Science.gov

Sample records for mhc heterozygote superiority

  1. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) heterozygote superiority to natural multi-parasite infections in the water vole (Arvicola terrestris).

    PubMed

    Oliver, M K; Telfer, S; Piertney, S B

    2009-03-22

    The fundamental role of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) in immune recognition has led to a general consensus that the characteristically high levels of functional polymorphism at MHC genes is maintained by balancing selection operating through host-parasite coevolution. However, the actual mechanism by which selection operates is unclear. Two hypotheses have been proposed: overdominance (or heterozygote superiority) and negative frequency-dependent selection. Evidence for these hypotheses was evaluated by examining MHC-parasite relationships in an island population of water voles (Arvicola terrestris). Generalized linear mixed models were used to examine whether individual variation at an MHC class II DRB locus explained variation in the individual burdens of five different parasites. MHC genotype explained a significant amount of variation in the burden of gamasid mites, fleas (Megabothris walkeri) and nymphs of sheep ticks (Ixodes ricinus). Additionally, MHC heterozygotes were simultaneously co-infected by fewer parasite types than homozygotes. In each case where an MHC-dependent effect on parasite burden was resolved, the heterozygote genotype was associated with fewer parasites, and the heterozygote outperformed each homozygote in two of three cases, suggesting an overall superiority against parasitism for MHC heterozygote genotypes. This is the first demonstration of MHC heterozygote superiority against multiple parasites in a natural population, a mechanism that could help maintain high levels of functional MHC genetic diversity in natural populations.

  2. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) heterozygote superiority to natural multi-parasite infections in the water vole (Arvicola terrestris)

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, M.K.; Telfer, S.; Piertney, S.B.

    2008-01-01

    The fundamental role of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) in immune recognition has led to a general consensus that the characteristically high levels of functional polymorphism at MHC genes is maintained by balancing selection operating through host–parasite coevolution. However, the actual mechanism by which selection operates is unclear. Two hypotheses have been proposed: overdominance (or heterozygote superiority) and negative frequency-dependent selection. Evidence for these hypotheses was evaluated by examining MHC–parasite relationships in an island population of water voles (Arvicola terrestris). Generalized linear mixed models were used to examine whether individual variation at an MHC class II DRB locus explained variation in the individual burdens of five different parasites. MHC genotype explained a significant amount of variation in the burden of gamasid mites, fleas (Megabothris walkeri) and nymphs of sheep ticks (Ixodes ricinus). Additionally, MHC heterozygotes were simultaneously co-infected by fewer parasite types than homozygotes. In each case where an MHC-dependent effect on parasite burden was resolved, the heterozygote genotype was associated with fewer parasites, and the heterozygote outperformed each homozygote in two of three cases, suggesting an overall superiority against parasitism for MHC heterozygote genotypes. This is the first demonstration of MHC heterozygote superiority against multiple parasites in a natural population, a mechanism that could help maintain high levels of functional MHC genetic diversity in natural populations. PMID:19129114

  3. Heterozygote advantage at MHC DRB may influence response to infectious disease epizootics.

    PubMed

    Osborne, Amy J; Pearson, John; Negro, Sandra S; Chilvers, B Louise; Kennedy, Martin A; Gemmell, Neil J

    2015-04-01

    The effect of MHC polymorphism on individual fitness variation in the wild remains equivocal; however, much evidence suggests that heterozygote advantage is a major determinant. To understand the contribution of MHC polymorphism to individual disease resistance or susceptibility in natural populations, we investigated two MHC class II B loci, DQB and DRB, in the New Zealand sea lion (NZSL, Phocarctos hookeri). The NZSL is a threatened species which is unusually susceptible to death by bacterial infection at an early age; it has suffered three bacterial induced epizootics resulting in high mortality levels of young pups since 1997. The MHC DQB and DRB haplotypes of dead NZSL pups with known cause of death (bacteria, enteritis or trauma) were sequenced and reconstructed, compared to pups that survived beyond 2 months of age, and distinct MHC DRB allele frequency and genotype differences were identified. Two findings were striking: (i) one DRB allele was present only in dead pups, and (ii) one heterozygous DRB genotype, common in live pups, was absent from dead pups. These results are consistent with some functional relationship with these variants and suggest heterozygote advantage is operating at DRB. We found no association between heterozygosity and fitness at 17 microsatellite loci, indicating that general heterozygosity is not responsible for the effect on fitness detected here. This result may be a consequence of recurrent selection by multiple pathogen assault over recent years and highlights the importance of heterozygote advantage at MHC as a potential mechanism for fitness differences in wild populations.

  4. Choosy Wolves? Heterozygote Advantage But No Evidence of MHC-Based Disassortative Mating.

    PubMed

    Galaverni, Marco; Caniglia, Romolo; Milanesi, Pietro; Lapalombella, Silvana; Fabbri, Elena; Randi, Ettore

    2016-03-01

    A variety of nonrandom mate choice strategies, including disassortative mating, are used by vertebrate species to avoid inbreeding, maintain heterozygosity and increase fitness. Disassortative mating may be mediated by the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), an important gene cluster controlling immune responses to pathogens. We investigated the patterns of mate choice in 26 wild-living breeding pairs of gray wolf (Canis lupus) that were identified through noninvasive genetic methods and genotyped at 3 MHC class II and 12 autosomal microsatellite (STR) loci. We tested for deviations from random mating and evaluated the covariance of genetic variables at functional and STR markers with fitness proxies deduced from pedigree reconstructions. Results did not show evidences of MHC-based disassortative mating. Rather we found a higher peptide similarity between mates at MHC loci as compared with random expectations. Fitness values were positively correlated with heterozygosity of the breeders at both MHC and STR loci, whereas they decreased with relatedness at STRs. These findings may indicate fitness advantages for breeders that, while avoiding highly related mates, are more similar at the MHC and have high levels of heterozygosity overall. Such a pattern of MHC-assortative mating may reflect local coadaptation of the breeders, while a reduction in genetic diversity may be balanced by heterozygote advantages. © The American Genetic Association 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. High levels of MHC class II allelic diversity in lake trout from Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dorschner, M.O.; Duris, T.; Bronte, C.R.; Burnham-Curtis, M. K.; Phillips, R.B.

    2000-01-01

    Sequence variation in a 216 bp portion of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) II B1 domain was examined in 74 individual lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from different locations in Lake Superior. Forty-three alleles were obtained which encoded 71-72 amino acids of the mature protein. These sequences were compared with previous data obtained from five Pacific salmon species and Atlantic salmon using the same primers. Although all of the lake trout alleles clustered together in the neighbor-joining analysis of amino acid sequences, one amino acid allelic lineage was shared with Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), a species in another genus which probably diverged from Salvelinus more than 10-20 million years ago. As shown previously in other salmonids, the level of nonsynonymous nucleotide substitution (d(N)) exceeded the level of synonymous substitution (d(S)). The level of nucleotide diversity at the MHC class II B1 locus was considerably higher in lake trout than in the Pacific salmon (genus Oncorhynchus). These results are consistent with the hypothesis that lake trout colonized Lake Superior from more than one refuge following the Wisconsin glaciation. Recent population bottlenecks may have reduced nucleotide diversity in Pacific salmon populations.

  6. The Heterozygote Superiority Hypothesis for Polymorphic Color Vision Is Not Supported by Long-Term Fitness Data from Wild Neotropical Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Fedigan, Linda M.; Melin, Amanda D.; Addicott, John F.; Kawamura, Shoji

    2014-01-01

    The leading explanatory model for the widespread occurrence of color vision polymorphism in Neotropical primates is the heterozygote superiority hypothesis, which postulates that trichromatic individuals have a fitness advantage over other phenotypes because redgreen chromatic discrimination is useful for foraging, social signaling, or predator detection. Alternative explanatory models predict that dichromatic and trichromatic phenotypes are each suited to distinct tasks. To conclusively evaluate these models, one must determine whether proposed visual advantages translate into differential fitness of trichromatic and dichromatic individuals. We tested whether color vision phenotype is a significant predictor of female fitness in a population of wild capuchins, using longterm 26 years survival and fertility data. We found no advantage to trichromats over dichromats for three fitness measures fertility rates, offspring survival and maternal survival. This finding suggests that a selective mechanism other than heterozygote advantage is operating to maintain the color vision polymorphism. We propose that attention be directed to field testing the alternative mechanisms of balancing selection proposed to explain opsin polymorphism nichedivergence, frequencydependence and mutual benefit of association. This is the first indepth, longterm study examining the effects of color vision variation on survival and reproductive success in a naturallyoccurring population of primates. PMID:24404195

  7. Olfaction in Parkin heterozygotes and compound heterozygotes

    PubMed Central

    Alcalay, R.N.; Siderowf, A.; Ottman, R.; Caccappolo, E.; Mejia-Santana, H.; Tang, M.-X.; Rosado, L.; Louis, E.; Ruiz, D.; Waters, C.; Fahn, S.; Cote, L.; Frucht, S.; Ford, B.; Orbe-Reilly, M.; Ross, B.; Verbitsky, M.; Kisselev, S.; Comella, C.; Colcher, A.; Jennings, D.; Nance, M.; Bressman, S.; Scott, W.K.; Tanner, C.; Mickel, S.; Rezak, M.; Novak, K.E.; Friedman, J.H.; Pfeiffer, R.; Marsh, L.; Hiner, B.; Clark, L.N.

    2011-01-01

    Background: While Parkinson disease (PD) is consistently associated with impaired olfaction, one study reported better olfaction among Parkin mutation carriers than noncarriers. Whether olfaction differs between Parkin mutation heterozygotes and carriers of 2 Parkin mutations (compound heterozygotes) is unknown. Objective: To assess the relationship between Parkin genotype and olfaction in PD probands and their unaffected relatives. Methods: We administered the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT) to 44 probands in the Consortium on Risk for Early-Onset Parkinson Disease study with PD onset ≤50 years (10 Parkin mutation heterozygotes, 9 compound heterozygotes, 25 noncarriers) and 80 of their family members (18 heterozygotes, 2 compound heterozygotes, 60 noncarriers). In the probands, linear regression was used to assess the association between UPSIT score (outcome) and Parkin genotype (predictor), adjusting for covariates. Among family members without PD, we compared UPSIT performance in heterozygotes vs noncarriers using generalized estimating equations, adjusting for family membership, age, gender, and smoking. Results: Among probands with PD, compound heterozygotes had higher UPSIT scores (31.9) than heterozygotes (20.1) or noncarriers (19.9) (p < 0.001). These differences persisted after adjustment for age, gender, disease duration, and smoking. Among relatives without PD, UPSIT performance was similar in heterozygotes (32.5) vs noncarriers (32.4), and better than in heterozygotes with PD (p = 0.001). Conclusion: Olfaction is significantly reduced among Parkin mutation heterozygotes with PD but not among their heterozygous relatives without PD. Compound heterozygotes with PD have olfaction within the normal range. Further research is required to assess whether these findings reflect different neuropathology in Parkin mutation heterozygotes and compound heterozygotes. PMID:21205674

  8. MHC polymorphism under host-pathogen coevolution.

    PubMed

    Borghans, José A M; Beltman, Joost B; De Boer, Rob J

    2004-02-01

    The genes encoding major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules are among the most polymorphic genes known for vertebrates. Since MHC molecules play an important role in the induction of immune responses, the evolution of MHC polymorphism is often explained in terms of increased protection of hosts against pathogens. Two selective pressures that are thought to be involved are (1) selection favoring MHC heterozygous hosts, and (2) selection for rare MHC alleles by host-pathogen coevolution. We have developed a computer simulation of coevolving hosts and pathogens to study the relative impact of these two mechanisms on the evolution of MHC polymorphism. We found that heterozygote advantage per se is insufficient to explain the high degree of polymorphism at the MHC, even in very large host populations. Host-pathogen coevolution, on the other hand, can easily account for realistic polymorphisms of more than 50 alleles per MHC locus. Since evolving pathogens mainly evade presentation by the most common MHC alleles in the host population, they provide a selective pressure for a large variety of rare MHC alleles. Provided that the host population is sufficiently large, a large set of MHC alleles can persist over many host generations under host-pathogen coevolution, despite the fact that allele frequencies continuously change.

  9. Genotypic characterization of an MHC class II locus in lake trout ( Salvelinus namaycush) from Lake Superior by single-stranded conformational polymorphism analysis and reference strand-mediated conformational analysis.

    PubMed

    Noakes, Marc A; Reimer, Tara; Phillips, Ruth B

    2003-01-01

    This study compares the genotypic information provided by reference strand-mediated conformational analysis and single-stranded confirmational polymorphism (SSCP) analysis for the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) II locus in lake trout. For this study 80 wild-caught animals from the Apostle Islands of Lake Superior were genotyped using both RSCA and SSCP analysis. Their genotypes were recorded using both methods and compared. The genotypic information provided by the 2 methods was essentially the same although some inconsistencies were observed. Both methods detected approximately 65 genotypes, and both were able to distinguish heterozygous and homozygous animals. The analyses determined that only approximately 20% of alleles were shared between 2 morphologically different populations within the sample set, and identified the dominant alleles. SSCP analysis was quicker, simple, and more robust than RSCA. SSCP analysis using fluorescence technologies could be the method of choice for future genotypic analysis of the MHC II locus in salmonids.

  10. Olfaction in Parkin heterozygotes and compound heterozygotes: the CORE-PD study.

    PubMed

    Alcalay, R N; Siderowf, A; Ottman, R; Caccappolo, E; Mejia-Santana, H; Tang, M-X; Rosado, L; Louis, E; Ruiz, D; Waters, C; Fahn, S; Cote, L; Frucht, S; Ford, B; Orbe-Reilly, M; Ross, B; Verbitsky, M; Kisselev, S; Comella, C; Colcher, A; Jennings, D; Nance, M; Bressman, S; Scott, W K; Tanner, C; Mickel, S; Rezak, M; Novak, K E; Friedman, J H; Pfeiffer, R; Marsh, L; Hiner, B; Clark, L N; Marder, K

    2011-01-25

    While Parkinson disease (PD) is consistently associated with impaired olfaction, one study reported better olfaction among Parkin mutation carriers than noncarriers. Whether olfaction differs between Parkin mutation heterozygotes and carriers of 2 Parkin mutations (compound heterozygotes) is unknown. To assess the relationship between Parkin genotype and olfaction in PD probands and their unaffected relatives. We administered the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT) to 44 probands in the Consortium on Risk for Early-Onset Parkinson Disease study with PD onset ≤50 years (10 Parkin mutation heterozygotes, 9 compound heterozygotes, 25 noncarriers) and 80 of their family members (18 heterozygotes, 2 compound heterozygotes, 60 noncarriers). In the probands, linear regression was used to assess the association between UPSIT score (outcome) and Parkin genotype (predictor), adjusting for covariates. Among family members without PD, we compared UPSIT performance in heterozygotes vs noncarriers using generalized estimating equations, adjusting for family membership, age, gender, and smoking. Among probands with PD, compound heterozygotes had higher UPSIT scores (31.9) than heterozygotes (20.1) or noncarriers (19.9) (p < 0.001). These differences persisted after adjustment for age, gender, disease duration, and smoking. Among relatives without PD, UPSIT performance was similar in heterozygotes (32.5) vs noncarriers (32.4), and better than in heterozygotes with PD (p = 0.001). Olfaction is significantly reduced among Parkin mutation heterozygotes with PD but not among their heterozygous relatives without PD. Compound heterozygotes with PD have olfaction within the normal range. Further research is required to assess whether these findings reflect different neuropathology in Parkin mutation heterozygotes and compound heterozygotes.

  11. Engineering superior DNA vaccines: MHC class I single chain trimers bypass antigen processing and enhance the immune response to low affinity antigens

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lijin; Herndon, John M.; Truscott, Steven M.; Hansen, Ted H.; Fleming, Timothy P.; Goedegebuure, Peter; Gillanders, William E.

    2009-01-01

    It is commonly believed that delivery of antigen into the class I antigen presentation pathway is a limiting factor in the clinical translation of DNA vaccines. This is of particular concern in the context of cancer vaccine development as many immunodominant peptides derived from self tumor antigens are not processed and presented efficiently. To address this limitation, we have engineered completely assembled peptide/MHC class I complexes whereby all three components (class I heavy chain, β2m, and peptide) are attached by flexible linkers and expressed as a single polypeptide (single chain trimers or SCT). In this study, we tested the efficacy of progressive generations of SCT DNA vaccines engineered to (1) enhance peptide binding, (2) enhance interaction with the CD8 coreceptor, and/or (3) activate CD4+ helper T cells. Disulfide trap SCT (dtSCT) have been engineered to improve peptide binding, with mutations designed to create a disulfide bond between the class I heavy chain and the peptide linker. dtSCT DNA vaccines dramatically enhance the immune response to model low affinity antigens as measured by ELISPOT analysis and tumor challenge. SCT engineered to enhance interaction with the CD8 coreceptor have a higher affinity for the TCR/CD8 complex, and are associated with more robust CD8+ T cell responses following vaccination. Finally, SCT constructs that coexpress a universal helper epitope PADRE, dramatically enhance CD8+ T cell responses. Taken together, our data demonstrate that dtSCT DNA vaccines coexpressing a universal CD4 epitope are highly effective in generating immune responses to poorly processed and presented cancer antigens. PMID:20188246

  12. Heterozygote advantage in the American chestnut, Castanea dentata (Fagaceae).

    PubMed

    Stilwell, Kevin L; Wilbur, Henry M; Werth, Charles R; Taylor, Douglas R

    2003-02-01

    The American chestnut (Castanea dentata; Fagaceae) was a dominant canopy tree in the Appalachian Mountains of North America. Since the introduction of the chestnut blight fungus (Cryphonectria parasitica; Valsaceae) in America, the American chestnut has been reduced to a predominantly clonal, understory species. Our objective was to determine whether the ecological changes and absence of new recruits have influenced the population genetics of American chestnut. Leaf samples were collected from four populations in southwestern Virginia. Electrophoretic data from five polymorphic loci were used to determine the genetic diversity and population structure of the populations and subpopulations. Growth data and infection status were recorded for one of the populations to determine their relationship with heterozygosity. F statistics revealed a significant amount of differentiation among subpopulations and an excess of heterozygotes within subpopulations. Heterozygous individuals also had higher rates of vegetative growth. The superior performance and excess of heterozygotes suggests that selection favors heterozygous individuals. The prolonged absence of sexual reproduction in C. dentata has allowed subtle fitness differences to accumulate to the extent that they have had significant effects on the genetics of chestnut populations.

  13. Sex-specific selection for MHC variability in Alpine chamois

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In mammals, males typically have shorter lives than females. This difference is thought to be due to behavioural traits which enhance competitive abilities, and hence male reproductive success, but impair survival. Furthermore, in many species males usually show higher parasite burden than females. Consequently, the intensity of selection for genetic factors which reduce susceptibility to pathogens may differ between sexes. High variability at the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes is believed to be advantageous for detecting and combating the range of infectious agents present in the environment. Increased heterozygosity at these immune genes is expected to be important for individual longevity. However, whether males in natural populations benefit more from MHC heterozygosity than females has rarely been investigated. We investigated this question in a long-term study of free-living Alpine chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra), a polygynous mountain ungulate. Results Here we show that male chamois survive significantly (P = 0.022) longer if heterozygous at the MHC class II DRB locus, whereas females do not. Improved survival of males was not a result of heterozygote advantage per se, as background heterozygosity (estimated across twelve microsatellite loci) did not change significantly with age. Furthermore, reproductively active males depleted their body fat reserves earlier than females leading to significantly impaired survival rates in this sex (P < 0.008). This sex-difference was even more pronounced in areas affected by scabies, a severe parasitosis, as reproductively active males were less likely to survive than females. However, we did not find evidence for a survival advantage associated with specific MHC alleles in areas affected by scabies. Conclusions Increased MHC class II DRB heterozygosity with age in males, suggests that MHC heterozygous males survive longer than homozygotes. Reproductively active males appear to be less likely to

  14. Cystic fibrosis heterozygote screening in 5,161 pregnant women

    SciTech Connect

    Witt, D.R.; Hallam, P.; Blumberg, B.; Fishbach, A.

    1996-04-01

    A screening program for cystic fibrosis (CF) heterozygotes was conducted in a large HMO prenatal population, to evaluate the level of interest among eligible patients, the effectiveness of prescreening education, attitudes toward the screening process, psychological effects, and utilization of prenatal diagnosis and its outcomes. The heterozygote identification rate and frequency of specific CFTR mutations were also assessed. Identified carriers were offered genetic counseling and testing of male partners. Prenatal diagnosis was offered if both partners were identified as carriers. A total of 5,161 women underwent carrier testing; 947 others completed survey instruments only. The acceptance rate of screening was high (78%), and pretest education by videotape was generally effective. Adverse psychological effects were not reported. Participants generally found screening to be desirable and useful. Screening identified 142 female heterozygotes, 109 couples in which the male partner was not a carrier, and 7 high-risk couples. The incidence of R117H mutations was much higher than expected. The number of identified carriers was much lower in Hispanics than in Caucasians. We conclude that large-scale prenatal screening for CF heterozygotes in the absence of a family history of CF is an acceptable method for identifying couples at risk for affected fetuses. Sufficient pretest education can be accomplished efficiently, test insensitivity is well accepted, adverse psychological events are not observed, and general patient satisfaction is high. 66 refs., 1 fig., 8 tabs.

  15. MHC genotypes associate with resistance to a frog-killing fungus

    PubMed Central

    Savage, Anna E.; Zamudio, Kelly R.

    2011-01-01

    The emerging amphibian disease chytridiomycosis is caused by the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). Amphibian populations and species differ in susceptibility to Bd, yet we know surprisingly little about the genetic basis of this natural variation. MHC loci encode peptides that initiate acquired immunity in vertebrates, making them likely candidates for determining disease susceptibility. However, MHC genes have never been characterized in the context of chytridiomycosis. Here, we performed experimental Bd infections in laboratory-reared frogs collected from five populations that show natural variation in Bd susceptibility. We found that alleles of an expressed MHC class IIB locus associate with survival following Bd infection. Across populations, MHC heterozygosity was a significant predictor of survival. Within populations, MHC heterozygotes and individuals bearing MHC allele Q had a significantly reduced risk of death, and we detected a significant signal of positive selection along the evolutionary lineage leading to allele Q. Our findings demonstrate that immunogenetic variation affects chytridiomycosis survival under controlled experimental conditions, confirming that host genetic polymorphisms contribute to chytridiomycosis resistance. PMID:21949385

  16. Analysis of MHC class I genes across horse MHC haplotypes

    PubMed Central

    Tallmadge, Rebecca L.; Campbell, Julie A.; Miller, Donald C.; Antczak, Douglas F.

    2010-01-01

    The genomic sequences of 15 horse Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) class I genes and a collection of MHC class I homozygous horses of five different haplotypes were used to investigate the genomic structure and polymorphism of the equine MHC. A combination of conserved and locus-specific primers was used to amplify horse MHC class I genes with classical and non-classical characteristics. Multiple clones from each haplotype identified three to five classical sequences per homozygous animal, and two to three non-classical sequences. Phylogenetic analysis was applied to these sequences and groups were identified which appear to be allelic series, but some sequences were left ungrouped. Sequences determined from MHC class I heterozygous horses and previously described MHC class I sequences were then added, representing a total of ten horse MHC haplotypes. These results were consistent with those obtained from the MHC homozygous horses alone, and 30 classical sequences were assigned to four previously confirmed loci and three new provisional loci. The non-classical genes had few alleles and the classical genes had higher levels of allelic polymorphism. Alleles for two classical loci with the expected pattern of polymorphism were found in the majority of haplotypes tested, but alleles at two other commonly detected loci had more variation outside of the hypervariable region than within. Our data indicate that the equine Major Histocompatibility Complex is characterized by variation in the complement of class I genes expressed in different haplotypes in addition to the expected allelic polymorphism within loci. PMID:20099063

  17. MHC and Evolution in Teleosts

    PubMed Central

    Grimholt, Unni

    2016-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules are key players in initiating immune responses towards invading pathogens. Both MHC class I and class II genes are present in teleosts, and, using phylogenetic clustering, sequences from both classes have been classified into various lineages. The polymorphic and classical MHC class I and class II gene sequences belong to the U and A lineages, respectively. The remaining class I and class II lineages contain nonclassical gene sequences that, despite their non-orthologous nature, may still hold functions similar to their mammalian nonclassical counterparts. However, the fact that several of these nonclassical lineages are only present in some teleost species is puzzling and questions their functional importance. The number of genes within each lineage greatly varies between teleost species. At least some gene expansions seem reasonable, such as the huge MHC class I expansion in Atlantic cod that most likely compensates for the lack of MHC class II and CD4. The evolutionary trigger for similar MHC class I expansions in tilapia, for example, which has a functional MHC class II, is not so apparent. Future studies will provide us with a more detailed understanding in particular of nonclassical MHC gene functions. PMID:26797646

  18. Hemochromatosis heterozygotes may constitute a radiation-sensitive subpopulation.

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, R G.; Morris, James E. ); Anderson, Larry E. )

    1999-12-01

    A primary mechanism of radiation-induced DNA damage is by generation of free radicals. Chronically increased oxidative stress from elevated body iron may increase radiation sensitivity by decreasing cellular oxygen radical scavenging capability. Hemochromatosis heterozygotes have elevated body iron. Low-level radiation sensitization by iron may be particularly pertinent for risk of breast cancer. Since ten percent of the population appears to be heterozygous for the hemochromatosis gene, a radiosensitizing effect would have pervasive implications.

  19. Negative relationships between cellular immune response, Mhc class II heterozygosity and secondary sexual trait in the montane water vole.

    PubMed

    Charbonnel, Nathalie; Bryja, Josef; Galan, Maxime; Deter, Julie; Tollenaere, Charlotte; Chaval, Yannick; Morand, Serge; Cosson, Jean-François

    2010-05-01

    Heterogeneities in immune responsiveness may affect key epidemiological parameters and the dynamics of pathogens. The roles of immunogenetics in these variations remain poorly explored. We analysed the influence of Major histocompatibility complex (Mhc) genes and epigamic traits on the response to phytohaemagglutinin in males from cyclic populations of the montane water vole (Arvicola scherman). Besides, we tested the relevance of lateral scent glands as honest signals of male quality. Our results did not corroborate neither the hypotheses of genome-wide heterozygosity-fitness correlation nor the Mhc heterozygote advantage. We found a negative relationship between Mhc hetetozygosity and response to phytohaemagglutinin, mediated by a specific Mhc homozygous genotype. Our results therefore support the hypothesis of the Arte-Dqa-05 homozygous genotype being a 'good' Mhc variant in terms of immunogenetic quality. The development of the scent glands seems to be an honest signal for mate choice as it is negatively correlated with helminth load. The 'good gene' hypothesis was not validated as Arte-Dqa-05 homozygous males did not exhibit larger glands. Besides, the negative relationship observed between the size of these glands and the response to phytohaemagglutinin, mainly for Mhc homozygotes, corroborates the immunocompetence handicap hypothesis. The Mhc variants associated with larger glands remain yet to be determined.

  20. Negative relationships between cellular immune response, Mhc class II heterozygosity and secondary sexual trait in the montane water vole

    PubMed Central

    Charbonnel, Nathalie; Bryja, Josef; Galan, Maxime; Deter, Julie; Tollenaere, Charlotte; Chaval, Yannick; Morand, Serge; Cosson, Jean-François

    2010-01-01

    Heterogeneities in immune responsiveness may affect key epidemiological parameters and the dynamics of pathogens. The roles of immunogenetics in these variations remain poorly explored. We analysed the influence of Major histocompatibility complex (Mhc) genes and epigamic traits on the response to phytohaemagglutinin in males from cyclic populations of the montane water vole (Arvicola scherman). Besides, we tested the relevance of lateral scent glands as honest signals of male quality. Our results did not corroborate neither the hypotheses of genome-wide heterozygosity-fitness correlation nor the Mhc heterozygote advantage. We found a negative relationship between Mhc hetetozygosity and response to phytohaemagglutinin, mediated by a specific Mhc homozygous genotype. Our results therefore support the hypothesis of the Arte-Dqa-05 homozygous genotype being a ‘good’ Mhc variant in terms of immunogenetic quality. The development of the scent glands seems to be an honest signal for mate choice as it is negatively correlated with helminth load. The ‘good gene’ hypothesis was not validated as Arte-Dqa-05 homozygous males did not exhibit larger glands. Besides, the negative relationship observed between the size of these glands and the response to phytohaemagglutinin, mainly for Mhc homozygotes, corroborates the immunocompetence handicap hypothesis. The Mhc variants associated with larger glands remain yet to be determined. PMID:25567924

  1. MHC class IIB additive and non-additive effects on fitness measures in the guppy Poecilia reticulata.

    PubMed

    Fraser, B A; Neff, B D

    2009-12-01

    The genetic architecture of fitness at the class IIB gene of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) in the guppy Poecilia reticulata was analysed. Diversity at the MHC is thought to be maintained by some form of balancing selection; heterozygote advantage, frequency-dependent selection or spatially and temporally fluctuating selection. Here these hypotheses are evaluated by using an algorithm that partitions the effect of specific MHC allele and genotypes on fitness measures. The effect of MHC genotype on surrogate measures of fitness was tested, including growth rate (at high and low bulk food diets), parasite load following a parasite challenge and survival. The number of copies of the Pore_a132 MHC allele was inversely related to infection by Gyrodactylus flukes and it appeared to be positively related to faster growth. Also, genotypes combining the Pore_a132 or other relatively common alleles paired with rare MHC alleles produced both advantageous and detrimental non-additive effects. Thus, the genetic architecture underlying fitness at the MHC is complex in the P. reticulata.

  2. Globin synthesis in fractionated Normoblasts of beta-thalassemia heterozygotes.

    PubMed Central

    Wood, W G; Stamatoyannopoulos, G

    1975-01-01

    Globin chain synthesis was examined in erythroid cells of increasing maturity, fractionated from the whole bone marrow of beta-thalassemia heterozygotes by a density gradient centrifugation procedure. In experiments using total cell "globin," a gradient of alpha/beta chain ratios was observed, increasing with erythroid cell maturation from unity in the basophilic cells up to 2.0 in reticulocytes. Gel filtration of the lysates from these marrow fractions revealed the presence of free alpha chains even in the most immature cells, the amount of which increased with erythroid cell age; the total alpha/beta ratio derived from gel filtration experiments showed a gradient similar to that observed in the total globin experiments. However, the alpha/beta ratio of the hemoglobin fraction obtained by gel filtration remained constant throughout maturation at an average of 0.65. This latter finding is incompatible with balanced synthesis at any stage of red cell development and excludes the possibility that total beta chain production is higher in the early cells than in the later cells or that alpha chain production in the early cells is reduced to the level of beta chain synthesis. Furthermore, in a Hb S/beta-thalassemia marrow examined, the beta A/beta S ratio remained constant throughout maturation while the alpha/non-alpha ratio showed an increase like that observed in the simple beta-thalassemia heterozygotes. This argues strongly against increased synthesis from either the thalassemic or nonthalassemic beta chain gene being responsible for the balanced synthesis in the immature cells. These findings lead us to suggest that, in beta-thalassemia heterozygotes, a large alpha chain pool is present throughout erythroid cell maturation and that the observed increase in alpha/beta ratios is a function of the ability of those cells to degrade the excess alpha chains. Images PMID:1167870

  3. The importance of immune gene variability (MHC) in evolutionary ecology and conservation

    PubMed Central

    Sommer, Simone

    2005-01-01

    Genetic studies have typically inferred the effects of human impact by documenting patterns of genetic differentiation and levels of genetic diversity among potentially isolated populations using selective neutral markers such as mitochondrial control region sequences, microsatellites or single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs). However, evolutionary relevant and adaptive processes within and between populations can only be reflected by coding genes. In vertebrates, growing evidence suggests that genetic diversity is particularly important at the level of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). MHC variants influence many important biological traits, including immune recognition, susceptibility to infectious and autoimmune diseases, individual odours, mating preferences, kin recognition, cooperation and pregnancy outcome. These diverse functions and characteristics place genes of the MHC among the best candidates for studies of mechanisms and significance of molecular adaptation in vertebrates. MHC variability is believed to be maintained by pathogen-driven selection, mediated either through heterozygote advantage or frequency-dependent selection. Up to now, most of our knowledge has derived from studies in humans or from model organisms under experimental, laboratory conditions. Empirical support for selective mechanisms in free-ranging animal populations in their natural environment is rare. In this review, I first introduce general information about the structure and function of MHC genes, as well as current hypotheses and concepts concerning the role of selection in the maintenance of MHC polymorphism. The evolutionary forces acting on the genetic diversity in coding and non-coding markers are compared. Then, I summarise empirical support for the functional importance of MHC variability in parasite resistance with emphasis on the evidence derived from free-ranging animal populations investigated in their natural habitat. Finally, I discuss the importance of

  4. Progression rate of myelopathy in X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy heterozygotes.

    PubMed

    Habekost, Clarissa Troller; Pereira, Fernanda Santos; Vargas, Carmen Regla; Coelho, Daniella Moura; Torrez, Vitor; Oses, Jean Pierre; Portela, Luis Valmor; Schestatsky, Pedro; Felix, Vitor Torres; Matte, Ursula; Torman, Vanessa Leotti; Jardim, Laura Bannach

    2015-10-01

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy heterozygote women can present adult onset myeloneuropathy and little is known about its natural history. We aimed to describe the progression rate of the neurological impairment in the prospective follow-up of our cohort and to look for prognostic factors. The neurological scales Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) and Severity Score System for Progressive Myelopathy (SSPROM) were applied at baseline in 29 symptomatic carriers and in follow-up visits. Age at onset, disease duration, X inactivation pattern, determination of the allele expressed, plasma levels of the very long chain fatty acids and of the neuron-specific enolase, and somato-sensory evoked potentials, were taken at baseline. The slope of the linear regression of both JOA and SSPROM versus disease duration since the first symptom was estimated using mixed modeling. JOA and SSPROM decreased 0.42 and 1.87 points per year, respectively (p < 0.001). None of the parameters under study influenced these rates. We estimated that the number of carriers per arm needed in a future 12 month trial with 80% power and a 50% reduction in disease progression would be 225 women for JOA and 750 for SSPROM. The progression rates of the studied neurological scales were small, did not depend on any modifier factor known, and reflected the characteristically slow worsening of symptoms in X-ALD heterozygotes. Better biomarkers are still necessary for future studies.

  5. Parent-progeny sequencing indicates higher mutation rates in heterozygotes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Sihai; Wang, Long; Huang, Ju; Zhang, Xiaohui; Yuan, Yang; Chen, Jian-Qun; Hurst, Laurence D; Tian, Dacheng

    2015-07-23

    Mutation rates vary within genomes, but the causes of this remain unclear. As many prior inferences rely on methods that assume an absence of selection, potentially leading to artefactual results, we call mutation events directly using a parent-offspring sequencing strategy focusing on Arabidopsis and using rice and honey bee for replication. Here we show that mutation rates are higher in heterozygotes and in proximity to crossover events. A correlation between recombination rate and intraspecific diversity is in part owing to a higher mutation rate in domains of high recombination/diversity. Implicating diversity per se as a cause, we find an ∼3.5-fold higher mutation rate in heterozygotes than in homozygotes, with mutations occurring in closer proximity to heterozygous sites than expected by chance. In a genome that is a patchwork of heterozygous and homozygous domains, mutations occur disproportionately more often in the heterozygous domains. If segregating mutations predispose to a higher local mutation rate, clusters of genes dominantly under purifying selection (more commonly homozygous) and under balancing selection (more commonly heterozygous), might have low and high mutation rates, respectively. Our results are consistent with this, there being a ten times higher mutation rate in pathogen resistance genes, expected to be under positive or balancing selection. Consequently, we do not necessarily need to evoke extremely weak selection on the mutation rate to explain why mutational hot and cold spots might correspond to regions under positive/balancing and purifying selection, respectively.

  6. Genetic Heterogeneity among Fanconi Anemia Heterozygotes and Risk of Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Berwick, Marianne; Satagopan, Jaya M.; Ben-Porat, Leah; Carlson, Ann; Mah, Katherine; Henry, Rashida; Diotti, Raffaella; Milton, Kelly; Pujara, Kanan; Landers, Tom; Batish, Sat Dev; Morales, José; Schindler, Detlev; Hanenberg, Helmut; Hromas, Robert; Levran, Orna; Auerbach, Arleen D.

    2013-01-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is a rare autosomal recessive disease characterized by a greatly increased risk of cancer among those diagnosed with the syndrome. The question as to whether FA heterozygotes are at increased risk for cancer is of great importance to those at risk for being a carrier. To address this question, we formed a cohort of grandparents of probands identified through the International Fanconi Anemia Registry. We obtained informed consent, a short questionnaire, and either blood or buccal swab DNA. After diagnosis of the proband was confirmed and complementation studies or DNA sequencing on the proband were completed, mutation analyses of the putative carriers and noncarriers was carried out. Standardized incidence ratios (SIR) were calculated to compare the observed cancer incidence of the grandparents and other relatives with the expected rates of cancer, using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registries and the Connecticut Cancer registry. In the 944 study subjects who participated (784 grandparents and 160 other relatives), there was no suggestion of an increase in overall cancer incidence. On the other hand, a significantly higher rate of breast cancer than expected was observed among carrier grandmothers [SIR, 1.7; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.1–2.7]. Among the grandmothers, those who were carriers of FANCC mutations were found to be at highest risk (SIR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.1–5.2). Overall, there was no increased risk for cancer among FA heterozygotes in this study of Fanconi relatives, although there is some evidence that FANCC mutations are possibly breast cancer susceptibility alleles. PMID:17909071

  7. Patterns of MHC-G-Like and MHC-B Diversification in New World Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Lugo, Juan S.; Cadavid, Luis F.

    2015-01-01

    The MHC class I (MHC-I) region in New World monkeys (Platyrrhini) has remained relatively understudied. To evaluate the diversification patterns and transcription behavior of MHC-I in Platyrrhini, we first analyzed public genomic sequences from the MHC-G-like subregion in Saimiri boliviensis, Ateles geoffroyi and Callicebus moloch, and from the MHC-B subregion in Saimiri boliviensis. While S. boliviensis showed multiple copies of both MHC-G-like (10) and –B (15) loci, A. geoffroyi and C. moloch had only three and four MHC-G-like genes, respectively, indicating that not all Platyrrhini species have expanded their MHC-I loci. We then sequenced MHC-G-like and -B cDNAs from nine Platyrrhini species, recovering two to five unique cDNAs per individual for both loci classes. In two Saguinus species, however, no MHC-B cDNAs were found. In phylogenetic trees, MHC-G-like cDNAs formed genus-specific clusters whereas the MHC-B cDNAs grouped by Platyrrhini families, suggesting a more rapid diversification of the former. Furthermore, cDNA sequencing in 12 capuchin monkeys showed that they transcribe at least four MHC-G-like and five MHC-B polymorphic genes, showing haplotypic diversity for gene copy number and signatures of positive natural selection at the peptide binding region. Finally, a quantitative index for MHC:KIR affinity was proposed and tested to predict putative interacting pairs. Altogether, our data indicate that i) MHC-I genes has expanded differentially among Platyrrhini species, ii) Callitrichinae (tamarins and marmosets) MHC-B loci have limited or tissue-specific expression, iii) MHC-G-like genes have diversified more rapidly than MHC-B genes, and iv) the MHC-I diversity is generated mainly by genetic polymorphism and gene copy number variation, likely promoted by natural selection for ligand binding. PMID:26121030

  8. Oxidative stress and antioxidant status in beta-thalassemia heterozygotes

    PubMed Central

    Ondei, Luciana de Souza; Estevão, Isabeth da Fonseca; Rocha, Marina Ibelli Pereira; Percário, Sandro; Souza, Dorotéia Rossi Silva; Pinhel, Marcela Augusta de Souza; Bonini-Domingos, Claudia Regina

    2013-01-01

    Background Several studies have evaluated the oxidant and antioxidant status of thalassemia patients but most focused mainly on the severe and intermediate states of the disease. Moreover, the oxidative status has not been evaluated for the different beta-thalassemia mutations. Objective To evaluate lipid peroxidation and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity in relation to serum iron and ferritin in beta thalassemia resulting from two different mutations (CD39 and IVS-I-110) compared to individuals without beta-thalassemia. Methods One hundred and thirty subjects were studied, including 49 who were heterozygous for beta-thalassemia and 81 controls. Blood samples were subjected to screening tests for hemoglobin. Allele-specific polymerase chain reaction was used to confirm mutations for beta-thalassemia, an analysis of thiobarbituric acid reactive species was used to determine lipid peroxidation, and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity evaluations were performed. The heterozygous beta-thalassemia group was also evaluated for serum iron and ferritin status. Results Thiobarbituric acid reactive species (486.24 ± 119.64 ng/mL) and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity values (2.23 ± 0.11 mM/L) were higher in beta-thalassemia heterozygotes compared to controls (260.86 ± 92.40 ng/mL and 2.12 ± 0.10 mM/L, respectively; p-value < 0.01). Increased thiobarbituric acid reactive species values were observed in subjects with the CD39 mutation compared with those with the IVS-I-110 mutation (529.94 ± 115.60 ng/mL and 453.39 ± 121.10 ng/mL, respectively; p-value = 0.04). However, average Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity values were similar for both mutations (2.20 ± 0.08 mM/L and 2.23 ± 0.12 mM/L, respectively; p-value = 0.39). There was no influence of serum iron and ferritin levels on thiobarbituric acid reactive species and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity values. Conclusion This study shows an increase of oxidative stress and antioxidant capacity in

  9. Heterozygote Advantage in a Finite Population: Black Color in Wolves.

    PubMed

    Hedrick, Philip W; Stahler, Daniel R; Dekker, Dick

    2014-01-01

    There is a striking color polymorphism for wolves in the Yellowstone National Park where approximately half the wolves are black. The genetic basis for this polymorphism is known, and fitnesses of the genotypes are estimated. These estimates suggest that there is strong heterozygote advantage but substantial asymmetry in the fitness differences of the 2 homozygotes. Theoretically, such fitnesses in a finite population are thought to reduce genetic variation at least as fast as if there were no selection at all. Because the color polymorphism has remained at about the same frequency for 17 years, about 4 generations, we investigated whether this was consistent with the theoretical predictions. Counter to this general expectation of loss, given the initial frequency of black wolves, the theoretical expectation in this case was found to be that the frequency would only decline slowly over time. For example, if the effective population size is 20, then the expected black allele frequency after 4 generations would be 0.191, somewhat less than the observed value of 0.237. However, nearly 30% of the time the expected frequency is 0.25 or greater, consistent with the contemporary observed frequency. In other words and in contrast to general theoretical predictions, because of the short period of time in evolutionary terms and the relatively weak selection at low frequencies, the observed variation and the predicted theoretical variation are not inconsistent.

  10. Rejection versus escape: the tumor MHC dilemma.

    PubMed

    Garrido, Federico; Ruiz-Cabello, Francisco; Aptsiauri, Natalia

    2017-02-01

    Most tumor cells derive from MHC-I-positive normal counterparts and remain positive at early stages of tumor development. T lymphocytes can infiltrate tumor tissue, recognize and destroy MHC class I (MHC-I)-positive cancer cells ("permissive" phase I). Later, MHC-I-negative tumor cell variants resistant to T-cell killing emerge. During this process, tumors first acquire a heterogeneous MHC-I expression pattern and finally become uniformly MHC-I-negative. This stage (phase II) represents a "non-permissive" encapsulated structure with tumor nodes surrounded by fibrous tissue containing different elements including leukocytes, macrophages, fibroblasts, etc. Molecular mechanisms responsible for total or partial MHC-I downregulation play a crucial role in determining and predicting the antigen-presenting capacity of cancer cells. MHC-I downregulation caused by reversible ("soft") lesions can be upregulated by TH1-type cytokines released into the tumor microenvironment in response to different types of immunotherapy. In contrast, when the molecular mechanism of the tumor MHC-I loss is irreversible ("hard") due to a genetic defect in the gene/s coding for MHC-I heavy chains (chromosome 6) or beta-2-microglobulin (B2M) (chromosome 15), malignant cells are unable to upregulate MHC-I, remain undetectable by cytotoxic T-cells, and continue to grow and metastasize. Based on the tumor MHC-I molecular analysis, it might be possible to define MHC-I phenotypes present in cancer patients in order to distinguish between non-responders, partial/short-term responders, and likely durable responders. This highlights the need for designing strategies to enhance tumor MHC-I expression that would allow CTL-mediated tumor rejection.

  11. Mitotic Crossing over and Nondisjunction in Translocation Heterozygotes of Aspergillus

    PubMed Central

    Käfer, Etta

    1976-01-01

    To analyze mitotic recombination in translocation heterozygotes of A. nidulans two sets of well-marked diploids were constructed, homo- or heterozygous for the reciprocal translocations T1(IL;VIIR) or T2(IL;VIIIR) and heterozygous for selective markers on IL. It was found that from all translocation heterozygotes some of the expected mitotic crossover types could be selected. Such crossovers are monosomic for one translocated segment and trisomic for the other and recovery depends on the relative viabilities of these unbalanced types. The obtained segregants show characteristically reduced growth rates and conidiation dependent on sizes and types of mono- and trisomic segments, and all spontaneously produce normal diploid sectors. Such secondary diploid types either arose in one step of compensating crossing over in the other involved arm, or—more conspicuously—in two steps of nondisjunction via a trisomic intermediate.—In both of the analyzed translocations the segments translocated to IL were extremely long, while those translocated from IL were relatively short. The break in I for T1(I;VII) was located distal to the main selective marker in IL, while that of T2(I;VIII) had been mapped proximal but closely linked to it. Therefore, as expected, the selected primary crossover from the two diploids with T2( I;VIII) in coupling or in repulsion to the selective marker, showed the same chromosomal imbalance and poor growth. These could however be distinguished visually because they spontaneously produced different trisomic intermediates in the next step, in accordance with the different arrangement of the aneuploid segments. On the other hand, from diploids heterozygous for T1( I;VII) mitotic crossovers could only be selected when the selective markers were in coupling with the translocation; these crossovers were relatively well-growing and produced frequent secondary segregants of the expected trisomic, 2n+VII, type. For both translocations it was impossible to

  12. MHC-assortative facial preferences in humans

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, S. Craig; Little, Anthony C; Gosling, L. Morris; Jones, Benedict C; Perrett, David I; Carter, Vaughan; Petrie, Marion

    2005-01-01

    Individuals tend to choose mates who are sufficiently genetically dissimilar to avoid inbreeding. As facial attractiveness is a key factor in human mate preference, we investigated whether facial preferences were related to genetic dissimilarity. We asked female volunteers to rate the attractiveness of men from photographs and compared these results with individual genotypes at the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). In contrast to previously reported preferences based on odour, we found a non-significant tendency for women to rate MHC-similar faces as more attractive, suggesting a preference for cues to a self-similar MHC in faces. Further analysis revealed that male faces received higher attractiveness scores when rated by women who were MHC-similar than by MHC-dissimilar women. Although unexpected, this MHC-similar facial preference is consistent with other studies documenting assortative preferences in humans, including for facial phenotype. PMID:17148217

  13. MHC II on Transfused Murine Blood is Not Required for Alloimmunization Against MHC I

    PubMed Central

    Gilson, Christopher R.; Cadwell, Chantel M.; Smith, Nicole H.; Hendrickson, Jeanne E.; Zimring, James C.

    2010-01-01

    Background and Objectives Transfusion of allogeneic platelet products can result in antibodies against donor MHC I antigens, leading to a refractory state to subsequent platelet transfusions. However, there is disagreement in the field regarding the molecular mechanisms of humoral alloimmunization. One hypothesis states that donor MHC II is a requirement for alloimmunization. However, other studies have suggested that donor MHC I is alone sufficient and MHC II is not required. Materials and Methods We utilized a mouse model of anti-MHC I alloimmunization to transfused blood, which employed donors with a complete deletion of all MHC II genes. BALB/c (H-2d) recipients were transfused with blood from either C57BL/6 (H-2b) or MHC II null donors on a C57BL/6 background. Anti-MHC I alloimmunization was monitored by indirect immunofluorescence. Results Recipients of either wild type or MHC II null blood produced equivalent humoral responses against donor MHC I antigens. However, there was variation in the relative amounts of IgG subclasses. Conclusion These data reject the hypothesis that donor MHC II expression is required for alloimmunization to MHC I antigens. PMID:20546207

  14. Antigen Presentation by MHC-Dressed Cells

    PubMed Central

    Nakayama, Masafumi

    2015-01-01

    Professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs) such as conventional dendritic cells (DCs) process protein antigens to MHC-bound peptides and then present the peptide–MHC complexes to T cells. In addition to this canonical antigen presentation pathway, recent studies have revealed that DCs and non-APCs can acquire MHC class I (MHCI) and/or MHC class II (MHCII) from neighboring cells through a process of cell–cell contact-dependent membrane transfer called trogocytosis. These MHC-dressed cells subsequently activate or regulate T cells via the preformed antigen peptide–MHC complexes without requiring any further processing. In addition to trogocytosis, intercellular transfer of MHCI and MHCII can be mediated by secretion of membrane vesicles such as exosomes from APCs, generating MHC-dressed cells. This review focuses on the physiological role of antigen presentation by MHCI- or MHCII-dressed cells, and also discusses differences and similarities between trogocytosis and exosome-mediated transfer of MHC. PMID:25601867

  15. Innate lymphoid cells and the MHC.

    PubMed

    Robinette, M L; Colonna, M

    2016-01-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are a new class of immune cells that include natural killer (NK) cells and appear to be the innate counterparts to CD4(+) helper T cells and CD8(+) cytotoxic T cells based on developmental and functional similarities. Like T cells, both NK cells and other ILCs also show connections to the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). In human and mouse, NK cells recognize and respond to classical and nonclassical MHC I molecules as well as structural homologues, whereas mouse ILCs have recently been shown to express MHC II. We describe the history of MHC I recognition by NK cells and discuss emerging roles for MHC II expression by ILC subsets, making comparisons between both mouse and human when possible. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Heterozygote advantage: the effect of artificial selection in livestock and pets.

    PubMed

    Hedrick, Philip W

    2015-01-01

    There are a number of mutants in livestock and pets that have a heterozygote advantage because of artificial selection for these mutants in heterozygotes and strong detrimental effects from natural selection in homozygotes. In livestock, these mutants include ones that influence milk yield in dairy cattle, fecundity in sheep, litter size in pigs, muscling in beef cattle, color in horses, lean meat content in pigs, and comb morphology in chickens. In pets, these mutants include ones that influence tail length in cats and hairlessness, muscling, color, or ridgeback hair in dogs. A large variety of mutants are responsible, including small or large deletions or insertions and single base-pair nonsynonymous changes. Many of the mutants cause loss of function for the genes involved, a change that results in the pleiotropic effects of a desired phenotype in heterozygotes and low fitness or an undesirable phenotype in mutant homozygotes. I examine how selection changes the frequency of these mutants and provide an approach to estimate the amount of artificial selection that is necessary to maintain these mutants at the high frequencies often observed. The amount of artificial selection ranges from low selection favoring heterozygotes for double muscling in whippet dogs to very strong selection favoring the "flash" (part white, part solid) heterozygote in boxer dogs and the rose comb in chickens. In several examples (rose comb in Wyandotte chickens and the hair ridge in Rhodesian ridgeback dogs), there is actually stronger selection for the mutant than against it, making the frequency of the mutant greater than 50%.

  17. Enhanced Detection of Antigen-Specific CD4+ T Cells Using Altered Peptide Flanking Residue Peptide–MHC Class II Multimers

    PubMed Central

    Holland, Christopher J.; Dolton, Garry; Scurr, Martin; Ladell, Kristin; Schauenburg, Andrea J.; Miners, Kelly; Madura, Florian; Sewell, Andrew K.; Price, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Fluorochrome-conjugated peptide–MHC (pMHC) class I multimers are staple components of the immunologist’s toolbox, enabling reliable quantification and analysis of Ag-specific CD8+ T cells irrespective of functional outputs. In contrast, widespread use of the equivalent pMHC class II (pMHC-II) reagents has been hindered by intrinsically weaker TCR affinities for pMHC-II, a lack of cooperative binding between the TCR and CD4 coreceptor, and a low frequency of Ag-specific CD4+ T cell populations in the peripheral blood. In this study, we show that peptide flanking regions, extending beyond the central nonamer core of MHC-II–bound peptides, can enhance TCR–pMHC-II binding and T cell activation without loss of specificity. Consistent with these findings, pMHC-II multimers incorporating peptide flanking residue modifications proved superior for the ex vivo detection, characterization, and manipulation of Ag-specific CD4+ T cells, highlighting an unappreciated feature of TCR–pMHC-II interactions. PMID:26553072

  18. Characterization of degradation and heterozygote balance by simulation of the forensic DNA analysis process.

    PubMed

    Hansson, Oskar; Egeland, Thore; Gill, Peter

    2017-03-01

    Simulation experiments were used to show the impact of varying extraction efficiency, aliquot proportion, and PCR efficiency on the heterozygote balance of a range of diploid and haploid cells. Reducing either parameters introduces variance. It is well-known that the variance in heterozygote balance increases as the amount of DNA is reduced. Surprisingly the distribution is in fact diamond shaped - the variance start to decrease at very low amounts of DNA. Simulations suggest that pristine diluted DNA is an acceptable approximation in validations to infer heterozygote balance. However, the difference in distribution of the variance between diploid and haploid cell types may, under some circumstances, need to be considered in statistical models. Finally, we exemplify how simulations can be used to predict the outcome of PCR for degraded samples. Visualizing the predicted DNA profile as an electropherogram can help to identify the best approach for sample processing.

  19. Dwarfism and age-associated spinal degeneration of heterozygote cmd mice defective in aggrecan

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Hideto; Nakata, Ken; Kimata, Koji; Nakanishi, Isao; Yamada, Yoshihiko

    1997-01-01

    Mouse cartilage matrix deficiency (cmd) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by a genetic defect of aggrecan, a large chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan in cartilage. The homozygotes (−/−) are characterized by cleft palate and short limbs, tail, and snout. They die just after birth because of respiratory failure, and the heterozygotes (+/−) appear normal at birth. Here we report that the heterozygotes show dwarfism and develop spinal misalignment with age. Within 19 months of age, they exhibit spastic gait caused by misalignment of the cervical spine and die because of starvation. Histological examination revealed a high incidence of herniation and degeneration of vertebral discs. Electron microscopy showed a degeneration of disc chondrocytes in the heterozygotes. These findings may facilitate the identification of mutations in humans predisposed to spinal degeneration. PMID:9192671

  20. Absence of α-galactosidase cross-correction in Fabry heterozygote cultured skin fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Maria; Mellett, Natalie; Hein, Leanne K; Brooks, Doug A; Meikle, Peter J

    2015-02-01

    Fabry disease (FD) is an X-linked lysosomal storage disorder resulting from deficiency of α-galactosidase A (GLA). Traditionally, heterozygotes were considered asymptomatic carriers of FD, but it is now apparent that the asymptomatic female carrier is the exception and most heterozygotes suffer significant multisystemic disease. To determine why the process of cross-correction does not occur effectively in FD heterozygotes, we investigated GLA production and secretion in cultured skin fibroblasts as well as GLA levels in plasma. The maturation of GLA was similar in FD heterozygotes and control fibroblasts, confirming that both produce the 46kDa mature form; the same as that present in control plasma. However, the proportion of GLA secreted into the culture media was substantially less than eight other lysosomal proteins. Artificial generation of FD heterozygotes in cellulo, along with another lysosomal storage disorder, mucopolysaccharidosis type II, revealed no cross-correction in the FD system, whereas MPS II fibroblasts were able to cross-correct. In plasma, GLA was present as the 46kDa mature form, which lacks the mannose 6-phosphorylated moiety and is not able to be efficiently endocytosed by affected cells. Our evidence shows that fibroblasts secrete minimal amounts of GLA and consequently normal fibroblasts are unable to cross-correct FD fibroblasts. We suggest that symptomatic FD heterozygotes arise due to the secretion of primarily the mature form, with only small amounts of the mannose 6-phosphorylated form of GLA from unaffected cells. This limits capacity for enzyme cross correction of affected cells, despite uptake of exogenous recombinant GLA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Biochemical and genetic studies in cystinuria: observations on double heterozygotes of genotype I/II

    PubMed Central

    Morin, Claude L.; Thompson, Margaret W.; Jackson, Sanford H.; Sass-Kortsak, Andrew

    1971-01-01

    10 families with cystinuria were investigated by measuring: (a) quantitative 24 hr urinary excretion of amino acids by column chromatography; (b) endogenous renal clearances of amino acids and creatinine; (c) intestinal uptake of 34C-labeled L-cystine, L-lysine, and L-arginine using jejunal mucosal biopsies; (d) oral cystine loading tests. All four of these were studied in the probands and the first two in a large number of the family members. 49 members of 8 families were found to have a regular genetic pattern as described previously by Harris, Rosenberg, and their coworkers. Clinical or biochemical differences between the homozygotes type I (recessive cystinuria) and homozygotes type II (incompletely recessive cystinuria) have not been found. Both types excreted similarly excessive amounts of cystine, lysine, arginine, and ornithine, and had high endogenous renal clearances for these four amino acids. Some homozygotes of both types had a cystine clearance higher than the glomerular filtration rate. Jejunal mucosa from both types of homozygotes exhibited near complete inability to concentrate cystine and lysine in vitro. This was also documented in vivo with oral cystine loads. The heterozygotes type I were phenotypically normal with respect to the above four measurements. The heterozygotes type II showed moderate but definite abnormalities in their urinary excretion and their renal clearances of dibasic amino acids. Of the four amino acids concerned, cystine was the most reliable marker to differentiate between the heterozygotes type II and the homozygous normals. In this study, type III cystinuria, as described by Rosenberg, was not encountered. In two additional families, double heterozygotes of genotype I/II were found. The disease affecting these is clinically and biochemically less severe than that affecting homozygotes of either type I or type II. With respect to the four parameters used in this study, the double heterozygotes type I/II have results which

  2. Comparison of Parkinson risk in Ashkenazi Jewish Gaucher patients and GBA heterozygotes

    PubMed Central

    Alcalay, Roy N.; Dinur, Tama; Quinn, Timothy; Sakanaka, Karina; Levy, Oren; Waters, Cheryl; Fahn, Stanley; Dorovski, Tsvyatko; Chung, Wendy K; Pauciulo, Michael; Nichols, William; Rana, Huma Q.; Balwani, Manisha; Bier, Louise; Elstein, Deborah; Zimran, Ari

    2014-01-01

    Importance Information on age-specific risk for Parkinson disease (PD) in Gaucher disease (GD) patients and glucocerebrosidase (GBA) heterozygotes is important for understanding the pathophysiology of the genetic association and for counseling these populations. Objective To estimate the age-specific risk of PD in Ashkenazi Jewish (AJ) patients with Type-1 GD and in GBA heterozygotes. Setting Two tertiary Gaucher centers and a Parkinson’s tertiary center. Participants GD patients at Shaare Zedek, Jerusalem, Israel (n=332) and Mount Sinai School of Medicine, NY (n=95), and GBA non-carrier non-PD spouse controls at Columbia University, NY (n=77). All were AJ and most GD patients (98.1%) carried at least one N370S mutation. Main outcome measure Main outcome measure was a diagnosis of PD. Diagnosis was established in GD patients on examination. We used a validated family history interview that identifies PD with a sensitivity of 95.5% and specificity of 96.2% to identify PD in family members. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were used to estimate age-specific PD risk among GD patients (n=427), among their parents, who are obligate GBA mutation carriers (heterozygotes, n=694) and among non-carriers (parents of non-PD non-GD controls, n=154). The age-specific risk was compared among groups using the log-rank test. Results Among those who developed PD, patients with GD had a younger age-at-onset than GBA heterozygotes (54.2, versus 65.2, p=0.003). Estimated age-specific risk for PD at ages 60 and 80 was 4.7% and 9.1% among GD patients, 1.5% and 7.7% among heterozygotes, and 0.7% and 2.1% among non-carriers. PD risk was higher in GD patients than non-carriers (p=0.008, log-rank test) and in heterozygotes than non-carriers (p=0.026, log-rank test) but did not reach significance between GD patients and GBA heterozygotes (p=0.074, log-rank test). Conclusion GD patients and GBA heterozygotes have an increased age-specific risk for PD compared to controls, with a similar

  3. Various sulfatase activities in leukocytes and cultured skin fibroblasts from heterozygotes for the multiple sulfatase deficiency (mukosulfatidosis).

    PubMed

    Eto, Y; Tahara, T; Tokoro, T; Maekawa, K

    1983-02-01

    In heterozygotes for multiple sulfatase deficiency (MSD), several sulfatase activities including arylsulfatases A, B1, B2, and C, and cholesterol sulfatase were 40-50% of normals in cultured skin fibroblasts and 70-80% of normals in leukocytes. In MSD patients, these enzyme activities were deficient or reduced. DEAE-Sepharose column chromatographic patterns of 4-methylumbelliferyl sulfatases A, B1, and B2 in leukocytes and cultured skin fibroblasts from MSD patients and heterozygotes were also consistent with the above data. These data indicate that several sulfatase activities in heterozygotes of MSD exhibited intermediate activities as observed in the heterozygote state of other autosomal recessive inherited diseases.

  4. NLRC5 controls basal MHC class I gene expression in an MHC enhanceosome-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Neerincx, Andreas; Rodriguez, Galaxia M; Steimle, Viktor; Kufer, Thomas A

    2012-05-15

    Nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat (NLR) proteins play important roles in innate immune responses as pattern-recognition receptors. Although most NLR proteins act in cell autonomous immune pathways, some do not function as classical pattern-recognition receptors. One such NLR protein is the MHC class II transactivator, the master regulator of MHC class II gene transcription. In this article, we report that human NLRC5, which we recently showed to be involved in viral-mediated type I IFN responses, shuttles to the nucleus and activates MHC class I gene expression. Knockdown of NLRC5 in different human cell lines and primary dermal fibroblasts leads to reduced MHC class I expression, whereas introduction of NLRC5 into cell types with very low expression of MHC class I augments MHC class I expression to levels comparable to those found in lymphocytes. Expression of NLRC5 positively correlates with MHC class I expression in human tissues. Functionally, we show that both the N-terminal effector domain of NLRC5 and its C-terminal leucine-rich repeat domain are needed for activation of MHC class I expression. Moreover, nuclear shuttling and function depend on a functional Walker A motif. Finally, we identified a promoter sequence in the MHC class I promoter, the X1 box, to be involved in NLRC5-mediated MHC class I gene activation. Taken together, this suggested that NLRC5 acts in a manner similar to class II transactivator to drive MHC expression and revealed NLRC5 as an important regulator of basal MHC class I expression.

  5. NLRC5: a newly discovered MHC class I transactivator (CITA).

    PubMed

    Meissner, Torsten B; Li, Amy; Kobayashi, Koichi S

    2012-06-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and class II are crucial for the function of the human adaptive immune system. An NLR protein, CIITA (MHC class II transactivator), is a master regulator of MHC class II gene expression as well as of some of the genes involved in MHC class II antigen presentation. It has recently been discovered that another member of the NLR protein family, NLRC5, transcriptionally activates MHC class I genes, and thus acts as "CITA" (MHC class I transactivator), a counterpart to CIITA. In addition to MHC class I genes, NLRC5 can induce the expression of β2M, TAP1 and LMP2, essential components of MHC class I antigen presentation. These findings indicate that NLRC5 and CIITA are transcriptional regulators that orchestrate the concerted expression of critical components in the MHC class I and MHC class II pathways, respectively.

  6. "Untangling Sickle-Cell Anemia and the Teaching of Heterozygote Protection"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Eric Michael

    2007-01-01

    Introductory biology textbooks often use the example of sickle-cell anemia to illustrate the concept of heterozygote protection. Ordinarily scientists expect the frequency of a gene associated with a debilitating illness would be low owing to its continual elimination by natural selection. The gene that causes sickle-cell anemia, however, has a…

  7. Ultraviolet-induced chromosomal instability in cultured fibroblasts of heterozygote carriers for xeroderma pigmentosum

    SciTech Connect

    Bielfeld, V.; Weichenthal, M.; Roser, M.; Breitbart, E.; Berger, J.; Seemanova, E.; Ruediger, H.W. )

    1989-12-01

    Fibroblast cultures of seven patients with xeroderma pigmentosum (XP), 19 healthy sibs or parents of XP patients (XP-heterozygotes), and 24 healthy normal controls were studied for chromosome instability induced by ultraviolet rays (UV). We used a UV source that contained predominantly UV-A and UV-B at an intensity of 500 J/m2 and evaluated the induction of micronuclei (MN) and sister chromatid exchange (SCE). the XP homozygotes had a UV sensitivity that was clearly above that of all heterozygotes and normal controls. Heterozygotes had an increased rate of UV-induced MN (4.76 {plus minus} 1.96 vs. 1.82 {plus minus} 2.05, p less than 0.0001) and increased UV induction of SCE (13.21 {plus minus} 3.49 vs. 9.01 {plus minus} 1.25, p less than 0.001), as compared to normal controls. These data support epidemiologic findings that suggest that XP heterozygotes are particularly cancer prone. In addition, the determination of the UV sensitivity in vitro as described may be used for genetic counseling of asymptomatic relatives of XP patients.

  8. Heterologous Synapsis and Crossover Suppression in Heterozygotes for a Pericentric Inversion in the Zebra Finch.

    PubMed

    del Priore, Lucía; Pigozzi, María I

    2015-01-01

    In the zebra finch, 2 alternative morphs regarding centromere position were described for chromosome 6. This polymorphism was interpreted to be the result of a pericentric inversion, but other causes of the centromere repositioning were not ruled out. We used immunofluorescence localization to examine the distribution of MLH1 foci on synaptonemal complexes to test the prediction that pericentric inversions cause synaptic irregularities and/or crossover suppression in heterozygotes. We found complete suppression of crossing over in the region involved in the rearrangement in male and female heterozygotes. In contrast, the same region showed high levels of crossing over in homozygotes for the acrocentric form of this chromosome. No inversion loops or synaptic irregularities were detected along bivalent 6 in heterozygotes suggesting that heterologous pairing is achieved during zygotene or early pachytene. Altogether these findings strongly indicate that the polymorphic chromosome 6 originated by a pericentric inversion. Since inversions are common rearrangements in karyotypic evolution in birds, it seems likely that early heterologous pairing could help to fix these rearrangements, preventing crossing overs in heterozygotes and their deleterious effects on fertility.

  9. "Untangling Sickle-Cell Anemia and the Teaching of Heterozygote Protection"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Eric Michael

    2007-01-01

    Introductory biology textbooks often use the example of sickle-cell anemia to illustrate the concept of heterozygote protection. Ordinarily scientists expect the frequency of a gene associated with a debilitating illness would be low owing to its continual elimination by natural selection. The gene that causes sickle-cell anemia, however, has a…

  10. `Untangling Sickle-cell Anemia and the Teaching of Heterozygote Protection'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howe, Eric Michael

    2007-01-01

    Introductory biology textbooks often use the example of sickle-cell anemia to illustrate the concept of heterozygote protection. Ordinarily scientists expect the frequency of a gene associated with a debilitating illness would be low owing to its continual elimination by natural selection. The gene that causes sickle-cell anemia, however, has a relatively high frequency in many parts of the world. Historically, scientists proposed and defended several alternative theories to account for this anomaly, though it is now widely recognized among the scientific community that high frequencies of the gene reflect its benefit to heterozygotes against malaria. Textbooks normally develop this concept with reference to the often-used maps of Africa showing how in areas where the frequency of the sickle-cell gene is high, there is also higher exposure to the disease malaria. While sickle-cell anemia is often the example of choice for explaining and illustrating the concept of heterozygote protection, the present paper argues that exploring the history of scientific research behind our contemporary understanding has advantages for helping students understand multiple factors related to population genetics (e.g. mutation, gene flow, drift) in addition to heterozygote protection. In so doing, this approach invites students to evaluate the legitimacy of their own alternative conceptions about introductory population genetics or about the genetics of the disease sickle-cell anemia. The various historical theories scientists proposed and defended often resemble those of students who first learn about the disease. As such, a discussion of how scientists reached consensus about the role of heterozygote protection may help students understand and appreciate what are now recognized to be limitations in the views they bring to their classrooms. The paper concludes by discussing the ramifications of this approach in potentially helping students to examine certain aspects of the nature of

  11. Genomic organization of the crested ibis MHC provides new insight into ancestral avian MHC structure

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Li-Cheng; Lan, Hong; Sun, Li; Deng, Yan-Li; Tang, Ke-Yi; Wan, Qiu-Hong

    2015-01-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) plays an important role in immune response. Avian MHCs are not well characterized, only reporting highly compact Galliformes MHCs and extensively fragmented zebra finch MHC. We report the first genomic structure of an endangered Pelecaniformes (crested ibis) MHC containing 54 genes in three regions spanning ~500 kb. In contrast to the loose BG (26 loci within 265 kb) and Class I (11 within 150) genomic structures, the Core Region is condensed (17 within 85). Furthermore, this Region exhibits a COL11A2 gene, followed by four tandem MHC class II αβ dyads retaining two suites of anciently duplicated “αβ” lineages. Thus, the crested ibis MHC structure is entirely different from the known avian MHC architectures but similar to that of mammalian MHCs, suggesting that the fundamental structure of ancestral avian class II MHCs should be “COL11A2-IIαβ1-IIαβ2.” The gene structures, residue characteristics, and expression levels of the five class I genes reveal inter-locus functional divergence. However, phylogenetic analysis indicates that these five genes generate a well-supported intra-species clade, showing evidence for recent duplications. Our analyses suggest dramatic structural variation among avian MHC lineages, help elucidate avian MHC evolution, and provide a foundation for future conservation studies. PMID:25608659

  12. Conserved MHC gene orthologs genetically map to the turkey MHC- B.

    PubMed

    Reed, Kent M; Benoit, Benjamin; Wang, Xiong; Greenshields, Molly A; Hughes, Camilla H K; Mendoza, Kristelle M

    2014-01-01

    The avian MHC-associated gene set includes orthologs to genes found throughout the human major histocompatibility complex (MHC), including some loci of the evolutionarily conserved class III region. In the turkey and other Galliformes, genes linked to the MHC have been identified because they are closely associated with class I or class II genes. This study was designed to evaluate additional class III genes for linkage to the avian MHC to further determine conservation of these loci in birds. BLAST searches were used to locate sequences in the turkey genome with similarity to genes shared between the MHC of Xenopus and humans. Primers were designed to target 25 genes, and putative orthologs were amplified by PCR and sequenced. Sequence polymorphisms were identified for 15 genes in turkey reference mapping families, and 8 genes showed significant genetic linkage to the turkey MHC-B locus. These new genetic markers and linkage relationships broaden our understanding of the composition of the avian MHC and expand the gene content for the turkey MHC-B.

  13. Expression of eight distinct MHC isoforms in bovine striated muscles: evidence for MHC-2B presence only in extraocular muscles.

    PubMed

    Toniolo, L; Maccatrozzo, L; Patruno, M; Caliaro, F; Mascarello, F; Reggiani, C

    2005-11-01

    This study aimed to analyse the expression of myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms in bovine muscles, with particular attention to the MHC-2B gene. Diaphragm, longissimus dorsi, masseter, several laryngeal muscles and two extraocular muscles (rectus lateralis and retractor bulbi) were sampled in adult male Bos taurus (age 18-24 months, mass 400-500 kg) and analysed by RT-PCR, gel electrophoresis and immunohistochemistry. Transcripts and proteins corresponding to eight MHC isoforms were identified: MHC-alpha and MHC-beta/slow (or MHC-1), two developmental isoforms (MHC-embryonic and MHC-neonatal), three adult fast isoforms (MHC-2A, MHC-2X and MHC-2B) and the extraocular isoform MHC-Eo. All eight MHC isoforms were found to be co-expressed in extrinsic eye muscles, retractor bulbi and rectus lateralis, four (beta/slow, 2A, 2X, neonatal) in laryngeal muscles, three (beta/slow, 2A and 2X) in trunk and limb muscles and two (beta/slow and alpha) in masseter. The expression of MHC-2B and MHC-Eo was restricted to extraocular muscles. Developmental MHC isoforms (neonatal and embryonic) were only found in specialized muscles in the larynx and in the eye. MHC-alpha was only found in extraocular and masseter muscle. Single fibres dissected from masseter, diaphragm and longissimus were classified into five groups (expressing, respectively, beta/slow, alpha, slow and 2A, 2A and 2X) on the basis of MHC isoform electrophoretical separation, and their contractile properties [maximum shortening velocity (v(0)) and isometric tension (P(0))] were determined. v(0) increased progressively from slow to fast 2A and fast 2X, whereas hybrid 1-2A fibres and fibres containing MHC-alpha were intermediate between slow and fast 2A.

  14. Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) Class I and MHC Class II Proteins: Conformational Plasticity in Antigen Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Wieczorek, Marek; Abualrous, Esam T.; Sticht, Jana; Álvaro-Benito, Miguel; Stolzenberg, Sebastian; Noé, Frank; Freund, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Antigen presentation by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins is essential for adaptive immunity. Prior to presentation, peptides need to be generated from proteins that are either produced by the cell’s own translational machinery or that are funneled into the endo-lysosomal vesicular system. The prolonged interaction between a T cell receptor and specific pMHC complexes, after an extensive search process in secondary lymphatic organs, eventually triggers T cells to proliferate and to mount a specific cellular immune response. Once processed, the peptide repertoire presented by MHC proteins largely depends on structural features of the binding groove of each particular MHC allelic variant. Additionally, two peptide editors—tapasin for class I and HLA-DM for class II—contribute to the shaping of the presented peptidome by favoring the binding of high-affinity antigens. Although there is a vast amount of biochemical and structural information, the mechanism of the catalyzed peptide exchange for MHC class I and class II proteins still remains controversial, and it is not well understood why certain MHC allelic variants are more susceptible to peptide editing than others. Recent studies predict a high impact of protein intermediate states on MHC allele-specific peptide presentation, which implies a profound influence of MHC dynamics on the phenomenon of immunodominance and the development of autoimmune diseases. Here, we review the recent literature that describe MHC class I and II dynamics from a theoretical and experimental point of view and we highlight the similarities between MHC class I and class II dynamics despite the distinct functions they fulfill in adaptive immunity. PMID:28367149

  15. The opossum MHC genomic region revisited.

    PubMed

    Krasnec, Katina V; Sharp, Alana R; Williams, Tracey L; Miller, Robert D

    2015-04-01

    The gray short-tailed opossum Monodelphis domestica is one of the few marsupial species for which a high quality whole genome sequence is available and the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region has been annotated. Previous analyses revealed only a single locus within the opossum MHC region, designated Modo-UA1, with the features expected for encoding a functionally classical class I α-chain. Nine other class I genes found within the MHC are highly divergent and have features usually associated with non-classical roles. The original annotation, however, was based on an early version of the opossum genome assembly. More recent analyses of allelic variation in individual opossums revealed too many Modo-UA1 sequences per individual to be accounted for by a single MHC class I locus found in the genome assembly. A reanalysis of a later generation assembly, MonDom5, revealed the presence of two additional loci, now designated Modo-UA3 and UA4, in a region that was expanded and more complete than in the earlier assembly. Modo-UA1, UA3, and UA4 are all transcribed, although Modo-UA4 transcripts are rarer. Modo-UA4 is also relatively non-polymorphic. Evidence presented support the accuracy of the later assembly and the existence of three related class I genes in the opossum, making opossums more typical of mammals and most tetrapods by having multiple apparent classical MHC class I loci.

  16. Rational design of class I MHC ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rognan, D.; Scapozza, L.; Folkers, G.; Daser, Angelika

    1995-04-01

    From the knowledge of the three-dimensional structure of a class I MHC protein, several non natural peptides were designed in order to either optimize the interactions of one secondary anchor amino acid with its HLA binding pocket or to substitute the non interacting part with spacer residues. All peptides were synthesized and tested for binding to the class I MHC protein in an in vitro reconstitution assay. As predicted, the non natural peptides present an enhanced binding to the HLA-B27 molecule with respect to their natural parent peptides. This study constitutes the first step towards the rational design of non peptidic MHC ligands that should be very promising tools for the selective immunotherapy of autoimmune diseases.

  17. Decreased HIV Type 1 Transcription in CCR5-Δ32 Heterozygotes During Suppressive Antiretroviral Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Charlene; Abdel-Mohsen, Mohamed; Strain, Matthew C.; Lada, Steven M.; Yukl, Steven; Cockerham, Leslie R.; Pilcher, Christopher D.; Hecht, Frederick M.; Sinclair, Elizabeth; Liegler, Teri; Richman, Douglas D.; Deeks, Steven G.; Pillai, Satish K.

    2014-01-01

    Individuals who are heterozygous for the CCR5-Δ32 mutation provide a natural model to examine the effects of reduced CCR5 expression on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) persistence. We evaluated the HIV reservoir in 18 CCR5-Δ32 heterozygotes and 54 CCR5 wild-type individuals during suppressive antiretroviral therapy. Cell-associated HIV RNA levels (P = .035), RNA to DNA transcriptional ratios (P = .013), and frequency of detectable HIV 2–long terminal repeat circular DNA (P = .013) were significantly lower in CD4+ T cells from CCR5-Δ32 heterozygotes. Cell-associated HIV RNA was significantly correlated with CCR5 surface expression on CD4+ T cells (r2 = 0.136; P = .002). Our findings suggest that curative strategies should further explore manipulation of CCR5. PMID:24935955

  18. Decreased HIV type 1 transcription in CCR5-Δ32 heterozygotes during suppressive antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Charlene; Abdel-Mohsen, Mohamed; Strain, Matthew C; Lada, Steven M; Yukl, Steven; Cockerham, Leslie R; Pilcher, Christopher D; Hecht, Frederick M; Sinclair, Elizabeth; Liegler, Teri; Richman, Douglas D; Deeks, Steven G; Pillai, Satish K

    2014-12-01

    Individuals who are heterozygous for the CCR5-Δ32 mutation provide a natural model to examine the effects of reduced CCR5 expression on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) persistence. We evaluated the HIV reservoir in 18 CCR5-Δ32 heterozygotes and 54 CCR5 wild-type individuals during suppressive antiretroviral therapy. Cell-associated HIV RNA levels (P=.035), RNA to DNA transcriptional ratios (P=.013), and frequency of detectable HIV 2-long terminal repeat circular DNA (P=.013) were significantly lower in CD4+ T cells from CCR5-Δ32 heterozygotes. Cell-associated HIV RNA was significantly correlated with CCR5 surface expression on CD4+ T cells (r2=0.136; P=.002). Our findings suggest that curative strategies should further explore manipulation of CCR5.

  19. Heterozygote loss of ACE2 is sufficient to increase the susceptibility to heart disease.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wang; Patel, Vaibhav B; Parajuli, Nirmal; Fan, Dong; Basu, Ratnadeep; Wang, Zuocheng; Ramprasath, Tharmarajan; Kassiri, Zamaneh; Penninger, Josef M; Oudit, Gavin Y

    2014-08-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) metabolizes Ang II into Ang 1-7 thereby negatively regulating the renin-angiotensin system. However, heart disease in humans and in animal models is associated with only a partial loss of ACE2. ACE2 is an X-linked gene; and as such, we tested the clinical relevance of a partial loss of ACE2 by using female ACE2(+/+) (wildtype) and ACE2(+/-) (heterozygote) mice. Pressure overload in ACE2(+/-) mice resulted in greater LV dilation and worsening systolic and diastolic dysfunction. These changes were associated with increased myocardial fibrosis, hypertrophy, and upregulation of pathological gene expression. In response to Ang II infusion, there was increased NADPH oxidase activity and myocardial fibrosis resulting in the worsening of Ang II-induced diastolic dysfunction with a preserved systolic function. Ang II-mediated cellular effects in cultured adult ACE2(+/-) cardiomyocytes and cardiofibroblasts were exacerbated. Ang II-mediated pathological signaling worsened in ACE2(+/-) hearts characterized by an increase in the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and JNK1/2 and STAT-3 pathways. The ACE2(+/-) mice showed an exacerbated pressor response with increased vascular fibrosis and stiffness. Vascular superoxide and nitrotyrosine levels were increased in ACE2(+/-) vessels consistent with increased vascular oxidative stress. These changes occurred with increased renal fibrosis and superoxide production. Partial heterozygote loss of ACE2 is sufficient to increase the susceptibility to heart disease secondary to pressure overload and Ang II infusion. Heart disease in humans with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy is associated with a partial loss of ACE2. Heterozygote female ACE2 mutant mice showed enhanced susceptibility to pressure overload-induced heart disease. Heterozygote female ACE2 mutant mice showed enhanced susceptibility to Ang II-induced heart and vascular diseases. Partial loss of ACE2 is sufficient to enhance the susceptibility to

  20. p53 centrosomal localization diagnoses ataxia-telangiectasia homozygotes and heterozygotes

    PubMed Central

    Prodosmo, Andrea; De Amicis, Andrea; Nisticò, Cecilia; Gabriele, Mario; Di Rocco, Giuliana; Monteonofrio, Laura; Piane, Maria; Cundari, Enrico; Chessa, Luciana; Soddu, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    Ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by radiosensitivity, genomic instability, and predisposition to cancer. A-T is caused by biallelic mutations in the ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene, but heterozygous carriers, though apparently healthy, are believed to be at increased risk for cancer and more sensitive to ionizing radiation than the general population. Despite progress in functional and sequencing-based assays, no straightforward, rapid, and inexpensive test is available for the identification of A-T homozygotes and heterozygotes, which is essential for diagnosis, genetic counseling, and carrier prediction. The oncosuppressor p53 prevents genomic instability and centrosomal amplification. During mitosis, p53 localizes at the centrosome in an ATM-dependent manner. We capitalized on the latter finding and established a simple, fast, minimally invasive, reliable, and inexpensive test to determine mutant ATM zygosity. The percentage of mitotic lymphoblasts or PBMCs bearing p53 centrosomal localization clearly discriminated among healthy donors (>75%), A-T heterozygotes (40%–56%), and A-T homozygotes (<30%). The test is specific for A-T, independent of the type of ATM mutations, and recognized tumor-associated ATM polymorphisms. In a preliminary study, our test confirmed that ATM is a breast cancer susceptibility gene. These data open the possibility of cost-effective, early diagnosis of A-T homozygotes and large-scale screenings for heterozygotes. PMID:23454770

  1. Heterozygote Advantage Probably Maintains Rhesus Factor Blood Group Polymorphism: Ecological Regression Study

    PubMed Central

    Flegr, Jaroslav

    2016-01-01

    Rhesus factor polymorphism has been an evolutionary enigma since its discovery in 1939. Carriers of the rarer allele should be eliminated by selection against Rhesus positive children born to Rhesus negative mothers. Here I used an ecologic regression study to test the hypothesis that Rhesus factor polymorphism is stabilized by heterozygote advantage. The study was performed in 65 countries for which the frequencies of RhD phenotypes and specific disease burden data were available. I performed multiple multivariate covariance analysis with five potential confounding variables: GDP, latitude (distance from the equator), humidity, medical care expenditure per capita and frequencies of smokers. The results showed that the burden associated with many diseases correlated with the frequencies of particular Rhesus genotypes in a country and that the direction of the relation was nearly always the opposite for the frequency of Rhesus negative homozygotes and that of Rhesus positive heterozygotes. On the population level, a Rhesus-negativity-associated burden could be compensated for by the heterozygote advantage, but for Rhesus negative subjects this burden represents a serious problem. PMID:26811928

  2. p53 centrosomal localization diagnoses ataxia-telangiectasia homozygotes and heterozygotes.

    PubMed

    Prodosmo, Andrea; De Amicis, Andrea; Nisticò, Cecilia; Gabriele, Mario; Di Rocco, Giuliana; Monteonofrio, Laura; Piane, Maria; Cundari, Enrico; Chessa, Luciana; Soddu, Silvia

    2013-03-01

    Ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by radiosensitivity, genomic instability, and predisposition to cancer. A-T is caused by biallelic mutations in the ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene, but heterozygous carriers, though apparently healthy, are believed to be at increased risk for cancer and more sensitive to ionizing radiation than the general population. Despite progress in functional and sequencing-based assays, no straightforward, rapid, and inexpensive test is available for the identification of A-T homozygotes and heterozygotes, which is essential for diagnosis, genetic counseling, and carrier prediction. The oncosuppressor p53 prevents genomic instability and centrosomal amplification. During mitosis, p53 localizes at the centrosome in an ATM-dependent manner. We capitalized on the latter finding and established a simple, fast, minimally invasive, reliable, and inexpensive test to determine mutant ATM zygosity. The percentage of mitotic lymphoblasts or PBMCs bearing p53 centrosomal localization clearly discriminated among healthy donors (>75%), A-T heterozygotes (40%-56%), and A-T homozygotes (<30%). The test is specific for A-T, independent of the type of ATM mutations, and recognized tumor-associated ATM polymorphisms. In a preliminary study, our test confirmed that ATM is a breast cancer susceptibility gene. These data open the possibility of cost-effective, early diagnosis of A-T homozygotes and large-scale screenings for heterozygotes.

  3. MHC2SKpan: a novel kernel based approach for pan-specific MHC class II peptide binding prediction

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Computational methods for the prediction of Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) class II binding peptides play an important role in facilitating the understanding of immune recognition and the process of epitope discovery. To develop an effective computational method, we need to consider two important characteristics of the problem: (1) the length of binding peptides is highly flexible; and (2) MHC molecules are extremely polymorphic and for the vast majority of them there are no sufficient training data. Methods We develop a novel string kernel MHC2SK (MHC-II String Kernel) method to measure the similarities among peptides with variable lengths. By considering the distinct features of MHC-II peptide binding prediction problem, MHC2SK differs significantly from the recently developed kernel based method, GS (Generic String) kernel, in the way of computing similarities. Furthermore, we extend MHC2SK to MHC2SKpan for pan-specific MHC-II peptide binding prediction by leveraging the binding data of various MHC molecules. Results MHC2SK outperformed GS in allele specific prediction using a benchmark dataset, which demonstrates the effectiveness of MHC2SK. Furthermore, we evaluated the performance of MHC2SKpan using various benckmark data sets from several different perspectives: Leave-one-allele-out (LOO), 5-fold cross validation as well as independent data testing. MHC2SKpan has achieved comparable performance with NetMHCIIpan-2.0 and outperformed NetMHCIIpan-1.0, TEPITOPEpan and MultiRTA, being statistically significant. MHC2SKpan can be freely accessed at http://datamining-iip.fudan.edu.cn/service/MHC2SKpan/index.html. PMID:24564280

  4. Variation analysis and gene annotation of eight MHC haplotypes: the MHC Haplotype Project.

    PubMed

    Horton, Roger; Gibson, Richard; Coggill, Penny; Miretti, Marcos; Allcock, Richard J; Almeida, Jeff; Forbes, Simon; Gilbert, James G R; Halls, Karen; Harrow, Jennifer L; Hart, Elizabeth; Howe, Kevin; Jackson, David K; Palmer, Sophie; Roberts, Anne N; Sims, Sarah; Stewart, C Andrew; Traherne, James A; Trevanion, Steve; Wilming, Laurens; Rogers, Jane; de Jong, Pieter J; Elliott, John F; Sawcer, Stephen; Todd, John A; Trowsdale, John; Beck, Stephan

    2008-01-01

    The human major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is contained within about 4 Mb on the short arm of chromosome 6 and is recognised as the most variable region in the human genome. The primary aim of the MHC Haplotype Project was to provide a comprehensively annotated reference sequence of a single, human leukocyte antigen-homozygous MHC haplotype and to use it as a basis against which variations could be assessed from seven other similarly homozygous cell lines, representative of the most common MHC haplotypes in the European population. Comparison of the haplotype sequences, including four haplotypes not previously analysed, resulted in the identification of >44,000 variations, both substitutions and indels (insertions and deletions), which have been submitted to the dbSNP database. The gene annotation uncovered haplotype-specific differences and confirmed the presence of more than 300 loci, including over 160 protein-coding genes. Combined analysis of the variation and annotation datasets revealed 122 gene loci with coding substitutions of which 97 were non-synonymous. The haplotype (A3-B7-DR15; PGF cell line) designated as the new MHC reference sequence, has been incorporated into the human genome assembly (NCBI35 and subsequent builds), and constitutes the largest single-haplotype sequence of the human genome to date. The extensive variation and annotation data derived from the analysis of seven further haplotypes have been made publicly available and provide a framework and resource for future association studies of all MHC-associated diseases and transplant medicine.

  5. Prediction of MHC class II binding affinity using SMM-align, a novel stabilization matrix alignment method

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Morten; Lundegaard, Claus; Lund, Ole

    2007-01-01

    Background Antigen presenting cells (APCs) sample the extra cellular space and present peptides from here to T helper cells, which can be activated if the peptides are of foreign origin. The peptides are presented on the surface of the cells in complex with major histocompatibility class II (MHC II) molecules. Identification of peptides that bind MHC II molecules is thus a key step in rational vaccine design and developing methods for accurate prediction of the peptide:MHC interactions play a central role in epitope discovery. The MHC class II binding groove is open at both ends making the correct alignment of a peptide in the binding groove a crucial part of identifying the core of an MHC class II binding motif. Here, we present a novel stabilization matrix alignment method, SMM-align, that allows for direct prediction of peptide:MHC binding affinities. The predictive performance of the method is validated on a large MHC class II benchmark data set covering 14 HLA-DR (human MHC) and three mouse H2-IA alleles. Results The predictive performance of the SMM-align method was demonstrated to be superior to that of the Gibbs sampler, TEPITOPE, SVRMHC, and MHCpred methods. Cross validation between peptide data set obtained from different sources demonstrated that direct incorporation of peptide length potentially results in over-fitting of the binding prediction method. Focusing on amino terminal peptide flanking residues (PFR), we demonstrate a consistent gain in predictive performance by favoring binding registers with a minimum PFR length of two amino acids. Visualizing the binding motif as obtained by the SMM-align and TEPITOPE methods highlights a series of fundamental discrepancies between the two predicted motifs. For the DRB1*1302 allele for instance, the TEPITOPE method favors basic amino acids at most anchor positions, whereas the SMM-align method identifies a preference for hydrophobic or neutral amino acids at the anchors. Conclusion The SMM-align method was

  6. MHC class II polymorphism is associated with a canine SLE-related disease complex.

    PubMed

    Wilbe, Maria; Jokinen, Päivi; Hermanrud, Christina; Kennedy, Lorna J; Strandberg, Erling; Hansson-Hamlin, Helene; Lohi, Hannes; Andersson, Göran

    2009-08-01

    Nova Scotia duck tolling retrievers are predisposed to a SLE-related disease complex including immune-mediated rheumatic disease (IMRD) and steroid-responsive meningitis-arteritis (SRMA). IMRD involves symptoms that resemble those seen in systemic autoimmune rheumatic diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus, SLE, or SLE-related diseases, in humans. This disease complex involves persistent lameness, stiffness, mainly after resting, and palpable pain from several joints of extremities. The majority of affected dogs display antinuclear autoantibody (ANA)-reactivity. SRMA is manifested in young dogs with high fever and neck stiffness and can be treated with corticosteroids. We have investigated the possible role of MHC class II as a genetic risk factor in IMRD and SRMA etiology. We performed sequence-based typing of the DLA-DRB1, -DQA1, and -DQB1 class II loci in a total of 176 dogs including 51 IMRD (33 ANA-positive), 49 SRMA cases, and 78 healthy controls (two dogs were both IMRD- and SRMA-affected). Homozygosity for the risk haplotype DRB1*00601/DQA1*005011/DQB1*02001 increased the risk for IMRD (OR = 4.9; ANA-positive IMRD: OR = 7.2) compared with all other genotypes. There was a general heterozygote advantage, homozygotes had OR = 4.4 (ANA-positive IMRD: OR = 8.9) compared with all heterozygotes. The risk haplotype contains the five amino acid epitope RARAA, known as the shared epitope for rheumatoid arthritis. No association was observed for SRMA. We conclude that DLA class II is a highly significant genetic risk factor for ANA-positive IMRD. The results indicate narrow diversity of DLA II haplotypes and identify an IMRD-related risk haplotype, which becomes highly significant in homozygous dogs.

  7. Chemical biology of antigen presentation by MHC molecules.

    PubMed

    van Kasteren, Sander I; Overkleeft, Hermen; Ovaa, Huib; Neefjes, Jacques

    2014-02-01

    MHC class I and MHC class II molecules present peptides to the immune system to drive proper T cell responses. Pharmacological modulation of T-cell responses can offer treatment options for a range of immune-related diseases. Pharmacological downregulation of MHC molecules may find application in treatment of auto-immunity and transplantation rejection while pharmacological activation of antigen presentation would support immune responses to infection and cancer. Since the cell biology of MHC class I and MHC class II antigen presentation is understood in great detail, many potential targets for manipulation have been defined over the years. Here, we discuss how antigen presentation by MHC molecules can be modulated by pharmacological agents and how chemistry can further support the study of antigen presentation in general. The chemical biology of antigen presentation by MHC molecules shows surprising options for immune modulation and the development of future therapies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. MHC-I ligand discovery using targeted database searches of mass spectrometry data: Implications for T cell immunotherapies.

    PubMed

    Murphy, John Patrick; Konda, Prathyusha; Kowalewski, Daniel J; Schuster, Heiko; Clements, Derek; Kim, Youra; Cohen, Alejandro Martin; Sharif, Tanveer; Nielsen, Morten; Stevanović, Stefan; Lee, Patrick W; Gujar, Shashi

    2017-02-28

    Class I major histocompatibility complex I (MHC-I)-bound peptide ligands dictate the activation and specificity of CD8+ T-cells, and thus are important for devising T cell immunotherapies. In recent times, advances in mass spectrometry (MS) have enabled the precise identification of these MHC-I peptides wherein MS spectra are compared against a reference proteome. Unfortunately, matching these spectra to reference proteome databases is hindered by inflated search spaces attributed to a lack of enzyme restriction in the searches, limiting the efficiency with which MHC ligands are discovered. Here, we offer a solution to this problem whereby we developed a targeted database search approach, and accompanying tool SpectMHC, that is based on a priori-predicted MHC-I peptides. We first validated the approach using mass spectrometry data from 2 different allotype-specific mouse antibodies for the C57BL/6 mouse background. We then developed allotype-specific HLA databases to search previously published MS datasets of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Using this targeted search strategy improved peptide identifications for both mouse and human ligandomes by greater than two-fold and is superior to traditional "no enzyme" searches of reference proteomes. Our novel targeted database search promises to uncover otherwise missed novel T cell epitopes of therapeutic potential.

  9. Heterozygote excess in a self-incompatible and partially clonal forest tree species -- Prunus avium L.

    PubMed

    Stoeckel, Solenn; Grange, Jérôme; Fernández-Manjarres, Juan F; Bilger, Isabelle; Frascaria-Lacoste, Nathalie; Mariette, Stéphanie

    2006-07-01

    Wild cherry (Prunus avium L.), a partially asexual self-incompatible forest tree, shows heterozygote excess, which is a poorly studied phenomenon. In three natural populations, we found significant heterozygote excess at almost all investigated loci (eight microsatellites and markers for the self-incompatibility locus). We examined four hypotheses to account for this observed heterozygote excess. First, negative F(IS) can result from a lack of selfed progeny in small populations of outcrossing species. A second explanation for negative F(IS) is selection during the life cycle of the most heterozygous individuals. A third explanation is negative assortative mating when reproduction occurs between individuals bearing phenotypes more dissimilar than by chance. The last explanation for negative F(IS) relies on asexual reproduction. Expectations for each hypothesis were tested using empirical data. Patterns of F(IS) differed among loci. Nevertheless, our experimental results did not confirm the small sample size hypothesis. Although one locus is probably under a hitch-hiking effect from the SI locus, we rejected the effect of the self-incompatibility locus for the genome as a whole. Similarly, although one locus showed a clear pattern consistent with the selection of heterozygous individuals, the heterosis effect over the whole genome was rejected. Finally, our results revealed that clonality probably explains significant negative F(IS) in wild cherry populations when considering all individuals. More theoretical effort is needed to develop expectations and hypotheses, and test them in the case of species combining self-incompatibility and partially asexual reproduction.

  10. Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy: new insights from compound heterozygotes and implication for prenatal genetic counselling.

    PubMed

    Scionti, Isabella; Fabbri, Greta; Fiorillo, Chiara; Ricci, Giulia; Greco, Francesca; D'Amico, Roberto; Termanini, Alberto; Vercelli, Liliana; Tomelleri, Giuliano; Cao, Michelangelo; Santoro, Lucio; Percesepe, Antonio; Tupler, Rossella

    2012-03-01

    Background Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is considered an autosomal dominant disease with a prevalence of 1 in 20 000. Almost all patients with FSHD carry deletions of integral copies of tandem 3.3 kb repeats (D4Z4) located on chromosome 4q35. However, FSHD families have been reported in which individuals carrying a D4Z4-reduced allele remain asymptomatic. Recently, it has been proposed that the D4Z4-reduced allele is pathogenic only in association with the permissive haplotype, 4APAS. Methods and results Through the Italian National Registry for FSHD (INRF), genotype-phenotype correlations were extensively studied in 11 non-consanguineous families in which two D4Z4-reduced alleles segregate. Overall, 68 subjects carrying D4Z4-reduced alleles were examined, including 15 compound heterozygotes. It was found that in four families the only FSHD-affected subject was the compound heterozygote for the D4Z4-reduced allele, and 52.6% of subjects carrying a single D4Z4-reduced 4A161PAS haplotype were non-penetrant carriers; moreover, the population frequency of the 4A161PAS haplotype associated with a D4Z4-reduced allele was found to be as high as 1.2%. Conclusions This study reveals a high frequency of compound heterozygotes in the Italian population and the presence of D4Z4-reduced alleles with the 4A161PAS pathogenic haplotype in the majority of non-penetrant subjects in FSHD families with compound heterozygosity. These data suggest that carriers of FSHD-sized alleles with 4A161PAS haplotype are more common in the general population than expected on the basis of FSHD prevalence. These findings challenge the notion that FSHD is a fully penetrant autosomal dominant disorder uniquely associated with the 4A161PAS haplotype, with relevant repercussions for genetic counselling and prenatal diagnosis.

  11. No gender differences in the frequencies of HLA-DRB3/B4/B5 heterozygotes in newborns and adults in Koreans.

    PubMed

    Song, Eun Young; Roh, Eun Youn; Shin, Sue; Yoon, Jong Hyun; Park, Myoung Hee

    2012-01-01

    HLA class II haplotypes often contain a second expressed HLA-DRB locus tightly linked to the classical HLA-DRB1 locus on the haplotype, which can be either HLA-DRB3, -DRB4 or -DRB5. These encode the HLA-DR51, -DR52 or -DR53 supertypic specificities and mark the ancestral lineages. HLA-DRB3/B4/B5 heterozygote excess in Welsh male newborns has been reported, suggesting a possibility of male-specific major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-mediated prenatal selection. However, it has not been confirmed in newborns of other ethnic groups or in adult populations. We analyzed the HLA-DRB1 and HLA-DRB3/B4/B5 genes in Korean newborns and healthy adults to examine whether MHC-mediated prenatal or postnatal selection exists. A total of 1,038 newborns (cord blood registry, 516 males and 522 females) and 2,082 healthy adults (hematopoietic stem cell donor registry, 1,111 males and 971 females) were HLA typed. HLA-DRB1/B3/B4/B5 DNA typing was performed using Dynal RELI HLA-DRB SSO Kit (Dyanl Biotech, Wirral, U.K.). Genotype frequencies and homozygosity and heterozygosity rates for DRB3/B4/B5 supertypic loci were compared between males and females in newborns and adults. There were no significant differences in the HLA-DRB3/B4/B5 homozygosity and heterozygosity rates between males and females in both newborns and adults. In the comparison between newborns and adults, homozygosity rate was significantly higher in newborn females than in adult females (31.0% vs 25.0%, p=0.01). Whether there is an age-related change from newborns toward adults has not been well studied in other populations, and further studies are warranted. In conclusion, male-specific heterozygosity excess reported in Welsh newborns has not been observed in Korean population, and there might be some ethnic differences in the gender-specific prenatal selection events.

  12. Short/long heterozygotes at 5HTTLPR and white matter lesions in geriatric depression.

    PubMed

    Steffens, David C; Taylor, Warren D; McQuoid, Douglas R; Krishnan, K Ranga R

    2008-03-01

    We examined the relationship between 5HTTLPR genotype and volume of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain lesions. We studied 217 older depressed patients and 141 individuals in the comparison group using a standard brain MRI protocol to calculate lesion volumes. Genotype at 5HTTLPR was determined for each subject. In age-adjusted models, the l/s genotype was associated with increased volume of total and white-matter lesions among depressed patients. This relationship lost significance in models controlling for reported hypertension. The finding that 5HTTLPR heterozygotes have higher vascular lesion volumes may be related to development of hypertension.

  13. MHC Genes Linked to Autoimmune Disease.

    PubMed

    Deitiker, Philip; Atassi, M Zouhair

    2015-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases (ADs), or autoinflammatoiy diseases, are growing in complexity as diagnoses improve and many factors escalate disease risk. Considerable genetic similarity is found among ADs, and they are frequently associated with major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes. However, a given disease may be associated with more than one human leukocyte antigen (HLA) allotype, and a given HLA may be associated with more than one AD. The associations of non-MHC genes with AD present an additional problem, and the situation is further complicated by the role that other factors, such as age, diet, therapeutic drugs, and regional influences, play in disease. This review discusses some of the genetics and biochemistry of HLA-linked AD and inflammation, covering some of the best-studied examples and summarizing indicators for class I- and II-mediated disease. However, the scope of this review limits a detailed discussion of all known ADs.

  14. Ubiquitination by March-I prevents MHC class II recycling and promotes MHC class II turnover in antigen-presenting cells

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Kyung-Jin; Walseng, Even; Ishido, Satoshi; Roche, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    MHC class II (MHC-II)-dependent antigen presentation by antigen-presenting cells (APCs) is carefully controlled to achieve specificity of immune responses; the regulated assembly and degradation of antigenic peptide–MHC-II complexes (pMHC-II) is one aspect of such control. In this study, we have examined the role of ubiquitination in regulating pMHC-II biosynthesis, endocytosis, recycling, and turnover in APCs. By using APCs obtained from MHC-II ubiquitination mutant mice, we find that whereas ubiquitination does not affect pMHC-II formation in dendritic cells (DCs), it does promote the subsequent degradation of newly synthesized pMHC-II. Acute activation of DCs or B cells terminates expression of the MHC-II E3 ubiquitin ligase March-I and prevents pMHC-II ubiquitination. Most importantly, this change results in very efficient pMHC-II recycling from the surface of DCs and B cells, thereby preventing targeting of internalized pMHC-II to lysosomes for degradation. Biochemical and functional assays confirmed that pMHC-II turnover is suppressed in MHC-II ubiquitin mutant DCs or by acute activation of wild-type DCs. These studies demonstrate that acute APC activation blocks the ubiquitin-dependent turnover of pMHC-II by promoting efficient pMHC-II recycling and preventing lysosomal targeting of internalized pMHC-II, thereby enhancing pMHC-II stability for efficient antigen presentation to CD4 T cells. PMID:26240324

  15. Ubiquitination by March-I prevents MHC class II recycling and promotes MHC class II turnover in antigen-presenting cells.

    PubMed

    Cho, Kyung-Jin; Walseng, Even; Ishido, Satoshi; Roche, Paul A

    2015-08-18

    MHC class II (MHC-II)-dependent antigen presentation by antigen-presenting cells (APCs) is carefully controlled to achieve specificity of immune responses; the regulated assembly and degradation of antigenic peptide-MHC-II complexes (pMHC-II) is one aspect of such control. In this study, we have examined the role of ubiquitination in regulating pMHC-II biosynthesis, endocytosis, recycling, and turnover in APCs. By using APCs obtained from MHC-II ubiquitination mutant mice, we find that whereas ubiquitination does not affect pMHC-II formation in dendritic cells (DCs), it does promote the subsequent degradation of newly synthesized pMHC-II. Acute activation of DCs or B cells terminates expression of the MHC-II E3 ubiquitin ligase March-I and prevents pMHC-II ubiquitination. Most importantly, this change results in very efficient pMHC-II recycling from the surface of DCs and B cells, thereby preventing targeting of internalized pMHC-II to lysosomes for degradation. Biochemical and functional assays confirmed that pMHC-II turnover is suppressed in MHC-II ubiquitin mutant DCs or by acute activation of wild-type DCs. These studies demonstrate that acute APC activation blocks the ubiquitin-dependent turnover of pMHC-II by promoting efficient pMHC-II recycling and preventing lysosomal targeting of internalized pMHC-II, thereby enhancing pMHC-II stability for efficient antigen presentation to CD4 T cells.

  16. Coevolution of T-cell receptors with MHC and non-MHC ligands

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Caitlin C.; Luoma, Adrienne M.; Adams, Erin J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary The structure and amino acid diversity of the T-cell receptor (TCR), similar in nature to that of Fab portions of antibodies, would suggest these proteins have a nearly infinite capacity to recognize antigen. Yet all currently defined native T cells expressing an α and β chain in their TCR can only sense antigen when presented in the context of a major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecule. This MHC molecule can be one of many that exist in vertebrates, presenting small peptide fragments, lipid molecules, or small molecule metabolites. Here we review the pattern of TCR recognition of MHC molecules throughout a broad sampling of species and T-cell lineages and also touch upon T cells that do not appear to require MHC presentation for their surveillance function. We review the diversity of MHC molecules and information on the corresponding T-cell lineages identified in divergent species. We also discuss TCRs with structural domains unlike that of conventional TCRs of mouse and human. By presenting this broad view of TCR sequence, structure, domain organization, and function, we seek to explore how this receptor has evolved across time and been selected for alternative antigen-recognition capabilities in divergent lineages. PMID:26284470

  17. [Analysis of clinical phenotypes of compound heterozygotes of Hb J-Bangkok and β-thalassemia].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ying; Shang, Xuan; Xiong, Fu; Liu, Yan-hui; Lou, Ji-wu; Xu, Xiang-min

    2013-04-01

    To analyze hematological characteristics of compound heterozygotes of Hb J-Bangkok and β-thalassemia, and to explore the influence of Hb J-Bangkok on the phenotype of β-thalassemia. Peripheral blood samples from a patient carrying Hb J-Bangkok and a β-thalassemia mutation, her family members and three sporadic Hb J-Bangkok carriers were collected. RBC analysis and hemoglobin electrophoresis were performed. Genotypes of α- and β-globin genes were analyzed. The father of the proband and the three sporadic cases were single carriers of Hb J-Bangkok. All of them were asymptomatic and have normal hematological parameters except for an abnormal hemoglobin band detected on hemoglobin electrophoresis. The proband was a compound heterozygote for Hb J-Bangkok and β-thalassemia mutation IVS-Ⅱ-654. She presented typical β-thalassemia trait, featuring hypochromic microcytic anemia and increased Hb A₂ level. An abnormal hemoglobin band was also detected. Carriers of Hb J-Bangkok alone are asymptomatic. Co-existence of Hb J-Bangkok and β-thalassemia may not aggravate the phenotype. Therefore, couples with one carrying Hb J-Bangkok and another carrying a β-thalassemia mutation do not require prenatal diagnosis.

  18. [Para-Bombay phenotype caused by combined heterozygote of two bases deletion on fut1 alleles].

    PubMed

    Ma, Kan-Rong; Tao, Shu-Dan; Lan, Xiao-Fei; Hong, Xiao-Zhen; Xu, Xian-Guo; Zhu, Fa-Ming; Lü, Hang-Jun; Yan, Li-Xing

    2011-02-01

    This study was purposed to investigate the molecular basis of a para-Bombay phenotype for screening and identification of rare blood group. ABO and H phenotypes of the proband were identified by serological techniques. The exon 6 to exon 7 of ABO gene and full coding region of α-1,2-fucosyltransferase (fut1) gene of the proband were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction and direct sequencing of the amplified fragments. The haplotype of compound heterozygote of fut1 was also identified by cloning sequencing. The results indicated that a rare para-Bombay phenotype was confirmed by serological techniques. Two deletion or insertion variant sites near nucleotide 547 and 880 were detected in fut1 gene. The results of cloning sequence showed that one haplotype of fut1 gene was two bases deletion at 547-552 (AGAGAG→AGAG), and another one was two bases deletion at position 880-882 (TTT→T). Both two variants caused a reading frame shift and a premature stop codon. It is concluded that a rare para-Bombay phenotype is found and confirmed in blood donor population. The molecular basis of this individual is compound heterozygote of two bases deletion on fut1 gene which weaken the activity of α-1, 2-fucosyltransferase.

  19. Thiamine-responsive megaloblastic anemia: identification of novel compound heterozygotes and mutation update.

    PubMed

    Bergmann, Anke K; Sahai, Inderneel; Falcone, Jill F; Fleming, Judy; Bagg, Adam; Borgna-Pignati, Caterina; Casey, Robin; Fabris, Luca; Hexner, Elizabeth; Mathews, Lulu; Ribeiro, Maria Leticia; Wierenga, Klaas J; Neufeld, Ellis J

    2009-12-01

    To determine causative mutations and clinical status of 7 previously unreported kindreds with TRMA syndrome, (thiamine-responsive megaloblastic anemia, online Mendelian inheritance in man, no. 249270), a recessive disorder of thiamine transporter Slc19A2. Genomic DNA was purified from blood, and SLC19A2 mutations were characterized by sequencing polymerase chain reaction-amplified coding regions and intron-exon boundaries of all probands. Compound heterozygotes were further analyzed by sequencing parents, or cloning patient genomic DNA, to ascertain that mutations were in trans. We detected 9 novel SLC19A2 mutations. Of these, 5 were missense, 3 were nonsense, and 1 was insertion. Five patients from 4 kindreds were compound heterozygotes, a finding not reported previously for this disorder, which has mostly been found in consanguineous kindreds. SLC19A2 mutation sites in TRMA are heterogeneous; with no regional "hot spots." TRMA can be caused by heterozygous compound mutations; in these cases, the disorder is found in outbred populations. To the extent that heterozygous patients were ascertained at older ages, a plausible explanation is that if one or more allele(s) is not null, partial function might be preserved. Phenotypic variability may lead to underdiagnosis or diagnostic delay, as the average time between the onset of symptoms and diagnosis was 8 years in this cohort.

  20. THIAMINE RESPONSIVE MEGALOBLASTIC ANEMIA: Identification of novel compound heterozygotes and mutation update

    PubMed Central

    Neuwirth, Anke K.; Sahai, Inderneel; Falcone, Jill F.; Fleming, Judy; Bagg, Adam; Borgna-Pignatti, Caterina; Casey, Robin; Fabris, Luca; Hexner, Elizabeth; Mathews, Lulu; Ribeiro, Maria Leticia; Wierenga, Klaas J.; Neufeld, Ellis J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine causative mutations and clinical status of seven previously unreported kindreds with TRMA syndrome, (Thiamine Responsive Megaloblastic Anemia, OMIM #249270), a recessive disorder of thiamine transporter Slc19A2. Study design Genomic DNA was purified from blood, and SLC19A2 mutations were characterized by sequencing PCR-amplified coding regions and intron-exon boundaries of all probands. Compound heterozygotes were further analyzed by sequencing parents, or cloning patient genomic DNA, to ascertain that mutations were in trans. Results We detected 9 novel SLC19A2 mutations. Of these, five were missense, three nonsense, and one insertion. Five patients from four kindreds were compound heterozygotes, a finding not reported previously for this disorder, which has mostly been found in consanguineous kindreds. Conclusion SLC19A2 mutation sites in TRMA are heterogeneous; with no regional “hot spots”. TRMA can be caused by heterozygous compound mutations; in these cases, the disorder is found in outbred populations. To the extent that heterozygous patients were ascertained at older ages, a plausible explanation is that if one or more allele(s) is not null, partial function might be preserved. Phenotypic variability may lead to underdiagnosis or diagnostic delay, as the average time between the onset of symptoms and diagnosis was 8 years in this cohort. PMID:19643445

  1. DNA sequence of the Peromyscus leucopus MHC class II gene Aa (MhcPeleAa)

    SciTech Connect

    Crew, M.D.; Bates, L.M.

    1996-09-01

    The genus Peromyscus has been extensively studied by populations biologists and ecologists for over eighty years, with P. leucopus (the white-footed mouse) being one of the most intensively investigated species. Polymorphic major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes have proven useful in population genetic studies and might be helpful in understanding the population dynamics of Peromyscus species which are ubiquitously distributed over North and Central America. Polymorphism of P. leucopus MHC (MhcPele) class II genes was evident by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analyses using human and mouse probes and Pele class II loci exhibited degrees of polymorphism similar to H2 class II genes (A-like>E-like). 8 refs., 2 figs.

  2. Generation of MHC class II:peptide ligands for CD4 T cell allorecognition of MHC Class II molecules

    PubMed Central

    Leddon, Scott A.; Sant, Andrea J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of review The molecular and cellular mechanisms that underlie allorecognition of MHC class II molecules has been the subject much debate and experimentation in recent decades. In this review, we discuss several aspects of MHC class II structure, peptide acquisition and TcR-MHC:peptide interactions that have particular relevance to recognition of cells bearing allogeneic class II molecules. Recent findings First, MHC polymorphism is heavily biased toward those amino acids that influence stable peptide binding by MHC class II. Second, the peptide repertoire presented by class II molecules is highly diverse and can be edited substantially by the molecular catalyst HLA-DM and by tissue-specific expression of HLA-DO, stress and cytokines. Third, T cell receptor docking onto MHC peptide typically involves substantial contacts with the bound peptide in the MHC class II molecule. Finally, there is increasing evidence that T cell recognition of MHC is in part germline-encoded through T cell receptor V region contacts with MHC class II alpha helices. Summary Together, these conclusions support the view that allorecognition of MHC class II molecules is likely to parallel key aspects of conventional CD4 T cell recognition, with allele-dependent variation in peptide representation accounting in large part for the high precursor frequency of alloreactive CD4 T cells PMID:20616724

  3. MHC antigen expression and cellular response in spontaneous and induced rejection of intracerebral neural xenografts in neonatal rats.

    PubMed

    Pollack, I F; Lund, R D; Rao, K

    1990-01-01

    were present within the graft and at the graft-host interface. With longer survival times, several of these changes were also detected within the visual pathways, suggesting that the regions to which the graft projected were also involved, though in a delayed fashion. After eye removal, the temporal pattern of rejection was more protracted and considerably less uniform than that seen after skin grafting. At 7 days, prominent microglial, astrocytic, and MHC immunoreactivity was seen in the area of distribution of the host optic axons within the superior colliculus and to a lesser extent around the graft itself, however, no infiltration of lymphocytes was detected. With longer survival times, an increasing percentage of grafts showed signs of overt rejection with perivascular cuffing by lymphocytes; however, even at 21 days, a small number of grafts remained free of lymphocytic infiltration, despite the presence of intense MHC, astrocytic, and microglial staining. We conclude that the different rejection models studied may involve fundamentally different triggers of the host immune system, but that in each case MHC expression may be the precedent step to graft rejection.

  4. Sequence polymorphism and evolution of three cetacean MHC genes.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shi Xia; Ren, Wen Hua; Li, Shu Zhen; Wei, Fu Wen; Zhou, Kai Ya; Yang, Guang

    2009-09-01

    Sequence variability at three major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes (DQB, DRA, and MHC-I) of cetaceans was investigated in order to get an overall understanding of cetacean MHC evolution. Little sequence variation was detected at the DRA locus, while extensive and considerable variability were found at the MHC-I and DQB loci. Phylogenetic reconstruction and sequence comparison revealed extensive sharing of identical MHC alleles among different species at the three MHC loci examined. Comparisons of phylogenetic trees for these MHC loci with the trees reconstructed only based on non-PBR sites revealed that allelic similarity/identity possibly reflected common ancestry and were not due to adaptive convergence. At the same time, trans-species evolution was also evidenced that the allelic diversity of the three MHC loci clearly pre-dated species divergence events according to the relaxed molecular clock. It may be the forces of balancing selection acting to maintain the high sequence variability and identical alleles in trans-specific manner at the MHC-I and DQB loci.

  5. Extensive diversification of MHC in Chinese giant salamanders Andrias davidianus (Anda-MHC) reveals novel splice variants.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Rong; Chen, Zhong-yuan; Wang, Jun; Yuan, Jiang-di; Liao, Xiang-yong; Gui, Jian-Fang; Zhang, Qi-Ya

    2014-02-01

    A series of MHC alleles (including 26 class IA, 27 class IIA, and 17 class IIB) were identified from Chinese giant salamander Andrias davidianus (Anda-MHC). These genes are similar to classical MHC molecules in terms of characteristic domains, functional residues, deduced tertiary structures and genetic diversity. The majority of variation between alleles is found in the putative peptide-binding region (PBR), which is driven by positive Darwinian selection. The coexistence of two isoforms in MHC IA, IIA, and IIB alleles are shown: one full-length transcript and one novel splice variant. Despite lake of the external domains, these variants exhibit similar subcellular localization with the full-length transcripts. Moreover, the expression of MHC isoforms are up-regulated upon in vivo and in vitro stimulation with Andrias davidianus ranavirus (ADRV), suggesting their potential roles in the immune response. The results provide insights into understanding MHC variation and function in this ancient and endangered urodele amphibian.

  6. Genetic modulation of the FV(Leiden)/normal FV ratio and risk of venous thrombosis in factor V Leiden heterozygotes.

    PubMed

    Segers, O; Simioni, P; Tormene, D; Bulato, C; Gavasso, S; Rosing, J; Castoldi, Elisabetta

    2012-01-01

    The factor (F)V Leiden mutation causes activated protein C (APC) resistance by decreasing the susceptibility of FVa to APC-mediated inactivation and by impairing the APC-cofactor activity of FV in FVIIIa inactivation. However, APC resistance and the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) vary widely among FV Leiden heterozygotes. Common F5 genetic variation probably contributes to this variability. APC resistance was determined in 250 FV Leiden heterozygotes and 133 normal relatives using the prothrombinase-based assay, which specifically measures the susceptibility of plasma FVa to APC. The effects of 12 F5 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on the normalized APC sensitivity ratio (nAPCsr) and on FV levels were determined by multiple regression analysis. In FV Leiden heterozygotes,VTE risk increased with increasing nAPCsr, reaching an odds ratio (OR) of 9.9 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2–80.5) in the highest nAPCsr quartile. The minor alleles of several F5 SNPs, including 327 A/G (Q51Q), 409 G/C (D79H), 2663 A/G(K830R, T2 haplotype), 6533 T/C (M2120T) and 6755 A/G (D2194G, R2 haplotype), increased the nAPCsr in FV Leiden heterozygotes, but not in their normal relatives. Most of these effects could be attributed to a shift in the FV(Leiden)/normal FV ratio. Four FV Leiden heterozygotes with extremely high nAPCsr turned out to be pseudo-homozygotes, i.e. they carried a deleterious mutation on the non-Leiden allele. In FV Leiden heterozygotes, the prothrombinase-based nAPCsr is a marker of VTE risk and is modulated by common F5 SNPs that affect the FV(Leiden)/normal FV ratio in plasma.

  7. MHC class I and MHC class II DRB gene variability in wild and captive Bengal tigers (Panthera tigris tigris).

    PubMed

    Pokorny, Ina; Sharma, Reeta; Goyal, Surendra Prakash; Mishra, Sudanshu; Tiedemann, Ralph

    2010-10-01

    Bengal tigers are highly endangered and knowledge on adaptive genetic variation can be essential for efficient conservation and management. Here we present the first assessment of allelic variation in major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and MHC class II DRB genes for wild and captive tigers from India. We amplified, cloned, and sequenced alpha-1 and alpha-2 domain of MHC class I and beta-1 domain of MHC class II DRB genes in 16 tiger specimens of different geographic origin. We detected high variability in peptide-binding sites, presumably resulting from positive selection. Tigers exhibit a low number of MHC DRB alleles, similar to other endangered big cats. Our initial assessment-admittedly with limited geographic coverage and sample size-did not reveal significant differences between captive and wild tigers with regard to MHC variability. In addition, we successfully amplified MHC DRB alleles from scat samples. Our characterization of tiger MHC alleles forms a basis for further in-depth analyses of MHC variability in this illustrative threatened mammal.

  8. Parkin disease in a Brazilian kindred: Manifesting heterozygotes and clinical follow-up over 10 years.

    PubMed

    Khan, Naheed L; Horta, Wagner; Eunson, Louise; Graham, Elizabeth; Johnson, Janel O; Chang, Shannon; Davis, Mary; Singleton, Andrew; Wood, Nicholas W; Lees, Andrew J

    2005-04-01

    We report on a large Brazilian kindred with young-onset parkinsonism due to either a homozygous or heterozygous mutation in parkin. A total of 6 members were affected: 5 were homozygous and 1 heterozygous for a deletion in exon 4. Two other heterozygotes also had extrapyramidal signs. All affected subjects showed characteristic features of parkin disease with foot dystonia and an excellent response to levodopa complicated by motor fluctuations and dyskinesia within 3 years of therapy. Careful clinical follow-up over 10 years showed the phenotype was similar in all the homozygotes with asymmetrical limb bradykinesia and early walking difficulties. Some acceleration of disability was observed in some of the cases as they entered the third decade of illness, but dementia was absent.

  9. Influence of single nucleotide polymorphisms on thrombin generation in factor V Leiden heterozygotes.

    PubMed

    Segers, O; Simioni, P; Tormene, D; Castoldi, E

    2014-03-03

    Carriership of the factor V (FV) Leiden mutation increases the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) ~4-fold, but the individual risk of each FV Leiden carrier depends on several co-inherited risk and protective factors. Under the hypothesis that thrombin generation might serve as an intermediate phenotype to identify genetic modulators of VTE risk, we enrolled 188 FV Leiden heterozygotes (11 with VTE) and determined the following parameters: thrombin generation in the absence and presence of activated protein C (APC); plasma levels of prothrombin, factor X, antithrombin, protein S and tissue factor pathway inhibitor; and the genotypes of 24 SNPs located in the genes encoding these coagulation factors and inhibitors. Multiple regression analysis was subsequently applied to identify the (genetic) determinants of thrombin generation. The endogenous thrombin potential (ETP) showed a striking inter-individual variability among different FV Leiden carriers and, especially when measured in the presence of APC, correlated with VTE risk. Several SNPs in the F2 (rs1799963, rs3136516), F10 (rs693335), SERPINC1 (rs2227589), PROS1 (Heerlen polymorphism) and TFPI (rs5940) genes significantly affected the ETP-APC and/or the ETP+APC in FV Leiden carriers. Most of these SNPs have shown an association with VTE risk in conventional epidemiological studies, suggesting that the genetic dissection of thrombin generation leads to the detection of clinically relevant SNPs. In conclusion, we have identified several SNPs that modulate thrombin generation in FV Leiden heterozygotes. These SNPs may help explain the large variability in VTE risk observed among different FV Leiden carriers.

  10. The Risk of Familial Mediterranean Fever in MEFV Heterozygotes: A Statistical Approach

    PubMed Central

    Jéru, Isabelle; Hentgen, Véronique; Cochet, Emmanuelle; Duquesnoy, Philippe; Le Borgne, Gaëlle; Grimprel, Emmanuel; Stojanovic, Katia Stankovic; Karabina, Sonia; Grateau, Gilles; Amselem, Serge

    2013-01-01

    Background Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is an autosomal recessive autoinflammatory disorder due to MEFV mutations and one of the most frequent Mediterranean genetic diseases. The observation of many heterozygous patients in whom a second mutated allele was excluded led to the proposal that heterozygosity could be causal. However, heterozygosity might be coincidental in many patients due to the very high rate of mutations in Mediterranean populations. Objective To better delineate the pathogenicity of heterozygosity in order to improve genetic counselling and disease management. Methods Complementary statistical approaches were used: estimation of FMF prevalence at population levels, genotype comparison in siblings from 63 familial forms, and genotype study in 557 patients from four Mediterranean populations. Results At the population level, we did not observe any contribution of heterozygosity to disease prevalence. In affected siblings of patients carrying two MEFV mutations, 92% carry two mutated alleles, whereas 4% are heterozygous with typical FMF diagnosis. We demonstrated statistically that patients are more likely to be heterozygous than healthy individuals, as shown by the higher ratio heterozygous carriers/non carriers in patients (p<10−7–p<0.003). The risk for heterozygotes to develop FMF was estimated between 2.1×10−3 and 5.8×10−3 and the relative risk, as compared to non carriers, between 6.3 and 8.1. Conclusions This is the first statistical demonstration that heterozygosity is not responsible for classical Mendelian FMF per se, but constitutes a susceptibility factor for clinically-similar multifactorial forms of the disease. We also provide a first estimate of the risk for heterozygotes to develop FMF. PMID:23844200

  11. Shared evolutionary origin of MHC polymorphism in sympatric lemurs.

    PubMed

    Kaesler, Eva; Kappeler, Peter M; Brameier, Markus; Demeler, Janina; Kraus, Cornelia; Rakotoniaina, Josué H; Hämäläinen, Anni M; Huchard, Elise

    2017-08-21

    Genes of the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) play a central role in adaptive immune responses of vertebrates. They exhibit remarkable polymorphism, often crossing species boundaries with similar alleles or allelic motifs shared across species. This pattern may reflect parallel parasite-mediated selective pressures, either favouring the long maintenance of ancestral MHC allelic lineages across successive speciation events by balancing selection ('trans-species polymorphism'), or alternatively favouring the independent emergence of functionally similar alleles post-speciation via convergent evolution. Here we investigate the origins of MHC similarity across several species of dwarf and mouse lemurs (Cheirogaleidae). We examined MHC class II variation in two highly polymorphic loci (DRB, DQB) and evaluated the overlap of gut-parasite communities in four sympatric lemurs. We tested for parasite-MHC associations across species to determine whether similar parasite pressures may select for similar MHC alleles in different species. Next, we integrated our MHC data with those previously obtained from other Cheirogaleidae to investigate the relative contribution of convergent evolution and co-ancestry to shared MHC polymorphism by contrasting patterns of codon usage at functional versus neutral sites. Our results indicate that parasites shared across species may select for functionally similar MHC alleles, implying that the dynamics of MHC-parasite co-evolution should be envisaged at the community level. We further show that balancing selection maintaining trans-species polymorphism, rather than convergent evolution, is the primary mechanism explaining shared MHC sequence motifs between species that diverged up to 30 million years ago. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  12. MPID-T2: a database for sequence-structure-function analyses of pMHC and TR/pMHC structures.

    PubMed

    Khan, Javed Mohammed; Cheruku, Harish Reddy; Tong, Joo Chuan; Ranganathan, Shoba

    2011-04-15

    Sequence-structure-function information is critical in understanding the mechanism of pMHC and TR/pMHC binding and recognition. A database for sequence-structure-function information on pMHC and TR/pMHC interactions, MHC-Peptide Interaction Database-TR version 2 (MPID-T2), is now available augmented with the latest PDB and IMGT/3Dstructure-DB data, advanced features and new parameters for the analysis of pMHC and TR/pMHC structures. http://biolinfo.org/mpid-t2. shoba.ranganathan@mq.edu.au Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  13. Neurons Preferentially Respond to Self-MHC Class I Allele Products Regardless of Peptide Presented

    PubMed Central

    Escande-Beillard, Nathalie; Washburn, Lorraine; Zekzer, Dan; Wu, Zhongqi-Phyllis; Eitan, Shoshy; Ivkovic, Sonja; Lu, Yuxin; Dang, Hoa; Middleton, Blake; Bilousova, Tina V.; Yoshimura, Yoshitaka; Evans, Christopher J.; Joyce, Sebastian; Tian, Jide; Kaufman, Daniel L.

    2010-01-01

    Studies of mice lacking MHC class I (MHC I)-associated proteins have demonstrated a role for MHC I in neurodevelopment. A central question arising from these observations is whether neuronal recognition of MHC I has specificity for the MHC I allele product and the peptide presented. Using a well-established embryonic retina explant system, we observed that picomolar levels of a recombinant self-MHC I molecule inhibited neurite outgrowth. We then assessed the neurobiological activity of a panel of recombinant soluble MHC Is, consisting of different MHC I heavy chains with a defined self- or nonself-peptide presented, on cultured embryonic retinas from mice with different MHC I haplotypes. We observed that self-MHC I allele products had greater inhibitory neuroactivity than nonself-MHC I molecules, regardless of the nature of the peptide presented, a pattern akin to MHC I recognition by some innate immune system receptors. However, self-MHC I molecules had no effect on retinas from MHC I-deficient mice. These observations suggest that neuronal recognition of MHC I may be coordinated with the inherited MHC I alleles, as occurs in the innate immune system. Consistent with this notion, we show that MHC I and MHC I receptors are coexpressed by precursor cells at the earliest stages of retina development, which could enable such coordination. PMID:20018625

  14. Predicting MHC-II binding affinity using multiple instance regression

    PubMed Central

    EL-Manzalawy, Yasser; Dobbs, Drena; Honavar, Vasant

    2011-01-01

    Reliably predicting the ability of antigen peptides to bind to major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II) molecules is an essential step in developing new vaccines. Uncovering the amino acid sequence correlates of the binding affinity of MHC-II binding peptides is important for understanding pathogenesis and immune response. The task of predicting MHC-II binding peptides is complicated by the significant variability in their length. Most existing computational methods for predicting MHC-II binding peptides focus on identifying a nine amino acids core region in each binding peptide. We formulate the problems of qualitatively and quantitatively predicting flexible length MHC-II peptides as multiple instance learning and multiple instance regression problems, respectively. Based on this formulation, we introduce MHCMIR, a novel method for predicting MHC-II binding affinity using multiple instance regression. We present results of experiments using several benchmark datasets that show that MHCMIR is competitive with the state-of-the-art methods for predicting MHC-II binding peptides. An online web server that implements the MHCMIR method for MHC-II binding affinity prediction is freely accessible at http://ailab.cs.iastate.edu/mhcmir. PMID:20855923

  15. Both man & bird & beast: Comparative organization of MHC genes

    SciTech Connect

    Trowsdale, J.

    1995-01-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is the center of the immune universe. Genes in the MHC determine which antigens are processed and presented. Not surprisingly, the MHC contributes the major genetic component to important autoimmune diseases and will no doubt, although evidence is limited, contribute to resistance to infectious disorders. Vertebrates all seem to have MHC genes and it should be possible to determine, within the next few years, whether the clustering of antigen processing and presenting genes in this region is a conserved feature. One could imagine an evolutionary advantage to maintaining the MHC as a unit, either to coordinate expression of the genes in different tissues, or to coordinate T-cell selection during thymic ontogeny, since inheriting a linked set of polymorphic gene products may help to avoid conflicts during positive and negative selection. 153 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Reconciling views on T cell receptor germline bias for MHC.

    PubMed

    Garcia, K Christopher

    2012-09-01

    Whether MHC restriction by the T cell receptor (TCR) is a product of evolutionary pressures leading to germline-encoded 'rules of engagement' remains avidly debated. Structural results derived from analysis of TCR-peptide-MHC complexes appear to support a model of physical specificity between TCR germline V regions and MHC. Yet, some recent evidence suggests that thymic selection, and co-receptors may have misled us into thinking the TCR is exclusively MHC-specific, when in fact, TCRs can robustly engage non-MHC ligands when given the chance. Here, I propose that seemingly contradictory data and hypotheses for, and against, germline bias are, in fact, compatible and can be reconciled into a unifying model.

  17. Sympatric and Allopatric Divergence of MHC Genes in Threespine Stickleback

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Blake; Harmon, Luke J.; M'Gonigle, Leithen; Marchinko, Kerry B.; Schaschl, Helmut

    2010-01-01

    Parasites can strongly affect the evolution of their hosts, but their effects on host diversification are less clear. In theory, contrasting parasite communities in different foraging habitats could generate divergent selection on hosts and promote ecological speciation. Immune systems are costly to maintain, adaptable, and an important component of individual fitness. As a result, immune system genes, such as those of the Major Histocompatability Complex (MHC), can change rapidly in response to parasite-mediated selection. In threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus), as well as in other vertebrates, MHC genes have been linked with female mating preference, suggesting that divergent selection acting on MHC genes might influence speciation. Here, we examined genetic variation at MHC Class II loci of sticklebacks from two lakes with a limnetic and benthic species pair, and two lakes with a single species. In both lakes with species pairs, limnetics and benthics differed in their composition of MHC alleles, and limnetics had fewer MHC alleles per individual than benthics. Similar to the limnetics, the allopatric population with a pelagic phenotype had few MHC alleles per individual, suggesting a correlation between MHC genotype and foraging habitat. Using a simulation model we show that the diversity and composition of MHC alleles in a sympatric species pair depends on the amount of assortative mating and on the strength of parasite-mediated selection in adjacent foraging habitats. Our results indicate parallel divergence in the number of MHC alleles between sympatric stickleback species, possibly resulting from the contrasting parasite communities in littoral and pelagic habitats of lakes. PMID:20585386

  18. T cells and their eons-old obsession with MHC

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Lei; Scott-Browne, James; Kappler, John W.; Gapin, Laurent; Marrack, Philippa

    2014-01-01

    Summary T cells bearing receptors made up of α and β chains (TCRs) usually react with peptides bound to major histocompatibility complex proteins (MHC). This bias could be imposed by positive selection, the phenomenon that selects thymocytes to mature into T cells only if the TCRs they bear react with low but appreciable affinity with MHC + peptide combinations in the thymus cortex. However, it is also possible that the polypeptides of TCRs themselves do not have random specificities but rather are biased toward reaction with MHC. Evolution would therefore have selected for a collection of TCR variable elements that are prone to react with MHC. If this were to be so, positive selection would act on thymocytes bearing a pre biased collection of TCRs to pick out those that react to some extent, but not too well, with self MHC + self-peptides. A problem with studies of this evolutionary idea is the fact that there are many TCR variable elements and that these differ considerably in the amino acids with which they contact MHC. However, recent experiments by our group and others suggest that one group of TCR variable elements, those related to the mouse Vβ8 family, has amino acids in their CDR2 regions that consistently bind a particular site on an MHC α-helix. Other groups of variable elements may use different patterns of amino acids to achieve the same goal. Mutation of these amino acids reduces the ability of T cells and thymocytes to react with MHC. These amino acids are present in the variable regions of distantly related species such as sharks and human. Overall the data indicate that TCR elements have indeed been selected by evolution to react with MHC proteins. Many mysteries about TCRs remain to be solved, including the nature of auto-recognition, the basis of MHC allele specificity, and the very nature and complexity of TCRs on mature T cells. PMID:23046122

  19. Colonizing the world in spite of reduced MHC variation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gangoso, L.; Alcaide, M.; Grande, J.M.; Muñoz, J.; Talbot, Sandra L.; Sonsthagen, Sarah A.; Sage, Kevin; Figuerola, J.

    2012-01-01

    Reduced immune gene diversity is thought to negatively affect the capacity of organisms to adapt to pathogen challenges, which represent a major force in natural selection. Genes of the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) are the most widely invoked adaptive loci in conservation biology, and have become the most popular genetic markers to investigate pathogen-host interactions in vertebrates. Although MHC genes are the most polymorphic genes described in the vertebrate genome, the extent to which MHC diversity determines the long-term persistence of populations is, unclear and often debated, as recent studies have documented the occurrence of natural populations thriving even after a depletion of MHC diversity caused by genetic drift. Here, we show that some phylogenetically related species belonging to the Falco genus (Aves: Falconidae) present a dramatically low MHC variability that has not precluded, nevertheless, the successful colonization of almost all existing regions and habitats worldwide. We found evidence for two remarkably different patterns of MHC variation within the genus. While kestrels show a high MHC variation according to the general theory, falcons exhibit an ancestrally low intra- and inter-specific MHC allelic diversity. We provide compelling evidence that this pattern is not caused by the degeneration of functional genes into pseudogenes, the inadvertent analyses of paralogous MHC genes, or the devastating action of genetic drift. Instead, our results strongly support the idea of an evolutionary transition driven and maintained by natural selection from primarily highly variable towards low polymorphic, but functional and expressed, MHC genes with species-specific pathogen-recognition capabilities.

  20. Chromosome synapsis and recombination in simple and complex chromosomal heterozygotes of tuco-tuco (Ctenomys talarum: Rodentia: Ctenomyidae).

    PubMed

    Basheva, Ekaterina A; Torgasheva, Anna A; Gomez Fernandez, Maria Jimena; Boston, Emma; Mirol, Patricia; Borodin, Pavel M

    2014-09-01

    The chromosomal speciation hypothesis suggests that irregularities in synapsis, recombination, and segregation in heterozygotes for chromosome rearrangements may restrict gene flow between karyotypically distinct populations and promote speciation. Ctenomys talarum is a South American subterranean rodent inhabiting the coastal regions of Argentina, whose populations polymorphic for Robertsonian and tandem translocations seem to have a very restricted gene flow. To test if chromosomal differences are involved in isolation among its populations, we examined chromosome pairing, recombination, and meiotic silencing of unsynapsed chromatin in male meiosis of simple and complex translocation heterozygotes using immunolocalization of the MLH1 marking mature recombination nodules and phosphorylated histone γH2A.X marking unrepaired double-strand breaks. We observed small asynaptic areas labeled by γH2A.X in pericentromeric regions of the chromosomes involved in the trivalents and quadrivalents. We also observed a decrease of recombination frequency and a distalization of the crossover distribution in the heterozygotes and metacentric homozygotes compared to acrocentric homozygotes. We suggest that the asynapsis of the pericentromeric regions are unlikely to induce germ cell death and decrease fertility of the heterozygotes; however, suppressed recombination in pericentromeric areas of the multivalents may reduce gene flow between chromosomally different populations of the Talas tuco-tuco.

  1. Recent advances in Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) class I antigen presentation: Plastic MHC molecules and TAPBPR-mediated quality control

    PubMed Central

    van Hateren, Andy; Bailey, Alistair; Elliott, Tim

    2017-01-01

    We have known since the late 1980s that the function of classical major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules is to bind peptides and display them at the cell surface to cytotoxic T cells. Recognition by these sentinels of the immune system can lead to the destruction of the presenting cell, thus protecting the host from pathogens and cancer. Classical MHC class I molecules (MHC I hereafter) are co-dominantly expressed, polygenic, and exceptionally polymorphic and have significant sequence diversity. Thus, in most species, there are many different MHC I allotypes expressed, each with different peptide-binding specificity, which can have a dramatic effect on disease outcome. Although MHC allotypes vary in their primary sequence, they share common tertiary and quaternary structures. Here, we review the evidence that, despite this commonality, polymorphic amino acid differences between allotypes alter the ability of MHC I molecules to change shape (that is, their conformational plasticity). We discuss how the peptide loading co-factor tapasin might modify this plasticity to augment peptide loading. Lastly, we consider recent findings concerning the functions of the non-classical MHC I molecule HLA-E as well as the tapasin-related protein TAPBPR (transporter associated with antigen presentation binding protein-related), which has been shown to act as a second quality-control stage in MHC I antigen presentation. PMID:28299193

  2. MHC in a monogamous lizard--Characterization of class I MHC genes in the Australian skink Tiliqua rugosa.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Talat Hojat; Bertozzi, Terry; Miller, Robert D; Gardner, Michael G

    2015-12-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is a highly variable region of vertebrate genomes that encodes cellular proteins involved in the immune response. In addition to the benefits of MHC research in understanding the genetic basis of host resistance to disease, the MHC is an ideal candidate for studying genetic diversity under strong natural selection. However, the MHC of many non-model vertebrate taxa are poorly characterized, hindering an understanding of disease resistance and its application to conservation genetics in these groups. Squamates (lizards and snakes) remain particularly underrepresented despite their being the most diverse order of non-avian sauropsids. We characterized MHC class I sequence diversity from an Australian skink, the sleepy lizard (Tiliqua rugosa), using both cDNA and genomic sequence data and also present genomic class I sequences from the related skinks Tiliqua adelaidensis and Egernia stokesii. Phylogenetic analysis of Tiliqua and other published sqamate MHC class I sequences suggest that MHC diverged very early in Tiliqua compared with the other studied squamates. We identified at least 4 classical MHC class I loci in T. rugosa and also shared polymorphism among T. rugosa, T. adelaidensis and E. stokesii in the sequences encoding peptide-binding α1 and α2 domains. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. MHC-linked susceptibility to a bacterial infection, but no MHC-linked cryptic female choice in whitefish.

    PubMed

    Wedekind, C; Walker, M; Portmann, J; Cenni, B; Müller, R; Binz, T

    2004-01-01

    Non-random gamete fusion is one of several potential cryptic female choice mechanisms that have been postulated and that may enhance the survival probability of the offspring. Previous studies have found that gamete fusion in mice is influenced by genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region. Here we test (i) whether there is MHC-dependent gamete fusion in whitefish (Coregonus sp.) and (ii) whether there is a link between the MHC and embryo susceptibility to an infection by the bacterium Pseudomonas fuorescens. We experimentally bred whitefish and reared sibships in several batches that either experienced or did not experience strong selection by P. fluorescens. We then determined the MHC class II B1 genotype of 1016 surviving larvae of several full sibships. We found no evidence for MHC-linked gamete fusion. However, in one of seven sibships we found a strong connection between the MHC class II genotype and embryo susceptibility to P. fluorescens. This connection was still significant after correcting for multiple testing. Hence, the MHC class II genotype can considerably influence embryo survival in whitefish, but gamete fusion seems to be random with respect to the MHC.

  4. Small-scale intraspecific patterns of adaptive immunogenetic polymorphisms and neutral variation in Lake Superior lake trout.

    PubMed

    Baillie, Shauna M; Hemstock, Riley R; Muir, Andrew M; Krueger, Charles C; Bentzen, Paul

    2017-05-25

    Many fishes express high levels of intraspecific variability, often linked to resource partitioning. Several studies show that a species' evolutionary trajectory of adaptive divergence can undergo reversals caused by changes in its environment. Such a reversal in neutral genetic and morphological variation among lake trout Salvelinus namaycush ecomorphs appears to be underway in Lake Superior. However, a water depth gradient in neutral genetic divergence was found to be associated with intraspecific diversity in the lake. To investigate patterns of adaptive immunogenetic variation among lake trout ecomorphs, we used Illumina high-throughput sequencing. The population's genetic structure of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC Class IIβ exon 2) and 18 microsatellite loci were compared to disentangle neutral and selective processes at a small geographic scale. Both MHC and microsatellite variation were partitioned more by water depth stratum than by ecomorph. Several metrics showed strong clustering by water depth in MHC alleles, but not microsatellites. We report a 75% increase in the number of MHC alleles shared between the predominant shallow and deep water ecomorphs since a previous lake trout MHC study at the same locale (c. 1990s data). This result is consistent with the reverse speciation hypothesis, although adaptive MHC polymorphisms persist along an ecological gradient. Finally, results suggested that the lake trout have multiple copies of the MHC II locus consistent with a historic genomic duplication event. Our findings indicated that conservation approaches for this species could focus on managing various ecological habitats by depth, in addition to regulating the fisheries specific to ecomorphs.

  5. Mhc-linked survival and lifetime reproductive success in a wild population of great tits.

    PubMed

    Sepil, Irem; Lachish, Shelly; Sheldon, Ben C

    2013-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (Mhc) genes are frequently used as a model for adaptive genetic diversity. Although associations between Mhc and disease resistance are frequently documented, little is known about the fitness consequences of Mhc variation in wild populations. Further, most work to date has involved testing associations between Mhc genotypes and fitness components. However, the functional diversity of the Mhc, and hence the mechanism by which selection on Mhc acts, depends on how genotypes map to the functional properties of Mhc molecules. Here, we test three hypotheses that relate Mhc diversity to fitness: (i) the maximal diversity hypothesis, (ii) the optimal diversity hypothesis and (iii) effect of specific Mhc types. We combine mark-recapture methods with analysis of long-term breeding data to investigate the effects of Mhc class I functional diversity (Mhc supertypes) on individual fitness in a wild great tit (Parus major) population. We found that the presence of three different Mhc supertypes was associated with three different components of individual fitness: survival, annual recruitment and lifetime reproductive success (LRS). Great tits possessing Mhc supertype 3 experienced higher survival rates than those that did not, whereas individuals with Mhc supertype 6 experienced higher LRS and were more likely to recruit offspring each year. Conversely, great tits that possessed Mhc supertype 5 had reduced LRS. We found no evidence for a selective advantage of Mhc diversity, in terms of either maximal or optimal supertype diversity. Our results support the suggestion that specific Mhc types are an important determinant of individual fitness.

  6. Pictorial Superiority Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Douglas L.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Pictures generally show superior recognition relative to their verbal labels. This experiment was designed to link this pictorial superiority effect to sensory or meaning codes associated with the two types of symbols. (Editor)

  7. Sequencing and comparative analysis of the gorilla MHC genomic sequence.

    PubMed

    Wilming, Laurens G; Hart, Elizabeth A; Coggill, Penny C; Horton, Roger; Gilbert, James G R; Clee, Chris; Jones, Matt; Lloyd, Christine; Palmer, Sophie; Sims, Sarah; Whitehead, Siobhan; Wiley, David; Beck, Stephan; Harrow, Jennifer L

    2013-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes play a critical role in vertebrate immune response and because the MHC is linked to a significant number of auto-immune and other diseases it is of great medical interest. Here we describe the clone-based sequencing and subsequent annotation of the MHC region of the gorilla genome. Because the MHC is subject to extensive variation, both structural and sequence-wise, it is not readily amenable to study in whole genome shotgun sequence such as the recently published gorilla genome. The variation of the MHC also makes it of evolutionary interest and therefore we analyse the sequence in the context of human and chimpanzee. In our comparisons with human and re-annotated chimpanzee MHC sequence we find that gorilla has a trimodular RCCX cluster, versus the reference human bimodular cluster, and additional copies of Class I (pseudo)genes between Gogo-K and Gogo-A (the orthologues of HLA-K and -A). We also find that Gogo-H (and Patr-H) is coding versus the HLA-H pseudogene and, conversely, there is a Gogo-DQB2 pseudogene versus the HLA-DQB2 coding gene. Our analysis, which is freely available through the VEGA genome browser, provides the research community with a comprehensive dataset for comparative and evolutionary research of the MHC.

  8. Sequencing and comparative analysis of the gorilla MHC genomic sequence

    PubMed Central

    Wilming, Laurens G.; Hart, Elizabeth A.; Coggill, Penny C.; Horton, Roger; Gilbert, James G. R.; Clee, Chris; Jones, Matt; Lloyd, Christine; Palmer, Sophie; Sims, Sarah; Whitehead, Siobhan; Wiley, David; Beck, Stephan; Harrow, Jennifer L.

    2013-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes play a critical role in vertebrate immune response and because the MHC is linked to a significant number of auto-immune and other diseases it is of great medical interest. Here we describe the clone-based sequencing and subsequent annotation of the MHC region of the gorilla genome. Because the MHC is subject to extensive variation, both structural and sequence-wise, it is not readily amenable to study in whole genome shotgun sequence such as the recently published gorilla genome. The variation of the MHC also makes it of evolutionary interest and therefore we analyse the sequence in the context of human and chimpanzee. In our comparisons with human and re-annotated chimpanzee MHC sequence we find that gorilla has a trimodular RCCX cluster, versus the reference human bimodular cluster, and additional copies of Class I (pseudo)genes between Gogo-K and Gogo-A (the orthologues of HLA-K and -A). We also find that Gogo-H (and Patr-H) is coding versus the HLA-H pseudogene and, conversely, there is a Gogo-DQB2 pseudogene versus the HLA-DQB2 coding gene. Our analysis, which is freely available through the VEGA genome browser, provides the research community with a comprehensive dataset for comparative and evolutionary research of the MHC. PMID:23589541

  9. MHC-Dependent Desensitization of Intrinsic Anti-Self Reactivity

    PubMed Central

    Jubala, Cristan M.; Lamerato-Kozicki, Angela R.; Borakove, Michelle; Lang, Julie; Gardner, Lori A.; Coffey, David; Helm, Karen M.; Schaack, Jerome; Baier, Monika; Cutter, Gary R.; Bellgrau, Donald; Modiano, Jaime F.

    2008-01-01

    The survival of naïve T cells is compromised in the absence of molecules encoded by the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) while antigen-experienced T cells survive. We hypothesized that survival pressures in an in vivo, MHC-deficient environment would permit enrichment of less frequent antigen-experienced autoreactive cells at the expense of the majority of antigen naïve T cells. To test this hypothesis, we generated MHC class I and class II-deficient mice in NOD and C57Bl/6 (B6) backgrounds, and examined the capacity of adoptively transferred autoimmune-prone NOD T cells, or non-autoimmune prone naïve B6 T cells, respectively, to reject transplanted wild type pancreatic islets or transplantable tumors in the MHC-deficient mice. In the MHC-deficient environment, CD4 T cells acquired self-hostile properties (islet rejection and tumor invasion) that were independent from their genetic propensity for autoreactivity, while CD8 T cells required appropriate prior exposure to antigen in order to survive and function (reject tumor) in this environment; however, disengagement of Tob1, a negative regulator of proliferation, led to a reverse phenotype with regard to persistence of CD4 and CD8 T cells in the MHC-deficient environment. Our data suggest that self-peptide/MHC interactions have dual roles to facilitate survival and restrain autoreactivity, thus acting as integral components of an intrinsic network of negative regulation that maintains tolerance. PMID:18523772

  10. Blocking MHC class II on human endothelium mitigates acute rejection

    PubMed Central

    Abrahimi, Parwiz; Qin, Lingfeng; Chang, William G.; Bothwell, Alfred L.M.; Tellides, George; Saltzman, W. Mark; Pober, Jordan S.

    2016-01-01

    Acute allograft rejection is mediated by host CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) targeting graft class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules. In experimental rodent models, rejection requires differentiation of naive CD8+ T cells into alloreactive CTL within secondary lymphoid organs, whereas in humans, CTL may alternatively develop within the graft from circulating CD8+ effector memory T cells (TEM) that recognize class I MHC molecules on graft endothelial cells (EC). This latter pathway is poorly understood. Here, we show that host CD4+ TEM, activated by EC class II MHC molecules, provide critical help for this process. First, blocking HLA-DR on EC lining human artery grafts in immunodeficient mice reduces CD8+ CTL development within and acute rejection of the artery by adoptively transferred allogeneic human lymphocytes. Second, siRNA knockdown or CRISPR/Cas9 ablation of class II MHC molecules on EC prevents CD4+ TEM from helping CD8+ TEM to develop into CTL in vitro. Finally, implanted synthetic microvessels, formed from CRISPR/Cas9-modified EC lacking class II MHC molecules, are significantly protected from CD8+ T cell–mediated destruction in vivo. We conclude that human CD8+ TEM–mediated rejection targeting graft EC class I MHC molecules requires help from CD4+ TEM cells activated by recognition of class II MHC molecules. PMID:26900601

  11. Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) Markers in Conservation Biology

    PubMed Central

    Ujvari, Beata; Belov, Katherine

    2011-01-01

    Human impacts through habitat destruction, introduction of invasive species and climate change are increasing the number of species threatened with extinction. Decreases in population size simultaneously lead to reductions in genetic diversity, ultimately reducing the ability of populations to adapt to a changing environment. In this way, loss of genetic polymorphism is linked with extinction risk. Recent advances in sequencing technologies mean that obtaining measures of genetic diversity at functionally important genes is within reach for conservation programs. A key region of the genome that should be targeted for population genetic studies is the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC). MHC genes, found in all jawed vertebrates, are the most polymorphic genes in vertebrate genomes. They play key roles in immune function via immune-recognition and -surveillance and host-parasite interaction. Therefore, measuring levels of polymorphism at these genes can provide indirect measures of the immunological fitness of populations. The MHC has also been linked with mate-choice and pregnancy outcomes and has application for improving mating success in captive breeding programs. The recent discovery that genetic diversity at MHC genes may protect against the spread of contagious cancers provides an added impetus for managing and protecting MHC diversity in wild populations. Here we review the field and focus on the successful applications of MHC-typing for conservation management. We emphasize the importance of using MHC markers when planning and executing wildlife rescue and conservation programs but stress that this should not be done to the detriment of genome-wide diversity. PMID:21954351

  12. Self-referent MHC type matching in frog tadpoles

    PubMed Central

    Villinger, Jandouwe; Waldman, Bruce

    2008-01-01

    Self/non-self recognition mechanisms underlie the development, immunology and social behaviour of virtually all living organisms, from bacteria to humans. Indeed, recognition processes lie at the core of how social cooperation evolved. Much evidence suggests that the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) both facilitates nepotistic interactions and promotes inbreeding avoidance. Social discrimination based on MHC differences has been demonstrated in many vertebrates but whether the labels used in discrimination are directly associated with the MHC, rather than with other genes with which it covaries, has remained problematic. Furthermore, effects of familiarity on natural preferences have not been controlled in most previous studies. Here we show that African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis) tadpoles discriminate among familiar full siblings based on MHC haplotype differences. Subjects (N=261) from four parental crosses preferred siblings with which they shared MHC haplotypes to those with no MHC haplotypes in common. Using only full siblings in experimental tests, we controlled for genetic variation elsewhere in the genome that might influence schooling preferences. As test subjects were equally familiar with stimulus groups, we conclude that tadpole discrimination involves a self-referent genetic recognition mechanism whereby individuals compare their own MHC type with those of conspecifics. PMID:18285278

  13. MHC variability in an isolated wolf population in Italy.

    PubMed

    Galaverni, Marco; Caniglia, Romolo; Fabbri, Elena; Lapalombella, Silvana; Randi, Ettore

    2013-01-01

    Small, isolated populations may experience increased extinction risk due to reduced genetic variability at important functional genes, thus decreasing the population's adaptive potential. The major histocompatibility complex (MHC), a key immunological gene cluster, usually shows high variability maintained by positive or balancing selection in response to challenges by pathogens. Here we investigated for the first time, the variability of 3 MHC class II genes (DRB1, DQA1, and DQB1) in 94 samples collected from Italian wolves. The Italian wolf population has been long isolated south of the Alps and is presently recovering from a recent bottleneck that decreased the population to less than 100 individuals. Despite the bottleneck, Italian wolves show remarkable MHC variability with 6-9 alleles per locus, including 2 recently described alleles at DRB1. MHC sequences show signatures of historical selective pressures (high d N/d S ratio, ω > 1.74) but no evidence of ongoing selection. Variation at the MHC genes and 12 background microsatellite loci were not apparently affected by the recent bottleneck. Although MHC alleles of domestic dog origin were detected in 8 genetically admixed individuals, these alleles were rare or absent in nonadmixed wolves. Thus, despite known hybridization events between domestic dogs and Italian wolves, the Italian wolf population does not appear affected by deep introgression of domestic dog MHC alleles.

  14. Protein Polymorphism and Genic Heterozygosity in a Population of the Permanent Translocation Heterozygote, Oenothera biennis

    PubMed Central

    Levin, Donald A.; Howland, Gary P.; Steiner, Erich

    1972-01-01

    Genic allozyme polymorphism and heterozygosity was studied in a large population of the evening primrose, Oenothera biennis, growing in North Haven, Connecticut. This species is a permanent structural heterozygote for the entire complement of 14 chromosomes, and is thus capable of accumulating and maintaining genic heterozygosity. A total of 11 protein species were examined, and these were judged to be controlled by 19 loci. Polymorphism occurs at 26% of the loci, with only two alleles being present at each locus. The proportion of polymorphic loci per population in organisms with normal meiotic systems is no less than in Oe. biennis, indicating that structural heterozygosity is not necessarily accompanied by a greater proportion of polymorphic loci. On the other hand, the average Oe. biennis was heterozygous at 26% of its loci, an amount considerably greater than in most other organisms. With few exceptions, all plants in the North Haven population had the same genotype. Since the species is a colonizer, it is likely that the population was founded by a single individual and retained this genotype by virtue of the genetic system. PMID:4504363

  15. Extended longevity and survivorship during amino-acid starvation in a Drosophila Sir2 mutant heterozygote.

    PubMed

    Slade, Jennifer D; Staveley, Brian E

    2016-05-01

    The regulation of energy homeostasis is pivotal to survive periods of inadequate nutrition. A combination of intricate pathways and proteins are responsible for maximizing longevity during such conditions. The sirtuin deacetylase Sir2 is well conserved from single-celled yeast to mammals, and it controls a number of downstream targets that are active during periods of extreme stress. Overexpression of Sir2 has been established to enhance survival of a number of model organisms undergoing calorie restriction, during which insulin receptor signalling (IRS) is reduced, a condition that itself can enhance survivorship during starvation. Increased Sir2 expression and reduced IRS result in an increase in the activity of the transcription factor foxo, an advantageous activation during stress but lethal when overly active. We have found that a lowered gene dosage of Sir2, in mutant heterozygotes, can extend normal longevity and greatly augment survivorship during amino-acid starvation in Drosophila. Additionally, these mutants, in either heterozygous or homozygous form, do not appear to have any disadvantageous effects upon development or cell growth of the organism unlike IRS mutants. These results may advance the understanding of the biological response to starvation and allow for the development of a model organism to mimic the ability of individuals to tolerate nutrient deprivation.

  16. Compound heterozygote mutations in SPG7 in a family with adult-onset primary lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yi; Lynch, David R.; Lukas, Thomas; Ahmeti, Kreshnik; Sleiman, Patrick M.A.; Ryan, Eanna; Schadt, Kimberly A.; Newman, Jordan H.; Deng, Han-Xiang; Siddique, Nailah

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To identify the genetic defect for adult-onset primary lateral sclerosis (PLS) in a family with 5 patients. Methods: Whole-exome sequencing was performed to identify the shared genetic variants in 3 affected members in a PLS family with 5 affected individuals. Sanger sequencing was used for validation of the variants and for cosegregation analysis. Mitochondrial activity for both patients and unaffected siblings was measured using a SeaHorse metabolic analyzer. Results: Whole-exome sequencing and subsequent cosegregation analysis demonstrated that compound heterozygous missense variants L695P and I743T in SPG7 were the only mutations cosegregating with the disease in an autosomal recessive fashion in this family. The parents and siblings are genetically heterozygous and clinically unaffected. Functional studies suggested that the PLS-associated SPG7 mutants affect mitochondrial function when glucose is reduced. Conclusions: Compound heterozygote mutations in SPG7 are associated with adult-onset PLS, extending the spectrum of SPG7-linked neurologic diseases. Patients with the PLS phenotype should have genetic testing for paraplegin, especially when the condition is familial. PMID:27123479

  17. Erythrocyte glutathione synthetase in 5-oxoprolinuria: kinetic studies of the mutant enzyme and detection of heterozygotes.

    PubMed

    Larsson, A; Zetterström, R; Hörnell, H; Porath, U

    1976-11-15

    The primary metabolic defect in 5-oxoprolinuria is a generalized deficiency of glutathione synthetase. The activity of this enzyme was determined in cell-free extracts of erythrocytes from patients with 5-oxoprolinuria, their parents and a sibling as well as from normal control individuals. The following activities (pkat/mg of hemoglobin) for glutathione synthetase were obtained: homozygotes mean 0.10 (range 0.07-0.12), heterozygotes mean 3.1 (range 2.8-3.7) and control individuals mean 6.1 (range 5.4-6.7). These results indicate that 5-oxoprolinuria, i.e. the defective gluthione synthetase gene(s), is transmitted by autosomal recessive inheritance. Studies of the kinetics of the low remaining activity of erythrocyte glutathione synthetase in patients with 5-oxoprolinuria failed to reveal defective affinity for glycine, gamma-glutamyl-alpha-aminobutyrate, ATP and Mg2+ ions. Furthermore, the pH optimum, time curves and temperature dependence for the mutant enzyme activity did not significantly differ from the corresponding parameters observed with normal enzyme.

  18. Drosophila as a Model for Intractable Epilepsy: Gilgamesh Suppresses Seizures in parabss1 Heterozygote Flies

    PubMed Central

    Howlett, Iris C.; Rusan, Zeid M.; Parker, Louise; Tanouye, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    Intractable epilepsies, that is, seizure disorders that do not respond to currently available therapies, are difficult, often tragic, neurological disorders. Na+ channelopathies have been implicated in some intractable epilepsies, including Dravet syndrome (Dravet 1978), but little progress has been forthcoming in therapeutics. Here we examine a Drosophila model for intractable epilepsy, the Na+ channel gain-of-function mutant parabss1 that resembles Dravet syndrome in some aspects (parker et al. 2011a). In particular, we identify second-site mutations that interact with parabss1, seizure enhancers, and seizure suppressors. We describe one seizure-enhancer mutation named charlatan (chn). The chn gene normally encodes an Neuron-Restrictive Silencer Factor/RE1-Silencing Transcription factor transcriptional repressor of neuronal-specific genes. We identify a second-site seizure-suppressor mutation, gilgamesh (gish), that reduces the severity of several seizure-like phenotypes of parabss1/+ heterozygotes. The gish gene normally encodes the Drosophila ortholog of casein kinase CK1g3, a member of the CK1 family of serine-threonine kinases. We suggest that CK1g3 is an unexpected but promising new target for seizure therapeutics. PMID:23797108

  19. Opsins have evolved under the permanent heterozygote model: insights from phylotranscriptomics of Odonata.

    PubMed

    Suvorov, Anton; Jensen, Nicholas O; Sharkey, Camilla R; Fujimoto, M Stanley; Bodily, Paul; Wightman, Haley M Cahill; Ogden, T Heath; Clement, Mark J; Bybee, Seth M

    2017-03-01

    Gene duplication plays a central role in adaptation to novel environments by providing new genetic material for functional divergence and evolution of biological complexity. Several evolutionary models have been proposed for gene duplication to explain how new gene copies are preserved by natural selection, but these models have rarely been tested using empirical data. Opsin proteins, when combined with a chromophore, form a photopigment that is responsible for the absorption of light, the first step in the phototransduction cascade. Adaptive gene duplications have occurred many times within the animal opsins' gene family, leading to novel wavelength sensitivities. Consequently, opsins are an attractive choice for the study of gene duplication evolutionary models. Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) have the largest opsin repertoire of any insect currently known. Additionally, there is tremendous variation in opsin copy number between species, particularly in the long-wavelength-sensitive (LWS) class. Using comprehensive phylotranscriptomic and statistical approaches, we tested various evolutionary models of gene duplication. Our results suggest that both the blue-sensitive (BS) and LWS opsin classes were subjected to strong positive selection that greatly weakens after multiple duplication events, a pattern that is consistent with the permanent heterozygote model. Due to the immense interspecific variation and duplicability potential of opsin genes among odonates, they represent a unique model system to test hypotheses regarding opsin gene duplication and diversification at the molecular level.

  20. [Heterozygote forms of familial Mediterranean fever can be manifested in adults as myofacial pain syndrome].

    PubMed

    Meilinger, A; Burger, M; Peter, H-H

    2015-08-01

    Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is a disease characterized by recurrent fever, serositis, arthritis and unspecific myalgia. It is prevalent among Mediterranean people and has been shown to be associated with mutations in the Mediterranean fever (MEFV) gene which, encodes pyrin a regulatory protein of the inflammasome. As heterozygous mutations in MEFV can be associated with only mild inflammatory symptoms, such as arthralgia or chronic fibromyalgic pain, FMF may be underdiagnosed in the current diagnostic work-up of musculoskeletal diseases. The selection of patients was carried out according to the following criteria: myofacial pain syndrome, seronegative oligoarthralgia, a slight inflammatory constellation and ethnic origin from the Mediterranean area. When these criteria were fulfilled a molecular genetic investigation was carried out This article presents evidence that 9 out of 12 Mediterranean patients with recurrent myofascial pain syndrome and mild inflammation revealed heterozygote mutations in the MEFV gene and 7 of these patients benefitted from treatment with colchicine. As colchicine treatment not only improved the myofascial pain but also prevented FMF-associated amyloidosis and nephropathy, differential diagnosis of fibromyalgia in patients of Mediterranean origin should include FMF and a genetic screening of the MEFV locus.

  1. Cardiac conduction improvement in two heterozygotes for primary carnitine deficiency on L-carnitine supplementation.

    PubMed

    Sarafoglou, K; Tridgell, A H C; Bentler, K; Redlinger-Grosse, K; Berry, S A; Schimmenti, L A

    2010-08-01

    Expanded newborn screening (NBS) for free carnitine levels has led to the identification of a larger number of heterozygous infants of undiagnosed mothers affected with systemic primary carnitine deficiency (PCD), which in turn leads to the identification of other undiagnosed heterozygous family members. There is an increasing recognition that individuals heterozygous for mutations of genes involved in fatty acid oxidation (FAO) may become symptomatic under environmental stress (fasting, prolonged exercise and illness). Considering the importance of carnitine in FAO, its role in heart and bowel function and in lipid metabolism, what is still little known is the phenotypic variability, biochemical parameters and clinical course of PCD heterozygotes with consistently low-to-normal levels to low levels of carnitine over a lifetime. We report on three generations of a family--an asymptomatic PCD heterozygous infant identified through NBS that led to the diagnosis of her asymptomatic PCD-affected mother and the heterozygous status of the maternal grandparents who report some cardiac symptoms that overlap with PCD that improved with L-carnitine supplementation.

  2. Complex MHC class I gene transcription profiles and their functional impact in orangutans

    PubMed Central

    de Groot, Natasja G.; Heijmans, Corrine M.C.; van der Wiel, Marit K.H.; Blokhuis, Jeroen H.; Mulder, Arend; Guethlein, Lisbeth A.; Doxiadis, Gaby G.M.; Claas, Frans H.J.; Parham, Peter; Bontrop, Ronald E.

    2015-01-01

    MHC haplotypes of humans and the African great ape species have one copy of the MHC-A, -B, and -C genes. In contrast, MHC haplotypes of orangutans, the Asian great ape species, exhibit variation in the number of gene copies. An in-depth analysis of the MHC class I gene repertoire in the two orangutan species, Pongo abelii and Pongo pygmaeus, is presented here. This analysis involved Sanger and next-generation sequencing methodologies, revealing diverse and complicated transcription profiles for orangutan MHC-A, -B, and -C. Thirty-five previously unreported MHC class I alleles are described. The data demonstrate that each orangutan MHC haplotype has one copy of the MHC-A gene, and that the MHC-B region has been subject to duplication, giving rise to at least three MHC-B genes. The MHC-B*03 and -B*08 lineages of alleles each account for a separate MHC-B gene. All MHC-B*08 allotypes have the C1-epitope motif recognized by KIR. At least one other MHC-B gene is present, pointing to MHC-B alleles that are not B*03 or B*08. The MHC-C gene is present only on some haplotypes, and each MHC-C allotype has the C1-epitope. The transcription profiles demonstrate that MHC-A alleles are highly transcribed, whereas MHC-C alleles, when present, are transcribed at very low levels. The MHC-B alleles are transcribed to a variable extent and over a wide range. For those orangutan MHC class I allotypes that are detected by human monoclonal anti-HLA class I antibodies, the level of cell-surface expression of proteins correlates with the level of transcription of the allele. PMID:26685209

  3. In vivo virulence of MHC-adapted AIDS virus serially-passaged through MHC-mismatched hosts.

    PubMed

    Seki, Sayuri; Nomura, Takushi; Nishizawa, Masako; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Ishii, Hiroshi; Matsuoka, Saori; Shiino, Teiichiro; Sato, Hironori; Mizuta, Kazuta; Sakawaki, Hiromi; Miura, Tomoyuki; Naruse, Taeko K; Kimura, Akinori; Matano, Tetsuro

    2017-09-20

    CD8+ T-cell responses exert strong suppressive pressure on HIV replication and select for viral escape mutations. Some of these major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I)-associated mutations result in reduction of in vitro viral replicative capacity. While these mutations can revert after viral transmission to MHC-I-disparate hosts, recent studies have suggested that these MHC-I-associated mutations accumulate in populations and make viruses less pathogenic in vitro. Here, we directly show an increase in the in vivo virulence of an MHC-I-adapted virus serially-passaged through MHC-I-mismatched hosts in a macaque AIDS model despite a reduction in in vitro viral fitness. The first passage simian immunodeficiency virus (1pSIV) obtained 1 year after SIVmac239 infection in a macaque possessing a protective MHC-I haplotype 90-120-Ia was transmitted into 90-120-Ia- macaques, whose plasma 1 year post-infection was transmitted into other 90-120-Ia- macaques to obtain the third passage SIV (3pSIV). Most of the 90-120-Ia-associated mutations selected in 1pSIV did not revert even in 3pSIV. 3pSIV showed lower in vitro viral fitness but induced persistent viremia in 90-120-Ia- macaques. Remarkably, 3pSIV infection in 90-120-Ia+ macaques resulted in significantly higher viral loads and reduced survival compared to wild-type SIVmac239. These results indicate that MHC-I-adapted SIVs serially-transmitted through MHC-I-mismatched hosts can have higher virulence in MHC-I-matched hosts despite their lower in vitro viral fitness. This study suggests that multiply-passaged HIVs could result in loss of HIV-specific CD8+ T cell responses in human populations and the in vivo pathogenic potential of these escaped viruses may be enhanced.

  4. Tracking antigen specific CD4+ T-cells with soluble MHC molecules.

    PubMed

    Gebe, John A; Kwok, William W

    2007-01-01

    The advent of soluble MHC multimer technology has allowed for the flow-cytometric direct identification of specific-MHC restricted antigen-specific T cells in mixed cell populations and also enabled the direct phenotyping and cloning of these cells at the same time. To date, MHC multimers have been used in characterizing the adaptive T cell repertoire under infectious, cancerous, and autoimmune states and has increased our understanding of the dynamics of T-cell immunity. Recombinant MHC multimers have been produced where MHC-binding peptide antigens are either covalently or noncovalently bound to the MHC, with the latter having the advantage of the ability to use a single recombinant MHC to investigate multiple MHC-binding peptides and their interacting T cells. In this method we describe how to generate recombinant non-covalently bound peptide MHC-multimers in insect cells. MHC multimers are generated as tetravalent complexes using a streptavidin scaffold.

  5. Evolution of nonclassical MHC-dependent invariant T cells.

    PubMed

    Edholm, Eva-Stina; Grayfer, Leon; Robert, Jacques

    2014-12-01

    TCR-mediated specific recognition of antigenic peptides in the context of classical MHC molecules is a cornerstone of adaptive immunity of jawed vertebrate. Ancillary to these interactions, the T cell repertoire also includes unconventional T cells that recognize endogenous and/or exogenous antigens in a classical MHC-unrestricted manner. Among these, the mammalian nonclassical MHC class I-restricted invariant T cell (iT) subsets, such as iNKT and MAIT cells, are now believed to be integral to immune response initiation as well as in orchestrating subsequent adaptive immunity. Until recently the evolutionary origins of these cells were unknown. Here we review our current understanding of a nonclassical MHC class I-restricted iT cell population in the amphibian Xenopus laevis. Parallels with the mammalian iNKT and MAIT cells underline the crucial biological roles of these evolutionarily ancient immune subsets.

  6. Selective interaction of Ni with an MHC-bound peptide.

    PubMed Central

    Romagnoli, P; Labhardt, A M; Sinigaglia, F

    1991-01-01

    T cells generally recognize foreign antigens as peptides associated with self-molecules encoded by genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). However, T cells which are specific for non-peptidic haptens have been described, in particular in patients with contact sensitivity reactions to metals such as nickel (Ni). Previously, we isolated MHC class II-restricted Ni-specific T cell clones from patients with Ni allergy. The experiments reported here examine the molecular basis for the interaction between Ni and peptide-MHC complexes. We find that Ni alters a T cell response to a peptide and show that Ni interacts with this peptide to alter its antigenicity rather than its ability to bind to MHC molecules. These findings hold implications for a model of hapten recognition by T cells. PMID:2026136

  7. Evolution of nonclassical MHC-dependent invariant T cells

    PubMed Central

    Edholm, Eva-Stina; Grayfer, Leon; Robert, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    TCR-mediated specific recognition of antigenic peptides in the context of classical MHC molecules is a cornerstone of adaptive immunity of jawed vertebrate. Ancillary to these interactions, the T cell repertoire also includes unconventional T cells that recognize endogenous and/or exogenous antigens in a classical MHC-unrestricted manner. Among these, the mammalian nonclassical MHC class I-restricted invariant T cell (iT) subsets, such as iNKT and MAIT cells, are now believed to be integral to immune response initiation as well as in orchestrating subsequent adaptive immunity. Until recently the evolutionary origins of these cells were unknown. Here we review our current understanding of a nonclassical MHC class I-restricted iT cell population in the amphibian Xenopus laevis. Parallels with the mammalian iNKT and MAIT cells underline the crucial biological roles of these evolutionarily ancient immune subsets. PMID:25117267

  8. Screening heterozygotes for 21-hydroxylase deficiency among hirsute women: lack of utility of the adrenocorticotropin hormone test.

    PubMed

    Dewailly, D; Vantyghem, M C; Lemaire, C; Dufosse, F; Racadot, A; Fossati, P

    1988-08-01

    Heterozygosity for 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21-OHD) was investigated in 174 adult hirsute women by using the sum of the incremental responses of serum 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone (17 alpha-OHP) and progesterone (P) (delta 17 alpha-OHP + P), 60 minutes after a 0.25 mg intravenous (IV) bolus of synthetic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). The distribution of 17 alpha-OHP + P in hirsute women was bimodal, allowing two subgroups to be distinguished. In one subgroup including 137 patients, the mode was similar to controls and all values were lower than 3 ng/ml. Thirty-seven (21%) patients constituted another subgroup with values higher than 3 ng/ml and could a priori have been considered as heterozygotes for 21-OHD. However, human leukocyte antigen genotyping provided no conclusive evidence that this subgroup included exclusively heterozygotes for the 21-OHD.

  9. A Peptide Filtering Relation Quantifies MHC Class I Peptide Optimization

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Leonard D.; Howarth, Mark; Cardelli, Luca; Emmott, Stephen; Elliott, Tim; Werner, Joern M.

    2011-01-01

    Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) class I molecules enable cytotoxic T lymphocytes to destroy virus-infected or cancerous cells, thereby preventing disease progression. MHC class I molecules provide a snapshot of the contents of a cell by binding to protein fragments arising from intracellular protein turnover and presenting these fragments at the cell surface. Competing fragments (peptides) are selected for cell-surface presentation on the basis of their ability to form a stable complex with MHC class I, by a process known as peptide optimization. A better understanding of the optimization process is important for our understanding of immunodominance, the predominance of some T lymphocyte specificities over others, which can determine the efficacy of an immune response, the danger of immune evasion, and the success of vaccination strategies. In this paper we present a dynamical systems model of peptide optimization by MHC class I. We incorporate the chaperone molecule tapasin, which has been shown to enhance peptide optimization to different extents for different MHC class I alleles. Using a combination of published and novel experimental data to parameterize the model, we arrive at a relation of peptide filtering, which quantifies peptide optimization as a function of peptide supply and peptide unbinding rates. From this relation, we find that tapasin enhances peptide unbinding to improve peptide optimization without significantly delaying the transit of MHC to the cell surface, and differences in peptide optimization across MHC class I alleles can be explained by allele-specific differences in peptide binding. Importantly, our filtering relation may be used to dynamically predict the cell surface abundance of any number of competing peptides by MHC class I alleles, providing a quantitative basis to investigate viral infection or disease at the cellular level. We exemplify this by simulating optimization of the distribution of peptides derived from Human

  10. Increased cancer risk of heterozygotes with NBS1 germline mutations in Poland.

    PubMed

    Steffen, Jan; Varon, Raymonda; Mosor, Maria; Maneva, Galina; Maurer, Martin; Stumm, Markus; Nowakowska, Dorota; Rubach, Maryna; Kosakowska, Ewa; Ruka, Włodzimierz; Nowecki, Zbigniew; Rutkowski, Piotr; Demkow, Tomasz; Sadowska, Małgorzata; Bidziński, Mariusz; Gawrychowski, Krzysztof; Sperling, Karl

    2004-08-10

    It has been suggested based on familial data that Nijmegen breakage syndrome (NBS) heterozygotes have an increased risk of malignant tumors. We found 15 carriers of the 657del5 mutation and 8 carriers of the R215W molecular variant of the NBS1 gene among 1,289 consecutive patients from Central Poland with various cancers and only 10 and 4 such carriers, respectively, in 1,620 controls from this region. Most of the 657del5 mutation carriers were found among patients with melanoma (4/105), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (2/42) and breast cancer (4/224) and of the 234 patients with colorectal carcinoma 3 carried the 657del5 mutation and 3 others the R215W molecular variant. The frequencies of 657del5 mutation carriers among patients with melanoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma and of R215W carriers in patients with colorectal cancer were significantly higher than in controls (p < 0.01, < 0.05 and < 0.05 respectively). The pooled frequencies of 657del5 and R215W mutations in all cancer patients were also significantly higher than in controls (p < 0.05). Two carriers of the 657del5 mutation had second primary tumors. Malignant tumors among parents and siblings of 657del5 mutation carriers (14/77) were twice more frequent than in population controls. Three carriers of this mutation (2 probands with melanoma) reported melanoma in relatives. These results suggest strongly that NBS1 heterozygosity may be associated with elevated risk of some cancers. Larger studies are needed to evaluate the impact of the high frequency of germline NBS1 mutations on the cancer burden in the Slav populations. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Oral loading of homogentisic acid in controls and in obligate heterozygotes for hereditary tyrosinemia type I.

    PubMed Central

    Laberge, C; Lescault, A; Grenier, A; Morrisette, J; Gagné, R; Gadbois, P; Halket, J

    1990-01-01

    Homogentisic acid (HGA) (50 mg/kg) was given orally to 22 obligate heterozygotes for hereditary tyrosinemia type 1 (HT) and to 11 controls. After 1 h the mean +/- standard error (SE) plasma level of HGA was 30.42 +/- 1.41 micrograms/ml in carriers and 19.29 +/- 1.62 in controls. Mean +/- SE fasting delta-amino-levulinate dehydratase (delta-ALD) was 40.05 +/- 1.79 m microM/min/g Hb in carriers, much lower than the 60.81 +/- 5.11 found in controls. After 3 h this difference in levels of delta-ALD remained, with mean +/- SE values of 25.70 +/- 2.89 m microM/min/g Hb in carriers, compared with 48.83 +/- 5.37 in controls. Three-hour mean +/- SE excretion of fumarylacetone "equivalent" [FAc] in urine in carriers, 51.597 +/- 5.580 micrograms/mg/creatinine, was significantly higher than the 27.941 +/- 5.916 in controls. Three-hour excretion of succinylacetone "equivalent" [SAc] was also significantly higher in the urine of carriers. FAc in 3-h urine was identified by thin-layer chromatography and confirmed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Multivariate stepwise discriminant analysis showed that the inclusion order of significant variables was as follows: HGA levels at 1 hr, fasting level of delta-ALD, residual level of HGA at 3 h, and 3-h excretion of [FAc]. Non-significant variables were HGA tolerance, levels of delta-ALD at 3 h, sex, and 3-h excretion of [SAc].(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images Figure 1 PMID:2378359

  12. A single nomenclature and associated database for alleles at the MHC class II DRB1 locus of sheep: IPD-MHC-OLA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The development of standardised nomenclatures with associated databases containing reference sequences for alleles at polymorphic loci within the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) has been facilitated by the development of the Immuno Polymorphism Database (IPD-MHC). Recently, included within I...

  13. MHC class I diversity in chimpanzees and bonobos.

    PubMed

    Maibach, Vincent; Hans, Jörg B; Hvilsom, Christina; Marques-Bonet, Tomas; Vigilant, Linda

    2017-06-16

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I genes are critically involved in the defense against intracellular pathogens. MHC diversity comparisons among samples of closely related taxa may reveal traces of past or ongoing selective processes. The bonobo and chimpanzee are the closest living evolutionary relatives of humans and last shared a common ancestor some 1 mya. However, little is known concerning MHC class I diversity in bonobos or in central chimpanzees, the most numerous and genetically diverse chimpanzee subspecies. Here, we used a long-read sequencing technology (PacBio) to sequence the classical MHC class I genes A, B, C, and A-like in 20 and 30 wild-born bonobos and chimpanzees, respectively, with a main focus on central chimpanzees to assess and compare diversity in those two species. We describe in total 21 and 42 novel coding region sequences for the two species, respectively. In addition, we found evidence for a reduced MHC class I diversity in bonobos as compared to central chimpanzees as well as to western chimpanzees and humans. The reduced bonobo MHC class I diversity may be the result of a selective process in their evolutionary past since their split from chimpanzees.

  14. Viral immune evasion: Lessons in MHC class I antigen presentation.

    PubMed

    van de Weijer, Michael L; Luteijn, Rutger D; Wiertz, Emmanuel J H J

    2015-03-01

    The MHC class I antigen presentation pathway enables cells infected with intracellular pathogens to signal the presence of the invader to the immune system. Cytotoxic T lymphocytes are able to eliminate the infected cells through recognition of pathogen-derived peptides presented by MHC class I molecules at the cell surface. In the course of evolution, many viruses have acquired inhibitors that target essential stages of the MHC class I antigen presentation pathway. Studies on these immune evasion proteins reveal fascinating strategies used by viruses to elude the immune system. Viral immunoevasins also constitute great research tools that facilitate functional studies on the MHC class I antigen presentation pathway, allowing the investigation of less well understood routes, such as TAP-independent antigen presentation and cross-presentation of exogenous proteins. Viral immunoevasins have also helped to unravel more general cellular processes. For instance, basic principles of ER-associated protein degradation via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway have been resolved using virus-induced degradation of MHC class I as a model. This review highlights how viral immunoevasins have increased our understanding of MHC class I-restricted antigen presentation.

  15. Evolution of MHC class I in the order Crocodylia.

    PubMed

    Jaratlerdsiri, Weerachai; Isberg, Sally R; Higgins, Damien P; Ho, Simon Y W; Salomonsen, Jan; Skjodt, Karsten; Miles, Lee G; Gongora, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is a dynamic genomic region with an essential role in the adaptive immunity of jawed vertebrates. The evolution of the MHC has been dominated by gene duplication and gene loss, commonly known as the birth-and-death process. Evolutionary studies of the MHC have mostly focused on model species. However, the investigation of this region in non-avian reptiles is still in its infancy. To provide insights into the evolutionary mechanisms that have shaped the diversity of this region in the Order Crocodylia, we investigated MHC class I exon 3, intron 3, and exon 4 across 20 species of the families Alligatoridae and Crocodilidae. We generated 124 DNA sequences and identified 31 putative functional variants as well as 14 null variants. Phylogenetic analyses revealed three gene groups, all of which were present in Crocodilidae but only one in Alligatoridae. Within these groups, variants generally appear to cluster at the genus or family level rather than in species-specific groups. In addition, we found variation in gene copy number and some indication of interlocus recombination. These results suggest that MHC class I in Crocodylia underwent independent events of gene duplication, particularly in Crocodilidae. These findings enhance our understanding of MHC class I evolution and provide a preliminary framework for comparative studies of other non-avian reptiles as well as diversity assessment within Crocodylia.

  16. Domestication does not narrow MHC diversity in Sus scrofa.

    PubMed

    Moutou, Katerina A; Koutsogiannouli, Evagelia A; Stamatis, Costas; Billinis, Charalambos; Kalbe, Claudia; Scandura, Massimo; Mamuris, Zissis

    2013-03-01

    The Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) is a multigene family of outstanding polymorphism. MHC molecules bind antigenic peptides in the peptide-binding region (PBR) that consists of five binding pockets (P). In this study, we compared the genetic diversity of domestic pigs to that of the modern representatives of their wild ancestors, the wild boar, in two MHC loci, the oligomorphic DQA and the polymorphic DRB1. MHC nucleotide polymorphism was compared with the actual functional polymorphism in the PBR and the binding pockets P1, P4, P6, P7, and P9. The analysis of approximately 200 wild boars collected throughout Europe and 120 domestic pigs from four breeds (three pureblood, Pietrain, Leicoma, and Landrace, and one mixed Danbred) revealed that wild boars and domestic pigs share the same levels of nucleotide and amino acid polymorphism, allelic richness, and heterozygosity. Domestication did not appear to act as a bottleneck that would narrow MHC diversity. Although the pattern of polymorphism was uniform between the two loci, the magnitude of polymorphism was different. For both loci, most of the polymorphism was located in the PBR region and the presence of positive selection was supported by a statistically significant excess of nonsynonymous substitutions over synonymous substitutions in the PBR. P4 and P6 were the most polymorphic binding pockets. Functional polymorphism, i.e., the number and the distribution of pocket variants within and among populations, was significantly narrower than genetic polymorphism, indicative of a hierarchical action of selection pressures on MHC loci.

  17. Superior Vena Cava Bypass

    PubMed Central

    Trainini, Jorge Carlos; Auricchio, Renato; Del Bagno, Horacio Augusto; Federico, Vicente; Acrich, Mario Willie; Osorio, Julio Nestor

    1983-01-01

    A case of superior vena cava obstruction due to carcinoma of unknown origin is reported. A superior vena cava bypass with polytetrafluoroethylene was performed by suturing the prosthesis to the left innominate vein and the right atrium, respectively. Long-term satisfactory results were achieved. Images PMID:15227139

  18. CITA/NLRC5: A critical transcriptional regulator of MHC class I gene expression.

    PubMed

    Downs, Isaac; Vijayan, Saptha; Sidiq, Tabasum; Kobayashi, Koichi S

    2016-07-08

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and class II molecules play essential roles in the development and activation of the human adaptive immune system. An NLR protein, CIITA (MHC class II transactivator) has been recognized as a master regulator of MHC class II gene expression, albeit knowledge about the regulatory mechanism of MHC class I gene expression had been limited. Recently identified MHC class I transactivator (CITA), or NLRC5, also belongs to the NLR protein family and constitutes a critical regulator for the transcriptional activation of MHC class I genes. In addition to MHC class I genes, CITA/NLRC5 induces the expression of β2 -microglobulin, TAP1 and LMP2, essential components of the MHC class I antigen presentation pathway. Therefore, CITA/NLRC5 and CIITA are transcriptional regulators that orchestrate the concerted expression of critical components in the MHC class I and class II pathways, respectively. © 2016 BioFactors, 42(4):349-357, 2016.

  19. Contrasting patterns of selection between MHC I and II across populations of Humboldt and Magellanic penguins.

    PubMed

    Sallaberry-Pincheira, Nicole; González-Acuña, Daniel; Padilla, Pamela; Dantas, Gisele P M; Luna-Jorquera, Guillermo; Frere, Esteban; Valdés-Velásquez, Armando; Vianna, Juliana A

    2016-10-01

    The evolutionary and adaptive potential of populations or species facing an emerging infectious disease depends on their genetic diversity in genes, such as the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). In birds, MHC class I deals predominantly with intracellular infections (e.g., viruses) and MHC class II with extracellular infections (e.g., bacteria). Therefore, patterns of MHC I and II diversity may differ between species and across populations of species depending on the relative effect of local and global environmental selective pressures, genetic drift, and gene flow. We hypothesize that high gene flow among populations of Humboldt and Magellanic penguins limits local adaptation in MHC I and MHC II, and signatures of selection differ between markers, locations, and species. We evaluated the MHC I and II diversity using 454 next-generation sequencing of 100 Humboldt and 75 Magellanic penguins from seven different breeding colonies. Higher genetic diversity was observed in MHC I than MHC II for both species, explained by more than one MHC I loci identified. Large population sizes, high gene flow, and/or similar selection pressures maintain diversity but limit local adaptation in MHC I. A pattern of isolation by distance was observed for MHC II for Humboldt penguin suggesting local adaptation, mainly on the northernmost studied locality. Furthermore, trans-species alleles were found due to a recent speciation for the genus or convergent evolution. High MHC I and MHC II gene diversity described is extremely advantageous for the long-term survival of the species.

  20. Impact of heterozygote CFTR Mutations in COPD patients with Chronic Bronchitis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cigarette smoking causes Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), the 3rd leading cause of death in the U.S. CFTR ion transport dysfunction has been implicated in COPD pathogenesis, and is associated with chronic bronchitis. However, susceptibility to smoke induced lung injury is variable and the underlying genetic contributors remain unclear. We hypothesized that presence of CFTR mutation heterozygosity may alter susceptibility to cigarette smoke induced CFTR dysfunction. Consequently, COPD patients with chronic bronchitis may have a higher rate of CFTR mutations compared to the general population. Methods Primary human bronchial epithelial cells derived from F508del CFTR heterozygotes and mice with (CFTR+/-) and without (CFTR+/+) CFTR heterozygosity were exposed to whole cigarette smoke (WCS); CFTR-dependent ion transport was assessed by Ussing chamber electrophysiology and nasal potential difference measurements, respectively. Caucasians with COPD and chronic bronchitis, age 40 to 80 with FEV1/FVC < 0.70 and FEV1 < 60% predicted, were selected for genetic analysis from participants in the NIH COPD Clinical Research Network’s Azithromycin for Prevention of Exacerbations of COPD in comparison to 32,900 Caucasian women who underwent prenatal genetic testing. Genetic analysis involved an allele-specific genotyping of 89 CFTR mutations. Results Exposure to WCS caused a pronounced reduction in CFTR activity in both CFTR (+/+) cells and F508del CFTR (+/-) cells; however, neither the degree of decrement (44.7% wild-type vs. 53.5% F508del heterozygous, P = NS) nor the residual CFTR activity were altered by CFTR heterozygosity. Similarly, WCS caused a marked reduction in CFTR activity measured by NPD in both wild type and CFTR heterozygous mice, but the severity of decrement (91.1% wild type vs. 47.7% CF heterozygous, P = NS) and the residual activity were not significantly affected by CFTR genetic status. Five of 127 (3.9%) COPD patients

  1. Insight into the primordial MHC from studies in ectothermic vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Flajnik, M F; Ohta, Y; Namikawa-Yamada, C; Nonaka, M

    1999-02-01

    MHC classical class I and class II genes have been identified in representative species from all major jawed vertebrate taxa, the oldest group being the cartilaginous fish, whereas no class I/II genes of any type have been detected in animals from older taxa. Among ectothermic vertebrate classes, studies of MHC architecture have been done in cartilaginous fish (sharks), bony fish (several teleost species), and amphibians (the frog Xenopus). The Xenopus MHC contains class I, class II, and class III genes, demonstrating that all of these genes were linked in the ancestor of the tetrapods, but the gene order is not the same as that in mouse/man. Studies of polyploid Xenopus suggest that MHC genes can be differentially silenced when multiple copies are present; i.e. MHC 'subregions' can be silenced. Surprisingly, in all teleosts examined to date class I and class II genes are not linked. Likewise, class III genes like the complement genes factor B (Bf) and C4 are scattered throughout the genome of teleosts. However, the presumed classical class I genes are closely linked to the 'immune' proteasome genes, LMP2 and LMP7, and to the peptide-transporter genes (TAP), implying that a true 'class I region' exists in this group. A similar type of linkage group is found in chickens and perhaps Xenopus, and thus it may reveal the ancestral organization of class I-associated genes. In cartilaginous fish, classical and non-classical class I genes have been isolated from three shark species, and class II A and B chain genes from nurse sharks. Studies of MHC linkage in sharks are being carried out to provide further understanding of the putative primordial organization of MHC Segregation studies in one shark family point to linkage of classical class I and class II genes, suggesting that the non-linkage of these genes in teleosts is a derived characteristic.

  2. Active intestinal chloride secretion in human carriers of cystic fibrosis mutations: an evaluation of the hypothesis that heterozygotes have subnormal active intestinal chloride secretion.

    PubMed

    Högenauer, C; Santa Ana, C A; Porter, J L; Millard, M; Gelfand, A; Rosenblatt, R L; Prestidge, C B; Fordtran, J S

    2000-12-01

    To explain the very high frequency of cystic fibrosis (CF) mutations in most populations of European descent, it has been proposed that CF heterozygotes have a survival advantage when infected with Vibrio cholerae or Escherichia coli, the toxins of which induce diarrhea by stimulation of active intestinal chloride secretion. Two assumptions underlie this hypothesis: (1) chloride conductance by the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is the rate-limiting step for active intestinal chloride secretion at all levels of expression, from approximately zero in patients with CF to normal levels in people who are not carriers of a mutation; and (2) heterozygotes have smaller amounts of functional intestinal CFTR than do people who are not carriers, and heterozygotes therefore secrete less chloride when exposed to secretagogues. The authors used an intestinal perfusion technique to measure in vivo basal and prostaglandin-stimulated jejunal chloride secretion in normal subjects, CF heterozygotes, and patients with CF. Patients with CF had essentially no active chloride secretion in the basal state, and secretion was not stimulated by a prostaglandin analogue. However, CF heterozygotes secreted chloride at the same rate as did people without a CF mutation. If heterozygotes are assumed to have less-than-normal intestinal CFTR function, these results mean that CFTR expression is not rate limiting for active chloride secretion in heterozygotes. The results do not support the theory that the very high frequency of CF mutations is due to a survival advantage that is conferred on heterozygotes who contract diarrheal illnesses mediated by intestinal hypersecretion of chloride.

  3. NLRC5: a key regulator of MHC class I-dependent immune responses.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Koichi S; van den Elsen, Peter J

    2012-12-01

    The expression of MHC class I molecules is crucial for the initiation and regulation of adaptive immune responses against pathogens. NOD-, LRR- and CARD-containing 5 (NLRC5) was recently identified as a specific transactivator of MHC class I genes (CITA). NLRC5 and the master regulator for MHC class II genes, class II transactivator (CIITA), interact with similar MHC promoter-bound factors. Here, we provide a broad overview of the molecular mechanisms behind MHC class I transcription and the role of the class I transactivator NLRC5 in MHC class I-dependent immune responses.

  4. Proofreading of Peptide—MHC Complexes through Dynamic Multivalent Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Christoph; Tampé, Robert

    2017-01-01

    The adaptive immune system is able to detect and destroy cells that are malignantly transformed or infected by intracellular pathogens. Specific immune responses against these cells are elicited by antigenic peptides that are presented on major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC I) molecules and recognized by cytotoxic T lymphocytes at the cell surface. Since these MHC I-presented peptides are generated in the cytosol by proteasomal protein degradation, they can be metaphorically described as a window providing immune cells with insights into the state of the cellular proteome. A crucial element of MHC I antigen presentation is the peptide-loading complex (PLC), a multisubunit machinery, which contains as key constituents the transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP) and the MHC I-specific chaperone tapasin (Tsn). While TAP recognizes and shuttles the cytosolic antigenic peptides into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), Tsn samples peptides in the ER for their ability to form stable complexes with MHC I, a process called peptide proofreading or peptide editing. Through its selection of peptides that improve MHC I stability, Tsn contributes to the hierarchy of immunodominant peptide epitopes. Despite the fact that it concerns a key event in adaptive immunity, insights into the catalytic mechanism of peptide proofreading carried out by Tsn have only lately been gained via biochemical, biophysical, and structural studies. Furthermore, a Tsn homolog called TAP-binding protein-related (TAPBPR) has only recently been demonstrated to function as a second MHC I-specific chaperone and peptide proofreader. Although TAPBPR is PLC-independent and has a distinct allomorph specificity, it is likely to share a common catalytic mechanism with Tsn. This review focuses on the current knowledge of the multivalent protein–protein interactions and the concomitant dynamic molecular processes underlying peptide-proofreading catalysis. We do not only derive a model that

  5. Proofreading of Peptide-MHC Complexes through Dynamic Multivalent Interactions.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Christoph; Tampé, Robert

    2017-01-01

    The adaptive immune system is able to detect and destroy cells that are malignantly transformed or infected by intracellular pathogens. Specific immune responses against these cells are elicited by antigenic peptides that are presented on major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC I) molecules and recognized by cytotoxic T lymphocytes at the cell surface. Since these MHC I-presented peptides are generated in the cytosol by proteasomal protein degradation, they can be metaphorically described as a window providing immune cells with insights into the state of the cellular proteome. A crucial element of MHC I antigen presentation is the peptide-loading complex (PLC), a multisubunit machinery, which contains as key constituents the transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP) and the MHC I-specific chaperone tapasin (Tsn). While TAP recognizes and shuttles the cytosolic antigenic peptides into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), Tsn samples peptides in the ER for their ability to form stable complexes with MHC I, a process called peptide proofreading or peptide editing. Through its selection of peptides that improve MHC I stability, Tsn contributes to the hierarchy of immunodominant peptide epitopes. Despite the fact that it concerns a key event in adaptive immunity, insights into the catalytic mechanism of peptide proofreading carried out by Tsn have only lately been gained via biochemical, biophysical, and structural studies. Furthermore, a Tsn homolog called TAP-binding protein-related (TAPBPR) has only recently been demonstrated to function as a second MHC I-specific chaperone and peptide proofreader. Although TAPBPR is PLC-independent and has a distinct allomorph specificity, it is likely to share a common catalytic mechanism with Tsn. This review focuses on the current knowledge of the multivalent protein-protein interactions and the concomitant dynamic molecular processes underlying peptide-proofreading catalysis. We do not only derive a model that

  6. Development of MHC-Linked Microsatellite Markers in the Domestic Cat and Their Use to Evaluate MHC Diversity in Domestic Cats, Cheetahs, and Gir Lions.

    PubMed

    Morris, Katrina M; Kirby, Katherine; Beatty, Julia A; Barrs, Vanessa R; Cattley, Sonia; David, Victor; O'Brien, Stephen J; Menotti-Raymond, Marilyn; Belov, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    Diversity within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) reflects the immunological fitness of a population. MHC-linked microsatellite markers provide a simple and an inexpensive method for studying MHC diversity in large-scale studies. We have developed 6 MHC-linked microsatellite markers in the domestic cat and used these, in conjunction with 5 neutral microsatellites, to assess MHC diversity in domestic mixed breed (n = 129) and purebred Burmese (n = 61) cat populations in Australia. The MHC of outbred Australian cats is polymorphic (average allelic richness = 8.52), whereas the Burmese population has significantly lower MHC diversity (average allelic richness = 6.81; P < 0.01). The MHC-linked microsatellites along with MHC cloning and sequencing demonstrated moderate MHC diversity in cheetahs (n = 13) and extremely low diversity in Gir lions (n = 13). Our MHC-linked microsatellite markers have potential future use in diversity and disease studies in other populations and breeds of cats as well as in wild felid species. © The American Genetic Association 2014. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Development of MHC-Linked Microsatellite Markers in the Domestic Cat and Their Use to Evaluate MHC Diversity in Domestic Cats, Cheetahs, and Gir Lions

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Katrina M.; Kirby, Katherine; Beatty, Julia A.; Barrs, Vanessa R.; Cattley, Sonia; David, Victor; O’Brien, Stephen J.; Menotti-Raymond, Marilyn

    2014-01-01

    Diversity within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) reflects the immunological fitness of a population. MHC-linked microsatellite markers provide a simple and an inexpensive method for studying MHC diversity in large-scale studies. We have developed 6 MHC-linked microsatellite markers in the domestic cat and used these, in conjunction with 5 neutral microsatellites, to assess MHC diversity in domestic mixed breed (n = 129) and purebred Burmese (n = 61) cat populations in Australia. The MHC of outbred Australian cats is polymorphic (average allelic richness = 8.52), whereas the Burmese population has significantly lower MHC diversity (average allelic richness = 6.81; P < 0.01). The MHC-linked microsatellites along with MHC cloning and sequencing demonstrated moderate MHC diversity in cheetahs (n = 13) and extremely low diversity in Gir lions (n = 13). Our MHC-linked microsatellite markers have potential future use in diversity and disease studies in other populations and breeds of cats as well as in wild felid species. PMID:24620003

  8. Molecular characterization of MHC class II region in guinea fowl.

    PubMed

    Singh, S K; Mathew, J; Gupta, J; Mehra, S; Goyal, G; Sharma, D

    2010-12-01

    1. The MHC class II gene was amplified, cloned and sequenced in guinea fowl. 2. The NumeMHC II sequence of 754 nucleotides included complete exon 1 (91 nt), exon 2 (270 nt), exon 3 (282 nt) and exon 4 (110 nt). 3. The size of β(1) and β(2), domains were 89 and 93 amino acids, respectively in guinea fowl. 4. High amino acid variability (38·2%) was observed within guinea fowl in β(1) domain, while in β(2) domain, amino acid variability (6·3%) was low. 5. Among poultry species, the percent amino acid identity between guinea fowl and chicken, quail, pheasant and duck was 38·8, 42·2, 44·4 and 58·8 in β(1) domain; and 13·8, 17·0, 13·8 and 27·6 in β(2) domain, respectively. 6. Sequence alignment with mammalian and avian MHC showed that many of the conserved features of MHC class II glycoprotein was conserved in guinea fowl. 7. Within-species genetic distances (Poisson correction) based on cumulative amino acid variability in β(1) domain and β(2) domains was 0·141 in guinea fowl. 8. Guinea fowl showed low and similar genetic distances with all the poultry species (0·255-0·268) except duck (0·456). 9. Guinea fowl made separate branch within the major cluster having chicken, quail and pheasant, showing equal distance from these poultry species, whereas duck MHC II clustered separately.

  9. MHC class I characterization of Indonesian cynomolgus macaques

    PubMed Central

    Pendley, Chad J.; Becker, Ericka A.; Karl, Julie A.; Blasky, Alex J.; Wiseman, Roger W.; Hughes, Austin L.; O’Connor, Shelby L.; O’Connor, David H.

    2008-01-01

    Cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) are quickly becoming a useful model for infectious disease and transplantation research. Even though cynomolgus macaques from different geographic regions are used for these studies, there has been limited characterization of full-length Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) Class I immunogenetics of distinct geographic populations. Here, we identified 48 MHC class I cDNA nucleotide sequences in eleven Indonesian cynomolgus macaques, including 41 novel Mafa-A and Mafa-B sequences. We found seven MHC class I sequences in Indonesian macaques that were identical to MHC class I sequences identified in Malaysian or Mauritian macaques. Sharing of nucleotide sequences between these geographically distinct populations is also consistent with the hypothesis that Indonesia was a source of the Mauritian macaque population. In addition, we found that the Indonesian cDNA sequence Mafa-B*7601 is identical throughout its peptide binding domain to Mamu-B*03, an allele that has been associated with control of SIV viremia in Indian rhesus macaques. Overall, a better understanding of the MHC class I alleles present in Indonesian cynomolgus macaques improves their value as a model for disease research and it better defines the biogeography of cynomolgus macaques throughout Southeast Asia. PMID:18504574

  10. Comparative Genome Analyses Reveal Distinct Structure in the Saltwater Crocodile MHC

    PubMed Central

    Jaratlerdsiri, Weerachai; Deakin, Janine; Godinez, Ricardo M.; Shan, Xueyan; Peterson, Daniel G.; Marthey, Sylvain; Lyons, Eric; McCarthy, Fiona M.; Isberg, Sally R.; Higgins, Damien P.; Chong, Amanda Y.; John, John St; Glenn, Travis C.; Ray, David A.; Gongora, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is a dynamic genome region with an essential role in the adaptive immunity of vertebrates, especially antigen presentation. The MHC is generally divided into subregions (classes I, II and III) containing genes of similar function across species, but with different gene number and organisation. Crocodylia (crocodilians) are widely distributed and represent an evolutionary distinct group among higher vertebrates, but the genomic organisation of MHC within this lineage has been largely unexplored. Here, we studied the MHC region of the saltwater crocodile (Crocodylus porosus) and compared it with that of other taxa. We characterised genomic clusters encompassing MHC class I and class II genes in the saltwater crocodile based on sequencing of bacterial artificial chromosomes. Six gene clusters spanning ∼452 kb were identified to contain nine MHC class I genes, six MHC class II genes, three TAP genes, and a TRIM gene. These MHC class I and class II genes were in separate scaffold regions and were greater in length (2–6 times longer) than their counterparts in well-studied fowl B loci, suggesting that the compaction of avian MHC occurred after the crocodilian-avian split. Comparative analyses between the saltwater crocodile MHC and that from the alligator and gharial showed large syntenic areas (>80% identity) with similar gene order. Comparisons with other vertebrates showed that the saltwater crocodile had MHC class I genes located along with TAP, consistent with birds studied. Linkage between MHC class I and TRIM39 observed in the saltwater crocodile resembled MHC in eutherians compared, but absent in avian MHC, suggesting that the saltwater crocodile MHC appears to have gene organisation intermediate between these two lineages. These observations suggest that the structure of the saltwater crocodile MHC, and other crocodilians, can help determine the MHC that was present in the ancestors of archosaurs. PMID:25503521

  11. Comparative genome analyses reveal distinct structure in the saltwater crocodile MHC.

    PubMed

    Jaratlerdsiri, Weerachai; Deakin, Janine; Godinez, Ricardo M; Shan, Xueyan; Peterson, Daniel G; Marthey, Sylvain; Lyons, Eric; McCarthy, Fiona M; Isberg, Sally R; Higgins, Damien P; Chong, Amanda Y; John, John St; Glenn, Travis C; Ray, David A; Gongora, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is a dynamic genome region with an essential role in the adaptive immunity of vertebrates, especially antigen presentation. The MHC is generally divided into subregions (classes I, II and III) containing genes of similar function across species, but with different gene number and organisation. Crocodylia (crocodilians) are widely distributed and represent an evolutionary distinct group among higher vertebrates, but the genomic organisation of MHC within this lineage has been largely unexplored. Here, we studied the MHC region of the saltwater crocodile (Crocodylus porosus) and compared it with that of other taxa. We characterised genomic clusters encompassing MHC class I and class II genes in the saltwater crocodile based on sequencing of bacterial artificial chromosomes. Six gene clusters spanning ∼452 kb were identified to contain nine MHC class I genes, six MHC class II genes, three TAP genes, and a TRIM gene. These MHC class I and class II genes were in separate scaffold regions and were greater in length (2-6 times longer) than their counterparts in well-studied fowl B loci, suggesting that the compaction of avian MHC occurred after the crocodilian-avian split. Comparative analyses between the saltwater crocodile MHC and that from the alligator and gharial showed large syntenic areas (>80% identity) with similar gene order. Comparisons with other vertebrates showed that the saltwater crocodile had MHC class I genes located along with TAP, consistent with birds studied. Linkage between MHC class I and TRIM39 observed in the saltwater crocodile resembled MHC in eutherians compared, but absent in avian MHC, suggesting that the saltwater crocodile MHC appears to have gene organisation intermediate between these two lineages. These observations suggest that the structure of the saltwater crocodile MHC, and other crocodilians, can help determine the MHC that was present in the ancestors of archosaurs.

  12. The tumour suppressor Fhit positively regulates MHC class I expression on cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Romero, Irene; Martinez, Marisol; Garrido, Cristina; Collado, Antonia; Algarra, Ignacio; Garrido, Federico; Garcia-Lora, Angel M

    2012-07-01

    MHC class I (MHC-I) molecules are ubiquitously expressed on the cells of an organism. Study of the regulation of these molecules in normal and disease conditions is important. In tumour cells, the expression of MHC-I molecules is very frequently lost, allowing these cells to evade the immune response. Cancers of different histology have shown total loss of MHC-I molecule expression, due to a coordinated transcriptional down-regulation of various antigen-processing machinery (APM) components and/or MHC-I heavy chains. The mechanisms responsible for these alterations remain unclear. We determined the possible genes involved by comparing MHC-I-positive with MHC-I-negative murine metastases derived from the same fibrosarcoma tumour clone. MHC-I-negative metastases showed transcriptional down-regulation of APM and MHC-I heavy chains. The use of microarrays and subtraction cDNA libraries revealed four candidate genes responsible for this alteration, but two of them were ruled out by real-time RT-PCR analyses. The other two genes, AP-2α and Fhit tumour suppressors, were studied by using siRNA to silence their expression in a MHC-I-positive metastatic cell line. AP-2α inhibition did not modify transcriptional expression of APM components or MHC-I heavy chains or surface expression of MHC-I. In contrast, silencing of the Fhit gene produced the transcriptional down-regulation of APM components and MHC-I heavy chains and decreased MHC-I surface expression. Moreover, transfection of Fhit in MHC-I-negative tumour cell lines restored MHC-I cell surface expression. These data indicate that defects in Fhit expression may promote MHC-I down-regulation in cancer cells and allow escape from immunosurveillance(#). Copyright © 2012 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Enhancement of MHC-I antigen presentation via architectural control of pH-responsive, endosomolytic polymer nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Wilson, John T; Postma, Almar; Keller, Salka; Convertine, Anthony J; Moad, Graeme; Rizzardo, Ezio; Meagher, Laurence; Chiefari, John; Stayton, Patrick S

    2015-03-01

    Protein-based vaccines offer a number of important advantages over organism-based vaccines but generally elicit poor CD8(+) T cell responses. We have previously demonstrated that pH-responsive, endosomolytic polymers can enhance protein antigen delivery to major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) antigen presentation pathways thereby augmenting CD8(+) T cell responses following immunization. Here, we describe a new family of nanocarriers for protein antigen delivery assembled using architecturally distinct pH-responsive polymers. Reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization was used to synthesize linear, hyperbranched, and core-crosslinked copolymers of 2-(N,N-diethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (DEAEMA) and butyl methacrylate (BMA) that were subsequently chain extended with a hydrophilic N,N-dimethylacrylamide (DMA) segment copolymerized with thiol-reactive pyridyl disulfide (PDS) groups. In aqueous solution, polymer chains assembled into 25 nm micellar nanoparticles and enabled efficient and reducible conjugation of a thiolated protein antigen, ovalbumin. Polymers demonstrated pH-dependent membrane-destabilizing activity in an erythrocyte lysis assay, with the hyperbranched and cross-linked polymer architectures exhibiting significantly higher hemolysis at pH ≤ 7.0 than the linear diblock. Antigen delivery with the hyperbranched and cross-linked polymer architecture enhanced in vitro MHC-I antigen presentation relative to free antigen, whereas the linear construct did not have a discernible effect. The hyperbranched system elicited a four- to fivefold increase in MHC-I presentation relative to the cross-linked architecture, demonstrating the superior capacity of the hyperbranched architecture in enhancing MHC-I presentation. This work demonstrates that the architecture of pH-responsive, endosomolytic polymers can have dramatic effects on intracellular antigen delivery, and offers a promising strategy for enhancing CD8(+) T cell

  14. A nonclassical MHC class I U lineage locus in zebrafish with a null haplotypic variant

    PubMed Central

    Dirscherl, Hayley; Yoder, Jeffrey A.

    2015-01-01

    Three sequence lineages of MHC class I genes have been described in zebrafish (Danio rerio): U, Z, and L. The U lineage genes encoded on zebrafish chromosome 19 are predicted to provide the classical function of antigen presentation. This MHC class I locus displays significant haplotypic variation and is the only MHC class I locus in zebrafish that shares conserved synteny with the core mammalian MHC. Here we describe two MHC class I U lineage genes, mhc1ula and mhc1uma, that map to chromosome 22. Unlike the U lineage proteins encoded on chromosome 19, Ula and Uma likely play a nonclassical role as they lack conservation of key peptide binding residues, display limited polymorphic variation, and exhibit tissue-specific expression. We also describe a null haplotype at this chromosome 22 locus in which the mhc1ula and mhc1uma genes are absent due to a ∼30 kb deletion with no other MHC class I sequences present. Functional and non-functional transcripts of mhc1ula and mhc1uma were identified; however, mhc1uma transcripts were often not amplified or amplified at low levels from individuals possessing an apparently bona fide gene. These distinct U lineage genes may be restricted to the superorder Ostariophysi as similar sequences only could be identified from the blind cavefish (Astyanyx mexicanus), fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), goldfish (Carassius auratus), and grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus). PMID:26254596

  15. ATM protein and p53-serine 15 phosphorylation in ataxia-telangiectasia (AT) patients and at heterozygotes

    PubMed Central

    Delia, D; Mizutani, S; Panigone, S; Tagliabue, E; Fontanella, E; Asada, M; Yamada, T; Taya, Y; Prudente, S; Saviozzi, S; Frati, L; Pierotti, M A; Chessa, L

    2000-01-01

    ATM (ataxia-telangiectasia mutated) gene plays a central role in the DNA-damage response pathway. We characterized the ATM protein expression in immortalized cells from AT and AT-variant patients, and heterozygotes and correlated it with two ATM-dependent radiation responses, G1 checkpoint arrest and p53-Ser 15 phosphorylation. On Western blots, the full-length ATM protein was detected in eight of 18 AT cases, albeit at 1–32% of the normal levels, whereas a truncated ATM protein was detected in a single case, despite the prevalence among cases of truncation mutations. Of two ataxia without telangiectasia [A-(T)] cases, one expressed 20% and the other ~70% of the normal ATM levels. Noteworthy, among ten asymptomatic heterozygous carriers for AT, normal amounts of ATM protein were found in one and reduced by 40–50% in the remaining cases. The radiation-induced phosphorylation of p53 protein at serine 15, largely mediated by ATM kinase, was defective in AT, A(-T) and in 2/4 heterozygous carriers, while the G1 cell cycle checkpoint was disrupted in all AT and A(-T) cases, and in 3/10 AT heterozygotes. Altogether, our study shows that AT and A(-T) cases bearing truncation mutations of the ATM gene can produce modest amounts of full-length (and only rarely truncated) ATM protein. However, this limited expression of ATM protein provides no benefit regarding the ATM-dependent responses related to G1 arrest and p53-ser15 phosphorylation. Our study additionally shows that the majority of AT heterozygotes express almost halved levels of ATM protein, sufficient in most cases to normally regulate the ATM-dependent DNA damage-response pathway. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10864201

  16. Quantitative analysis of peptide-MHC class II interaction.

    PubMed

    Fleckenstein, B; Jung, G; Wiesmüller, K H

    1999-12-01

    The tremendous progress in the field of basic immunology and immunochemistry made in the last decade has significantly advanced our understanding of antigen processing and presentation by MHC class I and II proteins. In this review different techniques to study peptide interaction with MHC class II molecules are summarized and their impact on the elucidation of quantitative parameters, like affinities or kinetic data, is discussed. A recently introduced method based on synthetic combinatorial peptide libraries allows to quantify the binding contribution of each amino acid residue in a class II ligand and is presented in more detail. As this knowledge is fundamental for current investigations in modern medicine, e.g. for novel immune system based therapy concepts, further aspects like the design of new high affinity MHC class II ligands and the prediction of peptide antigens are discussed.

  17. Identification of hemoglobin AC heterozygote status in a Malay family: a decision between hemoglobin electrophoresis and high performance liquid chromotography.

    PubMed

    Rosline, H; Roshan, T M; Ahmed, S A; Ilunihayati, I

    2007-05-01

    Thalassemia is a common public health problem among Malays. Hemoglobin C (Hb C) is a hemoglobin beta variant resulting from a single base mutation at the 6th position of the beta-globin gene leading to the substitution of glycine for glutamic acid. Hb C is commonly detected in West Africans and in African American but has not been reported in Malaysia. It can be falsely diagnosed as HbE trait in the Malaysian Thalassemia Screening Program which utilizes cellulose acetate hemoglobin electrophoresis. This is the first reported case of Hb AC heterozygote status in a Malay family, with unusual splenomegaly in one of the family members.

  18. Hemizygous Expression of Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase in Erythrocytes of Heterozygotes for the Lesch-Nyhan Syndrome*

    PubMed Central

    Nyhan, William L.; Bakay, Bohdan; Connor, James D.; Marks, James F.; Keele, Doman K.

    1970-01-01

    In women heterozygous for hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl trasferase deficiency, the activity of this enzyme in the erythrocyte is usually normal. In a key kindred two such obligate heterozygotes were also heterozygous for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase types A and B. The AB genotype was confirmed in one by assay of skin fibroblasts. Erythrocytes were exclusively of type B. These observations suggest the clonal origin of the hematopoietic system in these women from a primordial cell line with a single active X chromosome. Images PMID:5263751

  19. Evolutionarily conserved amino acids in TCR V regions and MHC control their interaction

    PubMed Central

    Marrack, Philippa; Scott-Browne, James P.; Dai, Shaodong; Gapin, Laurent; Kappler, John W.

    2011-01-01

    Alpha/beta T cell receptors (TCRs) react with major histocompatibility complex proteins (MHC) plus peptides, a poorly understood phenomenon, probably because thymocytes bearing TCRs that manifest MHC-reactivity too well are lost by negative selection. Only TCRs with attenuated ability to react with MHC appear on mature T cells. Also, the interaction sites between TCRs and MHC may be inherently flexible and hence difficult to spot. Contacts between TCRs and MHC in the solved structures of their complexes were reevaluated with these points in mind. The results show that frequently used amino acids in TCR CDR1 and CDR2 regions are often used to bind MHC, in areas around small amino acids on the surfaces of MHC α helices that form a cup, allowing somewhat flexible binding of the TCRs. The TCR amino acids involved are specific to families of V regions and partially different rules govern recognition of MHC1 versus MHCII. PMID:18304006

  20. Defective MHC class II expression in an MHC class II deficiency patient is caused by a novel deletion of a splice donor site in the MHC class II transactivator gene.

    PubMed

    Peijnenburg, A; Van den Berg, R; Van Eggermond, M J; Sanal, O; Vossen, J M; Lennon, A M; Alcaïde-Loridan, C; Van den Elsen, P J

    2000-01-01

    MHC class II deficiency patients are mutated for transcription factors that regulate the expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II genes. Four complementation groups (A-D) are defined and the gene defective in group A has been shown to encode the MHC class II transactivator (CIITA). Here, we report the molecular characterization of a new MHC class II deficiency patient, ATU. Cell fusion experiments indicated that ATU belongs to complementation group A. Subsequent mutation analysis revealed that the CIITA mRNA lacked 84 nucleotides. This deletion was the result of the absence of a splice donor site in the CIITA gene of ATU. As a result of this novel homozygous genomic deletion, ATU CIITA failed to transactivate MHC class II genes. Furthermore, this truncated CIITA of ATU did not display a dominant negative effect on CIITA-mediated transactivation of various isotypic MHC class II promoters.

  1. Improved pan-specific MHC class I peptide-binding predictions using a novel representation of the MHC-binding cleft environment.

    PubMed

    Carrasco Pro, S; Zimic, M; Nielsen, M

    2014-02-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules play a key role in cell-mediated immune responses presenting bounded peptides for recognition by the immune system cells. Several in silico methods have been developed to predict the binding affinity of a given peptide to a specific MHC molecule. One of the current state-of-the-art methods for MHC class I is NetMHCpan, which has a core ingredient for the representation of the MHC class I molecule using a pseudo-sequence representation of the binding cleft amino acid environment. New and large MHC-peptide-binding data sets are constantly being made available, and also new structures of MHC class I molecules with a bound peptide have been published. In order to test if the NetMHCpan method can be improved by integrating this novel information, we created new pseudo-sequence definitions for the MHC-binding cleft environment from sequence and structural analyses of different MHC data sets including human leukocyte antigen (HLA), non-human primates (chimpanzee, macaque and gorilla) and other animal alleles (cattle, mouse and swine). From these constructs, we showed that by focusing on MHC sequence positions found to be polymorphic across the MHC molecules used to train the method, the NetMHCpan method achieved a significant increase in the predictive performance, in particular, of non-human MHCs. This study hence showed that an improved performance of MHC-binding methods can be achieved not only by the accumulation of more MHC-peptide-binding data but also by a refined definition of the MHC-binding environment including information from non-human species.

  2. An analysis of the sensitivity and specificity of MHC-I and MHC-II immunohistochemical staining in muscle biopsies for the diagnosis of inflammatory myopathies.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Cruz, Pedro M; Luo, Yue-Bei; Miller, James; Junckerstorff, Reimar C; Mastaglia, Frank L; Fabian, Victoria

    2014-12-01

    Although there have been several previous reports of immunohistochemical staining for MHC antigens in muscle biopsies, there appears to be a lack of consensus about its routine use in the diagnostic evaluation of biopsies from patients with suspected inflammatory myopathy. Positive MHC-I staining is nonspecific but is widely used as a marker for inflammatory myopathy, whilst the role of MHC-II staining is not clearly defined. We investigated the sensitivity and specificity of MHC-I and MHC-II immunostaining for the diagnosis of inflammatory myopathy in a large group of biopsies from a single reference laboratory. Positive staining for MHC-I was found to have a high sensitivity in biopsies from patients with inflammatory myopathy but a very low specificity, as it was also common in other non-inflammatory myopathies and neurogenic disorders. On the other hand, MHC-II positivity had a much higher specificity in all major subgroups of inflammatory myopathy, especially inclusion body myositis. The findings indicate that the combination of MHC-I and MHC-II staining results in a higher degree of specificity for the diagnosis of inflammatory myopathy and that in biopsies with inflammation, positive MHC-II staining strongly supports the diagnosis of an immune-mediated myopathy. We recommend that immunohistochemical staining for both MHC-I and MHC-II should be included routinely in the diagnostic evaluation of muscle biopsies from patients with suspected inflammatory myopathy. However, as the sensitivity and interpretation of MHC staining may depend on the technique used, further studies are needed to compare procedures in different centres and develop standardised protocols. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Neurological impairment among heterozygote women for X-linked Adrenoleukodystrophy: a case control study on a clinical, neurophysiological and biochemical characteristics.

    PubMed

    Habekost, Clarissa Troller; Schestatsky, Pedro; Torres, Vitor Felix; de Coelho, Daniella Moura; Vargas, Carmen Regla; Torrez, Vitor; Oses, Jean Pierre; Portela, Luis Valmor; Pereira, Fernanda dos Santos; Matte, Ursula; Jardim, Laura Bannach

    2014-01-13

    Neurologic impairments in female heterozygotes for X-linked Adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) are poorly understood. Our aims were to describe the neurological and neurophysiological manifestations of a cohort of X-ALD heterozygotes, and to correlate them with age, disease duration, mutations, X-inactivation and serum concentrations of a marker of neuronal damage, neuron-specific enolase (NSE). All 45 heterozygotes identified in our region, with previous VLCFA and molecular diagnosis, were invited to be evaluated through myelopathy scales JOA and SSPROM, nerve conduction studies and somatosensory evoked responses. X inactivation pattern was tested by HUMARA methylation assay. Serum NSE was measured by eletrochemiluminescense. Thirty three heterozygote women were recruited: 29 (87%) were symptomatic. Symptomatic and asymptomatic women presented different m ± sd ages (43.9 ± 10.2 versus 24.3 ± 4.6), JOA (14.5 ± 1.7 versus 16.6 ± 0.2) and SSPROM (86.6 ± 7.9 versus 98.4 ± 1.1) scores (p<0.05). Both JOA (r=-0.68) and SSPROM (r=-0.65) correlated with age, irrespectively of the disease status (p=0.0001, Spearman). Delayed latencies in the central ascending conduction studies on the lower limbs were present in 72% of all heterozygotes, and correlated with SSPROM (r=-0.47, p=0.018, Spearman). NSE values were higher in heterozygote than in control women (12.9 ± 7 and 7.2 ± 7 ng/ml, p=0.012, Mann-Whitney U). Mutation severity and inactivation patterns were not associated with neurologic status. Neurologic manifestations, clearly related to age, were quite common in the present cohort. JOA and SSPROM scales were able to discriminate the asymptomatic from the symptomatic heterozygotes. Both scales might be useful tools to follow disease progression, in future studies.

  4. Superiorization with level control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cegielski, Andrzej; Al-Musallam, Fadhel

    2017-04-01

    The convex feasibility problem is to find a common point of a finite family of closed convex subsets. In many applications one requires something more, namely finding a common point of closed convex subsets which minimizes a continuous convex function. The latter requirement leads to an application of the superiorization methodology which is actually settled between methods for convex feasibility problem and the convex constrained minimization. Inspired by the superiorization idea we introduce a method which sequentially applies a long-step algorithm for a sequence of convex feasibility problems; the method employs quasi-nonexpansive operators as well as subgradient projections with level control and does not require evaluation of the metric projection. We replace a perturbation of the iterations (applied in the superiorization methodology) by a perturbation of the current level in minimizing the objective function. We consider the method in the Euclidean space in order to guarantee the strong convergence, although the method is well defined in a Hilbert space.

  5. Liver transplantation for an infant with neonatal intrahepatic cholestasis caused by citrin deficiency using heterozygote living donor.

    PubMed

    Shigeta, Takanobu; Kasahara, Mureo; Kimura, Takuya; Fukuda, Akinari; Sasaki, Kazunari; Arai, Katsuhiro; Nakagawa, Atsuko; Nakagawa, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Keiko; Soneda, Shun; Kitagawa, Hiroaki

    2010-11-01

    NICCD is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder, characterized by cholestasis, coagulopathy, hypoglycemia, fatty liver and multiple amino acidemia. NICCD develops in the neonatal/infantile period and has been reported as a "naturally curable" disease within one yr of life. Recently, we experienced an infantile NICCD who developed progressive liver failure, and required subsequent LT using a heterozygote living donor at eight months of age. Diagnosis of NICCD was established before transplantation, and donor evaluation included mutation in the SLC25A13 gene for exclusion of individuals with citrin deficiency citrullinemia. LDLT, from blood type identical mother using a left lateral segment graft, was performed without serious complication. Plasma amino acid concentration was normalized rapidly, and the patient was discharged 30 days after transplant. During one yr follow up, the recipient has been doing well without additional medication for NICCD. NICCD should be considered in the differential diagnosis as a cause of neonatal/infantile cholestatic disease. LT using a heterozygote living donor is an effective alternative in countries where a deceased donor is not available. © 2009 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  6. A pilot study to determine whether health care professionals perceive stigma in heterozygote carrier identification and disclosure decisions.

    PubMed

    Moffett, Alexander; Ross, Lainie Friedman

    2011-08-01

    We conducted an empirical pilot study to assess the attitudes of health care professionals (HCPs) to the personal identification of heterozygote carrier status for two autosomal recessive conditions (cystic fibrosis and a hemoglobinopathy) and for an X-linked disorder (Duchenne muscular dystrophy) using the Health Orientation Scale (HOS) and a modified HIV Stigma Scale. Attitudes towards carrier identification of children were also assessed. Three hundred and ten of 742 (42%) eligible HCPs fully or partly completed the survey. As measured with the HOS and the modified HIV scale, respondents had a more negative reaction to the hypothetical discovery of being a carrier for an autosomal recessive genetic condition that was less likely given their self-identified ancestry. Female respondents had a more negative reaction on both scales to being a carrier for an X-linked disorder than men thought their partners would feel. However, the differences found on the HOS and modified HIV scale are small and their clinical relevance unknown. Fifty-seven percent of respondents agreed that parents should tell their children to keep their carrier status private with many (44%) agreeing that children who learn that they are carriers may suffer from a decrease in self-esteem. The vast majority of respondents would inform immediate family members and HCPs of their carrier status, but would be unlikely to share this information with neighbors or employers. Further study is needed to develop a heterozygote genetic carrier stigma scale.

  7. Unraveling of Enigmatic Hearing-Impaired GJB2 Single Heterozygotes by Massive Parallel Sequencing: DFNB1 or Not?

    PubMed Central

    Kim, So Young; Kim, Ah Reum; Kim, Nayoung K. D.; Lee, Chung; Kim, Min Young; Jeon, Eun-Hee; Park, Woong-Yang; Choi, Byung Yoon

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The molecular etiology of nonsyndromic sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) in subjects with only one detectable autosomal recessive GJB2 mutation is unclear. Here, we report GJB2 single heterozygotes with various final genetic diagnoses and suggest appropriate diagnostic strategies. A total of 160 subjects with SNHL without phenotypic markers were screened for GJB2 mutations. Single-nucleotide variants or structural variations within the DFNB1 locus or in other deafness genes were examined by Sanger sequencing, breakpoint PCR, and targeted exome sequencing (TES) of 129 deafness genes. We identified 27 subjects with two mutations and 10 subjects with only one detectable mutation in GJB2. The detection rate of the single GJB2 mutation among the 160 SNHL subjects in the present study (6.25%) was higher than 2.58% in normal hearing controls in Korean. The DFNB1 was clearly excluded as a molecular etiology in four (40%) subjects: other recessive deafness genes (N = 3) accounted for SNHL and the causative gene for the other non-DFNB1 subject (N = 1) was not identified. The etiology of additional two subjects was potentially explained by digenic etiology (N = 2) of GJB2 with MITF and GJB3, respectively. The contribution of the single GJB2 mutation in the four remaining subjects is unclear. Comprehensive diagnostic testing including TES is prerequisite for understanding GJB2 single heterozygotes. PMID:27057829

  8. Unraveling of Enigmatic Hearing-Impaired GJB2 Single Heterozygotes by Massive Parallel Sequencing: DFNB1 or Not?

    PubMed

    Kim, So Young; Kim, Ah Reum; Kim, Nayoung K D; Lee, Chung; Kim, Min Young; Jeon, Eun-Hee; Park, Woong-Yang; Choi, Byung Yoon

    2016-04-01

    The molecular etiology of nonsyndromic sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) in subjects with only one detectable autosomal recessive GJB2 mutation is unclear. Here, we report GJB2 single heterozygotes with various final genetic diagnoses and suggest appropriate diagnostic strategies. A total of 160 subjects with SNHL without phenotypic markers were screened for GJB2 mutations. Single-nucleotide variants or structural variations within the DFNB1 locus or in other deafness genes were examined by Sanger sequencing, breakpoint PCR, and targeted exome sequencing (TES) of 129 deafness genes. We identified 27 subjects with two mutations and 10 subjects with only one detectable mutation in GJB2. The detection rate of the single GJB2 mutation among the 160 SNHL subjects in the present study (6.25%) was higher than 2.58% in normal hearing controls in Korean. The DFNB1 was clearly excluded as a molecular etiology in four (40%) subjects: other recessive deafness genes (N = 3) accounted for SNHL and the causative gene for the other non-DFNB1 subject (N = 1) was not identified. The etiology of additional two subjects was potentially explained by digenic etiology (N = 2) of GJB2 with MITF and GJB3, respectively. The contribution of the single GJB2 mutation in the four remaining subjects is unclear. Comprehensive diagnostic testing including TES is prerequisite for understanding GJB2 single heterozygotes.

  9. Heterozygote excess through life history stages in Cestrum miradorense Francey (Solanaceae), an endemic shrub in a fragmented cloud forest habitat.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Zepeda, F; González-Astorga, J; Montaña, C

    2013-01-01

    Comparisons of genetic diversity and population genetic structure among different life history stages provide important information on the effect of the different forces and micro-evolutionary processes that mould diversity and genetic structure after fragmentation. Here we assessed genetic diversity and population genetic structure using 32 allozymic loci in adults, seeds, seedlings and juveniles of eight populations of the micro-endemic shrub Cestrum miradorense in a highly fragmented cloud forest in central-eastern Mexico. We expected that due to its long history or rarity, this species may have endured the negative effects of fragmentation and would show moderate to high levels of genetic diversity. High genetic diversity (H(e) = 0.445 ± 0.03), heterozygote excess (F(IT) = -0.478 ± 0.034, F(IS) = -0.578 ± 0.023) and low population differentiation (F(ST) = 0.064 ± 0.011) were found. Seeds had higher genetic diversity (H(e) = 0.467 ± 0.05) than the later stages (overall mean for adults, seedlings and juveniles H(e) = 0.438 ± 0.08). High gene flow was observed despite the fact that the fragmentation process began more than 100 years ago. We conclude that the high genetic diversity was the result of natural selection, which favours heterozygote excess in all stages, coupled with a combination of a reproductive system and seed/pollen dispersal mechanisms that favour gene flow.

  10. Why does the immune system of Atlantic cod lack MHC II?

    PubMed

    Star, Bastiaan; Jentoft, Sissel

    2012-08-01

    MHC II, a major feature of the adaptive immune system, is lacking in Atlantic cod, and there are different scenarios (metabolic cost hypothesis or functional shift hypothesis) that might explain this loss. The lack of MHC II coincides with an increased number of genes for MHC I and Toll-like receptors (TLRs).

  11. Strong selection at MHC in Mexicans since admixture

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Mexicans are a recent admixture of Amerindians, Europeans, and Africans. We performed local ancestry analysis of Mexican samples from two genome-wide association studies obtained from dbGaP, and discovered that at the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region Mexicans have excessive African ance...

  12. MHC class II DR allelic diversity in bighorn sheep

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We hypothesized that decreased diversity and/or unique polymorphisms in MHC class II alleles of bighorn sheep (BHS, Ovis canadensis) are responsible for lower titer of antibodies against Mannheimia haemolytica leukotoxin, in comparison to domestic sheep (DS, Ovis aries). To test this hypothesis, DRA...

  13. TCR/pMHC Optimized Protein crystallization Screen

    PubMed Central

    Bulek, Anna M.; Madura, Florian; Fuller, Anna; Holland, Christopher J.; Schauenburg, Andrea J.A.; Sewell, Andrew K.; Rizkallah, Pierre J.; Cole, David K.

    2012-01-01

    The interaction between the clonotypic αβ T cell receptor (TCR), expressed on the T cell surface, and peptide-major histocompatibility complex (pMHC) molecules, expressed on the target cell surface, governs T cell mediated autoimmunity and immunity against pathogens and cancer. Structural investigations of this interaction have been limited because of the challenges inherent in the production of good quality TCR/pMHC protein crystals. Here, we report the development of an ‘intelligently designed’ crystallization screen that reproducibly generates high quality TCR/pMHC complex crystals suitable for X-ray crystallographic studies, thereby reducing protein consumption. Over the last 2 years, we have implemented this screen to produce 32 T cell related protein structures at high resolution, substantially contributing to the current immune protein database. Protein crystallography, used to study this interaction, has already extended our understanding of the molecular rules that govern T cell immunity. Subsequently, these data may help to guide the intelligent design of T cell based therapies that target human diseases, underlining the importance of developing optimized approaches for crystallizing novel TCR/pMHC complexes. PMID:22705983

  14. MHC promoter polymorphism in grey wolves and domestic dogs.

    PubMed

    Berggren, Karin T; Seddon, Jennifer M

    2005-05-01

    A functional immune system requires a tight control over major histocompatibility complex (MHC) gene transcription, as the abnormal MHC expression patterns of severe immunodeficiency and autoimmune diseases demonstrate. Although the regulation of MHC expression has been well documented in humans and mice, little is known in other species. In this study, we detail the level of polymorphism in wolf and dog MHC gene promoters. The promoter regions of the DRB, DQA and DQB locus were sequenced in 90 wolves and 90 dogs. The level of polymorphism was high in the DQB promoters, with variation found within functionally relevant regions, including binding sites for transcription factors. Clear associations between DQB promoters and exon 2 alleles were noted in wolves, indicating strong linkage disequilibrium in this region. Low levels of polymorphism were found within the DRB and DQA promoter regions. However, a variable site was identified within the T box, a TNF-alpha response element, of the DQA promoter. Furthermore, we identified a previously unrecognised 18-base-pair deletion within exon 1 of the DQB locus.

  15. Evolution by selection, recombination, and gene duplication in MHC class I genes of two Rhacophoridae species

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Comparison of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes across vertebrate species can reveal molecular mechanisms underlying the evolution of adaptive immunity-related proteins. As the first terrestrial tetrapods, amphibians deserve special attention because of their exposure to probably increased spectrum of microorganisms compared with ancestral aquatic fishes. Knowledge regarding the evolutionary patterns and mechanisms associated with amphibian MHC genes remains limited. The goal of the present study was to isolate MHC class I genes from two Rhacophoridae species (Rhacophorus omeimontis and Polypedates megacephalus) and examine their evolution. Results We identified 27 MHC class I alleles spanning the region from exon 2 to 4 in 38 tree frogs. The available evidence suggests that these 27 sequences all belong to classical MHC class I (MHC Ia) genes. Although several anuran species only display one MHC class Ia locus, at least two or three loci were observed in P. megacephalus and R. omeimontis, indicating that the number of MHC class Ia loci varies among anuran species. Recombination events, which mainly involve the entire exons, played an important role in shaping the genetic diversity of the 27 MHC class Ia alleles. In addition, signals of positive selection were found in Rhacophoridae MHC class Ia genes. Amino acid sites strongly suggested by program to be under positive selection basically accorded with the putative antigen binding sites deduced from crystal structure of human HLA. Phylogenetic relationships among MHC class I alleles revealed the presence of trans-species polymorphisms. Conclusions In the two Rhacophoridae species (1) there are two or three MHC class Ia loci; (2) recombination mainly occurs between the entire exons of MHC class Ia genes; (3) balancing selection, gene duplication and recombination all contribute to the diversity of MHC class Ia genes. These findings broaden our knowledge on the evolution of amphibian MHC systems

  16. MHC class Jb-restricted cell responses to Listeria monocytogenes infection.

    PubMed

    Kerksiek, K M; Pamer, E G

    1999-12-01

    Murine infection with Listeria monocytogenes induces CD8+ T cell responses specific for bacterial peptides that are presented on the infected cell surface by MHC class Ia and MHC class Ib molecules. We have used MHC tetramers to demonstrate that CD8+ T cells restricted by the H2-M3 MHC class Ib molecules constitute a substantial portion of the T cell response to L. monocytogenes infection. The in vivo size and kinetics of MHC class Ib-restricted T cell populations suggests that they play a prominent role in bacterial clearance following primary L. monocytogenes infection.

  17. The multigenic structure of the MHC locus contributes to positive selection efficiency: a role for MHC class II gene-specific restriction.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Miguel Caetano; Couceiro, Sofia; Penha-Gonçalves, Carlos

    2005-12-01

    The study of T cell positive selection in the thymus has long been focused on the specificity of the MHC-TCR interactions, making use of genetically manipulated mice that display TCR specificities or selecting peptides of limited diversity. However, little is known on the role of the MHC molecules irrespective of the peptide specificity and the implications of MHC multigenic structure in thymic positive selection have not been addressed. Here, we investigated the effect of MHC class II genetic configuration on the positive selection efficiency of naturally generated pre-selection repertoires in the mouse thymus. Analysis of positively selected thymocyte populations in MHC-congenic and -transgenic mice revealed that expression of I-E molecule in the thymic cortex increases positive selection efficiency of CD4 cells by approximately 50%. We show that increments in positive selection attributable to either the I-A and I-E genes are not due to increased MHC class II expression in the thymic cortex and are not affected by the number of MHC alleles. Collectively, our findings imply that MHC class II gene-restricted TCR specificities significantly contribute to positive selection efficiency, introducing the notion that multigenic structure of the MHC locus serves to increase selection of non-overlapping TCR repertoires.

  18. MHC2MIL: a novel multiple instance learning based method for MHC-II peptide binding prediction by considering peptide flanking region and residue positions

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Computational prediction of major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II) binding peptides can assist researchers in understanding the mechanism of immune systems and developing peptide based vaccines. Although many computational methods have been proposed, the performance of these methods are far from satisfactory. The difficulty of MHC-II peptide binding prediction comes mainly from the large length variation of binding peptides. Methods We develop a novel multiple instance learning based method called MHC2MIL, in order to predict MHC-II binding peptides. We deem each peptide in MHC2MIL as a bag, and some substrings of the peptide as the instances in the bag. Unlike previous multiple instance learning based methods that consider only instances of fixed length 9 (9 amino acids), MHC2MIL is able to deal with instances of both lengths of 9 and 11 (11 amino acids), simultaneously. As such, MHC2MIL incorporates important information in the peptide flanking region. For measuring the distances between different instances, furthermore, MHC2MIL explicitly highlights the amino acids in some important positions. Results Experimental results on a benchmark dataset have shown that, the performance of MHC2MIL is significantly improved by considering the instances of both 9 and 11 amino acids, as well as by emphasizing amino acids at key positions in the instance. The results are consistent with those reported in the literature on MHC-II peptide binding. In addition to five important positions (1, 4, 6, 7 and 9) for HLA(human leukocyte antigen, the name of MHC in Humans) DR peptide binding, we also find that position 2 may play some roles in the binding process. By using 5-fold cross validation on the benchmark dataset, MHC2MIL outperforms two state-of-the-art methods of MHC2SK and NN-align with being statistically significant, on 12 HLA DP and DQ molecules. In addition, it achieves comparable performance with MHC2SK and NN-align on 14 HLA DR molecules. MHC2MIL

  19. Regulation of experimental autoimmune uveitis in rats--separation of MHC and non-MHC gene effects.

    PubMed Central

    Hirose, S; Ogasawara, K; Natori, T; Sasamoto, Y; Ohno, S; Matsuda, H; Onoé, K

    1991-01-01

    Experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU) is an organ-specific autoimmune disease and has served as a model of certain ocular inflammatory conditions in man. The present study was aimed at separating the effects of MHC and non-MHC genes on the development of EAU in the rat. EAU-susceptible LEW (RT1l), EAU-resistant WKAH (RT1k), and WKAH.1L (RT1l) MHC congenic strain of WKAH background rats were immunized with retinal soluble antigen (S-Ag) in Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA). LEW rats showed typical EAU, while neither WKAH nor WKAH.1L congenic rats developed EAU. However, when an additional i.v. injection of Bordetella pertussis was given, all rat strains developed EAU. Furthermore, when immunized with peptide M, an 18-mer synthetic peptide, which corresponds to amino acid positions 303-320 of bovine S-Ag, and given an additional i.v. injection of B. pertussis, LEW and WKAH.1L rats developed EAU, whereas WKAH did not. When ACI (RT1avl), BUF (RT1b), LEJ (RT1j), W (RT1k), F344 (RT1lvl), BN (RT1n), NIG-III (RT1q), TO (RT1t), and SDJ (RT1u) rats were immunized with peptide M or S-Ag and then B. pertussis, all strains developed EAU by immunization with S-Ag plus B. pertussis, but only F344 and NIG-III developed EAU by immunization with peptide M. These findings suggest that susceptibility to EAU in rats is controlled by both MHC and non-MHC genes; and that in the absence of B. pertussis adjuvant, the form of disease induced by native S-Ag in FCA is governed by non-MHC gene(s). However, this effect of non-MHC gene(s) could no longer be observed when the rats were also injected with B. pertussis adjuvant at sensitization. Images Fig. 1 PMID:1747950

  20. Infection-dependent phenotypes in MHC-congenic mice are not due to MHC: can we trust congenic animals?

    PubMed Central

    McClelland, Erin E; Damjanovich, Kristy; Gardner, Kyle; Groesbeck, Zack J; Ma, Maggie S; Nibley, Megan; Richardson, Kelly S; Wilkinson, Maureen; Morrison, Linda C; Bernhardt, Paul; Potts, Wayne K

    2004-01-01

    Background Congenic strains of mice are assumed to differ only at a single gene or region of the genome. These mice have great importance in evaluating the function of genes. However, their utility depends on the maintenance of this true congenic nature. Although, accumulating evidence suggests that congenic strains suffer genetic divergence that could compromise interpretation of experimental results, this problem is usually ignored. During coinfection studies with Salmonella typhimurium and Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) in major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-congenic mice, we conducted the proper F2 controls and discovered significant differences between these F2 animals and MHC-genotype-matched P0 and F1 animals in weight gain and pathogen load. To systematically evaluate the apparent non-MHC differences in these mice, we infected all three generations (P0, F1 and F2) for 5 MHC genotypes (b/b, b/q and q/q as well as d/d, d/q, and q/q) with Salmonella and TMEV. Results Infected P0 MHC q/q congenic homozygotes lost significantly more weight (p = 0.02) and had significantly higher Salmonella (p < 0.01) and TMEV (p = 0.02) titers than the infected F2 q/q homozygotes. Neither weight nor pathogen load differences were present in sham-infected controls. Conclusions These data suggest that these strains differ for genes other than those in the MHC congenic region. The most likely explanation is that deleterious recessive mutations affecting response to infection have accumulated in the more than 40 years that this B10.Q-H-2q MHC-congenic strain has been separated from its B10-H-2b parental strain. During typical experiments with congenic strains, the phenotypes of these accumulated mutations will be falsely ascribed to the congenic gene(s). This problem likely affects any strains separated for appreciable time and while usually ignored, can be avoided with the use of F2 segregants. PMID:15245582

  1. Co-evolution of MHC class I and variable NK cell receptors in placental mammals.

    PubMed

    Guethlein, Lisbeth A; Norman, Paul J; Hilton, Hugo G; Parham, Peter

    2015-09-01

    Shaping natural killer (NK) cell functions in human immunity and reproduction are diverse killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) that recognize polymorphic MHC class I determinants. A survey of placental mammals suggests that KIRs serve as variable NK cell receptors only in certain primates and artiodactyls. Divergence of the functional and variable KIRs in primates and artiodactyls predates placental reproduction. Among artiodactyls, cattle but not pigs have diverse KIRs. Catarrhine (humans, apes, and Old World monkeys) and platyrrhine (New World monkeys) primates, but not prosimians, have diverse KIRs. Platyrrhine and catarrhine systems of KIR and MHC class I are highly diverged, but within the catarrhines, a stepwise co-evolution of MHC class I and KIR is discerned. In Old World monkeys, diversification focuses on MHC-A and MHC-B and their cognate lineage II KIR. With evolution of C1-bearing MHC-C from MHC-B, as informed by orangutan, the focus changes to MHC-C and its cognate lineage III KIR. Evolution of C2 from C1 and fixation of MHC-C drove further elaboration of MHC-C-specific KIR, as exemplified by chimpanzee. In humans, the evolutionary trajectory changes again. Emerging from reorganization of the KIR locus and selective attenuation of KIR avidity for MHC class I are the functionally distinctive KIR A and KIR B haplotypes.

  2. Co-evolution of MHC class I and variable NK cell receptors in placental mammals

    PubMed Central

    Guethlein, Lisbeth A.; Norman, Paul J.; Hilton, Hugo G.; Parham, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Summary Shaping natural killer (NK) cell functions in human immunity and reproduction are diverse killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) that recognize polymorphic MHC class I determinants. A survey of placental mammals suggests KIRs serve as variable NK cell receptors only in certain primates and artiodactyls. Divergence of functional and variable KIRs in primates and artiodactyls predates placental reproduction. Among artiodactyls, cattle but not pigs have diverse KIRs. Catarrhine (humans, apes, and Old World monkeys) and platyrrhine (New World monkeys) primates, but not prosimians, have diverse KIRs. Platyrrhine and catarrhine systems of KIR and MHC class I are highly diverged, but within the catarrhines a stepwise co-evolution of MHC class I and KIRs is discerned. In Old World monkeys, diversification focuses on MHC-A and MHC-B and their cognate lineage II KIR. With evolution of C1-bearing MHC-C from MHC-B, as informed by orangutan, the focus changes to MHC-C and its cognate lineage III KIR. Evolution of C2 from C1 and fixation of MHC-C, drove further elaboration of MHC-C-specific KIRs, as exemplified by chimpanzee. In humans, the evolutionary trajectory changes again. Emerging from reorganization of the KIR locus and selective attenuation of KIR avidity for MHC class I are the functionally distinctive KIR A and KIR B haplotypes. PMID:26284483

  3. MHC-based patterns of social and extra-pair mate choice in the Seychelles warbler

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, David S; Komdeur, Jan; Burke, Terry; von Schantz, Torbjörn

    2005-01-01

    The existence and nature of indirect genetic benefits to mate choice remain contentious. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes, which play a vital role in determining pathogen resistance in vertebrates, may be the link between mate choice and the genetic inheritance of vigour in offspring. Studies have shown that MHC-dependent mate choice can occur in mammal and fish species, but little work has focused on the role of the MHC in birds. We tested for MHC-dependent mating patterns in the Seychelles warbler (Acrocephalus sechellensis). There was no influence of MHC class I exon 3 variation on the choice of social mate. However, females were more likely to obtain extra-pair paternity (EPP) when their social mate had low MHC diversity, and the MHC diversity of the extra-pair male was significantly higher than that of the cuckolded male. There was no evidence that females were mating disassortatively, or that they preferred males with an intermediate number of MHC bands. Overall, the results are consistent with the ‘good genes’ rather than the ‘genetic compatibility’ hypothesis. As female choice will result in offspring of higher MHC diversity, MHC-dependent EPP may provide indirect benefits in the Seychelles warbler if survival is positively linked to MHC diversity. PMID:15870038

  4. MHC genotype predicts mate choice in the ring-necked pheasant Phasianus colchicus.

    PubMed

    Baratti, M; Dessì-Fulgheri, F; Ambrosini, R; Bonisoli-Alquati, A; Caprioli, M; Goti, E; Matteo, A; Monnanni, R; Ragionieri, L; Ristori, E; Romano, M; Rubolini, D; Scialpi, A; Saino, N

    2012-08-01

    Females of several vertebrate species selectively mate with males on the basis of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes. As androgen-mediated maternal effects have long-lasting consequences for the adult phenotype, both mating and reproductive success may depend on the combined effect of MHC genotype and exposure to androgens during early ontogeny. We studied how MHC-based mate choice in ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) was influenced by an experimental in ovo testosterone (T) increase. There was no conclusive evidence of in ovo T treatment differentially affecting mate choice in relation to MHC genotype. However, females avoided mating with males with a wholly different MHC genotype compared with males sharing at least one MHC allele. Females also tended to avoid mating with MHC-identical males, though not significantly so. These findings suggest that female pheasants preferred males with intermediate MHC dissimilarity. Male MHC heterozygosity or diversity did not predict the expression of ornaments or male dominance rank. Thus, MHC-based mating preferences in the ring-necked pheasant do not seem to be mediated by ornaments' expression and may have evolved mainly to reduce the costs of high heterozygosity at MHC loci for the progeny, such as increased risk of autoimmune diseases or disruption of coadapted gene pools.

  5. Role of MHC class Ib molecule, H2-M3 in host immunity against tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Mir, Shabir Ahmad; Sharma, Sadhna

    2013-08-20

    The MHC class I family comprises both classical (class Ia) and non-classical (class Ib) members. While the prime function of classical MHC class I molecules (MHC class Ia) is to present peptide antigens to pathogen-specific cytotoxic T cells, non-classical MHC-I (MHC class Ib) antigens perform diverse array of functions in both innate and adaptive immunity. Vaccines against intracellular pathogens such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis need to induce strong cellular immune responses. Recent studies have shown that MHC class I molecules play an important role in the protective immune response to M. tuberculosis infection. Both MHC Ia-restricted and MHC class Ib-restricted M. tuberculosis -reactive CD8(+) T cells have been identified in humans and mice, but their relative contributions to immunity is still uncertain. Unlike MHC class Ia-restricted CD8(+) T cells, MHC class Ib-restricted CD8(+) T cells are constitutively activated in naive animals and respond rapidly to infection challenge, hence filling the temporal gap between innate and adaptive immunity. The present review article summarizes the general host immunity against M. tuberculosis infection highlighting the possible role of MHC class Ib molecule, H2-M3 and their ligands (N-formylated peptides) in protection against tuberculosis.

  6. Interaction of TAPBPR, a tapasin homolog, with MHC-I molecules promotes peptide editing

    PubMed Central

    Morozov, Giora I.; Zhao, Huaying; Mage, Michael G.; Boyd, Lisa F.; Jiang, Jiansheng; Dolan, Michael A.; Venna, Ramesh; Norcross, Michael A.; McMurtrey, Curtis P.; Hildebrand, William; Schuck, Peter; Natarajan, Kannan; Margulies, David H.

    2016-01-01

    Peptide loading of major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) molecules is central to antigen presentation, self-tolerance, and CD8+ T-cell activation. TAP binding protein, related (TAPBPR), a widely expressed tapasin homolog, is not part of the classical MHC-I peptide-loading complex (PLC). Using recombinant MHC-I molecules, we show that TAPBPR binds HLA-A*02:01 and several other MHC-I molecules that are either peptide-free or loaded with low-affinity peptides. Fluorescence polarization experiments establish that TAPBPR augments peptide binding by MHC-I. The TAPBPR/MHC-I interaction is reversed by specific peptides, related to their affinity. Mutational and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) studies confirm the structural similarities of TAPBPR with tapasin. These results support a role of TAPBPR in stabilizing peptide-receptive conformation(s) of MHC-I, permitting peptide editing. PMID:26869717

  7. Interaction of TAPBPR, a tapasin homolog, with MHC-I molecules promotes peptide editing

    SciTech Connect

    Morozov, Giora I.; Zhao, Huaying; Mage, Michael G.; Boyd, Lisa F.; Jiang, Jiansheng; Dolan, Michael A.; Venna, Ramesh; Norcross, Michael A.; McMurtrey, Curtis P.; Hildebrand, William; Schuck, Peter; Natarajan, Kannan; Margulies, David H.

    2016-02-11

    Peptide loading of major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) molecules is central to antigen presentation, self-tolerance, and CD8+ T-cell activation. TAP binding protein, related (TAPBPR), a widely expressed tapasin homolog, is not part of the classical MHC-I peptide-loading complex (PLC). Using recombinant MHC-I molecules, we show that TAPBPR binds HLA-A*02:01 and several other MHC-I molecules that are either peptide-free or loaded with low-affinity peptides. Fluorescence polarization experiments establish that TAPBPR augments peptide binding by MHC-I. The TAPBPR/MHC-I interaction is reversed by specific peptides, related to their affinity. Mutational and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) studies confirm the structural similarities of TAPBPR with tapasin. These results support a role of TAPBPR in stabilizing peptide-receptive conformation(s) of MHC-I, permitting peptide editing.

  8. Lake Superior, Duluth, MN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    This view shows the west end of Lake Superior and Duluth, MN (47.0N, 91.0W). Portions of Minnesota, Michigan and Ontario, Canada are in the scene. The Duluth metropolitan area is at the west end of the lake. The discoloration plume in the water at Duluth is the result of tailings from the iron ore smelters that process the iron ore from the nearby open pit mines seen near the upper left corner of the photo.

  9. Experience of Routine Live-birth Screening for Galactosaemia in a British Hospital, with Emphasis on Heterozygote Detection

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Graham; Wilcock, A. Ross; Goldberg, David M.

    1972-01-01

    Results are reported of a screening programme for galactosaemia covering a period of 2½ years and 6415 births. The gene frequency for galactosaemia estimated from the data of the screening programme was 0·002. This conflicted with the known live-birth incidence of at least 1: 50,000 during this same period. 2 of the 4 galactosaemic infants concerned died under circumstances that were preventable had they been screened at birth. The need to screen all sick infants for galactosaemia is emphasized, as is the requirement for reliable information on its incidence in Great Britain. The screening test employed (Beutler and Baluda, 1966a) seemed appropriate for this purpose. It was simple to perform and apparently accurate in galactosaemic infants. Its accuracy in detecting heterozygotes is uncertain. This test should be available in all hospitals receiving sick neonates. PMID:4401641

  10. Evaporation From Lake Superior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spence, C.; Blanken, P.; Hedstrom, N.; Leshkevich, G.; Fortin, V.; Charpentier, D.; Haywood, H.

    2009-05-01

    Evaporation is a critical component of the water balance of each of the Laurentian Great Lakes, and understanding the magnitude and physical controls of evaporative water losses are important for several reasons. Recently, low water levels in Lakes Superior and Michigan/Huron have had socioeconomic, ecological, and even meteorological impacts (e.g. water quality and quantity, transportation, invasive species, recreation, etc.). The recent low water levels may be due to increased evaporation, but this is not known as operational evaporation estimates are currently calculated as the residual of water or heat budgets. Perhaps surprisingly, almost nothing is known about evaporation dynamics from Lake Superior and few direct measurements of evaporation have been made from any of the Laurentian Great Lakes. This research is the first to attempt to directly measure evaporation from Lake Superior by deploying eddy covariance instrumentation. Results of evaporation rates, their patterns and controlling mechanisms will be presented. The direct measurements of evaporation are used with concurrent satellite and climate model data to extrapolate evaporation measurements across the entire lake. This knowledge could improve predictions of how climate change may impact the lake's water budget and subsequently how the water in the lake is managed.

  11. MHC class II-assortative mate choice in European badgers (Meles meles).

    PubMed

    Sin, Yung Wa; Annavi, Geetha; Newman, Chris; Buesching, Christina; Burke, Terry; Macdonald, David W; Dugdale, Hannah L

    2015-06-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) plays a crucial role in the immune system, and in some species, it is a target by which individuals choose mates to optimize the fitness of their offspring, potentially mediated by olfactory cues. Under the genetic compatibility hypothesis, individuals are predicted to choose mates with compatible MHC alleles, to increase the fitness of their offspring. Studies of MHC-based mate choice in wild mammals are under-represented currently, and few investigate more than one class of MHC genes. We investigated mate choice based on the compatibility of MHC class I and II genes in a wild population of European badgers (Meles meles). We also investigated mate choice based on microsatellite-derived pairwise relatedness, to attempt to distinguish MHC-specific effects from genomewide effects. We found MHC-assortative mating, based on MHC class II, but not class I genes. Parent pairs had smaller MHC class II DRB amino acid distances and smaller functional distances than expected from random pairings. When we separated the analyses into within-group and neighbouring-group parent pairs, only neighbouring-group pairs showed MHC-assortative mating, due to similarity at MHC class II loci. Our randomizations showed no evidence of genomewide-based inbreeding, based on 35 microsatellite loci; MHC class II similarity was therefore the apparent target of mate choice. We propose that MHC-assortative mate choice may be a local adaptation to endemic pathogens, and this assortative mate choice may have contributed to the low MHC genetic diversity in this population.

  12. One-Pot, Mix-and-Read Peptide-MHC Tetramers

    PubMed Central

    Leisner, Christian; Loeth, Nina; Lamberth, Kasper; Justesen, Sune; Sylvester-Hvid, Christina; Schmidt, Esben G.; Claesson, Mogens; Buus, Soren; Stryhn, Anette

    2008-01-01

    Background Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes (CTL) recognize complexes of peptide ligands and Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) class I molecules presented at the surface of Antigen Presenting Cells (APC). Detection and isolation of CTL's are of importance for research on CTL immunity, and development of vaccines and adoptive immune therapy. Peptide-MHC tetramers have become important reagents for detection and enumeration of specific CTL's. Conventional peptide-MHC-tetramer production involves recombinant MHC production, in vitro refolding, biotinylation and tetramerization; each step followed by various biochemical steps such as chromatographic purification, concentration etc. Such cumbersome production protocols have limited dissemination and restricted availability of peptide-MHC tetramers effectively precluding large-scale screening strategies involving many different peptide-MHC tetramers. Methodology/Principal Findings We have developed an approach whereby any given tetramer specificity can be produced within 2 days with very limited effort and hands-on time. The strategy is based on the isolation of correctly oxidized, in vivo biotinylated recombinant MHC I heavy chain (HC). Such biotinylated MHC I HC molecules can be refolded in vitro, tetramerized with streptavidin, and used for specific T cell staining-all in a one-pot reaction without any intervening purification steps. Conclusions/Significance We have developed an efficient “one-pot, mix-and-read” strategy for peptide-MHC tetramer generation, and demonstrated specific T cell straining comparable to a commercially available MHC-tetramer. Here, seven peptide-MHC tetramers representing four different human MHC (HLA) class I proteins have been generated. The technique should be readily extendable to any binding peptide and pre-biotinylated MHC (at this time we have over 40 different pre-biotinylated HLA proteins). It is simple, robust, and versatile technique with a very broad application potential as it

  13. Visualizing Chromosome Mosaicism and Detecting Ethnic Outliers by the Method of “Rare” Heterozygotes and Homozygotes (RHH)

    PubMed Central

    McGinnis, Ralph E.; Deloukas, Panos; McLaren, William M.; Inouye, Michael

    2010-01-01

    We describe a novel approach for evaluating SNP genotypes of a genome-wide association scan to identify “ethnic outlier” subjects whose ethnicity is different or admixed compared to most other subjects in the genotyped sample set. Each ethnic outlier is detected by counting a genomic excess of “rare” heterozygotes and/or homozygotes whose frequencies are low (<1%) within genotypes of the sample set being evaluated. This method also enables simple and striking visualization of non-Caucasian chromosomal DNA segments interspersed within the chromosomes of ethnically admixed individuals. We show that this visualization of the mosaic structure of admixed human chromosomes gives results similar to another visualization method (SABER) but with much less computational time and burden. We also show that other methods for detecting ethnic outliers are enhanced by evaluating only genomic regions of visualized admixture rather than diluting outlier ancestry by evaluating the entire genome considered in aggregate. We have validated our method in the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium (WTCCC) study of 17,000 subjects as well as in HapMap subjects and simulated outliers of known ethnicity and admixture. The method's ability to precisely delineate chromosomal segments of non-Caucasian ethnicity has enabled us to demonstrate previously unreported non-Caucasian admixture in two HapMap Caucasian parents and in a number of WTCCC subjects. Its sensitive detection of ethnic outliers and simple visual discrimination of discrete chromosomal segments of different ethnicity implies that this method of rare heterozygotes and homozygotes (RHH) is likely to have diverse and important applications in humans and other species. PMID:20211853

  14. Wave function analysis of MHC-peptide interactions.

    PubMed

    Cárdenas, Constanza; Obregón, Mateo; Balbín, Alejandro; Villaveces, José Luis; Patarroyo, Manuel E

    2007-01-01

    We have carried out an analysis of the wave function data for three MHC-peptide complexes: HLA-DRbeta1*0101-HA, HLA-DRbeta1*0401-HA and HLA-DRbeta1*0401-Col. We used quantum chemistry computer programs to generate wave function coefficients for these complexes, from which we obtained both molecular and atomic orbital data for both pocket and peptide amino acids within each pocket region. From these discriminated data, interaction molecular orbitals (IMOs) were identified as those with large and similar atomic orbital coefficient contributions from both pocket and peptide amino acids. The present results correlate well with our previous research where only electrostatic moments were used to explore molecular component interactions. Furthermore, we show a quantum chemical methodology to produce more fine-grained results concerning amino acid behavior in the MHC-peptide interaction.

  15. Analysis of Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) Immunopeptidomes Using Mass Spectrometry*

    PubMed Central

    Caron, Etienne; Kowalewski, Daniel J.; Chiek Koh, Ching; Sturm, Theo; Schuster, Heiko; Aebersold, Ruedi

    2015-01-01

    The myriad of peptides presented at the cell surface by class I and class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules are referred to as the immunopeptidome and are of great importance for basic and translational science. For basic science, the immunopeptidome is a critical component for understanding the immune system; for translational science, exact knowledge of the immunopeptidome can directly fuel and guide the development of next-generation vaccines and immunotherapies against autoimmunity, infectious diseases, and cancers. In this mini-review, we summarize established isolation techniques as well as emerging mass spectrometry-based platforms (i.e. SWATH-MS) to identify and quantify MHC-associated peptides. We also highlight selected biological applications and discuss important current technical limitations that need to be solved to accelerate the development of this field. PMID:26628741

  16. Exhaustive proteome mining for functional MHC-I ligands.

    PubMed

    Koch, Christian P; Perna, Anna M; Weissmüller, Sabrina; Bauer, Stefanie; Pillong, Max; Baleeiro, Renato B; Reutlinger, Michael; Folkers, Gerd; Walden, Peter; Wrede, Paul; Hiss, Jan A; Waibler, Zoe; Schneider, Gisbert

    2013-09-20

    We present the development and application of a new machine-learning approach to exhaustively and reliably identify major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) ligands among all 20(8) octapeptides and in genome-derived proteomes of Mus musculus , influenza A H3N8, and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). Focusing on murine H-2K(b), we identified potent octapeptides exhibiting direct MHC-I binding and stabilization on the surface of TAP-deficient RMA-S cells. Computationally identified VSV-derived peptides induced CD8(+) T-cell proliferation after VSV-infection of mice. The study demonstrates that high-level machine-learning models provide a unique access to rationally designed peptides and a promising approach toward "reverse vaccinology".

  17. Analysis of Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) Immunopeptidomes Using Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Caron, Etienne; Kowalewski, Daniel J; Chiek Koh, Ching; Sturm, Theo; Schuster, Heiko; Aebersold, Ruedi

    2015-12-01

    The myriad of peptides presented at the cell surface by class I and class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules are referred to as the immunopeptidome and are of great importance for basic and translational science. For basic science, the immunopeptidome is a critical component for understanding the immune system; for translational science, exact knowledge of the immunopeptidome can directly fuel and guide the development of next-generation vaccines and immunotherapies against autoimmunity, infectious diseases, and cancers. In this mini-review, we summarize established isolation techniques as well as emerging mass spectrometry-based platforms (i.e. SWATH-MS) to identify and quantify MHC-associated peptides. We also highlight selected biological applications and discuss important current technical limitations that need to be solved to accelerate the development of this field.

  18. Assembly of MHC class I molecules within the endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yinan; Williams, David B

    2006-01-01

    MHC class I molecules bind cytosolically derived peptides within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and present them at the cell surface to cytotoxic T cells. A major focus of our laboratory has been to understand the functions of the diverse proteins involved in the intracellular assembly of MHC class I molecules. These include the molecular chaperones calnexin and calreticulin, which enhance the proper folding and subunit assembly of class I molecules and also retain assembly intermediates within the ER; ERp57, a thiol oxidoreductase that promotes heavy chain disulfide formation and proper assembly of the peptide loading complex; tapasin, which recruits class I molecules to the TAP peptide transporter and enhances the loading of high affinity peptide ligands; and Bap31, which is involved in clustering assembled class I molecules at ER exit sites for export along the secretory pathway. This review describes our contributions to elucidating the functions of these proteins; the combined effort of many dedicated students and postdoctoral fellows.

  19. Lake Superior, Deluth, MN

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1973-06-22

    SL2-05-454 (22 June 1973) --- This view shows the west end of Lake Superior and Duluth, MN (47.0N, 91.0W). Portions of Minnesota, Michigan and Ontario, Canada are in the scene. The Duluth metropolitan area is at the west end of the lake. The discoloration plume in the water at Duluth is the result of tailings from the iron ore smelters that process the iron ore from the nearby open pit mines seen near the upper left corner of the photo. Photo credit: NASA

  20. Mechanistic understanding and significance of small peptides interaction with MHC class II molecules for therapeutic applications.

    PubMed

    Afridi, Saifullah; Hoessli, Daniel C; Hameed, Muhammad Waqar

    2016-07-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules are expressed by antigen-presenting cells and stimulate CD4(+) T cells, which initiate humoral immune responses. Over the past decade, interest has developed to therapeutically impact the peptides to be exposed to CD4(+) T cells. Structurally diverse small molecules have been discovered that act on the endogenous peptide exchanger HLA-DM by different mechanisms. Exogenously delivered peptides are highly susceptible to proteolytic cleavage in vivo; however, it is only when successfully incorporated into stable MHC II-peptide complexes that these peptides can induce an immune response. Many of the small molecules so far discovered have highlighted the molecular interactions mediating the formation of MHC II-peptide complexes. As potential drugs, these small molecules open new therapeutic approaches to modulate MHC II antigen presentation pathways and influence the quality and specificity of immune responses. This review briefly introduces how CD4(+) T cells recognize antigen when displayed by MHC class II molecules, as well as MHC class II-peptide-loading pathways, structural basis of peptide binding and stabilization of the peptide-MHC complexes. We discuss the concept of MHC-loading enhancers, how they could modulate immune responses and how these molecules have been identified. Finally, we suggest mechanisms whereby MHC-loading enhancers could act upon MHC class II molecules.

  1. TAPBPR and tapasin binding to MHC class I is mutually exclusive

    PubMed Central

    Hermann, Clemens; Strittmatter, Lisa M; Deane, Janet E; Boyle, Louise H

    2013-01-01

    The loading of peptide antigens onto MHC class I molecules is a highly controlled process in which the MHC class I dedicated chaperone tapasin is a key player. We recently identified a tapasin related molecule, TAPBPR, as an additional component in the MHC class I antigen presentation pathway. Here we show that the amino acid residues important for tapasin to interact with MHC class I are highly conserved on TAPBPR. We identify specific residues in the N-terminal and C-terminal domains of TAPBPR involved in associating with MHC class I. Furthermore, we demonstrate that residues on MHC class I crucial for its association with tapasin, such as T134, are also essential for its interaction with TAPBPR. Taken together, the data indicate that TAPBPR and tapasin bind in a similar orientation to the same face of MHC class I. In the absence of tapasin, the association of MHC class I with TAPBPR is increased. However, in the absence of TAPBPR, the interaction between MHC class I and tapasin does not increase. In light of our findings, previous data determining the function of tapasin in the MHC class I antigen processing and presentation pathway must be re-evaluated. PMID:24163410

  2. Condition-dependent mate choice and a reproductive disadvantage for MHC-divergent male tiger salamanders.

    PubMed

    Bos, David H; Williams, Rod N; Gopurenko, David; Bulut, Zafer; DeWoody, J Andrew

    2009-08-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) alleles likely have adaptive value because of overdominance, in which case MHC heterozygous individuals have increased fitness relative to homozygotes. Because of this potential benefit, the evolution of sexual reproduction between MHC-divergent individuals (i.e. negative assortative mating, NAM) may be favoured. However, the strongest evidence for MHC-based NAM comes from inbred animals, and context-dependent mating preferences have rarely been evaluated although they often occur in nature. We assessed the extent MHC-based mating preferences among wild tiger salamanders (Ambystoma tigrinum) using multiple molecular approaches. We genotyped 102 adults and 864 larvae from 36 breeding trials at both microsatellite and MHC loci. Parentage analysis revealed that reproductive success among males was positively associated with increased tail length and that with respect to the focal female, MHC-similar males sired a significantly higher number of offspring than more dissimilar males. This trend was consistent, even under context-dependent scenarios that favour traditional MHC-based NAM. These results suggest that the most MHC-divergent males may be at a reproductive disadvantage in pairwise breeding trials. Our data add to a growing body of evidence that suggests where it exists, MHC-based choice is probably dynamic and mediated by many factors that vary in the wild, notably signals from other indicator traits and by the quality and quantity of potential mates.

  3. A geometric and algebraic view of MHC-peptide complexes and their binding properties

    PubMed Central

    Cano, Pedro; Fan, Bo

    2001-01-01

    Background Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules present peptides to T lymphocytes. It is of critical biological and medical importance to elucidate how different MHC alleles bind to a specific set of peptides. Method In this study we approach the problem from the algebraic and geometric point of view to analyse MHC-peptide-binding data accumulated over the years. The space of sequence properties (having a particular amino acid at a particular position) of MHC-peptide complexes conveys a geometric structure to these sequence properties in the form of a distance measure, which reveals the peptide binding requirements imposed by the polymorphic sequence characteristics of the MHC molecules. Results Comparison of the results of this study with our current knowledge of MHC-peptide binding constraints leads to robust agreement. This study provides the tools to quantitate these binding constraints giving a more detailed account of them and opening the way to make peptide binding predictions for MHC alleles for which there is no peptide elution data. In addition, the geometric representation of MHC-peptide complex sequence data gives a distance measure between amino acids in reference to their ability to meet MHC binding requirements. Conclusions The algebraic and geometric view of amino acid sequences provides a theoretical framework to study the function of proteins when there is enough variation in this sequence to account for the variation in their function, as it is the case with MHC molecules in regard to their ability to present peptides. PMID:11472639

  4. Spatially variable coevolution between a haemosporidian parasite and the MHC of a widely distributed passerine

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Matthew R; Cheviron, Zachary A; Carling, Matthew D

    2015-01-01

    The environment shapes host–parasite interactions, but how environmental variation affects the diversity and composition of parasite-defense genes of hosts is unresolved. In vertebrates, the highly variable major histocompatibility complex (MHC) gene family plays an essential role in the adaptive immune system by recognizing pathogen infection and initiating the cellular immune response. Investigating MHC-parasite associations across heterogeneous landscapes may elucidate the role of spatially fluctuating selection in the maintenance of high levels of genetic variation at the MHC. We studied patterns of association between an avian haemosporidian blood parasite and the MHC of rufous-collared sparrows (Zonotrichia capensis) that inhabit environments with widely varying haemosporidian infection prevalence in the Peruvian Andes. MHC diversity peaked in populations with high infection prevalence, although intra-individual MHC diversity was not associated with infection status. MHC nucleotide and protein sequences associated with infection absence tended to be rare, consistent with negative frequency-dependent selection. We found an MHC variant associated with a ∽26% decrease in infection probability at middle elevations (1501–3100 m) where prevalence was highest. Several other variants were associated with a significant increase in infection probability in low haemosporidian prevalence environments, which can be interpreted as susceptibility or quantitative resistance. Our study highlights important challenges in understanding MHC evolution in natural systems, but may point to a role of negative frequency-dependent selection and fluctuating spatial selection in the evolution of Z. capensisMHC. PMID:25798222

  5. Neuronal MHC Class I Expression Is Regulated by Activity Driven Calcium Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Yaqin; Liu, Jiane; Miao, Fengqin; Zhang, Jianqiong

    2015-01-01

    MHC class I (MHC-I) molecules are important components of the immune system. Recently MHC-I have been reported to also play important roles in brain development and synaptic plasticity. In this study, we examine the molecular mechanism(s) underlying activity-dependent MHC-I expression using hippocampal neurons. Here we report that neuronal expression level of MHC-I is dynamically regulated during hippocampal development after birth in vivo. Kainic acid (KA) treatment significantly increases the expression of MHC-I in cultured hippocampal neurons in vitro, suggesting that MHC-I expression is regulated by neuronal activity. In addition, KA stimulation decreased the expression of pre- and post-synaptic proteins. This down-regulation is prevented by addition of an MHC-I antibody to KA treated neurons. Further studies demonstrate that calcium-dependent protein kinase C (PKC) is important in relaying KA simulation activation signals to up-regulated MHC-I expression. This signaling cascade relies on activation of the MAPK pathway, which leads to increased phosphorylation of CREB and NF-κB p65 while also enhancing the expression of IRF-1. Together, these results suggest that expression of MHC-I in hippocampal neurons is driven by Ca2+ regulated activation of the MAPK signaling transduction cascade. PMID:26263390

  6. Automated benchmarking of peptide-MHC class I binding predictions.

    PubMed

    Trolle, Thomas; Metushi, Imir G; Greenbaum, Jason A; Kim, Yohan; Sidney, John; Lund, Ole; Sette, Alessandro; Peters, Bjoern; Nielsen, Morten

    2015-07-01

    Numerous in silico methods predicting peptide binding to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules have been developed over the last decades. However, the multitude of available prediction tools makes it non-trivial for the end-user to select which tool to use for a given task. To provide a solid basis on which to compare different prediction tools, we here describe a framework for the automated benchmarking of peptide-MHC class I binding prediction tools. The framework runs weekly benchmarks on data that are newly entered into the Immune Epitope Database (IEDB), giving the public access to frequent, up-to-date performance evaluations of all participating tools. To overcome potential selection bias in the data included in the IEDB, a strategy was implemented that suggests a set of peptides for which different prediction methods give divergent predictions as to their binding capability. Upon experimental binding validation, these peptides entered the benchmark study. The benchmark has run for 15 weeks and includes evaluation of 44 datasets covering 17 MHC alleles and more than 4000 peptide-MHC binding measurements. Inspection of the results allows the end-user to make educated selections between participating tools. Of the four participating servers, NetMHCpan performed the best, followed by ANN, SMM and finally ARB. Up-to-date performance evaluations of each server can be found online at http://tools.iedb.org/auto_bench/mhci/weekly. All prediction tool developers are invited to participate in the benchmark. Sign-up instructions are available at http://tools.iedb.org/auto_bench/mhci/join. mniel@cbs.dtu.dk or bpeters@liai.org Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Selection maintains MHC diversity through a natural population bottleneck.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Matthew K; Piertney, Stuart B

    2012-07-01

    A perceived consequence of a population bottleneck is the erosion of genetic diversity and concomitant reduction in individual fitness and evolutionary potential. Although reduced genetic variation associated with demographic perturbation has been amply demonstrated for neutral molecular markers, the effective management of genetic resources in natural populations is hindered by a lack of understanding of how adaptive genetic variation will respond to population fluctuations, given these are affected by selection as well as drift. Here, we demonstrate that selection counters drift to maintain polymorphism at a major histocompatibility complex (MHC) locus through a population bottleneck in an inbred island population of water voles. Before and after the bottleneck, MHC allele frequencies were close to balancing selection equilibrium but became skewed by drift when the population size was critically low. MHC heterozygosity generally conformed to Hardy-Weinberg expectations except in one generation during the population recovery where there was a significant excess of heterozygous genotypes, which simulations ascribed to strong differential MHC-dependent survival. Low allelic diversity and highly skewed frequency distributions at microsatellite loci indicated potent genetic drift due to a strong founder affect and/or previous population bottlenecks. This study is a real-time examination of the predictions of fundamental evolutionary theory in low genetic diversity situations. The findings highlight that conservation efforts to maintain the genetic health and evolutionary potential of natural populations should consider the genetic basis for fitness-related traits, and how such adaptive genetic diversity will vary in response to both the demographic fluctuations and the effects of selection.

  8. Automated benchmarking of peptide-MHC class I binding predictions

    PubMed Central

    Trolle, Thomas; Metushi, Imir G.; Greenbaum, Jason A.; Kim, Yohan; Sidney, John; Lund, Ole; Sette, Alessandro; Peters, Bjoern; Nielsen, Morten

    2015-01-01

    Motivation: Numerous in silico methods predicting peptide binding to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules have been developed over the last decades. However, the multitude of available prediction tools makes it non-trivial for the end-user to select which tool to use for a given task. To provide a solid basis on which to compare different prediction tools, we here describe a framework for the automated benchmarking of peptide-MHC class I binding prediction tools. The framework runs weekly benchmarks on data that are newly entered into the Immune Epitope Database (IEDB), giving the public access to frequent, up-to-date performance evaluations of all participating tools. To overcome potential selection bias in the data included in the IEDB, a strategy was implemented that suggests a set of peptides for which different prediction methods give divergent predictions as to their binding capability. Upon experimental binding validation, these peptides entered the benchmark study. Results: The benchmark has run for 15 weeks and includes evaluation of 44 datasets covering 17 MHC alleles and more than 4000 peptide-MHC binding measurements. Inspection of the results allows the end-user to make educated selections between participating tools. Of the four participating servers, NetMHCpan performed the best, followed by ANN, SMM and finally ARB. Availability and implementation: Up-to-date performance evaluations of each server can be found online at http://tools.iedb.org/auto_bench/mhci/weekly. All prediction tool developers are invited to participate in the benchmark. Sign-up instructions are available at http://tools.iedb.org/auto_bench/mhci/join. Contact: mniel@cbs.dtu.dk or bpeters@liai.org Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:25717196

  9. Can Selective MHC Downregulation Explain the Specificity and Genetic Diversity of NK Cell Receptors?

    PubMed Central

    Carrillo-Bustamante, Paola; Kesmir, Can; de Boer, Rob J.

    2015-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells express inhibiting receptors (iNKRs), which specifically bind MHC-I molecules on the surface of healthy cells. When the expression of MHC-I on the cell surface decreases, which might occur during certain viral infections and cancer, iNKRs lose inhibiting signals and the infected cells become target for NK cell activation (missing-self detection). Although the detection of MHC-I deficient cells can be achieved by conserved receptor-ligand interactions, several iNKRs are encoded by gene families with a remarkable genetic diversity, containing many haplotypes varying in gene content and allelic polymorphism. So far, the biological function of this expansion within the NKR cluster has remained poorly understood. Here, we investigate whether the evolution of diverse iNKRs genes can be driven by a specific viral immunoevasive mechanism: selective MHC downregulation. Several viruses, including EBV, CMV, and HIV, decrease the expression of MHC-I to escape from T cell responses. This downregulation does not always affect all MHC loci in the same way, as viruses target particular MHC molecules. To study the selection pressure of selective MHC downregulation on iNKRs, we have developed an agent-based model simulating an evolutionary scenario of hosts infected with herpes-like viruses, which are able to selectively downregulate the expression of MHC-I molecules on the cell surface. We show that iNKRs evolve specificity and, depending on the similarity of MHC alleles within each locus and the differences between the loci, they can specialize to a particular MHC-I locus. The easier it is to classify an MHC allele to its locus, the lower the required diversity of the NKRs. Thus, the diversification of the iNKR cluster depends on the locus specific MHC structure. PMID:26136746

  10. MHC Class II haplotypes of Colombian Amerindian tribes

    PubMed Central

    Yunis, Juan J.; Yunis, Edmond J.; Yunis, Emilio

    2013-01-01

    We analyzed 1041 individuals belonging to 17 Amerindian tribes of Colombia, Chimila, Bari and Tunebo (Chibcha linguistic family), Embera, Waunana (Choco linguistic family), Puinave and Nukak (Maku-Puinave linguistic families), Cubeo, Guanano, Tucano, Desano and Piratapuyo (Tukano linguistic family), Guahibo and Guayabero (Guayabero Linguistic Family), Curripaco and Piapoco (Arawak linguistic family) and Yucpa (Karib linguistic family). for MHC class II haplotypes (HLA-DRB1, DQA1, DQB1). Approximately 90% of the MHC class II haplotypes found among these tribes are haplotypes frequently encountered in other Amerindian tribes. Nonetheless, striking differences were observed among Chibcha and non-Chibcha speaking tribes. The DRB1*04:04, DRB1*04:11, DRB1*09:01 carrying haplotypes were frequently found among non-Chibcha speaking tribes, while the DRB1*04:07 haplotype showed significant frequencies among Chibcha speaking tribes, and only marginal frequencies among non-Chibcha speaking tribes. Our results suggest that the differences in MHC class II haplotype frequency found among Chibcha and non-Chibcha speaking tribes could be due to genetic differentiation in Mesoamerica of the ancestral Amerindian population into Chibcha and non-Chibcha speaking populations before they entered into South America. PMID:23885196

  11. Deconstructing the peptide-MHC specificity of T cell recognition

    PubMed Central

    Birnbaum, Michael E.; Mendoza, Juan L.; Sethi, Dhruv K.; Dong, Shen; Glanville, Jacob; Dobbins, Jessica; Özkan, Engin; Davis, Mark M.; Wucherpfennig, Kai W.; Garcia, K. Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Summary In order to survey a universe of MHC-presented peptide antigens whose numbers greatly exceed the diversity of the T cell repertoire, T cell receptors (TCRs) are thought to be cross-reactive. However, the nature and extent of TCR cross-reactivity has not been conclusively measured experimentally. We developed a system to identify MHC-presented peptide ligands by combining TCR selection of highly diverse yeast-displayed peptide-MHC libraries with deep sequencing. While we identified hundreds of peptides reactive with each of five different mouse and human TCRs, the selected peptides possessed TCR recognition motifs that bore a close resemblance to their known antigens. This structural conservation of the TCR interaction surface allowed us to exploit deep sequencing information to computationally identify activating microbial and self-ligands for human autoimmune TCRs. The mechanistic basis of TCR cross-reactivity described here enables effective surveillance of diverse self and foreign antigens, but without necessitating degenerate recognition of non-homologous peptides. PMID:24855945

  12. A female signal reflects MHC genotype in a social primate

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Males from many species are believed to advertise their genetic quality through striking ornaments that attract mates. Yet the connections between signal expression, body condition and the genes associated with individual quality are rarely elucidated. This is particularly problematic for the signals of females in species with conventional sex roles, whose evolutionary significance has received little attention and is poorly understood. Here we explore these questions in the sexual swellings of female primates, which are among the most conspicuous of mammalian sexual signals and highly variable in size, shape and colour. We investigated the relationships between two components of sexual swellings (size and shape), body condition, and genes of the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) in a wild baboon population (Papio ursinus) where males prefer large swellings. Results Although there was no effect of MHC diversity on the sexual swelling components, one specific MHC supertype (S1) was associated with poor body condition together with swellings of small size and a particular shape. The variation in swelling characteristics linked with the possession of supertype S1 appeared to be partially mediated by body condition and remained detectable when taking into account the possession of other supertypes. Conclusions These findings suggest a pathway from immunity genes to sexual signals via physical condition for the first time in females. They further indicate that mechanisms of sexual selection traditionally assigned to males can also operate in females. PMID:20374634

  13. Strong Selection at MHC in Mexicans since Admixture.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Quan; Zhao, Liang; Guan, Yongtao

    2016-02-01

    Mexicans are a recent admixture of Amerindians, Europeans, and Africans. We performed local ancestry analysis of Mexican samples from two genome-wide association studies obtained from dbGaP, and discovered that at the MHC region Mexicans have excessive African ancestral alleles compared to the rest of the genome, which is the hallmark of recent selection for admixed samples. The estimated selection coefficients are 0.05 and 0.07 for two datasets, which put our finding among the strongest known selections observed in humans, namely, lactase selection in northern Europeans and sickle-cell trait in Africans. Using inaccurate Amerindian training samples was a major concern for the credibility of previously reported selection signals in Latinos. Taking advantage of the flexibility of our statistical model, we devised a model fitting technique that can learn Amerindian ancestral haplotype from the admixed samples, which allows us to infer local ancestries for Mexicans using only European and African training samples. The strong selection signal at the MHC remains without Amerindian training samples. Finally, we note that medical history studies suggest such a strong selection at MHC is plausible in Mexicans.

  14. MHC Class II haplotypes of Colombian Amerindian tribes.

    PubMed

    Yunis, Juan J; Yunis, Edmond J; Yunis, Emilio

    2013-07-01

    We analyzed 1041 individuals belonging to 17 Amerindian tribes of Colombia, Chimila, Bari and Tunebo (Chibcha linguistic family), Embera, Waunana (Choco linguistic family), Puinave and Nukak (Maku-Puinave linguistic families), Cubeo, Guanano, Tucano, Desano and Piratapuyo (Tukano linguistic family), Guahibo and Guayabero (Guayabero Linguistic Family), Curripaco and Piapoco (Arawak linguistic family) and Yucpa (Karib linguistic family). for MHC class II haplotypes (HLA-DRB1, DQA1, DQB1). Approximately 90% of the MHC class II haplotypes found among these tribes are haplotypes frequently encountered in other Amerindian tribes. Nonetheless, striking differences were observed among Chibcha and non-Chibcha speaking tribes. The DRB1*04:04, DRB1*04:11, DRB1*09:01 carrying haplotypes were frequently found among non-Chibcha speaking tribes, while the DRB1*04:07 haplotype showed significant frequencies among Chibcha speaking tribes, and only marginal frequencies among non-Chibcha speaking tribes. Our results suggest that the differences in MHC class II haplotype frequency found among Chibcha and non-Chibcha speaking tribes could be due to genetic differentiation in Mesoamerica of the ancestral Amerindian population into Chibcha and non-Chibcha speaking populations before they entered into South America.

  15. MHC and KIR Polymorphisms in Rhesus Macaque SIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Walter, Lutz; Ansari, Aftab A.

    2015-01-01

    Natural killer lymphocytes are essentially involved as the first line of defense against agents such as viruses and malignant cells. The activity of these cells is regulated via interaction of specific and diverse killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) with the highly polymorphic cognate MHC class I proteins on target cells. Genetic variability of both KIR and MHC-I ligands has been shown to be associated with resistance to many diseases, including infection with the immunodeficiency virus. Disease course and progression to AIDS after infection with human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) is essentially influenced by the presence of the stimulatory KIR3DS1 receptor in combination with HLA-Bw4. Knowledge of such genetic interactions that contribute to not only disease resistance but also susceptibility are just as important. Such combined genetic factors were recently reported in the rhesus macaque AIDS model. Here, we review the rhesus macaque MHC class I and KIR gene systems and the role of their polymorphisms in the SIV infection model. PMID:26557119

  16. Strong Selection at MHC in Mexicans since Admixture

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Quan; Zhao, Liang; Guan, Yongtao

    2016-01-01

    Mexicans are a recent admixture of Amerindians, Europeans, and Africans. We performed local ancestry analysis of Mexican samples from two genome-wide association studies obtained from dbGaP, and discovered that at the MHC region Mexicans have excessive African ancestral alleles compared to the rest of the genome, which is the hallmark of recent selection for admixed samples. The estimated selection coefficients are 0.05 and 0.07 for two datasets, which put our finding among the strongest known selections observed in humans, namely, lactase selection in northern Europeans and sickle-cell trait in Africans. Using inaccurate Amerindian training samples was a major concern for the credibility of previously reported selection signals in Latinos. Taking advantage of the flexibility of our statistical model, we devised a model fitting technique that can learn Amerindian ancestral haplotype from the admixed samples, which allows us to infer local ancestries for Mexicans using only European and African training samples. The strong selection signal at the MHC remains without Amerindian training samples. Finally, we note that medical history studies suggest such a strong selection at MHC is plausible in Mexicans. PMID:26863142

  17. Statistics of superior records.

    PubMed

    Ben-Naim, E; Krapivsky, P L

    2013-08-01

    We study statistics of records in a sequence of random variables. These identical and independently distributed variables are drawn from the parent distribution ρ. The running record equals the maximum of all elements in the sequence up to a given point. We define a superior sequence as one where all running records are above the average record expected for the parent distribution ρ. We find that the fraction of superior sequences S(N) decays algebraically with sequence length N, S(N)~N(-β) in the limit N→∞. Interestingly, the decay exponent β is nontrivial, being the root of an integral equation. For example, when ρ is a uniform distribution with compact support, we find β=0.450265. In general, the tail of the parent distribution governs the exponent β. We also consider the dual problem of inferior sequences, where all records are below average, and find that the fraction of inferior sequences I(N) decays algebraically, albeit with a different decay exponent, I(N)~N(-α). We use the above statistical measures to analyze earthquake data.

  18. Statistics of superior records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Naim, E.; Krapivsky, P. L.

    2013-08-01

    We study statistics of records in a sequence of random variables. These identical and independently distributed variables are drawn from the parent distribution ρ. The running record equals the maximum of all elements in the sequence up to a given point. We define a superior sequence as one where all running records are above the average record expected for the parent distribution ρ. We find that the fraction of superior sequences SN decays algebraically with sequence length N, SN˜N-β in the limit N→∞. Interestingly, the decay exponent β is nontrivial, being the root of an integral equation. For example, when ρ is a uniform distribution with compact support, we find β=0.450265. In general, the tail of the parent distribution governs the exponent β. We also consider the dual problem of inferior sequences, where all records are below average, and find that the fraction of inferior sequences IN decays algebraically, albeit with a different decay exponent, IN˜N-α. We use the above statistical measures to analyze earthquake data.

  19. Neurological impairment among heterozygote women for X-linked Adrenoleukodystrophy: a case control study on a clinical, neurophysiological and biochemical characteristics

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Neurologic impairments in female heterozygotes for X-linked Adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) are poorly understood. Our aims were to describe the neurological and neurophysiological manifestations of a cohort of X-ALD heterozygotes, and to correlate them with age, disease duration, mutations, X-inactivation and serum concentrations of a marker of neuronal damage, neuron-specific enolase (NSE). Methods All 45 heterozygotes identified in our region, with previous VLCFA and molecular diagnosis, were invited to be evaluated through myelopathy scales JOA and SSPROM, nerve conduction studies and somatosensory evoked responses. X inactivation pattern was tested by HUMARA methylation assay. Serum NSE was measured by eletrochemiluminescense. Results Thirty three heterozygote women were recruited: 29 (87%) were symptomatic. Symptomatic and asymptomatic women presented different m ± sd ages (43.9 ± 10.2 versus 24.3 ± 4.6), JOA (14.5 ± 1.7 versus 16.6 ± 0.2) and SSPROM (86.6 ± 7.9 versus 98.4 ± 1.1) scores (p < 0.05). Both JOA (r = −0.68) and SSPROM (r = −0.65) correlated with age, irrespectively of the disease status (p = 0.0001, Spearman). Delayed latencies in the central ascending conduction studies on the lower limbs were present in 72% of all heterozygotes, and correlated with SSPROM (r = −0.47, p = 0.018, Spearman). NSE values were higher in heterozygote than in control women (12.9 ± 7 and 7.2 ± 7 ng/ml, p = 0.012, Mann-Whitney U). Mutation severity and inactivation patterns were not associated with neurologic status. Conclusion Neurologic manifestations, clearly related to age, were quite common in the present cohort. JOA and SSPROM scales were able to discriminate the asymptomatic from the symptomatic heterozygotes. Both scales might be useful tools to follow disease progression, in future studies. PMID:24410807

  20. Cordyceps militaris Enhances MHC-restricted Antigen Presentation via the Induced Expression of MHC Molecules and Production of Cytokines

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Seulmee; Park, Yoonhee; Kim, Seulah; Oh, Hee-Eun; Ko, Young-Wook; Han, Shinha; Lee, Seungjeong; Lee, Chong-Kil; Cho, Kyunghae

    2010-01-01

    Background Cordyceps militarys water extract (CME) has been reported to exert antitumor and immunomodulatory activities in vivo and in vitro. However, the therapeutic mechanism has not yet been elucidated. In this study, we examined the effects of CME on the antigen presenting function of antigen presenting cells (APCs). Methods Dendritic cells (DCs) were cultured in the presence of CME, and then allowed to phagocytose microspheres containing ovalbumin (OVA). After washing and fixing the efficacy of OVA, peptide presentation by DCs were evaluated using CD8 and CD4 T cells. Also, we confirmed the protein levels of proinflammatory cytokines through western blot analysis. Results CME enhanced both MHC class I and class II-restricted presentation of OVA in DCs. In addition, the expression of both MHC class I and II molecules was enhanced, but there was no changes in the phagocytic activity of exogenous OVA. Furthermore, CME induced the protein levels of iNOS, COX-2, proinflammatory cytokines, and nuclear p65 in a concentration-dependent manner, as determined by western blot. Conclusion These results provide an understanding of the mechanism of the immuno-enhancing activity of CME on the induction of MHC-restricted antigen presentation in relation to their actions on APCs. PMID:20844738

  1. MHC variation sculpts individualized microbial communities that control susceptibility to enteric infection

    PubMed Central

    Kubinak, Jason L.; Stephens, W. Zac; Soto, Ray; Petersen, Charisse; Chiaro, Tyson; Gogokhia, Lasha; Bell, Rickesha; Ajami, Nadim J.; Petrosino, Joseph F.; Morrison, Linda; Potts, Wayne K.; Jensen, Peter E.; O'Connell, Ryan M.; Round, June L.

    2015-01-01

    The presentation of protein antigens on the cell surface by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules coordinates vertebrate adaptive immune responses, thereby mediating susceptibility to a variety of autoimmune and infectious diseases. The composition of symbiotic microbial communities (the microbiota) is influenced by host immunity and can have a profound impact on host physiology. Here we use an MHC congenic mouse model to test the hypothesis that genetic variation at MHC genes among individuals mediates susceptibility to disease by controlling microbiota composition. We find that MHC genotype significantly influences antibody responses against commensals in the gut, and that these responses are correlated with the establishment of unique microbial communities. Transplantation experiments in germfree mice indicate that MHC-mediated differences in microbiota composition are sufficient to explain susceptibility to enteric infection. Our findings indicate that MHC polymorphisms contribute to defining an individual's unique microbial fingerprint that influences health. PMID:26494419

  2. The hidden benefits of sex: evidence for MHC-associated mate choice in primate societies.

    PubMed

    Setchell, Joanna M; Huchard, Elise

    2010-11-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-associated mate choice is thought to give offspring a fitness advantage through disease resistance. Primates offer a unique opportunity to understand MHC-associated mate choice within our own zoological order, while their social diversity provides an exceptional setting to examine the genetic determinants and consequences of mate choice in animal societies. Although mate choice is constrained by social context, increasing evidence shows that MHC-dependent mate choice occurs across the order in a variety of socio-sexual systems and favours mates with dissimilar, diverse or specific genotypes non-exclusively. Recent research has also identified phenotypic indicators of MHC quality. Moreover, novel findings rehabilitate the importance of olfactory cues in signalling MHC genes and influencing primate mating decisions. These findings underline the importance to females of selecting a sexual partner of high genetic quality, as well as the generality of the role of MHC genes in sexual selection. Copyright © 2010 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Variable NK cell receptors and their MHC class I ligands in immunity, reproduction and human evolution.

    PubMed

    Parham, Peter; Moffett, Ashley

    2013-02-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells have roles in immunity and reproduction that are controlled by variable receptors that recognize MHC class I molecules. The variable NK cell receptors found in humans are specific to simian primates, in which they have progressively co-evolved with MHC class I molecules. The emergence of the MHC-C gene in hominids drove the evolution of a system of NK cell receptors for MHC-C molecules that is most elaborate in chimpanzees. By contrast, the human system of MHC-C receptors seems to have been subject to different selection pressures that have acted in competition on the immunological and reproductive functions of MHC class I molecules. We suggest that this compromise facilitated the development of the bigger brains that enabled archaic and modern humans to migrate out of Africa and populate other continents.

  4. A CD74-DEPENDENT MHC CLASS I ENDOLYSOSOMAL CROSS-PRESENTATION PATHWAY

    PubMed Central

    Basha, Genc; Omilusik, Kyla; Chavez-Steenbock, Ana; Reinicke, Anna T.; Lack, Nathan; Choi, Kyung Bok; Jefferies, Wilfred A.

    2016-01-01

    Immune responses are initiated and primed by dendritic cells (DCs) that cross-present exogenous antigen. The CD74 (invariant chain) chaperone protein is thought to exclusively promote DC priming in the context of MHC class II. However, we demonstrate herein a CD74-dependent MHC class I cross-presentation pathway in DCs that plays a major role in the generation of MHC class I restricted, cytolytic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses against viral protein- and cell-associated antigens. CD74 associates with MHC class I molecules in the endoplasmic reticulum of DCs and mediates trafficking of MHC class I to endolysosomal compartments for loading with exogenous peptides. We conclude that CD74 plays a hitherto, undiscovered physiological function in endolysosomal DC cross-presentation for priming MHC class I-mediated CTL responses. PMID:22306692

  5. An MHC class I immune evasion gene of Marek׳s disease virus.

    PubMed

    Hearn, Cari; Preeyanon, Likit; Hunt, Henry D; York, Ian A

    2015-01-15

    Marek׳s disease virus (MDV) is a widespread α-herpesvirus of chickens that causes T cell tumors. Acute, but not latent, MDV infection has previously been shown to lead to downregulation of cell-surface MHC class I (Virology 282:198-205 (2001)), but the gene(s) involved have not been identified. Here we demonstrate that an MDV gene, MDV012, is capable of reducing surface expression of MHC class I on chicken cells. Co-expression of an MHC class I-binding peptide targeted to the endoplasmic reticulum (bypassing the requirement for the TAP peptide transporter) partially rescued MHC class I expression in the presence of MDV012, suggesting that MDV012 is a TAP-blocking MHC class I immune evasion protein. This is the first unique non-mammalian MHC class I immune evasion gene identified, and suggests that α-herpesviruses have conserved this function for at least 100 million years.

  6. MetaMHCpan, A Meta Approach for Pan-Specific MHC Peptide Binding Prediction.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yichang; Luo, Cheng; Mamitsuka, Hiroshi; Zhu, Shanfeng

    2016-01-01

    Recent computational approaches in bioinformatics can achieve high performance, by which they can be a powerful support for performing real biological experiments, making biologists pay more attention to bioinformatics than before. In immunology, predicting peptides which can bind to MHC alleles is an important task, being tackled by many computational approaches. However, this situation causes a serious problem for immunologists to select the appropriate method to be used in bioinformatics. To overcome this problem, we develop an ensemble prediction-based Web server, which we call MetaMHCpan, consisting of two parts: MetaMHCIpan and MetaMHCIIpan, for predicting peptides which can bind MHC-I and MHC-II, respectively. MetaMHCIpan and MetaMHCIIpan use two (MHC2SKpan and LApan) and four (TEPITOPEpan, MHC2SKpan, LApan, and MHC2MIL) existing predictors, respectively. MetaMHCpan is available at http://datamining-iip.fudan.edu.cn/MetaMHCpan/index.php/pages/view/info .

  7. Lake Superior revisited 1984

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    MacCallum, Wayne R.; Selgeby, James H.

    1987-01-01

    The Lake Superior fish community has changed substantially since the early 1960s, when control of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) became effective. Self-reproducing stocks of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) have been reestablished in many inshore areas, although they have not yet reached pre-sea lamprey abundance; offshore lake trout are probably at or near pre-sea lamprey abundance. Stocks of lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) appear to have fully recovered; commercial catches are at or above historical levels. Lake herring (Coregonus artedii) are recovering rapidly in U.S. waters and are abundant in western Canadian waters. The population of rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax), which declined in the 1970s, is recovering. Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus) are becoming more abundant as a result of increased stocking in U.S. waters and are reproducing in most suitable tributaries; they have become significant in anglers' creels.

  8. Sensorineural hearing loss with brainstem auditory evoked responses changes in homozygote and heterozygote sickle cell patients in Guadeloupe (France).

    PubMed

    Jovanovic-Bateman, L; Hedreville, R

    2006-08-01

    This prospective study involved 79 homozygote and heterozygote sickle cell anaemia patients (16 to 50 years old) and a control group of 40 people.All patients underwent ENT, audiological and brainstem auditory evoked responses (BSER) examinations in order to evaluate the incidence of sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL), to identify the changes at the level of the cochlear nerve and the central pathways, and to determine the most vulnerable group, in order to intervene with early prevention and rehabilitation for this condition.A hearing loss of greater than 20 dB at two or more frequencies was found in 36 (45.57 per cent) sickle cell patients (19 (47.22 per cent) HbSC patients and 17 (43.59 per cent) HbSS patients) and three (7.5 per cent) members of the control group. Homozygote and heterozygote patients, as well as both sexes, were equally affected. Bilateral hearing loss occurred in 19 (52.78 per cent) patients, unilateral right-sided hearing loss in five (13.89 per cent) patients and unilateral left-sided hearing loss in 12 (33.33 per cent) patients. Brainstem auditory evoked potential demonstrated a prolonged I-V (III-V) interpeak latency in 13 (25.35 per cent) sickle cell patients (11 men (eight with HbSS) and two women). The hearing loss in HbSS patients was neural in nature and of earlier onset; the hearing loss in HbSC patients was usually cochlear in nature and of later onset. Despite high medical standards and 100 per cent social security cover, the high incidence of SNHL in our sickle cell affected patients (the majority with the Benin haplotype) was probably due to their specific haematological profile and to the original geographical distribution of the disease in the tropics. Our results highlight the necessity for early and regular hearing assessment of sickle cell patients, including BSER examination, especially in male patients with SNHL.

  9. Antigen-specific tumor vaccine efficacy in vivo against prostate cancer with low class I MHC requires competent class II MHC.

    PubMed

    Neeley, Yilin C; McDonagh, Kevin T; Overwijk, Willem W; Restifo, Nicholas P; Sanda, Martin G

    2002-11-01

    Cancers can escape immune recognition by means of evading class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC) -mediated recognition by cytotoxic T lymphocytes. However, immunization strategies targeting defined tumor-associated antigens have not been extensively characterized in murine prostate cancer models. Therefore, we evaluated antigen-specific, antitumor immunity after antigen-encoding vaccinia immunization against mouse prostate cancer cells expressing a model tumor-associated antigen (beta-galactosidase) and exhibiting partially deficient class I MHC. Low class I MHC expression in beta-galactosidase-expressing D7RM-1 prostate cancer cells was shown by fluorescence activated cell sorting, and deficient class I MHC-mediated antigen presentation was shown in resistance of D7RM-1 to cytolysis by beta-galactosidase-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). Despite partially deficient class I MHC presenting function, immunization with vaccinia encoding beta-galactosidase conferred antigen-specific protection against D7RM-1 cancer. Antigen-specific immunity was recapitulated in beta(2)m knockout mice (with deficient class I MHC and CTL function), confirming that class I MHC antigen presentation was not required for immunity against tumor partially deficient in class I MHC. Conversely, antigen-specific antitumor immunity was abrogated in A(b)beta knockout mice (with deficient class II MHC and helper T cell function), demonstrating a requirement for functional class II MHC. Resistant tumors from the otherwise effectively immunized beta(2)m knockout mice (among which tumor progression had been reduced or delayed) showed reduced target antigen expression, corroborating antigen-specificity (and showing an alternative immune escape mechanism), whereas antigen expression (like tumor growth) was unaffected among A(b)beta knockout mice. Our results demonstrate that class I MHC-restricted antigen presentation and CTL activity is neither necessary nor sufficient for antigen

  10. Superior mesenteric artery syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Giedrius, Bernotavičius; Kęstutis, Saniukas; Irena, Karmonaitė; Rimantas, Zagorskis

    2016-01-01

    Background. An obstruction of the distal part of the duodenum can occur because of the superior mesenteric artery syndrome (SMAS) after a surgical correction of scoliosis. It is essential to evaluate the risk factors and diagnose the SMAS in time because complications of this condition are life-threatening and it is associated with a high rate of morbidity. Diagnostics of the SMAS is challenging, because it is rare and its symptoms are non-specific. Therefore, in order to better understand the essence of this pathology and to make diagnosis easier we present a rare clinical case of the superior mesenteric artery syndrome after a surgical correction of neuromuscular scoliosis. The clinical case. A 12-year-old girl with a specific development disorder, sensory neuropathy and progressive kypho-scoliosis was admitted to Vilnius University Children’s Hospital. The patient had right side 50-degree thoracic scoliosis and an 80-degree thoracic kyphosis. She underwent posterior spinal fusion with hooks and screws from Th1 to L2. On the fourth day after the surgery the patient developed nausea and began to vomit each day 1-2 times per day, especially after meals. The SMAS was suspected and a nasogastric tube was inserted, stomach decompression and the correction of electrolytes disbalance were made. After the treatment, the symptoms did not recur and a satisfactory correction and balance of the spine were made in coronal and sagittal planes. Conclusions. It is extremely important to identify the risk factors of the SMAS and begin preoperative diet supplements before surgical correction of scoliosis for patients with a low body mass index. After the first episode of vomiting following the surgery, we recommend to investigate these patients for a gastrointestinal obstruction as soon as possible. Decompression of the stomach, enteral or parenteral nutrition, and fluid therapy are essential in treating the SMAS. PMID:28356803

  11. Interspecific hybridization increases MHC class II diversity in two sister species of newts.

    PubMed

    Nadachowska-Brzyska, Krystyna; Zieliński, Piotr; Radwan, Jacek; Babik, Wiesław

    2012-02-01

    Our understanding of the evolutionary mechanisms generating variation within the highly polymorphic major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes remains incomplete. Assessing MHC variation across multiple populations, of recent and ancient divergence, may facilitate understanding of geographical and temporal aspects of variation. Here, we applied 454 sequencing to perform a large-scale, comprehensive analysis of MHC class II in the closely related, hybridizing newts, Lissotriton vulgaris (Lv) and Lissotriton montandoni (Lm). Our study revealed an extensive (299 alleles) geographically structured polymorphism. Populations at the southern margin of the Lv distribution, inhabited by old and distinct lineages (southern Lv), exhibited moderate MHC variation and strong population structure, indicating little gene flow or extensive local adaptation. Lissotriton vulgaris in central Europe and the northern Balkans (northern Lv) and almost all Lm populations had a high MHC variation. A much higher proportion of MHC alleles was shared between Lm and northern Lv than between Lm and southern Lv. Strikingly, the average pairwise F(ST) between northern Lv and Lm was significantly lower than between northern and southern Lv for MHC, but not for microsatellites. Thus, high MHC variation in Lm and northern Lv may result from gene flow between species. We hypothesize that the interspecific exchange of MHC genes may be facilitated by frequency-dependent selection. A marginally significant correlation between the MHC and microsatellite allelic richness indicates that demographic factors may have contributed to the present-day pattern of MHC variation, but unequivocal signatures of adaptive evolution in MHC class II sequences emphasize the role of selection on a longer timescale.

  12. Patterns of MHC-dependent mate selection in humans and nonhuman primates: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Winternitz, J; Abbate, J L; Huchard, E; Havlíček, J; Garamszegi, L Z

    2017-01-01

    Genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) in vertebrates are integral for effective adaptive immune response and are associated with sexual selection. Evidence from a range of vertebrates supports MHC-based preference for diverse and dissimilar mating partners, but evidence from human mate choice studies has been disparate and controversial. Methodologies and sampling peculiarities specific to human studies make it difficult to know whether wide discrepancies in results among human populations are real or artefact. To better understand what processes may affect MHC-mediated mate choice across humans and nonhuman primates, we performed phylogenetically controlled meta-analyses using 58 effect sizes from 30 studies across seven primate species. Primates showed a general trend favouring more MHC-diverse mates, which was statistically significant for humans. In contrast, there was no tendency for MHC-dissimilar mate choice, and for humans, we observed effect sizes indicating selection of both MHC-dissimilar and MHC-similar mates. Focusing on MHC-similar effect sizes only, we found evidence that preference for MHC similarity was an artefact of population ethnic heterogeneity in observational studies but not among experimental studies with more control over sociocultural biases. This suggests that human assortative mating biases may be responsible for some patterns of MHC-based mate choice. Additionally, the overall effect sizes of primate MHC-based mating preferences are relatively weak (Fisher's Z correlation coefficient for dissimilarity Zr = 0.044, diversity Zr = 0.153), calling for careful sampling design in future studies. Overall, our results indicate that preference for more MHC-diverse mates is significant for humans and likely conserved across primates.

  13. The spatio-temporal expression of MHC class I molecules during human hippocampal formation development.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Aifeng; Yu, Hong; He, Youji; Shen, Yuqing; Pan, Ning; Liu, Jiane; Fu, Bo; Miao, Fengqin; Zhang, Jianqiong

    2013-09-05

    In the immune system, the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules mediate both the innate and adaptive immune responses in vertebrates. There has been a dogma that the central nervous system (CNS) is immune privileged and healthy neurons do not express MHC class I molecules. However, recent studies have indicated that the expression and non-immunobiologic roles of MHC class I in mammalian CNS. But data referring to humans are scarce. In this study we report the expression and cellular localization of MHC class I in the human fetal, early postnatal and adult hippocampal formation. The expression of MHC class I was very low in the hippocampus at 20 (gestational weeks) GW and slowly increased at 27-33 GW. The gradually increased expression in the somata of some granular cells in dentate gyrus (DG) was observed at 30-33 GW. Whereas, a rapid increase in MHC class I molecules expression was found in the subiculum and it reached high levels at 31-33 GW and maintained at postnatal 55 days. No expression of MHC class I was found in hippocampal formation in adult. MHC class I heavy chain and β2 microglobulin (β2M) showed similar expression in some cells of the hippocampal formation at 30-33 GW. Moreover, MHC class I molecules were mainly expressed in neurons and most MHC class I-expressing neurons were glutamatergic. The temporal and spatial patterns of MHC class I expression appeared to follow gradients of pyramidal neurons maturation in the subiculum at prenatal stages and suggested that MHC class I molecules are likely to regulate neuron maturation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Priority to Publish.

  14. Fine-mapping in the MHC region accounts for 18% additional genetic risk for celiac disease

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez-Achury, Javier; Zhernakova, Alexandra; Pulit, Sara L.; Trynka, Gosia; Hunt, Karen A.; Romanos, Jihane; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; van Heel, David A.; Wijmenga, Cisca; de Bakker, Paul I.W.

    2015-01-01

    Although dietary gluten is the trigger, celiac disease risk is strongly influenced by genetic variation in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region. We fine-mapped the MHC association signal to identify additional risk factors independent of the HLA-DQ alleles and observed five novel associations that account for 18% of the genetic risk. Together with the 57 known non-MHC loci, genetic variation can now explain up to 48% of celiac disease heritability. PMID:25894500

  15. Sibling rivalry: competition between MHC class II family members inhibits immunity.

    PubMed

    Denzin, Lisa K; Cresswell, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Peptide loading of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules in the endosomes and lysosomes of antigen-presenting cells is catalyzed by human leukocyte antigen-DM (HLA-DM) and modulated by HLA-DO. In a structural study in this issue, Guce et al. show that HLA-DO is an MHC class II mimic and functions as a competitive and essentially irreversible inhibitor of HLA-DM activity, thereby inhibiting MHC class II antigen presentation.

  16. MHC2NNZ: A novel peptide binding prediction approach for HLA DQ molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Jiang; Zeng, Xu; Lu, Dongfang; Liu, Zhixiang; Wang, Jiao

    2017-07-01

    The major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II) molecule plays a crucial role in immunology. Computational prediction of MHC-II binding peptides can help researchers understand the mechanism of immune systems and design vaccines. Most of the prediction algorithms for MHC-II to date have made large efforts in human leukocyte antigen (HLA, the name of MHC in Human) molecules encoded in the DR locus. However, HLA DQ molecules are equally important and have only been made less progress because it is more difficult to handle them experimentally. In this study, we propose an artificial neural network-based approach called MHC2NNZ to predict peptides binding to HLA DQ molecules. Unlike previous artificial neural network-based methods, MHC2NNZ not only considers sequence similarity features but also captures the chemical and physical properties, and a novel method incorporating these properties is proposed to represent peptide flanking regions (PFR). Furthermore, MHC2NNZ improves the prediction accuracy by combining with amino acid preference at more specific positions of the peptides binding core. By evaluating on 3549 peptides binding to six most frequent HLA DQ molecules, MHC2NNZ is demonstrated to outperform other state-of-the-art MHC-II prediction methods.

  17. Balancing selection on MHC class I in wild brown trout Salmo trutta.

    PubMed

    O'Farrell, B; Dennis, C; Benzie, J A; McGinnity, P; Carlsson, J; de Eyto, E; Coughlan, J P; Igoe, F; Meehan, R; Cross, T F

    2012-09-01

    Evidence is reported for balancing selection acting on variation at major histocompatibility complex (MHC) in wild populations of brown trout Salmo trutta. First, variation at an MHC class I (satr-uba)-linked microsatellite locus (mhc1) is retained in small S. trutta populations isolated above waterfalls although variation is lost at neutral microsatellite markers. Second, populations across several catchments are less differentiated at mhc1 than at neutral markers, as predicted by theory. The population structure of these fish was also elucidated. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2012 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  18. DockTope: a Web-based tool for automated pMHC-I modelling

    PubMed Central

    Menegatti Rigo, Maurício; Amaral Antunes, Dinler; Vaz de Freitas, Martiela; Fabiano de Almeida Mendes, Marcus; Meira, Lindolfo; Sinigaglia, Marialva; Fioravanti Vieira, Gustavo

    2015-01-01

    The immune system is constantly challenged, being required to protect the organism against a wide variety of infectious pathogens and, at the same time, to avoid autoimmune disorders. One of the most important molecules involved in these events is the Major Histocompatibility Complex class I (MHC-I), responsible for binding and presenting small peptides from the intracellular environment to CD8+ T cells. The study of peptide:MHC-I (pMHC-I) molecules at a structural level is crucial to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying immunologic responses. Unfortunately, there are few pMHC-I structures in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) (especially considering the total number of complexes that could be formed combining different peptides), and pMHC-I modelling tools are scarce. Here, we present DockTope, a free and reliable web-based tool for pMHC-I modelling, based on crystal structures from the PDB. DockTope is fully automated and allows any researcher to construct a pMHC-I complex in an efficient way. We have reproduced a dataset of 135 non-redundant pMHC-I structures from the PDB (Cα RMSD below 1 Å). Modelling of pMHC-I complexes is remarkably important, contributing to the knowledge of important events such as cross-reactivity, autoimmunity, cancer therapy, transplantation and rational vaccine design. PMID:26674250

  19. Gorilla MHC class I gene and sequence variation in a comparative context.

    PubMed

    Hans, Jörg B; Bergl, Richard A; Vigilant, Linda

    2017-05-01

    Comparisons of MHC gene content and diversity among closely related species can provide insights into the evolutionary mechanisms shaping immune system variation. After chimpanzees and bonobos, gorillas are humans' closest living relatives; but in contrast, relatively little is known about the structure and variation of gorilla MHC class I genes (Gogo). Here, we combined long-range amplifications and long-read sequencing technology to analyze full-length MHC class I genes in 35 gorillas. We obtained 50 full-length genomic sequences corresponding to 15 Gogo-A alleles, 4 Gogo-Oko alleles, 21 Gogo-B alleles, and 10 Gogo-C alleles including 19 novel coding region sequences. We identified two previously undetected MHC class I genes related to Gogo-A and Gogo-B, respectively, thereby illustrating the potential of this approach for efficient and highly accurate MHC genotyping. Consistent with their phylogenetic position within the hominid family, individual gorilla MHC haplotypes share characteristics with humans and chimpanzees as well as orangutans suggesting a complex history of the MHC class I genes in humans and the great apes. However, the overall MHC class I diversity appears to be low further supporting the hypothesis that gorillas might have experienced a reduction of their MHC repertoire.

  20. Achieving stability through editing and chaperoning: regulation of MHC class II peptide binding and expression.

    PubMed

    Busch, Robert; Rinderknecht, Cornelia H; Roh, Sujin; Lee, Andrew W; Harding, James J; Burster, Timo; Hornell, Tara M C; Mellins, Elizabeth D

    2005-10-01

    In antigen-presenting cells (APCs), loading of major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC II) molecules with peptides is regulated by invariant chain (Ii), which blocks MHC II antigen-binding sites in pre-endosomal compartments. Several molecules then act upon MHC II molecules in endosomes to facilitate peptide loading: Ii-degrading proteases, the peptide exchange factor, human leukocyte antigen-DM (HLA-DM), and its modulator, HLA-DO (DO). Here, we review our findings arguing that DM stabilizes a globally altered conformation of the antigen-binding groove by binding to a lateral surface of the MHC II molecule. Our data imply changes in the interactions between specificity pockets and peptide side chains, complementing data from others that suggest DM affects hydrogen bonds. Selective weakening of peptide/MHC interactions allows DM to alter the peptide repertoire. We also review our studies in cells that highlight the ability of several factors to modulate surface expression of MHC II molecules via post-Golgi mechanisms; these factors include MHC class II-associated Ii peptides (CLIP), DM, and microbial products that modulate MHC II traffic from endosomes to the plasma membrane. In this context, we discuss possible mechanisms by which the association of some MHC II alleles with autoimmune diseases may be linked to their low CLIP affinity.

  1. HIV-1 Nef sequesters MHC-I intracellularly by targeting early stages of endocytosis and recycling

    PubMed Central

    Dirk, Brennan S.; Pawlak, Emily N.; Johnson, Aaron L.; Van Nynatten, Logan R.; Jacob, Rajesh A.; Heit, Bryan; Dikeakos, Jimmy D.

    2016-01-01

    A defining characteristic of HIV-1 infection is the ability of the virus to persist within the host. Specifically, MHC-I downregulation by the HIV-1 accessory protein Nef is of critical importance in preventing infected cells from cytotoxic T-cell mediated killing. Nef downregulates MHC-I by modulating the host membrane trafficking machinery, resulting in the endocytosis and eventual sequestration of MHC-I within the cell. In the current report, we utilized the intracellular protein-protein interaction reporter system, bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC), in combination with super-resolution microscopy, to track the Nef/MHC-I interaction and determine its subcellular localization in cells. We demonstrate that this interaction occurs upon Nef binding the MHC-I cytoplasmic tail early during endocytosis in a Rab5-positive endosome. Disruption of early endosome regulation inhibited Nef-dependent MHC-I downregulation, demonstrating that Nef hijacks the early endosome to sequester MHC-I within the cell. Furthermore, super-resolution imaging identified that the Nef:MHC-I BiFC complex transits through both early and late endosomes before ultimately residing at the trans-Golgi network. Together we demonstrate the importance of the early stages of the endocytic network in the removal of MHC-I from the cell surface and its re-localization within the cell, which allows HIV-1 to optimally evade host immune responses. PMID:27841315

  2. A Case of Probable MHC Class II Deficiency with Disseminated BCGitis.

    PubMed

    Alyasin, Soheyla; Abolnezhadian, Farhad; Khoshkhui, Maryam

    2015-09-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II deficiency is a primary immunodeficiency disease characterized by abnormality of MHC class II molecules surface expression on peripheral blood lymphocytes and monocytes. Clinical manifestations include extreme susceptibility to viral, bacterial, and fungal infections but the immunodeficiency is not as severe as SCID (severe combined immunodeficiency), as evidenced by failure to develop disseminated infection after BCG vaccination. Therefore, MHC II deficiency with BCGosis, that is disseminated BCGitis, is not reported commonly. We report an interesting case of BCGosis after vaccination that was diagnosed to have probable MHC II deficiency.

  3. Genetic variation in MHC proteins is associated with T cell receptor expression biases

    PubMed Central

    Sharon, Eilon; Sibener, Leah V.; Battle, Alexis; Fraser, Hunter B.; Garcia, K. Christopher; Pritchard, Jonathan K.

    2016-01-01

    Within each individual, a highly diverse T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire interacts with peptides presented by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules. Despite extensive research, it remains controversial whether germline-encoded TCR-MHC contacts promote TCR-MHC specificity and if so, whether there exist differences in TCR V-gene compatibilities with different MHC alleles. We applied eQTL mapping to test for associations between genetic variation and TCR V-gene usage in a large human cohort. We report strong trans associations between variation in the MHC locus and TCR V-gene usage. Fine mapping of the association signals reveals specific amino acids in MHC genes that bias V-gene usage, many of which contact or are spatially proximal to the TCR or peptide. Hence, these MHC variants, several of which are linked to autoimmune diseases, can directly affect TCR-MHC interaction. These results provide the first examples of trans-QTLs mediated by protein-protein interactions, and are consistent with intrinsic TCR-MHC specificity. PMID:27479906

  4. MHC gene copy number variation in Tasmanian devils: implications for the spread of a contagious cancer

    PubMed Central

    Siddle, Hannah V.; Marzec, Jolanta; Cheng, Yuanyuan; Jones, Menna; Belov, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    Tasmanian devils face extinction owing to the emergence of a contagious cancer. Devil facial tumour disease (DFTD) is a clonal cancer spread owing to a lack of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) barriers in Tasmanian devil populations. We present a comprehensive screen of MHC diversity in devils and identify 25 MHC types and 53 novel sequences, but conclude that overall levels of MHC diversity at the sequence level are low. The majority of MHC Class I variation can be explained by allelic copy number variation with two to seven sequence variants identified per individual. MHC sequences are divided into two distinct groups based on sequence similarity. DFTD cells and most devils have sequences from both groups. Twenty per cent of individuals have a restricted MHC repertoire and contain only group I or only group II sequences. Counterintuitively, we postulate that the immune system of individuals with a restricted MHC repertoire may recognize foreign MHC antigens on the surface of the DFTD cell. The implication of these results for management of DFTD and this endangered species are discussed. PMID:20219742

  5. Conditional MHC class I ligands and peptide exchange technology for the human MHC gene products HLA-A1, -A3, -A11, and -B7.

    PubMed

    Bakker, Arnold H; Hoppes, Rieuwert; Linnemann, Carsten; Toebes, Mireille; Rodenko, Boris; Berkers, Celia R; Hadrup, Sine Reker; van Esch, Wim J E; Heemskerk, Mirjam H M; Ovaa, Huib; Schumacher, Ton N M

    2008-03-11

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I multimer technology has become an indispensable immunological assay system to dissect antigen-specific cytotoxic CD8(+) T cell responses by flow cytometry. However, the development of high-throughput assay systems, in which T cell responses against a multitude of epitopes are analyzed, has been precluded by the fact that for each T cell epitope, a separate in vitro MHC refolding reaction is required. We have recently demonstrated that conditional ligands that disintegrate upon exposure to long-wavelength UV light can be designed for the human MHC molecule HLA-A2. To determine whether this peptide-exchange technology can be developed into a generally applicable approach for high throughput MHC based applications we set out to design conditional ligands for the human MHC gene products HLA-A1, -A3, -A11, and -B7. Here, we describe the development and characterization of conditional ligands for this set of human MHC molecules and apply the peptide-exchange technology to identify melanoma-associated peptides that bind to HLA-A3 with high affinity. The conditional ligand technology developed here will allow high-throughput MHC-based analysis of cytotoxic T cell immunity in the vast majority of Western European individuals.

  6. NetMHC-3.0: accurate web accessible predictions of human, mouse and monkey MHC class I affinities for peptides of length 8-11.

    PubMed

    Lundegaard, Claus; Lamberth, Kasper; Harndahl, Mikkel; Buus, Søren; Lund, Ole; Nielsen, Morten

    2008-07-01

    NetMHC-3.0 is trained on a large number of quantitative peptide data using both affinity data from the Immune Epitope Database and Analysis Resource (IEDB) and elution data from SYFPEITHI. The method generates high-accuracy predictions of major histocompatibility complex (MHC): peptide binding. The predictions are based on artificial neural networks trained on data from 55 MHC alleles (43 Human and 12 non-human), and position-specific scoring matrices (PSSMs) for additional 67 HLA alleles. As only the MHC class I prediction server is available, predictions are possible for peptides of length 8-11 for all 122 alleles. artificial neural network predictions are given as actual IC(50) values whereas PSSM predictions are given as a log-odds likelihood scores. The output is optionally available as download for easy post-processing. The training method underlying the server is the best available, and has been used to predict possible MHC-binding peptides in a series of pathogen viral proteomes including SARS, Influenza and HIV, resulting in an average of 75-80% confirmed MHC binders. Here, the performance is further validated and benchmarked using a large set of newly published affinity data, non-redundant to the training set. The server is free of use and available at: http://www.cbs.dtu.dk/services/NetMHC.

  7. Cardiomyocytes Derived from MHC-Homozygous Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Exhibit Reduced Allogeneic Immunogenicity in MHC-Matched Non-human Primates

    PubMed Central

    Kawamura, Takuji; Miyagawa, Shigeru; Fukushima, Satsuki; Maeda, Akira; Kashiyama, Noriyuki; Kawamura, Ai; Miki, Kenji; Okita, Keisuke; Yoshida, Yoshinori; Shiina, Takashi; Ogasawara, Kazumasa; Miyagawa, Shuji; Toda, Koichi; Okuyama, Hiroomi; Sawa, Yoshiki

    2016-01-01

    Summary Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) can serve as a source of cardiomyocytes (CMs) to treat end-stage heart failure; however, transplantation of genetically dissimilar iPSCs even within species (allogeneic) can induce immune rejection. We hypothesized that this might be limited by matching the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigens between the donor and the recipient. We therefore transplanted fluorescence-labeled (GFP) iPSC-CMs donated from a macaque with homozygous MHC haplotypes into the subcutaneous tissue and hearts of macaques having heterozygous MHC haplotypes (MHC-matched; group I) or without identical MHC alleles (group II) in conjunction with immune suppression. Group I displayed a higher GFP intensity and less immune-cell infiltration in the graft than group II. However, MHC-matched transplantation with single or no immune-suppressive drugs still induced a substantial host immune response to the graft. Thus, the immunogenicity of allogeneic iPSC-CMs was reduced by MHC-matched transplantation although a requirement for appropriate immune suppression was retained for successful engraftment. PMID:26905198

  8. Synaptic E3 Ligase SCRAPPER in Contextual Fear Conditioning: Extensive Behavioral Phenotyping of Scrapper Heterozygote and Overexpressing Mutant Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Ikuko; Takao, Keizo; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi; Ito, Seiji; Setou, Mitsutoshi

    2011-01-01

    SCRAPPER, an F-box protein coded by FBXL20, is a subunit of SCF type E3 ubiquitin ligase. SCRAPPER localizes synapses and directly binds to Rab3-interacting molecule 1 (RIM1), an essential factor for synaptic vesicle release, thus it regulates neural transmission via RIM1 degradation. A defect in SCRAPPER leads to neurotransmission abnormalities, which could subsequently result in neurodegenerative phenotypes. Because it is likely that the alteration of neural transmission in Scrapper mutant mice affect their systemic condition, we have analyzed the behavioral phenotypes of mice with decreased or increased the amount of SCRAPPER. We carried out a series of behavioral test batteries for Scrapper mutant mice. Scrapper transgenic mice overexpressing SCRAPPER in the hippocampus did not show any significant difference in every test argued in this manuscript by comparison with wild-type mice. On the other hand, heterozygotes of Scrapper knockout [SCR (+/−)] mice showed significant difference in the contextual but not cued fear conditioning test. In addition, SCR (+/−) mice altered in some tests reflecting anxiety, which implies the loss of functions of SCRAPPER in the hippocampus. The behavioral phenotypes of Scrapper mutant mice suggest that molecular degradation conferred by SCRAPPER play important roles in hippocampal-dependent fear memory formation. PMID:21390313

  9. A guinea pig strain with recessive heredity of deafness, producing normal-hearing heterozygotes with resistance to noise trauma.

    PubMed

    Skjönsberg, Asa; Herrlin, Petra; Duan, Maoli; Johnson, Ann-Christin; Ulfendahl, Mats

    2005-01-01

    A new strain of waltzing guinea pigs arose spontaneously in a guinea pig breeding facility in Germany in 1996. In addition to obvious vestibular dysfunction, the waltzing animals appear deaf already at birth. Histological analysis revealed that the waltzers lack an open scala media due to the collapse of Reissner's membrane onto the surface of the hearing organ. Subsequent breeding has shown that this strain has a recessive mode of inheritance. The homozygotes are deaf and display a waltzing behaviour throughout their lives while the heterozygotes show no significant signs of inner ear injury despite being carriers of this specific mutated gene of hearing impairment. However, the heterozygous animals offer the opportunity to study how hereditary factors interact with auditory stress. In the present study, the susceptibility of the carriers to noise was investigated. Auditory brainstem responses were obtained prior to and after noise exposure (4 kHz, 110 dB, 6 h). The carriers were significantly less affected by the noise as compared to control animals. This difference was still significant at 4 weeks following noise exposure. It is suggested that the heterozygous animals have an endogenous resistance to auditory stress.

  10. An attempted analysis of the tetrads in the complex heterozygote species of the sub-genus Oenothera.

    PubMed

    Jean, R

    1977-09-01

    The statistical parameters of a pollen population of Oenothera purpurata in which the mendelian factor of pollen lethality segregates, showed that the pollen population analysed at anthesis in the Oenothera sub-genus quite faithfully conserves the segregation indicated in the tetrads. Following on this fact, the segregation "active grains, inactive grains, empty grains" was analysed in the pollen of the complex heterozygotes. The large standard deviation of the percentages of the three pollen classes and the value of the correlation between the percentages of grain classes taken two by two signify that the segregation of the three potential classes of microspore differs from one tetrad to another. By superimposing the correlation coefficient estimated between the percentage of the three grain classes of a bifactorial segregation of corn pollen on the correlation coefficient of the three classes of Oenothera pollen, it is possible to know with certainty the distribution of the potentially active, inactive and empty microspores in the tetrads. This distribution, which is different depending on whether the species is heterogamous or isogamous, allows us to confirm that the empty grains carry the recombined complexes which become lethal as a result of this recombination.

  11. Cystic fibrosis mutations for p.F508del compound heterozygotes predict sweat chloride levels and pancreatic sufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Sebro, R; Levy, H; Schneck, K; Dimmock, D; Raby, BA; Cannon, CL; Broeckel, U; Risch, NJ

    2014-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a monogenetic disease with a complex phenotype. Over 1500 mutations in the CFTR gene have been identified; however, the p.F508del mutation is most common. There has been limited correlation between the CFTR mutation genotype and the disease phenotypes. We evaluated the non-p.F508del mutation of 108 p.F508del compound heterozygotes using the biological classification method, Grantham and Sorting Intolerant from Tolerant (SIFT) scores to assess whether these scoring systems correlated with sweat chloride levels, pancreatic sufficiency, predicted FEV1, and risk of infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the last year. Mutations predicted to be ‘mild’ by the biological classification method are associated with more normal sweat chloride levels (p < 0.001), pancreatic sufficiency (p < 0.001) and decreased risk of infection with Pseudomonas in the last year (p = 0.014). Lower Grantham scores are associated with more normal sweat chloride levels (p < 0.001), and pancreatic sufficiency (p = 0.014). Higher SIFT scores are associated with more normal sweat chloride levels (p < 0.001) and pancreatic sufficiency (p = 0.011). There was no association between pulmonary function measured by predicted FEV1 and the biological classification (p = 0.98), Grantham (p = 0.28) or SIFT scores (p = 0.62), which suggests the pulmonary disease related to CF may involve other modifier genes and environmental factors. PMID:22035343

  12. Drosophila as a model for intractable epilepsy: gilgamesh suppresses seizures in para(bss1) heterozygote flies.

    PubMed

    Howlett, Iris C; Rusan, Zeid M; Parker, Louise; Tanouye, Mark A

    2013-08-07

    Intractable epilepsies, that is, seizure disorders that do not respond to currently available therapies, are difficult, often tragic, neurological disorders. Na(+) channelopathies have been implicated in some intractable epilepsies, including Dravet syndrome (Dravet 1978), but little progress has been forthcoming in therapeutics. Here we examine a Drosophila model for intractable epilepsy, the Na(+) channel gain-of-function mutant para(bss1) that resembles Dravet syndrome in some aspects (parker et al. 2011a). In particular, we identify second-site mutations that interact with para(bss1), seizure enhancers, and seizure suppressors. We describe one seizure-enhancer mutation named charlatan (chn). The chn gene normally encodes an Neuron-Restrictive Silencer Factor/RE1-Silencing Transcription factor transcriptional repressor of neuronal-specific genes. We identify a second-site seizure-suppressor mutation, gilgamesh (gish), that reduces the severity of several seizure-like phenotypes of para(bss1)/+ heterozygotes. The gish gene normally encodes the Drosophila ortholog of casein kinase CK1g3, a member of the CK1 family of serine-threonine kinases. We suggest that CK1g3 is an unexpected but promising new target for seizure therapeutics.

  13. Young Alu insertions within the MHC class I region in native American populations: insights into the origin of the MHC-Alu repeats.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Pérez, Luis; Alfonso-Sánchez, Miguel A; Dipierri, José E; Sánchez, Dora; Espinosa, Ibone; De Pancorbo, Marian M; Peña, José A

    2013-01-01

    Genetic heterogeneity of two Amerindian populations (Jujuy province, Argentina, and Waorani tribe, Ecuador) was characterized by analyzing data on polymorphic Alu insertions within the human major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I region (6p21.31), which are completely nonexistent in Native Americans. We further evaluated the haplotype distribution and genetic diversity among continental ancestry groups and their potential implications for the dating of the origin of MHC-Alus. Five MHC-Alu elements (AluMicB, AluTF, AluHJ, AluHG, and AluHF) were typed in samples from Jujuy (N = 108) and Waorani (N = 36). Allele and haplotype frequency data on worldwide populations were compiled to explore spatial structuring of the MHC-Alu diversity through AMOVA tests. We utilized the median-joining network approach to illustrate the continental distribution of the MHC-Alu haplotypes and their phylogenetic relationships. Allele and haplotype distributions differed significantly between Jujuy and Waorani. The Waorani featured a low average heterozygosity attributable to strong population isolation. Overall, Alu markers showed great genetic heterogeneity both within and among populations. The haplotype distribution was distinctive of each continental ancestry group. Contrary to expectations, Africans showed the lowest MHC-Alu diversity. Genetic drift mainly associated to population bottlenecks seems to be reflected in the low MHC-Alu diversity of the Amerindians, mainly in Waorani. Geographical structuring of the haplotype distribution supports the efficiency of the MHC-Alu loci as lineage (ancestry) markers. The markedly low Alu diversity of African populations relative to other continental clusters suggests that these MHC-Alus might have arisen after the anatomically modern humans expanded out of Africa. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. An Integrated Tool to Study MHC Region: Accurate SNV Detection and HLA Genes Typing in Human MHC Region Using Targeted High-Throughput Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiao; Xu, Yinyin; Liang, Dequan; Gao, Peng; Sun, Yepeng; Gifford, Benjamin; D’Ascenzo, Mark; Liu, Xiaomin; Tellier, Laurent C. A. M.; Yang, Fang; Tong, Xin; Chen, Dan; Zheng, Jing; Li, Weiyang; Richmond, Todd; Xu, Xun; Wang, Jun; Li, Yingrui

    2013-01-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is one of the most variable and gene-dense regions of the human genome. Most studies of the MHC, and associated regions, focus on minor variants and HLA typing, many of which have been demonstrated to be associated with human disease susceptibility and metabolic pathways. However, the detection of variants in the MHC region, and diagnostic HLA typing, still lacks a coherent, standardized, cost effective and high coverage protocol of clinical quality and reliability. In this paper, we presented such a method for the accurate detection of minor variants and HLA types in the human MHC region, using high-throughput, high-coverage sequencing of target regions. A probe set was designed to template upon the 8 annotated human MHC haplotypes, and to encompass the 5 megabases (Mb) of the extended MHC region. We deployed our probes upon three, genetically diverse human samples for probe set evaluation, and sequencing data show that ∼97% of the MHC region, and over 99% of the genes in MHC region, are covered with sufficient depth and good evenness. 98% of genotypes called by this capture sequencing prove consistent with established HapMap genotypes. We have concurrently developed a one-step pipeline for calling any HLA type referenced in the IMGT/HLA database from this target capture sequencing data, which shows over 96% typing accuracy when deployed at 4 digital resolution. This cost-effective and highly accurate approach for variant detection and HLA typing in the MHC region may lend further insight into immune-mediated diseases studies, and may find clinical utility in transplantation medicine research. This one-step pipeline is released for general evaluation and use by the scientific community. PMID:23894464

  15. A method for genotype validation and primer assessment in heterozygote-deficient species, as demonstrated in the prosobranch mollusc Hydrobia ulvae

    PubMed Central

    Brownlow, Robert J; Dawson, Deborah A; Horsburgh, Gavin J; Bell, James J; Fish, John D

    2008-01-01

    Background In studies where microsatellite markers are employed, it is essential that the primers designed will reliably and consistently amplify target loci. In populations conforming to Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE), screening for unreliable markers often relies on the identification of heterozygote deficiencies and subsequent departures from HWE. However, since many populations naturally deviate from HWE, such as many marine invertebrates, it can be difficult to distinguish heterozygote deficiencies resulting from unreliable markers from natural processes. Thus, studies of populations that are suspected to deviate from HWE naturally would benefit from a method to validate genotype data-sets and test the reliability of the designed primers. Levels of heterozygosity are reported for the prosobranch mollusc Hydrobia ulvae (Pennant) together with a method of genotype validation and primer assessment that utilises two primer sets for each locus. Microsatellite loci presented are the first described for the species Hydrobia ulvae; the five loci presented will be of value in further study of populations of H. ulvae. Results We have developed a novel method of testing primer reliability in naturally heterozygote deficient populations. After the design of an initial primer set, genotyping in 48 Hydrobia ulvae specimens using a single primer set (Primer set_A) revealed heterozygote deficiency in six of the seven loci examined. Redesign of six of the primer pairs (Primer set_B), re-genotyping of the successful individuals from Primer set_A using Primer set_B, and comparison of genotypes between the two primer sets, enabled the identification of two loci (Hulv-06 & Hulv-07) that showed a high degree of discrepancy between primer sets A and B (0% & only 25% alleles matching, respectively), suggesting unreliability in these primers. The discrepancies included changes from heterozygotes to homozygotes or vice versa, and some individuals who also displayed new alleles of

  16. Dipeptides catalyze rapid peptide exchange on MHC class I molecules

    PubMed Central

    Saini, Sunil Kumar; Schuster, Heiko; Ramnarayan, Venkat Raman; Rammensee, Hans-Georg; Stevanović, Stefan; Springer, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Peptide ligand selection by MHC class I molecules, which occurs by iterative optimization, is the centerpiece of immunodominance in antiviral and antitumor immune responses. For its understanding, the molecular mechanisms of peptide binding and dissociation by class I molecules must be elucidated. To this end, we have investigated dipeptides that bind to the F pocket of class I molecules. We find that they accelerate the dissociation of prebound peptides of both low and high affinity, suggesting a mechanism of action for the peptide-exchange chaperone tapasin. Peptide exchange on class I molecules also has practical uses in epitope discovery and T-cell monitoring. PMID:25535340

  17. Conservation of MHC class II DOA sequences among carnivores.

    PubMed

    Soll, S J; Stewart, B S; Lehman, N

    2005-03-01

    We obtained the nucleotide sequence for most of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II DOA locus for Weddell, leopard, northern elephant, and southern elephant seals and from the coyote and compared them to all known DOA data available to date. We found generally low levels of interspecific polymorphisms, providing further support for stabilizing selection acting on the DOA locus. This suggests that DO gene products play a substantial functional role in the regulation of antigen presentation. A seven-amino-acid motif of VWRLPEF was found to be conserved across all DOA sequences and may be a DO-specific recognition element.

  18. Cheetah paradigm revisited: MHC diversity in the world's largest free-ranging population.

    PubMed

    Castro-Prieto, Aines; Wachter, Bettina; Sommer, Simone

    2011-04-01

    For more than two decades, the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) has been considered a paradigm of disease vulnerability associated with low genetic diversity, particularly at the immune genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). Cheetahs have been used as a classic example in numerous conservation genetics textbooks as well as in many related scientific publications. However, earlier studies used methods with low resolution to quantify MHC diversity and/or small sample sizes. Furthermore, high disease susceptibility was reported only for captive cheetahs, whereas free-ranging cheetahs show no signs of infectious diseases and a good general health status. We examined whether the diversity at MHC class I and class II-DRB loci in 149 Namibian cheetahs was higher than previously reported using single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis, cloning, and sequencing. MHC genes were examined at the genomic and transcriptomic levels. We detected ten MHC class I and four class II-DRB alleles, of which nine MHC class I and all class II-DRB alleles were expressed. Phylogenetic analyses and individual genotypes suggested that the alleles belong to four MHC class I and three class II-DRB putative loci. Evidence of positive selection was detected in both MHC loci. Our study indicated that the low number of MHC class I alleles previously observed in cheetahs was due to a smaller sample size examined. On the other hand, the low number of MHC class II-DRB alleles previously observed in cheetahs was further confirmed. Compared with other mammalian species including felids, cheetahs showed low levels of MHC diversity, but this does not seem to influence the immunocompetence of free-ranging cheetahs in Namibia and contradicts the previous conclusion that the cheetah is a paradigm species of disease vulnerability.

  19. Polymorphism at expressed DQ and DR loci in five common equine MHC haplotypes.

    PubMed

    Miller, Donald; Tallmadge, Rebecca L; Binns, Matthew; Zhu, Baoli; Mohamoud, Yasmin Ali; Ahmed, Ayeda; Brooks, Samantha A; Antczak, Douglas F

    2017-03-01

    The polymorphism of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II DQ and DR genes in five common equine leukocyte antigen (ELA) haplotypes was determined through sequencing of mRNA transcripts isolated from lymphocytes of eight ELA homozygous horses. Ten expressed MHC class II genes were detected in horses of the ELA-A3 haplotype carried by the donor horses of the equine bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library and the reference genome sequence: four DR genes and six DQ genes. The other four ELA haplotypes contained at least eight expressed polymorphic MHC class II loci. Next generation sequencing (NGS) of genomic DNA of these four MHC haplotypes revealed stop codons in the DQA3 gene in the ELA-A2, ELA-A5, and ELA-A9 haplotypes. Few NGS reads were obtained for the other MHC class II genes that were not amplified in these horses. The amino acid sequences across haplotypes contained locus-specific residues, and the locus clusters produced by phylogenetic analysis were well supported. The MHC class II alleles within the five tested haplotypes were largely non-overlapping between haplotypes. The complement of equine MHC class II DQ and DR genes appears to be well conserved between haplotypes, in contrast to the recently described variation in class I gene loci between equine MHC haplotypes. The identification of allelic series of equine MHC class II loci will aid comparative studies of mammalian MHC conservation and evolution and may also help to interpret associations between the equine MHC class II region and diseases of the horse.

  20. Generation of MHC class I diversity in primary tumors and selection of the malignant phenotype.

    PubMed

    Garrido, Federico; Romero, Irene; Aptsiauri, Natalia; Garcia-Lora, Angel M

    2016-01-15

    Intratumor heterogeneity among cancer cells is promoted by reversible or irreversible genetic alterations and by different microenvironmental factors. There is considerable experimental evidence of the presence of a variety of malignant cell clones with a wide diversity of major histocompatibility class I (MHC-I) expression during early stages of tumor development. This variety of MHC-I phenotypes may define the evolution of a particular tumor. Loss of MHC-I molecules frequently results in immune escape of MHC-negative or -deficient tumor cells from the host T cell-mediated immune response. We review here the results obtained by our group and other researchers in animal models and humans, showing how MHC-I intratumor heterogeneity may affect local oncogenicity and metastatic progression. In particular, we summarize the data obtained in an experimental mouse cancer model of a methylcholanthrene-induced fibrosarcoma (GR9), in which isolated clones with different MHC-I expression patterns demonstrated distinct local tumor growth rates and metastatic capacities. The observed "explosion of diversity" of MHC-I phenotypes in primary tumor clones and the molecular mechanism ("hard"/irreversible or "soft"/reversible) responsible for a given MHC-I alteration might determine not only the metastatic capacity of the cells but also their response to immunotherapy. We also illustrate the generation of further MHC heterogeneity during metastatic colonization and discuss different strategies to favor tumor rejection by counteracting MHC-I loss. Finally, we highlight the role of MHC-I genes in tumor dormancy and cell cycle control. © 2014 UICC.

  1. Thymic Dendritic Cell Subsets Display Distinct Efficiencies and Mechanisms of Intercellular MHC Transfer.

    PubMed

    Kroger, Charles J; Spidale, Nicholas A; Wang, Bo; Tisch, Roland

    2017-01-01

    Thymic dendritic cells (DC) delete self-antigen-specific thymocytes, and drive development of Foxp3-expressing immunoregulatory T cells. Unlike medullary thymic epithelial cells, which express and present peripheral self-antigen, DC must acquire self-antigen to mediate thymic negative selection. One such mechanism entails the transfer of surface MHC-self peptide complexes from medullary thymic epithelial cells to thymic DC. Despite the importance of thymic DC cross-dressing in negative selection, the factors that regulate the process and the capacity of different thymic DC subsets to acquire MHC and stimulate thymocytes are poorly understood. In this study intercellular MHC transfer by thymic DC subsets was investigated using an MHC-mismatch-based in vitro system. Thymic conventional DC (cDC) subsets signal regulatory protein α (SIRPα(+)) and CD8α(+) readily acquired MHC class I and II from thymic epithelial cells but plasmacytoid DC were less efficient. Intercellular MHC transfer was donor-cell specific; thymic DC readily acquired MHC from TEC plus thymic or splenic DC, whereas thymic or splenic B cells were poor donors. Furthermore DC origin influenced cross-dressing; thymic versus splenic DC exhibited an increased capacity to capture TEC-derived MHC, which correlated with direct expression of EpCAM by DC. Despite similar capacities to acquire MHC-peptide complexes, thymic CD8α(+) cDC elicited increased T cell stimulation relative to SIRPα(+) cDC. DC cross-dressing was cell-contact dependent and unaffected by lipid raft disruption of donor TEC. Furthermore, blocking PI3K signaling reduced MHC acquisition by thymic CD8α(+) cDC and plasmacytoid DC but not SIRPα(+) cDC. These findings demonstrate that multiple parameters influence the efficiency of and distinct mechanisms drive intercellular MHC transfer by thymic DC subsets. Copyright © 2016 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  2. Evolution of MHC-based technologies used for detection of antigen-responsive T cells.

    PubMed

    Bentzen, Amalie Kai; Hadrup, Sine Reker

    2017-03-17

    T cell-mediated recognition of peptide-major histocompatibility complex (pMHC) class I and II molecules is crucial for the control of intracellular pathogens and cancer, as well as for stimulation and maintenance of efficient cytotoxic responses. Such interactions may also play a role in the development of autoimmune diseases. Novel insights into this mechanism are crucial to understanding disease development and establishing new treatment strategies. MHC multimers have been used for detection of antigen-responsive T cells since the first report by Altman et al. showed that tetramerization of pMHC class I molecules provided sufficient stability to T cell receptor (TCR)-pMHC interactions, allowing detection of MHC multimer-binding T cells using flow cytometry. Since this breakthrough the scientific community has aimed for expanding the capacity of MHC multimer-based detection technologies to facilitate large-scale epitope discovery and immune monitoring in limited biological material. Screening of T cell specificity using large libraries of pMHC molecules is suitable for analyses of T cell recognition potentially at genome-wide levels rather than analyses restricted to a selection of model antigens. Such strategies provide novel insights into the immune specificities involved in disease development and response to immunotherapy, and extend fundamental knowledge related to T cell recognition patterns and cross-recognition by TCRs. MHC multimer-based technologies have now evolved from detection of 1-2 different T cell specificities per cell sample, to include more than 1000 evaluable pMHC molecules using novel technologies. Here, we provide an overview of MHC multimer-based detection technologies developed over two decades, focusing primarily on MHC class I interactions.

  3. No evidence for MHC class I-based disassortative mating in a wild population of great tits.

    PubMed

    Sepil, I; Radersma, R; Santure, A W; De Cauwer, I; Slate, J; Sheldon, B C

    2015-03-01

    Genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) are regarded as a potentially important target of mate choice due to the fitness benefits that may be conferred to the offspring. According to the complementary genes hypothesis, females mate with MHC dissimilar males to enhance the immunocompetence of their offspring or to avoid inbreeding depression. Here, we investigate whether selection favours a preference for maximally dissimilar or optimally dissimilar MHC class I types, based on MHC genotypes, average amino acid distances and the functional properties of the antigen-binding sites (MHC supertypes); and whether MHC type dissimilarity predicts relatedness between mates in a wild great tit population. In particular, we explore the role that MHC class I plays in female mate choice decisions while controlling for relatedness and spatial population structure, and examine the reproductive fitness consequences of MHC compatibility between mates. We find no evidence for the hypotheses that females select mates on the basis of either maximal or optimal MHC class I dissimilarity. A weak correlation between MHC supertype sharing and relatedness suggests that MHC dissimilarity at functional variants may not provide an effective index of relatedness. Moreover, the reproductive success of pairs did not vary with MHC dissimilarity. Our results provide no support for the suggestion that selection favours, or that mate choice realizes, a preference for complimentary MHC types.

  4. The β2-microglobulin-free heterodimerization of rhesus monkey MHC class I A with its normally spliced variant reduces the ubiquitin-dependent degradation of MHC class I A.

    PubMed

    Dai, Zheng-Xi; Zhang, Gao-Hong; Zhang, Xi-He; Xia, Hou-Jun; Li, Shao-You; Zheng, Yong-Tang

    2012-03-01

    The MHC class I (MHC I) molecules play a pivotal role in the regulation of immune responses by presenting antigenic peptides to CTLs and by regulating cytolytic activities of NK cells. In this article, we show that MHC I A in rhesus macaques can be alternatively spliced, generating a novel MHC I A isoform (termed "MHC I A-sv1") devoid of α(3) domain. Despite the absence of β2-microglobulin (β2m), the MHC I A-sv1 proteins reached the cell surface of K562-transfected cells as endoglycosidase H-sensitive glycoproteins that could form disulfide-bonded homodimers. Cycloheximide-based protein chase experiments showed that the MHC I A-sv1 proteins were more stable than the full-length MHC I A in transiently or stably transfected cell lines. Of particular interest, our studies demonstrated that MHC I A-sv1 could form β2m-free heterodimers with its full-length protein in mammalian cells. The formation of heterodimers was accompanied by a reduction in full-length MHC I A ubiquitination and consequent stabilization of the protein. Taken together, these results demonstrated that MHC I A-sv1 and MHC I A can form a novel heterodimeric complex as a result of the displacement of β2m and illustrated the relevance of regulated MHC I A protein degradation in the β2m-free heterodimerization-dependent control, which may have some implications for the MHC I A splice variant in the fine tuning of classical MHC I A/TCR and MHC I A/killer cell Ig-like receptor interactions.

  5. Clinical spectrum in homozygotes and compound heterozygotes inheriting cystic fibrosis mutation 3849+10kbC>T: Significance for geneticists

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, F.; Li, Zhen; Arzimanoglou, I.

    1995-09-25

    We describe patients inheriting cystic fibrosis (CF) mutation 3849+10kbC>T as homozygotes or compound heterozygotes. Three unrelated homozygotes for this mutation were all pancreatic-sufficient and sweat test-negative or inconclusive. Among the compound heterozygotes, both pancreatic sufficiency and insufficiency, as well as positive and negative/inconclusive sweat test results are reported, expanding the range of clinical expression associated with inheritance of this mutation. 3849+10kbC>T is one of several CF mutations that can result in atypical or variant forms of CF. For geneticists, the diagnosis of variant CF has implications for recurrence risk and prognosis counseling of the families of affected individuals, and possibly for CF carrier screening in the general population. 19 refs., 1 tab.

  6. αβ T cell receptor germline CDR regions moderate contact with MHC ligands and regulate peptide cross-reactivity

    PubMed Central

    Attaf, Meriem; Holland, Stephan J.; Bartok, Istvan; Dyson, Julian

    2016-01-01

    αβ T cells respond to peptide epitopes presented by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules. The role of T cell receptor (TCR) germline complementarity determining regions (CDR1 and 2) in MHC restriction is not well understood. Here, we examine T cell development, MHC restriction and antigen recognition where germline CDR loop structure has been modified by multiple glycine/alanine substitutions. Surprisingly, loss of germline structure increases TCR engagement with MHC ligands leading to excessive loss of immature thymocytes. MHC restriction is, however, strictly maintained. The peripheral T cell repertoire is affected similarly, exhibiting elevated cross-reactivity to foreign peptides. Our findings are consistent with germline TCR structure optimising T cell cross-reactivity and immunity by moderating engagement with MHC ligands. This strategy may operate alongside co-receptor imposed MHC restriction, freeing germline TCR structure to adopt this novel role in the TCR-MHC interface. PMID:27775030

  7. αβ T cell receptor germline CDR regions moderate contact with MHC ligands and regulate peptide cross-reactivity.

    PubMed

    Attaf, Meriem; Holland, Stephan J; Bartok, Istvan; Dyson, Julian

    2016-10-24

    αβ T cells respond to peptide epitopes presented by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules. The role of T cell receptor (TCR) germline complementarity determining regions (CDR1 and 2) in MHC restriction is not well understood. Here, we examine T cell development, MHC restriction and antigen recognition where germline CDR loop structure has been modified by multiple glycine/alanine substitutions. Surprisingly, loss of germline structure increases TCR engagement with MHC ligands leading to excessive loss of immature thymocytes. MHC restriction is, however, strictly maintained. The peripheral T cell repertoire is affected similarly, exhibiting elevated cross-reactivity to foreign peptides. Our findings are consistent with germline TCR structure optimising T cell cross-reactivity and immunity by moderating engagement with MHC ligands. This strategy may operate alongside co-receptor imposed MHC restriction, freeing germline TCR structure to adopt this novel role in the TCR-MHC interface.

  8. 75 FR 27863 - Savings Bank of Maine, MHC and Savings Bank of Maine, Gardiner, Maine; Approval of Conversion...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-18

    ...] Savings Bank of Maine, MHC and Savings Bank of Maine, Gardiner, Maine; Approval of Conversion Application... Savings Bank of Maine, MHC and Savings Bank of Maine, Gardiner, Maine, to convert to the stock form of...

  9. Rheumatoid Rescue of Misfolded Cellular Proteins by MHC Class II Molecules: A New Hypothesis for Autoimmune Diseases.

    PubMed

    Arase, Hisashi

    2016-01-01

    Misfolded proteins localized in the endoplasmic reticulum are degraded promptly and thus are not transported outside cells. However, misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum are rescued from protein degradation upon association with major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules and are transported to the cell surface by MHC class II molecules without being processed to peptides. Studies on the misfolded proteins rescued by MHC class II molecules have revealed that misfolded proteins associated with MHC class II molecules are specific targets for autoantibodies produced in autoimmune diseases. Furthermore, a strong correlation has been observed between autoantibody binding to misfolded proteins associated with MHC class II molecules and the autoimmune disease susceptibility conferred by each MHC class II allele. These new insights into MHC class II molecules suggest that misfolded proteins rescued from protein degradation by MHC class II molecules are recognized as "neo-self" antigens by immune system and are involved in autoimmune diseases as autoantibody targets.

  10. MHC-correlated odour preferences in humans and the use of oral contraceptives

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, S. Craig; Gosling, L. Morris; Carter, Vaughan; Petrie, Marion

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies in animals and humans show that genes in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) influence individual odours and that females often prefer odour of MHC-dissimilar males, perhaps to increase offspring heterozygosity or reduce inbreeding. Women using oral hormonal contraceptives have been reported to have the opposite preference, raising the possibility that oral contraceptives alter female preference towards MHC similarity, with possible fertility costs. Here we test directly whether contraceptive pill use alters odour preferences using a longitudinal design in which women were tested before and after initiating pill use; a control group of non-users were tested with a comparable interval between test sessions. In contrast to some previous studies, there was no significant difference in ratings between odours of MHC-dissimilar and MHC-similar men among women during the follicular cycle phase. However, single women preferred odours of MHC-similar men, while women in relationships preferred odours of MHC-dissimilar men, a result consistent with studies in other species, suggesting that paired females may seek to improve offspring quality through extra-pair partnerships. Across tests, we found a significant preference shift towards MHC similarity associated with pill use, which was not evident in the control group. If odour plays a role in human mate choice, our results suggest that contraceptive pill use could disrupt disassortative mate preferences. PMID:18700206

  11. Social pairing of Seychelles warblers under reduced constraints: MHC, neutral heterozygosity, and age

    PubMed Central

    Wright, David J.; Brouwer, Lyanne; Mannarelli, Maria-Elena; Burke, Terry; Komdeur, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence and significance of precopulatory mate choice remains keenly debated. The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) plays a key role in vertebrate adaptive immunity, and variation at the MHC influences individual survival. Although MHC-dependent mate choice has been documented in certain species, many other studies find no such pattern. This may be, at least in part, because in natural systems constraints may reduce the choices available to individuals and prevent full expression of underlying preferences. We used translocations to previously unoccupied islands to experimentally reduce constraints on female social mate choice in the Seychelles warbler (Acrocephalus sechellensis), a species in which patterns of MHC-dependent extrapair paternity (EPP), but not social mate choice, have been observed. We find no evidence of MHC-dependent social mate choice in the new populations. Instead, we find that older males and males with more microsatellite heterozygosity are more likely to have successfully paired. Our data cannot resolve whether these patterns in pairing were due to male–male competition or female choice. However, our research does suggest that female Seychelles warblers do not choose social mates using MHC class I to increase fitness. It may also indicate that the MHC-dependent EPP observed in the source population is probably due to mechanisms other than female precopulatory mate choice based on MHC cues. PMID:26792973

  12. Tricks with tetramers: how to get the most from multimeric peptide–MHC

    PubMed Central

    Wooldridge, Linda; Lissina, Anna; Cole, David K; van den Berg, Hugo A; Price, David A; Sewell, Andrew K

    2009-01-01

    The development of fluorochrome-conjugated peptide–major histocompatibility complex (pMHC) multimers in conjunction with continuing advances in flow cytometry has transformed the study of antigen-specific T cells by enabling their visualization, enumeration, phenotypic characterization and isolation from ex vivo samples. Here, we bring together and discuss some of the ‘tricks’ that can be used to get the most out of pMHC multimers. These include: (1) simple procedures that can substantially enhance the staining intensity of cognate T cells with pMHC multimers; (2) the use of pMHC multimers to stain T cells with very-low-affinity T-cell receptor (TCR)/pMHC interactions, such as those that typically predominate in tumour-specific responses; and (3) the physical grading and clonotypic dissection of antigen-specific T cells based on the affinity of their cognate TCR using mutant pMHC multimers in conjunction with new approaches to the molecular analysis of TCR gene expression. We also examine how soluble pMHC can be used to examine T-cell activation, manipulate T-cell responses and study allogeneic and superantigen interactions with TCRs. Finally, we discuss the problems that arise with pMHC class II (pMHCII) multimers because of the low affinity of TCR/pMHCII interactions and lack of ‘coreceptor help’. PMID:19125886

  13. Tricks with tetramers: how to get the most from multimeric peptide-MHC.

    PubMed

    Wooldridge, Linda; Lissina, Anna; Cole, David K; van den Berg, Hugo A; Price, David A; Sewell, Andrew K

    2009-02-01

    The development of fluorochrome-conjugated peptide-major histocompatibility complex (pMHC) multimers in conjunction with continuing advances in flow cytometry has transformed the study of antigen-specific T cells by enabling their visualization, enumeration, phenotypic characterization and isolation from ex vivo samples. Here, we bring together and discuss some of the 'tricks' that can be used to get the most out of pMHC multimers. These include: (1) simple procedures that can substantially enhance the staining intensity of cognate T cells with pMHC multimers; (2) the use of pMHC multimers to stain T cells with very-low-affinity T-cell receptor (TCR)/pMHC interactions, such as those that typically predominate in tumour-specific responses; and (3) the physical grading and clonotypic dissection of antigen-specific T cells based on the affinity of their cognate TCR using mutant pMHC multimers in conjunction with new approaches to the molecular analysis of TCR gene expression. We also examine how soluble pMHC can be used to examine T-cell activation, manipulate T-cell responses and study allogeneic and superantigen interactions with TCRs. Finally, we discuss the problems that arise with pMHC class II (pMHCII) multimers because of the low affinity of TCR/pMHCII interactions and lack of 'coreceptor help'.

  14. MHC-correlated odour preferences in humans and the use of oral contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Roberts, S Craig; Gosling, L Morris; Carter, Vaughan; Petrie, Marion

    2008-12-07

    Previous studies in animals and humans show that genes in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) influence individual odours and that females often prefer odour of MHC-dissimilar males, perhaps to increase offspring heterozygosity or reduce inbreeding. Women using oral hormonal contraceptives have been reported to have the opposite preference, raising the possibility that oral contraceptives alter female preference towards MHC similarity, with possible fertility costs. Here we test directly whether contraceptive pill use alters odour preferences using a longitudinal design in which women were tested before and after initiating pill use; a control group of non-users were tested with a comparable interval between test sessions. In contrast to some previous studies, there was no significant difference in ratings between odours of MHC-dissimilar and MHC-similar men among women during the follicular cycle phase. However, single women preferred odours of MHC-similar men, while women in relationships preferred odours of MHC-dissimilar men, a result consistent with studies in other species, suggesting that paired females may seek to improve offspring quality through extra-pair partnerships. Across tests, we found a significant preference shift towards MHC similarity associated with pill use, which was not evident in the control group. If odour plays a role in human mate choice, our results suggest that contraceptive pill use could disrupt disassortative mate preferences.

  15. Evidence for selection maintaining MHC diversity in a rodent species despite strong density fluctuations.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Andrea C; Herde, Antje; Mazzoni, Camila J; Eccard, Jana A; Sommer, Simone

    2016-07-01

    Strong spatiotemporal variation in population size often leads to reduced genetic diversity limiting the adaptive potential of individual populations. Key genes of adaptive variation are encoded by the immune genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) playing an essential role in parasite resistance. How MHC variation persists in rodent populations that regularly experience population bottlenecks remains an important topic in evolutionary genetics. We analysed the consequences of strong population fluctuations on MHC class II DRB exon 2 diversity in two distant common vole (Microtus arvalis) populations in three consecutive years using a high-throughput sequencing approach. In 143 individuals, we detected 25 nucleotide alleles translating into 14 unique amino acid MHC alleles belonging to at least three loci. Thus, the overall allelic diversity and amino acid distance among the remaining MHC alleles, used as a surrogate for the range of pathogenic antigens that can be presented to T-cells, are still remarkably high. Both study populations did not show significant population differentiation between years, but significant differences were found between sites. We concluded that selection processes seem to be strong enough to maintain moderate levels of MHC diversity in our study populations outcompeting genetic drift, as the same MHC alleles were conserved between years. Differences in allele frequencies between populations might be the outcome of different local parasite pressures and/or genetic drift. Further understanding of how pathogens vary across space and time will be crucial to further elucidate the mechanisms maintaining MHC diversity in cyclic populations.

  16. Maintenance of MHC Class IIB diversity in a recently established songbird population

    PubMed Central

    Whittaker, Danielle J.; Dapper, Amy L.; Peterson, Mark P.; Atwell, Jonathan W.; Ketterson, Ellen D.

    2012-01-01

    We examined variation at MHC Class IIB genes in a recently established population of dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis) in a coastal urban environment in southern California, USA relative to an ancestral-range population from a nearby species-typical montane environment. The founding population is estimated to have been quite small, but we predicted that variation at the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) among the founders would nevertheless be preserved owing to the high functional significance of MHC. Previous studies of MHC in songbirds have had varying degrees of success in isolating loci, as passerines show extensive MHC gene duplication. In order to compare diversity in the two populations, we employed two published approaches to sequencing MHC Class II exon 2: direct sequencing with exon-based primers, and traditional cloning and sequencing with intron-based primers. Results from both methods show that the colonist population has maintained high levels of variation. Our results also indicate varying numbers of alleles across individuals, corroborating evidence for gene duplication in songbird MHC. While future studies in songbirds may need to take a genomic approach to fully understand the structure of MHC in this lineage, our results show that it is possible to use traditional methods to reveal functional variation across populations. PMID:22685370

  17. Predicting sequences and structures of MHC-binding peptides: a computational combinatorial approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Jun; Treutlein, Herbert R.; Rudy, George B.

    2001-06-01

    Peptides bound to MHC molecules on the surface of cells convey critical information about the cellular milieu to immune system T cells. Predicting which peptides can bind an MHC molecule, and understanding their modes of binding, are important in order to design better diagnostic and therapeutic agents for infectious and autoimmune diseases. Due to the difficulty of obtaining sufficient experimental binding data for each human MHC molecule, computational modeling of MHC peptide-binding properties is necessary. This paper describes a computational combinatorial design approach to the prediction of peptides that bind an MHC molecule of known X-ray crystallographic or NMR-determined structure. The procedure uses chemical fragments as models for amino acid residues and produces a set of sequences for peptides predicted to bind in the MHC peptide-binding groove. The probabilities for specific amino acids occurring at each position of the peptide are calculated based on these sequences, and these probabilities show a good agreement with amino acid distributions derived from a MHC-binding peptide database. The method also enables prediction of the three-dimensional structure of MHC-peptide complexes. Docking, linking, and optimization procedures were performed with the XPLOR program [1].

  18. NLRC5/MHC class I transactivator is a target for immune evasion in cancer.

    PubMed

    Yoshihama, Sayuri; Roszik, Jason; Downs, Isaac; Meissner, Torsten B; Vijayan, Saptha; Chapuy, Bjoern; Sidiq, Tabasum; Shipp, Margaret A; Lizee, Gregory A; Kobayashi, Koichi S

    2016-05-24

    Cancer cells develop under immune surveillance, thus necessitating immune escape for successful growth. Loss of MHC class I expression provides a key immune evasion strategy in many cancers, although the molecular mechanisms remain elusive. MHC class I transactivator (CITA), known as "NLRC5" [NOD-like receptor (NLR) family, caspase recruitment (CARD) domain containing 5], has recently been identified as a critical transcriptional coactivator of MHC class I gene expression. Here we show that the MHC class I transactivation pathway mediated by CITA/NLRC5 constitutes a target for cancer immune evasion. In all the 21 tumor types we examined, NLRC5 expression was highly correlated with the expression of MHC class I, with cytotoxic T-cell markers, and with genes in the MHC class I antigen-presentation pathway, including LMP2/LMP7, TAP1, and β2-microglobulin. Epigenetic and genetic alterations in cancers, including promoter methylation, copy number loss, and somatic mutations, were most prevalent in NLRC5 among all MHC class I-related genes and were associated with the impaired expression of components of the MHC class I pathway. Strikingly, NLRC5 expression was significantly associated with the activation of CD8(+) cytotoxic T cells and patient survival in multiple cancer types. Thus, NLRC5 constitutes a novel prognostic biomarker and potential therapeutic target of cancers.

  19. NLRC5/MHC class I transactivator is a target for immune evasion in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yoshihama, Sayuri; Roszik, Jason; Downs, Isaac; Meissner, Torsten B.; Vijayan, Saptha; Chapuy, Bjoern; Sidiq, Tabasum; Shipp, Margaret A.; Lizee, Gregory A.; Kobayashi, Koichi S.

    2016-01-01

    Cancer cells develop under immune surveillance, thus necessitating immune escape for successful growth. Loss of MHC class I expression provides a key immune evasion strategy in many cancers, although the molecular mechanisms remain elusive. MHC class I transactivator (CITA), known as “NLRC5” [NOD-like receptor (NLR) family, caspase recruitment (CARD) domain containing 5], has recently been identified as a critical transcriptional coactivator of MHC class I gene expression. Here we show that the MHC class I transactivation pathway mediated by CITA/NLRC5 constitutes a target for cancer immune evasion. In all the 21 tumor types we examined, NLRC5 expression was highly correlated with the expression of MHC class I, with cytotoxic T-cell markers, and with genes in the MHC class I antigen-presentation pathway, including LMP2/LMP7, TAP1, and β2-microglobulin. Epigenetic and genetic alterations in cancers, including promoter methylation, copy number loss, and somatic mutations, were most prevalent in NLRC5 among all MHC class I-related genes and were associated with the impaired expression of components of the MHC class I pathway. Strikingly, NLRC5 expression was significantly associated with the activation of CD8+ cytotoxic T cells and patient survival in multiple cancer types. Thus, NLRC5 constitutes a novel prognostic biomarker and potential therapeutic target of cancers. PMID:27162338

  20. Identification and characterization of a novel splice variant of rhesus macaque MHC IA.

    PubMed

    Dai, Zheng-Xi; Zhang, Gao-Hong; Zhang, Xi-He; Zheng, Yong-Tang

    2013-03-01

    Major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC I) molecules play a pivotal role in the immune recognition to intracellular pathogens. A number of important splice variants have already been characterized for these molecules in different species, suggesting their important roles in modulation of immune responses. In this study, we have identified and characterized a novel alternatively spliced form of rhesus macaque MHC IA (designated MHC IA-sv2) that lacks exons coding for the α2 and α3 domains. Despite lacking the α2 and α3 domains, MHC IA-sv2 is targeted to the cell surface, as a 23-kDa glycoprotein that is totally susceptible to endoglycosidase-H digestion and is reduced to 18kDa after deglycosylation with PNGase F. In contrast, the full-length MHC IA reaches the cell surface as a 43-kDa protein of form with complex-type N-glycosylation (endoglycosidase-H resistant). Moreover, we provide evidence here that MHC IA-sv2 can self-associate, forming homodimers, or associate with the fully mature MHC IA molecule, forming a heterodimeric structure in mammalian cells. These data demonstrate that the formation of heterodimers may have some functional implications in the fine tuning of MHC IA-mediated innate and adaptive immune responses.

  1. Evolution of an MHC class Ia gene fragment in four North American Morone species.

    PubMed

    Liu, J-X; Ely, B

    2010-05-01

    A nucleotide sequence analysis of a fragment of a Morone MHC class Ia gene detected high levels of polymorphism in striped bass Morone saxatilis, white perch Morone americana and yellow bass Morone mississippiensis. Extremely low levels of MHC diversity, however, were detected in white bass Morone chrysops, suggesting the possibility of a severe population bottleneck for this species.

  2. Complete MHC Haplotype Sequencing for Common Disease Gene Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, C. Andrew; Horton, Roger; Allcock, Richard J.N.; Ashurst, Jennifer L.; Atrazhev, Alexey M.; Coggill, Penny; Dunham, Ian; Forbes, Simon; Halls, Karen; Howson, Joanna M.M.; Humphray, Sean J.; Hunt, Sarah; Mungall, Andrew J.; Osoegawa, Kazutoyo; Palmer, Sophie; Roberts, Anne N.; Rogers, Jane; Sims, Sarah; Wang, Yu; Wilming, Laurens G.; Elliott, John F.; de Jong, Pieter J.; Sawcer, Stephen; Todd, John A.; Trowsdale, John; Beck, Stephan

    2004-01-01

    The future systematic mapping of variants that confer susceptibility to common diseases requires the construction of a fully informative polymorphism map. Ideally, every base pair of the genome would be sequenced in many individuals. Here, we report 4.75 Mb of contiguous sequence for each of two common haplotypes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), to which susceptibility to >100 diseases has been mapped. The autoimmune disease-associated-haplotypes HLA-A3-B7-Cw7-DR15 and HLA-A1-B8-Cw7-DR3 were sequenced in their entirety through a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) cloning strategy using the consanguineous cell lines PGF and COX, respectively. The two sequences were annotated to encompass all described splice variants of expressed genes. We defined the complete variation content of the two haplotypes, revealing >18,000 variations between them. Average SNP densities ranged from less than one SNP per kilobase to >60. Acquisition of complete and accurate sequence data over polymorphic regions such as the MHC from large-insert cloned DNA provides a definitive resource for the construction of informative genetic maps, and avoids the limitation of chromosome regions that are refractory to PCR amplification. PMID:15140828

  3. Population genetic segmentation of MHC-correlated perfume preferences.

    PubMed

    Hämmerli, A; Schweisgut, C; Kaegi, M

    2012-04-01

    It has become difficult to find a matching perfume. An overwhelming number of 300 new perfumes launch each year, and marketing campaigns target pre-defined groups based on gender, age or income rather than on individual preferences. Recent evidence for a genetic basis of perfume preferences, however, could be the starting point for a novel population genetic approach to better match perfumes with people's preferences. With a total of 116 participants genotyped for alleles of three loci of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), the aim of this study was to test whether common MHC alleles could be used as genetic markers to segment a given population into preference types. Significant deviations from random expectations for a set of 10 common perfume ingredients indicate how such segmentation could be achieved. In addition, preference patterns of participants confronted with images that contained a sexual communication context significantly differed in their ratings for some of the scents compared with participants confronted with images of perfume bottles. This strongly supports the assumption that genetically correlated perfume preferences evolved in the context of sexual communication. The results are discussed in the light of perfume customization. © 2011 The Authors. ICS © 2011 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  4. Characterisation of MHC class I genes in the koala.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yuanyuan; Polkinghorne, Adam; Gillett, Amber; Jones, Elizabeth A; O'Meally, Denis; Timms, Peter; Belov, Katherine

    2017-07-01

    Koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) populations are on the decline across the majority of Australia's mainland. Two major diseases threatening the long-term survival of affected koala populations are caused by obligate intracellular pathogens: Chlamydia and koala retrovirus (KoRV). To improve our understanding of the koala immune system, we characterised their major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I genes, which are centrally involved in presenting foreign peptides derived from intracellular pathogens to cytotoxic T cells. A total of 11 class I genes were identified in the koala genome. Three genes, Phci-UA, UB and UC, showed relatively high genetic variability and were expressed in all 12 examined tissues, whereas the other eight genes had tissue-specific expression and limited polymorphism. Evidence of diversifying selection was detected in Phci-UA and UC, while gene conversion may have played a role in creating new alleles at Phci-UB. We propose that Phci-UA, UB and UC are likely classical MHC genes of koalas, and further research is needed to understand their role in koala chlamydial and KoRV infections.

  5. The Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) in Schizophrenia: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Mokhtari, Ryan; Lachman, Herbert M

    2017-01-01

    Epidemiological studies and mouse models suggest that maternal immune activation, induced clinically through prenatal exposure to one of several infectious diseases, is a risk factor in the development of schizophrenia. This is supported by the strong genetic association established by genome wide association studies (GWAS) between the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) locus and schizophrenia. HLA proteins (also known in mice as the major histocompatibility complex; MHC) are mediators of the T-lymphocyte responses, and genetic variability is well-established as a risk factor for autoimmune diseases and susceptibility to infectious diseases. Taken together, the findings strongly suggest that schizophrenia risk in a subgroup of patients is caused by an infectious disease, and/or an autoimmune phenomenon. However, this view may be overly simplistic. First, MHC proteins have a non-immune effect on synaptogenesis by modulating synaptic pruning by microglia and other mechanisms, suggesting that genetic variability could be compromising this physiological process. Second, some GWAS signals in the HLA locus map near non-HLA genes, such as the histone gene cluster. On the other hand, recent GWAS data show association signals near B-lymphocyte enhancers, which lend support for an infectious disease etiology. Thus, although the genetic findings implicating the HLA locus are very robust, how genetic variability in this region leads to schizophrenia remains to be elucidated. PMID:28180029

  6. Two novel heterozygote missense mutations of the ADAMTS13 gene in a child with recurrent thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura

    PubMed Central

    Rossio, Raffaella; Ferrari, Barbara; Cairo, Andrea; Mancini, Ilaria; Pisapia, Giovanni; Palazzo, Giulia; Peyvandi, Flora

    2013-01-01

    Background Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura is a rare, life-threatening disease characterised by microangiopathic haemolytic anaemia, thrombocytopenia and symptoms related to organ ischaemia, mainly involving the brain and the kidney. It is associated with a deficiency of ADAMTS13, a plasma metalloprotease that cleaves von Willebrand factor. The congenital form (Upshaw-Schulman syndrome) is rare and is associated with mutations of the ADAMTS13 gene on chromosome 9q34. The clinical symptoms of congenital thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura are variable, with some patients developing their first episode during the neonatal period or childhood and others becoming symptomatic in adulthood. Materials and methods We describe a case of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, who presented to our attention with a relapsing form of the disease: the first episode occurred at the age of 13 months. Phenotype and genotype tests were performed in the patient and his family. Results The undetectable level of ADAMTS13 in the patient was caused by two novel heterozygote missense mutations on the ADAMTS13 gene: one mutation is c.788C > T (p.Ser263Phe) on exon 7 and the second is c.3251G > A (p.Cys1084Tyr) on exon 25 of the ADAMTS13 gene. All the relatives who have been investigated were found to carry one of these missense mutations in a heterozygous state. Discussion Although Upshaw-Schulman syndrome is a rare disease, it should be considered in all children with thrombocytopenia and jaundice in the neonatal period. In fact, once a child is confirmed to carry mutations of the ADAMTS13 gene causing early thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, prophylactic treatment should be started to avoid recurrence of symptoms. Genotype tests of relatives would also be important for those women in the family who could be carriers of ADAMTS13 mutations, particularly during pregnancy. PMID:23058857

  7. Recurrent cerebral venous thrombosis associated with heterozygote methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T mutation and sickle cell trait without homocysteinemia: an autopsy case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Ali, Z; Troncoso, J C; Fowler, D R

    2014-09-01

    Elevated blood homocysteine concentration and certain genetic mutations have been associated with increased risk for developing arterial and venous thrombosis. A common mutation of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase, MTHFR C677T, has been associated with elevated homocysteine concentration and increased risk for developing thrombosis in homozygote carriers. Heterozygote carriers for this gene mutation, if associated with other major or minor risk factors for thrombophilia, appear to be prone to develop thrombosis. A postmortem genetic testing for common mutations resulting in thrombophilia should be performed in all individuals who die as a result of thrombosis, regardless of predisposing risk factors, to determine the true prevalence of mutations in these individuals, and to assess the true role of a certain mutation, such as heterozygote MTHFR C677T, in the pathogenesis of thrombosis. Postmortem genetic testing for common mutations associated with thrombophilia in selected cases has potentially life-saving importance to surviving family members. We report a case of recurrent cerebral venous thrombosis in a 19 year old male with history of sickle cell trait, obesity, and high normal blood homocysteine, who was heterozygote for MTHFR C677T mutation.

  8. Immunomodulatory Effects of Hypocrellin A on MHC-restricted Antigen Processing

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sunim; Im, Sun-A; Kim, Ki-Hyang

    2011-01-01

    Hypocrellin A has gained much attention in recent years due to its light-induced antitumor, antifungal and antiviral activities. Here we report that hypocrellin A exerts immunomodulatory effects on MHC-restricted presentation of antigen. Hypocrellin A inhibited class II-MHC restricted presentation of exogenous antigen, but not class I MHC-restricted presentation of exogenous antigen, in dendritic cells. Hypocrellin A also inhibited the cytosolic pathway of endogenous antigen presentation. However, hypocrellin A did not inhibit the expression of class I and class II MHC molecules on dendritic cells (DCs), the phagocytic activity of DCs, or the H-2Kb-restricted presentation of a synthetic peptide, SIINFEKL. These results show that hypocrellin A differentially modulates the MHC-restricted antigen presentation pathways. PMID:22346783

  9. Thermal Stability of Heterotrimeric pMHC Proteins as Determined by Circular Dichroism Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Fuller, Anna; Wall, Aaron; Crowther, Michael D; Lloyd, Angharad; Zhurov, Alexei; Sewell, Andrew K.; Cole, David K.; Beck, Konrad

    2017-01-01

    T cell receptor (TCR) recognition of foreign peptide fragments, presented by peptide major histocompatibility complex (pMHC), governs T-cell mediated protection against pathogens and cancer. Many factors govern T-cell sensitivity, including the affinity of the TCR-pMHC interaction and the stability of pMHC on the surface of antigen presenting cells. These factors are particularly relevant for the peptide vaccination field, in which more stable pMHC interactions could enable more effective protection against disease. Here, we discuss a method for the determination of pMHC stability that we have used to investigate HIV immune escape, T-cell sensitivity to cancer antigens and mechanisms leading to autoimmunity. PMID:28748203

  10. Selective export of MHC class I molecules from the ER after their dissociation from TAP.

    PubMed

    Spiliotis, E T; Manley, H; Osorio, M; Zúñiga, M C; Edidin, M

    2000-12-01

    It has been assumed that upon dissociation from TAP, MHC class I molecules exit the ER by nonselective bulk flow. We now show that exit must occur by association with cargo receptors. Inconsistent with exit by bulk flow, loading of MHC class I molecules with high-affinity peptides triggers dissociation from TAP but has no effect on rates of ER-to-Golgi transport. Moreover, peptide-loaded MHC class I molecules accumulate at ER exit sites from which TAP molecules are excluded. Consistent with receptor-mediated exit, ER-to-Golgi transport of MHC class I molecules is independent of their cytoplasmic tails, which themselves lack ER export motifs. In addition, we show that MHC class I molecules associate with the putative cargo receptor BAP31.

  11. Identifying the ERAD ubiquitin E3 ligases for viral and cellular targeting of MHC class I.

    PubMed

    van den Boomen, D J H; Lehner, P J

    2015-12-01

    The human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) US2 and US11 gene products hijack mammalian ER-associated degradation (ERAD) to induce rapid degradation of major histocompatibility class I (MHC-I) molecules. The rate-limiting step in this pathway is thought to be the polyubiquitination of MHC-I by distinct host ERAD E3 ubiquitin ligases. TRC8 was identified as the ligase responsible for US2-mediated MHC-I degradation and shown to be required for the cleavage-dependent degradation of some tail-anchored proteins. In addition to MHC-I, plasma membrane profiling identified further immune receptors, which are also substrates for the US2/TRC8 complex. These include at least six α integrins, the coagulation factor thrombomodulin and the NK cell ligand CD112. US2's use of specific HCMV-encoded adaptors makes it an adaptable viral degradation hub. US11-mediated degradation is MHC-I-specific and genetic screens have identified TMEM129, an uncharacterised RING-C2 E3 ligase, as responsible for US11-mediated degradation. In a unique auto-regulatory loop, US11 readily responds to changes in cellular expression of MHC-I. Free US11 either rebinds more MHC-I or is itself degraded by the HRD1/SEL1L E3 ligase complex. While virally encoded US2 and US11 appropriate mammalian ERAD, the MHC-I complex also undergoes stringent cellular quality control and misfolded MHC-I is degraded by the HRD1/SEL1L complex. We discuss the identification and central role of E3 ubiquitin ligases in ER quality control and viral degradation of the MHC-I chain. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Astrocyte cytolysis by MHC class II-specific mouse T cell clones.

    PubMed

    Reder, A T; Lascola, C D; Flanders, S A; Maimone, D; Jensen, M A; Skias, D D; Lancki, D W

    1993-08-01

    The brain is "immunologically privileged," in part because class I and II MHC antigens are not normally present on glia or neurons. However, under certain conditions such as transplantation, glial cells express MHC proteins at levels sufficient for glia to become targets of immune responses. Cultured astrocytes expressing very low levels of MHC class I protein are killed efficiently by MHC class I antigen-specific CTL. Mouse brain allografts, however, are rejected by CD4+ T cells that are likely to be class II MHC-specific. The level of expression of MHC class II antigen needed to trigger specific killing of astrocytes by CD4+ T cells, independent of exogenous antigen, has not been studied. We examined the role of glial class II MHC in the lysis of cultured neonatal mouse astrocytes by an alloreactive murine CD4+ CTL alone. IFN-gamma induced functionally relevant increases in MHC class II antigen on target cells. Astrocytes were lysed by the CD4+ clone only when class II MHC antigens reached levels readily detectable by flow cytometry. MHC class II expression and lysis increased when astrocytes were coincubated with IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha. Conversely, lysis decreased when class II expression was downregulated by IFN-alpha/beta or dbcAMP. Cytolysis by CD4+ clones was blocked by antibodies to CD4 and LFA-1 on T cells, and to ICAM-1 and class II molecules on astrocytes. The role of LFA-1 in CD4+ cell-mediated lysis was greater than that of LFA-1/ICAM-1 in CD8+ T cell-mediated lysis. CD4+ cells may lyse activated astrocytes when the immune privilege of the brain is compromised as in transplantation, tumors, and inflammatory diseases.

  13. Selection at the MHC class IIB locus across guppy (Poecilia reticulata) populations.

    PubMed

    Fraser, B A; Ramnarine, I W; Neff, B D

    2010-02-01

    The highly diverse genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) are important in the adaptive immune system and are expected to be under selection from pathogens. Thus, the MHC genes provide an exceptional opportunity to investigate patterns of selection within and across populations. In this study, we analyzed genetic variation at the MHC class IIB gene and six microsatellite loci across 10 populations of guppies (Poecilia reticulata) in the northern range of Trinidad. We found a high level of diversity at the MHC, with a total of 43 alleles in 142 individuals. At the population level, we found that neutral evolution could not fully account for the variability found at the MHC. Instead, we found that MHC F(ST) statistics were lower than F(ST) derived from the microsatellite loci; 33 of 45 population pairwise estimates for the MHC were significantly lower than those for the microsatellite loci, and MHC F(ST) estimates were consistently lower than those predicted by a coalescent model of neutral evolution. These results suggest a similar selection acting across populations, and we discuss the potential roles of directional and balancing selection. At the sequence level, we found evidence for both positive and purifying selection. Furthermore, positive selection was detected within and adjacent to the putative peptide-binding region (PBR) of the MHC. Surprisingly, we also found a purifying selection at two sites within the putative PBR. Overall, our data provide evidence for selection for functional diversity at the MHC class IIB gene at both the population and nucleotide levels of guppy populations.

  14. Impact of MHC Class II Incompatibility on Localization of Mononuclear Cell Infiltrates to the Bronchiolar Compartment of Orthotopic Lung Allografts

    PubMed Central

    Nakashima, Shinji; Soong, T. Rinda; Fox-Talbot, Karen; Qian, Zhiping; Rahimi, Salma; Wasowska, Barbara A.; Rohde, Charles A.; Chen, Sabrina; Garcia, Joe G.N.; Baldwin, William M.

    2005-01-01

    Chronic pathological changes in transplanted lungs are unique because they center on the airways. We examined the relative role of MHC class I and II antigens in causing bronchial pathology in orthotopic lung transplants to rats maintained on cyclosporin A (CsA). Transplants mismatched for MHC class II antigens had significantly more peri-bronchiolar infiltrates than MHC class I incompatible transplants. No significant increase in infiltrates was found in lung transplants incompatible for MHC class I plus II antigens compared to MHC class II antigens alone. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that MHC class II antigen expression was confined to macrophages in MHC class I incompatible transplants, but was upregulated on bronchial epithelium in transplants with MHC class II incompatibilities. Vascular endothelium was notably devoid of MHC class II antigen expression in all transplants. However, both peri-bronchial and peri-vascular infiltrates were frequently cuffed by alveolar macrophages and type II pneumocytes that expressed MHC class II antigens. PCR analysis demonstrated that IFN-γ and regulated on activation, normal T cells expressed and secreted (RANTES) were upregulated in MHC class II incompatible transplants. Thus, MHC class II incompatible orthotopic lung transplants in rats maintained on CsA immunosuppression undergo a bronchiolcentric upregulation of alloantigens. PMID:15760392

  15. Serum lipids, plant sterols, and cholesterol kinetic responses to plant sterol supplementation in phytosterolemia heterozygotes and control individuals123

    PubMed Central

    Myrie, Semone B; Mymin, David; Triggs-Raine, Barbara; Jones, Peter JH

    2012-01-01

    Background: Plant sterol (PS) supplementation is increasingly accepted as a dietary strategy to lower plasma cholesterol concentrations. However, information is scarce about the effect of increased PS intake in potentially vulnerable groups, such as phytosterolemia heterozygotes (HET). Objective: This study assessed the responsiveness of circulating PS and lipid concentrations and cholesterol kinetics (absorption and synthesis) to daily PS supplementation in HET (ABCG8 S107X mutation) compared with a healthy control cohort. Design: A double-blind, randomized, crossover, placebo-controlled study was conducted in 10 HET and 15 control subjects. The participants had a mean (±SEM) age of 34 ± 2 y and a BMI (in kg/m2) of 29.9 ± 1.1 and consumed ∼1.6 g PS or placebo capsules daily with supper for 4 wk. Cholesterol absorption and synthesis were assessed by using [13C]cholesterol and deuterium oxide, respectively. Results: Plasma LDL-cholesterol concentrations decreased (P = 0.006) in both groups after PS supplementation (HET: 2.73 ± 0.19 mmol/L; control: 3.11± 0.19 mmol/L) compared with placebo (HET: 3.12 ± 0.20 mmol/L; control: 3.50 ± 0.21 mmol/L), whereas PS concentrations (campesterol+β-sitosterol) increased (P = 0.03) in both groups after PS supplementation (HET: 39.72 ± 6.05 μmol/L; control: 24.03 ± 1.65 μmol/L) compared with placebo (HET: 27.32 ± 3.80 μmol/L; control: 21.12 ± 2.05 μmol/L). Cholesterol absorption efficiency decreased (P = 0.010) by ∼22% and ∼17% and synthesis rates increased (P = 0.040) by ∼20% and ∼24% in the HET and control groups, respectively, in response to PS consumption compared with placebo. Conclusion: These data suggest that heterozygosity for the ABCG8 S107X mutation does not influence the action of dietary PS on circulating cholesterol concentrations but may affect sterol absorption. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01102647. PMID:22378727

  16. An insight into the evolutionary history of human MHC paralogon.

    PubMed

    Naz, Roheena; Tahir, Sadaf; Abbasi, Amir Ali

    2017-02-27

    The vertebrate genome contains several closely spaced sets of paralogous genes from distinct gene families on typically two, three or four different chromosomes (paralogons). These four fold paralogy regions have been considered as historical remnants of whole genome duplication events (WGDs/2R hypothesis). To examine the 2R hypothesis, a robust phylogenetic analysis of 40 multigene families with triplicated or quadruplicated distribution on human MHC bearing chromosomes (1/6/9/19) was conducted. Topology comparison approach categorized the members of 40 families into six distinct co-duplicated groups. Genes belonging to a particular co-duplicated group are duplicated concurrently, whereas genes of two different co-duplicated groups do not share their evolutionary history and have not duplicated in harmony. Our results based on this large scale phylogenetic data set contradict the polyploidization model and are indicative of small-scale duplications and rearrangement events that cover the entire span of animal history.

  17. Transport of misfolded endoplasmic reticulum proteins to the cell surface by MHC class II molecules

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yan; Arase, Noriko

    2013-01-01

    Nascent MHC class II molecules are associated with the invariant chain and are transported to the endolysosomal pathway, where MHC class II molecules acquire peptide antigens. On the other hand, misfolded endoplasmic reticulum (ER) proteins are generally degraded in the cells and are neither expressed on the cell surface nor secreted. Here, we found that MHC class II molecules associate with some misfolded ER proteins via the peptide-binding groove in competition with invariant chain. The misfolded proteins associated with MHC class II molecules are transported intact to the cell surface without processing to peptides. Furthermore, these complexes efficiently stimulate antigen-specific B cells. These findings reveal that MHC class II molecules function as a chaperone for the cell surface expression of misfolded ER proteins. In addition, we suggest that MHC class II molecules present not only peptides but also intact host-cell-derived proteins on the cell surface. These findings provide new insights into the function of MHC class II molecules. PMID:23334921

  18. Disentangling the roles of natural selection and genetic drift in shaping variation at MHC immunity genes.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Jolene T; Nakagawa, Shinichi; Robertson, Bruce C; Jamieson, Ian G

    2011-11-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) forms an integral component of the vertebrate immune response and, due to strong selection pressures, is one of the most polymorphic regions of the entire genome. Despite over 15 years of research, empirical studies offer highly contradictory explanations of the relative roles of different evolutionary forces, selection and genetic drift, acting on MHC genes during population bottlenecks. Here, we take a meta-analytical approach to quantify the results of studies into the effects of bottlenecks on MHC polymorphism. We show that the consequences of selection acting on MHC loci prior to a bottleneck event, combined with drift during the bottleneck, will result in overall loss of MHC polymorphism that is ∼15% greater than loss of neutral genetic diversity. These results are counter to general expectations that selection should maintain MHC polymorphism, but do agree with the results of recent simulation models and at least two empirical studies. Notably, our results suggest that negative frequency-dependent selection could be more important than overdominance for maintaining high MHC polymorphism in pre-bottlenecked populations.

  19. Interaction of TAPBPR, a tapasin homolog, with MHC-I molecules promotes peptide editing

    DOE PAGES

    Morozov, Giora I.; Zhao, Huaying; Mage, Michael G.; ...

    2016-02-11

    Peptide loading of major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) molecules is central to antigen presentation, self-tolerance, and CD8+ T-cell activation. TAP binding protein, related (TAPBPR), a widely expressed tapasin homolog, is not part of the classical MHC-I peptide-loading complex (PLC). Using recombinant MHC-I molecules, we show that TAPBPR binds HLA-A*02:01 and several other MHC-I molecules that are either peptide-free or loaded with low-affinity peptides. Fluorescence polarization experiments establish that TAPBPR augments peptide binding by MHC-I. The TAPBPR/MHC-I interaction is reversed by specific peptides, related to their affinity. Mutational and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) studies confirm the structural similarities of TAPBPRmore » with tapasin. These results support a role of TAPBPR in stabilizing peptide-receptive conformation(s) of MHC-I, permitting peptide editing.« less

  20. Exogenous cathepsin G upregulates cell surface MHC class I molecules on immune and glioblastoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Giese, Madleen; Turiello, Nadine; Molenda, Nicole; Palesch, David; Meid, Annika; Schroeder, Roman; Basilico, Paola; Benarafa, Charaf; Halatsch, Marc-Eric; Zimecki, Michal; Westhoff, Mike-Andrew; Wirtz, Christian Rainer; Burster, Timo

    2016-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules present antigenic peptides to cytotoxic T cells. During an adaptive immune response, MHC molecules are regulated by several mechanisms including lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interferon gamma (IFN-g). However, it is unclear whether the serine protease cathepsin G (CatG), which is generally secreted by neutrophils at the site of inflammation, might regulate MHC I molecules. We identified CatG, and to a higher extend CatG and lactoferrin (LF), as an exogenous regulator of cell surface MHC I expression of immune cells and glioblastoma stem cells. In addition, levels of MHC I molecules are reduced on dendritic cells from CatG deficient mice compared to their wild type counterparts. Furthermore, cell surface CatG on immune cells, including T cells, B cells, and NK cells triggers MHC I on THP-1 monocytes suggesting a novel mechanism for CatG to facilitate intercellular communication between infiltrating cells and the respective target cell. Subsequently, our findings highlight the pivotal role of CatG as a checkpoint protease which might force target cells to display their intracellular MHC I:antigen repertoire. PMID:27806341

  1. Compatibility counts: MHC-associated mate choice in a wild promiscuous primate

    PubMed Central

    Schwensow, Nina; Eberle, Manfred; Sommer, Simone

    2007-01-01

    The mechanisms and temporal aspects of mate choice according to genetic constitution are still puzzling. Recent studies indicate that fitness is positively related to diversity in immune genes (MHC). Both sexes should therefore choose mates of high genetic quality and/or compatibility. However, studies addressing the role of MHC diversity in pre- and post-copulatory mate choice decisions in wild-living animals are few. We investigated the impact of MHC constitution and of neutral microsatellite variability on pre- and post-copulatory mate choice in both sexes in a wild population of a promiscuous primate, the grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus). There was no support for pre-copulatory male or female mate choice, but our data indicate post-copulatory mate choice that is associated with genetic constitution. Fathers had a higher number of MHC supertypes different from those of the mother than randomly assigned males. Fathers also had a higher amino acid distance to the females' MHC as well as a higher total number of MHC supertypes and a higher degree of microsatellite heterozygosity than randomly assigned males. Female cryptic choice may be the underlying mechanism that operates towards an optimization of the genetic constitution of offspring. This is the first study that provides support for the importance of the MHC constitution in post-copulatory mate choice in non-human primates. PMID:18089539

  2. Reprogramming MHC specificity by CRISPR-Cas9-assisted cassette exchange

    PubMed Central

    Kelton, William; Waindok, Ann Cathrin; Pesch, Theresa; Pogson, Mark; Ford, Kyle; Parola, Cristina; Reddy, Sai T.

    2017-01-01

    The development of programmable nucleases has enabled the application of new genome engineering strategies for cellular immunotherapy. While targeted nucleases have mostly been used to knock-out or knock-in genes in immune cells, the scarless exchange of entire immunogenomic alleles would be of great interest. In particular, reprogramming the polymorphic MHC locus could enable the creation of matched donors for allogeneic cellular transplantation. Here we show a proof-of-concept for reprogramming MHC-specificity by performing CRISPR-Cas9-assisted cassette exchange. Using murine antigen presenting cell lines (RAW264.7 macrophages), we demonstrate that the generation of Cas9-induced double-stranded breaks flanking the native MHC-I H2-Kd locus led to exchange of an orthogonal H2-Kb allele. MHC surface expression allowed for easy selection of reprogrammed cells by flow cytometry, thus obviating the need for additional selection markers. MHC-reprogrammed cells were fully functional as they could present H2-Kd-restricted peptide and activate cognate T cells. Finally, we investigated the role of various donor template formats on exchange efficiency, discovering that templates that underwent in situ linearization resulted in the highest MHC-reprogramming efficiency. These findings highlight a potential new approach for the correcting of MHC mismatches in cellular transplantation. PMID:28374766

  3. Cytosolic aminopeptidases influence MHC class I-mediated antigen presentation in an allele-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eunkyung; Kwak, Heechun; Ahn, Kwangseog

    2009-12-01

    Antigenic peptides presented by MHC class I molecules are generated mainly by the proteasome in the cytosol. Several cytosolic aminopeptidases further trim proteasomal products to form mature epitopes or individual amino acids. However, the distinct function of cytosolic aminopeptidases in MHC class I Ag processing remains to be elucidated. In this study, we show that cytosolic aminopeptidases differentially affect the cell surface expression of MHC class I molecules in an allele-dependent manner in human cells. In HeLa cells, knockdown of puromycin-sensitive aminopeptidase (PSA) by RNA interference inhibited optimal peptide loading of MHC class I molecules, and their cell surface expression was correspondingly reduced. In contrast, depletion of bleomycin hydrolase (BH) enhanced optimal peptide loading and cell surface expression of MHC class I molecules. We did not find evidence on the effect of leucine aminopeptidase knockdown on the MHC class I Ag presentation. Moreover, we demonstrated that PSA and BH influence the peptide loading and surface expression of MHC class I in an allele-specific manner. In the absence of either PSA or BH, the surface expression and peptide-dependent stability of HLA-A68 were reduced, whereas those of HLA-B15 were enhanced. The surface expression and peptide-dependent stability of HLA-A3 were enhanced by BH knockdown, although those of HLA-B8 were increased in PSA-depleted conditions.

  4. The TRC8 E3 ligase ubiquitinates MHC class I molecules before dislocation from the ER

    PubMed Central

    Stagg, Helen R.; Thomas, Mair; van den Boomen, Dick; Wiertz, Emmanuel J.H.J.; Drabkin, Harry A.; Gemmill, Robert M.

    2009-01-01

    The US2 and US11 gene products of human cytomegalovirus promote viral evasion by hijacking the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)–associated degradation (ERAD) pathway. US2 and US11 initiate dislocation of newly translocated major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC I) from the ER to the cytosol for proteasome-mediated degradation, thereby decreasing cell surface MHC I. Despite being instrumental in elucidating the mammalian ERAD pathway, the responsible E3 ligase or ligases remain unknown. Using a functional small interfering RNA library screen, we now identify TRC8 (translocation in renal carcinoma, chromosome 8 gene), an ER-resident E3 ligase previously implicated as a hereditary kidney cancer gene, as required for US2-mediated MHC I ubiquitination. Depletion of TRC8 prevents MHC I ubiquitination and dislocation by US2 and restores cell surface MHC I. TRC8 forms an integral part of a novel multiprotein ER complex that contains MHC I, US2, and signal peptide peptidase. Our data show that the TRC8 E3 ligase is required for MHC I dislocation from the ER and identify a new complex associated with mammalian ERAD. PMID:19720873

  5. Compatibility counts: MHC-associated mate choice in a wild promiscuous primate.

    PubMed

    Schwensow, Nina; Eberle, Manfred; Sommer, Simone

    2008-03-07

    The mechanisms and temporal aspects of mate choice according to genetic constitution are still puzzling. Recent studies indicate that fitness is positively related to diversity in immune genes (MHC). Both sexes should therefore choose mates of high genetic quality and/or compatibility. However, studies addressing the role of MHC diversity in pre- and post-copulatory mate choice decisions in wild-living animals are few. We investigated the impact of MHC constitution and of neutral microsatellite variability on pre- and post-copulatory mate choice in both sexes in a wild population of a promiscuous primate, the grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus). There was no support for pre-copulatory male or female mate choice, but our data indicate post-copulatory mate choice that is associated with genetic constitution. Fathers had a higher number of MHC supertypes different from those of the mother than randomly assigned males. Fathers also had a higher amino acid distance to the females' MHC as well as a higher total number of MHC supertypes and a higher degree of microsatellite heterozygosity than randomly assigned males. Female cryptic choice may be the underlying mechanism that operates towards an optimization of the genetic constitution of offspring. This is the first study that provides support for the importance of the MHC constitution in post-copulatory mate choice in non-human primates.

  6. Early Duplication of a Single MHC IIB Locus Prior to the Passerine Radiations

    PubMed Central

    Eimes, John A.; Lee, Sang-im; Townsend, Andrea K.; Jablonski, Piotr; Nishiumi, Isao; Satta, Yoko

    2016-01-01

    A key characteristic of MHC genes is the persistence of allelic lineages over macroevolutionary periods, often through multiple speciation events. This phenomenon, known as trans-species polymorphism (TSP), is well documented in several major taxonomic groups, but has less frequently been observed in birds. The order Passeriformes is arguably the most successful terrestrial vertebrate order in terms of diversity of species and ecological range, but the reasons for this success remain unclear. Passerines exhibit the most highly duplicated MHC genes of any major vertebrate taxonomic group, which may generate increased immune response relative to other avian orders with fewer MHC loci. Here, we describe phylogenetic patterns of the MHC IIB in the passerine family Corvidae. Our results indicate wide-spread TSP within this family, with at least four supported MHC IIB allelic lineages that predate speciation by many millions of years. Markov chain Monte Carlo simulations indicate that divergence of these lineages occurred near the time of the divergence of the Passeriformes and other avian orders. We suggest that the current MHC diversity observed in passerines is due in part to the multiple duplication of a single MHC locus, DAB1, early in passerine evolution and that subsequent duplications of these paralogues have contributed to the enormous success of this order by increasing their ability to recognize and mount immune responses to novel pathogens. PMID:27658204

  7. Are large wattles related to particular MHC genotypes in the male pheasant?

    PubMed

    Baratti, Mariella; Ammannati, Martina; Magnelli, Claudia; Massolo, Alessandro; Dessì-Fulgheri, Francesco

    2010-06-01

    In sexually dimorphic species, partners can assess heritable mate quality by analyzing costly sexual ornaments in terms of their dimension and possibly of their symmetry. In vertebrates an important aspect of genetic quality is the efficiency of the immune system, and in particular the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC). If ornaments are honest advertisements of pathogen resistance (good genes), in line with the Hamilton-Zuk hypothesis, a correlation between ornament expression and MHC profiles should exist. We tested this hypothesis in the common pheasant Phasianus colchicus by comparing male ornament characteristics (wattle and spur size, and wattle fluctuating asymmetry) with a portion of exon 2 of the class IIB MHC genes containing 19 putative antigen recognition sites. A total of 8 new alleles was observed in the MHCPhco exon IIB. We found significant differences in the occurrence of MHC genotypes between males carrying large or small wattles. Homozygous genotypes predicted large wattle males more correctly than small wattle males. The association between the dimension of the spur and the occurrence of MHC genotypes was marginally significant, however, we did not find any significant association between MHC genotypes and asymmetry. Our results suggest that female pheasants may use the ornament size as a cue to evaluate male quality and thus choose males carrying particular MHC profiles.

  8. Allelic diversity at the Mhc-DP locus in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Slierendregt, B L; Otting, N; Kenter, M; Bontrop, R E

    1995-01-01

    Allelic diversity at the major histocompatibility complex class II DP locus of rhesus macaques was studied by sequencing exon 2 of Mamu-DPA1 and -DPB1 genes. The Mamu-DPA1 gene is apparently invariant, whereas the Mamu-DPB1 locus displays polymorphism. Here we report the characterization of 1 Mamu-DPA1 and 13 Mamu-DPB1 alleles which were compared with other available primate Mhc-DPA1 and -DPB1 sequences. As compared with Mhc-DRB and -DQB1, most codons for the contact residues in the antigen binding site of the primate Mhc-DPB1 gene have a relatively low degree of variation in encoding various types of amino acids. In contrast to Mhc-DRB and -DQB, the HLA- and Mamu-DPB1 sequences cluster in a species-specific manner in phylogenetic trees. Mhc-DPB1 polymorphisms, however, are inherited in a transspecies mode of evolution, as is demonstrated by the sharing of lineage members between closely related macaque species. The data demonstrate that the transspecies character of Mhc-DPB1 polymorphism was retained over much shorter periods of time as compared with its sister class II loci, Mhc-DQ and -DR.

  9. Dimeric MHC-peptides inserted into an immunoglobulin scaffold as new immunotherapeutic agents

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, Burt; Bona, Constantin

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The interactions of the T cell receptor (TCR) with cognate MHC-peptide and co-stimulatory molecules expressed at surface of antigen presenting cells (APC) leads to activation or tolerance of T cells. The development of molecular biological tools allowed for the preparation of soluble MHC-peptide molecules as surrogate for the APC. A decade ago a monomeric class II MHC molecule in which the peptide was covalently linked to β-chain of class II molecule was generated. This type of molecule had a low-binding affinity and did not cause the multimerization of TCR. The requirement of multimerization of TCR led to development of a new class of reagents, chimeric peptides covalently linked to MHC that was dimerized via Fc fragment of an immunoglobulin and linked to 3′ end of the β-chain of MHC class II molecule. These soluble dimerized MHC-peptide chimeric molecules display high affinity for the TCR and caused multimerization of TCR without processing by an APC. Because dimeric molecules are devoid of co-stimulatory molecules interacting with CD28, a second signal, they induce anergy rather the activation of T cells. In this review, we compare the human and murine dimerized MHC class II-peptides and their effect on CD4+ T cells, particularly the generation of T regulatory cells, which make these chimeric molecules an appealing approach for the treatment of autoimmune diseases. PMID:21435177

  10. Selector function of MHC I molecules is determined by protein plasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, Alistair; Dalchau, Neil; Carter, Rachel; Emmott, Stephen; Phillips, Andrew; Werner, Jörn M.; Elliott, Tim

    2015-10-01

    The selection of peptides for presentation at the surface of most nucleated cells by major histocompatibility complex class I molecules (MHC I) is crucial to the immune response in vertebrates. However, the mechanisms of the rapid selection of high affinity peptides by MHC I from amongst thousands of mostly low affinity peptides are not well understood. We developed computational systems models encoding distinct mechanistic hypotheses for two molecules, HLA-B*44:02 (B*4402) and HLA-B*44:05 (B*4405), which differ by a single residue yet lie at opposite ends of the spectrum in their intrinsic ability to select high affinity peptides. We used in vivo biochemical data to infer that a conformational intermediate of MHC I is significant for peptide selection. We used molecular dynamics simulations to show that peptide selector function correlates with protein plasticity, and confirmed this experimentally by altering the plasticity of MHC I with a single point mutation, which altered in vivo selector function in a predictable way. Finally, we investigated the mechanisms by which the co-factor tapasin influences MHC I plasticity. We propose that tapasin modulates MHC I plasticity by dynamically coupling the peptide binding region and α3 domain of MHC I allosterically, resulting in enhanced peptide selector function.

  11. Temporal variation at the MHC class IIb in wild populations of the guppy (Poecilia reticulata).

    PubMed

    Fraser, Bonnie A; Ramnarine, Indar W; Neff, Bryan D

    2010-07-01

    Understanding genetic diversity in natural populations is a fundamental objective of evolutionary biology. The immune genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) are excellent candidates to study such diversity because they are highly polymorphic in populations. Although balancing selection may be responsible for maintaining diversity at these functionally important loci, temporal variation in selection pressure has rarely been examined. We examine temporal variation in MHC class IIB diversity in nine guppy (Poecilia reticulata) populations over two years. We found that five of the populations changed significantly more at the MHC than at neutral (microsatellite) loci as measured by F(ST), which suggests that the change at the MHC was due to selection and not neutral processes. Additionally, pairwise population differentiation measures at the MHC were higher in 2007 than in 2006, with the signature of selection changing from homogenizing to diversifying selection or neutral evolution. Interestingly, within the populations the magnitude of the change at the MHC between years was related to the change in the proportion of individuals infected by a common parasite, indicating a link between genetic structure and the parasite. Our data thereby implicate temporal variation in selective pressure as an important mechanism maintaining diversity at the MHC in wild populations.

  12. Prediction of MHC binding peptides and epitopes from alfalfa mosaic virus.

    PubMed

    Gomase, Virendra S; Kale, Karbhari V; Chikhale, Nandkishor J; Changbhale, Smruti S

    2007-08-01

    Peptide fragments from alfalfa mosaic virus involved multiple antigenic components directing and empowering the immune system to protect the host from infection. MHC molecules are cell surface proteins, which take active part in host immune reactions and involvement of MHC class-I & II in response to almost all antigens. Coat protein of alfalfa mosaic virus contains 221 aa residues. Analysis found five MHC ligands in coat protein as 64-LSSFNGLGV-72; 86- RILEEDLIY-94; 96-MVFSITPSY-104; 100- ITPSYAGTF-108; 110- LTDDVTTED-118; having rescaled binding affinity and c-terminal cleavage affinity more than 0.5. The predicted binding affinity is normalized by the 1% fractil. The MHC peptide binding is predicted using neural networks trained on c-terminals of known epitopes. In analysis predicted MHC/peptide binding is a log transformed value related to the IC50 values in nM units. Total numbers of peptides found are 213. Predicted MHC binding regions act like red flags for antigen specific and generate immune response against the parent antigen. So a small fragment of antigen can induce immune response against whole antigen. This theme is implemented in designing subunit and synthetic peptide vaccines. The sequence analysis method allows potential drug targets to identify active sites against plant diseases. The method integrates prediction of peptide MHC class I binding; proteosomal c-terminal cleavage and TAP transport efficiency.

  13. Regulation of calreticulin–major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I interactions by ATP

    PubMed Central

    Wijeyesakere, Sanjeeva Joseph; Gagnon, Jessica K.; Arora, Karunesh; Brooks, Charles L.; Raghavan, Malini

    2015-01-01

    The MHC class I peptide loading complex (PLC) facilitates the assembly of MHC class I molecules with peptides, but factors that regulate the stability and dynamics of the assembly complex are largely uncharacterized. Based on initial findings that ATP, in addition to MHC class I-specific peptide, is able to induce MHC class I dissociation from the PLC, we investigated the interaction of ATP with the chaperone calreticulin, an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) luminal, calcium-binding component of the PLC that is known to bind ATP. We combined computational and experimental measurements to identify residues within the globular domain of calreticulin, in proximity to the high-affinity calcium-binding site, that are important for high-affinity ATP binding and for ATPase activity. High-affinity calcium binding by calreticulin is required for optimal nucleotide binding, but both ATP and ADP destabilize enthalpy-driven high-affinity calcium binding to calreticulin. ATP also selectively destabilizes the interaction of calreticulin with cellular substrates, including MHC class I molecules. Calreticulin mutants that affect ATP or high-affinity calcium binding display prolonged associations with monoglucosylated forms of cellular MHC class I, delaying MHC class I dissociation from the PLC and their transit through the secretory pathway. These studies reveal central roles for ATP and calcium binding as regulators of calreticulin–substrate interactions and as key determinants of PLC dynamics. PMID:26420867

  14. Evolution and comparative analysis of the bat MHC-I region

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Justin H. J.; Tachedjian, Mary; Deakin, Janine; Wynne, James W.; Cui, Jie; Haring, Volker; Broz, Ivano; Chen, Honglei; Belov, Katherine; Wang, Lin-Fa; Baker, Michelle L.

    2016-01-01

    Bats are natural hosts to numerous viruses and have ancient origins, having diverged from other eutherian mammals early in evolution. These characteristics place them in an important position to provide insights into the evolution of the mammalian immune system and antiviral immunity. We describe the first detailed partial map of a bat (Pteropus alecto) MHC-I region with comparative analysis of the MHC-I region and genes. The bat MHC-I region is highly condensed, yet relatively conserved in organisation, and is unusual in that MHC-I genes are present within only one of the three highly conserved class I duplication blocks. We hypothesise that MHC-I genes first originated in the β duplication block, and subsequently duplicated in a step-wise manner across the MHC-I region during mammalian evolution. Furthermore, bat MHC-I genes contain unique insertions within their peptide-binding grooves potentially affecting the peptide repertoire presented to T cells, which may have implications for the ability of bats to control infection without overt disease. PMID:26876644

  15. MHC diversity and mate choice in the magellanic penguin, Spheniscus magellanicus.

    PubMed

    Knafler, Gabrielle J; Clark, J Alan; Boersma, P Dee; Bouzat, Juan L

    2012-01-01

    We estimated levels of diversity at the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II DRß1 gene in 50 breeding pairs of the Magellanic penguin and compared those to estimates from Humboldt and Galapagos penguins. We tested for positive selection and 2 conditions required for the evolution of MHC-based disassortative mating: 1) greater MHC diversity between breeding pairs compared to random mating, and 2) associations between MHC genotype and fitness. Cloning and sequencing of the DRß1 gene showed that Magellanic penguins had higher levels of genetic variation than Galapagos and Humboldt penguins. Sequence analysis revealed 45 alleles with 3.6% average proportion of nucleotide differences, nucleotide diversity of 0.030, and observed heterozygosity of 0.770. A gene phylogeny showed 9 allelic lineages with interspersed DRß1 sequences from Humboldt and Galapagos penguins, indicating ancestral polymorphisms. d (N)/d (S) ratios revealed evidence for positive selection. Analysis of breeding pairs showed no disassortative mating preferences. Significant MHC genotype/fitness associations in females suggest, however, that selection for pathogen resistance plays a more important role than mate choice in maintaining diversity at the MHC in the Magellanic penguin. The differential effect of MHC heterozygosity on fitness between the sexes is likely associated with the relative role of hatching and fledging rates as reliable indicators of overall fitness in males and females.

  16. Peptide-independent stabilization of MHC class I molecules breaches cellular quality control.

    PubMed

    Hein, Zeynep; Uchtenhagen, Hannes; Abualrous, Esam Tolba; Saini, Sunil Kumar; Janßen, Linda; Van Hateren, Andy; Wiek, Constanze; Hanenberg, Helmut; Momburg, Frank; Achour, Adnane; Elliott, Tim; Springer, Sebastian; Boulanger, Denise

    2014-07-01

    The intracellular trafficking of major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) proteins is directed by three quality control mechanisms that test for their structural integrity, which is correlated to the binding of high-affinity antigenic peptide ligands. To investigate which molecular features of MHC-I these quality control mechanisms detect, we have followed the hypothesis that suboptimally loaded MHC-I molecules are characterized by their conformational mobility in the F-pocket region of the peptide-binding site. We have created a novel variant of an MHC-I protein, K(b)-Y84C, in which two α-helices in this region are linked by a disulfide bond that mimics the conformational and dynamic effects of bound high-affinity peptide. K(b)-Y84C shows a remarkable increase in the binding affinity to its light chain, beta-2 microglobulin (β2m), and bypasses all three cellular quality control steps. Our data demonstrate (1) that coupling between peptide and β2m binding to the MHC-I heavy chain is mediated by conformational dynamics; (2) that the folded conformation of MHC-I, supported by β2m, plays a decisive role in passing the ER-to-cell-surface transport quality controls; and (3) that β2m association is also tested by the cell surface quality control that leads to MHC-I endocytosis.

  17. Evidence for multiple MHC class II β loci in New Zealand's critically endangered kakapo, Strigops habroptilus.

    PubMed

    Knafler, Gabrielle J; Fidler, Andrew; Jamieson, Ian G; Robertson, Bruce C

    2014-02-01

    Immunologically important genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) have been characterized in a number of avian species with the general finding of considerable variation in size and structural organization among organisms. A range of nonpasserines which represent early-diverging Neoave lineages have been described as having only one MHC class II β locus potentially leading to the conclusion that this is the ancestral condition. Here, we examine the monotypic, early-diverging, critically endangered kakapo, Strigops habroptilus, for allelic variation at MHC class II β exon 2, as part of species' recovery efforts. We found two to four confirmed sequence variants per individual indicating the presence of more than one MHC class II β locus. Given the kakapo's basal evolutionary status, evidence for multiple MHC class II β loci seems to counter the proposed mono-locus history of modern birds. However, MHC gene duplication, maintenance, and loss among and within bird species may confound avian relationships making it difficult to elucidate the ancestral state. This study adds essential data for disentangling the course of MHC structural evolution in birds.

  18. Immunotherapy eradicates metastases with reversible defects in MHC class I expression.

    PubMed

    Garrido, Cristina; Romero, Irene; Berruguilla, Enrique; Cancela, Bárbara; Algarra, Ignacio; Collado, Antonia; García-Lora, Angel; Garrido, Federico

    2011-09-01

    Tumor or metastatic cells lose MHC class I (MHC-I) expression during cancer progression as an escape mechanism from immune surveillance. These defects in MHC-I may be reversible by cytokines or different agents (soft lesions) or irreversible due to structural defects (hard lesions). The nature of these MHC-I alterations might determine the success or failure of immunotherapy treatments. In this study, we have used an MHC-I-positive murine fibrosarcoma tumor clone, GR9-A7, which generates multiple lung and lymph node metastases with reversible MHC-I alterations after treatment with IFN-γ. Four different antitumor treatments were carried out after primary tumor excision to determine their capacity to inhibit spontaneous metastatic colonization of the GR9-A7 tumor clone. We found that 2 different immunotherapy protocols (CpG plus autologous irradiated-GR9-A7 cells and protein-bound polysaccharide K (PSK) and 1 chemoimmunotherapy (docetaxel plus PSK) induced eradication of metastases. In contrast, chemotherapy with docetaxel alone produced only partial reduction in the number of metastases. Flow cytometric analysis of lymphocyte populations showed an immunosuppression in GR9-A7 tumor-bearing host, which could be reverted by immunotherapy treatments. Our results suggest that irreversible or reversible MHC-I alterations in tumor target cells may determine its progression or regression independently of the type of immunotherapy used.

  19. Transcriptional profiling of MHC class I genes in rainbow trout infected with infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landis, Eric D.; Purcell, Maureen K.; Thorgaard, Gary H.; Wheeler , Paul A.; Hansen, John D.

    2008-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules are important mediators of cell-mediated immunity in vertebrates. MHC class IA molecules are important for host anti-viral immunity as they present intracellular antigens and regulate natural killer cell (NK) activity. MHC class Ib molecules on the other hand are less understood and have demonstrated diverse immune and non-immune functions in mammals. Rainbow trout possess a single classical MHC IA locus (Onmy-UBA) that is believed to function similar to that of mammalian MHC class Ia. Numerous MHC class Ib genes with undetermined functions have also been described in trout. Here we utilize quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR) techniques to survey the levels of basal and inducible transcription for selected trout MHC class Ib genes, sIgM and sentinels of IFN induction in response to viral infection. Basal transcription of all the class Ib genes examined in this study was lower than Onmy-UBA in naïve fish. UBA, along with all of the non-classical genes were induced in fish infected with virus but not in control fish. Our results support a non-classical designation for the majority of the class IB genes surveyed in this study based upon expression levels while also indicating that they may play an important role in anti-viral immunity in trout.

  20. Transcriptional profiling of MHC class I genes in rainbow trout infected with infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landis, E.D.; Purcell, M.K.; Thorgaard, G.H.; Wheeler, P.A.; Hansen, J.D.

    2008-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules are important mediators of cell-mediated immunity in vertebrates. MHC class IA molecules are important for host anti-viral immunity as they present intracellular antigens and regulate natural killer cell (NK) activity. MHC class Ib molecules on the other hand are less understood and have demonstrated diverse immune and non-immune functions in mammals. Rainbow trout possess a single classical MHC IA locus (Onmy-UBA) that is believed to function similar to that of mammalian MHC class Ia. Numerous MHC class Ib genes with undetermined functions have also been described in trout. Here we utilize quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR) techniques to survey the levels of basal and inducible transcription for selected trout MHC class Ib genes, sIgM and sentinels of IFN induction in response to viral infection. Basal transcription of all the class Ib genes examined in this study was lower than Onmy-UBA in nai??ve fish. UBA, along with all of the non-classical genes were induced in fish infected with virus but not in control fish. Our results support a non-classical designation for the majority of the class IB genes surveyed in this study based upon expression levels while also indicating that they may play an important role in anti-viral immunity in trout.

  1. Protein arginine methyltransferase 1 (PRMT1) represses MHC II transcription in macrophages by methylating CIITA

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Zhiwen; Li, Jianfei; Li, Ping; Ye, Qing; Xu, Huihui; Wu, Xiaoyan; Xu, Yong

    2017-01-01

    Efficient presentation of alien antigens triggers activation of T lymphocytes and robust host defense against invading pathogens. This pathophysiological process relies on the expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules in antigen presenting cells such as macrophages. Aberrant MHC II transactivation plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Class II transactivator (CIITA) mediates MHC II induction by interferon gamma (IFN-γ). CIITA activity can be fine-tuned at the post-translational level, but the mechanisms are not fully appreciated. We investigated the role of protein arginine methyltransferase 1 (PRMT1) in this process. We report here that CIITA interacted with PRMT1. IFN-γ treatment down-regulated PRMT1 expression and attenuated PRMT1 binding on the MHC II promoter. Over-expression of PRMT1 repressed MHC II promoter activity while PRMT1 depletion enhanced MHC II transactivation. Mechanistically, PRMT1 methylated CIITA and promoted CIITA degradation. Therefore, our data reveal a previously unrecognized role for PRMT1 in suppressing CIITA-mediated MHC II transactivation. PMID:28094290

  2. apo B gene knockout in mice results in embryonic lethality in homozygotes and neural tube defects, male infertility, and reduced HDL cholesterol ester and apo A-I transport rates in heterozygotes.

    PubMed Central

    Huang, L S; Voyiaziakis, E; Markenson, D F; Sokol, K A; Hayek, T; Breslow, J L

    1995-01-01

    apo B is a structural constituent of several classes of lipoprotein particles, including chylomicrons, VLDL, and LDL. To better understand the role of apo B in the body, we have used gene targeting in embryonic stem cells to create a null apo B allele in the mouse. Homozygous apo B deficiency led to embryonic lethality, with resorption of all embryos by gestational day 9. Heterozygotes showed an increased tendency to intrauterine death with some fetuses having incomplete neural tube closure and some live-born heterozygotes developing hydrocephalus. The majority of male heterozygotes were sterile, although the genitourinary system and sperm were grossly normal. Viable heterozygotes had normal triglycerides, but total, LDL, and HDL cholesterol levels were decreased by 37, 37, and 39%, respectively. Hepatic and intestinal apo B mRNA levels were decreased in heterozygotes, presumably contributing to the decreased LDL levels through decreased synthesis of apo B-containing lipoproteins. Kinetic studies indicated that heterozygotes had decreased transport rates of HDL cholesterol ester and apo A-I. As liver and intestinal apo A-I mRNA levels were unchanged, the mechanism for decreased apo A-I transport must be posttranscriptional. Heterozygotes also had normal cholesterol absorption and a normal response of the plasma lipoprotein pattern to chronic consumption of a high fat, high cholesterol, Western-type diet. In summary, we report a mouse model for apo B deficiency with several phenotypic features that were unexpected based on clinical studies of apo B-deficient humans, such as embryonic lethality in homozygotes and neural tube closure defects, male infertility, and a major defect in HDL production in heterozygotes. This model presents an opportunity to study the mechanisms underlying these phenotypic changes. Images PMID:7593600

  3. Parasite load and MHC diversity in undisturbed and agriculturally modified habitats of the ornate dragon lizard.

    PubMed

    Radwan, Jacek; Kuduk, Katarzyna; Levy, Esther; LeBas, Natasha; Babik, Wiesław

    2014-12-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) gene polymorphism is thought to be driven by host-parasite co-evolution, but the evidence for an association between the selective pressure from parasites and the number of MHC alleles segregating in a population is scarce and inconsistent. Here, we characterized MHC class I polymorphism in a lizard whose habitat preferences (rock outcrops) lead to the formation of well-defined and stable populations. We investigated the association between the load of ticks, which were used as a proxy for the load of pathogens they transmit, and MHC class I polymorphism across populations in two types of habitat: undisturbed reserves and agricultural land. We hypothesized that the association would be positive across undisturbed reserve populations, but across fragmented agricultural land populations, the relationship would be distorted by the loss of MHC variation due to drift. After controlling for habitat, MHC diversity was not associated with tick number, and the habitats did not differ in this respect. Neither did we detect a difference between habitats in the relationship between MHC and neutral diversity, which was positive across all populations. However, there was extensive variation in the number of MHC alleles per individual, and we found that tick number was positively associated with the average number of alleles carried by lizards across reserve populations, but not across populations from disturbed agricultural land. Our results thus indicate that local differences in selection from parasites may contribute to MHC copy number variation within species, but habitat degradation can distort this relationship. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Olfactory signals and the MHC: a review and a case study in Lemur catta.

    PubMed

    Knapp, Leslie A; Robson, Julie; Waterhouse, John S

    2006-06-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is the most polymorphic genetic system known in vertebrates. Decades of research demonstrate that it plays a critical role in immune response and disease resistance. It has also been suggested that MHC genes influence social behavior and reproductive phenomena. Studies in laboratory mice and rats report that kin recognition and mate choice are influenced by olfactory cues determined at least in part by an individual's MHC genes. This issue has stimulated intense but controversial research. However, work in this field has only been carried out in rodents and humans. Thus far, no study has directly investigated the relationship between olfactory cues and MHC genotype in nonhuman primates. Furthermore, other genetic loci, including those linked to the MHC, have not been ruled out as the primary influence on odor profiles. To explore the relationship between individual odor profiles and MHC alleles, we are studying ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta). These animals are an ideal model species because they are extremely scent-oriented and their behaviors suggest that olfactory signals form an important part of their intra- and intergroup communication systems. Individual odor profiles from tail and scent gland samples were generated for six males using gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). MHC genotypes were identified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The GC-MS analyses demonstrated a difference between profiles obtained from tail and scent gland samples. Although our sample size is relatively small and statistical significance could not be obtained, our analyses suggest a relationship between MHC and concentrations of volatile compounds. While these results are preliminary, they support the need for further studies of the MHC and olfactory signals in lemurs and other primates. Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Polymorphic MHC loci in an asexual fish, the amazon molly (Poecilia formosa; Poeciliidae).

    PubMed

    Schaschl, Helmut; Tobler, Michael; Plath, Martin; Penn, Dustin J; Schlupp, Ingo

    2008-12-01

    Genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) encode molecules that control immune recognition and are highly polymorphic in most vertebrates. The remarkable polymorphisms at MHC loci may be maintained by selection from parasites, sexual selection, or both. If asexual species show equal (or higher) levels of polymorphisms at MHC loci as sexual ones, this would mean that sexual selection is not necessary to explain the high levels of diversity at MHC loci. In this study, we surveyed the MHC diversity of the asexual amazon molly (Poecilia formosa) and one of its sexual ancestors, the sailfin molly (P. latipinna), which lives in the same habitat. We found that the asexual molly has polymorphic MHC loci despite its clonal reproduction, yet not as polymorphic as the sexual species. Although the nucleotide diversity was similar between the asexual and sexual species, the sexual species exhibited a greater genotypic diversity compared to the asexual one from the same habitats. Within-genome diversity was similar for MHC class I loci, but for class IIB, the sexual species had higher diversity compared to the asexual--despite the hybrid origins and higher levels of heterozygosity at microsatellite loci in the asexual species. The level of positive selection appears to be similar between the two species, which suggests that these polymorphisms are maintained by selection. Thus, our findings do not allow us to rule out the sexual selection hypothesis for the evolution of MHC diversity, and although the sexual fish has higher levels of MHC-diversity compared to the asexual species, this may be due to differences in demography, parasites, or other factors, rather than sexual selection.

  6. Non-Invasive Monitoring of CNS MHC-I Molecules in Ischemic Stroke Mice.

    PubMed

    Xia, Jing; Zhang, Ying; Zhao, Huanhuan; Wang, Jie; Gao, Xueren; Chen, Jinpeng; Fu, Bo; Shen, Yuqing; Miao, Fengqin; Zhang, Jianqiong; Teng, Gaojun

    2017-01-01

    Ischemic stroke is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The expression of major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) molecules in the central nervous system, which are silenced under normal physiological conditions, have been reported to be induced by injury stimulation. The purpose of this study was to determine whether MHC-I molecules could serve as molecular targets for the acute phase of ischemic stroke and to assess whether a high-affinity peptide specific for MHC-I molecules could be applied in the near-infrared imaging of cerebral ischemic mice. Quantitative real-time PCR and Western blotting were used to detect the expression of MHC-I molecules in two mouse models of cerebral ischemic stroke and an in vitro model of ischemia. The NetMHC 4.0 server was used to screen a high-affinity peptide specific for mouse MHC-I molecules. The Rosetta program was used to identify the specificity and affinity of the screened peptide (histocompatibility-2 binding peptide, H2BP). The results demonstrated that MHC-I molecules could serve as molecular targets for the acute phase of ischemic stroke. Cy5.5-H2BP molecular probes could be applied in the near-infrared imaging of cerebral ischemic mice. Research on the expression of MHC-I molecules in the acute phase after ischemia and MHC-I-targeted imaging may not only be helpful for understanding the mechanism of ischemic and hypoxic brain injury and repair but also has potential application value in the imaging of ischemic stroke.

  7. Superior Semicircular Canal Dehiscence (SSCD)

    MedlinePlus

    ... canal that is being activated. Analysis of the eye movements evoked by sound and pressure stimuli in patients ... to the identification of this syndrome. These evoked eye movements often align with the plane of the superior ...

  8. Cellular misfolded proteins rescued from degradation by MHC class II molecules are possible targets for autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Arase, Noriko; Arase, Hisashi

    2015-11-01

    The major function of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules is the presentation of peptide antigens to helper T cells. However, when misfolded proteins are associated with MHC class II molecules in the endoplasmic reticulum, they are transported to the cell surface by MHC class II molecules without processing to peptides. Of note, misfolded proteins complexed with MHC class II molecules are specifically recognized by autoantibodies produced in patients with autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and antiphospholipid syndrome. Furthermore, autoantibody binding to misfolded proteins complexed with MHC class II molecules is associated with the susceptibility to autoimmune diseases conferred by each MHC class II allele. Therefore, misfolded proteins rescued from degradation by MHC class II molecules may be recognized as 'neo-self' antigens by the immune system and be involved in the pathogenicity of autoimmune diseases.

  9. Direct Activation of Human Dendritic Cells by Particle-Bound but Not Soluble MHC Class II Ligand

    PubMed Central

    Baleeiro, Renato B.; Wiesmüller, Karl-Heinz; Dähne, Lars; Lademann, Jürgen; Barbuto, José A.; Walden, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are key activators of cellular immune responses through their capacity to induce naïve T cells and sustained effector T cell responses. This capacity is a function of their superior efficiency of antigen presentation via MHC class I and class II molecules, and the expression of co-stimulatory cell surface molecules and cytokines. Maturation of DCs is induced by microbial factors via pattern recognition receptors such as Toll-like receptors, pro-inflammatory cytokines or cognate interaction with CD4+ T cells. Here we show that, unexpectedly, the PanDR helper T cell epitope PADRE, a generic T helper cell antigen presented by a large fraction of HLA-DR alleles, when delivered in particle-bound form induced maturation of human DCs. The DCs that received the particle-bound PADRE displayed all features of fully mature DCs, such as high expression of the co-stimulatory molecules CD80, CD86, CD83, the MHC-II molecule HLA-DR, secretion of high levels of the biologically active IL-12 (IL-12p70) and induction of vigorous proliferation of naïve CD4+ T cells. Furthermore, the maturation of DCs induced by particle-bound PADRE was shown to involve sphingosine kinase, calcium signaling from internal sources and downstream signaling through the MAP kinase and the p72syk pathways, and finally activation of the transcription factor NF-κB. Based on our findings, we propose that particle-bound PADRE may be used as a DC activator in DC-based vaccines. PMID:23658796

  10. Low genetic variation in the MHC class II DRB gene and MHC-linked microsatellites in endangered island populations of the leopard cat (Prionailurus bengalensis) in Japan.

    PubMed

    Saka, Toshinori; Nishita, Yoshinori; Masuda, Ryuichi

    2017-07-09

    Isolated populations of the leopard cat (Prionailurus bengalensis) on Tsushima and Iriomote islands in Japan are classified as subspecies P. b. euptilurus and P. b. iriomotensis, respectively. Because both populations have decreased to roughly 100, an understanding of their genetic diversity is essential for conservation. We genotyped MHC class II DRB exon 2 and MHC-linked microsatellite loci to evaluate the diversity of MHC genes in the Tsushima and Iriomote cat populations. We detected ten and four DRB alleles in these populations, respectively. A phylogenetic analysis showed DRB alleles from both populations to be closely related to those in other felid DRB lineages, indicating trans-species polymorphism. The MHC-linked microsatellites were more polymorphic in the Tsushima than in the Iriomote population. The MHC diversity of both leopard cat populations is much lower than in the domestic cat populations on these islands, probably due to inbreeding associated with founder effects, geographical isolation, or genetic drift. Our results predict low resistance of the two endangered populations to new pathogens introduced to the islands.

  11. LC-MS/MS based determination of basal- and ACTH-stimulated plasma concentrations of 11 steroid hormones: implications for detecting heterozygote CYP21A2 mutation carriers.

    PubMed

    Kulle, A E; Riepe, F G; Hedderich, J; Sippell, W G; Schmitz, J; Niermeyer, L; Holterhus, P M

    2015-10-01

    Heterozygosity in 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21OHD) has been associated with hyperandrogenemic symptoms in children and adults. Moreover, the carrier status is mandatory for genetic counseling. We aimed at defining a hormonal parameter for carrier detection by mass spectrometry. Eleven basal and ACTH-stimulated steroid hormones of heterozygous carriers of CYP21A2 mutations and control individuals were compared. Hormones were determined in plasma samples by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in 58 carriers (35 males, 23 females, age range 6-78 years) and 44 random controls (25 males, 19 females, age range 8-58 years). Heterozygotes could be identified best applying the 17-hydroxyprogesterone+21-deoxycortisol/cortisol×1000 ((17OHP+21S)/F×1000) equation 30  min after ACTH injection. An optimal cut-off value of 8.4 provided 89% sensitivity and specificity. Considering this data and a published frequency of heterozygotes of 1/50 to 1/61, the positive predictive value (PPV) of this cut-off is 12%. Of note, the negative predictive value (NPV) excluding heterozygosity in a given patient is 99.8%. Considering only marginal biochemical effects anticipated from heterozygosity, the stimulated ((17OHP+21S)/F×1000) identifies and excludes heterozygotes remarkably well. Nevertheless, LC-MS/MS cannot replace genetic testing, since sensitivity and specificity did not reach 100%. However, due to the considerably high NPV of the optimal cut-off and to a specificity of even 100% applying a cut-off higher than 14.7, hormonal assessment of heterozygosity can be of significant aid in conditions with limited access to genetic testing, as in some health care systems. The ((17OHP+21S)/F×1000) equation can guide diagnostic considerations in the differential diagnosis of hyperandrogenism. © 2015 European Society of Endocrinology.

  12. Pri-miR-34b/c rs4938723 TC heterozygote is associated with increased cancer risks: evidence from published data.

    PubMed

    Yi, De-Hui; Wang, Ben-Gang; Zhong, Xin-Ping; Liu, Hao; Liu, Yong-Feng

    2014-12-01

    The promoter region of the microRNA pri-miR-34b/c has a potentially functional polymorphism, rs4938723, located in a typical CpG island. Studies of the association between pri-miR-34b/c rs4938723 polymorphism and risks of various cancers have had inconsistent results. We therefore conducted a meta-analysis of nine studies that included 6,036 cancer patients and 7,490 controls to address this association. Overall, this meta-analysis showed the pri-miR-34b/c rs4938723 TC heterozygote to be significantly associated with increased risk of overall cancers compared with the wild-type TT genotype (P = 0.010, odds ratio (OR) = 1.10, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.02-1.18). In stratified analysis, the TC heterozygote was significantly associated with increased cancers risks in digestive tract cancers, in hepatocellular cancer, in Asian population and in the large-sample subgroup. The CC genotypes of rs4938723 were also associated with increased hepatocellular cancer risk but associated with decreased colorectal cancer risk in the stratification analysis by a single cancer type. Thus our meta-analysis suggests that the pri-miR-34b/c rs4938723 TC heterozygote contributes to increased overall cancer risks, as well as shown in digestive tract cancers, in hepatocellular cancer, in Asian population and in the large-sample subgroup. This rs4938723 SNP showed an opposite tendency orientation between the hepatocellular cancer and colorectal cancer risks. Large-sample studies are needed to verify our findings.

  13. FTO Is Associated with Aortic Valve Stenosis in a Gender Specific Manner of Heterozygote Advantage: A Population-Based Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Thron, Cindy; Akhyari, Payam; Godehardt, Erhard; Lichtenberg, Artur; Rüther, Ulrich; Seehaus, Stefanie

    2015-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the Fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) gene have been linked with increased body weight. However, the data on an association of FTO with cardiovascular diseases remains conflicting. Therefore, we ascertained whether FTO is associated with aortic valve stenosis (AVS), one of the most frequent cardiovascular diseases in the Western world. In this population-based case-control study the FTO SNP rs9939609 was analyzed in 300 German patients with AVS and 429 German controls of the KORA survey S4, representing a random population. Blood samples were collected prior to aortic valve replacement in AVS cases and FTO rs9939609 was genotyped via ARMS-PCR. Genotype frequencies differed significantly between AVS cases and KORA controls (p = 0.004). Separate gender-analyses uncovered an association of FTO with AVS exclusively in males; homozygote carriers for the risk-allele (A) had a higher risk to develop AVS (p = 0.017, odds ratio (OR) 1.727; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.087-2.747, recessive model), whereas heterozygote carriers for the risk-allele showed a lower risk (p = 0.002, OR 0.565, 95% CI 0.384-0.828, overdominant model). After adjustment for multiple co-variables, the odds ratios of heterozygotes remained significant for an association with AVS (p = 0.008, OR 0.565, 95% CI 0.369-0.861). This study revealed an association of FTO rs9939609 with AVS. Furthermore, this association was restricted to men, with heterozygotes having a significantly lower chance to develop AVS. Lastly, the association between FTO and AVS was independent of BMI and other variables such as diabetes mellitus.

  14. FTO Is Associated with Aortic Valve Stenosis in a Gender Specific Manner of Heterozygote Advantage: A Population-Based Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Thron, Cindy; Akhyari, Payam; Godehardt, Erhard; Lichtenberg, Artur; Rüther, Ulrich; Seehaus, Stefanie

    2015-01-01

    Background Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the Fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) gene have been linked with increased body weight. However, the data on an association of FTO with cardiovascular diseases remains conflicting. Therefore, we ascertained whether FTO is associated with aortic valve stenosis (AVS), one of the most frequent cardiovascular diseases in the Western world. Methods and Findings In this population-based case-control study the FTO SNP rs9939609 was analyzed in 300 German patients with AVS and 429 German controls of the KORA survey S4, representing a random population. Blood samples were collected prior to aortic valve replacement in AVS cases and FTO rs9939609 was genotyped via ARMS-PCR. Genotype frequencies differed significantly between AVS cases and KORA controls (p = 0.004). Separate gender-analyses uncovered an association of FTO with AVS exclusively in males; homozygote carriers for the risk-allele (A) had a higher risk to develop AVS (p = 0.017, odds ratio (OR) 1.727; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.087–2.747, recessive model), whereas heterozygote carriers for the risk-allele showed a lower risk (p = 0.002, OR 0.565, 95% CI 0.384–0.828, overdominant model). After adjustment for multiple co-variables, the odds ratios of heterozygotes remained significant for an association with AVS (p = 0.008, OR 0.565, 95% CI 0.369–0.861). Conclusions This study revealed an association of FTO rs9939609 with AVS. Furthermore, this association was restricted to men, with heterozygotes having a significantly lower chance to develop AVS. Lastly, the association between FTO and AVS was independent of BMI and other variables such as diabetes mellitus. PMID:26431034

  15. Compound heterozygote for lipoprotein lipase deficiency: Ser----Thr244 and transition in 3' splice site of intron 2 (AG----AA) in the lipoprotein lipase gene.

    PubMed Central

    Hata, A; Emi, M; Luc, G; Basdevant, A; Gambert, P; Iverius, P H; Lalouel, J M

    1990-01-01

    Cloning and sequencing of translated exons and intron-exon boundaries of the lipoprotein lipase gene in a patient of French descent who has the chylomicronemia syndrome revealed that he was a compound heterozygote for two nucleotide substitutions. One (TCC----ACC) leads to an amino acid substitution (Ser----Thr244), while the other alters the 3' splice site of intron 2 (AG----AA). The functional significance of the Thr244 amino acid substitution was established by in vitro expression in cultured mammalian cells. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:2121025

  16. A new self: MHC-class-I-independent natural-killer-cell self-tolerance.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vinay; McNerney, Megan E

    2005-05-01

    A fundamental tenet of the immune system is the requirement for lymphocytes to respond to transformed or infected cells while remaining tolerant of normal cells. Natural killer (NK) cells discriminate between self and non-self by monitoring the expression of MHC class I molecules. According to the 'missing-self' hypothesis, cells that express self-MHC class I molecules are protected from NK cells, but those that lack this self-marker are eliminated by NK cells. Recent work has revealed that there is another system of NK-cell inhibition, which is independent of MHC class I molecules. Newly discovered NK-cell inhibitory receptors that have non-MHC-molecule ligands broaden the definition of self as seen by NK cells.

  17. Comparative modeling of marsupial MHC class I molecules identifies structural polymorphisms affecting functional motifs.

    PubMed

    Daly, Kerry; Church, W Bret; Nicholas, Kevin; Williamson, Peter

    2007-11-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules are transmembrane glycoproteins that present antigenic peptides to CD8+ T cells and are subsequently important for the initiation of an immune response. In this study novel MHC class I sequences from the tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii) have been characterized. Analysis and comparative modeling of these and existing marsupial molecules reveals potential functional polymorphisms within peptide-binding grooves, MHC assembly motifs and the T cell receptor recognition interface. In addition, we show that a previously identified marsupial-specific insertion is within a region, which is known as a putative NK cell receptor (Ly49A) binding site in the mouse, suggesting that this site may be functionally active in marsupials. Further, the analysis highlighted differences in structural and sequence based grouping of marsupial MHC class I molecules. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Characterization and distribution of Mhc-DPB1 alleles in chimpanzee and rhesus macaque populations.

    PubMed

    Otting, N; Doxiadis, G G; Versluis, L; de Groot, N G; Anholts, J; Verduin, W; Rozemuller, E; Claas, F; Tilanus, M G; Bontrop, R E

    1998-10-01

    Allelic diversity at the nonhuman primate Mhc-DPB1 locus was studied by determining exon 2 nucleotide sequences. This resulted in the detection of 17 chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), 2 orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus) and 16 rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) alleles. These were compiled with primate Mhc-DPB1 nucleotide sequences that were published previously. Based upon the results, a sequence specific oligotyping method was developed allowing us to investigate the distribution of Mhc-DPB1 alleles in distinct chimpanzee and rhesus macaque colonies. Like found in humans, chimpanzee and rhesus macaque populations originating from different geographic backgrounds appear to be characterized by the presence of a few dominant Mhc-DPB1 alleles.

  19. Molecular characterization of MHC class II in the Australian invasive cane toad reveals multiple splice variants.

    PubMed

    Lillie, Mette; Cui, Jian; Shine, Richard; Belov, Katherine

    2016-07-01

    The cane toad has gained notoriety for its invasion across the Australian landscape, with significant impacts on the native Australian fauna. The invasion has accelerated over time, with invading cane toads adapted for highly dispersive traits. This, however, has come at the cost of the immune system, with lower investment in some immune functions. To investigate the cane toad's immunogenetics, we characterized four major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class IIA and three MHC class IIB loci. Preliminary observations suggest very low allelic diversity at all loci. We also observed various splice isoforms. One isoform seen at one class IIA and two class IIB loci was missing exon 2, which is essential to peptide binding and presentation. The other isoform, observed at a class IIA locus, is likely to be a soluble MHC product. These results may suggest a significant role of alternative splicing of MHC loci in the Australian cane toad.

  20. A central role for HSC70 in regulating antigen trafficking and MHC class II presentation.

    PubMed

    Deffit, Sarah N; Blum, Janice S

    2015-12-01

    Cells rely on multiple intracellular trafficking pathways to capture antigens for proteolysis. The resulting peptides bind to MHC class II molecules to promote CD4(+) T cell recognition. Endocytosis enhances the capture of extracellular and cell surface bound antigens for processing and presentation, while autophagy pathways shunt cytoplasmic and nuclear antigens for presentation in the context of MHC class II molecules. Understanding how physiological changes and cellular stress alter antigen trafficking and the repertoire of peptides presented by class II molecules remains challenging, yet important in devising novel approaches to boost immune responses to pathogens and tumors. An abundant, constitutively expressed cytoplasmic chaperone, HSC70 plays a central role in modulating antigen transport within cells to control MHC class II presentation during nutrient stress. HSC70 may serve as a molecular switch to modulate endocytic and autophagy pathways, impacting the source of antigens delivered for MHC class II presentation during cellular stress.

  1. Protein sorting within the MHC class II antigen-processing pathway.

    PubMed

    Marks, M S

    1998-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules are required for the presentation of antigenic peptides that are derived predominantly from internalized proteins. The assembly of MHC class II/peptide complexes occurs within endosomal compartments of antigen-presenting cells (APCs). Therefore, for assembly to occur, MHC class II molecules, foreign proteins, and accessory molecules must be sorted to appropriate intracellular sites. My laboratory is trying to understand how proteins are sorted to various antigen-processing compartments as well as to conventional endosomal organelles. Using chimeric marker proteins and a variety of biochemical and genetic approaches, we are addressing the specificity of protein sorting and the mechanisms by which sorting signals are deciphered. By using a similar chimeric protein approach to target endogenous proteins to distinct compartments, we hope to address the role of processing events in each compartment in the generation of MHC class II ligands.

  2. Semi-empirical quantum evaluation of peptide - MHC class II binding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, Ronald; Suárez, Carlos F.; Bohórquez, Hugo J.; Patarroyo, Manuel A.; Patarroyo, Manuel E.

    2017-01-01

    Peptide presentation by the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is a key process for triggering a specific immune response. Studying peptide-MHC (pMHC) binding from a structural-based approach has potential for reducing the costs of investigation into vaccine development. This study involved using two semi-empirical quantum chemistry methods (PM7 and FMO-DFTB) for computing the binding energies of peptides bonded to HLA-DR1 and HLA-DR2. We found that key stabilising water molecules involved in the peptide binding mechanism were required for finding high correlation with IC50 experimental values. Our proposal is computationally non-intensive, and is a reliable alternative for studying pMHC binding interactions.

  3. The ternary complex: T cell receptor, MHC protein, and immunogenic peptide.

    PubMed

    Rothbard, J B

    1990-09-01

    The identification and sequencing of the antigen receptor of T cells coupled with the demonstration that MHC proteins specifically bind immunogenic peptides, and the solution of the crystal structure of HLA A2 and Aw68 collectively have led to a working model of how T cells recognize protein antigens. In contrast with many other known receptor-ligand interactions, this unique recognition mechanism has evolved to allow receptors on two separate cells to contact a common peptide ligand. To accomplish this, MHC proteins and the T cell receptor both differ from previously defined biological receptors in many respects. The MHC class I and II molecules are membrane glycoproteins that have evolved the remarkable capacity to bind and display on the surface of cells an extremely large number of structurally diverse peptides, while the antigen specific receptors of T cells are positively selected to specifically interact with the MHC protein alleles of the individual and only some of the repertoire of self peptides.

  4. Molecular characterization of major histocompatibility complex class 1 (MHC-I) from squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus).

    PubMed

    Pascalis, Hervé; Heraud, Jean-Michel; Fendel, Rolf; Lavergne, Anne; Kazanji, Mirdad

    2003-12-01

    Little is known about the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class 1 in squirrel monkeys ( Saimiri sciureus). We cloned, sequenced and characterized two alleles and the cDNA of the coding region of MHC class 1 in these New World monkeys. Phylogenetic analyses showed that these sequences are related to HLA class 1 genes ( HLA-A and HLA-G). The structure and organization of one of the two identified clones was similar to that of a class 1 MHC gene ( HLA-A2). All the exon/intron splice acceptor/donor sites are conserved and their locations correspond to the HLA-A2 gene. The sequences of the newly described cDNAs reveal that they code for the characteristic class 1 MHC proteins, with all the features thought necessary for cell surface expression. Typical sequences for the leader peptide, alpha(1), alpha(2), alpha(3), transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains were found.

  5. Unusual features of Self-Peptide/MHC Binding by Autoimmune T Cell Receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Nicholson,M.; Hahn, M.; Wucherpfennig, K.

    2005-01-01

    Structural studies on T cell receptors (TCRs) specific for foreign antigens demonstrated a remarkably similar topology characterized by a central, diagonal TCR binding mode that maximizes interactions with the MHC bound peptide. However, three recent structures involving autoimmune TCRs demonstrated unusual interactions with self-peptide/MHC complexes. Two TCRs from multiple sclerosis patients bind with unconventional topologies, and both TCRs are shifted toward the peptide N terminus and the MHC class II {beta} chain helix. A TCR from the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model binds in a conventional orientation, but the structure is unusual because the self-peptide only partially fills the binding site. For all three TCRs, interaction with the MHC bound self-peptide is suboptimal, and only two or three TCR loops contact the peptide. Optimal TCR binding modes confer a competitive advantage for antimicrobial T cells during an infection, whereas altered binding properties may permit survival of a subset of autoreactive T cells during thymic selection.

  6. A Novel Therapeutic Vaccine for Metastatic Mammary Carcinoma: Focusing MHC/Peptide Complexes to Lipid Rafts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    Allen, and L. H. Glimcher. 1989. T cell receptor gene segment usage in a panel of hen- egg white lysozyme specific, I-Ak- restricted T helper...endogenously synthesized hen egg - white lysozyme retained in the endoplasmic reticulum or in secretory form gives rise to a similar but not...tetramethylindodicarbocynanine DTR, diphtheria toxin receptor DTx, diphtheria toxin HEL, hen egg lysozyme pMHC, peptide-MHC Abstract Tumor cells that

  7. IRF-4-mediated CIITA transcription is blocked by KSHV encoded LANA to inhibit MHC II presentation.

    PubMed

    Cai, Qiliang; Banerjee, Shuvomoy; Cervini, Amanda; Lu, Jie; Hislop, Andrew D; Dzeng, Richard; Robertson, Erle S

    2013-10-01

    Peptides presentation to T cells by MHC class II molecules is of importance in initiation of immune response to a pathogen. The level of MHC II expression directly influences T lymphocyte activation and is often targeted by various viruses. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) encoded LANA is known to evade MHC class I peptide processing, however, the effect of LANA on MHC class II remains unclear. Here, we report that LANA down-regulates MHC II expression and presentation by inhibiting the transcription of MHC II transactivator (CIITA) promoter pIII and pIV in a dose-dependent manner. Strikingly, although LANA knockdown efficiently disrupts the inhibition of CIITA transcripts from its pIII and pIV promoter region, the expression of HLA-DQβ but no other MHC II molecules was significantly restored. Moreover, we revealed that the presentation of HLA-DQβ enhanced by LANA knockdown did not help LANA-specific CD4+ T cell recognition of PEL cells, and the inhibition of CIITA by LANA is independent of IL-4 or IFN-γ signaling but dependent on the direct interaction of LANA with IRF-4 (an activator of both the pIII and pIV CIITA promoters). This interaction dramatically blocked the DNA-binding ability of IRF-4 on both pIII and pIV promoters. Thus, our data implies that LANA can evade MHC II presentation and suppress CIITA transcription to provide a unique strategy of KSHV escape from immune surveillance by cytotoxic T cells.

  8. Influenza Virus Targets Class I MHC-Educated NK Cells for Immunoevasion.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, Ahmad Bakur; Tu, Megan M; Wight, Andrew; Zein, Haggag S; Rahim, Mir Munir A; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Sekhon, Harman S; Brown, Earl G; Makrigiannis, Andrew P

    2016-02-01

    The immune response to influenza virus infection comprises both innate and adaptive defenses. NK cells play an early role in the destruction of tumors and virally-infected cells. NK cells express a variety of inhibitory receptors, including those of the Ly49 family, which are functional homologs of human killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR). Like human KIR, Ly49 receptors inhibit NK cell-mediated lysis by binding to major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) molecules that are expressed on normal cells. During NK cell maturation, the interaction of NK cell inhibitory Ly49 receptors with their MHC-I ligands results in two types of NK cells: licensed ("functional"), or unlicensed ("hypofunctional"). Despite being completely dysfunctional with regard to rejecting MHC-I-deficient cells, unlicensed NK cells represent up to half of the mature NK cell pool in rodents and humans, suggesting an alternative role for these cells in host defense. Here, we demonstrate that after influenza infection, MHC-I expression on lung epithelial cells is upregulated, and mice bearing unlicensed NK cells (Ly49-deficient NKCKD and MHC-I-deficient B2m-/- mice) survive the infection better than WT mice. Importantly, transgenic expression of an inhibitory self-MHC-I-specific Ly49 receptor in NKCKD mice restores WT influenza susceptibility, confirming a direct role for Ly49. Conversely, F(ab')2-mediated blockade of self-MHC-I-specific Ly49 inhibitory receptors protects WT mice from influenza virus infection. Mechanistically, perforin-deficient NKCKD mice succumb to influenza infection rapidly, indicating that direct cytotoxicity is necessary for unlicensed NK cell-mediated protection. Our findings demonstrate that Ly49:MHC-I interactions play a critical role in influenza virus pathogenesis. We suggest a similar role may be conserved in human KIR, and their blockade may be protective in humans.

  9. New Design of MHC Class II Tetramers to Accommodate Fundamental Principles of Antigen Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Landais, Elise; Romagnoli, Pablo A.; Corper, Adam L.; Shires, John; Altman, John D.; Wilson, Ian A.; Garcia, K. Christopher; Teyton, Luc

    2009-01-01

    Direct identification and isolation of antigen-specific T cells became possible with the development of “MHC tetramers”, based on fluorescent avidins displaying biotinylated peptide-MHC (pMHC) complexes. This approach, extensively used for MHC class I–restricted T cells, has met very limited success with MHC class II tetramers (pMHCT-2) for the detection of CD4+ specific T cells. In addition, a very large number of these reagents while capable of specifically activating T cells after being coated on solid support, are still unable to stain. In order to try to understand this puzzle and design usable tetramers, we examined each parameter critical for the production of pMHCT-2 using the I-Ad-OVA system as a model. Through this process the geometry of pMHC display by avidin tetramers was examined, as well as the stability of recombinant MHC molecules. However, we discovered that the most important factor limiting the reactivity of pMHCT-2 was the display of peptides. Indeed, long peptides, as presented by MHC class II molecules, can be bound to I-A/HLA-DQ molecules in more than one register as suggested by structural studies. This mode of anchorless peptide binding allows the selection of a broader repertoire on single peptides and should favor anti-infectious immune responses. Thus, beyond the technical improvements that we propose, the redesign of pMHCT-2 will give us the tools to evaluate the real size of the CD4 repertoire and help us in the production and testing of new vaccines. PMID:19923463

  10. Signal peptide-dependent inhibition of MHC class I heavy chain translation by rhesus cytomegalovirus.

    PubMed

    Powers, Colin J; Früh, Klaus

    2008-10-03

    The US2-11 region of human and rhesus cytomegalovirus encodes a conserved family of glycoproteins that inhibit MHC-I assembly with viral peptides, thus preventing cytotoxic T cell recognition. Since HCMV lacking US2-11 is no longer able to block assembly and transport of MHC-I, we examined whether this is also observed for RhCMV lacking the corresponding region. Unexpectedly, recombinant RhCMV lacking US2-11 was still able to inhibit MHC-I expression in infected fibroblasts, suggesting the presence of an additional MHC-I evasion mechanism. Progressive deletion analysis of RhCMV-specific genomic regions revealed that MHC-I expression is fully restored upon additional deletion of rh178. The protein encoded by this RhCMV-specific open reading frame is anchored in the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. In the presence of rh178, RhCMV prevented MHC-I heavy chain (HC) expression, but did not inhibit mRNA transcription or association of HC mRNA with translating ribosomes. Proteasome inhibitors stabilized a HC degradation intermediate in the absence of rh178, but not in its presence, suggesting that rh178 prevents completion of HC translation. This interference was signal sequence-dependent since replacing the signal peptide with that of CD4 or murine HC rendered human HCs resistant to rh178. We have identified an inhibitor of antigen presentation encoded by rhesus cytomegalovirus unique in both its lack of homology to any other known protein and in its mechanism of action. By preventing signal sequence-dependent HC translocation, rh178 acts prior to US2, US3 and US11 which attack MHC-I proteins after protein synthesis is completed. Rh178 is the first viral protein known to interfere at this step of the MHC-I pathway, thus taking advantage of the conserved nature of HC leader peptides, and represents a new mechanism of translational interference.

  11. MHC class I expression dependent on bacterial infection and parental factors in whitefish embryos (Salmonidae).

    PubMed

    Clark, Emily S; Wilkins, Laetitia G E; Wedekind, Claus

    2013-10-01

    Ecological conditions can influence not only the expression of a phenotype, but also the heritability of a trait. As such, heritable variation for a trait needs to be studied across environments. We have investigated how pathogen challenge affects the expression of MHC genes in embryos of the lake whitefish Coregonus palaea. In order to experimentally separate paternal (i.e. genetic) from maternal and environmental effects, and determine whether and how stress affects the heritable variation for MHC expression, embryos were produced in full-factorial in vitro fertilizations, reared singly, and exposed at 208 degree days (late-eyed stage) to either one of two strains of Pseudomonas fluorescens that differ in their virulence characteristics (one increased mortality, while both delayed hatching time). Gene expression was assessed 48 h postinoculation, and virulence effects of the bacterial infection were monitored until hatching. We found no evidence of MHC class II expression at this stage of development. MHC class I expression was markedly down-regulated in reaction to both pseudomonads. While MHC expression could not be linked to embryo survival, the less the gene was expressed, the earlier the embryos hatched within each treatment group, possibly due to trade-offs between immune function and developmental rate or further factors that affect both hatching timing and MHC expression. We found significant additive genetic variance for MHC class I expression in some treatments. That is, changes in pathogen pressures could induce rapid evolution in MHC class I expression. However, we found no additive genetic variance in reaction norms in our study population.

  12. Genomic architecture of MHC-linked odorant receptor gene repertoires among 16 vertebrate species.

    PubMed

    Santos, Pablo Sandro Carvalho; Kellermann, Thomas; Uchanska-Ziegler, Barbara; Ziegler, Andreas

    2010-09-01

    The recent sequencing and assembly of the genomes of different organisms have shown that almost all vertebrates studied in detail so far have one or more clusters of genes encoding odorant receptors (OR) in close physical linkage to the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). It has been postulated that MHC-linked OR genes could be involved in MHC-influenced mate choice, comprising both pre- as well as post-copulatory mechanisms. We have therefore carried out a systematic comparison of protein sequences of these receptors from the genomes of man, chimpanzee, gorilla, orangutan, rhesus macaque, mouse, rat, dog, cat, cow, pig, horse, elephant, opossum, frog and zebra fish (amounting to a total of 559 protein sequences) in order to identify OR families exhibiting evolutionarily conserved MHC linkage. In addition, we compared the genomic structure of this region within these 16 species, accounting for presence or absence of OR gene families, gene order, transcriptional orientation and linkage to the MHC or framework genes. The results are presented in the form of gene maps and phylogenetic analyses that reveal largely concordant repertoires of gene families, at least among tetrapods, although each of the eight taxa studied (primates, rodents, ungulates, carnivores, proboscids, marsupials, amphibians and teleosts) exhibits a typical architecture of MHC (or MHC framework loci)-linked OR genes. Furthermore, the comparison of the genomic organization of this region has implications for phylogenetic relationships between closely related taxa, especially in disputed cases such as the evolutionary history of even- and odd-toed ungulates and carnivores. Finally, the largely conserved linkage between distinct OR genes and the MHC supports the concept that particular alleles within a given haplotype function in a concerted fashion during self-/non-self-discrimination processes in reproduction.

  13. MHC II expression in the CNS after long-term demyelination

    SciTech Connect

    Cannella, B.; Aquino, D.A.; Raine, C.S.

    1995-07-01

    The ability of chronically demyelinated central nervous system (CNS) tissue to express major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules has been measured in mouse spinal cord cultures exposed for 1 and 3 weeks to demyelinating anti-white matter (WM) serum. From previous studies, It was known that after 3 weeks of demyelination in vitro, such cultures are incapable of remyelination. In the present report, MHC II levels were evaluated by immunocytochemistry and by Western and Northern blots. The results have shown that after both 1 and 3 weeks of exposure to myelinotoxic anti-WM serum, the cultures retained the ability to express MHC II and this could be further upregulated by incubation with interferon {gamma} (IFN{gamma}). Control groups showed increased expression of MHC II with age. By immunocytochemistry, all groups of cultures expressed high levels of MHC II and all groups showed upregulation after IFN{gamma} treatment. Anti-WM-treated cultures demonstrated slightly higher levels of MHC II than controls. Morphologically, the MHC II expression was associated with the surface of astrocytes. Semiquantitative analysis by Western blotting confirmed the increase in class II MHC expression in the long-term treated cultures after IFN{gamma} exposure, revealing no differences between anti-WM-treated and complement-treated cultures. This was also supported by Northern blotting which showed similar mRNA levels in both groups. These findings suggest that long-term demyelinated CNS tissue still possesses the ability to interact with CD4{sup +} T cells, observations of significance to the expansion of the chronic multiple sclerosis lesion. 50 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. New Insights into the Role of MHC Diversity in Devil Facial Tumour Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Belinda; Hamede, Rodrigo; Levan, Laura; Jones, Menna; Ujvari, Beata; Belov, Katherine

    2012-01-01

    Background Devil facial tumour disease (DFTD) is a fatal contagious cancer that has decimated Tasmanian devil populations. The tumour has spread without invoking immune responses, possibly due to low levels of Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) diversity in Tasmanian devils. Animals from a region in north-western Tasmania have lower infection rates than those in the east of the state. This area is a genetic transition zone between sub-populations, with individuals from north-western Tasmania displaying greater diversity than eastern devils at MHC genes, primarily through MHC class I gene copy number variation. Here we test the hypothesis that animals that remain healthy and tumour free show predictable differences at MHC loci compared to animals that develop the disease. Methodology/Principal Findings We compared MHC class I sequences in 29 healthy and 22 diseased Tasmanian devils from West Pencil Pine, a population in north-western Tasmania exhibiting reduced disease impacts of DFTD. Amplified alleles were assigned to four loci, Saha-UA, Saha-UB, Saha-UC and Saha-UD based on recently obtained genomic sequence data. Copy number variation (caused by a deletion) at Saha-UA was confirmed using a PCR assay. No association between the frequency of this deletion and disease status was identified. All individuals had alleles at Saha-UD, disproving theories of disease susceptibility relating to copy number variation at this locus. Genetic variation between the two sub-groups (healthy and diseased) was also compared using eight MHC-linked microsatellite markers. No significant differences were identified in allele frequency, however differences were noted in the genotype frequencies of two microsatellites located near non-antigen presenting genes within the MHC. Conclusions/Significance We did not find predictable differences in MHC class I copy number variation to account for differences in susceptibility to DFTD. Genotypic data was equivocal but indentified genomic

  15. Cryopreservation of MHC Multimers: Recommendations for Quality Assurance in Detection of Antigen Specific T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hadrup, Sine Reker; Maurer, Dominik; Laske, Karoline; Frøsig, Thomas Mørch; Andersen, Sofie Ramskov; Britten, Cedrik M; van der Burg, Sjoerd H; Walter, Steffen; Gouttefangeas, Cécile

    2015-01-01

    Fluorescence-labeled peptide-MHC class I multimers serve as ideal tools for the detection of antigen-specific T cells by flow cytometry, enabling functional and phenotypical characterization of specific T cells at the single cell level. While this technique offers a number of unique advantages, MHC multimer reagents can be difficult to handle in terms of stability and quality assurance. The stability of a given fluorescence-labeled MHC multimer complex depends on both the stability of the peptide-MHC complex itself and the stability of the fluorochrome. Consequently, stability is difficult to predict and long-term storage is generally not recommended. We investigated here the possibility of cryopreserving MHC multimers, both in-house produced and commercially available, using a wide range of peptide-MHC class I multimers comprising virus and cancer-associated epitopes of different affinities presented by various HLA-class I molecules. Cryopreservation of MHC multimers was feasible for at least 6 months, when they were dissolved in buffer containing 5–16% glycerol (v/v) and 0.5% serum albumin (w/v). The addition of cryoprotectants was tolerated across three different T-cell staining protocols for all fluorescence labels tested (PE, APC, PE-Cy7 and Quantum dots). We propose cryopreservation as an easily implementable method for stable storage of MHC multimers and recommend the use of cryopreservation in long-term immunomonitoring projects, thereby eliminating the variability introduced by different batches and inconsistent stability. © 2014 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry PMID:25297339

  16. Novel designs of single-chain MHC I/peptide complex for the magnetosome display system.

    PubMed

    Honda, Toru; Maeda, Yoshiaki; Yasuda, Takayuki; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi; Matsunaga, Tadashi; Yoshino, Tomoko

    2015-02-01

    The magnetic nanoparticles displaying the class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC I) were biologically synthesized using the magnetotactic bacterium Magnetospirillum magneticum AMB-1. Expression level and antigen peptide (HER263-71)-binding capability of the MHC I were evaluated on bacterial magnetic particles (BacMPs, also known as magnetosomes). Furthermore, the single-chain complexes of MHC I and HER263-71 were de novo designed for the magnetosome display system in order to improve the interaction between MHC I and HER263-71. Two types of the fusion arrangements were tested, and one of the complexes was estimated to fold into the correct conformation at the level of over 70%. In addition to the high folding ratio, an advantage of this system is that any refolding processes were not required even though the N-terminus of HER263-71 peptide is not free, which conventional bacterial expression systems have never demonstrated. The as-prepared single-chain MHC I/HER263-71 complex-displaying BacMPs (MHC I/HER2-BacMPs) specifically interacted with, and magnetically separated the HER263-71-induced cells, suggesting that the native T-cell receptor could recognize the engineered MHC I/HER2 complex on the BacMPs. By optimizing the magnetic sorting method, the MHC I/HER2-BacMPs developed in this study would be useful in immunotherapeutic applications. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. The Effect of Photodynamic Therapy on Tumor Cell Expression of Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) Class I and MHC Class I-Related Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Belicha-Villanueva, Alan; Riddell, Jonah; Bangia, Naveen; Gollnick, Sandra O.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objective Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is FDA-approved anti-cancer modality for elimination of early disease and palliation in advanced disease. PDT efficacy depends in part on elicitation of a tumor-specific immune response that is dependent on cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and natural killer (NK) cells. The cytolytic potential of CTLs and NK cells is mediated by the ability of these cells to recognize major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and MHC class I-related molecules. The MHC class I-related molecules MICA and MICB are induced by oxidative stress and have been reported to activate NK cells and co-stimulate CD8+ T cells. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of PDT on tumor cell expression of MHC classes I and II-related molecules in vivo and in vitro. Study Design/Materials and Methods Human colon carcinoma Colo205 cells and murine CT26 tumors were treated with 2-[1-hexyloxyethyl]-2-devinyl pyropheophor-bide-a (HPPH)-PDT at various doses. MHC classes I and I-related molecule expression following treatment of Colo205 cells was temporally examined by flow cytometry using antibodies specific for components of MHC class I molecules and by quantitative PCR using specific primers. Expression of MHC class I-related molecules following HPPH-based PDT (HPPH-PDT) of murine tumors was monitored using a chimeric NKG2D receptor. Results In vitro HPPH-PDT significantly induces MICA in Colo205 cells, but had no effect on MHC class I molecule expression. PDT also induced expression of NKG2D ligands (NKG2DL) following in vivo HPPH-PDT of a murine tumor. Induction of MICA corresponded to increased NK killing of PDT-treated tumor cells. Conclusions PDT induction of MICA on human tumor cells and increased expression of NKG2DL by murine tumors following PDT may play a role in PDT induction of anti-tumor immunity. This conclusion is supported by our results demonstrating that tumor cells have increased sensitivity to NK cell lysis following

  18. Characterisation of class II B MHC genes from a ratite bird, the little spotted kiwi (Apteryx owenii).

    PubMed

    Miller, Hilary C; Bowker-Wright, Gemma; Kharkrang, Marie; Ramstad, Kristina

    2011-04-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes are important for vertebrate immune response and typically display high levels of diversity due to balancing selection from exposure to diverse pathogens. An understanding of the structure of the MHC region and diversity among functional MHC genes is critical to understanding the evolution of the MHC and species resilience to disease exposure. In this study, we characterise the structure and diversity of class II MHC genes in little spotted kiwi Apteryx owenii, a ratite bird representing the basal avian lineage (paleognaths). Results indicate that little spotted kiwi have a more complex MHC structure than that of other non-passerine birds, with at least five class II MHC genes, three of which are expressed and likely to be functional. Levels of MHC variation among little spotted kiwi are extremely low, with 13 birds assayed having nearly identical MHC genotypes (only two genotypes containing four alleles, three of which are fixed). These results suggest that recent genetic drift due to a species-wide bottleneck of at most seven birds has overwhelmed past selection for high MHC diversity in little spotted kiwi, potentially leaving the species highly susceptible to disease.

  19. Selective pressures on MHC class II genes in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata) as inferred by hierarchical analysis of population structure.

    PubMed

    Herdegen, M; Babik, W; Radwan, J

    2014-11-01

    Genes of the major histocompatibility complex, which are the most polymorphic of all vertebrate genes, are a pre-eminent system for the study of selective pressures that arise from host-pathogen interactions. Balancing selection capable of maintaining high polymorphism should lead to the homogenization of MHC allele frequencies among populations, but there is some evidence to suggest that diversifying selection also operates on the MHC. However, the pattern of population structure observed at MHC loci is likely to depend on the spatial and/or temporal scale examined. Here, we investigated selection acting on MHC genes at different geographic scales using Venezuelan guppy populations inhabiting four regions. We found a significant correlation between MHC and microsatellite allelic richness across populations, which suggests the role of genetic drift in shaping MHC diversity. However, compared to microsatellites, more MHC variation was explained by differences between populations within larger geographic regions and less by the differences between the regions. Furthermore, among proximate populations, variation in MHC allele frequencies was significantly higher compared to microsatellites, indicating that selection acting on MHC may increase population structure at small spatial scales. However, in populations that have significantly diverged at neutral markers, the population-genetic signature of diversifying selection may be eradicated in the long term by that of balancing selection, which acts to preserve rare alleles and thus maintain a common pool of MHC alleles.

  20. Pan-specific prediction of peptide-MHC-I complex stability; a correlate of T cell immunogenicity1

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, Michael; Fenoy, Emilio; Harndahl, Mikkel; Kristensen, Anne Bregnballe; Nielsen, Ida Kallehauge; Nielsen, Morten; Buus, Søren

    2016-01-01

    Binding of peptides to MHC class I (MHC-I) molecules is the most selective event in the processing and presentation of antigens to cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) and insights into the mechanisms that govern peptide-MHC-I binding should facilitate our understanding of CTL biology. Peptide-MHC-I interactions have traditionally been quantified by the strength of the interaction, i.e. the binding affinity, yet it has been show that the stability of the peptide-MHC-I complex is a better correlate of immunogenicity compared to binding affinity. Here, we have experimentally analyzed peptide-MHC-I complex stability of a large panel of human MHC-I allotypes and generated a body of data sufficient to develop neural networks based pan-specific predictor of peptide-MHC-I complex stability. Integrating the neural networks predictors of peptide-MHC-I complex stability with state-of-the-art predictors of peptide-MHC-I binding is shown to significantly improve the prediction of CTL epitopes. The method is publicly available at www.cbs.dtu.dk/services/NetMHCstabpan. PMID:27402703

  1. Variation in MHC genotypes in two populations of house sparrow (Passer domesticus) with different population histories

    PubMed Central

    Borg, Åsa Alexandra; Pedersen, Sindre Andre; Jensen, Henrik; Westerdahl, Helena

    2011-01-01

    Small populations are likely to have a low genetic ability for disease resistance due to loss of genetic variation through inbreeding and genetic drift. In vertebrates, the highest genetic diversity of the immune system is located at genes within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). Interestingly, parasite-mediated selection is thought to potentially maintain variation at MHC loci even in populations that are monomorphic at other loci. Therefore, general loss of genetic variation in the genome may not necessarily be associated with low variation at MHC loci. We evaluated inter- and intrapopulation variation in MHC genotypes between an inbred (Aldra) and a relatively outbred population (Hestmannøy) of house sparrows (Passer domesticus) in a metapopulation at Helgeland, Norway. Genomic (gDNA) and transcribed (cDNA) alleles of functional MHC class I and IIB loci, along with neutral noncoding microsatellite markers, were analyzed to obtain relevant estimates of genetic variation. We found lower allelic richness in microsatellites in the inbred population, but high genetic variation in MHC class I and IIB loci in both populations. This suggests that also the inbred population could be under balancing selection to maintain genetic variation for pathogen resistance. PMID:22393491

  2. No evidence for the effect of MHC on male mating success in the brown bear.

    PubMed

    Kuduk, Katarzyna; Babik, Wieslaw; Bellemain, Eva; Valentini, Alice; Zedrosser, Andreas; Taberlet, Pierre; Kindberg, Jonas; Swenson, Jon E; Radwan, Jacek

    2014-01-01

    Mate choice is thought to contribute to the maintenance of the spectacularly high polymorphism of the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) genes, along with balancing selection from parasites, but the relative contribution of the former mechanism is debated. Here, we investigated the association between male MHC genotype and mating success in the brown bear. We analysed fragments of sequences coding for the peptide-binding region of the highly polymorphic MHC class I and class II DRB genes, while controlling for genome-wide effects using a panel of 18 microsatellite markers. Male mating success did not depend on the number of alleles shared with the female or amino-acid distance between potential mates at either locus. Furthermore, we found no indication of female mating preferences for MHC similarity being contingent on the number of alleles the females carried. Finally, we found no significant association between the number of MHC alleles a male carried and his mating success. Thus, our results provided no support for the role of mate choice in shaping MHC polymorphism in the brown bear.

  3. Angiotensin-converting enzyme affects the presentation of MHC class II antigens.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Tuantuan; Bernstein, Kenneth E; Fang, Jianmin; Shen, Xiao Z

    2017-07-01

    Antigen processing and presentation through the MHC class II pathway is critical for activating T helper cells. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) is a carboxyl peptidase expressed by antigen-presenting cells. By analysis of ACE null (knockout), wild-type, and ACE-overexpressing (ACE10) mice and the antigen-presenting cells derived from these mice, we found that ACE has a physiological role in the processing of peptides for MHC class II presentation. The efficiency of presenting MHC class II epitopes from ovalbumin (OVA) and hen egg lysosome is markedly affected by cellular ACE levels. Mice overexpressing ACE in myeloid cells have a much more vigorous CD4(+) T-cell and antibody response when immunized with OVA. ACE is present in the endosomal pathway where MHC class II peptide processing and loading occur. The efficiency of MHC class II antigen presentation can be altered by ACE overexpression or ACE pharmacological inhibition. Thus, ACE is a dynamic participant in processing MHC class II peptides. Manipulation of ACE expression by antigen-presenting cells may prove to be a novel strategy to alter the immune response.

  4. Measurement of MHC/Peptide Interactions by Gel Filtration or Monoclonal Antibody Capture

    PubMed Central

    Sidney, John; Southwood, Scott; Moore, Carrie; Oseroff, Carla; Pinilla, Clemencia; Grey, Howard M.; Sette, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    This unit describes a technique for the direct and quantitative measurement of the capacity of peptide ligands to bind Class I and Class II MHC molecules. The binding of a peptide of interest to MHC is assessed based on its ability to inhibit the binding of a radiolabeled probe peptide to purified MHC molecules. This unit includes protocols for the purification of Class I and Class II MHC molecules by affinity chromatography, and for the radiolabeling of peptides using the chloramine T method. An alternate protocol describes alterations in the basic protocol that are necessary when performing direct binding assays, which are required for (1) selecting appropriate high-affinity, assay-specific, radiolabeled ligands, and (2) determining the amount of MHC necessary to yield assays with the highest sensitivity. After a predetermined incubation period, dependent upon the allele under examination, the bound and unbound radiolabeled species are separated, and their relative amounts are determined. Three methods for separation are described, two utilizing size-exclusion gel-filtration chromatography and a third using monoclonal antibody capture of MHC. Data analysis for each method is also explained. PMID:23392640

  5. Evaluation of the major histocompatibility complex (Mhc) in cranes: applications to conservation efforts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jarvi, S.I.; Miller, M.M.; Goto, R.M.; Gee, G.F.; Briles, W.E.

    2001-01-01

    Although there have been heated discussions concerning the relative importance of using Mhc diversity as a basis for selecting breeders in conservation projects, most parties agree that the genetic variability residual in an endangered species should be maintained through genetic management, if at all possible. Substantial evidence exists (particularly in birds) documenting the influences of specific Mhc haplotypes on disease outcome and also that those individuals which are heterozygous for Mhc alleles appear to have an advantage for survival over those that are homozygous. Thus, conservation of genetic variability of the Mhc is likely important for the preservation of fitness, especially in small breeding populations. More than half of the world's crane species are listed as endangered. Members of all 15 known species are represented among breeding animals for captive propagation at the International Crane Foundation (Wisconsin) and the USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center (Maryland). Collaborative multi-organization efforts and the availability of extensive pedigree records have allowed the study of Mhc variability in several species of cranes. We have found, for example, that Mhc diversity in the captive Florida sandhill crane (Grus canadensis pratensis) population appears high, whereas in the captive whooping crane (Grus americana), which has undergone a severe 'genetic bottleneck,? both the number of alleles and the levels of heterozygosity appear to be substantially reduced.

  6. Analysis of relationships between peptide/MHC structural features and naive T cell frequency in humans.

    PubMed

    Reiser, Jean-Baptiste; Legoux, François; Gras, Stéphanie; Trudel, Eric; Chouquet, Anne; Léger, Alexandra; Le Gorrec, Madalen; Machillot, Paul; Bonneville, Marc; Saulquin, Xavier; Housset, Dominique

    2014-12-15

    The structural rules governing peptide/MHC (pMHC) recognition by T cells remain unclear. To address this question, we performed a structural characterization of several HLA-A2/peptide complexes and assessed in parallel their antigenicity, by analyzing the frequency of the corresponding Ag-specific naive T cells in A2(+) and A2(-) individuals, as well as within CD4(+) and CD8(+) subsets. We were able to find a correlation between specific naive T cell frequency and peptide solvent accessibility and/or mobility for a subset of moderately prominent peptides. However, one single structural parameter of the pMHC complexes could not be identified to explain each peptide antigenicity. Enhanced pMHC antigenicity was associated with both highly biased TRAV usage, possibly reflecting favored interaction between particular pMHC complexes and germline TRAV loops, and peptide structural features allowing interactions with a broad range of permissive CDR3 loops. In this context of constrained TCR docking mode, an optimal peptide solvent exposed surface leading to an optimal complementarity with TCR interface may constitute one of the key features leading to high frequency of specific T cells. Altogether our results suggest that frequency of specific T cells depends on the fine-tuning of several parameters, the structural determinants governing TCR-pMHC interaction being just one of them. Copyright © 2014 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  7. Identification of MHC Haplotypes Associated with Drug-induced Hypersensitivity Reactions in Cynomolgus Monkeys.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hong; Whritenour, Jessica; Sanford, Jonathan C; Houle, Christopher; Adkins, Karissa K

    2017-01-01

    Drug-induced hypersensitivity reactions can significantly impact drug development and use. Studies to understand risk factors for drug-induced hypersensitivity reactions have identified genetic association with specific human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles. Interestingly, drug-induced hypersensitivity reactions can occur in nonhuman primates; however, association between drug-induced hypersensitivity reactions and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) alleles has not been described. In this study, tissue samples were collected from 62 cynomolgus monkeys from preclinical studies in which 9 animals had evidence of drug-induced hypersensitivity reactions. Microsatellite analysis was used to determine MHC haplotypes for each animal. A total of 7 haplotypes and recombinant MHC haplotypes were observed, with distribution frequency comparable to known MHC I allele frequency in cynomolgus monkeys. Genetic association analysis identified alleles from the M3 haplotype of the MHC I B region (B*011:01, B*075:01, B*079:01, B*070:02, B*098:05, and B*165:01) to be significantly associated (χ(2) test for trend, p < 0.05) with occurrence of drug-induced hypersensitivity reactions. Sequence similarity from alignment of alleles in the M3 haplotype B region and HLA alleles associated with drug-induced hypersensitivity reactions in humans was 86% to 93%. These data demonstrate that MHC alleles in cynomolgus monkeys are associated with drug-induced hypersensitivity reactions, similar to HLA alleles in humans.

  8. MHC class I antigen presentation and implications for developing a new generation of therapeutic vaccines.

    PubMed

    Comber, Joseph D; Philip, Ramila

    2014-05-01

    Major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) presented peptide epitopes provide a 'window' into the changes occurring in a cell. Conventionally, these peptides are generated by proteolysis of endogenously synthesized proteins in the cytosol, loaded onto MHC-I molecules, and presented on the cell surface for surveillance by CD8(+) T cells. MHC-I restricted processing and presentation alerts the immune system to any infectious or tumorigenic processes unfolding intracellularly and provides potential targets for a cytotoxic T cell response. Therefore, therapeutic vaccines based on MHC-I presented peptide epitopes could, theoretically, induce CD8(+) T cell responses that have tangible clinical impacts on tumor eradication and patient survival. Three major methods have been used to identify MHC-I restricted epitopes for inclusion in peptide-based vaccines for cancer: genetic, motif prediction and, more recently, immunoproteomic analysis. Although the first two methods are capable of identifying T cell stimulatory epitopes, these have significant disadvantages and may not accurately represent epitopes presented by a tumor cell. In contrast, immunoproteomic methods can overcome these disadvantages and identify naturally processed and presented tumor associated epitopes that induce more clinically relevant tumor specific cytotoxic T cell responses. In this review, we discuss the importance of using the naturally presented MHC-I peptide repertoire in formulating peptide vaccines, the recent application of peptide-based vaccines in a variety of cancers, and highlight the pros and cons of the current state of peptide vaccines.

  9. MHC class I antigen presentation and implications for developing a new generation of therapeutic vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Comber, Joseph D.

    2014-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) presented peptide epitopes provide a ‘window’ into the changes occurring in a cell. Conventionally, these peptides are generated by proteolysis of endogenously synthesized proteins in the cytosol, loaded onto MHC-I molecules, and presented on the cell surface for surveillance by CD8+ T cells. MHC-I restricted processing and presentation alerts the immune system to any infectious or tumorigenic processes unfolding intracellularly and provides potential targets for a cytotoxic T cell response. Therefore, therapeutic vaccines based on MHC-I presented peptide epitopes could, theoretically, induce CD8+ T cell responses that have tangible clinical impacts on tumor eradication and patient survival. Three major methods have been used to identify MHC-I restricted epitopes for inclusion in peptide-based vaccines for cancer: genetic, motif prediction and, more recently, immunoproteomic analysis. Although the first two methods are capable of identifying T cell stimulatory epitopes, these have significant disadvantages and may not accurately represent epitopes presented by a tumor cell. In contrast, immunoproteomic methods can overcome these disadvantages and identify naturally processed and presented tumor associated epitopes that induce more clinically relevant tumor specific cytotoxic T cell responses. In this review, we discuss the importance of using the naturally presented MHC-I peptide repertoire in formulating peptide vaccines, the recent application of peptide-based vaccines in a variety of cancers, and highlight the pros and cons of the current state of peptide vaccines. PMID:24790732

  10. Secretory granules of mast cells accumulate mature and immature MHC class II molecules.

    PubMed

    Vincent-Schneider, H; Théry, C; Mazzeo, D; Tenza, D; Raposo, G; Bonnerot, C

    2001-01-01

    Bone marrow-derived mast cells as well as dendritic cells, macrophages and B lymphocytes express major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules. In mast cells, the majority of MHC class II molecules reside in intracellular cell type-specific compartments, secretory granules. To understand the molecular basis for the localisation of MHC class II molecules in secretory granules, MHC class II molecules were expressed, together with the invariant chain, in the mast cell line, RBL-2H3. Using electron and confocal microscopy, we observed that in RBL-2H3 cells, mature and immature class II molecules accumulate in secretory granules. Two particular features of class II transport accounted for this intracellular localization: first, a large fraction of newly synthesized MHC class II molecules remained associated with invariant chain fragments. This defect, resulting in a slower rate of MHC class II maturation, was ascribed to a low cathepsin S activity. Second, although a small fraction of class II dimers matured (i.e. became free of invariant chain), allowing their association with antigenic peptides, they were retained in secretory granules. As a consequence of this intracellular localization, cell surface expression of class II molecules was strongly increased by cell activation stimuli which induced the release of the contents of secretory granules. Our results suggest that antigen presentation, and thereby antigen specific T cell stimulation, are regulated in mast cells by stimuli which induce mast cell activation.

  11. Measuring TCR-pMHC Binding In Situ using a FRET-based Microscopy Assay.

    PubMed

    Axmann, Markus; Schütz, Gerhard J; Huppa, Johannes B

    2015-10-30

    T-cells are remarkably specific and effective when recognizing antigens in the form of peptides embedded in MHC molecules (pMHC) on the surface of Antigen Presenting Cells (APCs). This is despite T-cell antigen receptors (TCRs) exerting usually a moderate affinity (µM range) to antigen when binding is measured in vitro(1). In view of the molecular and cellular parameters contributing to T-cell antigen sensitivity, a microscopy-based methodology has been developed as a means to monitor TCR-pMHC binding in situ, as it occurs within the synapse of a live T-cell and an artificial and functionalized glass-supported planar lipid bilayer (SLB), which mimics the cell membrane of an Antigen presenting Cell (APC) (2). Measurements are based on Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) between a blue- and red-shifted fluorescent dye attached to the TCR and the pMHC. Because the efficiency of FRET is inversely proportional to the sixth power of the inter-dye distance, one can employ FRET signals to visualize synaptic TCR-pMHC binding. The sensitive of the microscopy approach supports detection of single molecule FRET events. This allows to determine the affinity and off-rate of synaptic TCR-pMHC interactions and in turn to interpolate the on-rate of binding. Analogous assays could be applied to measure other receptor-ligand interactions in their native environment.

  12. Reduced MHC and neutral variation in the Galápagos hawk, an island endemic

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Genes at the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) are known for high levels of polymorphism maintained by balancing selection. In small or bottlenecked populations, however, genetic drift may be strong enough to overwhelm the effect of balancing selection, resulting in reduced MHC variability. In this study we investigated MHC evolution in two recently diverged bird species: the endemic Galápagos hawk (Buteo galapagoensis), which occurs in small, isolated island populations, and its widespread mainland relative, the Swainson's hawk (B. swainsoni). Results We amplified at least two MHC class II B gene copies in each species. We recovered only three different sequences from 32 Galápagos hawks, while we amplified 20 unique sequences in 20 Swainson's hawks. Most of the sequences clustered into two groups in a phylogenetic network, with one group likely representing pseudogenes or nonclassical loci. Neutral genetic diversity at 17 microsatellite loci was also reduced in the Galápagos hawk compared to the Swainson's hawk. Conclusions The corresponding loss in neutral diversity suggests that the reduced variability present at Galápagos hawk MHC class II B genes compared to the Swainson's hawk is primarily due to a founder event followed by ongoing genetic drift in small populations. However, purifying selection could also explain the low number of MHC alleles present. This lack of variation at genes involved in the adaptive immune response could be cause for concern should novel diseases reach the archipelago. PMID:21612651

  13. Measuring TCR-pMHC Binding In Situ using a FRET-based Microscopy Assay

    PubMed Central

    Axmann, Markus; Schütz, Gerhard J.; Huppa, Johannes B.

    2015-01-01

    T-cells are remarkably specific and effective when recognizing antigens in the form of peptides embedded in MHC molecules (pMHC) on the surface of Antigen Presenting Cells (APCs). This is despite T-cell antigen receptors (TCRs) exerting usually a moderate affinity (µM range) to antigen when binding is measured in vitro1. In view of the molecular and cellular parameters contributing to T-cell antigen sensitivity, a microscopy-based methodology has been developed as a means to monitor TCR-pMHC binding in situ, as it occurs within the synapse of a live T-cell and an artificial and functionalized glass-supported planar lipid bilayer (SLB), which mimics the cell membrane of an Antigen presenting Cell (APC) 2. Measurements are based on Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) between a blue- and red-shifted fluorescent dye attached to the TCR and the pMHC. Because the efficiency of FRET is inversely proportional to the sixth power of the inter-dye distance, one can employ FRET signals to visualize synaptic TCR-pMHC binding. The sensitive of the microscopy approach supports detection of single molecule FRET events. This allows to determine the affinity and off-rate of synaptic TCR-pMHC interactions and in turn to interpolate the on-rate of binding. Analogous assays could be applied to measure other receptor-ligand interactions in their native environment. PMID:26555227

  14. Redirecting soluble antigen for MHC class I cross-presentation during phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Hari, Aswin; Ganguly, Anutosh; Mu, Libing; Davis, Shevaun P; Stenner, Melanie D; Lam, Raymond; Munro, Fay; Namet, Inana; Alghamdi, Enaam; Fürstenhaupt, Tobias; Dong, Wei; Detampel, Pascal; Shen, Lian Jun; Amrein, Matthias W; Yates, Robin M; Shi, Yan

    2015-02-01

    Peptides presented by MHC class I molecules are mostly derived from proteins synthesized by the antigen-presenting cell itself, while peptides presented by MHC class II molecules are predominantly from materials acquired by endocytosis. External antigens can also be presented by MHC class I molecules in a process referred to as cross-presentation. Here, we report that mouse dendritic cell (DC) engagement to a phagocytic target alters endocytic processing and inhibits the proteolytic activities. During phagocytosis, endosome maturation is delayed, shows less progression toward the lysosome, and the endocytosed soluble antigen is targeted for MHC class I cross-presentation. The antigen processing in these arrested endosomes is under the control of NAPDH oxidase associated ROS. We also show that cathepsin S is responsible for the generation of the MHC class I epitope. Taken together, our results suggest that in addition to solid structure uptake, DC phagocytosis simultaneously modifies the kinetics of endosomal trafficking and maturation. As a consequence, external soluble antigens are targeted into the MHC class I cross-presentation pathway.

  15. Intracellular Transport Routes for MHC I and Their Relevance for Antigen Cross-Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Adiko, Aimé Cézaire; Babdor, Joel; Gutiérrez-Martínez, Enric; Guermonprez, Pierre; Saveanu, Loredana

    2015-01-01

    Cross-presentation, in which exogenous antigens are presented via MHC I complexes, is involved both in the generation of anti-infectious and anti-tumoral cytotoxic CD8+ T cells and in the maintenance of immune tolerance. While cross-presentation was described almost four decades ago and while it is now established that some dendritic cell (DC) subsets are better than others in processing and cross-presenting internalized antigens, the involved molecular mechanisms remain only partially understood. Some of the least explored molecular mechanisms in cross-presentation concern the origin of cross-presenting MHC I molecules and the cellular compartments where antigenic peptide loading occurs. This review focuses on MHC I molecules and their intracellular trafficking. We discuss the source of cross-presenting MHC I in DCs as well as the role of the endocytic pathway in their recycling from the cell surface. Next, we describe the importance of the TAP peptide transporter for delivering peptides to MHC I during cross-presentation. Finally, we highlight the impact of innate immunity mechanisms on specific antigen cross-presentation mechanisms in which TLR activation modulates MHC I trafficking and TAP localization. PMID:26191062

  16. Characterization, polymorphism, and evolution of MHC class II B genes in birds of prey.

    PubMed

    Alcaide, Miguel; Edwards, Scott V; Negro, Juan J

    2007-11-01

    During the last decade, the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) has received much attention in the fields of evolutionary and conservation biology because of its potential implications in many biological processes. New insights into the gene structure and evolution of MHC genes can be gained through study of additional lineages of birds not yet investigated at the genomic level. In this study, we characterized MHC class II B genes in five families of birds of prey (Accipitridae, Pandionidae, Strigidae, Tytonidae, and Falconidae). Using PCR approaches, we isolated genomic MHC sequences up to 1300 bp spanning exons 1 to 3 in 26 representatives of each raptor lineage, finding no stop codons or frameshift mutations in any coding region. A survey of diversity across the entirety of exon 2 in the lesser kestrel Falco naumanni reported 26 alleles in 21 individuals. Bayesian analysis revealed 21 positively selected amino acid sites, which suggests that the MHC genes described here are functional and probably expressed. Finally, through interlocus comparisons and phylogenetic analysis, we also discuss genetic evidence for concerted and transspecies evolution in the raptor MHC.

  17. Single-Molecule Motions of MHC Class II Rely on Bound Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Kozono, Haruo; Matsushita, Yufuku; Ogawa, Naoki; Kozono, Yuko; Miyabe, Toshihiro; Sekiguchi, Hiroshi; Ichiyanagi, Kouhei; Okimoto, Noriaki; Taiji, Makoto; Kanagawa, Osami; Sasaki, Yuji C.

    2015-01-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II protein can bind peptides of different lengths in the region outside the peptide-binding groove. Peptide-flanking residues (PFRs) contribute to the binding affinity of the peptide for MHC and change the immunogenicity of the peptide/MHC complex with regard to T cell receptor (TCR). The mechanisms underlying these phenomena are currently unknown. The molecular flexibility of the peptide/MHC complex may be an important determinant of the structures recognized by certain T cells. We used single-molecule x-ray analysis (diffracted x-ray tracking (DXT)) and fluorescence anisotropy to investigate these mechanisms. DXT enabled us to monitor the real-time Brownian motion of the peptide/MHC complex and revealed that peptides without PFRs undergo larger rotational motions than peptides with PFRs. Fluorescence anisotropy further revealed that peptides without PFRs exhibit slightly larger motions on the nanosecond timescale. These results demonstrate that peptides without PFRs undergo dynamic motions in the groove of MHC and consequently are able to assume diverse structures that can be recognized by T cells. PMID:25606683

  18. Redirecting soluble antigen for MHC class I cross-presentation during phagocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Hari, Aswin; Ganguly, Anutosh; Mu, Libing; Davis, Shevaun P.; Stenner, Melanie D.; Lam, Raymond; Munro, Fay; Namet, Inana; Alghamdi, Enaam; Fürstenhaupt, Tobias; Dong, Wei; Detampel, Pascal; Shen, Lian Jun; Amrein, Matthias W.; Yates, Robin M.; Shi, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Peptides presented by MHC class I molecules are derived mostly from proteins synthesized by the antigen-presenting cell itself, while peptides presented by MHC class II molecules are derived predominantly from materials acquired by endocytosis. External antigens can also be presented by MHC class I molecules in a process referred to as cross-presentation. We report that mouse dendritic cell engagement of a phagocytic target alters endocytic processing and inhibits their proteolytic activities. During phagocytosis, endosome maturation is delayed, shows less progression towards the lysosome, and the endocytosed soluble antigen is targeted for MHC class I cross-presentation. The antigen processing in these arrested endosomes is under the control of NAPDH oxidase associated ROS. We also show that cathepsin S is responsible for the generation of the MHC class I epitope. Our results suggest that in addition to solid structure uptake, DC phagocytosis simultaneously modifies the kinetics of endosomal trafficking and maturation. As a consequence, external soluble antigens are targeted into the MHC class I cross-presentation pathway. PMID:25378230

  19. Paternal MHC expression on mouse trophoblast affects uterine vascularization and fetal growth.

    PubMed

    Madeja, Zofia; Yadi, Hakim; Apps, Richard; Boulenouar, Selma; Roper, Stephen J; Gardner, Lucy; Moffett, Ashley; Colucci, Francesco; Hemberger, Myriam

    2011-03-08

    The mammalian fetus represents a semiallograft within the maternal uterus yet is not rejected. This situation is particularly pronounced in species with a hemochorial type of placentation, such as humans and rodents, where maternal tissues and blood are in direct contact with fetal trophoblast and thus potentially with paternal antigens. The main polymorphic antigens responsible for graft rejection are MHC antigens. In humans the trophoblast cells invading into the decidua have a unique pattern of MHC class I expression characterized by both classical (HLA-C) and nonclassical (HLA-G and HLA-E) molecules. Whether such an unusual MHC repertoire on the surface of trophoblast is a conserved feature between species with hemochorial placentation has not been resolved. Here we demonstrate, using a range of methods, that C57BL/6 mouse trophoblast predominantly expresses only one MHC class I antigen, H2-K, at the cell surface of giant cells but lacks expression of nonclassical MHC molecules. Antigenic disparity between parental MHCs affects trophoblast-induced transformation of the uterine vasculature and, consequently, placental and fetal gowth. Maternal uterine blood vessels were more dilated, allowing for increased blood supply, in certain combinations of maternal and paternal MHC haplotypes, and these allogeneic fetuses and placentas were heavier at term compared with syngeneic controls. Thus, maternal-fetal immune interactions are instrumental to optimize reproductive success. This cross-talk has important implications for human disorders of pregnancy, such as preeclampsia and fetal growth restriction.

  20. Analysis of MHC class I folding: novel insights into intermediate forms

    PubMed Central

    Simone, Laura C.; Tuli, Amit; Simone, Peter D.; Wang, Xiaojian; Solheim, Joyce C.

    2012-01-01

    Folding around a peptide ligand is integral to the antigen presentation function of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules. Several lines of evidence indicate that the broadly cross-reactive 34-1-2 antibody is sensitive to folding of the MHC class I peptide-binding groove. Here, we show that peptide-loading complex proteins associated with the murine MHC class I molecule Kd are found primarily in association with the 34-1-2+ form. This led us to hypothesize that the 34-1-2 antibody may recognize intermediately, as well as fully, folded MHC class I molecules. In order to further characterize the form(s) of MHC class I molecules recognized by 34-1-2, we took advantage of its cross-reactivity with Ld. Recognition of the open and folded forms of Ld by the 64-3-7 and 30-5-7 antibodies, respectively, has been extensively characterized, providing us with parameters against which to compare 34-1-2 reactivity. We found that the 34-1-2+ Ld molecules displayed characteristics indicative of incomplete folding, including increased tapasin association, endoplasmic reticulum retention, and instability at the cell surface. Moreover, we demonstrate that an Ld-specific peptide induced folding of the 34-1-2+ Ld intermediate. Altogether, these results yield novel insights into the nature of MHC class I molecules recognized by the 34-1-2 antibody. PMID:22329842

  1. Plasmodium relictum infection and MHC diversity in the house sparrow (Passer domesticus).

    PubMed

    Loiseau, Claire; Zoorob, Rima; Robert, Alexandre; Chastel, Olivier; Julliard, Romain; Sorci, Gabriele

    2011-04-22

    Antagonistic coevolution between hosts and parasites has been proposed as a mechanism maintaining genetic diversity in both host and parasite populations. In particular, the high level of genetic diversity usually observed at the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is generally thought to be maintained by parasite-driven selection. Among the possible ways through which parasites can maintain MHC diversity, diversifying selection has received relatively less attention. This hypothesis is based on the idea that parasites exert spatially variable selection pressures because of heterogeneity in parasite genetic structure, abundance or virulence. Variable selection pressures should select for different host allelic lineages resulting in population-specific associations between MHC alleles and risk of infection. In this study, we took advantage of a large survey of avian malaria in 13 populations of the house sparrow (Passer domesticus) to test this hypothesis. We found that (i) several MHC alleles were either associated with increased or decreased risk to be infected with Plasmodium relictum, (ii) the effects were population specific, and (iii) some alleles had antagonistic effects across populations. Overall, these results support the hypothesis that diversifying selection in space can maintain MHC variation and suggest a pattern of local adaptation where MHC alleles are selected at the local host population level.

  2. Structural and functional mosaic nature of MHC class I molecules in their peptide-free form.

    PubMed

    Kurimoto, Eiji; Kuroki, Kimiko; Yamaguchi, Yoshiki; Yagi-Utsumi, Maho; Igaki, Takahiro; Iguchi, Takeshi; Maenaka, Katsumi; Kato, Koichi

    2013-10-01

    Despite well-organized peptide-loading mechanisms within the endoplasmic reticulum, major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) molecules can be displayed on cell surfaces in peptide-free forms. Although these empty MHC-I (eMHC-I) molecules are presumably involved in physiological and pathological processes, little is known about their structures and functions due to their instability. Using bacterially expressed HLA-Cw*07:02 heavy chain and β2 microglobulin molecules, we successfully established an in vitro refolding method to prepare eMHC-I molecules in sufficient quantities for detailed structural analyses. NMR spectroscopy in conjunction with subunit-specific ¹⁵N-labeling techniques revealed that the peptide-binding domains and the adjacent regions were unstructured in the peptide-free form, while the remaining regions maintained their structural integrity. Consistent with our spectroscopic data, the eMHC-I complex could interact with leukocyte Ig-like receptor B1, but not with killer cell Ig-like receptor 2DL3. Thus, eMHC-I molecules have a mosaic nature in terms of their three-dimensional structure and binding to immunologically relevant molecules. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Regulation of MHC class I expression by Foxp3 and its effect on Treg cell function

    PubMed Central

    Mu, Jie; Tai, Xuguang; Iyer, Shankar S.; Weissman, Jocelyn D.; Singer, Alfred; Singer, Dinah S.

    2014-01-01

    Expression of MHC class I molecules, which provide immune surveillance against intracellular pathogens, is higher on lymphoid cells than on any other cell types. In T cells, this is a result of activation of class I transcription by the T cell enhanceosome consisting of Runx1, CBFβ and LEF1. We now report that MHC class I transcription in T cells also is enhanced by Foxp3, resulting in higher levels of class I in CD4+CD25+ T regulatory cells than in conventional CD4+CD25− T cells. Interestingly, the effect of Foxp3 regulation of MHC class I transcription is cell-type specific: Foxp3 increases MHC class I expression in T cells but represses it in epithelial tumor cells. In both cell types, Foxp3 targets the upstream IRE and downstream core promoter of the class I gene. Importantly, expression of MHC class I contributes to the function of CD4+CD25+ T regulatory cells by enhancing immune suppression, both in in vitro and in vivo. These findings identify MHC class I genes as direct targets of Foxp3 whose expression augments regulatory T cell function. PMID:24523508

  4. MHC-I expression renders catecholaminergic neurons susceptible to T-cell-mediated degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Cebrián, Carolina; Zucca, Fabio A.; Mauri, Pierluigi; Steinbeck, Julius A.; Studer, Lorenz; Scherzer, Clemens R.; Kanter, Ellen; Budhu, Sadna; Mandelbaum, Jonathan; Vonsattel, Jean P.; Zecca, Luigi; Loike, John D.; Sulzer, David

    2014-01-01

    Subsets of rodent neurons are reported to express major histocompatibilty complex class I (MHC-I), but such expression has not been reported in normal adult human neurons. Here we provide evidence from immunolabel, RNA expression, and mass spectrometry analysis of postmortem samples that human catecholaminergic substantia nigra and locus coeruleus neurons express MHC-I, and that this molecule is inducible in human stem cell derived dopamine (DA) neurons. Catecholamine murine cultured neurons are more responsive to induction of MHC-I by gamma-interferon than other neuronal populations. Neuronal MHC-I is also induced by factors released from microglia activated by neuromelanin or alpha-synuclein, or high cytosolic DA and/or oxidative stress. DA neurons internalize foreign ovalbumin and display antigen derived from this protein by MHC-I, which triggers DA neuronal death in the presence of appropriate cytotoxic T-cells. Thus, neuronal MHC-I can trigger antigenic response, and catecholamine neurons may be particularly susceptible to T cell-mediated cytotoxic attack. PMID:24736453

  5. The urgent need to recover MHC class I in cancers for effective immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Garrido, Federico; Aptsiauri, Natalia; Doorduijn, Elien M; Garcia Lora, Angel M; van Hall, Thorbald

    2016-04-01

    Immune escape strategies aimed to avoid T-cell recognition, including the loss of tumor MHC class I expression, are commonly found in malignant cells. Tumor immune escape has proven to have a negative effect on the clinical outcome of cancer immunotherapy, including treatment with antibodies blocking immune checkpoint molecules. Hence, there is an urgent need to develop novel approaches to overcome tumor immune evasion. MHC class I antigen presentation is often affected in human cancers and the capacity to induce upregulation of MHC class I cell surface expression is a critical step in the induction of tumor rejection. This review focuses on characterization of rejection, escape, and dormant profiles of tumors and its microenvironment with a special emphasis on the tumor MHC class I expression. We also discuss possible approaches to recover MHC class I expression on tumor cells harboring reversible/'soft' or irreversible/'hard' genetic lesions. Such MHC class I recovery approaches might well synergize with complementary forms of immunotherapy.

  6. Genomic Porosity between Invasive Chondrostoma nasus and Endangered Endemic Parachondrostoma toxostoma (Cyprinidae): The Evolution of MHC IIB Genes

    PubMed Central

    Šimková, Andrea; Civáňová, Kristína; Gettová, Lenka; Gilles, André

    2013-01-01

    Two cyprinid species, Parachondrostoma toxostoma, an endemic threatened species, and Chondrostoma nasus, an invasive species, live in sympatry in southern France and form two sympatric zones where the presence of intergeneric hybrids is reported. To estimate the potential threat to endemic species linked to the introduction of invasive species, we focused on the DAB genes (functional MHC IIB genes) because of their adaptive significance and role in parasite resistance. More specifically, we investigated (1) the variability of MHC IIB genes, (2) the selection pattern shaping MHC polymorphism, and (3) the extent to which trans-species evolution and intergeneric hybridization affect MHC polymorphism. In sympatric areas, the native species has more diversified MHC IIB genes when compared to the invasive species, probably resulting from the different origins and dispersal of both species. A similar level of MHC polymorphism was found at population level in both species, suggesting similar mechanisms generating MHC diversity. In contrast, a higher number of DAB-like alleles per specimen were found in invasive species. Invasive species tended to express the alleles of two DAB lineages, whilst native species tended to express the alleles of only the DAB3 lineage. Hybrids have a pattern of MHC expression intermediate between both species. Whilst positive selection acting on peptide binding sites (PBS) was demonstrated in both species, a slightly higher number of positively selected sites were identified in C. nasus, which could result from parasite-mediated selection. Bayesian clustering analysis revealed a similar pattern of structuring for the genetic variation when using microsatellites or the MHC approach. We confirmed the importance of trans-species evolution for MHC polymorphism. In addition, we demonstrated bidirectional gene flow for MHC IIB genes in sympatric areas. The positive significant correlation between MHC and microsatellites suggests that demographic

  7. Characterization of MHC class I and II genes in a subantarctic seabird, the blue petrel, Halobaena caerulea (Procellariiformes).

    PubMed

    Strandh, Maria; Lannefors, Mimi; Bonadonna, Francesco; Westerdahl, Helena

    2011-10-01

    The great polymorphism observed in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes is thought to be maintained by pathogen-mediated selection possibly combined with MHC-disassortative mating, guided by MHC-determined olfactory cues. Here, we partly characterize the MHC class I and II B of the blue petrel, Halobaena caerulea (Procellariiformes), a bird with significant olfactory abilities that lives under presumably low pathogen burdens in Subantarctica. Blue petrels are long-lived, monogamous birds which suggest the necessity of an accurate mate choice process. The species is ancestral to songbirds (Passeriformes; many MHC loci), although not to gamefowls (Galliformes; few MHC loci). Considering the phylogenetic relationships and the low subantarctic pathogen burden, we expected few rather than many MHC loci in the blue petrel. However, when we analysed partial MHC class I and class II B cDNA and gDNA sequences we found evidence for as many as at least eight MHC class I loci and at least two class II B loci. These class I and II B sequences showed classical MHC characteristics, e.g. high nucleotide diversity, especially in putative peptide-binding regions where signatures of positive selection was detected. Trans-species polymorphism was found between MHC class II B sequences of the blue petrel and those of thin-billed prion, Pachyptila belcheri, two species that diverged ∼25 MYA. The observed MHC allele richness in the blue petrel may well serve as a basis for mate choice, especially since olfactory discrimination of MHC types may be possible in this species.

  8. Mechanisms for dominance: Adh heterodimer formation in heterozygotes between ENU or x-ray induced null alleles and normal alleles in drosophila melanogaster

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, J.C.; Lee, W.R.; Chang, S.H.; Silverman, H. )

    1992-01-01

    To study mechanisms for dominance of phenotype, eight ENU- and four x-ray-induced mutations at the alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) locus were analyzed for partial dominance in their interaction with normal alleles. All ENU and one of the x-ray mutations were single base substitutions; the other three x-ray mutations were 9-21 base deletions. All but one of the 12 mutant alleles were selected for this study because they produced detectable mutant polypeptides, but seven of the 11 producing a peptide could not form dimers with the normal peptide and the enzyme activity of heterozygotes was about half that of normal homozygotes. Four mutations formed dimers with a decreased catalytic efficiency and two of these were near the limit of detectability; these two also inhibited the formation of normal homodimers. The mutant alleles therefore show multiple mechanisms leading to partial enzyme expression in heterozygotes and a wide range of dominance ranging from almost complete recessive to nearly dominant. All amino acid changes in mutant peptides that form dimers are located between amino acids 182 and 194, so this region is not critical for dimerization. It may, however, be an important surface domain for catalyzation. 34 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Paralogs are revealed by proportion of heterozygotes and deviations in read ratios in genotyping-by-sequencing data from natural populations.

    PubMed

    McKinney, Garrett J; Waples, Ryan K; Seeb, Lisa W; Seeb, James E

    2016-10-19

    Whole-genome duplications have occurred in the recent ancestors of many plants, fish, and amphibians, resulting in a pervasiveness of paralogous loci and the potential for both disomic and tetrasomic inheritance in the same genome. Paralogs can be difficult to reliably genotype and are often excluded from genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) analyses; however, removal requires paralogs to be identified which is difficult without a reference genome. We present a method for identifying paralogs in natural populations by combining two properties of duplicated loci: (i) the expected frequency of heterozygotes exceeds that for singleton loci, and (ii) within heterozygotes, observed read ratios for each allele in GBS data will deviate from the 1:1 expected for singleton (diploid) loci. These deviations are often not apparent within individuals, particularly when sequence coverage is low; but, we postulated that summing allele reads for each locus over all heterozygous individuals in a population would provide sufficient power to detect deviations at those loci. We identified paralogous loci in three species: Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) which retains regions with ongoing residual tetrasomy on eight chromosome arms following a recent whole-genome duplication, mountain barberry (Berberis alpina) which has a large proportion of paralogs that arose through an unknown mechanism, and dusky parrotfish (Scarus niger) which has largely rediploidized following an ancient whole-genome duplication. Importantly, this approach only requires the genotype and allele-specific read counts for each individual, information which is readily obtained from most GBS analysis pipelines.

  10. Genotyping for cytokine polymorphisms in a Northern Ivory Coast population reveals a high frequency of the heterozygote genotypes for the TNF-α-308G/A SNP.

    PubMed

    Santovito, A; Cervella, P; Schleicherova, D; Delpero, M

    2012-08-01

    Cytokine polymorphisms influence the outcomes of parasitic diseases and vary among populations because of their different evolutionary histories and selective pressures imposed by host-pathogen interactions. In this frame, we investigated the frequencies of TNF-α (-308G/A), TGF-β(1) (codon 10C/T, codon 25C/G) and IL-10 (-1082A/G) SNPs in 133 individuals from Ouangolodougou, a rural village in Northern Ivory Coast, where malaria and other parasitic diseases are endemic. The SNPs alleles were determined by ARMS-PCR methodology. Allele frequencies of the SNPs investigated were as follows: IL 10 -1082G = 0.741 and -1082A = 0.259; TGF-β(1) Codon 10 C = 0.835 and T = 0.165; TGF-β(1) Codon 25 G = 0.782 and C = 0.218. For the TNF-α gene, we found high frequencies of the -308A allele (0.305) and heterozygote genotypes (0.594), with a consequent deviation from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The high heterozygosity at the TNF-α locus suggests a possible selective advantage of the heterozygote genomes, associated with intermediate levels of TNF-α expression, against the infectious agents endemic in Western Africa. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. 75 FR 28542 - Superior Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-21

    ... orient the new Superior Resource Advisory Committee members on their roles and responsibilities. DATES... of the roles and responsibilities of the Superior Resource Advisory Committee members; Election of...

  12. MHC studies in nonmodel vertebrates: what have we learned about natural selection in 15 years?

    PubMed

    Bernatchez, L; Landry, C

    2003-05-01

    Elucidating how natural selection promotes local adaptation in interaction with migration, genetic drift and mutation is a central aim of evolutionary biology. While several conceptual and practical limitations are still restraining our ability to study these processes at the DNA level, genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) offer several assets that make them unique candidates for this purpose. Yet, it is unclear what general conclusions can be drawn after 15 years of empirical research that documented MHC diversity in the wild. The general objective of this review is to complement earlier literature syntheses on this topic by focusing on MHC studies other than humans and mice. This review first revealed a strong taxonomic bias, whereby many more studies of MHC diversity in natural populations have dealt with mammals than all other vertebrate classes combined. Secondly, it confirmed that positive selection has a determinant role in shaping patterns of nucleotide diversity in MHC genes in all vertebrates studied. Yet, future tests of positive selection would greatly benefit from making better use of the increasing number of models potentially offering more statistical rigour and higher resolution in detecting the effect and form of selection. Thirdly, studies that compared patterns of MHC diversity within and among natural populations with neutral expectations have reported higher population differentiation at MHC than expected either under neutrality or simple models of balancing selection. Fourthly, several studies showed that MHC-dependent mate preference and kin recognition may provide selective factors maintaining polymorphism in wild outbred populations. However, they also showed that such reproductive mechanisms are complex and context-based. Fifthly, several studies provided evidence that MHC may significantly influence fitness, either by affecting reproductive success or progeny survival to pathogens infections. Overall, the evidence is

  13. Spectrum of MHC Class II Variability in Darwin’s Finches and Their Close Relatives

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Akie; Tichy, Herbert; Grant, Peter R.; Grant, B. Rosemary; Sato, Tetsuji; O’hUigin, Colm

    2011-01-01

    The study describes >400 major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II B exon 2 and 114 intron 2 sequences of 36 passerine bird species, 13 of which belong to the group of Darwin’s finches (DFs) and the remaining 23 to close or more distant relatives of DFs in Central and South America. The data set is analyzed by a combination of judiciously selected statistical methods. The analysis reveals that reliable information concerning MHC organization, including the assignment of sequences to loci, and evolution, as well as the process of species divergence, can be obtained in the absence of genomic sequence data, if the analysis is taken several steps beyond the standard phylogenetic tree construction approach. The main findings of the present study are these: The MHC class II B region of the passerine birds is as elaborate in its organization, divergence, and genetic diversity as the MHC of the eutherian mammals, specifically the primates. Hence, the reported simplicity of the fowl MHC is an oddity. With the help of appropriate markers, the divergence of the MHC genes can be traced deep in the phylogeny of the bird taxa. Transspecies polymorphism is rampant at many of the bird MHC loci. In this respect, the DFs behave as if they were a single, genetically undifferentiated population. There is thus far no indication of alleles that could be considered species, genus, or even DF group specific. The implication of these findings is that DFs are in the midst of adaptive radiations, in which morphological differentiation into species is running ahead of genetic differentiation in genetic systems such as the MHC or the mitochondrial DNA. The radiations are so young that there has not been enough time to sort out polymorphisms at most of the loci among the morphologically differentiating species. These findings parallel those on Lake Victoria haplochromine fishes. Several of the DF MHC allelic lineages can be traced back to the MHC genes of the species Tiaris obscura

  14. Retention of empty MHC class I molecules by tapasin is essential to reconstitute antigen presentation in invertebrate cells.

    PubMed Central

    Schoenhals, G J; Krishna, R M; Grandea, A G; Spies, T; Peterson, P A; Yang, Y; Früh, K

    1999-01-01

    Presentation of antigen-derived peptides by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules is dependent on an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) resident glycoprotein, tapasin, which mediates their interaction with the transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP). Independently of TAP, tapasin was required for the presentation of peptides targeted to the ER by signal sequences in MHC class I-transfected insect cells. Tapasin increased MHC class I peptide loading by retaining empty but not peptide-containing MHC class I molecules in the ER. Upon co-expression of TAP, this retention/release function of tapasin was sufficient to reconstitute MHC class I antigen presentation in insect cells, thus defining the minimal non-housekeeping functions required for MHC class I antigen presentation. PMID:9927434

  15. The overlooked "nonclassical" functions of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II antigens in immune and nonimmune cells.

    PubMed

    Altomonte, M; Pucillo, C; Maio, M

    1999-06-01

    Besides their "classical" antigenic peptide-presenting activity, major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II antigens can activate different cellular functions in immune and nonimmune cells. However, this "nonclassical" role and its functional consequences are still substantially overlooked. In this review, we will focus on these alternative functional properties of MHC class II antigens, to reawaken attention to their present and foreseeable immunobiologic and pathogenetic implications. The main issues that will be addressed concern 1) the role of MHC class II molecules as basic components of exchangeable oligomeric protein complexes with intracellular signaling ability; 2) the nonclassical functions of MHC class II antigens in immune cells; 3) the pathogenetic role of MHC class II antigens in inflammatory/autoimmune and infectious disease; and 4) the functional role of MHC class II antigens in solid malignancies.

  16. Persistent Ice on Lake Superior

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    Though North America is a full month into astronomical spring, the Great Lakes have been slow to give up on winter. As of April 22, 2014, the Great Lakes were 33.9 percent ice covered. The lake they call Superior dominated the pack. In the early afternoon on April 20, 2014, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA’s Aqua satellite captured this natural-color image of Lake Superior, which straddles the United States–Canada border. At the time Aqua passed over, the lake was 63.5 percent ice covered, according to the NOAA Great Lakes Environmental Research Lab (GLERL). Averaged across Lake Superior, ice was 22.6 centimeters (8.9 inches) thick; it was as much as twice that thickness in some locations. GLERL researcher George Leshkevich affirmed that ice cover this spring is significantly above normal. For comparison, Lake Superior had 3.6 percent ice cover on April 20, 2013; in 2012, ice was completely gone by April 12. In the last winter that ice cover grew so thick on Lake Superior (2009), it reached 93.7 percent on March 2 but was down to 6.7 percent by April 21. Average water temperatures on all of the Great Lakes have been rising over the past 30 to 40 years and ice cover has generally been shrinking. (Lake Superior ice was down about 79 percent since the 1970s.) But chilled by persistent polar air masses throughout the 2013-14 winter, ice cover reached 88.4 percent on February 13 and 92.2 percent on March 6, 2014, the second highest level in four decades of record-keeping. Air temperatures in the Great Lakes region were well below normal for March, and the cool pattern is being reinforced along the coasts because the water is absorbing less sunlight and warming less than in typical spring conditions. The graph below, based on data from Environment Canada, shows the 2014 conditions for all of the Great Lakes in mid-April compared to the past 33 years. Lake Superior ice cover got as high as 95.3 percent on March 19. By April 22, it was

  17. Low MHC variation in the endangered Galápagos penguin (Spheniscus mendiculus).

    PubMed

    Bollmer, Jennifer L; Vargas, F Hernán; Parker, Patricia G

    2007-07-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is one of the most polymorphic regions of the genome, likely due to balancing selection acting to maintain alleles over time. Lack of MHC variability has been attributed to factors such as genetic drift in small populations and relaxed selection pressure. The Galápagos penguin (Spheniscus mendiculus), endemic to the Galápagos Islands, is the only penguin that occurs on the equator. It relies upon cold, nutrient-rich upwellings and experiences severe population declines when ocean temperatures rise during El Niño events. These bottlenecks, occurring in an already small population, have likely resulted in reduced genetic diversity in this species. In this study, we used MHC class II exon 2 sequence data from a DRB1-like gene to characterize the amount of genetic variation at the MHC in 30 Galápagos penguins, as well as one Magellanic penguin (S. magellanicus) and two king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus), and compared it to that in five other penguin species for which published data exist. We found that the Galápagos penguin had the lowest MHC diversity (as measured by number of polymorphic sites and average divergence among alleles) of the eight penguin species studied. A phylogenetic analysis showed that Galápagos penguin MHC sequences are most closely related to Humboldt penguin (Spheniscus humboldti) sequences, its putative sister species based on other loci. An excess of non-synonymous mutations and a pattern of trans-specific evolution in the neighbor-joining tree suggest that selection is acting on the penguin MHC.

  18. A new polymorphic and multicopy MHC gene family related to nonmammalian class I

    SciTech Connect

    Leelayuwat, C.; Degli-Esposti, M.A.; Abraham, L.J.; Townend, D.C.; Dawkins, R.L. ||

    1994-12-31

    The authors have used genomic analysis to characterize a region of the central major histocompatibility complex (MHC) spanning {approximately} 300 kilobases (kb) between TNF and HLA-B. This region has been suggested to carry genetic factors relevant to the development of autoimmune diseases such as myasthenia gravis (MG) and insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). Genomic sequence was analyzed for coding potential, using two neural network programs, GRAIL and GeneParser. A genomic probe, JAB, containing putative coding sequences (PERB11) located 60 kb centromeric of HLA-B, was used for northern analysis of human tissues. Multiple transcripts were detected. Southern analysis of genomic DNA and overlapping YAC clones, covering the region from BAT1 to HLA-F, indicated that there are at least five copies of PERB11, four of which are located within this region of the MHC. The partial cDNA sequence of PERB11 was obtained from poly-A RNA derived from skeletal muscle. The putative amino acid sequence of PERB11 shares {approximately} 30% identity to MHC class I molecules from various species, including reptiles, chickens, and frogs, as well as to other MHC class I-like molecules, such as the IgG FcR of the mouse and rat and the human Zn-{alpha}2-glycoprotein. From direct comparison of amino acid sequences, it is concluded that PERB11 is a distinct molecule more closely related to nonmammalian than known mammalian MHC class I molecules. Genomic sequence analysis of PERB11 from five MHC ancestral haplotypes (AH) indicated that the gene is polymorphic at both DNA and protein level. The results suggest that the authors have identified a novel polymorphic gene family with multiple copies within the MHC. 48 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Association Analysis of the Extended MHC Region in Celiac Disease Implicates Multiple Independent Susceptibility Loci

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Richard; Ding, Yuan Chun; Murray, Joseph; Fasano, Alessio; Green, Peter H. R.; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Garner, Chad

    2012-01-01

    Celiac disease is a common autoimmune disease caused by sensitivity to the dietary protein gluten. Forty loci have been implicated in the disease. All disease loci have been characterized as low-penetrance, with the exception of the high-risk genotypes in the HLA-DQA1 and HLA-DQB1 genes, which are necessary but not sufficient to cause the disease. The very strong effects from the known HLA loci and the genetically complex nature of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) have precluded a thorough investigation of the region. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that additional celiac disease loci exist within the extended MHC (xMHC). A set of 1898 SNPs was analyzed for association across the 7.6 Mb xMHC region in 1668 confirmed celiac disease cases and 517 unaffected controls. Conditional recursive partitioning was used to create an informative indicator of the known HLA-DQA1 and HLA-DQB1 high-risk genotypes that was included in the association analysis to account for their effects. A linkage disequilibrium-based grouping procedure was utilized to estimate the number of independent celiac disease loci present in the xMHC after accounting for the known effects. There was significant statistical evidence for four new independent celiac disease loci within the classic MHC region. This study is the first comprehensive association analysis of the xMHC in celiac disease that specifically accounts for the known HLA disease genotypes and the genetic complexity of the region. PMID:22615847

  20. Stepwise threshold clustering: a new method for genotyping MHC loci using next-generation sequencing technology.

    PubMed

    Stutz, William E; Bolnick, Daniel I

    2014-01-01

    Genes of the vertebrate major histocompatibility complex (MHC) are of great interest to biologists because of their important role in immunity and disease, and their extremely high levels of genetic diversity. Next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies are quickly becoming the method of choice for high-throughput genotyping of multi-locus templates like MHC in non-model organisms. Previous approaches to genotyping MHC genes using NGS technologies suffer from two problems:1) a "gray zone" where low frequency alleles and high frequency artifacts can be difficult to disentangle and 2) a similar sequence problem, where very similar alleles can be difficult to distinguish as two distinct alleles. Here were present a new method for genotyping MHC loci--Stepwise Threshold Clustering (STC)--that addresses these problems by taking full advantage of the increase in sequence data provided by NGS technologies. Unlike previous approaches for genotyping MHC with NGS data that attempt to classify individual sequences as alleles or artifacts, STC uses a quasi-Dirichlet clustering algorithm to cluster similar sequences at increasing levels of sequence similarity. By applying frequency and similarity based criteria to clusters rather than individual sequences, STC is able to successfully identify clusters of sequences that correspond to individual or similar alleles present in the genomes of individual samples. Furthermore, STC does not require duplicate runs of all samples, increasing the number of samples that can be genotyped in a given project. We show how the STC method works using a single sample library. We then apply STC to 295 threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) samples from four populations and show that neighboring populations differ significantly in MHC allele pools. We show that STC is a reliable, accurate, efficient, and flexible method for genotyping MHC that will be of use to biologists interested in a variety of downstream applications.

  1. Patterns of evolution of MHC class II genes of crows (Corvus) suggest trans-species polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Eimes, John A; Townsend, Andrea K; Sepil, Irem; Nishiumi, Isao; Satta, Yoko

    2015-01-01

    A distinguishing characteristic of genes that code for the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is that alleles often share more similarity between, rather than within species. There are two likely mechanisms that can explain this pattern: convergent evolution and trans-species polymorphism (TSP), in which ancient allelic lineages are maintained by balancing selection and retained by descendant species. Distinguishing between these two mechanisms has major implications in how we view adaptation of immune genes. In this study we analyzed exon 2 of the MHC class IIB in three passerine bird species in the genus Corvus: jungle crows (Corvus macrorhynchos japonensis) American crows (C. brachyrhynchos) and carrion crows (C. corone orientalis). Carrion crows and American crows are recently diverged, but allopatric, sister species, whereas carrion crows and jungle crows are more distantly related but sympatric species, and possibly share pathogens linked to MHC IIB polymorphisms. These patterns of evolutionary divergence and current geographic ranges enabled us to test for trans-species polymorphism and convergent evolution of the MHC IIB in crows. Phylogenetic reconstructions of MHC IIB sequences revealed several well supported interspecific clusters containing all three species, and there was no biased clustering of variants among the sympatric carrion crows and jungle crows. The topologies of phylogenetic trees constructed from putatively selected sites were remarkably different than those constructed from putatively neutral sites. In addition, trees constructed using non-synonymous substitutions from a continuous fragment of exon 2 had more, and generally more inclusive, supported interspecific MHC IIB variant clusters than those constructed from the same fragment using synonymous substitutions. These phylogenetic patterns suggest that recombination, especially gene conversion, has partially erased the signal of allelic ancestry in these species. While clustering of

  2. Patterns of evolution of MHC class II genes of crows (Corvus) suggest trans-species polymorphism

    PubMed Central

    Townsend, Andrea K.; Sepil, Irem; Nishiumi, Isao; Satta, Yoko

    2015-01-01

    A distinguishing characteristic of genes that code for the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is that alleles often share more similarity between, rather than within species. There are two likely mechanisms that can explain this pattern: convergent evolution and trans-species polymorphism (TSP), in which ancient allelic lineages are maintained by balancing selection and retained by descendant species. Distinguishing between these two mechanisms has major implications in how we view adaptation of immune genes. In this study we analyzed exon 2 of the MHC class IIB in three passerine bird species in the genus Corvus: jungle crows (Corvus macrorhynchos japonensis) American crows (C. brachyrhynchos) and carrion crows (C. corone orientalis). Carrion crows and American crows are recently diverged, but allopatric, sister species, whereas carrion crows and jungle crows are more distantly related but sympatric species, and possibly share pathogens linked to MHC IIB polymorphisms. These patterns of evolutionary divergence and current geographic ranges enabled us to test for trans-species polymorphism and convergent evolution of the MHC IIB in crows. Phylogenetic reconstructions of MHC IIB sequences revealed several well supported interspecific clusters containing all three species, and there was no biased clustering of variants among the sympatric carrion crows and jungle crows. The topologies of phylogenetic trees constructed from putatively selected sites were remarkably different than those constructed from putatively neutral sites. In addition, trees constructed using non-synonymous substitutions from a continuous fragment of exon 2 had more, and generally more inclusive, supported interspecific MHC IIB variant clusters than those constructed from the same fragment using synonymous substitutions. These phylogenetic patterns suggest that recombination, especially gene conversion, has partially erased the signal of allelic ancestry in these species. While clustering of

  3. Evolution of MHC class I genes in the European badger (Meles meles).

    PubMed

    Sin, Yung Wa; Dugdale, Hannah L; Newman, Chris; Macdonald, David W; Burke, Terry

    2012-07-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) plays a central role in the adaptive immune system and provides a good model with which to understand the evolutionary processes underlying functional genes. Trans-species polymorphism and orthology are both commonly found in MHC genes; however, mammalian MHC class I genes tend to cluster by species. Concerted evolution has the potential to homogenize different loci, whereas birth-and-death evolution can lead to the loss of orthologs; both processes result in monophyletic groups within species. Studies investigating the evolution of MHC class I genes have been biased toward a few particular taxa and model species. We present the first study of MHC class I genes in a species from the superfamily Musteloidea. The European badger (Meles meles) exhibits moderate variation in MHC class I sequences when compared to other carnivores. We identified seven putatively functional sequences and nine pseudogenes from genomic (gDNA) and complementary (cDNA) DNA, signifying at least two functional class I loci. We found evidence for separate evolutionary histories of the α1 and α2/α3 domains. In the α1 domain, several sequences from different species were more closely related to each other than to sequences from the same species, resembling orthology or trans-species polymorphism. Balancing selection and probable recombination maintain genetic diversity in the α1 domain, evidenced by the detection of positive selection and a recombination event. By comparison, two recombination breakpoints indicate that the α2/α3 domains have most likely undergone concerted evolution, where recombination has homogenized the α2/α3 domains between genes, leading to species-specific clusters of sequences. Our findings highlight the importance of analyzing MHC domains separately.

  4. A new MHC-linked susceptibility locus for primary Sjögren's syndrome: MICA.

    PubMed

    Carapito, Raphael; Gottenberg, Jacques-Eric; Kotova, Irina; Untrau, Meiggie; Michel, Sandra; Naegely, Lydie; Aouadi, Ismail; Kwemou, Marius; Paul, Nicodème; Pichot, Angélique; Locke, James; Bowman, Simon J; Griffiths, Bridget; Sivils, Kathy L; Sibilia, Jean; Inoko, Hidetoshi; Micelli-Richard, Corinne; Nocturne, Gaétane; Ota, Masao; Ng, Wan-Fai; Mariette, Xavier; Bahram, Seiamak

    2017-04-04

    The association of primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) with Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) alleles is quintessential of MHC-disease associations. Indeed, although disease associations with classical HLA class I and II alleles/haplotypes are amply documented, further dissection is often prevented by the strong linkage disequilibrium across the entire MHC complex. Here we study the association of pSS, not with HLA genes, but with the non-conventional MHC encoded class I gene, MICA (MHC class I chain-related gene A). MICA is selectively expressed within epithelia, and is the major ligand for the activatory receptor, NKG2D, both attributes relevant to pSS' etiology. MICA-pSS association was studied in two independent (French and UK) cohorts representing a total of 959 cases and 1,043 controls. MICA*008 allele was shown to be significantly associated with pSS (pcor=2.61x10-35). A multivariate logistic regression showed that this association was independent of all major known MHC-linked risk loci/alleles, as well as other relevant candidate loci that are in linkage disequilibrium with MICA*008 i.e. HLA-B*08:01, rs3131619 (T), MICB*008, TNF308A, HLA-DRB1*03:01 and HLA-DRB1*15:01 (p=1.84x10-04). Furthermore, independently of the MICA*008 allele, higher levels of soluble MICA proteins were detected in sera of pSS patients compared to healthy controls. This study hence defines MICA as a new, MHC-linked, yet HLA-independent, pSS risk locus and opens a new front in our understanding of the still enigmatic pathophysiology of this disease. The fact that the soluble MICA protein is further amplified in MICA*008 carrying individuals, might also be relevant in other auto-immune diseases and cancer.

  5. Analysis of cDNA coding MHC class II beta chain of the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Hatta, Yuki; Kanai, Tomoko; Matsumoto, Yoshitsugu; Kyuwa, Shigeru; Hayasaka, Ikuo; Yoshikawa, Yasuhiro

    2002-04-01

    The chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes, Patr) is the closest zoological living relative of humans and shares approximately 98.6% genetic homology to human beings. Although major histocompatibility complex (MHC) plays a critical role in T cell-mediated immune responses in vertebrates, the information on Patr MHC remains at a relatively poor level. Therefore, we attempted to isolate Patr MHC class II genes and determine their nucleotide sequences. The cDNAs encoding Patr MHC class II DP, DQ and DR beta chains were isolated from the cDNA library of a chimpanzee B lymphocyte cell line Bch261. As a result of screening, the clone 6-3-1 as a representative of Patr DP clone, clone 30-1 as a Patr DQ clone, and clones 4-7-1 and 55-1 having different sequences as Patr DR clones were detected. The clone 6-3-1 consisted of 1,062 nucleotides including an open reading frame (ORF) of 777 bp. In the same way, clone 30-1 consisted of 1,172 nucleotides including ORF of 786 bp, clones 4-7-1 and 55-1 consisted of 1,163 nucleotides including ORF of 801 bp. Except for five nucleotide changes, clones 4-7-1 and 55-1 were the same sequence. By comparison with the nucleotide sequences already reported on chimpanzee MHC class II beta 1 genes, clones 6-3-1, 30-1, 4-7-1 and 55-1 were classified as PatrDPB1*16, PatrDQB1*0302, PatrDRB1*0201 and PatrDRB1*0204, respectively. This is the first report to describe complete cDNA sequences of Patr DP and DQ molecules. The nucleotide sequence data of Patr MHC class II genes obtained in this study will be useful for the genotyping of Patr MHC class II genes in individual chimpanzees.

  6. Extensive shared polymorphism at non-MHC immune genes in recently diverged North American prairie grouse

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Minias, Piotr; Bateson, Zachary W; Whittingham, Linda A; Johnson, Jeff A; Oyler-McCance, Sara J.; Dunn, Peter O

    2017-01-01

    Gene polymorphisms shared between recently diverged species are thought to be widespread and most commonly reflect introgression from hybridization or retention of ancestral polymorphism through incomplete lineage sorting. Shared genetic diversity resulting from incomplete lineage sorting is usually maintained for a relatively short period of time, but under strong balancing selection it may persist for millions of years beyond species divergence (balanced trans-species polymorphism), as in the case of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes. However, balancing selection is much less likely to act on non-MHC immune genes. The aim of this study was to investigate the patterns of shared polymorphism and selection at non-MHC immune genes in five grouse species from Centrocercus and Tympanuchus genera. For this purpose, we genotyped five non-MHC immune genes that do not interact directly with pathogens, but are involved in signaling and regulate immune cell growth. In contrast to previous studies with MHC, we found no evidence for balancing selection or balanced trans-species polymorphism among the non-MHC immune genes. No haplotypes were shared between genera and in most cases more similar allelic variants sorted by genus. Between species within genera, however, we found extensive shared polymorphism, which was most likely attributable to introgression or incomplete lineage sorting following recent divergence and large ancestral effective population size (i.e., weak genetic drift). Our study suggests that North American prairie grouse may have attained relatively low degree of reciprocal monophyly at nuclear loci and reinforces the rarity of balancing selection in non-MHC immune genes.

  7. Evolution of MHC class I genes in the European badger (Meles meles)

    PubMed Central

    Sin, Yung Wa; Dugdale, Hannah L; Newman, Chris; Macdonald, David W; Burke, Terry

    2012-01-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) plays a central role in the adaptive immune system and provides a good model with which to understand the evolutionary processes underlying functional genes. Trans-species polymorphism and orthology are both commonly found in MHC genes; however, mammalian MHC class I genes tend to cluster by species. Concerted evolution has the potential to homogenize different loci, whereas birth-and-death evolution can lead to the loss of orthologs; both processes result in monophyletic groups within species. Studies investigating the evolution of MHC class I genes have been biased toward a few particular taxa and model species. We present the first study of MHC class I genes in a species from the superfamily Musteloidea. The European badger (Meles meles) exhibits moderate variation in MHC class I sequences when compared to other carnivores. We identified seven putatively functional sequences and nine pseudogenes from genomic (gDNA) and complementary (cDNA) DNA, signifying at least two functional class I loci. We found evidence for separate evolutionary histories of the α1 and α2/α3 domains. In the α1 domain, several sequences from different species were more closely related to each other than to sequences from the same species, resembling orthology or trans-species polymorphism. Balancing selection and probable recombination maintain genetic diversity in the α1 domain, evidenced by the detection of positive selection and a recombination event. By comparison, two recombination breakpoints indicate that the α2/α3 domains have most likely undergone concerted evolution, where recombination has homogenized the α2/α3 domains between genes, leading to species-specific clusters of sequences. Our findings highlight the importance of analyzing MHC domains separately. PMID:22957169

  8. An MHC class Ib-restricted CD8+ T cell response to lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lili; Jay, David C; Fairbanks, Jared D; He, Xiao; Jensen, Peter E

    2011-12-15

    Conventional MHC class Ia-restricted CD8(+) T cells play a dominant role in the host response to virus infections, but recent studies indicate that T cells with specificity for nonclassical MHC class Ib molecules may also participate in host defense. To investigate the potential role of class Ib molecules in anti-viral immune responses, K(b-/-)D(b-/-)CIITA(-/-) mice lacking expression of MHC class Ia and class II molecules were infected with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV). These animals have a large class Ib-selected CD8(+) T cell population and they were observed to mediate partial (but incomplete) virus clearance during acute LCMV infection as compared with K(b-/-)D(b-/-)β(2)-microglobulin(-/-) mice that lack expression of both MHC class Ia and class Ib molecules. Infection was associated with expansion of splenic CD8(+) T cells and induction of granzyme B and IFN-γ effector molecules in CD8(+) T cells. Partial virus clearance was dependent on CD8(+) cells. In vitro T cell restimulation assays demonstrated induction of a population of β(2)-microglobulin-dependent, MHC class Ib-restricted CD8(+) T cells with specificity for viral Ags and yet to be defined nonclassical MHC molecules. MHC class Ib-restricted CD8(+) T cell responses were also observed after infection of K(b-/-)D(b-/-)mice despite the low number of CD8(+) T cells in these animals. Long-term infection studies demonstrated chronic infection and gradual depletion of CD8(+) T cells in K(b-/-)D(b-/-)CIITA(-/-) mice, demonstrating that class Ia molecules are required for viral clearance. These findings demonstrate that class Ib-restricted CD8(+) T cells have the potential to participate in the host immune response to LCMV.

  9. Immunotherapy of a murine tumor with interleukin 2. Increased sensitivity after MHC class I gene transfection.

    PubMed

    Weber, J S; Jay, G; Tanaka, K; Rosenberg, S A

    1987-12-01

    We have shown that two weakly immunogenic MCA sarcomas developed in our laboratory that are sensitive to high-dose IL-2 immunotherapy express class I MHC in vivo and in vitro. Two nonimmunogenic MCA sarcomas are relatively insensitive to IL-2 therapy and express minimal or no class I MHC molecules in vivo and in vitro. To study the role of MHC in the therapy of tumors with IL-2, a class I-deficient murine melanoma, B16BL6, was transfected with the Kb class I gene. Expression of class I MHC rendered B16BL6 advanced pulmonary macrometastases sensitive to IL-2 immunotherapy. 3-d micrometastases of CL8-2, a class I transfected clone of B16BL6, were significantly more sensitive to IL-2 therapy than a control nontransfected line. Expression of Iak, a class II MHC molecule, had no effect on IL-2 therapy of transfectant pulmonary micrometastases in F1 mice. By using lymphocyte subset depletion with mAbs directed against Lyt-2, therapy of class I transfectant macrometastases with high-dose IL-2 was shown to involve an Lyt-2 cell. In contrast, regression of micrometastases treated with low-dose IL-2 involved Lyt-2+ cells, but regression mediated by high doses of IL-2 did not. We hypothesize that both LAK and Lyt-2+ T cells effect IL-2-mediated elimination of micrometastases, but only Lyt-2+ T cells are involved in macrometastatic regression. Low doses of IL-2 stimulate Lyt-2+ cells to eliminate class I-expressing micrometastases, but high doses of IL-2 can recruit LAK cells to mediate regression of micrometastases independent of class I expression. Only high-dose IL-2, mediating its effect predominantly via Lyt-2+ cells, is capable of impacting on MHC class I-expressing macrometastases. Macrometastases devoid of class I MHC antigens appear to be resistant to IL-2 therapy.

  10. Mhc supertypes confer both qualitative and quantitative resistance to avian malaria infections in a wild bird population

    PubMed Central

    Sepil, Irem; Lachish, Shelly; Hinks, Amy E.; Sheldon, Ben C.

    2013-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (Mhc) genes are believed to play a key role in the genetic basis of disease control. Although numerous studies have sought links between Mhc and disease prevalence, many have ignored the ecological and epidemiological aspects of the host–parasite interaction. Consequently, interpreting associations between prevalence and Mhc has been difficult, whereas discriminating alleles for qualitative resistance, quantitative resistance and susceptibility remains challenging. Moreover, most studies to date have quantified associations between genotypes and disease status, overlooking the complex relationship between genotype and the properties of the Mhc molecule that interacts with parasites. Here, we address these problems and demonstrate avian malaria (Plasmodium) parasite species-specific associations with functional properties of Mhc molecules (Mhc supertypes) in a wild great tit (Parus major) population. We further show that correctly interpreting these associations depends crucially on understanding the spatial variation in risk of infection and the fitness effects of infection. We report that a single Mhc supertype confers qualitative resistance to Plasmodium relictum, whereas a different Mhc supertype confers quantitative resistance to Plasmodium circumflexum infections. Furthermore, we demonstrate common functional properties of Plasmodium-resistance alleles in passerine birds, suggesting this is a model system for parasite–Mhc associations in the wild. PMID:23516242

  11. TLR Signals Induce Phagosomal MHC-I Delivery from the Endosomal Recycling Compartment to Allow Cross-Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Nair-Gupta, Priyanka; Baccarini, Alessia; Tung, Navpreet; Seyffer, Fabian; Florey, Oliver; Huang, Yunjie; Huang, Meenakshi; Overholtzer, Michael; Roche, Paul A.; Tampé, Robert; Brown, Brian D.; Amsen, Derk; Whiteheart, Sidney W.; Blander, J. Magarian

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Adaptation of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) pathway for MHC class I (MHC-I) presentation in dendritic cells enables cross-presentation of peptides derived from phagocytosed microbes, infected cells, or tumor cells to CD8 T cells. How these peptides intersect with MHC-I molecules remains poorly understood. Here, we show that MHC-I selectively accumulate within phagosomes carrying microbial components, which engage Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling. Although cross-presentation requires Sec22b-mediated phagosomal recruitment of the peptide loading complex from the ER-Golgi intermediate compartment (ERGIC), this step is independent of TLR signaling and does not deliver MHC-I. Instead, MHC-I are recruited from an endosomal recycling compartment (ERC), which is marked by Rab11a, VAMP3/cellubrevin, and VAMP8/endobrevin and holds large reserves of MHC-I. While Rab11a activity stocks ERC stores with MHC-I, MyD88-dependent TLR signals drive IκB-kinase (IKK)2-mediated phosphorylation of phagosome-associated SNAP23. Phospho-SNAP23 stabilizes SNARE complexes orchestrating ERC-phagosome fusion, enrichment of phagosomes with ERC-derived MHC-I, and subsequent cross-presentation during infection. PMID:25083866

  12. MHC-dependent mate choice is linked to a trace-amine-associated receptor gene in a mammal.

    PubMed

    Santos, Pablo S C; Courtiol, Alexandre; Heidel, Andrew J; Höner, Oliver P; Heckmann, Ilja; Nagy, Martina; Mayer, Frieder; Platzer, Matthias; Voigt, Christian C; Sommer, Simone

    2016-12-12

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes play a pivotal role in vertebrate self/nonself recognition, parasite resistance and life history decisions. In evolutionary terms, the MHC's exceptional diversity is likely maintained by sexual and pathogen-driven selection. Even though MHC-dependent mating preferences have been confirmed for many species, the sensory and genetic mechanisms underlying mate recognition remain cryptic. Since olfaction is crucial for social communication in vertebrates, variation in chemosensory receptor genes could explain MHC-dependent mating patterns. Here, we investigated whether female mate choice is based on MHC alleles and linked to variation in chemosensory trace amine-associated receptors (TAARs) in the greater sac-winged bat (Saccopteryx bilineata). We sequenced several MHC and TAAR genes and related their variation to mating and paternity data. We found strong evidence for MHC class I-dependent female choice for genetically diverse and dissimilar males. We also detected a significant interaction between mate choice and the female TAAR3 genotype, with TAAR3-heterozygous females being more likely to choose MHC-diverse males. These results suggest that TAARs and olfactory cues may be key mediators in mammalian MHC-dependent mate choice. Our study may help identify the ligands involved in the chemical communication between potential mates.

  13. Double loading of dendritic cell MHC class I and MHC class II with an AML antigen repertoire enhances correlates of T-cell immunity in vitro via amplification of T-cell help.

    PubMed

    Decker, William K; Xing, Dongxia; Li, Sufang; Robinson, Simon N; Yang, Hong; Yao, Xin; Segall, Harry; McMannis, John D; Komanduri, Krishna V; Champlin, Richard E; Shpall, Elizabeth J

    2006-04-12

    Therapeutic vaccination with dendritic cells presenting tumor-specific antigens is now recognized as an important investigational therapy for the treatment of neoplastic disease. Dendritic cell cross-presentation is credited with the ability of tumor lysate-loaded dendritic cells to prime both CD4 and CD8-specific T-lymphocyte responses, enabling the generation of cancer specific CTL activity without the loading of the classical MHC class I compartment. Recently, however, several reports have raised doubts as to the efficiency of cross-presentation as a mechanism for CTL priming in vivo. To examine this issue, we have doubly-loaded human dendritic cells with both AML-specific tumor lysate and AML-specific tumor mRNA. Our results show that these doubly-loaded dendritic cells can mediate superior primary, recall, and effector lytic responses in vitro in comparison to those of dendritic cells loaded with either tumor lysate or tumor mRNA alone. Enhanced recall responses appeared to be influenced by CD40/CD40L signaling, underscoring the importance of T-cell help in the generation and perpetuation of the adaptive immune response.

  14. The Challenge of Technological Superiority

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-01

    superiority for U.S. forces in future conflicts. * * * Sequestration would put a hold on critical programs like our Aerospace Innovation Initiative, the Next...direct support to the Defense Innovation Initiative (DII). Former Defense Secretary Chuck Hagel launched the DII with a goal of identifying new and... innovative technologies that will be agile, flexible and ready to confront and defeat aggression from any adversary anytime, anywhere—with a

  15. Superior sulcus tumors (Pancoast tumors)

    PubMed Central

    Battistella, Lucia; Mammana, Marco; Calabrese, Francesca; Rea, Federico

    2016-01-01

    Superior Sulcus Tumors, frequently termed as Pancoast tumors, are a wide range of tumors invading the apical chest wall. Due to its localization in the apex of the lung, with the potential invasion of the lower part of the brachial plexus, first ribs, vertebrae, subclavian vessels or stellate ganglion, the superior sulcus tumors cause characteristic symptoms, like arm or shoulder pain or Horner’s syndrome. The management of superior sulcus tumors has dramatically evolved over the past 50 years. Originally deemed universally fatal, in 1956, Shaw and Paulson introduced a new treatment paradigm with combined radiotherapy and surgery ensuring 5-year survival of approximately 30%. During the 1990s, following the need to improve systemic as well as local control, a trimodality approach including induction concurrent chemoradiotherapy followed by surgical resection was introduced, reaching 5-year survival rates up to 44% and becoming the standard of care. Many efforts have been persecuted, also, to obtain higher complete resection rates using appropriate surgical approaches and involving multidisciplinary team including spine surgeon or vascular surgeon. Other potential treatment options are under consideration like prophylactic cranial irradiation or the addition of other chemotherapy agents or biologic agents to the trimodality approach. PMID:27429965

  16. Very high MHC Class IIB diversity without spatial differentiation in the mediterranean population of greater Flamingos.

    PubMed

    Gillingham, Mark A F; Béchet, Arnaud; Courtiol, Alexandre; Rendón-Martos, Manuel; Amat, Juan A; Samraoui, Boudjéma; Onmuş, Ortaç; Sommer, Simone; Cézilly, Frank

    2017-02-20

    Selective pressure from pathogens is thought to shape the allelic diversity of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes in vertebrates. In particular, both local adaptation to pathogens and gene flow are thought to explain a large part of the intraspecific variation observed in MHC allelic diversity. To date, however, evidence that adaptation to locally prevalent pathogens maintains MHC variation is limited to species with limited dispersal and, hence, reduced gene flow. On the one hand high gene flow can disrupt local adaptation in species with high dispersal rates, on the other hand such species are much more likely to experience spatial variation in pathogen pressure, suggesting that there may be intense pathogen mediated selection pressure operating across breeding sites in panmictic species. Such pathogen mediated selection pressure operating across breeding sites should therefore be sufficient to maintain high MHC diversity in high dispersing species in the absence of local adaptation mechanisms. We used the Greater Flamingo, Phoenicopterus roseus, a long-lived colonial bird showing a homogeneous genetic structure of neutral markers at the scale of the Mediterranean region, to test the prediction that higher MHC allelic diversity with no population structure should occur in large panmictic populations of long-distance dispersing birds than in other resident species. We assessed the level of allelic diversity at the MHC Class IIB exon 2 from 116 individuals born in four different breeding colonies of Greater Flamingo in the Mediterranean region. We found one of the highest allelic diversity (109 alleles, 2 loci) of any non-passerine avian species investigated so far relative to the number of individuals and loci genotyped. There was no evidence of population structure between the four major Mediterranean breeding colonies. Our results suggest that local adaptation at MHC Class IIB in Greater Flamingos is constrained by high gene flow and high MHC diversity

  17. NF-Y and the immune response: Dissecting the complex regulation of MHC genes.

    PubMed

    Sachini, Nikoleta; Papamatheakis, Joseph

    2017-05-01

    Nuclear Factor Y (NF-Y) was first described as one of the CCAAT binding factors. Although CCAAT motifs were found to be present in various genes, NF-Y attracted a lot of interest early on, due to its role in Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) gene regulation. MHC genes are crucial in immune response and show peculiar expression patterns. Among other conserved elements on MHC promoters, an NF-Y binding CCAAT box was found to contribute to MHC transcriptional regulation. NF-Y along with other DNA binding factors assembles in a stereospecific manner to form a multiprotein scaffold, the MHC enhanceosome, which is necessary but not sufficient to drive transcription. Transcriptional activation is achieved by the recruitment of yet another factor, the class II transcriptional activator (CIITA). In this review, we briefly discuss basic findings on MHCII transcription regulation and we highlight NF-Y different modes of function in MHCII gene activation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Nuclear Factor Y in Development and Disease, edited by Prof. Roberto Mantovani. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. MHC2TA and FCRL3 genes are not associated with rheumatoid arthritis in Mexican patients.

    PubMed

    Mendoza Rincón, J F; Rodríguez Elias, A K; Fragoso, J M; Vargas Alarcón, G; Maldonado Murillo, K; Rivas Jiménez, M L; Barbosa Cobos, R E; Jimenez Morales, S; Lugo Zamudio, G; Tovilla Zárate, C; Ramírez Bello, J

    2016-02-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a multifactorial disease. A combination of genetic and environmental risk factors contributes to its etiology. Several genes have been reported to be associated with susceptibility to the development of RA. The MHC2TA and FCRL3 genes have been associated previously with RA in Swedish and Japanese populations, respectively. In two recent reports, we show an association between FCRL3 and juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA), and MHC2TA and acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in Mexican population. We assessed the association between three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the MHC2TA (-168G/A; rs3087456, and +16G/C; rs4774) and FCRL3 (-169T/C; rs7528684) genes and rheumatoid arthritis in Mexican population through a genotyping method using allelic discrimination assays with TaqMan probes. Our case-control study included 249 patients with RA and 314 controls. We found no evidence of an association between the MHC2TA -168G/A and +1614G/C or FCRL3 -169T/C polymorphisms and RA in this Mexican population. In this cohort of Mexican patients with RA, we observed no association between the MHC2TA or FCRL3 genes and this autoimmune disease.

  19. Identification, inheritance, and linkage of B-G-like and MHC class I genes in cranes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jarvi, S.I.; Goto, R.M.; Gee, G.F.; Briles, W.E.; Miller, M.M.

    1999-01-01

    We identified B-G-like genes in the whooping and Florida sandhill cranes and linked them to the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). We evaluated the inheritance of B-G-like genes in families of whooping and Florida sandhill cranes using restriction fragment patterns (RFPs). Two B-G-like genes, designated wcbgl and wcbg2, were located within 8 kb of one another. The fully sequenced wcbg2 gene encodes a B-G IgV-like domain, an additional Ig-like domain, a transmembrane domain, and a single heptad domain typical of '-helical coiled coils. Patterns of restriction fragments in DNA from the whooping crane and from a number of other species indicate that the B-G-like gene families of cranes are large with diverse sequences. Segregation of RFPs in families of Florida sandhill cranes provide evidence for genetic polymorphism in the B-G-like genes. The restriction fragments generally segregated in concert with MHC haplotypes assigned by serological typing and by single stranded conformational polymorphism (SSCP) assays based in the second exon of the crane MHC class I genes. This study supports the concept of a long-term association of polymorphic B-G-like genes with the MHC. It also establishes SSCP as a means for evaluating MHC genetic variability in cranes.

  20. Studying MHC class II presentation of immobilized antigen by B lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Yuseff, M I; Lennon-Dumenil, A M

    2013-01-01

    The ability of B lymphocytes to capture external antigens (Ag) and present them as peptide fragments, loaded on Major Histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules, to CD4(+) T cells is a crucial part of the adaptive immune response. This allows T-B cooperation, a cellular communication that is required for B cells to develop into germinal centers (GC) and form mature high-affinity antibody producing cells and to further develop B cell memory. MHC class II antigen presentation by B lymphocytes is a multistep process involving (1) Recognition and capture of external Ag by B lymphocytes through their B cell receptor (BCR); (2) Ag processing, which comprises the degradation of Ag in internal compartments within the B cell and loading of the corresponding peptide fragments on MHC class II molecules and (3) Presentation of MHC II-peptide complexes to CD4(+) T cells. Here, we describe how to study MHC class II antigen presentation by B lymphocytes at these three major levels.

  1. Extracellular MCT4 is a possible indicator for skeletal muscle MHC fiber type change.

    PubMed

    Iizuka, Kenji; Machida, Takuji; Hirafuji, Masahiko

    2014-01-01

    Biochemical markers that indicate fiber type rearrangement in myosin heavy chain (MHC) have been used to evaluate the effectiveness of exercise and/or rehabilitation therapy. The aim of this study was to investigate whether measures of extracellular monocarboxylate transporter 4 (MCT4) protein can help in the detection of MHC fiber type variation. Human skeletal muscle cells (HSkMCs) were succumbed to high atmospheric pressure. Immunoblot analyses were performed to evaluate MHC fiber type change, and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay system was developed for the quantification of MCT4 concentration. Static pressurization to HSkMCs resulted in an increase in cells of median diameter (18 μm). The proportion of MHC Type I fiber was increased by pressurization, and MCT4 protein concentration in the culture medium was also increased in the pressurized sample. We conclude that the amount of MCT4 in culture medium released from HSkMCs reflects fiber type changes in MHC. © 2014 by the Association of Clinical Scientists, Inc.

  2. Analysis of recombinational hot spots associated with the p haplotype fo the mouse MHC

    SciTech Connect

    Heine, D.; Khambata, S.; Wydner, K.S.; Passmore, H.C.

    1994-09-01

    Most of the recombination events detected within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) of the mouse fall into areas of limited physical size that have been designated recombinational hot spots. One of these hot spots, associated with the Ea gene, appears to be active only in the presence of the p haplotype of the MHC. To study the regulation of the Ea recombinational hot spot and its haplotype specificity, a high-resolution comparative map fo the MHC and adjacent regions was completed in four different backcrosses carrying the p haplotype. This mapping study utilized a total of 29 PCR-based molecular markers, including 7 newly developed markers spanning the region between Pim1 and D17Mit11 on Chromosome 17. The analysis of a total of 1093 backcross animals: (1) revealed that the presence of the p haplotype of the MHC is not sufficient to induce recombination at the Ea hot spot in a dominant manner, and (2) resulted in the definition of a new intra-MHC recombinational hot spot between the Tnfb and the H2-D genes.

  3. Molecular mechanism of peptide editing in the tapasin–MHC I complex

    PubMed Central

    Fisette, Olivier; Wingbermühle, Sebastian; Tampé, Robert; Schäfer, Lars V.

    2016-01-01

    Immune recognition of infected or malignantly transformed cells relies on antigenic peptides exposed at the cell surface by major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC I) molecules. Selection and loading of peptides onto MHC I is orchestrated by the peptide-loading complex (PLC), a multiprotein assembly whose structure has not yet been resolved. Tapasin, a central component of the PLC, stabilises MHC I and catalyses the exchange of low-affinity against high-affinity, immunodominant peptides. Up to now, the molecular basis of this peptide editing mechanism remained elusive. Here, using all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we unravel the atomic details of how tapasin and antigen peptides act on the MHC I binding groove. Force distribution analysis reveals an intriguing molecular tug-of-war mechanism: only high-affinity peptides can exert sufficiently large forces to close the binding groove, thus overcoming the opposite forces exerted by tapasin to open it. Tapasin therefore accelerates the release of low-affinity peptides until a high-affinity antigen binds, promoting subsequent PLC break-down. Fluctuation and entropy analyses show how tapasin chaperones MHC I by stabilising it in a peptide-receptive conformation. Our results explain previous experiments and mark a key step towards a better understanding of adaptive immunity. PMID:26754481

  4. No Major Role for Insulin-Degrading Enzyme in Antigen Presentation by MHC Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Hsiang-Ting; Burgevin, Anne; Guénette, Suzanne; Moser, Anna; van Endert, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Antigen presentation by MHC class I molecules requires degradation of epitope source proteins in the cytosol. Although the preeminent role of the proteasome is clearly established, evidence suggesting a significant role for proteasome-independent generation of class I ligands has been reported repeatedly. However, an enzyme responsible for such a role has not been identified. Recently insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE) was shown to produce an antigenic peptide derived from the tumor antigen MAGE-A3 in an entirely proteasome-independent manner, raising the question of the global impact of IDE in MHC class I antigen processing. Here we report that IDE knockdown in human cell lines, or knockout in two different mouse strains, has no effect on cell surface expression of various MHC class I molecules, including allomorphs such as HLA-A3 and HLA-B27 suggested to be loaded in an at least a partly proteasome-independent manner. Moreover, reduced or absent IDE expression does not affect presentation of five epitopes including epitopes derived from beta amyloid and proinsulin, two preferred IDE substrates. Thus, IDE does not play a major role in MHC class I antigen processing, confirming the dominant and almost exclusive role of the proteasome in cytosolic production of MHC class I ligands. PMID:24516642

  5. Susceptibility of amphibians to chytridiomycosis is associated with MHC class II conformation

    PubMed Central

    Bataille, Arnaud; Cashins, Scott D.; Grogan, Laura; Skerratt, Lee F.; Hunter, David; McFadden, Michael; Scheele, Benjamin; Brannelly, Laura A.; Macris, Amy; Harlow, Peter S.; Bell, Sara; Berger, Lee; Waldman, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    The pathogenic chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) can cause precipitous population declines in its amphibian hosts. Responses of individuals to infection vary greatly with the capacity of their immune system to respond to the pathogen. We used a combination of comparative and experimental approaches to identify major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II) alleles encoding molecules that foster the survival of Bd-infected amphibians. We found that Bd-resistant amphibians across four continents share common amino acids in three binding pockets of the MHC-II antigen-binding groove. Moreover, strong signals of selection acting on these specific sites were evident among all species co-existing with the pathogen. In the laboratory, we experimentally inoculated Australian tree frogs with Bd to test how each binding pocket conformation influences disease resistance. Only the conformation of MHC-II pocket 9 of surviving subjects matched those of Bd-resistant species. This MHC-II conformation thus may determine amphibian resistance to Bd, although other MHC-II binding pockets also may contribute to resistance. Rescuing amphibian biodiversity will depend on our understanding of amphibian immune defence mechanisms against Bd. The identification of adaptive genetic markers for Bd resistance represents an important step forward towards that goal. PMID:25808889

  6. Susceptibility of amphibians to chytridiomycosis is associated with MHC class II conformation.

    PubMed

    Bataille, Arnaud; Cashins, Scott D; Grogan, Laura; Skerratt, Lee F; Hunter, David; McFadden, Michael; Scheele, Benjamin; Brannelly, Laura A; Macris, Amy; Harlow, Peter S; Bell, Sara; Berger, Lee; Waldman, Bruce

    2015-04-22

    The pathogenic chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) can cause precipitous population declines in its amphibian hosts. Responses of individuals to infection vary greatly with the capacity of their immune system to respond to the pathogen. We used a combination of comparative and experimental approaches to identify major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II) alleles encoding molecules that foster the survival of Bd-infected amphibians. We found that Bd-resistant amphibians across four continents share common amino acids in three binding pockets of the MHC-II antigen-binding groove. Moreover, strong signals of selection acting on these specific sites were evident among all species co-existing with the pathogen. In the laboratory, we experimentally inoculated Australian tree frogs with Bd to test how each binding pocket conformation influences disease resistance. Only the conformation of MHC-II pocket 9 of surviving subjects matched those of Bd-resistant species. This MHC-II conformation thus may determine amphibian resistance to Bd, although other MHC-II binding pockets also may contribute to resistance. Rescuing amphibian biodiversity will depend on our understanding of amphibian immune defence mechanisms against Bd. The identification of adaptive genetic markers for Bd resistance represents an important step forward towards that goal.

  7. Evolution of Mhc Class i Complex Region with Special Reference to Fragmentary Line Sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tateno, Yoshio; Fukami-Kobayashi, Kaoru; Inoko, Hidetoshi

    2008-03-01

    We reviewed the origin and evolution of the two pairs of immune genes, (MHC-B and MHC-C) and (MICA and MICB) in man, chimpanzee and rhesus monkey based mainly on our previous work. Since those genes were well known to have been subject to strong natural selection in evolution, they themselves were not suitable for our study. We thus took another approach to use fragmented and nonfunctional LINEs that had coevolved with the two pairs in the same genomic fragments. Our results showed that MHC-B and MHC-C duplicated about 22 Mry (million years) ago, and MICA and MICB duplicated about 14 Myr ago. Interestingly, rhesus monkey was found not to have either pair but many repeats similar to MHC-B. Therefore, we estimated the divergence time of the monkey, and found that it diverged out from a common ancestor of man and chimpanzee about 30 Myr ago. The divergence time was consistent with the duplication times of the two pairs of immune genes. Based on our results we would predict that orangutan and gorilla also have the two pairs, because the both primate species are considered to have diverged less than 14 Myr ago.

  8. Molecular characterization of classical and nonclassical MHC class I genes from the golden pheasant (Chrysolophus pictus).

    PubMed

    Zeng, Q-Q; Zhong, G-H; He, K; Sun, D-D; Wan, Q-H

    2016-02-01

    Classical major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I allelic polymorphism is essential for competent antigen presentation. To improve the genotyping efforts in the golden pheasant, it is necessary to differentiate more accurately between classical and nonclassical class I molecules. In our study, all MHC class I genes were isolated from one golden pheasant based on two overlapping PCR amplifications. In total, six full-length class I nucleotide sequences (A-F) were identified, and four were novel. Two (A and C) belonged to the IA1 gene, two (B and D) were alleles derived from the IA2 gene through transgene amplification, and two (E and F) comprised a third novel locus, IA3 that was excluded from the core region of the golden pheasant MHC-B. IA1 and IA2 exhibited the broad expression profiles characteristic of classical loci, while IA3 showed no expression in multiple tissues and was therefore defined as a nonclassical gene. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the three IA genes in the golden pheasant share a much closer evolutionary relationship than the corresponding sequences in other galliform species. This observation was consistent with high sequence similarity among them, which likely arises from the homogenizing effect of recombination. Our careful distinction between the classical and nonclassical MHC class I genes in the golden pheasant lays the foundation for developing locus-specific genotyping and establishing a good molecular marker system of classical MHC I loci.

  9. Peptide specific expansion of CD8(+) T cells by recombinant plate bound MHC/peptide complexes.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Esben G W; Buus, Søren; Thorn, Mette; Stryhn, Anette; Leisner, Christian; Claesson, Mogens H

    2009-01-01

    Development of methods for efficient in vitro stimulation and expansion of peptide specific CD8(+) T cells is compelling not only with respect to adoptive T cell therapy but also regarding analysis of T cell responses and search for new immunogenic peptides. In the present study, a new approach to in vitro T cell stimulation was investigated. By use of an antigenic peptide derived from the cytomegalovirus (CMVp) we tested the stimulatory efficacy of recombinant plate bound MHC molecules (PB-MHC), being immobilized in culture plates. A single stimulation of non-adherent peripheral blood mononuclear cells (NA-PBMCs) with PB-MHC/CMVp resulted in significant expansion of CMVp specific CD8(+) T cells, which was comparable to that achieved by CMVp pulsed mature dendritic cells (DCs). By repeated exposure of NA-PBMCs to PB-MHC/CMVp more than 60% CMVp specific CD8(+) T cells, representing a 240-fold expansion, were reached after only two stimulations. Although stimulation with PB-MHC/CMVp clearly demonstrated efficient peptide specific expansion of CD8(+) T cells, there was a tendency to proliferative exhaustion of the cells after 3-4 stimulations. Thus, it will be of interest to examine the effect of new stimulatory cocktails, e.g. cytokines and co-stimulatory molecules, by use of the present rapid and easy-to-use method of expanding peptide specific T cells.

  10. Defining the Role of the MHC in Autoimmunity: A Review and Pooled Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Fernando, Michelle M. A.; Stevens, Christine R.; Walsh, Emily C.; De Jager, Philip L.; Goyette, Philippe; Plenge, Robert M.; Vyse, Timothy J.; Rioux, John D.

    2008-01-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is one of the most extensively studied regions in the human genome because of the association of variants at this locus with autoimmune, infectious, and inflammatory diseases. However, identification of causal variants within the MHC for the majority of these diseases has remained difficult due to the great variability and extensive linkage disequilibrium (LD) that exists among alleles throughout this locus, coupled with inadequate study design whereby only a limited subset of about 20 from a total of approximately 250 genes have been studied in small cohorts of predominantly European origin. We have performed a review and pooled analysis of the past 30 years of research on the role of the MHC in six genetically complex disease traits – multiple sclerosis (MS), type 1 diabetes (T1D), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), ulcerative colitis (UC), Crohn's disease (CD), and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) – in order to consolidate and evaluate the current literature regarding MHC genetics in these common autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. We corroborate established MHC disease associations and identify predisposing variants that previously have not been appreciated. Furthermore, we find a number of interesting commonalities and differences across diseases that implicate both general and disease-specific pathogenetic mechanisms in autoimmunity. PMID:18437207

  11. Regulation of MHC II and CD1 antigen presentation: from ubiquity to security.

    PubMed

    Gelin, Catherine; Sloma, Ivan; Charron, Dominique; Mooney, Nuala

    2009-02-01

    MHC class II and CD1-mediated antigen presentation on various APCs [B cells, monocytes, and dendritic cells (DC)] are subject to at least three distinct levels of regulation. The first one concerns the expression and structure of the antigen-presenting molecules; the second is based on the extracellular environment and signals of danger detected. However, a third level of regulation, which has been largely overlooked, is determined by lateral associations between antigen-presenting molecules and other proteins, their localization in specialized microdomains within the plasma membrane, and their trafficking pathways. This review focuses on features common to MHC II and CD1 molecules in their ability to activate specific T lymphocytes with the objective of addressing one basic question: What are the mechanisms regulating antigen presentation by MHC II and CD1 molecules within the same cell? Recent studies in immature DC, where MHC II and CD1 are coexpressed, suggest that the invariant chain (Ii) regulates antigen presentation by either protein. Ii could therefore favor MHC II or CD1 antigen presentation and thereby discriminate between antigens.

  12. Diversity of MHC DQB and DRB Genes in the Endangered Australian Sea Lion (Neophoca cinerea).

    PubMed

    Lau, Quintin; Chow, Natalie; Gray, Rachael; Gongora, Jaime; Higgins, Damien P

    2015-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules have an important role in vertebrate adaptive immunity, being responsible for recognizing, binding, and presenting specific antigenic peptides to T lymphocytes. Here, we study the MHC class II DQB and DRB exon 2 genes of the Australian sea lion (Neophoca cinerea), an endangered pinniped species that experiences high pup mortality. Following characterization of N. cinerea DQB and DRB by molecular cloning, and evaluation of diversity in pups across 2 colonies using variant screening (n = 47), 3 DQB alleles and 10 DRB variants (including 1 pseudogene allele) were identified. The higher diversity at DRB relative to DQB is consistent with other studies in marine mammals. Despite overall lower MHC class II allelic diversity relative to some other pinniped species, we observed similar levels of nucleotide diversity and selection in N. cinerea. In addition, we provide support for recent divergence of MHC class II alleles. The characterization of MHC class II diversity in the Australian sea lion establishes a baseline for further investigation of associations with disease, including endemic hookworm infection, and contributes to the conservation management of this species.

  13. MHC class II β genes in the endangered Hainan Eld's deer (Cervus eldi hainanus).

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong-Yi; Xue, Fei; Wan, Qiu-Hong; Ge, Yun-Fa

    2013-01-01

    Contrary to neutral markers, the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) can reflect the fitness and adaptive potential of a given species due to its association with the immune system. For this reason, the use of MHC in endangered wildlife management has increased greatly in recent years. Here, we isolated complementary DNA (cDNA) and genomic DNA (gDNA) sequences to characterize the MHC class II β genes in Hainan Eld's deer (Cervus eldi hainanus), a highly endangered cervid, which recovered from a severe population bottleneck consisting of 26 animals. Analysis of 7 individuals revealed the presence of 3 DRB and 3 DQB putatively functional gDNA sequences. The Ceel-DRB and DQB sequences displayed high variability in exon 2, and most nonsynonymous substitutions were detected in this region. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that trans-species evolution of MHC class II β might occur in the Cervinae subfamily. Comparison of the number of sequences between gDNA and cDNA revealed that all sequences isolated from the genome were detectable in the cDNA libraries derived from different tissues (including the liver, kidney, and spleen), suggesting none of these sequences were derived from silent genes or pseudogenes. Characterization of the MHC class II β genes may lay the foundation for future studies on genetic structure, mate choice, and viability analysis in Hainan Eld's deer.

  14. Destabilization of peptide: MHC interaction induces IL-2 resistant anergy in diabetogenic T cells

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Lindsay J.; Evavold, Brian D.

    2015-01-01

    Autoreactive T cells are responsible for inducing several autoimmune diseases, including type 1 diabetes. We have developed a strategy to induce unresponsiveness in these cells by destabilizing the peptide:MHC ligand recognized by the T cell receptor. By introducing amino acid substitutions into the immunogenic peptide at residues that bind to the MHC, the half life of the peptide:MHC complex is severely reduced, thereby resulting in abortive T cell activation and anergy. By treating a monoclonal diabetogenic T cell population with an MHC variant peptide, the cells are rendered unresponsive to the wild type ligand, as measured by both proliferation and IL-2 production. Stimulation of T cells with MHC variant peptides results in minimal Erk1/2 phosphorylation or cell division. Variant peptide stimulation effectively initiates a signaling program dominated by sustained tyrosine phosphatase activity, including elevated SHP-1 activity. These negative signaling events result in an anergic phenotype in which the T cells are not competent to signal through the IL-2 receptor, as evidenced by a lack of phospho-Stat5 upregulation and proliferation, despite high expression of the IL-2 receptor. This unique negative signaling profile provides a novel means to shut down the anti-self response. PMID:23895744

  15. Fluorogenic Probes for Monitoring Peptide Binding to Class II MHC Proteins in Living Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Venkatraman,P.; Nguyen, T.; Sainlos, M.; Bilsel, o.; Chitta, S.; Imperiali, B.; Stern, L.

    2007-01-01

    A crucial step in the immune response is the binding of antigenic peptides to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins. Class II MHC proteins present their bound peptides to CD4+ T cells, thereby helping to activate both the humoral and the cellular arms of the adaptive immune response. Peptide loading onto class II MHC proteins is regulated temporally, spatially and developmentally in antigen-presenting cells1. To help visualize these processes, we have developed a series of novel fluorogenic probes that incorporate the environment-sensitive amino acid analogs 6-N,N-dimethylamino-2-3-naphthalimidoalanine and 4-N,N-dimethylaminophthalimidoalanine. Upon binding to class II MHC proteins these fluorophores show large changes in emission spectra, quantum yield and fluorescence lifetime. Peptides incorporating these fluorophores bind specifically to class II MHC proteins on antigen-presenting cells and can be used to follow peptide binding in vivo. Using these probes we have tracked a developmentally regulated cell-surface peptide-binding activity in primary human monocyte-derived dendritic cells.

  16. ERAAP shapes the peptidome associated with classical and non-classical MHC class I molecules1

    PubMed Central

    Nagarajan, Niranjana A.; de Verteuil, Danielle A.; Sriranganadane, Dev; Yahyaoui, Wafaa; Thibault, Pierre; Perreault, Claude; Shastri, Nilabh

    2016-01-01

    The peptide repertoire presented by classical as well as non-classical MHC I molecules is altered in the absence of the ER aminopeptidase associated with antigen processing (ERAAP). To characterize the extent of these changes, peptides from cells lacking ERAAP were eluted from the cell surface and analyzed by high-throughput mass spectrometry. We found that the majority of peptides found in WT cells were retained in the absence of ERAAP. In contrast, a subset of “ERAAP-edited” peptides was lost in WT cells, and ERAAP-deficient cells presented an unique “unedited” repertoire. A substantial fraction of MHC-associated peptides from ERAAP-deficient cells contained N-terminal extensions and had a different molecular composition than those from WT cells. We found that the number and immunogenicity of peptides associated with non-classical MHC I was increased in the absence of ERAAP. Conversely, only peptides presented by classical MHC I were immunogenic in ERAAP-sufficient cells. Finally, MHC I peptides were also derived from different intracellular sources in ERAAP-deficient cells. PMID:27371725

  17. The peptide-receptive transition state of MHC-1 molecules: Insight from structure and molecular dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson H.; Mage, M.; Dolan, M.; Wang, R.; Boyd, L.; Revilleza, M.; Natarajan, K.; Myers, N.; Hansen, T.; Margulies, D.

    2012-05-01

    MHC class I (MHC-I) proteins of the adaptive immune system require antigenic peptides for maintenance of mature conformation and immune function via specific recognition by MHC-I-restricted CD8(+) T lymphocytes. New MHC-I molecules in the endoplasmic reticulum are held by chaperones in a peptide-receptive (PR) transition state pending release by tightly binding peptides. In this study, we show, by crystallographic, docking, and molecular dynamics methods, dramatic movement of a hinged unit containing a conserved 3(10) helix that flips from an exposed 'open' position in the PR transition state to a 'closed' position with buried hydrophobic side chains in the peptide-loaded mature molecule. Crystallography of hinged unit residues 46-53 of murine H-2L(d) MHC-I H chain, complexed with mAb 64-3-7, demonstrates solvent exposure of these residues in the PR conformation. Docking and molecular dynamics predict how this segment moves to help form the A and B pockets crucial for the tight peptide binding needed for stability of the mature peptide-loaded conformation, chaperone dissociation, and Ag presentation.

  18. Identification, inheritance, and linkage of B-G-like and MHC class I genes in cranes.

    PubMed

    Jarvi, S I; Goto, R M; Gee, G F; Briles, W E; Miller, M M

    1999-01-01

    We identified B-G-like genes in the whooping and Florida sandhill cranes and linked them to the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). We evaluated the inheritance of B-G-like genes in families of whooping and Florida sandhill cranes using restriction fragment patterns (RFPs). Two B-G-like genes, designated wcbg1 and wcbg2, were located within 8 kb of one another. The fully sequenced wcbg2 gene encodes a B-G IgV-like domain, an additional Ig-like domain, a transmembrane domain, and a single heptad domain typical of alpha-helical coiled coils. Patterns of restriction fragments in DNA from the whooping crane and from a number of other species indicate that the B-G-like gene families of cranes are large with diverse sequences. Segregation of RFPs in families of Florida sandhill cranes provide evidence for genetic polymorphism in the B-G-like genes. The restriction fragments generally segregated in concert with MHC haplotypes assigned by serological typing and by single stranded conformational polymorphism (SSCP) assays based in the second exon of the crane MHC class I genes. This study supports the concept of a long-term association of polymorphic B-G-like genes with the MHC. It also establishes SSCP as a means for evaluating MHC genetic variability in cranes.

  19. Cross-species association of quail invariant chain with chicken and mouse MHC II molecules.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fangfang; Wu, Chao; Pan, Ling; Xu, Fazhi; Liu, Xuelan; Yu, Weiyi

    2013-05-01

    There are different degrees of similarity among vertebrate invariant chains (Ii). The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between quail and other vertebrate Ii MHC class II molecules. The two quail Ii isoforms (qIi-1, qIi-2) were cloned by RACE, and qRT-PCR analysis of different organs showed that their expression levels were positively correlated with MHC II gene (B-LB) transcription levels. Confocal microscopy indicated that quail full-length Ii co-localized with MHC II of quail, chicken or mouse in 293FT cells co-transfected with both genes. Immunoprecipitation and western blotting further indicated that these aggregates corresponded to polymers of Ii and MHC class II molecules. This cross-species molecular association of quail Ii with chicken and mouse MHC II suggests that Ii molecules have a high structural and functional similarity and may thereby be used as potential immune carriers across species. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Genetics of the immune response: identifying immune variation within the MHC and throughout the genome.

    PubMed

    Geraghty, Daniel E; Daza, Riza; Williams, Luke M; Vu, Quyen; Ishitani, Akiko

    2002-12-01

    With the advent of modern genomic sequencing technology the ability to obtain new sequence data and to acquire allelic polymorphism data from a broad range of samples has become routine. In this regard, our investigations have started with the most polymorphic of genetic regions fundamental to the immune response in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). Starting with the completed human MHC genomic sequence, we have developed a resource of methods and information that provide ready access to a large portion of human and nonhuman primate MHCs. This resource consists of a set of primer pairs or amplicons that can be used to isolate about 15% of the 4.0 Mb MHC. Essentially similar studies are now being carried out on a set of immune response loci to broaden the usefulness of the data and tools developed. A panel of 100 genes involved in the immune response have been targeted for single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) discovery efforts that will analyze 120 Mb of sequence data for the presence of immune-related SNPs. The SNP data provided from the MHC and from the immune response panel has been adapted for use in studies of evolution, MHC disease associations, and clinical transplantation.

  1. MHC standing genetic variation and pathogen resistance in wild Atlantic salmon

    PubMed Central

    Dionne, Mélanie; Miller, Kristina M.; Dodson, Julian J.; Bernatchez, Louis

    2009-01-01

    Pathogens are increasingly emerging in human-altered environments as a serious threat to biodiversity. In this context of rapid environmental changes, improving our knowledge on the interaction between ecology and evolution is critical. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of an immunocompetence gene, the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class IIβ, on the pathogen infection levels in wild Atlantic salmon populations, Salmo salar, and identify selective agents involved in contemporary coevolution. MHC variability and bacterial infection rate were determined throughout the summer in juvenile salmon from six rivers belonging to different genetic and ecological regions in Québec, Canada. A total of 13 different pathogens were identified in kidney by DNA sequence analysis, including a predominant myxozoa, most probably recently introduced in North America. Infection rates were the highest in southern rivers at the beginning of the summer (average 47.6±6.3% infected fish). One MHC allele conferred a 2.9 times greater chance of being resistant to myxozoa, while another allele increased susceptibility by 3.4 times. The decrease in frequency of the susceptibility allele but not other MHC or microsatellite alleles during summer was suggestive of a mortality event from myxozoa infection. These results supported the hypothesis of pathogen-driven selection in the wild by means of frequency-dependent selection or change in selection through time and space rather than heterozygous advantage, and underline the importance of MHC standing genetic variation for facing pathogens in a changing environment. PMID:19414470

  2. Hepatitis B virus down-regulates expressions of MHC class I molecules on hepatoplastoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yongyan; Cheng, Min; Tian, Zhigang

    2006-10-01

    Chronic HBV infection is associated with a 100-fold high risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma. Tumor recognition is of the most importance during the immune surveillance process that prevents cancer development in humans. In the present study, the expressions of MHC class I molecules on hepatoplastoma cell line HepG2.2.15 were investigated to indicate the possible effects of HBV on the immune recognition during HBV-associated hepatocellular carcinoma. It was found that the expressions of MHC class I molecules HLA-ABC, HLA-E and MICA were much lower in HepG2.2.15 cells compared with HepG2 cells. The expressing HBV in human hepatoplastoma cell line significantly down-regulated the expressions of MHC class I molecules. Additionally, it was observed that in murine chronic HBsAg carriers the expression of classical MHC-I molecule on hepatocytes was down-regulated. These results demonstrated that HBV might affect the immune recognition during HBV-associated hepatocellular carcinoma such as the recognition of CD8+ T, NK-CTL and NK cells and prevent the immune surveillance against tumors. However, the effects of HBV down-regulation of MHC class I molecules on the target cells in vivo should be further studied.

  3. The biogenesis of the MHC class II compartment in human I-cell disease B lymphoblasts

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    The localization and intracellular transport of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules nd lysosomal hydrolases were studied in I-Cell Disease (ICD) B lymphoblasts, which possess a mannose 6-phosphate (Man-6-P)-independent targeting pathway for lysosomal enzymes. In the trans-Golgi network (TGN), MHC class II- invariant chain complexes colocalized with the lysosomal hydrolase cathepsin D in buds and vesicles that lacked markers of clathrin-coated vesicle-mediated transport. These vesicles fused with the endocytic pathway leading to the formation of "early" MHC class II-rich compartments (MIICs). Similar structures were observed in the TGN of normal beta lymphoblasts although they were less abundant. Metabolic labeling and subcellular fractionation experiments indicated that newly synthesized cathepsin D and MHC class II-invariant chain complexes enter a non-clathrin-coated vesicular structure after their passage through the TGN and segregation from the secretory pathway. These vesicles were also devoid of the cation-dependent mannose 6-phosphate (Man-6-P) receptor, a marker of early and late endosomes. These findings suggest that in ICD B lymphoblasts the majority of MHC class II molecules are transported directly from the TGN to "early" MIICs and that acid hydrolases cam be incorporated into MIICs simultaneously by a Man-6-P-independant process. PMID:8603911

  4. High-throughput engineering and analysis of peptide binding to class II MHC

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Wei; Boder, Eric T.

    2010-01-01

    Class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC-II) proteins govern stimulation of adaptive immunity by presenting antigenic peptides to CD4+ T lymphocytes. Many allelic variants of MHC-II exist with implications in peptide presentation and immunity; thus, high-throughput experimental tools for rapid and quantitative analysis of peptide binding to MHC-II are needed. Here, we present an expression system wherein peptide and MHC-II are codisplayed on the surface of yeast in an intracellular association-dependent manner and assayed by flow cytometry. Accordingly, the relative binding of different peptides and/or MHC-II variants can be assayed by genetically manipulating either partner, enabling the application of directed evolution approaches for high-throughput characterization or engineering. We demonstrate the application of this tool to map the side-chain preference for peptides binding to HLA-DR1 and to evolve novel HLA-DR1 mutants with altered peptide-binding specificity. PMID:20622157

  5. MHC-unrestricted lysis of MUC1-expressing cells by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Wright, Stephen E; Rewers-Felkins, Kathleen A; Quinlin, Imelda S; Fogler, William E; Phillips, Catherine A; Townsend, Mary; Robinson, William; Philip, Ramila

    2008-01-01

    Many human adenocarcinomas can be killed in vitro by targeted cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTL); however, major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-restrictions are typically required. The MUC1 antigen is common in many human adenocarcinomas, and is associated with a variable number of tandem repeats. It has been proposed that antigens with such repeated epitopes may be vulnerable to cytotoxic T-lymphocyte killing without MHC-restriction. Therefore, it is possible that MUC1-expressing malignant cells may be killed by targeted cytotoxic T-lymphocyte in the absence of MHC-restriction. In this study, a human MUC1-expressing murine mammary carcinoma cell line was used to determine if cytotoxic T-lymphocyte killing of MUC1-expressing adenocarcinoma cells requires MHC-restriction. Specifically, MUC1-stimulated human mononuclear cells (M1SMC) were observed to kill human MUC1-transfected, MUC1-expressing murine mammary carcinoma cells, but not the mock-transfected, non-MUC1-expressing murine mammary carcinoma cells. Furthermore, the killing was blocked by antibody to MUC1, indicating MUC1-specific killing. In conclusion, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte killing of MUC1-expressing adenocarcinoma cells can be MHC-unrestricted.

  6. Immunological Functions of the Membrane Proximal Region of MHC Class II Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Harton, Jonathan; Jin, Lei; Hahn, Amy; Drake, Jim

    2016-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules present exogenously derived antigen peptides to CD4 T cells, driving activation of naïve T cells and supporting CD4-driven immune functions. However, MHC class II molecules are not inert protein pedestals that simply bind and present peptides. These molecules also serve as multi-functional signaling molecules delivering activation, differentiation, or death signals (or a combination of these) to B cells, macrophages, as well as MHC class II-expressing T cells and tumor cells. Although multiple proteins are known to associate with MHC class II, interaction with STING (stimulator of interferon genes) and CD79 is essential for signaling. In addition, alternative transmembrane domain pairing between class II α and β chains influences association with membrane lipid sub-domains, impacting both signaling and antigen presentation. In contrast to the membrane-distal region of the class II molecule responsible for peptide binding and T-cell receptor engagement, the membrane-proximal region (composed of the connecting peptide, transmembrane domain, and cytoplasmic tail) mediates these “non-traditional” class II functions. Here, we review the literature on the function of the membrane-proximal region of the MHC class II molecule and discuss the impact of this aspect of class II immunobiology on immune regulation and human disease. PMID:27006762

  7. Association of MHC region SNPs with irritant susceptibility in healthcare workers

    PubMed Central

    Yucesoy, Berran; Talzhanov, Yerkebulan; Barmada, M. Michael; Johnson, Victor J.; Kashon, Michael L.; Baron, Elma; Wilson, Nevin W.; Frye, Bonnie; Wang, Wei; Fluharty, Kara; Gharib, Rola; Meade, Jean; Germolec, Dori; Luster, Michael I.; Nedorost, Susan

    2017-01-01

    Irritant contact dermatitis is the most common work-related skin disease, especially affecting workers in “wet-work” occupations. This study was conducted to investigate the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and skin irritant response in a group of healthcare workers. 585 volunteer healthcare workers were genotyped for MHC SNPs and patch tested with three different irritants: sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and benzalkonium chloride (BKC). Genotyping was performed using Illumina Goldengate MHC panels. A number of SNPs within the MHC Class I (OR2B3, TRIM31, TRIM10, TRIM40 and IER3), Class II (HLA-DPA1, HLA-DPB1) and Class III (C2) genes were associated (p <0.001) with skin response to tested irritants in different genetic models. Linkage disequilibrium patterns and functional annotations identified two SNPs in the TRIM40 (rs1573298) and HLA-DPB1 (rs9277554) genes, with a potential impact on gene regulation. In addition, SNPs in PSMB9 (rs10046277 and ITPR3 (rs499384) were associated with hand dermatitis. The results are of interest as they demonstrate that genetic variations in inflammation-related genes within the MHC can influence chemical-induced skin irritation and may explain the connection between inflamed skin and propensity to subsequent allergic contact sensitization. PMID:27258892

  8. Relating TCR-peptide-MHC affinity to immunogenicity for the design of tumor vaccines

    PubMed Central

    McMahan, Rachel H.; McWilliams, Jennifer A.; Jordan, Kimberly R.; Dow, Steven W.; Wilson, Darcy B.; Slansky, Jill E.

    2006-01-01

    One approach to enhancing the T cell response to tumors is vaccination with mimotopes, mimics of tumor epitopes. While mimotopes can stimulate proliferation of T cells that recognize tumor-associated antigens (TAAs), this expansion does not always correlate with control of tumor growth. We hypothesized that vaccination with mimotopes of optimal affinity in this interaction will improve antitumor immunity. Using a combinatorial peptide library and a cytotoxic T lymphocyte clone that recognizes a TAA, we identified a panel of mimotopes that, when complexed with MHC, bound the TAA-specific TCR with a range of affinities. As expected, in vitro assays showed that the affinity of the TCR-peptide-MHC (TCR-pMHC) interaction correlated with activity of the T cell clone. However, only vaccination with mimotopes in the intermediate-affinity range elicited functional T cells and provided protection against tumor growth in vivo. Vaccination with mimotopes with the highest-affinity TCR-pMHC interactions elicited TAA-specific T cells to the tumor, but did not control tumor growth at any of the peptide concentrations tested. Further analysis of these T cells showed functional defects in response to the TAA. Thus, stimulation of an antitumor response by mimotopes may be optimal with peptides that increase but do not maximize the affinity of the TCR-pMHC interaction. PMID:16932807

  9. Large-scale MHC class II genotyping of a wild lemur population by next generation sequencing.

    PubMed

    Huchard, Elise; Albrecht, Christina; Schliehe-Diecks, Susanne; Baniel, Alice; Roos, Christian; Kappeler, Peter M; Peter, Peter M Kappeler; Brameier, Markus

    2012-12-01

    The critical role of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes in disease resistance, along with their putative function in sexual selection, reproduction and chemical ecology, make them an important genetic system in evolutionary ecology. Studying selective pressures acting on MHC genes in the wild nevertheless requires population-wide genotyping, which has long been challenging because of their extensive polymorphism. Here, we report on large-scale genotyping of the MHC class II loci of the grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus) from a wild population in western Madagascar. The second exons from MHC-DRB and -DQB of 772 and 672 individuals were sequenced, respectively, using a 454 sequencing platform, generating more than 800,000 reads. Sequence analysis, through a stepwise variant validation procedure, allowed reliable typing of more than 600 individuals. The quality of our genotyping was evaluated through three independent methods, namely genotyping the same individuals by both cloning and 454 sequencing, running duplicates, and comparing parent-offspring dyads; each displaying very high accuracy. A total of 61 (including 20 new) and 60 (including 53 new) alleles were detected at DRB and DQB genes, respectively. Both loci were non-duplicated, in tight linkage disequilibrium and in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, despite the fact that sequence analysis revealed clear evidence of historical selection. Our results highlight the potential of 454 sequencing technology in attempts to investigate patterns of selection shaping MHC variation in contemporary populations. The power of this approach will nevertheless be conditional upon strict quality control of the genotyping data.

  10. Coloniality and migration are related to selection on MHC genes in birds.

    PubMed

    Minias, Piotr; Whittingham, Linda A; Dunn, Peter O

    2017-02-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) plays a key role in pathogen recognition as a part of the vertebrate adaptive immune system. The great diversity of MHC genes in natural populations is maintained by different forms of balancing selection and its strength should correlate with the diversity of pathogens to which a population is exposed and the rate of exposure. Despite this prediction, little is known about how life-history characteristics affect selection at the MHC. Here, we examined whether the strength of balancing selection on MHC class II genes in birds (as measured with nonsynonymous nucleotide substitutions, dN) was related to their social or migratory behavior, two life-history characteristics correlated with pathogen exposure. Our comparative analysis indicated that the rate of nonsynonymous substitutions was higher in colonial and migratory species than solitary and resident species, suggesting that the strength of balancing selection increases with coloniality and migratory status. These patterns could be attributed to: (1) elevated transmission rates of pathogens in species that breed in dense aggregations, or (2) exposure to a more diverse fauna of pathogens and parasites in migratory species. Our study suggests that differences in social structure and basic ecological traits influence MHC diversity in natural vertebrate populations. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  11. MHC evolution in three salmonid species: a comparison between class II alpha and beta genes.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Daniela; Conejeros, Pablo; Marshall, Sergio H; Consuegra, Sofia

    2010-08-01

    The genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) are amongst the most variable in vertebrates and represent some of the best candidates to study processes of adaptive evolution. However, despite the number of studies available, most of the information on the structure and function of these genes come from studies in mammals and birds in which the MHC class I and II genes are tightly linked and class II alpha exhibits low variability in many cases. Teleost fishes are among the most primitive vertebrates with MHC and represent good organisms for the study of MHC evolution because their class I and class II loci are not physically linked, allowing for independent evolution of both classes of genes. We have compared the diversity and molecular mechanisms of evolution of classical MH class II alpha and class II beta loci in farm populations of three salmonid species: Oncorhynchus kisutch, Oncorhynchus mykiss and Salmo salar. We found single classical class II loci and high polymorphism at both class II alpha and beta genes in the three species. Mechanisms of evolution were common for both class II genes, with recombination and point mutation involved in generating diversity and positive selection acting on the peptide-binding residues. These results suggest that the maintenance of variability at the class IIalpha gene could be a mechanism to increase diversity in the MHC class II in salmonids in order to compensate for the expression of one single classical locus and to respond to a wider array of parasites.

  12. Identification of MHC class II restricted T-cell-mediated reactivity against MHC class I binding Mycobacterium tuberculosis peptides.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mingjun; Tang, Sheila T; Stryhn, Anette; Justesen, Sune; Larsen, Mette V; Dziegiel, Morten H; Lewinsohn, David M; Buus, Søren; Lund, Ole; Claesson, Mogens H

    2011-04-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I restricted cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) are known to play an important role in the control of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection so identification of CTL epitopes from M. tuberculosis is of importance for the development of effective peptide-based vaccines. In the present work, bioinformatics technology was employed to predict binding motifs of 9mer peptides derived from M. tuberculosis for the 12 HLA-I supertypes. Subsequently, the predicted peptides were synthesized and assayed for binding to HLA-I molecules in a biochemically based system. The antigenicity of a total of 157 peptides with measured affinity for HLA-I molecules of K(D) ≤ 500 nM we