: Polar versus non-polar

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, H. H.; Pan, X. H. E-mail: yezz@zju.edu.cn; Li, Y.; Ye, Z. Z. E-mail: yezz@zju.edu.cn; Lu, B.; Chen, W.; Huang, J. Y.; Ding, P.; Chen, S. S.; He, H. P.; Lu, J. G.; Chen, L. X.; Ye, C. L.

    2014-03-17

    We investigate the electrical properties of polar and non-polar ZnMgO:Na films that have been fabricated on c-plane and r-plane sapphire substrates using intervened ZnO layers (10–30 nm thick) by pulsed laser deposition. Hall-effect measurements indicate that the a-plane ZnMgO:Na film exhibits p-type conductivity with a carrier concentration of about 3.5 × 10{sup 16} cm{sup −3}, while the polar film shows a compensatory conductivity. Meanwhile, the dependence of the band alignment on the orientation of the ZnMgO/ZnO heterojunctions has been investigated using photoelectron spectroscopy. The heterojunctions form in the type-I straddling alignment with valence band offsets of 0.07 (0.02) eV for the (non-)polar heterojunction. The difference in valence band offsets is primarily attributed to the spontaneous polarization effect. We propose that the smaller valence band offsets and larger conduction band offsets would reduce the Na{sub Zn} acceptor level and enhance the relative intrinsic donor levels. Such effects consequently lead to p-type conductivity in non-polar ZnMgO:Na films. The band alignment of non-polar ZnMgO/ZnO can be used to facilitate p-type doping with a shallower acceptor state in the ZnO-like alloy.

  19. Microstructural analysis and mechanical properties of biodegradable Mg-1.3Ca-5.5Zr alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Istrate, B.; Munteanu, C.; Matei, MN; Oprisan, B.; Moisei, M.; Earar, K.

    2016-08-01

    Magnesium based alloys begin to be known as biodegradable materials used in medical field. Zirconium and Calcium as alloying elements, improve mechanical strength, creep resistance and refine microstructure. Also, Ca is the most spread mineral in the human body, which contributes to the osteosynthesis phenomenon. The aim of this paper is developing two original Mg-Zr-Ca biodegradable alloys, characterizing from the point of view of the microstructure, X-ray diffraction, Young modulus and scratch test. Results show evenly distributed clusters of zirconium and Mg2Ca arranged at Mg grains boundary. Also, values of Young modulus are between 25-27 GPa similar to bones Young modulus, thus avoiding the formation of “stress shield effect”.

  20. Temperature variation of the size effect in dilute AlMg and AlCa alloys: Measurement and theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilder, H. M.; Asty, M.; Audit, Ph.

    1980-12-01

    Optical-interferometric-differential-length and x-ray lattice-parameter measurements performed at low temperatures in dilute AlMg and AlCa alloys indicate that the temperature variation of the size effect corresponds to a relatively large difference between the intrinsic coefficient of thermal expansion βi of the solute atom structure and that, β, of the solvent. This result is another example of the surprising expansive properties of point defects previously described by Gilder and co-workers (high-temperature vacancy diffusion) and more recently by Ganne (low-temperature dilatometry on irradiated specimens). Specifically, in the temperature range 0.2Mg)β~3 and βi(Ca)β~-4. This, as well as the fact that the sign of the change in the coefficient of thermal expansion Δβ of the host metal caused by the introduction of the solute atom is positive for Mg and negative for Ca, indicates that solute-solvent valence effects play a minor role in determining the coefficient of thermal expansion of the dilute alloy. It is also found, to within the experimental precision, that Δβ(Mg) and Δβ(Ca) are temperature independent, suggesting a type of Matthiessen's rule for thermal expansion. A model calculation of the size effect and its temperature variation in the infinitely dilute alloy is presented. The volume-dependent forces are treated by means of a term describing the elastic energy associated with the solute-solvent volume misfit, whereas the temperature-dependent potential of Dagens et al. is used to calculate the pairwise interaction between the solvent ions and the solute ion. Good agreement with the experimental data is obtained for the size effect in both AlMg and AlCa. The calculated values of Δβ(Mg)Ci, Ci being the solute concentration, and βi(Mg) fall between the measured values in the two AlMg alloys studied. The calculation of Δβ(Ca)Ci and βi(Ca) is not possible due to a lack of elastic-constants data for pure, metallic

  1. Stimulatory effects of the degradation products from Mg-Ca-Sr alloy on the osteogenesis through regulating ERK signaling pathway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Mei; He, Peng; Wu, Yuanhao; Zhang, Yu; Xia, Hong; Zheng, Yufeng; Han, Yong

    2016-09-01

    The influence of Mg-1Ca-xwt.% Sr (x = 0.2, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0) alloys on the osteogenic differentiation and mineralization of pre-osteoblast MC3T3-E1 were studied through typical differentiation markers, such as intracellular alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, extracellular collagen secretion and calcium nodule formation. It was shown that Mg-1Ca alloys with different content of Sr promoted cell viability and enhanced the differentiation and mineralization levels of osteoblasts, and Mg-1Ca-2.0Sr alloy had the most remarkable and significant effect among all. To further investigate the underlying mechanisms, RT-PCR and Western Blotting assays were taken to analyze the mRNA expression level of osteogenesis-related genes and intracellular signaling pathways involved in osteogenesis, respectively. RT-PCR results showed that Mg-1Ca-2.0Sr alloy significantly up-regulated the expressions of the transcription factors of Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) and Osterix (OSX), Integrin subunits, as well as alkaline phosphatase (ALP), Bone sialoprotein (BSP), Collagen I (COL I), Osteocalcin (OCN) and Osteopontin (OPN). Western Blotting results suggested that Mg-1Ca-2.0Sr alloy rapidly induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation but showed no obvious effects on c-Jun N terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 kinase of MAPK. Taken together, our results demonstrated that Mg-1Ca-2.0Sr alloy had excellent biocompatibility and osteogenesis via the ERK pathway and is expected to be promising as orthopedic implants and bone repair materials.

  2. Stimulatory effects of the degradation products from Mg-Ca-Sr alloy on the osteogenesis through regulating ERK signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, Mei; He, Peng; Wu, Yuanhao; Zhang, Yu; Xia, Hong; Zheng, Yufeng; Han, Yong

    2016-01-01

    The influence of Mg-1Ca-xwt.% Sr (x = 0.2, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0) alloys on the osteogenic differentiation and mineralization of pre-osteoblast MC3T3-E1 were studied through typical differentiation markers, such as intracellular alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, extracellular collagen secretion and calcium nodule formation. It was shown that Mg-1Ca alloys with different content of Sr promoted cell viability and enhanced the differentiation and mineralization levels of osteoblasts, and Mg-1Ca-2.0Sr alloy had the most remarkable and significant effect among all. To further investigate the underlying mechanisms, RT-PCR and Western Blotting assays were taken to analyze the mRNA expression level of osteogenesis-related genes and intracellular signaling pathways involved in osteogenesis, respectively. RT-PCR results showed that Mg-1Ca-2.0Sr alloy significantly up-regulated the expressions of the transcription factors of Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) and Osterix (OSX), Integrin subunits, as well as alkaline phosphatase (ALP), Bone sialoprotein (BSP), Collagen I (COL I), Osteocalcin (OCN) and Osteopontin (OPN). Western Blotting results suggested that Mg-1Ca-2.0Sr alloy rapidly induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation but showed no obvious effects on c-Jun N terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 kinase of MAPK. Taken together, our results demonstrated that Mg-1Ca-2.0Sr alloy had excellent biocompatibility and osteogenesis via the ERK pathway and is expected to be promising as orthopedic implants and bone repair materials. PMID:27580744

  3. [Seasonal release characteristics of Ca, Mg and Mn of foliar litter of six tree species in subtropical evergreen broadleaved forest].

    PubMed

    Ma, Zhi-liang; Gao, Shun; Yang, Wan-qin; Wu, Fu-zhong

    2015-10-01

    Seasonal release dynamics of Ca, Mg and Mn during decomposition of foliar litter of Pinus massoniana, Cryptomeria fortunei, Cunninghamia lanceolata, Cinnamomum camphora, Toona ciliate, and Quercus acutissima were investigated in subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest employing the method of litterbag. After one-year decomposition, the release rates of Ca, Mg and Mn in foliar litter of the studied tree species ranged from -13.8% to 92.3%, from 4.0% to 64.8%, and from 41.6% to 81.1%, respectively. Ca dynamics in foliar litter of P. massoniana, C. camphora exhibited the pattern of accumulating early and releasing later, while that of the other four tree species showed direct release. Similarly, the dynamics of Mg released from foliar litter of C. camphora showed the pattern of accumulating early and then releasing, while that of the other five tree species exhibited continuous release. Meanwhile, the dynamics of Mn released from foliar litter of C. fortunei and T. ciliate exhibited early accumulation, and subsequent release, while that of the other four tree species showed continuous release. The releases of Ca, Mg and Mn in foliar litter were greatly influenced by seasonal rainfall, and varied with tree species. Furthermore, the rates and amounts of Ca, Mg and Mn released from foliar litter were higher in rainy season than in dry season. In conclusion, the initial nutrient concentrations and precipitation were two key factors influencing the release dynamics of Ca, Mg and Mn during decomposition of foliar litter in the subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest. PMID:26995897

  4. Stimulatory effects of the degradation products from Mg-Ca-Sr alloy on the osteogenesis through regulating ERK signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Li, Mei; He, Peng; Wu, Yuanhao; Zhang, Yu; Xia, Hong; Zheng, Yufeng; Han, Yong

    2016-01-01

    The influence of Mg-1Ca-xwt.% Sr (x = 0.2, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0) alloys on the osteogenic differentiation and mineralization of pre-osteoblast MC3T3-E1 were studied through typical differentiation markers, such as intracellular alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, extracellular collagen secretion and calcium nodule formation. It was shown that Mg-1Ca alloys with different content of Sr promoted cell viability and enhanced the differentiation and mineralization levels of osteoblasts, and Mg-1Ca-2.0Sr alloy had the most remarkable and significant effect among all. To further investigate the underlying mechanisms, RT-PCR and Western Blotting assays were taken to analyze the mRNA expression level of osteogenesis-related genes and intracellular signaling pathways involved in osteogenesis, respectively. RT-PCR results showed that Mg-1Ca-2.0Sr alloy significantly up-regulated the expressions of the transcription factors of Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) and Osterix (OSX), Integrin subunits, as well as alkaline phosphatase (ALP), Bone sialoprotein (BSP), Collagen I (COL I), Osteocalcin (OCN) and Osteopontin (OPN). Western Blotting results suggested that Mg-1Ca-2.0Sr alloy rapidly induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation but showed no obvious effects on c-Jun N terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 kinase of MAPK. Taken together, our results demonstrated that Mg-1Ca-2.0Sr alloy had excellent biocompatibility and osteogenesis via the ERK pathway and is expected to be promising as orthopedic implants and bone repair materials. PMID:27580744

  5. Stimulatory effects of the degradation products from Mg-Ca-Sr alloy on the osteogenesis through regulating ERK signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, Mei; He, Peng; Wu, Yuanhao; Zhang, Yu; Xia, Hong; Zheng, Yufeng; Han, Yong

    2016-09-01

    The influence of Mg-1Ca-xwt.% Sr (x = 0.2, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0) alloys on the osteogenic differentiation and mineralization of pre-osteoblast MC3T3-E1 were studied through typical differentiation markers, such as intracellular alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, extracellular collagen secretion and calcium nodule formation. It was shown that Mg-1Ca alloys with different content of Sr promoted cell viability and enhanced the differentiation and mineralization levels of osteoblasts, and Mg-1Ca-2.0Sr alloy had the most remarkable and significant effect among all. To further investigate the underlying mechanisms, RT-PCR and Western Blotting assays were taken to analyze the mRNA expression level of osteogenesis-related genes and intracellular signaling pathways involved in osteogenesis, respectively. RT-PCR results showed that Mg-1Ca-2.0Sr alloy significantly up-regulated the expressions of the transcription factors of Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) and Osterix (OSX), Integrin subunits, as well as alkaline phosphatase (ALP), Bone sialoprotein (BSP), Collagen I (COL I), Osteocalcin (OCN) and Osteopontin (OPN). Western Blotting results suggested that Mg-1Ca-2.0Sr alloy rapidly induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation but showed no obvious effects on c-Jun N terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 kinase of MAPK. Taken together, our results demonstrated that Mg-1Ca-2.0Sr alloy had excellent biocompatibility and osteogenesis via the ERK pathway and is expected to be promising as orthopedic implants and bone repair materials.

  6. ß-Adrenergic stimulation increases RyR2 activity via intracellular Ca2+ and Mg2+ regulation.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiao; Imtiaz, Mohammad S; Beard, Nicole A; Dulhunty, Angela F; Thorne, Rick; vanHelden, Dirk F; Laver, Derek R

    2013-01-01

    Here we investigate how ß-adrenergic stimulation of the heart alters regulation of ryanodine receptors (RyRs) by intracellular Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) and the role of these changes in SR Ca(2+) release. RyRs were isolated from rat hearts, perfused in a Langendorff apparatus for 5 min and subject to 1 min perfusion with 1 µM isoproterenol or without (control) and snap frozen in liquid N2 to capture their phosphorylation state. Western Blots show that RyR2 phosphorylation was increased by isoproterenol, confirming that RyR2 were subject to normal ß-adrenergic signaling. Under basal conditions, S2808 and S2814 had phosphorylation levels of 69% and 15%, respectively. These levels were increased to 83% and 60%, respectively, after 60 s of ß-adrenergic stimulation consistent with other reports that ß-adrenergic stimulation of the heart can phosphorylate RyRs at specific residues including S2808 and S2814 causing an increase in RyR activity. At cytoplasmic [Ca(2+)] <1 µM, ß-adrenergic stimulation increased luminal Ca(2+) activation of single RyR channels, decreased luminal Mg(2+) inhibition and decreased inhibition of RyRs by mM cytoplasmic Mg(2+). At cytoplasmic [Ca(2+)] >1 µM, ß-adrenergic stimulation only decreased cytoplasmic Mg(2+) and Ca(2+) inhibition of RyRs. The Ka and maximum levels of cytoplasmic Ca(2+) activation site were not affected by ß-adrenergic stimulation. Our RyR2 gating model was fitted to the single channel data. It predicted that in diastole, ß-adrenergic stimulation is mediated by 1) increasing the activating potency of Ca(2+) binding to the luminal Ca(2+) site and decreasing its affinity for luminal Mg(2+) and 2) decreasing affinity of the low-affinity Ca(2+)/Mg(2+) cytoplasmic inhibition site. However in systole, ß-adrenergic stimulation is mediated mainly by the latter.

  7. Relaxation, [Ca2+]i and [Mg2+]i during prolonged tetanic stimulation of intact, single fibres from mouse skeletal muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Westerblad, H; Allen, D G

    1994-01-01

    1. In skeletal muscle there is generally a slowing of relaxation with increasing tetanus duration and it has been suggested that this is due to Ca2+ loading of parvalbumin (PA). To study this we have produced prolonged tetani in intact, single fibres from a mouse foot muscle which contain a high concentration of PA. We measured the rate of tension relaxation and also various aspects of Ca2+ handling. 2. During 'interrupted' tetani (15 repeated cycles of 100 ms with stimulation and 50 ms without) we observed a marked slowing of the relaxation both under control conditions and in acidosis (obtained by increasing the bath CO2 content). This slowing was not accompanied by any reduction of the initial rate of decline of the free myoplasmic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i), which was measured with indo-1. 3. The functioning of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) pump after tetani of various durations was analysed by plotting d[Ca2+]i/dt vs. [Ca2+]i during the final slow decline of [Ca2+]i after tetani. This analysis showed that the rate of SR Ca2+ pumping after a 1 s tetanus is less than half of that after a 100 ms tetanus. 4. The amplitude of the tail of [Ca2+]i 250 ms into relaxation was measured after tetani of various durations. This amplitude increased with tetanus duration and could be fitted to the sum of one exponential and one linear function. The exponential component increased with a time constant of 0.17 s and probably reflects Ca2+ loading of PA. 5. Ca2+ binding to PA will displace Mg2+ and hence the free myoplasmic concentration of Mg2+ ([Mg2+]i) will increase. To study this we used the fluorescent Mg2+ indicator furaptra. The results showed an increase of [Mg2+]i during prolonged tetani which, after removing the Ca2+ component of the fluorescent signal, amounted to about 0.5 mM. 6. A model of Ca2+ movements and tension production in skeletal muscle was used. The model showed that the increase of the amplitude of [Ca2+]i tails after tetani of various durations can

  8. Disappearance of Ising nature in Ca3ZnMnO6 studied by high-field ESR.

    PubMed

    Ruan, M Y; Ouyang, Z W; Guo, Y M; Cheng, J J; Sun, Y C; Xia, Z C; Rao, G H; Okubo, S; Ohta, H

    2014-06-11

    High-field electron spin resonance measurements of an antiferromagnet Ca3ZnMnO6 isostructure, with the Ising-chain multiferroic Ca3CoMnO6, have been carried out. Two distinct resonance modes were observed below TN = 25 K, which is well explained by conventional antiferromagnetic resonance theory with easy-plane anisotropy. The zero-field spin gap is derived to be about 166 GHz, originating from the easy-plane anisotropy and exchange interaction. Our result suggests that the Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya interaction, which may induce spin canting, is absent. Disappearance of Ising anisotropy in Ca3ZnMnO6 suggests that the Co(4+) ion, as well as the Co-Mn superexchange, plays an important role for the Ising nature in Ca3CoMnO6. PMID:24828049

  9. Removal of exhausted oils by adsorption on mixed Ca and Mg oxides.

    PubMed

    Solisio, Carlo; Lodi, Alessandra; Converti, Attilio; Del, Borghi Marco

    2002-02-01

    Adsorption tests were performed on two different exhausted oils to reduce their polluting and health hazard potential: a "water-insoluble oil", utilised for automotive engine lubrication, and an "emulsified" oil, used as coolant for metal-cutting tools. Dolomite, a low-cost recovery material, was used to prepare two effective adsorbents: (a) a mixed Ca and Mg oxide obtained by thermal decomposition of dolomite at 1800 degrees C, and (b) an activated material obtained by submitting this product to chemical treatment with HCl. Preliminary tests carried out with an excess of the former material showed that the insoluble oil was adsorbed with lower yield (Y = 0.40) than the soluble (emulsified) oil (Y = 0.60). The material activation with HCl remarkably improved the adsorption of soluble oil organic fraction (Y > 0.90), while only a little increase in the removal yield was observed for the insoluble oil (Y = 0.44). The results presented and discussed in this work pointed out that the products of dolomite calcination can successfully replace the conventional adsorbing materials in the removal of organic pollutants, with particular concern to exhausted soluble oils, which cannot usually be recycled, thus reducing the operational costs of their treatment.

  10. Toxic Metals (Pb and Cd) and Their Respective Antagonists (Ca and Zn) in Infant Formulas and Milk Marketed in Brasilia, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    De Castro, Clarissa S. P.; Arruda, Andréa F.; Da Cunha, Leandro R.; SouzaDe, Jurandir R.; Braga, Jez W. B.; Dórea, José G.

    2010-01-01

    In non-ideal scenarios involving partial or non-breastfeeding, cow’s milk-based dairy products are mainstream in infant feeding. Therefore, it is important to study the concentrations of potentially neurotoxic contaminants (Pb and Cd) and their respective counteracting elements (Ca and Zn) in infant dairy products. Fifty-five brands of infant formulas and milk sold in Brasilia, Brazil were analyzed. The dairy products came from areas in the central-west (26%), southeast (29%) and south of Brazil (36%) extending as far as Argentina (7%) and the Netherlands (2%). For toxic Pb and Cd, median concentrations in powdered samples were 0.109 mg/kg and 0.033 mg/kg, respectively; in fluid samples median Pb concentration was 0.084 mg/kg, but median Cd concentration was below the limit of detection and overall values were below reference safety levels. However, 62% of these samples presented higher Pb concentration values than those established by FAO/WHO. Although the inverse correlation between Cd and Zn (Spearman r = −0.116; P = 0.590) was not statistically significant, the positive correlation between Ca and Pb was (Spearman r = 0.619; P < 0.0001). Additionally, there was a significant correlation between Pb and Cd. Furthermore, the study also revealed that provision of the essential trace element Zn in infant formulas can provide adequate amounts of the recommended daily requirements. Infant formulas and milk sold for consumption by infants and children can be an efficient tool to monitor neurotoxic metal risk exposure among young children. PMID:21139877

  11. Fine precipitation scenarios of AlZnMg(Cu) alloys revealed by advanced atomic-resolution electron microscopy study Part I: Structure determination of the precipitates in AlZnMg(Cu) alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, J.Z.; Chen, J.H.; Yuan, D.W.; Wu, C.L.; Zhu, J.; Cheng, Z.Y.

    2015-01-15

    Although they are among the most important precipitation-hardened materials for industry applications, the high-strength AlZnMg(Cu) alloys have thus far not yet been understood adequately about their underlying precipitation scenarios in relation with the properties. This is partly due to the fact that the structures of a number of different precipitates involved in electron microscopy in association with quantitative image simulations have to be employed; a systematic study of these hardening precipitates in different alloys is also necessary. In Part I of the present study, it is shown that there are five types of structurally different precipitates including the equilibrium η-phase precipitate. Using two state-of-the-art atomic-resolution imaging techniques in electron microscopy in association with quantitative image simulations, we have determined and clarified all the unknown precipitate structures. It is demonstrated that atomic-resolution imaging can directly suggest approximate structure models, whereas quantitative image analysis can refine the structure details that are much smaller than the resolution of the microscope. This combination is crucially important for solving the difficult structure problems of the strengthening precipitates in AlZnMg(Cu) alloys. - Highlights: Part I: • We determine and verify all the key precipitate structures in AlMgZn(Cu) alloys. • We employ aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). • We use aberration-corrected high-resolution TEM (HRTEM) for the investigations. • We obtain atomic-resolution images of the precipitates and model their structures. • We refine all precipitate structures with quantitative image simulation analysis. Part II: • The hardening precipitates in AlZnMg alloys shall be classified into two groups. • Two precipitation scenarios coexist in the alloys. • The precipitation behavior of such an alloy depends on the alloy's composition. • Very detailed phase

  12. Discharge properties of Mg-Al-Mn-Ca and Mg-Al-Mn alloys as anode materials for primary magnesium-air batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuasa, Motohiro; Huang, Xinsheng; Suzuki, Kazutaka; Mabuchi, Mamoru; Chino, Yasumasa

    2015-11-01

    The discharge behaviors of rolled Mg-6 mass%Al-0.3 mass%Mn-2 mass%Ca (AMX602) and Mg-6 mass%Al-0.3 mass%Mn (AM60) alloys used as anodes for Magnesium-air batteries were investigated. The AMX602 alloy exhibited superior discharge properties compared to the AM60 alloy, especially at low current density. The discharge products of the AMX602 alloy were dense and thin, and many cracks were observed at all current densities. In addition, the discharge products were detached at some sites. These sites often corresponded to the positions of Al2Ca particles. The comparison of the discharge and corrosion tests indicated that the dense and thin discharge products of AMX602 were easily cracked by dissolution of the Mg matrix around Al2Ca particles, and the cracks promoted the penetration of the electrolyte into the discharge products, retaining the discharge activity. In contrast, concerning the AM60 alloy, thick discharge products were formed on the surface during discharge, and cracking of the discharge products hardly occurred, degrading the discharge properties. Localized and deeply corroded pits that could result from the detachment of metal pieces from the anode during discharge were partly observed in the AM60 alloy. It is suggested that these detached met