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Sample records for mglur-dependent long-term depression

  1. Long-term potentiation and long-term depression: a clinical perspective

    PubMed Central

    Bliss, Timothy V.P.; Cooke, Sam F

    2011-01-01

    Long-term potentiation and long-term depression are enduring changes in synaptic strength, induced by specific patterns of synaptic activity, that have received much attention as cellular models of information storage in the central nervous system. Work in a number of brain regions, from the spinal cord to the cerebral cortex, and in many animal species, ranging from invertebrates to humans, has demonstrated a reliable capacity for chemical synapses to undergo lasting changes in efficacy in response to a variety of induction protocols. In addition to their physiological relevance, long-term potentiation and depression may have important clinical applications. A growing insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying these processes, and technological advances in non-invasive manipulation of brain activity, now puts us at the threshold of harnessing long-term potentiation and depression and other forms of synaptic, cellular and circuit plasticity to manipulate synaptic strength in the human nervous system. Drugs may be used to erase or treat pathological synaptic states and non-invasive stimulation devices may be used to artificially induce synaptic plasticity to ameliorate conditions arising from disrupted synaptic drive. These approaches hold promise for the treatment of a variety of neurological conditions, including neuropathic pain, epilepsy, depression, amblyopia, tinnitus and stroke. PMID:21779718

  2. Long-term prognosis of depression in primary care.

    PubMed Central

    Simon, G. E.

    2000-01-01

    This article uses longitudinal data from a primary care sample to examine long-term prognosis of depression. A sample of 225 patients initiating antidepressant treatment in primary care completed assessments of clinical outcome (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and the mood module of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IIIR) 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18 and 24 months after initiating treatment. The proportion of patients continuing to meet criteria for major depression fell rapidly to approximately 10% and remained at approximately that level throughout follow-up. The proportion meeting criteria for remission (Hamilton Depression score of 7 or less) rose gradually to approximately 45%. Long-term prognosis (i.e. probability of remission at 6 months and beyond) was strongly related to remission status at 3 months (odds ratio 3.65; 95% confidence interval, 2.81-4.76) and only modestly related to various clinical characteristics assessed at baseline (e.g. prior history of recurrent depression, medical comorbidity, comorbid anxiety symptoms). The findings indicate that potentially modifiable risk factors influence the long-term prognosis of depression. This suggests that more systematic and effective depression treatment programmes might have an important effect on long-term course and reduce the overall burden of chronic and recurrent depression. PMID:10885162

  3. Stochastic Induction of Long-Term Potentiation and Long-Term Depression.

    PubMed

    Antunes, G; Roque, A C; Simoes-de-Souza, F M

    2016-01-01

    Long-term depression (LTD) and long-term potentiation (LTP) of granule-Purkinje cell synapses are persistent synaptic alterations induced by high and low rises of the intracellular calcium ion concentration ([Ca(2+)]), respectively. The occurrence of LTD involves the activation of a positive feedback loop formed by protein kinase C, phospholipase A2, and the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase pathway, and its expression comprises the reduction of the population of synaptic AMPA receptors. Recently, a stochastic computational model of these signalling processes demonstrated that, in single synapses, LTD is probabilistic and bistable. Here, we expanded this model to simulate LTP, which requires protein phosphatases and the increase in the population of synaptic AMPA receptors. Our results indicated that, in single synapses, while LTD is bistable, LTP is gradual. Ca(2+) induced both processes stochastically. The magnitudes of the Ca(2+) signals and the states of the signalling network regulated the likelihood of LTP and LTD and defined dynamic macroscopic Ca(2+) thresholds for the synaptic modifications in populations of synapses according to an inverse Bienenstock, Cooper and Munro (BCM) rule or a sigmoidal function. In conclusion, our model presents a unifying mechanism that explains the macroscopic properties of LTP and LTD from their dynamics in single synapses. PMID:27485552

  4. Stochastic Induction of Long-Term Potentiation and Long-Term Depression

    PubMed Central

    Antunes, G.; Roque, A. C.; Simoes-de-Souza, F. M.

    2016-01-01

    Long-term depression (LTD) and long-term potentiation (LTP) of granule-Purkinje cell synapses are persistent synaptic alterations induced by high and low rises of the intracellular calcium ion concentration ([Ca2+]), respectively. The occurrence of LTD involves the activation of a positive feedback loop formed by protein kinase C, phospholipase A2, and the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase pathway, and its expression comprises the reduction of the population of synaptic AMPA receptors. Recently, a stochastic computational model of these signalling processes demonstrated that, in single synapses, LTD is probabilistic and bistable. Here, we expanded this model to simulate LTP, which requires protein phosphatases and the increase in the population of synaptic AMPA receptors. Our results indicated that, in single synapses, while LTD is bistable, LTP is gradual. Ca2+ induced both processes stochastically. The magnitudes of the Ca2+ signals and the states of the signalling network regulated the likelihood of LTP and LTD and defined dynamic macroscopic Ca2+ thresholds for the synaptic modifications in populations of synapses according to an inverse Bienenstock, Cooper and Munro (BCM) rule or a sigmoidal function. In conclusion, our model presents a unifying mechanism that explains the macroscopic properties of LTP and LTD from their dynamics in single synapses. PMID:27485552

  5. Dopamine favours the emergence of long-term depression versus long-term potentiation in slices of rat prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Law-Tho, D; Desce, J M; Crepel, F

    1995-03-24

    In the present study, we have investigated possible interactions between dopamine and long-term changes in synaptic efficacy induced in layer V pyramidal cells by tetanization of afferents from layer I-II. In the absence of dopamine, we confirmed that high frequency stimulation of excitatory afferents induced long-term potentiation, long-term depression or no change. Inversely, in the presence of dopamine, we have found that the same tetanus led to long-term depression in synaptic transmission in a majority of cells, but no more long-term potentiation. These results suggest that in rat prefrontal cortex, dopamine may determine the direction of activity dependent changes in synaptic efficacy and therefore, plays a functional role in the physiology of this structure.

  6. Propofol effects on cerebellar long-term depression.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kwan Young; Kim, Young Im; Kim, Se Hoon; Park, Hyung Seo; Park, Youn Joon; Ha, Myung Sook; Jin, Yunju; Kim, Dong Kwan

    2015-11-16

    Propofol is an intravenously administered anesthetic that induces γ-aminobutyric acid-mediated inhibition in the central nervous system. It has been implicated in prolonged movement disorders. Since the cerebellum is important for motor coordination and learning, we investigated the potential effects of propofol on cerebellar circuitry. Using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique in Wister rat cerebellar slices, we demonstrated that propofol administration impaired long-term depression from the parallel fiber (PF) to Purkinje cell (PC) synapses (PF-LTD). Also, propofol reduced metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 (mGluR1)-mediated and group I mGluR agonist-induced slow currents in PCs. These results suggest that the propofol-induced PF-LTD impairment may be related to an alteration in mGluR1 signaling, which is essential to motor learning.

  7. Postsynaptic density-95 mimics and occludes hippocampal long-term potentiation and enhances long-term depression.

    PubMed

    Stein, Valentin; House, David R C; Bredt, David S; Nicoll, Roger A

    2003-07-01

    Previous studies have shown that overexpression of the protein PSD-95 (postsynaptic density-95) selectively enhances AMPA receptor-mediated synaptic responses in hippocampal pyramidal cells. To determine whether this effect is related to synaptic plasticity at these synapses, we examined whether PSD-95 expression mimics long-term potentiation (LTP), and also whether it influences LTP and long-term depression (LTD) in hippocampal slice cultures. Using simultaneous recording from transfected or infected cells and control pyramidal cells, we found that PSD-95, similar to LTP, increases the amplitude and frequency of miniature EPSCs. It also converts silent synapses to functional synapses, as does LTP. In addition, LTP is completely occluded in cells expressing PSD-95, whereas LTD is greatly enhanced. These results suggest that common mechanisms are involved in controlling synaptic AMPA receptors by PSD-95 and synaptic plasticity. PMID:12843250

  8. Long-term use of tianeptine in 380 depressed patients.

    PubMed

    Lôo, H; Ganry, H; Dufour, H; Guelfi, J D; Malka, R; Olié, J P; Scharbach, H; Tignol, J; Marey, C; Kamoun, A

    1992-02-01

    Tianeptine is a new tricyclic compound whose principal action is to increase the reuptake of serotonin. In a multicentre trial in which 380 depressed patients were treated for one year, tianeptine produced a significant reduction in the MADRS scores from day 14, with a sustained reduction maintained for up to 12 months; other measures of efficacy (HRSA, HSCL, and CGI) also reflected the improvement. Only 11% of patients withdrew because of recurrence of depression and 2% because of side-effects, which were mainly drowsiness, irritability, and gastrointestinal disturbance. Apart from a minor reduction in heart rate, unaccompanied by any conduction changes, no clinically relevant changes in vital signs or laboratory tests were seen. Seven subjects who attempted suicide by tianeptine overdose had favourable outcomes, in spite of also taking other psychotropic drugs or alcohol. No evidence of tolerance or withdrawal symptoms was seen after treatment was stopped. These results suggest that tianeptine has the potential to provide safe antidepressant activity in both the acute and chronic phases of treatment.

  9. Breast reconstruction after mastectomy: does it decrease depression at the long-term?

    PubMed Central

    Derks, Eveline Anne-Jet; Torensma, Bart; Honig, Adriaan; Vrouenraets, Bartholomeus Cornelius

    2016-01-01

    Background Depression is associated with breast cancer survivors in 22%. Although breast reconstruction (BR) is intended to provide psychological improvements such as reducing depression, literature is inconclusive and without long-term follow-up. The objective is to evaluate the impact of BR after breast cancer related mastectomy on the long-term depression risk and assess predictive factors for depression. Methods Women who underwent a curative mastectomy between 1999 and 2009 were included. After a mean follow-up of more than 6 years after operation, the Beck Depression Inventory-13 (BDI-13) evaluated depressive symptoms. Multivariable regression analysis provided predictors for depression. Results A total of 139 patients, 34 (24.5%) with and 105 (75.5%) without BR, were analyzed. Seventy-seven patients (48.2%) were at high risk for mild (n=58), moderate (n=5) or severe (n=4) depression. There was a trend for slightly better BDI-13 outcomes for women who underwent BR (2 vs. 4; P=0.06). Living alone [odds ratio (OR): 2.16; P=0.04], low educational level (OR: 3.70; P<0.01) and adjuvant hormonal/endocrine-therapy (OR: 2.36; P=0.02) were associated with an increased depression risk. Conclusions BR has no clear influence on depressive symptoms on the long-term. Predictive factors should alert clinicians to assess depressive symptoms in specific breast cancer patients during follow-up. PMID:27563558

  10. Dopamine facilitates long-term depression of glutamatergic transmission in rat prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Otani, S; Blond, O; Desce, J M; Crépel, F

    1998-08-01

    Using sharp-electrode intracellular recordings, we studied the dopaminergic facilitation of synaptic plasticity in layer I-II afferents--layer V neuron glutamatergic synapses in rat prefrontal cortex in vitro. Tetanic stimulation (100 pulses at 50 Hz, four times at 0.1 Hz) to layer I-II afferents induced N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-independent long-term depression (>40 min) of the glutamatergic synapses when the stimulation was coupled with a bath-application of dopamine. Tetanic stimulation alone did not induce lasting synaptic changes. Dopamine application alone transiently depressed synaptic responses, which fully recovered within 30 min. Pharmacological analyses with antagonists suggested that dopamine action on either D1-like or D2-like receptors can facilitate the induction of long-term depression. However, results with agonists were not fully consistent with the antagonist results: while a D2 agonist mimicked the facilitatory dopamine effect, D1 agonists failed to mimic the effect. We also analysed the synaptic responses during tetanus and found that dopamine prolongs membrane depolarization during high-frequency inputs. Postsynaptic membrane depolarization is indeed critical for long-term depression induction in the presence of dopamine, since postsynaptic hyperpolarization during tetanus blocked the dopaminergic facilitation of long-term depression induction. Postsynaptic injection of the Ca2+ chelator bis-(o-aminophenoxy)-N,N,N',N'-tetra-acetic acid (100 mM in the electrode) also blocked long-term depression induction. Our results show that dopamine lowers the threshold for long-term depression induction in rat prefrontal glutamatergic transmission. A possible underlying mechanism of this dopaminergic facilitation is the enhancement of postsynaptic depolarization during tetanus by dopamine, which may increase the amount of Ca2+ entry from voltage-gated channels to the level sufficient for plasticity induction.

  11. Tiagabine Improves Hippocampal Long-Term Depression in Rat Pups Subjected to Prenatal Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Rideau Batista Novais, Aline; Crouzin, Nadine; Cavalier, Mélanie; Boubal, Mathilde; Guiramand, Janique; Cohen-Solal, Catherine; de Jesus Ferreira, Marie-Céleste; Cambonie, Gilles; Vignes, Michel; Barbanel, Gérard

    2014-01-01

    Maternal inflammation during pregnancy is associated with the later development of cognitive and behavioral impairment in the offspring, reminiscent of the traits of schizophrenia or autism spectrum disorders. Hippocampal long-term potentiation and long-term depression of glutamatergic synapses are respectively involved in memory formation and consolidation. In male rats, maternal inflammation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) led to a premature loss of long-term depression, occurring between 12 and 25 postnatal days instead of after the first postnatal month, and aberrant occurrence of long-term potentiation. We hypothesized this would be related to GABAergic system impairment. Sprague Dawley rats received either LPS or isotonic saline ip on gestational day 19. Male offspring's hippocampus was studied between 12 and 25 postnatal days. Morphological and functional analyses demonstrated that prenatal LPS triggered a deficit of hippocampal GABAergic interneurons, associated with presynaptic GABAergic transmission deficiency in male offspring. Increasing ambient GABA by impairing GABA reuptake with tiagabine did not interact with the low frequency-induced long-term depression in control animals but fully prevented its impairment in male offspring of LPS-challenged dams. Tiagabine furthermore prevented the aberrant occurrence of paired-pulse triggered long-term potentiation in these rats. Deficiency in GABA seems to be central to the dysregulation of synaptic plasticity observed in juvenile in utero LPS-challenged rats. Modulating GABAergic tone may be a possible therapeutic strategy at this developmental stage. PMID:25184226

  12. Tiagabine improves hippocampal long-term depression in rat pups subjected to prenatal inflammation.

    PubMed

    Rideau Batista Novais, Aline; Crouzin, Nadine; Cavalier, Mélanie; Boubal, Mathilde; Guiramand, Janique; Cohen-Solal, Catherine; de Jesus Ferreira, Marie-Céleste; Cambonie, Gilles; Vignes, Michel; Barbanel, Gérard

    2014-01-01

    Maternal inflammation during pregnancy is associated with the later development of cognitive and behavioral impairment in the offspring, reminiscent of the traits of schizophrenia or autism spectrum disorders. Hippocampal long-term potentiation and long-term depression of glutamatergic synapses are respectively involved in memory formation and consolidation. In male rats, maternal inflammation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) led to a premature loss of long-term depression, occurring between 12 and 25 postnatal days instead of after the first postnatal month, and aberrant occurrence of long-term potentiation. We hypothesized this would be related to GABAergic system impairment. Sprague Dawley rats received either LPS or isotonic saline ip on gestational day 19. Male offspring's hippocampus was studied between 12 and 25 postnatal days. Morphological and functional analyses demonstrated that prenatal LPS triggered a deficit of hippocampal GABAergic interneurons, associated with presynaptic GABAergic transmission deficiency in male offspring. Increasing ambient GABA by impairing GABA reuptake with tiagabine did not interact with the low frequency-induced long-term depression in control animals but fully prevented its impairment in male offspring of LPS-challenged dams. Tiagabine furthermore prevented the aberrant occurrence of paired-pulse triggered long-term potentiation in these rats. Deficiency in GABA seems to be central to the dysregulation of synaptic plasticity observed in juvenile in utero LPS-challenged rats. Modulating GABAergic tone may be a possible therapeutic strategy at this developmental stage.

  13. Protein kinases, nitric oxide and long-term depression of synapses in the cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Crepel, F; Jaillard, D

    1990-10-01

    We have analysed the effects of polymyxin B, a potent inhibitor of calcium-dependent protein kinases, of L-N-monomethylarginine, an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthesis, and of methylene blue which prevents activation of soluble guanylate cyclase, on long-term depression of parallel fibre-mediated EPSPs of rat cerebellar Purkinje cells in slices maintained in-vitro. In control conditions, a long-term depression of parallel fibre-mediated EPSPs was consistently induced by their pairing with calcium spikes directly elicited in the postsynaptic cells. This long-term change in synaptic strength was not observed in the presence of polymyxin B, of L-N-monomethylarginine, or of methylene blue, suggesting that calcium-dependent protein kinases and nitric oxide are both involved.

  14. Notation of Depression in Case Records of Older Adults in Community Long-Term Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proctor, Enola K.

    2008-01-01

    Although significant numbers of social service clients experience mental health problems, virtually no research has examined the responsiveness of social service agencies to mental disorder. This article examines the extent to which client depression is reflected in records of a public social service agency, community long-term care (CLTC).…

  15. Long-Term Effects of a Home-Visiting Intervention for Depressed Mothers and Their Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kersten-Alvarez, Laura E.; Hosman, Clemens M. H.; Riksen-Walraven, J. Marianne; Van Doesum, Karin T. M.; Hoefnagels, Cees

    2010-01-01

    Background: Whereas preventive interventions for depressed mothers and their infants have yielded positive short-term outcomes, few studies have examined their long-term effectiveness. The present follow-up of a randomised controlled trial (RCT) is one of the first to examine the longer-term effects of an intervention for mothers with postpartum…

  16. 24-hour-restraint stress induces long-term depressive-like phenotypes in mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Ying; Hu, Zhiqiang; Lou, Jingyu; Song, Wei; Li, Jing; Liang, Xiao; Chen, Chen; Wang, Shuai; Yang, Beimeng; Chen, Lei; Zhang, Xu; Song, Jinjing; Dong, Yujie; Chen, Shiqing; He, Lin; Xie, Qingguo; Chen, Xiaoping; Li, Weidong

    2016-01-01

    There is an increasing risk of mental disorders, such as acute stress disorder (ASD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression among survivors who were trapped in rubble during earthquake. Such long-term impaction of a single acute restraint stress has not been extensively explored. In this study, we subjected mice to 24-hour-restraint to simulate the trapping episode, and investigated the acute (2 days after the restraint) and long-term (35 days after the restraint) impacts. Surprisingly, we found that the mice displayed depression-like behaviors, decreased glucose uptake in brain and reduced adult hippocampal neurogenesis 35 days after the restraint. Differential expression profiling based on microarrays suggested that genes and pathways related to depression and other mental disorders were differentially expressed in both PFC and hippocampus. Furthermore, the depression-like phenotypes induced by 24-hour-restraint could be reversed by fluoxetine, a type of antidepressant drug. These findings demonstrated that a single severe stressful event could produce long-term depressive-like phenotypes. Moreover, the 24-hour-restraint stress mice could also be used for further studies on mood disorders. PMID:27609090

  17. 24-hour-restraint stress induces long-term depressive-like phenotypes in mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Xixia; Zhou, Ying; Hu, Zhiqiang; Lou, Jingyu; Song, Wei; Li, Jing; Liang, Xiao; Chen, Chen; Wang, Shuai; Yang, Beimeng; Chen, Lei; Zhang, Xu; Song, Jinjing; Dong, Yujie; Chen, Shiqing; He, Lin; Xie, Qingguo; Chen, Xiaoping; Li, Weidong

    2016-09-01

    There is an increasing risk of mental disorders, such as acute stress disorder (ASD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression among survivors who were trapped in rubble during earthquake. Such long-term impaction of a single acute restraint stress has not been extensively explored. In this study, we subjected mice to 24-hour-restraint to simulate the trapping episode, and investigated the acute (2 days after the restraint) and long-term (35 days after the restraint) impacts. Surprisingly, we found that the mice displayed depression-like behaviors, decreased glucose uptake in brain and reduced adult hippocampal neurogenesis 35 days after the restraint. Differential expression profiling based on microarrays suggested that genes and pathways related to depression and other mental disorders were differentially expressed in both PFC and hippocampus. Furthermore, the depression-like phenotypes induced by 24-hour-restraint could be reversed by fluoxetine, a type of antidepressant drug. These findings demonstrated that a single severe stressful event could produce long-term depressive-like phenotypes. Moreover, the 24-hour-restraint stress mice could also be used for further studies on mood disorders.

  18. 24-hour-restraint stress induces long-term depressive-like phenotypes in mice.

    PubMed

    Chu, Xixia; Zhou, Ying; Hu, Zhiqiang; Lou, Jingyu; Song, Wei; Li, Jing; Liang, Xiao; Chen, Chen; Wang, Shuai; Yang, Beimeng; Chen, Lei; Zhang, Xu; Song, Jinjing; Dong, Yujie; Chen, Shiqing; He, Lin; Xie, Qingguo; Chen, Xiaoping; Li, Weidong

    2016-01-01

    There is an increasing risk of mental disorders, such as acute stress disorder (ASD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression among survivors who were trapped in rubble during earthquake. Such long-term impaction of a single acute restraint stress has not been extensively explored. In this study, we subjected mice to 24-hour-restraint to simulate the trapping episode, and investigated the acute (2 days after the restraint) and long-term (35 days after the restraint) impacts. Surprisingly, we found that the mice displayed depression-like behaviors, decreased glucose uptake in brain and reduced adult hippocampal neurogenesis 35 days after the restraint. Differential expression profiling based on microarrays suggested that genes and pathways related to depression and other mental disorders were differentially expressed in both PFC and hippocampus. Furthermore, the depression-like phenotypes induced by 24-hour-restraint could be reversed by fluoxetine, a type of antidepressant drug. These findings demonstrated that a single severe stressful event could produce long-term depressive-like phenotypes. Moreover, the 24-hour-restraint stress mice could also be used for further studies on mood disorders. PMID:27609090

  19. Adapting Collaborative Depression Care for Public Community Long-Term Care: Using Research-Practice Partnerships

    PubMed Central

    Lenze, Shannon; Brown, Teresa; Lawrence, Lisa; Nickel, Mike; Morrow-Howell, Nancy; Proctor, Enola K.

    2014-01-01

    Description This manuscript details potential benefits for using a research-practice partnership to adapt collaborative depression care for public community long-term care agencies serving older adults. We used sequential, multi-phase, and mixed methods approaches for documenting the process of adaptation within a case study. Systematic adaptation strategies are described, such as leveraging long-term research-practice collaborations, consulting with multiple stakeholders across all levels and disciplines, and balancing demands to monitor treatment fidelity, clinical outcomes, and implementation results. These examples demonstrate that researchers interested in implementation science need skills to negotiate the competing demands that arise from both the research and practice settings. PMID:24072560

  20. Long-term Effects of Fathers’ Depressed Mood on Youth Internalizing Symptoms in Early Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Reeb, Ben T.; Wu, Ed Y.; Martin, Monica J.; Gelardi, Kristina L.; Shirley Chan, Sut Yee; Conger, Katherine J.

    2014-01-01

    While an accumulating body of research has documented increased risk for psychopathology among children of depressed fathers, most studies have used cross-sectional design and little is known about offspring outcomes beyond childhood. Using prospective data from a community sample (N = 395), we found that paternal depressive symptoms when children were in early adolescence (age 13) predicted offspring depressive and anxiety symptoms at age 21, controlling for baseline youth symptoms, maternal depressive symptoms, and other known correlates of internalizing problems in early adulthood. Associations were not moderated by maternal depressive symptoms or child gender. These results suggest that the unique and long-term effects of paternal depression on children's risk for mood disorders may persist into adulthood. PMID:25750495

  1. Genome-wide polygenic scoring for a 14-year long-term average depression phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Shun-Chiao; Glymour, M Maria; Walter, Stefan; Liang, Liming; Koenen, Karestan C; Tchetgen, Eric J; Cornelis, Marilyn C; Kawachi, Ichiro; Rimm, Eric; Kubzansky, Laura D

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite moderate heritability estimates for depression-related phenotypes, few robust genetic predictors have been identified. Potential explanations for this discrepancy include the use of phenotypic measures taken from a single time point, rather than integrating information over longer time periods via multiple assessments, and the possibility that genetic risk is shaped by multiple loci with small effects. Methods We developed a 14-year long-term average depression measure based on 14 years of follow-up in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS; N = 6989 women). We estimated polygenic scores (PS) with internal whole-genome scoring (NHS-GWAS-PS). We also constructed PS by applying two external PS weighting algorithms from independent samples, one previously shown to predict depression (GAIN-MDD-PS) and another from the largest genome-wide analysis currently available (PGC-MDD-PS). We assessed the association of all three PS with our long-term average depression phenotype using linear, logistic, and quantile regressions. Results In this study, the three PS approaches explained at most 0.2% of variance in the long-term average phenotype. Quantile regressions indicated PS had larger impacts at higher quantiles of depressive symptoms. Quantile regression coefficients at the 75th percentile were at least 40% larger than at the 25th percentile in all three polygenic scoring algorithms. The interquartile range comparison suggested the effects of PS significantly differed at the 25th and 75th percentiles of the long-term depressive phenotype for the PGC-MDD-PS (P = 0.03), and this difference also reached borderline statistical significance for the GAIN-MDD-PS (P = 0.05). Conclusions Integrating multiple phenotype assessments spanning 14 years and applying different polygenic scoring approaches did not substantially improve genetic prediction of depression. Quantile regressions suggested the effects of PS may be largest at high quantiles of depressive symptom

  2. Long-term administration of tianeptine in depressed patients after alcohol withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Malka, R; Lôo, H; Ganry, H; Souche, A; Marey, C; Kamoun, A

    1992-02-01

    Alcohol interferes with the central metabolism of the catecholamines and especially with indolamines (5-HT). Thus, the use of an antidepressant such as tianeptine, whose main neurochemical effect is to increase the reuptake of 5-HT, seems to be particularly indicated for the continued treatment of depressed patients after alcohol withdrawal. This study evaluated the therapeutic efficacy and acceptability during long-term administration of tianeptine in depressed patients (major depressive episode or dysthymic disorder) in a multicentre trial, after withdrawal from alcohol abuse or dependence. The results relate to 130 depressed patients, who abstained from alcohol and received treatment for a year. Only one patient dropped-out because of side-effects, and medication was interrupted in 5% of subjects because of alcoholic relapses. Prescribed in the long term, tianeptine did not produce orthostatic hypotension, changes in bodyweight, or alterations in the ECG. All changes found in haematological and biochemical investigations suggested an improvement in patients' physical state. This, and other studies, indicate that tianeptine appears to have the potential to be a safe antidepressant, which might be particularly useful in those patients who are susceptible to the side-effects of psychotropic drugs.

  3. Depletion of perineuronal nets enhances recognition memory and long-term depression in the perirhinal cortex.

    PubMed

    Romberg, Carola; Yang, Sujeong; Melani, Riccardo; Andrews, Melissa R; Horner, Alexa E; Spillantini, Maria G; Bussey, Timothy J; Fawcett, James W; Pizzorusso, Tommaso; Saksida, Lisa M

    2013-04-17

    Perineuronal nets (PNNs) are extracellular matrix structures surrounding cortical neuronal cell bodies and proximal dendrites and are involved in the control of brain plasticity and the closure of critical periods. Expression of the link protein Crtl1/Hapln1 in neurons has recently been identified as the key event triggering the formation of PNNs. Here we show that the genetic attenuation of PNNs in adult brain Crtl1 knock-out mice enhances long-term object recognition memory and facilitates long-term depression in the perirhinal cortex, a neural correlate of object recognition memory. Identical prolongation of memory follows localized digestion of PNNs with chondroitinase ABC, an enzyme that degrades the chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan components of PNNs. The memory-enhancing effect of chondroitinase ABC treatment attenuated over time, suggesting that the regeneration of PNNs gradually restored control plasticity levels. Our findings indicate that PNNs regulate both memory and experience-driven synaptic plasticity in adulthood.

  4. Long term life dissatisfaction and subsequent major depressive disorder and poor mental health

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Poor mental health, especially due to depression, is one of the main public health problems. Early indicators of poor mental health in general population are needed. This study examined the relationship between long-term life dissatisfaction and subsequent mental health, including major depressive disorder. Method Health questionnaires were sent to a randomly selected population-based sample in 1998 and repeated in 1999 and 2001. In 2005, a clinically studied sub-sample (n = 330) was composed of subjects with (n = 161) or without (n = 169) repeatedly reported adverse mental symptoms at all three previous data collection times. Clinical symptom assessments were performed with several psychometric scales: life satisfaction (LS), depression (HDRS, BDI), hopelessness (HS), mental distress (GHQ), dissociative experiences (DES), and alexithymia (TAS). The long-term life dissatisfaction burden was calculated by summing these life satisfaction scores in 1998, 1999, 2001 and dividing the sum into tertiles. Psychiatric diagnoses were confirmed by SCID-I for DSM-IV in 2005. Logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the studied relationship. Results The previous life dissatisfaction burden associated with adverse socio-demographic, life style and clinical factors. In adjusted logistic regression analyses, it was independently and strongly associated with subsequent major depressive disorder in 2005, even when the concurrent LS score in 2005 was included in the model. Excluding those with reported major depressive disorder in 1999 did not alter this finding. Limitations MDD in 1999 was based on self-reports and not on structured interview and LS data in 2001-2005 was not available. Conclusions The life satisfaction burden is significantly related to major depressive disorder and poor mental health, both in cross-sectional and longitudinal settings. PMID:21861908

  5. Long-term depression triggers the selective elimination of weakly integrated synapses

    PubMed Central

    Wiegert, J. Simon; Oertner, Thomas G.

    2013-01-01

    Long-term depression (LTD) weakens synaptic transmission in an activity-dependent manner. It is not clear, however, whether individual synapses are able to maintain a depressed state indefinitely, as intracellular recordings rarely exceed 1 h. Here, we combine optogenetic stimulation of identified Schaffer collateral axons with two-photon imaging of postsynaptic calcium signals and follow the fate of individual synapses for 7 d after LTD induction. Optogenetic stimulation of CA3 pyramidal cells at 1 Hz led to strong and reliable depression of postsynaptic calcium transients in CA1. NMDA receptor activation was necessary for successful induction of LTD. We found that, in the days following LTD, many depressed synapses and their “neighbors” were eliminated from the hippocampal circuit. The average lifetime of synapses on nonstimulated dendritic branches of the same neurons remained unaffected. Persistence of individual depressed synapses was highly correlated with reliability of synaptic transmission, but not with spine size or the amplitude of spine calcium transients. Our data suggest that LTD initially leads to homogeneous depression of synaptic function, followed by selective removal of unreliable synapses and recovery of function in the persistent fraction. PMID:24191047

  6. Purkinje cell stripes and long-term depression at the parallel fiber-Purkinje cell synapse

    PubMed Central

    Hawkes, Richard

    2014-01-01

    The cerebellar cortex comprises a stereotyped array of transverse zones and parasagittal stripes, built around multiple Purkinje cell subtypes, which is highly conserved across birds and mammals. This architecture is revealed in the restricted expression patterns of numerous molecules, in the terminal fields of the afferent projections, in the distribution of interneurons, and in the functional organization. This review provides an overview of cerebellar architecture with an emphasis on attempts to relate molecular architecture to the expression of long-term depression (LTD) at the parallel fiber-Purkinje cell (pf-PC) synapse. PMID:24734006

  7. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Increases Sensitivity to Long Term Losses among Patients with Major Depressive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Vaughan, Christopher; Paulus, Martin P.; Dunlop, Boadie W.

    2013-01-01

    decision-making about long-term potential losses compared to MDD patients without PTSD. PMID:24116235

  8. Non-apoptotic function of BAD and BAX in long-term depression of synaptic transmission

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Song; Li, Zheng

    2011-01-01

    Summary It has recently been found that caspases not only function in apoptosis, but are also crucial for non-apoptotic processes such as NMDA receptor-dependent long-term depression (LTD) of synaptic transmission. It remains unknown, however, how caspases are activated and how neurons escape death in LTD. Here we show that caspase-3 is activated by the BAD-BAX cascade for LTD induction. This cascade is required specifically for NMDA receptor-dependent LTD but not for mGluR-LTD, and its activation is sufficient to induce synaptic depression. In contrast to apoptosis, however, BAD is activated only moderately and transiently and BAX is not translocated to mitochondria, resulting in only modest caspase-3 activation. We further demonstrate that the intensity and duration of caspase-3 activation determin whether it leads to cell death or LTD, thus fine-tuning of caspase-3 activation is critical in distinguishing between these two pathways. PMID:21609830

  9. Involvement of presynaptic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors in cerebellar long-term depression.

    PubMed

    Casado, Mariano; Isope, Philippe; Ascher, Philippe

    2002-01-01

    At the cerebellar synapses between parallel fibers (PFs) and Purkinje cells (PCs), long-term depression (LTD) of the excitatory synaptic current has been assumed to be independent of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor activation because PCs lack NMDA receptors. However, we now report that LTD is suppressed by NMDA receptor antagonists that act on presynaptic NMDA receptors of the PFs. This effect is still observed when the input is restricted to a single fiber. Therefore, LTD does not require the spatial integration of multiple inputs. In contrast, it involves a temporal integration, since reliable LTD induction requires the PFs to fire two action potentials in close succession. This implies that LTD will selectively depress the response to a burst of presynaptic action potentials.

  10. The X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis regulates long-term depression and learning rate.

    PubMed

    Gibon, Julien; Unsain, Nicolas; Gamache, Karine; Thomas, Rhalena A; De Leon, Andres; Johnstone, Aaron; Nader, Karim; Séguéla, Philippe; Barker, Philip A

    2016-09-01

    Hippocampal long-term depression (LTD) is an active form of synaptic plasticity that is necessary for consolidation of spatial memory, contextual fear memory, and novelty acquisition. Recent studies have shown that caspases (CASPs) play an important role in NMDA receptor-dependent LTD and are involved in postsynaptic remodeling and synaptic maturation. In the present study, we examined the role of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP), a putative endogenous CASP inhibitor, in synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus. Analysis in acute brain slices and in cultured hippocampal neurons revealed that XIAP deletion increases CASP-3 activity, enhances α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor internalization, sharply increases LTD, and significantly reduces synapse density. In vivo behaviors related to memory were also altered in XIAP(-/-) mice, with faster acquisition of spatial object location and increased fear memory observed. Together, these results indicate that XIAP plays an important physiologic role in regulating sublethal CASP-3 activity within central neurons and thereby facilitates synaptic plasticity and memory acquisition.-Gibon, J., Unsain, N., Gamache, K., Thomas, R. A., De Leon, A., Johnstone, A., Nader, K., Séguéla, P., Barker, P. A. The X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis regulates long-term depression and learning rate.

  11. [Long-term depression of excitatory synapses in the cortex and hippocampus].

    PubMed

    Cohen, I; Parra, P; Miles, R

    1998-01-01

    The efficacy of excitatory synapses terminating on cortical and hippocampal pyramidal cells may be persistently depressed as well as potentiated. Homo-synaptic long-term depression (LTD) seems to be triggered by an entry of calcium into a post-synaptic cell less than that needed to initiate long-term potentiation (LTP). Theoretical work predicted, and experimental studies confirmed, that moderate elevations of calcium initiate LTD via a cascade of biochemical interactions involving calcium-dependent phosphatases. Genetically modified animals confirmed the prediction of a sliding threshold that defines the limit between LTD and LTP. While mechanisms for the initiation of LTD are quite well established, it remains unclear whether pre- or post-synaptic mechanisms, or both, are involved in its maintenance. A role for LTD in processes of learning and forgetting in the adult animal remains to be firmly established. It seems probable, however, that a persistent reduction in synaptic weight is a basic process used in the establishment and refinement of neuronal circuits during development.

  12. Rabbit cerebellar slice analysis of long-term depression and its role in classical conditioning.

    PubMed

    Schreurs, B G; Alkon, D L

    1993-12-24

    Cerebellar long-term depression (LTD) has been proposed as a mechanism underlying classical conditioning of the rabbit nictitating membrane/eyelid response (NMR). However, LTD has only been obtained reliably when (1) cerebellar slices are bathed in GABA antagonists which abolish disynaptic inhibitory post synaptic potentials, and (2) the temporal sequence of stimulation used in slice or intact preparations is the opposite of that used in classical conditioning. Based on intradendritic Purkinje cell recordings obtained from rabbit cerebellar slices, we report that stimulation of climbing fibers and then parallel fibers in the presence of the GABA antagonist, bicuculline, produced significant depression of parallel fiber excitatory post synaptic potential (epsp) amplitude that continued to increase for at least 20 min after stimulation. However, application of the same stimulation protocol without GABA antagonists produced a brief depression of parallel fiber epsps that disappeared within minutes. Activation of parallel fibers and then climbing fibers in an order opposite to the LTD-producing sequence (i.e. a classical conditioning-like order) produced a brief depression that dissipated quickly. Stimulation of parallel fibers alone produced a small, slowly developing potentiation, but stimulation of parallel fibers during depolarization-induced local dendritic calcium spikes produced significant depression almost immediately which then declined slowly to more modest levels. Finally, stimulation of parallel fibers at frequencies used in in vivo parallel fiber-climbing fiber stimulation experiments (e.g. 100 Hz) produced an immediate and profound long-lasting epsp depression. The depression occurred, however, whether parallel and climbing fibers were stimulated separately (unpaired) or in a classical conditioning-like protocol (paired) where parallel fiber stimulation coterminated with climbing fiber stimulation (10 Hz).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Effects of long-term etanercept treatment on anxiety- and depression-like neurobehaviors in rats.

    PubMed

    Bayramgürler, Dilek; Karson, Ayşe; Ozer, Cüneyt; Utkan, Tijen

    2013-07-01

    Growing evidence indicates that there is a correlation between depression and inflammation. Administration of anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) agents for treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases, such as psoriasis, was associated with decreased depressive symptoms and increased quality of life in some clinical studies. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of chronic etanercept, a TNF-α inhibitor, on anxiety- and depression-like neurobehaviors in rats. Male rats were treated for 8 weeks with either saline or etanercept (0.8 mg/kg/week, subcutaneously). The anxiety levels of rats were evaluated using the elevated plus maze, a classical rodent model of anxiety and depression was measured using the force swimming test, a behavioral despair task. The anxiety-like neurobehaviors of the animals were found significantly decreased after the etanercept treatment. Etanercept significantly decreased immobility time in rat model of despair test, seemed to have an antidepressive effect in rats. Compared to saline treatment, long-term etanercept treatment had no effect on the total number and pattern of locomotor activities. Findings of the study supported the hypothesis that TNF-α has a role in the modulation of emotional processes and its inhibition may represent a novel strategy for the treatment of affective disorders.

  14. Nitric oxide-dependent long-term depression but not endocannabinoid-mediated long-term potentiation is crucial for visual recognition memory

    PubMed Central

    Tamagnini, Francesco; Barker, Gareth; Warburton, E Clea; Burattini, Costanza; Aicardi, Giorgio; Bashir, Zafar I

    2013-01-01

    Synaptic plasticity in perirhinal cortex is essential for recognition memory. Nitric oxide and endocannabinoids (eCBs), which are produced in the postsynaptic cell and act on the presynaptic terminal, are implicated in mechanisms of long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) in other brain regions. In this study, we examine these two retrograde signalling cascades in perirhinal cortex synaptic plasticity and in visual recognition memory in the rat. We show that inhibition of NO-dependent signalling prevented both carbachol- and activity (5 Hz)-dependent LTD but not activity (100 Hz theta burst)-dependent LTP in the rat perirhinal cortex in vitro. In contrast, inhibition of the eCB-dependent signalling prevented LTP but not the two forms of LTD in vitro. Local administration into perirhinal cortex of the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor NPA (2 μm) disrupted acquisition of long-term visual recognition memory. In contrast, AM251 (10 μm), a cannabinoid receptor 1 antagonist, did not impair visual recognition memory. The results of this study demonstrate dissociation between putative retrograde signalling mechanisms in LTD and LTP in perirhinal cortex. Thus, LTP relies on cannabinoid but not NO signalling, whilst LTD relies on NO- but not eCB-dependent signalling. Critically, these results also establish, for the first time, that NO- but not eCB-dependent signalling is important in perirhinal cortex-dependent visual recognition memory. PMID:23671159

  15. Synaptic Function of Rab11Fip5: Selective Requirement for Hippocampal Long-Term Depression

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Mohiuddin; Jurado, Sandra; Malenka, Robert C.

    2015-01-01

    Postsynaptic AMPA-type glutamate receptors (AMPARs) are among the major determinants of synaptic strength and can be trafficked into and out of synapses. Neuronal activity regulates AMPAR trafficking during synaptic plasticity to induce long-term changes in synaptic strength, including long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD). Rab family GTPases regulate most membrane trafficking in eukaryotic cells; particularly, Rab11 and its effectors are implicated in mediating postsynaptic AMPAR insertion during LTP. To explore the synaptic function of Rab11Fip5, a neuronal Rab11 effector and a candidate autism-spectrum disorder gene, we performed shRNA-mediated knock-down and genetic knock-out (KO) studies. Surprisingly, we observed robust shRNA-induced synaptic phenotypes that were rescued by a Rab11Fip5 cDNA but that were nevertheless not observed in conditional KO neurons. Both in cultured neurons and acute slices, KO of Rab11Fip5 had no significant effect on basic parameters of synaptic transmission, indicating that Rab11Fip5 is not required for fundamental synaptic operations, such as neurotransmitter release or postsynaptic AMPAR insertion. KO of Rab11Fip5 did, however, abolish hippocampal LTD as measured both in acute slices or using a chemical LTD protocol in cultured neurons but did not affect hippocampal LTP. The Rab11Fip5 KO mice performed normally in several behavioral tasks, including fear conditioning, but showed enhanced contextual fear extinction. These are the first findings to suggest a requirement for Rab11Fip5, and presumably Rab11, during LTD. PMID:25972173

  16. FAIM-L regulation of XIAP degradation modulates Synaptic Long-Term Depression and Axon Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Mármol, Ramón; Barneda-Zahonero, Bruna; Soto, David; Andrés, Rosa Maria; Coccia, Elena; Gasull, Xavier; Planells-Ferrer, Laura; Moubarak, Rana S.; Soriano, Eduardo; Comella, Joan X.

    2016-01-01

    Caspases have recently emerged as key regulators of axonal pruning and degeneration and of long-term depression (LTD), a long-lasting form of synaptic plasticity. However, the mechanism underlying these functions remains unclear. In this context, XIAP has been shown to modulate these processes. The neuron-specific form of FAIM protein (FAIM-L) is a death receptor antagonist that stabilizes XIAP protein levels, thus preventing death receptor-induced neuronal apoptosis. Here we show that FAIM-L modulates synaptic transmission, prevents chemical-LTD induction in hippocampal neurons, and thwarts axon degeneration after nerve growth factor (NGF) withdrawal. Additionally, we demonstrate that the participation of FAIM-L in these two processes is dependent on its capacity to stabilize XIAP protein levels. Our data reveal FAIM-L as a regulator of axonal degeneration and synaptic plasticity. PMID:27767058

  17. Presynaptic long-term depression mediated by Gi/o-coupled receptors

    PubMed Central

    Atwood, Brady K.; Lovinger, David M.; Mathur, Brian N.

    2014-01-01

    Long-term depression (LTD) of the efficacy of synaptic transmission is now recognized as an important mechanism for regulation of information storage and control of actions, as well as synapse, neuron, and circuit development. Studies of LTD mechanisms have focused mainly on postsynaptic AMPA receptor trafficking. However, the focus has now expanded to include presynaptically expressed plasticity; the predominant form being initiated by presynaptically expressed Gi/o-coupled metabotropic receptor (Gi/o-GPCR) activation. Several forms of LTD involving activation of different presynaptic Gi/o-GPCRs as a “common pathway” are described. Here, we review the literature on presynaptic Gi/o-GPCR-mediated LTD, discuss known mechanisms, gaps in our knowledge, and evaluate if all Gi/o-GPCR are capable of inducing presynaptic LTD. PMID:25160683

  18. Development of a Curriculum for Long-Term Care Nurses to Improve Recognition of Depression in Dementia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Christine L.; Molinari, Victor; Bond, Jennifer; Smith, Michael; Hyer, Kathryn; Malphurs, Julie

    2006-01-01

    There is increasing recognition of the severe consequences of depression in long-term care residents with dementia. Most health care providers are unprepared to recognize and to manage the complexity of depression in dementia. Targeted educational initiatives in nursing homes are needed to address this growing problem. This paper describes the…

  19. [Depressive, anxiety and posttraumatic stress disorders as long-term sequelae of intensive care treatment].

    PubMed

    Kapfhammer, H-P

    2016-03-01

    Modern intensive care medicine has led to increased survival rates even after severe life-threatening medical conditions. In self-critical and multidimensional outcome research, however, it must be considered that beyond survival rates treatment on intensive care units (ICU) can also be associated with high long-term rates of depressive, anxiety and posttraumatic stress disorders. Significant correlations with increased somatic morbidity and mortality, persisting cognitive impairments and significant deficits in health-related quality of life must also be taken into consideration. Empirical analysis of the risk factors reveals that a history of premorbid depression, sociodemographic and socioeconomic variables, age, female sex, personality traits, the underlying pathophysiological condition requiring ICU treatment, mode of sedation and analgesia, life support measures, such as mechanical ventilation, manifold traumatic experiences and memories during the stay in the ICU are all of particular pathogenetic importance. In order to reduce principally modifiable risk factors several strategies are illustrated, including well-reflected intensive care sedation and analgesia, special prophylactic medication regarding the major risk of traumatic memories and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), psychological and psychotherapeutic interventions in states of increased acute stress symptoms and aids for personal memories and reorientation. PMID:26908007

  20. Dopaminergic neurotransmission dysfunction induced by amyloid-β transforms cortical long-term potentiation into long-term depression and produces memory impairment.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Castilla, Perla; Rodriguez-Duran, Luis F; Guzman-Ramos, Kioko; Barcenas-Femat, Alejandro; Escobar, Martha L; Bermudez-Rattoni, Federico

    2016-05-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative condition manifested by synaptic dysfunction and memory loss, but the mechanisms underlying synaptic failure are not entirely understood. Although dopamine is a key modulator of synaptic plasticity, dopaminergic neurotransmission dysfunction in AD has mostly been associated to noncognitive symptoms. Thus, we aimed to study the relationship between dopaminergic neurotransmission and synaptic plasticity in AD models. We used a transgenic model of AD (triple-transgenic mouse model of AD) and the administration of exogenous amyloid-β (Aβ) oligomers into wild type mice. We found that Aβ decreased cortical dopamine levels and converted in vivo long-term potentiation (LTP) into long-term depression (LTD) after high-frequency stimulation delivered at basolateral amygdaloid nucleus-insular cortex projection, which led to impaired recognition memory. Remarkably, increasing cortical dopamine and norepinephrine levels rescued both high-frequency stimulation -induced LTP and memory, whereas depletion of catecholaminergic levels mimicked the Aβ-induced shift from LTP to LTD. Our results suggest that Aβ-induced dopamine depletion is a core mechanism underlying the early synaptopathy and memory alterations observed in AD models and acts by modifying the threshold for the induction of cortical LTP and/or LTD. PMID:27103531

  1. Dopaminergic neurotransmission dysfunction induced by amyloid-β transforms cortical long-term potentiation into long-term depression and produces memory impairment.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Castilla, Perla; Rodriguez-Duran, Luis F; Guzman-Ramos, Kioko; Barcenas-Femat, Alejandro; Escobar, Martha L; Bermudez-Rattoni, Federico

    2016-05-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative condition manifested by synaptic dysfunction and memory loss, but the mechanisms underlying synaptic failure are not entirely understood. Although dopamine is a key modulator of synaptic plasticity, dopaminergic neurotransmission dysfunction in AD has mostly been associated to noncognitive symptoms. Thus, we aimed to study the relationship between dopaminergic neurotransmission and synaptic plasticity in AD models. We used a transgenic model of AD (triple-transgenic mouse model of AD) and the administration of exogenous amyloid-β (Aβ) oligomers into wild type mice. We found that Aβ decreased cortical dopamine levels and converted in vivo long-term potentiation (LTP) into long-term depression (LTD) after high-frequency stimulation delivered at basolateral amygdaloid nucleus-insular cortex projection, which led to impaired recognition memory. Remarkably, increasing cortical dopamine and norepinephrine levels rescued both high-frequency stimulation -induced LTP and memory, whereas depletion of catecholaminergic levels mimicked the Aβ-induced shift from LTP to LTD. Our results suggest that Aβ-induced dopamine depletion is a core mechanism underlying the early synaptopathy and memory alterations observed in AD models and acts by modifying the threshold for the induction of cortical LTP and/or LTD.

  2. Wip1 phosphatase modulates both long-term potentiation and long-term depression through the dephosphorylation of CaMKII.

    PubMed

    He, Zhi-Yong; Hu, Wei-Yan; Zhang, Ming; Yang, Zara Zhuyun; Zhu, Hong-Mei; Xing, Da; Ma, Quan-Hong; Xiao, Zhi-Cheng

    2016-05-01

    Synaptic plasticity is an important mechanism that underlies learning and cognition. Protein phosphorylation by kinases and dephosphorylation by phosphatases play critical roles in the activity-dependent alteration of synaptic plasticity. In this study, we report that Wip1, a protein phosphatase, is essential for long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) processes. Wip1-deletion suppresses LTP and enhances LTD in the hippocampus CA1 area. Wip1 deficiency-induced aberrant elevation of CaMKII T286/287 and T305 phosphorylation underlies these dysfunctions. Moreover, we showed that Wip1 modulates CaMKII dephosphorylation. Wip1(-/-) mice exhibit abnormal GluR1 membrane expression, which could be reversed by the application of a CaMKII inhibitor, indicating that Wip1/CaMKII signaling is crucial for synaptic plasticity. Together, our results demonstrate that Wip1 phosphatase plays a vital role in regulating hippocampal synaptic plasticity by modulating the phosphorylation of CaMKII.

  3. Postsynaptic Signal Transduction Models for Long-Term Potentiation and Depression

    PubMed Central

    Manninen, Tiina; Hituri, Katri; Kotaleski, Jeanette Hellgren; Blackwell, Kim T.; Linne, Marja-Leena

    2010-01-01

    More than a hundred biochemical species, activated by neurotransmitters binding to transmembrane receptors, are important in long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD). To investigate which species and interactions are critical for synaptic plasticity, many computational postsynaptic signal transduction models have been developed. The models range from simple models with a single reversible reaction to detailed models with several hundred kinetic reactions. In this study, more than a hundred models are reviewed, and their features are compared and contrasted so that similarities and differences are more readily apparent. The models are classified according to the type of synaptic plasticity that is modeled (LTP or LTD) and whether they include diffusion or electrophysiological phenomena. Other characteristics that discriminate the models include the phase of synaptic plasticity modeled (induction, expression, or maintenance) and the simulation method used (deterministic or stochastic). We find that models are becoming increasingly sophisticated, by including stochastic properties, integrating with electrophysiological properties of entire neurons, or incorporating diffusion of signaling molecules. Simpler models continue to be developed because they are computationally efficient and allow theoretical analysis. The more complex models permit investigation of mechanisms underlying specific properties and experimental verification of model predictions. Nonetheless, it is difficult to fully comprehend the evolution of these models because (1) several models are not described in detail in the publications, (2) only a few models are provided in existing model databases, and (3) comparison to previous models is lacking. We conclude that the value of these models for understanding molecular mechanisms of synaptic plasticity is increasing and will be enhanced further with more complete descriptions and sharing of the published models. PMID:21188161

  4. Memantine alters striatal plasticity inducing a shift of synaptic responses toward long-term depression.

    PubMed

    Mancini, Maria; Ghiglieri, Veronica; Bagetta, Vincenza; Pendolino, Valentina; Vannelli, Anna; Cacace, Fabrizio; Mineo, Desireé; Calabresi, Paolo; Picconi, Barbara

    2016-02-01

    Memantine is an open channel blocker that antagonizes NMDA receptors reducing the inappropriate calcium (Ca(2+)) influx occurring in presence of moderately increased glutamate levels. At the same time, memantine has the ability to preserve the transient physiological activation of NMDA receptor, essential for learning and memory formation at synaptic level. In the present study we investigated the effects exerted by memantine on striatal synaptic plasticity in rat striatal spiny projection neurons (SPNs). In vitro application of memantine in striatal slices elicited a disruption of long-term potentiation (LTP) induction and maintenance, and revealed, in the majority of the recorded neurons, a long-term depression (LTD), whose amplitude was concentration-dependent (0.3-10 μM). Interestingly, preincubation with the dopamine (DA) D2 receptor antagonist sulpiride (10 μM) prevented memantine-induced LTD and restored LTP. Moreover, the DA D2 agonist quinpirole (10 μM), similarly to memantine, induced LTD in a subgroup of SPNs. In addition, memantine-induced LTD was also prevented by the CB1 endocannabinoid receptor antagonist AM 251 (1 μM). These results suggest that the actions exerted by memantine on striatal synaptic plasticity, and in particular the induction of LTD observed in SPNs, could be attributed to its ability to activate DA D2 receptors. By contrast, blockade of NMDA receptor is not involved in memantine-induced LTD since APV (30 μM) and MK801 (10 μM), two NMDA receptor antagonists, failed to induce this form of synaptic plasticity. Our data indicate that memantine could be used as treatment of neurological disorders in which DA D2 receptor represents a possible therapeutic target.

  5. Early Impairment of Long-Term Depression in the Perirhinal Cortex of a Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Tamagnini, Francesco; Burattini, Costanza; Casoli, Tiziana; Balietti, Marta; Fattoretti, Patrizia

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Visual recognition memory is early impaired in Alzheimer's disease. Long-term depression of synaptic transmission in the perirhinal cortex is critically involved in this form of memory. We found that synaptic transmission was impaired in perirhinal cortex slices obtained from 3-month-old Tg2576 mice, and that 3,000 pulses at 5 Hz induced long-term depression in perirhinal cortex slices from age-matched control mice, but not in those from Tg2576 mice. To our knowledge, these data provide the first evidence of synaptic transmission and long-term depression impairment in the perirhinal cortex in an animal model of Alzheimer's disease, and the earliest synaptic deficit in Tg2576 mice. PMID:22533438

  6. Presynaptic Spike Timing-Dependent Long-Term Depression in the Mouse Hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Andrade-Talavera, Yuniesky; Duque-Feria, Paloma; Paulsen, Ole; Rodríguez-Moreno, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Spike timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) is a Hebbian learning rule important for synaptic refinement during development and for learning and memory in the adult. Given the importance of the hippocampus in memory, surprisingly little is known about the mechanisms and functions of hippocampal STDP. In the present work, we investigated the requirements for induction of hippocampal spike timing-dependent long-term potentiation (t-LTP) and spike timing-dependent long-term depression (t-LTD) and the mechanisms of these 2 forms of plasticity at CA3-CA1 synapses in young (P12–P18) mouse hippocampus. We found that both t-LTP and t-LTD can be induced at hippocampal CA3-CA1 synapses by pairing presynaptic activity with single postsynaptic action potentials at low stimulation frequency (0.2 Hz). Both t-LTP and t-LTD require NMDA-type glutamate receptors for their induction, but the location and properties of these receptors are different: While t-LTP requires postsynaptic ionotropic NMDA receptor function, t-LTD does not, and whereas t-LTP is blocked by antagonists at GluN2A and GluN2B subunit-containing NMDA receptors, t-LTD is blocked by GluN2C or GluN2D subunit-preferring NMDA receptor antagonists. Both t-LTP and t-LTD require postsynaptic Ca2+ for their induction. Induction of t-LTD also requires metabotropic glutamate receptor activation, phospholipase C activation, postsynaptic IP3 receptor-mediated Ca2+ release from internal stores, postsynaptic endocannabinoid (eCB) synthesis, activation of CB1 receptors and astrocytic signaling, possibly via release of the gliotransmitter d-serine. We furthermore found that presynaptic calcineurin is required for t-LTD induction. t-LTD is expressed presynaptically as indicated by fluctuation analysis, paired-pulse ratio, and rate of use-dependent depression of postsynaptic NMDA receptor currents by MK801. The results show that CA3-CA1 synapses display both NMDA receptor-dependent t-LTP and t-LTD during development and identify a

  7. Cannabinoids decrease excitatory synaptic transmission and impair long-term depression in rat cerebellar Purkinje cells.

    PubMed

    Lévénés, C; Daniel, H; Soubrié, P; Crépel, F

    1998-08-01

    1. CB-1 cannabinoid receptors are strongly expressed in the molecular layer of the cerebellar cortex. We have analysed, in patch-clamped Purkinje cells (PCs) in rat cerebellar slices, the effect of the selective CB-1 agonists WIN55,212-2 and CP55,940 and of the selective CB-1 antagonist SR141716-A on excitatory synaptic transmission and synaptic plasticity. 2. Bath application of both agonists markedly depressed parallel fibre (PF) EPSCs. This effect was reversed by SR141716-A. In contrast, responses of PCs to ionophoretic application of glutamate were not affected by WIN55, 212-2. 3. The coefficient of variation and the paired-pulse facilitation of these PF-mediated EPSCs increased in the presence of WIN55,212-2. 4. WIN55,212-2 decreased the frequency of miniature EPSCs and of asynchronous synaptic events evoked in the presence of strontium in the bath, but did not affect their amplitude. 5. WIN55, 212-2 did not change the excitability of PFs. 6. WIN55,212-2 impaired long-term depression induced by pairing protocols in PCs. This effect was antagonized by SR141716-A. The same impairment of LTD was produced by 2-chloroadenosine, a compound that decreases the probability of release of glutamate at PF-PC synapses. 7. The present study demonstrates that cannabinoids inhibit synaptic transmission at PF-PC synapses by decreasing the probability of release of glutamate, and thereby impair LTD. These two effects might represent a plausible cellular mechanism underlying cerebellar dysfunction caused by cannabinoids.

  8. A Computational Model for the AMPA Receptor Phosphorylation Master Switch Regulating Cerebellar Long-Term Depression.

    PubMed

    Gallimore, Andrew R; Aricescu, A Radu; Yuzaki, Michisuke; Calinescu, Radu

    2016-01-01

    The expression of long-term depression (LTD) in cerebellar Purkinje cells results from the internalisation of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid receptors (AMPARs) from the postsynaptic membrane. This process is regulated by a complex signalling pathway involving sustained protein kinase C (PKC) activation, inhibition of serine/threonine phosphatase, and an active protein tyrosine phosphatase, PTPMEG. In addition, two AMPAR-interacting proteins-glutamate receptor-interacting protein (GRIP) and protein interacting with C kinase 1 (PICK1)-regulate the availability of AMPARs for trafficking between the postsynaptic membrane and the endosome. Here we present a new computational model of these overlapping signalling pathways. The model reveals how PTPMEG cooperates with PKC to drive LTD expression by facilitating the effect of PKC on the dissociation of AMPARs from GRIP and thus their availability for trafficking. Model simulations show that LTD expression is increased by serine/threonine phosphatase inhibition, and negatively regulated by Src-family tyrosine kinase activity, which restricts the dissociation of AMPARs from GRIP under basal conditions. We use the model to expose the dynamic balance between AMPAR internalisation and reinsertion, and the phosphorylation switch responsible for the perturbation of this balance and for the rapid plasticity initiation and regulation. Our model advances the understanding of PF-PC LTD regulation and induction, and provides a validated extensible platform for more detailed studies of this fundamental synaptic process. PMID:26807999

  9. Stargazin regulates AMPA receptor trafficking through adaptor protein complexes during long-term depression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuda, Shinji; Kakegawa, Wataru; Budisantoso, Timotheus; Nomura, Toshihiro; Kohda, Kazuhisa; Yuzaki, Michisuke

    2013-11-01

    Long-term depression (LTD) underlies learning and memory in various brain regions. Although postsynaptic AMPA receptor trafficking mediates LTD, its underlying molecular mechanisms remain largely unclear. Here we show that stargazin, a transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory protein, forms a ternary complex with adaptor proteins AP-2 and AP-3A in hippocampal neurons, depending on its phosphorylation state. Inhibiting the stargazin-AP-2 interaction disrupts NMDA-induced AMPA receptor endocytosis, and inhibiting that of stargazin-AP-3A abrogates the late endosomal/lysosomal trafficking of AMPA receptors, thereby upregulating receptor recycling to the cell surface. Similarly, stargazin’s interaction with AP-2 or AP-3A is necessary for low-frequency stimulus-evoked LTD in CA1 hippocampal neurons. Thus, stargazin has a crucial role in NMDA-dependent LTD by regulating two trafficking pathways of AMPA receptors—transport from the cell surface to early endosomes and from early endosomes to late endosomes/lysosomes—through its sequential binding to AP-2 and AP-3A.

  10. Reduction of K+ Uptake in Glia Prevents Long-Term Depression Maintenance and Causes Epileptiform Activity

    PubMed Central

    Janigro, Damir; Gasparini, Sonia; D'Ambrosio, Raimondo; II, Guy McKhann; DiFrancesco, Dario

    2014-01-01

    Extracellular cesium causes synchronous, interictal-like bursting and prevents maintenance of long-term depression (LTD) in the CA1 hippocampal region. We have investigated the cellular mechanisms underlying cesium actions. Whole-cell recordings showed that brief (2 min) bath exposures to cesium caused pyramidal cell hyperpolarization associated with decreased membrane conductance attributable to blockade of an inward h-type current. After prolonged (>2 min) exposures, a late depolarizing response was observed; this effect was not associated with changes in cell membrane conductance. Recordings from interneurons revealed that Ih is expressed in a sub-population of cells and that cesium effects on interneurons expressing Ih are comparable to those observed in pyramidal cells. Consistent with this effect, cesium decreased the early component of the IPSP recorded in pyramidal cells. Interneurons lacking Ih were not affected by cesium but developed a depolarizing response when drug applications were paired to orthodromic stimulation. We concluded that cesium actions on LTD and cesium-induced epileptiform activity were not attributable exclusively to its direct effects on neurons. Recordings from hippocampal slice astrocytes revealed that cesium interfered with glial electrical responses during LTD induction. Cesium blocked glial inwardly rectifying potassium channels and increased the amplitude and duration of stimulation-evoked [K+]out increases. Thus, the effects of cesium on CA1 synchronization and synaptic plasticity appear to be mediated predominantly by blockade of glial voltage-dependent potassium uptake. PMID:9092603

  11. Long-term depression of synaptic transmission in the cerebellum: cellular and molecular mechanisms revisited.

    PubMed

    Levenes, C; Daniel, H; Crépel, F

    1998-05-01

    Long-term depression (LTD) of synaptic transmission at parallel fiber (PF)-Purkinje cell (PC) synapses in the cerebellum has been the first established example of enduring decrease of synaptic efficacy in the central nervous system. This review focuses on the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms. Thus, at the level of the postsynaptic membranes of PCs, induction of LTD requires concommitent activation of voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) and of ionotropic and metabotopic glutamate receptors, of the alpha-amino-3 hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxalone-4-propionate (AMPA) and mGluR1 alpha types respectively. Subsequent intracellular cascades involve production of nitric oxide from arginine and of cGMP, activation of phospholipase A2 and of several protein kinases including protein kinase C and tyrosine kinases. Activation of protein kinase G and of phosphatases are also likely to be involved in LTD induction. In contrast, there are still uncertainties concerning a major role of release of calcium from internal stores in LTD induction. Finally protein synthesis is required for a late phase of LTD to occur. All available experimental evidence points towards a postsynaptic site for LTD expression. In particular, electrophysiological data demonstrate a genuine modification of the functional properties of AMPA receptors of PCs during LTD, and immunocytochemical evidence suggests that this might result from a phosphorylation of these receptors.

  12. Interneuronal Nitric Oxide Signaling Mediates Post-synaptic Long-Term Depression of Striatal Glutamatergic Synapses.

    PubMed

    Rafalovich, Igor V; Melendez, Alexandria E; Plotkin, Joshua L; Tanimura, Asami; Zhai, Shenyu; Surmeier, D James

    2015-11-17

    Experience-driven plasticity of glutamatergic synapses on striatal spiny projection neurons (SPNs) is thought to be essential to goal-directed behavior and habit formation. One major form of striatal plasticity, long-term depression (LTD), has long appeared to be expressed only pre-synaptically. Contrary to this view, nitric oxide (NO) generated by striatal interneurons was found to induce a post-synaptically expressed form of LTD at SPN glutamatergic synapses. This form of LTD was dependent on signaling through guanylyl cyclase and protein kinase G, both of which are abundantly expressed by SPNs. NO-LTD was unaffected by local synaptic activity or antagonism of endocannabinoid (eCb) and dopamine receptors, all of which modulate canonical, pre-synaptic LTD. Moreover, NO signaling disrupted induction of this canonical LTD by inhibiting dendritic Ca(2+) channels regulating eCb synthesis. These results establish an interneuron-dependent, heterosynaptic form of post-synaptic LTD that could act to promote stability of the striatal network during learning.

  13. Both NR2A and NR2B Subunits of the NMDA Receptor Are Critical for Long-Term Potentiation and Long-Term Depression in the Lateral Amygdala of Horizontal Slices of Adult Mice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Tobias; Albrecht, Doris; Gebhardt, Christine

    2009-01-01

    The lateral nucleus of the amygdala (LA) is implicated in emotional and social behaviors. We recently showed that in horizontal brain slices, activation of NMDA receptors (NMDARs) is a requirement for persistent synaptic alterations in the LA, such as long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD). In the LA, NR2A- and NR2B-type NMDRs…

  14. Factors Associated with Depression Assessed by the Patient Health Questionnaire-2 in Long-Term Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Goo, Ae-Jin; Shin, Jinyoung; Ko, Hyeonyoung

    2016-01-01

    Background This cross-sectional study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of depressive disorders and factors associated in long-term cancer survivors. Methods A total of 702 long-term cancer survivors over 5-years in remission were recruited in a university-affiliated tertiary hospital in Korea. Self-report using the Patient Health Questionnaire-2 and the Fatigue Severity Scale assessed depression and fatigue, respectively. Demographic characteristics, cancer-related clinical characteristics, comorbidity, health behaviors, and physical symptoms were assessed through the review of medical records or a structured self-administered questionnaire. Results We identified 26.1% of patients who had a depressed mood or displayed a loss of interest. The most prevalent primary site of cancer was the stomach (65.2%), followed by lung, breast, colorectal, and thyroid cancer. We also found that 5.7% of subjects experienced double or triple primary cancers. Larger proportion among depressive group (89.1%) complained at least one physical problem than among non-depressive group (53.2%). Physical symptoms including sleep problems, dry mouth, indigestion, pain, decreased appetite, and febrile sense were more frequent in the depressive group than in the non-depressive group. The Fatigue Severity Scale scores were higher in the depressive group than in the non-depressive group (P<0.001). Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the highest tertile level of fatigue (odds ratio, 7.31; 95% confidence interval, 3.81–14.02) was associated with the increased risk of depression. Conclusion These findings suggest that careful concern about depression is necessary in long-term cancer survivors. Fatigue may be a surrogate sign for depression, and warrants further evaluation. PMID:27468341

  15. Learning modifies subsequent induction of long-term potentiation-like and long-term depression-like plasticity in human motor cortex.

    PubMed

    Ziemann, Ulf; Ilić, Tihomir V; Iliać, Tihomir V; Pauli, Christian; Meintzschel, Frank; Ruge, Diane

    2004-02-18

    Learning may alter rapidly the output organization of adult motor cortex. It is a long-held hypothesis that modification of synaptic strength along cortical horizontal connections through long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) forms one important mechanism for learning-induced cortical plasticity. Strong evidence in favor of this hypothesis was provided for rat primary motor cortex (M1) by showing that motor learning reduced subsequent LTP but increased LTD. Whether a similar relationship exists in humans is unknown. Here, we induced LTP-like and LTD-like plasticity in the intact human M1 by an established paired associative stimulation (PAS) protocol. PAS consisted of 200 pairs of electrical stimulation of the right median nerve, followed by focal transcranial magnetic stimulation of the hand area of the left M1 at an interval equaling the individual N20 latency of the median nerve somatosensory-evoked cortical potential (PAS(N20)) or N20-5 msec (PAS(N20-5)). PAS(N20) induced reproducibly a LTP-like long-lasting (>30 min) increase in motor-evoked potentials from the left M1 to a thumb abductor muscle of the right hand, whereas PAS(N20-5) induced a LTD-like decrease. Repeated fastest possible thumb abduction movements resulted in learning, defined by an increase in maximum peak acceleration of the practiced movements, and prevented subsequent PAS(N20)-induced LTP-like plasticity but enhanced subsequent PAS(N20-5)-induced LTD-like plasticity. The same number of repeated slow thumb abduction movements did not result in learning and had no effects on PAS-induced plasticity. Findings support the view that learning in human M1 occurs through LTP-like mechanisms.

  16. Long-Term Effects of Child Corporal Punishment on Depressive Symptoms in Young Adults: Potential Moderators and Mediators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Heather A.; Muller, Paul A.

    2004-01-01

    Based on a sample of 649 students from 3 New England colleges, this study examined the long-term effects of childhood corporal punishment on symptoms of depression and considered factors that may moderate or mediate the association. Similar to national studies, approximately 40% of the sample reported experiencing some level of corporal punishment…

  17. The Longitudinal Relationship between the Use of Long-Term Care and Depressive Symptoms in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pot, Anne Margriet; Deeg, Dorly J.H.; Twisk, Jos W.R.; Beekman, Aartjan T.F.; Zarit, Steven H.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to estimate the longitudinal relationship between transitions in the use of long-term care and older adults' depressive symptoms and to investigate whether this relationship could be explained by markers of older adults' underlying health, or other variables including demographics, personality, and partner…

  18. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for Depression: A Preliminary Randomized Clinical Trial for Unemployed on Long-Term Sick Leave

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Folke, Fredrik; Parling, Thomas; Melin, Lennart

    2012-01-01

    This preliminary study investigated the feasibility of a brief Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) in a Swedish sample of unemployed individuals on long-term sick leave due to depression. Participants were randomized to a nonstandardized control condition (N = 16) or to the ACT condition (N = 18) consisting of 1 individual and 5 group…

  19. Antidepressant short-term and long-term brain effects during self-referential processing in major depression.

    PubMed

    Delaveau, Pauline; Jabourian, Maritza; Lemogne, Cédric; Allaïli, Najib; Choucha, Walid; Girault, Nathalie; Lehericy, Stéphane; Laredo, Judith; Fossati, Philippe

    2016-01-30

    Acute depression is associated with impaired self-referential processing. Antidepressant effects on the neural bases of self-referential processing in depression are unknown. This study aimed to assess short- and long-term effects of agomelatine on these neural bases in depressed patients and the association between pre-treatment brain activation and remission of depression 6 months later. We conducted a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study during an emotional self-referential task, including three scanning sessions (baseline, after 1 week, and after 7 weeks). Twenty-five depressed outpatients were included, all treated with agomelatine or placebo for 1 week. Then, all patients received agomelatine for 24 weeks. Fourteen matched healthy volunteers (HV) who received placebo for 1 week were also included. After 7 days, only depressed patients receiving agomelatine significantly deactivated the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex during self-referential processing, as observed in HV at baseline. After 7 weeks, depressed patients significantly increased the activation of the ventral anterior cingulate cortex. Finally dorsomedial prefrontal cortex and precuneus activations at baseline significantly separated remitters from non-remitters at 24 weeks. In depressed patients, agomelatine had short- and long-term effects on brain structures involved in anhedonia and emotional regulation during self-referential processing. Activation of the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex and precuneus could be informative in the development of biomarker-based treatment of major depression. PMID:26655583

  20. Effect of long-term supplementation with folic acid and B vitamins on risk of depression in older women

    PubMed Central

    Okereke, Olivia I.; Cook, Nancy R.; Albert, Christine M.; Van Denburgh, Martin; Buring, Julie E.; Manson, JoAnn E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Homocysteine-lowering nutrients may have preventive/ameliorative roles in depression. Aims To test whether long-term B-vitamin/folate supplementation reduces depression risk. Method Participants were 4331 women (mean age 63.6 years), without prior depression, from the Women’s Antioxidant and Folic Acid Cardiovascular Study – a randomised controlled trial of cardiovascular disease prevention among 5442 women. Participants were randomly assigned to receive a combination of folic acid (2.5 mg/d), vitamin B6 (50 mg/d) and vitamin B12 (1 mg/d) or a matching placebo. Average treatment duration was 7 years. The outcome was incident depression, defined as self-reported physician/clinician-diagnosed depression or clinically significant depressive symptoms. Results There were 524 incident cases. There was no difference between active v. placebo groups in depression risk (adjusted relative risk 1.02, 95% CI 0.86–1.21, P = 0.81), despite significant homocysteine level reduction. Conclusions Long-term, high-dose, daily supplementation with folic acid and vitamins B6 and B12 did not reduce overall depression risk in mid-life and older women. PMID:25573400

  1. Associations between Depressive State and Impaired Higher-Level Functional Capacity in the Elderly with Long-Term Care Requirements.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Soshiro; Hayashi, Chisato; Sugiura, Keiko; Hayakawa, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Depressive state has been reported to be significantly associated with higher-level functional capacity among community-dwelling elderly. However, few studies have investigated the associations among people with long-term care requirements. We aimed to investigate the associations between depressive state and higher-level functional capacity and obtain marginal odds ratios using propensity score analyses in people with long-term care requirements. We conducted a cross-sectional study based on participants aged ≥ 65 years (n = 545) who were community dwelling and used outpatient care services for long-term preventive care. We measured higher-level functional capacity, depressive state, and possible confounders. Then, we estimated the marginal odds ratios (i.e., the change in odds of impaired higher-level functional capacity if all versus no participants were exposed to depressive state) by logistic models using generalized linear models with the inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) for propensity score and design-based standard errors. Depressive state was used as the exposure variable and higher-level functional capacity as the outcome variable. The all absolute standardized differences after the IPTW using the propensity scores were < 10% which indicated negligible differences in the mean or prevalence of the covariates between non-depressive state and depressive state. The marginal odds ratios were estimated by the logistic models with IPTW using the propensity scores. The marginal odds ratios were 2.17 (95%CI: 1.13-4.19) for men and 2.57 (95%CI: 1.26-5.26) for women. Prevention of depressive state may contribute to not only depressive state but also higher-level functional capacity.

  2. Long-Term Fine Particulate Matter Exposure and Major Depressive Disorder in a Community-Based Urban Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyoung-Nam; Lim, Youn-Hee; Bae, Hyun Joo; Kim, Myounghee; Jung, Kweon; Hong, Yun-Chul

    2016-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have associated short-term air pollution exposure with depression. Although an animal study showed an association between long-term exposure to particulate matter ≤ 2.5 μm (PM2.5) and depression, epidemiological studies assessing the long-term association are scarce. Objective: We aimed to determine the association between long-term PM2.5 exposure and major depressive disorder (MDD). Methods: A total of 27,270 participants 15–79 years of age who maintained an address within the same districts in Seoul, Republic of Korea, throughout the entire study period (between 2002 and 2010) and without a previous MDD diagnosis were analyzed. We used three district-specific exposure indices as measures of long-term PM2.5 exposure. Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for potential confounding factors and measured at district and individual levels were constructed. We further conducted stratified analyses according to underlying chronic diseases such as diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Results: The risk of MDD during the follow-up period (2008–2010) increased with an increase of 10 μg/m3 in PM2.5 in 2007 [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.44; 95% CI: 1.17, 1.78], PM2.5 between 2007 and 2010 (HR = 1.59; 95% CI: 1.02, 2.49), and 12-month moving average of PM2.5 until an event or censor (HR = 1.47; 95% CI: 1.14, 1.90). The association between long-term PM2.5 exposure and MDD was greater in participants with underlying chronic diseases than in participants without these diseases. Conclusion: Long-term PM2.5 exposure increased the risk of MDD among the general population. Individuals with underlying chronic diseases are more vulnerable to long-term PM2.5 exposure. Citation: Kim KN, Lim YH, Bae HJ, Kim M, Jung K, Hong YC. 2016. Long-term fine particulate matter exposure and major depressive disorder in a community-based urban cohort. Environ Health Perspect 124:1547–1553; http://dx.doi.org/10

  3. Long-term effects of early-life environmental manipulations in rodents and primates: Potential animal models in depression research.

    PubMed

    Pryce, Christopher R; Rüedi-Bettschen, Daniela; Dettling, Andrea C; Weston, Anna; Russig, Holger; Ferger, Boris; Feldon, Joram

    2005-01-01

    Depression is one of the most common human illnesses and is of immense clinical and economic significance. Knowledge of the neuro-psychology, -biology and -pharmacology of depression is limited, as is the efficacy of antidepressant treatment. In terms of depression aetiology, whilst the evidence for causal mechanisms is sparse, some genomic and environmental factors associated with increased vulnerability have been identified. With regards to the latter, the environments in which human infants and children develop are fundamental to how they develop, and parental loss, emotional and physical neglect, and abuse have been shown to be associated with: traits of depression, traits of predisposition to depression triggered by subsequent life events, and associated physiological abnormalities, across the life span. Studies of postnatal environmental manipulations in rodents and primates can potentially yield evidence that abnormal early-life experience leading to dysfunction of the neurobiology, physiology and behaviour of emotion is a general mammalian characteristic, and therefore, that this approach can be used to develop animal models for depression research, with aetiological, face, construct and predictive validity. The establishment of models with such validity, if at all achievable, will require a sophisticated combination of (1) appropriate postnatal manipulations that induce acute stress responses in the infant brain which in turn lead to long-term neurobiological consequences, and (2) appropriate behavioural and physiological assays to identify and quantify any depression-like phenotypes resulting from these long-term neurobiological phenotypes. Here, we review some of the evidence-positive and negative-that neglect-like environments in rat pups and monkey infants lead to long-term, depression-like behavioural traits of reduced motivation for reward and impaired coping with adversity, and to altered activity in relevant physiological homeostatic systems. PMID

  4. Enhanced AMPA Receptor Function Promotes Cerebellar Long-Term Depression Rather than Potentiation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Beugen, Boeke J.; Qiao, Xin; Simmons, Dana H.; De Zeeuw, Chris I.; Hansel, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Ampakines are allosteric modulators of AMPA receptors that facilitate hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) and learning, and have been considered for the treatment of cognition and memory deficits. Here, we show that the ampakine CX546 raises the amplitude and slows the decay time of excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) at cerebellar…

  5. Prospective study on long-term dietary patterns and incident depression in middle-aged and older women1234

    PubMed Central

    O'Reilly, Eilis J; Lucas, Michel; Mirzaei, Fariba; Okereke, Olivia I; Fung, Teresa T; Hu, Frank B; Ascherio, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Background: Although individual nutrients have been investigated in relation to depression risk, little is known about the overall role of diet in depression. Objective: We examined whether long-term dietary patterns derived from a food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) predict the development of depression in middle-aged and older women. Design: We conducted a prospective study in 50,605 participants (age range: 50–77 y) without depression in the Nurses’ Health Study at baseline (1996) who were followed until 2008. Long-term diet was assessed by using FFQs every 4 y since 1986. Prudent (high in vegetables) and Western (high in meats) patterns were identified by using a principal component analysis. We used 2 definitions for clinical depression as follows: a strict definition that required both a reported clinical diagnosis and use of antidepressants (3002 incident cases) and a broad definition that further included women who reported either a clinical diagnosis or antidepressant use (7413 incident cases). Results: After adjustment for age, body mass index, and other potential confounders, no significant association was shown between the diet patterns and depression risk under the strict definition. Under the broad definition, women with the highest scores for the Western pattern had 15% higher risk of depression (95% CI: 1.04, 1.27; P-trend = 0.01) than did women with the lowest scores, but after additional adjustment for psychological scores at baseline, results were no longer significant (RR: 1.09; 95% CI: 0.99, 1.21; P-trend = 0.08). Conclusion: Overall, results of this large prospective study do not support a clear association between dietary patterns from factor analysis and depression risk. PMID:23885043

  6. Are female children more vulnerable to the long-term effects of maternal depression during pregnancy?

    PubMed Central

    Quarini, Catherine; Pearson, Rebecca M.; Stein, Alan; Ramchandani, Paul G.; Lewis, Glyn; Evans, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Background Female fetuses are more vulnerable to high levels of maternal glucocorticoids. We examined whether exposure to prenatal maternal depression, a condition associated with high glucocorticoids, carries greater risk for depression at 12 and 18 years in girls. Methods Our sample comprised 7959 mothers and children from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children following imputation for missing data. Maternal depression was assessed pre-and post-natally, and offspring depression at ages 12 and 18. We used logistic regression models to examine the relationship between exposure to prenatal and postnatal depression and offspring depression at 18 and 12 and interactions with gender. Results There was an interaction between prenatal depression and gender (P=0.027) and between postnatal depression and gender (P=0.027) for offspring depression at 18. Following adjustment in pre-natally depressed mothers, the odds ratio for offspring depression at 18 was 1.55 (95% c.i. 1.03–2.34) for girls and 0.54 (0.23–1.26) for boys. In post-natally depressed mothers, the odds ratio for offspring depression at 18 was 1.15 (0.70–1.89) in girls and 3.13 (1.52–6.45) in boys. However there was no evidence for interaction between prenatal or postnatal depression and gender (P=0.559 and 0.780 respectively) for offspring depression at 12. Limitations As expected with this large cohort spanning over 18 years, there was loss-to-follow-up. Conclusions This is the first evidence in humans that increased vulnerability of female fetuses to maternal stress responses during pregnancy persists into adolescence. One explanation for gender differences emerging later is more depressive symptomatology is attributed to heritable risk at 12, whereas biological processes involved in brain development at 18 may be influenced by foetal programming. If replicated, this study has potential to help understand intergenerational transmission of depression, a leading cause of morbidity worldwide

  7. Effects of Long Term Sertraline Treatment and Depression on Coronary Artery Atherosclerosis in Premenopausal Female Primates

    PubMed Central

    Shively, Carol A.; Register, Thomas C.; Appt, Susan E.; Clarkson, Thomas B.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Major depressive disorder and coronary heart disease (CHD) often co-occur in the same individuals. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are widely prescribed for depression and other disorders, but their effects on CHD risk remain unclear. We determined the effects of a SSRI on coronary artery atherosclerosis (CAA) in an established nonhuman primate model used to clarify the association between depression and CAA. Methods 42 adult female cynomolgus macaques consuming a Western diet were characterized during an 18-month pretreatment phase, and assigned to SSRI (sertraline HCl 20 mg/kg, po, once/day) or Placebo balanced on pretreatment depression, body weight (BW), and iliac artery atherosclerosis extent measured via biopsy. After 18 months CAA extent was measured using histomorphometry. Results Before and during treatment depressed monkeys had lower BW, body mass index (BMI), and plasma high density lipoprotein cholesterol, and higher heart rates during the pretreatment (p<0.01) but not the treatment phase (p=0.17). There were no pretreatment differences between the sertraline and placebo groups. Sertraline reduced anxious behavior but had no effect on BW, BMI, heart rate, plasma lipids, or depression. CAA, analyzed by a 2 (Depressed, Nondepressed) × 2 (Placebo, Sertraline) × 3 (coronary arteries) analysis of covariance adjusted for pretreatment iliac atherosclerosis, was greater in depressed than nondepressed monkeys (p<0.036), and in sertraline than placebo-treated monkeys (p=0.040). The observed CAA extent in depressed monkeys treated with sertraline was 4.9 times higher than in untreated depressed monkeys, and 6.5 times higher than in non-depressed monkeys, on average. Conclusions Depressed animals develop more CAA, and that longterm treatment with sertraline promotes CAA. PMID:25829239

  8. Effect of Talbinah food consumption on depressive symptoms among elderly individuals in long term care facilities, randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Badrasawi, Manal M; Shahar, Suzana; Abd Manaf, Zahara; Haron, Hasnah

    2013-01-01

    Talbinah is a barley syrup cooked with milk and sweetened by honey. In his famous Hadith on Talbinah, the Prophet Mohammad (SAW) recommended it when sad events happen for its effect on soothing hearts and relieving sadness. This 3-week crossover designed, randomized clinical trial was conducted to determine the effect of Talbinah on mood and depression among institutionalized elderly people in Seremban. A sample of 30 depressed elderly subjects (21 men and 9 women) was selected from the long term care facility. Three different interview-based validated scales (Geriatric Depression Scale, Depression Anxiety Stress Scales, and Profile of Mood States) were used to determine mood, depression, stress, and anxiety at week 0, 3, 4, and 7. The nutritional value of Talbinah was examined using proximate food analysis, minerals content analysis, and differential amino acid analysis. The results indicated that Talbinah is a high carbohydrate food (86.4%) and has a high tryptophan: branch chain amino acids ratio (1:2). A Wilcoxon nonparametric test showed that there was a statistically significant decrease on depression, stress, and mood disturbances scores among the intervention group (P < 0.05) for all parameters. In conclusion, Talbinah has the potential to reduce depression and enhance mood among the subjects. Ingestion of functional foods such as Talbinah may provide a mental health benefit to elderly people. PMID:23493965

  9. Cognitive flexibility and long-term depression (LTD) are impaired following β-catenin stabilization in vivo.

    PubMed

    Mills, Fergil; Bartlett, Thomas E; Dissing-Olesen, Lasse; Wisniewska, Marta B; Kuznicki, Jacek; Macvicar, Brian A; Wang, Yu Tian; Bamji, Shernaz X

    2014-06-10

    The cadherin/β-catenin adhesion complex is a key mediator of the bidirectional changes in synapse strength which are believed to underlie complex learning and memory. In the present study, we demonstrate that stabilization of β-catenin in the hippocampus of adult mice results in significant impairments in cognitive flexibility and spatial reversal learning, including impaired extinction during the reversal phase of the Morris water maze and deficits in a delayed nonmatch to place T-maze task. In accordance with these deficits, β-catenin stabilization was found to abolish long-term depression by stabilizing cadherin at the synaptic membrane and impairing AMPA receptor endocytosis, while leaving basal synaptic transmission and long-term potentiation unaffected. These results demonstrate that the β-catenin/cadherin adhesion complex plays an important role in learning and memory and that aberrant increases in synaptic adhesion can have deleterious effects on cognitive function.

  10. The presence of background dopamine signal converts long-term synaptic depression to potentiation in rat prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Yoshiki; Marzo, Aude; Otani, Satoru

    2006-05-01

    Executive functions of the brain are believed to require tonic dopamine inputs to the prefrontal cortex (PFC). It is unclear, however, how this background dopamine activity controls synaptic plasticity in the PFC, a possible underlying mechanism of executive functions. Using PFC slices, we show that pairing of dopamine with weak tetanic stimulation, a maneuver that otherwise induces NMDA receptor-independent long-term depression (LTD), induces long-term potentiation (LTP) when "primed" with dopamine. This "priming" occurs through the combined activation of D1 and D2 receptors and requires 12-40 min to develop. Moreover, concurrent synaptic activation of NMDA receptors during priming is necessary for this novel form of LTP. We suggest that a role of background dopamine signals in the PFC is to prevent high-frequency synaptic inputs from abnormally inducing LTD and to secure the induction of LTP.

  11. Meditation with yoga, group therapy with hypnosis, and psychoeducation for long-term depressed mood: a randomized pilot trial.

    PubMed

    Butler, Lisa D; Waelde, Lynn C; Hastings, T Andrew; Chen, Xin-Hua; Symons, Barbara; Marshall, Jonathan; Kaufman, Adam; Nagy, Thomas F; Blasey, Christine M; Seibert, Elizabeth O; Spiegel, David

    2008-07-01

    This randomized pilot study investigated the effects of meditation with yoga (and psychoeducation) versus group therapy with hypnosis (and psychoeducation) versus psychoeducation alone on diagnostic status and symptom levels among 46 individuals with long-term depressive disorders. Results indicate that significantly more meditation group participants experienced a remission than did controls at 9-month follow-up. Eight hypnosis group participants also experienced a remission, but the difference from controls was not statistically significant. Three control participants, but no meditation or hypnosis participants, developed a new depressive episode during the study, though this difference did not reach statistical significance in any case. Although all groups reported some reduction in symptom levels, they did not differ significantly in that outcome. Overall, these results suggest that these two interventions show promise for treating low- to moderate-level depression.

  12. Long-Term Effects of Bereavement and Caregiver Intervention on Dementia Caregiver Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haley, William E.; Bergman, Elizabeth J.; Roth, David L.; McVie, Theresa; Gaugler, Joseph E.; Mittelman, Mary S.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the joint effects of bereavement and caregiver intervention on caregiver depressive symptoms. Design and Methods: Alzheimer's caregivers from a randomized trial of an enhanced caregiver support intervention versus usual care who had experienced the death of their spouse (n = 254) were repeatedly…

  13. The Long-Term Effects of War Experiences on Children's Depression in the Republic of Croatia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brajsa-Zganec, A.

    2005-01-01

    Objective:: The aim of the study was to investigate whether different levels of depressive symptoms in early adolescent boys and girls could be predicted on the basis of war experiences, perceived available social support (instrumental support, support to self-esteem, belonging and acceptance) and extraversion. Methods:: The sample consisted of…

  14. Dendritic excitability microzones and occluded long-term depression after classical conditioning of the rabbit's nictitating membrane response.

    PubMed

    Schreurs, B G; Tomsic, D; Gusev, P A; Alkon, D L

    1997-01-01

    underwent a long-term (> 20 min) reduction in peak amplitude (-24%) in cells (n = 12) from animals given unpaired stimulus presentations but to a far less extent (-9%) in cells (n = 20) from animals given in vivo paired training. Whereas 92% of cells from unpaired animals showed pairing-specific depression, 50% of cells from paired animals showed no depression and in several cases showed potentiation. Our data establish that there are localized learning-specific changes in membrane and synaptic excitability of Purkinje cells in rabbit lobule HVI that can be detected in slices 24 h after classical conditioning. Long-term changes within Purkinje cells that effect this enhanced excitability may occlude pairing-specific long-term depression.

  15. Activation of synaptic group II metabotropic glutamate receptors induces long-term depression at GABAergic synapses in CNS neurons.

    PubMed

    Tang, Zheng-Quan; Liu, Yu-Wei; Shi, Wei; Dinh, Emilie Hoang; Hamlet, William R; Curry, Rebecca J; Lu, Yong

    2013-10-01

    Metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR)-dependent homosynaptic long-term depression (LTD) has been studied extensively at glutamatergic synapses in the CNS. However, much less is known about heterosynaptic long-term plasticity induced by mGluRs at inhibitory synapses. Here we report that pharmacological or synaptic activation of group II mGluRs (mGluR II) induces LTD at GABAergic synapses without affecting the excitatory glutamatergic transmission in neurons of the chicken cochlear nucleus. Coefficient of variation and failure rate analysis suggested that the LTD was expressed presynaptically. The LTD requires presynaptic spike activity, but does not require the activation of NMDA receptors. The classic cAMP-dependent protein kinase A signaling is involved in the transduction pathway. Remarkably, blocking mGluR II increased spontaneous GABA release, indicating the presence of tonic activation of mGluR II by ambient glutamate. Furthermore, synaptically released glutamate induced by electrical stimulations that concurrently activated both the glutamatergic and GABAergic pathways resulted in significant and constant suppression of GABA release at various stimulus frequencies (3.3, 100, and 300 Hz). Strikingly, low-frequency stimulation (1 Hz, 15 min) of the glutamatergic synapses induced heterosynaptic LTD of GABAergic transmission, and the LTD was blocked by mGluR II antagonist, indicating that synaptic activation of mGluR II induced the LTD. This novel form of long-term plasticity in the avian auditory brainstem may play a role in the development as well as in temporal processing in the sound localization circuit.

  16. Mild Concussion, but Not Moderate Traumatic Brain Injury, Is Associated with Long-Term Depression-Like Phenotype in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hamer, Mary; Semple, Bridgette D.; Noble-Haeusslein, Linda J.; Baghchechi, Mohsen; Hiroto, Alex; Hartman, Richard E.; Obenaus, André

    2016-01-01

    Mild traumatic brain injuries can lead to long-lasting cognitive and motor deficits, increasing the risk of future behavioral, neurological, and affective disorders. Our study focused on long-term behavioral deficits after repeated injury in which mice received either a single mild CHI (mCHI), a repeated mild CHI (rmCHI) consisting of one impact to each hemisphere separated by 3 days, or a moderate controlled cortical impact injury (CCI). Shams received only anesthesia. Behavioral tests were administered at 1, 3, 5, 7, and 90 days post-injury (dpi). CCI animals showed significant motor and sensory deficits in the early (1–7 dpi) and long-term (90 dpi) stages of testing. Interestingly, sensory and subtle motor deficits in rmCHI animals were found at 90 dpi. Most importantly, depression-like behaviors and social passiveness were observed in rmCHI animals at 90 dpi. These data suggest that mild concussive injuries lead to motor and sensory deficits and affective disorders that are not observed after moderate TBI. PMID:26796696

  17. Mild Concussion, but Not Moderate Traumatic Brain Injury, Is Associated with Long-Term Depression-Like Phenotype in Mice.

    PubMed

    Bajwa, Nikita M; Halavi, Shina; Hamer, Mary; Semple, Bridgette D; Noble-Haeusslein, Linda J; Baghchechi, Mohsen; Hiroto, Alex; Hartman, Richard E; Obenaus, André

    2016-01-01

    Mild traumatic brain injuries can lead to long-lasting cognitive and motor deficits, increasing the risk of future behavioral, neurological, and affective disorders. Our study focused on long-term behavioral deficits after repeated injury in which mice received either a single mild CHI (mCHI), a repeated mild CHI (rmCHI) consisting of one impact to each hemisphere separated by 3 days, or a moderate controlled cortical impact injury (CCI). Shams received only anesthesia. Behavioral tests were administered at 1, 3, 5, 7, and 90 days post-injury (dpi). CCI animals showed significant motor and sensory deficits in the early (1-7 dpi) and long-term (90 dpi) stages of testing. Interestingly, sensory and subtle motor deficits in rmCHI animals were found at 90 dpi. Most importantly, depression-like behaviors and social passiveness were observed in rmCHI animals at 90 dpi. These data suggest that mild concussive injuries lead to motor and sensory deficits and affective disorders that are not observed after moderate TBI.

  18. Hampered long-term depression and thin spine loss in the nucleus accumbens of ethanol-dependent rats.

    PubMed

    Spiga, Saturnino; Talani, Giuseppe; Mulas, Giovanna; Licheri, Valentina; Fois, Giulia R; Muggironi, Giulia; Masala, Nicola; Cannizzaro, Carla; Biggio, Giovanni; Sanna, Enrico; Diana, Marco

    2014-09-01

    Alcoholism involves long-term cognitive deficits, including memory impairment, resulting in substantial cost to society. Neuronal refinement and stabilization are hypothesized to confer resilience to poor decision making and addictive-like behaviors, such as excessive ethanol drinking and dependence. Accordingly, structural abnormalities are likely to contribute to synaptic dysfunctions that occur from suddenly ceasing the use of alcohol after chronic ingestion. Here we show that ethanol-dependent rats display a loss of dendritic spines in medium spiny neurons of the nucleus accumbens (Nacc) shell, accompanied by a reduction of tyrosine hydroxylase immunostaining and postsynaptic density 95-positive elements. Further analysis indicates that "long thin" but not "mushroom" spines are selectively affected. In addition, patch-clamp experiments from Nacc slices reveal that long-term depression (LTD) formation is hampered, with parallel changes in field potential recordings and reductions in NMDA-mediated synaptic currents. These changes are restricted to the withdrawal phase of ethanol dependence, suggesting their relevance in the genesis of signs and/or symptoms affecting ethanol withdrawal and thus the whole addictive cycle. Overall, these results highlight the key role of dynamic alterations in dendritic spines and their presynaptic afferents in the evolution of alcohol dependence. Furthermore, they suggest that the selective loss of long thin spines together with a reduced NMDA receptor function may affect learning. Disruption of this LTD could contribute to the rigid emotional and motivational state observed in alcohol dependence.

  19. Mild Concussion, but Not Moderate Traumatic Brain Injury, Is Associated with Long-Term Depression-Like Phenotype in Mice.

    PubMed

    Bajwa, Nikita M; Halavi, Shina; Hamer, Mary; Semple, Bridgette D; Noble-Haeusslein, Linda J; Baghchechi, Mohsen; Hiroto, Alex; Hartman, Richard E; Obenaus, André

    2016-01-01

    Mild traumatic brain injuries can lead to long-lasting cognitive and motor deficits, increasing the risk of future behavioral, neurological, and affective disorders. Our study focused on long-term behavioral deficits after repeated injury in which mice received either a single mild CHI (mCHI), a repeated mild CHI (rmCHI) consisting of one impact to each hemisphere separated by 3 days, or a moderate controlled cortical impact injury (CCI). Shams received only anesthesia. Behavioral tests were administered at 1, 3, 5, 7, and 90 days post-injury (dpi). CCI animals showed significant motor and sensory deficits in the early (1-7 dpi) and long-term (90 dpi) stages of testing. Interestingly, sensory and subtle motor deficits in rmCHI animals were found at 90 dpi. Most importantly, depression-like behaviors and social passiveness were observed in rmCHI animals at 90 dpi. These data suggest that mild concussive injuries lead to motor and sensory deficits and affective disorders that are not observed after moderate TBI. PMID:26796696

  20. Long-term outcomes from the PEARLS randomized trial for the treatment of depression in patients with epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Chaytor, Naomi; Ciechanowski, Paul; Miller, John W; Fraser, Robert; Russo, Joan; Unutzer, Jurgen; Gilliam, Frank

    2011-03-01

    Depression is associated with higher rates of suicide and lower quality of life in individuals with epilepsy. We previously published the 12-month outcome from our randomized clinical trial of PEARLS (Ciechanowski P, Chaytor N, Miller J, et al. Epilepsy Behav. Epub 5 July 2010). The purpose of this study was to determine the long-term effectiveness of PEARLS, a home-based collaborative care intervention consisting of problem-solving treatment, behavioral activation, and psychiatric consultation, in individuals with epilepsy. Patients were randomly assigned to PEARLS (N=40) or usual care (N=40), and assessed at baseline and 6, 12, and 18 months. Patients assigned to PEARLS achieved lower depression severity (P<0.05) (Hopkins Symptoms Checklist-20), lower suicidal ideation (P<0.02), and better emotional well being (QOLIE-31) (P<0.02) over 18 months, compared with patients given the usual care. The PEARLS program significantly reduces depressive symptoms in adults with epilepsy, and this effect is maintained for 18 months after baseline and for more than 1 year after completion of home visits.

  1. Mechanisms of induction and expression of long-term depression at GABAergic synapses in the neonatal rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Caillard, O; Ben-Ari, Y; Gaïarsa, J L

    1999-09-01

    Synaptic plasticity at excitatory glutamatergic synapses is believed to be instrumental in the maturation of neuronal networks. Using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings, we have studied the mechanisms of induction and expression of long-term depression at excitatory GABAergic synapses in the neonatal rat hippocampus (LTD(GABA-A)). We report that the induction of LTD(GABA-A) requires a GABA(A) receptor-mediated membrane depolarization, which is necessary to remove the Mg(2+) block from postsynaptic NMDA receptors. LTD(GABA-A) is associated with an increase in the coefficient of variation of evoked GABA(A) receptor-mediated synaptic currents and a decrease in the frequency, but not amplitude, of Sr(2+)-induced asynchronous GABA(A) quantal events. We conclude that LTD(GABA-A) induction requires the activation of both GABA(A) and NMDA postsynaptic receptors and that its expression is likely presynaptic.

  2. Metabotropic glutamate receptor 3 activation is required for long-term depression in medial prefrontal cortex and fear extinction.

    PubMed

    Walker, Adam G; Wenthur, Cody J; Xiang, Zixiu; Rook, Jerri M; Emmitte, Kyle A; Niswender, Colleen M; Lindsley, Craig W; Conn, P Jeffrey

    2015-01-27

    Clinical studies have revealed that genetic variations in metabotropic glutamate receptor 3 (mGlu3) affect performance on cognitive tasks dependent upon the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and may be linked to psychiatric conditions such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and addiction. We have performed a series of studies aimed at understanding how mGlu3 influences PFC function and cognitive behaviors. In the present study, we found that activation of mGlu3 can induce long-term depression in the mouse medial PFC (mPFC) in vitro. Furthermore, in vivo administration of a selective mGlu3 negative allosteric modulator impaired learning in the mPFC-dependent fear extinction task. The results of these studies implicate mGlu3 as a major regulator of PFC function and cognition. Additionally, potentiators of mGlu3 may be useful in alleviating prefrontal impairments associated with several CNS disorders. PMID:25583490

  3. Metabotropic glutamate receptor 3 activation is required for long-term depression in medial prefrontal cortex and fear extinction

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Adam G.; Wenthur, Cody J.; Xiang, Zixiu; Rook, Jerri M.; Emmitte, Kyle A.; Niswender, Colleen M.; Lindsley, Craig W.; Conn, P. Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Clinical studies have revealed that genetic variations in metabotropic glutamate receptor 3 (mGlu3) affect performance on cognitive tasks dependent upon the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and may be linked to psychiatric conditions such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and addiction. We have performed a series of studies aimed at understanding how mGlu3 influences PFC function and cognitive behaviors. In the present study, we found that activation of mGlu3 can induce long-term depression in the mouse medial PFC (mPFC) in vitro. Furthermore, in vivo administration of a selective mGlu3 negative allosteric modulator impaired learning in the mPFC-dependent fear extinction task. The results of these studies implicate mGlu3 as a major regulator of PFC function and cognition. Additionally, potentiators of mGlu3 may be useful in alleviating prefrontal impairments associated with several CNS disorders. PMID:25583490

  4. Role for Endogenous BDNF in Endocannabinoid-Mediated Long-Term Depression at Neocortical Inhibitory Synapses1,2,3

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Liangfang; Li-Wen Yeh, Mason

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The endogenous cannabinoid (endocannabinoid) system is an important regulator of synaptic function. Endocannabinoids acutely modulate inhibitory and excitatory transmission, and also mediate long-term depression at GABAergic and glutamatergic synapses. Typically, endocannabinoid synthesis and release is stimulated by depolarization-induced calcium influx and/or activation of phospholipase-C (PLC) signaling triggered by mGluR activation. Recently it has been shown that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) can also induce endocannabinoid release. Although there is growing evidence for cross-talk between BDNF and endocannabinoid signaling, little is known about the functional relevance of these interactions. In the present studies, we examined BDNF−endocannabinoid interactions in regulating activity-dependent long-term depression at inhibitory synapses (iLTD). We found that theta burst stimulation (TBS) in layer 2/3 of mouse somatosensory cortical slices can induce a form of endocannabinoid-mediated iLTD that is independent of metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) activation. This endocannabinoid-dependent iLTD, however, requires endogenous BDNF-trkB signaling, as it is blocked by a trk tyrosine kinase inhibitor and by a trkB receptor antagonist, and also requires activation of diacylglycerol lipase (DAG-lipase, DGL). In addition, endocannabinoid-mediated iLTD can be induced by combining a subthreshold concentration of exogenous BDNF with weak TBS stimulation that by itself is insufficient to induce iLTD. Taken together, our results suggest that TBS can induce the release of endogenous BDNF, which triggers DGL-dependent endocannabinoid mobilization and cannabinoid receptor-dependent iLTD at layer 2/3 cortical synapses. PMID:25938134

  5. Blockade of NMDA receptors unmasks a long-term depression in synaptic efficacy in rat prefrontal neurons in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, J C; Crepel, F

    1991-01-01

    All the experiments were carried out in slices of rat prefrontal cortex maintained in vitro. The effect of 2-amino-5-phosphonovalerate (APV) was tested on the postsynaptic potential (PSP) recorded in layer V pyramidal cells, in response to single or high frequency stimulation of the superficial layers I-II. Wash-out of Mg2+ increased the amplitude and duration of the PSPs. This effect resulted from activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors since it was suppressed by bath application of APV. Furthermore, in every cell tested in Mg2+ containing medium (N = 16), exposure to APV reversibly reduced both mono- and polysynaptic components of the PSPs, indicating that, even in the control solution, activation of NMDA-coupled channels contributed to these synaptic events. Finally, the anomalous voltage-dependence of the EPSP in the presence of Mg2+ and its sensitivity to APV suggests that at least a fraction of the NMDA receptors are postsynaptically located. Tetanization was applied to the afferents of cells bathed in control- or APV-medium. Long-term potentiation (LTP) or long-term depression (LTD) is defined as an increase or a decrease respectively, of the PSPs peak amplitude or initial slope, lasting 20 min. In the control medium, LTP in synaptic efficacy was observed in 34% of the cells and LTD in 48% (N = 23). When exposed to APV, none of the cells tested (N = 16) showed LTP of the response. In contrast, the tetanus induced a LTD of the PSP amplitude or slope in 14 out of these 16 cells. The percentage of cells showing LTD in synaptic efficacy (87%) when the NMDA receptors activation was blocked was significantly higher than that in control-medium.

  6. Induction of Long-term Depression-like Plasticity by Pairings of Motor Imagination and Peripheral Electrical Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Jochumsen, Mads; Signal, Nada; Nedergaard, Rasmus W.; Taylor, Denise; Haavik, Heidi; Niazi, Imran K.

    2015-01-01

    Long-term depression (LTD) and long-term potentiation (LTP)-like plasticity are models of synaptic plasticity which have been associated with memory and learning. The induction of LTD and LTP-like plasticity, using different stimulation protocols, has been proposed as a means of addressing abnormalities in cortical excitability associated with conditions such as focal hand dystonia and stroke. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the excitability of the cortical projections to the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle could be decreased when dorsiflexion of the ankle joint was imagined and paired with peripheral electrical stimulation (ES) of the nerve supplying the antagonist soleus muscle. The effect of stimulus timing was evaluated by comparing paired stimulation timed to reach the cortex before, at and after the onset of imagined movement. Fourteen healthy subjects participated in six experimental sessions held on non-consecutive days. The timing of stimulation delivery was determined offline based on the contingent negative variation (CNV) of electroencephalography brain data obtained during imagined dorsiflexion. Afferent stimulation was provided via a single pulse ES to the peripheral nerve paired, based on the CNV, with motor imagination of ankle dorsiflexion. A significant decrease (P = 0.001) in the excitability of the cortical projection of TA was observed when the afferent volley from the ES of the tibial nerve (TN) reached the cortex at the onset of motor imagination based on the CNV. When TN stimulation was delivered before (P = 0.62), or after (P = 0.23) imagined movement onset there was no significant effect. Nor was a significant effect found when ES of the TN was applied independent of imagined movement (P = 0.45). Therefore, the excitability of the cortical projection to a muscle can be inhibited when ES of the nerve supplying the antagonist muscle is precisely paired with the onset of imagined movement. PMID:26648859

  7. Long-term effects of adolescent smoking on depression and socioeconomic status in adulthood in an urban African American cohort.

    PubMed

    Strong, Carol; Juon, Hee-Soon; Ensminger, Margaret E

    2014-06-01

    Despite known adverse causal effects of cigarette smoking on mental health, findings for the effects of adolescent cigarette smoking on later depression and socioeconomic status remain inconclusive. Previous studies have had shorter follow-up periods and did not have a representative portion of the African American population. Using an analytical method that matches adolescent smokers with nonsmokers on childhood and background variables, this study aims to provide evidence on the effects of adolescent regular smoking on adult depression and socioeconomic status. Our longitudinal study is from the Woodlawn Study that followed 1,242 African Americans in Chicago from 1966-1967 (at age 6-7) through 2002-2003 (at age 42-43). We used a propensity score matching method to find a regular and a non-regular adolescent smoking group with similar childhood socioeconomic and family background and first grade academic and behavioral performance. We compared the matched samples to assess the longitudinal effects of adolescent smoking on adult outcomes. Comparing the matched 199 adolescent regular smokers and 199 non-regular smokers, we found statistical support for the effects of adolescent cigarette smoking on later educational attainment (OR, 2.13; 95 % CI, 1.34, 3.39) and long-term unemployment (OR, 1.74; 95 % CI, 1.11, 2.75), but did not find support for the effects on adulthood major depressive disorders. With a community population of urban African Americans followed for 40 years, our study contributes to the understanding of the relationships between adolescent smoking and later educational attainment and employment.

  8. Presynaptic and postsynaptic effects of nitric oxide donors at synapses between parallel fibres and Purkinje cells: involvement in cerebellar long-term depression.

    PubMed

    Blond, O; Daniel, H; Otani, S; Jaillard, D; Crépel, F

    1997-04-01

    The involvement of nitric oxide in cerebellar long-term depression is widely accepted. Nevertheless, its site of action has remained unclear. Using the coefficient of variation method applied to the parallel fibre-mediated excitatory postsynaptic currents recorded in voltage-clamped Purkinje cells. this study shows that nitric oxide donors exert their effects at both presynaptic and postsynaptic sites. The presynaptic depression fades away with washout of nitric oxide donors and is mediated through the potentiation of A1 adenosine receptors. Part of this effect may be due to non-nitric oxide products. In contrast, long-term depression induced by nitric oxide donors is expressed at a postsynaptic site, and is independent of the ADP ribosylation. Long-term depression induced by pairing is also expressed mainly at a postsynaptic level. These results establish that long-term depression at the parallel fibre Purkinje cell synapse induced by pairing of nitric oxide donors is mostly expressed at a postsynaptic site.

  9. Electrical low-frequency stimulation induces long-term depression of sensory and affective components of pain in healthy man.

    PubMed

    Rottmann, Silke; Jung, Kerstin; Ellrich, Jens

    2010-04-01

    Electrical low-frequency stimulation (LFS) of nociceptive skin afferents reliably induces long-term depression (LTD) of pain. Recent experiments have assessed the effects of LTD on pain perception by using a simple one-dimensional rating scale. The psychophysical study investigated the impact of noxious LFS on the sensory and affective aspects of pain perception by multidimensional rating scales. In 20 healthy volunteers, nociceptive fibers of the left hand dorsum were electrically stimulated by a concentric electrode. Test stimulation series (15 stimuli each, 0.125Hz) were performed before (Pre) and after (Post) a conditioning LFS (1Hz, 20min) or no stimulation period (Control). Pain ratings concerning test stimulation and LFS were obtained by multidimensional assessment including Verbal rating scale of perceived stimulus intensity (VRS-I) and unpleasantness (VRS-U) and pain perception scale with sensory (SES-S) and affective items (SES-A). After the conditioning LFS, VRS-I, VRS-U, SES-S, and SES-A decreased as compared to Pre series and Control. During conditioning LFS, ratings decreased. Factor analysis of SES-S revealed sole reduction of superficial sharp pain perception after conditioning LFS in contrast to Control experiment. Perception of deep rhythmic pain decreased over time. Deep constant pain and superficial heat pain were not affected. Electrical test stimulation via concentric electrode evokes sensory as well as affective pain perception. Both components decrease during noxious, conditioning LFS and remain depressed for at least one hour. Reduction of sharp pain points to Adelta fiber mediated LTD. These results stress the analgesic potency of LTD and its possible impact on future therapy in chronic pain.

  10. 1-Palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine improves cognitive decline by enhancing long-term depression.

    PubMed

    Yaguchi, Takahiro; Nagata, Tetsu; Nishizaki, Tomoyuki

    2009-12-01

    1-Palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPhtCho) (1 microM) enhanced long-term depression (LTD), a synaptic plasticity relevant to learning and memory, in the CA1 region of rat hippocampal slices, where expression of the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) receptor subunit GluR1 on the plasma membrane was decreased. In the water maze test, oral administration with POPhtCho (5 mg/kg) significantly shortened the prolonged retention latency for rats intraperitoneally injected with scopolamine (1 mg/kg), while the acquisition latency was not affected. For humans with mild cognitive impairment and dementia (average of Mini Mental State Examination score, 18), oral intake with POPhtCho (300 mg/day, once after breakfast) everyday raised the score to over 20, corresponding to normal cognitive functions, throughout 6 months after intake. The results of the present study, thus, indicate that POPhtCho could ameliorate cognitive disorders, possibly by enhancing LTD. PMID:19482045

  11. Long-term plasticity determines the postsynaptic response to correlated afferents with multivesicular short-term synaptic depression

    PubMed Central

    Bird, Alex D.; Richardson, Magnus J. E.

    2014-01-01

    Synchrony in a presynaptic population leads to correlations in vesicle occupancy at the active sites for neurotransmitter release. The number of independent release sites per presynaptic neuron, a synaptic parameter recently shown to be modified during long-term plasticity, will modulate these correlations and therefore have a significant effect on the firing rate of the postsynaptic neuron. To understand how correlations from synaptic dynamics and from presynaptic synchrony shape the postsynaptic response, we study a model of multiple release site short-term plasticity and derive exact results for the crosscorrelation function of vesicle occupancy and neurotransmitter release, as well as the postsynaptic voltage variance. Using approximate forms for the postsynaptic firing rate in the limits of low and high correlations, we demonstrate that short-term depression leads to a maximum response for an intermediate number of presynaptic release sites, and that this leads to a tuning-curve response peaked at an optimal presynaptic synchrony set by the number of neurotransmitter release sites per presynaptic neuron. These effects arise because, above a certain level of correlation, activity in the presynaptic population is overly strong resulting in wastage of the pool of releasable neurotransmitter. As the nervous system operates under constraints of efficient metabolism it is likely that this phenomenon provides an activity-dependent constraint on network architecture. PMID:24523691

  12. Synaptic P-Rex1 signaling regulates hippocampal long-term depression and autism-like social behavior

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jun; Chai, Anping; Wang, Lifang; Ma, Yuanlin; Wu, Zhiliu; Yu, Hao; Mei, Liwei; Lu, Lin; Zhang, Chen; Yue, Weihua; Xu, Lin; Rao, Yi; Zhang, Dai

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are a group of highly inheritable mental disorders associated with synaptic dysfunction, but the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms remain to be clarified. Here we report that autism in Chinese Han population is associated with genetic variations and copy number deletion of P-Rex1 (phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate-dependent Rac exchange factor 1). Genetic deletion or knockdown of P-Rex1 in the CA1 region of the hippocampus in mice resulted in autism-like social behavior that was specifically linked to the defect of long-term depression (LTD) in the CA1 region through alteration of AMPA receptor endocytosis mediated by the postsynaptic PP1α (protein phosphase 1α)–P-Rex1–Rac1 (Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1) signaling pathway. Rescue of the LTD in the CA1 region markedly alleviated autism-like social behavior. Together, our findings suggest a vital role of P-Rex1 signaling in CA1 LTD that is critical for social behavior and cognitive function and offer new insight into the etiology of ASDs. PMID:26621702

  13. Pragmatic randomized controlled trial of long-term psychoanalytic psychotherapy for treatment-resistant depression: the Tavistock Adult Depression Study (TADS)

    PubMed Central

    Fonagy, Peter; Rost, Felicitas; Carlyle, Jo-anne; McPherson, Susan; Thomas, Rachel; Pasco Fearon, RM; Goldberg, David; Taylor, David

    2015-01-01

    This pragmatic randomized controlled trial tested the effectiveness of long-term psychoanalytic psychotherapy (LTPP) as an adjunct to treatment-as-usual according to UK national guidelines (TAU), compared to TAU alone, in patients with long-standing major depression who had failed at least two different treatments and were considered to have treatment-resistant depression. Patients (N=129) were recruited from primary care and randomly allocated to the two treatment conditions. They were assessed at 6-monthly intervals during the 18 months of treatment and at 24, 30 and 42 months during follow-up. The primary outcome measure was the 17-item version of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS-17), with complete remission defined as a HDRS-17 score ≤8, and partial remission defined as a HDRS-17 score ≤12. Secondary outcome measures included self-reported depression as assessed by the Beck Depression Inventory - II, social functioning as evaluated by the Global Assessment of Functioning, subjective wellbeing as rated by the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation - Outcome Measure, and satisfaction with general activities as assessed by the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire. Complete remission was infrequent in both groups at the end of treatment (9.4% in the LTPP group vs. 6.5% in the control group) as well as at 42-month follow-up (14.9% vs. 4.4%). Partial remission was not significantly more likely in the LTPP than in the control group at the end of treatment (32.1% vs. 23.9%, p=0.37), but significant differences emerged during follow-up (24 months: 38.8% vs. 19.2%, p=0.03; 30 months: 34.7% vs. 12.2%, p=0.008; 42 months: 30.0% vs. 4.4%, p=0.001). Both observer-based and self-reported depression scores showed steeper declines in the LTPP group, alongside greater improvements on measures of social adjustment. These data suggest that LTPP can be useful in improving the long-term outcome of treatment-resistant depression. End

  14. Pragmatic randomized controlled trial of long-term psychoanalytic psychotherapy for treatment-resistant depression: the Tavistock Adult Depression Study (TADS).

    PubMed

    Fonagy, Peter; Rost, Felicitas; Carlyle, Jo-Anne; McPherson, Susan; Thomas, Rachel; Pasco Fearon, R M; Goldberg, David; Taylor, David

    2015-10-01

    This pragmatic randomized controlled trial tested the effectiveness of long-term psychoanalytic psychotherapy (LTPP) as an adjunct to treatment-as-usual according to UK national guidelines (TAU), compared to TAU alone, in patients with long-standing major depression who had failed at least two different treatments and were considered to have treatment-resistant depression. Patients (N=129) were recruited from primary care and randomly allocated to the two treatment conditions. They were assessed at 6-monthly intervals during the 18 months of treatment and at 24, 30 and 42 months during follow-up. The primary outcome measure was the 17-item version of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS-17), with complete remission defined as a HDRS-17 score ≤8, and partial remission defined as a HDRS-17 score ≤12. Secondary outcome measures included self-reported depression as assessed by the Beck Depression Inventory - II, social functioning as evaluated by the Global Assessment of Functioning, subjective wellbeing as rated by the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation - Outcome Measure, and satisfaction with general activities as assessed by the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire. Complete remission was infrequent in both groups at the end of treatment (9.4% in the LTPP group vs. 6.5% in the control group) as well as at 42-month follow-up (14.9% vs. 4.4%). Partial remission was not significantly more likely in the LTPP than in the control group at the end of treatment (32.1% vs. 23.9%, p=0.37), but significant differences emerged during follow-up (24 months: 38.8% vs. 19.2%, p=0.03; 30 months: 34.7% vs. 12.2%, p=0.008; 42 months: 30.0% vs. 4.4%, p=0.001). Both observer-based and self-reported depression scores showed steeper declines in the LTPP group, alongside greater improvements on measures of social adjustment. These data suggest that LTPP can be useful in improving the long-term outcome of treatment-resistant depression. End

  15. [Long-term effects of a cognitive-behavioral intervention on pain coping among inpatient orthopedic rehabilitation of chronic low back pain and depressive symptoms].

    PubMed

    Hampel, Petra; Gemp, Stephan; Mohr, Beate; Schulze, Julian; Tlach, Lisa

    2014-11-01

    Beneficial effects on psychological measures in orthopedic inpatient rehabilitation of patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP) and co-exist-ing depressive symptoms have been shown only for multidisciplinary approaches that incorporate psychotherapeutic interventions. Aim of this study was to verify these findings for pain coping outcomes (pain-related psychological disability, pain-related coping). Short-, mid-, and long-term effects of a standard pain management program that was either solely provided or combined with a supplemental cognitive-behavioral depression management were examined in a consecutive sample of n=84. Patients in both groups showed long-term beneficial effects in pain coping measures. Thus, the standard rehabilitation revealed specific and long-term effects on pain coping. However, further evidence suggests that diagnosis-specific psychotherapeutic treatment elements are required to improve psychological symptoms.

  16. The GABA[subscript A] Receptor Agonist Muscimol Induces an Age- and Region-Dependent Form of Long-Term Depression in the Mouse Striatum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Xiaoqun; Yao, Ning; Chergui, Karima

    2016-01-01

    Several forms of long-term depression (LTD) of glutamatergic synaptic transmission have been identified in the dorsal striatum and in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Such experience-dependent synaptic plasticity might play important roles in reward-related learning. The GABA[subscript A] receptor agonist muscimol was recently found to trigger a…

  17. Long-Term Outcomes of an Australian Universal Prevention Trial of Anxiety and Depression Symptoms in Children and Youth: An Evaluation of the Friends Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Paula M.; Farrell, Lara J.; Ollendick, Thomas H.; Dadds, Mark

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluated the long-term effectiveness of the FRIENDS Program in reducing anxiety and depression in a sample of children from Grade 6 and Grade 9 in comparison to a control condition. Longitudinal data for Lock and Barrett's (2003) universal prevention trial is presented, along with data from 12-month follow-up to 24- and 36-month…

  18. The long-term effects of methamphetamine exposure during pre-adolescence on depressive-like behaviour in a genetic animal model of depression.

    PubMed

    Mouton, Moné; Harvey, Brian H; Cockeran, Marike; Brink, Christiaan B

    2016-02-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) is a psychostimulant and drug of abuse, commonly used early in life, including in childhood and adolescence. Adverse effects include psychosis, anxiety and mood disorders, as well as increased risk of developing a mental disorder later in life. The current study investigated the long-term effects of chronic METH exposure during pre-adolescence in stress-sensitive Flinders Sensitive Line (FSL) rats (genetic model of depression) and control Flinders Resistant Line (FRL) rats. METH or vehicle control was administered twice daily from post-natal day 19 (PostND19) to PostND34, followed by behavioural testing at either PostND35 (early effects) or long-lasting after withdrawal at PostND60 (early adulthood). Animals were evaluated for depressive-like behaviour, locomotor activity, social interaction and object recognition memory. METH reduced depressive-like behaviour in both FSL and FRL rats at PostND35, but enhanced this behaviour at PostND60. METH also reduced locomotor activity on PostND35 in both FSL and FRL rats, but without effect at PostND60. Furthermore, METH significantly lowered social interaction behaviour (staying together) in both FRL and FSL rats at PostND35 and PostND60, whereas self-grooming time was significantly reduced only at PostND35. METH treatment enhanced exploration of the familiar vs. novel object in the novel object recognition test (nORT) in FSL and FRL rats on PostND35 and PostND60, indicative of reduced cognitive performance. Thus, early-life METH exposure induce social and cognitive deficits. Lastly, early-life exposure to METH may result in acute antidepressant-like effects immediately after chronic exposure, whereas long-term effects after withdrawal are depressogenic. Data also supports a role for genetic predisposition as with FSL rats.

  19. Reassessment of long-term depression in cerebellar Purkinje cells in mice carrying mutated GluA2 C terminus.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Kazuhiko; Itohara, Shigeyoshi; Ito, Masao

    2016-09-01

    Long-term depression (LTD) of synaptic transmission from parallel fibers (PFs) to a Purkinje cell (PC) in the cerebellum has been considered to be a core mechanism of motor learning. Recently, however, discrepancies between LTD and motor learning have been reported in mice with a mutation that targeted the expression of PF-PC LTD by blocking AMPA-subtype glutamate receptor internalization regulated via the phosphorylation of AMPA receptors. In these mice, motor learning behavior was normal, but no PF-PC LTD was observed. We reexamined slices obtained from these GluA2 K882A and GluA2 Δ7 knockin mutants at 3-6 mo of age. The conventional protocols of stimulation did not induce LTD in these mutant mice, as previously reported, but surprisingly, LTD was induced using certain modified protocols. Such modifications involved increases in the number of PF stimulation (from one to two or five), replacement of climbing fiber stimulation with somatic depolarization (50 ms), filling a patch pipette with a Cs(+)-based solution, or extension of the duration of conjunction. We also found that intracellular infusion of a selective PKCα inhibitor (Gö6976) blocked LTD induction in the mutants, as in WT, suggesting that functional compensation occurred downstream of PKCα. The possibility that LTD in the mutants was caused by changes in membrane resistance, access resistance, or presynaptic property was excluded. The present results demonstrate that LTD is inducible by intensified conjunctive stimulations even in K882A and Δ7 mutants, indicating no contradiction against the LTD hypothesis of motor learning. PMID:27551099

  20. Endocannabinoids Mediate Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptor-Dependent Long-Term Depression in the Adult Medial Prefrontal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Henry G. S.; Bernabeu, Axel; Lassalle, Olivier; Bouille, Clément; Beurrier, Corinne; Pelissier-Alicot, Anne-Laure; Manzoni, Olivier J.

    2015-01-01

    Cholinergic inputs into the prefrontal cortex (PFC) are associated with attention and cognition; however there is evidence that acetylcholine also has a role in PFC dependent learning and memory. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChR) in the PFC can induce synaptic plasticity, but the underlying mechanisms remain either opaque or unresolved. We have characterized a form of mAChR mediated long-term depression (LTD) at glutamatergic synapses of layer 5 principal neurons in the adult medial PFC. This mAChR LTD is induced with the mAChR agonist carbachol and inhibited by selective M1 mAChR antagonists. In contrast to other cortical regions, we find that this M1 mAChR mediated LTD is coupled to endogenous cannabinoid (eCB) signaling. Inhibition of the principal eCB CB1 receptor blocked carbachol induced LTD in both rats and mice. Furthermore, when challenged with a sub-threshold carbachol application, LTD was induced in slices pretreated with the monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) inhibitor JZL184, suggesting that the eCB 2-arachidonylglyerol (2-AG) mediates M1 mAChR LTD. Yet, when endogenous acetylcholine was released from local cholinergic afferents in the PFC using optogenetics, it failed to trigger eCB-LTD. However coupling patterned optical and electrical stimulation to generate local synaptic signaling allowed the reliable induction of LTD. The light—electrical pairing induced LTD was M1 mAChR and CB1 receptor mediated. This shows for the first time that connecting excitatory synaptic activity with coincident endogenously released acetylcholine controls synaptic gain via eCB signaling. Together these results shed new light on the mechanisms of synaptic plasticity in the adult PFC and expand on the actions of endogenous cholinergic signaling. PMID:26648844

  1. Reassessment of long-term depression in cerebellar Purkinje cells in mice carrying mutated GluA2 C terminus

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Kazuhiko; Itohara, Shigeyoshi; Ito, Masao

    2016-01-01

    Long-term depression (LTD) of synaptic transmission from parallel fibers (PFs) to a Purkinje cell (PC) in the cerebellum has been considered to be a core mechanism of motor learning. Recently, however, discrepancies between LTD and motor learning have been reported in mice with a mutation that targeted the expression of PF–PC LTD by blocking AMPA-subtype glutamate receptor internalization regulated via the phosphorylation of AMPA receptors. In these mice, motor learning behavior was normal, but no PF–PC LTD was observed. We reexamined slices obtained from these GluA2 K882A and GluA2 Δ7 knockin mutants at 3–6 mo of age. The conventional protocols of stimulation did not induce LTD in these mutant mice, as previously reported, but surprisingly, LTD was induced using certain modified protocols. Such modifications involved increases in the number of PF stimulation (from one to two or five), replacement of climbing fiber stimulation with somatic depolarization (50 ms), filling a patch pipette with a Cs+-based solution, or extension of the duration of conjunction. We also found that intracellular infusion of a selective PKCα inhibitor (Gö6976) blocked LTD induction in the mutants, as in WT, suggesting that functional compensation occurred downstream of PKCα. The possibility that LTD in the mutants was caused by changes in membrane resistance, access resistance, or presynaptic property was excluded. The present results demonstrate that LTD is inducible by intensified conjunctive stimulations even in K882A and Δ7 mutants, indicating no contradiction against the LTD hypothesis of motor learning. PMID:27551099

  2. Endocannabinoid-mediated long-term depression of afferent excitatory synapses in hippocampal pyramidal cells and GABAergic interneurons.

    PubMed

    Péterfi, Zoltán; Urbán, Gabriella M; Papp, Orsolya I; Németh, Beáta; Monyer, Hannah; Szabó, Gábor; Erdélyi, Ferenc; Mackie, Ken; Freund, Tamás F; Hájos, Norbert; Katona, István

    2012-10-10

    Although endocannabinoids have emerged as essential retrograde messengers in several forms of synaptic plasticity, it remains controversial whether they mediate long-term depression (LTD) of glutamatergic synapses onto excitatory and inhibitory neurons in the hippocampus. Here, we show that parvalbumin- and somatostatin/metabotropic glutamate receptor 1(a) (mGlu(1a))-positive GABAergic interneurons express diacylglycerol lipase-α (DGL-α), a synthesizing enzyme of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), albeit at lower levels than principal cells. Moreover, this lipase accumulates postsynaptically around afferent excitatory synapses in all three cell types. To address the role of retrograde 2-AG signaling in LTD, we investigated two forms: (1) produced by postsynaptic spiking paired with subsequent presynaptic stimulation or (2) induced by group I mGlu activation by (S)-3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine (DHPG). Neither form of LTD was evoked in the presence of the mGlu(5) antagonist MPEP [2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)-pyridine], the DGL inhibitor THL [N-formyl-l-leucine (1S)-1-[[(2S,3S)-3-hexyl-4-oxo-2-oxetanyl]methyl]dodecyl ester], or the intracellularly applied Ca(2+) chelator BAPTA in CA1 pyramidal cells, fast-spiking interneurons (representing parvalbumin-containing cells) and interneurons projecting to stratum lacunosum-moleculare (representing somatostatin/mGlu(1a)-expressing interneurons). Both forms of LTD were completely absent in CB(1) cannabinoid receptor knock-out mice, whereas pharmacological blockade of CB(1) led to inconsistent results. Notably, in accordance with their lower DGL-α level, a higher stimulation frequency or higher DHPG concentration was required for LTD induction in interneurons compared with pyramidal cells. These findings demonstrate that hippocampal principal cells and interneurons produce endocannabinoids to mediate LTD in a qualitatively similar, but quantitatively different manner. The shifted induction threshold implies that

  3. Endocannabinoids Mediate Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptor-Dependent Long-Term Depression in the Adult Medial Prefrontal Cortex.

    PubMed

    Martin, Henry G S; Bernabeu, Axel; Lassalle, Olivier; Bouille, Clément; Beurrier, Corinne; Pelissier-Alicot, Anne-Laure; Manzoni, Olivier J

    2015-01-01

    Cholinergic inputs into the prefrontal cortex (PFC) are associated with attention and cognition; however there is evidence that acetylcholine also has a role in PFC dependent learning and memory. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChR) in the PFC can induce synaptic plasticity, but the underlying mechanisms remain either opaque or unresolved. We have characterized a form of mAChR mediated long-term depression (LTD) at glutamatergic synapses of layer 5 principal neurons in the adult medial PFC. This mAChR LTD is induced with the mAChR agonist carbachol and inhibited by selective M1 mAChR antagonists. In contrast to other cortical regions, we find that this M1 mAChR mediated LTD is coupled to endogenous cannabinoid (eCB) signaling. Inhibition of the principal eCB CB1 receptor blocked carbachol induced LTD in both rats and mice. Furthermore, when challenged with a sub-threshold carbachol application, LTD was induced in slices pretreated with the monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) inhibitor JZL184, suggesting that the eCB 2-arachidonylglyerol (2-AG) mediates M1 mAChR LTD. Yet, when endogenous acetylcholine was released from local cholinergic afferents in the PFC using optogenetics, it failed to trigger eCB-LTD. However coupling patterned optical and electrical stimulation to generate local synaptic signaling allowed the reliable induction of LTD. The light-electrical pairing induced LTD was M1 mAChR and CB1 receptor mediated. This shows for the first time that connecting excitatory synaptic activity with coincident endogenously released acetylcholine controls synaptic gain via eCB signaling. Together these results shed new light on the mechanisms of synaptic plasticity in the adult PFC and expand on the actions of endogenous cholinergic signaling.

  4. The effects of comorbidity in defining major depression subtypes associated with long-term course and severity

    PubMed Central

    Wardenaar, K. J.; van Loo, H. M.; Cai, T.; Fava, M.; Gruber, M. J.; Li, J.; de Jonge, P.; Nierenberg, A. A.; Petukhova, M. V.; Rose, S.; Sampson, N. A.; Schoevers, R. A.; Wilcox, M. A.; Alonso, J.; Bromet, E. J.; Bunting, B.; Florescu, S. E.; Fukao, A.; Gureje, O.; Hu, C.; Huang, Y. Q.; Karam, A. N.; Levinson, D.; Medina Mora, M. E.; Posada-Villa, J.; Scott, K. M.; Taib, N. I.; Viana, M. C.; Xavier, M.; Zarkov, Z.; Kessler, R. C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Although variation in long-term course of major depressive disorder (MDD) is not strongly predicted by existing symptom subtype distinctions, recent research suggests that prediction can be improved by using machine learning methods. However, it is not known whether these distinctions can be refined by added information about comorbid conditions. The current report presents results on this question. Methods Data come from 8,261 respondents with lifetime DSM-IV MDD in the WHO World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys. Outcomes include four retrospectively-reported measures of persistence-severity of course (years in episode; years in chronic episodes, hospitalization for MDD; disability due to MDD). Machine learning methods (regression tree analysis; lasso, ridge, and elastic net penalized regression) followed by k-means cluster analysis were used to augment previously-detected subtypes with information about prior comorbidity to predict these outcomes. Results Predicted values were strongly correlated across outcomes. Cluster analysis of predicted values found 3 clusters with consistently high, intermediate, or low values. The high-risk cluster (32.4% of cases) accounted for 56.6–72.9% of high persistence, high chronicity, hospitalization, and disability. This high-risk cluster had both higher sensitivity and likelihood-ratio positive (relative proportions of cases in the high-risk cluster versus other clusters having the adverse outcomes) than in a parallel analysis that excluded measures of comorbidity as predictors. Conclusions Although results using the retrospective data reported here suggest that useful MDD subtyping distinctions can be made with machine learning and clustering across multiple indicators of illness persistence-severity, replication is need with prospective data to confirm this preliminary conclusion. PMID:25066141

  5. Acute food deprivation enhances fear extinction but inhibits long-term depression in the lateral amygdala via ghrelin signaling.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chiung-Chun; Chou, Dylan; Yeh, Che-Ming; Hsu, Kuei-Sen

    2016-02-01

    Fear memory-encoding thalamic input synapses to the lateral amygdala (T-LA) exhibit dynamic efficacy changes that are tightly correlated with fear memory strength. Previous studies have shown that auditory fear conditioning involves strengthening of synaptic strength, and conversely, fear extinction training leads to T-LA synaptic weakening and occlusion of long-term depression (LTD) induction. These findings suggest that the mechanisms governing LTD at T-LA synapses may determine the behavioral outcomes of extinction training. Here, we explored this hypothesis by implementing food deprivation (FD) stress in mice to determine its effects on fear extinction and LTD induction at T-LA synapses. We found that FD increased plasma acylated ghrelin levels and enhanced fear extinction and its retention. Augmentation of fear extinction by FD was blocked by pretreatment with growth hormone secretagogue receptor type-1a antagonist D-Lys(3)-GHRP-6, suggesting an involvement of ghrelin signaling. Confirming previous findings, two distinct forms of LTD coexist at thalamic inputs to LA pyramidal neurons that can be induced by low-frequency stimulation (LFS) or paired-pulse LFS (PP-LFS) paired with postsynaptic depolarization, respectively. Unexpectedly, we found that FD impaired the induction of PP-LFS- and group I metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist (S)-3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine (DHPG)-induced LTD, but not LFS-induced LTD. Ghrelin mimicked the effects of FD to impair the induction of PP-LFS- and DHPG-induced LTD at T-LA synapses, which were blocked by co-application of D-Lys(3)-GHRP-6. The sensitivity of synaptic transmission to 1-naphthyl acetyl spermine was not altered by either FD or ghrelin treatment. These results highlight distinct features of fear extinction and LTD at T-LA synapses.

  6. Early antipsychotic treatment in childhood/adolescent period has long-term effects on depressive-like, anxiety-like and locomotor behaviours in adult rats.

    PubMed

    De Santis, Michael; Lian, Jiamei; Huang, Xu-Feng; Deng, Chao

    2016-02-01

    Childhood/adolescent antipsychotic drug (APD) use is exponentially increasing worldwide, despite limited knowledge of the long-term effects of early APD treatment. Whilst investigations have found that early treatment has resulted in some alterations to dopamine and serotonin neurotransmission systems (essential to APD efficacy), there have only been limited studies into potential long-term behavioural changes. This study, using an animal model for childhood/adolescent APD treatment, investigated the long-term effects of aripiprazole, olanzapine and risperidone on adult behaviours of male and female rats. Open-field/holeboard, elevated plus maze (EPM), social interaction and forced swim (FS) tests were then conducted in adult rats. Our results indicated that in the male cohort, early risperidone and olanzapine treatment elicited long-term hyper-locomotor effects (open-field/holeboard and FS tests), whilst a decrease in depressive-like behaviour (in FS test) was observed in response to olanzapine treatment. Furthermore, anxiolytic-like behaviours were found following testing in the open-field/holeboard and EPM in response to all three drug treatments. Effects in the female cohort, however, were to a far lesser extent, with behavioural attributes indicative of an increased depressive-like behaviour and hypo-locomotor activity exhibited in the FS test following early risperidone and olanzapine treatment. These results suggest that various APDs have different long-term effects on the behaviours of adult rats.

  7. The postsynaptic induction of nonassociative long-term depression of excitatory synaptic transmission in rat hippocampal slices.

    PubMed

    Christofi, G; Nowicky, A V; Bolsover, S R; Bindman, L J

    1993-01-01

    1. Long-term depression (LTD) is an activity-dependent reduction in the strength of synaptic transmission that can persist for hours. It is a neural model for processes underlying learning and memory, such as extinction and forgetting. LTD of excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) in cells of the CA1 region of hippocampal slices can be induced in an anti-Hebbian paradigm, i.e., by conditioning stimuli that activate the postsynaptic neuron in the absence of evoked synaptic transmission in the test pathway. Past work showed that LTD was not produced consistently in a pharmacologically untreated slice, but it could be induced more reliably when the conditioning stimuli were applied during block of evoked transmitter release. We have now defined further the conditions in which LTD can be obtained using postsynaptic conditioning by investigating 1) whether intracellular conditioning is effective, 2) the requirement for extracellular Ca2+, and 3) the consequences of selective block of glutamate ionotropic receptor subtypes during the conditioning procedure. 2. Intracellular recordings were made from CA1 pyramidal neurons. Test shocks were applied to the stratum radiatum except during conditioning, and the depolarizing slopes and amplitudes of evoked EPSPs were measured. The conditioning procedure activated the postsynaptic neuron either antidromically (via trains of shocks at 100 Hz applied to the axons in the alveus) or intracellularly (via depolarizing pulses of 1.5-3.5 nA). During conditioning, postsynaptic potentials (PSPs) evoked by the conditioning stimuli either were transiently blocked by bathing slices for 5 min in artificial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) containing a high [Mg2+] or were reduced by glutamate antagonists. 3. When slices were bathed in CSF containing 25 mM Mg2+ and 2 mM Ca2+, evoked PSPs were transiently abolished; conditioning, either by antidromic or intracellular stimulation, always evoked a significant LTD. During the LTD produced by

  8. Social support as a predictor of the outcome of depressive and anxiety disorder in short-term and long-term psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Lindfors, Olavi; Ojanen, Sakari; Jääskeläinen, Tuija; Knekt, Paul

    2014-04-30

    Social support is known to be important for well-being of individuals, but it is not clear how it predicts psychotherapy outcome in patients suffering from depressive or anxiety disorders. The aim of the present study was to study the prediction of social support on the outcome of short-term and long-term psychotherapy. In the Helsinki Psychotherapy Study, 326 psychiatric outpatients, aged 20-46 years, and suffering from depressive or anxiety disorders, were randomly assigned to short-term psychotherapy (short-term psychodynamic or solution-focused) or long-term psychodynamic psychotherapy. The level of social support at baseline was assessed using the Brief Inventory of Social Support and Integration (BISSI). Psychiatric symptoms were assessed with the Symptom Check List, Global Severity Index (SCL-90-GSI) at baseline and four times during a 3-year follow-up. Patients with a high level of social support before treatment benefitted more from long-term than short-term therapy at the 3-year follow-up, whereas patients with a low level of social support experienced no such benefit. Pretreatment social support seems to predict differentially short- and long-term psychotherapy and thus needs to be acknowledged when evaluating patient's resources and treatment options. More research is needed to verify these findings.

  9. Pairing-specific long-term depression of Purkinje cell excitatory postsynaptic potentials results from a classical conditioning procedure in the rabbit cerebellar slice.

    PubMed

    Schreurs, B G; Oh, M M; Alkon, D L

    1996-03-01

    1. Using a rabbit cerebellar slice preparation, we stimulated a classical conditioning procedure by stimulating parallel fiber inputs to Purkinje cells with the use of a brief, high-frequency train of eight constant-current pulses 80 ms before climbing fiber inputs to the same Purkinje cell were stimulated with the use of a brief, lower frequency train of three constant-current pulses. In all experiments, we assessed the effects of stimulation by measuring the peak amplitude of Purkinje cell excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) to single parallel fiber test pulses. 2. Intradendritically recorded Purkinje cell EPSPs underwent a long-term (> 20 min) reduction in peak amplitude (30%) after paired stimulation of the parallel and climbing fibers but not after unpaired or parallel fiber alone stimulation. We call this phenomenon pairing-specific long-term depression (PSD). 3. Facilitation of the peak amplitude of a second EPSP elicited by a parallel fiber train occurred both before and after paired stimulation suggesting that the locus of depression was not presynaptic. Depression of the peak amplitude of a depolarizing response to focal application of glutamate following pairings of parallel and climbing fiber stimulation added support to a suggested postsynaptic locus of the PSD effect. 4. The application of aniracetam potentiated EPSP peak amplitude by 40%, but these values returned to baseline as a result of pairings. With the removal of aniracetam from the bath 20 min after pairings, normal levels of pairing-specific EPSP depression were observed, indicating that the effect did not result from direct desensitization of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-proprionic acid (AMPA) receptors. 5. Incubation of slices in the protein kinase inhibitor H-7 potentiated EPSP peak amplitudes slightly (9%), but peak amplitudes returned to baseline levels after pairings. The net reduction in EPSP peak amplitude of < 10% after pairings suggested that H-7 partially

  10. CA1 Pyramidal Cell Theta-Burst Firing Triggers Endocannabinoid-Mediated Long-Term Depression at Both Somatic and Dendritic Inhibitory Synapses

    PubMed Central

    Younts, Thomas J.; Chevaleyre, Vivien

    2013-01-01

    Endocannabinoids (eCBs) are retrograde lipid messengers that, by targeting presynaptic type 1 cannabinoid receptors (CB1Rs), mediate short- and long-term synaptic depression of neurotransmitter release throughout the brain. Short-term depression is typically triggered by postsynaptic, depolarization-induced calcium rises, whereas long-term depression is induced by synaptic activation of Gq/11 protein-coupled receptors. Here we report that a physiologically relevant pattern of postsynaptic activity, in the form of theta-burst firing (TBF) of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons, can trigger long-term depression of inhibitory transmission (iLTD) in rat hippocampal slices. Paired recordings between CA1 interneurons and pyramidal cells, followed by post hoc morphological reconstructions of the interneurons' axon, revealed that somatic and dendritic inhibitory synaptic inputs equally expressed TBF-induced iLTD. Simultaneous recordings from neighboring pyramidal cells demonstrated that eCB signaling triggered by TBF was highly restricted to only a single, active cell. Furthermore, pairing submaximal endogenous activation of metabotropic glutamate or muscarinic acetylcholine receptors with submaximal TBF unmasked associative iLTD. Although CB1Rs are also expressed at Schaffer-collateral excitatory terminals, long-term plasticity under various recording conditions was spared at these synapses. Consistent with this observation, TBF also shifted the balance of excitation and inhibition in favor of excitatory throughput, thereby altering information flow through the CA1 circuit. Given the near ubiquity of burst-firing activity patterns and CB1R expression in the brain, the properties described here may be a general means by which neurons fine tune the strength of their inputs in a cell-wide and cell-specific manner. PMID:23966696

  11. NMDA-dependent, but not group I metabotropic glutamate receptor-dependent, long-term depression at Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses is associated with long-term reduction of release from the rapidly recycling presynaptic vesicle pool.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-lei; Zhou, Zhen-yu; Winterer, Jochen; Müller, Wolfgang; Stanton, Patric K

    2006-10-01

    Postsynaptic alterations have been suggested to account for NMDA receptor (NMDAR)-dependent long-term depression (LTD) and long-term potentiation of synaptic strength, although there is substantial evidence supporting changes in presynaptic release. Direct chemical activation of either NMDA or group I metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR1) elicits LTD of similar magnitudes, but it is unknown whether they share common expression mechanisms. Using dual-photon laser-scanning microscopy of FM1-43 [N-(3-triethylammoniumpropyl)-4-(4-(dibutylamino)styryl)pyridinium dibromide] to directly visualize presynaptic vesicular release from the rapidly recycling vesicle pool (RRP) at Schaffer collateral terminals in field CA1 of rat hippocampal slices, we found that a persistent reduction in vesicular release from the RRP is induced by NMDA-LTD but not by mGluR1-LTD. Variance-mean analyses of Schaffer collateral release probability (P(r)) at varying extracellular calcium concentrations confirmed that NMDA-LTD was associated with reduced P(r), whereas mGluR1-LTD was not. Pharmacological isolation of NMDAR-dependent and mGluR-dependent forms of stimulus-evoked LTD revealed that both are composed of a combination of presynaptic and postsynaptic alterations. However, when group I mGluR-dependent LTD was isolated by combining an NMDAR blocker with a group II mGluR antagonist, this form of LTD was purely postsynaptic. The nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N omega-nitro-L-arginine blocked the induction of NMDA-LTD but did not alter mGluR-LTD, consistent with a selective role for nitric oxide as a retrograde messenger mediating NMDA-LTD. These data demonstrate that single synapses can express multiple forms of LTD with different sites of expression, that NMDA-LTD is a combination of presynaptic and postsynaptic alterations, but that group I mGluR-LTD appears to be expressed entirely postsynaptically.

  12. Potential long-term effects of a mind-body intervention for women with major depressive disorder: sustained mental health improvements with a pilot yoga intervention.

    PubMed

    Kinser, Patricia Anne; Elswick, R K; Kornstein, Susan

    2014-12-01

    Despite pharmacologic and psychotherapeutic advances over the past decades, many individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD) experience recurrent depressive episodes and persistent depressive symptoms despite treatment with the usual care. Yoga is a mind-body therapeutic modality that has received attention in both the lay and research literature as a possible adjunctive therapy for depression. Although promising, recent findings about the positive mental health effects of yoga are limited because few studies have used standardized outcome measures and none of them have involved long-term follow-up beyond a few months after the intervention period. The goal of our research study was to evaluate the feasibility, acceptability, and effects of a yoga intervention for women with MDD using standardized outcome measures and a long follow-up period (1year after the intervention). The key finding is that previous yoga practice has long-term positive effects, as revealed in both qualitative reports of participants' experiences and in the quantitative data about depression and rumination scores over time. Although generalizability of the study findings is limited because of a very small sample size at the 1-year follow-up assessment, the trends in the data suggest that exposure to yoga may convey a sustained positive effect on depression, ruminations, stress, anxiety, and health-related quality of life. Whether an individual continues with yoga practice, simple exposure to a yoga intervention appears to provide sustained benefits to the individual. This is important because it is rare that any intervention, pharmacologic or non-pharmacologic, for depression conveys such sustained effects for individuals with MDD, particularly after the treatment is discontinued.

  13. Potential long-term effects of a mind-body intervention for women with major depressive disorder: sustained mental health improvements with a pilot yoga intervention.

    PubMed

    Kinser, Patricia Anne; Elswick, R K; Kornstein, Susan

    2014-12-01

    Despite pharmacologic and psychotherapeutic advances over the past decades, many individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD) experience recurrent depressive episodes and persistent depressive symptoms despite treatment with the usual care. Yoga is a mind-body therapeutic modality that has received attention in both the lay and research literature as a possible adjunctive therapy for depression. Although promising, recent findings about the positive mental health effects of yoga are limited because few studies have used standardized outcome measures and none of them have involved long-term follow-up beyond a few months after the intervention period. The goal of our research study was to evaluate the feasibility, acceptability, and effects of a yoga intervention for women with MDD using standardized outcome measures and a long follow-up period (1year after the intervention). The key finding is that previous yoga practice has long-term positive effects, as revealed in both qualitative reports of participants' experiences and in the quantitative data about depression and rumination scores over time. Although generalizability of the study findings is limited because of a very small sample size at the 1-year follow-up assessment, the trends in the data suggest that exposure to yoga may convey a sustained positive effect on depression, ruminations, stress, anxiety, and health-related quality of life. Whether an individual continues with yoga practice, simple exposure to a yoga intervention appears to provide sustained benefits to the individual. This is important because it is rare that any intervention, pharmacologic or non-pharmacologic, for depression conveys such sustained effects for individuals with MDD, particularly after the treatment is discontinued. PMID:25457687

  14. The influence of patients' attributions of the immediate effects of treatment of depression on long-term effectiveness of behavioural activation and antidepressant medication.

    PubMed

    Moradveisi, Latif; Huibers, Marcus J H; Arntz, Arnoud

    2015-06-01

    Patients' attributions of effects of treatment are important, as these can affect long-term outcome. Most studies so far focused on the influence of attributions to medication for anxiety and depression disorders. We investigated the effects of patients' attributions made after acute treatment on the long-term outcome of antidepressant medication (ADM) and psychological treatment (behavioural activation, BA). Data are based on a randomized trial testing the effectiveness of BA vs. ADM for major depression (MDD) in Iran. Patients with MDD (N = 100) were randomized to BA (N = 50) or ADM (N = 50). Patients' attributions were assessed at post-test (after completion of the treatments). Scores on an attribution questionnaire were factor analysed, and factor scores were retained as predictors of depressive symptoms at 1-year follow-up. Regression analysis was used to test whether attributions predicted depressive symptoms at 1-yr follow-up, controlling for symptom level, condition, and their interaction at post-test. Belief in coping efficacy was the only attribution factor significantly predicting 1-year HRSD scores, controlling for condition, post-test HRSD and their interaction. It also mediated the condition differences at follow-up. Credit to self was the single attribution factor that predicted BDI follow-up scores, controlling for condition, posttest BDI, and their interaction. It partially mediated the condition differences on the BDI at follow-up. Attribution to increased coping capacities and giving credit to self appear essential. In the long-term (at 1 year follow-up), the difference in outcome between BA and ADM (with BA being superior to ADM) is at least partially mediated by attributions.

  15. Daily cognitive appraisals, daily affect, and long-term depressive symptoms: the role of self-esteem and self-concept clarity in the stress process.

    PubMed

    Lee-Flynn, Sharon C; Pomaki, Georgia; Delongis, Anita; Biesanz, Jeremy C; Puterman, Eli

    2011-02-01

    The current study investigated how self-esteem and self-concept clarity are implicated in the stress process both in the short and long term. Initial and 2-year follow-up interviews were completed by 178 participants from stepfamily unions. In twice-daily structured diaries over 7 days, participants reported their main family stressor, cognitive appraisals (perceived stressor threat and stressor controllability), and negative affect. Results of multilevel modeling indicated that high self-esteem ameliorated the effect of daily negative cognitive appraisals on daily negative affect. Self-concept clarity also buffered the effect of low self-self-esteem on depressive symptoms 2 years later. Our findings point to the vulnerability of those having low self-esteem or low self-concept clarity in terms of both short- and long-term adaptation to stress. They indicate the need for the consideration of such individual differences in designing stress management interventions.

  16. Remission and Recovery in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS): Acute and Long-Term Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennard, Betsy D.; Silva, Susan G.; Tonev, Simon; Rohde, Paul; Hughes, Jennifer L.; Vitiello, Benedetto; Kratochvil, Christopher J.; Curry, John F.; Emslie, Graham J.; Reinecke, Mark; March, John

    2009-01-01

    The remission and recovery rates of adolescent patients with depression who were treated with fluoxetine, cognitive-behavioral therapy, their combination, and placebos were examined through a multisite clinical trial. It is concluded that most depressed adolescents who received such therapies achieved remission at the end of nine months.

  17. Long-term stability of frontal electroencephalographic asymmetry in adults with a history of depression and controls.

    PubMed

    Vuga, Marike; Fox, Nathan A; Cohn, Jeffrey F; George, Charles J; Levenstein, Rachel M; Kovacs, Maria

    2006-02-01

    We investigated the stability in resting EEG across a 1- to 3-year interval in 49 adults (33 female and 16 male) with a history of unipolar depression (first onset prior to the age of 14) and 50 controls (33 female and 17 male) with no history of major psychopathology. Current depressive symptoms were quantified by self-report at both assessments. For the entire sample, EEG asymmetry in the alpha range was moderately stable (intraclass correlations between 0.39 and 0.61). Sex, history of depression, depressive symptom severity at Time 2, and change in symptom severity between Time 1 and Time 2 were unrelated to stability of EEG asymmetry. These findings support the view that resting frontal EEG asymmetry reflects a moderately stable individual difference in adults, irrespective of sex and history of depression.

  18. The cost-effectiveness of short-term and long-term psychotherapy in the treatment of depressive and anxiety disorders during a 5-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Maljanen, Timo; Knekt, Paul; Lindfors, Olavi; Virtala, Esa; Tillman, Päivi; Härkänen, Tommi

    2016-01-15

    Both short-term and long-term psychotherapies are used extensively in treating different mental disorders, but there have been practically no attempts to compare their cost-effectiveness. The aim of this study, which is part of the Helsinki Psychotherapy Study, is to assess the cost-effectiveness of two short-term therapies compared to that of a long-term therapy. In this study 326 outpatients suffering from mood or anxiety disorder were randomized to solution-focused therapy (SFT), short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy (SPP) or to long-term psychodynamic psychotherapy (LPP). Psychiatric symptoms and working ability were assessed at baseline and then 4-9 times during a 5-year follow-up using eight widely used measures including e.g. Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS), Symptom Check List, anxiety scale (SCL-90-Anx), Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HARS), Symptom Check List, Global Severity Index (SCL-90-GSI), and the Work-subscale (SAS-Work) of the Social Adjustment Scale (SAS-SR). Both direct and indirect costs were measured. During the 5-year follow-up period statistically significant improvements were observed in all health indicators in all therapy groups. At first the recovery was faster in the short-term therapy groups than in the LPP group, but taking the whole follow-up period into account, the effectiveness of the LPP was somewhat greater than that of the short-term therapies. Especially the direct costs were, however, much higher in the LPP group than in the short-term therapy groups. Thus the long-term therapy can hardly be regarded as cost-effective compared to short-term therapies when patients are randomized to the therapy groups. PMID:26540079

  19. The cost-effectiveness of short-term and long-term psychotherapy in the treatment of depressive and anxiety disorders during a 5-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Maljanen, Timo; Knekt, Paul; Lindfors, Olavi; Virtala, Esa; Tillman, Päivi; Härkänen, Tommi

    2016-01-15

    Both short-term and long-term psychotherapies are used extensively in treating different mental disorders, but there have been practically no attempts to compare their cost-effectiveness. The aim of this study, which is part of the Helsinki Psychotherapy Study, is to assess the cost-effectiveness of two short-term therapies compared to that of a long-term therapy. In this study 326 outpatients suffering from mood or anxiety disorder were randomized to solution-focused therapy (SFT), short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy (SPP) or to long-term psychodynamic psychotherapy (LPP). Psychiatric symptoms and working ability were assessed at baseline and then 4-9 times during a 5-year follow-up using eight widely used measures including e.g. Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS), Symptom Check List, anxiety scale (SCL-90-Anx), Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HARS), Symptom Check List, Global Severity Index (SCL-90-GSI), and the Work-subscale (SAS-Work) of the Social Adjustment Scale (SAS-SR). Both direct and indirect costs were measured. During the 5-year follow-up period statistically significant improvements were observed in all health indicators in all therapy groups. At first the recovery was faster in the short-term therapy groups than in the LPP group, but taking the whole follow-up period into account, the effectiveness of the LPP was somewhat greater than that of the short-term therapies. Especially the direct costs were, however, much higher in the LPP group than in the short-term therapy groups. Thus the long-term therapy can hardly be regarded as cost-effective compared to short-term therapies when patients are randomized to the therapy groups.

  20. Long-term consequences of pubertal timing for youth depression: Identifying personal and contextual pathways of risk

    PubMed Central

    RUDOLPH, KAREN D.; TROOP-GORDON, WENDY; LAMBERT, SHARON F.; NATSUAKI, MISAKI N.

    2015-01-01

    This research explored sex differences in the pathways linking pubertal timing to depression across 4 years. A sample of 167 youth (M age = 12.41 years, SD = 1.19) and their caregivers completed measures of puberty and semistructured interviews of interpersonal stress and youth depression. Youth reported on psychological (negative self-focus, anxious arousal) and social–behavioral (coping) characteristics; parents reported on youths’ social–behavioral characteristics (withdrawal/social problems) and deviant peer affiliations. Early maturation predicted stable high trajectories of depression in girls; although early maturing boys showed low initial levels of depression, they did not differ from girls by the final wave of the study. Latent growth curve analyses identified several psychological, social–behavioral, and interpersonal pathways accounting for the contribution of pubertal timing to initial and enduring risk for depression in girls as well as emerging risk for depression in boys. These findings provide novel insight into multilevel processes accounting for sex differences in depression across the adolescent transition. PMID:25422971

  1. Long-term postpartum anxiety and depression-like behavior in mother rats subjected to maternal separation are ameliorated by palatable high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Maniam, Jayanthi; Morris, Margaret J

    2010-03-17

    While the effects of maternal separation on pups are well studied, the impact on dams has attracted little attention. The consumption of palatable food is known to dampen stress responses in animals, and emotions influence food choice in humans. Here we examined the early- and long-term impacts of maternal separation on behavioral profile of the dams, and the effects of palatable cafeteria high-fat diet (HFD). After littering, Sprague-Dawley female rats were subjected to prolonged separation, S180 (180 min) or brief separation, S15 (15 min/day) from postnatal days (PND) 2-14. At 4 weeks postpartum, half the dams were assigned to HFD. Anxiety and depression-like behaviors were assessed pre- and post-diet. Compared to S15 dams, S180 dams consuming chow demonstrated increased anxiety and depression-like behaviors assessed by elevated plus maze (EPM) and forced swim (FST) tests, respectively. These behavioral deficits were observed at 4 weeks, and persisted until 17 weeks postpartum. The S180 dams also had increased plasma corticosterone concentration compared to S15 dams, which coincided with increased hypothalamic CRH mRNA and reduced hippocampal GR mRNA expression, suggesting possible dysregulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity. Interestingly, continuous provision of HFD improved the behavioral deficits observed in S180 dams with significant reduction of hypothalamic CRH mRNA expression. These data are the first to describe long-term detrimental behavioral impacts of separation in dams, suggesting this may provide a model of postpartum depression. Moreover, they support the notion of long-term beneficial effects of 'comfort food' on stress responses.

  2. O-GlcNAcylation of AMPA receptor GluA2 is associated with a novel form of long-term depression at hippocampal synapses.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Erica W; Wang, Kai; Nelson, Amy R; Bredemann, Teruko M; Fraser, Kyle B; Clinton, Sarah M; Puckett, Rosemary; Marchase, Richard B; Chatham, John C; McMahon, Lori L

    2014-01-01

    Serine phosphorylation of AMPA receptor (AMPAR) subunits GluA1 and GluA2 modulates AMPAR trafficking during long-term changes in strength of hippocampal excitatory transmission required for normal learning and memory. The post-translational addition and removal of O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) also occurs on serine residues. This, together with the high expression of the enzymes O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) and β-N-acetylglucosamindase (O-GlcNAcase), suggests a potential role for O-GlcNAcylation in modifying synaptic efficacy and cognition. Furthermore, because key synaptic proteins are O-GlcNAcylated, this modification may be as important to brain function as phosphorylation, yet its physiological significance remains unknown. We report that acutely increasing O-GlcNAcylation in Sprague Dawley rat hippocampal slices induces an NMDA receptor and protein kinase C-independent long-term depression (LTD) at hippocampal CA3-CA1 synapses (O-GcNAc LTD). This LTD requires AMPAR GluA2 subunits, which we demonstrate are O-GlcNAcylated. Increasing O-GlcNAcylation interferes with long-term potentiation, and in hippocampal behavioral assays, it prevents novel object recognition and placement without affecting contextual fear conditioning. Our findings provide evidence that O-GlcNAcylation dynamically modulates hippocampal synaptic function and learning and memory, and suggest that altered O-GlcNAc levels could underlie cognitive dysfunction in neurological diseases.

  3. O-GlcNAcylation of AMPA Receptor GluA2 Is Associated with a Novel Form of Long-Term Depression at Hippocampal Synapses

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Erica W.; Wang, Kai; Nelson, Amy R.; Bredemann, Teruko M.; Fraser, Kyle B.; Clinton, Sarah M.; Puckett, Rosemary; Marchase, Richard B.; Chatham, John C.

    2014-01-01

    Serine phosphorylation of AMPA receptor (AMPAR) subunits GluA1 and GluA2 modulates AMPAR trafficking during long-term changes in strength of hippocampal excitatory transmission required for normal learning and memory. The post-translational addition and removal of O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) also occurs on serine residues. This, together with the high expression of the enzymes O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) and β-N-acetylglucosamindase (O-GlcNAcase), suggests a potential role for O-GlcNAcylation in modifying synaptic efficacy and cognition. Furthermore, because key synaptic proteins are O-GlcNAcylated, this modification may be as important to brain function as phosphorylation, yet its physiological significance remains unknown. We report that acutely increasing O-GlcNAcylation in Sprague Dawley rat hippocampal slices induces an NMDA receptor and protein kinase C-independent long-term depression (LTD) at hippocampal CA3–CA1 synapses (O-GcNAc LTD). This LTD requires AMPAR GluA2 subunits, which we demonstrate are O-GlcNAcylated. Increasing O-GlcNAcylation interferes with long-term potentiation, and in hippocampal behavioral assays, it prevents novel object recognition and placement without affecting contextual fear conditioning. Our findings provide evidence that O-GlcNAcylation dynamically modulates hippocampal synaptic function and learning and memory, and suggest that altered O-GlcNAc levels could underlie cognitive dysfunction in neurological diseases. PMID:24381264

  4. A Paradigm for Single-Case Research: The Time Series Study of a Long-Term Psychotherapy for Depression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Enrico E.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Study articulates model for single-case research in psychotherapy. Saw patient with major depressive disorder for 2.5 years of psychotherapy. Videotaped sessions and obtained assessments of change at regular intervals. Used time-series analysis to model fluctuations in therapy process. Bidirectional analysis of causal effects showed that influence…

  5. Activation of presynaptic and postsynaptic ryanodine-sensitive calcium stores is required for the induction of long-term depression at GABAergic synapses in the neonatal rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Caillard, O; Ben-Ari, Y; Gaïarsa, J L

    2000-09-01

    The role of internal calcium stores in the induction of long-term depression at GABAergic synapses was investigated in the neonatal rat hippocampus. Whole-cell recordings of CA3 pyramidal neurons were performed on hippocampal slices from neonatal (2-4 d old) rats. In control conditions, tetanic stimulation (TS) evoked an NMDA-dependent long-term depression of GABA(A) receptor-mediated postsynaptic responses (LTD(GABA-A)). LTD(GABA-A) was prevented when the cells were loaded with ruthenium red, a blocker of Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release (CICR) stores, whereas loading the cells with heparin, a blocker of IP3-induced Ca2+ release stores, had no effect. The effects of ryanodine, another compound that interferes with CICR stores, were also investigated. Intracellular injection of ryanodine prevented the induction of LTD(GABA-A) only when the TS was preceded by depolarizing pulses that increase intracellular Ca2+ concentration. When applied in the bath, ryanodine prevented the induction of LTD(GABA-A). Altogether, these results suggest that ryanodine acts as a Ca2+-dependent blocker of CICR stores and that the induction of LTD(GABA-A) required the activation of both presynaptic and postsynaptic CICR stores.

  6. Remission and Recovery in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS): Acute and Long-term Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Kennard, Betsy D.; Silva, Susan G.; Tonev, Simon; Rohde, Paul; Hughes, Jennifer L.; Vitiello, Benedetto; Kratochvil, Christopher J.; Curry, John F.; Emslie, Graham J.; Reinecke, Mark; March, John

    2010-01-01

    Objective We examine remission rate probabilities, recovery rates, and residual symptoms across 36 weeks in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS). Method TADS, a multisite clinical trial, randomized 439 adolescents with major depressive disorder (MDD) to 12 weeks of treatment to fluoxetine (FLX), cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), their combination (COMB), or pill placebo (PBO). The PBO group, treated openly after week 12, was not included in the subsequent analyses. Treatment differences in remission rates and probabilities of remission over time are compared. Recovery rates in remitters at week 12 (acute phase remitters) and week 18 (continuation phase remitters) are summarized. We also examined whether residual symptoms at the end of 12 weeks of acute treatment predicted later remission. Results At Week 36, the estimated remission rates for intention-to-treat cases were: COMB: 60%, FLX: 55%; CBT: 64%; overall: 60%. Paired comparisons reveal that at week 24 all active treatments converge on remission outcomes. The recovery rate at Week 36 was 65% for acute phase remitters and 71% for continuation phase remitters, with no significant between-treatment differences in recovery rates. Residual symptoms at the end of acute treatment predicted failure to achieve remission at weeks 18 and 36. Conclusions The majority of depressed adolescents in all three treatment modalities achieved remission at the end of nine months of treatment. PMID:19127172

  7. Consequences of long-term treatment with agomelatine on depressive-like behavior and neurobiological abnormalities in pinealectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Tchekalarova, Jana; Nenchovska, Zlatina; Atanasova, Dimitrina; Atanasova, Milena; Kortenska, Lidia; Stefanova, Miroslava; Alova, Liana; Lazarov, Nikolai

    2016-04-01

    Previous data have shown that the rat model of melatonin deficit can cause a number of neurobiological aberrations. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the antidepressant drug agomelatine, a MT1/MT2 melatoninergic receptor agonist/5-HT2C receptor antagonist is able to prevent some of the behavioral, biochemical and cellular abnormalities induced by pinealectomy. The injection of agomelatine (40 mg/kg, i.p. for 5 weeks)/vehicle started after pinealectomy/sham procedure in Wistar rats. Animals were tested in different behavioral tests for anxiety and depression during the period of agomelatine treatment (chronic effect) and two months later (plastic effect). The effect of agomelatine on KCl-evoked serotonin (5-HT) release from the hippocampus, the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and neuronal loss in pinealectomized rats were assessed. Our results showed that agomelatine not only did not prevent the disturbed emotional arousal/anxiety behavior in pinealectomized rats during the treatment but the enhanced motor activity and decreased anxiety state was still observed two months after the discontinuation of treatment. However, the drug corrected a depressive-like behavior (chronic and plastic effect), alleviated the enhanced KCl-evoked 5-HT release in the hippocampus, recovered the suppressed negative feedback inhibition of HPA axis and exerted a neuroprotection in pinealectomized rats. Our findings suggest that pinealectomy can model melancholic depression disorder while the antidepressant action of agomelatine is associated with a correction of 5-HT release in the hippocampus, dysregulated HPA system and neuroprotection in limbic structures. PMID:26779670

  8. Consequences of long-term treatment with agomelatine on depressive-like behavior and neurobiological abnormalities in pinealectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Tchekalarova, Jana; Nenchovska, Zlatina; Atanasova, Dimitrina; Atanasova, Milena; Kortenska, Lidia; Stefanova, Miroslava; Alova, Liana; Lazarov, Nikolai

    2016-04-01

    Previous data have shown that the rat model of melatonin deficit can cause a number of neurobiological aberrations. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the antidepressant drug agomelatine, a MT1/MT2 melatoninergic receptor agonist/5-HT2C receptor antagonist is able to prevent some of the behavioral, biochemical and cellular abnormalities induced by pinealectomy. The injection of agomelatine (40 mg/kg, i.p. for 5 weeks)/vehicle started after pinealectomy/sham procedure in Wistar rats. Animals were tested in different behavioral tests for anxiety and depression during the period of agomelatine treatment (chronic effect) and two months later (plastic effect). The effect of agomelatine on KCl-evoked serotonin (5-HT) release from the hippocampus, the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and neuronal loss in pinealectomized rats were assessed. Our results showed that agomelatine not only did not prevent the disturbed emotional arousal/anxiety behavior in pinealectomized rats during the treatment but the enhanced motor activity and decreased anxiety state was still observed two months after the discontinuation of treatment. However, the drug corrected a depressive-like behavior (chronic and plastic effect), alleviated the enhanced KCl-evoked 5-HT release in the hippocampus, recovered the suppressed negative feedback inhibition of HPA axis and exerted a neuroprotection in pinealectomized rats. Our findings suggest that pinealectomy can model melancholic depression disorder while the antidepressant action of agomelatine is associated with a correction of 5-HT release in the hippocampus, dysregulated HPA system and neuroprotection in limbic structures.

  9. Efficacy of Desvenlafaxine 50 mg/d Versus Placebo in the Long-Term Treatment of Major Depressive Disorder: A Randomized, Double-Blind Trial

    PubMed Central

    Vialet, Cécile; Hwang, Eunhee; Tourian, Karen A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To examine long-term (11-month) antidepressant efficacy of desvenlafaxine 50 mg/d across a broad range of clinical and functional outcomes in patients with major depressive disorder. Method: Adult outpatients (≥ 18 years) with major depressive disorder (DSM-IV criteria) and a 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS-17) total score ≥ 20 at screening and baseline who responded to 8 weeks of open-label desvenlafaxine 50 mg/d and had a continuing stable response through week 20 were randomly assigned to receive placebo or desvenlafaxine 50 mg/d in a 6-month, double-blind, randomized withdrawal period. Depressive symptoms were evaluated using the HDRS-17, 6-item HDRS, and Clinical Global Impressions–Severity of Ilness and –Improvement (CGI-S, CGI-I). Health outcomes included the Work Productivity and Activity Impairment (WPAI) questionnaire and the World Health Organization 5-Item Well-Being Index (WHO-5). The trial was conducted from June 2009 to March 2011 at 87 study sites in 14 countries worldwide. Results: Of 874 patients enrolled in open-label treatment, 548 patients were randomly assigned to receive double-blind placebo (n = 276) or desvenlafaxine 50 mg/d (n = 272). At the end of the 6-month double-blind treatment, improvements in depressive symptoms were better maintained among the desvenlafaxine- than placebo-treated patients on all efficacy endpoints (all P ≤ .001); in the desvenlafaxine group, 21.8% (vs 42.9% in the placebo group) had CGI-I ratings of 5, 6, and 7 (minimally worse/much worse/very much worse), and 74.4% met criteria for remission (placebo: 54.2%). WPAI and WHO-5 scores indicated significantly better productivity and well-being with continued desvenlafaxine (vs placebo, P ≤ .001). Conclusions: Long-term treatment with desvenlafaxine 50 mg/d maintained improvements in major depressive disorder among adult outpatients who exhibited a stable therapeutic response. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT

  10. The GABAA receptor agonist muscimol induces an age- and region-dependent form of long-term depression in the mouse striatum.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoqun; Yao, Ning; Chergui, Karima

    2016-09-01

    Several forms of long-term depression (LTD) of glutamatergic synaptic transmission have been identified in the dorsal striatum and in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Such experience-dependent synaptic plasticity might play important roles in reward-related learning. The GABAA receptor agonist muscimol was recently found to trigger a long-lasting depression of glutamatergic synaptic transmission in the NAc of adolescent mice, but the mechanisms that underlie this novel form of LTD were not studied. Here we examined the effect of muscimol applied in the perfusion solution on the amplitude of field excitatory postsynaptic potentials/population spikes (fEPSP/PSs) in mouse brain slices. We found that muscimol depressed the fEPSP/PS in the NAc of adolescent mice but not adult mice, through both postsynaptic and presynaptic mechanisms. Indeed, muscimol altered the fEPSP/PS paired-pulse ratio, depolarized the membrane of projection neurons, and decreased the frequency, but not amplitude, of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents in the NAc of adolescent mice. The LTD induced by muscimol likely involved endocannabinoids, metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs), but not TRPV1 receptors. Muscimol-LTD was occluded by prior induction of LTD through low-frequency stimulation (LFS) of the slice, demonstrating a common pathway in the induction of LFS-LTD and muscimol-LTD. We also found that muscimol induced a form of LTD in the dorsolateral striatum of adult but not adolescent mice. This LTD was mediated by endocannabinoids but did not involve mGluRs or TRPV1 receptors. These results identify a novel form of synaptic plasticity, and its mechanisms of induction, which is age and region dependent. These findings may contribute to a better understanding of the increased susceptibility of the adolescent brain to long-term synaptic changes in regions associated with reward mechanisms. PMID:27531838

  11. Long-Term Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Long-Term Care What Is Long-Term Care? Long-term care involves a variety of services ... the Escape (Esc) button on your keyboard.) Most Care Provided at Home Long-term care is provided ...

  12. Long-term course of severe depression: late remission and recurrence may be found in a follow-up after 38–53 years

    PubMed Central

    Crona, Lisa; Brådvik, Louise

    2012-01-01

    This study is a follow-up of inpatients diagnosed with severe depression/melancholia between 1956 and 1969. During this period, all inpatients at the Department of Psychiatry, University Hospital, Lund, were rated on a multidimensional diagnostic schedule on discharge. There were 471 patients born from 1920 onward. In the present follow-up, 2006 to 2010, 169 survivors could be traced. They were asked to participate in the study involving a telephone interview, in which a structured life chart was used. Of the patients contacted, 16 were ill or confused and 3 did not remember ever being depressed, leaving 150 who could participate. Seventy-five of these agreed to participate in the study. Long-term course of depression was evaluated by cluster analysis and compared to background variables, such as heredity for depression, perceived parental rearing behaviour, and treatment of index depressive episode. Using a cluster analysis the patients could be separated into six clusters describing the course: i) single or few episodes followed by long-lasting remission; ii) single or few episodes followed by long-lasting remission, although shorter; iii) single or few episodes followed by late recurrence; iv) single or few episodes, but more frequently ill, followed by late recurrence; v) several episodes followed by lasting remission; vi) chronic course of episodes. Remission or recurrence could therefore occur even after more than a decade. In summary, there was a short-term course with or without recurrence or a chronic course with or without late remission. Heredity for depression was significantly related to a chronic course with or without late remission. PMID:25478118

  13. Conditional ablation of the neural cell adhesion molecule reduces precision of spatial learning, long-term potentiation, and depression in the CA1 subfield of mouse hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Bukalo, Olena; Fentrop, Nikolas; Lee, Alan Y W; Salmen, Benedikt; Law, Janice W S; Wotjak, Carsten T; Schweizer, Michaela; Dityatev, Alexander; Schachner, Melitta

    2004-02-18

    NCAM, a neural cell adhesion molecule of the immunoglobulin superfamily, is involved in neuronal migration and differentiation, axon outgrowth and fasciculation, and synaptic plasticity. To dissociate the functional roles of NCAM in the adult brain from developmental abnormalities, we generated a mutant in which the NCAM gene is inactivated by cre-recombinase under the control of the calcium-calmodulin-dependent kinase II promoter, resulting in reduction of NCAM expression predominantly in the hippocampus. This mutant (NCAMff+) did not show the overt morphological and behavioral abnormalities previously observed in constitutive NCAM-deficient (NCAM-/-) mice. However, similar to the NCAM-/- mouse, a reduction in long-term potentiation (LTP) in the CA1 region of the hippocampus was revealed. Long-term depression was also abolished in NCAMff+ mice. The deficit in LTP could be rescued by elevation of extracellular Ca2+ concentrations from 1.5 or 2.0 to 2.5 mm, suggesting an involvement of NCAM in regulation of Ca2+-dependent signaling during LTP. Contrary to the NCAM-/- mouse, LTP in the CA3 region was normal, consistent with normal mossy fiber lamination in NCAMff+ as opposed to abnormal lamination in NCAM-/- mice. NCAMff+ mutants did not show general deficits in short- and long-term memory in global landmark navigation in the water maze but were delayed in the acquisition of precise spatial orientation, a deficit that could be overcome by training. Thus, mice conditionally deficient in hippocampal NCAM expression in the adult share certain abnormalities characteristic of NCAM-/- mice, highlighting the role of NCAM in the regulation of synaptic plasticity in the CA1 region.

  14. Post-weaning mice fed exclusively milk have deficits in induction of long-term depression in the CA1 hippocampal region and spatial learning and memory.

    PubMed

    Nishie, Hideaki; Miyata, Ryouhei; Fujikawa, Ryu; Kinoshita, Ken-ichi; Muroi, Yoshikage; Ishii, Toshiaki

    2012-08-01

    Previously, we have found that post-weaning mice fed exclusively milk display low-frequency exploratory behavior compared to mice fed a food pellet diet (Ishii et al., 2005a). Because cognitive functions play a key role in animal exploration, in the present study we examined the effect of an exclusively milk formula diet on spatial learning and memory in a water maze and also on induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) at the Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapse in the hippocampus. Exclusively milk-fed mice exhibited slower learning and memory deficits in hidden water maze tests as compared with pellet-fed mice. Moreover, milk-fed mice showed a significant inhibition of LTD but a normal induction of LTP. Despite these functional deficits, adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, which has been proposed to have a causal relationship to spatial memory, was stimulated in milk-fed mice. These result suggest that an exclusively milk formula diet after weaning leads to a stimulation of hippocampal neurogenesis but causes deficits in the induction of LTD in the CA1 hippocampal region and impairment of spatial learning and memory.

  15. Induction of long-term potentiation and depression is reflected by corresponding changes in secretion of endogenous brain-derived neurotrophic factor

    PubMed Central

    Aicardi, Giorgio; Argilli, Emanuela; Cappello, Silvia; Santi, Spartaco; Riccio, Massimo; Thoenen, Hans; Canossa, Marco

    2004-01-01

    Neurotrophins play an important role in modulating activity-dependent neuronal plasticity. In particular, threshold levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are required to induce long-term potentiation (LTP) in acute hippocampal slices. Conversely, the administration of exogenous BDNF prevents the induction of long-term depression (LTD) in the visual cortex. A long-standing missing link in the analysis of this modulatory role of BDNF was the determination of the time-course of endogenous BDNF secretion in the same organotypic preparation in which LTP and LTD are elicited. Here, we fulfilled this requirement in slices of perirhinal cortex. Classical theta-burst stimulation patterns evoking LTP lasting >180 min elicited a large increase in BDNF secretion that persisted 5-12 min beyond the stimulation period. Weaker theta-burst stimulation patterns leading only to the initial phase of LTP (≈35 min) were accompanied by a smaller increase in BDNF secretion lasting <1 min. Sequestration of BDNF by TrkB-IgG receptor bodies prevented LTP. Low-frequency stimulations leading to LTD were accompanied by reductions in BDNF secretion that never lasted beyond the duration of the stimulation. PMID:15505222

  16. MHC class I immune proteins are critical for hippocampus-dependent memory and gate NMDAR-dependent hippocampal long-term depression

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, P. Austin; Sage, Jennifer R.; Wood, Suzanne C.; Davenport, Christopher M.; Anagnostaras, Stephan G.; Boulanger, Lisa M.

    2013-01-01

    Memory impairment is a common feature of conditions that involve changes in inflammatory signaling in the brain, including traumatic brain injury, infection, neurodegenerative disorders, and normal aging. However, the causal importance of inflammatory mediators in cognitive impairments in these conditions remains unclear. Here we show that specific immune proteins, members of the major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC class I), are essential for normal hippocampus-dependent memory, and are specifically required for NMDAR-dependent forms of long-term depression (LTD) in the healthy adult hippocampus. In β2m−/−TAP−/−mice, which lack stable cell-surface expression of most MHC class I proteins, NMDAR-dependent LTD in area CA1 of adult hippocampus is abolished, while NMDAR-independent forms of potentiation, facilitation, and depression are unaffected. Altered NMDAR-dependent synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus of β2m−/−TAP−/−mice is accompanied by pervasive deficits in hippocampus-dependent memory, including contextual fear memory, object recognition memory, and social recognition memory. Thus normal MHC class I expression is essential for NMDAR-dependent hippocampal synaptic depression and hippocampus-dependent memory. These results suggest that changes in MHC class I expression could be an unexpected cause of disrupted synaptic plasticity and cognitive deficits in the aging, damaged, and diseased brain. PMID:23959708

  17. Nicotine enhances the depressive actions of A beta 1-40 on long-term potentiation in the rat hippocampal CA1 region in vivo.

    PubMed

    Freir, D B; Herron, C E

    2003-06-01

    Hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) is a form of synaptic plasticity used as a cellular model of memory. Beta amyloid (A beta) is involved in Alzheimer's disease (AD), a neurode-generative disorder leading to cognitive deficits. Nicotine is also claimed to act as a cognitive enhancer. A beta is known to bind with high affinity to the alpha 7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR). Here we have investigated the effect of intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of the endogenous peptide A beta 1-40 on LTP in area CA1 of urethananesthetized rats. We also examined the effect of A beta 12-28 (i.c.v.), which binds with high affinity to the alpha 7-nAChR and the specific alpha 7-nAChR antagonist methyllycaconitine (MLA) on LTP. We found that A beta 12-28 had no effect on LTP, whereas MLA depressed significantly LTP, suggesting that activation of the alpha 7-nAChR is a requirement for LTP. Within the in vivo environment, where other factors may compete with A beta 12-28 for binding to alpha 7-nAChR, it does not appear to modulate LTP. To determine if the depressive action of A beta 1-40 on LTP could be modulated by nicotine, these agents were also co-applied. Injection of 1 or 10 nmol A beta 1-40 caused a significant depression of LTP, whereas nicotine alone (3 mg/kg) had no effect on LTP. Co-injection of nicotine with A beta 1-40 1 h prior to LTP induction caused a further significant depression of LTP compared with A beta 1-40 alone. These results demonstrate that nicotine enhances the deficit in LTP produced by A beta 1-40. This then suggests that nicotine may exacerbate the depressive actions of A beta on synaptic plasticity in AD.

  18. Activation of protein kinase C induces a long-term depression of glutamate sensitivity of cerebellar Purkinje cells. An in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Crepel, F; Krupa, M

    1988-08-23

    In immature rat cerebellar slices in vitro, a long term depression (LTD) of the responses of Purkinje cells (PCs) to L-glutamate (Glu) was achieved in 30% of the recorded cells by simultaneous stimulation of the neurones by Glu and by climbing fibres (CFs). This effect was not observed for L-aspartate (Asp)-induced responses. Similarly, selective LTD of Glu-induced responses was obtained in 22% of the cells by pairing Glu applications with direct stimulation of the cells which elicited calcium spikes in these neurones. Finally, bath application of phorbol esters also induced a selective LTD of Glu-induced responses in all cells tested. These results suggest that protein kinase C is involved in cerebellar synaptic plasticity.

  19. How the mechanisms of long-term synaptic potentiation and depression serve experience-dependent plasticity in primary visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Cooke, Sam F; Bear, Mark F

    2014-01-01

    Donald Hebb chose visual learning in primary visual cortex (V1) of the rodent to exemplify his theories of how the brain stores information through long-lasting homosynaptic plasticity. Here, we revisit V1 to consider roles for bidirectional 'Hebbian' plasticity in the modification of vision through experience. First, we discuss the consequences of monocular deprivation (MD) in the mouse, which have been studied by many laboratories over many years, and the evidence that synaptic depression of excitatory input from the thalamus is a primary contributor to the loss of visual cortical responsiveness to stimuli viewed through the deprived eye. Second, we describe a less studied, but no less interesting form of plasticity in the visual cortex known as stimulus-selective response potentiation (SRP). SRP results in increases in the response of V1 to a visual stimulus through repeated viewing and bears all the hallmarks of perceptual learning. We describe evidence implicating an important role for potentiation of thalamo-cortical synapses in SRP. In addition, we present new data indicating that there are some features of this form of plasticity that cannot be fully accounted for by such feed-forward Hebbian plasticity, suggesting contributions from intra-cortical circuit components. PMID:24298166

  20. Single fluoxetine treatment before but not after stress prevents stress-induced hippocampal long-term depression and spatial memory retrieval impairment in rats.

    PubMed

    Han, Huili; Dai, Chunfang; Dong, Zhifang

    2015-07-28

    A growing body of evidence has shown that chronic treatment with fluoxetine, a widely prescribed medication for treatment of depression, can affect synaptic plasticity in the adult central nervous system. However, it is not well understood whether acute fluoxetine influences synaptic plasticity, especially on hippocampal CA1 long-term depression (LTD), and if so, whether it subsequently impacts hippocampal-dependent spatial memory. Here, we reported that LTD facilitated by elevated-platform stress in hippocampal slices was completely prevented by fluoxetine administration (10 mg/kg, i.p.) 30 min before stress. The LTD was not, however, significantly inhibited by fluoxetine administration immediately after stress. Similarly, fluoxetine incubation (10 μM) during electrophysiological recordings also displayed no influence on the stress-facilitated LTD. In addition, behavioral results showed that a single fluoxetine treatment 30 min before but not after acute stress fully reversed the impairment of spatial memory retrieval in the Morris water maze paradigm. Taken together, these results suggest that acute fluoxetine treatment only before, but not after stress, can prevent hippocampal CA1 LTD and spatial memory retrieval impairment caused by behavioral stress in adult animals.

  1. Requirement of rapid Ca2+ entry and synaptic activation of metabotropic glutamate receptors for the induction of long-term depression in adult rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Otani, S; Connor, J A

    1998-09-15

    1. During block of gamma-aminobutyric acid-A-mediated inhibition, low-frequency stimulation (2 Hz, 900 pulses) to Schaffer collateral-CA1 neuron synapses of adult rat hippocampus induced an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-independent, postsynaptic Ca2+-dependent depression of synaptic strength (long-term depression; LTD). 2. Ratio imaging with fura-2 revealed moderate dendritic [Ca2+] increases (approximately 500 nM) during only the initial approximately 30 s of the 7.5 min stimulation period. Conditioning for 30 s was, however, insufficient to induce LTD. 3. The [Ca2+] changes were insensitive to the metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) antagonist (+)-alpha-methyl-4-carboxyphenylglycine (MCPG). MCPG, however, completely blocked LTD when present during conditioning. 4. The [Ca2+] changes were abolished by postsynaptic hyperpolarization (-110 mV at the soma). Hyperpolarizing neurons to -110 mV during conditioning significantly attenuated LTD induction. 5. LTD induction was also blocked by the postsynaptic presence of the protein kinase C inhibitor peptide PKC(19-36). 6. These results suggest that LTD induction in adult hippocampus by prolonged low-frequency stimulation depends on both a rapid Ca2+ influx through voltage-sensitive channels and synaptic stimulation of mGluRs which may be coupled to phospholipase C.

  2. Protein Synthesis Inhibitors Did Not Interfere with Long-Term Depression Induced either Electrically in Juvenile Rats or Chemically in Middle-Aged Rats.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Abdul-Karim

    2016-01-01

    In testing the hypothesis that long-term potentiation (LTP) maintenance depends on triggered protein synthesis, we found no effect of protein synthesis inhibitors (PSIs) on LTP stabilization. Similarly, some studies reported a lack of effect of PSIs on long-term depression (LTD); the lack of effect on LTD has been suggested to be resulting from the short time recordings. If this proposal were true, LTD might exhibit sensitivity to PSIs when the recording intervals were enough long. We firstly induced LTD by a standard protocol involving low frequency stimulation, which is suitable for eliciting NMDAR-LTD in CA1 area of hippocampal slices obtained from juvenile Sprague-Dawley rats. This LTD was persistent for intervals in range of 8-10 h. Treating slices with anisomycin, however, did not interfere with the magnitude and persistence of this form of LTD. The failure of anisomycin to block synaptic-LTD might be relied on the age of animal, the type of protein synthesis inhibitors and/or the inducing protocol. To verify whether those variables altogether were determinant, NMDA or DHPG was used to chemically elicit LTD recorded up to 10 h on hippocampal slices obtained from middle-aged rats. In either form of LTD, cycloheximide did not interfere with LTD stabilization. Furthermore, DHPG application did show an increase in the global protein synthesis as assayed by radiolabeled methodology indicating that though triggered protein synthesis can occur but not necessarily required for LTD expression. The findings confirm that stabilized LTD in either juvenile, or middle-aged rats can be independent of triggered protein synthesis. Although the processes responsible for the independence of LTD stabilization on the triggered protein synthesis are not yet defined, these findings raise the possibility that de novo protein synthesis is not universally necessary. PMID:27517693

  3. Overexpression of αCaMKII impairs behavioral flexibility and NMDAR-dependent long-term depression in the medial prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Ma, J; Duan, Y; Qin, Z; Wang, J; Liu, W; Xu, M; Zhou, S; Cao, X

    2015-12-01

    The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) participates in the behavioral flexibility. As a major downstream molecule in the NMDA receptor signaling, alpha-Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (αCaMKII) is crucial for hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) and hippocampus-related memory. However, the role of αCaMKII in mPFC-related behavioral flexibility and mPFC synaptic plasticity remains elusive. In the present study, using chemical-genetic approaches to temporally up-regulate αCaMKII activity, we found that αCaMKII-F89G transgenic mice exhibited impaired behavioral flexibility in Y-water maze arm reversal task. Notably, in vitro electrophysiological analysis showed normal basal synaptic transmission, LTP and depotentiation, but selectively impaired NMDAR-dependent long-term depression (LTD) in the mPFC of αCaMKII-F89G transgenic mice. In accordance with the deficit in NMDAR-dependent LTD, αCaMKII-F89G transgenic mice exhibited impaired AMPAR internalization during NMDAR-dependent chemical LTD expression in the mPFC. Furthermore, the above deficits in behavioral flexibility, NMDAR-dependent LTD and AMPAR internalization could all be reversed by 1-naphthylmethyl (NM)-PP1, a specific inhibitor of exogenous αCaMKII-F89G activity. Taken together, our results for the first time indicate that αCaMKII overexpression in the forebrain impairs behavioral flexibility and NMDAR-dependent LTD in the mPFC, and supports the notion that there is a close relationship between NMDAR-dependent LTD and behavioral flexibility.

  4. Protein Synthesis Inhibitors Did Not Interfere with Long-Term Depression Induced either Electrically in Juvenile Rats or Chemically in Middle-Aged Rats.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Abdul-Karim

    2016-01-01

    In testing the hypothesis that long-term potentiation (LTP) maintenance depends on triggered protein synthesis, we found no effect of protein synthesis inhibitors (PSIs) on LTP stabilization. Similarly, some studies reported a lack of effect of PSIs on long-term depression (LTD); the lack of effect on LTD has been suggested to be resulting from the short time recordings. If this proposal were true, LTD might exhibit sensitivity to PSIs when the recording intervals were enough long. We firstly induced LTD by a standard protocol involving low frequency stimulation, which is suitable for eliciting NMDAR-LTD in CA1 area of hippocampal slices obtained from juvenile Sprague-Dawley rats. This LTD was persistent for intervals in range of 8-10 h. Treating slices with anisomycin, however, did not interfere with the magnitude and persistence of this form of LTD. The failure of anisomycin to block synaptic-LTD might be relied on the age of animal, the type of protein synthesis inhibitors and/or the inducing protocol. To verify whether those variables altogether were determinant, NMDA or DHPG was used to chemically elicit LTD recorded up to 10 h on hippocampal slices obtained from middle-aged rats. In either form of LTD, cycloheximide did not interfere with LTD stabilization. Furthermore, DHPG application did show an increase in the global protein synthesis as assayed by radiolabeled methodology indicating that though triggered protein synthesis can occur but not necessarily required for LTD expression. The findings confirm that stabilized LTD in either juvenile, or middle-aged rats can be independent of triggered protein synthesis. Although the processes responsible for the independence of LTD stabilization on the triggered protein synthesis are not yet defined, these findings raise the possibility that de novo protein synthesis is not universally necessary.

  5. Arsenic downregulates gene expression at the postsynaptic density in mouse cerebellum, including genes responsible for long-term potentiation and depression.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cong; Li, Sheng; Sun, Yahui; Dong, Wei; Piao, Fengyuan; Piao, Yongjun; Liu, Shuang; Guan, Huai; Yu, Shengbo

    2014-08-01

    Arsenic (As) is a neurotoxin induces dysfunction of learning and memory. Research has indicated that cerebellum may be involved in arsenic-induced impairment of learning and memory. However, the molecular mechanisms that underlie these effects remain unclear. This study screened for the differentially expressed genes related to the long-term potentiation and long-term depression (LTP and LTD) at the cerebellar postsynaptic density (PSD) of mice following exposure to arsenic, and we provide evidence of the mechanism by which arsenic adversely affects the functions of learning and memory. Here, SPF mice were exposed to 1ppm, 2ppm and 4ppm As2O3 for 60 days. The ultrastructure of the synapses in cerebella of these mice was observed via transmission electron microscopy. The cerebellum global gene expression of mice exposed to 4ppm As2O3 was determined through GeneChip analysis. We used the web tool DAVID to analyze the Gene Ontology (GO) and KEGG pathways that were significantly enriched among the differentially expressed genes. Our observations of synaptic ultrastructure showed that the thickness of the cerebellar PSD was reduced in mice exposed to arsenic. Go analysis revealed the PSD as a significantly altered cellular component. KEGG pathway analysis showed that LTP and LTD were affected by arsenic with highest statistical significance, and 20 differentially expressed genes were associated with them. Among these differentially expressed genes, significant decreases in the mRNA expressions of CaMKII, Gria1, Gria2, Grin1, Itpr1, Grm1 and PLCβ4 related to the LTP and LTD were found at the PSD of mouse cerebellum exposed to arsenic. The downregulation of these genes was further confirmed via real-time reverse transcription PCR or Western blot at 1ppm, 2ppm and 4ppm As2O3. Our results indicate that the 7 genes with in cerebellar PSDs may be involved in arsenic-induced neurotoxicity, including impairment of learning and memory.

  6. Protein Synthesis Inhibitors Did Not Interfere with Long-Term Depression Induced either Electrically in Juvenile Rats or Chemically in Middle-Aged Rats

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    In testing the hypothesis that long-term potentiation (LTP) maintenance depends on triggered protein synthesis, we found no effect of protein synthesis inhibitors (PSIs) on LTP stabilization. Similarly, some studies reported a lack of effect of PSIs on long-term depression (LTD); the lack of effect on LTD has been suggested to be resulting from the short time recordings. If this proposal were true, LTD might exhibit sensitivity to PSIs when the recording intervals were enough long. We firstly induced LTD by a standard protocol involving low frequency stimulation, which is suitable for eliciting NMDAR-LTD in CA1 area of hippocampal slices obtained from juvenile Sprague-Dawley rats. This LTD was persistent for intervals in range of 8–10 h. Treating slices with anisomycin, however, did not interfere with the magnitude and persistence of this form of LTD. The failure of anisomycin to block synaptic-LTD might be relied on the age of animal, the type of protein synthesis inhibitors and/or the inducing protocol. To verify whether those variables altogether were determinant, NMDA or DHPG was used to chemically elicit LTD recorded up to 10 h on hippocampal slices obtained from middle-aged rats. In either form of LTD, cycloheximide did not interfere with LTD stabilization. Furthermore, DHPG application did show an increase in the global protein synthesis as assayed by radiolabeled methodology indicating that though triggered protein synthesis can occur but not necessarily required for LTD expression. The findings confirm that stabilized LTD in either juvenile, or middle-aged rats can be independent of triggered protein synthesis. Although the processes responsible for the independence of LTD stabilization on the triggered protein synthesis are not yet defined, these findings raise the possibility that de novo protein synthesis is not universally necessary. PMID:27517693

  7. Activation of group II metabotropic glutamate receptors induces long-term depression of excitatory synaptic transmission in the substantia nigra pars reticulata.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Kari A; Niswender, Colleen M; Conn, P Jeffrey; Xiang, Zixiu

    2011-10-24

    Activation of group II metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGlu2 and mGlu3) has been implicated as a potential therapeutic strategy for treating both motor symptoms and progressive neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease (PD). Modulation of excitatory transmission in the basal ganglia represents a possible mechanism by which group II mGlu agonists could exert antiparkinsonian effects. Previous studies have identified reversible effects of mGlu2/3 activation on excitatory transmission at various synapses in the basal ganglia, including the excitatory synapse between the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr). Using whole-cell patch clamp studies of GABAergic SNr neurons in rat midbrain slices, we have found that a prolonged activation of group II mGlus by the selective agonist LY379268 induces a long-term depression (LTD) of evoked excitatory postsynaptic current (EPSC) amplitude. Bath application of LY379268 (100nM, 10min) induced a marked reduction in EPSC amplitude, and excitatory transmission remained depressed for at least 40min after agonist washout. The effect of LY379268 was concentration-dependent and was completely blocked by the group II mGlu-preferring antagonist LY341495 (500nM). To determine the relative contributions of mGlu2 and mGlu3 to the LTD induced by LY379268, we tested the ability of LY379268 (100nM) to induce LTD in wild type mice and mice lacking mGlu2 or mGlu3. LY379268 induced similar LTD in wild type mice and mGlu3 knockout mice, whereas LTD was absent in mGlu2 knockout mice, indicating that mGlu2 activation is necessary for the induction of LTD in the SNr. These studies suggest a novel role for mGlu2 in the long-term regulation of excitatory transmission in the SNr and invite further exploration of mGlu2 as a therapeutic target for treating the motor symptoms of PD. PMID:21945652

  8. Low-frequency trains of paired stimuli induce long-term depression in area CA1 but not in dentate gyrus of the intact rat.

    PubMed

    Doyère, V; Errington, M L; Laroche, S; Bliss, T V

    1996-01-01

    We have examined the efficacy of a recently introduced protocol for inducing homosynaptic long-term depression (LTD) in area CA1 of the anesthetized rat (Thiels et al. [1994] J Neurophysiol 72:3009-3116.). In area CA1 of the awake animal, this protocol, consisting of 200 pairs of pulses delivered at 0.5 Hz, with an interpulse interval of 25 ms, consistently produced LTD, provided the initial pulse was sufficiently strong to produce significant paired-pulse depression of the evoked response. We extended these experiments to the dentate gyrus, using either paired pulses given to the perforant path in the awake adult rat, or, in the anesthetized adult, a two-pathway pairing procedure, in which the first pulse was delivered to the commissural input to the dentate gyrus and the second to the perforant path. In both cases, the first pulse led to substantial suppression of the response evoked by the second pulse. With neither protocol, however, was there any evidence for LTD or depotentiation. Paired-pulse stimulation of the perforant path of young rats (10-11 days) also failed to induce LTD or depotentiation of the population excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP). Thus, the dentate gyrus in the intact animal appears to be less susceptible to LTD and depotentiation than area CA1, a conclusion consistent with previous experiments in which we found that stimulation at 1-5 Hz produced LTD/depotentiation in area CA1 of young (but not adult) rats in vivo but was ineffective at any age in the dentate gyrus. Our results do not rule out the possibility that other, untested protocols may produce homosynaptic LTD and/or depotentiation in the dentate gyrus in vivo.

  9. Motor learning in common marmosets: vestibulo-ocular reflex adaptation and its sensitivity to inhibitors of Purkinje cell long-term depression.

    PubMed

    Anzai, Mari; Nagao, Soich

    2014-06-01

    Adaptation of the horizontal vestibulo-ocular reflex (HVOR) provides an experimental model for cerebellum-dependent motor learning. We developed an eye movement measuring system and a paradigm for induction of HVOR adaptation for the common marmoset. The HVOR gain in dark measured by 10° (peak-to-peak amplitude) and 0.11-0.5Hz turntable oscillation was around unity. The gain-up and gain-down HVOR adaptation was induced by 1h of sustained out-of-phase and in-phase 10°-0.33Hz combined turntable-screen oscillation in the light, respectively. To examine the role of long-term depression (LTD) of parallel fiber-Purkinje cell synapses, we intraperitonially applied T-588 or nimesulide, which block the induction of LTD in vitro or in vivo preparations, 1h before the test of HVOR adaptation. T-588 (3 and 5mg/kg body weight) did not affect nonadapted HVOR gains, and impaired both gain-up and gain-down HVOR adaptation. Nimesulide (3 and 6mg/kg) did not affect nonadapted HVOR gains, and impaired gain-up HVOR adaptation dose-dependently; however, it very little affected gain-down HVOR adaptation. These findings are consistent with the results of our study of nimesulide on the adaptation of horizontal optokinetic response in mice (Le et al., 2010), and support the view that LTD underlies HVOR adaptation.

  10. Prophylactic efficacy of fluoxetine, escitalopram, sertraline, paroxetine, and concomitant psychotherapy in major depressive disorder: outcome after long-term follow-up.

    PubMed

    Peselow, Eric D; Tobia, Gabriel; Karamians, Reneh; Pizano, Demetria; IsHak, Waguih William

    2015-02-28

    The acute efficacy of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD) is well established; however their role in longer-term prevention of recurrence remains unconfirmed. This study aims at examining: the prophylactic efficacy of four commonly used SSRIs in MDD in a naturalistic setting with long-term follow-up, the effect of concomitant cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), and the predictors of outcome. In a prospective cohort study, 387 patients who either remitted or responded following treatment with four different SSRIs-fluoxetine, escitalopram, sertraline and paroxetine-were followed up over several years. During an average follow-up period of 34.5 months, 76.5% of patients experienced MDD recurrence. Escitalopram and fluoxetine showed a numerically higher prophylactic efficacy than paroxetine and sertraline but the difference was statistically insignificant. The prophylactic efficacy for SSRI-only treatment was limited, with a recurrence rate of 82.0%, compared to 59.0% of patient recurrence rate in concomitant Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT). The relatively small size of the CBT group and the lack of randomization may undermine the extrapolation of its findings to clinical practice. Nevertheless, the study preliminary data may help in defining the clinical utility of antidepressants and CBT in the prophylaxis from MDD recurrence. PMID:25496869

  11. miR-191 and miR-135 are required for long-lasting spine remodelling associated with synaptic long-term depression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Zhonghua; Yu, Danni; Gu, Qin-Hua; Yang, Yanqin; Tu, Kang; Zhu, Jun; Li, Zheng

    2014-02-01

    Activity-dependent modification of dendritic spines, subcellular compartments accommodating postsynaptic specializations in the brain, is an important cellular mechanism for brain development, cognition and synaptic pathology of brain disorders. NMDA receptor-dependent long-term depression (NMDAR-LTD), a prototypic form of synaptic plasticity, is accompanied by prolonged remodelling of spines. The mechanisms underlying long-lasting spine remodelling in NMDAR-LTD, however, are largely unclear. Here we show that LTD induction causes global changes in miRNA transcriptomes affecting many cellular activities. Specifically, we show that expression changes of miR-191 and miR-135 are required for maintenance but not induction of spine restructuring. Moreover, we find that actin depolymerization and AMPA receptor exocytosis are regulated for extended periods of time by miRNAs to support long-lasting spine plasticity. These findings reveal a miRNA-mediated mechanism and a role for AMPA receptor exocytosis in long-lasting spine plasticity, and identify a number of candidate miRNAs involved in LTD.

  12. Prophylactic efficacy of fluoxetine, escitalopram, sertraline, paroxetine, and concomitant psychotherapy in major depressive disorder: outcome after long-term follow-up.

    PubMed

    Peselow, Eric D; Tobia, Gabriel; Karamians, Reneh; Pizano, Demetria; IsHak, Waguih William

    2015-02-28

    The acute efficacy of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD) is well established; however their role in longer-term prevention of recurrence remains unconfirmed. This study aims at examining: the prophylactic efficacy of four commonly used SSRIs in MDD in a naturalistic setting with long-term follow-up, the effect of concomitant cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), and the predictors of outcome. In a prospective cohort study, 387 patients who either remitted or responded following treatment with four different SSRIs-fluoxetine, escitalopram, sertraline and paroxetine-were followed up over several years. During an average follow-up period of 34.5 months, 76.5% of patients experienced MDD recurrence. Escitalopram and fluoxetine showed a numerically higher prophylactic efficacy than paroxetine and sertraline but the difference was statistically insignificant. The prophylactic efficacy for SSRI-only treatment was limited, with a recurrence rate of 82.0%, compared to 59.0% of patient recurrence rate in concomitant Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT). The relatively small size of the CBT group and the lack of randomization may undermine the extrapolation of its findings to clinical practice. Nevertheless, the study preliminary data may help in defining the clinical utility of antidepressants and CBT in the prophylaxis from MDD recurrence.

  13. Lgr4 protein deficiency induces ataxia-like phenotype in mice and impairs long term depression at cerebellar parallel fiber-Purkinje cell synapses.

    PubMed

    Guan, Xin; Duan, Yanhong; Zeng, Qingwen; Pan, Hongjie; Qian, Yu; Li, Dali; Cao, Xiaohua; Liu, Mingyao

    2014-09-19

    Cerebellar dysfunction causes ataxia characterized by loss of balance and coordination. Until now, the molecular and neuronal mechanisms of several types of inherited cerebellar ataxia have not been completely clarified. Here, we report that leucine-rich G protein-coupled receptor 4 (Lgr4/Gpr48) is highly expressed in Purkinje cells (PCs) in the cerebellum. Deficiency of Lgr4 leads to an ataxia-like phenotype in mice. Histologically, no obvious morphological changes were observed in the cerebellum of Lgr4 mutant mice. However, the number of PCs was slightly but significantly reduced in Lgr4(-/-) mice. In addition, in vitro electrophysiological analysis showed an impaired long term depression (LTD) at parallel fiber-PC (PF-PC) synapses in Lgr4(-/-) mice. Consistently, immunostaining experiments showed that the level of phosphorylated cAMP-responsive element-binding protein (Creb) was significantly decreased in Lgr4(-/-) PCs. Furthermore, treatment with forskolin, an adenylyl cyclase agonist, rescued phospho-Creb in PCs and reversed the impairment in PF-PC LTD in Lgr4(-/-) cerebellar slices, indicating that Lgr4 is an upstream regulator of Creb signaling, which is underlying PF-PC LTD. Together, our findings demonstrate for first time an important role for Lgr4 in motor coordination and cerebellar synaptic plasticity and provide a potential therapeutic target for certain types of inherited cerebellar ataxia. PMID:25063812

  14. Long-term deficiency of circulating and hippocampal insulin-like growth factor I induces depressive behavior in adult mice: A potential model of geriatric depression

    PubMed Central

    Mitschelen, Matthew; Yan, Han; Farley, Julie A.; Warrington, Junie P.; Han, Song; Hereñú, Claudia B.; Csiszar, Anna; Ungvari, Zoltan; Bailey-Downs, Lora C.; Bass, Caroline E.; Sonntag, William E.

    2011-01-01

    Numerous studies support the hypothesis that deficiency of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-1) in adults contributes to depression, but direct evidence is limited. Many psychological and pro-cognitive effects have been attributed to IGF-1, but appropriate animal models of adult-onset IGF-1 deficiency are lacking. In this study, we use a viral-mediated Cre-loxP system to knockout the Igf1 gene in either the liver, neurons of the CA1 region of the hippocampus, or both. Knockout of liver Igf1 reduced serum IGF-1 levels by 40% and hippocampal IGF-1 levels by 26%. Knockout of Igf1 in CA1 reduced hippocampal IGF-1 levels by 13%. The most severe reduction in hippocampal IGF-1 occurred in the group with knockouts in both liver and CA1 (36% reduction), and was associated with a 3.5-fold increase in immobility in the forced swim test. Reduction of either circulating or hippocampal IGF-1 levels did not alter anxiety measured in an open field and elevated plus maze, nor locomotion in the open field. Furthermore, local compensation for deficiencies in circulating IGF-1 did not occur in the hippocampus, nor were serum levels of IGF-1 upregulated in response to the moderate decline of hippocampal IGF-1 caused by the knockouts in CA1. We conclude that adult-onset IGF-1 deficiency alone is sufficient to induce a depressive phenotype in mice. Furthermore, our results suggest that individuals with low brain levels of IGF-1 are at increased risk for depression and these behavioral effects are not ameliorated by increased local IGF-1 production or transport. Our study supports the hypothesis that the natural IGF-1 decline in aging humans may contribute to geriatric depression. PMID:21524689

  15. Arsenic downregulates gene expression at the postsynaptic density in mouse cerebellum, including genes responsible for long-term potentiation and depression.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cong; Li, Sheng; Sun, Yahui; Dong, Wei; Piao, Fengyuan; Piao, Yongjun; Liu, Shuang; Guan, Huai; Yu, Shengbo

    2014-08-01

    Arsenic (As) is a neurotoxin induces dysfunction of learning and memory. Research has indicated that cerebellum may be involved in arsenic-induced impairment of learning and memory. However, the molecular mechanisms that underlie these effects remain unclear. This study screened for the differentially expressed genes related to the long-term potentiation and long-term depression (LTP and LTD) at the cerebellar postsynaptic density (PSD) of mice following exposure to arsenic, and we provide evidence of the mechanism by which arsenic adversely affects the functions of learning and memory. Here, SPF mice were exposed to 1ppm, 2ppm and 4ppm As2O3 for 60 days. The ultrastructure of the synapses in cerebella of these mice was observed via transmission electron microscopy. The cerebellum global gene expression of mice exposed to 4ppm As2O3 was determined through GeneChip analysis. We used the web tool DAVID to analyze the Gene Ontology (GO) and KEGG pathways that were significantly enriched among the differentially expressed genes. Our observations of synaptic ultrastructure showed that the thickness of the cerebellar PSD was reduced in mice exposed to arsenic. Go analysis revealed the PSD as a significantly altered cellular component. KEGG pathway analysis showed that LTP and LTD were affected by arsenic with highest statistical significance, and 20 differentially expressed genes were associated with them. Among these differentially expressed genes, significant decreases in the mRNA expressions of CaMKII, Gria1, Gria2, Grin1, Itpr1, Grm1 and PLCβ4 related to the LTP and LTD were found at the PSD of mouse cerebellum exposed to arsenic. The downregulation of these genes was further confirmed via real-time reverse transcription PCR or Western blot at 1ppm, 2ppm and 4ppm As2O3. Our results indicate that the 7 genes with in cerebellar PSDs may be involved in arsenic-induced neurotoxicity, including impairment of learning and memory. PMID:24831965

  16. Cocaine Withdrawal Impairs mGluR5-Dependent Long-Term Depression in Nucleus Accumbens Shell Neurons of Both Direct and Indirect Pathways.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chiung-Chun; Liang, Ying-Ching; Lee, Cheng-Che; Hsu, Kuei-Sen

    2015-12-01

    We previously reported that animals withdrawn from repeated cocaine exposure exhibited a selective deficit in the ability to elicit metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5)-dependent long-term depression (LTD) in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell. To determine whether such impairment occurs in the NAc in a cell-type-specific manner, we used bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) transgenic mice expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) under the control of gene regulatory elements for the dopamine D1 receptor (Drd1) or dopamine D2 receptor (Drd2) to identify distinct subpopulations of medium spiny neurons (MSNs). We found that bath application of group I mGluR agonist (S)-3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine (DHPG) reliably induced LTD in both NAc shell and core MSNs of wild-type, hemizygous Drd1-eGFP, and Drd2-eGFP mice. Confirming our previous results, cocaine withdrawal selectively impaired DHPG-LTD in NAc shell Drd1-expressing direct and Drd2-expressing indirect pathway MSNs. We also found that the expression of DHPG-LTD in NAc MSNs was not affected by the Ca(2+)-permeable α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor antagonist 1-naphthyl acetyl spermine. Furthermore, systemic administration of mGluR5-negative allosteric modulator fenobam before the daily injection of cocaine preserved mGluR5 function and significantly reduced the expression of cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization. These results reveal that withdrawal from repeated cocaine exposure may result in the impairment of NAc mGluR5-LTD in a subregion- but not cell-type-specific manner and suggests that pharmacological antagonism of mGluR5 may represent a potential strategy for reducing cocaine-induced addictive behaviors.

  17. Gene-environment interactions affect long-term depression (LTD) through changes in dopamine receptor affinity in Snap25 deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Baca, Michael; Allan, Andrea M; Partridge, L Donald; Wilson, Michael C

    2013-09-26

    Genes and environmental conditions interact in the development of cognitive capacities and each plays an important role in neuropsychiatric disorders such as attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and schizophrenia. Multiple studies have indicated that the gene for the SNARE protein SNAP-25 is a candidate susceptibility gene for ADHD, as well as schizophrenia, while maternal smoking is a candidate environmental risk factor for ADHD. We utilized mice heterozygous for a Snap25 null allele and deficient in SNAP-25 expression to model genetic effects in combination with prenatal exposure to nicotine to explore genetic and environmental interactions in synaptic plasticity and behavior. We show that SNAP-25 deficient mice exposed to prenatal nicotine exhibit hyperactivity and deficits in social interaction. Using a high frequency stimulus electrophysiological paradigm for long-term depression (LTD) induction, we examined the roles of dopaminergic D2 receptors (D2Rs) and cannabinoid CB1 receptors (CB1Rs), both critical for LTD induction in the striatum. We found that prenatal exposure to nicotine in Snap25 heterozygote null mice produced a deficit in the D2R-dependent induction of LTD, although CB1R regulation of plasticity was not impaired. We also show that prenatal nicotine exposure altered the affinity and/or receptor coupling of D2Rs, but not the number of these receptors in heterozygote null Snap25 mutants. These results refine the observations made in the coloboma mouse mutant, a proposed mouse model of ADHD, and illustrate how gene×environmental influences can interact to perturb neural functions that regulate behavior.

  18. Synergistic action of GABA-A and NMDA receptors in the induction of long-term depression in glutamatergic synapses in the newborn rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Pavlov, Ivan; Riekki, Ruusu; Taira, Tomi

    2004-12-01

    We show that activation of GABA(A) receptors (GABA(A)Rs) promotes induction of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor (NMDAR)-dependent long-term depression (LTD) of glutamatergic synapses in the newborn rat hippocampal area CA1 in a developmentally restricted manner. In the newborn rat hippocampus two mechanistically different types of LTD of glutamatergic synapses could be induced under similar experimental conditions. The form of the LTD induced depended on the stimulation protocol and on the age of the animal. Low-frequency stimulation (1 Hz) with 100 stimuli induced a robust homosynaptic, reversible LTD at postnatal days 2-8 (P2-P8) but not at P14. This LTD was blocked by the NMDAR antagonist AP5 or by the GABA(A)R antagonist picrotoxin. Use of a low-chloride solution in the patch pipette resulting in E(GABA-A) < -70 mV blocked the NMDAR-dependent LTD, whereas clamping the cell to -40 mV during induction rescued it. In addition, it was possible to induce LTD at P14 with 100 stimuli if the cells were clamped to -40 mV during induction. Low-frequency stimulation with 900 stimuli induced a robust homosynaptic, reversible LTD both at P2-P8 and at P14. However, neither AP5 nor picrotoxin affected the LTD induced by 900 pulses at P2-P8. Instead, the 900 stimuli-induced LTD was blocked by the metabotropic glutamate receptor antagonists when co-applied with AP5. We suggest that during the first postnatal week postsynaptic depolarization provided by the activation of GABA(A)Rs shifts the threshold for the LTD induction, making the synapses more prone to activity-induced plasticity. From the second postnatal week onwards, when the GABA(A) responses are already hyperpolarizing, different mechanisms for LTD induction prevail. PMID:15579156

  19. Synergistic action of GABA-A and NMDA receptors in the induction of long-term depression in glutamatergic synapses in the newborn rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Pavlov, Ivan; Riekki, Ruusu; Taira, Tomi

    2004-12-01

    We show that activation of GABA(A) receptors (GABA(A)Rs) promotes induction of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor (NMDAR)-dependent long-term depression (LTD) of glutamatergic synapses in the newborn rat hippocampal area CA1 in a developmentally restricted manner. In the newborn rat hippocampus two mechanistically different types of LTD of glutamatergic synapses could be induced under similar experimental conditions. The form of the LTD induced depended on the stimulation protocol and on the age of the animal. Low-frequency stimulation (1 Hz) with 100 stimuli induced a robust homosynaptic, reversible LTD at postnatal days 2-8 (P2-P8) but not at P14. This LTD was blocked by the NMDAR antagonist AP5 or by the GABA(A)R antagonist picrotoxin. Use of a low-chloride solution in the patch pipette resulting in E(GABA-A) < -70 mV blocked the NMDAR-dependent LTD, whereas clamping the cell to -40 mV during induction rescued it. In addition, it was possible to induce LTD at P14 with 100 stimuli if the cells were clamped to -40 mV during induction. Low-frequency stimulation with 900 stimuli induced a robust homosynaptic, reversible LTD both at P2-P8 and at P14. However, neither AP5 nor picrotoxin affected the LTD induced by 900 pulses at P2-P8. Instead, the 900 stimuli-induced LTD was blocked by the metabotropic glutamate receptor antagonists when co-applied with AP5. We suggest that during the first postnatal week postsynaptic depolarization provided by the activation of GABA(A)Rs shifts the threshold for the LTD induction, making the synapses more prone to activity-induced plasticity. From the second postnatal week onwards, when the GABA(A) responses are already hyperpolarizing, different mechanisms for LTD induction prevail.

  20. Sleep-Deprivation Induces Changes in GABAB and mGlu Receptor Expression and Has Consequences for Synaptic Long-Term Depression

    PubMed Central

    Tadavarty, Ramakrishna; Rajput, Padmesh S.; Wong, Jennifer M.; Kumar, Ujendra; Sastry, Bhagavatula R.

    2011-01-01

    Long term depression (LTD) in the CA1 region of the hippocampus, induced with a 20-Hz, 30 s tetanus to Schaffer collaterals, is enhanced in sleep-deprived (SD) rats. In the present study, we investigated the role of metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs), γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) B receptors (GABAB-Rs) and N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptors (NMDARs) in the LTD of the population excitatory postsynaptic potential (pEPSP). The requirement of Ca2+ from L- and T- type voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) and intracellular stores was also studied. Results indicate that mGluRs, a release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores and GABAB-Rs are required for LTD. Interestingly, while mGlu1Rs seem to be involved in both short-term depression and LTD, mGlu5Rs appear to participate mostly in LTD. CGP 55845, a GABAB-R antagonist, partially suppressed LTD in normally sleeping (NS) rats, while completely blocking LTD in SD rats. Moreover, GS-39783, a positive allosteric modulator for GABAB-R, suppressed the pEPSP in SD, but not NS rats. Since both mGluRs and GABAB-Rs seem to be involved in the LTD, especially in SD rats, we examined if the receptor expression pattern and/or dimerization changed, using immunohistochemical, co-localization and co-immunoprecipitation techniques. Sleep-deprivation induced an increase in the expression of GABAB-R1 and mGlu1αR in the CA1 region of the hippocampus. In addition, co-localization and heterodimerization between mGlu1αR/GABAB-R1 and mGlu1αR/GABAB-R2 is enhanced in SD rats. Taken together, our findings present a novel form of LTD sensitive to the activation of mGluRs and GABAB-Rs, and reveal, for the first time, that sleep-deprivation induces alterations in the expression and dimerization of these receptors. PMID:21980366

  1. Long-term depression induced by postsynaptic group II metabotropic glutamate receptors linked to phospholipase C and intracellular calcium rises in rat prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Otani, S; Daniel, H; Takita, M; Crépel, F

    2002-05-01

    We have previously shown (Otani et al., 1999b) that bath application of (2S,2'R,3'R)-2-(2',3'-dicarboxycyclopropyl)glycine (DCG IV), the agonist of group II metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs), induces postsynaptic Ca2+-dependent long-term depression (LTD) of layer I-II to layer V pyramidal neuron glutamatergic synapses of rat medial prefrontal cortex. In the present study, we examined detailed mechanisms of this DCG IV-induced LTD. First, the group II mGluR antagonist (RS)-alpha-methylserine-O-phosphate monophenyl ester blocked DCG IV-induced LTD, and another group II agonist (2S,3S,4S)-CCG/(2S,1'S,2'S)-2-(carboxycyclopropyl)glycine-induced LTD, suggesting that LTD is indeed mediated by the activation of group II mGluRs. Second, DCG IV-induced LTD was blocked by the NMDA receptor antagonist AP-5, whereas DCG IV did not potentiate NMDA receptor-mediated synaptic responses. Interruption of single test stimuli during DCG IV application blocked DCG IV-induced LTD. These results suggest that small NMDA receptor-mediated responses evoked by single synaptic stimuli contribute to DCG IV-induced LTD. Third, DCG IV-induced LTD was blocked or reduced by the following drugs: phospholipase C inhibitor U-73122 (bath-applied or postsynaptically injected), postsynaptically injected IP3 receptor blocker heparin, phospholipase D-linked mGluR blocker PCCG-13, PKC inhibitor RO318220, postsynaptically injected PKC inhibitor PKC(19-36), and PKA inhibitor KT-5720. Fourth, fluorescent Ca2+ analysis techniques revealed that DCG IV increases Ca2+ concentration in prefrontal layer V pyramidal neurons. These Ca2+ rises and the LTD were both blocked by postsynaptic heparin in the same cells. Taken together, these results suggest that postsynaptic group II mGluRs, linked to phospholipase C and probably also phospholipase D, induce LTD through postsynaptic PKC activation and IP3 receptor-mediated postsynaptic increases of Ca2+ concentration.

  2. Staufen 2 Regulates mGluR Long-Term Depression and Map1b mRNA Distribution in Hippocampal Neurons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lebeau, Genevieve; Miller, Linda C.; Tartas, Maylis; McAdam, Robyn; Laplante, Isabel; Badeaux, Frederique; DesGroseillers, Luc; Sossin, Wayne S.; Lacaille, Jean-Claude

    2011-01-01

    The two members of the Staufen family of RNA-binding proteins, Stau1 and Stau2, are present in distinct ribonucleoprotein complexes and associate with different mRNAs. Stau1 is required for protein synthesis-dependent long-term potentiation (L-LTP) in hippocampal pyramidal cells. However, the role of Stau2 in synaptic plasticity remains…

  3. Effects of long-term AA attendance and spirituality on the course of depressive symptoms in individuals with alcohol use disorder.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Claire E; Pearson, Matthew R; Tonigan, J Scott

    2015-06-01

    Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is associated with depression. Although attendance at Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) meetings predicts reductions in drinking, results have been mixed about the salutary effects of AA on reducing depressive symptoms. In this single-group study, early AA affiliates (n = 253) were recruited, consented, and assessed at baseline, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18, and 24 months. Lagged growth models were used to investigate the predictive effect of AA attendance on depression, controlling for concurrent drinking and treatment attendance. Depression was measured using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and was administered at baseline 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Additional predictors of depression tested included spiritual gains (Religious Background and Behavior questionnaire [RBB]) and completion of 12-step work (Alcoholics Anonymous Inventory [AAI]). Eighty-five percent of the original sample provided follow-up data at 24 months. Overall, depression decreased over the 24 month follow-up period. AA attendance predicted later reductions in depression (slope = -3.40, p = .01) even after controlling for concurrent drinking and formal treatment attendance. Finally, increased spiritual gains (RBB) also predicted later reductions in depression (slope = -0.10, p = .02) after controlling for concurrent drinking, treatment, and AA attendance. In summary, reductions in alcohol consumption partially explained decreases in depression in this sample of early AA affiliates, and other factors such as AA attendance and increased spiritual practices also accounted for reductions in depression beyond that explained by drinking. (PsycINFO Database Record

  4. Effects of Long-Term AA Attendance and Spirituality on the Course of Depressive Symptoms in Individuals with Alcohol Use Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Wilcox, Claire E.; Pearson, Matthew R.; Tonigan, J. Scott

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is associated with depression. Although attendance at Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) meetings predicts reductions in drinking, results have been mixed about the salutary effects of AA on reducing depressive symptoms. In this single-group study, early AA affiliates (n=253) were recruited, consented, and assessed at baseline, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18 and 24 months. Lagged growth models were used to investigate the predictive effect of AA attendance on depression, controlling for concurrent drinking and treatment attendance. Depression was measured using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and was administered at baseline 3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months. Additional predictors of depression tested included spiritual gains, [Religious Background and Behavior questionnaire (RBB)] and completion of 12-step work [(Alcoholics Anonymous Inventory (AAI)]. Eighty-five percent of the original sample provided follow-up data at 24 months. Overall, depression decreased over the 24 month follow-up period. AA attendance predicted later reductions in depression (slope=−3.40, p= 0.01) even after controlling for concurrent drinking and formal treatment attendance. Finally, increased spiritual gains (RBB) also predicted later reductions in depression (slope=−0.10, p=0.02) after controlling for concurrent drinking, treatment, and AA attendance. In sum, reductions in alcohol consumption partially explained decreases in depression in this sample of early AA affiliates, and other factors such as AA attendance and increased spiritual practices also accounted for reductions in depression beyond that explained by drinking. PMID:26076099

  5. Effects of long-term AA attendance and spirituality on the course of depressive symptoms in individuals with alcohol use disorder.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Claire E; Pearson, Matthew R; Tonigan, J Scott

    2015-06-01

    Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is associated with depression. Although attendance at Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) meetings predicts reductions in drinking, results have been mixed about the salutary effects of AA on reducing depressive symptoms. In this single-group study, early AA affiliates (n = 253) were recruited, consented, and assessed at baseline, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18, and 24 months. Lagged growth models were used to investigate the predictive effect of AA attendance on depression, controlling for concurrent drinking and treatment attendance. Depression was measured using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and was administered at baseline 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Additional predictors of depression tested included spiritual gains (Religious Background and Behavior questionnaire [RBB]) and completion of 12-step work (Alcoholics Anonymous Inventory [AAI]). Eighty-five percent of the original sample provided follow-up data at 24 months. Overall, depression decreased over the 24 month follow-up period. AA attendance predicted later reductions in depression (slope = -3.40, p = .01) even after controlling for concurrent drinking and formal treatment attendance. Finally, increased spiritual gains (RBB) also predicted later reductions in depression (slope = -0.10, p = .02) after controlling for concurrent drinking, treatment, and AA attendance. In summary, reductions in alcohol consumption partially explained decreases in depression in this sample of early AA affiliates, and other factors such as AA attendance and increased spiritual practices also accounted for reductions in depression beyond that explained by drinking. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26076099

  6. A randomized controlled trial of combined exercise and psycho-education for low-SES women: short- and long-term outcomes in the reduction of stress and depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    van der Waerden, Judith E B; Hoefnagels, Cees; Hosman, Clemens M H; Souren, Pierre M; Jansen, Maria W J

    2013-08-01

    Exercise may have both a preventive and a therapeutic impact on mental health problems. The Exercise without Worries intervention aims to reduce stress and depressive symptoms in low-SES women by means of a group-based program combining physical exercise and psycho-education. Between September 2005 and May 2008, 161 Dutch low-SES women with elevated stress or depressive symptom levels were randomly assigned to the combined exercise/psycho-education intervention (EP), exercise only (E) or a waiting list control condition (WLC). The E condition provided low to moderate intensity stretching, strength, flexibility, and body focused training as well as relaxation, while the EP program integrated the exercise with cognitive-behavioral techniques. Depressive symptoms (CES-D) and perceived stress (PSS) were measured before and immediately after the intervention and at 2, 6 and 12 month follow-up. Multilevel linear mixed-effects models revealed no differential patterns in reduction of CES-D or PSS scores between the EP, E and WLC groups on the short (post-test and 2 month follow-up) or long term (6 and 12 months follow-up). Depressive symptom outcomes were moderated by initial depressive symptom scores: women from the EP and E groups with fewer initial symptoms benefited from participation on the short term. Further, women in the EP and E groups with the lowest educational level reported more stress reduction at post-test than women with higher educational levels. In the overall target population of low-SES women, no indications were found that the Exercise without Worries course reduced depressive symptom and stress levels on the short or long term. The findings do suggest, however, that exercise alone or in combination with psycho-education may be a viable prevention option for certain groups of disadvantaged women. Especially those low-SES women with less severe initial problems or those with low educational attainment should be targeted for future depression prevention

  7. Child protection and adult depression: evaluating the long-term consequences of evacuating children to foster care during World War II.

    PubMed

    Santavirta, Nina; Santavirta, Torsten

    2014-03-01

    This paper combined data collected from war time government records with survey data including background characteristics, such as factors that affected eligibility, to examine the adult depression outcomes of individuals who were evacuated from Finland to temporary foster care in Sweden during World War II. Using war time government records and survey data for a random sample of 723 exposed individuals and 1321 matched unexposed individuals, the authors conducted least squares adjusted means comparison to examine the association between evacuation and adult depression (Beck Depression Inventory). The random sample was representative for the whole population of evacuees who returned to their biological families after World War II. The authors found no statistically significant difference in depressive symptoms during late adulthood between the two groups; for example, the exposed group had a 0.41 percentage points lower average Beck Depression Inventory score than the unexposed group (p = 0.907). This study provides no support for family disruption during early childhood because of the onset of sudden shocks elevating depressive symptoms during late adulthood. PMID:23456990

  8. Child protection and adult depression: evaluating the long-term consequences of evacuating children to foster care during World War II.

    PubMed

    Santavirta, Nina; Santavirta, Torsten

    2014-03-01

    This paper combined data collected from war time government records with survey data including background characteristics, such as factors that affected eligibility, to examine the adult depression outcomes of individuals who were evacuated from Finland to temporary foster care in Sweden during World War II. Using war time government records and survey data for a random sample of 723 exposed individuals and 1321 matched unexposed individuals, the authors conducted least squares adjusted means comparison to examine the association between evacuation and adult depression (Beck Depression Inventory). The random sample was representative for the whole population of evacuees who returned to their biological families after World War II. The authors found no statistically significant difference in depressive symptoms during late adulthood between the two groups; for example, the exposed group had a 0.41 percentage points lower average Beck Depression Inventory score than the unexposed group (p = 0.907). This study provides no support for family disruption during early childhood because of the onset of sudden shocks elevating depressive symptoms during late adulthood.

  9. Tailored lighting intervention improves measures of sleep, depression, and agitation in persons with Alzheimer’s disease and related dementia living in long-term care facilities

    PubMed Central

    Figueiro, Mariana G; Plitnick, Barbara A; Lok, Anna; Jones, Geoffrey E; Higgins, Patricia; Hornick, Thomas R; Rea, Mark S

    2014-01-01

    Background Light therapy has shown great promise as a nonpharmacological method to improve symptoms associated with Alzheimer’s disease and related dementias (ADRD), with preliminary studies demonstrating that appropriately timed light exposure can improve nighttime sleep efficiency, reduce nocturnal wandering, and alleviate evening agitation. Since the human circadian system is maximally sensitive to short-wavelength (blue) light, lower, more targeted lighting interventions for therapeutic purposes, can be used. Methods The present study investigated the effectiveness of a tailored lighting intervention for individuals with ADRD living in nursing homes. Low-level “bluish-white” lighting designed to deliver high circadian stimulation during the daytime was installed in 14 nursing home resident rooms for a period of 4 weeks. Light–dark and rest–activity patterns were collected using a Daysimeter. Sleep time and sleep efficiency measures were obtained using the rest–activity data. Measures of sleep quality, depression, and agitation were collected using standardized questionnaires, at baseline, at the end of the 4-week lighting intervention, and 4 weeks after the lighting intervention was removed. Results The lighting intervention significantly (P<0.05) decreased global sleep scores from the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and increased total sleep time and sleep efficiency. The lighting intervention also increased phasor magnitude, a measure of the 24-hour resonance between light–dark and rest–activity patterns, suggesting an increase in circadian entrainment. The lighting intervention significantly (P<0.05) reduced depression scores from the Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia and agitation scores from the Cohen–Mansfield Agitation Inventory. Conclusion A lighting intervention, tailored to increase daytime circadian stimulation, can be used to increase sleep quality and improve behavior in patients with ADRD. The present field study, while

  10. Long-term outcomes after severe shock.

    PubMed

    Pratt, Cristina M; Hirshberg, Eliotte L; Jones, Jason P; Kuttler, Kathryn G; Lanspa, Michael J; Wilson, Emily L; Hopkins, Ramona O; Brown, Samuel M

    2015-02-01

    Severe shock is a life-threatening condition with very high short-term mortality. Whether the long-term outcomes among survivors of severe shock are similar to long-term outcomes of other critical illness survivors is unknown. We therefore sought to assess long-term survival and functional outcomes among 90-day survivors of severe shock and determine whether clinical predictors were associated with outcomes. Seventy-six patients who were alive 90 days after severe shock (received ≥1 μg/kg per minute of norepinephrine equivalent) were eligible for the study. We measured 3-year survival and long-term functional outcomes using the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey, the EuroQOL 5-D-3L, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Impact of Event Scale-Revised, and an employment instrument. We also assessed the relationship between in-hospital predictors and long-term outcomes. The mean long-term survival was 5.1 years; 82% (62 of 76) of patients survived, of whom 49 were eligible for follow-up. Patients who died were older than patients who survived. Thirty-six patients completed a telephone interview a mean of 5 years after hospital admission. The patients' Physical Functioning scores were below U.S. population norms (P < 0.001), whereas mental health scores were similar to population norms. Nineteen percent of the patients had symptoms of depression, 39% had symptoms of anxiety, and 8% had symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder. Thirty-six percent were disabled, and 17% were working full-time. Early survivors of severe shock had a high 3-year survival rate. Patients' long-term physical and psychological outcomes were similar to those reported for cohorts of less severely ill intensive care unit survivors. Anxiety and depression were relatively common, but only a few patients had symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder. This study supports the observation that acute illness severity does not determine long-term outcomes. Even extremely

  11. [Long-term neurorehabilitation].

    PubMed

    Barolin, G S

    1988-05-01

    Our slogan of rehabilitation to be "holistic and permanent", in terms of its holistic aspect, expresses inclusion of the patient's total environment--relatives, politics, administration, legislation. The aspect of permanence may involve periods of many years, and is not amenable to standardization; meaningful limitation is subject to the individual needs, based on critical scientific follow-along of rehabilitation. The emergence of "rehabilitation hospitalism" may best be prevented by proper attention to the patient's emotional situation and social environment, with special regard also to experiences of frustration, to regressive tendencies, "associated depression". Well-versed rehabilitative management should therefore include the dimensions of pleasure and diversity. We have been able to realize some of the above in the "Vorarlberg Rehabilitation Model", in terms, on the one hand, of the scientific identity of rehabilitation, and of individualized, optimum patient-orientedness on the other. An important step forward has moreover been the inauguration of a "Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Neuro-Rehabilitation and -Prevention" at the Landes-Nervenkrankenhaus Valduna, of Rankweil, Austria.

  12. Long-term treatment with peony glycosides reverses chronic unpredictable mild stress-induced depressive-like behavior via increasing expression of neurotrophins in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Mao, Qing-Qiu; Xian, Yan-Fang; Ip, Siu-Po; Tsai, Sam-Hip; Che, Chun-Tao

    2010-07-11

    The root part of Paeonia lactiflora Pall., commonly known as peony, is a commonly used Chinese herb for the treatment of depression-like disorders. Previous studies in our laboratory have showed that total glycosides of peony (TGP) produced antidepressant-like action in various mouse models of behavioral despair. The present study aimed to investigate the mechanism(s) underlying the antidepressant-like action of TGP by measuring neurotrophins including brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF) in non-stressed and chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS)-treated rats. TGP (80 or 160 mg/kg/day) was administered by oral gavage to the animals for 5 weeks. The results showed that CUMS caused depression-like behavior in rats, as indicated by the significant decreases in sucrose consumption and locomotor activity (assessed by open-field test). In addition, it was found that BDNF contents in the hippocampus and frontal cortex were significantly decreased in CUMS-treated rats. CUMS treatment also significantly decreased the level of NGF in the frontal cortex of the animals. Daily intragastric administration of TGP (80 or 160 mg/kg/day) during the five weeks of CUMS significantly suppressed behavioral and biochemical changes induced by CUMS. Treating non-stressed animals with TGP (160 mg/kg) for 5 weeks also significantly increased BDNF contents in the hippocampus and frontal cortex, and NGF contents in the frontal cortex. The results suggest that the antidepressant-like action of TGP is mediated, at least in part, by increasing the expression of BDNF and NGF in selective brain tissues.

  13. RE-EXAMINING THE RISK FOR SWITCH FROM UNIPOLAR TO BIPOLAR MAJOR DEPRESSIVE DISORDER IN YOUTH WITH ADHD: A LONG TERM PROSPECTIVE LONGITUDINAL CONTROLLED STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Biederman, Joseph; Wozniak, Janet; Tarko, Laura; Serra, Giulia; Hernandez, Mariely; McDermott, Katie; Woodworth, K. Yvonne; Uchida, Mai; Faraone, Stephen V.

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent studies have identified subthreshold forms of bipolar (BP)-I disorder and deficits in emotional regulation as risk factors for bipolar disorder in youth. The primary aim of this study was to investigate whether emotional dysregulation and subthreshold forms of BP-I disorder increase the risk for BP switches in ADHD youth with non-bipolar MDD. Methods We used data from two large controlled longitudinal family studies of boys and girls with and without ADHD. Subjects (N=522) were followed prospectively and blindly over an average follow up period of 11.4 years. Comparisons were made between ADHD youth with unipolar major depression (MDD) who did (N=24) and did not (N=79) switch to BP-I disorder at follow-up. Results The rate of conversion to BP-I disorder at follow up was higher in MDD subjects with subthreshold BP-I disorder at baseline compared to those without (57% vs. 21%; OR=9.57, 95%CI=1.62–56.56, p=0.013) and in MDD subjects with deficient emotional self regulation (OR=3.54, 95%CI=1.08–11.60, p=0.037). Limitations The sample was largely Caucasian, so these results may not generalize to minority groups. The sample of youth with SED was small, which limited the statistical power for some analyses. Conclusions Switches from unipolar MDD to BP-I disorder in children with ADHD and MDD were predicted by baseline subthreshold BP-I disorder symptoms and baseline deficits in emotional regulation. More work is needed to assess whether these risk factors are operant outside the context of ADHD. PMID:24144583

  14. Long term adequate n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid diet protects from depressive-like behavior but not from working memory disruption and brain cytokine expression in aged mice.

    PubMed

    Moranis, Aurélie; Delpech, Jean-Christophe; De Smedt-Peyrusse, Véronique; Aubert, Agnès; Guesnet, Philippe; Lavialle, Monique; Joffre, Corinne; Layé, Sophie

    2012-07-01

    Converging epidemiological studies suggest that dietary essential n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) are likely to be involved in the pathogenesis of mood and cognitive disorders linked to aging. The question arises as to whether the decreased prevalence of these symptoms in the elderly with high n-3 PUFA consumption is also associated with improved central inflammation, i.e. cytokine activation, in the brain. To answer this, we measured memory performance and emotional behavior as well as cytokine synthesis and PUFA level in the spleen and the cortex of adult and aged mice submitted to a diet with an adequate supply of n-3 PUFA in form of α-linolenic acid (α-LNA) or a n-3 deficient diet. Our results show that docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), the main n-3 PUFA in the brain, was higher in the spleen and cortex of n-3 adequate mice relative to n-3 deficient mice and this difference was maintained throughout life. Interestingly, high level of brain DHA was associated with a decrease in depressive-like symptoms throughout aging. On the opposite, spatial memory was maintained in adult but not in aged n-3 adequate mice relative to n-3 deficient mice. Furthermore, increased interleukin-6 (IL-6) and decreased IL-10 expression were found in the cortex of aged mice independently of the diets. All together, our results suggest that n-3 PUFA dietary supply in the form of α-LNA is sufficient to protect from deficits in emotional behavior but not from memory disruption and brain proinflammatory cytokine expression linked to age.

  15. Long-term environmental stewardship.

    SciTech Connect

    Nagy, Michael David

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this Supplemental Information Source Document is to effectively describe Long-Term Environmental Stewardship (LTES) at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM). More specifically, this document describes the LTES and Long-Term Stewardship (LTS) Programs, distinguishes between the LTES and LTS Programs, and summarizes the current status of the Environmental Restoration (ER) Project.

  16. Presynaptic long-term plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ying; Calakos, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    Long-term synaptic plasticity is a major cellular substrate for learning, memory, and behavioral adaptation. Although early examples of long-term synaptic plasticity described a mechanism by which postsynaptic signal transduction was potentiated, it is now apparent that there is a vast array of mechanisms for long-term synaptic plasticity that involve modifications to either or both the presynaptic terminal and postsynaptic site. In this article, we discuss current and evolving approaches to identify presynaptic mechanisms as well as discuss their limitations. We next provide examples of the diverse circuits in which presynaptic forms of long-term synaptic plasticity have been described and discuss the potential contribution this form of plasticity might add to circuit function. Finally, we examine the present evidence for the molecular pathways and cellular events underlying presynaptic long-term synaptic plasticity. PMID:24146648

  17. Long-Term, Open-Label, Safety Study of Edivoxetine 12 to 18 mg Once Daily as Adjunctive Treatment for Patients With Major Depressive Disorder Who Are Partial Responders to Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor Treatment.

    PubMed

    Ball, Susan G; Atkinson, Sarah; Sparks, JonDavid; Bangs, Mark; Goldberger, Celine; Dubé, Sanjay

    2015-06-01

    Long-term safety, tolerability, and efficacy of adjunctive edivoxetine hydrochloride (hereafter edivoxetine), a highly selective and potent norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, was assessed in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) experiencing partial response to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor treatment. Data are from a multicenter, 54-week, open-label trial of adjunctive edivoxetine 12 to 18 mg once daily in patients with MDD who had experienced partial response by history to 6 or more weeks of current selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor therapy and who had a 17-item GRID Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression total score 16 or higher at study entry. Safety measures included discontinuation rate, treatment-emergent adverse events, serious adverse events, and vital signs. Efficacy measures included the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale. Of 608 patients, 328 (54%) completed the open-label adjunctive treatment. Study discontinuation due to adverse events occurred in 17.0%, and there were 13 serious adverse events (1 death). Treatment-emergent adverse events 5% or higher were nausea, hyperhidrosis, constipation, headache, dry mouth, dizziness, vomiting, insomnia, and upper respiratory tract infection. Mean increases were observed in systolic blood pressure (range, 0.0-2.3 mm Hg), diastolic blood pressure (range, 1.9-3.3 mm Hg), and pulse (range, 5.9-8.4 beats per minute). Mean improvements on the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (-17.0) were observed from baseline to week 54. The safety profile from this study provides an overview of outcomes associated with edivoxetine and norepinephrine reuptake inhibition as an adjunctive treatment in patients with MDD who were treated up to 1 year. PMID:25815754

  18. A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of venlafaxine extended release and a long-term extension study for patients with major depressive disorder in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Higuchi, Teruhiko; Kamijima, Kunitoshi; Nakagome, Kazuyuki; Asami, Yuko; Kuribayashi, Kazuhiko; Imaeda, Takayuki

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess antidepressant efficacy and safety of venlafaxine extended release in Japanese patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). We carried out a double-blinded, placebo-controlled, randomized study using fixed (75 mg/day) and flexible (75–225 mg/day, most patients attained to 225 mg/day) doses, followed by the long-term, open-labeled, extension study. Outpatients aged at least 20 years diagnosed with MDD were included. The primary efficacy measure was change from baseline in the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D17) score at week 8; secondary efficacy measures included the Montgomery–Åsberg Depression Rating Scale, the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology self-report version, HAM-D6, and Clinical Global Impression scales in the double-blinded study. Overall, 538 patients were randomized; significant differences were observed in the primary efficacy variable in the fixed-dose group (−10.76; P=0.031), but not in the flexible-dose (−10.37; P=0.106) group compared with placebo (−9.25). However, the flexible-dose group showed significant efficacy in several secondary measures. Treatment-related adverse events in the treatment period were 51.7 and 67.8% in the fixed-dose and flexible-dose groups, respectively, versus 38.8% with placebo. Throughout the study period, no Japanese-specific adverse events were observed. Thus, venlafaxine extended release was efficacious and safe for MDD treatment in Japan. PMID:26513202

  19. A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of venlafaxine extended release and a long-term extension study for patients with major depressive disorder in Japan.

    PubMed

    Higuchi, Teruhiko; Kamijima, Kunitoshi; Nakagome, Kazuyuki; Itamura, Rio; Asami, Yuko; Kuribayashi, Kazuhiko; Imaeda, Takayuki

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess antidepressant efficacy and safety of venlafaxine extended release in Japanese patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). We carried out a double-blinded, placebo-controlled, randomized study using fixed (75 mg/day) and flexible (75-225 mg/day, most patients attained to 225 mg/day) doses, followed by the long-term, open-labeled, extension study. Outpatients aged at least 20 years diagnosed with MDD were included. The primary efficacy measure was change from baseline in the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D17) score at week 8; secondary efficacy measures included the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale, the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology self-report version, HAM-D6, and Clinical Global Impression scales in the double-blinded study. Overall, 538 patients were randomized; significant differences were observed in the primary efficacy variable in the fixed-dose group (-10.76; P=0.031), but not in the flexible-dose (-10.37; P=0.106) group compared with placebo (-9.25). However, the flexible-dose group showed significant efficacy in several secondary measures. Treatment-related adverse events in the treatment period were 51.7 and 67.8% in the fixed-dose and flexible-dose groups, respectively, versus 38.8% with placebo. Throughout the study period, no Japanese-specific adverse events were observed. Thus, venlafaxine extended release was efficacious and safe for MDD treatment in Japan.

  20. Long term complications of diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000327.htm Long term complications of diabetes To use the sharing ... sores and infections. If it goes on too long, your toes, foot, or leg may need to ...

  1. Abdominal Pain, Long-Term

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Abdominal Pain, Long-term See complete list of charts. Ongoing or recurrent abdominal pain, also called chronic pain, may be difficult to diagnose, causing frustration for ...

  2. Long-term biomass research

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-03-01

    Some of DOE's long term R and D programs for biomass are summarized in this article. These include research efforts in the fields of anaerobic digestion, energy farming, short rotation cultivation and aquatic farming. (DMC)

  3. Loss of GluN2B-containing NMDA receptors in CA1 hippocampus and cortex impairs long-term depression, reduces dendritic spine density and disrupts learning

    PubMed Central

    Brigman, Jonathan L.; Wright, Tara; Talani, Giuseppe; Prasad-Mulcare, Shweta; Jinde, Seiichiro; Seabold, Gail K.; Mathur, Poonam; Davis, Margaret I.; Bock, Roland; Gustin, Richard M.; Colbran, Roger J.; Alvarez, Veronica A.; Nakazawa, Kazu; Delpire, Eric; Lovinger, David M.; Holmes, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) are key mediators of certain forms of synaptic plasticity and learning. NMDAR complexes are heteromers composed of an obligatory GluN1 subunit and one or more GluN2 (GluN2A- GluN2D) subunits. Different subunits confer distinct physiological and molecular properties to NMDARs, but their contribution to synaptic plasticity and learning in the adult brain remains uncertain. Here, we generated mice lacking GluN2B in pyramidal neurons of cortex and CA1 subregion of hippocampus. We found that hippocampal principal neurons of adult GluN2B mutants had faster decaying NMDAR-mediated excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) than non-mutant controls, and were insensitive to GluN2B but not NMDAR antagonism. A sub-saturating form of hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) was impaired in the mutants, whereas a saturating form of LTP was intact. A NMDAR-dependent form of long-term depression (LTD) produced by low-frequency stimulation combined with glutamate transporter inhibition was abolished in the mutants. Additionally, mutants exhibited decreased dendritic spine density in CA1 hippocampal neurons as compared to controls. On multiple assays for corticohippocampal-mediated learning and memory (hidden platform Morris water maze, T-maze spontaneous alternation, Pavlovian trace fear conditioning), mutants were impaired. These data further demonstrate the importance of GluN2B for synaptic plasticity in the adult hippocampus and suggest a particularly critical role in LTD, at least the form studied here. The finding that loss of GluN2B was sufficient to cause learning deficits illustrates the contribution of GluN2B-mediated forms of plasticity to memory formation, with implications for elucidating NMDAR-related dysfunction in disease-related cognitive impairment. PMID:20357110

  4. Long-term parenteral nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Ladefoged, Karin; Jarnum, Stig

    1978-01-01

    Nineteen patients (11 women and eight men) aged 20-68 received long-term parenteral nutrition, mostly at home, for six to 63 months (mean 19 months). Indications for LTPN were extensive, active Crohn's disease in three patients, intestinocutaneous fistulas in three, and short-bowel syndrome in the remaining 13 patients. Subclavian or intra-atrial (Broviac) catheters were most commonly used, for which the average life was four and seven months respectively. Complications of long-term parenteral nutrition included pneumothorax in four out of 48 subclavian vein punctures. Catheter-induced thrombosis of central veins was shown by phlebography 17 times in nine patients, and eight episodes of total occlusion occurred. Two of these patients had pulmonary infarction. Nineteen episodes of catheter sepsis occurred in 11 patients, but only one was fatal. Complications related to intestinal disease included intra-abdominal abscesses and intestinal fistulas, and disturbances of liver function. Five patients died, though in only two was death related to long-term parenteral nutrition. One of these patients died from catheter sepsis, the other had subdural haematoma possibly caused by anticoagulant treatment. Eight of the 14 surviving patients still needed parenteral nutrition. All received a disability pension, but six had an acceptable quality of life with almost normal social activities. Despite problems such as difficulties in maintaining standardised infusion programmes, it was concluded that long-term parenteral nutrition at home is practicable and consistent with an acceptable quality of life. ImagesFIG 2 PMID:98199

  5. Long-term data archiving

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, David Steven

    2009-01-01

    Long term data archiving has much value for chemists, not only to retain access to research and product development records, but also to enable new developments and new discoveries. There are some recent regulatory requirements (e.g., FDA 21 CFR Part 11), but good science and good business both benefit regardless. A particular example of the benefits of and need for long term data archiving is the management of data from spectroscopic laboratory instruments. The sheer amount of spectroscopic data is increasing at a scary rate, and the pressures to archive come from the expense to create the data (or recreate it if it is lost) as well as its high information content. The goal of long-term data archiving is to save and organize instrument data files as well as any needed meta data (such as sample ID, LIMS information, operator, date, time, instrument conditions, sample type, excitation details, environmental parameters, etc.). This editorial explores the issues involved in long-term data archiving using the example of Raman spectral databases. There are at present several such databases, including common data format libraries and proprietary libraries. However, such databases and libraries should ultimately satisfy stringent criteria for long term data archiving, including readability for long times into the future, robustness to changes in computer hardware and operating systems, and use of public domain data formats. The latter criterion implies the data format should be platform independent and the tools to create the data format should be easily and publicly obtainable or developable. Several examples of attempts at spectral libraries exist, such as the ASTM ANDI format, and the JCAMP-DX format. On the other hand, proprietary library spectra can be exchanged and manipulated using proprietary tools. As the above examples have deficiencies according to the three long term data archiving criteria, Extensible Markup Language (XML; a product of the World Wide Web

  6. Dopamine receptors and groups I and II mGluRs cooperate for long-term depression induction in rat prefrontal cortex through converging postsynaptic activation of MAP kinases.

    PubMed

    Otani, S; Auclair, N; Desce, J M; Roisin, M P; Crépel, F

    1999-11-15

    Tetanic stimuli to layer I-II afferents in rat prefrontal cortex induced long-term depression (LTD) of layer I-II to layer V pyramidal neuron glutamatergic synapses when tetani were coupled to bath application of dopamine. This LTD was blocked by the following metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) antagonists coapplied with dopamine: (S)-alpha-methyl-4-carboxyphenylglycine (MCPG; group I and II antagonist), (RS)-1-aminoindan-1,5-dicarboxylic acid (AIDA; group I antagonist), or (RS)-alpha-methylserine-O-phosphate monophenyl ester (MSOPPE; group II antagonist). This suggests that the dopamine-facilitated LTD requires synaptic activation of groups I and II mGluRs during tetanus. LTD could also be induced by coupling tetani to bath application of groups I and II mGluR agonist (1S, 3R)-1-aminocyclopentane-1,3-dicarboxylic acid (1S,3R-ACPD). In the next series of experiments, coapplication of dopamine and 1S,3R-ACPD, but not application of either drug alone, consistently induced LTD without tetani or even single test stimuli during drug application, suggesting that coactivation of dopamine receptors and the mGluRs is sufficient for LTD induction. Immunoblot analyses with anti-active mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAP-Ks) revealed that D1 receptors, D2 receptors, group I mGluRs, and group II mGluRs all contribute to MAP-K activation in prefrontal cortex, and that combined activation of dopamine receptors and mGluRs synergistically or additively activate MAP-Ks. Consistently, LTD by dopamine + 1S, 3R-ACPD coapplication, as well as the two other forms of LTD (LTD by dopamine + tetani and LTD by 1S,3R-ACPD + tetani), was blocked by bath application of MAP-K kinase inhibitor PD98059. LTD by dopamine + 1S,3R-ACPD coapplication was also blocked by postsynaptic injection of synthetic MAP-K substrate peptide. Our results suggest that dopamine receptors and groups I and II mGluRs cooperate to induce LTD through converging postsynaptic activation of MAP-Ks.

  7. Long Term Surface Salinity Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitt, Raymond W.; Brown, Neil L.

    2005-01-01

    Our long-term goal is to establish a reliable system for monitoring surface salinity around the global ocean. Salinity is a strong indicator of the freshwater cycle and has a great influence on upper ocean stratification. Global salinity measurements have potential to improve climate forecasts if an observation system can be developed. This project is developing a new internal field conductivity cell that can be protected from biological fouling for two years. Combined with a temperature sensor, this foul-proof cell can be deployed widely on surface drifters. A reliable in-situ network of surface salinity sensors will be an important adjunct to the salinity sensing satellite AQUARIUS to be deployed by NASA in 2009. A new internal-field conductivity cell has been developed by N Brown, along with new electronics. This sensor system has been combined with a temperature sensor to make a conductivity - temperature (UT) sensor suitable for deployment on drifters. The basic sensor concepts have been proven on a high resolution CTD. A simpler (lower cost) circuit has been built for this application. A protection mechanism for the conductivity cell that includes antifouling protection has also been designed and built. Mr. A.Walsh of our commercial partner E-Paint has designed and delivered time-release formulations of antifoulants for our application. Mr. G. Williams of partner Clearwater Instrumentation advised on power and communication issues and supplied surface drifters for testing.

  8. Long-term equilibrium tides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaffer, John A.; Cerveny, Randall S.

    1998-08-01

    Extreme equilibrium tides, or ``hypertides,'' are computed in a new equilibrium tidal model combining algorithms of a version of the Chapront ELP-2000/82 Lunar Theory with the BER78 Milankovitch astronomical expansions. For the recent past, a high correspondence exists between computed semidiurnal tide levels and a record of coastal flooding demonstrating that astronomical alignment is a potential influence on such flooding. For the Holocene and near future, maximum tides demonstrate cyclic variations with peaks at near 5000 B.P. and 4000 A.P. On the late Quaternary timescale, variations in maximum equilibrium tide level display oscillations with periods of approximately 10,000, 100,000 and 400,000 years, because of precessional shifts in tidal maxima between vernal and autumnal equinoxes. While flooding occurs under the combined effects of tides and storms via ``storm surges,'' the most extensive flooding will occur with the coincidence of storms and the rarer hypertides and is thus primarily influenced by hypertides. Therefore we suggest that astronomical alignment's relationship to coastal flooding is probabilistic rather than deterministic. Data derived from this model are applicable to (1) archaeological and paleoclimatic coastal reconstructions, (2) long-term planning, for example, radioactive waste site selection, (3) sealevel change and paleoestuarine studies or (4) ocean-meteorological interactions.

  9. Long-Term Planning in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.

    This report presents the concepts and issues discussed at a Regional Symposium on Long-term Planning in Higher Education held in Dhaka, Bangladesh, September 21-30, 1986. Chapter 1 explores some fundamental issues about the rationale for the objectives of long-term planning. It defines long-term planning in higher education, considers its…

  10. Long-term solar-terrestrial observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The results of an 18-month study of the requirements for long-term monitoring and archiving of solar-terrestrial data is presented. The value of long-term solar-terrestrial observations is discussed together with parameters, associated measurements, and observational problem areas in each of the solar-terrestrial links (the sun, the interplanetary medium, the magnetosphere, and the thermosphere-ionosphere). Some recommendations are offered for coordinated planning for long-term solar-terrestrial observations.

  11. Long-term sequelae following blunt thoracic trauma.

    PubMed

    Yeo, T P

    2001-01-01

    People experiencing blunt thoracic trauma may sustain multiple rib fractures, flail chest, cardiac or pulmonary contusions, injury to the great vessels, sternal fractures, clavicular fractures, neck injuries, and lacerations of the liver and/or spleen. Long-term sequelae from blunt chest trauma include chest wall deformities, persistent dyspnea, and cardiac, neurologic, or esophageal complications. Chronic pain, depression, and loss of functional status are also frequent components of recovery from trauma. PMID:12025303

  12. Long-term follow-up of vestibular neuritis.

    PubMed

    Mandalà, Marco; Nuti, Daniele

    2009-05-01

    The long-term outcome of vestibular neuritis was evaluated in 35 patients using 4 bedside tests (head impulse, head heave, head shake, vibration), the caloric test and two surveys that explored the degree of disability (Dizziness Handicap Inventory [DHI]) and the anxiety and depression levels (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale [HADS]). Sixty-six percent of patients showed a positive bedside clinical test or calorics abnormalities. DHI scores were significantly higher in the patients group, while HADS scores were comparable between patients and controls. Disability from vestibular neuritis is primarily due to the vestibular disturbance itself, rather than purely psychological factors.

  13. Financing long-term care in Canada.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, P; Mills, C; Hollander, M

    1997-06-01

    Financial policies relating to long-term care in Canada are changing rapidly in response to demands for health care reform. This chapter focuses on the financial structure of institutional care, primarily nursing homes, in the western provinces of Alberta and British Columbia. Community-based long-term care is discussed briefly.

  14. Virtual Models of Long-Term Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phenice, Lillian A.; Griffore, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Nursing homes, assisted living facilities and home-care organizations, use web sites to describe their services to potential consumers. This virtual ethnographic study developed models representing how potential consumers may understand this information using data from web sites of 69 long-term-care providers. The content of long-term-care web…

  15. Long-term preservation of Anammox bacteria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Deposit of useful microorganisms in culture collections requires long-term preservation and successful reactivation techniques. The goal of this study was to develop a simple preservation protocol for the long-term storage and reactivation of the anammox biomass. To achieve this, anammox biomass w...

  16. Paying for long-term care.

    PubMed Central

    Estes, C L; Bodenheimer, T

    1994-01-01

    Everyone agrees that insurance for long-term care is inadequate in the United States. Disagreement exists, however, on whether such insurance should be provided through the private or public sector. Private insurance generally uses the experience-rating principle that persons with higher risk of illness are charged higher premiums. For private insurance for long-term care, this principle creates a dilemma. Most policies will be purchased by the elderly; yet, because the elderly have a high risk of needing long-term care, only about 20% of them can afford the cost of premiums. A public-private partnership by which the government partially subsidizes private long-term-care insurance is unlikely to resolve this dilemma. Only a social insurance program for long-term care can provide universal, affordable, and equitable coverage. PMID:8128712

  17. Long Term Effects of Food Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... develop chronic arthritis. Brain and nerve damage A Listeria infection can lead to meningitis, an inflammation of ... brain. If a newborn infant is infected with Listeria , long-term consequences may include mental retardation, seizures, ...

  18. Asthma Medicines: Long-Term Control

    MedlinePlus

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Asthma Medicines: Long-term Control Page Content Article Body Corticosteroids Synthetic ... and sprinkle forms are available for young children. Long-Acting Beta2-Agonists Medications in the beta 2 - ...

  19. Long Term Outcomes after Pediatric Liver Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Long term outcomes after liver transplantation are major determinants of quality of life and of the value of this heroic treatment. As short term outcomes are excellent, our community is turning to take a harder look at long term outcomes. The purpose of this paper is to review these outcomes, and highlight proposed treatments, as well as pressing topics needing to be studied. A systemic review of the English literature was carried in PubMed, covering all papers addressing long term outcomes in pediatric liver transplant from 2000-2013. Late outcomes after pediatric liver transplant affect the liver graft in the form of chronic liver dysfunction. The causes include rejection particularly humoral rejection, but also de novo autoimmune hepatitis, and recurrent disease. The metabolic syndrome is a major factor in long term cardiovascular complication risk. Secondary infections, kidney dysfunction and malignancy remain a reality of those patients. There is growing evidence of late cognitive and executive function delays affecting daily life productivity as well as likely adherence. Finally, despite a good health status, quality of life measures are comparable to those of children with chronic diseases. Long term outcomes are the new frontier in pediatric liver transplantation. Much is needed to improve graft survival, but also to avoid systemic morbidities from long term immunosuppression. Quality of life is a new inclusive measure that will require interventions and innovative approaches respectful not only on the patients but also of their social circle. PMID:24511516

  20. [The psychological (long-term) sequelae of abortion].

    PubMed

    Shadmi, N; Bloch, M; Hermoni, D

    2002-10-01

    This article aims to review the available literature on the short and long-term psychological sequelae of abortion. This subject remains controversial. The most common reactions women experienced after pregnancy loss were grief, depression and anxiety. From the reviewed literature it seems that those reactions are more common following spontaneous abortion than after therapeutic abortion. Risk factors for these reactions include past psychiatric history, social and cultural attitude, poor social support, history of previous therapeutic abortion, the fact that the current abortion is the result of medical or genetic problem, no living children, or being a single woman. Most of the reviewed papers deal with short-term reactions and raise the need for long term research (more than 2 years). Only one such paper was found. It is recommended that all those who treat women that had an abortion should be aware of its psychological consequences and help identify and refer high-risk women for treatment.

  1. Long-term Synaptic Plasticity: Circuit Perturbation and Stabilization

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Sung-Cherl; Eun, Su-Yong

    2014-01-01

    At central synapses, activity-dependent synaptic plasticity has a crucial role in information processing, storage, learning, and memory under both physiological and pathological conditions. One widely accepted model of learning mechanism and information processing in the brain is Hebbian Plasticity: long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD). LTP and LTD are respectively activity-dependent enhancement and reduction in the efficacy of the synapses, which are rapid and synapse-specific processes. A number of recent studies have a strong focal point on the critical importance of another distinct form of synaptic plasticity, non-Hebbian plasticity. Non-Hebbian plasticity dynamically adjusts synaptic strength to maintain stability. This process may be very slow and occur cell-widely. By putting them all together, this mini review defines an important conceptual difference between Hebbian and non-Hebbian plasticity. PMID:25598658

  2. Long-term home care research.

    PubMed

    Green, J H

    1989-11-01

    The population of seniors is growing and health service reimbursement is shrinking. Long-term home health care services were developed with an assumption that the services would decrease costs. This assumption has not been validated. What has been recognized is that long-term home health care targets a new and growing population of frail seniors who need services but are probably not at risk for institutionalization. The impact of long-term home care services on the health status and quality of life of seniors and caregivers has been limited by outcome measurement problems. There are indications that the services improved life satisfaction and reduced services needs, but further evaluations need to replicate the outcomes. In effect, long-term outcomes have not been sufficiently explored. Further research also needs to assist us in identifying outcomes for certain services with precise target populations. Public policy questions are ahead. Should a program that can increase costs, has demonstrated some but not dramatic impacts on quality of life and health status, and has the possibility of expansion, be funded? The question is obviously debatable. From a nursing perspective of health promotion and prevention, the answer is "yes." Funding should be continued in conjunction with increased research on the program impacts. In Kane's (1988) analysis of the Channeling experiments, she summarized the situation effectively: Knowing these facts, we are now in a position to reformulate public policies to design a system of long-term care that satisfies the preferences of consumers and protects them from catastrophic long-term expenses, while promoting the triple virtues of acceptable, quality, equitable access, and defensible costs. . . Nothing in the Channeling results should prevent us from going ahead and trying to develop both community based and institutionally based long-term services in which this country can take pride.

  3. Long-term outcomes of autoimmune pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Ikeura, Tsukasa; Miyoshi, Hideaki; Shimatani, Masaaki; Uchida, Kazushige; Takaoka, Makoto; Okazaki, Kazuichi

    2016-09-14

    Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) has been considered a favorable-prognosis disease; however, currently, there is limited information on natural course of AIP during long-term follow-up. Recently published studies regarding the long-term outcomes of AIP has demonstrated the developments of pancreatic stone formation, exocrine insufficiency, and endocrine insufficiency are observed in 5%-41%, 34%-82%, and 38%-57% of patients having the disease. Furthermore, the incidence rate of developing pancreatic cancer ranges from 0% to 4.8% during the long-term follow-up. The event of death from AIP-related complications other than accompanying cancer is likely to be rare. During follow-up of AIP patients, careful surveillance for not only relapse of the disease but also development of complications at regular intervals is needed. PMID:27678359

  4. Long-term outcomes of autoimmune pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Ikeura, Tsukasa; Miyoshi, Hideaki; Shimatani, Masaaki; Uchida, Kazushige; Takaoka, Makoto; Okazaki, Kazuichi

    2016-01-01

    Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) has been considered a favorable-prognosis disease; however, currently, there is limited information on natural course of AIP during long-term follow-up. Recently published studies regarding the long-term outcomes of AIP has demonstrated the developments of pancreatic stone formation, exocrine insufficiency, and endocrine insufficiency are observed in 5%-41%, 34%-82%, and 38%-57% of patients having the disease. Furthermore, the incidence rate of developing pancreatic cancer ranges from 0% to 4.8% during the long-term follow-up. The event of death from AIP-related complications other than accompanying cancer is likely to be rare. During follow-up of AIP patients, careful surveillance for not only relapse of the disease but also development of complications at regular intervals is needed. PMID:27678359

  5. Long-term outcomes of autoimmune pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Ikeura, Tsukasa; Miyoshi, Hideaki; Shimatani, Masaaki; Uchida, Kazushige; Takaoka, Makoto; Okazaki, Kazuichi

    2016-01-01

    Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) has been considered a favorable-prognosis disease; however, currently, there is limited information on natural course of AIP during long-term follow-up. Recently published studies regarding the long-term outcomes of AIP has demonstrated the developments of pancreatic stone formation, exocrine insufficiency, and endocrine insufficiency are observed in 5%-41%, 34%-82%, and 38%-57% of patients having the disease. Furthermore, the incidence rate of developing pancreatic cancer ranges from 0% to 4.8% during the long-term follow-up. The event of death from AIP-related complications other than accompanying cancer is likely to be rare. During follow-up of AIP patients, careful surveillance for not only relapse of the disease but also development of complications at regular intervals is needed.

  6. Long-term and preventative treatment for seasonal affective disorder.

    PubMed

    Westrin, Asa; Lam, Raymond W

    2007-01-01

    Recurrent major depressive disorder with regular seasonal patterns, commonly known as seasonal affective disorder (SAD), has evoked substantial research in the last two decades. It is now recognised that SAD is a common condition with prevalence rates between 0.4% and 2.9% of the general population, and that patients with SAD experience significant morbidity and impairment in psychosocial function. There is good evidence that bright light therapy and antidepressant medications are effective for the short-term treatment of SAD; however, given that SAD is characterised by recurrent major depressive episodes, long-term and maintenance treatment must be considered. Unfortunately, there are few studies of longer term (>8 weeks) and maintenance (preventative) treatments for SAD. The weight of evidence suggests that light therapy usually needs to be continued daily throughout the winter season because of rapid relapse when light is stopped too early in the treatment period. However, some studies support the use of antidepressants to continue the response from a brief (1-2 weeks) course of light therapy early in the depressive episode, as soon as the first symptoms emerge in autumn. Only small studies have examined preventative treatment (before onset of symptoms) with light therapy, all of which have methodological limitations. The best evidence for preventative treatment in SAD comes from antidepressant studies. Three large, randomised, placebo-controlled studies have shown that preventative treatment with bupropion XL reduces the recurrence rate of depressive episodes in patients with SAD. Given the limitations in the evidence base and the inconsistent recurrence rate of winter depressive episodes, clinical recommendations for long-term and preventative treatment must individualise treatment choices and weigh potential benefits against possible adverse effects. PMID:17927295

  7. Long-Term Use of Benzodiazepines

    PubMed Central

    Potts, Nicholas L.S.; Krishnan, K. Ranga R.

    1992-01-01

    Problems associated with physical dependence and abuse of benzodiazepines by a small percentage of patients have reduced their popularity from the most commonly prescribed psychoactive drug in the 1970s to being prescribed for mainly short periods. Patients who benefit from long-term benzodiazepine use are nearly ignored by the medical community as a whole. This article details what patient population can improve from long-term benzodiazepine therapy, the risks and benefits of treatment, and how to select appropriate candidates. PMID:21229127

  8. Scenarios for long-term analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Wolbers, Stephen; /Fermilab

    2009-01-01

    Data Preservation and Long-Term Analysis of High Energy Physics (HEP) Experiments data is described and summarized in this talk. The summary covers information presented at the First Workshop on Data Preservation and Long-Term Analysis. Experiments representing e{sup +}e{sup -} collisions (LEP, B Factories and CLEO), ep collisions (H1 and ZEUS), p{bar p} collisions (CDF and D0) and others presented interesting information related to utilizing the large datasets collected over many years at these HEP facilities. Many questions and issues remain to be explored.

  9. Characteristics of Long-Term First Marriages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenell, David L.

    1993-01-01

    Investigated characteristics of long-term first marriages (over 20 years). Findings from 147 couples revealed: lifetime commitment to marriage, loyalty to spouse, strong moral values, respect for spouse as best friend, commitment to sexual fidelity, desire to be good parent, faith in God, desire to please and support spouse, good companion to…

  10. Long Term Transfer Effect of Metaphoric Allusion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, David A.; Mateja, John A.

    A study was conducted to investigate the long term transfer effect of metaphoric allusion used to clarify unfamiliar subject matter. Forty-nine high school students were given unfamiliar prose materials variously augmented by metaphoric allusion. The subjects' immediate performance on a transfer task was compared to their performance on an…

  11. Long-Term Stability of Social Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyyppa, Markku T.; Maki, Juhani; Alanen, Erkki; Impivaara, Olli; Aromaa, Arpo

    2008-01-01

    The long-term stability of social participation was investigated in a representative urban population of 415 men and 579 women who had taken part in the nationwide Mini-Finland Health Survey in the years 1978-1980 and were re-examined 20 years later. Stability was assessed by means of the following tracking coefficients: kappa, proportion of…

  12. Evaluating Long-Term Disability Insurance Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Jan

    1992-01-01

    This report analyzes the factors involved in reviewing benefits and services of employer-sponsored group long-term disability plans for higher education institutions. Opening sections describe the evolution of disability insurance and its shape today. Further sections looks at the complex nature of "value" within a plan, relationship between plan…

  13. The long term characteristics of greenschist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Bo-An

    2016-04-01

    The greenschist in the Jinping II Hydropower Station in southwest China exhibits continuous creep behaviour because of the geological conditions in the region. This phenomenon illustrates the time-dependent deformation and progressive damage that occurs after excavation. In this study, the responses of greenschist to stress over time were determined in a series of laboratory tests on samples collected from the access tunnel walls at the construction site. The results showed that the greenschist presented time-dependent behaviour under long-term loading. The samples generally experienced two stages: transient creep and steady creep, but no accelerating creep. The periods of transient creep and steady creep increased with increasing stress levels. The long-term strength of the greenschist was identified based on the variation of creep strain and creep rate. The ratio of long-term strength to conventional strength was around 80% and did not vary much with confining pressures. A quantitative method for predicting the failure period of greenschist, based on analysis of the stress-strain curve, is presented and implemented. At a confining pressure of 40 MPa, greenschist was predicted to fail in 5000 days under a stress of 290 MPa and to fail in 85 days under the stress of 320 MPa, indicating that the long-term strength identified by the creep rate and creep strain is a reliable estimate.

  14. LONG TERM HYDROLOGICAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT (LTHIA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    LTHIA is a universal Urban Sprawl analysis tool that is available to all at no charge through the Internet. It estimates impacts on runoff, recharge and nonpoint source pollution resulting from past or proposed land use changes. It gives long-term average annual runoff for a lan...

  15. Long-Term Memory and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossland, John

    2011-01-01

    The English National Curriculum Programmes of Study emphasise the importance of knowledge, understanding and skills, and teachers are well versed in structuring learning in those terms. Research outcomes into how long-term memory is stored and retrieved provide support for structuring learning in this way. Four further messages are added to the…

  16. Who Recommends Long-Term Care Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Robert L.; Bershadsky, Boris; Bershadsky, Julie

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Making good consumer decisions requires having good information. This study compared long-term-care recommendations among various types of health professionals. Design and Methods: We gave randomly varied scenarios to a convenience national sample of 211 professionals from varying disciplines and work locations. For each scenario, we…

  17. Long-term lysimeter data on evapotranspiration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Long term crop evapotranspiration (ET) data measured using large weighing lysimeters have only been gathered in a few places in the world, yet are of great importance for ground truthing of many models of plant water use, mesoscale climate, remote sensing estimation of ET, climate change and climate...

  18. Professionalism in Long-Term Care Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubinski, Rosemary

    2006-01-01

    Speech-language pathologists who serve elders in a variety of long-term care settings have a variety of professional skills and responsibilities. Fundamental to quality service is knowledge of aging and communication changes and disorders associated with this process, institutional alternatives, and the changing nature of today's elders in…

  19. Plutonium packaging and long-term storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloyd, Jane A.; Wedman, Douglas E.

    2000-07-01

    It has been demonstrated that the Advanced Recovery and Integrated Extraction System (ARIES) packaging line at Los Alamos National Laboratory can successfully package plutonium to meet DOE requirements for safe long-term storage. The ARIES system has just completed the disassembly and conversion of its first cores ("pits") for nuclear weapons.

  20. Long-Term Sequelae of Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Teasell, Robert W.

    1992-01-01

    Scant attention has been paid to the long-term consequences and complications resulting from a stroke. Many stroke survivors go on to develop a variety of medical, musculoskeletal, and psychosocial complications, years after the acute stroke. The family physician is regularly called upon to deal with these problems, but is often hampered by a lack of resources. PMID:21221264

  1. Principles of Long-Term Dynamics of Dendritic Spines

    PubMed Central

    Yasumatsu, Nobuaki; Matsuzaki, Masanori; Miyazaki, Takashi; Noguchi, Jun; Kasai, Haruo

    2008-01-01

    Long-term potentiation (LTP) of synapse strength requires enlargement of dendritic spines on cerebral pyramidal neurons. Long-term depression (LTD) is linked to spine shrinkage. Indeed, spines are dynamic structures: they form, change their shapes and volumes or can disappear in the space of hours. Do all such changes result from synaptic activity, or do some changes result from intrinsic processes? How do enlargement and shrinkage of spines relate to elimination and generation of spines, and how do these processes contribute to the stationary distribution of spine volumes? To answer these questions, we recorded the volumes of many individual spines daily for several days using two-photon imaging of CA1 pyramidal neurons in cultured slices of rat hippocampus between postnatal day 17 to 23. With normal synaptic transmission, spines often changed volume or were created or eliminated, thereby showing activity-dependent plasticity. However, we found that spines changed volume even after we blocked synaptic activity, reflecting a native instability of these small structures over the long term. Such “intrinsic fluctuations” showed unique dependence on spine volume. A mathematical model constructed from these data and the theory of random fluctuations explains population behaviors of spines, such as rates of elimination and generation, stationary distribution of volumes and the long-term persistence of large spines. Our study finds that generation and elimination of spines are more prevalent than previously believed, and spine volume shows significant correlation with its age and life expectancy. The population dynamics of spines also predict key psychological features of memory. PMID:19074033

  2. Relationship between short- and long-term memory and short- and long-term extinction.

    PubMed

    Cammarota, Martín; Bevilaqua, Lia R M; Rossato, Janine I; Ramirez, Maria; Medina, Jorge H; Izquierdo, Iván

    2005-07-01

    Both the acquisition and the extinction of memories leave short- and long-term mnemonic traces. Here, we show that in male Wistar rats, the short-term memory for a step-down inhibitory avoidance task (IA) is resistant to extinction, and that its expression does not influence retrieval or extinction of long-term memory. It has been known for some time that short- and long-term inhibitory avoidance memory involve separate and parallel processes. Here we show that, instead, short-term extinction of IA long-term memory is the first step towards its long-term extinction, and that this link requires functional NMDA receptors and protein synthesis in the CA1 region of the dorsal hippocampus at the time of the first CS-no US presentation.

  3. Long-term changes in Saturn's troposphere

    SciTech Connect

    Trafton, L.

    1985-09-01

    Attention is given to the results of a long term monitoring study of Saturn's H/sub 2/ quadrupole and CH/sub 4/ band absorptions outside the equatorial zone, over an interval of half a Saturn year that covers most of the perihelion half of Saturn's elliptical orbit (which is approximately bounded by the equinoxes). Marked long term changes are noted in the CH/sub 4/ absorption, accompanied by weakly opposite changes in the H/sub 2/ absorption. Seasonal changes are inferred on the basis of temporal variations in absorption. Spatial measurements have also been made in the 6450 A NH/sub 3/ band since the 1980 equinox. 42 references.

  4. Long-term reinforced fixed provisional restorations.

    PubMed

    Galindo, D; Soltys, J L; Graser, G N

    1998-06-01

    Extensive prosthodontic treatment often requires fabrication of long-term provisional restorations. Numerous materials and techniques have been described for prolonged insertion of interim restorations. This article describes a procedure for fabrication of long-term reinforced heat-processed provisional restorations based on a diagnostic wax-up. Reinforced heat-processed provisional restorations reduced flexure, which minimizes progressive loss of cement and diminished the possibility of recurrent decay. Occlusal stability and vertical dimension were maintained because of greater wear resistance. Occlusion, tooth contours, and pontic design developed in the provisional restoration were duplicated in the definitive restoration. The use of a matrix from a diagnostic wax-up facilitated fabrication of the prosthesis, and made the procedure less time-consuming and more predictable.

  5. [Taiwan long-term care insurance and the evolution of long-term care in Japan].

    PubMed

    Huang, Hui-Wen; Liu, Shu-Hui; Pai, Yu-Chu

    2010-08-01

    The proportion of elderly (65 years of age and older) in Taiwan has exceeded 10% since 2008. With more elderly, the number of patients suffering from dementia and disabilities has also been rapidly increasing. Japan also has been facing increasing demand for long-term care due to an aging society. Prior to 2000, social welfare programs in Japan, working to cope with changing needs, typically provided insufficient services, and geriatric patients were hospitalized unnecessarily, wasting medical resources and causing undue patient hardship. In response, Japan launched its long-term care insurance program in April 2000. Under the program, city, town and village-based organizations should take responsibility for providing care to the elderly in their place of residence. The program significantly improved previous financial shortfalls and long-term care supply and demand has been met by existing social welfare organization resources. In Taiwan, the provision of long-term care by county / city authorities has proven inconsistent, with performance deemed poor after its first decade of long-term care operations. Service was found to be affected by differences in available resources and insufficient long-term care administration. The cultures of Taiwan and Japan are similar. The authors visited the Japan Long-Term Care Insurance Institute in August 2009. Main issues involved in the implementation and evolution of the Japan long-term Care Insurance are reported on in this paper. We hope such may be useful information to those working to develop long-term care programs in Taiwan. PMID:20661859

  6. Cutaneous oxalosis after long-term hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Abuelo, J G; Schwartz, S T; Reginato, A J

    1992-07-01

    A 27-year-old woman undergoing long-term hemodialysis developed cutaneous calcifications on her fingers. A skin biopsy specimen showed that the deposits were calcium oxalate. To our knowledge, only one previous article has reported pathologic and crystallographic studies on calcifications of the skin resulting from dialysis oxalosis. We speculate that vitamin C supplements, liberal tea consumption, an increased serum ionized calcium concentration, and the long duration of hemodialysis contributed to the production of these deposits.

  7. Long-term course of opioid addiction.

    PubMed

    Hser, Yih-Ing; Evans, Elizabeth; Grella, Christine; Ling, Walter; Anglin, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    Opioid addiction is associated with excess mortality, morbidities, and other adverse conditions. Guided by a life-course framework, we review the literature on the long-term course of opioid addiction in terms of use trajectories, transitions, and turning points, as well as other factors that facilitate recovery from addiction. Most long-term follow-up studies are based on heroin addicts recruited from treatment settings (mostly methadone maintenance treatment), many of whom are referred by the criminal justice system. Cumulative evidence indicates that opioid addiction is a chronic disorder with frequent relapses. Longer treatment retention is associated with a greater likelihood of abstinence, whereas incarceration is negatively related to subsequent abstinence. Over the long term, the mortality rate of opioid addicts (overdose being the most common cause) is about 6 to 20 times greater than that of the general population; among those who remain alive, the prevalence of stable abstinence from opioid use is low (less than 30% after 10-30 years of observation), and many continue to use alcohol and other drugs after ceasing to use opioids. Histories of sexual or physical abuse and comorbid mental disorders are associated with the persistence of opioid use, whereas family and social support, as well as employment, facilitates recovery. Maintaining opioid abstinence for at least five years substantially increases the likelihood of future stable abstinence. Recent advances in pharmacological treatment options (buprenorphine and naltrexone) include depot formulations offering longer duration of medication; their impact on the long-term course of opioid addiction remains to be assessed.

  8. Consequences of long-term hyperparathyroidism.

    PubMed

    Graal, M B; Wolffenbuttel, B H

    1998-07-01

    We describe a young woman with long-term untreated hyperparathyroidism with a superimposed vitamin D deficiency and an extremely decreased bone mineral density that was complicated by a vertebral fracture. Despite pretreatment with intravenous pamidronate and short-term vitamin D supplementation, severe and long-standing hypocalcaemia ('hungry bone syndrome') developed after parathyroidectomy. We discuss the consequences of hyperparathyroidism, especially the effects on bone, the complications of parathyroidectomy and the possibilities of preoperative treatment with bisphosphonates.

  9. Long-term consequences of anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Meczekalski, Blazej; Podfigurna-Stopa, Agnieszka; Katulski, Krzysztof

    2013-07-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a psychiatric disorder that occurs mainly in female adolescents and young women. The obsessive fear of weight gain, critically limited food intake and neuroendocrine aberrations characteristic of AN have both short- and long-term consequences for the reproductive, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal and skeletal systems. Neuroendocrine changes include impairment of gonadotropin releasing-hormone (GnRH) pulsatile secretion and changes in neuropeptide activity at the hypothalamic level, which cause profound hypoestrogenism. AN is related to a decrease in bone mass density, which can lead to osteopenia and osteoporosis and a significant increase in fracture risk in later life. Rates of birth complications and low birth weight may be higher in women with previous AN. The condition is associated with fertility problems, unplanned pregnancies and generally negative attitudes to pregnancy. During pregnancy, women with the condition have higher rates of hyperemesis gravidarum, anaemia and obstetric complications, as well as impaired weight gain and compromised intrauterine foetal growth. It is reported that 80% of AN patients are affected by a cardiac complications such as sinus bradycardia, a prolonged QT interval on electrocardiography, arrythmias, myocardial mass modification and hypotension. A decrease in bone mineral density (BMD) is one of the most important medical consequences of AN. Reduced BMD may subsequently lead to a three- to seven-fold increased risk of spontaneous fractures. Untreated AN is associated with a significant increase in the risk of death. Better detection and sophisticated therapy should prevent the long-term consequences of this disorder. The aims of treatment are not only recovery but also prophylaxis and relief of the long-term effects of this disorder. Further investigations of the long-term disease risk are needed. PMID:23706279

  10. Electrodes for long-term esophageal electrocardiography.

    PubMed

    Niederhauser, Thomas; Haeberlin, Andreas; Marisa, Thanks; Jungo, Michael; Goette, Josef; Jacomet, Marcel; Abacherli, Roger; Vogel, Rolf

    2013-09-01

    The emerging application of long-term and high-quality ECG recording requires alternative electrodes to improve the signal quality and recording capability of surface skin electrodes. The esophageal ECG has the potential to overcome these limitations but necessitates novel recorder and lead designs. The electrode material is of particular interest, since the material has to ensure conflicting requirements like excellent biopotential recording properties and inertness. To this end, novel electrode materials like PEDOT and silver-PDMS as well as established electrode materials such as stainless steel, platinum, gold, iridium oxide, titanium nitride, and glassy carbon were investigated by long-term electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and model-based signal analysis using the derived in vitro interfacial properties in conjunction with a dedicated ECG amplifier. The results of this novel approach show that titanium nitride and iridium oxide featuring microstructured surfaces did not degrade when exposed to artificial acidic saliva. These materials provide low electrode potential drifts and insignificant signal distortion superior to surface skin electrodes making them compatible with accepted standards for ambulatory ECG. They are superior to the noble and polarizable metals such as platinum, silver, and gold that induced more signal distortions and are superior to esophageal stainless steel electrodes that corrode in artificial saliva. The study provides rigorous criteria for the selection of electrode materials for prolonged ECG recording by combining long-term in vitro electrode material properties with ECG signal quality assessment.

  11. [Long-term survival after severe trauma].

    PubMed

    Mutschler, W; Mutschler, M; Graw, M; Lefering, R

    2016-07-01

    Long-term survival after severe trauma is rarely addressed in German trauma journals although knowledge of life expectancy and identification of factors contributing to increased mortality are important for lifetime care management, development of service models, and targeting health promotion and prevention interventions. As reliable data in Germany are lacking, we compiled data mainly from the USA and Australia to describe life expectancy, risk factors, and predictors of outcome in patients experiencing traumatic spinal cord injury, traumatic brain injury, and polytrauma. Two years after trauma, life expectancy in all three categories was significantly lower than that of the general population. It depends strongly on severity of disability, age, and gender and is quantifiable. Whereas improvements in medical care have led to a marked decline in short-term mortality, surprisingly long-term survival in severe trauma has not changed over the past 30 years. Therefore, there is need to intensify long-term trauma patient care and to find new strategies to limit primary damage. PMID:27342106

  12. Titanium for long-term tritium storage

    SciTech Connect

    Heung, L.K.

    1994-12-01

    Due to the reduction of nuclear weapon stockpile, there will be an excess of tritium returned from the field. The excess tritium needs to be stored for future use, which might be several years away. A safe and cost effective means for long term storage of tritium is needed. Storing tritium in a solid metal tritide is preferred to storing tritium as a gas, because a metal tritide can store tritium in a compact form and the stored tritium will not be released until heat is applied to increase its temperature to several hundred degrees centigrade. Storing tritium as a tritide is safer and more cost effective than as a gas. Several candidate metal hydride materials have been evaluated for long term tritium storage. They include uranium, La-Ni-Al alloys, zirconium and titanium. The criteria used include material cost, radioactivity, stability to air, storage capacity, storage pressure, loading and unloading conditions, and helium retention. Titanium has the best combination of properties and is recommended for long term tritium storage.

  13. Long-term EEG in children.

    PubMed

    Montavont, A; Kaminska, A; Soufflet, C; Taussig, D

    2015-03-01

    Long-term video-EEG corresponds to a recording ranging from 1 to 24 h or even longer. It is indicated in the following situations: diagnosis of epileptic syndromes or unclassified epilepsy, pre-surgical evaluation for drug-resistant epilepsy, follow-up of epilepsy or in cases of paroxysmal symptoms whose etiology remains uncertain. There are some specificities related to paediatric care: a dedicated pediatric unit; continuous monitoring covering at least a full 24-hour period, especially in the context of pre-surgical evaluation; the requirement of presence by the parents, technician or nurse; and stronger attachment of electrodes (cup electrodes), the number of which is adapted to the age of the child. The chosen duration of the monitoring also depends on the frequency of seizures or paroxysmal events. The polygraphy must be adapted to the type and topography of movements. It is essential to have at least an electrocardiography (ECG) channel, respiratory sensor and electromyography (EMG) on both deltoids. There is no age limit for performing long-term video-EEG even in newborns and infants; nevertheless because of scalp fragility, strict surveillance of the baby's skin condition is required. In the specific context of pre-surgical evaluation, long-term video-EEG must record all types of seizures observed in the child. This monitoring is essential in order to develop hypotheses regarding the seizure onset zone, based on electroclinical correlations, which should be adapted to the child's age and the psychomotor development.

  14. Infective endocarditis: determinants of long term outcome

    PubMed Central

    Netzer, R O M; Altwegg, S C; Zollinger, E; Täuber, M; Carrel, T; Seiler, C

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate predictors of long term prognosis in infective endocarditis. Design: Retrospective cohort study. Setting: Tertiary care centre. Patients: 212 consecutive patients with infective endocarditis between 1980 and 1995 Main outcome measures: Overall and cardiac mortality; event-free survival; and the following events: recurrence, need for late valve surgery, bleeding and embolic complications, cerebral dysfunction, congestive heart failure. Results: During a mean follow up period of 89 months (range 1–244 months), 56% of patients died. In 180 hospital survivors, overall and cardiac mortality amounted to 45% and 24%, respectively. By multivariate analysis, early surgical treatment, infection by streptococci, age < 55 years, absence of congestive heart failure, and > 6 symptoms or signs of endocarditis during active infection were predictive of improved overall long term survival. Independent determinants of event-free survival were infection by streptococci and age < 55 years. Event-free survival was 17% at the end of follow up both in medically–surgically treated patients and in medically treated patients. Conclusions: Long term survival following infective endocarditis is 50% after 10 years and is predicted by early surgical treatment, age < 55 years, lack of congestive heart failure, and the initial presence of more symptoms of endocarditis. PMID:12067947

  15. Long-term EARLINET dust observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mona, Lucia; Amiridis, Vassilis; Amodeo, Aldo; Binietoglou, Ioannis; D'Amico, Giuseppe; Schwarz, Anja; Papagiannopoulos, Nikolaos; Papayannis, Alexandros; Sicard, Michael; Comeron, Adolfo; Pappalardo, Gelsomina

    2015-04-01

    Systematic observations of Saharan dust events over Europe are performed from May 2000 by EARLINET, the European Aerosol Research LIdar NETwork. EARLINET is a coordinated network of stations that make use of advanced lidar methods for the vertical profiling of aerosols. The backbone of EARLINET network is a common schedule for performing the measurements and the quality assurance of instruments/data. Particular attention is paid to monitoring the Saharan dust intrusions over the European continent. The geographical distribution of the EARLINET stations is particularly appealing for the dust observation, with stations located all around the Mediterranean and in the center of the Mediterranean (Italian stations) where dust intrusions are frequent, and with several stations in the central Europe where dust penetrates occasionally. All aerosol backscatter and extinction profiles related to observations collected during these alerts are grouped in the devoted "Saharan dust" category of the EARLINET database. This category consists of about 4700 files (as of December 2013). Case studies involving several stations around Europe selected from this long-term database have been provided the opportunity to investigate dust modification processes during transport over the continent. More important, the long term EARLINET dust monitoring allows the investigation of the horizontal and vertical extent of dust outbreaks over Europe and the climatological analysis of dust optical intensive and extensive properties at continental scale. This long-term database is also a unique tool for a systematic comparison with dust model outputs and satellite-derived dust products. Because of the relevance for both dust modeling and satellite retrievals improvement, results about desert dust layers extensive properties as a function of season and source regions are investigated and will be presented at the conference. First comparisons with models outputs and CALIPSO dust products will be

  16. Human Behaviour in Long-Term Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    In this session, Session WP1, the discussion focuses on the following topics: Psychological Support for International Space Station Mission; Psycho-social Training for Man in Space; Study of the Physiological Adaptation of the Crew During A 135-Day Space Simulation; Interpersonal Relationships in Space Simulation, The Long-Term Bed Rest in Head-Down Tilt Position; Psychological Adaptation in Groups of Varying Sizes and Environments; Deviance Among Expeditioners, Defining the Off-Nominal Act in Space and Polar Field Analogs; Getting Effective Sleep in the Space-Station Environment; Human Sleep and Circadian Rhythms are Altered During Spaceflight; and Methodological Approach to Study of Cosmonauts Errors and Its Instrumental Support.

  17. Long Term Analysis for the BAM device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonino, D.; Gardiol, D.

    2011-02-01

    Algorithms aimed at the evaluation of critical quantities are based on models with many parameters, which values are estimated from data. The knowledge, with high accuracy, of these values and the control of their temporal evolution are important features. In this work, we focus on the latter subject, and we show a proposed pipeline for the BAM (Basic Angle Monitoring) Long Term Analysis, aimed at the study of the calibration parameters of the BAM device and of the Basic Angle variation, searching for unwanted trends, cyclic features, or other potential unexpected behaviours.

  18. Long-term outcomes in multiple gestations.

    PubMed

    Rand, Larry; Eddleman, Keith A; Stone, Joanne

    2005-06-01

    Children born from a multiple gestation are at increased risk for cerebral palsy, learning disability, and language and neurobehavioral deficits. With the increased incidence of multiple pregnancies and use of assisted reproductive technology (ART), these issues are more commonly affecting parents. Long-term outcomes are a critical part of preconceptual and early pregnancy counseling for parents faced with a multiple gestation or considering ART, and the provider should be well versed on issues surrounding zygosity, gestational age, higher-order multiples, and the effects of options such as multifetal pregnancy reduction. PMID:15922795

  19. Long-Term Wind Power Variability

    SciTech Connect

    Wan, Y. H.

    2012-01-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory started collecting wind power data from large commercial wind power plants (WPPs) in southwest Minnesota with dedicated dataloggers and communication links in the spring of 2000. Over the years, additional WPPs in other areas were added to and removed from the data collection effort. The longest data stream of actual wind plant output is more than 10 years. The resulting data have been used to analyze wind power fluctuations, frequency distribution of changes, the effects of spatial diversity, and wind power ancillary services. This report uses the multi-year wind power data to examine long-term wind power variability.

  20. Long-term effects of sibling incest.

    PubMed

    Daie, N; Witztum, E; Eleff, M

    1989-11-01

    Although sexual abuse of children is recognized as a serious problem, sibling incest has received relatively little attention. A distinction has been made between power-oriented sibling incest and nurturance-oriented incest. The authors review the relevant literature and present four clinical examples. The cases illustrate the broad range of sibling incest and demonstrate its effects, including the long-term consequences for the perpetrator. Lasting difficulties in establishing and maintaining close relationships, especially sexual ones, are prominent features of each case. Without denying the occurrences of benign sex-play between siblings, the authors emphasize exploitation and abuse as pathogenic aspects of sibling incest.

  1. Performance considerations in long-term spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akins, F. R.

    1979-01-01

    Maintenance of skilled performance during extended space flight is of critical importance to both the health and safety of crew members and to the overall success of mission goals. An examination of long term effects and performance requirements is therefore a factor of immense importance to the planning of future missions. Factors that were investigated include: definition of performance categories to be investigated; methods for assessing and predicting performance levels; in-flight factors which can affect performance; and factors pertinent to the maintenance of skilled performance.

  2. Long-term space flights - personal impressions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polyakov, V. V.

    During a final 4-month stage of a 1-year space flight of cosmonauts Titov and Manarov, a physician, Valery Polyakov was included on a crew for the purpose of evaluating their health, correcting physical status to prepare for the spacecraft reentry and landing operations. The complex program of scientific investigations and experiments performed by the physician included an evaluation of adaptation reactions of the human body at different stages of space mission using clinicophysiological and biochemical methods; testing of alternative regimes of exercise and new countermeasures to prevent an unfavourable effect of long-term weightlessness.

  3. 17 CFR 256.224 - Other long-term debt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Other long-term debt. 256.224... COMPANY ACT OF 1935 6. Long-Term Debt § 256.224 Other long-term debt. This account shall include all long-term debt to nonassociates and not subject to current settlement. Note: Subaccounts shall be...

  4. 17 CFR 256.224 - Other long-term debt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Other long-term debt. 256.224... COMPANY ACT OF 1935 6. Long-Term Debt § 256.224 Other long-term debt. This account shall include all long-term debt to nonassociates and not subject to current settlement. Note: Subaccounts shall be...

  5. 47 CFR 54.303 - Long term support.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Long term support. 54.303 Section 54.303... SERVICE Universal Service Support for High Cost Areas § 54.303 Long term support. (a) Beginning January 1... shall receive Long Term Support. Beginning July 1, 2004, no carrier shall receive Long Term Support....

  6. 47 CFR 54.303 - Long term support.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Long term support. 54.303 Section 54.303... SERVICE Universal Service Support for High Cost Areas § 54.303 Long term support. (a) Beginning January 1... shall receive Long Term Support. Beginning July 1, 2004, no carrier shall receive Long Term Support....

  7. Long-term prescribing of antidepressants in the older population: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Dickinson, Rebecca; Knapp, Peter; House, Allan O; Dimri, Vandana; Zermansky, Arnold; Petty, Duncan; Holmes, John; Raynor, David K

    2010-01-01

    Background High rates of long-term antidepressant prescribing have been identified in the older population. Aims To explore the attitudes of older patients and their GPs to taking long-term antidepressant therapy, and their accounts of the influences on long-term antidepressant use. Design of study Qualitative study using in-depth semi-structured interviews. Setting One primary care trust in North Bradford. Method Thirty-six patients aged ≥75 years and 10 GPs were interviewed. Patients were sampled to ensure diversity in age, sex, antidepressant type, and home circumstances. Results Participants perceived significant benefits and expressed little apprehension about taking long-term antidepressants, despite being aware of the psychological and social factors involved in onset and persistence of depression. Barriers to discontinuation were identified following four themes: pessimism about the course and curability of depression; negative expectations and experiences of ageing; medicine discontinuation perceived by patients as a threat to stability; and passive (therapeutic momentum) and active (therapeutic maintenance) decisions to accept the continuing need for medication. Conclusion There is concern at a public health level about high rates of long-term antidepressant prescribing, but no evidence was found of a drive for change either from the patients or the doctors interviewed. Any apprehension was more than balanced by attitudes and behaviours supporting continuation. These findings will need to be incorporated into the planning of interventions aimed at reducing long-term antidepressant prescribing in older people. PMID:20353660

  8. Functional MRI of long-term potentiation: imaging network plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Álvarez-Salvado, Efrén; Pallarés, Vicente; Moreno, Andrea; Canals, Santiago

    2014-01-01

    Neurons are able to express long-lasting and activity-dependent modulations of their synapses. This plastic property supports memory and conveys an extraordinary adaptive value, because it allows an individual to learn from, and respond to, changes in the environment. Molecular and physiological changes at the cellular level as well as network interactions are required in order to encode a pattern of synaptic activity into a long-term memory. While the cellular mechanisms linking synaptic plasticity to memory have been intensively studied, those regulating network interactions have received less attention. Combining high-resolution fMRI and in vivo electrophysiology in rats, we have previously reported a functional remodelling of long-range hippocampal networks induced by long-term potentiation (LTP) of synaptic plasticity in the perforant pathway. Here, we present new results demonstrating an increased bilateral coupling in the hippocampus specifically supported by the mossy cell commissural/associational pathway in response to LTP. This fMRI-measured increase in bilateral connectivity is accompanied by potentiation of the corresponding polysynaptically evoked commissural potential in the contralateral dentate gyrus and depression of the inactive convergent commissural pathway to the ipsilateral dentate. We review these and previous findings in the broader context of memory consolidation. PMID:24298154

  9. Toward a comprehensive long term nicotine policy

    PubMed Central

    Gray, N; Henningfield, J; Benowitz, N; Connolly, G; Dresler, C; Fagerstrom, K; Jarvis, M; Boyle, P

    2005-01-01

    Global tobacco deaths are high and rising. Tobacco use is primarily driven by nicotine addiction. Overall tobacco control policy is relatively well agreed upon but a long term nicotine policy has been less well considered and requires further debate. Reaching consensus is important because a nicotine policy is integral to the target of reducing tobacco caused disease, and the contentious issues need to be resolved before the necessary political changes can be sought. A long term and comprehensive nicotine policy is proposed here. It envisages both reducing the attractiveness and addictiveness of existing tobacco based nicotine delivery systems as well as providing alternative sources of acceptable clean nicotine as competition for tobacco. Clean nicotine is defined as nicotine free enough of tobacco toxicants to pass regulatory approval. A three phase policy is proposed. The initial phase requires regulatory capture of cigarette and smoke constituents liberalising the market for clean nicotine; regulating all nicotine sources from the same agency; and research into nicotine absorption and the role of tobacco additives in this process. The second phase anticipates clean nicotine overtaking tobacco as the primary source of the drug (facilitated by use of regulatory and taxation measures); simplification of tobacco products by limitation of additives which make tobacco attractive and easier to smoke (but tobacco would still be able to provide a satisfying dose of nicotine). The third phase includes a progressive reduction in the nicotine content of cigarettes, with clean nicotine freely available to take the place of tobacco as society's main nicotine source. PMID:15923465

  10. Long term changes in the polar vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braathen, Geir O.

    2015-04-01

    As the amount of halogens in the stratosphere is slowly declining and the ozone layer slowly recovers it is of interest to see how the meteorological conditions in the vortex develop over the long term since such changes might alter the foreseen ozone recovery. In conjunction with the publication of the WMO Antarctic and Arctic Ozone Bulletins, WMO has acquired the ERA Interim global reanalysis data set for several meteorological parameters. This data set goes from 1979 - present. These long time series of data can be used for several useful studies of the long term development of the polar vortices. Several "environmental indicators" for vortex change have been calculated, and a climatology, as well as trends, for these parameters will be presented. These indicators can act as yardsticks and will be useful for understanding past and future changes in the polar vortices and how these changes affect polar ozone depletion. Examples of indicators are: vortex mean temperature, vortex minimum temperature, vortex mean PV, vortex "importance" (PV*area), vortex break-up time, mean and maximum wind speed. Data for both the north and south polar vortices have been analysed at several isentropic levels from 350 to 850 K. A possible link between changes in PV and sudden stratospheric warmings will be investigated, and the results presented.

  11. Long-Term Care Policy: Singapore's Experience.

    PubMed

    Chin, Chee Wei Winston; Phua, Kai-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Singapore, like many developed countries, is facing the challenge of a rapidly aging population and the increasing need to provide long-term care (LTC) services for elderly in the community. The Singapore government's philosophy on care for the elderly is that the family should be the first line of support, and it has relied on voluntary welfare organizations (VWOs) or charities for the bulk of LTC service provision. For LTC financing, it has emphasized the principles of co-payment and targeting of state support to the low-income population through means-tested government subsidies. It has also instituted ElderShield, a national severe disability insurance scheme. This paper discusses some of the challenges facing LTC policy in Singapore, particularly the presence of perverse financial incentives for hospitalization, the pitfalls of over-reliance on VWOs, and the challenges facing informal family caregivers. It discusses the role of private LTC insurance in LTC financing, bearing in mind demand- and supply-side failures that have plagued the private LTC insurance market. It suggests the need for more standardized needs assessment and portable LTC benefits, with reference to the Japanese Long-Term Care Insurance program, and also discusses the need to provide more support to informal family caregivers. PMID:26808468

  12. Long-term anticoagulation. Indications and management.

    PubMed Central

    Stults, B M; Dere, W H; Caine, T H

    1989-01-01

    Each year half a million persons in the United States receive long-term anticoagulant therapy to prevent venous and arterial thromboembolism. Unfortunately, the relative benefits and risks of anticoagulant therapy have not been adequately quantified for many thromboembolic disorders, and the decisions as to whether, for how long, and how intensely to administer anticoagulation are often complex and controversial. Several expert panels have published recommendations for anticoagulant therapy for different thromboembolic disorders; the primary area of disagreement among these panels concerns the optimal intensity of anticoagulation. Recent research and analytic reviews have helped to clarify both the risk factors for and the appropriate diagnostic evaluation of anticoagulant-induced hemorrhage. Clinicians must be aware of the nonhemorrhagic complications of anticoagulant therapy, particularly during pregnancy. The administration of anticoagulants is difficult both in relation to dosing and long-term monitoring. Knowledge of the pharmacology of the anticoagulants, an organized approach to ongoing monitoring, and thorough patient education may facilitate the safe and effective use of these drugs. PMID:2686173

  13. Long-term outcome in personality disorders.

    PubMed

    Stone, M H

    1993-03-01

    Personality disorders meeting DSM or ICD criteria represent the severe end of the broad spectrum of personality configurations involving maladaptive traits. The literature regarding long-term outcome of personality disorders is sparse. Most attention is devoted to formerly institutionalised patients with borderline, antisocial, or schizotypal disorders. Borderline patients at 10-25-year follow-up have a wide range of outcomes, from clinical recovery (50-60%) to suicide (3-9%). Certain factors (e.g. artistic talent) conduce to higher recovery rates, others (e.g. parental cruelty) to lower rates. Schizoid and schizotypal patients tend to remain isolated, and to lead marginal lives. The long-term outcome in antisocial persons is bleak if psychopathic traits are prominent. Personality traits and their corresponding disorders are egosyntonic, harden into habit, and are both slow to change and hard to modify. There is no one treatment of choice. Psychoanalysis and related methods work best within the anxious/inhibited group; cognitive/behavioural techniques are well suited to the disorders requiring limit setting and the amelioration of maladaptive habits. PMID:8453424

  14. Long term perfusion system supporting adipogenesis.

    PubMed

    Abbott, Rosalyn D; Raja, Waseem K; Wang, Rebecca Y; Stinson, Jordan A; Glettig, Dean L; Burke, Kelly A; Kaplan, David L

    2015-08-01

    Adipose tissue engineered models are needed to enhance our understanding of disease mechanisms and for soft tissue regenerative strategies. Perfusion systems generate more physiologically relevant and sustainable adipose tissue models, however adipocytes have unique properties that make culturing them in a perfusion environment challenging. In this paper we describe the methods involved in the development of two perfusion culture systems (2D and 3D) to test their applicability for long term in vitro adipogenic cultures. It was hypothesized that a silk protein biomaterial scaffold would provide a 3D framework, in combination with perfusion flow, to generate a more physiologically relevant sustainable adipose tissue engineered model than 2D cell culture. Consistent with other studies evaluating 2D and 3D culture systems for adipogenesis we found that both systems successfully model adipogenesis, however 3D culture systems were more robust, providing the mechanical structure required to contain the large, fragile adipocytes that were lost in 2D perfused culture systems. 3D perfusion also stimulated greater lipogenesis and lipolysis and resulted in decreased secretion of LDH compared to 2D perfusion. Regardless of culture configuration (2D or 3D) greater glycerol was secreted with the increased nutritional supply provided by perfusion of fresh media. These results are promising for adipose tissue engineering applications including long term cultures for studying disease mechanisms and regenerative approaches, where both acute (days to weeks) and chronic (weeks to months) cultivation are critical for useful insight. PMID:25843606

  15. Long Term Changes in the Polar Vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braathen, Geir O.

    2016-04-01

    As the amount of halogens in the stratosphere is slowly declining and the ozone layer slowly recovers it is of interest to see how the meteorological conditions in the vortex develop over the long term since such changes might alter the foreseen ozone recovery. In conjunction with the publication of the WMO Antarctic and Arctic Ozone Bulletins, WMO has acquired the ERA Interim global reanalysis data set for several meteorological parameters. This data set goes from 1979 - present. These long time series of data can be used for several useful studies of the long term development of the polar vortices. Several "environmental indicators" for vortex change have been calculated, and a climatology, as well as trends, for these parameters will be presented. These indicators can act as yardsticks and will be useful for understanding past and future changes in the polar vortices and how these changes affect polar ozone depletion. Examples of indicators are: vortex mean temperature, vortex minimum temperature, vortex mean PV, vortex "importance" (PV*area), vortex break-up time, mean and maximum wind speed. Data for both the north and south polar vortices have been analysed at several isentropic levels from 350 to 850 K. A possible link between changes in PV and sudden stratospheric warmings will be investigated, and the results presented. The unusual meteorological conditions of the 2015 south polar vortex and the 2010/11 and 2015/16 north polar vortices will be compared to other recent years.

  16. Long term perfusion system supporting adipogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Abbott, Rosalyn D.; Raja, Waseem K.; Wang, Rebecca Y.; Stinson, Jordan A.; Glettig, Dean L.; Burke, Kelly A.; Kaplan, David L.

    2015-01-01

    Adipose tissue engineered models are needed to enhance our understanding of disease mechanisms and for soft tissue regenerative strategies. Perfusion systems generate more physiologically relevant and sustainable adipose tissue models, however adipocytes have unique properties that make culturing them in a perfusion environment challenging. In this paper we describe the methods involved in the development of two perfusion culture systems (2D and 3D) to test their applicability for long term in vitro adipogenic cultures. It was hypothesized that a silk protein biomaterial scaffold would provide a 3D framework, in combination with perfusion flow, to generate a more physiologically relevant sustainable adipose tissue engineered model than 2D cell culture. Consistent with other studies evaluating 2D and 3D culture systems for adipogenesis we found that both systems successfully model adipogensis, however 3D culture systems were more robust, providing the mechanical structure required to contain the large, fragile adipocytes that were lost in 2D perfused culture systems. 3D perfusion also stimulated greater lipogenesis and lipolysis and resulted in decreased secretion of LDH compared to 2D perfusion. Regardless of culture configuration (2D or 3D) greater glycerol was secreted with the increased nutritional supply provided by perfusion of fresh media. These results are promising for adipose tissue engineering applications including long term cultures for studying disease mechanisms and regenerative approaches, where both acute (days to weeks) and chronic (weeks to months) cultivation are critical for useful insight. PMID:25843606

  17. Long-term mechanical ventilation and nutrition.

    PubMed

    Ambrosino, Nicolino; Clini, Enrico

    2004-05-01

    Mechanical ventilation (MV) in chronic situations is commonly used, either delivered invasively or by means of non-invasive interfaces, to control hypoventilation in patients with chest wall, neuromuscular or obstructive lung diseases (either in adulthood or childhood). The global prevalence of ventilator-assisted individuals (VAI) in Europe ranges from 2 to 30 per 100000 population according to different countries. Nutrition is a common problem to face with in patients with chronic respiratory diseases: nonetheless, it is a key component in the long-term management of underweight COPD patients whose muscular disfunction may rapidly turn to peripheral muscle waste. Since long-term mechanical ventilation (LTMV) is usually prescribed in end-stage respiratory diseases with poor nutritional status, nutrition and dietary intake related problems need to be carefully assessed and corrected in these patients. This paper aims to review the most recent innovations in the field of nutritional status and food intake-related problems of VAI (both in adulthood and in childhood).

  18. Toward a comprehensive long term nicotine policy.

    PubMed

    Gray, N; Henningfield, J E; Benowitz, N L; Connolly, G N; Dresler, C; Fagerstrom, K; Jarvis, M J; Boyle, P

    2005-06-01

    Global tobacco deaths are high and rising. Tobacco use is primarily driven by nicotine addiction. Overall tobacco control policy is relatively well agreed upon but a long term nicotine policy has been less well considered and requires further debate. Reaching consensus is important because a nicotine policy is integral to the target of reducing tobacco caused disease, and the contentious issues need to be resolved before the necessary political changes can be sought. A long term and comprehensive nicotine policy is proposed here. It envisages both reducing the attractiveness and addictiveness of existing tobacco based nicotine delivery systems as well as providing alternative sources of acceptable clean nicotine as competition for tobacco. Clean nicotine is defined as nicotine free enough of tobacco toxicants to pass regulatory approval. A three phase policy is proposed. The initial phase requires regulatory capture of cigarette and smoke constituents liberalising the market for clean nicotine; regulating all nicotine sources from the same agency; and research into nicotine absorption and the role of tobacco additives in this process. The second phase anticipates clean nicotine overtaking tobacco as the primary source of the drug (facilitated by use of regulatory and taxation measures); simplification of tobacco products by limitation of additives which make tobacco attractive and easier to smoke (but tobacco would still be able to provide a satisfying dose of nicotine). The third phase includes a progressive reduction in the nicotine content of cigarettes, with clean nicotine freely available to take the place of tobacco as society's main nicotine source. PMID:15923465

  19. Long-term Trend of Sunspot Numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, P. X.

    2016-10-01

    Using the Hilbert–Huang Transform method, we investigate the long-term trend of yearly mean total sunspot numbers in the time interval of 1700–2015, which come from the World Data Center—the sunspot Index and long-term solar observations. The main findings of this study are summarized below. (1) From the adaptive trend, which is extracted from the yearly mean total sunspot numbers, we can find that the value gradually increases during the time period 1700–1975, then decreases gradually from 1975 to 2015. (2) The Centennial Gleissberg Cycle is extracted from the yearly mean total sunspot numbers and confirms that a new grand minimum is in progress; the Dalton Minimum, the Gleissberg Minimum, and low level of solar activity during solar cycle 24 (the part of the new grand minimum) all can be understood as minima of the Centennial Gleissberg Cycle. (3) Based on the adaptive (overall) trend, and the 100-year and longer timescale trend of yearly mean total sunspot numbers, we can infer that the level of solar activity during the new grand minimum may be close to that during the Gleissberg Minimum, slightly higher than that during the Dalton Minimum, and significantly higher than that during the Maunder Minimum. Our results do not support the suggestion that a new grand minimum, somewhat resembling the Maunder Minimum, is in progress.

  20. Long term perfusion system supporting adipogenesis.

    PubMed

    Abbott, Rosalyn D; Raja, Waseem K; Wang, Rebecca Y; Stinson, Jordan A; Glettig, Dean L; Burke, Kelly A; Kaplan, David L

    2015-08-01

    Adipose tissue engineered models are needed to enhance our understanding of disease mechanisms and for soft tissue regenerative strategies. Perfusion systems generate more physiologically relevant and sustainable adipose tissue models, however adipocytes have unique properties that make culturing them in a perfusion environment challenging. In this paper we describe the methods involved in the development of two perfusion culture systems (2D and 3D) to test their applicability for long term in vitro adipogenic cultures. It was hypothesized that a silk protein biomaterial scaffold would provide a 3D framework, in combination with perfusion flow, to generate a more physiologically relevant sustainable adipose tissue engineered model than 2D cell culture. Consistent with other studies evaluating 2D and 3D culture systems for adipogenesis we found that both systems successfully model adipogenesis, however 3D culture systems were more robust, providing the mechanical structure required to contain the large, fragile adipocytes that were lost in 2D perfused culture systems. 3D perfusion also stimulated greater lipogenesis and lipolysis and resulted in decreased secretion of LDH compared to 2D perfusion. Regardless of culture configuration (2D or 3D) greater glycerol was secreted with the increased nutritional supply provided by perfusion of fresh media. These results are promising for adipose tissue engineering applications including long term cultures for studying disease mechanisms and regenerative approaches, where both acute (days to weeks) and chronic (weeks to months) cultivation are critical for useful insight.

  1. Asymptomatic myocardial infarction in Kawasaki disease: Long-term prognosis

    SciTech Connect

    Shiraishi, I.; Onouchi, Z.; Hayano, T.; Hamaoka, K.; Kiyosawa, N. )

    1991-04-01

    Eight patients with Kawasaki disease who had sustained asymptomatic myocardial infarction 8-15 years ago (mean, 13.1 years) were reexamined by various noninvasive cardiac function tests to assess long-term prognosis. At present, electrocardiograms (ECGs) are normal in six patients. However, all eight patients had a prolonged preejection period (PEP) to left ventricular ejection time (LVET) ratio 30 s after amylnitrate (AN) inhalation. Six patients had perfusion defects by exercise thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy, and two patients developed ST segment depression in treadmill exercise testing. These patients are symptom-free even though their physical activity has not been restricted. Yet they proved to have serious abnormalities suggesting sequelae of myocardial infarction or existing myocardial ischemia. Judging from the results of noninvasive cardiac function tests and recently performed coronary angiography, five of the eight patients require coronary bypass surgery.

  2. Long-term performance of filtration layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radfar, A.; Rockaway, T. D.

    2013-12-01

    Permeable pavements are commonly employed to capture and divert stormwater before it enters the stormwater or sewer conveyance systems. During a storm event, runoff water passes through the permeable pavement surface, enters a storage gallery and finally exfiltrates into the surrounding soil. Thus, the ability of the system to store an appropriate volume of runoff water is an important consideration for stormwater control design. Traditionally, crushed stone or other porous material has been used to provide the necessary interstitial void space to store the runoff water. Unfortunately, over time the available void space within the storage gallery is reduced due to settlement, biological growth and sediment accumulation. This gradual reduction in void space reduces the long-term effectiveness of these stormwater controls by limiting its ability to store and pass runoff water. This study examined the long-term performance of the storage gallery layer with respect to its ability to both store and pass runoff water. As the porosity within the storage gallery decreased, it was anticipated that volumetric water content within the gallery would increase and that time necessary to drain the gallery would increase as well. The effects of the gallery porosity were assessed over a one-year study using both laboratory experimentation and monitoring data from naturally occurring rain events. Changes in gallery porosity were first assessed by correlating monitoring piezometer data with surface infiltration testing; building a relation between know volume of poured water being used for the test and the associated pressure head at the base of the gallery. As a known volume of water enters the system, volume change in the gallery directly correlate to increases in pressure head. Second, the time required for water to permeate through pavers and gallery layer to trigger the TDRs in the filtration layer and the time to drain it from the crushed stone were calculated and compared by

  3. Managing soils for long-term productivity

    PubMed Central

    Syers, J. K.

    1997-01-01

    Meeting the goal of long-term agricultural productivity requires that soil degradation be halted and reversed. Soil fertility decline is a key factor in soil degradation and is probably the major cause of declining crop yields. There is evidence that the contribution of declining soil fertility to soil degradation has been underestimated.
    Sensitivity to soil degradation is implicit in the assessment of the sustainability of land management practices, with wide recognition of the fact that soils vary in their ability to resist change and recover subsequent to stress. The concept of resilience in relation to sustainability requires further elaboration and evaluation.
    In the context of soil degradation, a decline in soil fertility is primarily interpreted as the depletion of organic matter and plant nutrients. Despite a higher turnover rate of organic matter in the tropics there is no intrinsic difference between the organic matter content of soils from tropical and temperate regions. The level of organic matter in a soil is closely related to the above and below ground inputs. In the absence of adequate organic material inputs and where cultivation is continuous, soil organic matter declines progressively. Maintaining the quantity and quality of soil organic matter should be a guiding principle in developing management practices.
    Soil microbial biomass serves as an important reservoir of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and sulphur (S), and regulates the cycling of organic matter and nutrients. Because of its high turnover rate, microbial biomass reacts quickly to changes in management and is a sensitive indicator for monitoring and predicting changes in soil organic matter. Modelling techniques have been reasonably successful in predicting changes in soil organic matter with different organic material inputs, but there is little information from the tropics.
    Nutrient depletion through harvested crop components and residue removal, and by leaching and soil

  4. Emotional behavior in long-term marriage.

    PubMed

    Carstensen, L L; Gottman, J M; Levenson, R W

    1995-03-01

    In exploring the emotional climate of long-term marriages, this study used an observational coding system to identify specific emotional behaviors expressed by middle-aged and older spouses during discussions of a marital problem. One hundred and fifty-six couples differing in age and marital satisfaction were studied. Emotional behaviors expressed by couples differed as a function of age, gender, and marital satisfaction. In older couples, the resolution of conflict was less emotionally negative and more affectionate than in middle-aged marriages. Differences between husbands and wives and between happy and unhappy marriages were also found. Wives were more affectively negative than husbands, whereas husbands were more defensive than wives, and unhappy marriages involved greater exchange of negative affect than happy marriages.

  5. Long-term monitoring for closed sites

    SciTech Connect

    Golchert, N.W.; Sedlet, J.; Veluri, V.R.

    1985-01-01

    A procedure is presented for planning and implementing a long-term environmental monitoring program for closed low-level radioactive waste disposal sites. The initial task in this procedure is to collect the available information on the legal/regulatory requirements, site and area characteristics, source term, pathway analysis, and prior monitoring results. This information is coupled with parameters such as half-life and retardation factors to develop a monitoring program. As examples, programs are presented for a site that has had little or no waste migration, and for sites where waste has been moved by suface water, by ground water, and by air. Sampling techniques and practices are discussed relative to how a current program would be structured and projections are made on techniques and practices expected to be available in the future. 8 refs., 2 figs.

  6. Long term evolution of comet Halleys orbit.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvorak, R.; Kribbel, J.

    1987-03-01

    The aim of the paper is to study the long term evolution of comet Halleys orbit taking into account small errors in the initial conditions. Recent papers deal with mapping methods to model cometary dynamics; (e.g. Petrosky and Broucke, 1987 and Chirikov and Vecheslavov, 1986). They will be discussed critically and compared with our own results. We then tested the model using numerical integration methods. For the moment we limited our calculation to 2.105 years, but a 106 year integration is still in progress. We show the expected dynamical evolution of Hallyes orbit taking into account also smaller and larger errors of the initial conditions (nongravitational effects are only roughly estimated). Finally we discuss alsothe controversal opinions concerning the role of the planets (especially the earth).

  7. Long-term control of root growth

    DOEpatents

    Burton, Frederick G.; Cataldo, Dominic A.; Cline, John F.; Skiens, W. Eugene

    1992-05-26

    A method and system for long-term control of root growth without killing the plants bearing those roots involves incorporating a 2,6-dinitroaniline in a polymer and disposing the polymer in an area in which root control is desired. This results in controlled release of the substituted aniline herbicide over a period of many years. Herbicides of this class have the property of preventing root elongation without translocating into other parts of the plant. The herbicide may be encapsulated in the polymer or mixed with it. The polymer-herbicide mixture may be formed into pellets, sheets, pipe gaskets, pipes for carrying water, or various other forms. The invention may be applied to other protection of buried hazardous wastes, protection of underground pipes, prevention of root intrusion beneath slabs, the dwarfing of trees or shrubs and other applications. The preferred herbicide is 4-difluoromethyl-N,N-dipropyl-2,6-dinitro-aniline, commonly known as trifluralin.

  8. Energy medicine for long-term disabilities.

    PubMed

    Trieschmann, R B

    1999-01-01

    Energy medicine techniques derive from traditional Chinese medicine and are based upon the concept that health and healing are dependent upon a balance of vital energy, a still mind, and controlled emotions. Physical dysfunctions result from disordered patterns of energy of long standing and reversal of the physical problem requires a return to balanced and ordered energy. Qi Gong (Chi Kung) is a system which teaches an individual to live in a state of energy balance. Shen Qi is a sophisticated form of Qi Gong which relies on no external physical interventions but rather relies on mind control to prevent illness, heal existing physical and emotional problems, and promote health and happiness. This paper will describe the use of these techniques with people who have long-term physical disabilities.

  9. [Enteral nutrition through long-term jejunostomy].

    PubMed

    Fernández, T; Neira, P; Enríquez, C

    2008-01-01

    We present the case of a female patient suffering a peritonitis episode after subtotal gastrectomy due to gastric neoplasm in relation to lesser curvature necrosis extending to the anterior esophageal wall. This an uncommon andsevere complication that made mandatory further aggressive surgery: transection of the abdominal esophagus, transection of the gastric stump, and cervical esophagostomy with creation of a jejunostomy with a needle catheter for feeding. This digestive tube access technique is generally used during major abdominal post-surgery until oral intake is reestablished. Our patient has been 187 days with this therapy since reconstruction of the GI tract was ruled out due to tumoral infiltration of the colon and tumor recurrence at the gastrohepatic omentum. To date, there has been no complication from permanence and/or long-term use of this technique.

  10. Radiation risk during long-term spaceflight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, V. M.

    Cosmonauts` exposure to cosmic rays during long-term spaceflight can cause unfavorable effects in health and risk for the crew members` lives. All unfavorable effects induced by exposure should be taken into consideration for the risk estimation. They should include both the acute deterministic effects and delayed effects called stochastic. On the ground the limitation of unfavorable consequences of acute exposure is achieved by means of establishing dose limits. But in space applications this approach can't be acceptable. Establishing a fixed dose limit is adequate to introducing indefinite reserve coefficient and therefore ineffective usage of spacecraft resource. The method of radiation risk calculation caused by acute and delayed effects of cosmonauts' exposure is discussed and substantiated in the report. Peculiarities of the impact of permanent radiation sources (galactic cosmic rays and trapped radiation) and the variable one (solar cosmic rays) are taken into consideration.

  11. Long-term control of root growth

    SciTech Connect

    Burton, F.G.; Cataldo, D.A.; Cline, J.F.; Skiens, W.E.

    1992-05-26

    A method and system for long-term control of root growth without killing the plants bearing those roots involves incorporating a 2,6-dinitroaniline in a polymer and disposing the polymer in an area in which root control is desired. This results in controlled release of the substituted aniline herbicide over a period of many years. Herbicides of this class have the property of preventing root elongation without translocating into other parts of the plant. The herbicide may be encapsulated in the polymer or mixed with it. The polymer-herbicide mixture may be formed into pellets, sheets, pipe gaskets, pipes for carrying water, or various other forms. The invention may be applied to other protection of buried hazardous wastes, protection of underground pipes, prevention of root intrusion beneath slabs, the dwarfing of trees or shrubs and other applications. The preferred herbicide is 4-difluoromethyl-N,N-dipropyl-2,6-dinitro-aniline, commonly known as trifluralin. 7 figs.

  12. Reducing long-term reservoir performance uncertainty

    SciTech Connect

    Lippmann, M.J.

    1988-04-01

    Reservoir performance is one of the key issues that have to be addressed before going ahead with the development of a geothermal field. In order to select the type and size of the power plant and design other surface installations, it is necessary to know the characteristics of the production wells and of the produced fluids, and to predict the changes over a 10--30 year period. This is not a straightforward task, as in most cases the calculations have to be made on the basis of data collected before significant fluid volumes have been extracted from the reservoir. The paper describes the methodology used in predicting the long-term performance of hydrothermal systems, as well as DOE/GTD-sponsored research aimed at reducing the uncertainties associated with these predictions. 27 refs., 1 fig.

  13. Radiation risk during long-term spaceflight.

    PubMed

    Petrov, V M

    2002-01-01

    Cosmonauts' exposure to cosmic rays during long-term spaceflight can cause unfavorable effects in health and risk for the crew members' lives. All unfavorable effects induced by exposure should be taken into consideration for the risk estimation. They should include both the acute deterministic effects and delayed effects called stochastic. On the ground the limitation of unfavorable consequences of acute exposure is achieved by means of establishing dose limits. But in space applications this approach can't be acceptable. Establishing a fixed dose limit is adequate to introducing indefinite reserve coefficient and therefore ineffective usage of spacecraft resource. The method of radiation risk calculation caused by acute and delayed effects of cosmonauts' exposure is discussed and substantiated in the report. Peculiarities of the impact of permanent radiation sources (galactic cosmic rays and trapped radiation) and the variable one (solar cosmic rays) are taken into consideration. PMID:12539775

  14. Safety of long-term PPI therapy.

    PubMed

    Reimer, Christina

    2013-06-01

    Proton pump inhibitors have become the mainstay of medical treatment of acid-related disorders. Long-term use is becoming increasingly common, in some cases without a proper indication. A large number of mainly observational studies on a very wide range of possible associations have been published in the past decade and are critically reviewed in this article and the existing evidence is evaluated and translated into possible clinical consequences. Based on the existing evidence the benefits of PPI treatment seem to outweigh potential risks in the large majority of patients especially if PPI use is based on a relevant indication. The concern for complications should primarily be directed at elderly, malnourished with significant co-morbidity. In this population an increased risk for enteric infections, fractures and nutritional deficiencies might have clinical consequences and should lead to a careful evaluation of the indication for PPI treatment. PMID:23998981

  15. Long term performance of radon mitigation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Prill, R.; Fisk, W.J.

    2002-03-01

    Researchers installed radon mitigation systems in 12 houses in Spokane, Washington and Coeur d'Alene, Idaho during the heating season 1985--1986 and continued to monitor indoor radon quarterly and annually for ten years. The mitigation systems included active sub-slab ventilation, basement over-pressurization, and crawlspace isolation and ventilation. The occupants reported various operational problems with these early mitigation systems. The long-term radon measurements were essential to track the effectiveness of the mitigation systems over time. All 12 homes were visited during the second year of the study, while a second set 5 homes was visited during the fifth year to determine the cause(s) of increased radon in the homes. During these visits, the mitigation systems were inspected and measurements of system performance were made. Maintenance and modifications were performed to improve system performance in these homes.

  16. Advanced long term cryogenic storage systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Norman S.

    1987-01-01

    Long term, cryogenic fluid storage facilities will be required to support future space programs such as the space-based Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV), Telescopes, and Laser Systems. An orbital liquid oxygen/liquid hydrogen storage system with an initial capacity of approximately 200,000 lb will be required. The storage facility tank design must have the capability of fluid acquisition in microgravity and limit cryogen boiloff due to environmental heating. Cryogenic boiloff management features, minimizing Earth-to-orbit transportation costs, will include advanced thick multilayer insulation/integrated vapor cooled shield concepts, low conductance support structures, and refrigeration/reliquefaction systems. Contracted study efforts are under way to develop storage system designs, technology plans, test article hardware designs, and develop plans for ground/flight testing.

  17. Brodie's abscess. A long-term review.

    PubMed

    Stephens, M M; MacAuley, P

    1988-09-01

    In 20 patients with 21 Brodie's abscesses, a long-term review revealed that 13 occurred in the second decade of life. All had local symptoms for six weeks or more. The tibia was involved in 11 cases and seven of these were in the proximal metaphysis. The erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) was elevated in only six cases. When the ESR was more than 40 mm per hour, recurrence was more likely. Staphylococcus aureus was cultured from 11 abscesses. Curettage and antibiotics for six weeks were adequate for treatment in most cases. However, lesions larger than 3 cm in diameter should be grafted, and patients with an elevated ESR require more aggressive decompression and prolonged antibiotic therapy. Lesions within the neck of the femur pose particular anatomic problems and should not be approached laterally. All cases were followed to full bone maturity. No significant leg length inequality was clinically or roentgenologically apparent. If an abscess was juxtaphyseal, deformity of the epiphysis could develop.

  18. Managing Records for the Long Term - 12363

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, John V.; Gueretta, Jeanie

    2012-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for managing vast amounts of information documenting historical and current operations. This information is critical to the operations of the DOE Office of Legacy Management. Managing legacy records and information is challenging in terms of accessibility and changing technology. The Office of Legacy Management is meeting these challenges by making records and information management an organizational priority. The Office of Legacy Management mission is to manage DOE post-closure responsibilities at former Cold War weapons sites to ensure the future protection of human health and the environment. These responsibilities include environmental stewardship and long-term preservation and management of operational and environmental cleanup records associated with each site. A primary organizational goal for the Office of Legacy Management is to 'Preserve, Protect, and Share Records and Information'. Managing records for long-term preservation is an important responsibility. Adequate and dedicated resources and management support are required to perform this responsibility successfully. Records tell the story of an organization and may be required to defend an organization in court, provide historical information, identify lessons learned, or provide valuable information for researchers. Loss of records or the inability to retrieve records because of poor records management processes can have serious consequences and even lead to an organisation's downfall. Organizations must invest time and resources to establish a good records management program because of its significance to the organization as a whole. The Office of Legacy Management will continue to research and apply innovative ways of doing business to ensure that the organization stays at the forefront of effective records and information management. DOE is committed to preserving records that document our nation's Cold War legacy, and the Office of Legacy

  19. Long-term dynamics of Typha populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grace, J.B.; Wetzel, R.G.

    1998-01-01

    The zonation of Typha populations in an experimental pond in Michigan was re-examined 15 years after the original sampling to gain insight into the long-term dynamics. Current distributions of Typha populations were also examined in additional experimental ponds at the site that have been maintained for 23 years. The zonation between T. latifolia and T. angustifolia in the previously studied pond 15 years after the initial sampling revealed that the density and distribution of shoots had not changed significantly. Thus, it appears that previously reported results (based on 7- year old populations) have remained consistent over time. Additional insight into the interaction between these two taxa was sought by comparing mixed and monoculture stands in five experimental ponds that have remained undisturbed for their 23-year history. The maximum depth of T. latifolia, the shallow- water species, was not significantly reduced when growing in the presence of the more flood tolerant T. angustifolia. In contrast, the minimum depth of T. angustifolia was reduced from 0 to 37 cm when in the presence of T. latifolia. When total populations were compared between monoculture and mixed stands, the average density of T. angustifolia shoots was 59.4 percent lower in mixed stands while the density of T. latifolia was 32 percent lower, with T. angustifolia most affected at shallow depths (reduced by 92 percent) and T. latifolia most affected at the deepest depths (reduced by 60 percent). These long-term observations indicate that competitive displacement between Typha taxa has remained stable over time.

  20. Long-term effects of dynamic aortomyoplasty.

    PubMed

    Chachques, J C; Haab, F; Cron, C; Fischer, E C; Grandjean, P; Bruneval, P; Acar, C; Jebara, V A; Fontaliran, F; Carpentier, A F

    1994-07-01

    Aortomyoplasty consists of wrapping the latissimus dorsi muscle (LDM) around the ascending aorta and electrostimulating it during diastole. The ascending aorta will act as an ectopic neo-ventricle compressed during diastole, thus reproducing the effects of long-term diastolic counterpulsation. In 5 goats, the right LDM was transferred to the thoracic cavity after removal of the second rib. The ascending aorta was enlarged by a pericardial patch and wrapped with the LDM. Postoperative electrostimulation was delivered in a counterpulsating manner. Hemodynamic studies were performed at 12 and 24 months postoperatively. Percent increase in the subendocardial viability index (diastolic pressure-time index/systolic tension-time index) was calculated using unassisted and assisted cardiac cycles with the stimulator off versus the stimulator on at a 1:1 ratio in the basal state and after acute heart failure was induced by the administration of high doses of propranolol hydrochloride. Diastolic counterpulsation of the ascending aorta resulted in significant improvement in the subendocardial viability index long term, both in basal state conditions and after induced cardiac failure. During heart failure, aortomyoplasty increased the cardiac output and decreased systemic vascular resistance. Histopathologic studies up to 24 months showed preservation of the histologic structure of the aortic wall and no evidence of thromboembolism. Tight adhesions developed between the aortic wall (including the pericardial patch) and the LDM. The diameters of the enlarged aortas showed no significant differences compared with diameters immediately postoperatively. In conclusion, aortomyoplasty produces chronic diastolic augmentation with preservation of aortic structure. After induction of heart failure, aortomyoplasty offers efficient circulatory support.

  1. A Review of the Long-Term Effects of Child Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beitchman, Joseph H.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Evidence suggests that sexual abuse has serious long-term effects; but specific effects, independent of force, threatened force, or family variables such as parental psychopathology, are not yet clarified. Effects among adults in terms of their relationship to sexual dysfunction, depression, anxiety, fear, multiple or borderline personality…

  2. Financing Long Term Care. Selected Topics in Long Term Care. Volume 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Jay; Doth, David

    This document, one in a series developed to provide technical assistance to 22 Long-Term Care Gerontology Centers, is designed to be a financial resource guide. Current major funding sources are detailed, followed by an examination of the issues and problems associated with current financing systems. Programmatic issues associated with Medicare…

  3. Naturalistic long-term use of methylphenidate in bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Lydon, Eric; El-Mallakh, Rif S

    2006-10-01

    Antidepressant use seems to be problematic in bipolar disorder. The dopaminergic agent, bupropion, seems to be equally effective to serotoninergic agents but with greater safety. Methylphenidate is a stimulant medication that is sometimes used as an antidepressant in bipolar adults and is frequently used in children with comorbid bipolar and attention-deficit disorder. There are no data available for the safety of long-term methylphenidate in adults. A retrospective chart review of bipolar patients who received methylphenidate while attending a bipolar clinic was conducted. Data regarding side effects and symptoms were collected. Sixteen charts were reviewed. The mean duration of methylphenidate treatment was 14 months (+/-SD, +/-17.5 months; range, 1-60 months). Five had comorbid attention-deficit disorder, the remainder received the methylphenidate for depression. The mean dose was 16.3 mg/d (+/-SD, +/-8.7 mg/d; range, 5-40 mg/d). Several mild to moderate side effects were reported. Two patients (12.5%) discontinued methylphenidate because of adverse side effects. When available (44% of the sample), general assessment of function increased from (+/-SD) 48.3 +/- 9.9 to 69.3 +/- 10.6 (P = 0.006). Methylphenidate seems to be safe in the naturalistic setting. Controlled studies are needed to confirm its efficacy and safety in bipolar depression.

  4. Examining the long-term stability of overgeneral autobiographical memory.

    PubMed

    Sumner, Jennifer A; Mineka, Susan; Zinbarg, Richard E; Craske, Michelle G; Vrshek-Schallhorn, Suzanne; Epstein, Alyssa

    2014-01-01

    Overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM) is a proposed trait-marker for vulnerability to depression, but relatively little work has examined its long-term stability. This study investigated the stability of OGM over several years in 271 late adolescents and young adults participating in a larger longitudinal study of risk for emotional disorders. The Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT) was administered twice, with test-retest intervals ranging from approximately 3 to 6 years. There was evidence of significant but modest stability in OGM over several years. Specifically, Spearman rank correlations (ρs) between the proportions of specific and categoric memories generated on the two AMTs were .31 and .32, respectively. We did not find evidence that the stability of OGM was moderated by the length of the test-retest interval. Furthermore, the stability coefficients for OGM for individuals with and without a lifetime history of major depressive disorder (MDD) were relatively similar in magnitude and not significantly different from one another (ρs=.34 and .42 for the proportions of specific and categoric memories for those with a history of MDD; ρs=.31 for both the proportions of specific and categoric memories for those without a history of MDD). Implications for the conceptualisation of OGM are discussed.

  5. Examining the Long-Term Stability of Overgeneral Autobiographical Memory

    PubMed Central

    Sumner, Jennifer A.; Mineka, Susan; Zinbarg, Richard E.; Craske, Michelle G.; Vrshek-Schallhorn, Suzanne; Epstein, Alyssa

    2013-01-01

    Overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM) is a proposed trait-marker for vulnerability to depression, but relatively little work has examined its long-term stability. This study investigated the stability of OGM over several years in 271 late adolescents and young adults participating in a larger longitudinal study of risk for emotional disorders. The Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT) was administered twice, with test-retest intervals ranging from approximately 3 to 6 years. There was evidence of significant but modest stability in OGM over several years. Specifically, Spearman rank correlations (ρs) between the proportions of specific and categoric memories generated on the two AMTs were .31 and .32, respectively. We did not find evidence that the stability of OGM was moderated by the length of the test-retest interval. Furthermore, the stability coefficients for OGM for individuals with and without a lifetime history of major depressive disorder (MDD) were relatively similar in magnitude and not significantly different from one another (ρs = .34 and .42 for the proportions of specific and categoric memories for those with a history of MDD; ρs = .31 for both the proportions of specific and categoric memories for those without a history of MDD). Implications for the conceptualization of OGM are discussed. PMID:23439226

  6. LONG-TERM MONITORING SENSOR NETWORK

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen P. Farrington; John W. Haas; Neal Van Wyck

    2003-10-16

    Long-term monitoring (LTM) associated with subsurface contamination sites is a key element of Long Term Stewardship and Legacy Management across the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. However, both within the DOE and elsewhere, LTM is an expensive endeavor, often exceeding the costs of the remediation phase of a clean-up project. The primary contributors to LTM costs are associated with labor. Sample collection, storage, preparation, analysis, and reporting can add a significant financial burden to project expense when extended over many years. Development of unattended, in situ monitoring networks capable of providing quantitative data satisfactory to regulatory concerns has the potential to significantly reduce LTM costs. But survival and dependable operation in a difficult environment is a common obstacle to widespread use across the DOE complex or elsewhere. Deploying almost any sensor in the subsurface for extended periods of time will expose it to chemical and microbial degradation. Over the time-scales required for in situ LTM, even the most advanced sensor systems may be rendered useless. Frequent replacement or servicing (cleaning) of sensors is expensive and labor intensive, offsetting most, if not all, of the cost savings realized with unattended, in situ sensors. To enable facile, remote monitoring of contaminants and other subsurface parameters over prolonged periods, Applied Research Associates, Inc has been working to develop an advanced LTM sensor network consisting of three key elements: (1) an anti-fouling sensor chamber that can accommodate a variety of chemical and physical measurement devices based on electrochemical, optical and other techniques; (2) two rapid, cost effective, and gentle means of emplacing sensor packages either at precise locations directly in the subsurface or in pre-existing monitoring wells; and (3) a web browser-based data acquisition and control system (WebDACS) utilizing field-networked microprocessor-controlled smart

  7. Robotics for Long-Term Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Shahin, Sarkis; Duran, Celso

    2002-07-01

    While long-term monitoring and stewardship means many things to many people, DOE has defined it as The physical controls, institutions, information, and other mechanisms needed to ensure protection of people and the environment at sites where DOE has completed or plans to complete cleanup (e.g., landfill closures, remedial actions, and facility stabilization). Across the United States, there are thousands of contaminated sites with multiple contaminants released from multiple sources where contaminants have transported and commingled. The U.S. government and U.S. industry are responsible for most of the contamination and are landowners of many of these contaminated properties. These sites must be surveyed periodically for various criteria including structural deterioration, water intrusion, integrity of storage containers, atmospheric conditions, and hazardous substance release. The surveys, however, are intrusive, time-consuming, and expensive and expose survey personnel to radioactive contamination. In long-term monitoring, there's a need for an automated system that will gather and report data from sensors without costly human labor. In most cases, a SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) unit is used to collect and report data from a remote location. A SCADA unit consists of an embedded computer with data acquisition capabilities. The unit can be configured with various sensors placed in different areas of the site to be monitored. A system of this type is static, i.e., the sensors, once placed, cannot be moved to other locations within the site. For those applications where the number of sampling locations would require too many sensors, or where exact location of future problems is unknown, a mobile sensing platform is an ideal solution. In many facilities that undergo regular inspections, the number of video cameras and air monitors required to eliminate the need for human inspections is very large and far too costly. HCET's remote harsh

  8. Treatment for childhood cancer -- long-term risks

    MedlinePlus

    ... ency/patientinstructions/000849.htm Treatment for childhood cancer - long-term risks To use the sharing features on ... has. Being aware of your child's risk of long-term health problems can help you follow-up ...

  9. Intermediate- and long-term earthquake prediction.

    PubMed

    Sykes, L R

    1996-04-30

    Progress in long- and intermediate-term earthquake prediction is reviewed emphasizing results from California. Earthquake prediction as a scientific discipline is still in its infancy. Probabilistic estimates that segments of several faults in California will be the sites of large shocks in the next 30 years are now generally accepted and widely used. Several examples are presented of changes in rates of moderate-size earthquakes and seismic moment release on time scales of a few to 30 years that occurred prior to large shocks. A distinction is made between large earthquakes that rupture the entire downdip width of the outer brittle part of the earth's crust and small shocks that do not. Large events occur quasi-periodically in time along a fault segment and happen much more often than predicted from the rates of small shocks along that segment. I am moderately optimistic about improving predictions of large events for time scales of a few to 30 years although little work of that type is currently underway in the United States. Precursory effects, like the changes in stress they reflect, should be examined from a tensorial rather than a scalar perspective. A broad pattern of increased numbers of moderate-size shocks in southern California since 1986 resembles the pattern in the 25 years before the great 1906 earthquake. Since it may be a long-term precursor to a great event on the southern San Andreas fault, that area deserves detailed intensified study.

  10. Transuranic waste: long-term planning

    SciTech Connect

    Young, K.C.

    1985-07-01

    Societal concerns for the safe handling and disposal of toxic waste are behind many of the regulations and the control measures in effect today. Transuranic waste, a specific category of toxic (radioactive) waste, serves as a good example of how regulations and controls impact changes in waste processing - and vice versa. As problems would arise with waste processing, changes would be instituted. These changes improved techniques for handling and disposal of transuranic waste, reduced the risk of breached containment, and were usually linked with regulatory changes. Today, however, we face a greater public awareness of and concern for toxic waste control; thus, we must anticipate potential problems and work on resolving them before they can become real problems. System safety analyses are valuable aids in long-term planning for operations involving transuranic as well as other toxic materials. Examples of specific system safety analytical methods demonstrate how problems can be anticipated and resolution initiated in a timely manner having minimal impacts upon allocation of resource and operational goals. 7 refs., 1 fig.

  11. Long-term data storage in diamond

    PubMed Central

    Dhomkar, Siddharth; Henshaw, Jacob; Jayakumar, Harishankar; Meriles, Carlos A.

    2016-01-01

    The negatively charged nitrogen vacancy (NV−) center in diamond is the focus of widespread attention for applications ranging from quantum information processing to nanoscale metrology. Although most work so far has focused on the NV− optical and spin properties, control of the charge state promises complementary opportunities. One intriguing possibility is the long-term storage of information, a notion we hereby introduce using NV-rich, type 1b diamond. As a proof of principle, we use multicolor optical microscopy to read, write, and reset arbitrary data sets with two-dimensional (2D) binary bit density comparable to present digital-video-disk (DVD) technology. Leveraging on the singular dynamics of NV− ionization, we encode information on different planes of the diamond crystal with no cross-talk, hence extending the storage capacity to three dimensions. Furthermore, we correlate the center’s charge state and the nuclear spin polarization of the nitrogen host and show that the latter is robust to a cycle of NV− ionization and recharge. In combination with super-resolution microscopy techniques, these observations provide a route toward subdiffraction NV charge control, a regime where the storage capacity could exceed present technologies.

  12. Long-term adequacy of metal resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Singer, D.A.

    1977-01-01

    Although the earth's crust contains vast quantities of metals, extraction technologies and associated costs are inextricably bound to three fundamental geological factors - the amount of metal available in the earth's crust in each range of grades, the mineralogical form and chemical state of the metal, and the spatial distribution of the metal. The energy required to recover a given amount of metal increases substantially as grade declines. Most metal is produced from sulphide or oxide minerals, whereas most metal in the crust may be locked in the structures of the more refractory silicates. Recovery from silicate minerals could require orders of magnitude more energy than that used at present as also could exploitation of small, widely scattered or thin, deeply buried deposits. Although specific information on the fundamental factors is not available, each factor must in turn tend to further restrict exploitation. Independence of average grade and tonnage for many deposit types further reduces the availability of rock as a source of metal. In the long term, effects of these factors will be large increases in price for many metals. ?? 1977.

  13. Intermediate- and long-term earthquake prediction.

    PubMed Central

    Sykes, L R

    1996-01-01

    Progress in long- and intermediate-term earthquake prediction is reviewed emphasizing results from California. Earthquake prediction as a scientific discipline is still in its infancy. Probabilistic estimates that segments of several faults in California will be the sites of large shocks in the next 30 years are now generally accepted and widely used. Several examples are presented of changes in rates of moderate-size earthquakes and seismic moment release on time scales of a few to 30 years that occurred prior to large shocks. A distinction is made between large earthquakes that rupture the entire downdip width of the outer brittle part of the earth's crust and small shocks that do not. Large events occur quasi-periodically in time along a fault segment and happen much more often than predicted from the rates of small shocks along that segment. I am moderately optimistic about improving predictions of large events for time scales of a few to 30 years although little work of that type is currently underway in the United States. Precursory effects, like the changes in stress they reflect, should be examined from a tensorial rather than a scalar perspective. A broad pattern of increased numbers of moderate-size shocks in southern California since 1986 resembles the pattern in the 25 years before the great 1906 earthquake. Since it may be a long-term precursor to a great event on the southern San Andreas fault, that area deserves detailed intensified study. Images Fig. 1 PMID:11607658

  14. Long-term corrosion testing pan.

    SciTech Connect

    Wall, Frederick Douglas; Brown, Neil R.

    2008-08-01

    This document describes the testing and facility requirements to support the Yucca Mountain Project long-term corrosion testing needs. The purpose of this document is to describe a corrosion testing program that will (a) reduce model uncertainty and variability, (b) reduce the reliance upon overly conservative assumptions, and (c) improve model defensibility. Test matrices were developed for 17 topical areas (tasks): each matrix corresponds to a specific test activity that is a subset of the total work performed in a task. A future document will identify which of these activities are considered to be performance confirmation activities. Detailed matrices are provided for FY08, FY09 and FY10 and rough order estimates are provided for FY11-17. Criteria for the selection of appropriate test facilities were developed through a meeting of Lead Lab and DOE personnel on October 16-17, 2007. These criteria were applied to the testing activities and recommendations were made for the facility types appropriate to carry out each activity. The facility requirements for each activity were assessed and activities were identified that can not be performed with currently available facilities. Based on this assessment, a total of approximately 10,000 square feet of facility space is recommended to meet all future testing needs, given that all testing is consolidated to a single location. This report is a revision to SAND2007-7027 to address DOE comments and add a series of tests to address NWTRB recommendations.

  15. Long-term corrosion testing plan.

    SciTech Connect

    Wall, Frederick Douglas; Brown, Neil R.

    2009-02-01

    This document describes the testing and facility requirements to support the Yucca Mountain Project long-term corrosion testing program. The purpose of this document is to describe a corrosion testing program that will (a) reduce model uncertainty and variability, (b) reduce the reliance upon overly conservative assumptions, and (c) improve model defensibility. Test matrices were developed for 17 topical areas (tasks): each matrix corresponds to a specific test activity that is a subset of the total work performed in a task. A future document will identify which of these activities are considered to be performance confirmation activities. Detailed matrices are provided for FY08, FY09 and FY10 and rough order estimates are provided for FY11-17. Criteria for the selection of appropriate test facilities were developed through a meeting of Lead Lab and DOE personnel on October 16-17, 2007. These criteria were applied to the testing activities and recommendations were made for the facility types appropriate to carry out each activity. The facility requirements for each activity were assessed and activities were identified that can not be performed with currently available facilities. Based on this assessment, a total of approximately 10,000 square feet of facility space is recommended to accommodate all future testing, given that all testing is consolidated to a single location. This report is a revision to SAND2008-4922 to address DOE comments.

  16. Long-term changes in Saturn's troposphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trafton, L.

    1985-09-01

    The author reports the results of monitoring Saturn's H2 quadrupole and CH4 band absorptions outside of the equatorial zone over one-half of Saturn's year. This interval covers most of the perihelion half of Saturn's elliptical orbit, which happens to be approximately bounded by the equinoxes. Marked long-term changes occur in the CH4 absorption accompanied by weakly opposite changes in the H2 absorption. Around the 1980 equinox, the H2 and CH4 absorptions in the northern hemisphere appear to be discontinuous with those in the southern hemisphere. This discontinuity and the temporal variation of the absorptions are evidence for seasonal changes. The absorption variations can be attributed to a variable haze in Saturn's troposphere, responding to changes in temperature and insolation through the processes of sublimation and freezing. The author models the vertical haze distribution of Saturn's south temperate latitudes during 1971 - 1977 in terms of a distribution having a particle scale height equal to a fraction of the atmospheric scale height. He also reports spatial measurements of the absorption in the 6450 Å NH3 band made annually since the 1980 equinox.

  17. Long-term plutonium storage: Design concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkey, D.D.; Wood, W.T.; Guenther, C.D.

    1994-08-01

    An important part of the Department of Energy (DOE) Weapons Complex Reconfiguration (WCR) Program is the development of facilities for long-term storage of plutonium. The WCR design goals are to provide storage for metals, oxides, pits, and fuel-grade plutonium, including material being held as part of the Strategic Reserve and excess material. Major activities associated with plutonium storage are sorting the plutonium inventory, material handling and storage support, shipping and receiving, and surveillance of material in storage for both safety evaluations and safeguards and security. A variety of methods for plutonium storage have been used, both within the DOE weapons complex and by external organizations. This paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages of proposed storage concepts based upon functional criteria. The concepts discussed include floor wells, vertical and horizontal sleeves, warehouse storage on vertical racks, and modular storage units. Issues/factors considered in determining a preferred design include operational efficiency, maintenance and repair, environmental impact, radiation and criticality safety, safeguards and security, heat removal, waste minimization, international inspection requirements, and construction and operational costs.

  18. Long-term predictions using natural analogues

    SciTech Connect

    Ewing, R.C.

    1995-09-01

    One of the unique and scientifically most challenging aspects of nuclear waste isolation is the extrapolation of short-term laboratory data (hours to years) to the long time periods (10{sup 3}-10{sup 5} years) required by regulatory agencies for performance assessment. The direct validation of these extrapolations is not possible, but methods must be developed to demonstrate compliance with government regulations and to satisfy the lay public that there is a demonstrable and reasonable basis for accepting the long-term extrapolations. Natural systems (e.g., {open_quotes}natural analogues{close_quotes}) provide perhaps the only means of partial {open_quotes}validation,{close_quotes} as well as data that may be used directly in the models that are used in the extrapolation. Natural systems provide data on very large spatial (nm to km) and temporal (10{sup 3}-10{sup 8} years) scales and in highly complex terranes in which unknown synergisms may affect radionuclide migration. This paper reviews the application (and most importantly, the limitations) of data from natural analogue systems to the {open_quotes}validation{close_quotes} of performance assessments.

  19. The long-term variability of Vega

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butkovskaya, V.; Plachinda, S.; Valyavin, G.; Baklanova, D.; Lee, B.-C.

    2011-12-01

    Over the time of 60 years Vega (α Lyrae = HD 172167, A0V) has been generally accepted as a standard star in the near-infrared, optical, and ultraviolet regions. But is the spectrophotometric standard Vega really non-variable star? Researchers give very different answers to this question. We aim to search a periodicity in our results of spectropolarimetric study of Vega, namely periodic variations in equivalent width of the spectral lines and longitudinal magnetic field measurements. High-accuracy spectropolarimetric observations of Vega have been performed during 26 nights from 1997 to 2010 using the Coudé spectrograph of the 2.6-m Shain reflector at the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory (CrAO, Ukraine) and during 4 nights in 2007 and 2008 using the echelle spectrograph BOES at the Bohyunsan Optical Astronomy Observatory (BOAO, South Korea). The long-term (year-to-year) variability of Vega was confirmed. It was concluded that this variability does not have magnetic nature. The paper is dedicated to the memory of V.P. Merezhin.

  20. Long-term potentiation: peeling the onion.

    PubMed

    Nicoll, Roger A; Roche, Katherine W

    2013-11-01

    Since the discovery of long-term potentiation (LTP), thousands of papers have been published on this phenomenon. With this massive amount of information, it is often difficult, especially for someone not directly involved in the field, not to be overwhelmed. The goal of this review is to peel away as many layers as possible, and probe the core properties of LTP. We would argue that the many dozens of proteins that have been implicated in the phenomenon are not essential, but rather modulate, often in indirect ways, the threshold and/or magnitude of LTP. What is required is NMDA receptor activation followed by CaMKII activation. The consequence of CaMKII activation is the rapid recruitment of AMPA receptors to the synapse. This recruitment is independent of AMPA receptor subunit type, but absolutely requires an adequate pool of surface receptors. An important unresolved issue is how exactly CaMKII activation leads to modifications in the PSD to allow rapid enrichment. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'Glutamate Receptor-Dependent Synaptic Plasticity'. PMID:23439383

  1. Long-term observations of siamang behaviour.

    PubMed

    Chivers, D J; Raemaekers, J J; Aldrich-Blake, F P

    1975-01-01

    Long-term observations are presented on the behaviour of the siamang ape, Symphalangus syndactylus, in the lowland forest of central Malaya. The data were collected during two dry and three fruiting seasons between 1969 and 1973 inclusive on two groups with adjacent ranges; comparisons are made within and between sample periods, and between groups. The influence of weather on daily activities is considered. Food intake is analysed in terms of number of food trees, number of visits to these trees, and the cumulative time spent feeding on various food categories. Ranging behaviour is investigated in terms of distance travelled, area covered, and distribution of time and of food trees about the range. The occurrence of calling is described and compared with that of the white-handed gibbon in the same area. A discussion ensues on each of these aspects of behaviour in turn. Emphasis is laid on the similarity of behaviour of the two groups at any one time, and on the degree of their response to the fluctuations of environment variables. Finally, the application to siamang of ranging concepts currently used in animal behaviour is considered briefly.

  2. Long-Term Consequences of Neonatal Injury

    PubMed Central

    Beggs, Simon

    2015-01-01

    The maturation of the central nervous system’s (CNS’s) sensory connectivity is driven by modality-specific sensory input in early life. For the somatosensory system, this input is the physical, tactile interaction with the environment. Nociceptive circuitry is functioning at the time of birth; however, there is still considerable organization and refinement of this circuitry that occurs postnatally, before full discrimination of tactile and noxious input is possible. This fine-tuning involves separation of tactile and nociceptive afferent input to the spinal cord’s dorsal horn and the maturation of local and descending inhibitory circuitry. Disruption of that input in early postnatal life (for example, by tissue injury or other noxious stimulus), can have a profound influence on subsequent development, and consequently the mature functioning of pain systems. In this review, the impact of neonatal surgical incision on nociceptive circuitry is discussed in terms of the underlying developmental neurobiology. The changes are complex, occurring at multiple anatomical sites within the CNS, and including both neuronal and glial cell populations. The altered sensory input from neonatal injury selectively modulates neuronal excitability within the spinal cord, disrupts inhibitory control, and primes the immune system, all of which contribute to the adverse long-term consequences of early pain exposure. PMID:26174217

  3. Long-term outcome in aqueductal stenosis.

    PubMed

    Villani, R; Tomei, G; Gaini, S M; Grimoldi, N; Spagnoli, D; Bello, L

    1995-03-01

    In this study, 78 patients with aqueductal stenosis were submitted to detailed neurodevelopmental assessment with a follow-up of 5-25 years. Sixty-eight percent of patients were categorized as normal; they either attended normal school courses or had regular jobs. Among these, 34% had some motor abnormalities (ataxia, mild hemiparesis, visual disturbances). Twenty-four percent (19 cases) were moderately disabled (trainable retardation) and 8% (6 cases) were severely handicapped. Epilepsy was observed in 13% of the cases. Incidence of recurrent and generalized seizures paralleled neurodevelopmental outcome (5% in normal, 16% in moderately disabled and 50% in severely disabled patients). Endocrine dysfunctions were evident in 28% of the cases and were characterized by precocious or delayed puberty, amenorrhea and somatic underdevelopment. No patient with ventricular enlargement and a cortical mantle width below 20 mm showed a good outcome. Large ventricles were compatible with normal mental development when compensated with a corresponding cranial vault enlargement. In patients with normal mental status and motor abnormalities, long-term CT scan findings revealed the presence of focal brain abnormalities (poroencephaly, brain atrophy, calcifications, extracerebral collections). PMID:7773981

  4. Long-term oxygen therapy: battling breathlessness.

    PubMed

    Wick, Jeannette Y

    2012-12-01

    Approximately 1 million of the 1.4 million Americans (71%) receiving long-term oxygen therapy (LTOT) are Medicare beneficiaries, confirming that LTOT is most often prescribed for individuals 65 years of age or older. Although several conditions create a need for supplemental oxygen, the majority of patients have chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). People with healthy lungs can extract the oxygen from air, while those with damaged lungs need higher oxygen concentrations. They can supplement their oxygen using one of three options: high-pressure oxygen tanks, liquid oxygen, or oxygen concentrators. The multicenter Nocturnal Oxygen Therapy Trial and the smaller Medical Research Council study identified LTOT as an intervention that improved survival in patients with COPD or chronic respiratory failure, approximately doubling survival at 19 months in patients who were adherent to oxygen. Despite its advantages, LTOT is plagued with problems: compliance with clinical guidelines, patient adherence, and cost. Fires associated with smoking in the vicinity of supplemental oxygen are the leading cause of residential fire deaths in the United States.

  5. Long term prediction of flood occurrence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilar, Cristina; Montanari, Alberto; José Polo, María

    2016-05-01

    How long a river remembers its past is still an open question. Perturbations occurring in large catchments may impact the flow regime for several weeks and months, therefore providing a physical explanation for the occasional tendency of floods to occur in clusters. The research question explored in this paper may be stated as follows: can higher than usual river discharges in the low flow season be associated to a higher probability of floods in the subsequent high flow season? The physical explanation for such association may be related to the presence of higher soil moisture storage at the beginning of the high flow season, which may induce lower infiltration rates and therefore higher river runoff. Another possible explanation is persistence of climate, due to presence of long-term properties in atmospheric circulation. We focus on the Po River at Pontelagoscuro, whose catchment area amounts to 71 000 km2. We look at the stochastic connection between average river flows in the pre-flood season and the peak flows in the flood season by using a bivariate probability distribution. We found that the shape of the flood frequency distribution is significantly impacted by the river flow regime in the low flow season. The proposed technique, which can be classified as a data assimilation approach, may allow one to reduce the uncertainty associated to the estimation of the flood probability.

  6. Neurological long term consequences of deep diving.

    PubMed

    Todnem, K; Nyland, H; Skeidsvoll, H; Svihus, R; Rinck, P; Kambestad, B K; Riise, T; Aarli, J A

    1991-04-01

    Forty commercial saturation divers, mean age 34.9 (range 24-49) years, were examined one to seven years after their last deep dive (190-500 metres of seawater). Four had by then lost their divers' licence because of neurological problems. Twenty seven (68%) had been selected by neurological examination and electroencephalography before the deep dives. The control group consisted of 100 men, mean age 34.0 (range 22-48) years. The divers reported significantly more symptoms from the nervous system. Concentration difficulties and paraesthesia in feet and hands were common. They had more abnormal neurological findings by neurological examination compatible with dysfunction in the lumbar spinal cord or roots. They also had a larger proportion of abnormal electroencephalograms than the controls. The neurological symptoms and findings were highly significantly correlated with exposure to deep diving (depth included), but even more significantly correlated to air and saturation diving and prevalence of decompression sickness. Visual evoked potentials, brainstem auditory evoked potentials, and magnetic resonance imaging of the brain did not show more abnormal findings in the divers. Four (10%) divers had had episodes of cerebral dysfunction during or after the dives; two had had seizures, one had had transitory cerebral ischaemia and one had had transitory global amnesia. It is concluded that deep diving may have a long term effect on the nervous system of the divers.

  7. Long-term treatment outcome in acromegaly.

    PubMed

    Holdaway, I M; Rajasoorya, C R; Gamble, G D; Stewart, A W

    2003-08-01

    A number of groups have developed guidelines to indicate whether an individual with acromegaly has been cured by treatment. However, studies to date do not provide a robust definition of biochemical remission of the disorder based on correlation with long-term outcome. Available data suggest that those with a random serum growth hormone (GH) level of <2.5 microg/l, or a glucose-suppressed GH level of <1 microg/l following treatment have mortality figures indistinguishable from the general population. However, the confidence limits for these mortality estimates are quite wide. It remains possible that growth hormone levels lower than 1 microg/l for random samples, or even lower when using ultrasensitive GH assays, may indicate superior outcome, but this remains to be confirmed. There are limited data relating serum insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) levels to outcome, although normalisation of serum IGF-I clearly improves outcome compared with continued elevation of measurements after treatment. Current evidence suggests that a post-treatment random serum GH <2.5 microg/l and a normal serum IGF-I value defines biochemical cure. Available data suggest that achieving similar growth hormone levels after treatment also reduces the prevalence of chronic complications of the disorder, which is subsequently reflected in improved mortality. PMID:12914751

  8. Long Term Storage of Lyophilized Liposomal Formulations

    PubMed Central

    Payton, N.M.; Wempe, M.F.; Xu, Y.; Anchordoquy, T.J.

    2014-01-01

    Because aqueous liposomal formulations containing multiply unsaturated lipids are susceptible to chemical degradation, these formulations are often lyophilized. Despite their limited chemical stability, interest in the use of multiply unsaturated lipids to promote intracellular delivery has increased considerably in recent years. The goal of the current study was to examine the long term storage stability of lyophilized formulations containing lipids with increasing levels of unsaturation, and various strategies which can be employed to improve stability. Aqueous lipid-trehalose formulations containing 1,2-dilinolenoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DLPC), 1,2-dilinoleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DLinPC) or 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) were lyophilized and stored at temperatures ranging from 4°C to 60°C. We observed that the lipid degradation rate increased as the storage temperature and unsaturation level were increased. Even the cleanest sugars which are available commercially contain iron contaminants, and it was observed that the chelation of these iron contaminants significantly improved the stability of DLPC during storage. However, the glass transition temperature of the sugar which was included in the formulation, the reduction of the oxygen in the aqueous sample prior to lyophilization, the inclusion of helper lipids (i.e., cholesterol), and the rate of freezing did not significantly improve stability. PMID:25308534

  9. Long-term behavior of ceramic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Anson, D.; Ramesh, K.S.

    1992-02-19

    This topical report has been prepared in response to the need to address the question of long term durability of high-strength structural ceramic materials. In a new project to demonstrate the use of such materials as replacements for metals in the hot gas path of industrial gas turbines, the longest projected test bed run will be 1000 hours. Creep in ceramic materials seldom exceeds one percent strain before failure, but the strain takes place almost entirely in the intergranular regions, which can be severely weakened by accumulated damage as creep occurs. In this report, we discuss the nature of creep in silicon nitride and silicon carbide ceramic materials, the method of evaluating creep, and the interpretation of data obtained under various creep test conditions. A review of creep data illustrates the importance of intergranular phases and of the history of the material. Also, in most cases, the histories applying to laboratory investigations are different from those that will apply to engineering situations in which measurable creep will be generally unacceptable. Fatigue in ceramic materials usually is assessed in static fatigue tests, which are dependent on the same types of grain boundary damage as those occurring in creep, but over shorter time periods. Corrosion of silicon-based ceramics by oxygen and water vapor results in the formation of protective SiO{sub 2} under gas turbine operating conditions.

  10. 22 CFR 228.12 - Long-term leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Long-term leases. 228.12 Section 228.12 Foreign... Transactions for USAID Financing § 228.12 Long-term leases. Any commodity obtained under a long-term lease..., a long-term lease is defined as a single lease of more than 180 days, or repetitive or...

  11. 22 CFR 228.12 - Long-term leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Long-term leases. 228.12 Section 228.12 Foreign... Transactions for USAID Financing § 228.12 Long-term leases. Any commodity obtained under a long-term lease..., a long-term lease is defined as a single lease of more than 180 days, or repetitive or...

  12. Legislation on Long-Term Care Insurance. Report No. 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin State Legislative Council, Madison.

    This report presents Wisconsin state legislation on long-term care insurance. Part I summarizes key provisions of six 1987 assembly bills concerned with long-term care insurance. Part II describes activities of the Wisconsin State Legislative Council's Special Committee on Long-Term Health Care Insurance. Part III provides background information…

  13. 22 CFR 228.18 - Long-term leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Long-term leases. 228.18 Section 228.18 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT RULES FOR PROCUREMENT OF COMMODITIES AND SERVICES FINANCED BY... USAID Financing § 228.18 Long-term leases. Any commodity obtained under a long-term lease agreement...

  14. 22 CFR 228.18 - Long-term leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Long-term leases. 228.18 Section 228.18 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT RULES FOR PROCUREMENT OF COMMODITIES AND SERVICES FINANCED BY... USAID Financing § 228.18 Long-term leases. Any commodity obtained under a long-term lease agreement...

  15. 22 CFR 228.18 - Long-term leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Long-term leases. 228.18 Section 228.18 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT RULES FOR PROCUREMENT OF COMMODITIES AND SERVICES FINANCED BY... USAID Financing § 228.18 Long-term leases. Any commodity obtained under a long-term lease agreement...

  16. Long term flux ecosystem exchange over a Mediterranean shrubland ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spano, D.; Sirca, C.; Marras, S.; Carta, M.; Zara, P.; Arca, A.; Duce, P.

    2011-12-01

    Only a few long-term studies on inter-annual variability in energy and mass exchanges of Mediterranean shrubland ecosystems have been recently published. Since maquis ecosystems experience a wide variation in inter-annual rainfall and temperature, inter-annual differences in CO2 fluxes are expected. Mediterranean-type ecosystems normally show two main peaks of growth (in spring and fall) and experience sometimes pronounced summer drought periods. Consequently, Mediterranean-type ecosystem behavior is even more complex and responds more dramatically to perturbations in water conditions. In this paper, six years of energy and mass fluxes measured using eddy covariance (EC) technique over a secondary succession shrubland ecosystem (maquis) located in Sardinia, Italy are reported. The main objectives are to understand dynamics of ecosystem carbon cycling and to identify the driving factors affecting ecosystem exchanges. Eddy flux and meteorological data are presented along with soil respiration information. Footprint analysis, friction velocity method, and other turbulent parameters were calculated to verify the accuracy of the eddy covariance CO2 measurements. The energy partitioning exhibited clear seasonal patterns with increasing Bowen ratio values during the drought season. Peak CO2 uptake occurred during spring and autumn showing an evident decrease in summer. The estimate of NEE showed differences among years depending on drought and temperature conditions. The surface conductance was clearly depressed during long-term drought period. In general, NEE was relatively low compared to other forest ecosystems. A good relationship was found between GPP and LE. Our data show that the inter-annual differences in NEE of the maquis ecosystem depend mainly on seasonal climate rather than on mean annual air temperature or precipitation. In addition, extreme weather events can also contribute to NEE inter-annual variability.

  17. Fear of Falling in New Long-Term Care Enrollees

    PubMed Central

    Gillespie, Suzanne M.; Friedman, Susan M.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To measure the prevalence of fear of falling in older adults at the time of long- term care (LTC) enrollment and identify potentially treatable risk factors for low fall related self-efficacy. DESIGN Prospective cohort study. SETTING Three LTC programs in Upstate New York. PARTICIPANTS 112 new enrollees in LTC, aged 55 or older, who passed a cognitive screen. MEASUREMENTS Self-reported falls, the falls efficacy scale (FES), medical conditions, the short geriatric depression scale, and physical performance measures (Berg balance scale, hip flexor, knee extensor and grip strength, gait speed and a six-minute walk). RESULTS Of the 54 subjects (48.2%) who reported fear of falling, 41 (75.9%) reported activity modification secondary to fear. Fearful subjects were more likely to be female (P=.003), report low back pain (P=.030) and lower extremity arthritis (P=.048). Fearful subjects were weaker at the hip (P<.001) and knee (P=.001), and had shorter six-minute walk distances. Subjects with better FES scores had better Berg scores (P<.001), had greater hip and knee strength, had faster gait speeds and walked further in six minutes (P<.001, P=.006, P=.001 and P=.001 respectively). Subjects with low FES scores and fearful subjects were more likely to have depressive symptoms (P=.003, P=.044, respectively). CONCLUSION Falls and fear of falling are more common in new LTC enrollees than in previously described community dwelling and SNF cohorts. Attention to associated characteristics like depression, arthritis, low back pain and lower extremity weakness may identify opportunities to reduce fear and improve patient safety during this transitional period. PMID:17570309

  18. Long-term psychological outcome for non-treatment-seeking earthquake survivors in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Salcioglu, Ebru; Basoglu, Metin; Livanou, Maria

    2003-03-01

    This study examined the incidence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression in 586 earthquake survivors living in prefabricated housing sites a mean of 20 months after the 1999 earthquake in Turkey. The estimated rates of PTSD and major depression were 39% and 18%, respectively. More severe PTSD symptoms related to greater fear during the earthquake, female gender, older age, participation in rescue work, having been trapped under rubble, and personal history of psychiatric illness. More severe depression symptoms related to older age, loss of close ones, single marital status, past psychiatric illness, previous trauma experience, female gender, and family history of psychiatric illness. These findings suggest that catastrophic earthquakes have long-term psychological consequences, particularly for survivors with high levels of trauma exposure. These findings lend further support to the need for long-term mental health care policies for earthquake survivors. Outreach service delivery programs are needed to access non-treatment-seeking survivors with chronic PTSD. PMID:12637841

  19. Scientific Understanding from Long Term Observations: Insights from the Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gosz, J.

    2001-12-01

    The network dedicated to Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) in the United States has grown to 24 sites since it was formed in 1980. Long-term research and monitoring are performed on parameters thatare basic to all ecosystems and are required to understand patterns, processes, and relationship to change. Collectively, the sites in the LTER Network provide opportunities to contrast marine, coastal, and continental regions, the full range of climatic gradients existing in North America, and aquatic and terrestrial habitats in a range of ecosystem types. The combination of common core areas and long-term research and monitoring in many habitats have allowed unprecedented abilities to understand and compare complex temporal and spatial dynamics associated with issues like climate change, effects of pollution, biodiversity and landuse. For example, McMurdo Dry Valley in the Antarctic has demonstrated an increase in glacier mass since 1993 which coincides with a period of cooler than normal summers and more than average snowfall. In contrast, the Bonanza Creek and Toolik Lake sites in Alaska have recorded a warming period unprecedented in the past 200 years. Nitrogen deposition effects have been identified through long-term watershed studies on biogeochemical cycles, especially at Coweeta Hydrological Lab, Harvard Forest, and the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest. In aquatic systems, such as the Northern Temperate Lakes site, long-term data revealed time lags in effects of invaders and disturbance on lake communities. Biological recovery from an effect such as lake acidification was shown to lag behind chemical recovery. The long-term changes documented over 2 decades have been instrumental in influencing management practices in many of the LTER areas. In Puerto Rico, the Luquillo LTER demonstrated that dams obstruct migrations of fish and freshwater shrimp and water abstraction at low flows can completely obliterate downstream migration of juveniles and damage

  20. The neuronal response at extended timescales: long-term correlations without long-term memory

    PubMed Central

    Soudry, Daniel; Meir, Ron

    2014-01-01

    Long term temporal correlations frequently appear at many levels of neural activity. We show that when such correlations appear in isolated neurons, they indicate the existence of slow underlying processes and lead to explicit conditions on the dynamics of these processes. Moreover, although these slow processes can potentially store information for long times, we demonstrate that this does not imply that the neuron possesses a long memory of its input, even if these processes are bidirectionally coupled with neuronal response. We derive these results for a broad class of biophysical neuron models, and then fit a specific model to recent experiments. The model reproduces the experimental results, exhibiting long term (days-long) correlations due to the interaction between slow variables and internal fluctuations. However, its memory of the input decays on a timescale of minutes. We suggest experiments to test these predictions directly. PMID:24744724

  1. Long-term antidepressant use: patient perspectives of benefits and adverse effects

    PubMed Central

    Cartwright, Claire; Gibson, Kerry; Read, John; Cowan, Ondria; Dehar, Tamsin

    2016-01-01

    Long-term antidepressant treatment has increased and there is evidence of adverse effects; however, little is known about patients’ experiences and views of this form of treatment. This study used mixed methods to examine patients’ views and experiences of long-term antidepressant treatment, including benefits and concerns. Data from 180 patients, who were long-term users of antidepressants (3–15 years), were extracted from an anonymous online survey of patients’ experiences of antidepressants in New Zealand. Participants had completed rating scales about the effectiveness of antidepressants, levels of depression before and during antidepressant use, quality of life, and perceived adverse effects. Two open-ended questions allowed participants to comment on personal experiences. The majority (89.4%) reported that antidepressants had improved their depression although 30% reported moderate-to-severe depression on antidepressants. Common adverse effects included withdrawal effects (73.5%), sexual problems (71.8%), and weight gain (65.3%). Adverse emotional effects, such as feeling emotionally numb (64.5%) and addicted (43%), were also common. While the majority of patients were pleased with the benefits of antidepressant treatment, many were concerned about these adverse effects. Some expressed a need for more information about long-term risks and increased information and support to discontinue. PMID:27528803

  2. Quality of life in Brazilian obese adolescents: effects of a long-term multidisciplinary lifestyle therapy

    PubMed Central

    Lofrano-Prado, Mara Cristina; Antunes, Hanna Karen Moreira; Prado, Wagner Luiz do; de Piano, Aline; Caranti, Danielle Arisa; Tock, Lian; Carnier, June; Tufik, Sergio; de Mello, Marco Túlio; Dâmaso, Ana R

    2009-01-01

    Background Obesity has adverse physical, social, and economic consequences that can negatively affect quality of life (QOL). Thus the aim of this study was to verify the effects of a long-term multidisciplinary lifestyle intervention on QOL, body image, anxiety, depression and binge eating in obese adolescents. Methods Sixty-six obese adolescents (41 girls and 25 boys; BMI: 35.62 ± 4.18 kg/m2) were recruited from the Multidisciplinary Obesity Intervention Program outpatient clinic, and were submitted to a multidisciplinary lifestyle therapy (short-term = 12 weeks and long-term = 24 weeks), composed of medical, dietary, exercise and psychological programs. Validated self-report questionnaires were used to assess symptoms of anxiety Trait/State (STAI); depression (BDI); binge eating (BES), body image dissatisfaction (BSQ) and QOL (SF-36). Data were analyzed by means of scores; comparisons were made by ANOVA for repeated measures, and Tukey's test as post-hoc and Students T test. Results Long-term therapy decreased depression and binge eating symptoms, body image dissatisfaction, and improved QOL in girls, whereas, for boys, 24 weeks, were effective to reduce anxiety trait/state and symptoms of binge eating, and to improve means of dimensions of QOL (p < .05). Conclusion A long-term multidisciplinary lifestyle therapy is effective to control psychological aspects and to improve QOL in obese adolescents. PMID:19575801

  3. Long-term antidepressant use: patient perspectives of benefits and adverse effects.

    PubMed

    Cartwright, Claire; Gibson, Kerry; Read, John; Cowan, Ondria; Dehar, Tamsin

    2016-01-01

    Long-term antidepressant treatment has increased and there is evidence of adverse effects; however, little is known about patients' experiences and views of this form of treatment. This study used mixed methods to examine patients' views and experiences of long-term antidepressant treatment, including benefits and concerns. Data from 180 patients, who were long-term users of antidepressants (3-15 years), were extracted from an anonymous online survey of patients' experiences of antidepressants in New Zealand. Participants had completed rating scales about the effectiveness of antidepressants, levels of depression before and during antidepressant use, quality of life, and perceived adverse effects. Two open-ended questions allowed participants to comment on personal experiences. The majority (89.4%) reported that antidepressants had improved their depression although 30% reported moderate-to-severe depression on antidepressants. Common adverse effects included withdrawal effects (73.5%), sexual problems (71.8%), and weight gain (65.3%). Adverse emotional effects, such as feeling emotionally numb (64.5%) and addicted (43%), were also common. While the majority of patients were pleased with the benefits of antidepressant treatment, many were concerned about these adverse effects. Some expressed a need for more information about long-term risks and increased information and support to discontinue. PMID:27528803

  4. Quality of life and changes in health insurance in long-term home care.

    PubMed

    Gaskamp, Carol D

    2004-01-01

    Changes in health insurance and concomitant changes in quality of life in patients receiving long-term home parenteral nutrition care were explored. A decrease in quality of life and increase in depression were significantly associated with a change of insurance providers. Knowing the importance of health insurance as a family economic resource, nurses working in these settings may be alert for potential socio-emotional problems when health insurance providers change or coverage is less. Policymakers also have an opportunity to ease the financial burden of long-term disease management by expanding coverage for prescription drugs in Medicare benefits.

  5. Methylphenidate amplifies long-term plasticity in the hippocampus via noradrenergic mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Dommett, Eleanor J; Henderson, Emma L; Westwell, Martin S; Greenfield, Susan A

    2008-08-01

    Methylphenidate treatment is used for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and can improve learning and memory. Previously, improvements were considered a by-product of increased attention; however, we hypothesize that methylphenidate directly alters mechanisms underlying learning and memory, and therefore examined its effects on hippocampal long-term potentiation and long-term depression. Methylphenidate enhanced both mechanisms in the absence of presynaptic changes and in a noradrenalin beta-receptor-dependent manner. These findings can explain both the improved learning and memory and decreased learning selectivity found with methylphenidate treatment and constitute the first demonstration of direct actions of methylphenidate on mechanisms implicated in cognition.

  6. Long-term infrared photometry of Seyferts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glass, I. S.

    2004-05-01

    Long-term (up to 10 000 d) monitoring has been undertaken for 41 Seyferts in the near-infrared (1.25-3.45 μm). All but two showed variability, with amplitudes at K in the range <0.1 to >1.1 mag. The time-scale for detectable change is from about one week to a few years. Where contemporary observations of variability in X-rays, ultraviolet (UV) or visible light exist, it is found that the near-infrared varies in a similar way, though in some cases the shorter-wavelength infrared (IR) bands are diluted by underlying galaxy radiation. A simple cross-correlation study indicates that there is evidence for delays of up to several hundred d between the variations seen at the shortest wavelengths (U or J) and the longest (L) in many galaxies. In particular, the data for Fairall 9 now extend to twice the interval covered in earlier publications and the delay between its UV and IR outputs is seen to persist. An analysis of the fluxes shows that, for any given galaxy, the colours of the variable component of its nucleus are usually independent of the level of activity. The state of activity of the galaxy can be parameterized. Taken over the whole sample, the colours of the variable components fall within moderately narrow ranges. In particular, the H-K colour is appropriate to a blackbody of temperature 1600 K. The H-K excess for a heavily reddened nucleus can be determined and used to find EB-V, which can be compared to the values found from the visible region broad line ratios. Using flux-flux diagrams, the flux within the aperture from the underlying galaxies can often be determined without the need for model surface brightness profiles. In many galaxies it is apparent that there must be an additional constant contribution from warm dust.

  7. LONG TERM IN SITU DISPOSAL ENGINEERING STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    ADAMS; CARLSON; BROCKMAN

    2003-07-23

    Patent application pulled per Ken Norris (FH General Counsel). The objective of this study is to devise methods, produce conceptual designs, examine and select alternatives, and estimate costs for the demonstration of long-term (300-year) in situ disposal of an existing waste disposal site. The demonstration site selected is the 216-A-24 Crib near the 200 East Area. The site contains a fission product inventory and has experienced plant, animal, and inadvertent than intrusion. Of the potential intrusive events and transport pathways at the site, potential human intrusion has been given primary consideration in barrier design. Intrusion by wind, plants, and animals has been given secondary consideration. Groundwater modeling for a number of barrier configurations has been carried out to help select a barrier that will minimize water infiltration and waste/water contact time. The estimated effective lifetime and cost of 20 barrier schemes, using a variety of materials, have been evaluated. The schemes studied include single component surface barriers, multicomponent barriers, and massively injected grout barriers. Five barriers with high estimated effective lifetimes and relatively low costs have been selected for detailed evaluation. They are basalt riprap barriers, massive soil barriers, salt basin barriers, multi-component fine/coarse barriers, and cemented basalt barriers. A variety of materials and configurations for marking the site have also been considered. A decision analysis was completed to select a barrier scheme for demonstration. The analysis indicated that the basalt riprap alternative would be the preferred choice for a full-scale demonstration. The recommended approach is to demonstrate the basalt riprap barrier at the 216-A-24 Crib as soon as possible. Methods and costs of assessing effectiveness of the demonstration are also described. Preliminary design modifications and costs for applying the five selected barrier schemes to other site types are

  8. Hormonal changes during long-term isolation.

    PubMed

    Custaud, M A; Belin de Chantemele, E; Larina, I M; Nichiporuk, I A; Grigoriev, A; Duvareille, M; Gharib, C; Gauquelin-Koch, G

    2004-05-01

    Confinement and inactivity induce considerable psychological and physiological modifications through social and sensory deprivation. The aim of the SFINCSS-99 experiment was to determine the cardiovascular and hormonal pattern of blood volume regulation during long-term isolation and confinement. Simulation experiments were performed in pressurized chambers similar in size to the volumes of modern space vehicles. Group I consisted of four Russian male volunteers, who spent 240 days in a 100-m(3 )chamber. Group II included four males (one German and three Russians) who spent 110 days in isolation (200-m(3) module). The blood samples, taken before, during and after the isolation period, were used to determine haematocrit (Ht), growth hormone (GH), active renin, aldosterone, and osmolality levels. From the urine samples, electrolytes, osmolality, nitrites, nitrates, cortisol, antidiuretic hormone (ADH), aldosterone, normetanephrine and metanephrine levels were determined. The increase in plasma volume (PV) that is associated with a tendency for a decrease in plasma active renin is likely to be due to decreased sympathetic activity, and concords with the changes in urinary catecholamine levels during confinement. Urinary catecholamine levels were significantly higher during the recovery period than during confinement. This suggests that the sympathoadrenal system was activated, and concords with the increase in heart rate. Vascular resistance is determined by not only the vasoconstrictor but also vasodilator systems. The ratio of nitrite/nitrate in urine, as an indicator of nitric oxide release, did not reveal any significant changes. Analysis of data suggests that the duration of the isolation was a main factor involved in the regulation of hormones.

  9. Long term cultivation of larger benthic Foraminifera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wöger, Julia; Eder, Wolfgang; Kinoshita, Shunichi; Antonino, Briguglio; Carles, Ferrandes-Cañadell; Hohenegger, Johann

    2015-04-01

    Benthic Foraminifera are used in a variety of applications employing numerous different methods, i.e. ecological monitoring, studying the effects of ocean acidification, reconstructing palaeo-bathymetry or investigating palaeo-salinity and palaeo-temperature to name only a few. To refine our understanding of ecological influences on larger benthic foraminiferal biology and to review inferences from field observations, culture experiments have become an indispensable tool. While culture experiments on smaller benthic foraminifera have become increasingly frequent in the past century, reports of the cultivation of symbiont bearing larger Foraminifera are rare. Generally, cultivation experiments can be divided into two groups: Culturing of populations and cultivation of single specimens allowing individual investigation. The latter differ form the former by several restrictions resulting from the need to limit individual motility without abridging microenvironmental conditions in the Foraminiferans artificial habitat, necessary to enable the individual to development as unfettered as possible. In this study we present first experiences and preliminary results of the long-term cultivation of larger benthic Foraminifera conducted at the 'Tropical Biosphere Research Station Sesoko Island, University of the Ryukyus', Japan, trying to reproduce natural conditions as closely as possible. Individuals of three species of larger benthic Foraminifera (Heterostegina depressa, Palaeonummulites venosus and Operculina complanata) have been cultured since April 2014. At the time of the general assembly the cultivation experiments will have been going on for more than one year, with the aim to investigate growth rates, longevities and reproduction strategies for comparison with results statistically inferred from application of the of the 'natural laboratory' method. The most important factor influencing foraminiferal health and development was found to be light intensity and light

  10. A new long-term care manifesto.

    PubMed

    Kane, Robert L

    2015-04-01

    This article argues for a fresh look at how we provide long-term care (LTC) for older persons. Essentially, LTC offers a compensatory service that responds to frailty. Policy debate around LTC centers on costs, but we are paying for something we really don't want. Building societal enthusiasm (or even support) for LTC will require re-inventing and re-branding. LTC has three basic components: personal care, housing, and health care (primarily chronic disease management). They can be delivered in a variety of settings. It is rare to find all three done well simultaneously. Personal care (PC) needs to be both competent and compassionate. Housing must provide at least minimal amenities and foster autonomy; when travel time for PC raises costs dramatically, some form of clustered housing may be needed. Health care must be proactive, aimed at preventing exacerbations of chronic disease and resultant hospitalizations. Enhancing preferences means allowing taking informed risks. Payment incentives should reward both quality of care and quality of life, but positive outcomes must be defined as slowing decline. Paying for services but not for housing under Medicaid would automatically level the playing field between nursing homes (NH) and community-based services. Regulations should achieve greater parity between NH and community care and include both positive and negative feedback. Providing post-acute care should be separate from LTC. Using the tripartite LTC framework, we can create innovative flexible approaches to providing needed services for frail older persons in formats that are both desirable and affordable. Such care will be more socially desirable and hence worth paying for.

  11. Trigeminal high-frequency stimulation produces short- and long-term modification of reflex blink gain

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Michael; Kaminer, Jaime; Enmore, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Reflex blinks provide a model system for investigating motor learning in normal and pathological states. We investigated whether high-frequency stimulation (HFS) of the supraorbital branch of the trigeminal nerve before the R2 blink component (HFS-B) decreases reflex blink gain in alert rats. As with humans (Mao JB, Evinger C. J Neurosci 21: RC151, 2001), HFS-B significantly reduced blink size in the first hour after treatment for rats. Repeated days of HFS-B treatment produced long-term depression of blink circuits. Blink gain decreased exponentially across days, indicating a long-term depression of blink circuits. Additionally, the HFS-B protocol became more effective at depressing blink amplitude across days of treatment. This depression was not habituation, because neither long- nor short-term blink changes occurred when HFS was presented after the R2. To investigate whether gain modifications produced by HFS-B involved cerebellar networks, we trained rats in a delay eyelid conditioning paradigm using HFS-B as the unconditioned stimulus and a tone as the conditioned stimulus. As HFS-B depresses blink circuits and delay conditioning enhances blink circuit activity, occlusion should occur if they share neural networks. Rats acquiring robust eyelid conditioning did not exhibit decreases in blink gain, whereas rats developing low levels of eyelid conditioning exhibited weak, short-term reductions in blink gain. These results suggested that delay eyelid conditioning and long-term HFS-B utilize some of the same cerebellar circuits. The ability of repeated HFS-B treatment to depress trigeminal blink circuit activity long term implied that it may be a useful protocol to reduce hyperexcitable blink circuits that underlie diseases like benign essential blepharospasm. PMID:24285868

  12. Long term property prediction of polyethylene nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaito, Ali Al-Abed

    properties of the nanocomposites was analyzed by examining tensile and creep-recovery behavior of the films at temperatures in the range of 25 to -100°C. Within the measured temperature range, the materials showed a nonlinear temperature dependent response. The time-temperature superposition principle was successfully used to predict the long term behavior of LLDPE nanocomposites.

  13. Long-Term Space Astrophysics Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nowark, Michael A.

    2001-01-01

    This is the final report for our Long-Term Space Astrophysics Program (NRA 94-OSS-12) grant NAG 5-3225. The proposal is entitled 'Spectral and Temporal Properties of Black Hole Candidates', and began funding in May 1995, and ran through 31 Aug 2000. The project summary from the original proposal was as follows: 'We will study the spectral and temporal properties of black hole candidates (BHC) by using data from archival sources (e.g., EXOSAT, Ginga, ROSAT) and proposed follow-up observations with modern instruments (e.g., ASCA, XTE). Our spectral studies will focus on identifying the basic characteristics and luminosities of the emission components in the various 'states' of BHC. We hope to understand and quantify the global energetics of these states. Our temporal studies will focus on expanding and classifying our knowledge of BHC variability properties in each state. We will explore the nature of quasi-periodic oscillations in BHC. We will combine our spectral and temporal studies by analyzing time lags and variability coherence between energy channels. In addition, we will investigate ways of correlating observed variability behavior with specific emission components.' We have accomplished many of these goals laid out within the original proposal. As originally proposed, we have utilized both archival and proprietary satellite data. In terms of archival data, we have utilized data from the Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics (ASCA), ROSAT, and the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE). We also obtained proprietary data from ASCA, RXTE, and the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE). In terms of sources, we have examined a wide variety of both galactic black hole candidates and extra-galactic black holes. For the galactic black holes we have observed and analyzed both the low/hard state and the high/soft state. We have performed both spectral and timing analyses on all of these objects. In addition, we have also examined a number of neutron stars or

  14. Long term prognosis of reactive salmonella arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Leirisalo-Repo, M; Helenius, P; Hannu, T; Lehtinen, A; Kreula, J; Taavitsainen, M; Koskimies, S

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—Reactive joint complications triggered by salmonella gastroenteritis are increasingly reported, but the outcome and long term prognosis of the patients is incompletely known. This study looked at the prognosis of salmonella arthritis in patients hospitalised in 1970-1986.
METHODS—Hospital records from two hospitals in southern Finland were screened for patients with the discharge diagnosis of salmonellosis or reactive, postinfectious arthritis or Reiter's disease. For the patients with confirmed diagnosis of reactive salmonella arthritis, data about the acute disease were collected from the hospital records. A follow up study was performed.
RESULTS—There were 63 patients (28 women, 35 men, mean age 36.5 years) with salmonella arthritis. Urethritis occurred in 27%, eye inflammation in 13%, and low back pain in 44% of the patients. HLA-B27 was present in 88%. More men than women were HLA-B27 positive. HLA-B27 positive patients had higher erythrocyte sedimentation rate (mean 80.9 v 46.5 mm 1st h, p = 0.0180). Also, extra-articular features and radiological sacroiliitis were seen only in HLA-B27 positive patients. A follow up study was performed on 50 patients mean 11.0 (range 5-22 years) later. Twenty patients had recovered completely. Ten patients had mild joint symptoms, 11 patients had had a new acute transient arthritis, and five acute iritis. Eight patients had developed chronic spondyloarthropathy. Radiological sacroiliitis was seen in six of 44 patients, more frequently in male than in female patients (32% v 0%; p = 0.0289). Recurrent or chronic arthritis, iritis or radiological sacroiliitis developed only in HLA-B27 positive patients.
CONCLUSION—Joint symptoms are common after reactive salmonella arthritis. HLA-B27 contributes to the severity of acute disease and to the late prognosis.

 PMID:9370874

  15. Long-term Nicotine Replacement Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Schnoll, Robert A.; Goelz, Patricia M.; Veluz-Wilkins, Anna; Blazekovic, Sonja; Powers, Lindsay; Leone, Frank T.; Gariti, Peter; Wileyto, E. Paul; Hitsman, Brian

    2015-01-01

    and extended treatment arms (20.3% vs 23.8%; OR, 1.17 [95% CI, 0.69-1.98]; P = .57). Similarly, we found no difference in week 52 abstinence rates between participants in the extended and standard treatment arms (26.0% vs 21.7%; OR, 1.33 [95% CI, 0.72-2.45]; P = .36). Treatment duration was not associated with any adverse effects or adherence to the counseling regimen, but participants in the maintenance treatment arm reported lower adherence to the nicotine patch regimen compared with those in the standard and extended treatment arms (mean [SD], 3.94 [2.5], 4.61 [2.0], and 4.7 [2.4] patches/wk, respectively; F2,522 = 6.03; P = .003). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE The findings support the safety of long-term use of nicotine patch treatment, although they do not support efficacy beyond 24 weeks of treatment in a broad group of smokers. TRIAL REGISTRATION clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01047527 PMID:25705872

  16. In vivo long-term synaptic plasticity of glial cells.

    PubMed

    Bélair, Eve-Lyne; Vallée, Joanne; Robitaille, Richard

    2010-04-01

    Evidence showing the ability of glial cells to detect, respond to and modulate synaptic transmission and plasticity has contributed to the notion of glial cells as active synaptic partners. However, synaptically induced plasticity of glia themselves remains ill defined. Here we used the amphibian neuromuscular junction (NMJ) to study plasticity of perisynaptic Schwann cells (PSCs), glial cells at this synapse, following long-term in vivo modifications of synaptic activity. We used two models that altered synaptic activity in different manners. First, chronic blockade of postsynaptic nicotinic receptors using alpha-bungarotoxin (alpha-BTx) decreased facilitation, increased synaptic depression and decreased post-tetanic potentiation (PTP). Second, chronic nerve stimulation increased facilitation and resistance to synaptic depression, while leaving PTP unaltered. Our results indicate that there is no direct relationship between transmitter release and PSC calcium responses. Indeed, despite changes in transmitter release and plasticity in stimulated NMJs, nerve-evoked PSC calcium responses were similar to control. Similarly, PSC calcium responses in alpha-BTx treated NMJs were delayed and smaller in amplitude, even though basal level of transmitter release was increased. Also, when isolating purinergic and muscarinic components of PSC calcium responses, we found an increased sensitivity to ATP and a decreased sensitivity to muscarine in chronically stimulated NMJs. Conversely, in alpha-BTx treated NMJs, PSC sensitivity remained unaffected, but ATP- and muscarine-induced calcium responses were prolonged. Thus, our results reveal complex modifications of PSC properties, with differential modulation of signalling pathways that might underlie receptor regulation or changes in Ca(2+) handling. Importantly, similar to neurons, perisynaptic glial cells undergo plastic changes induced by altered synaptic activity.

  17. Reforming long-term care financing through insurance

    PubMed Central

    Meiners, Mark R.

    1988-01-01

    Until recently, insurance for long-term care was not viewed as feasible. This perception has changed dramatically in the past few years. Several models of long-term care insurance have begun to be tested. Although the application of insurance principles to long-term care is still new, the emergence of private market interest in developing long-term care insurance has been a catalyst to renewed public-policy support for reforming the way we pay for long-term care. States, in particular, have become interested in developing public-private partnerships to support the emergence of long-term care insurance that could help relieve the mounting pressure on Medicaid budgets. PMID:10312962

  18. Long-Term Monitoring of Global Climate Forcings and Feedbacks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, J. (Editor); Rossow, W. (Editor); Fung, I. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    A workshop on Long-Term Monitoring of Global Climate Forcings and Feedbacks was held February 3-4, 1992, at NASA's Goddard Institute for Space Studies to discuss the measurements required to interpret long-term global temperature changes, to critique the proposed contributions of a series of small satellites (Climsat), and to identify needed complementary monitoring. The workshop concluded that long-term (several decades) of continuous monitoring of the major climate forcings and feedbacks is essential for understanding long-term climate change.

  19. Information exchange between short term and long term operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weijs, Steven

    2016-04-01

    This research focuses on the interactions between optimal short term and long term operations of managed water systems. Stochastic Dynamic Programming is used as a framework to find and analyze optimal operations. When considering optimal operations under uncertainty, the short term operations are influenced by the long term optimal policy through the value function of the end-state at the short term horizon. Conversely, the optimal long-term operations are influenced by the value of future decisions, which is partly determined by the short term operations. This leads to a two-way information flow between short and long term operations. The implications of this information flow are discussed.

  20. Long-Term Monitoring of Global Climate Forcings and Feedbacks

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, J.; Rossow, W.; Fung, I.

    1993-09-01

    A workshop on Long-Term Monitoring of Global Climate Forcings and Feedbacks was held February 3-4, 1992, at NASA's Goddard Institute for Space Studies to discuss the measurements required to interpret long-term global temperature changes, to critique the proposed contributions of a series of small satellites (Climsat), and to identify needed complementary monitoring. The workshop concluded that long-term (several decades) of continuous monitoring of the major climate forcings and feedbacks is essential for understanding long-term climate change. Separate abstracts have been prepared for articles from this report.

  1. Long-term persistence of vaccine-derived aluminum hydroxide is associated with chronic cognitive dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Couette, Maryline; Boisse, Marie-Françoise; Maison, Patrick; Brugieres, Pierre; Cesaro, Pierre; Chevalier, Xavier; Gherardi, Romain K; Bachoud-Levi, Anne-Catherine; Authier, François-Jérôme

    2009-11-01

    Macrophagic myofasciitis (MMF) is an emerging condition, characterized by specific muscle lesions assessing long-term persistence of aluminum hydroxide within macrophages at the site of previous immunization. Affected patients mainly complain of arthromyalgias, chronic fatigue, and cognitive difficulties. We designed a comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tests to prospectively delineate MMF-associated cognitive dysfunction (MACD). Compared to control patients with arthritis and chronic pain, MMF patients had pronounced and specific cognitive impairment. MACD mainly affected (i) both visual and verbal memory; (ii) executive functions, including attention, working memory, and planning; and (iii) left ear extinction at dichotic listening test. Cognitive deficits did not correlate with pain, fatigue, depression, or disease duration. Pathophysiological mechanisms underlying MACD remain to be determined. In conclusion, long-term persistence of vaccine-derived aluminum hydroxide within the body assessed by MMF is associated with cognitive dysfunction, not solely due to chronic pain, fatigue and depression.

  2. Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... make negative thinking worse. previous continue Depression Can Go Unrecognized People with depression may not realize they ... themselves or who have eating disorders or who go through extreme mood changes may have unrecognized depression. ...

  3. Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... The depression generally lifts during spring and summer. Bipolar disorder is different from depression but is included in this list is because someone with bipolar disorder experiences episodes of extreme low moods (depression). But ...

  4. Factors Affecting Long-Term Abstinence from Substances Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elsheikh, Salah Elgaily

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study is to explore the attitudes of abstainers from drug use that relate to the factors leading to long-term abstinence. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional study was carried out in Al-Amal Hospital to examine, which attitudes of abstainers related to long-term abstinence. A random survey was conducted on 62…

  5. Long Term Agroecosystem Research in the southern plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Southern Plains (SP) site of the Long Term Agroecosystem Research (LTAR) network is headquartered at USDA-ARS’s Grazinglands Research Laboratory (GRL) in El Reno, Oklahoma. The GRL was established in 1948. A long-term watershed and climate research program was established in the Little Washita ...

  6. Helping People Make Better Long-Term-Care Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Robert L.; Boston, Krista; Chilvers, Mary

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to describe an innovative online system to support long-term-care decision making. Design and Methods: The Long-Term Care Choices tool is a web-based system that uses expert opinion and structures decision making. Results: The system has been well accepted, and most users find it easy to use. Implications:…

  7. Day Care as a Long-Term Care Service Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaki, Gamel; Zaki, Sylvia

    Day care is a growing service in the field of long-term care, increasing the options available to the impaired elderly. To study the development of adult day care centers in southeastern New England, and to identify the relationship of day care centers to the long term care network of services, the 11 day care centers in the catchment area of the…

  8. 78 FR 36449 - State Long-Term Care Ombudsman Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-18

    ... from the Long- Term Care Ombudsman program with less variation in the quality, efficiency, and... State Long-Term Care Ombudsman programs (Ombudsman programs) serve as advocates for residents of nursing homes, board and care homes, assisted living facilities and similar adult care facilities. They work...

  9. 7 CFR 1773.44 - Long-term debt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Long-term debt. 1773.44 Section 1773.44 Agriculture...-term debt. The CPA's workpapers must document that he/she: (a) Confirmed RUS, FFB, and RTB debt to the...); (b) Confirmed other long-term debt directly with the lender; (c) Examined notes executed or...

  10. 7 CFR 1773.44 - Long-term debt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Long-term debt. 1773.44 Section 1773.44 Agriculture...-term debt. The CPA's workpapers must document that he/she: (a) Confirmed RUS, FFB, and RTB debt to the...); (b) Confirmed other long-term debt directly with the lender; (c) Examined notes executed or...

  11. 3 CFR - Long-Term Gulf Coast Restoration Support Plan

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Long-Term Gulf Coast Restoration Support Plan... Restoration Support Plan Memorandum for the Heads of Executive Departments and Agencies The oil spill in the... a plan of Federal support for the long-term economic and environmental restoration of the Gulf...

  12. 41 CFR 51-6.3 - Long-term procurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Long-term procurements. 51-6.3 Section 51-6.3 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public... § 51-6.3 Long-term procurements. (a) Contracting activities are encouraged to investigate...

  13. 41 CFR 51-6.3 - Long-term procurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Long-term procurements. 51-6.3 Section 51-6.3 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public... § 51-6.3 Long-term procurements. (a) Contracting activities are encouraged to investigate...

  14. 7 CFR 1773.44 - Long-term debt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Long-term debt. 1773.44 Section 1773.44 Agriculture... (CONTINUED) POLICY ON AUDITS OF RUS BORROWERS RUS Required Audit Procedures and Documentation § 1773.44 Long... 691, Confirmation Schedule—Long-term Obligation to RUS as of; or RTB Form 12, Confirmation...

  15. 7 CFR 1773.44 - Long-term debt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Long-term debt. 1773.44 Section 1773.44 Agriculture... (CONTINUED) POLICY ON AUDITS OF RUS BORROWERS RUS Required Audit Procedures and Documentation § 1773.44 Long... 691, Confirmation Schedule—Long-term Obligation to RUS as of; or RTB Form 12, Confirmation...

  16. 7 CFR 1773.44 - Long-term debt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Long-term debt. 1773.44 Section 1773.44 Agriculture... (CONTINUED) POLICY ON AUDITS OF RUS BORROWERS RUS Required Audit Procedures and Documentation § 1773.44 Long... 691, Confirmation Schedule—Long-term Obligation to RUS as of; or RTB Form 12, Confirmation...

  17. 41 CFR 51-6.3 - Long-term procurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Long-term procurements. 51-6.3 Section 51-6.3 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public... § 51-6.3 Long-term procurements. (a) Contracting activities are encouraged to investigate...

  18. 41 CFR 51-6.3 - Long-term procurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Long-term procurements. 51-6.3 Section 51-6.3 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public... § 51-6.3 Long-term procurements. (a) Contracting activities are encouraged to investigate...

  19. Standards for Psychological Services in Long-Term Care Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow-Howell, Nancy; Lichtenberg, Peter A.; Smith, Michael; Frazer, Deborah; Molinari, Victor; Rosowsky, Erlene; Crose, Royda; Stillwell, Nick; Kramer, Nanette; Hartman-Stein, Paula; Qualls, Sara; Salamon, Michael; Duffy, Michael; Parr, Joyce; Gallagher-Thompson, Dolores

    1998-01-01

    Describes the development of standards for psychological practice in long-term care facilities. The standards, which were developed by Psychologists in Long-Term Care, address provider characteristics, methods of referral, assessment practices, treatment, and ethical issues. Offers suggestions for use of the standards. (MKA)

  20. Developmental Dyslexia and Explicit Long-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menghini, Deny; Carlesimo, Giovanni Augusto; Marotta, Luigi; Finzi, Alessandra; Vicari, Stefano

    2010-01-01

    The reduced verbal long-term memory capacities often reported in dyslexics are generally interpreted as a consequence of their deficit in phonological coding. The present study was aimed at evaluating whether the learning deficit exhibited by dyslexics was restricted only to the verbal component of the long-term memory abilities or also involved…

  1. Elder Rights and the Long-Term Care Ombudsman Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Netting, F. Ellen; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examines important issues facing the Long-Term Care Ombudsman Program. Provides a historical overview of the policy and programmatic and research issues that surround the Older Americans Act. Explains ombudsmen's activities in their local communities and explores social workers' roles under the auspices of long-term care ombudsman programs. (RJM)

  2. The relationship between interannual and long-term cloud feedbacks

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Chen; Zelinka, Mark D.; Dessler, Andrew E.; Klein, Stephen A.

    2015-12-11

    The analyses of Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 simulations suggest that climate models with more positive cloud feedback in response to interannual climate fluctuations also have more positive cloud feedback in response to long-term global warming. Ensemble mean vertical profiles of cloud change in response to interannual and long-term surface warming are similar, and the ensemble mean cloud feedback is positive on both timescales. However, the average long-term cloud feedback is smaller than the interannual cloud feedback, likely due to differences in surface warming pattern on the two timescales. Low cloud cover (LCC) change in response to interannual and long-term global surface warming is found to be well correlated across models and explains over half of the covariance between interannual and long-term cloud feedback. In conclusion, the intermodel correlation of LCC across timescales likely results from model-specific sensitivities of LCC to sea surface warming.

  3. Long-Term Dynamics of Autonomous Fractional Differential Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Tao; Xu, Wei; Xu, Yong; Han, Qun

    This paper aims to investigate long-term dynamic behaviors of autonomous fractional differential equations with effective numerical method. The long-term dynamic behaviors predict where systems are heading after long-term evolution. We make some modification and transplant cell mapping methods to autonomous fractional differential equations. The mapping time duration of cell mapping is enlarged to deal with the long memory effect. Three illustrative examples, i.e. fractional Lotka-Volterra equation, fractional van der Pol oscillator and fractional Duffing equation, are studied with our revised generalized cell mapping method. We obtain long-term dynamics, such as attractors, basins of attraction, and saddles. Compared with some existing stability and numerical results, the validity of our method is verified. Furthermore, we find that the fractional order has its effect on the long-term dynamics of autonomous fractional differential equations.

  4. [Long-term care insurance in taiwan: theory and challenges].

    PubMed

    Lee, Jwo-Leun; Lung, Chi-Hsuan; Liu, Li-Fan

    2010-08-01

    Long-term care insurance, now being intensively discussed as part of the formal governmental agenda, is widely expected to be inaugurated by 2011. As all entitled citizens will be enrolled compulsorily in accordance with social insurance rules, tight scrutiny in the planning process is strongly advised. Equity of financial mechanisms and the efficiency of the delivery system for long-term care should also be carefully considered and maximized. This study explores major empirical suggestions for Taiwan's long-term care insurance scheme from a primarily theoretical point of view. The three relevant issues deliberated in this paper include risk sharing and financial equity in long-term care insurance and long-term care system delivery efficiency. Content focuses on concepts that may be easily misunderstood or misinterpreted by medical professionals.

  5. Environmental Management Long-Term Stewardship Transition Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Kristofferson, Keith

    2001-11-01

    Long-term stewardship consists of those actions necessary to maintain and demonstrate continued protection of human health and the environment after the completion of facility cleanup. Long-term stewardship is administered and overseen by the U.S. Department of Energy Environmental Management Office of Science and Technology. This report describes the background of long-term stewardship and gives general guidance about considerations when ownership and/or responsibility of a site should be transferred to a long-term stewardship program. This guidance document will assist the U.S. Department of Energy in: (a) ensuring that the long-term stewardship program leads transition planning with respect to facility and site areas, and (b) describing the classes and types of criteria and data required to initiate transition for areas and sites where the facility mission has ended and cleanup is complete.

  6. The relationship between interannual and long-term cloud feedbacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Chen; Zelinka, Mark D.; Dessler, Andrew E.; Klein, Stephen A.

    2015-12-01

    Analyses of Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 simulations suggest that climate models with more positive cloud feedback in response to interannual climate fluctuations also have more positive cloud feedback in response to long-term global warming. Ensemble mean vertical profiles of cloud change in response to interannual and long-term surface warming are similar, and the ensemble mean cloud feedback is positive on both timescales. However, the average long-term cloud feedback is smaller than the interannual cloud feedback, likely due to differences in surface warming pattern on the two timescales. Low cloud cover (LCC) change in response to interannual and long-term global surface warming is found to be well correlated across models and explains over half of the covariance between interannual and long-term cloud feedback. The intermodel correlation of LCC across timescales likely results from model-specific sensitivities of LCC to sea surface warming.

  7. The Womanly World of Long Term Care: The Plight of the Long Term Care Worker. Gray Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Older Women's League, Washington, DC.

    Long-term care workers (those who are paid to provide custodial care for long-term patients in nursing homes or at home) must care for a growing number of increasingly disabled or dependent persons. They are working for agencies and institutions under growing pressure to increase productivity. They face new training and competency requirements,…

  8. Role of healthcare in Korean long-term care insurance.

    PubMed

    Kang, Im-Oak; Park, Chong Yon; Lee, Yunhwan

    2012-05-01

    With the rapid aging of the population, Korea introduced public long-term care insurance for older people in 2008. The long-term care insurance was designed as a separate scheme from the national health insurance, with eligibility qualifications and the certification process based on functional disability, benefits and coverage of community-based and institutional care, and a financing structure through multi-party contributions. Delivering appropriate health services to long-term care beneficiaries who manifest a high prevalence of comorbid chronic conditions with rising healthcare costs, however, presents a particular challenge. The lack of coordination between the health and long-term care sectors, limited consideration of physicians' assessments in the certification process, inadequate provision of health services in long-term care facilities, and overlapping and inefficient use of care resources act as barriers to providing comprehensive healthcare for older beneficiaries. Through active participation in the long-term care system, health professionals can help older patients navigate through the complex long-term care terrain to obtain quality healthcare.

  9. Long-Term Stewardship Baseline Report and Transition Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Kristofferson, Keith

    2001-11-01

    Long-term stewardship consists of those actions necessary to maintain and demonstrate continued protection of human health and the environment after facility cleanup is complete. As the Department of Energy’s (DOE) lead laboratory for environmental management programs, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) administers DOE’s long-term stewardship science and technology efforts. The INEEL provides DOE with technical, and scientific expertise needed to oversee its long-term environmental management obligations complexwide. Long-term stewardship is administered and overseen by the Environmental Management Office of Science and Technology. The INEEL Long-Term Stewardship Program is currently developing the management structures and plans to complete INEEL-specific, long-term stewardship obligations. This guidance document (1) assists in ensuring that the program leads transition planning for the INEEL with respect to facility and site areas and (2) describes the classes and types of criteria and data required to initiate transition for areas and sites where the facility mission has ended and cleanup is complete. Additionally, this document summarizes current information on INEEL facilities, structures, and release sites likely to enter long-term stewardship at the completion of DOE’s cleanup mission. This document is not intended to function as a discrete checklist or local procedure to determine readiness to transition. It is an overarching document meant as guidance in implementing specific transition procedures. Several documents formed the foundation upon which this guidance was developed. Principal among these documents was the Long-Term Stewardship Draft Technical Baseline; A Report to Congress on Long-Term Stewardship, Volumes I and II; Infrastructure Long-Range Plan; Comprehensive Facility Land Use Plan; INEEL End-State Plan; and INEEL Institutional Plan.

  10. Space ventures and society long-term perspectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, W. M.

    1985-01-01

    A futuristic evaluation of mankind's potential long term future in space is presented. Progress in space will not be inhibited by shortages of the Earth's physical resources, since long term economic growth will be focused on ways to constrain industrial productivity by changing social values, management styles, or government competence. Future technological progress is likely to accelerate with an emphasis on international cooperation, making possible such large joint projects as lunar colonies or space stations on Mars. The long term future in space looks exceedingly bright even in relatively pessimistic scenarios. The principal driving forces will be technological progress, commercial and public-oriented satellites, space industrialization, space travel, and eventually space colonization.

  11. Correlates and Long-Term Consequences of Poor Insight in Patients With Schizophrenia. A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Lincoln, Tania M.; Lüllmann, Eva; Rief, Winfried

    2007-01-01

    Between 50 and 80% of the patients diagnosed with schizophrenia have been shown to be partially or totally lacking insight into the presence of their mental disorder. Although a causal chain connecting poor insight with poor treatment adherence and thus with poorer outcome and functioning is straight forward, numerous studies investigating correlates and long-term impact of insight have provided differing results. In addition, higher levels of insight in schizophrenia have been associated with depression and hopelessness, but the causal direction of the relationship is unclear and the data are inconclusive. The current study provides a critical review of 88 studies on the assessment of insight and its impact on symptoms and functioning. Studies published by June 2006 were selected using a keyword search for English peer-reviewed articles in the databases PsycINFO and MEDLINE. The majority of studies support the assumption that insight is associated with adherence during treatment phase, but the association with long-term adherence remains unclear. Insight correlates with better long-term functioning, but this might be explained by its association with symptoms. There is a positive cross-sectional and longitudinal relationship between insight and depression, but the underlying processes need further clarification. In the concluding discussion, the problems relating to definition and study designs are considered responsible for many of the inconclusive findings. Suggestions for further research are derived. PMID:17289653

  12. Earth's Long-Term Warming Trend, 1880-2015

    NASA Video Gallery

    This visualization illustrates Earth’s long-term warming trend, showing temperature changes from 1880 to 2015 as a rolling five-year average. Orange colors represent temperatures that are warmer th...

  13. Malaria prophylaxis in long-term expatriate mineworkers in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Fegan, D; Glennon, J

    1993-08-01

    The role of malaria chemoprophylaxis for long-term expatriates has not been re-evaluated since the emergence of widespread multidrug resistance. A survey of 106 expatriates working in a mine in Ghana (holoendemic for malaria) was conducted to determine the compliance with malaria chemoprophylaxis. Overall 64 per cent took regular chemoprophylaxis. Of the long-term expatriates (5 or more years in areas with holoendemic malaria), 48.4 per cent either took malaria prophylaxis very irregularly or not at all. The main reasons for failing to comply were fear of long-term side effects and conflicting advice on prophylaxis. This reluctance to take long-term chemoprophylaxis highlights the need to re-emphasise the importance of anti-mosquito measures, prompt treatment of fevers, and perhaps consider abandoning chemoprophylaxis in those expatriate workers with ready access to hospital care.

  14. Biogeochemistry: Long-term effects of permafrost thaw

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zona, Donatella

    2016-09-01

    Carbon emissions from the Arctic tundra could increase drastically as global warming thaws permafrost. Clues now obtained about the long-term effects of such thawing on carbon dioxide emissions highlight the need for more data.

  15. Long-term Outcomes of Childhood Onset Nephrotic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hjorten, Rebecca; Anwar, Zohra; Reidy, Kimberly Jean

    2016-01-01

    There are limited studies on long-term outcomes of childhood onset nephrotic syndrome (NS). A majority of children with NS have steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome (SSNS). Steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) is associated with a high risk of developing end-stage renal disease. Biomarkers and analysis of genetic mutations may provide new information for prognosis in SRNS. Frequently relapsing and steroid-dependent NS is associated with long-term complications, including dyslipidemia, cataracts, osteoporosis and fractures, obesity, impaired growth, and infertility. Long-term complications of SSNS are likely to be under-recognized. There remain many gaps in our knowledge of long-term outcomes of childhood NS, and further study is indicated. PMID:27252935

  16. Long-Term Quiescent Fibroblast Cells Transit into Senescence

    PubMed Central

    Marthandan, Shiva; Priebe, Steffen; Hemmerich, Peter; Klement, Karolin; Diekmann, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    Cellular senescence is described to be a consequence of telomere erosion during the replicative life span of primary human cells. Quiescence should therefore not contribute to cellular aging but rather extend lifespan. Here we tested this hypothesis and demonstrate that cultured long-term quiescent human fibroblasts transit into senescence due to similar cellular mechanisms with similar dynamics and with a similar maximum life span as proliferating controls, even under physiological oxygen conditions. Both, long-term quiescent and senescent fibroblasts almost completely fail to undergo apoptosis. The transition of long-term quiescent fibroblasts into senescence is also independent of HES1 which protects short-term quiescent cells from becoming senescent. Most significantly, DNA damage accumulates during senescence as well as during long-term quiescence at physiological oxygen levels. We suggest that telomere-independent, potentially maintenance driven gradual induction of cellular senescence during quiescence is a counterbalance to tumor development. PMID:25531649

  17. Long-term memories in online users' selecting activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Xue; Hou, Lei; Stephen, Mutua; Yang, Huijie

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, we investigate the long-term memory effect in the behavior of online users. Two user-oriented online movie systems are used in this study. Due to the short length of the series, the balanced estimation of diffusion entropy approach is used to evaluate scaling-invariance in selecting activities of users in the two online movie systems. Our results indicate that persistence (long-term memory) exists widely in the movie selecting series. However, there is generally significant difference between a user's objective and subjective behaviors. Additionally, statistically, the long-term memory depends on activity levels, as results show that the much more active a users' group, the stronger the long-term memory will be. These findings provide a new criterion for constructing reasonable models, and can help understand how individuals' behaviors form a collective behavior of an online society.

  18. Long-Term Ecological Monitoring Field Sampling Plan for 2007

    SciTech Connect

    T. Haney R. VanHorn

    2007-07-31

    This field sampling plan describes the field investigations planned for the Long-Term Ecological Monitoring Project at the Idaho National Laboratory Site in 2007. This plan and the Quality Assurance Project Plan for Waste Area Groups 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 10, and Removal Actions constitute the sampling and analysis plan supporting long-term ecological monitoring sampling in 2007. The data collected under this plan will become part of the long-term ecological monitoring data set that is being collected annually. The data will be used t determine the requirements for the subsequent long-term ecological monitoring. This plan guides the 2007 investigations, including sampling, quality assurance, quality control, analytical procedures, and data management. As such, this plan will help to ensure that the resulting monitoring data will be scientifically valid, defensible, and of known and acceptable quality.

  19. Long-term monitoring for nanomedicine implants and drugs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendall, Michaela; Lynch, Iseult

    2016-03-01

    Increasing globalization means that traditional occupational epidemiological approaches may no longer apply, suggesting a need for an alternative model to assess the long-term impact of nanomaterial exposure on health.

  20. The market for long-term care services.

    PubMed

    Grabowski, David C

    2008-01-01

    Although a large literature has established the importance of market and regulatory forces within the long-term care sector, current research in this field is limited by a series of data, measurement, and methodological issues. This paper provides a comprehensive review of these issues with an emphasis on identifying initiatives that will increase the volume and quality of long-term care research. Recommendations include: the construction of standard measures of long-term care market boundaries, the broader dissemination of market and regulatory data, the linkage of survey-based data with market measures, the encouragement of further market-based studies of noninstitutional long-term care settings, and the standardization of Medicaid cost data. PMID:18524292

  1. Examining Long-Term Global Climate Change on the Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huntoon, Jacqueline E.; Ridky, Robert K.

    2002-01-01

    Describes a web-based, inquiry-oriented activity that enables students to examine long-term global climate change. Supports instruction in other topics such as population growth. (Contains 34 references.) (DDR)

  2. The Long Term Agroecosystem Research Network - Shared research strategy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agriculture faces tremendous challenges in meeting multiple societal goals, including a safe and plentiful food supply; climate change adaptation and mitigation; supplying sources of bioenergy; improving water, air, and soil quality; and maintaining biodiversity. The Long Term Agroecosystem Research...

  3. Long-term Career Goals for Professional Women in Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klepper, Betty

    1986-01-01

    Encourages the formation of long-term career goals for women in agronomy. Offers perspectives and practical suggestions for obtaining positions, maintaining professional credentials, and managing personal and career related obligations. (ML)

  4. Endoscopic Management of Attic Cholesteatoma: Long-Term Results.

    PubMed

    Alicandri-Ciufelli, Matteo; Marchioni, Daniele; Kakehata, Seiji; Presutti, Livio; Villari, Domenico

    2016-10-01

    The main application of endoscopic surgery relies on the middle ear cholesteatoma surgical treatment, although for a definitive validation and acceptance by scientific community, long-term results are needed about recurrent and residual rates of the pathology. The aim of the present paper was to analyze the single institution experience with the long-term results of surgical treatment of attic cholesteatoma. PMID:27565391

  5. Long-term effects of sludge application to land

    SciTech Connect

    Geertsema, W.S. ); Knocke, W.R.; Novak, J.T.; Dove, D. . Dept. of Civil Engineering)

    1994-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term environmental effects of applying alum sludge to land. Investigations at the original field site included soil analysis, soil water monitoring, groundwater monitoring, and analysis of tissues from pine needles. No long-term (30 months) effects were observed, and the authors conclude that alum coagulant sludges can be applied to forest lands at loading rates of at least 1.5 to 2.5% by dry weight without adverse effect.

  6. Influenza in long-term care facilities: preventable, detectable, treatable.

    PubMed

    Mossad, Sherif B

    2009-09-01

    Influenza in long-term care facilities is an ever more challenging problem. Vaccination of residents and health care workers is the most important preventive measure. Although vaccine efficacy has been questioned, the preponderance of data favors vaccination. Antiviral resistance complicates postexposure chemoprophylaxis and treatment. Factors that limit the choice of antiviral agents in this patient population include limited vaccine supplies and impaired dexterity and confusion in long-term care residents. PMID:19726556

  7. Maintaining Engagement in Long-term Interventions with Relational Agents

    PubMed Central

    Bickmore, Timothy; Schulman, Daniel; Yin, Langxuan

    2011-01-01

    We discuss issues in designing virtual humans for applications which require long-term voluntary use, and the problem of maintaining engagement with users over time. Concepts and theories related to engagement from a variety of disciplines are reviewed. We describe a platform for conducting studies into long-term interactions between humans and virtual agents, and present the results of two longitudinal randomized controlled experiments in which the effect of manipulations of agent behavior on user engagement was assessed. PMID:21318052

  8. Therapist-Assisted, Self-Administered Bibliotherapy to Enhance Parental Competence: Short- and Long-Term Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hahlweg, Kurt; Heinrichs, Nina; Kuschel, Annett; Feldmann, Marit

    2008-01-01

    The efficacy of bibliotherapy has primarily been investigated in anxiety disorders, depression, or substance dependence. The efficacy of self-help books to increase parenting competence was only investigated in a few studies despite their broad dissemination in public. The aims of the study were to investigate the short- and long-term efficacy of…

  9. Long-Term Outcomes of War-Related Death of Family Members in Kosovar Civilian War Survivors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morina, Nexhmedin; Reschke, Konrad; Hofmann, Stefan G.

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to war-related experiences can comprise a broad variety of experiences and the very nature of certain war-related events has generally been neglected. To examine the long-term outcomes of war-related death of family members, the authors investigated the prevalence rates of major depressive episode (MDE), anxiety disorders, and quality of…

  10. Commentary: The Broader Context of Long-Term Care Ethics.

    PubMed

    Lesandrini, Jason; O'Connell, Carol

    2016-07-01

    Ethical issues in long-term care settings, although having received attention in the literature, have not in our opinion received the appropriate level they require. Thus, we applaud the Cambridge Quarterly for publishing this case. We can attest to the significance of ethical issues arising in long-term care facilities, as Mr. Hope's case is all too familiar to those practicing in these settings. What is unique about this case is that an actual ethics consult was made in a long-term care setting. We have seen very little in the published literature on the use of ethics structures in long-term care populations. Our experience is that these healthcare settings are ripe for ethical concerns and that providers, patients, families, and staff need/desire ethics resources to actively and preventively address ethical concerns. The popular press has begun to recognize the ethical issues involved in long-term care settings and the need for ethics structures. Recently, in California a nurse refused to initiate CPR for an elderly patient in a senior residence. In that case, the nurse was quoted as saying that the facility had a policy that nurses were not to start CPR for elderly patients. 1 Although this case is not exactly the same as that of Mr. Hope, it highlights the need for developing robust ethics program infrastructures in long-term care settings that work toward addressing ethical issues through policy, education, and active consultation.

  11. Private Financing Options for Long-term Care

    PubMed Central

    Brody, Barbara L.; Simon, Harold J.; Smallwood, Dennis E.

    1987-01-01

    Private financing for long-term care now comes almost exclusively from out-of-pocket payments. Long-term-care costs quickly impoverish most elderly, resulting in Medicaid dependency. The consequences are profound for the western Sun Belt with its rapidly growing elderly population. Key private financing options are long-term-care individual retirement accounts (LTC/IRAs), home equity conversion, social-health maintenance organizations and long-term-care insurance. Study of data from the past half century suggests that the LTC/IRA approach would prove unsatisfactory for the purpose despite the intuitive appeal of this mechanism. Experience with home equity conversions is still very limited, and unresolved questions limit this approach to the role of a reserve option for now. While promising, social-health maintenance organizations are still in the experimental stages and not yet commercially available. Long-term-care insurance is currently sold on a thin market and emphasizes nursing home coverage. New approaches to private financing through long-term-care insurance seem to offer the best approach for immediate implementation. PMID:3118576

  12. Depression.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Donna E; Gucciardi, Enza; Grace, Sherry L

    2004-08-25

    HEALTH ISSUE: Depression causes significant distress or impairment in physical, social, occupational and other key areas of functioning. Women are approximately twice as likely as men to experience depression. Psychosocial factors likely mediate the risks for depression incurred by biological influences. KEY FINDINGS: Data from the 1999 National Population Health Survey show that depression is more common among Canadian women, with an annual self-reported incidence of 5.7% compared with 2.9% in men. The highest rates of depression are seen among women of reproductive age. Predictive factors for depression include previous depression, feeling out of control or overwhelmed, chronic health problems, traumatic events in childhood or young adulthood, lack of emotional support, lone parenthood, and low sense of mastery. Although depression is treatable, only 43% of depressed women had consulted a health professional in 1998/99 and only 32.4% were taking antidepressant medication. People with lower education, inadequate income, and fewer contacts with a health professional were less likely to receive depression treatment. DATA GAPS AND RECOMMENDATIONS: A better understanding of factors that increase vulnerability and resilience to depression is needed. There is also a need for the collection and analysis of data pertaining to: prevalence of clinical anxiety; the prevalence of depression band 12 months after childbirth factors contributing to suicide contemplation and attempts among adolescent girls, current treatments for depression and their efficacy in depressed women at different life stages; interprovincial variation in depression rates and hospitalizations and the impact and costs of depression on work, family, individuals, and society.

  13. Dopaminergic modulation of long-term synaptic plasticity in rat prefrontal neurons.

    PubMed

    Otani, Satoru; Daniel, Hérve; Roisin, Marie-Paule; Crepel, Francis

    2003-11-01

    In rat prefrontal cortex (the prelimbic area of medial frontal cortex), the induction of long-term depression (LTD) and long-term potentiation (LTP) of glutamatergic synapses is powerfully modulated by dopamine. The presence of dopamine in the bathing medium facilitates LTD in slice preparations, whereas in the anesthetized intact brain, dopamine released from dopaminergic axon terminals in the prefrontal cortex facilitates LTP. Dopaminergic facilitation of LTD is at least partly achieved by postsynaptic biochemical mechanisms in which enzymatic processes triggered by dopamine receptor activation cooperate with those triggered by glutamate metabotropic receptor activation. Evidence suggests that dopamine facilitates LTP also in the slice condition. In this case, dopamine receptors must be pre-stimulated ('primed') before the application of high-frequency stimuli in the presence of dopamine. This procedure may mimic baseline stimulation of dopamine receptors that occurs under physiological conditions.

  14. Long-term functional recovery and compensation after cerebral ischemia in rats

    PubMed Central

    Girard, Sylvie; Murray, Katie N.; Rothwell, Nancy J.; Metz, Gerlinde A.S.; Allan, Stuart M.

    2014-01-01

    Cerebral ischemia is one of the most common causes of disabilities in adults and leads to long-term motor and cognitive impairments with limited therapeutic possibilities. Treatment options have proven efficient in preclinical models of cerebral ischemia but have failed in the clinical setting. This limited translation may be due to the suitability of models used and outcomes measured as most studies have focused on the early period after injury with gross motor scales, which have limited correlation to the clinical situation. The aim of this study was to determine long-term functional outcomes after cerebral ischemia in rats, focusing on fine motor function, social and depressive behavior as clinically relevant measures. A secondary objective was to evaluate the effects of an anti-inflammatory treatment (interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra)) on functional recovery and compensation. Infarct volume was correlated with long-term (25 days) impairments in fine motor skills, but not with emotional components of behavior. Motor impairments could not be detected using conventional neurological tests and only detailed analysis allowed differentiation between recovery and compensation. Acute systemic administration of IL-1Ra (at reperfusion) led to a faster and more complete recovery, but delayed (24 h) IL-1Ra treatment had no effect. In summary functional assessment after brain injury requires detailed motor tests in order to address long-term impairments and compensation processes that are mediated by intact tissues. Functional deficits in skilled movement after brain injury represent ideal predictors of long-term outcomes and should become standard measures in the assessment of preclinical animal models. PMID:24821402

  15. Long-term care insurance in Japan: implications for U.S. long-term care policy.

    PubMed

    Houde, Susan Crocker; Gautam, Ramraj; Kai, Ichiro

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the long-term care insurance program in Japan and the present system of payment of long-term care services in the United States. The long-term care insurance system in Japan was implemented in 2001 for the purpose of promoting independence in older adults with functional disability. It reimburses for both home and institutional care. Several concerns expressed about the Japanese system include increasing applications for nursing home placement, lower use of home care services than anticipated, limited coverage for disabilities for those under 65, regional variations in service, educational preparation for case managers, and access to care for older adults. Revisions to the Japanese system and implications for U.S. long-term care policy are discussed.

  16. Long-term psychosocial and behavioral adjustment in individuals receiving genetic test results in Lynch syndrome.

    PubMed

    Esplen, M J; Wong, J; Aronson, M; Butler, K; Rothenmund, H; Semotiuk, K; Madlensky, L; Way, C; Dicks, E; Green, J; Gallinger, S

    2015-06-01

    A cross-sectional study of 155 participants who underwent genetic testing for Lynch syndrome (LS) examined long-term psychosocial and behavioral outcomes. Participants completed standardized measures of perceived risk, psychosocial functioning, knowledge, and a questionnaire of screening activities. Participants were on average 47.3 years and had undergone testing a mean of 5.5 years prior. Eighty four (54%) tested positive for a LS mutation and 71 (46%) negative. For unaffected carriers, perceived lifetime risk of colorectal cancer was 68%, and surprisingly, 40% among those testing negative. Most individuals demonstrated normative levels of psychosocial functioning. However, 25% of those testing negative had moderate depressive symptoms, as measured by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies for Depression Scale, and 31% elevated state anxiety on the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Being female and a stronger escape - avoidant coping style were predictive of depressive symptoms. For state anxiety, similar patterns were observed. Quality of life and social support were significantly associated with lower anxiety. Carriers maintained higher knowledge compared to those testing negative, and were more engaged in screening. In summary, most individuals adapt to genetic test results over the long term and continue to engage in screening. A subgroup, including some non-carriers, may require added psychosocial support. PMID:25297893

  17. Long-term Psychosocial and Behavioral Adjustment in Individuals Receiving Genetic Test Results in Lynch Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Esplen, MJ; Wong, J; Aronson, M; Butler, K; Rothenmund, H; Semotiuk, K; Madlensky, L; Way, C; Dicks, E; Green, J; Gallinger, S

    2014-01-01

    A cross-sectional study of 155 participants who underwent genetic testing for Lynch Syndrome (LS) examined long-term psychosocial and behavioral outcomes. Participants completed standardized measures of perceived risk, psychosocial functioning, knowledge, and a questionnaire of screening activities. Participants were on average 47.3 years and had undergone testing a mean of 5.5 years prior. Eighty four (54%) tested positive for a LS mutation and 71 (46%) negative. For unaffected carriers, perceived lifetime risk of colorectal cancer was 68%, and surprisingly, 40% among those testing negative. Most individuals demonstrated normative levels of psychosocial functioning. However, 25% of those testing negative had moderate depressive symptoms, as measured by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies for Depression Scale, and 31% elevated state anxiety on the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Being female and a stronger escape – avoidant coping style were predictive of depressive symptoms. For state anxiety, similar patterns were observed. Quality of life and social support were significantly associated with lower anxiety. Carriers maintained higher knowledge compared to those testing negative, and were more engaged in screening. In summary, most individuals adapt to genetic test results over the long term and continue to engage in screening. A subgroup, including some non-carriers, may require added psychosocial support. PMID:25297893

  18. Long-term use of benzodiazepines and related drugs among community-dwelling individuals with and without Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Taipale, Heidi; Koponen, Marjaana; Tanskanen, Antti; Tolppanen, Anna-Maija; Tiihonen, Jari; Hartikainen, Sirpa

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of benzodiazepine and related drug (BZDR) use, especially long-term use, and associated factors among community-dwelling individuals with and without Alzheimer's disease (AD). We utilized data from the MEDALZ-2005 cohort, which includes all community-dwelling individuals diagnosed with AD in Finland at the end of 2005 and matched comparison individuals without AD. Register-based data included prescription drug purchases, comorbidities, and hospital discharge diagnoses. In this study, 24,966 individuals with AD and 24,985 individuals without AD were included. During the 4-year follow-up, we found that 45% (N = 11,312) of individuals with AD and 38% (N = 9534) of individuals without AD used BZDRs. The prevalence of long-term (≥ 180 days) BZDR use was more common among individuals with AD (30%) than individuals without AD (26%). The median durations of the first long-term use periods of BZDRs were 1.5 and 2 years for individuals with and without AD, respectively. Factors associated with long-term BZDR use included female sex, AD, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression, coronary artery disease, and asthma/chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The high prevalence of long-term BZDR use among individuals with AD is especially a cause for concern because long-term use may further impair cognition and may be associated with serious adverse events. PMID:26011780

  19. Rural long-term care work, gender, and restructuring.

    PubMed

    Leach, Belinda; Joseph, Gillian

    2011-06-01

    Restructuring--the introduction of changes that alter the way health care is delivered for maximum efficiency and least cost--layered with rurality and with rural gender ideologies and practices, results in rural long-term care settings that have particular consequences for the women working in them, and for the residents and communities that they serve. This research investigated how rurality affects the implementation of patient classification in Ontario long-term care homes. Methods involved interviews and focus groups with front-line long-term care workers, administrators, and key participants. The findings revealed that rural long-term care delivery takes place when a restructured work environment intersects with gender ideologies and practices that take on particular characteristics when developed and sustained in a rural context. These factors shape the labor market and working conditions for rural women. We argue that this produces a uniquely rural experience for long-term care workers and conclude that those implementing classification systems must consider contextual factors as well as practical and financial exigencies. PMID:24650670

  20. Wnt signaling is required for long-term memory formation

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Ying; Yu, Dinghui; Busto, Germain U.; Wilson, Curtis; Davis, Ronald L.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Wnt signaling regulates synaptic plasticity and neurogenesis in the adult nervous system, suggesting a potential role in behavioral processes. Here, we probed the requirement for Wnt signaling during olfactory memory formation in Drosophila using an inducible RNA interference approach. Interfering with β-catenin expression in the adult mushroom body neurons specifically impaired long-term memory without altering short-term memory. The impairment was reversible, rescued with expression of a wild-type β-catenin transgene, and correlated with a disruption of a cellular long-term memory trace. Inhibition of wingless, a Wnt ligand, and arrow, a Wnt co-receptor, also impaired long-term memory. Wingless expression in wild type flies was transiently elevated in the brain after long-term memory conditioning. Thus, inhibiting three key components of the Wnt signaling pathway in the adult mushroom bodies impairs long-term memory, collectively indicating that this pathway mechanistically underlies this specific form of memory. PMID:24035392

  1. The relationship between interannual and long-term cloud feedbacks

    DOE PAGES

    Zhou, Chen; Zelinka, Mark D.; Dessler, Andrew E.; Klein, Stephen A.

    2015-12-11

    The analyses of Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 simulations suggest that climate models with more positive cloud feedback in response to interannual climate fluctuations also have more positive cloud feedback in response to long-term global warming. Ensemble mean vertical profiles of cloud change in response to interannual and long-term surface warming are similar, and the ensemble mean cloud feedback is positive on both timescales. However, the average long-term cloud feedback is smaller than the interannual cloud feedback, likely due to differences in surface warming pattern on the two timescales. Low cloud cover (LCC) change in response to interannual andmore » long-term global surface warming is found to be well correlated across models and explains over half of the covariance between interannual and long-term cloud feedback. In conclusion, the intermodel correlation of LCC across timescales likely results from model-specific sensitivities of LCC to sea surface warming.« less

  2. Epilepsy-related long-term amnesia: anatomical perspectives.

    PubMed

    Butler, Chris; Kapur, Narinder; Zeman, Adam; Weller, Roy; Connelly, Alan

    2012-11-01

    There are few clues as to the neural basis of selective long-term amnesia. We report group and single-case data to shed light on this issue. In a group study of patients with transient epileptic amnesia, there were no significant correlations between volumetric measures of the hippocampus and indices of accelerated long-term forgetting or longer-term autobiographical memory loss. Post-mortem investigations in a patient with temporal lobe epilepsy who showed accelerated long-term forgetting, together with a degree of autobiographical memory loss, yielded evidence of neuronal loss and gliosis in regions of both the right and the left hippocampus. Neuronal loss and gliosis were more evident in anterior than posterior hippocampus. These results indicate that the unusual forms of long-term forgetting seen in some patients with temporal lobe epilepsy have no gross anatomical correlate. The findings leave open the possibilities that subtle structural damage or subtle functional disturbance, perhaps in the form of subclinical epileptiform activity, underly epilepsy-related long-term amnesia.

  3. Characteristics of Long-Term Survivors of Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cress, Rosemary D.; Chen, Yingjia S.; Morris, Cyllene R.; Petersen, Megan; Leiserowitz, Gary S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To identify characteristics associated with long-term survival forepithelial ovarian cancer patients using the California Cancer Registry. Methods A descriptive analysis of survival of all California residents diagnosed with epithelial ovarian cancer between 1994 and 2001 was conducted using patients identified through the cancer registry with follow up through 2011. Characteristics of the patients who survived more than 10 years (long-term survivors) were compared to three other cohorts: patients who survived less than 2 years, those who survived at least 2 but no more than 5 years, and those who survived at least 5 but no more than 10 years. Results A total of 3,582 out of 11,541 (31% CI=30.2%, 31.8%) of the patients survived more than 10 years. Younger age, early stage, low-grade, and non-serous histology were significant predictors of long-term survival, but long-term survivors also included women with high-risk cancer. Conclusion Long-term survival is not unusual in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer, even in those with high-risk disease. Many of the prognostic factors are well known, but it remains to be determined why some patients with advanced stage high-grade cancers survive longer than others with the same histology. These findings are important for patient counseling. PMID:26244529

  4. Method for Water Management Considering Long-term Probabilistic Forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, J.; Kang, J.; Suh, A. S.

    2015-12-01

    This research is aimed at predicting the monthly inflow of the Andong-dam basin in South Korea using long-term probabilistic forecasts to apply long-term forecasts to water management. Forecasted Cumulative Distribution Functions (CDFs) of monthly precipitation are plotted by combining the range of monthly precipitation based on proper Probability Density Function (PDF) in past data with probabilistic forecasts in each category. Ensembles of inflow are estimated by entering generated ensembles of precipitation based on the CDFs into the 'abcd' water budget model. The bias and RMSE between averages in past data and observed inflow are compared to them in forecasted ensembles. In our results, the bias and RMSE of average precipitation in the forecasted ensemble are bigger than in past data, whereas the average inflow in the forecasted ensemble is smaller than in past data. This result could be used for reference data to apply long-term forecasts to water management, because of the limit in the number of forecasted data for verification and differences between the Andong-dam basin and the forecasted regions. This research has significance by suggesting a method of applying probabilistic information in climate variables from long-term forecasts to water management in Korea. Original data of a climate model, which produces long-term probabilistic forecasts should be verified directly as input data of a water budget model in the future, so that a more scientific response in water management against uncertainty of climate change could be reached.

  5. Wastewater treatment by soil infiltration: Long-term phosphorus removal.

    PubMed

    Eveborn, David; Kong, Deguo; Gustafsson, Jon Petter

    2012-10-01

    Phosphorus (P) leaching from on-site wastewater treatment systems may contribute to eutrophication. In developed countries the most common on-site treatment technique is septic systems with soil infiltration. However, the current knowledge about long term P removal in soil treatment systems is not well developed and the data used for estimation of P losses from such systems are unreliable. In this study we sampled four filter beds from community-scale soil treatment systems with an age of between 14 and 22years to determine the long-term P removal and to investigate the chemical mechanisms behind the observed removal. For one site the long-term P removal was calculated using a mass balance approach. After analysis of the accumulated P, it was estimated that on average 12% of the long-term P load had been removed by the bed material. This indicates a low overall capacity of soil treatment systems to remove phosphorus. Batch experiments and chemical speciation modelling indicated that calcium phosphate precipitation was not an important long-term P removal mechanism, with the possible exception of one of the sites. More likely, the P removal was induced by AlPO(4) precipitation and/or sorption to poorly ordered aluminium compounds, as evidenced by strong relationships between oxalate-extractable Al and P. PMID:22982614

  6. Long-Term Prognosis of Ischemic Stroke in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Varona, Jose F.

    2011-01-01

    There is limited information about long-term prognosis of ischemic stroke in young adults. Giving the potentially negative impact in physical, social, and emotional aspects of an ischemic stroke in young people, providing early accurate long-term prognostic information is very important in this clinical setting. Moreover, detection of factors associated with bad outcomes (death, recurrence, moderate-to-severe disability) help physicians in optimizing secondary prevention strategies. The present paper reviews the most relevant published information concerning long-term prognosis and predictors of unfavorable outcomes of ischemic stroke affecting young adults. As a summary, we can conclude that, in the long term, stroke in the young adult increases slightly the risk of mortality, implies higher risk of future cardiovascular events, and determines functional limitations in a significant percentage of patients. Nevertheless, in every individual case the prognosis has to be considered depending on several factors (stroke subtype, initial severity, cardiovascular risk factors) that determine the long-term outcomes. PMID:21197408

  7. Long-Term Stewardship Program Science and Technology Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Joan McDonald

    2002-09-01

    Many of the United States’ hazardous and radioactively contaminated waste sites will not be sufficiently remediated to allow unrestricted land use because funding and technology limitations preclude cleanup to pristine conditions. This means that after cleanup is completed, the Department of Energy will have long-term stewardship responsibilities to monitor and safeguard more than 100 sites that still contain residual contamination. Long-term stewardship encompasses all physical and institutional controls, institutions, information, and other mechanisms required to protect human health and the environment from the hazards remaining. The Department of Energy Long-Term Stewardship National Program is in the early stages of development, so considerable planning is still required to identify all the specific roles and responsibilities, policies, and activities needed over the next few years to support the program’s mission. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory was tasked with leading the development of Science and Technology within the Long-Term Stewardship National Program. As part of that role, a task was undertaken to identify the existing science and technology related requirements, identify gaps and conflicts that exist, and make recommendations to the Department of Energy for future requirements related to science and technology requirements for long-term stewardship. This work is summarized in this document.

  8. Common Calibration Source for Monitoring Long-term Ozone Trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kowalewski, Matthew

    2004-01-01

    Accurate long-term satellite measurements are crucial for monitoring the recovery of the ozone layer. The slow pace of the recovery and limited lifetimes of satellite monitoring instruments demands that datasets from multiple observation systems be combined to provide the long-term accuracy needed. A fundamental component of accurately monitoring long-term trends is the calibration of these various instruments. NASA s Radiometric Calibration and Development Facility at the Goddard Space Flight Center has provided resources to minimize calibration biases between multiple instruments through the use of a common calibration source and standardized procedures traceable to national standards. The Facility s 50 cm barium sulfate integrating sphere has been used as a common calibration source for both US and international satellite instruments, including the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS), Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet 2 (SBUV/2) instruments, Shuttle SBUV (SSBUV), Ozone Mapping Instrument (OMI), Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) (ESA), Scanning Imaging SpectroMeter for Atmospheric ChartographY (SCIAMACHY) (ESA), and others. We will discuss the advantages of using a common calibration source and its effects on long-term ozone data sets. In addition, sphere calibration results from various instruments will be presented to demonstrate the accuracy of the long-term characterization of the source itself.

  9. Wastewater treatment by soil infiltration: Long-term phosphorus removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eveborn, David; Kong, Deguo; Gustafsson, Jon Petter

    2012-10-01

    Phosphorus (P) leaching from on-site wastewater treatment systems may contribute to eutrophication. In developed countries the most common on-site treatment technique is septic systems with soil infiltration. However, the current knowledge about long term P removal in soil treatment systems is not well developed and the data used for estimation of P losses from such systems are unreliable. In this study we sampled four filter beds from community-scale soil treatment systems with an age of between 14 and 22 years to determine the long-term P removal and to investigate the chemical mechanisms behind the observed removal. For one site the long-term P removal was calculated using a mass balance approach. After analysis of the accumulated P, it was estimated that on average 12% of the long-term P load had been removed by the bed material. This indicates a low overall capacity of soil treatment systems to remove phosphorus. Batch experiments and chemical speciation modelling indicated that calcium phosphate precipitation was not an important long-term P removal mechanism, with the possible exception of one of the sites. More likely, the P removal was induced by AlPO4 precipitation and/or sorption to poorly ordered aluminium compounds, as evidenced by strong relationships between oxalate-extractable Al and P.

  10. Intervention to increase physical activity in irritable bowel syndrome shows long-term positive effects

    PubMed Central

    Johannesson, Elisabet; Ringström, Gisela; Abrahamsson, Hasse; Sadik, Riadh

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To assess the long-term effects of physical activity on irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptoms and on quality of life, fatigue, depression and anxiety. METHODS: Seventy-six patients from a previous randomized controlled interventional study on increased physical activity in IBS were asked to participate in this long-term follow-up study. The included patients attended one visit in which they filled out questionnaires and they underwent a submaximal cycle ergometer test. The primary end point was the change in the IBS Severity Scoring System (IBS-SSS) at baseline, i.e., before the intervention and at follow-up. The secondary endpoints were changes in quality of life, fatigue, depression and anxiety. RESULTS: A total of 39 [32 women, median age 45 (28-61) years] patients were included in this follow-up. Median follow-up time was 5.2 (range: 3.8-6.2) years. The IBS symptoms were improved compared with baseline [IBS-SSS: 276 (169-360) vs 218 (82-328), P = 0.001]. This was also true for the majority of the dimensions of psychological symptoms such as disease specific quality of life, fatigue, depression and anxiety. The reported time of physical activity during the week before the visit had increased from 3.2 (0.0-10.0) h at baseline to 5.2 (0.0-15.0) h at follow-up, P = 0.019. The most common activities reported were walking, aerobics and cycling. There was no significant difference in the oxygen uptake 31.8 (19.7-45.8) mL per min per kg at baseline vs 34.6 (19.0-54.6) mL/min per kg at follow-up. CONCLUSION: An intervention to increase physical activity has positive long-term effects on IBS symptoms and psychological symptoms. PMID:25593485

  11. Stirling engine - Approach for long-term durability assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tong, Michael T.; Bartolotta, Paul A.; Halford, Gary R.; Freed, Alan D.

    1992-01-01

    The approach employed by NASA Lewis for the long-term durability assessment of the Stirling engine hot-section components is summarized. The approach consists of: preliminary structural assessment; development of a viscoplastic constitutive model to accurately determine material behavior under high-temperature thermomechanical loads; an experimental program to characterize material constants for the viscoplastic constitutive model; finite-element thermal analysis and structural analysis using a viscoplastic constitutive model to obtain stress/strain/temperature at the critical location of the hot-section components for life assessment; and development of a life prediction model applicable for long-term durability assessment at high temperatures. The approach should aid in the provision of long-term structural durability and reliability of Stirling engines.

  12. Long-term Synoptic Observations of the Sun.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pevtsov, Alexei

    2015-08-01

    Does the solar activity vary with time, or it remains constant? How systematic or intermittent solar cycles are? Long-term observations of the Sun are the reason we know answers to these questions. Ultimately, the development of a better understanding of stellar cycles will require similar long-term observations of other sun-like stars. To facilitate international collaboration on synoptic long-term solar observations, IAU created a working group on “Coordination of Synoptic Observations of the Sun.” The working group provides a forum for discussion of all issues relevant to past, current, and future synoptic programs, preservation, calibration, and access to synoptic solar data products. This talk will provide a summary of recent activity by this IAU WG. It will also present a brief overview of recent research on sun-as-a-star conducted at the US National Solar Observatory.

  13. Forecasting demand for long-term care services.

    PubMed Central

    Lane, D; Uyeno, D; Stark, A; Kliewer, E; Gutman, G

    1985-01-01

    This article analyzes three methods used to forecast the transition of long-term care clients through a variety of possible home and facility placements and levels of care. The test population (N = 1,653) is derived from the larger population of clients admitted in 1978 to British Columbia's newly established Long-Term Care program. The investigators have accumulated 5 years of service-generated data on moves, discharges, and deaths of these clients. Results show that the first-order Markov chain with stationary transition probabilities yields a superior forecast to state-by-state moving average growth and state-by-state regression analyses. The results of these analyses indicate that the Markov method should receive serious consideration as a tool for resource planning and allocation in long-term care. PMID:3932260

  14. Winning market positioning strategies for long term care facilities.

    PubMed

    Higgins, L F; Weinstein, K; Arndt, K

    1997-01-01

    The decision to develop an aggressive marketing strategy for its long term care facility has become a priority for the management of a one-hundred bed facility in the Rocky Mountain West. Financial success and lasting competitiveness require that the facility in question (Deer Haven) establish itself as the preferred provider of long term care for its target market. By performing a marketing communications audit, Deer Haven evaluated its present market position and created a strategy for solidifying and dramatizing this position. After an overview of present conditions in the industry, we offer a seven step process that provides practical guidance for positioning a long term care facility. We conclude by providing an example application. PMID:10179063

  15. Long-term RNA persistence in postmortem contexts

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Ribonucleic acids (RNA) are generally considered fragile molecules that are readily degraded. However, there is growing documentation of long-term (from days to centuries) RNA persistence in a variety of contexts and tissue types, and as such a number of academic disciplines are beginning to exploit degraded RNA. While the reasons for its survival are not fully understood, there are several plausible mechanisms that would safeguard this molecule against degradation. However, after examining the literature available on the postmortem instability and decay mechanisms of RNA, it has become clear that limited experimental studies and no reviews offer an overview of these mechanisms. Hence in this review we outline molecular reasons for RNA surviving long-term postmortem, and provide specific examples of RNA survival in forensic, archival and archaeological contexts. A better understanding of the mechanisms of RNA decay will be crucial for developing expectations on its long-term survival. PMID:23618361

  16. Long-term Internship through Cooperative Education with Regional Industries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Kenzo; Hase, Hiroyuki

    The long term internship is one of special educational programs for graduate students of Graduate School of Engineering in University of Fukui. This is a collaborative program between university and industries where selected post-graduate students are dispatched to companies for a long term and educated in real business environments. It is the final goal of the program to develop sophisticated specialists who would be able to catch the business strategy in industries and solve any problems by themselves. The program is managed in a semester (6 months) and contains 1.5 month prior education of preliminary special knowledge, ethics and secrecy, about 3 month dispatch with long-term internship, and 1.5 month post-education for complementary education and presentation. This paper presents the effect of this program which has been evolving since 2005.

  17. Marijuana effects on long-term memory assessment and retrieval.

    PubMed

    Darley, C F; Tinklenberg, J R; Roth, W T; Vernon, S; Kopell, B S

    1977-05-01

    The ability of 16 college-educated male subjects to recall from long-term memory a series of common facts was tested during intoxication with marijuana extract calibrated to 0.3 mg/kg delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and during placebo conditions. The subjects' ability to assess their memory capabilities was then determined by measuring how certain they were about the accuracy of their recall performance and by having them predict their performance on a subsequent recognition test involving the same recall items. Marijuana had no effect on recall or recognition performance. These results do not support the view that marijuana provides access to facts in long-term storage which are inaccessible during non-intoxication. During both marijuana and placebo conditions, subjects could accurately predict their recognition memory performance. Hence, marijuana did not alter the subjects' ability to accurately assess what information resides in long-term memory even though they did not have complete access to that information.

  18. An approach to long-term sedative-hypnotic use

    PubMed Central

    Shahid, Azmeh; Chung, Sharon A; Phillipson, Ron; Shapiro, Colin M

    2012-01-01

    Insomnia is a common, often chronic medical disorder with significant medical and socioeconomic repercussions. However, unlike other medical conditions, there is intense debate as to whether the long-term treatment of insomnia is clinically appropriate. The perceived deleterious side effect of sedative-hypnotic medications may result in patients remaining untreated or undertreated. This review proposes that a more subtle approach needs to be taken in the management of patients with chronic insomnia and that long-term use of the newer sedative-hypnotics may be a feasible and effective treatment option when used in conjunction with thorough medical assessment and regular patient follow-up. This review discusses these issues and discusses the pros and cons of long-term sedative-hypnotic use. PMID:23620678

  19. Sexuality and Physical Intimacy in Long Term Care

    PubMed Central

    Lichtenberg, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    Sexuality and sexual needs in older adults remains a neglected area of clinical intervention, particularly so in long term care settings. Because older adults in medical rehabilitation and long term care beds present with significant frailties, and often significant neurocognitive disorders it makes it difficult for occupational therapists and other staff to evaluate the capacity of an older adult resident to participate in sexual relationships. The current paper reviews the current literature on sexuality and aging, examines some of the clinical practices and guidelines regarding sexual expression in long term care and presents two case examples. A semi-structured interview and decision tree is presented to assist therapists in making careful and informed decisions and thereby balancing needs for protection with needs for autonomy. PMID:24354331

  20. Long-term management of patients with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Weightman, Cherie

    2006-07-01

    This article explores the challenges of long-term case management for patients who have multiple sclerosis (MS). Currently there is scant research into district nursing input into long-term management of patients who have MS. Until now the role of the community nurses has been confined to palliation or terminal care, focusing on the more physical manifestations of MS. The contemporary role of district nurse is going to evolve to include proactive approaches. Governmental initiatives demand proactive services, and place emphasis on self-care for patients with MS. Themes that emerge from this article relate to the pre-existing skills--such as managing patients with complex needs and the advanced assessment skills--that will be required to achieve this. What is clear is that community nurses already possess many of the prerequisite skills needed for long-term management, and they should not be daunted by this prospect.

  1. Long-term Use of Opioids for Complex Chronic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Von Korff, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    Increased opioid prescribing for back pain and other chronic musculoskeletal pain conditions has been accompanied by dramatic increases in prescription opioid addiction and fatal overdose. Opioid-related risks appear to increase with dose. While short-term randomized trials of opioids for chronic pain have found modest analgesic benefits (a one-third reduction in pain intensity on average), the long-term safety and effectiveness of opioids for chronic musculoskeletal pain is unknown. Given the lack of large, long-term randomized trials, recent epidemiologic data suggests the need for caution when considering long-term use of opioids to manage chronic musculoskeletal pain, particularly at higher dosage levels. Principles for achieving more selective and cautious use of opioids for chronic musculoskeletal pain are proposed. PMID:24315147

  2. Data Analysis in the LOFAR Long Term Archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holties, H. A.; van Diepen, G.; van Dok, D.; Dijkstra, F.; Loose, M.; Renting, G. A.; Schrijvers, C.; Vriend, W.-J.

    2012-09-01

    The LOFAR Long Term Archive (LTA) is a distributed information system that provides integrated services for data analysis as well as long term preservation of astronomical datasets and their provenance. The data analysis capabilities are provided by a federated system that integrates a central catalog and client user interfaces provided by Astro-Wise with processing pipelines running on Grid based and University HPC clusters. The framework used for data analysis ensures that proper authorization and access rules are applied and that generated data products are ingested into the storage part of the Long Term Archive. The ingest process includes information about data provenance. This paper presents the architecture of the processing framework of the LTA.

  3. Inflammatory markers in relation to long-term air pollution.

    PubMed

    Mostafavi, Nahid; Vlaanderen, Jelle; Chadeau-Hyam, Marc; Beelen, Rob; Modig, Lars; Palli, Domenico; Bergdahl, Ingvar A; Vineis, Paolo; Hoek, Gerard; Kyrtopoulos, Soterios Α; Vermeulen, Roel

    2015-08-01

    Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution can lead to chronic health effects such as cancer, cardiovascular and respiratory disease. Systemic inflammation has been hypothesized as a putative biological mechanism contributing to these adverse health effects. We evaluated the effect of long-term exposure to air pollution on blood markers of systemic inflammation. We measured a panel of 28 inflammatory markers in peripheral blood samples from 587 individuals that were biobanked as part of a prospective study. Participants were from Varese and Turin (Italy) and Umea (Sweden). Long-term air pollution estimates of nitrogen oxides (NOx) were available from the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE). Linear mixed models adjusted for potential confounders were applied to assess the association between NOx and the markers of inflammation. Long-term exposure to NOx was associated with decreased levels of interleukin (IL)-2, IL-8, IL-10 and tumor necrosis factor-α in Italy, but not in Sweden. NOx exposure levels were considerably lower in Sweden than in Italy (Sweden: median (5th, 95th percentiles) 6.65 μg/m(3) (4.8, 19.7); Italy: median (5th, 95th percentiles) 94.2 μg/m(3) (7.8, 124.5)). Combining data from Italy and Sweden we only observed a significant association between long-term exposure to NOx and decreased levels of circulating IL-8. We observed some indication for perturbations in the inflammatory markers due to long-term exposure to NOx. Effects were stronger in Italy than in Sweden, potentially reflecting the difference in air pollution levels between the two cohorts.

  4. Morphodynamic length scale and long term river meandering dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanzoni, S.; Frascati, A.

    2009-12-01

    The fully nonlinear simulation of the lateral migration of meandering channels, combined with an analytical description of the linearized flow field, gives a powerful and yet computationally accessible tool to investigate short and long term evolution of alluvial rivers. In the present contribution we focus on the long term behavior of meandering rivers. This class of dynamical systems is driven by the coexistence of various intrinsically nonlinear mechanisms which determine the possible occurrence of two different morphodynamic regimes: the sub-resonant and the super-resonant regime. Investigating the full range of morphodynamic conditions, we end up with a new morphodynamic length scale associated with spatially oscillating disturbances, accounting for both curvature-forced variations in velocity and depth and alternate bars. Once normalized with this length scale, the relevant morphologic features of the simulated long term patterns (i.e. the probability density function of the local channel curvature and the geometric characteristics of the oxbow lakes) tend to collapse on two distinct behaviors, depending on the dominant morphologic regime. The long term river meandering dynamics is then investigated. The occurrence of cutoff events is a key mechanism in the dynamics of these systems. They introduce a strong source of nonlinearity in the evolution of river meandering, which strongly contributes to the formation of the complex planform patterns usually observed in nature. To detect the possible signatures of a chaotic behavior or a self-organized criticality state triggered in river meandering dynamics by the repeated occurrence of cutoffs, some robust nonlinear methodologies have been applied to both the spatial series of local curvatures and the time series of long term channel sinuosity. The temporal distribution of cutoff inter-arrivals is also investigated. The results are consistent and show that, at least from a modelling point of view, no evidence of

  5. A basic strategy for financing long term care.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, J A; Leutz, W N

    1984-02-01

    As pressure mounts to contain Medicaid long term care spending, short-range "quick fixes" must be avoided. Three such false solutions in particular have shortcomings that may actually exacerbate long term care's financial dilemma because they are based on inadequate definitions of the problem. Two of these proposals--legislation to broaden family responsibility toward institutionalized elders on Medicaid and expanded state power to put liens on such elders' real property--err by trying to mandate "caring" and are predicated on a misunderstanding of the "spend-down" problem. The other proposal--to provide tax incentives to family members who care for elders--requires a large administrative apparatus, assumes an elasticity of supply that may not exist, and could disrupt the "gift relationship" on which family exchanges are often based. What is needed is a strategy with short term, intermediate, and long term objectives that move toward an insurance approach. The short term plan should lay the groundwork for intermediate strategy and control costs by changing rate-setting methods and putting limits on facility construction. The intermediate plan should change the problem's definition from one of merely controlling Medicaid long term care expenditures to one of efficiently managing state resources for the elderly through the development of state financing and local delivery systems that target older persons in greatest need. An effective means of doing this is through the creation of social/HMOs, which have five key features: integration of service responsibility and authority; flexibility in organizational design; balanced clientele; pooled prepaid funding; and financial risk for the provider organization. Finally, the long term strategy should transfer much of the long term care financial burden from individuals and state Medicaid agencies to insurance mechanisms. Many individuals would thus avoid impoverishment caused by health care spending and Medicaid would

  6. 18. Uniform cost accounting in long-term care.

    PubMed

    Sorensen, J E

    1976-05-01

    Uniform cost data are essential for managing health services, establishing billing and reimbursement rates, and measuring effectiveness and impact. Although it is especially difficult in the case of long-term health care to develop standard cost accounting procedures because of the varied configurations of inpatient, intermediate, and ambulatory services, the overall approaches to cost accounting and its content can be made more uniform. With this purpose in mind, a general model of cost accounting is presented for a multilevel program of long-term services, together with a special method for ambulatory services using "hours accounted for" as the basic measure.

  7. Long-term results after intentional tooth reimplantation in monkeys.

    PubMed

    Caffesse, R G; Nasjleti, C E; Castelli, W A

    1977-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate histologically the long-term response to intentional tooth reimplantation in six rhesus monkeys. The study revealed that cervical and apical root resorption is a universal complication after tooth reimplantation and that arrested areas of resorption will show repair by deposition of cementum. A highly cellular periodontal membrane usually will develop. Periodontal fibers will reattach to reparative bone and cementum but seldom regain functional orientation. Partial or complete ankylosis may result. A further complication is progressive undermining resorption of the ankylosed teeth. Long-term studies are mandatory to evaluate the response to intentional tooth reimplantation.

  8. Leadership: the Winnipeg Community and Long-Term Care Authority.

    PubMed

    Suski, M; Hack, T; Heaman, M

    1999-01-01

    The Winnipeg Community and Long Term Care Authority (WCA) was established in 1998 under the Regional Health Authorities Act of the Province of Manitoba. The WCA's role is to provide for the successful integration of Winnipeg's community-based healthcare delivery services through its three main portfolios: Community Care and Public Health, Home Care and Mental Health, and Long Term Care and Specialized Services. The WCA is dedicated to building a quality health future for Winnipeg. Various initiatives undertaken in the pursuit of quality are described.

  9. Neurohumoral reactions to long-term vestibular stimulation in man.

    PubMed

    Nichiporuk, I A; Rapotkov, A N; Orlov, O I; Grigoriev, A I

    1993-02-01

    The main purposes of present work were: 1) to examine neurohumoral reactions to long-term vestibular stimulation provocative for MS symptoms in man; 2) to compare the peculiarities of neuroendocrine reactions to short-term and to long-term vestibular stimulation; 3) to analyze the received results from the position of neuroendocrine adaptive reactions biological conformity to natural laws, and its physiological importance for human organisms; 4) to make some prognostic points of neurohumoral reaction changes on health and capacity for work in subjects influenced by professional conditions, provocative for MS manifestation development.

  10. Long-term stability test of a triple GEM detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adak, R. P.; Biswas, S.; Das, S.; Ghosal, D.; Ghosh, S. K.; Mondal, A.; Nag, D.; Nayak, T. K.; Patra, R. N.; Prasad, S. K.; Raha, S.; Sahu, P. K.; Sahu, S.; Swain, S.

    2016-10-01

    The main aim of the study is to perform the long-term stability test of gain of the single mask triple GEM detector. A simple method is used for this long-term stability test using a radioactive X-ray source with high activity. The test is continued till accumulation of charge per unit area > 12.0 mC/mm2. The details of the chamber fabrication, the test set-up, the method of measurement and the test results are presented in this paper.

  11. Intrahepatic haematoma in a patient on long-term haemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Lai, K N; Disney, A P; Mathew, T H

    Spontaneous intrahepatic haematoma is an uncommon potentially fatal complication in uraemic patients receiving long-term haemodialysis, particularly in those taking anticoagulant and antiplatelet drugs. Prompt diagnosis, withdrawal of anticoagulant and antiplatelet therapy, cautious transfusion, and careful dialysis with regional heparinisation are essential in the management and may help to avoid surgical intervention in the presence of a tendency to bleed. Noninvasive organ imaging such as ultrasonography and computerised axial tomography are helpful in diagnosis and monitoring of progress. A case of intrahepatic haematoma in a 37-year-old man who had been receiving long-term haemodialysis since 1976 is described.

  12. Human sperm chromosomes. Long-term effect of cancer treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Genesca, A.; Caballin, M.R.; Miro, R.; Benet, J.; Bonfill, X.; Egozcue, J. )

    1990-06-01

    The long-term cytogenetic effect of radio- or chemotherapy or both on male germ cells was evaluated by study of the chromosomal abnormalities in spermatozoa of four men treated for cancer 5-18 years earlier. The cytogenetic analysis of 422 sperm metaphases showed no differences in the aneuploidy rate. The incidence of structural chromosome aberrations was 14.0%, however, which is much higher than in controls. Thus, the high incidence of structurally aberrant spermatozoa observed in our long-term study indicates that antitumoral treatments affect stem-cell spermatogonia and that aberrant cells can survive germinal selection and produce abnormal spermatozoa.

  13. Thermospheric density long-term trend at high latitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, Yosuke; Kosch, Michael

    2016-07-01

    We present a novel technique that has been recently developed to estimate the thermospheric oxygen density using ionospheric measurements from EISCAT radars. The technique is based on an ion momentum equation, which takes into account the collisional interaction between neutrals and ions. We apply the technique to a 30-year long data set from the Tromso UHF radar, which for the first time allows us to evaluate the thermospheric density long-term trend at high latitude. The results are compared with the trend derived from satellite drag, which represents the long-term trend at lower latitudes.

  14. 18. Uniform cost accounting in long-term care.

    PubMed

    Sorensen, J E

    1976-05-01

    Uniform cost data are essential for managing health services, establishing billing and reimbursement rates, and measuring effectiveness and impact. Although it is especially difficult in the case of long-term health care to develop standard cost accounting procedures because of the varied configurations of inpatient, intermediate, and ambulatory services, the overall approaches to cost accounting and its content can be made more uniform. With this purpose in mind, a general model of cost accounting is presented for a multilevel program of long-term services, together with a special method for ambulatory services using "hours accounted for" as the basic measure. PMID:819732

  15. [Long-term-management of organ transplant recipients].

    PubMed

    Bürger, Christin; Schmidt, Martina; Maschmeier, Miriam; Stella, Jaqueline; Hüsing, Anna; Wilms, Christian; Schmidt, Hartmut Hans-Jürgen; Kabar, Iyad

    2016-07-01

    Due to advances in immunosuppressive therapy and surgical techniques, survival rates after solid organ transplantation have constantly improved over the last decades. In long-term care after transplantation, physicians need to focus as much on diagnosis and treatment of allograft-related complications as they should consider comorbidities and evaluate risk-factors and adverse events of immunosuppressive agents to prevent secondary diseases. In particular, cardiovascular and metabolic diseases, malignancy and infection play a major role in long-term survival. Therefore, screening of organ transplant recipients in regard to these complications and adverse events is a crucial part of follow up in these patients. PMID:27359310

  16. Long-term Outcomes in Youth with Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    White, Neil H.

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis In this chapter, I will review the long-term outcomes and their precursors of type 1 diabetes (T1D) starting in youth. I will also contrast the changing incidence of these long-term complications as we have moved from the pre-DCCT to the post-DCCT standard of care and will review the emerging data related to complications in youth with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Finally, I will review the recent understanding related to the effects of diabetes on the brain and cognition. PMID:26210623

  17. Elder rights and the Long-Term Care Ombudsman Program.

    PubMed

    Netting, F E; Huber, R; Paton, R N; Kautz, J R

    1995-05-01

    Since 1975 the Long-Term Care Ombudsman Program has grown and developed under the Older Americans Act (OAA) of 1965. With the passage of the Older Americans Act Amendments of 1992, this program was combined with other advocacy functions and placed in Title VII--Vulnerable Elder Rights Protection Activities. This article provides a historical overview of the policy, programmatic, and research issues that surround OAA and explains the activities of ombudsmen in their local communities and the roles many social workers perform under the auspices of long-term care ombudsman programs.

  18. Dissociation of short- and long-term face memory: evidence from long-term recency effects in temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Bengner, T; Malina, T

    2007-07-01

    We tested whether memory deficits in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) are better described by a single- or dual-store memory model. To this aim, we analyzed the influence of TLE and proactive interference (PI) on immediate and 24-h long-term recency effects during face recognition in 16 healthy participants and 18 right and 21 left non-surgical TLE patients. PI in healthy participants or TLE erased the long-term recency effect, but left the immediate recency effect unaffected. Although the immediate recency effect was still visible in right TLE patients, the number of detected recency items during immediate recognition was decreased in right TLE compared to left TLE. Right TLE was also related to decreased detection of pre-recency items during delayed recognition compared to left TLE, and decreased detection of pre-recency items during immediate recognition under PI. The results show that the temporal lobes are necessary for the long-term recency effect, but not for the immediate recency effect, and thus speak for a dissociation of short- and long-term memory for faces. Right TLE is related to more severe long-term memory deficits than left TLE and is also related to additional short-term memory deficits for faces.

  19. 42 CFR 412.536 - Special payment provisions for long-term care hospitals and satellites of long-term care...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... hospitals and satellites of long-term care hospitals that discharged Medicare patients admitted from a hospital not located in the same building or on the same campus as the long-term care hospital or satellite... payment provisions for long-term care hospitals and satellites of long-term care hospitals that...

  20. 42 CFR 412.536 - Special payment provisions for long-term care hospitals and satellites of long-term care...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... hospitals and satellites of long-term care hospitals that discharged Medicare patients admitted from a hospital not located in the same building or on the same campus as the long-term care hospital or satellite... payment provisions for long-term care hospitals and satellites of long-term care hospitals that...

  1. 42 CFR 412.536 - Special payment provisions for long-term care hospitals and satellites of long-term care...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... hospitals and satellites of long-term care hospitals that discharged Medicare patients admitted from a hospital not located in the same building or on the same campus as the long-term care hospital or satellite... payment provisions for long-term care hospitals and satellites of long-term care hospitals that...

  2. 42 CFR 412.536 - Special payment provisions for long-term care hospitals and satellites of long-term care...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... hospitals and satellites of long-term care hospitals that discharged Medicare patients admitted from a hospital not located in the same building or on the same campus as the long-term care hospital or satellite... payment provisions for long-term care hospitals and satellites of long-term care hospitals that...

  3. 42 CFR 412.536 - Special payment provisions for long-term care hospitals and satellites of long-term care...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... hospitals and satellites of long-term care hospitals that discharged Medicare patients admitted from a hospital not located in the same building or on the same campus as the long-term care hospital or satellite... payment provisions for long-term care hospitals and satellites of long-term care hospitals that...

  4. A chronic grief intervention for dementia family caregivers in long-term care.

    PubMed

    Paun, Olimpia; Farran, Carol J; Fogg, Louis; Loukissa, Dimitra; Thomas, Peggy E; Hoyem, Ruby

    2015-01-01

    Dementia caregivers do not relinquish their role after placing family members in long-term care and they experience increased chronic grief. The Chronic Grief Management Intervention (CGMI) is a12-week group-based program that uses guided discussion to deliver knowledge of Alzheimer's or a related dementia and teach skills in communication, conflict resolution, and chronic grief management in dementia caregivers who placed their family members in long-term care. Using a quasi-experimental design, 83 caregivers from 15 long-term care facilities received either the CGMI (n = 34) or a comparison condition consisting of two check-in calls (n = 49). In this pilot study, we examined the feasibility of implementing the CGMI and evaluated the effects of the intervention on caregivers' knowledge and skill and their chronic grief and depression. The intervention was feasible and resulted in significant improvement in caregivers' heartfelt sadness and longing at 3 months and a significant drop in their guilt at the 6-month follow-up. PMID:24510968

  5. Long-term enhancement (LTE) of postsynaptic potentials following neural conditioning, in mammalian sympathetic ganglia.

    PubMed

    Libet, B; Mochida, S

    1988-11-15

    Orthodromic, preganglionic conditioning stimulation can consistently induce long-term enhancement (LTE) (greater than 3 h) of the muscarinically mediated slow excitatory postsynaptic potential and the slow inhibitory postsynaptic potential. This was shown for superior cervical ganglia of rabbit and rat. Effective conditioning stimuli are in a physiologically observed range (3/s for 7 min, 5/s for 4 min, 10/s for 2 min, 20/s for 1 min). LTE was producible both homosynaptically and heterosynaptically. LTE can thus be associative, with conditioning synaptic input in one line inducing long-term changes in postsynaptic responses to another (heterosynaptic) input. The dopamine antagonist butaclamol depressed LTE, particularly that following the initial postconditioning period of 30 min. Adrenergic antagonists had no effect. This pharmacological evidence, coupled with the heterosynaptic induction of LTE, supports the view that neurally induced LTE may be at least partly mediated by endogenous dopamine. Another non-cholinergic but non-adrenergic transmitter (possibly a peptide) might contribute to the LTE seen in the initial 30 min postconditioning. The present, orthodromically induced LTE is clearly different from the long-term potentiation widely studied in hippocampus, etc., in the modes of induction and synaptic mediation.

  6. Care coordination in long-term home- and community-based care.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Barbara; Harkey, Jane

    2014-09-01

    This article examines the role of care coordination, when fulfilled by a professional board-certified case manager, in successful long-term home- and community-based care (HCBC). A facet of care coordination, as also discussed, is a robust assessment of the individual by the professional case manager, who devises and implements a comprehensive care plan to address the clinical, psychosocial, and environmental needs of the individual as part of a person-centered, evidenced-based approach. To be successful, long-term HCBC starts with a robust assessment of the individual by a professional board-certified case manager. The case manager uses specific tools that incorporate qualitative measurements to address factors such as medical/clinical needs, (e.g., diagnoses, chronic conditions, and/or health risks); mental/behavioral health (e.g., geriatric depression screening); medication/pharmacology (e.g., review and reconciliation of prescribed and over the counter medications and supplements) and the individual's ability to self-administer; home safety; and presence of a family/support system and their ability and willingness to provide care. Based on these findings, the case manager puts in place a comprehensive care plan, working with a well-coordinated multidisciplinary team, including informal supports, physicians, registered nurses, occupational therapists, pharmacists, social workers, nutritionists, and other allied health professionals. From the beginning, the rigor of care coordination is essential to the how successfully individuals and their families/support systems realize their goal of long-term HCBC.

  7. Interparental violence and children's long-term psychosocial adjustment: the mediating role of parenting practices.

    PubMed

    Gámez-Guadix, Manuel; Almendros, Carmen; Carrobles, José Antonio; Muñoz-Rivas, Marina

    2012-03-01

    The objectives of this study were: (a) to examine the direct and indirect relationships among witnessing interparental violence, parenting practices, and children's long-term psychosocial adjustment; (b) to analyze the possible gender differences in the relationships specified. The sample consisted of 1295 Spanish university students (M age = 21.21, SD = 4.04). We performed statistical analyses using structural equation modeling. The results showed that witnessing parental violence as a child is related to poor long-term psychosocial adjustment during the child's adult years. Furthermore, we found that parenting practices fully mediated the relation between witnessing interparental violence and the child's long-term adjustment. The multigroup analyses showed that most of the relations among the variables did not differ significantly by gender. However, the relation between harsh discipline and antisocial behavior was stronger for males, whereas the relation between harsh discipline and depressive symptoms was stronger for females. Finally, we discuss the implications of these findings for the clinicians and specialists who plan and develop intervention programs for populations at risk. PMID:22379705

  8. Purkinje cell dysfunction and alteration of long-term synaptic plasticity in fetal alcohol syndrome.

    PubMed

    Servais, Laurent; Hourez, Raphaël; Bearzatto, Bertrand; Gall, David; Schiffmann, Serge N; Cheron, Guy

    2007-06-01

    In cerebellum and other brain regions, neuronal cell death because of ethanol consumption by the mother is thought to be the leading cause of neurological deficits in the offspring. However, little is known about how surviving cells function. We studied cerebellar Purkinje cells in vivo and in vitro to determine whether function of these cells was altered after prenatal ethanol exposure. We observed that Purkinje cells that were prenatally exposed to ethanol presented decreased voltage-gated calcium currents because of a decreased expression of the gamma-isoform of protein kinase C. Long-term depression at the parallel fiber-Purkinje cell synapse in the cerebellum was converted into long-term potentiation. This likely explains the dramatic increase in Purkinje cell firing and the rapid oscillations of local field potential observed in alert fetal alcohol syndrome mice. Our data strongly suggest that reversal of long-term synaptic plasticity and increased firing rates of Purkinje cells in vivo are major contributors to the ataxia and motor learning deficits observed in fetal alcohol syndrome. Our results show that calcium-related neuronal dysfunction is central to the pathogenesis of the neurological manifestations of fetal alcohol syndrome and suggest new methods for treatment of this disorder.

  9. Depression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strock, Margaret

    Approximately ten percent of the population suffers from a depressive illness each year. Although the economic cost is high, the cost in human suffering is immeasurable. To help educate the population about this disorder, this paper presents a definition of depression and its common manifestations. The symptoms that people often experience are…

  10. Hippocampal Focal Knockout of CBP Affects Specific Histone Modifications, Long-Term Potentiation, and Long-Term Memory

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Ruth M; Malvaez, Melissa; Kramar, Eniko; Matheos, Dina P; Arrizon, Abraham; Cabrera, Sara M; Lynch, Gary; Greene, Robert W; Wood, Marcelo A

    2011-01-01

    To identify the role of the histone acetyltransferase (HAT) CREB-binding protein (CBP) in neurons of the CA1 region of the hippocampus during memory formation, we examine the effects of a focal homozygous knockout of CBP on histone modifications, gene expression, synaptic plasticity, and long-term memory. We show that CBP is critical for the in vivo acetylation of lysines on histones H2B, H3, and H4. CBP's homolog p300 was unable to compensate for the loss of CBP. Neurons lacking CBP maintained phosphorylation of the transcription factor CREB, yet failed to activate CREB:CBP-mediated gene expression. Loss of CBP in dorsal CA1 of the hippocampus resulted in selective impairments to long-term potentiation and long-term memory for contextual fear and object recognition. Together, these results suggest a necessary role for specific chromatin modifications, selectively mediated by CBP in the consolidation of memories. PMID:21508930

  11. Commitment and the Long-Term Marriage Relationship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swensen, Clifford H.; Trahaug, Geir

    1985-01-01

    Examined the relationship of commitment in marriage and change in commitment over marriage to the expression of love and marriage problems among long-term Norwegian married couples. Results indicated that those who were committed to their spouses as persons had significantly fewer marriage problems. Those whose commitment increased expressed more…

  12. The Jornada Basin long term ecological research program

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chihuahuan Desert landscapes exemplify the ecological conditions, vulnerability, and management challenges in arid and semi-arid regions around the world. The goal of the Jornada Basin Long Term Ecological Research program (JRN LTER) established in 1982 is to understand and quantify the key factors ...

  13. Case Management Takes Hold in Long-Term Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Stephen M.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Includes "Empowering Case Management Clients" (Rose); "Case Management in Rural Japan" (Maeda, Takahashi); "Coordinated-Care Teams" (Brodsky, Sobol); "Comparing Practice in the United States and the United Kingdom" (Sturges); "Business of Case Management Flourishing in the U.S." (Cress); and "Community Options Bring Change to Long-Term Care in…

  14. Transfer of Information from Short- to Long-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modigliani, Vito; Seamon, John G.

    1974-01-01

    The present study examined current hypotheses concerning information transfer from short-term memory (STM) to long-term memory (LTM) using a Peterson STM task with word triplets presented over retention intervals of 0, 3, 6, 9, and 18 sec. (Editor)

  15. Long-Term Ecological Research and Network-Level Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, Scott L.; Childers, Daniel L.

    2014-08-01

    With every passing year, the effects of global environmental change are becoming more pervasive and are occurring at a more accelerated pace. Climate change, land use change, atmospheric nitrogen deposition, ocean acidification and sea level rise, loss of biodiversity, and homogenization of Earth's ecosystems are all manifestations of human activities. These short- and long-term effects of environmental changes continue to mount.

  16. Going Solar Yields Long-Term Economical, Educational Benefits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Moos, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Going solar is not an easy decision, but a long-term investment with a potentially substantial up-front cost. While some schools have enough capital in reserve, can raise bond money, or can solicit sufficient donations, many schools rely on creative financial programs to make a solar energy system economically feasible. Thinking about going solar…

  17. Review of "The Long-Term Impacts of Teachers"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballou, Dale

    2012-01-01

    A new report titled "The Long-Term Impacts of Teachers" concludes that teachers whose students tend to show high gains on their test scores (called "high value-added teachers") also contribute to later student success in young adulthood, as indicated by outcomes such as college attendance and future earnings. To support this claim, it is not…

  18. A Conditioning Analysis of Infant Long-Term Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Margaret W.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Assesses the long-term retention of conditioned operant footkicks by three-month-old infants. Views a conditioning analysis as a logical means by which to bridge the gap between animal and adult human models of memory. (Author/RH)

  19. Global, long-term surface reflectance records from Landsat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Global, long-term monitoring of changes in Earth’s land surface requires quantitative comparisons of satellite images acquired under widely varying atmospheric conditions. Although physically based estimates of surface reflectance (SR) ultimately provide the most accurate representation of Earth’s s...

  20. Making Wise Decisions for Long-Term Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Retired Persons, Washington, DC.

    This booklet offers simple descriptions of each of the long-term care services that may be available to individuals needing such care, identifies where in the community services might be located, and explains what portions of the costs for each type of service will be paid by Medicare, Medicaid or private supplementary insurance policies. This…

  1. Areas of Marital Dissatisfaction among Long-Term Couples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duba, Jill D.; Hughey, Aaron W.; Lara, Tracy; Burke, Monica G.

    2012-01-01

    To better understand relational dissatisfaction and duration of long-term married couples, this study surveyed 30 couples married at least 40 years with the Marital Satisfaction Inventory. Findings suggest various areas of dissatisfaction (e.g., affective communication, conflict over child rearing) and relationship among and link to other areas of…

  2. Long-Term Sensitization Training Primes "Aplysia" for Further Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleary, Leonard J.; Byrne, John H.; Antzoulatos, Evangelos G.; Wainwright, Marcy L.

    2006-01-01

    Repetitive, unilateral stimulation of "Aplysia" induces long-term sensitization (LTS) of ipsilaterally elicited siphon-withdrawal responses. Whereas some morphological effects of training appear only on ipsilateral sensory neurons, others appear bilaterally. We tested the possibility that contralateral morphological modifications may have…

  3. A Plea for Long-term Orientation in Organizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwaninger, Markus; Ambroz, Kristjan

    2010-11-01

    The stress field between short- and long-term orientations is the epitome of organizational problematics: In many enterprises the latter is dominated by the former. The consequences of a dominant short-term orientation are negative in the best case, but the cases that result in destruction and catastrophe are legion. Few sustainable solutions for the conflict between the short- and long-term perspectives have been developed, and among those concerned many have not sufficiently reflected on this shortfall, or even become aware of it. Frequently, practical constraints obstruct a balance between short- and long-term orientations. The aim of this contribution is to enquire into this dilemma and to find a way of coping with it. Any progress in that direction would help to further the viability of organizations and the quality of life within them. As a pertinent contribution we present the Model of Systemic Control, a framework with a long-term view for the governance of organizations. Even though we are emphasizing the conceptual aspect, our theoretical statement is underpinned by an empirical approach and simulation experiments.

  4. Long-term care offers opportunity for revenue.

    PubMed

    Dixon, R D

    1991-06-01

    Hospital administrators already know that diversification will be a key to success in the future. Applying that philosophy to long-term care of the elderly is just one way to capture a growing consumer market. In the following article, the author addresses three potential variations for delivering such care by the hospital to this group. PMID:10113608

  5. Mutual Support Groups for Long-Term Recipients of TANF

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson-Butcher, Dawn; Khairallah, Angela Oliver; Race-Bigelow, Janis

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the effect of involvement in mutual support groups on long-term recipients of Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) and other vulnerable individuals. From qualitative interviews with nine group members, the study identified key themes, benefits, and barriers related to involvement in the groups. Content analysis of the…

  6. 26 CFR 1.460-1 - Long-term contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... as the provision of architectural, design, engineering, and construction management services, and the... to design and manufacture a satellite and to develop computer software enabling B to operate the... the manufacture, building, installation, or construction of property is a long-term contract...

  7. 26 CFR 1.460-1 - Long-term contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... as the provision of architectural, design, engineering, and construction management services, and the... to design and manufacture a satellite and to develop computer software enabling B to operate the... the manufacture, building, installation, or construction of property is a long-term contract...

  8. 26 CFR 1.460-1 - Long-term contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... architectural, design, engineering, and construction management services, and the development or implementation... to design and manufacture a satellite and to develop computer software enabling B to operate the..., building, installation, or construction of property is a long-term contract under section 460 and...

  9. 26 CFR 1.460-1 - Long-term contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... as the provision of architectural, design, engineering, and construction management services, and the... to design and manufacture a satellite and to develop computer software enabling B to operate the... the manufacture, building, installation, or construction of property is a long-term contract...

  10. Phototherapy for Neonatal Hyperbilirubinemia: Long-Term Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Audrey K., Ed.; Showacre, Jane, Ed.

    This book contains 16 papers from the 1974 conference held by the Pregnancy and Infancy Branch of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development to: (1) assess the photobiological processes involved in phototherapy used in treatment of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia, and (2) to document long term clinical experience with the treatment…

  11. Infection Control in the Long Term Care Facility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Sara

    This booklet is intended to increase the awareness of persons working in long-term care facilities regarding the danger of infectious disease and the ways in which it can be spread. Materials in this booklet include: (1) a brief discussion of historical events in the study of microorganisms; (2) information about how microorganisms cause infection…

  12. Autonomy and Acceptance of Long-Term Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Hui-Chuan; Ting, Yu-Shan; Jiang, Ting-Wen; Chien, Ming-Chih; Chien, Chih-Hsin

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between four types of autonomy (health autonomy, informational autonomy, living autonomy, and financial autonomy) and the acceptance of five types of long-term care (adult day care, respite care, assisted living, unit care, and group home) for the elderly in Taiwan. Data were collected from 167 middle-aged and…

  13. Long-term Enhancements in Solar Wind Speed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gazis, P. R.; Cuzzi, Jeff (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Long-term enhancements in solar wind speed over timescales on the order of a year appear to be a common feature throughout the heliosphere over heliocentric distances that range from less than 0.72 AU to greater than 60. The origin of these events remains to be determined, but they are almost certainly associated with long-term variations at the solar wind source, in contrast with smaller-scale structures such as CIRs, MIRs, and GMIRs which are dynamical in origin. We present a survey of the long-term speed enhancements observed at the Pioneer Venus Orbiter (PVO), IMP 8, Voyager 2, and Pioneer 10 between 1974 and 1994 and compare this with published reports of smaller-scale events such as MIRs. We examine several of these long-term speed enhancements in detail to identify and characterize aspects of their structure, then describe how that structure evolves with heliocentric distance. Finally we discuss some of the implications of these events.

  14. The Insider's Experience of Long-Term Peer Victimisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackay, Graham J.; Carey, Timothy A.; Stevens, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    Bullying in schools continues to be a problem despite the best efforts of educators, researchers, and clinicians. Of most concern for the present study is that some children experience long-term victimisation by their peers. To improve our understanding in this area, the phenomenology of being bullied over the course of the school year was…

  15. Continental diatoms as indicators of long-term environmental change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradbury, J. Platt

    1999-01-01

    It is curious that diatoms, whose short lifespans and capacity for rapid regeneration make them especially suitable for short-term paleoenvironmental studies, would also have a significant role as indicators of long-term environmental change. This chapter explores the nature of long diatom records, their relation to global environmental changes, guidelines for their interpretation, and problems common to such records.

  16. Idaho National Laboratory Site Long-Term Stewardship Implementation Plan

    SciTech Connect

    B. E. Olaveson

    2006-07-27

    The U.S. Department of Energy has established long-term stewardship programs to protect human health and the environment at sites where residual contamination remains after site cleanup. At the Idaho National Laboratory Site, Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERLA) long-term stewardship activities performed under the aegis of regulatory agreements, the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order for the Idaho National Laboratory, and state and federal requirements are administered primarily under the direction of the Idaho Cleanup Project. It represents a subset of all on-going environmental activity at the Idaho National Laboratory Site. This plan provides a listing of applicable CERCLA long-term stewardship requirements and their planned and completed implementation goals. It proffers the Long-Term Stewardship Environmental Data Warehouse for Sitewide management of environmental data. This plan will be updated as needed over time, based on input from the U.S. Department of Energy, its cognizant subcontractors, and other local and regional stakeholders.

  17. Incidental Biasing of Attention from Visual Long-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fan, Judith E.; Turk-Browne, Nicholas B.

    2016-01-01

    Holding recently experienced information in mind can help us achieve our current goals. However, such immediate and direct forms of guidance from working memory are less helpful over extended delays or when other related information in long-term memory is useful for reaching these goals. Here we show that information that was encoded in the past…

  18. Consolidation of Long-Term Memory: Evidence and Alternatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meeter, Martijn; Murre, Jaap M. J.

    2004-01-01

    Memory loss in retrograde amnesia has long been held to be larger for recent periods than for remote periods, a pattern usually referred to as the Ribot gradient. One explanation for this gradient is consolidation of long-term memories. Several computational models of such a process have shown how consolidation can explain characteristics of…

  19. Children's Long-Term Memory for Autobiographical Events.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Carole

    2002-01-01

    Traces the origins of children's autobiographical memories, discussing research on infantile amnesia and young children's memory skills. Focuses on studies of children's long-term memory for autobiographical events that investigate delays of 1-2 years and delays of 4 years or more. Reports that a few studies have documented remarkably robust…

  20. 40 CFR 52.29 - Visibility long-term strategies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Visibility long-term strategies. 52.29... strategies. (a) Plan disapprovals. The provisions of this section are applicable to any State implementation plan which has been disapproved for not meeting the requirements of 40 CFR 51.306 regarding...

  1. 40 CFR 52.29 - Visibility long-term strategies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Visibility long-term strategies. 52.29... strategies. (a) Plan disapprovals. The provisions of this section are applicable to any State implementation plan which has been disapproved for not meeting the requirements of 40 CFR 51.306 regarding...

  2. 40 CFR 52.29 - Visibility long-term strategies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Visibility long-term strategies. 52.29... strategies. (a) Plan disapprovals. The provisions of this section are applicable to any State implementation plan which has been disapproved for not meeting the requirements of 40 CFR 51.306 regarding...

  3. Psychosocial Mediators of Long-Term Abstinence Following Smoking Cessation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horwitz, Michael B.; And Others

    It is well known that many smokers who quit during cessation programs relapse soon after leaving treatment. To investigate the relationship of health locus of control, social support, nonsmoking areas, and objecting to another person's smoking to relapse and long-term maintenance of nonsmoking, male (N=70) and female (N=149) subjects participated…

  4. Long-Term Effects of First-Grade Multitier Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Kim, Young-Suk; Wanzek, Jeanne; Petscher, Yaacov; Wagner, Richard K.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the long-term effects of 2 first-grade Response to Intervention (RTI) models (Dynamic and Typical RTI) on the reading performance of students in second and third grade. Participants included 419 first-grade students (352 in second grade and 278 in third grade after attrition). Students were classified based…

  5. Long term agro-ecosystem research: The Southern Plains partnership

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS) is coordinating ten well-established research sites as a Long Term Agro-ecosystem Research (LTAR) Network. The goal of the LTAR is to sustain a land-based infrastructure for research, environmental management testing, and education, that enables understan...

  6. Security basics for long-term care facilities.

    PubMed

    Green, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The need for Long-Term Care (LTC) facilities is growing, the author reports, and along with it the need for programs to address the major security concerns of such facilities. In this article he explains how to apply the IAHSS Healthcare Security Industry Guidelines and the Design Guidelines to achieve a safer LTC facility. PMID:26647503

  7. SBUV/2 Long-Term Measurements of Solar Spectral Variability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLand, Matthew T.; Cebula, Richard P.

    1997-01-01

    The NOAA-11 SBUV/2 spectral solar data have been corrected for long-term instrument changes to produce a 5.5 year data record during solar cycle 22 (December 1988 - October 1994). Residual drifts in the data at long wavelengths are +/- 1% or less. At 200-205 nm, where solar variations drive stratospheric photochemistry, these data indicate long-term solar changes of 5-7% from the maximum of Cycle 22 in April 1991 through the end of the NOAA-11 data record. Comparisons of NOAA-11 data with UARS SUSIM and SOLSTICE for the period October 1991 - October 1994, when all 3 instruments were operating simultaneously, show that the observed long-term variations in 200-205 nm irradiance agree to within 2%. This result is consistent with predictions from the Mg-2 proxy index. The SBUV/2 instruments represent a valuable resource for long-term solar UV activity studies because of their overlapping data records. In addition to the NOAA-11 data presented here, the NOAA-9 SBUV/2 instrument began taking data in March 1985 and is still operating, providing a complete record of Cycle 22 behavior from a single instrument. Three additional SBUV/2 instruments are scheduled to be launched between 1997 and 2003, which should permit full coverage of solar cycle 23.

  8. The Long-Term Effects of Youth Unemployment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mroz, Thomas A.; Savage, Timothy H.

    2006-01-01

    Using NLSY data, we examine the long-term effects of youth unemployment on later labor market outcomes. Involuntary unemployment may yield suboptimal investments in human capital in the short run. A theoretical model of dynamic human capital investment predicts a rational "catch-up" response. Using semiparametric techniques to control for the…

  9. Long-Term Psychosomatic Effects of Biofeedback vs. Relaxation Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nowlis, David P.; Borzone, Ximena C.

    Differences were compared in the short-term and long-term responses of subjects with headache, insomnia, or hypertension to biofeedback training, relaxation, or a combination of both. Headache sufferers, insomniacs, and hypertensives were randomly assigned in equal numbers to biofeedback, relaxation training or a record-keeping control. Over 2…

  10. Effects of Acute Exercise on Long-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labban, Jeffrey D.; Etnier, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we tested the effect of acute exercise on long-term memory, specifically the timing of exercise relative to the memory challenge. We assessed memory via paragraph recall, in which participants listened to two paragraphs (exposure) and recounted them following a 35-min delay. Participants (n = 48) were randomly assigned to one of…

  11. Long-Term Effects of Neurofeedback Treatment in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kouijzer, Mirjam E. J.; de Moor, Jan M. H.; Gerrits, Berrie J. L.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; van Schie, Hein T.

    2009-01-01

    Previously we demonstrated significant improvement of executive functions and social behavior in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) treated with 40 sessions of EEG neurofeedback in a nonrandomized waiting list control group design. In this paper we extend these findings by reporting the long-term results of neurofeedback treatment in…

  12. The Basics of Long-Term Debt Issuance and Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Meter, Christine M.

    2011-01-01

    Issuing long-term debt can be a complex, multifaceted process. Although the process varies by stare, typically the school business official and the district solicitor work with the financing ream, which includes a financial adviser, bond counsel, underwriter, raring agency, and possibly a bond insurance agent, paying agent, and architect.…

  13. Long-term Toxicity of Cancer Treatment in Older Patients.

    PubMed

    Shahrokni, Armin; Wu, Abraham J; Carter, Jeanne; Lichtman, Stuart M

    2016-02-01

    With earlier cancer diagnosis among older patients with cancer, the possibility of curing cancer increases. However, cancer treatment may have a long-lasting impact on older cancer survivors. It is vital to screen, diagnose, and properly manage the long-term toxicities of cancer treatment in order to maintain the quality of life of older cancer survivors. PMID:26614861

  14. Weight-Loss Surgery Sheds Pounds Long Term

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160719.html Weight-Loss Surgery Sheds Pounds Long Term 10-year follow- ... 31, 2016 WEDNESDAY, Aug. 31, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Weight-loss surgery helps people drop a significant amount of ...

  15. Predictors of Home Based Long-Term Care Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luppens, Jean; And Others

    An attempt was made to determine predictors of service need, use, and outcome among chronically impaired adults and aged who were living in the community and using the home-based, long term care services of the Chronic Illness Center (CIC) of the Cuyahoga County Hospitals (Ohio). Randomly selected consumer service records (N=200) were coded for…

  16. Investment in Skills Must Be for the Long Term

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, John

    2009-01-01

    Since the 1980s, researchers have formed a much better understanding of how unemployment scars people's lives, not just in the short term, but sometimes for years ahead. Researchers differ on the details, but no one disagrees that the negative effects are serious and long term. In the recession of the 1980s, government schemes to improve people's…

  17. European Agency Leader Urges Long-Term Environmental Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2014-11-01

    A 23 October agreement by European Union (EU) leaders to reduce domestic greenhouse gas emissions is a good example of developing and implementing a needed long-term, sustainable environmental policy agenda for Europe. So says Hans Bruyninckx, executive director of the European Environment Agency (EEA), an EU agency.

  18. Gender-Based Violence in India: Long-Term Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simister, John; Mehta, Parnika S.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines long-term trends in Indian society regarding domestic violence between husband and wife, and attitudes to such violence. This article analyzes crime data and uses data from several Indian household surveys: "Work Attitudes and Spending" surveys (1992 to 2007); "World Values Survey" (1990, 1995, 2001, and 2006); and…

  19. Long-Term Adaptation to Institutionalization in Dementia Caregivers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaugler, Joseph E.; Pot, Anne Margriet; Zarit, Steven H.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Longitudinal research in dementia has acknowledged the importance of transitions during the course of family caregiving. However, long-term adaptation to institutionalization has received little attention. This study attempts to describe caregivers' adaptation (changes in stress, well-being, and psychosocial resources) to placement up to…

  20. Neural correlates of long-term intense romantic love.

    PubMed

    Acevedo, Bianca P; Aron, Arthur; Fisher, Helen E; Brown, Lucy L

    2012-02-01

    The present study examined the neural correlates of long-term intense romantic love using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Ten women and 7 men married an average of 21.4 years underwent fMRI while viewing facial images of their partner. Control images included a highly familiar acquaintance; a close, long-term friend; and a low-familiar person. Effects specific to the intensely loved, long-term partner were found in: (i) areas of the dopamine-rich reward and basal ganglia system, such as the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and dorsal striatum, consistent with results from early-stage romantic love studies; and (ii) several regions implicated in maternal attachment, such as the globus pallidus (GP), substantia nigra, Raphe nucleus, thalamus, insular cortex, anterior cingulate and posterior cingulate. Correlations of neural activity in regions of interest with widely used questionnaires showed: (i) VTA and caudate responses correlated with romantic love scores and inclusion of other in the self; (ii) GP responses correlated with friendship-based love scores; (iii) hypothalamus and posterior hippocampus responses correlated with sexual frequency; and (iv) caudate, septum/fornix, posterior cingulate and posterior hippocampus responses correlated with obsession. Overall, results suggest that for some individuals the reward-value associated with a long-term partner may be sustained, similar to new love, but also involves brain systems implicated in attachment and pair-bonding.