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Sample records for mice demonstrate abnormal

  1. Abnormal osmotic regulation in trpv4-/- mice

    PubMed Central

    Liedtke, Wolfgang; Friedman, Jeffrey M.

    2003-01-01

    Osmotic homeostasis is one of the most aggressively defended physiological parameters in vertebrates. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying osmotic regulation are poorly understood. The transient receptor potential channel, vanilloid subfamily (TRPV4), is an osmotically activated ion channel that is expressed in circumventricular organs in the mammalian CNS, which is an important site of osmotic sensing. We have generated trpv4-null mice and observed abnormalities of their osmotic regulation. trpv4-/- mice drank less water and became more hyperosmolar than did wild-type littermates, a finding that was seen with and without administration of hypertonic saline. In addition, plasma levels of antidiuretic hormone were significantly lower in trpv4-/- mice than in wild-type littermates after a hyperosmotic challenge. Continuous s.c. infusion of the antidiuretic hormone analogue, dDAVP, resulted in systemic hypotonicity in trpv4-/- mice, despite the fact that their renal water reabsorption capacity was normal. Thus, the response to both hyper- and hypoosmolar stimuli is impaired in trpv4-/- mice. After a hyperosmolar challenge, there was markedly reduced expression of c-FOS in the circumventricular organ, the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis, of trpv4-/- mice compared with wild-type mice. This finding suggests that there is an impairment of osmotic sensing in the CNS of trpv4-/- mice. These data indicate that TRPV4 is necessary for the normal response to changes in osmotic pressure and functions as an osmotic sensor in the CNS. PMID:14581612

  2. Absence of cytoglobin promotes multiple organ abnormalities in aged mice

    PubMed Central

    Thuy, Le Thi Thanh; Van Thuy, Tuong Thi; Matsumoto, Yoshinari; Hai, Hoang; Ikura, Yoshihiro; Yoshizato, Katsutoshi; Kawada, Norifumi

    2016-01-01

    Cytoglobin (Cygb) was identified in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and pericytes of all organs; however, the effects of Cygb on cellular functions remain unclear. Here, we report spontaneous and age-dependent malformations in multiple organs of Cygb−/− mice. Twenty-six percent of young Cygb−/− mice (<1 year old) showed heart hypertrophy, cystic disease in the kidney or ovary, loss of balance, liver fibrosis and lymphoma. Furthermore, 71.3% (82/115) of aged Cygb−/− mice (1–2 years old) exhibited abnormalities, such as heart hypertrophy and cancer development in multiple organs; by contrast, 5.8% (4/68) of aged wild-type (WT) mice had abnormalities (p < 0.0001). Interestingly, serum and urine analysis demonstrated that the concentration of nitric oxide metabolites increased significantly in Cygb−/− mice, resulting in an imbalance in the oxidative stress and antioxidant defence system that was reversed by NG-monomethyl-L-arginine treatment. A senescent phenotype and evidence of DNA damage were found in primary HSCs and the liver of aged Cygb−/− mice. Moreover, compared with HSC+/+, HSC−/− showed high expression of Il-6 and chemokine mRNA when cocultured with mouse Hepa 1–6 cells. Thus, the absence of Cygb in pericytes provokes organ abnormalities, possibly via derangement of the nitric oxide and antioxidant defence system and through accelerated cellular senescence. PMID:27146058

  3. Absence of cytoglobin promotes multiple organ abnormalities in aged mice.

    PubMed

    Thuy, Le Thi Thanh; Van Thuy, Tuong Thi; Matsumoto, Yoshinari; Hai, Hoang; Ikura, Yoshihiro; Yoshizato, Katsutoshi; Kawada, Norifumi

    2016-05-05

    Cytoglobin (Cygb) was identified in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and pericytes of all organs; however, the effects of Cygb on cellular functions remain unclear. Here, we report spontaneous and age-dependent malformations in multiple organs of Cygb(-/-) mice. Twenty-six percent of young Cygb(-/-) mice (<1 year old) showed heart hypertrophy, cystic disease in the kidney or ovary, loss of balance, liver fibrosis and lymphoma. Furthermore, 71.3% (82/115) of aged Cygb(-/-) mice (1-2 years old) exhibited abnormalities, such as heart hypertrophy and cancer development in multiple organs; by contrast, 5.8% (4/68) of aged wild-type (WT) mice had abnormalities (p < 0.0001). Interestingly, serum and urine analysis demonstrated that the concentration of nitric oxide metabolites increased significantly in Cygb(-/-) mice, resulting in an imbalance in the oxidative stress and antioxidant defence system that was reversed by N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine treatment. A senescent phenotype and evidence of DNA damage were found in primary HSCs and the liver of aged Cygb(-/-) mice. Moreover, compared with HSC(+/+), HSC(-/-) showed high expression of Il-6 and chemokine mRNA when cocultured with mouse Hepa 1-6 cells. Thus, the absence of Cygb in pericytes provokes organ abnormalities, possibly via derangement of the nitric oxide and antioxidant defence system and through accelerated cellular senescence.

  4. Chemical induction of sperm abnormalities in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Wyrobek, A J; Bruce, W R

    1975-01-01

    The sperm of (C57BL X C3H)F1 mice were examined 1, 4, and 10 weeks after a subacute treatment with one of 25 chemicals at two or more dose levels. The fraction of sperm that were abnormal in shape was elevated above control values of 1.2-3.4% for methyl methanesulfonate, ethyl methanesulfonate, griseofulvin, benzo[a]pyrene, METEPA [tris(2-methyl-l-aziridinyl)phosphine oxide], THIO-TEPA [tris(l-aziridinyl)phosphine sulfide], mitomycin C, myleran, vinblastine sulphate, hydroxyurea, 3-methylcholanthrene, colchicine, actinomycin D, imuran, cyclophosphamide, 5-iododeoxyuridine, dichlorvos, aminopterin, and trimethylphosphate. Dimethylnitrosamine, urethane, DDT [1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane], 1,1-dimethylhydrazine, caffeine, and calcium cyclamate did not induce elevated levels of sperm abnormalities. The results suggest that sperm abnormalities might provide a rapid inexpensive mammalian screen for agents that lead to errors in the differentiation of spermatogenic stem cells in vivo and thus indicate agents which might prove to be mutagenic, teratogenic, or carcinogenic. Images PMID:1060122

  5. The MICE demonstration of ionization cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overton, Edward; MICE Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    A Neutrino Factory has the potential to make precision neutrino oscillation measurements, which are aided by cooling the muon beam prior to acceleration and decay. The MICE demonstration of ionization cooling adds two accelerating cavities to the existing MICE apparatus in order to show that sustainable cooling is feasible. In order to accomplish this the cooling cell design has been carefully optimised and settings have been found which show a measurable cooling effect for each MICE momentum setting.

  6. Abnormal muscle mechanosignaling triggers cardiomyopathy in mice with Marfan syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Jason R.; Carta, Luca; Bénard, Ludovic; Chemaly, Elie R.; Chiu, Emily; Rao, Satish K.; Hampton, Thomas G.; Yurchenco, Peter; Costa, Kevin D.; Hajjar, Roger J.; Ramirez, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Patients with Marfan syndrome (MFS), a multisystem disorder caused by mutations in the gene encoding the extracellular matrix (ECM) protein fibrillin 1, are unusually vulnerable to stress-induced cardiac dysfunction. The prevailing view is that MFS-associated cardiac dysfunction is the result of aortic and/or valvular disease. Here, we determined that dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) in fibrillin 1–deficient mice is a primary manifestation resulting from ECM-induced abnormal mechanosignaling by cardiomyocytes. MFS mice displayed spontaneous emergence of an enlarged and dysfunctional heart, altered physical properties of myocardial tissue, and biochemical evidence of chronic mechanical stress, including increased angiotensin II type I receptor (AT1R) signaling and abated focal adhesion kinase (FAK) activity. Partial fibrillin 1 gene inactivation in cardiomyocytes was sufficient to precipitate DCM in otherwise phenotypically normal mice. Consistent with abnormal mechanosignaling, normal cardiac size and function were restored in MFS mice treated with an AT1R antagonist and in MFS mice lacking AT1R or β-arrestin 2, but not in MFS mice treated with an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or lacking angiotensinogen. Conversely, DCM associated with abnormal AT1R and FAK signaling was the sole abnormality in mice that were haploinsufficient for both fibrillin 1 and β1 integrin. Collectively, these findings implicate fibrillin 1 in the physiological adaptation of cardiac muscle to elevated workload. PMID:24531548

  7. Hemorheological abnormalities in lipoprotein lipase deficient mice with severe hypertriglyceridemia

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao Tieqiang; Guo Jun; Li Hui; Huang Wei; Xian Xunde; Ross, Colin J.D.; Hayden, Michael R.; Wen Zongyao . E-mail: rheol@bjmu.edu.cn; Liu George . E-mail: vangeorgeliu@gmail.com

    2006-03-24

    Severe hypertriglyceridemia (HTG) is a metabolic disturbance often seen in clinical practice. It is known to induce life-threatening acute pancreatitis, but its role in atherogenesis remains elusive. Hemorheological abnormality was thought to play an important role in pathogenesis of both pancreatitis and atherosclerosis. However, hemorheology in severe HTG was not well investigated. Recently, we established a severe HTG mouse model deficient in lipoprotein lipase (LPL) in which severe HTG was observed to cause a significant increase in plasma viscosity. Disturbances of erythrocytes were also documented, including decreased deformability, electrophoresis rate, and membrane fluidity, and increased osmotic fragility. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that most erythrocytes of LPL deficient mice deformed with protrusions, irregular appearances or indistinct concaves. Analysis of erythrocyte membrane lipids showed decreased cholesterol (Ch) and phospholipid (PL) contents but unaltered Ch/PL ratio. The changes of membrane lipids may be partially responsible for the hemorheological and morphologic abnormalities of erythrocytes. This study indicated that severe HTG could lead to significant impairment of hemorheology and this model may be useful in delineating the role of severe HTG in the pathogenesis of hyperlipidemic pancreatitis and atherosclerosis.

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging of urea transporter knockout mice reveals two distinct types of renal pelvic abnormality

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Vinitha; Harbaugh, Calista; Dietz, John R.; Fenton, Robert A.; Kim, Soo Mi; Castrop, Hayo; Schnermann, Jurgen; Knepper, Mark A.; Chou, Chung-Lin; Anderson, Stasia A.

    2008-01-01

    Many transgenic and knockout mouse models with increased urine flow have been noted to have structural abnormalities of the renal pelvis and renal inner medulla. Here, we describe an approach for in vivo study of such abnormalities in mice using high resolution contrast enhanced T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The studies were carried out in mice in which the UT-A isoform 1 and 3 urea transporters had been deleted (UT-A1/3-/- mice). The experiments revealed three distinct variations in the appearance of the renal pelvis in these mice: 1) normal kidneys with no accumulation of contrast agent in the renal pelvis; 2) frank right-sided unilateral hydronephrosis with marked atrophy of the renal medulla, seen relatively infrequently; and 3) a renal pelvic reflux pattern characterized by the presence of contrast agent in the renal pelvis surrounding the renal inner medulla, with no substantial atrophy of the renal medulla, seen in most UT-A1/3-/- mice with advancing age. The reflux pattern was also found in aquaporin-1 knockout mice. UT-A1/3-/- mice also manifested increased mean arterial pressure. Feeding the UT-A1/3-/- mice a low protein diet did not prevent the demonstrated abnormalities of the renal pelvis. These studies demonstrate the feasibility of real time imaging of renal pelvic structure in genetically manipulated mice, providing a tool for non-destructive, temporal studies of kidney structure. PMID:18854850

  9. Mutant laboratory mice with abnormalities in pigmentation: annotated tables.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Motonobu; Tobin, Desmond J; Richards-Smith, Beverly; Sundberg, John P; Paus, Ralf

    2002-01-01

    Mammalian pigment cell research has recently entered a phase of significantly increased activity due largely to the exploitation of the many mutant mouse stocks that are coming on stream. Numerous transgenic, targeted mutagenesis (so-called 'knockouts'), conditional (so-called 'gene switch') and spontaneous mutant mice develop abnormal coat color phenotypes. The number of mice that exhibit such abnormalities is increasing exponentially as genetic engineering methods become routine. Since defined abnormalities in such mutant mice provide important clues to the as yet often poorly understood functional roles of many gene products, this overview includes a corresponding, annotated table of mutant mice with pigmentation alterations. These range from early developmental defects via a large array of coat color abnormalities to a melanoma metastasis model. This overview should provide helpful pointers to investigators who are looking for mouse models to explore or to compare functional activities of genes of interest and for comparing coat color phenotypes of spontaneous or genetically engineered mouse mutants with novel ones. Secondly, this review includes a table of mouse models of specific human diseases with genetically defined pigmentation abnormalities. In summary, this annotated table should serve as a useful reference for anyone interested in the molecular controls of pigmentation.

  10. The MICE Demonstration of Ionization Cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Pasternak, J.; Blackmore, V.; Hunt, C.; Lagrange, J-B.; Long, K.; Collomb, N.; Snopok, P.

    2015-05-01

    Muon beams of low emittance provide the basis for the intense, well-characterised neutrino beams necessary to elucidate the physics of flavour at the Neutrino Factory and to provide lepton-antilepton collisions at energies of up to several TeV at the Muon Collider. The International Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) will demonstrate ionization cooling, the technique by which it is proposed to reduce the phase-space volume occupied by the muon beam at such facilities. In an ionization cooling channel, the muon beam passes through a material (the absorber) in which it loses energy. The energy lost is then replaced using RF cavities. The combined effect of energy loss and re-acceleration is to reduce the transverse emittance of the beam (transverse cooling). A major revision of the scope of the project was carried out over the summer of 2014. The revised project plan, which has received the formal endorsement of the international MICE Project Board and the international MICE Funding Agency Committee, will deliver a demonstration of ionization cooling by September 2017. In the revised configuration a central lithium-hydride absorber provides the cooling effect. The magnetic lattice is provided by the two superconducting focus coils and acceleration is provided by two 201 MHz single-cavity modules. The phase space of the muons entering and leaving the cooling cell will be measured by two solenoidal spectrometers. All the superconducting magnets for the ionization cooling demonstration are available at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory and the first single-cavity prototype is under test in the MuCool Test Area at Fermilab. The design of the cooling demonstration experiment will be described together with a summary of the performance of each of its components. The cooling performance of the revised configuration will also be presented.

  11. The MICE Demonstration of Muon Ionization Cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Lagrange, Jean-Baptiste; Hunt, Christopher; Palladino, Vittorio; Pasternak, Jaroslaw

    2016-06-01

    Muon beams of low emittance provide the basis for the intense, well-characterised neutrino beams necessary to elucidate the physics of flavour at the Neutrino Factory and to provide lepton-antilepton collisions up to several TeV at the Muon Collider. The international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) will demonstrate muon ionization cooling, the technique proposed to reduce the phase-space volume occupied by the muon beam at such facilities. In an ionization-cooling channel, the muon beam traverses a material (the absorber) loosing energy, which is replaced using RF cavities. The combined effect is to reduce the transverse emittance of the beam (transverse cooling). The configuration of MICE required to deliver the demonstration of ionization cooling is being prepared in parallel to the execution of a programme designed to measure the cooling properties of liquid-hydrogen and lithium hydride. The design of the cooling-demonstration experiment will be presented together with a summary of the performance of each of its components and the cooling performance of the experiment.

  12. Prenatal imaging of distal limb abnormalities using OCT in mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larina, Irina V.; Syed, Saba H.; Dickinson, Mary E.; Overbeek, Paul; Larin, Kirill V.

    2012-01-01

    Congenital abnormalities of the limbs are common birth defects. These include missing or extra fingers or toes, abnormal limb length, and abnormalities in patterning of bones, cartilage or muscles. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a 3-D imaging modality, which can produce high-resolution (~8 μm) images of developing embryos with an imaging depth of a few millimeters. Here we demonstrate the capability of OCT to perform 3D imaging of limb development in normal embryos and a mouse model with congenital abnormalities. Our results suggest that OCT is a promising tool to analyze embryonic limb development in mammalian models of congenital defects.

  13. Abnormalities in the cerebellum and brainstem in homozygous lurcher mice.

    PubMed

    Resibois, A; Cuvelier, L; Goffinet, A M

    1997-09-01

    The lurcher mutation induces Purkinje cell degeneration in heterozygous mice, and neonatal death in homozygous animals. Using the D6Mit16 Simple Sequence Length Polymorphic marker in F2 hybrids between AKR +/+ mice and B6+/Lc mice, homozygous lurcher fetuses and newborns as well as heterozygous and normal littermates were identified, and their brain morphology was analysed. In homozygous lurcher embryos at embryonic day 18 and neonates the cerebellum was hypotrophic, particularly in the posterior half. Purkinje cells were smaller in the whole cerebellum and showed a maturational delay. Calretinin-positive cells were less frequently observed in the depth of the vermis than in normal mice. Both Purkinje cells and the vermal calretinin-positive cells were more abnormal in fetuses at day 19 and newborn mutants than one day earlier. An abnormal number of pycnotic cells were observed in the cerebellum, especially in newborn mutants. Brainstem abnormalities were characterized by abnormal curvature, caudal displacement of the pontine gray nuclei which were located caudally along the ventral border of the superior olivary complex, a drastic decrease in Purkinje cell axons in all the vestibular nuclei and the presence of dystrophic processes in at least two calbindin-positive cell groups of the dorsal pontine region. These results show that the mutation, which is semidominant in Purkinje cells, is recessive in other cell groups of the cerebellum and brainstem. They reveal that the sequence leading to Purkinje cell death appears to be similar in homozygous and heterozygous mice, although occurring earlier and worsening more quickly in the former. Lastly, they confirm the absence of effect of the mutation on the neurons of the inferior olivary complex.

  14. Impairment of peripheral circadian clocks precedes metabolic abnormalities in ob/ob mice.

    PubMed

    Ando, Hitoshi; Kumazaki, Masafumi; Motosugi, Yuya; Ushijima, Kentarou; Maekawa, Tomohiro; Ishikawa, Eiko; Fujimura, Akio

    2011-04-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated relationships between the dysfunction of circadian clocks and the development of metabolic abnormalities, but the chicken-and-egg question remains unresolved. To address this issue, we investigated the cause-effect relationship in obese, diabetic ob/ob mice. Compared with control C57BL/6J mice, the daily mRNA expression profiles of the clock and clock-controlled genes Clock, Bmal1, Cry1, Per1, Per2, and Dbp were substantially dampened in the liver and adipose tissue, but not the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus, of 10-wk-old ob/ob mice. Four-week feeding of a low-calorie diet and administration of leptin over a 7-d period attenuated, to a significant and comparable extent, the observed metabolic abnormalities (obesity, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and hypercholesterolemia) in the ob/ob mice. However, only leptin treatment improved the impaired peripheral clocks. In addition, clock function, assessed by measuring levels of Per1, Per2, and Dbp mRNA at around peak times, was also reduced in the peripheral tissues of 3-wk-old ob/ob mice without any overt metabolic abnormalities. Collectively these results indicate that the impairment of peripheral clocks in ob/ob mice does not result from metabolic abnormalities but may instead be at least partially caused by leptin deficiency itself. Further studies are needed to clarify how leptin deficiency affects peripheral clocks.

  15. Developmental abnormalities in mice transgenic for bovine oncostatin M.

    PubMed Central

    Malik, N; Haugen, H S; Modrell, B; Shoyab, M; Clegg, C H

    1995-01-01

    Oncostatin M belongs to the subfamily of hematopoietin cytokines that binds a receptor complex containing gp130. To date, only the human form of oncostatin M has been identified, and its evolutionary conservation is unresolved. We have isolated a bovine gene whose open reading frame encodes a precursor protein that is 58% identical to human oncostatin M. A comparison of the bovine and human amino acid sequences predicts significant similarity, including the four-alpha-helical-bundle structure and the placement of disulfide bridges. As with the human protein, bovine oncostatin M binds specific receptors on human H2981 cells and inhibits the proliferation of human A375 tumor cells and mouse M1 leukemia cells. To identify activities regulated in vivo, we injected bovine oncostatin M fusion genes containing various tissue-specific promoters into mouse embryos. The frequencies of transgenic mice were reduced significantly, suggesting that overexpression of the bovine cytokine is detrimental to normal mouse development. In addition to deaths associated with expression in neurons and keratinized epithelia, bovine oncostatin M caused abnormalities in bone growth and spermatogenesis, stimulated fibrosis surrounding islets in the pancreas, and disrupted normal lymphoid tissue development. This work establishes the existence of a nonprimate oncostatin M gene and provides the first demonstration that this cytokine can function in a pleiotropic manner in vivo. Information regarding bovine oncostatin M may help characterize the structure and function of this cytokine in other vertebrate species. PMID:7739518

  16. Abnormal megakaryocyte development and platelet function in Nbeal2(-/-) mice.

    PubMed

    Kahr, Walter H A; Lo, Richard W; Li, Ling; Pluthero, Fred G; Christensen, Hilary; Ni, Ran; Vaezzadeh, Nima; Hawkins, Cynthia E; Weyrich, Andrew S; Di Paola, Jorge; Landolt-Marticorena, Carolina; Gross, Peter L

    2013-11-07

    Gray platelet syndrome (GPS) is an inherited bleeding disorder associated with macrothrombocytopenia and α-granule-deficient platelets. GPS has been linked to loss of function mutations in NEABL2 (neurobeachin-like 2), and we describe here a murine GPS model, the Nbeal2(-/-) mouse. As in GPS, Nbeal2(-/-) mice exhibit splenomegaly, macrothrombocytopenia, and a deficiency of platelet α-granules and their cargo, including von Willebrand factor (VWF), thrombospondin-1, and platelet factor 4. The platelet α-granule membrane protein P-selectin is expressed at 48% of wild-type levels and externalized upon platelet activation. The presence of P-selectin and normal levels of VPS33B and VPS16B in Nbeal2(-/-) platelets suggests that NBEAL2 acts independently of VPS33B/VPS16B at a later stage of α-granule biogenesis. Impaired Nbeal2(-/-) platelet function was shown by flow cytometry, platelet aggregometry, bleeding assays, and intravital imaging of laser-induced arterial thrombus formation. Microscopic analysis detected marked abnormalities in Nbeal2(-/-) bone marrow megakaryocytes, which when cultured showed delayed maturation, decreased survival, decreased ploidy, and developmental abnormalities, including abnormal extracellular distribution of VWF. Our results confirm that α-granule secretion plays a significant role in platelet function, and they also indicate that abnormal α-granule formation in Nbeal2(-/-) mice has deleterious effects on megakaryocyte survival, development, and platelet production.

  17. Abnormal Activation of BMP Signaling Causes Myopathy in Fbn2 Null Mice.

    PubMed

    Sengle, Gerhard; Carlberg, Valerie; Tufa, Sara F; Charbonneau, Noe L; Smaldone, Silvia; Carlson, Eric J; Ramirez, Francesco; Keene, Douglas R; Sakai, Lynn Y

    2015-06-01

    Fibrillins are large extracellular macromolecules that polymerize to form the backbone structure of connective tissue microfibrils. Mutations in the gene for fibrillin-1 cause the Marfan syndrome, while mutations in the gene for fibrillin-2 cause Congenital Contractural Arachnodactyly. Both are autosomal dominant disorders, and both disorders affect musculoskeletal tissues. Here we show that Fbn2 null mice (on a 129/Sv background) are born with reduced muscle mass, abnormal muscle histology, and signs of activated BMP signaling in skeletal muscle. A delay in Myosin Heavy Chain 8, a perinatal myosin, was found in Fbn2 null forelimb muscle tissue, consistent with the notion that muscle defects underlie forelimb contractures in these mice. In addition, white fat accumulated in the forelimbs during the early postnatal period. Adult Fbn2 null mice are already known to demonstrate persistent muscle weakness. Here we measured elevated creatine kinase levels in adult Fbn2 null mice, indicating ongoing cycles of muscle injury. On a C57Bl/6 background, Fbn2 null mice showed severe defects in musculature, leading to neonatal death from respiratory failure. These new findings demonstrate that loss of fibrillin-2 results in phenotypes similar to those found in congenital muscular dystrophies and that FBN2 should be considered as a candidate gene for recessive congenital muscular dystrophy. Both in vivo and in vitro evidence associated muscle abnormalities and accumulation of white fat in Fbn2 null mice with abnormally activated BMP signaling. Genetic rescue of reduced muscle mass and accumulation of white fat in Fbn2 null mice was accomplished by deleting a single allele of Bmp7. In contrast to other reports that activated BMP signaling leads to muscle hypertrophy, our findings demonstrate the exquisite sensitivity of BMP signaling to the fibrillin-2 extracellular environment during early postnatal muscle development. New evidence presented here suggests that fibrillin-2 can

  18. M4 muscarinic receptor knockout mice display abnormal social behavior and decreased prepulse inhibition

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In the central nervous system (CNS), the muscarinic system plays key roles in learning and memory, as well as in the regulation of many sensory, motor, and autonomic processes, and is thought to be involved in the pathophysiology of several major diseases of the CNS, such as Alzheimer's disease, depression, and schizophrenia. Previous studies reveal that M4 muscarinic receptor knockout (M4R KO) mice displayed an increase in basal locomotor activity, an increase in sensitivity to the prepulse inhibition (PPI)-disrupting effect of psychotomimetics, and normal basal PPI. However, other behaviorally significant roles of M4R remain unclear. Results In this study, to further investigate precise functional roles of M4R in the CNS, M4R KO mice were subjected to a battery of behavioral tests. M4R KO mice showed no significant impairments in nociception, neuromuscular strength, or motor coordination/learning. In open field, light/dark transition, and social interaction tests, consistent with previous studies, M4R KO mice displayed enhanced locomotor activity compared to their wild-type littermates. In the open field test, M4R KO mice exhibited novelty-induced locomotor hyperactivity. In the social interaction test, contacts between pairs of M4R KO mice lasted shorter than those of wild-type mice. In the sensorimotor gating test, M4R KO mice showed a decrease in PPI, whereas in the startle response test, in contrast to a previous study, M4R KO mice demonstrated normal startle response. M4R KO mice also displayed normal performance in the Morris water maze test. Conclusions These findings indicate that M4R is involved in regulation of locomotor activity, social behavior, and sensorimotor gating in mice. Together with decreased PPI, abnormal social behavior, which was newly identified in the present study, may represent a behavioral abnormality related to psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia. PMID:22463818

  19. Premature death and neurologic abnormalities in transgenic mice expressing a mutant huntingtin exon-2 fragment

    PubMed Central

    Tebbenkamp, Andrew T.N.; Swing, Debbie; Tessarollo, Lino; Borchelt, David R.

    2011-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized pathologically by aggregates composed of N-terminal fragments of the mutant form of the protein huntingtin (htt). The role of these N-terminal fragments in disease pathogenesis has been questioned based in part on studies in transgenic mice. In one important example, mice that express an N-terminal fragment of mutant htt terminating at the C-terminus of exon 2 (termed the Shortstop mouse) were reported to develop robust inclusion pathology without developing phenotypic abnormalities seen in the R6/2 or N171-82Q models of HD, which are also based on expression of mutant N-terminal htt fragments. To further explore the capacity of mutant exon-2 htt fragments to produce neurologic abnormalities (N-terminal 118 amino acids; N118), we generated transgenic mice expressing cDNA that encodes htt N118-82Q with the mouse prion promoter vector. In mice generated in this manner, we demonstrate robust inclusion pathology accompanied by early death and failure to gain weight. These phenotypes are the most robust abnormalities identified in the R6/2 and N171-82Q models. We conclude that the lack of an overt phenotype in the initial Shortstop mice cannot be completely explained by the properties of mutant htt N118 fragments. PMID:21307087

  20. Morphological and functional platelet abnormalities in Berkeley sickle cell mice.

    PubMed

    Shet, Arun S; Hoffmann, Thomas J; Jirouskova, Marketa; Janczak, Christin A; Stevens, Jacqueline R M; Adamson, Adewole; Mohandas, Narla; Manci, Elizabeth A; Cynober, Therese; Coller, Barry S

    2008-01-01

    Berkeley sickle cell mice are used as animal models of human sickle cell disease but there are no reports of platelet studies in this model. Since humans with sickle cell disease have platelet abnormalities, we studied platelet morphology and function in Berkeley mice (SS). We observed elevated mean platelet forward angle light scatter (FSC) values (an indirect measure of platelet volume) in SS compared to wild type (WT) (37+/-3.2 vs. 27+/-1.4, mean+/-SD; p<0.001), in association with moderate thrombocytopenia (505+/-49 x 10(3)/microl vs. 1151+/-162 x 10(3)/microl; p<0.001). Despite having marked splenomegaly, SS mice had elevated levels of Howell-Jolly bodies and "pocked" erythrocytes (p<0.001 for both) suggesting splenic dysfunction. SS mice also had elevated numbers of thiazole orange positive platelets (5+/-1% vs. 1+/-1%; p<0.001), normal to low plasma thrombopoietin levels, normal plasma glycocalicin levels, normal levels of platelet recovery, and near normal platelet life spans. Platelets from SS mice bound more fibrinogen and antibody to P-selectin following activation with a threshold concentration of a protease activated receptor (PAR)-4 peptide compared to WT mice. Enlarged platelets are associated with a predisposition to arterial thrombosis in humans and some humans with SCD have been reported to have large platelets. Thus, additional studies are needed to assess whether large platelets contribute either to pulmonary hypertension or the large vessel arterial occlusion that produces stroke in some children with sickle cell disease.

  1. Abnormal regulation of TSG101 in mice with spongiform neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Jian; Sun, Kaihua; Walker, Will P; Bagher, Pooneh; Cota, Christina D; Gunn, Teresa M

    2009-10-01

    Spongiform neurodegeneration is characterized by the appearance of vacuoles throughout the central nervous system. It has many potential causes, but the underlying cellular mechanisms are not well understood. Mice lacking the E3 ubiquitin ligase Mahogunin Ring Finger-1 (MGRN1) develop age-dependent spongiform encephalopathy. We identified an interaction between a "PSAP" motif in MGRN1 and the ubiquitin E2 variant (UEV) domain of TSG101, a component of the endosomal sorting complex required for transport I (ESCRT-I), and demonstrate that MGRN1 multimonoubiquitinates TSG101. We examined the in vivo consequences of loss of MGRN1 on TSG101 expression and function in the mouse brain. The pattern of TSG101 ubiquitination differed in the brains of wild-type mice and Mgrn1 null mutant mice: at 1 month of age, null mutant mice had less ubiquitinated TSG101, while in adults, mutant mice had more ubiquitinated, insoluble TSG101 than wild-type mice. There was an associated increase in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) levels in mutant brains. These results suggest that loss of MGRN1 promotes ubiquitination of TSG101 by other E3s and may prevent its disassociation from endosomal membranes or cause it to form insoluble aggregates. Our data implicate loss of normal TSG101 function in endo-lysosomal trafficking in the pathogenesis of spongiform neurodegeneration in Mgrn1 null mutant mice.

  2. A single dose of hypnotic corrects sleep and EEG abnormalities in symptomatic Huntington's disease mice.

    PubMed

    Kantor, Sandor; Varga, Janos; Morton, A Jennifer

    2016-06-01

    Sleep and electroencephalogram abnormalities are prominent early features of Huntington's disease (HD) that typically appear before the onset of characteristic motor symptoms. The changes in sleep and electroencephalogram seen in HD patients are largely recapitulated in mouse models of HD such as transgenic R6/2 lines. To test whether or not drugs with hypnotic properties can correct the sleep and electroencephalogram abnormalities seen in HD mice, we treated male wild-type (WT; N = 7) and R6/2 mice (N = 9) acutely with intraperitoneal injections of vehicle, zolpidem (5, 10 or 20 mg/kg) or amitriptyline (5, 10 or 20 mg/kg), and then monitored their sleep-wake behavior. In R6/2 mice, both zolpidem and amitriptyline suppressed the abnormally high REM sleep amount and electroencephalographic gamma (30-46 Hz) oscillations in a dose-dependent manner. Amitriptyline's effect on sleep was similar in both genotypes, whereas zolpidem showed significant genotype differences. Zolpidem exerted a strong hypnotic effect in WT mice by increasing electroencephalographic delta power, doubling the mean bout duration and the total amount of non-rapid eye movement sleep. However, no such effect was seen in R6/2 mice. Our study demonstrates that the pathophysiological changes seen in sleep and electroencephalogram are not 'hard-wired' in HD brain and can be reversed even at late stages of the disease. The diminished hypnotic effect of zolpidem suggests that the GABAergic control of sleep-wake states is impaired in HD mice. A better understanding of the neurochemical basis underlying these abnormalities should lead to more effective and rational therapies for HD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Loss of polyubiquitin gene Ubb leads to metabolic and sleep abnormalities in mice

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, K.-Y.; Fujiki, N.; Kazantzis, M.; Garza, J. C.; Bouley, D. M.; Stahl, A.; Lu, X.-Y.; Nishino, S.; Kopito, R. R.

    2010-01-01

    Aims Ubiquitin performs essential roles in a myriad of signalling pathways required for cellular function and survival. Recently, we reported that disruption of the stress-inducible ubiquitin-encoding gene Ubb reduces ubiquitin content in the hypothalamus and leads to adult-onset obesity coupled with a loss of arcuate nucleus neurones and disrupted energy homeostasis in mice. Neuropeptides expressed in the hypothalamus control both metabolic and sleep behaviours. In order to demonstrate that the loss of Ubb results in broad hypothalamic abnormalities, we attempted to determine whether metabolic and sleep behaviours were altered in Ubb knockout mice. Methods Metabolic rate and energy expenditure were measured in a metabolic chamber, and sleep stage was monitored via electroencephalographic/electromyographic recording. The presence of neurodegeneration and increased reactive gliosis in the hypothalamus were also evaluated. Results We found that Ubb disruption leads to early-onset reduced activity and metabolic rate. Additionally, we have demonstrated that sleep behaviour is altered and sleep homeostasis is disrupted in Ubb knockout mice. These early metabolic and sleep abnormalities are accompanied by persistent reactive gliosis and the loss of arcuate nucleus neurones, but are independent of neurodegeneration in the lateral hypothalamus. Conclusions Ubb knockout mice exhibit phenotypes consistent with hypothalamic dysfunction. Our data also indicate that Ubb is essential for the maintenance of the ubiquitin levels required for proper regulation of metabolic and sleep behaviours in mice. PMID:20002312

  4. Airway acidification initiates host defense abnormalities in cystic fibrosis mice.

    PubMed

    Shah, Viral S; Meyerholz, David K; Tang, Xiao Xiao; Reznikov, Leah; Abou Alaiwa, Mahmoud; Ernst, Sarah E; Karp, Philip H; Wohlford-Lenane, Christine L; Heilmann, Kristopher P; Leidinger, Mariah R; Allen, Patrick D; Zabner, Joseph; McCray, Paul B; Ostedgaard, Lynda S; Stoltz, David A; Randak, Christoph O; Welsh, Michael J

    2016-01-29

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by mutations in the gene that encodes the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) anion channel. In humans and pigs, the loss of CFTR impairs respiratory host defenses, causing airway infection. But CF mice are spared. We found that in all three species, CFTR secreted bicarbonate into airway surface liquid. In humans and pigs lacking CFTR, unchecked H(+) secretion by the nongastric H(+)/K(+) adenosine triphosphatase (ATP12A) acidified airway surface liquid, which impaired airway host defenses. In contrast, mouse airways expressed little ATP12A and secreted minimal H(+); consequently, airway surface liquid in CF and non-CF mice had similar pH. Inhibiting ATP12A reversed host defense abnormalities in human and pig airways. Conversely, expressing ATP12A in CF mouse airways acidified airway surface liquid, impaired defenses, and increased airway bacteria. These findings help explain why CF mice are protected from infection and nominate ATP12A as a potential therapeutic target for CF. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  5. Airway acidification initiates host defense abnormalities in cystic fibrosis mice

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Viral S.; Meyerholz, David K.; Tang, Xiao Xiao; Reznikov, Leah; Alaiwa, Mahmoud Abou; Ernst, Sarah E.; Karp, Philip H.; Wohlford-Lenane, Christine L.; Heilmann, Kristopher P.; Leidinger, Mariah R.; Allen, Patrick D.; Zabner, Joseph; McCray, Paul B.; Ostedgaard, Lynda S.; Stoltz, David A.; Randak, Christoph O.; Welsh, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by mutations in the gene that encodes the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) anion channel. In humans and pigs, the loss of CFTR impairs respiratory host defenses, causing airway infection. But CF mice are spared. We found that in all three species, CFTR secreted bicarbonate into airway surface liquid. In humans and pigs lacking CFTR, unchecked H+ secretion by the nongastric H+/K+ adenosine triphosphatase (ATP12A) acidified airway surface liquid, which impaired airway host defenses. In contrast, mouse airways expressed little ATP12A and secreted minimal H+; consequently, airway surface liquid in CF and non-CF mice had similar pH. Inhibiting ATP12A reversed host defense abnormalities in human and pig airways. Conversely, expressing ATP12A in CF mouse airways acidified airway surface liquid, impaired defenses, and increased airway bacteria. These findings help explain why CF mice are protected from infection and nominate ATP12A as a potential therapeutic target for CF. PMID:26823428

  6. Deletion of PTH rescues skeletal abnormalities and high osteopontin levels in Klotho-/- mice.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Quan; Sato, Tadatoshi; Densmore, Michael; Saito, Hiroaki; Schüler, Christiane; Erben, Reinhold G; Lanske, Beate

    2012-01-01

    Maintenance of normal mineral ion homeostasis is crucial for many biological activities, including proper mineralization of the skeleton. Parathyroid hormone (PTH), Klotho, and FGF23 have been shown to act as key regulators of serum calcium and phosphate homeostasis through a complex feedback mechanism. The phenotypes of Fgf23(-/-) and Klotho(-/-) (Kl(-/-)) mice are very similar and include hypercalcemia, hyperphosphatemia, hypervitaminosis D, suppressed PTH levels, and severe osteomalacia/osteoidosis. We recently reported that complete ablation of PTH from Fgf23(-/-) mice ameliorated the phenotype in Fgf23(-/-)/PTH(-/-) mice by suppressing serum vitamin D and calcium levels. The severe osteomalacia in Fgf23(-/-) mice, however, persisted, suggesting that a different mechanism is responsible for this mineralization defect. In the current study, we demonstrate that deletion of PTH from Kl(-/-) (Kl(-/-)/PTH(-/-) or DKO) mice corrects the abnormal skeletal phenotype. Bone turnover markers are restored to wild-type levels; and, more importantly, the skeletal mineralization defect is completely rescued in Kl(-/-)/PTH(-/-) mice. Interestingly, the correction of the osteomalacia is accompanied by a reduction in the high levels of osteopontin (Opn) in bone and serum. Such a reduction in Opn levels could not be observed in Fgf23(-/-)/PTH(-/-) mice, and these mice showed sustained osteomalacia. This significant in vivo finding is corroborated by in vitro studies using calvarial osteoblast cultures that show normalized Opn expression and rescued mineralization in Kl(-/-)/PTH(-/-) mice. Moreover, continuous PTH infusion of Kl(-/-) mice significantly increased Opn levels and osteoid volume, and decreased trabecular bone volume. In summary, our results demonstrate for the first time that PTH directly impacts the mineralization disorders and skeletal deformities of Kl(-/-), but not of Fgf23(-/-) mice, possibly by regulating Opn expression. These are significant new perceptions

  7. Abnormal cardiac conduction and morphogenesis in connexin40 and connexin43 double-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Kirchhoff, S; Kim, J S; Hagendorff, A; Thönnissen, E; Krüger, O; Lamers, W H; Willecke, K

    2000-09-01

    Connexin40-deficient (Cx40(-/-)/Cx43(+/+)) and connexin43-heterozygous knockout mice (Cx40(+/+)/Cx43(+/-)) are viable but show cardiac conduction abnormalities. The ECGs of adult double heterozygous animals (Cx40(+/-)/Cx43(+/-)) suggest additive effects of Cx40 and Cx43 haploinsufficiency on ventricular, but not on atrial, conduction. We also observed additive effects of both connexins on cardiac morphogenesis. Approximately half of the Cx40(-/-)/Cx43(+/+) embryos died during the septation period, and an additional 16% died after birth. The majority of the latter mice had cardiac hypertrophy in conjunction with common atrioventricular junction or a ventricular septal defect. All Cx40(-/-)/Cx43(+/-) progeny exhibited cardiac malformations and died neonatally. The most frequent defect was common atrioventricular junction with abnormal atrioventricular connection, which was more severe than that seen in Cx40(-/-)/Cx43(+/+) mice. Furthermore, muscular ventricular septal defects, premature closure of the ductus arteriosus, and subcutaneous edema were noticed in these embryos. Cx40(+/-)/Cx43(-/-) embryos showed the same phenotype (ie, obstructed right ventricular outflow tract) as reported for Cx40(+/+)/Cx43(-/-) mice. These findings demonstrate that Cx43 haploinsufficiency aggravates the abnormalities observed in the Cx40(-/-) phenotype, whereas Cx40 haploinsufficiency does not worsen the Cx43(-/-) phenotype. We conclude that the gap-junctional proteins Cx40 and Cx43 contribute to morphogenesis of the heart in an isotype-specific manner.

  8. Central respiratory rhythmogenesis is abnormal in lbx1- deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Pagliardini, Silvia; Ren, Jun; Gray, Paul A; Vandunk, Cassandra; Gross, Michael; Goulding, Martyn; Greer, John J

    2008-10-22

    Lbx1 is a transcription factor that determines neuronal cell fate and identity in the developing medulla and spinal cord. Newborn Lbx1 mutant mice die of respiratory distress during the early postnatal period. Using in vitro brainstem-spinal cord preparations we tested the hypothesis that Lbx1 is necessary for the inception, development and modulation of central respiratory rhythmogenesis. The inception of respiratory rhythmogenesis at embryonic day 15 (E15) was not perturbed in Lbx1 mutant mice. However, the typical age-dependent increase in respiratory frequency observed in wild-type from E15 to P0 was not observed in Lbx1 mutant mice. The slow respiratory rhythms in E18.5 Lbx1 mutant preparations were increased to wild-type frequencies by application of substance P, thyrotropin releasing hormone, serotonin, noradrenaline, or the ampakine drug 1-(1,4-benzodioxan-6-yl-carbonyl) piperidine. Those data suggest that respiratory rhythm generation within the pre-Bötzinger complex (preBötC) is presumably functional in Lbx1 mutant mice with additional neurochemical drive. This was supported by anatomical data showing that the gross structure of the preBötC was normal, although there were major defects in neuronal populations that provide important modulatory drive to the preBötC including the retrotrapezoid nucleus, catecholaminergic brainstem nuclei, nucleus of the solitary tract, and populations of inhibitory neurons in the ventrolateral and dorsomedial medullary nuclei. Finally, we determined that those defects were caused by abnormalities of neuronal specification early in development or subsequent neuronal migration.

  9. Autism-related behavioral abnormalities in synapsin knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Greco, Barbara; Managò, Francesca; Tucci, Valter; Kao, Hung-Teh; Valtorta, Flavia; Benfenati, Fabio

    2013-01-01

    Several synaptic genes predisposing to autism-spectrum disorder (ASD) have been identified. Nonsense and missense mutations in the SYN1 gene encoding for Synapsin I have been identified in families segregating for idiopathic epilepsy and ASD and genetic mapping analyses have identified variations in the SYN2 gene as significantly contributing to epilepsy predisposition. Synapsins (Syn I/II/III) are a multigene family of synaptic vesicle-associated phosphoproteins playing multiple roles in synaptic development, transmission and plasticity. Lack of SynI and/or SynII triggers a strong epileptic phenotype in mice associated with mild cognitive impairments that are also present in the non-epileptic SynIII−/− mice. SynII−/− and SynIII−/− mice also display schizophrenia-like traits, suggesting that Syns could be involved in the regulation of social behavior. Here, we studied social interaction and novelty, social recognition and social dominance, social transmission of food preference and social memory in groups of male SynI−/−, SynII−/− and SynIII−/− mice before and after the appearance of the epileptic phenotype and compared their performances with control mice. We found that deletion of Syn isoforms widely impairs social behaviors and repetitive behaviors, resulting in ASD-related phenotypes. SynI or SynIII deletion altered social behavior, whereas SynII deletion extensively impaired various aspects of social behavior and memory, altered exploration of a novel environment and increased self-grooming. Social impairments of SynI−/− and SynII−/− mice were evident also before the onset of seizures. The results demonstrate an involvement of Syns in generation of the behavioral traits of ASD and identify Syn knockout mice as a useful experimental model of ASD and epilepsy. PMID:23280234

  10. Neonatal exposure to sevoflurane induces abnormal social behaviors and deficits in fear conditioning in mice.

    PubMed

    Satomoto, Maiko; Satoh, Yasushi; Terui, Katsuo; Miyao, Hideki; Takishima, Kunio; Ito, Masataka; Imaki, Junko

    2009-03-01

    Neonatal exposure to anesthetics that block N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors and/or hyperactivate gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor has been shown to cause neuronal degeneration in the developing brain, leading to functional deficits later in adulthood. The authors investigated whether exposure of neonatal mice to inhaled sevoflurane causes deficits in social behavior as well as learning disabilities. Six-day-old C57BL/6 mice were exposed to 3% sevoflurane for 6 h. Activated cleaved caspase-3 immunohistochemical staining was used for detection of apoptosis. Cognitive functions were tested by pavlovian conditioned fear test. Social behavior was tested by social recognition and interaction tests. Neonatal exposure to sevoflurane significantly increased the number of apoptotic cells in the brain immediately after anesthesia. It caused persistent learning deficits later in adulthood as evidenced by decreased freezing response in both contextual and cued fear conditioning. The social recognition test demonstrated that mice with neonatal exposure to sevoflurane did not develop social memory. Furthermore, these mice showed decreased interactions with a social target compared with controls in the social interaction test, indicating a social interaction deficit. The authors did not attribute these abnormalities in social behavior to impairments of general interest in novelty or olfactory sensation, because they did not detect significant differences in the test for novel inanimate object interaction or for olfaction. This study shows that exposure of neonatal mice to inhaled sevoflurane could cause not only learning deficits but also abnormal social behaviors resembling autism spectrum disorder.

  11. Environmental enrichment attenuates behavioral abnormalities in valproic acid-exposed autism model mice.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Hara, Yuta; Ago, Yukio; Takano, Erika; Hasebe, Shigeru; Nakazawa, Takanobu; Hashimoto, Hitoshi; Matsuda, Toshio; Takuma, Kazuhiro

    2017-08-30

    We recently demonstrated that prenatal exposure to valproic acid (VPA) at embryonic day 12.5 causes autism spectrum disorder (ASD)-like phenotypes such as hypolocomotion, anxiety-like behavior, social deficits and cognitive impairment in mice and that it decreases dendritic spine density in the hippocampal CA1 region. Previous studies show that some abnormal behaviors are improved by environmental enrichment in ASD rodent models, but it is not known whether environmental enrichment improves cognitive impairment. In the present study, we examined the effects of early environmental enrichment on behavioral abnormalities and neuromorphological changes in prenatal VPA-treated mice. We also examined the role of dendritic spine formation and synaptic protein expression in the hippocampus. Mice were housed for 4 weeks from 4 weeks of age under either a standard or enriched environment. Enriched housing was found to increase hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA levels in both control and VPA-exposed mice. Furthermore, in VPA-treated mice, the environmental enrichment improved anxiety-like behavior, social deficits and cognitive impairment, but not hypolocomotion. Prenatal VPA treatment caused loss of dendritic spines in the hippocampal CA1 region and decreases in mRNA levels of postsynaptic density protein-95 and SH3 and multiple ankyrin repeat domains 2 in the hippocampus. These hippocampal changes were improved by the enriched housing. These findings suggest that the environmental enrichment improved most ASD-like behaviors including cognitive impairment in the VPA-treated mice by enhancing dendritic spine function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Slc4a11 gene disruption in mice: cellular targets of sensorineuronal abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Ivan A; Rosenblatt, Mark I; Kim, Charles; Galbraith, Gary C; Jones, Sherri M; Kao, Liyo; Newman, Debra; Liu, Weixin; Yeh, Stacey; Pushkin, Alexander; Abuladze, Natalia; Kurtz, Ira

    2009-09-25

    NaBC1 (the SLC4A11 gene) belongs to the SLC4 family of sodium-coupled bicarbonate (carbonate) transporter proteins and functions as an electrogenic sodium borate cotransporter. Mutations in SLC4A11 cause either corneal abnormalities (corneal hereditary dystrophy type 2) or a combined auditory and visual impairment (Harboyan syndrome). The role of NaBC1 in sensory systems is poorly understood, given the difficulty of studying patients with NaBC1 mutations. We report our findings in Slc4a11(-/-) mice generated to investigate the role of NaBC1 in sensorineural systems. In wild-type mice, specific NaBC1 immunoreactivity was detected in fibrocytes of the spiral ligament, from the basal to the apical portion of the cochlea. NaBC1 immunoreactivity was present in the vestibular labyrinth, in stromal cells underneath the non-immunoreactive sensory epithelia of the macula utricle, sacule, and crista ampullaris, and the membranous vestibular labyrinth was collapsed. Both auditory brain response and vestibular evoked potential waveforms were significantly abnormal in Slc4a11(-/-) mice. In the cornea, NaBC1 was highly expressed in the endothelial cell layer with less staining in epithelial cells. However, unlike humans, the corneal phenotype was mild with a normal slit lamp evaluation. Corneal endothelial cells were morphologically normal; however, both the absolute height of the corneal basal epithelial cells and the relative basal epithelial cell/total corneal thickness were significantly increased in Slc4a11(-/-) mice. Our results demonstrate for the first time the importance of NaBC1 in the audio-vestibular system and provide support for the hypothesis that SLC4A11 should be considered a potential candidate gene in patients with isolated sensorineural vestibular hearing abnormalities.

  13. A Forward Genetic Screen in Mice Identifies Mutants with Abnormal Cortical Patterning

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Seungshin; Stottmann, Rolf W.; Furley, Andrew J.; Beier, David R.

    2015-01-01

    Formation of a 6-layered cortical plate and axon tract patterning are key features of cerebral cortex development. Abnormalities of these processes may be the underlying cause for a range of functional disabilities seen in human neurodevelopmental disorders. To identify mouse mutants with defects in cortical lamination or corticofugal axon guidance, N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) mutagenesis was performed using mice expressing LacZ reporter genes in layers II/III and V of the cortex (Rgs4-lacZ) or in corticofugal axons (TAG1-tau-lacZ). Four lines with abnormal cortical lamination have been identified. One of these was a splice site mutation in reelin (Reln) that results in a premature stop codon and the truncation of the C-terminal region (CTR) domain of reelin. Interestingly, this novel allele of Reln did not display cerebellar malformation or ataxia, and this is the first report of a Reln mutant without a cerebellar defect. Four lines with abnormal cortical axon development were also identified, one of which was found by whole-genome resequencing to carry a mutation in Lrp2. These findings demonstrated that the application of ENU mutagenesis to mice carrying transgenic reporters marking cortical anatomy is a sensitive and specific method to identify mutations that disrupt patterning of the developing brain. PMID:23968836

  14. A forward genetic screen in mice identifies mutants with abnormal cortical patterning.

    PubMed

    Ha, Seungshin; Stottmann, Rolf W; Furley, Andrew J; Beier, David R

    2015-01-01

    Formation of a 6-layered cortical plate and axon tract patterning are key features of cerebral cortex development. Abnormalities of these processes may be the underlying cause for a range of functional disabilities seen in human neurodevelopmental disorders. To identify mouse mutants with defects in cortical lamination or corticofugal axon guidance, N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) mutagenesis was performed using mice expressing LacZ reporter genes in layers II/III and V of the cortex (Rgs4-lacZ) or in corticofugal axons (TAG1-tau-lacZ). Four lines with abnormal cortical lamination have been identified. One of these was a splice site mutation in reelin (Reln) that results in a premature stop codon and the truncation of the C-terminal region (CTR) domain of reelin. Interestingly, this novel allele of Reln did not display cerebellar malformation or ataxia, and this is the first report of a Reln mutant without a cerebellar defect. Four lines with abnormal cortical axon development were also identified, one of which was found by whole-genome resequencing to carry a mutation in Lrp2. These findings demonstrated that the application of ENU mutagenesis to mice carrying transgenic reporters marking cortical anatomy is a sensitive and specific method to identify mutations that disrupt patterning of the developing brain.

  15. Mutations in α-Tubulin Cause Abnormal Neuronal Migration in Mice and Lissencephaly in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Keays, David A.; Tian, Guoling; Poirier, Karine; Huang, Guo-Jen; Siebold, Christian; Cleak, James; Oliver, Peter L.; Fray, Martin; Harvey, Robert J.; Molnár, Zoltán; Piñon, Maria C.; Dear, Neil; Valdar, William; Brown, Steve D.M.; Davies, Kay E.; Rawlins, J. Nicholas P.; Cowan, Nicholas J.; Nolan, Patrick; Chelly, Jamel; Flint, Jonathan

    2007-01-01

    Summary The development of the mammalian brain is dependent on extensive neuronal migration. Mutations in mice and humans that affect neuronal migration result in abnormal lamination of brain structures with associated behavioral deficits. Here, we report the identification of a hyperactive N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU)-induced mouse mutant with abnormalities in the laminar architecture of the hippocampus and cortex, accompanied by impaired neuronal migration. We show that the causative mutation lies in the guanosine triphosphate (GTP) binding pocket of α-1 tubulin (Tuba1) and affects tubulin heterodimer formation. Phenotypic similarity with existing mouse models of lissencephaly led us to screen a cohort of patients with developmental brain anomalies. We identified two patients with de novo mutations in TUBA3, the human homolog of Tuba1. This study demonstrates the utility of ENU mutagenesis in the mouse as a means to discover the basis of human neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:17218254

  16. Glucocorticoid Antagonism Reduces Insulin Resistance and Associated Lipid Abnormalities in High-Fructose-Fed Mice.

    PubMed

    Priyadarshini, Emayavaramban; Anuradha, Carani Venkatraman

    2017-02-01

    High intake of dietary fructose causes perturbation in lipid metabolism and provokes lipid-induced insulin resistance. A rise in glucocorticoids (GCs) has recently been suggested to be involved in fructose-induced insulin resistance. The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of GC blockade on lipid abnormalities in insulin-resistant mice. Insulin resistance was induced in mice by administering a high-fructose diet (HFrD) for 60 days. Mifepristone (RU486), a GC antagonist, was administered to HFrD-fed mice for the last 18 days, and the intracellular and extracellular GC levels, the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) activation and the expression of GC-regulated genes involved in lipid metabolism were examined. HFrD elevated the intracellular GC content in both liver and adipose tissue and enhanced the GR nuclear translocation. The plasma GC level remained unchanged. The levels of free fatty acids and triglycerides in plasma were elevated, accompanied by increased plasma insulin and glucose levels and decreased hepatic glycogen content. Treatment with RU486 reduced plasma lipid levels, tissue GC levels and the expression of GC-targeted genes involved in lipid accumulation, and it improved insulin sensitivity. This study demonstrated that HFrD-induced lipid accumulation and insulin resistance are mediated by enhanced GC in liver and adipose tissue and that GC antagonism might reduce fructose-induced lipid abnormalities and insulin resistance. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. STING Contributes to Abnormal Bone Formation Induced by Deficiency of DNase II in Mice.

    PubMed

    Baum, Rebecca; Sharma, Shruti; Organ, Jason M; Jakobs, Christopher; Hornung, Veit; Burr, David B; Marshak-Rothstein, Ann; Fitzgerald, Katherine A; Gravallese, Ellen M

    2017-02-01

    Cytosolic DNA sensors detect microbial DNA and promote type I interferon (IFN) and proinflammatory cytokine production through the adaptor stimulator of IFN genes (STING) to resolve infection. Endogenous DNA also engages the STING pathway, contributing to autoimmune disease. This study sought to identify the role of STING in regulating bone formation and to define the bone phenotype and its pathophysiologic mechanisms in arthritic mice double deficient in DNase II and IFN-α/β/ω receptor (IFNAR) (DNase II(-/-) /IFNAR(-/-) double-knockout [DKO] mice) compared with controls. Bone parameters were evaluated by micro-computed tomography and histomorphometry in DKO mice in comparison with mice triple deficient in STING, DNase II, and IFNAR and control mice. Cell culture techniques were employed to determine the parameters of osteoclast and osteoblast differentiation and function. NanoString and Affymetrix array analyses were performed to identify factors promoting ectopic bone formation. Despite the expression of proinflammatory cytokines that would be expected to induce bone loss in the skeleton of DKO mice, the results, paradoxically, demonstrated an accumulation of bone in the long bones and spleens, sites of erythropoiesis and robust DNA accrual. In addition, factors promoting osteoblast recruitment and function were induced. Deficiency of STING significantly inhibited bone accrual. These data reveal a novel role for cytosolic DNA sensor pathways in bone in the setting of autoimmune disease. The results demonstrate the requirement of an intact STING pathway for bone formation in this model, a finding that may have relevance to autoimmune diseases in which DNA plays a pathogenic role. Identification of pathways linking innate immunity and bone could reveal novel targets for the treatment of bone abnormalities in human autoimmune diseases. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  18. Increased Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor 5 Signaling Underlies Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder-like Behavioral and Striatal Circuit Abnormalities in Mice.

    PubMed

    Ade, Kristen K; Wan, Yehong; Hamann, Harold C; O'Hare, Justin K; Guo, Weirui; Quian, Anna; Kumar, Sunil; Bhagat, Srishti; Rodriguiz, Ramona M; Wetsel, William C; Conn, P Jeffrey; Dzirasa, Kafui; Huber, Kimberly M; Calakos, Nicole

    2016-10-01

    Development of treatments for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is hampered by a lack of mechanistic understanding about this prevalent neuropsychiatric condition. Although circuit changes such as elevated frontostriatal activity are linked to OCD, the underlying molecular signaling that drives OCD-related behaviors remains largely unknown. Here, we examine the significance of type 5 metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR5s) for behavioral and circuit abnormalities relevant to OCD. Sapap3 knockout (KO) mice treated acutely with an mGluR5 antagonist were evaluated for OCD-relevant phenotypes of self-grooming, anxiety-like behaviors, and increased striatal activity. The role of mGluR5 in the striatal circuit abnormalities of Sapap3 KO mice was further explored using two-photon calcium imaging to monitor striatal output from the direct and indirect pathways. A contribution of constitutive signaling to increased striatal mGluR5 activity in Sapap3 KO mice was investigated using pharmacologic and biochemical approaches. Finally, sufficiency of mGluR5 to drive OCD-like behavior in wild-type mice was tested by potentiating mGluR5 with a positive allosteric modulator. Excessive mGluR5 signaling underlies OCD-like behaviors and striatal circuit abnormalities in Sapap3 KO mice. Accordingly, enhancing mGluR5 activity acutely recapitulates these behavioral phenotypes in wild-type mice. In Sapap3 KO mice, elevated mGluR5 signaling is associated with constitutively active receptors and increased and imbalanced striatal output that is acutely corrected by antagonizing striatal mGluR5. These findings demonstrate a causal role for increased mGluR5 signaling in driving striatal output abnormalities and behaviors with relevance to OCD and show the tractability of acute mGluR5 inhibition to remedy circuit and behavioral abnormalities. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Targeting the NLRP3 Inflammasome to Reduce Diet-Induced Metabolic Abnormalities in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Chiazza, Fausto; Couturier-Maillard, Aurélie; Benetti, Elisa; Mastrocola, Raffaella; Nigro, Debora; Cutrin, Juan C; Serpe, Loredana; Aragno, Manuela; Fantozzi, Roberto; Ryffel, Bernard; Collino, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Although the molecular links underlying the causative relationship between chronic low-grade inflammation and insulin resistance are not completely understood, compelling evidence suggests a pivotal role of the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptor pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome. Here we tested the hypothesis that either a selective pharmacological inhibition or a genetic downregulation of the NLRP3 inflammasome results in reduction of the diet-induced metabolic alterations. Male C57/BL6 wild-type mice and NLRP3−/− littermates were fed control diet or high-fat, high-fructose diet (HD). A subgroup of HD-fed wild-type mice was treated with the NLRP3 inflammasome inhibitor BAY 11-7082 (3 mg/kg intraperitoneally [IP]). HD feeding increased plasma and hepatic lipids and impaired glucose homeostasis and renal function. Renal and hepatic injury was associated with robust increases in profibrogenic markers, while only minimal fibrosis was recorded. None of these metabolic abnormalities were detected in HD-fed NLRP3−/− mice, and they were dramatically reduced in HD-mice treated with the NLRP3 inflammasome inhibitor. BAY 11-7082 also attenuated the diet-induced increase in NLRP3 inflammasome expression, resulting in inhibition of caspase-1 activation and interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18 production (in liver and kidney). Interestingly, BAY 11-7082, but not gene silencing, inhibited nuclear factor (NF)-κB nuclear translocation. Overall, these results demonstrate that the selective pharmacological modulation of the NLRP3 inflammasome attenuates the metabolic abnormalities and the related organ injury/dysfunction caused by chronic exposure to HD, with effects similar to those obtained by NLRP3 gene silencing. PMID:26623925

  20. Abnormal Mammary Development in 129:STAT1-Null Mice is Stroma-Dependent.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jane Q; Mori, Hidetoshi; Cardiff, Robert D; Trott, Josephine F; Hovey, Russell C; Hubbard, Neil E; Engelberg, Jesse A; Tepper, Clifford G; Willis, Brandon J; Khan, Imran H; Ravindran, Resmi K; Chan, Szeman R; Schreiber, Robert D; Borowsky, Alexander D

    2015-01-01

    Female 129:Stat1-null mice (129S6/SvEvTac-Stat1(tm1Rds) homozygous) uniquely develop estrogen-receptor (ER)-positive mammary tumors. Herein we report that the mammary glands (MG) of these mice have altered growth and development with abnormal terminal end buds alongside defective branching morphogenesis and ductal elongation. We also find that the 129:Stat1-null mammary fat pad (MFP) fails to sustain the growth of 129S6/SvEv wild-type and Stat1-null epithelium. These abnormalities are partially reversed by elevated serum progesterone and prolactin whereas transplantation of wild-type bone marrow into 129:Stat1-null mice does not reverse the MG developmental defects. Medium conditioned by 129:Stat1-null epithelium-cleared MFP does not stimulate epithelial proliferation, whereas it is stimulated by medium conditioned by epithelium-cleared MFP from either wild-type or 129:Stat1-null females having elevated progesterone and prolactin. Microarrays and multiplexed cytokine assays reveal that the MG of 129:Stat1-null mice has lower levels of growth factors that have been implicated in normal MG growth and development. Transplanted 129:Stat1-null tumors and their isolated cells also grow slower in 129:Stat1-null MG compared to wild-type recipient MG. These studies demonstrate that growth of normal and neoplastic 129:Stat1-null epithelium is dependent on the hormonal milieu and on factors from the mammary stroma such as cytokines. While the individual or combined effects of these factors remains to be resolved, our data supports the role of STAT1 in maintaining a tumor-suppressive MG microenvironment.

  1. Age- and sex-dependent thymic abnormalities in NZB × SJL F1 hybrid mice

    PubMed Central

    Dumont, F.; Robert, F.

    1980-01-01

    The cellular organization of the thymus was investigated in 3- and 12-month-old NZB × SJL F1 hybrid (NS) mice. Age-dependent alterations were demonstrated which differed strikingly according to the sex of the animals. In female mice, marked abnormalities of the thymus developed during ageing. They consisted of a more or less pronounced hypertrophy accompanied by histological changes and modifications in the nature of the lymphocyte populations. Three types of qualitative changes were found at 12 months of age: (1) depletion of cortical thymocytes as evidenced by histology, by the evaluation of peanut-agglutinin (PNA) binding and by cell electrophoresis; (2) hyperplasia of the medullary lymphoid tissue, probably reflecting the expansion of a population of mature T lymphocytes. This was further suggested by a rise (up to 60%) in the frequency of lymphocytes lacking both PNA receptor and B cell markers, by an increased proportion (57%) of high electrophoretic mobility (EPM) lymphocytes and by an augmentation of in vitro reactivities to phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) and, although to a lesser extent, to concanavalin A (Con A). (3) The appearance of significant numbers of B lymphocytes (up to 20%) as assessed by surface immunoglobulin (sIg) and complement receptor (CR) detection which was accompanied by a vigorous responsiveness of thymus cells to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). None of these abnormalities was seen in the male mice. Instead, the thymus of NS males displayed a nearly normal age-related involution without major change in the proportions of its lymphocyte subpopulations. NS mice thus provide an interesting model of thymic disease influenced by sex-linked factors. ImagesFig. 3 PMID:7438550

  2. Abnormal Mammary Development in 129:STAT1-Null Mice is Stroma-Dependent

    PubMed Central

    Cardiff, Robert D.; Trott, Josephine F.; Hovey, Russell C.; Hubbard, Neil E.; Engelberg, Jesse A.; Tepper, Clifford G.; Willis, Brandon J.; Khan, Imran H.; Ravindran, Resmi K.; Chan, Szeman R.; Schreiber, Robert D.; Borowsky, Alexander D.

    2015-01-01

    Female 129:Stat1-null mice (129S6/SvEvTac-Stat1tm1Rds homozygous) uniquely develop estrogen-receptor (ER)-positive mammary tumors. Herein we report that the mammary glands (MG) of these mice have altered growth and development with abnormal terminal end buds alongside defective branching morphogenesis and ductal elongation. We also find that the 129:Stat1-null mammary fat pad (MFP) fails to sustain the growth of 129S6/SvEv wild-type and Stat1-null epithelium. These abnormalities are partially reversed by elevated serum progesterone and prolactin whereas transplantation of wild-type bone marrow into 129:Stat1-null mice does not reverse the MG developmental defects. Medium conditioned by 129:Stat1-null epithelium-cleared MFP does not stimulate epithelial proliferation, whereas it is stimulated by medium conditioned by epithelium-cleared MFP from either wild-type or 129:Stat1-null females having elevated progesterone and prolactin. Microarrays and multiplexed cytokine assays reveal that the MG of 129:Stat1-null mice has lower levels of growth factors that have been implicated in normal MG growth and development. Transplanted 129:Stat1-null tumors and their isolated cells also grow slower in 129:Stat1-null MG compared to wild-type recipient MG. These studies demonstrate that growth of normal and neoplastic 129:Stat1-null epithelium is dependent on the hormonal milieu and on factors from the mammary stroma such as cytokines. While the individual or combined effects of these factors remains to be resolved, our data supports the role of STAT1 in maintaining a tumor-suppressive MG microenvironment. PMID:26075897

  3. Behavioral and Neurotransmitter Abnormalities in Mice Deficient for Parkin, DJ-1 and Superoxide Dismutase

    PubMed Central

    Hennis, Meghan R.; Seamans, Katherine W.; Marvin, Marian A.; Casey, Bradford H.; Goldberg, Matthew S.

    2013-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by loss of neurons in the substantia nigra that project to the striatum and release dopamine. The cause of PD remains uncertain, however, evidence implicates mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress. Although most cases of PD are sporadic, 5-10% of cases are caused by inherited mutations. Loss-of-function mutations in Parkin and DJ-1 were the first to be linked to recessively inherited Parkinsonism. Surprisingly, mice bearing similar loss-of-function mutations in Parkin and DJ-1 do not show age-dependent loss of nigral dopaminergic neurons or depletion of dopamine in the striatum. Although the normal cellular functions of Parkin and DJ-1 are not fully understood, we hypothesized that loss-of-function mutations in Parkin and DJ-1 render cells more sensitive to mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress. To test this hypothesis, we crossed mice deficient for Parkin and DJ-1 with mice deficient for the mitochondrial antioxidant protein Mn-superoxide dismutase (SOD2) or the cytosolic antioxidant protein Cu-Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1). Aged Parkin-/-DJ-1-/- and Mn-superoxide dismutase triple deficient mice have enhanced performance on the rotorod behavior test. Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase triple deficient mice have elevated levels of dopamine in the striatum in the absence of nigral cell loss. Our studies demonstrate that on a Parkin/DJ-1 null background, mice that are also deficient for major antioxidant proteins do not have progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons but have behavioral and striatal dopamine abnormalities. PMID:24386432

  4. Altered Clock and Lipid Metabolism-Related Genes in Atherosclerotic Mice Kept with Abnormal Lighting Condition

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Zhu; Hua, Bingxuan; Shang, Zhanxian; Yuan, Gongsheng; Xu, Lirong; Li, Ermin; Li, Xiaobo; Yan, Zuoqin; Qian, Ruizhe

    2016-01-01

    Background. The risk of atherosclerosis is elevated in abnormal lipid metabolism and circadian rhythm disorder. We investigated whether abnormal lighting condition would have influenced the circadian expression of clock genes and clock-controlled lipid metabolism-related genes in ApoE-KO mice. Methods. A mouse model of atherosclerosis with circadian clock genes expression disorder was established using ApoE-KO mice (ApoE-KO LD/DL mice) by altering exposure to light. C57 BL/6J mice (C57 mice) and ApoE-KO mice (ApoE-KO mice) exposed to normal day and night and normal diet served as control mice. According to zeitgeber time samples were acquired, to test atheromatous plaque formation, serum lipids levels and rhythmicity, clock genes, and lipid metabolism-related genes along with Sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) levels and rhythmicity. Results. Atherosclerosis plaques were formed in the aortic arch of ApoE-KO LD/DL mice. The serum lipids levels and oscillations in ApoE-KO LD/DL mice were altered, along with the levels and diurnal oscillations of circadian genes, lipid metabolism-associated genes, and Sirt1 compared with the control mice. Conclusions. Abnormal exposure to light aggravated plaque formation and exacerbated disorders of serum lipids and clock genes, lipid metabolism genes and Sirt1 levels, and circadian oscillation. PMID:27631008

  5. Altered Clock and Lipid Metabolism-Related Genes in Atherosclerotic Mice Kept with Abnormal Lighting Condition.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhu; Hua, Bingxuan; Shang, Zhanxian; Yuan, Gongsheng; Xu, Lirong; Li, Ermin; Li, Xiaobo; Sun, Ning; Yan, Zuoqin; Qian, Ruizhe; Lu, Chao

    2016-01-01

    Background. The risk of atherosclerosis is elevated in abnormal lipid metabolism and circadian rhythm disorder. We investigated whether abnormal lighting condition would have influenced the circadian expression of clock genes and clock-controlled lipid metabolism-related genes in ApoE-KO mice. Methods. A mouse model of atherosclerosis with circadian clock genes expression disorder was established using ApoE-KO mice (ApoE-KO LD/DL mice) by altering exposure to light. C57 BL/6J mice (C57 mice) and ApoE-KO mice (ApoE-KO mice) exposed to normal day and night and normal diet served as control mice. According to zeitgeber time samples were acquired, to test atheromatous plaque formation, serum lipids levels and rhythmicity, clock genes, and lipid metabolism-related genes along with Sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) levels and rhythmicity. Results. Atherosclerosis plaques were formed in the aortic arch of ApoE-KO LD/DL mice. The serum lipids levels and oscillations in ApoE-KO LD/DL mice were altered, along with the levels and diurnal oscillations of circadian genes, lipid metabolism-associated genes, and Sirt1 compared with the control mice. Conclusions. Abnormal exposure to light aggravated plaque formation and exacerbated disorders of serum lipids and clock genes, lipid metabolism genes and Sirt1 levels, and circadian oscillation.

  6. Suprabasal desmoglein 3 expression in the epidermis of transgenic mice results in hyperproliferation and abnormal differentiation.

    PubMed

    Merritt, Anita J; Berika, Mohamed Y; Zhai, Wenwu; Kirk, Sarah E; Ji, Baijing; Hardman, Matthew J; Garrod, David R

    2002-08-01

    The desmoglein 1 (Dsg1) and desmocollin 1 (Dsc1) isoforms of the desmosomal cadherins are expressed in the suprabasal layers of epidermis, whereas Dsg3 and Dsc3 are more strongly expressed basally. This differential expression may have a function in epidermal morphogenesis and/or may regulate the proliferation and differentiation of keratinocytes. To test this hypothesis, we changed the expression pattern by overexpressing human Dsg3 under the control of the keratin 1 (K1) promoter in the suprabasal epidermis of transgenic mice. From around 12 weeks of age, the mice exhibited flaking of the skin accompanied by epidermal pustules and thinning of the hair. Histological analysis of affected areas revealed acanthosis, hypergranulosis, hyperkeratosis, localized parakeratosis, and abnormal hair follicles. This phenotype has some features in common with human ichthyosiform diseases. Electron microscopy revealed a mild epidermal spongiosis. Suprabasally, desmosomes showed incorporation of the exogenous protein by immunogold labeling but were normal in structure. The epidermis was hyperproliferative, and differentiation was abnormal, demonstrated by expression of K14 in the suprabasal layer, restriction of K1, and strong induction of K6 and K16. The changes resembled those found in previous studies in which growth factors, cytokines, and integrins had been overexpressed in epidermis. Thus our data strongly support the view that Dsg3 contributes to the regulation of epidermal differentiation. Our results contrast markedly with those recently obtained by expressing Dsg3 in epidermis under the involucrin promoter. Possible reasons for this difference are considered in this paper.

  7. MCT8 Deficiency in Male Mice Mitigates the Phenotypic Abnormalities Associated With the Absence of a Functional Type 3 Deiodinase.

    PubMed

    Stohn, J Patrizia; Martinez, M Elena; Matoin, Kassey; Morte, Beatriz; Bernal, Juan; Galton, Valerie Anne; St Germain, Donald; Hernandez, Arturo

    2016-08-01

    Mice deficient in the type 3 deiodinase (D3KO mice) manifest impaired clearance of thyroid hormone (TH), leading to elevated levels of TH action during development. This alteration causes reduced neonatal viability, growth retardation, and central hypothyroidism. Here we examined how these phenotypes are affected by a deficiency in the monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8), which is a major contributor to the transport of the active thyroid hormone, T3, into the cell. MCT8 deficiency eliminated the neonatal lethality of type 3 deiodinase (D3)-deficient mice and significantly ameliorated their growth retardation. Double-mutant newborn mice exhibited similar peripheral thyrotoxicosis and increased brain expression of T3-dependent genes as mice with D3 deficiency only. Later in neonatal life and adulthood, double-mutant mice manifested central and peripheral TH status similar to mice with single MCT8 deficiency, with low serum T4, elevated serum TSH and T3, and decreased T3-dependent gene expression in the hypothalamus. In double-mutant adult mice, both thyroid gland size and the hypothyroidism-induced rise in TSH were greater than those in mice with single D3 deficiency but less than those in mice with MCT8 deficiency alone. Our results demonstrate that the marked phenotypic abnormalities observed in the D3-deficient mouse, including perinatal mortality, growth retardation, and central hypothyroidism in adult animals, require expression of MCT8, confirming the interdependent relationship between the TH transport into cells and the deiodination processes.

  8. NCAM-deficient mice show prominent abnormalities in serotonergic and BDNF systems in brain - Restoration by chronic amitriptyline.

    PubMed

    Aonurm-Helm, Anu; Anier, Kaili; Zharkovsky, Tamara; Castrén, Eero; Rantamäki, Tomi; Stepanov, Vladimir; Järv, Jaak; Zharkovsky, Alexander

    2015-12-01

    Mood disorders are associated with alterations in serotonergic system, deficient BDNF (brain-derived neurotrophic factor) signaling and abnormal synaptic plasticity. Increased degradation and reduced functions of NCAM (neural cell adhesion molecule) have recently been associated with depression and NCAM deficient mice show depression-related behavior and impaired learning. The aim of the present study was to investigate potential changes in serotonergic and BDNF systems in NCAM knock-out mice. Serotonergic nerve fiber density and SERT (serotonin transporter) protein levels were robustly reduced in the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex and basolateral amygdala of adult NCAM(-)(/-) mice. This SERT reduction was already evident during early postnatal development. [(3)H]MADAM binding experiments further demonstrated reduced availability of SERT in cell membranes of NCAM(-)(/-) mice. Moreover, the levels of serotonin and its major metabolite 5-HIAA were down regulated in the brains of NCAM(-)(/-) mice. NCAM(-)(/-) mice also showed a dramatic reduction in the BDNF protein levels in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. This BDNF deficiency was associated with reduced phosphorylation of its receptor TrkB. Importantly, chronic administration of antidepressant amitriptyline partially or completely restored these changes in serotonergic and BDNF systems, respectively. In conclusion, NCAM deficiency lead to prominent and persistent abnormalities in brain serotonergic and BDNF systems, which likely contributes to the behavioral and neurobiological phenotype of NCAM(-/-) mice.

  9. Chronic Paroxetine Treatment Prevents the Emergence of Abnormal Electroencephalogram Oscillations in Huntington's Disease Mice.

    PubMed

    Kantor, Sandor; Varga, Janos; Kulkarni, Shreya; Morton, A Jennifer

    2017-06-26

    Disturbance of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep appears early in both patients with Huntington's disease (HD) and mouse models of HD. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are widely prescribed for patients with HD, and are also known to suppress REM sleep in healthy subjects. To test whether selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors can correct abnormal REM sleep and sleep-dependent brain oscillations in HD mice, we treated wild-type and symptomatic R6/2 mice acutely with vehicle and paroxetine (5, 10, and 20 mg/kg). In addition, we treated a group of R6/2 mice chronically with vehicle or paroxetine (20 mg/kg/day) for 8 weeks, with treatment starting before the onset of overt motor symptoms. During and after treatment, we recorded electroencephalogram/electromyogram from the mice. We found that both acute and chronic paroxetine treatment normalized REM sleep in R6/2 mice. However, only chronic paroxetine treatment prevented the emergence of abnormal low-gamma (25-45 Hz) electroencephalogram oscillations in R6/2 mice, an effect that persisted for at least 2 weeks after treatment stopped. Chronic paroxetine treatment also normalized REM sleep theta rhythm in R6/2 mice, but, interestingly, this effect was restricted to the treatment period. By contrast, acute paroxetine treatment slowed REM sleep theta rhythm in WT mice but had no effect on abnormal theta or low-gamma oscillations in R6/2 mice. Our data show that paroxetine treatment, when initiated before the onset of symptoms, corrects both REM sleep disturbances and abnormal brain oscillations, suggesting a possible mechanistic link between early disruption of REM sleep and the subsequent abnormal brain activity in HD mice.

  10. Characterization of novel dystonia musculorum mutant mice: Implications for central nervous system abnormality.

    PubMed

    Horie, Masao; Mekada, Kazuyuki; Sano, Hiromi; Kikkawa, Yoshiaki; Chiken, Satomi; Someya, Takuro; Saito, Keisuke; Hossain, M Ibrahim; Nameta, Masaaki; Abe, Kuniya; Sakimura, Kenji; Ono, Katsuhiko; Nambu, Atsushi; Yoshiki, Atsushi; Takebayashi, Hirohide

    2016-12-01

    We identified a novel spontaneous mutant mouse showing motor symptoms that are similar to those of the dystonia musculorum (dt) mouse. The observations suggested that the mutant mice inherited the mild dt phenotype as an autosomal recessive trait. Linkage analysis showed that the causative gene was located near D1Mit373 and D1Mit410 microsatellite markers on chromosome 1, which are close to the dystonin (Dst) gene locus. To investigate whether Dst is the causative gene of the novel mutant phenotype, we crossed the mutant with Dst gene trap (Dst(Gt)) mice. Compound heterozygotes showed a typical dt phenotype with sensory degeneration and progressive motor symptoms. DNA sequencing analysis identified a nonsense mutation within the spectrin repeats of the plakin domain. The novel mutant allele was named dt(23Rbrc). Motor abnormalities in homozygous dt(23Rbrc)/dt(23Rbrc) mice are not as severe as homozygous Dst(Gt)/Dst(Gt) mice. Histological analyses showed abnormal neurofilament (NF) accumulation in the nervous system of homozygous dt(23Rbrc)/dt(23Rbrc) mice, which is characteristic of the dt phenotype. We mapped the distribution of abnormal NF-accumulated neurons in the brain and found that they were located specifically in the brainstem, spinal cord, and in regions such as the vestibular nucleus, reticular nucleus, and red nucleus, which are implicated in posture and motor coordination pathways. The quantification of abnormal NF accumulation in the cytoplasm and spheroids (axons) of neurons showed that abnormal NF immunoreactivity was lower in homozygous dt(23Rbrc)/dt(23Rbrc) mice than in homozygous Dst(Gt)/Dst(Gt) mice. Therefore, we have identified a novel hypomorphic allele of dt, which causes histological abnormalities in the central nervous system that may account for the abnormal motor phenotype. This novel spontaneously occurring mutant may become a good model of hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type 6, which is caused by mutations in the human DST

  11. Impaired growth and neurological abnormalities in branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase kinase-deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Mandar A.; Jeoung, Nam Ho; Obayashi, Mariko; Hattab, Eyas M.; Brocken, Eric G.; Liechty, Edward A.; Kubek, Michael J.; Vattem, Krishna M.; Wek, Ronald C.; Harris, Robert A.

    2006-01-01

    The BCKDH (branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase complex) catalyses the rate-limiting step in the oxidation of BCAAs (branched-chain amino acids). Activity of the complex is regulated by a specific kinase, BDK (BCKDH kinase), which causes inactivation, and a phosphatase, BDP (BCKDH phosphatase), which causes activation. In the present study, the effect of the disruption of the BDK gene on growth and development of mice was investigated. BCKDH activity was much greater in most tissues of BDK−/− mice. This occurred in part because the E1 component of the complex cannot be phosphorylated due to the absence of BDK and also because greater than normal amounts of the E1 component were present in tissues of BDK−/− mice. Lack of control of BCKDH activity resulted in markedly lower blood and tissue levels of the BCAAs in BDK−/− mice. At 12 weeks of age, BDK−/− mice were 15% smaller than wild-type mice and their fur lacked normal lustre. Brain, muscle and adipose tissue weights were reduced, whereas weights of the liver and kidney were greater. Neurological abnormalities were apparent by hind limb flexion throughout life and epileptic seizures after 6–7 months of age. Inhibition of protein synthesis in the brain due to hyperphosphorylation of eIF2α (eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α) might contribute to the neurological abnormalities seen in BDK−/− mice. BDK−/− mice show significant improvement in growth and appearance when fed a high protein diet, suggesting that higher amounts of dietary BCAA can partially compensate for increased oxidation in BDK−/− mice. Disruption of the BDK gene establishes that regulation of BCKDH by phosphorylation is critically important for the regulation of oxidative disposal of BCAAs. The phenotype of the BDK−/− mice demonstrates the importance of tight regulation of oxidative disposal of BCAAs for normal growth and neurological function. PMID:16875466

  12. Morbid obesity attenuates the skeletal abnormalities associated with leptin deficiency in mice.

    PubMed

    Turner, Russell T; Philbrick, Kenneth A; Wong, Carmen P; Olson, Dawn A; Branscum, Adam J; Iwaniec, Urszula T

    2014-10-01

    Leptin-deficient ob/ob mice are morbidly obese and exhibit low total bone mass and mild osteopetrosis. In order to disassociate the skeletal effects of leptin deficiency from those associated with morbid obesity, we evaluated bone mass, architecture, gene expression, and indices of bone turnover in WT mice, ob/ob mice allowed to feed ad libitum (ob/ob), and ob/ob mice pair-fed equivalent to WT mice (pair-fed ob/ob). Mice were maintained at 32 °C (thermoneutral) from 6 to 18 weeks of age to minimize differences in resting energy expenditure. ob/ob mice were heavier, had more abdominal white adipose tissue (WAT), and were hyperglycemic compared with WT mice. Femur length, bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density, and midshaft femur cortical thickness were lower in ob/ob mice than in WT mice. Cancellous bone volume (BV) fraction was higher but indices of bone formation and resorption were lower in ob/ob mice compared with WT mice; reduced bone resorption in ob/ob mice resulted in pathological retention of calcified cartilage. Pair-fed ob/ob mice were lighter and had lower WAT, uterine weight, and serum glucose than ob/ob mice. Similarly, femoral length, BMC, and cortical thickness were lower in pair-fed ob/ob mice compared with ob/ob mice, as were indices of cancellous bone formation and resorption. In contrast, bone marrow adiposity, calcified cartilage, and cancellous BV fraction were higher at one or more cancellous sites in pair-fed ob/ob mice compared with ob/ob mice. These findings indicate that the skeletal abnormalities caused by leptin deficiency are markedly attenuated in morbidly obese ob/ob mice. © 2014 Society for Endocrinology.

  13. Abnormal joint and bone wound healing in hemophilia mice is improved by extending factor IX activity after hemarthrosis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Junjiang; Hua, Baolai; Livingston, Eric W; Taves, Sarah; Johansen, Peter B; Hoffman, Maureane; Ezban, Mirella; Monroe, Dougald M; Bateman, Ted A; Monahan, Paul E

    2017-04-13

    Wound healing requires interactions between coagulation, inflammation, angiogenesis, cellular migration, and proliferation. Healing in dermal wounds of hemophilia B mice is delayed when compared with hemostatically normal wild-type (WT) mice, with abnormal persistence of iron deposition, inflammation, and neovascularity. We observed healing following induced joint hemorrhage in WT and factor IX (FIX) knockout (FIX(-/-)) mice, examining also parameters previously studied in an excisional skin wound model. Hemostatically normal mice tolerated this joint bleeding challenge, cleared blood from the joint, and healed with minimal pathology, even if additional autologous blood was injected intra-articularly at the time of wounding. Following hemarthrosis, joint wound healing in hemophilia B mice was impaired and demonstrated similar abnormal histologic features as previously described in hemophilic dermal wounds. Therefore, studies of pathophysiology and therapy of hemophilic joint bleeding performed in hemostatically normal animals are not likely to accurately reflect the healing defect of hemophilia. We additionally explored the hypothesis that the use of a FIX replacement protein with extended circulating FIX activity could improve synovial and osteochondral wound healing in hemophilic mice, when compared with treatment with unmodified recombinant FIX (rFIX) in the established joint bleeding model. Significantly improved synovial wound healing and preservation of normal osteochondral architecture are achieved by extending FIX activity after hemarthrosis using glycoPEGylated FIX when compared with an equivalent dose of rFIX. These results suggest that treating joint bleeding only until hemostasis is achieved may not result in optimal joint healing, which is improved by extending factor activity.

  14. Abnormal grooming activity in Dab1(scm) (scrambler) mutant mice.

    PubMed

    Strazielle, C; Lefevre, A; Jacquelin, C; Lalonde, R

    2012-07-15

    Dab1(scm) mutant mice, characterized by cell ectopias and degeneration in cerebellum, hippocampus, and neocortex, were compared to non-ataxic controls for different facets of grooming caused by brief water immersions, as well as some non-grooming behaviors. Dab1(scm) mutants were strongly affected in their quantitative functional parameters, exhibiting higher starting latencies before grooming relative to non-ataxic littermates of the A/A strain, fewer grooming bouts, and grooming components of shorter duration, with an unequal regional distribution targeting almost totally the rostral part (head washing and forelimb licking) of the animal. Only bouts of a single grooming element were preserved. The cephalocaudal order of grooming elements appeared less disorganized, mutant and control mice initiating the grooming with head washing and forelimb licking prior to licking posterior parts. However, mutants differed from controls in that all their bouts were incomplete but uninterrupted, although intergroup difference for percentage of the incorrect transitions was not significant. In contrast to grooming, Dab1(scm) mice ambulated for a longer time. During walking episodes, they exhibited more body scratching than controls, possibly to compensate for the lack of licking different body parts. In conjunction with studies with other ataxic mice, these results indicate that the cerebellar cortex affects grooming activity and is consequently involved in executing various components, but not in its sequential organization, which requires other brain regions such as cerebral cortices or basal ganglia.

  15. Genetically modified laboratory mice with sebaceous glands abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Ehrmann, Carmen; Schneider, Marlon R

    2016-12-01

    Sebaceous glands (SG) are exocrine glands that release their product by holocrine secretion, meaning that the whole cell becomes a secretion following disruption of the membrane. SG may be found in association with a hair follicle, forming the pilosebaceous unit, or as modified SG at different body sites such as the eyelids (Meibomian glands) or the preputial glands. Depending on their location, SG fulfill a number of functions, including protection of the skin and fur, thermoregulation, formation of the tear lipid film, and pheromone-based communication. Accordingly, SG abnormalities are associated with several diseases such as acne, cicatricial alopecia, and dry eye disease. An increasing number of genetically modified laboratory mouse lines develop SG abnormalities, and their study may provide important clues regarding the molecular pathways regulating SG development, physiology, and pathology. Here, we summarize in tabulated form the available mouse lines with SG abnormalities and, focusing on selected examples, discuss the insights they provide into SG biology and pathology. We hope this survey will become a helpful information source for researchers with a primary interest in SG but also as for researchers from unrelated fields that are unexpectedly confronted with a SG phenotype in newly generated mouse lines.

  16. Reversible skeletal abnormalities in gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase-deficient mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levasseur, Regis; Barrios, Roberto; Elefteriou, Florent; Glass, Donald A 2nd; Lieberman, Michael W.; Karsenty, Gerard

    2003-01-01

    Gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) is a widely distributed ectopeptidase responsible for the degradation of glutathione in the gamma-glutamyl cycle. This cycle is implicated in the metabolism of cysteine, and absence of GGT causes a severe intracellular decrease in this amino acid. GGT-deficient (GGT-/-) mice have multiple metabolic abnormalities and are dwarf. We show here that this latter phenotype is due to a decreased of the growth plate cartilage total height resulting from a proliferative defect of chondrocytes. In addition, analysis of vertebrae and tibiae of GGT-/- mice revealed a severe osteopenia. Histomorphometric studies showed that this low bone mass phenotype results from an increased osteoclast number and activity as well as from a marked decrease in osteoblast activity. Interestingly, neither osteoblasts, osteoclasts, nor chondrocytes express GGT, suggesting that the observed defects are secondary to other abnormalities. N-acetylcysteine supplementation has been shown to reverse the metabolic abnormalities of the GGT-/- mice and in particular to restore the level of IGF-1 and sex steroids in these mice. Consistent with these previous observations, N-acetylcysteine treatment of GGT-/- mice ameliorates their skeletal abnormalities by normalizing chondrocytes proliferation and osteoblastic function. In contrast, resorbtion parameters are only partially normalized in GGT-/- N-acetylcysteine-treated mice, suggesting that GGT regulates osteoclast biology at least partly independently of these hormones. These results establish the importance of cysteine metabolism for the regulation of bone remodeling and longitudinal growth.

  17. Reversible skeletal abnormalities in gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase-deficient mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levasseur, Regis; Barrios, Roberto; Elefteriou, Florent; Glass, Donald A 2nd; Lieberman, Michael W.; Karsenty, Gerard

    2003-01-01

    Gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) is a widely distributed ectopeptidase responsible for the degradation of glutathione in the gamma-glutamyl cycle. This cycle is implicated in the metabolism of cysteine, and absence of GGT causes a severe intracellular decrease in this amino acid. GGT-deficient (GGT-/-) mice have multiple metabolic abnormalities and are dwarf. We show here that this latter phenotype is due to a decreased of the growth plate cartilage total height resulting from a proliferative defect of chondrocytes. In addition, analysis of vertebrae and tibiae of GGT-/- mice revealed a severe osteopenia. Histomorphometric studies showed that this low bone mass phenotype results from an increased osteoclast number and activity as well as from a marked decrease in osteoblast activity. Interestingly, neither osteoblasts, osteoclasts, nor chondrocytes express GGT, suggesting that the observed defects are secondary to other abnormalities. N-acetylcysteine supplementation has been shown to reverse the metabolic abnormalities of the GGT-/- mice and in particular to restore the level of IGF-1 and sex steroids in these mice. Consistent with these previous observations, N-acetylcysteine treatment of GGT-/- mice ameliorates their skeletal abnormalities by normalizing chondrocytes proliferation and osteoblastic function. In contrast, resorbtion parameters are only partially normalized in GGT-/- N-acetylcysteine-treated mice, suggesting that GGT regulates osteoclast biology at least partly independently of these hormones. These results establish the importance of cysteine metabolism for the regulation of bone remodeling and longitudinal growth.

  18. Abnormal Mammary Adipose Tissue Environment of Brca1 Mutant Mice Show a Persistent Deposition of Highly Vascularized Multilocular Adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Jones, Laundette P; Buelto, Destiney; Tago, Elaine; Owusu-Boaitey, Kwadwo E

    2011-12-08

    A major challenge to breast cancer research is the identification of alterations in the architecture and composition of the breast that are associated with breast cancer progression. The aim of the present investigation was to characterize the mammary adipose phenotype from Brca1 mutant mice in the expectation that this would shed light on the role of the mammary tissue environment in the early stages of breast tumorigenesis. We observed that histological sections of mammary tissue from adult Brca1 mutant mice abnormally display small, multilocular adipocytes that are reminiscent of brown adipose tissue (BAT) as compared to wildtype mice. Using a marker for BAT, the uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), we demonstrated that these multilocular adipose regions in Brca1 mutant mice stain positive for UCP1. Transcriptionally, UCP1 mRNA levels in the Brca1 mutant mice were elevated greater than 50-fold compared to age-matched mammary glands from wildtype mice. Indeed, BAT has characteristics that are favorable for tumor growth, including high vascularity. Therefore, we also demonstrated that the multilocular brown adipose phenotype in the mammary fat pad of Brca1 mutant mice displayed regions of increased vascularity as evidenced by a significant increase in the protein expression of CD31, a marker for angiogenesis. This Brca1 mutant mouse model should provide a physiologically relevant context to determine whether brown adipose tissue can play a role in breast cancer development.

  19. Polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation reverses cystic fibrosis-related fatty acid abnormalities in CFTR-/- mice by suppressing fatty acid desaturases.

    PubMed

    Njoroge, Sarah W; Laposata, Michael; Boyd, Kelli L; Seegmiller, Adam C

    2015-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis patients and model systems exhibit consistent abnormalities in metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids that appear to play a role in disease pathophysiology. Recent in vitro studies have suggested that these changes are due to overexpression of fatty acid desaturases that can be reversed by supplementation with the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids docosahexaenoate and eicosapentaenoate. However, these findings have not been tested in vivo. The current study aimed to test these results in an in vivo model system, the CFTR(-/-) knockout mouse. When compared with wild-type mice, the knockout mice exhibited fatty acid abnormalities similar to those seen in cystic fibrosis patients and other model systems. The abnormalities were confined to lung, ileum and pancreas, tissues that are affected by the disease. Similar to in vitro models, these fatty acid changes correlated with increased expression of Δ5- and Δ6-desaturases and elongase 5. Dietary supplementation with high-dose free docosahexaenoate or a combination of lower-dose docosahexaenoate and eicosapentaenoate in triglyceride form corrected the fatty acid abnormalities and reduced expression of the desaturase and elongase genes in the ileum and liver of knockout mice. Only the high-dose docosahexaenoate reduced histologic evidence of disease, reducing mucus accumulation in ileal sections. These results provide in vivo support for the hypothesis that fatty acid abnormalities in cystic fibrosis result from abnormal expression and activity of metabolic enzymes in affected cell types. They further demonstrate that these changes can be reversed by dietary n-3 fatty acid supplementation, highlighting the potential therapeutic benefit for cystic fibrosis patients.

  20. Abnormal development of Purkinje cells and lymphocytes in Atm mutant mice

    PubMed Central

    Borghesani, Paul R.; Alt, Frederick W.; Bottaro, Andrea; Davidson, Laurie; Aksoy, Saime; Rathbun, Gary A.; Roberts, Thomas M.; Swat, Wojciech; Segal, Rosalind A.; Gu, Yansong

    2000-01-01

    Motor incoordination, immune deficiencies, and an increased risk of cancer are the characteristic features of the hereditary disease ataxia–telangiectasia (A-T), which is caused by mutations in the ATM gene. Through gene targeting, we have generated a line of Atm mutant mice, Atmy/y mice. In contrast to other Atm mutant mice, Atmy/y mice show a lower incidence of thymic lymphoma and survive beyond a few months of age. Atmy/y mice exhibit deficits in motor learning indicative of cerebellar dysfunction. Even though we found no gross cerebellar degeneration in older Atmy/y animals, ectopic and abnormally differentiated Purkinje cells were apparent in mutant mice of all ages. These findings establish that some neuropathological abnormalities seen in A-T patients also are present in Atm mutant mice. In addition, we report a previously unrecognized effect of Atm deficiency on development or maintenance of CD4+8+ thymocytes. We discuss these findings in the context of the hypothesis that abnormal development of Purkinje cells and lymphocytes contributes to the pathogenesis of A-T. PMID:10716718

  1. Morphometric and functional abnormalities of kidneys in the progeny of mice fed chocolate during pregnancy and lactation.

    PubMed

    Patera, Janusz; Chorostowska-Wynimko, Joanna; Słodkowska, Janina; Borowska, Adamina; Skopiński, Piotr; Sommer, Ewa; Wasiutyński, Aleksander; Skopińska-Rózewska, Ewa

    2006-01-01

    Even most commonly consumed beverages like tea, coffee, chocolate and cocoa contain methylxanthines, biogenic amines and polyphenols, among them catechins, that exhibit significant biological activity and might profoundly affect the organism homeostasis. We have previously shown that 400 mg of bitter chocolate or 6 mg of theobromine added to the daily diet of pregnant and afterwards lactating mice affected embryonic angiogenesis and caused bone mineralization disturbances as well as limb shortening in 4-weeks old offspring. The aim of the present study was the morphometric and functional evaluation of kidneys in the 4-weeks old progeny mice fed according to the protocol mentioned above. Progeny from the mice fed chocolate presented considerable morphometric abnormalities in the kidney structure, with the lower number of glomeruli per mm2 and their increased diameter. Moreover, higher serum creatinine concentration was observed in that group of offspring. No morphometric or functional irregularities were found in the progeny of mice fed theobromine. Abnormalities demonstrated in the offspring of mice fed chocolate are not related to its theobromine content. Consequently, identification of active compound(s) responsible for the observed effects is of vital importance.

  2. Abnormal Vascular Function and Hypertension in Mice Deficient in Estrogen Receptor β

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yan; Bian, Zhao; Lu, Ping; Karas, Richard H.; Bao, Lin; Cox, Daniel; Hodgin, Jeffrey; Shaul, Philip W.; Thorén, Peter; Smithies, Oliver; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke; Mendelsohn, Michael E.

    2002-01-01

    Blood vessels express estrogen receptors, but their role in cardiovascular physiology is not well understood. We show that vascular smooth muscle cells and blood vessels from estrogen receptor β (ERβ)-deficient mice exhibit multiple functional abnormalities. In wild-type mouse blood vessels, estrogen attenuates vasoconstriction by an ERβ-mediated increase in inducible nitric oxide synthase expression. In contrast, estrogen augments vasoconstriction in blood vessels from ERβ-deficient mice. Vascular smooth muscle cells isolated from ERβ-deficient mice show multiple abnormalities of ion channel function. Furthermore, ERβ-deficient mice develop sustained systolic and diastolic hypertension as they age. These data support an essential role for ERβ in the regulation of vascular function and blood pressure.

  3. Attenuation effect of Abnormal Savda Munziq on liver and heart toxicity caused by chemotherapy in mice

    PubMed Central

    AIKEMU, AINIWAER; AMAT, NURMUHAMAT; YUSUP, ABDIRYIM; SHAN, LIANLIAN; QI, XINWEI; UPUR, HALMURAT

    2016-01-01

    Abnormal Savda Munziq (ASMq), an Uighur medicine formula commonly used in the treatment of cancer, has been speculated to possess antioxidative and antiproliferative effects, and to regulate immune activity. The present study was designed to systematically elucidate the toxicity-reducing activity of ASMq in mice undergoing combination chemotherapy with doxorubicin and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). The mice were divided into normal (saline, 10 ml/kg) and doxorubicin + 5-FU groups (doxorubicin, 2.5 mg/kg; 5-FU, 10 mg/kg on alternate days). In addition, three groups received different doses of ASMq (2, 4 and 8 g/kg), in addition to doxorubicin (2.5 mg/kg) and 5-FU (10 mg/kg) treatment on alternate days. The histology of the heart and liver, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity, malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations in heart homogenate, and various biochemical parameters of the liver were evaluated. Compared with the normal control group, ASMq dose-dependently improved a number of variables, including body weight, liver index, transaminase and total protein, and partially normalized liver and cardiac pathology. ASMq restored activities of defense antioxidant enzymes SOD and GSH-Px towards normal levels, and decreased MDA concentration in dose-dependent manner. These results demonstrated that ASMq provides significant protection against doxorubicin + 5-FU combination induced hepatotoxicity and cardiotoxicity. Further studies are required to determine the effects of ASMq against doxorubicin + 5-FU-induced toxicity during chemotherapy in vivo. PMID:27347066

  4. Deletion of Rbpj from postnatal endothelium leads to abnormal arteriovenous shunting in mice

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Corinne M.; Cuervo, Henar; Ding, Vivianne W.; Kong, Yupeng; Huang, Eric J.; Wang, Rong A.

    2014-01-01

    Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are tortuous vessels characterized by arteriovenous (AV) shunts, which displace capillaries and shunt blood directly from artery to vein. Notch signaling regulates embryonic AV specification by promoting arterial, as opposed to venous, endothelial cell (EC) fate. To understand the essential role of endothelial Notch signaling in postnatal AV organization, we used inducible Cre-loxP recombination to delete Rbpj, a mediator of canonical Notch signaling, from postnatal ECs in mice. Deletion of endothelial Rbpj from birth resulted in features of AVMs by P14, including abnormal AV shunting and tortuous vessels in the brain, intestine and heart. We further analyzed brain AVMs, as they pose particular health risks. Consistent with AVM pathology, we found cerebral hemorrhage, hypoxia and necrosis, and neurological deficits. AV shunts originated from capillaries (and possibly venules), with the earliest detectable morphological abnormalities in AV connections by P8. Prior to AV shunt formation, alterations in EC gene expression were detected, including decreased Efnb2 and increased Pai1, which encodes a downstream effector of TGFβ signaling. After AV shunts had formed, whole-mount immunostaining showed decreased Efnb2 and increased Ephb4 expression within AV shunts, suggesting that ECs were reprogrammed from arterial to venous identity. Deletion of Rbpj from adult ECs led to tortuosities in gastrointestinal, uterine and skin vascular beds, but had mild effects in the brain. Our results demonstrate a temporal requirement for Rbpj in postnatal ECs to maintain proper artery, capillary and vein organization and to prevent abnormal AV shunting and AVM pathogenesis. PMID:25209249

  5. Conditional calcineurin knockout mice exhibit multiple abnormal behaviors related to schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi; Leiter, Lorene M; Gerber, David J; Gainetdinov, Raul R; Sotnikova, Tatyana D; Zeng, Hongkui; Caron, Marc G; Tonegawa, Susumu

    2003-07-22

    Calcineurin (CN), a calcium- and calmodulin-dependent protein phosphatase, plays a significant role in the central nervous system. Previously, we reported that forebrain-specific CN knockout mice (CN mutant mice) have impaired working memory. To further analyze the behavioral effects of CN deficiency, we subjected CN mutant mice to a comprehensive behavioral test battery. Mutant mice showed increased locomotor activity, decreased social interaction, and impairments in prepulse inhibition and latent inhibition. In addition, CN mutant mice displayed an increased response to the locomotor stimulating effects of MK-801. Collectively, the abnormalities of CN mutant mice are strikingly similar to those described for schizophrenia. We propose that alterations affecting CN signaling could comprise a contributing factor in schizophrenia pathogenesis.

  6. Sodium sulfide prevents water diffusion abnormality in the brain and improves long term outcome after cardiac arrest in mice

    PubMed Central

    Kida, Kotaro; Minamishima, Shizuka; Wang, Huifang; Ren, JiaQian; Yigitkanli, Kazim; Nozari, Ala; Mandeville, Joseph B.; Liu, Philip K.; Liu, Christina H.; Ichinose, Fumito

    2012-01-01

    Aim of the study Sudden cardiac arrest (CA) is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Previously we demonstrated that administration of sodium sulfide (Na2S), a hydrogen sulfide (H2S) donor, markedly improved the neurological outcome and survival rate at 24h after CA and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in mice. In this study, we sought to elucidate the mechanism responsible for the neuroprotective effects of Na2S and its impact on the long-term survival after CA/CPR in mice. Methods Adult male mice were subjected to potassium-induced CA for 7.5 min at 37°C whereupon CPR was performed with chest compression and mechanical ventilation. Mice received Na2S (0.55 mg/kg i.v.) or vehicle 1 min before CPR. Results Mice that were subjected to CA/CPR and received vehicle exhibited a poor 10-day survival rate (4/12) and depressed neurological function. Cardiac arrest and CPR induced abnormal water diffusion in the vulnerable regions of the brain, as demonstrated by hyperintense diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) 24h after CA/CPR. Extent of hyperintense DWI was associated with matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) activation, worse neurological outcomes, and poor survival rate at 10 days after CA/CPR. Administration of Na2S prevented the development of abnormal water diffusion and MMP-9 activation and markedly improved neurological function and long-term survival (9/12, P<0.05 vs. vehicle) after CA/CPR. Conclusion These results suggest that administration of Na2S 1 min before CPR improves neurological function and survival rate at 10 days after CA/CPR by preventing water diffusion abnormality in the brain potentially via inhibiting MMP-9 activation early after resuscitation. PMID:22370005

  7. Behavioral and neuroanatomical abnormalities in pleiotrophin knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Krellman, Jason W; Ruiz, Henry H; Marciano, Veronica A; Mondrow, Bracha; Croll, Susan D

    2014-01-01

    Pleiotrophin (PTN) is an extracellular matrix-associated protein with neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects that is involved in a variety of neurodevelopmental processes. Data regarding the cognitive-behavioral and neuroanatomical phenotype of pleiotrophin knockout (KO) mice is limited. The purpose of this study was to more fully characterize this phenotype, with emphasis on the domains of learning and memory, cognitive-behavioral flexibility, exploratory behavior and anxiety, social behavior, and the neuronal and vascular microstructure of the lateral entorhinal cortex (EC). PTN KOs exhibited cognitive rigidity, heightened anxiety, behavioral reticence in novel contexts and novel social interactions suggestive of neophobia, and lamina-specific decreases in neuronal area and increases in neuronal density in the lateral EC. Initial learning of spatial and other associative tasks, as well as vascular density in the lateral EC, was normal in the KOs. These data suggest that the absence of PTN in vivo is associated with disruption of specific cognitive and affective processes, raising the possibility that further study of PTN KOs might have implications for the study of human disorders with similar features.

  8. Myelin Abnormalities in the Optic and Sciatic Nerves in Mice With GM1-Gangliosidosis

    PubMed Central

    Heinecke, Karie A.; Luoma, Adrienne; d’Azzo, Alessandra; Kirschner, Daniel A.

    2015-01-01

    GM1-gangliosidosis is a glycosphingolipid lysosomal storage disease involving accumulation of GM1 and its asialo form (GA1) primarily in the brain. Thin-layer chromatography and X-ray diffraction were used to analyze the lipid content/composition and the myelin structure of the optic and sciatic nerves from 7- and 10-month old β-galactosidase (β-gal) +/? and β-gal −/− mice, a model of GM1gangliosidosis. Optic nerve weight was lower in the β-gal −/− mice than in unaffected β-gal +/? mice, but no difference was seen in sciatic nerve weight. The levels of GM1 and GA1 were significantly increased in both the optic nerve and sciatic nerve of the β-gal −/− mice. The content of myelin-enriched cerebrosides, sulfatides, and plasmalogen ethanolamines was significantly lower in optic nerve of β-gal −/− mice than in β-gal +/? mice; however, cholesteryl esters were enriched in the β-gal −/− mice. No major abnormalities in these lipids were detected in the sciatic nerve of the β-gal −/− mice. The abnormalities in GM1 and myelin lipids in optic nerve of β-gal −/− mice correlated with a reduction in the relative amount of myelin and periodicity in fresh nerve. By contrast, the relative amount of myelin and periodicity in the sciatic nerves from control and β-gal −/− mice were indistinguishable, suggesting minimal pathological involvement in sciatic nerve. Our results indicate that the greater neurochemical pathology observed in the optic nerve than in the sciatic nerve of β-gal −/− mice is likely due to the greater glycolipid storage in optic nerve. PMID:25694553

  9. Constitutively Activated NLRP3 Inflammasome Causes Inflammation and Abnormal Skeletal Development in Mice

    PubMed Central

    McGeough, Matthew D.; Pena, Carla; Chen, Debbie; Grimston, Susan K.; Hickman-Brecks, Cynthia L.; Ravindran, Soumya; McAlinden, Audrey; Novack, Deborah V.; Kastner, Daniel L.; Civitelli, Roberto; Hoffman, Hal M.; Mbalaviele, Gabriel

    2012-01-01

    The NLRP3 inflammasome complex is responsible for maturation of the pro-inflammatory cytokine, IL-1β. Mutations in NLRP3 are responsible for the cryopyrinopathies, a spectrum of conditions including neonatal-onset multisystem inflammatory disease (NOMID). While excessive production of IL-1β and systemic inflammation are common to all cryopyrinopathy disorders, skeletal abnormalities, prominently in the knees, and low bone mass are unique features of patients with NOMID. To gain insights into the mechanisms underlying skeletal abnormalities in NOMID, we generated knock-in mice globally expressing the D301N NLRP3 mutation (ortholog of D303N in human NLRP3). NOMID mice exhibit neutrophilia in blood and many tissues, including knee joints, and high levels of serum inflammatory mediators. They also exhibit growth retardation and severe postnatal osteopenia stemming at least in part from abnormally accelerated bone resorption, attended by increased osteoclastogenesis. Histologic analysis of knee joints revealed abnormal growth plates, with loss of chondrocytes and growth arrest in the central region of the epiphyses. Most strikingly, a tissue “spike" was observed in the mid-region of the growth plate in the long bones of all NOMID mice that may be the precursor to more severe deformations analogous to those observed in NOMID patients. These findings provide direct evidence linking a NOMID-associated NLRP3-activating mutation to abnormalities of postnatal skeletal growth and bone remodeling. PMID:22558291

  10. Conditional expression of human bone Gla protein in osteoblasts causes skeletal abnormality in mice.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Kazuhiro; Tsukui, Tohru; Tanaka, Daisuke; Maruyama, Yojiro; Horie-Inoue, Kuniko; Inoue, Satoshi

    2012-07-20

    Bone Gla protein (BGP), also known as osteocalcin, is one of the most abundant γ-carboxylated noncollagenous protein in bone matrix and plays important roles in mineralization and calcium ion homeostasis. BGP is synthesized specifically in osteoblasts; however, its precise function in bone metabolism has not been fully elucidated. To investigate the in vivo function of human BGP (hBGP), we generated CAG-GFP(floxed)-hBGP transgenic mice carrying a transgene cassette composed of the promoter and a floxed GFP linked to hBGP cDNA. The mice were crossed with ColI-Cre mice, which express the Cre recombinase driven by the mouse collagen type 1a1 gene promoter, to obtain hBGP(ColI) conditional transgenic mice that expressed human BGP in osteoblasts. The hBGP(ColI) mice did not survive more than 2days after birth. The analysis of the 18.5-day post coitum fetuses of the hBGP(ColI) mice revealed that they displayed abnormal skeletal growth such as deformity of the rib and short femur and cranium lengths. Moreover, increased BGP levels were detected in the serum of the neonates. These findings indicate that hBGP expression in osteoblasts resulted in the abnormal skeletal growth in the mice. Our study provides a valuable model for understanding the fundamental role of BGP in vivo. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Striatal magnetic resonance spectroscopy abnormalities in young adult SAPAP3 knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Mintzopoulos, Dionyssios; Gillis, Timothy E.; Robertson, Holly R.; Dalia, Triana; Feng, Guoping; Rauch, Scott L.; Kaufman, Marc J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is a debilitating condition with lifetime prevalence of 1–3%. OCD typically arises in youth but delays in diagnosis impede optimal treatment and developmental studies of the disorder. Research using genetically modified rodents may provide models of etiology that enable earlier detection and intervention. The SAPAP3 knockout (KO) transgenic mouse was developed as an animal model of OCD and related disorders (OCRD). KO mice exhibit compulsive self-grooming behavior analogous to behaviors found in people with OCRD. Striatal hyperactivity has been reported in these mice and in humans with OCD. Methods Striatal and medial frontal cortex 9.4 Tesla proton spectra were acquired from young adult SAPAP3 KO and wild-type control mice to determine whether KO mice have metabolic and neurochemical abnormalities. Results Young adult KO mice had lower striatal lactate (P=0.006) and glutathione (P=0.039) levels. Among all mice, striatal lactate and glutathione levels were associated (R=0.73, P=0.007). We found no group differences in medial frontal cortex metabolites. At the age range studied, only 1 of 8 KO mice had skin lesions indicative of severe compulsive grooming. Conclusion Young adult SAPAP3 KO mice have striatal but not medial frontal cortex MRS abnormalities that may reflect striatal hypermetabolism accompanied by oxidative stress. These abnormalities typically preceded the onset of severe compulsive grooming. Our findings are consistent with striatal hypermetabolism in OCD. Together, these results suggest that striatal MRS measures of lactate or glutathione might be useful biomarkers for early detection of risk for developing compulsive behavior disorders. PMID:26858992

  12. Cnga2 Knockout Mice Display Alzheimer's-Like Behavior Abnormities and Pathological Changes.

    PubMed

    Xie, Ao-Ji; Liu, En-Jie; Huang, He-Zhou; Hu, Yu; Li, Ke; Lu, Youming; Wang, Jian-Zhi; Zhu, Ling-Qiang

    2016-09-01

    Olfactory dysfunction is recognized as a potential risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD). We have reported previously that olfactory deprivation by olfactory bulbectomy (OBX) induced Alzheimer's-like pathological changes and behavioral abnormalities. However, the acute OBX model undergoes surgical-induced brain parenchyma loss and unexpected massive hemorrhage so that it cannot fully mimic the progressive olfactory loss and neurodegeneration in AD. Here, we employed the mice loss of cyclic nucleotide-gated channel alpha 2 (Cnga2) which is critical for olfactory sensory transduction, to investigate the role of olfactory dysfunction in AD pathological process. We found that impaired learning and memory abilities, loss of dendrite spines, as well as decrement of synaptic proteins were displayed in Cnga2 knockout mice. Moreover, Aβ overproduction, tau hyperphosphorylation, and somatodendritic translocation were also found in Cnga2 knockout mice. Our findings suggest that progressive olfactory loss leads to Alzheimer's-like behavior abnormities and pathological changes.

  13. Dopaminergic Neuronal Loss, Reduced Neurite Complexity and Autophagic Abnormalities in Transgenic Mice Expressing G2019S Mutant LRRK2

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Brian M.; Stafa, Klodjan; Kim, Jaekwang; Banerjee, Rebecca; Westerlund, Marie; Pletnikova, Olga; Glauser, Liliane; Yang, Lichuan; Liu, Ying; Swing, Deborah A.; Beal, M. Flint; Troncoso, Juan C.; McCaffery, J. Michael; Jenkins, Nancy A.; Copeland, Neal G.; Galter, Dagmar; Thomas, Bobby; Lee, Michael K.; Dawson, Ted M.; Dawson, Valina L.; Moore, Darren J.

    2011-01-01

    Mutations in the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) gene cause late-onset, autosomal dominant familial Parkinson's disease (PD) and also contribute to idiopathic PD. LRRK2 mutations represent the most common cause of PD with clinical and neurochemical features that are largely indistinguishable from idiopathic disease. Currently, transgenic mice expressing wild-type or disease-causing mutants of LRRK2 have failed to produce overt neurodegeneration, although abnormalities in nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurotransmission have been observed. Here, we describe the development and characterization of transgenic mice expressing human LRRK2 bearing the familial PD mutations, R1441C and G2019S. Our study demonstrates that expression of G2019S mutant LRRK2 induces the degeneration of nigrostriatal pathway dopaminergic neurons in an age-dependent manner. In addition, we observe autophagic and mitochondrial abnormalities in the brains of aged G2019S LRRK2 mice and markedly reduced neurite complexity of cultured dopaminergic neurons. These new LRRK2 transgenic mice will provide important tools for understanding the mechanism(s) through which familial mutations precipitate neuronal degeneration and PD. PMID:21494637

  14. Reduced histone H3K9 acetylation of clock genes and abnormal glucose metabolism in ob/ob mice.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa-Kobayashi, Eiko; Ushijima, Kentarou; Ando, Hitoshi; Maekawa, Tomohiro; Takuma, Masashi; Furukawa, Yusuke; Fujimura, Akio

    2012-10-01

    Recent chronobiological studies found significant correlation between lack of clock function and metabolic abnormalities. We previously showed that clock gene expressions were dampened in the peripheral tissues of obese and diabetic ob/ob mice. However, the molecular mechanism of the disturbance remained to be determined. In this study, we demonstrated for the first time that acetylation levels of histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9) at the promoter regions of clock genes, such as Dbp, Per2, and Bmal1, in the adipose tissue of ob/ob mice were significantly reduced compared with those of its control C57BL/6J mice. Treatment with histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors increased Dbp, but not Per2 or Bmal1, mRNA expression in adipose tissue, and it decreased blood glucose in these animals. In addition, 2-deoxyglucose uptake activity was significantly suppressed by silencing Dbp expression in cultured adipocytes. These results suggest that reduced H3K9 acetylation and subsequent decreased mRNA expression of the Dbp gene in adipose tissue are involved in the mechanism of development of abnormal glucose metabolism in ob/ob mice.

  15. Forelimb contractures and abnormal tendon collagen fibrillogenesis in fibulin-4 null mice.

    PubMed

    Markova, Dessislava Z; Pan, Te-Cheng; Zhang, Rui-Zhu; Zhang, Guiyun; Sasaki, Takako; Arita, Machiko; Birk, David E; Chu, Mon-Li

    2016-06-01

    Fibulin-4 is an extracellular matrix glycoprotein essential for elastic fiber formation. Mice deficient in fibulin-4 die perinatally because of severe pulmonary and vascular defects associated with the lack of intact elastic fibers. Patients with fibulin-4 mutations demonstrate similar defects, and a significant number die shortly after birth or in early childhood from cardiopulmonary failure. The patients also demonstrate skeletal and other systemic connective tissue abnormalities, including joint laxity and flexion contractures of the wrist. A fibulin-4 null mouse strain was generated and used to analyze the roles of fibulin-4 in tendon fibrillogenesis. This mouse model displayed bilateral forelimb contractures, in addition to pulmonary and cardiovascular defects. The forelimb and hindlimb tendons exhibited disruption in collagen fibrillogenesis in the absence of fibulin-4 as analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. Fewer fibrils were assembled, and fibrils were disorganized compared with wild-type controls. The organization of developing tenocytes and compartmentalization of the extracellular space was also disrupted. Fibulin-4 was co-localized with fibrillin-1 and fibrillin-2 in limb tendons by using immunofluorescence microscopy. Thus, fibulin-4 seems to play a role in regulating tendon collagen fibrillogenesis, in addition to its essential function in elastogenesis.

  16. Cerebral abnormalities in cocaine abusers: Demonstration by SPECT perfusion brain scintigraphy. Work in progress

    SciTech Connect

    Tumeh, S.S.; Nagel, J.S.; English, R.J.; Moore, M.; Holman, B.L. )

    1990-09-01

    Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) perfusion brain scans with iodine-123 isopropyl iodoamphetamine (IMP) were obtained in 12 subjects who acknowledged using cocaine on a sporadic to a daily basis. The route of cocaine administration varied from nasal to intravenous. Concurrent abuse of other drugs was also reported. None of the patients were positive for human immunodeficiency virus. Brain scans demonstrated focal defects in 11 subjects, including seven who were asymptomatic, and no abnormality in one. Among the findings were scattered focal cortical deficits, which were seen in several patients and which ranged in severity from small and few to multiple and large, with a special predilection for the frontal and temporal lobes. No perfusion deficits were seen on I-123 SPECT images in five healthy volunteers. Focal alterations in cerebral perfusion are seen commonly in asymptomatic drug users, and these focal deficits are readily depicted by I-123 IMP SPECT.

  17. Environmentally toxicant exposures induced intragenerational transmission of liver abnormalities in mice

    PubMed Central

    Al-Griw, Mohamed A.; Treesh, Soad A.; Alghazeer, Rabia O.; Regeai, Sassia O.

    2017-01-01

    Environmental toxicants such as chemicals, heavy metals, and pesticides have been shown to promote transgenerational inheritance of abnormal phenotypes and/or diseases to multiple subsequent generations following parental and/or ancestral exposures. This study was designed to examine the potential transgenerational action of the environmental toxicant trichloroethane (TCE) on transmission of liver abnormality, and to elucidate the molecular etiology of hepatocyte cell damage. A total of thirty two healthy immature female albino mice were randomly divided into three equal groups as follows: a sham group, which did not receive any treatment; a vehicle group, which received corn oil alone, and TCE treated group (3 weeks, 100 μg/kg i.p., every 4th day). The F0 and F1 generation control and TCE populations were sacrificed at the age of four months, and various abnormalities histpathologically investigated. Cell death and oxidative stress indices were also measured. The present study provides experimental evidence for the inheritance of environmentally induced liver abnormalities in mice. The results of this study show that exposure to the TCE promoted adult onset liver abnormalities in F0 female mice as well as unexposed F1 generation offspring. It is the first study to report a transgenerational liver abnormalities in the F1 generation mice through maternal line prior to gestation. This finding was based on careful evaluation of liver histopathological abnormalities, apoptosis of hepatocytes, and measurements of oxidative stress biomarkers (lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation, and nitric oxide) in control and TCE populations. There was an increase in liver histopathological abnormalities, cell death, and oxidative lipid damage in F0 and F1 hepatic tissues of TCE treated group. In conclusion, this study showed that the biological and health impacts of environmental toxicant TCE do not end in maternal adults, but are passed on to offspring generations. Hence

  18. Synaptic dysfunction and abnormal behaviors in mice lacking major isoforms of Shank3.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoming; McCoy, Portia A; Rodriguiz, Ramona M; Pan, Yanzhen; Je, H Shawn; Roberts, Adam C; Kim, Caroline J; Berrios, Janet; Colvin, Jennifer S; Bousquet-Moore, Danielle; Lorenzo, Isabel; Wu, Gangyi; Weinberg, Richard J; Ehlers, Michael D; Philpot, Benjamin D; Beaudet, Arthur L; Wetsel, William C; Jiang, Yong-Hui

    2011-08-01

    SHANK3 is a synaptic scaffolding protein enriched in the postsynaptic density (PSD) of excitatory synapses. Small microdeletions and point mutations in SHANK3 have been identified in a small subgroup of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and intellectual disability. SHANK3 also plays a key role in the chromosome 22q13.3 microdeletion syndrome (Phelan-McDermid syndrome), which includes ASD and cognitive dysfunction as major clinical features. To evaluate the role of Shank3 in vivo, we disrupted major isoforms of the gene in mice by deleting exons 4-9. Isoform-specific Shank3(e4-9) homozygous mutant mice display abnormal social behaviors, communication patterns, repetitive behaviors and learning and memory. Shank3(e4-9) male mice display more severe impairments than females in motor coordination. Shank3(e4-9) mice have reduced levels of Homer1b/c, GKAP and GluA1 at the PSD, and show attenuated activity-dependent redistribution of GluA1-containing AMPA receptors. Subtle morphological alterations in dendritic spines are also observed. Although synaptic transmission is normal in CA1 hippocampus, long-term potentiation is deficient in Shank3(e4-9) mice. We conclude that loss of major Shank3 species produces biochemical, cellular and morphological changes, leading to behavioral abnormalities in mice that bear similarities to human ASD patients with SHANK3 mutations.

  19. Abnormal Population Responses in the Somatosensory Cortex of Alzheimer’s Disease Model Mice

    PubMed Central

    Maatuf, Yossi; Stern, Edward A.; Slovin, Hamutal

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia. One of the neuropathological hallmarks of AD is the accumulation of amyloid-β plaques. Overexpression of human amyloid precursor protein in transgenic mice induces hippocampal and neocortical amyloid-β accumulation and plaque deposition that increases with age. The impact of these effects on neuronal population responses and network activity in sensory cortex is not well understood. We used Voltage Sensitive Dye Imaging, to investigate at high spatial and temporal resolution, the sensory evoked population responses in the barrel cortex of aged transgenic (Tg) mice and of age-matched non-transgenic littermate controls (Ctrl) mice. We found that a whisker deflection evoked abnormal sensory responses in the barrel cortex of Tg mice. The response amplitude and the spatial spread of the cortical responses were significantly larger in Tg than in Ctrl mice. At the network level, spontaneous activity was less synchronized over cortical space than in Ctrl mice, however synchronization during evoked responses induced by whisker deflection did not differ between the two groups. Thus, the presence of elevated Aβ and plaques may alter population responses and disrupts neural synchronization in large-scale networks, leading to abnormalities in sensory processing. PMID:27079783

  20. Transgenic mice with a mutated collagen promoter display normal response during bleomycin-induced fibrosis and possess neurological abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Stoddart, J H; Ladd, D; Bronson, R T; Harmon, M; Jaworski, J; Pritzker, C; Lausen, N; Smith, B D

    2000-02-01

    We have previously identified a potential TGF-beta activation element (TAE) in the rat collagen alpha1(I) promoter at -1624 upstream of the transcriptional start site [Ritzenthaler et al., 1991, 1993]. To determine the importance of the TAE in vivo, we produced transgenic mice carrying 3.6 kb of the rat collagen alpha1(I) promoter linked to the reporter gene chloramphenicol acetyl transferase with and without site-directed mutations that eliminate DNA-protein binding at the TAE site. Tissue-specific expression of the reporter gene in transgenic mice with the mutated collagen promoter was similar to that of transgenic mice with the normal promoter in two genetic backgrounds as judged by in situ hybridization, reporter assays, and immunochemistry. Endotracheal instillation of bleomycin induces lung fibrosis, mediated in part by TGF-beta. Earlier studies indicated that expression of wild-type collagen-reporter gene was upregulated in transgenic mice lungs in response to endotracheal instillation of bleomycin. A similar level of reporter gene upregulation was observed in transgenic mice carrying the mutation in the TAE. Two lines of transgenic mice carrying the mutated promoter construct displayed unexpected neurological abnormalities. In the FVB genetic background, there was a higher than normal incidence of mortality, spontaneous seizures, and an inability to nurture offspring. Histological evidence demonstrated clear abnormalities, including disorderly arrangement of neurons in the hippocampus and significant laminar cortical necrosis in the cerebrum in animals after seizures. In the C57Bl/6 background, there was a high incidence of severe communicating hydrocephalus, early runting, and increased mortality similar to that in transgenic animals with astroglial overexpression of TGF-beta. These animals provide an interesting model system to investigate molecular mechanisms responsible for seizures and hydrocephalus. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Activation of p38 MAPK pathway in the skull abnormalities of Apert syndrome Fgfr2+P253R mice

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Apert syndrome is characterized by craniosynostosis and limb abnormalities and is primarily caused by FGFR2 +/P253R and +/S252W mutations. The former mutation is present in approximately one third whereas the latter mutation is present in two-thirds of the patients with this condition. We previously reported an inbred transgenic mouse model with the Fgfr2 +/S252W mutation on the C57BL/6J background for Apert syndrome. Here we present a mouse model for the Fgfr2+/P253R mutation. Results We generated inbred Fgfr2+/P253R mice on the same C56BL/6J genetic background and analyzed their skeletal abnormalities. 3D micro-CT scans of the skulls of the Fgfr2+/P253R mice revealed that the skull length was shortened with the length of the anterior cranial base significantly shorter than that of the Fgfr2+/S252W mice at P0. The Fgfr2+/P253R mice presented with synostosis of the coronal suture and proximate fronts with disorganized cellularity in sagittal and lambdoid sutures. Abnormal osteogenesis and proliferation were observed at the developing coronal suture and long bones of the Fgfr2+/P253R mice as in the Fgfr2+/S252W mice. Activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) was observed in the Fgfr2+/P253R neurocranium with an increase in phosphorylated p38 as well as ERK1/2, whereas phosphorylated AKT and PKCα were not obviously changed as compared to those of wild-type controls. There were localized phenotypic and molecular variations among individual embryos with different mutations and among those with the same mutation. Conclusions Our in vivo studies demonstrated that the Fgfr2 +/P253R mutation resulted in mice with cranial features that resemble those of the Fgfr2+/S252W mice and human Apert syndrome. Activated p38 in addition to the ERK1/2 signaling pathways may mediate the mutant neurocranial phenotype. Though Apert syndrome is traditionally thought to be a consistent phenotype, our results suggest localized and regional variations in the

  2. Abnormal activation of the motor cortical network in idiopathic scoliosis demonstrated by functional MRI.

    PubMed

    Domenech, Julio; García-Martí, G; Martí-Bonmatí, L; Barrios, C; Tormos, J M; Pascual-Leone, A

    2011-07-01

    The aetiology of idiopathic scoliosis (IS) remains unknown, but there is growing support for the possibility of an underlying neurological disorder. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) can characterize the abnormal activation of the sensorimotor brain network in movement disorders and could provide further insights into the neuropathogenesis of IS. Twenty subjects were included in the study; 10 adolescents with IS (mean age of 15.2, 8 girls and 2 boys) and 10 age-matched healthy controls. The average Cobb angle of the primary curve in the IS patients was 35° (range 27°-55°). All participants underwent a block-design fMRI experiment in a 1.5-Tesla MRI scanner to explore cortical activation following a simple motor task. Rest periods alternated with activation periods during which participants were required to open and close their hand at an internally paced rate of approximately 1 Hz. Data were analyzed with Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM5) including age, sex and laterality as nuisance variables to minimise the presence of bias in the results. Compared to controls, IS patients showed significant increases in blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) activity in contralateral supplementary motor area when performing the motor task with either hand. No significant differences were observed when testing between groups in the functional activation in the primary motor cortex, premotor cortex and somatosensory cortex. Additionally, the IS group showed a greater interhemispheric asymmetry index than the control group (0.30 vs. 0.13, p < 0.001). This study demonstrates an abnormal pattern of brain activation in secondary motor areas during movement execution in patients with IS. These findings support the hypothesis that a sensorimotor integration disorder underlies the pathogenesis of IS.

  3. Age-dependent gait abnormalities in mice lacking the Rnf170 gene linked to human autosomal-dominant sensory ataxia.

    PubMed

    Kim, Youngsoo; Kim, Seong Hun; Kim, Kook Hwan; Chae, Sujin; Kim, Chanki; Kim, Jeongjin; Shin, Hee-Sup; Lee, Myung-Shik; Kim, Daesoo

    2015-12-20

    Really interesting new gene (RING) finger protein 170 (RNF170) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase known to mediate ubiquitination-dependent degradation of type-I inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (ITPR1). It has recently been demonstrated that a point mutation of RNF170 gene is linked with autosomal-dominant sensory ataxia (ADSA), which is characterized by an age-dependent increase of walking abnormalities, a rare genetic disorder reported in only two families. Although this mutant allele is known to be dominant, the functional identity thereof has not been clearly established. Here, we generated mice lacking Rnf170 (Rnf170(-/-)) to evaluate the effect of its loss of function in vivo. Remarkably, Rnf170(-/-) mice began to develop gait abnormalities in old age (12 months) in the form of asynchronous stepping between diagonal limb pairs with a fixed step sequence during locomotion, while age-matched wild-type mice showed stable gait patterns using several step sequence repertoires. As reported in ADSA patients, they also showed a reduced sensitivity for proprioception and thermal nociception. Protein blot analysis revealed that the amount of Itpr1 protein was significantly elevated in the cerebellum and spinal cord but intact in the cerebral cortex in Rnf170(-/-) mice. These results suggest that the loss of Rnf170 gene function mediates ADSA-associated phenotypes and this gives insights on the cure of patients with ADSA and other age-dependent walking abnormalities. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Cardiovascular abnormalities with normal blood pressure in tissue kallikrein-deficient mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meneton, Pierre; Bloch-Faure, May; Hagege, Albert A.; Ruetten, Hartmut; Huang, Wei; Bergaya, Sonia; Ceiler, Debbie; Gehring, Doris; Martins, Isabelle; Salmon, Georges; Boulanger, Chantal M.; Nussberger, Jürg; Crozatier, Bertrand; Gasc, Jean-Marie; Heudes, Didier; Bruneval, Patrick; Doetschman, Tom; Ménard, Joël; Alhenc-Gelas, François

    2001-02-01

    Tissue kallikrein is a serine protease thought to be involved in the generation of bioactive peptide kinins in many organs like the kidneys, colon, salivary glands, pancreas, and blood vessels. Low renal synthesis and urinary excretion of tissue kallikrein have been repeatedly linked to hypertension in animals and humans, but the exact role of the protease in cardiovascular function has not been established largely because of the lack of specific inhibitors. This study demonstrates that mice lacking tissue kallikrein are unable to generate significant levels of kinins in most tissues and develop cardiovascular abnormalities early in adulthood despite normal blood pressure. The heart exhibits septum and posterior wall thinning and a tendency to dilatation resulting in reduced left ventricular mass. Cardiac function estimated in vivo and in vitro is decreased both under basal conditions and in response to βadrenergic stimulation. Furthermore, flow-induced vasodilatation is impaired in isolated perfused carotid arteries, which express, like the heart, low levels of the protease. These data show that tissue kallikrein is the main kinin-generating enzyme in vivo and that a functional kallikrein-kinin system is necessary for normal cardiac and arterial function in the mouse. They suggest that the kallikrein-kinin system could be involved in the development or progression of cardiovascular diseases.

  5. Mitochondrial Lipid Abnormality and Electron Transport Chain Impairment in Mice Lacking α-Synuclein†

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Christopher E.; Murphy, Eric J.; Mitchell, Drake C.; Golovko, Mikhail Y.; Scaglia, Fernando; Barceló-Coblijn, Gwendolyn C.; Nussbaum, Robert L.

    2005-01-01

    The presynaptic protein α-synuclein, implicated in Parkinson disease (PD), binds phospholipids and has a role in brain fatty acid (FA) metabolism. In mice lacking α-synuclein (Snca−/−), total brain steady-state mass of the mitochondria-specific phospholipid, cardiolipin, is reduced 22% and its acyl side chains show a 51% increase in saturated FAs and a 25% reduction in essential n-6, but not n-3, polyunsaturated FAs. Additionally, 23% reduction in phosphatidylglycerol content, the immediate biosynthetic precursor of cardiolipin, was observed without alterations in the content of other brain phospholipids. Consistent with these changes, more ordered lipid head group and acyl chain packing with enhanced rotational motion of diphenylhexatriene (DPH) about its long axis were demonstrated in time-resolved DPH fluorescence lifetime experiments. These abnormalities in mitochondrial membrane properties were associated with a 15% reduction in linked complex I/III activity of the electron transport chain, without reductions in mitochondrial number, complex II/III activity, or individual complex I, II, III, or IV activity. Reduced complex I activity is thought to be a critical factor in the development of PD. Thus, altered membrane composition and structure and impaired complex I/III function in Snca−/− brain suggest a relationship between α-synuclein's role in brain lipid metabolism, mitochondrial function, and PD. PMID:16260631

  6. Knockout of G protein β5 impairs brain development and causes multiple neurologic abnormalities in mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jian-Hua; Pandey, Mritunjay; Seigneur, Erica M.; Panicker, Leelamma M.; Koo, Lily; Schwartz, Owen M.; Chen, Weiping; Chen, Ching-Kang; Simonds, William F.

    2011-01-01

    Gβ5 is a divergent member of the signal-transducing G protein β subunit family encoded by GNB5 and expressed principally in brain and neuronal tissue. Among heterotrimeric Gβ isoforms, Gβ5 is unique in its ability to heterodimerize with members of the R7 subfamily of the regulator of G protein signaling (RGS) proteins that contain G protein-γ like domains. Previous studies employing Gnb5 knockout (KO) mice have shown that Gβ5 is an essential stabilizer of such RGS proteins and regulates the deactivation of retinal phototransduction and the proper functioning of retinal bipolar cells. However, little is known of the function of Gβ5 in the brain outside the visual system. We show here that mice lacking Gβ5 have a markedly abnormal neurologic phenotype that includes impaired development, tiptoe-walking, motor learning and coordination deficiencies, and hyperactivity. We further show that Gβ5-deficient mice have abnormalities of neuronal development in cerebellum and hippocampus. We find that the expression of both mRNA and protein from multiple neuronal genes is dysregulated in Gnb5 KO mice. Taken together with previous observations from Gnb5 KO mice, our findings suggest a model in which Gβ5 regulates dendritic arborization and/or synapse formation during development, in part by effects on gene expression. PMID:21883221

  7. Demonstration of myenteric plexus abnormalities in genetic diseases by a microdissection technique: preliminary studies.

    PubMed

    Galvis, D A; Nakazato, Y; Wells, T R; Landing, B H

    1987-01-01

    Eighty-eight specimens of esophagus, small intestine, or colon from 45 patients, predominantly infants and children, with 30 different genetic diseases were analyzed by a microdissection technique for the following abnormalities of the Auerbach (myenteric) plexus: (1) abnormality of the pattern of the nervous network of the plexus, (2) abnormal fraction of neural tissue in the plane of the plexus, (3) abnormal size or appearance of the cytoplasm of the neurons of the plexus, and (4) abnormal number of neurons in the ganglia of the plexus. Seven of 8 specimens of esophagus from patients with neuronal storage diseases (infantile Niemann-Pick disease, Jansky-Bielschowsky disease, etc.) showed an increased fraction of neural tissue in the plane of the plexus, whereas 2 of 3 patients with Cockayne syndrome showed a reduced fraction, with abnormally slender interganglionic fibers. The fraction of neural tissue in the plane of the plexus was also abnormal at one or more levels in patients with adrenoleukodystrophy, ataxia telangiectasia, Krabbe disease, and juvenile metachromatic leukodystrophy. Abnormality of neuron size and cytology was seen in several neuronal lipidoses, including Jansky-Bielschowsky and Sandhoff diseases and juvenile GM2 gangliosidosis, with the most striking neuronal enlargement noted in infantile Niemann-Pick disease. Abnormalities of plexus mass or pattern, as well as those of neuronal cytoplasm and neuron number, offer improved insight into possible mechanisms producing gastrointestinal tract dysfunction (swallowing difficulty, gastroesophageal reflux, constipation, etc) in patients with genetic disorders.

  8. Metabolic abnormalities and hypoleptinemia in α-synuclein A53T mutant mice.

    PubMed

    Rothman, Sarah M; Griffioen, Kathleen J; Fishbein, Kenneth W; Spencer, Richard G; Makrogiannis, Sokratis; Cong, Wei-Na; Martin, Bronwen; Mattson, Mark P

    2014-05-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) patients frequently display loss of body fat mass and increased energy expenditure, and several studies have outlined a relationship between these metabolic abnormalities and disease severity, yet energy metabolism is largely unstudied in mouse models of PD. Here we characterize metabolic and physiologic responses to a high calorie diet (HCD) in mice expressing in neurons a mutant form of human α-synuclein (A53T) that causes dominantly inherited familial forms of the disease. A53T (SNCA) and wild type (WT) littermate mice were placed on a HCD for 12 weeks and evaluated for weight gain, food intake, body fat, blood plasma leptin, hunger, glucose tolerance, and energy expenditure. Results were compared with both SNCA and WT mice on a control diet. Despite consuming similar amounts of food, WT mice gained up to 66% of their original body weight on a HCD, whereas SNCA mice gained only 17%. Further, after 12 weeks on a HCD, magnetic resonance imaging analysis revealed that WT mice had significantly greater total and visceral body fat compared with SNCA mice (p < 0.007). At the age of 24 weeks SNCA mice displayed significantly increased hunger compared with WT (p < 0.03). At the age of 36 weeks, SNCA mice displayed significant hypoleptinemia compared with WT, both on a normal diet and a HCD (p < 0.03). The HCD induced insulin insensitivity in WT, but not SNCA mice, as indicated by an oral glucose tolerance test. Finally, SNCA mice displayed greater energy expenditure compared with WT, as measured in a Comprehensive Laboratory Animal Monitoring System, after 12 weeks on a HCD. Thus, SNCA mice are resistant to HCD-induced obesity and insulin resistance and display reduced body fat, increased hunger, hypoleptinemia and increased energy expenditure. Our findings reveal a profile of metabolic dysfunction in a mouse model of PD that is similar to that of human PD patients, thus providing evidence that α-synuclein pathology is sufficient to drive such

  9. Metabolic abnormalities and hypoleptinemia in α-synuclein A53T mutant mice

    PubMed Central

    Rothman, Sarah M.; Griffioen, Kathleen J.; Fishbein, Kenneth W.; Spencer, Richard G.; Makrogiannis, Sokratis; Cong, Wei-na; Martin, Bronwen; Mattson, Mark P.

    2013-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients frequently display loss of body fat mass and increased energy expenditure, and several studies have outlined a relationship between these metabolic abnormalities and disease severity, yet energy metabolism is largely unstudied in mouse models of PD. Here we characterize metabolic and physiologic responses to a high calorie diet (HCD) in mice expressing in neurons a mutant form of human α-synuclein (A53T) that causes dominantly inherited familial forms of the disease. A53T (SNCA) and wild type (WT) littermate mice were placed on a HCD for 12 weeks and evaluated for weight gain, food intake, body fat, blood plasma leptin, hunger, glucose tolerance, and energy expenditure. Results were compared to both SNCA and WT mice on a control diet. Despite consuming similar amounts of food, WT mice gained up to 66% of their original body weight on a HCD whereas SNCA mice gained only 17%. Further, after 12 weeks on a HCD, MRI analysis revealed that WT mice had significantly greater total and visceral body fat compared to SNCA mice (p<0.007). At 24 weeks of age SNCA mice displayed significantly increased hunger compared to WT (p<0.03). At 36 weeks of age, SNCA mice displayed significant hypoleptinemia compared to WT, both on a normal diet and a HCD (p<0.03). The HCD induced insulin insensitivity in WT, but not SNCA mice, as indicated by an oral glucose tolerance test. Finally, SNCA mice displayed greater energy expenditure compared to WT, as measured in a Comprehensive Lab Animal Monitoring System, after 12 weeks on a HCD. Thus, SNCA mice are resistant to HCD-induced obesity and insulin resistance and display reduced body fat, increased hunger, hypoleptinemia and increased energy expenditure. Our findings reveal a profile of metabolic dysfunction in a mouse model of PD that is similar to that of human PD patients, thus providing evidence that α-synuclein pathology is sufficient to drive such metabolic abnormalities and providing an animal

  10. Abnormalities in the WFU strain of Taenia crassiceps (Cyclophyllidea: Taeniidae) following years of propagation in mice.

    PubMed

    Aguilar-Vega, L; García-Prieto, L; Zurabian, R

    2016-09-01

    Asexually proliferating Taenia crassiceps (Zeder, 1800) metacestodes isolated within past decades have been successfully sub-cultured under experimental conditions using Mus musculus Linnaeus, 1758 mice. However, during their development, morphological irregularities of scolex structures have been reported in two of the three strains of this cestode species maintained in mice - ORF and KBS. The main goal of this work is to describe the abnormalities observed in a sample of 118 cysticerci of the third T. crassiceps strain used at present - WFU. Morphological abnormalities were detected in 39.8% of the evaginated scoleces; they consisted of supernumerary suckers (n= 2), duplicated (n= 2) or absent rostellum (n= 1), as well as absent or aberrant (n= 29) hooks, which were significantly shorter when compared to the large and short hook lengths referred to in the literature.

  11. Impaired hippocampal-dependent learning and functional abnormalities in the hippocampus in mice lacking serotonin1A receptors

    PubMed Central

    Sarnyai, Zoltán; Sibille, Etienne L.; Pavlides, Constantine; Fenster, Robert J.; McEwen, Bruce S.; Tóth, Miklós

    2000-01-01

    The hippocampus is a major limbic target of the brainstem serotonergic neurons that modulate fear, anxiety, and learning through postsynaptic serotonin1A receptors (5-HT1A receptors). Because chronic stress selectively down-regulates the 5-HT1A receptors in the hippocampus, we hypothesized that mice lacking these receptors may exhibit abnormalities reminiscent of symptoms of stress-related psychiatric disorders. In particular, a hippocampal deficit in the 5-HT1A receptor could contribute to the cognitive abnormalities often seen in these disorders. To test whether a deficit in 5-HT1A receptors impairs hippocampus-related functions, we studied hippocampal-dependent learning and memory, synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus, and limbic neuronal excitability in 5-HT1A-knockout (KO) mice. 5-HT1A-KO animals showed a deficit in hippocampal-dependent learning and memory tests, such as the hidden platform (spatial) version of the Morris water maze and the delayed version of the Y maze. The performance of KO mice was not impaired in nonhippocampal memory tasks such as the visible platform (nonspatial) version of the Morris water maze, the immediate version of the Y maze, and the spontaneous-alternation test of working memory. Furthermore, paired-pulse facilitation in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus was impaired in 5-HT1A-KO mice. Finally, 5-HT1A-KO mice, as compared with wild-type animals, displayed higher limbic excitability manifested as lower seizure threshold and higher lethality in response to kainic acid administration. These results demonstrate that 5-HT1A receptors are required for maintaining normal hippocampal functions and implicate a role for the 5-HT1A receptor in hippocampal-related symptoms, such as cognitive disturbances, in stress-related disorders. PMID:11121072

  12. Mice lacking the serotonin transporter exhibit 5-HT(1A) receptor-mediated abnormalities in tests for anxiety-like behavior.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Andrew; Yang, Rebecca J; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Crawley, Jacqueline N; Murphy, Dennis L

    2003-12-01

    The serotonin transporter (5-HTT) regulates serotonergic neurotransmission via clearance of extracellular serotonin. Abnormalities in 5-HTT expression or function are found in mood and anxiety disorders, and the 5-HTT is a major target for antidepressants and anxiolytics. The 5-HTT is further implicated in the pathophysiology of these disorders by evidence that genetic variation in the promoter region of the HTT (SLC6A4) is associated with individual differences in anxiety and neural responses to fear. To further evaluate the role of the 5-HTT in anxiety, we employed a mouse model in which the 5-HTT gene (htt) was constitutively inactivated. 5-HTT -/- mice were characterized for anxiety-related behaviors using a battery of tests (elevated plus maze, light<-->dark exploration test, emergence test, and open field test). Male and female 5-HTT -/- mice showed robust phenotypic abnormalities as compared to +/+ littermates, suggestive of increased anxiety-like behavior and inhibited exploratory locomotion. The selective 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist, WAY 100635 (0.05-0.3 mg/kg), produced a significant anxiolytic-like effect in the elevated plus maze in 5-HTT -/- mice, but not +/+ controls. The present findings demonstrate abnormal behavioral phenotypes in 5-HTT null mutant mice in tests for anxiety-like and exploratory behavior, and suggest a role for the 5-HT(1A) receptor in mediating these abnormalities. 5-HTT null mutant mice provide a model to investigate the role of the 5-HTT in mood and anxiety disorders.

  13. Persistent expression of Twist1 in chondrocytes causes growth plate abnormalities and dwarfism in mice.

    PubMed

    Guzzo, Rosa M; Andreeva, Viktoria; Spicer, Douglas B; Drissi, M Hicham

    2011-01-01

    Evidence from various in vitro gain and loss of function studies indicate that the bHLH transcription factor Twist1 negatively regulates chondrocyte differentiation; however limited information regarding Twist1 function in postnatal cartilage development and maintenance is available. Twist1 expression within the postnatal growth plate is restricted to immature, proliferating chondrocytes, and is significantly decreased or absent in hypertrophic chondrocytes. In order to examine the effect of maintaining the expression of Twist1 at later stages of chondocyte differentiation, we used type II collagen Cre (Col2-Cre) mice to activate a Cre-inducible Twist1 transgene specifically in chondrocytes (Col2-Twist1). At two weeks, postnatal growth was inhibited in Col2-Twist1 mice, as evidenced by limb shortening. Histological examination revealed abnormal growth plate structure, characterized by poor columnar organization of proliferating cartilaginous cells, decreased cellularity, and expansion of the hypertrophic zone. Moreover, structural defects within the growth plates of Col2-Twist1 transgenic mice included abnormal vascular invasion and focal regions of bony formation. Quantitative analysis of endochondral bone formation via micro-computed topography revealed impaired trabecular bone formation in the hindlimbs of Col2-Twist1 transgenic mice at various timepoints of postnatal development. Taken together, these findings indicate that regulated Twist1 expression contributes to growth plate organization and endochondral ossification to modulate postnatal longitudinal bone growth.

  14. Cognitive abnormalities and hippocampal alterations in monoamine oxidase A and B knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Singh, Chanpreet; Bortolato, Marco; Bali, Namrata; Godar, Sean C; Scott, Anna L; Chen, Kevin; Thompson, Richard F; Shih, Jean C

    2013-07-30

    The monoamine oxidase isoenzymes (MAOs) A and B play important roles in the homeostasis of monoaminergic neurotransmitters. The combined deficiency of MAO A and B results in significantly elevated levels of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine), norepinephrine, dopamine, and β-phenylethylamine; in humans and mice, these neurochemical changes are accompanied by neurodevelopmental perturbations as well as autistic-like responses. Ample evidence indicates that normal levels of monoamines in the hippocampus, amygdala, frontal cortex, and cerebellum are required for the integrity of learning and memory. Thus, in the present study, the cognitive status of MAO A/B knockout (KO) mice was examined with a wide array of behavioral tests. In comparison with male wild-type littermates, MAO A/B KO mice exhibited abnormally high and overgeneralized fear conditioning and enhanced eye-blink conditioning. These alterations were accompanied by significant increases in hippocampal long-term potentiation and alterations in the relative expression of NMDA glutamate receptor subunits. Our data suggest that chronic elevations of monoamines, because of the absence of MAO A and MAO B, cause functional alterations that are accompanied with changes in the cellular mechanisms underlying learning and memory. The characteristics exhibited by MAO A/B KO mice highlight the potential of these animals as a useful tool to provide further insight into the molecular bases of disorders associated with abnormal monoaminergic profiles.

  15. Thymic Stromal-Cell Abnormalities and Dysregulated T-Cell Development in IL-2-Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Reya, Tannishtha; Bassiri, Hamid; Biancaniello, Renée

    1998-01-01

    The role that interleukin-2 (IL-2) plays in T-cell development is not known. To address this issue, we have investigated the nature of the abnormal thymic development and autoimmune disorders that occurs in IL-2-deficient (IL-2–/–) mice. After 4 to 5 weeks of birth, IL-2–/– mice progressively develop a thymic disorder resulting in the disruption of thymocyte maturation. This disorder is characterized by a dramatic reduction in cellularity, the selective loss of immature CD4-8- (double negative; DN) and CD4+8+ (double positive; DP) thymocytes and defects in the thymic stromal-cell compartment. Immunohistochemical staining of sections of thymuses from specific pathogen-free and germ-free IL-2–/– mice of various ages showed a progressive ,loss of cortical epithelial cells, MHC class II-expressing cells, monocytes, and macrophages. Reduced numbers of macrophages were apparent as early as week after birth. Since IL-2–/– thymocyte progenitor populations could mature normally on transfer into a normal thymus, the thymic defect in IL-2–/– mice appears to be due to abnormalities among thymic stromal cells. These results underscore the role of IL-2 in maintaining functional microenvironments that are necessary to support thymocyte growth, development, and selection. PMID:9814585

  16. Abnormalities in itch sensation and skin barrier function in atopic NC/Tnd mice.

    PubMed

    Amagai, Yosuke; Matsuda, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Akane

    2013-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by dryness and itchy skin. Genetic factors as well as other factors, including abnormality in skin barrier function, hypersensitivity of itch sensory nerves, and dysfunction of the immune system, strongly affect the onset and exacerbation of AD. Recently, it has become clear that itch sensation is closely related to pain sensation. By using NC/Tnd mice, a unique spontaneous animal model for human AD, we found abnormalities in sensitivity against external stimuli as compared to two standard strains, BALB/c and B6 mice. Particularly, in conventional NC/Tnd mice with AD, stimulation against transient receptor potential (TRP) V1 reduced the scratching behavior, suggesting the possibility of a TRPV1 modulator in the treatment of atopic itch. The review outlines observations regarding itch sensation and skin barrier function in NC/Tnd mice by using a novel itch quantification system for the laboratory animals, which may bring great progress in the future study of itch.

  17. Biochemical and Phenotypic Abnormalities in Kynurenine Aminotransferase II-Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Ping; Di Prospero, Nicholas A.; Sapko, Michael T.; Cai, Tao; Chen, Amy; Melendez-Ferro, Miguel; Du, Fu; Whetsell, William O.; Guidetti, Paolo; Schwarcz, Robert; Tagle, Danilo A.

    2004-01-01

    Kynurenic acid (KYNA) can act as an endogenous modulator of excitatory neurotransmission and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several neurological and psychiatric diseases. To evaluate its role in the brain, we disrupted the murine gene for kynurenine aminotransferase II (KAT II), the principal enzyme responsible for the synthesis of KYNA in the rat brain. mKat-2−/− mice showed no detectable KAT II mRNA or protein. Total brain KAT activity and KYNA levels were reduced during the first month but returned to normal levels thereafter. In contrast, liver KAT activity and KYNA levels in mKat-2−/− mice were decreased by >90% throughout life, though no hepatic abnormalities were observed histologically. KYNA-associated metabolites kynurenine, 3-hydroxykynurenine, and quinolinic acid were unchanged in the brain and liver of knockout mice. mKat-2−/− mice began to manifest hyperactivity and abnormal motor coordination at 2 weeks of age but were indistinguishable from wild type after 1 month of age. Golgi staining of cortical and striatal neurons revealed enlarged dendritic spines and a significant increase in spine density in 3-week-old mKat-2−/− mice but not in 2-month-old animals. Our results show that gene targeting of mKat-2 in mice leads to early and transitory decreases in brain KAT activity and KYNA levels with commensurate behavioral and neuropathological changes and suggest that compensatory changes or ontogenic expression of another isoform may account for the normalization of KYNA levels in the adult mKat-2−/− brain. PMID:15282294

  18. Serotonergic involvement in the amelioration of behavioral abnormalities in dopamine transporter knockout mice by nicotine.

    PubMed

    Uchiumi, Osamu; Kasahara, Yoshiyuki; Fukui, Asami; Hall, F Scott; Uhl, George R; Sora, Ichiro

    2013-01-01

    Dopamine transporter knockout (DAT KO) mice exhibit elevated extracellular dopamine levels in brain regions that include the striatum and the nucleus accumbens, but not the prefrontal cortex. DAT KO mice model some aspects of psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia. Smoking is more common in patients with schizophrenia, suggesting that nicotine might ameliorate aspects of the behavioral abnormalities and/or treatment side effects seen in these individuals. We report nicotine-induced normalization of effects on locomotion and prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle (PPI) in DAT KO mice that require intact serotonin 5-HT1A systems. First, we observed that the marked hyperactivity displayed by DAT KO mice was reduced by administration of nicotine. This nicotine effect was blocked by pretreatment with the non-specific nicotinic acetylcholine (nACh) receptor antagonist mecamylamine, or the 5-HT1A antagonist WAY100635. Secondly, we examined the effects of nicotine on PPI in DAT KO mice. Treatment with nicotine significantly ameliorated the PPI deficits observed in DAT KO mice. The ameliorating action of nicotine on PPI deficits in DAT KO mice was blocked by mecamylamine, the α₇ nACh receptor antagonist methyllycaconitine or WAY100635, while the α₄β₂ nACh receptor antagonist dihydro-β-erythroidinehydrobromide (DHβE) produced only a non-significant trend toward attenuation of nicotine effects. Finally, we observed that administration of the 5-HT1A receptor agonist 8-OH-DPAT also ameliorated the deficit in PPI observed in DAT KO mice. This amelioration was antagonized by pretreatment with WAY100635. These data support the idea that nicotine might ameliorate some of the cognitive dysfunctions found in schizophrenia in a 5-HT1A-dependent fashion. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Cognitive Enhancers'.

  19. Fetal alcohol exposure leads to abnormal olfactory bulb development and impaired odor discrimination in adult mice

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Children whose mothers consumed alcohol during pregnancy exhibit widespread brain abnormalities and a complex array of behavioral disturbances. Here, we used a mouse model of fetal alcohol exposure to investigate relationships between brain abnormalities and specific behavioral alterations during adulthood. Results Mice drank a 10% ethanol solution throughout pregnancy. When fetal alcohol-exposed offspring reached adulthood, we used high resolution MRI to conduct a brain-wide screen for structural changes and found that the largest reduction in volume occurred in the olfactory bulbs. Next, we tested adult mice in an associative olfactory task and found that fetal alcohol exposure impaired discrimination between similar odors but left odor memory intact. Finally, we investigated olfactory bulb neurogenesis as a potential mechanism by performing an in vitro neurosphere assay, in vivo labeling of new cells using BrdU, and in vivo labeling of new cells using a transgenic reporter system. We found that fetal alcohol exposure decreased the number of neural precursor cells in the subependymal zone and the number of new cells in the olfactory bulbs during the first few postnatal weeks. Conclusions Using a combination of techniques, including structural brain imaging, in vitro and in vivo cell detection methods, and behavioral testing, we found that fetal alcohol exposure results in smaller olfactory bulbs and impairments in odor discrimination that persist into adulthood. Furthermore, we found that these abnormalities in olfactory bulb structure and function may arise from deficits in the generation of new olfactory bulb neurons during early postnatal development. PMID:21736737

  20. Inhibiting Monoacylglycerol Acyltransferase 1 Ameliorates Hepatic Metabolic Abnormalities but Not Inflammation and Injury in Mice*

    PubMed Central

    Soufi, Nisreen; Hall, Angela M.; Chen, Zhouji; Yoshino, Jun; Collier, Sara L.; Mathews, James C.; Brunt, Elizabeth M.; Albert, Carolyn J.; Graham, Mark J.; Ford, David A.; Finck, Brian N.

    2014-01-01

    Abnormalities in hepatic lipid metabolism and insulin action are believed to play a critical role in the etiology of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Monoacylglycerol acyltransferase (MGAT) enzymes convert monoacylglycerol to diacylglycerol, which is the penultimate step in one pathway for triacylglycerol synthesis. Hepatic expression of Mogat1, which encodes an MGAT enzyme, is increased in the livers of mice with hepatic steatosis, and knocking down Mogat1 improves glucose metabolism and hepatic insulin signaling, but whether increased MGAT activity plays a role in the etiology of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis is unclear. To examine this issue, mice were placed on a diet containing high levels of trans fatty acids, fructose, and cholesterol (HTF-C diet) or a low fat control diet for 4 weeks. Mice were injected with antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) to knockdown Mogat1 or a scrambled ASO control for 12 weeks while remaining on diet. The HTF-C diet caused glucose intolerance, hepatic steatosis, and induced hepatic gene expression markers of inflammation, macrophage infiltration, and stellate cell activation. Mogat1 ASO treatment, which suppressed Mogat1 expression in liver and adipose tissue, attenuated weight gain, improved glucose tolerance, improved hepatic insulin signaling, and decreased hepatic triacylglycerol content compared with control ASO-treated mice on HTF-C chow. However, Mogat1 ASO treatment did not reduce hepatic diacylglycerol, cholesterol, or free fatty acid content; improve histologic measures of liver injury; or reduce expression of markers of stellate cell activation, liver inflammation, and injury. In conclusion, inhibition of hepatic Mogat1 in HTF-C diet-fed mice improves hepatic metabolic abnormalities without attenuating liver inflammation and injury. PMID:25213859

  1. Chromosomal abnormalities in neutron-induced acute myeloid leukemias in CBA/H mice

    SciTech Connect

    Bouffler, S.D.; Meijne, E.I.M.; Huiskamp, R.

    1996-09-01

    Acute myeloid leukemias (AMLs) induced in CBA/H mice by 1 MeV fission neutrons have been examined for chromosomal abnormalities by G-band analysis. In common with X-ray- and {alpha}-particle-induced AMLs in CBA/H mice, more than 90% (16/17) of the myeloid leukemias had chromosome 2 abnormalities, in this case, all interstitial deletions. Chromosome 2 breakpoints were not wholly consistent, but clustering in three specific G-band regions was observed. Very distal (H-region) breakpoints were more common in the neutron AMLs than in X-ray- or {alpha}-particle-induced leukemias. These data indicate that neutron-induced AMLs in CBA/H mice are not characterized by a specific chromosome deletion but that a variety of chromosome 2 deletion types are associated with the disease. Trisomy of chromosome 1 (12.5% AMLs) and aneusomy of chromosomes 6 (31% AMLs) and Y (37.5% AMLs) were noted. While chromatid breakage was observed occasionally in neutron-induced AML, no clear indications of persistent chromosomal instability or high levels of stable chromosomal change were apparent. 19 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  2. Behavioral and regulatory abnormalities in mice deficient in the NPAS1 and NPAS3 transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Erbel-Sieler, Claudia; Dudley, Carol; Zhou, Yudong; Wu, Xinle; Estill, Sandi Jo; Han, Tina; Diaz-Arrastia, Ramon; Brunskill, Eric W; Potter, S Steven; McKnight, Steven L

    2004-09-14

    Laboratory mice bearing inactivating mutations in the genes encoding the NPAS1 and NPAS3 transcription factors have been shown to exhibit a spectrum of behavioral and neurochemical abnormalities. Behavioral abnormalities included diminished startle response, as measured by prepulse inhibition, and impaired social recognition. NPAS1/NPAS3-deficient mice also exhibited stereotypic darting behavior at weaning and increased locomotor activity. Immunohistochemical staining assays showed that the NPAS1 and NPAS3 proteins are expressed in inhibitory interneurons and that the viability and anatomical distribution of these neurons are unaffected by the absence of either transcription factor. Adult brain tissues from NPAS3- and NPAS1/NPAS3-deficient mice exhibited a distinct reduction in reelin, a large, secreted protein whose expression has been reported to be attenuated in the postmortem brain tissue of patients with schizophrenia. These observations raise the possibility that a regulatory program controlled in inhibitory interneurons by the NPAS1 and NPAS3 transcription factors may be either substantively or tangentially relevant to psychosis.

  3. Behavioral and regulatory abnormalities in mice deficient in the NPAS1 and NPAS3 transcription factors

    PubMed Central

    Erbel-Sieler, Claudia; Dudley, Carol; Zhou, Yudong; Wu, Xinle; Estill, Sandi Jo; Han, Tina; Diaz-Arrastia, Ramon; Brunskill, Eric W.; Potter, S. Steven; McKnight, Steven L.

    2004-01-01

    Laboratory mice bearing inactivating mutations in the genes encoding the NPAS1 and NPAS3 transcription factors have been shown to exhibit a spectrum of behavioral and neurochemical abnormalities. Behavioral abnormalities included diminished startle response, as measured by prepulse inhibition, and impaired social recognition. NPAS1/NPAS3-deficient mice also exhibited stereotypic darting behavior at weaning and increased locomotor activity. Immunohistochemical staining assays showed that the NPAS1 and NPAS3 proteins are expressed in inhibitory interneurons and that the viability and anatomical distribution of these neurons are unaffected by the absence of either transcription factor. Adult brain tissues from NPAS3- and NPAS1/NPAS3-deficient mice exhibited a distinct reduction in reelin, a large, secreted protein whose expression has been reported to be attenuated in the postmortem brain tissue of patients with schizophrenia. These observations raise the possibility that a regulatory program controlled in inhibitory interneurons by the NPAS1 and NPAS3 transcription factors may be either substantively or tangentially relevant to psychosis. PMID:15347806

  4. Inactivation of Ceramide Synthase 6 in Mice Results in an Altered Sphingolipid Metabolism and Behavioral Abnormalities*

    PubMed Central

    Ebel, Philipp; vom Dorp, Katharina; Petrasch-Parwez, Elisabeth; Zlomuzica, Armin; Kinugawa, Kiyoka; Mariani, Jean; Minich, David; Ginkel, Christina; Welcker, Jochen; Degen, Joachim; Eckhardt, Matthias; Dere, Ekrem; Dörmann, Peter; Willecke, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    The N-acyl chain length of ceramides is determined by the specificity of different ceramide synthases (CerS). The CerS family in mammals consists of six members with different substrate specificities and expression patterns. We have generated and characterized a mouse line harboring an enzymatically inactive ceramide synthase 6 (CerS6KO) gene and lacz reporter cDNA coding for β-galactosidase directed by the CerS6 promoter. These mice display a decrease in C16:0 containing sphingolipids. Relative to wild type tissues the amount of C16:0 containing sphingomyelin in kidney is ∼35%, whereas we find a reduction of C16:0 ceramide content in the small intestine to about 25%. The CerS6KO mice show behavioral abnormalities including a clasping abnormality of their hind limbs and a habituation deficit. LacZ reporter expression in the brain reveals CerS6 expression in hippocampus, cortex, and the Purkinje cell layer of the cerebellum. Using newly developed antibodies that specifically recognize the CerS6 protein we show that the endogenous CerS6 protein is N-glycosylated and expressed in several tissues of mice, mainly kidney, small and large intestine, and brain. PMID:23760501

  5. Trichloroethylene exposure aggravates behavioral abnormalities in mice that are deficient in superoxide dismutase.

    PubMed

    Otsuki, Noriyuki; Homma, Takujiro; Fujiwara, Hiroki; Kaneko, Kenya; Hozumi, Yasukazu; Shichiri, Mototada; Takashima, Mizuki; Ito, Junitsu; Konno, Tasuku; Kurahashi, Toshihiro; Yoshida, Yasukazu; Goto, Kaoru; Fujii, Satoshi; Fujii, Junichi

    2016-08-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) has been implicated as a causative agent for Parkinson's disease (PD). The administration of TCE to rodents induces neurotoxicity associated with dopaminergic neuron death, and evidence suggests that oxidative stress as a major player in the progression of PD. Here we report on TCE-induced behavioral abnormality in mice that are deficient in superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1). Wild-type (WT) and SOD1-deficient (Sod1(-/-)) mice were intraperitoneally administered TCE (500 mg/kg) over a period of 4 weeks. Although the TCE-administrated Sod1(-/-) mice showed marked abnormal motor behavior, no significant differences were observed among the experimental groups by biochemical and histopathological analyses. However, treating mouse neuroblastoma-derived NB2a cells with TCE resulted in the down regulation of the SOD1 protein and elevated oxidative stress under conditions where SOD1 production was suppressed. Taken together, these data indicate that SOD1 plays a pivotal role in protecting motor neuron function against TCE toxicity.

  6. Inactivation of ceramide synthase 6 in mice results in an altered sphingolipid metabolism and behavioral abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Ebel, Philipp; Vom Dorp, Katharina; Petrasch-Parwez, Elisabeth; Zlomuzica, Armin; Kinugawa, Kiyoka; Mariani, Jean; Minich, David; Ginkel, Christina; Welcker, Jochen; Degen, Joachim; Eckhardt, Matthias; Dere, Ekrem; Dörmann, Peter; Willecke, Klaus

    2013-07-19

    The N-acyl chain length of ceramides is determined by the specificity of different ceramide synthases (CerS). The CerS family in mammals consists of six members with different substrate specificities and expression patterns. We have generated and characterized a mouse line harboring an enzymatically inactive ceramide synthase 6 (CerS6KO) gene and lacz reporter cDNA coding for β-galactosidase directed by the CerS6 promoter. These mice display a decrease in C16:0 containing sphingolipids. Relative to wild type tissues the amount of C16:0 containing sphingomyelin in kidney is ∼35%, whereas we find a reduction of C16:0 ceramide content in the small intestine to about 25%. The CerS6KO mice show behavioral abnormalities including a clasping abnormality of their hind limbs and a habituation deficit. LacZ reporter expression in the brain reveals CerS6 expression in hippocampus, cortex, and the Purkinje cell layer of the cerebellum. Using newly developed antibodies that specifically recognize the CerS6 protein we show that the endogenous CerS6 protein is N-glycosylated and expressed in several tissues of mice, mainly kidney, small and large intestine, and brain.

  7. Carney triad, SDH-deficient tumors, and Sdhb+/- mice share abnormal mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Szarek, Eva; Ball, Evan R; Imperiale, Alessio; Tsokos, Maria; Faucz, Fabio R; Giubellino, Alessio; Moussallieh, François-Marie; Namer, Izzie-Jacques; Abu-Asab, Mones S; Pacak, Karel; Taïeb, David; Carney, J Aidan; Stratakis, Constantine A

    2015-06-01

    Carney triad (CTr) describes the association of paragangliomas (PGL), pulmonary chondromas, and gastrointestinal (GI) stromal tumors (GISTs) with a variety of other lesions, including pheochromocytomas and adrenocortical tumors. The gene(s) that cause CTr remain(s) unknown. PGL and GISTs may be caused by loss-of-function mutations in succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) (a condition known as Carney-Stratakis syndrome (CSS)). Mitochondrial structure and function are abnormal in tissues that carry SDH defects, but they have not been studied in CTr. For the present study, we examined mitochondrial structure in human tumors and GI tissue (GIT) of mice with SDH deficiency. Tissues from 16 CTr tumors (n=12), those with isolated GIST (n=1), and those with CSS caused by SDHC (n=1) and SDHD (n=2) mutations were studied by electron microscopy (EM). Samples of GIT from mice with a heterozygous deletion in Sdhb (Sdhb(+) (/-), n=4) were also studied by EM. CTr patients presented with mostly epithelioid GISTs that were characterized by plump cells containing a centrally located, round nucleus and prominent nucleoli; these changes were almost identical to those seen in the GISTs of patients with SDH. In tumor cells from patients, regardless of diagnosis or tumor type, cytoplasm contained an increased number of mitochondria with a 'hypoxic' phenotype: mitochondria were devoid of cristae, exhibited structural abnormalities, and were of variable size. Occasionally, mitochondria were small and round; rarely, they were thin and elongated with tubular cristae. Many mitochondria exhibited amorphous fluffy material with membranous whorls or cystic structures. A similar mitochondrial hypoxic phenotype was seen in Sdhb(+) (/-) mice. We concluded that tissues from SDH-deficient tumors, those from mouse GIT, and those from CTr tumors shared identical abnormalities in mitochondrial structure and other features. Thus, the still-elusive CTr defect(s) is(are) likely to affect mitochondrial function

  8. Cardiac and skeletal muscle abnormality in taurine transporter-knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Ito, Takashi; Oishi, Shohei; Takai, Mika; Kimura, Yasushi; Uozumi, Yoriko; Fujio, Yasushi; Schaffer, Stephen W; Azuma, Junichi

    2010-08-24

    Taurine, a sulfur-containing beta-amino acid, is highly contained in heart and skeletal muscle. Taurine has a variety of biological actions, such as ion movement, calcium handling and cytoprotection in the cardiac and skeletal muscles. Meanwhile, taurine deficiency leads various pathologies, including dilated cardiomyopathy, in cat and fox. However, the essential role of taurine depletion on pathogenesis has not been fully clarified. To address the physiological role of taurine in mammalian tissues, taurine transporter-(TauT-) knockout models were recently generated. TauTKO mice exhibited loss of body weight, abnormal cardiac function and the reduced exercise capacity with tissue taurine depletion. In this chapter, we summarize pathological profile and histological feature of heart and skeletal muscle in TauTKO mice.

  9. Genetic and functional analyses demonstrate a role for abnormal glycinergic signaling in autism

    PubMed Central

    Pilorge, Marion; Fassier, Coralie; Le Corronc, Hervé; Potey, Anaïs; Bai, Jing; De Gois, Stéphanie; Delaby, Elsa; Assouline, Brigitte; Guinchat, Vincent; Devillard, Françoise; Delorme, Richard; Nygren, Gudrun; Råstam, Maria; Meier, Jochen; Otani, Satoru; Cheval, Hélène; James, Victoria; Topf, Maya; Dear, Neil; Gillberg, Christopher; Leboyer, Marion; Giros, Bruno; Gautron, Sophie; Hazan, Jamilé; Harvey, Robert; Legendre, Pascal; Betancur, Catalina

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a common neurodevelopmental condition characterized by marked genetic heterogeneity. Recent studies of rare structural and sequence variants have identified hundreds of loci involved in ASD, but our knowledge of the overall genetic architecture and the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms remains incomplete. Glycine receptors (GlyRs) are ligand-gated chloride channels that mediate inhibitory neurotransmission in the adult nervous system but exert an excitatory action in immature neurons. GlyRs containing the α2 subunit are highly expressed in the embryonic brain, where they promote cortical interneuron migration and the generation of excitatory projection neurons. We previously identified a rare microdeletion of the X-linked gene GLRA2, encoding the GlyR α2 subunit, in a boy with autism. The microdeletion removes the terminal exons of the gene (GLRA2Δex8-9). Here, we sequenced 400 males with ASD and identified one de novo missense mutation, p.R153Q, absent from controls. In vitro functional analysis demonstrated that the GLRA2Δex8-9 protein failed to localize to the cell membrane, while the R153Q mutation impaired surface expression and dramatically reduced sensitivity to glycine. Very recently, an additional de novo missense mutation (p.N136S) was reported in a boy with ASD, and we show that this mutation also reduced cell surface expression and glycine sensitivity. Targeted glra2 knockdown in zebrafish induced severe axon branching defects, rescued by injection of wild-type but not GLRA2Δex8-9 or R153Q transcripts, providing further evidence for their loss-of-function effect. Glra2 knockout mice exhibited deficits in object recognition memory and impaired long-term potentiation in the prefrontal cortex. Taken together, these results implicate GLRA2 in non-syndromic ASD, unveil a novel role for GLRA2 in synaptic plasticity and learning and memory, and link altered glycinergic signaling to social and cognitive impairments

  10. Abnormal epithelial homeostasis in the cornea of mice with a destrin deletion

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, J.; Chen, L.; Urbanowicz, M. M.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose Dstncorn1 mice lack normal destrin expression and develop corneal abnormality shortly after birth such as epithelial hyperplasia and total vascularization. Thus, the mice serve as a model for ocular surface disorders. To determine the nature of epithelial defects, we examined whether epithelial homeostasis is altered in these corneas. Methods Dstncorn1 mice were crossed with ubiquitous GFP mice to generate a double homozygous line, GFP-Dstncorn1, and cell movements were determined by whole-mount histology and in vivo time-lapse microscopy, tracking the change of epithelial GFP patterns. Rates of cell division and the presence of label-retaining cells (LRCs) were determined by systemic bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU). Epithelial expression of keratins 8, 12, and 15, and MUC5AC were determined by whole-mount immunofluorescence. Results Epithelial cells in an adult GFP-Dstncorn1 cornea were generally immobile with no sign of directed movement for the entire life of the animal. These cells were not senescent because more than 70% of basal epithelial cells incorporated BrdU over a 24 h period. LRCs were widely distributed throughout a GFP-Dstncorn1 cornea. The epithelium of a GFP-Dstncorn1 cornea contained a mixed population of cells with a corneal and a conjunctival phenotype as judged by the expression of keratins and MUC5AC. Conclusions Epithelial cells of an adult GFP-Dstncorn1 cornea are generally stationary, mitotically active, and contain LRCs, indicating that the epithelium is self-sustained, which in turn suggests that epithelial stem cells are present within the cornea. Epithelial homeostasis of adult GFP-Dstncorn1 corneas is abnormal, mimicking that of a normal conjunctiva or a pathological, conjunctivalized cornea. PMID:18958303

  11. Blocking protein farnesylation improves nuclear shape abnormalities in keratinocytes of mice expressing the prelamin A variant in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuexia; Ostlund, Cecilia; Worman, Howard J

    2010-01-01

    Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is an accelerated aging disorder caused by mutations in LMNA leading to expression of a truncated prelamin A variant termed progerin. Whereas a farnesylated polypeptide is normally removed from the carboxyl-terminus of prelamin A during endoproteolytic processing to lamin A, progerin lacks the cleavage site and remains farnesylated. Cultured cells from human subjects with HGPS and genetically modified mice expressing progerin have nuclear morphological abnormalities, which are reversed by inhibitors of protein farnesylation. In addition, treatment with protein farnesyltransferase inhibitors improves whole animal phenotypes in mouse models of HGPS. However, improvement in nuclear morphology in tissues after treatment of animals has not been demonstrated. We therefore treated transgenic mice that express progerin in epidermis with the protein farnesyltransferase inhibitor FTI-276 or a combination of pravastatin and zoledronate to determine if they reversed nuclear morphological abnormalities in tissue. Immunofluorescence microscopy and "blinded" electron microscopic analysis demonstrated that systemic administration of FTI-276 or pravastatin plus zoledronate significantly improved nuclear morphological abnormalities in keratinocytes of transgenic mice. These results show that pharmacological blockade of protein prenylation reverses nuclear morphological abnormalities that occur in HGPS in vivo. They further suggest that skin biopsy may be useful to determine if protein farnesylation inhibitors are exerting effects in subjects with HGPS in clinical trials.

  12. Deficient melanocortin-4 receptor causes abnormal reproductive neuroendocrine profile in female mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaolin; Huang, Lili; Tan, Hwee Y; Li, Hongzhuo; Wan, Ying; Cowley, Michael; Veldhuis, Johannes D; Chen, Chen

    2017-03-01

    Deletion of the melanocortin-4-receptor (Mc4r) gene in mice causes hyperphagia, followed by hyperinsulinemia, obesity and progressive infertility. Evidence shows that the number of developed corpora lutea is reduced in obese MC4R-knockout (MC4R KO) female mice, but the mechanism is unclear. The effect of hyperphagia and obesity by MC4R KO on pulsatile luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion and ovulation remains unknown. In MC4R KO mice and wild-type littermates (WT LM) during the diestrus period throughout different ages, we examined and monitored their metabolic status, pulsatile LH profiles, follicular morphology and the number of corpora lutea. MC4R KO mice were hyperphagic, obese, hyperglycemic, hyperinsulinemic and demonstrated insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis. Irregular estrous cycles and significant changes in the LH secretion profiles were observed in sexually matured 16- to 28-week MC4R KO mice, without any difference in testosterone levels. In addition, MC4R KO mice at 16 weeks of age had significantly fewer corpora lutea than same age WT LM mice. The ovary examinations of MC4R KO mice at 28 weeks of age showed predominantly antral and preovulatory follicles with no corpora lutea. These findings were consistent with the decrease in total, pulsatile, mass and basal LH releases in MC4R KO mice. The characteristics of hormone profiles in obese MC4R KO mice indicate that MC4R plays an important role in regulating LH release, ovulation and reproductive ability probably via hyperphagia-induced obesity. Further study of correlation between metabolic and reproductive regulatory hormones is warranted to dissect the pathological mechanism underlying obesity-induced infertility.Free Chinese abstract: A Chinese translation of this abstract is freely available at http://www.reproduction-online.org/content/153/3/267/suppl/DC1. © 2017 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  13. Mice lacking synapsin III show abnormalities in explicit memory and conditioned fear.

    PubMed

    Porton, B; Rodriguiz, R M; Phillips, L E; Gilbert, J W; Feng, J; Greengard, P; Kao, H-T; Wetsel, W C

    2010-04-01

    Synapsin III is a neuron-specific phosphoprotein that plays an important role in synaptic transmission and neural development. While synapsin III is abundant in embryonic brain, expression of the protein in adults is reduced and limited primarily to the hippocampus, olfactory bulb and cerebral cortex. Given the specificity of synapsin III to these brain areas and because it plays a role in neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus, we investigated whether it may affect learning and memory processes in mice. To address this point, synapsin III knockout mice were examined in a general behavioral screen, several tests to assess learning and memory function, and conditioned fear. Mutant animals displayed no anomalies in sensory and motor function or in anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors. Although mutants showed minor alterations in the Morris water maze, they were deficient in object recognition 24 h and 10 days after training and in social transmission of food preference at 20 min and 24 h. In addition, mutants displayed abnormal responses in contextual and cued fear conditioning when tested 1 or 24 h after conditioning. The synapsin III knockout mice also showed aberrant responses in fear-potentiated startle. As synapsin III protein is decreased in schizophrenic brain and because the mutant mice do not harbor obvious anatomical deficits or neurological disorders, these mutants may represent a unique neurodevelopmental model for dissecting the molecular pathways that are related to certain aspects of schizophrenia and related disorders.

  14. Mice lacking synapsin III show abnormalities in explicit memory and conditioned fear

    PubMed Central

    Porton, Barbara; Rodriguiz, Ramona M.; Phillips, Lindsey E.; Gilbert, John W.; Feng, Jian; Greengard, Paul; Kao, Hung-Teh; Wetsel, William C.

    2010-01-01

    Synapsin III is a neuron-specific phosphoprotein that plays an important role in synaptic transmission and neural development. While synapsin III is abundant in embryonic brain, expression of the protein in adults is reduced and limited primarily to the hippocampus, olfactory bulb, and cerebral cortex. Given the specificity of synapsin III to these brain areas and because it plays a role in neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus, we investigated whether it may affect learning and memory processes in mice. To address this point, synapsin III knockout mice were examined in a general behavioral screen, several tests to assess learning and memory function, and conditioned fear. Mutant animals displayed no anomalies in sensory and motor function or in anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors. Although mutants showed minor alterations in the Morris water maze, they were deficient in object recognition 24 hr and 10 days after training and in social transmission of food preference at 20 min and 24 hr. Additionally, mutants displayed abnormal responses in contextual and cued fear conditioning when tested 1 or 24 hr after conditioning. The synapsin III knockout mice also showed aberrant responses in fear-potentiated startle. Since synapsin III protein is decreased in schizophrenic brain and because the mutant mice do not harbor obvious anatomical deficits or neurological disorders, these mutants may represent a unique neurodevelopmental model for dissecting the molecular pathways that are related to certain aspects of schizophrenia and related disorders. PMID:20050925

  15. Progressive dopaminergic alterations and mitochondrial abnormalities in LRRK2 G2019S knock in mice

    PubMed Central

    Yue, M.; Hinkle, K.; Davies, P.; Trushina, E.; Fiesel, F.; Christenson, T.; Schroeder, A.; Zhang, L.; Bowles, E.; Behrouz, B.; Lincoln, S.; Beevers, J.; Milnerwood, A.; Kurti, A.; McLean, P. J.; Fryer, J. D.; Springer, W.; Dickson, D.; Farrer, M.; Melrose, H.

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in the LRRK2 gene represent the most common genetic cause of late onset Parkinson’s disease. The physiological and pathological roles of LRRK2 are yet to be fully determined but evidence points towards LRRK2 mutations causing a gain in kinase function, impacting on neuronal maintenance, vesicular dynamics and neurotransmitter release. To explore the role of physiological levels of mutant LRRK2, we created knock in mice harboring the most common LRRK2 mutation G2019S in their own genome. We have performed comprehensive dopaminergic, behavioral and neuropathological analyses in this model up to 24 months of age. We find elevated kinase activity in the brain of both heterozygous and homozygous mice. Although normal at 6 months, by 12 months of age, basal and pharmacologically induced extracellular release of dopamine is impaired in both heterozygous and homozygous mice, corroborating previous findings in transgenic models over-expressing mutant LRRK2. Via in vivo microdialysis measurement of basal and drug- evoked extracellular release of dopamine and its metabolites, our findings indicate that exocytotic release from the vesicular pool is impaired. Furthermore, profound mitochondrial abnormalities are evident in the striatum of older homozygous G2019S mice, which are consistent with mitochondrial fission arrest. We anticipate the G2019S will be a useful pre-clinical model for further evaluation of early mechanistic events in LRRK2 pathogenesis and for second-hit approaches to model disease progression. PMID:25836420

  16. ABNORMAL RESPONSE OF MELANIN-CONCENTRATING HORMONE DEFICIENT MICE TO FASTING: HYPERACTIVITY AND REM SLEEP SUPPRESSION

    PubMed Central

    Willie, Jon T; Sinton, Christopher M; Maratos-Flier, Eleftheria; Yanagisawa, Masashi

    2008-01-01

    Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) is a hypothalamic neuropeptide that has been implicated in energy homeostasis. Pharmacological studies with MCH and its receptor antagonists have suggested additional behavioral roles for the neuropeptide in the control of mood and vigilance states. These suggestions have been supported by a report of modified sleep in the MCH-1 receptor knockout mouse. Here we found that MCH knockout (MCH−/−) mice slept less during both the light and dark phases under baseline conditions. In response to fasting, MCH−/− mice exhibited marked hyperactivity, accelerated weight loss and an exaggerated decrease in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Following a 6-h period of sleep deprivation, however, the sleep rebound in MCH−/− mice was normal. Thus MCH−/− mice adapt poorly to fasting, and their loss of bodyweight under this condition is associated with behavioral hyperactivity and abnormal expression of REM sleep. These results support a role for MCH in vigilance state regulation in response to changes in energy homeostasis and may relate to a recent report of initial clinical trials with a novel MCH-1 receptor antagonist. When combined with caloric restriction, the treatment of healthy, obese subjects with this compound resulted in some subjects experiencing vivid dreams and sleep disturbances. PMID:18809470

  17. Abnormal B-cell function in HTLV-I-tax transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Peebles, R S; Maliszewski, C R; Sato, T A; Hanley-Hyde, J; Maroulakou, I G; Hunziker, R; Schneck, J P; Green, J E

    1995-03-16

    Transgenic mice that carry the HTLV-I Tax gene develop an exocrinopathy with some similarities to Sjoegren's syndrome. Our experiments reveal that these mice have lymphadenopathy and splenomegaly composed primarily of B lymphocytes, as well as abnormal levels of secreted immunoglobulins. To gain insight into whether the lymphadenopathy manifested by these transgenic mice was the result of induction of cytokines by Tax, we utilized cell lines from these mice to study in vitro B-cell responses. Conditioned media (CM) derived from the cell lines caused B-cells to proliferate when a second signal, surface Ig cross-linking, was provided. The CM also caused a marked enhancement of IgM secretion by spleen cells or by purified B-cells treated with supplemental cytokines. The B-cell proliferative response and enhanced IgM secretion have not been attributed to a known cytokine. These results suggest that the CM from the cell lines contain a factor(s) involved in novel pathways of B-cell growth and differentiation that may participate in the pathologic development of autoimmune disease.

  18. Mice lacking desmocollin 1 show epidermal fragility accompanied by barrier defects and abnormal differentiation.

    PubMed

    Chidgey, M; Brakebusch, C; Gustafsson, E; Cruchley, A; Hail, C; Kirk, S; Merritt, A; North, A; Tselepis, C; Hewitt, J; Byrne, C; Fassler, R; Garrod, D

    2001-11-26

    The desmosomal cadherin desmocollin (Dsc)1 is expressed in upper epidermis where strong adhesion is required. To investigate its role in vivo, we have genetically engineered mice with a targeted disruption in the Dsc1 gene. Soon after birth, null mice exhibit flaky skin and a striking punctate epidermal barrier defect. The epidermis is fragile, and acantholysis in the granular layer generates localized lesions, compromising skin barrier function. Neutrophils accumulate in the lesions and further degrade the tissue, causing sloughing (flaking) of lesional epidermis, but rapid wound healing prevents the formation of overt lesions. Null epidermis is hyperproliferative and overexpresses keratins 6 and 16, indicating abnormal differentiation. From 6 wk, null mice develop ulcerating lesions resembling chronic dermatitis. We speculate that ulceration occurs after acantholysis in the fragile epidermis because environmental insults are more stringent and wound healing is less rapid than in neonatal mice. This dermatitis is accompanied by localized hair loss associated with formation of utriculi and dermal cysts, denoting hair follicle degeneration. Possible resemblance of the lesions to human blistering diseases is discussed. These results show that Dsc1 is required for strong adhesion and barrier maintenance in epidermis and contributes to epidermal differentiation.

  19. Abnormal Sperm Development in pcd3J-/- Mice: the Importance of Agtpbp1 in Spermatogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Nameun; Xiao, Rui; Choi, Hojun; Kim, Jin-Hoi; Sang-Jun, Uhm; Chankyu, Park

    2011-01-01

    Homozygous Purkinje cell degeneration (pcd) mutant males exhibit abnormal sperm development. Microscopic examination of the testes from pcd3J-/- mice at postnatal days 12, 15, 18 and 60 revealed histological differences, in comparison to wild-type mice, which were evident by day 18. Greatly reduced numbers of spermatocytes and spermatids were found in the adult testes, and apoptotic cells were identified among the differentiating germ cells after day 15. Our immunohistological analysis using an antihuman AGTPBP1 antibody showed that AGTPBP1 was expressed in spermatogenic cells between late stage primary spermatocytes and round spermatids. A global gene expression analysis from the testes of pcd3J-/- mice showed that expression of cyclin B3 and de-ubiquitinating enzymes USP2 and USP9y was altered by >1.5-fold compared to the expression levels in the wild-type. Our results suggest that the pcd mutant mice have defects in spermatogenesis that begin with the pachytene spermatocyte stage and continue through subsequent stages. Thus, Agtpbp1, the gene responsible for the pcd phenotype, plays an important role in spermatogenesis and is important for survival of germ cells at spermatocytes stage onward. PMID:21110128

  20. Mice lacking desmocollin 1 show epidermal fragility accompanied by barrier defects and abnormal differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Chidgey, Martyn; Brakebusch, Cord; Gustafsson, Erika; Cruchley, Alan; Hail, Chris; Kirk, Sarah; Merritt, Anita; North, Alison; Tselepis, Chris; Hewitt, Jane; Byrne, Carolyn; Fassler, Reinhard; Garrod, David

    2001-01-01

    The desmosomal cadherin desmocollin (Dsc)1 is expressed in upper epidermis where strong adhesion is required. To investigate its role in vivo, we have genetically engineered mice with a targeted disruption in the Dsc1 gene. Soon after birth, null mice exhibit flaky skin and a striking punctate epidermal barrier defect. The epidermis is fragile, and acantholysis in the granular layer generates localized lesions, compromising skin barrier function. Neutrophils accumulate in the lesions and further degrade the tissue, causing sloughing (flaking) of lesional epidermis, but rapid wound healing prevents the formation of overt lesions. Null epidermis is hyperproliferative and overexpresses keratins 6 and 16, indicating abnormal differentiation. From 6 wk, null mice develop ulcerating lesions resembling chronic dermatitis. We speculate that ulceration occurs after acantholysis in the fragile epidermis because environmental insults are more stringent and wound healing is less rapid than in neonatal mice. This dermatitis is accompanied by localized hair loss associated with formation of utriculi and dermal cysts, denoting hair follicle degeneration. Possible resemblance of the lesions to human blistering diseases is discussed. These results show that Dsc1 is required for strong adhesion and barrier maintenance in epidermis and contributes to epidermal differentiation. PMID:11714727

  1. No Obvious Abnormality in Mice Deficient in Receptor Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase β

    PubMed Central

    Harroch, S.; Palmeri, M.; Rosenbluth, J.; Custer, A.; Okigaki, M.; Shrager, P.; Blum, M.; Buxbaum, J. D.; Schlessinger, J.

    2000-01-01

    The development of neurons and glia is governed by a multitude of extracellular signals that control protein tyrosine phosphorylation, a process regulated by the action of protein tyrosine kinases and protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs). Receptor PTPβ (RPTPβ; also known as PTPζ) is expressed predominantly in the nervous system and exhibits structural features common to cell adhesion proteins, suggesting that this phosphatase participates in cell-cell communication. It has been proposed that the three isoforms of RPTPβ play a role in regulation of neuronal migration, neurite outgrowth, and gliogenesis. To investigate the biological functions of this PTP, we have generated mice deficient in RPTPβ. RPTPβ-deficient mice are viable, are fertile, and showed no gross anatomical alterations in the nervous system or other organs. In contrast to results of in vitro experiments, our study demonstrates that RPTPβ is not essential for neurite outgrowth and node formation in mice. The ultrastructure of nerves of the central nervous system in RPTPβ-deficient mice suggests a fragility of myelin. However, conduction velocity was not altered in RPTPβ-deficient mice. The normal development of neurons and glia in RPTPβ-deficient mice demonstrates that RPTPβ function is not necessary for these processes in vivo or that loss of RPTPβ can be compensated for by other PTPs expressed in the nervous system. PMID:11003666

  2. The α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor modulates autism-like behavioral and motor abnormalities in pentylenetetrazol-kindled mice.

    PubMed

    Takechi, Kenshi; Suemaru, Katsuya; Kiyoi, Takeshi; Tanaka, Akihiro; Araki, Hiroaki

    2016-03-15

    Epilepsy is associated with several psychiatric disorders, including cognitive impairment, autism and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, the psychopathology of epilepsy is frequently unrecognized and untreated in patients. In the present study, we investigated the effects of ABT-418, a neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist, on pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-kindled mice with behavioral and motor abnormalities. PTZ-kindled mice displayed impaired motor coordination (in the rotarod test), anxiety (in the elevated plus maze test) and social approach impairment (in the three-chamber social test) compared with control mice. ABT-418 treatment (0.05 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) alleviated these behavioral abnormalities in PTZ-kindled mice. Immunolabeling of tissue sections demonstrated that expression of the α4 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit in the medial habenula was similar in control and PTZ-kindled mice. However, expression was significantly decreased in the piriform cortex in PTZ-kindled mice. In addition, we examined the expression of the synaptic adhesion molecule neuroligin 3 (NLG3). NLG3 expression in the piriform cortex was significantly higher in PTZ-kindled mice compared with control mice. Collectively, our findings suggest that ADHD-like or autistic-like behavioral abnormalities associated with epilepsy are closely related to the downregulation of the α4 nicotinic receptor and the upregulation of NLG3 in the piriform cortex. In summary, this study indicates that ABT-418 might have therapeutic potential for attentional impairment in epileptic patients with psychiatric disorders such as autism and ADHD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. TallyHO obese female mice experience poor reproductive outcomes and abnormal blastocyst metabolism which is reversed by metformin

    PubMed Central

    Louden, Erica D.; Luzzo, Kerri M.; Jimenez, Patricia T.; Chi, Tiffany; Chi, Maggie; Moley, Kelle H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Obese women experience worse reproductive outcomes compared to normal weight women, specifically infertility, pregnancy loss, fetal malformations and developmental delay. The objective of this study was to use a genetic mouse model of obesity in order to recapitulate the human reproductive phenotype and further examine potential mechanisms and therapies. Methods New inbred, polygenic Type 2 diabetic TallyHO mice and age matched control C57BL/6 mice were superovulated to obtain morulae or blastocysts stage embryos which were cultured in human tubal fluid media. Deoxyglucose uptake was performed on insulin-stimulated individual blastocysts. Apoptosis was detected by confocal microscopy using TUNEL assay and Topro-3 nuclear dye. Embryos were scored for %TUNEL positive/total nuclei. AMPK activation, TNFα expression, and adiponectin expression were analyzed by western immunoblot and confocal immunofluorescent microscopy. Lipid accumulation was assayed by Bodipy. Finally all measured parameters were compared between TallyHO mice in morulaes cultured to blastocyst embryos in either human tubal fluid (HTF) media or HTF with 25ug/ml metformin added. Results TallyHo mice developed whole body abnormal insulin tolerance, decreased litter number and increased NEFA. Blastocysts demonstrated increased apoptosis, decreased insulin sensitivity, and decreased activation of AMP activated protein-kinase (AMPK). As a possible cause of the insulin resistance/abnormal P-AMPK, we found that Tumor necrosis Factor (TNFα) expression and lipid accumulation as detected by BODIPY were increased in TallyHO blastocysts and adiponectin was decreased. Culturing TallyHO morulae with the AMPK activator, metformin lead to a reversal of all abnormal findings, including increased p-AMPK, improved insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and normalization of lipid accumulation. Conclusions Women with obesity and insulin resistance experience poor pregnancy outcomes. Previously we have shown in mouse

  4. Prolyl 3-hydroxylase-1 null mice exhibit hearing impairment and abnormal morphology of the middle ear bone joints

    PubMed Central

    Pokidysheva, Elena; Tufa, Sara; Bresee, Chris; Brigande, John V.; Bächinger, Hans Peter

    2012-01-01

    Prolyl 3-hydroxylase1 (P3H1) is a collagen modifying enzyme which hydroxylates certain prolines in the Xaa position of conventional GlyXaaYaa triple helical sequence. Recent investigations have revealed that mutations in the LEPRE1 (gene encoding for P3H1) cause severe osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) in humans. Similarly LEPRE1 knockout mice display an OI-like phenotype. Significant hearing loss is a common problem for people with osteogenesis imperfecta. Here we report that hearing of the P3H1 null mice is substantially affected. Auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) of the P3H1 null mice show an average increase of 20–30 dB in auditory thresholds. Three dimensional reconstructions of the mutant middle ear bones by Micro-scale X-ray computed tomography (Micro-CT) demonstrate abnormal morphology of the incudostapedial and incudomalleal joints. We establish the LEPRE1 knockout mouse as a valuable model system to investigate the mechanism of hearing loss in recessive OI. PMID:23186870

  5. Lack of Tryptophan Hydroxylase-1 in Mice Results in Gait Abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Suidan, Georgette L.; Vanderhorst, Veronique; Hampton, Thomas G.; Wong, Siu Ling; Voorhees, Jaymie R.; Wagner, Denisa D.

    2013-01-01

    The role of peripheral serotonin in nervous system development is poorly understood. Tryptophan hydroxylase-1 (TPH1) is expressed by non-neuronal cells including enterochromaffin cells of the gut, mast cells and the pineal gland and is the rate-limiting enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of peripheral serotonin. Serotonin released into circulation is taken up by platelets via the serotonin transporter and stored in dense granules. It has been previously reported that mouse embryos removed from Tph1-deficient mothers present abnormal nervous system morphology. The goal of this study was to assess whether Tph1-deficiency results in behavioral abnormalities. We did not find any differences between Tph1-deficient and wild-type mice in general motor behavior as tested by rotarod, grip-strength test, open field and beam walk. However, here we report that Tph1 (−/−) mice display altered gait dynamics and deficits in rearing behavior compared to wild-type (WT) suggesting that tryptophan hydroxylase-1 expression has an impact on the nervous system. PMID:23516593

  6. ENU-mutagenesis mice with a non-synonymous mutation in Grin1 exhibit abnormal anxiety-like behaviors, impaired fear memory, and decreased acoustic startle response

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    deficits in social behaviors in three different social interaction tests. Conclusions This study demonstrated that the Grin1Rgsc174/Grin1+ mutation causes abnormal anxiety-like behaviors, a deficiency in fear memory, and a decreased startle amplitude in mice. Although Grin1Rgsc174/Grin1+ mice only partially recapitulate symptoms of patients with ADHD, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder, they may serve as a unique animal model of a certain subpopulation of patients with these disorders. PMID:23688147

  7. Normal human oral keratinocytes demonstrate abnormal DNA end joining activity during replicative senescence.

    PubMed

    Kang, Mo K; Shin, Ki-Hyuk; Yip, Felix K; Park, No-Hee

    2005-04-01

    Repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) is critical for the maintenance of cellular genetic integrity. DSBs are repaired by cellular end joining activity, which could proceed with varying degrees of accuracy. Abnormal end joining may lead to an accumulation of mutations and contribute to genetic instability and cellular aging. In the present study, we compared the efficiency and accuracy of end joining activities in exponentially replicating and senescing normal human oral keratinocytes (NHOK). We developed an in vitro end joining assay utilizing a plasmid linearized with a unique EcoR I or EcoR V restriction site. The efficiency of end joining was determined by PCR with primers that could amplify the fragment containing the end joining site. The accuracy of end joining was assessed by determining whether the original EcoR I site was restored after end joining. Both replicating and senescing cultures of NHOK yielded a similar level of end joining efficiency, which was noted by the similar intensity of PCR amplification. However, the frequency of end joining errors was significantly elevated in NHOK during replicative senescence. Senescing NHOK could thus accumulate abnormal end joining products, which might contribute to cellular aging and cancer.

  8. GPR40/FFAR1 deficient mice increase noradrenaline levels in the brain and exhibit abnormal behavior.

    PubMed

    Aizawa, Fuka; Nishinaka, Takashi; Yamashita, Takuya; Nakamoto, Kazuo; Kurihara, Takashi; Hirasawa, Akira; Kasuya, Fumiyo; Miyata, Atsuro; Tokuyama, Shogo

    2016-12-01

    The free fatty acid receptor 1 (GPR40/FFAR1) is a G protein-coupled receptor, which is activated by long chain fatty acids. We have previously demonstrated that activation of brain GPR40/FFAR1 exerts an antinociceptive effect that is mediated by the modulation of the descending pain control system. However, it is unclear whether brain GPR40/FFAR1 contributes to emotional function. In this study, we investigated the involvement of GPR40/FFAR1 in emotional behavior using GPR40/FFAR1 deficient (knockout, KO) mice. The emotional behavior in wild and KO male mice was evaluated at 9-10 weeks of age by the elevated plus-maze test, open field test, social interaction test, and sucrose preference test. Brain monoamines levels were measured using LC-MS/MS. The elevated plus-maze test and open field tests revealed that the KO mice reduced anxiety-like behavior. There were no differences in locomotor activity or social behavior between the wild and KO mice. In the sucrose preference test, the KO mice showed reduction in sucrose preference and intake. The level of noradrenaline was higher in the hippocampus, medulla oblongata, hypothalamus and midbrain of KO mice. Therefore, these results suggest that brain GPR40/FFAR1 is associated with anxiety- and depression-related behavior regulated by the increment of noradrenaline in the brain. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Mutant laboratory mice with abnormalities in hair follicle morphogenesis, cycling, and/or structure: an update.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Motonobu; Schneider, Marlon R; Schmidt-Ullrich, Ruth; Paus, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    Human hair disorders comprise a number of different types of alopecia, atrichia, hypotrichosis, distinct hair shaft disorders as well as hirsutism and hypertrichosis. Their causes vary from genodermatoses (e.g. hypotrichoses) via immunological disorders (e.g. alopecia areata, autoimmune cicatrical alopecias) to hormone-dependent abnormalities (e.g. androgenetic alopecia). A large number of spontaneous mouse mutants and genetically engineered mice develop abnormalities in hair follicle morphogenesis, cycling, and/or hair shaft formation, whose analysis has proven invaluable to define the molecular regulation of hair growth, ranging from hair follicle development, and cycling to hair shaft formation and stem cell biology. Also, the accumulating reports on hair phenotypes of mouse strains provide important pointers to better understand the molecular mechanisms underlying human hair growth disorders. Since numerous new mouse mutants with a hair phenotype have been reported since the publication of our earlier review on this matter a decade ago, we present here an updated, tabulated mini-review. The updated annotated tables list a wide selection of mouse mutants with hair growth abnormalities, classified into four categories: Mutations that affect hair follicle (1) morphogenesis, (2) cycling, (3) structure, and (4) mutations that induce extrafollicular events (for example immune system defects) resulting in secondary hair growth abnormalities. This synthesis is intended to provide a useful source of reference when studying the molecular controls of hair follicle growth and differentiation, and whenever the hair phenotypes of a newly generated mouse mutant need to be compared with existing ones. Copyright © 2012 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Abnormal gene expression in cerebellum of Npc1-/- mice during postnatal development

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Guanghong; Wen, Zhining; Irizarry, Kristopher; Huang, Ying; Mitsouras, Katherine; Darmani, Mariam; Leon, Terry; Shi, Leming; Bi, Xiaoning

    2010-01-01

    Niemann-Pick Type C disease is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder with abnormal lipid storage as the major cellular pathologic hallmark. Genetic analyses have identified mutations in NPC1 gene in the great majority of cases, while mutations in NPC2 account for the remainders. Yet, little is known regarding the cellular mechanisms responsible for NPC pathogenesis, especially for neurodegeneration, which is the usual cause of death. To identify critical steps that could account for the pathological manifestations of the disease in one of the most affected brain structures, we performed global gene expression analysis in the cerebellum from three-week old Npc1+/+ and Npc1-/- mice with two different microarray platforms (Agilent and Illumina). Differentially-expressed genes identified by both microarray platforms were then subjected to KEGG pathway analysis. Expression of genes in six pathways was significantly altered in Npc1-/- mice; functionally, these signaling pathways belong to the following three categories: 1) steroid and terpenoid biosynthesis, 2) immune response, and 3) cell adhesion/motility. In addition, the expression of several proteins involved in lipid transport was significantly altered in Npc1-/- mice. Our results provide novel molecular insight regarding the mechanisms of pathogenesis in NPC disease and reveal potential new therapeutic targets. PMID:20153740

  11. Autism-relevant social abnormalities in mice exposed perinatally to extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Alsaeed, Ibrahim; Al-Somali, Faisal; Sakhnini, Lama; Aljarallah, Omar S; Hamdan, Rayan M M; Bubishate, Saleh A; Sarfaraz, Ziyab Khan; Kamal, Amer

    2014-10-01

    The incidence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) has been rising, but the causes of ASD remain largely unidentified. Collective data have implicated the increased human exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) in the increasing incidence of ASD. There are established biological effects of extremely low-frequency (ELF) EMF, but the relation to ASD is not investigated enough. In this study we examined the effects of perinatal exposure to ELF EMF on some ASD-relevant behavioral parameters in mice. The EMF was delivered via a Helmholtz coil pair. Male BALB/C mice were used and divided into exposed and control groups (n=8 and n=9, respectively). Tests were used to assess sociability, preference for social novelty, locomotion, anxiety, exploratory behavior, motor coordination, and olfaction. The examined mice were all males and exposed to EMF during the last week of gestation and for 7 days after delivery. The exposed mice demonstrated a lack of normal sociability and preference for social novelty while maintaining normal anxiety-like behavior, locomotion, motor coordination, and olfaction. Exposed mice also demonstrated decreased exploratory activity. We concluded that these results are supportive of the hypothesis of a causal link between exposure to ELF-EMF and ASD; however, replications of the study with further tests are recommended.

  12. The ABNORMAL GAMETOPHYTES (AGM) gene product of Arabidopsis demonstrates a role in mitosis during gamete development.

    PubMed

    Sorensen, Anna-Marie; Kroeber, Sandra; Saedler, Heinz

    2004-07-01

    Screening a T-DNA mutagenized population of Arabidopsis thaliana for reduced seed set and segregation distortion led to the isolation of the ABNORMAL GAMETOPHYTES (AGM) mutant. Homozygous plants were never recovered, but heterozygous plants showed mitotic defects during gametogenesis resulting in approximately 50% abortion of both the male and female gametes. Isolation of the genomic sequence flanking the co-segregating T-DNA element led to the identification of a gene located on chromosome 5, predicted to encode a transmembrane protein. BLAST homology searches identified two homologous proteins that are not redundant, as is clear from the existence of the agm mutant. Unexpectedly, expression studies using the beta-glucuronidase reporter gene suggest that AGM and its closest Arabidopsis homolog are mostly expressed in cells undergoing mitosis. Thus, AGM is not a gametophytic gene as originally speculated on the basis of segregation distortion, but rather classified as an essential gene crucial to the process of mitosis in plants.

  13. Hemizygous Le-Cre Transgenic Mice Have Severe Eye Abnormalities on Some Genetic Backgrounds in the Absence of LoxP Sites

    PubMed Central

    Dorà, Natalie J.; Collinson, J. Martin; Hill, Robert E.; West, John D.

    2014-01-01

    Eye phenotypes were investigated in Le-CreTg/−; Pax6fl/+ mice, which were expected to show tissue-specific reduction of Pax6 in surface ectoderm derivatives. To provide a better comparison with our previous studies of Pax6+/− eye phenotypes, hemizygous Le-CreTg/− and heterozygous Pax6fl/+mice were crossed onto the CBA/Ca genetic background. After the Le-Cre transgene had been backcrossed to CBA/Ca for seven generations, significant eye abnormalities occurred in some hemizygous Le-CreTg/−; Pax6+/+ controls (without a floxed Pax6fl allele) as well as experimental Le-CreTg/−; Pax6fl/+ mice. However, no abnormalities were seen in Le-Cre−/−; Pax6fl/+ or Le-Cre−/−; Pax6+/+ controls (without the Le-Cre transgene). The severity and frequency of the eye abnormalities in Le-CreTg/−; Pax6+/+ control mice diminished after backcrossing Le-CreTg/− mice to the original FVB/N strain for two generations, showing that the effect was reversible. This genetic background effect suggests that the eye abnormalities are a consequence of an interaction between the Le-Cre transgene and alleles of unknown modifier genes present in certain genetic backgrounds. The abnormalities were also ameliorated by introducing additional Pax6 gene copies on a CBA/Ca background, suggesting involvement of Pax6 depletion in Le-CreTg/−; Pax6+/+ mice rather than direct action of Cre recombinase on cryptic pseudo-loxP sites. One possibility is that expression of Cre recombinase from the Pax6-Le regulatory sequences in the Le-Cre transgene depletes cofactors required for endogenous Pax6 gene expression. Our observation that eye abnormalities can occur in hemizygous Le-CreTg/−; Pax6+/+ mice, in the absence of a floxed allele, demonstrates the importance of including all the relevant genetic controls in Cre-loxP experiments. PMID:25272013

  14. Dietary Wolfberry Ameliorates Retinal Structure Abnormalities in db/db Mice at the Early Stage of Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Ling; Zhang, Yunong; Jiang, Yu; Willard, Lloyd; Ortiz, Edlin; Wark, Logan; Medeiros, Denis; Lin, Dingbo

    2011-01-01

    Hyperglycemia-linked oxidative stress and/or consequent endoplasmic reticulum stress are the causative factors of pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy. Dietary bioactive components which mitigate oxidative stress may serve as potential chemopreventative agents to prevent or slow down the disease progression. Wolfberry is a traditional Asian fruit consumed for years to prevent aging eye diseases in Asian countries. Here we report that dietary wolfberry ameliorated mouse retinal abnormality at the early stage of type 2 diabetes in db/db mice. Male mice at 6 weeks of age were fed the control diet with or without 1 % (kCal) wolfberry for 8 weeks. Dietary wolfberry restored the thickness of the whole retina, in particular the inner nuclear layer and photoreceptor layer, and the integrity of retinal pigment epithelia (RPE), and the ganglion cell number in db/db mice. Western blotting of whole retinal cell lysates revealed that addition of wolfberry lowered expression of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress biomarkers BiP, PERK, ATF6, and caspase-12; and restored AMPK, thioredoxin, Mn SOD, and FOXO3α activities. To determine if our observations were due to the high contents of zeaxanthin and lutein in wolfberry additional studies using these carotenoids were conducted. Using the human adult diploid RPE cell line ARPE-19 we demonstrated that both zeaxanthin and lutein could mimic wolfberry preventive effect on activation of AMPK, thioredoxin, Mn SOD, FOXO3α activities, normalize cellular reactive oxygen species, and attenuate ER stress in ARPE-19 cells exposed to a high glucose challenge. The zeaxanthin preventive effect was abolished by siRNA knockdown of AMPKα. These results suggested that AMPK activation appeared to play a key role in upregulated expression of thioredoxin and Mn SOD, and mitigation of cellular oxidative stress and/or ER stress by wolfberry and zeaxanthin and/or lutein. Taken together, dietary wolfberry on retinal protection in diabetic mice is, at least

  15. Congenital abnormality effect of methamphetamine on histological, cellular and chromosomal defects in fetal mice

    PubMed Central

    Mirjalili, Tahereh; Kalantar, Seyed Mehdi; Shams Lahijani, Maryam; Sheikhha, Mohamad Hasan; Talebi, Alireza

    2013-01-01

    Background: Methamphetamine (MA) is a potent psychomotor stimulant with high abuse and addictive potential. MA is a neurotoxic drug which is widely abused by females of childbearing age, raising serious public health concerns in terms of exposure of the fetus to the drug. Neurotoxic effects of MA on adult are well known, such as dopaminergic nerve terminal degeneration and cell death in regions of brain in some doses. Objective: In the present study, we examined effect of prenatal MA exposure on mouse fetuses. Materials and Methods: In this study, forty 8-12 week-old NMRI female mice were used which were mated with male mice in serial days. When sperm plug was observed it was designated as gestational day (GD) 0. Pregnant mice were individually housed in plastic cages. Pregnant mice were divided into four groups: in first group 10 mg/kg /day MA, in second group 5 mg/kg /day MA and in third group saline were injected subcutaneously from GD 6 to GD 14, corresponding to organogenesis period, while fourth or control group were without injection. On GD 14 fetuses were removed and accomplished chromosome preparation from fetal liver. Then fetal were fixed in formalin for brain hematoxilin and eosine staining and TUNEL assay. Results: We observed morphological abnormality including exencephal fetus in 5mg/kg MA group and premature fetuses in 10 mg/kg MA group. Also brain histological study showed subarachnoid hemorrhage in fetal brain in both experimental groups. Fetal liver karyotyping analysis was normal in fetuses of all groups and TUNEL assay in fetal striatum did not show significant difference in number of apoptotic cells between groups. Conclusion: From our results, it could be concluded that chronic abuse of MA by pregnant females during organogenesis period can cause teratogenic effect and brain hemorrage in fetus. PMID:24639691

  16. Excess TSH causes abnormal skeletal development in young mice with hypothyroidism via suppressive effects on the growth plate.

    PubMed

    Endo, Toyoshi; Kobayashi, Tetsuro

    2013-09-01

    Hypothyroidism in the young leads to irreversible growth failure. hyt/hyt Mice have a nonfunctional TSH receptor (TSHR) and are severely hypothyroid, but growth retardation was not observed in adult mice. We found that epiphysial cartilage as well as cultured chondrocytes expressed functional TSHR at levels comparable to that seen in the thyroid, and that addition of TSH to cultured chondrocytes suppressed expression of chondrocyte differentiation marker genes such as Sox-9 and type IIa collagen. Next, we compared the long bone phenotypes of two distinct mouse models of hypothyroidism: thyroidectomized (THYx) mice and hyt/hyt mice. Although both THYx and hyt/hyt mice were severely hypothyroid and had similar serum Ca(2+) and growth hormone levels, the tibia was shorter and the proliferating and hypertrophic zones in the growth plate was significantly narrower in THYx mice than in hyt/hyt mice. Supplementation of hyt/hyt mice thyroid hormone resulted in a wider growth plate compared with that of wild-type mice. Expressions of chondrocyte differentiation marker genes Sox-9 and type IIa collagen in growth plate from THYx mice were 52 and 60% lower than those of hyt/hyt mice, respectively. High serum TSH causes abnormal skeletal development in young mice with hypothyroidism via suppressive effects on the growth plate.

  17. Spleen hypoplasia leads to abnormal stress hematopoiesis in mice with loss of Pbx homeoproteins in splenic mesenchyme.

    PubMed

    Zewdu, Rediet; Risolino, Maurizio; Barbulescu, Alexandru; Ramalingam, Pradeep; Butler, Jason M; Selleri, Licia

    2016-07-01

    The spleen plays critical roles in immunity and also provides a permissive microenvironment for hematopoiesis. Previous studies have reported that the TALE-class homeodomain transcription factor Pbx1 is essential in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) for stem cell maintenance and progenitor expansion. However, the role of Pbx1 in the hematopoietic niche has not been investigated. Here we explored the effects that genetic perturbation of the splenic mesenchymal niche has on hematopoiesis upon loss of members of the Pbx family of homeoproteins. Splenic mesenchyme-specific inactivation of Pbx1 (SKO) on a Pbx2- or Pbx3-deficient genetic background (DKO) resulted in abnormal development of the spleen, which is dysmorphic and severely hypoplastic. This phenotype, in turn, affected the number of HSPCs in the fetal and adult spleen at steady state, as well as markedly impairing the kinetics of hematopoietic regeneration in adult mice after sub-lethal and lethal myelosuppressive irradiation. Spleens of mice with compound Pyx deficiency 8 days following sublethal irradiation displayed significant downregulation of multiple cytokine-encoding genes, including KitL/SCF, Cxcl12/SDF-1, IL-3, IL-4, GM-CSF/Csf2 IL-10, and Igf-1, compared with controls. KitL/SCF and Cxcl12/SDF-1 were recently shown to play key roles in the splenic niche in response to various haematopoietic stresses such as myeloablation, blood loss, or pregnancy. Our results demonstrate that, in addition to their intrinsic roles in HSPCs, non-cell autonomous functions of Pbx factors within the splenic niche contribute to the regulation of hematopoiesis, at least in part via the control of KitL/SCF and Cxcl12/SDF-1. Furthermore, our study establishes that abnormal spleen development and hypoplasia have deleterious effects on the efficiency of hematopoietic recovery after bone marrow injury. © 2016 Anatomical Society.

  18. In Utero Bisphenol A Exposure Induces Abnormal Neuronal Migration in the Cerebral Cortex of Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Wenting; Endo, Toshihiro; Kubo, Ken-ichiro; Nakajima, Kazunori; Kakeyama, Masaki; Tohyama, Chiharu

    2016-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) has been known to have endocrine-disrupting activity to induce reproductive and behavioral abnormalities in offspring of laboratory animal species. However, morphological basis of this abnormality during brain development is largely unknown. Cerebral cortex plays a crucial role in higher brain function, and its precisely laminated structure is formed by neuronal migration. In the present study, transfecting a plasmid (pCAG-mCherry) by in utero electroporation (IUE), we visualized developing neurons and investigated the possible effects of in utero BPA exposure on neuronal migration. Pregnant mice were exposed to BPA by osmotic pump at estimated daily doses of 0, 40 (BPA-40), or 400 (BPA-400) μg/kg from embryonic day 14.5 (E14.5) to E18.5. IUE was performed at E14.5 and neuronal migration was analyzed at E18.5. Compared with the control group, neuronal migration in the cortical plate was significantly decreased in the BPA-40 group; however, there was no significant difference in the BPA-400 group. Among several neuronal migration-related genes and cortical layer-specific genes, TrkB in the BPA-400 group was found significantly upregulated. In conclusion, in utero exposure to low BPA dose was found to disrupt neuronal migration in the cerebral cortex in a dose-specific manner. PMID:26869994

  19. In Utero Bisphenol A Exposure Induces Abnormal Neuronal Migration in the Cerebral Cortex of Mice.

    PubMed

    Ling, Wenting; Endo, Toshihiro; Kubo, Ken-Ichiro; Nakajima, Kazunori; Kakeyama, Masaki; Tohyama, Chiharu

    2016-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) has been known to have endocrine-disrupting activity to induce reproductive and behavioral abnormalities in offspring of laboratory animal species. However, morphological basis of this abnormality during brain development is largely unknown. Cerebral cortex plays a crucial role in higher brain function, and its precisely laminated structure is formed by neuronal migration. In the present study, transfecting a plasmid (pCAG-mCherry) by in utero electroporation (IUE), we visualized developing neurons and investigated the possible effects of in utero BPA exposure on neuronal migration. Pregnant mice were exposed to BPA by osmotic pump at estimated daily doses of 0, 40 (BPA-40), or 400 (BPA-400) μg/kg from embryonic day 14.5 (E14.5) to E18.5. IUE was performed at E14.5 and neuronal migration was analyzed at E18.5. Compared with the control group, neuronal migration in the cortical plate was significantly decreased in the BPA-40 group; however, there was no significant difference in the BPA-400 group. Among several neuronal migration-related genes and cortical layer-specific genes, TrkB in the BPA-400 group was found significantly upregulated. In conclusion, in utero exposure to low BPA dose was found to disrupt neuronal migration in the cerebral cortex in a dose-specific manner.

  20. Prolonged ambulant recordings of small bowel motility demonstrate abnormalities in the irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kellow, J E; Gill, R C; Wingate, D L

    1990-05-01

    Continuous 72-h recordings of duodenojejunal contractile activity were obtained from 20 freely ambulant subjects; pressure was detected by two strain-gauge sensors incorporated in a transnasal catheter attached to an encoder and a miniature tape recorder. The subjects were 12 patients with irritable bowel syndrome, 6 of whom were constipation predominant and 6 of whom were diarrhea predominant, and 8 healthy controls. The procedure was well tolerated by all subjects and did not interfere with sleep or normal activity. In all subjects, the diurnal migrating motor complex cycle was characterized by a brief phase 1 and a prolonged phase 2; this was reversed during sleep when phase 2 was virtually absent. All subjects showed a circadian variation in migrating motor complex propagation velocity, and there was no difference in the patterns of motor activity during sleep between any of the groups. During the day, the duration of postprandial motor activity was shorter in irritable bowel syndrome patients than in controls, and diurnal migrating motor complex intervals were shorter in diarrhea-predominant than in constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome. In 11 of 12 inflammatory bowel syndrome patients, episodes of clustered contractions recurring at 0.9-min intervals were noted; these episodes had a mean duration of 46 min and were often associated with transient abdominal pain and discomfort. In both groups of irritable bowel syndrome patients, defecation was significantly (p less than 0.01) prolonged with a greater number of voluntary abdominal contractions (p less than 0.01) than in controls. Prolonged ambulant monitoring of proximal bowel motor activity in subjects who are free to move, eat, and sleep as they choose has, for the first time, clearly defined the striking difference in motility between the sleeping and waking state and shown that abnormalities associated with irritable bowel syndrome are confined to the latter.

  1. Abnormal blood vessels formed by human liver cavernous hemangioma endothelial cells in nude mice are suitable for drug evaluation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wen-jian; Wu, Lian-qiu; Liu, Hong-lin; Ye, Li-ya; Xin, Yu-ling; Grau, Georges E; Lou, Jin-ning

    2009-12-01

    Cavernous hemangioma is vascular malformation with developmental aberrations. It was assumed that the abnormality of endothelial cells contributed greatly to the occurrence of cavernous hemangioma. In our previous study, we have found distinct characteristics of endothelial cells derived from human liver cavernous hemangioma (HCHEC). Here, we reported the abnormal vascular vessels formed by primary HCHEC in nude mice and that the drug podophyllotoxin can destroy HCHEC in vitro and in vivo. HCHEC was isolated from a human liver cavernous hemangioma specimen, and the HCHEC generated a red hemangioma-like mass 7 days after subcutaneously co-inoculating HCHEC and human liver cancer cells (Bel-7402) in nude mice. Lentiviral expression of GFP and immunohistochemistry for human CD31 was used to confirm that the HCHEC formed the blood vessels in nude mice. And the pathological features of vascular vessels formed by HCHEC were very similar to clinical cavernous hemangioma. In addition, by MTT assay, the drug podophyllotoxin was found inhibiting HCHEC viability, and by TUNEL and DNA ladder assays, podophyllotoxin was found inducing apoptosis of HCHEC. Moreover, podophyllotoxin was also effective for destroying the abnormal vascular vessels in the hemangioma-like mass in nude mice. In summary, the HCHEC can form abnormal blood vessels in nude mice, and we can evaluate drugs for cavernous hemangioma by using HCHEC in vitro and in vivo.

  2. The targeted overexpression of a Claudin mutant in the epidermis of transgenic mice elicits striking epidermal and hair follicle abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Troy, Tammy-Claire; Turksen, Kursad

    2007-06-01

    Skin is one of the largest organs of the body, and is formed during development through a highly orchestrated process involving mesenchymal-epithelial interactions, cell commitment, and terminal differentiation. It protects against microorganism invasion and UV irradiation, inhibits water loss, regulates body temperature, and is an important part of the immune system. Using transgenic mouse technology, we have demonstrated that Claudin (Cldn)-containing tight junctions (TJs) are intricately involved in cell signaling during epidermal differentiation and that an epidermal suprabasal overexpression of Cldn6 results in a perturbed epidermal terminal differentiation program with distinct phenotypic abnormalities. To delineate the role of the Cldn cytoplasmic tail domain in epidermal differentiation, we engineered transgenic mice targeting the overexpression of a Cldn6 cytoplasmic tail-truncation mutant in the epidermis. Transgenic mice were characterized by a lethal barrier dysfunction in addition to the existence of hyperproliferative squamous invaginations/cysts replacing hair follicles. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed an epidermal cytoplasmic accumulation of Cldn6, Cldn11, Cldn12, and Cldn18, downregulation of Cldn1 and aberrant expression of various classical markers of epidermal differentiation; namely the basal keratins as well as K1, involucrin, loricrin, and filaggrin. Collectively these studies suggest an important role for Cldns in epidermal/hair follicle differentiation programs likely involving cross talk to signaling pathways (e.g., Notch) directing cell fate selection and differentiation.

  3. Lack of protracted behavioral abnormalities following intermittent or continuous chronic mild hypoxia in perinatal C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Lima-Ojeda, Juan M; Vogt, Miriam A; Richter, S Helene; Dormann, Christof; Schneider, Miriam; Gass, Peter; Inta, Dragos

    2014-08-08

    Several prospective studies indicated perinatal hypoxia as risk factor for psychiatric disorders like schizophrenia. It is thought that hypoxia prior to or during birth may contribute to alterations leading to the protracted clinical manifestation during young adulthood. However, only a small fraction of children with a history of perinatal hypoxia develop later psychotic symptoms, therefore it is not known if hypoxia alone is sufficient to trigger long-term behavioral changes. Here we exposed C57BL/6 mice from postnatal day 3-7 (P3-P7) to two established paradigms of chronic mild hypoxia (10% ambient O2), intermittent and continuous. Subsequently, mice were analysed during young adult stages using several basic behavioral tests. Previous studies demonstrated severe, but only transient, cortical damage in these paradigms; it is not clear, if these reversible morphological changes are accompanied by long-term behavioral effects. We found that neither intermittent nor continuous perinatal hypoxia induced long-term behavioral alterations. This may be due to the high regenerative capacity of the perinatal brain. Other possibilities include a potential resistance to perinatal hypoxia of the mouse strain used here or a level of hypoxia that was insufficient to trigger significant behavioral changes. Therefore, our data do not exclude a role of perinatal hypoxia as risk factor for psychiatric disorders. They rather suggest that either other, more severe hypoxic conditions like anoxia, or the presence of additional factors (as genetic risk factors) are necessary for generating long-term behavioral abnormalities.

  4. Creating the Multiple Personality: An Experiential Demonstration for an Undergraduate Abnormal Psychology Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabinowitz, Fredric E.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses a classroom role-playing exercise in which students and teacher re-enact interviewing techniques that cause subjects to assume characteristics of the multiple personality. Demonstrates the social psychological aspects of multiple personality disorder. Considers the pedagogical and ethical implications of creating the multiple personality…

  5. Creating the Multiple Personality: An Experiential Demonstration for an Undergraduate Abnormal Psychology Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabinowitz, Fredric E.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses a classroom role-playing exercise in which students and teacher re-enact interviewing techniques that cause subjects to assume characteristics of the multiple personality. Demonstrates the social psychological aspects of multiple personality disorder. Considers the pedagogical and ethical implications of creating the multiple personality…

  6. Evolution of gait abnormalities in SOD1(G93A) transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Mancuso, Renzo; Oliván, Sara; Osta, Rosario; Navarro, Xavier

    2011-08-11

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the loss of upper and lower motoneurons. Clinically, it is manifested by weakness, muscle atrophy and progressive paralysis and ends up with patients' death 2-5 years after diagnosis. Although these symptoms lead in many cases to gait deficits in patients, an exhaustive locomotor profile of animal models mimicking the disease has not been assessed yet. In this work we evaluated the locomotor performance of the SOD1(G93A) mouse model of ALS using computerized treadmill gait analysis. SOD1(G93A) mice presented early (8 weeks of age) gait abnormalities, evidenced by an increase in the time of the propulsion phase of hindlimb stance. The alterations progressed during the disease until a complete disturbance of normal gait. This finding is meaningful to the field because the identification of a significant difference in a functional endpoint as early as 8 weeks might be a step forward resolving the debate about treatment of mice prior to the symptomatic phase in efficacy studies. These results also point out that digitizing analysis of treadmill locomotion may be useful to evaluate whether new therapeutic approaches are improving functional outcome of the animals.

  7. Studies on Brahma rasayana in male swiss albino mice: Chromosomal aberrations and sperm abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Guruprasad, K P; Mascarenhas, Roshan; Gopinath, P M; Satyamoorthy, K

    2010-01-01

    Ayurveda, the Indian holistic healthcare system encompasses traditional medicines with a principle of creating harmony and maintaining balance within the natural rhythms of the body. Rasayana is one of the branches of Ayurveda frequently used as rejuvenant therapy to overcome many discomforts and prevent diseases. It has been reported that rasayanas have immunomodulatory, antioxidant and antitumor functions. However, the genotoxic potential of many rasayanas remains to be evaluated. The present study was undertaken to assess the role of Brahma rasayana(BR) on genotoxicity in vivo in a mouse test system. The older mice (9 months) were orally fed with rasayana for 8 weeks. The treated groups showed no signs of dose-dependent toxicity at the dosage levels tested. The body weight loss/gain and feed consumption were unaffected at tested doses. Furthermore, sperm abnormalities and chromosomal aberrations were insignificant in the treatment group when compared to controls. However, there was a marginal increase in sperm count in the BR treated animals. These findings clearly indicate that there are no observed adverse genotoxic effects elicited by BR in experimental animals such as mice.

  8. Behavioral, Neurochemical and Neuroendocrine Effects of Abnormal Savda Munziq in the Chronic Stress Mice

    PubMed Central

    Amat, Nurmuhammat; Hoxur, Parida; Ming, Dang; Matsidik, Aynur; Kijjoa, Anake; Upur, Halmurat

    2012-01-01

    Oral administration of Abnormal Savda Munsiq (ASMq), a herbal preparation used in Traditional Uighur Medicine, was found to exert a memory-enhancing effect in the chronic stressed mice, induced by electric foot-shock. The memory improvement of the stressed mice was shown by an increase of the latency time in the step-through test and the decrease of the latency time in the Y-maze test. Treatment with ASMq was found to significantly decrease the serum levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), corticosterone (CORT) and β-endorphin (β-EP) as well as the brain and serum level of norepinephrine (NE). Furthermore, ASMq was able to significantly reverse the chronic stress by decreasing the brain and serum levels of the monoamine neurotransmitters dopamine (DA), 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPAC). The results obtained from this study suggested that the memory-enhancing effect of ASMq was mediated through regulations of neurochemical and neuroendocrine systems. PMID:22919413

  9. Abnormal sympathetic nervous system development and physiologic dysautonomia in Egr3-deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Eldredge, Laurie C.; Gao, Xiaoguang M.; Quach, David; Li, Lin; Han, Xiaoqiang; Lomasney, Jon; Tourtellotte, Warren G.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Sympathetic nervous system development depends upon many factors that mediate neuron migration, differentiation and survival. Target tissue-derived nerve growth factor (NGF) signaling-induced gene expression is required for survival, differentiation and target tissue innervation of post-migratory sympathetic neurons. However, the transcriptional regulatory mechanisms mediated by NGF signaling are very poorly defined. Here, we identify Egr3, a member of the early growth response (Egr) family of transcriptional regulators, to have an important role in sympathetic nervous system development. Egr3 is regulated by NGF signaling and it is expressed in sympathetic neurons during development when they depend upon NGF for survival and target tissue innervation. Egr3-deficient mice have severe sympathetic target tissue innervation abnormalities and profound physiologic dysautonomia. Unlike NGF which is essential for sympathetic neuron survival and axon branching within target tissues, Egr3 is required for normal terminal axon extension and branching, but not neuron survival. The results indicate that Egr3 is a novel NGF signaling effector which regulates sympathetic neuron gene expression required for normal target tissue innervation and function. Egr3-deficient mice have a phenotype that is remarkably similar to humans with sympathetic nervous system disease, raising the possibility that it may have a role in some forms of human dysautonomia, most of which have no known cause. PMID:18653557

  10. Studies on Brahma rasayana in male swiss albino mice: Chromosomal aberrations and sperm abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Guruprasad, K. P.; Mascarenhas, Roshan; Gopinath, P. M.; Satyamoorthy, K.

    2010-01-01

    Ayurveda, the Indian holistic healthcare system encompasses traditional medicines with a principle of creating harmony and maintaining balance within the natural rhythms of the body. Rasayana is one of the branches of Ayurveda frequently used as rejuvenant therapy to overcome many discomforts and prevent diseases. It has been reported that rasayanas have immunomodulatory, antioxidant and antitumor functions. However, the genotoxic potential of many rasayanas remains to be evaluated. The present study was undertaken to assess the role of Brahma rasayana(BR) on genotoxicity in vivo in a mouse test system. The older mice (9 months) were orally fed with rasayana for 8 weeks. The treated groups showed no signs of dose-dependent toxicity at the dosage levels tested. The body weight loss/gain and feed consumption were unaffected at tested doses. Furthermore, sperm abnormalities and chromosomal aberrations were insignificant in the treatment group when compared to controls. However, there was a marginal increase in sperm count in the BR treated animals. These findings clearly indicate that there are no observed adverse genotoxic effects elicited by BR in experimental animals such as mice. PMID:21829300

  11. Effects of dietary vitamin D on calcium and magnesium levels in mice with abnormal calcium metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Spurlock, B.G.; West, W.L.; Knight, E.M. )

    1991-03-11

    In previous studies vitamin D has been used to induce cardiac calcium overload in laboratory animals. Interrelationships between calcium and magnesium metabolism are also documented. The authors have investigated the effect of varying vitamin D in the diet on calcium and magnesium levels in plasma, kidney and heart of DBA mice which exhibit genetic abnormalities in cardiac calcium metabolism. Weanling DBA mice were maintained for 28 days on an AIN-76 diet containing either 1,000 I.U. of vitamin D{sub 3} per kg of diet (control); 4,000 I.U. of vitamin D{sub 3} per kg of diet; or no vitamin D. When compared to controls, supplemented animals showed significantly higher plasma magnesium, kidney calcium and kidney magnesium levels; animals receiving the vitamin D-deficient diet exhibited increases in cardiac calcium levels. The authors results support previous findings that vitamin D deficiency increases cardiac calcium uptake and suggest a possible role of vitamin D in magnesium metabolism.

  12. Immunologic abnormality in NZB/W F1 mice. Thymus-independent expansion of B cells responding to interleukin-6.

    PubMed Central

    Mihara, M; Fukui, H; Koishihara, Y; Saito, M; Ohsugi, Y

    1990-01-01

    We have previously reported that B cell abnormality in NZB/W F1 mice developed independently of thymus. Here we examined further whether B cells from NZB/W F1 mice respond to interleukin-6 (IL-6), a factor for terminal differentiation of B cells. When freshly isolated splenic B cells were incubated for 5 days in the presence of human IL-6, an increased production of both IgM and IgG, including anti-DNA antibody, was evident in NZB/W F1 mice; there was no increase in BALB/c mice. A magnitude of augmentation in IgG but not IgM production by IL-6 became more apparent in older NZB/W F1 mice. The increased immunoglobulin production seen with IL-6 was neutralized by treatment with rabbit anti-recombinant human IL-6 antibody. As B cells from athymic NZB/W F1 nude mice also responded to IL-6, it was suggested that B cells in NZB/W F1 mice differentiated into the IL-6-responding state in a thymus-independent manner. This B cell abnormality may be associated with the pathogenesis of autoimmune disease in NZB/W F1 mice. PMID:2265491

  13. Long-Term Administration of High-Fat Diet Corrects Abnormal Bone Remodeling in the Tibiae of Interleukin-6-Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Wei; Liu, Bo; Liu, Di; Hasegawa, Tomoka; Wang, Wei; Han, Xiuchun; Cui, Jian; Yimin; Oda, Kimimitsu; Amizuka, Norio; Li, Minqi

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to evaluate the influence of diet-induced obesity on IL-6 deficiency-induced bone remodeling abnormality. Seven-week-old IL-6-/- mice and their wild type (WT) littermates were fed a standard diet (SD) or high-fat diet (HFD) for 25 weeks. Lipid formation and bone metabolism in mice tibiae were investigated by histochemical analysis. Both IL-6-/- and WT mice fed the HFD showed notable body weight gain, thickened cortical bones, and adipose accumulation in the bone marrow. Notably, the HFD normalized the bone phenotype of IL-6-/- mice to that of their WT counterpart, as characterized by a decrease in bone mass and the presence of an obliquely arranged, plate-like morphology in the trabecular bone. Alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin expressions were attenuated in both genotypes after HFD feeding, especially for the IL-6-/- mice. Meanwhile, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining was inhibited, osteoclast apoptosis rate down-regulated (revealed by TUNEL assay), and the proportion of cathepsin K (CK)-positive osteoclasts significantly increased in IL-6-/- mice on a HFD as compared with IL-6-/- mice on standard chow. Our results demonstrate that HFD-induced obesity reverses IL-6 deficiency-associated bone metabolic disorders by suppressing osteoblast activity, upregulating osteoclastic activity, and inhibiting osteoclast apoptosis. PMID:26416243

  14. Long-Term Administration of High-Fat Diet Corrects Abnormal Bone Remodeling in the Tibiae of Interleukin-6-Deficient Mice.

    PubMed

    Feng, Wei; Liu, Bo; Liu, Di; Hasegawa, Tomoka; Wang, Wei; Han, Xiuchun; Cui, Jian; Yimin; Oda, Kimimitsu; Amizuka, Norio; Li, Minqi

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to evaluate the influence of diet-induced obesity on IL-6 deficiency-induced bone remodeling abnormality. Seven-week-old IL-6(-/-) mice and their wild type (WT) littermates were fed a standard diet (SD) or high-fat diet (HFD) for 25 weeks. Lipid formation and bone metabolism in mice tibiae were investigated by histochemical analysis. Both IL-6(-/-) and WT mice fed the HFD showed notable body weight gain, thickened cortical bones, and adipose accumulation in the bone marrow. Notably, the HFD normalized the bone phenotype of IL-6(-/-) mice to that of their WT counterpart, as characterized by a decrease in bone mass and the presence of an obliquely arranged, plate-like morphology in the trabecular bone. Alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin expressions were attenuated in both genotypes after HFD feeding, especially for the IL-6(-/-) mice. Meanwhile, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining was inhibited, osteoclast apoptosis rate down-regulated (revealed by TUNEL assay), and the proportion of cathepsin K (CK)-positive osteoclasts significantly increased in IL-6(-/-) mice on a HFD as compared with IL-6(-/-) mice on standard chow. Our results demonstrate that HFD-induced obesity reverses IL-6 deficiency-associated bone metabolic disorders by suppressing osteoblast activity, upregulating osteoclastic activity, and inhibiting osteoclast apoptosis. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Abnormal Mitochondrial Function and Impaired Granulosa Cell Differentiation in Androgen Receptor Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ruey-Sheng; Chang, Heng-Yu; Kao, Shu-Huei; Kao, Cheng-Heng; Wu, Yi-Chen; Yeh, Shuyuan; Tzeng, Chii-Reuy; Chang, Chawnshang

    2015-01-01

    In the ovary, the paracrine interactions between the oocyte and surrounded granulosa cells are critical for optimal oocyte quality and embryonic development. Mice lacking the androgen receptor (AR−/−) were noted to have reduced fertility with abnormal ovarian function that might involve the promotion of preantral follicle growth and prevention of follicular atresia. However, the detailed mechanism of how AR in granulosa cells exerts its effects on oocyte quality is poorly understood. Comparing in vitro maturation rate of oocytes, we found oocytes collected from AR−/− mice have a significantly poor maturating rate with 60% reached metaphase II and 30% remained in germinal vesicle breakdown stage, whereas 95% of wild-type AR (AR+/+) oocytes had reached metaphase II. Interestingly, we found these AR−/− female mice also had an increased frequency of morphological alterations in the mitochondria of granulosa cells with reduced ATP generation (0.18 ± 0.02 vs. 0.29 ± 0.02 µM/mg protein; p < 0.05) and aberrant mitochondrial biogenesis. Mechanism dissection found loss of AR led to a significant decrease in the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) co-activator 1-β (PGC1-β) and its sequential downstream genes, nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF1) and mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM), in controlling mitochondrial biogenesis. These results indicate that AR may contribute to maintain oocyte quality and fertility via controlling the signals of PGC1-β-mediated mitochondrial biogenesis in granulosa cells. PMID:25941928

  16. Positional cloning of Kreisler, a mutation that causes deafness and segmentation abnormalities in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Cordes, S.P.; Barsh, G.S.

    1994-09-01

    The identification and analysis of mouse deafness mutations is of great interest to human geneticists, not only because deafness is a common problem in clinical genetics, but also because the molecular mechanisms leading to deafness can underly fundamental aspects of mammalian development. Approximately 10 to 20 genes when mutated can lead to deafness in mice or in humans, but none have yet been identified at the molecular level. In mice homozygous for the kreisler (kr) mutation, abnormal development of the hindbrain and otic vesicle leads to neurosensory deafness and loss of vestibular function. Using the techniques of positional cloning combined with ENU mutagenesis, we have now cloned the kr gene and find that it predicts a transcription factor whose absence leads to defects in Hox gene expression and hindbrain segmentation. We used a backcross between different strains of laboratory mice to sublocalize kr on the meiotic map close to the Src gene on mouse chromosome 2. A probe from the Src gene detected high molecular weight restriction fragments of altered size in kr/kr DNA, suggesting that kr was due to a chromosomal rearrangement. Based on the meiotic map location of kr{sup ENU}, a new kr allele that we generated by ENU mutagenesis, cDNAs were selected from 8.5 day mouse embryos using genomic clones that spanned the distal inversion breakpoint. One cDNA that predicted a basic domain leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factor was found to be expressed in the caudal hindbrain, and was confirmed to encode the kr gene by analysis of the kr{sup ENU} allele, in which a Ser was substituted for an Asn residue conserved in the DNA binding domain of all known bZip family members. kr is not expressed in the otic vesicle, suggesting that abnormal otic development is a consequence of defects in hindbrain segmentation. kr is the first mammalian deafness gene to be isolated, and should provide insights into embryologic mechanisms that underly hindbrain and otic development.

  17. Oxytocin knockout mice demonstrate enhanced intake of sweet and nonsweet carbohydrate solutions.

    PubMed

    Sclafani, Anthony; Rinaman, Linda; Vollmer, Regis R; Amico, Janet A

    2007-05-01

    Oxytocin knockout (OT KO) mice display enhanced intake of nutritive and nonnutritive sweet solutions (i.e., sucrose and saccharin) compared with wild-type (WT) mice of the same C57BL/6 background strain. The present study further investigated the differential behavioral response of OT KO and WT mice to sucrose solutions and also examined intake preferences of OT KO and WT mice for palatable but nonsweet isocaloric solutions of carbohydrate and fat. A progressive ratio operant licking procedure demonstrated that OT KO and WT mice display a similar motivational drive to consume 10% sucrose. A series of two-bottle intake tests revealed that OT KO mice consume significantly larger amounts of both sweet and nonsweet carbohydrate solutions (i.e., sucrose, Polycose, and cornstarch) compared with WT cohorts. Intake pattern analyses revealed that OT KO mice overconsume carbohydrate solutions by initiating more drinking bouts compared with WT mice; bout sizes did not differ between the genotypes. In contrast, OT KO and WT mice did not differ in their intake of Intralipid, a palatable soybean oil emulsion. These findings indicate that the absence of OT in mice does not affect their appetitive drive to consume palatable sucrose solutions. Instead, the absence of OT may increase daily intake of palatable sweet and nonsweet solutions of carbohydrate (but not fat) by selectively blunting or masking processes that contribute to postingestive satiety.

  18. Abnormal thymic maturation and lymphoproliferation in MRL-Faslpr/lpr mice can be partially reversed by synthetic oligonucleotides: implications for systemic lupus erythematosus and autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ashman, R F; Singh, N; Lenert, P S

    2016-11-10

    MRL-Fas (lpr/lpr) mice represent an excellent animal model for studying non-malignant lymphoproliferation, regeneration and systemic autoimmunity. Retro-transposon insertion into the second intron of the pro-apoptotic Fas gene appears to be responsible for both lymphoproliferation and autoimmunity, while other genes are more likely to contribute to the regenerative healing characteristic of this mouse strain. Previous studies have shown that neonatal thymectomy can halt the development of abnormal lymphoproliferation. Whereas at four weeks of age primary and secondary lymphoid organs appear to be grossly intact, vigorous lymphoproliferation and autoantibody production subsequently ensues. This is first noticeable at six weeks of age, at which time lymph nodes, spleens and thymuses, but not the bone marrow, become infiltrated with abnormal B220(+)CD3(+)CD4(-)CD8(-) T cells. Around the same time, thymuses show a significant drop in CD4(+)CD8(+)double-positive T cells generating an abnormal ratio between double-positive and single-positive thymocytes. The objective of current study was to evaluate the effect of synthetic oligonucleotides-toll-like receptor antagonists on early lymphoid development in this strain of mice. Herein, we demonstrate the ability of synthetic oligonucleotides made with the nuclease-resistant phosphorothioate backbone to partially reverse abnormal lymphoproliferation and thymic involution in pre-diseased MRL-Fas (lpr/lpr) mice when administered intraperitoneally starting from week four of age. This curative effect of oligonucleotides was primary sequence/secondary oligonucleotide structure-independent, suggesting an effect through the toll-like receptor 7. A similar approach may potentially benefit patients with autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome who, like MRL-Fas (lpr/lpr) mice, carry a mutation in the Fas gene.

  19. Transgenic sickle cell trait mice do not exhibit abnormal thermoregulatory and stress responses to heat shock exposure.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yifan; Islam, Aminul

    2016-07-01

    There remains controversy over whether individuals with sickle cell trait (SCT) are vulnerable to health risks during physical activity in high temperatures. We examined thermoregulatory and stress-related responses to heat exposure in SCT and wild-type (WT) mice. No significant differences in core temperature (Tc) were observed between SCT and WT mice during heat exposure. There was no correlation between peak Tc during heat exposure and levels of hemoglobin S in SCT mice. Basal levels of circulating inflammatory and stress-related markers were not significantly different between SCT and WT mice. Although heat exposure caused significant increases in plasma interleukins 1β and 6, and 8-isoprostane in SCT and WT mice, no differences were found between SCT and WT mice with similar thermal response profiles during heat exposure. SCT mice had significantly higher expression of heat shock protein 72 in heart, liver and gastrocnemius muscle than WT mice under control and post-heat conditions. In conclusion, there is neither thermoregulatory dysfunction nor abnormal stress-related response in SCT mice exposed to moderate heat. The hemoglobin variant in mice is associated with altered tissue stress protein homeostasis.

  20. Loss of DJ-1 elicits retinal abnormalities, visual dysfunction, and increased oxidative stress in mice

    PubMed Central

    Bonilha, Vera L.; Bell, Brent A.; Rayborn, Mary E.; Yang, Xiaoping; Kaul, Charlie; Grossman, Gregory H.; Samuels, Ivy S.; Hollyfield, Joe G.; Xie, Chengsong; Cai, Huaibin; Shadrach, Karen G.

    2015-01-01

    DJ-1/PARK7 mutations or deletions cause autosomal recessive early onset Parkinson’s disease (PD). Thus, DJ-1 protein has been extensively studied in brain and neurons. PD patients display visual symptoms; however, the visual symptoms specifically attributed to PD patients carrying DJ-1/PARK7 mutations are not known. In this study, we analyzed the structure and physiology of retinas of 3- and 6-month-old DJ-1 knockout (KO) mice to determine how loss of function of DJ-1 specifically contributes to the phenotypes observed in PD patients. As compared to controls, the DJ-1 KO mice displayed an increase in the amplitude of the scotopic ERG b-wave and cone ERG, while the amplitude of a subset of the dc-ERG components were decreased. The main structural changes in the DJ-1 KO retinas were found in the outer plexiform layer (OPL), photoreceptors and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), which were observed at 3 months and progressively increased at 6 months. RPE thinning and structural changes within the OPL were observed in the retinas in DJ-1 KO mice. DJ-1 KO retinas also exhibited disorganized outer segments, central decrease in red/green cone opsin staining, decreased labeling of ezrin, broader distribution of ribeye labeling, decreased tyrosine hydroxylase in dopaminergic neurons, and increased 7,8- dihydro-8-oxoguanine-labeled DNA oxidation. Accelerated outer retinal atrophy was observed in DJ-1 KO mice after selective oxidative damage induced by a single tail vein injection of NaIO3, exposing increased susceptibility to oxidative stress. Our data indicate that DJ-1-deficient retinas exhibit signs of morphological abnormalities and physiological dysfunction in association with increased oxidative stress. Degeneration of RPE cells in association with oxidative stress is a key hallmark of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Therefore, in addition to detailing the visual defects that occur as a result of the absence of DJ-1, our data is also relevant to AMD

  1. Cntnap2 Knockout Rats and Mice Exhibit Epileptiform Activity and Abnormal Sleep-Wake Physiology.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Alexia M; Schwartz, Michael D; Saxe, Michael D; Kilduff, Thomas S

    2017-01-01

    Although recent innovations have enabled modification of the rat genome, it is unclear whether enhanced utility of rodents as human disease models will result. We compared electroencephalogram (EEG) and behavioral phenotypes of rats and mice with homozygous deletion of Cntnap2, a gene associated with cortical dysplasia-focal epilepsy (CDFE) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Male contactin-associated protein-like 2 (Cntnap2) knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) rats and male Cntnap2 KO and WT mice were implanted with telemeters to record EEG, electromyogram, body temperature, and locomotor activity. Animals were subjected to a test battery for ASD-related behaviors, followed by 24-hr EEG recordings that were analyzed for sleep-wake parameters and subjected to spectral analysis. Cntnap2 KO rats exhibited severe motor seizures, hyperactivity, and increased consolidation of wakefulness and REM sleep. By contrast, Cntnap2 KO mice demonstrated absence seizure-like events, hypoactivity, and wake fragmentation. Although seizures observed in Cntnap2 KO rats were more similar to those in CDFE patients than in KO mice, neither model fully recapitulated the full spectrum of disease symptoms. However, KOs in both species had reduced spectral power in the alpha (9-12 Hz) range during wake, suggesting a conserved EEG biomarker. Deletion of Cntnap2 impacts similar behaviors and EEG measures in rats and mice, but with profound differences in nature and phenotypic severity. These observations highlight the importance of cross-species comparisons to understand conserved gene functions and the limitations of single- species models to provide translational insights relevant to human diseases.

  2. Molecular detection of chromosomal abnormalities in germ and somatic cells of aged male mice

    SciTech Connect

    Lowe, X.; Baulch, J.; Quintana, L.; Ramsey, M.; Breneman, J.; Tucker, J.; Wyrobek, A.; Collins, B.; Allen, J.; Holland, N.

    1994-12-31

    Three cytogenetic methods were applied to eight B6C3F1 male mice aged 22.5 - 30.5mo to determine if advanced age was associated with an elevated risk of producing chromosomally defective germinal and somatic cells; sperm aneuploidy analysis by multi-color fluorescence in situ hybridization for three chromosomes, spermatid micronucleus analysis with anti-kinetochore antibodies, and translocation analysis of somatic metaphases by {open_quotes}painting{close_quotes} for two chromosomes. Eight mice aged 2.4mo served as controls. Sperm aneuploidy was measured by multi-color fluorescence in situ co-hybridization with DNA probes specific for chromosomes X, Y and 8, scoring 10,000 cells per animal. The aged group showed significant 1.5 - 2.0 fold increases in the hyperhaploidy phenotypes X-X-8, Y-Y-8, 8-8-Y, and 8-8-X with the greater effects appearing in animals aged >29mo. The aged group also showed significantly increased frequencies of micronucleated spermatids (2.0 vs 0.4 per 1000; all were kinetochore negative). Analysis of metaphase chromosomes from blood by {open_quotes}painting{close_quotes} of chromosomes 2 and 8 yielded 4 translocation per 858 cell-equivalents in the aged group which was a non-significant elevation over 0/202 in controls. Although interpretation must be cautious due to the small number of animals analyzed, these findings suggest that advanced paternal age may be a risk factor for chromosomal abnormalities of reproductive and somatic importance.

  3. Preclinical demonstration of lentiviral vector-mediated correction of immunological and metabolic abnormalities in models of adenosine deaminase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Carbonaro, Denise A; Zhang, Lin; Jin, Xiangyang; Montiel-Equihua, Claudia; Geiger, Sabine; Carmo, Marlene; Cooper, Aaron; Fairbanks, Lynette; Kaufman, Michael L; Sebire, Neil J; Hollis, Roger P; Blundell, Michael P; Senadheera, Shantha; Fu, Pei-Yu; Sahaghian, Arineh; Chan, Rebecca Y; Wang, Xiaoyan; Cornetta, Kenneth; Thrasher, Adrian J; Kohn, Donald B; Gaspar, H Bobby

    2014-03-01

    Gene transfer into autologous hematopoietic stem cells by γ-retroviral vectors (gRV) is an effective treatment for adenosine deaminase (ADA)-deficient severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). However, current gRV have significant potential for insertional mutagenesis as reported in clinical trials for other primary immunodeficiencies. To improve the efficacy and safety of ADA-SCID gene therapy (GT), we generated a self-inactivating lentiviral vector (LV) with a codon-optimized human cADA gene under the control of the short form elongation factor-1α promoter (LV EFS ADA). In ADA(-/-) mice, LV EFS ADA displayed high-efficiency gene transfer and sufficient ADA expression to rescue ADA(-/-) mice from their lethal phenotype with good thymic and peripheral T- and B-cell reconstitution. Human ADA-deficient CD34(+) cells transduced with 1-5 × 10(7) TU/ml had 1-3 vector copies/cell and expressed 1-2x of normal endogenous levels of ADA, as assayed in vitro and by transplantation into immune-deficient mice. Importantly, in vitro immortalization assays demonstrated that LV EFS ADA had significantly less transformation potential compared to gRV vectors, and vector integration-site analysis by nrLAM-PCR of transduced human cells grown in immune-deficient mice showed no evidence of clonal skewing. These data demonstrated that the LV EFS ADA vector can effectively transfer the human ADA cDNA and promote immune and metabolic recovery, while reducing the potential for vector-mediated insertional mutagenesis.

  4. Growth retardation and abnormal maternal behavior in mice lacking testicular orphan nuclear receptor 4

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Loretta L.; Lee, Yi-Fen; Heinlein, Cynthia A.; Liu, Ning-Chun; Chen, Yei-Tsung; Shyr, Chih-Rong; Meshul, Charles K.; Uno, Hideo; Platt, Kenneth A.; Chang, Chawnshang

    2004-01-01

    Testicular orphan nuclear receptor 4 (TR4) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily for which a ligand has not yet been found. In vitro data obtained from various cell lines suggest that TR4 functions as a master regulator to modulate many signaling pathways, yet the in vivo physiological roles of TR4 remain unclear. Here, we report the generation of mice lacking TR4 by means of targeted gene disruption (TR4–/–). The number of TR4–/– pups generated by the mating of TR4+/– mice is well under that predicted by the normal Mendelian ratio, and TR4–/– mice demonstrate high rates of early postnatal mortality, as well as significant growth retardation. Additionally, TR4–/– females show defects in reproduction and maternal behavior, with pups of TR4–/– dams dying soon after birth with no indication of milk intake. These results provide in vivo evidence that TR4 plays important roles in growth, embryonic and early postnatal pup survival, female reproductive function, and maternal behavior. PMID:15477591

  5. Immunomodulatory and antitumour effects of abnormal Savda Munziq on S180 tumour-bearing mice

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Abnormal Savda Munziq (ASMq), a traditional uyghur medicine, has shown anti-tumour properties in vitro. This study attempts to confirm these effects in vivo and measure effects on the immune system. Methods Kunming mice transplanted with Sarcoma 180 cells were treated with ASMq (2–8 g/kg/day) by intra-gastric administration compared to model and cyclophosphamide (20 mg/kg/day). After the 14th day post tumour implant, thymus, liver, spleen and tumours were removed, weighed, and processed for histopathological analysis. Blood samples were also taken for haematological and biochemical analyses including TNF-α , IL-1 β and IL-2. Splenic lymphocyte function was measured with MTT; lymphocyte subpopulations were measured by flow cytometry. Results ASMq treated animals had reduced tumour volume compared to model and increased concentrations of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-2 compared to untreated and to cyclophosphamide-treated animals. No histopathological alterations were observed. The absence of viable S180 cells and the presence of necrotic cells and granulation tissue were observed in tumour tissue of treated animals. The effect on T lymphocytes was unclear. Conclusions ASMq confirmed in vivo anti-tumour effects observed in vitro, which may be at least in part mediated by increased immune activity. PMID:22978453

  6. Abnormal Wnt and PI3Kinase Signaling in the Malformed Intestine of lama5 Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lacroute, Joël; Bolcato-Bellemin, Anne-Laure; Lefebvre, Olivier; Bole-Feysot, Christine; Jost, Bernard; Klein, Annick; Arnold, Christiane; Kedinger, Michèle; Bagnard, Dominique; Orend, Gertraud; Simon-Assmann, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Laminins are major constituents of basement membranes and are essential for tissue homeostasis. Laminin-511 is highly expressed in the intestine and its absence causes severe malformation of the intestine and embryonic lethality. To understand the mechanistic role of laminin-511 in tissue homeostasis, we used RNA profiling of embryonic intestinal tissue of lama5 knockout mice and identified a lama5 specific gene expression signature. By combining cell culture experiments with mediated knockdown approaches, we provide a mechanistic link between laminin α5 gene deficiency and the physiological phenotype. We show that laminin α5 plays a crucial role in both epithelial and mesenchymal cell behavior by inhibiting Wnt and activating PI3K signaling. We conclude that conflicting signals are elicited in the absence of lama5, which alter cell adhesion, migration as well as epithelial and muscle differentiation. Conversely, adhesion to laminin-511 may serve as a potent regulator of known interconnected PI3K/Akt and Wnt signaling pathways. Thus deregulated adhesion to laminin-511 may be instrumental in diseases such as human pathologies of the gut where laminin-511 is abnormally expressed as it is shown here. PMID:22666383

  7. Dietary Compound Chrysin Inhibits Retinal Neovascularization with Abnormal Capillaries in db/db Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Min-Kyung; Park, Sin-Hye; Kim, Yun-Ho; Lee, Eun-Jung; Antika, Lucia Dwi; Kim, Dong Yeon; Choi, Yean-Jung; Kang, Young-Hee

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) develops in a significant proportion of patients with chronic diabetes, characterized by retinal macular edema and abnormal retinal vessel outgrowth leading to vision loss. Chrysin, a naturally-occurring flavonoid found in herb and honeycomb, has anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-cancer properties. This study sought to determine the protective effects of chrysin on retinal neovascularization with abnormal vessels and blood-retinal barrier (BRB) breakdown in 33 mM glucose-exposed human retinal endothelial cells and in db/db mouse eyes. High glucose caused retinal endothelial apoptotic injury, which was inhibited by submicromolar chrysin. This compound diminished the enhanced induction of HIF-1α, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR2) in high glucose-exposed retinal endothelial cells. Consistently, oral administration of 10 mg/kg chrysin reduced the induction of these proteins in db/db mouse eye tissues. In addition, chrysin restored the decrement of VE-cadherin and ZO-1 junction proteins and PECAM-1 in hyperglycemia-stimulated retinal endothelial cells and diabetic mouse retina, possibly maintaining tight cell-cell interactions of endothelial cells and pericytes. Anti-apoptotic chrysin reduced the up-regulation of Ang-1, Ang-2, and Tie-2 crucial to retinal capillary occlusion and BRB permeability. Furthermore, orally treating chrysin inhibited acellular capillary formation, neovascularization, and vascular leakage observed in diabetic retinas. These observations demonstrate, for the first time, that chrysin had a capability to encumber diabetes-associated retinal neovascularization with microvascular abnormalities and BRB breakdown. PMID:27918469

  8. A lack of functional NK1 receptors explains most, but not all, abnormal behaviours of NK1R-/- mice1

    PubMed Central

    Porter, A J; Pillidge, K; Tsai, Y C; Dudley, J A; Hunt, S P; Peirson, S N; Brown, L A; Stanford, S C

    2015-01-01

    Mice lacking functional neurokinin-1 receptors (NK1R-/-) display abnormal behaviours seen in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (hyperactivity, impulsivity and inattentiveness). These abnormalities were evident when comparing the behaviour of separate (inbred: ‘Hom’) wildtype and NK1R-/- mouse strains. Here, we investigated whether the inbreeding protocol could influence their phenotype by comparing the behaviour of these mice with that of wildtype (NK1R+/+) and NK1R-/- progeny of heterozygous parents (‘Het’, derived from the same inbred strains). First, we recorded the spontaneous motor activity of the two colonies/genotypes, over 7 days. This continuous monitoring also enabled us to investigate whether the diurnal rhythm in motor activity differs in the two colonies/genotypes. NK1R-/- mice from both colonies were hyperactive compared with their wildtypes and their diurnal rhythm was also disrupted. Next, we evaluated the performance of the four groups of mice in the 5-Choice Serial Reaction-Time Task (5-CSRTT). During training, NK1R-/- mice from both colonies expressed more impulsive and perseverative behaviour than their wildtypes. During testing, only NK1R-/- mice from the Hom colony were more impulsive than their wildtypes, but NK1R-/- mice from both colonies were more perseverative. There were no colony differences in inattentiveness. Moreover, a genotype difference in this measure depended on time of day. We conclude that the hyperactivity, perseveration and, possibly, inattentiveness of NK1R-/- mice is a direct consequence of a lack of functional NK1R. However, the greater impulsivity of NK1R-/- mice depended on an interaction between a functional deficit of NK1R and other (possibly environmental and/or epigenetic) factors. PMID:25558794

  9. Role of social encounter-induced activation of prefrontal serotonergic systems in the abnormal behaviors of isolation-reared mice.

    PubMed

    Ago, Yukio; Araki, Ryota; Tanaka, Tatsunori; Sasaga, Asuka; Nishiyama, Saki; Takuma, Kazuhiro; Matsuda, Toshio

    2013-07-01

    Isolation-reared male rodents show abnormal behaviors such as hyperlocomotion, aggressive behaviors, deficits of prepulse inhibition, and depression- and anxiety-like behaviors, but the neurochemical mechanism for the effects of psychological stress in these animals is not fully understood. This study examined the effects of social interactions between isolation-reared mice and intruder mice on brain monoaminergic systems. A cage was divided into two compartments by a mesh partition to prevent direct physical interactions. The 20-min encounter with an intruder elicited a restless and hyperexcitable state (hyperactivity) in male, but not in female, isolation-reared mice, whereas encounters with a sleeping intruder or a novel object did not. Although the encounter did not affect prefrontal neuronal-activity-marker c-Fos expression, dopamine (DA) levels, or serotonin (5-HT) levels in male group-reared mice or female isolation-reared mice, it increased prefrontal c-Fos expression, DA levels, and 5-HT levels in male isolation-reared mice. Furthermore, encounter-induced increases in c-Fos expression in the dorsal raphe nucleus and ventral tegmental area, but not in the nucleus accumbens shell, were much greater in isolation-reared than group-reared male mice. A 5-HT1A receptor agonist, a metabotropic glutamate 2/3 receptor agonist, and a gamma-aminobutyric acid A receptor agonist attenuated isolation-induced aggressive behaviors and encounter-induced hyperactivity, c-Fos expression in the prefrontal cortex and dorsal raphe nucleus, and increases in prefrontal 5-HT levels. These findings suggest that the prefrontal DA and 5-HT systems are activated by encounter stimulation in male isolation-reared mice, and the encounter-induced activation of 5-HT system triggers the induction of some abnormal behaviors in male isolation-reared mice. Furthermore, this study implies that the encounter stimulation-induced signal has a pharmacological significance.

  10. Ames hypopituitary dwarf mice demonstrate imbalanced myelopoiesis between bone marrow and spleen

    PubMed Central

    Capitano, Maegan L.; Chitteti, Brahmananda R.; Cooper, Scott; Srour, Edward F.; Bartke, Andrzej; Broxmeyer, Hal E.

    2015-01-01

    Ames hypopituitary dwarf mice are deficient in growth hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone, and prolactin. The phenotype of these mice demonstrates irregularities in the immune system with skewing of the normal cytokine milieu towards a more anti-inflammatory environment. However, the hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell composition of the bone marrow (BM) and spleen in Ames dwarf mice has not been well characterized. We found that there was a significant decrease in overall cell count when comparing the BM and spleen of 4–5 month old dwarf mice to their littermate controls. Upon adjusting counts to differences in body weight between the dwarf and control mice, the number of granulocyte-macrophage progenitors, confirmed by immunophenotyping and colony-formation assay was increased in the BM. In contrast, the numbers of all myeloid progenitor populations in the spleen were greatly reduced, as confirmed by colony-formation assays. This suggests that there is a shift of myelopoiesis from the spleen to the BM of Ames dwarf mice; however, this shift does not appear to involve erythropoiesis. The reasons for this unusual shift in spleen to marrow hematopoiesis in Ames dwarf mice are yet to be determined but may relate to the decreased hormone levels in these mice. PMID:25976461

  11. Sensory neuron-specific sodium channel SNS is abnormally expressed in the brains of mice with experimental allergic encephalomyelitis and humans with multiple sclerosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, Joel A.; Dib-Hajj, Sulayman; Baker, David; Newcombe, Jia; Cuzner, M. Louise; Waxman, Stephen G.

    2000-10-01

    Clinical abnormalities in multiple sclerosis (MS) have classically been considered to be caused by demyelination and/or axonal degeneration; the possibility of molecular changes in neurons, such as the deployment of abnormal repertoires of ion channels that would alter neuronal electrogenic properties, has not been considered. Sensory Neuron-Specific sodium channel SNS displays a depolarized voltage dependence, slower activation and inactivation kinetics, and more rapid recovery from inactivation than classical "fast" sodium channels. SNS is selectively expressed in spinal sensory and trigeminal ganglion neurons within the peripheral nervous system and is not expressed within the normal brain. Here we show that sodium channel SNS mRNA and protein, which are not present within the cerebellum of control mice, are expressed within cerebellar Purkinje cells in a mouse model of MS, chronic relapsing experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. We also demonstrate SNS mRNA and protein expression within Purkinje cells from tissue obtained postmortem from patients with MS, but not in control subjects with no neurological disease. These results demonstrate a change in sodium channel expression in neurons within the brain in an animal model of MS and in humans with MS and suggest that abnormal patterns of neuronal ion channel expression may contribute to clinical abnormalities such as ataxia in these disorders.

  12. Lactoferrin knockout mice demonstrates greater susceptibility to Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans-induced periodontal disease.

    PubMed

    Velusamy, S K; Ganeshnarayan, K; Markowitz, K; Schreiner, H; Furgang, D; Fine, D H; Velliyagounder, K

    2013-11-01

    Among the innate defense mechanisms in the oral cavity, lactoferrin (LF) is a vital antimicrobial that can modify the host response against periodontopathogens. Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is the main periodontopathogen of localized aggressive periodontitis. The aim of this study is to evaluate the role of LF during A. actinomycetemcomitans-induced periodontitis. Differences in the expression levels of cytokines, chemokines, chemokine receptors, and bone loss markers between wild-type (WT) and LF knockout mice (LFKO(-/-)) were evaluated by real time-PCR. Serum IgG and LF levels were quantified by ELISA. Alveolar bone loss among the groups was estimated by measuring the distance from cemento-enamel junction (CEJ) to the alveolar bone crest (ABC) at 20 molar sites. Oral infection with A. actinomycetemcomitans increased LF levels in periodontal tissue (P = 0.01) and saliva (P = 0.0004) of wild-type infected (WTI) mice compared to wild-type control mice. Pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and IL-12 were increased in the infected LF knockout (LFKO(-/-)I) mice compared to the WTI mice, whereas the anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-4 and IL-10 were decreased. Chemokines and chemokine receptors showed different expression patterns between WTI and LFKO(-/-)I mice. The LFKO(-/-)I mice developed increased bone loss (P = 0.002), in conjunction with increased expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand and decrease in osteoprotegerin, compared to WTI mice. These results demonstrate that the infected LFKO(-/-) mice were more susceptible to A. actinomycetemcomitans-induced alveolar bone loss, with different patterns of immune responses compared to those of WTI mice.

  13. X–Y Interactions Underlie Sperm Head Abnormality in Hybrid Male House Mice

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Polly; Nachman, Michael W.

    2014-01-01

    The genetic basis of hybrid male sterility in house mice is complex, highly polygenic, and strongly X linked. Previous work suggested that there might be interactions between the Mus musculus musculus X and the M. m. domesticus Y with a large negative effect on sperm head morphology in hybrid males with an F1 autosomal background. To test this, we introgressed the M. m. domesticus Y onto a M. m. musculus background and measured the change in sperm morphology, testis weight, and sperm count across early backcross generations and in 11th generation backcross males in which the opportunity for X–autosome incompatibilities is effectively eliminated. We found that abnormality in sperm morphology persists in M. m. domesticus Y introgression males, and that this phenotype is rescued by M. m. domesticus introgressions on the X chromosome. In contrast, the severe reductions in testis weight and sperm count that characterize F1 males were eliminated after one generation of backcrossing. These results indicate that X–Y incompatibilities contribute specifically to sperm morphology. In contrast, X–autosome incompatibilities contribute to low testis weight, low sperm count, and sperm morphology. Restoration of normal testis weight and sperm count in first generation backcross males suggests that a small number of complex incompatibilities between loci on the M. m. musculus X and the M. m. domesticus autosomes underlie F1 male sterility. Together, these results provide insight into the genetic architecture of F1 male sterility and help to explain genome-wide patterns of introgression across the house mouse hybrid zone. PMID:24504187

  14. X-y interactions underlie sperm head abnormality in hybrid male house mice.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Polly; Nachman, Michael W

    2014-04-01

    The genetic basis of hybrid male sterility in house mice is complex, highly polygenic, and strongly X linked. Previous work suggested that there might be interactions between the Mus musculus musculus X and the M. m. domesticus Y with a large negative effect on sperm head morphology in hybrid males with an F1 autosomal background. To test this, we introgressed the M. m. domesticus Y onto a M. m. musculus background and measured the change in sperm morphology, testis weight, and sperm count across early backcross generations and in 11th generation backcross males in which the opportunity for X-autosome incompatibilities is effectively eliminated. We found that abnormality in sperm morphology persists in M. m. domesticus Y introgression males, and that this phenotype is rescued by M. m. domesticus introgressions on the X chromosome. In contrast, the severe reductions in testis weight and sperm count that characterize F1 males were eliminated after one generation of backcrossing. These results indicate that X-Y incompatibilities contribute specifically to sperm morphology. In contrast, X-autosome incompatibilities contribute to low testis weight, low sperm count, and sperm morphology. Restoration of normal testis weight and sperm count in first generation backcross males suggests that a small number of complex incompatibilities between loci on the M. m. musculus X and the M. m. domesticus autosomes underlie F1 male sterility. Together, these results provide insight into the genetic architecture of F1 male sterility and help to explain genome-wide patterns of introgression across the house mouse hybrid zone.

  15. Exogenous interleukin-6, interleukin-13, and interferon-γ provoke pulmonary abnormality with mild edema in enterovirus 71-infected mice.

    PubMed

    Huang, Szu-Wei; Lee, Yi-Ping; Hung, Yu-Ting; Lin, Chun-Hung; Chuang, Jih-Ing; Lei, Huan-Yao; Su, Ih-Jen; Yu, Chun-Keung

    2011-11-06

    Neonatal mice developed neurological disease and pulmonary dysfunction after an infection with a mouse-adapted human Enterovirus 71 (EV71) strain MP4. However, the hallmark of severe human EV71 infection, pulmonary edema (PE), was not evident. To test whether EV71-induced PE required a proinflammatory cytokine response, exogenous pro-inflammatory cytokines were administered to EV71-infected mice during the late stage of infection. After intracranial infection of EV71/MP4, 7-day-old mice developed hind-limb paralysis, pulmonary dysfunction, and emphysema. A transient increase was observed in serum IL-6, IL-10, IL-13, and IFN-γ, but not noradrenaline. At day 3 post infection, treatment with IL-6, IL-13, and IFN-γ provoked mild PE and severe emphysema that were accompanied by pulmonary dysfunction in EV71-infected, but not herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1)-infected control mice. Adult mice did not develop PE after an intracerebral microinjection of EV71 into the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS). While viral antigen accumulated in the ventral medulla and the NTS of intracerebrally injected mice, neuronal loss was observed in the ventral medulla only. Exogenous IL-6, IL-13, and IFN-γ treatment could induce mild PE and exacerbate pulmonary abnormality of EV71-infected mice. However, other factors such as over-activation of the sympathetic nervous system may also be required for the development of classic PE symptoms.

  16. Exogenous interleukin-6, interleukin-13, and interferon-gamma provoke pulmonary abnormality with mild edema in enterovirus 71-infected mice

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Neonatal mice developed neurological disease and pulmonary dysfunction after an infection with a mouse-adapted human Enterovirus 71 (EV71) strain MP4. However, the hallmark of severe human EV71 infection, pulmonary edema (PE), was not evident. Methods To test whether EV71-induced PE required a proinflammatory cytokine response, exogenous pro-inflammatory cytokines were administered to EV71-infected mice during the late stage of infection. Results After intracranial infection of EV71/MP4, 7-day-old mice developed hind-limb paralysis, pulmonary dysfunction, and emphysema. A transient increase was observed in serum IL-6, IL-10, IL-13, and IFN-γ, but not noradrenaline. At day 3 post infection, treatment with IL-6, IL-13, and IFN-γ provoked mild PE and severe emphysema that were accompanied by pulmonary dysfunction in EV71-infected, but not herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1)-infected control mice. Adult mice did not develop PE after an intracerebral microinjection of EV71 into the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS). While viral antigen accumulated in the ventral medulla and the NTS of intracerebrally injected mice, neuronal loss was observed in the ventral medulla only. Conclusions Exogenous IL-6, IL-13, and IFN-γ treatment could induce mild PE and exacerbate pulmonary abnormality of EV71-infected mice. However, other factors such as over-activation of the sympathetic nervous system may also be required for the development of classic PE symptoms. PMID:22054060

  17. Abnormally increased surface expression of AMPA receptors in the cerebellum, cortex and striatum of Cln3(-/-) mice.

    PubMed

    Kovács, Attila D; Hof, Caitlin; Pearce, David A

    2015-10-21

    Mutations in the CLN3 gene cause a fatal neurodegenerative disorder, juvenile CLN3 disease. Exploring the cause of the motor coordination deficit in the Cln3(-/-) mouse model of the disease we have previously found that attenuation of AMPA receptor activity in 1-month-old Cln3(-/-) mice significantly improves their motor coordination [20]. To elucidate the mechanism of the abnormally increased AMPA receptor function in Cln3(-/-) mice, we examined the surface expression of AMPA receptors using surface cross-linking in brain slices from 1-month-old wild type (WT) and Cln3(-/-) mice. In surface cross-linked brain samples, Western blotting for AMPA receptor subunits revealed significantly increased surface levels of GluA1 and GluA2 in the cerebellum, and of GluA2 in the cortex and striatum of Cln3(-/-) mice as compared to WT mice. Expression levels of the GluA4 subunit were similar in the cerebellum of WT and Cln3(-/-) mice. While intracellular GluA1 levels in the WT and Cln3(-/-) cerebellum or cortex were similar, the intracellular expression of GluA1 in the Cln3(-/-) striatum was decreased to 56% of the WT level. Our results show a prominent increase in AMPA receptor surface expression in the brain of Cln3(-/-) mice and suggest that CLN3 is involved in the regulation of AMPA receptor surface expression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Kv4.2 knockout mice demonstrate increased susceptibility to convulsant stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Barnwell, L. Forbes S.; Lugo, Joaquin N.; Lee, Wai Ling; Willis, Sarah E.; Gertz, Shira J.; Hrachovy, Richard A.; Anderson, Anne E.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Kv4.2 subunits contribute to the pore-forming region of channels that express a transient, A-type K+ current (A-current) in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cell dendrites. Here, the A-current plays an important role in signal processing and synaptic integration. Kv4.2 knockout mice show a near elimination of the A-current in area CA1 dendrites producing increased excitability in this region. In these studies, we evaluated young adult Kv4.2 knockout mice for spontaneous seizures and the response to convulsant stimulation in the whole animal in vivo and in hippocampal slices in vitro. Methods Electroencephalogram electrode-implanted Kv4.2 knockout and wildtype mice were observed for spontaneous behavioral and electrographic seizures. The latency to seizure and status epilepticus onset in Kv4.2 knockout and wildtype mice was assessed following intraperitoneal injection of kainate. Extracellular field potential recordings were performed in hippocampal slices from Kv4.2 knockout and wildtype mice following the bath application of bicuculline. Results No spontaneous behavioral or electrographic seizures were observed in Kv4.2 knockout mice. Following kainate, Kv4.2 knockout mice demonstrated a decreased seizure and status epilepticus latency as well as increased mortality compared to wildtype littermates. The background strain modified the seizure susceptibility phenotype in Kv4.2 knockout mice. In response to bicuculline, slices from Kv4.2 knockout mice exhibited an increase in epileptiform bursting in area CA1 as compared to wildtype littermates. Discussion These studies show that loss of Kv4.2 channels is associated with enhanced susceptibility to convulsant stimulation, supporting the concept that Kv4.2 deficiency may contribute to aberrant network excitability and regulate seizure threshold. PMID:19453702

  19. Extensive enteric nervous system abnormalities in mice transgenic for artificial chromosomes containing Parkinson disease-associated α-synuclein gene mutations precede central nervous system changes

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Yien-Ming; Li, Zhishan; Jiao, Yun; Gaborit, Nathalie; Pani, Amar K.; Orrison, Bonnie M.; Bruneau, Benoit G.; Giasson, Benoit I.; Smeyne, Richard J.; Gershon, Michael D.; Nussbaum, Robert L.

    2010-01-01

    Parkinson disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease with motor as well as non-motor signs in the gastrointestinal tract that include dysphagia, gastroparesis, prolonged gastrointestinal transit time, constipation and difficulty with defecation. The gastrointestinal dysfunction commonly precedes the motor symptoms by decades. Most PD is sporadic and of unknown etiology, but a fraction is familial. Among familial forms of PD, a small fraction is caused by missense (A53T, A30P and E46K) and copy number mutations in SNCA which encodes α-synuclein, a primary protein constituent of Lewy bodies, the pathognomonic protein aggregates found in neurons in PD. We set out to develop transgenic mice expressing mutant α-synuclein (either A53T or A30P) from insertions of an entire human SNCA gene as models for the familial disease. Both the A53T and A30P lines show robust abnormalities in enteric nervous system (ENS) function and synuclein-immunoreactive aggregates in ENS ganglia by 3 months of age. The A53T line also has abnormal motor behavior but neither demonstrates cardiac autonomic abnormalities, olfactory dysfunction, dopaminergic neurotransmitter deficits, Lewy body inclusions or neurodegeneration. These animals recapitulate the early gastrointestinal abnormalities seen in human PD. The animals also serve as an in vivo system in which to investigate therapies for reversing the neurological dysfunction that target α-synuclein toxicity at its earliest stages. PMID:20106867

  20. Chronic Treatment with Mood-Stabilizers Attenuates Abnormal Hyperlocomotion of GluA1-Subunit Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Maksimovic, Milica; Vekovischeva, Olga Y.; Aitta-aho, Teemu; Korpi, Esa R.

    2014-01-01

    Abnormal excitatory glutamate neurotransmission and plasticity have been implicated in schizophrenia and affective disorders. Gria1−/− mice lacking GluA1 subunit (encoded by Gria1 gene) of AMPA-type glutamate receptor show robust novelty-induced hyperactivity, social deficits and heightened approach features, suggesting that they could be used to test for anti-manic activity of drugs. Here, we tested the efficacy of chronic treatment with established anti-manic drugs on behavioural properties of the Gria1−/− mice. The mice received standard mood stabilizers (lithium and valproate) and novel ones (topiramate and lamotrigine, used more as anticonvulsants) as supplements in rodent chow for at least 4 weeks. All drugs attenuated novelty-induced locomotor hyperactivity of the Gria1−/− mice, especially by promoting the habituation, while none of them attenuated 2-mg/kg amphetamine-induced hyperactivity as compared to control diet. Treatment with lithium and valproate reversed the elevated exploratory activity of Gria1−/− mice. Valproate treatment also reduced struggling behaviour in tail suspension test and restored reciprocally-initiated social contacts of Gria1−/− mice to the level shown by the wild-type Gria1+/+ mice. Gria1−/− mice consumed slightly more sucrose during intermittent sucrose exposure than the wild-types, but ran similar distances on running wheels. These behaviours were not consistently affected by lithium and valproate in the Gria1−/− mice. The efficacy of various anti-manic drug treatments on novelty-induced hyperactivity suggests that the Gria1−/− mouse line can be utilized in screening for new therapeutics. PMID:24932798

  1. Wholemount imaging reveals abnormalities of the aqueous outflow pathway and corneal vascularity in Foxc1 and Bmp4 heterozygous mice.

    PubMed

    van der Merwe, Elizabeth L; Kidson, Susan H

    2016-05-01

    Mutations in the FOXC1/Foxc1 gene in humans and mice and Bmp4 in mice are associated with congenital anterior segment dysgenesis (ASD) and the development of the aqueous outflow structures throughout the limbus. The aim of this study was to advance our understanding of anterior segment abnormalities in mouse models of ASD using a 3-D imaging approach. Holistic imaging information combined with quantitative measurements were carried out on PECAM-1 stained individual components of the aqueous outflow vessels and corneal vasculature of Foxc1(+/-) on the C57BL/6Jx129 and ICR backgrounds, Bmp4(+/-) ICR mice, and wildtype mice from each background. In both wildtype and heterozygotes, singular, bifurcated and plexus forms of Schlemm's canal were noted. Of note, missing portions of the canal were seen in the heterozygous groups but not in wildtype animals. In general, we found the number of collector channels to be reduced in both heterozygotes. Lastly, we found a significant increase in the complexity of the corneal arcades and their penetration into the cornea in heterozygotes as compared with wild types. In conclusion, our 3-D imaging studies have revealed a more complex arrangement of both the aqueous vessels and corneal arcades in Foxc1(+/-) and Bmp4(+/-) heterozygotes, and further advance our understanding of how such abnormalities could impact on IOP and the aetiology of glaucoma.

  2. Abnormal exploratory behavior in transgenic mice carrying multiple copies of the human gene for S100 beta.

    PubMed Central

    Gerlai, R; Roder, J

    1995-01-01

    S100 beta, a calcium-binding brain protein, has been implicated in brain development and hippocampal neurophysiology including long-term potentiation. Its gene maps to chromosome 21, which is duplicated in Down syndrome. S100 beta levels are elevated in both Down syndrome and Alzheimer's disease, human neurodegenerative diseases associated with mental retardation and dementia. To investigate whether or not elevated S100 beta levels can cause brain dysfunctioning in mammals, transgenic mice carrying multiple copies of the human S100 beta gene were generated. Several independent lines of transgenic mice were compared to age-matched normal control mice of identical genetic background (CD1) by measuring their exploratory behaviors in novel situations. Transgenic mice exhibited a range of defects including female specific hyperactivity, lack of habituation to novelty and reduced T-maze spontaneous alternation rate. Although the neuroanatomical or physiological substrate of these abnormalities is unknown, they are similar to the behavioral manifestations of hippocampal dysfunction. The S100 beta mouse offers one of the first opportunities to investigate the relationship between over-expression of a human chromosome 21 gene product and abnormal behavior and brain functioning. PMID:7703219

  3. Overexpression of cyclin A in the mammary glands of transgenic mice results in the induction of nuclear abnormalities and increased apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Bortner, D M; Rosenberg, M P

    1995-12-01

    Aberrant expression of several cyclin genes has been demonstrated to be associated with many types of tumors. To determine the capacity of cyclin A to function as an oncogene in vivo, wild-type and mutant cyclin A proteins were specifically overexpressed in the mammary glands of transgenic mice using regulatory sequences from the ovine beta-lactoglobulin gene. Several lines of transgenic mice were generated that expressed human cyclin A or a nondegradable mutant version of human cyclin A, in which the amino-terminal 89 amino acids encompassing the cyclin destruction box were removed. The cyclin A transgene products were localized in the nuclei of mammary epithelial cells, and the transgenic mammary glands had an increase in cyclin A- and cdk2-associated H1 kinase activity. Many mammary epithelial cells in the transgenic glands exhibited nuclear abnormalities, including multinucleation and karyomegaly, which were suggestive of preneoplastic alterations. The abnormalities were more severe in mammary glands of the mutant cyclin A transgenics, which expressed a stabilized cyclin A protein. In situ analysis of mid-lactation mammary gland sections revealed increased numbers of apoptotic cells in the transgenic glands. Double transgenic animals were generated that expressed both the mutant human cyclin A and human cdk2 transgenes, and a more pronounced phenotype resulted. The bigenic mammary glands exhibited focal areas of hyperplasia, as well as a greater incidence of apoptosis than observed in the single transgenic glands, demonstrating in vivo cooperation between these genes in transformation and apoptotic signaling pathways.

  4. Disruption of glycogen synthase kinase-3-beta activity leads to abnormalities in physiological measures in mice.

    PubMed

    Ahnaou, A; Drinkenburg, W H I M

    2011-08-01

    Dysregulation of glycogen synthase kinase-3-beta (GSK-3β) signaling pathways is thought to underlie the pathophysiology of mood disorders. In order to demonstrate that the loss of normal GSK-3β activity results in disturbances of physiological measures, we attempted to determine whether sleep-wake architecture, circadian rhythms of core body temperature and activity were altered in transgenic mice overexpressing GSK-3β activity specifically in the brain. Cortical electroencephalographic activity, body temperature (BT) and body locomotor activity (LMA) were continuously monitored using a biopotential telemetry probe. Normal circadian patterns were maintained for different measurements in both genotypes. No differences were found in total time spent asleep and waking over the 24-h recording session. However, transgenic animals overexpressing GSK-3β showed alteration in sleep continuity characterized by an increases in number of non rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep episodes (GSK-3β, 227.2 ± 1.7 vs. WT, 172.6 ± 1.4, p < 0.05) and decreases in mean episode duration (GSK-3β, 3.0 ± 0.1 vs. WT, 4.4 ± 0.2, p < 0.05). Additionally, transgenic animals exhibited marked enhancement of basal LMA and BT levels during the first part of the dark period, under both light-dark and free running dark-dark circadian cycles. Our findings indicate that transgenic mice overexpressing GSK-3β activity exhibit severe fragmentation of sleep-wake cycle during both the light and dark periods, without showing deviancy in total durations of vigilance states. The results strongly suggest that GSK-3β activity is elemental for the maintenance of circadian motor behavior levels required for proper regulation of BT and sleep-wake organization.

  5. Expression of Human Complement Factor H Prevents Age-Related Macular Degeneration–Like Retina Damage and Kidney Abnormalities in Aged Cfh Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Jin-Dong; Kelly, Una; Landowski, Michael; Toomey, Christopher B.; Groelle, Marybeth; Miller, Chelsey; Smith, Stephanie G.; Klingeborn, Mikael; Singhapricha, Terry; Jiang, Haixiang; Frank, Michael M.; Bowes Rickman, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Complement factor H (CFH) is an important regulatory protein in the alternative pathway of the complement system, and CFH polymorphisms increase the genetic risk of age-related macular degeneration dramatically. These same human CFH variants have also been associated with dense deposit disease. To mechanistically study the function of CFH in the pathogenesis of these diseases, we created transgenic mouse lines using human CFH bacterial artificial chromosomes expressing full-length human CFH variants and crossed these to Cfh knockout (Cfh−/−) mice. Human CFH protein inhibited cleavage of mouse complement component 3 and factor B in plasma and in retinal pigment epithelium/choroid/sclera, establishing that human CFH regulates activation of the mouse alternative pathway. One of the mouse lines, which express relatively higher levels of CFH, demonstrated functional and structural protection of the retina owing to the Cfh deletion. Impaired visual function, detected as a deficit in the scotopic electroretinographic response, was improved in this transgenic mouse line compared with Cfh−/− mice, and transgenics had a thicker outer nuclear layer and less sub–retinal pigment epithelium deposit accumulation. In addition, expression of human CFH also completely protected the mice from developing kidney abnormalities associated with loss of CFH. These humanized CFH mice present a valuable model for study of the molecular mechanisms of age-related macular degeneration and dense deposit disease and for testing therapeutic targets. PMID:25447048

  6. Adolescent Mice Demonstrate a Distinct Pattern of Injury after Repetitive Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Mannix, Rebekah; Berkner, Justin; Mei, Zhengrong; Alcon, Sasha; Hashim, Jumana; Robinson, Shenandoah; Jantzie, Lauren; Meehan, William P; Qiu, Jianhua

    2017-01-15

    Recently, there has been increasing interest in outcomes after repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (rmTBI) (e.g., sports concussions). Although most of the scientific attention has focused on elite athlete populations, the sequelae of rmTBI in children and young adults have not been well studied. Prior TBI studies have suggested that developmental differences in response to injury, including differences in excitotoxicity and inflammation, could result in differences in functional and histopathological outcomes after injury. The purpose of this study is to compare outcomes in adolescent (5-week-old) versus adult (4-month-old) mice in a clinically relevant model of rmTBI. We hypothesized that functional and histopathological outcomes after rmTBI would differ in developing adolescent brains compared with mature adult brains. Male adolescent and adult (C57Bl/6) mice were subjected to a weight drop model of rmTBI (n = 10-16/group). Loss of consciousness (LOC) after each injury was measured. Functional outcomes were assessed including tests of balance (rotorod), spatial memory (Morris water maze), and impulsivity (elevated plus maze). After behavioral testing, brains were assessed for histopathological outcomes including microglial immunolabeling and N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor subunit expression. Injured adolescent mice had longer LOC than injured adult mice compared with their respective sham controls. Compared with sham mice, adolescent and adult mice subjected to rmTBI had impaired balance, increased impulsivity, and worse spatial memory that persisted up to 3 months after injury, and the effect of injury was worse in adolescent than in adult mice in terms of spatial memory. Three months after injury, adolescent and adult mice demonstrated increased ionized calcium binding adaptor 1 (IbA1) immunolabeling compared with sham controls. Compared with sham controls, NMDA receptor subtype 2B (NR2B) expression in the hippocampus was reduced by ∼20% in both

  7. Chronic Stress Contributes to Cognitive Dysfunction and Hippocampal Metabolic Abnormalities in APP/PS1 Mice.

    PubMed

    Han, Bing; Wang, Jin-Hua; Geng, Yuan; Shen, Li; Wang, Hua-Long; Wang, Yan-Yong; Wang, Ming-Wei

    2017-01-01

    Stress response is determined by the brain, and the brain is a sensitive target for stress. Our previous experiments have confirmed that once the stress response is beyond the tolerable limit of the brain, particularly that of the hippocampus, it will have deleterious effects on hippocampal structure and function; however, the metabolic mechanisms for this are not well understood. Here, we used morris water maze, elisa and gas chromatography-time of flight/mass spectrometry to observe the changes in cognition, neuropathology and metabolomics in the hippocampus of APP/PS1 mice and wild-type (C57) mice caused by chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS), we also further explored the correlation between cognition and metabolomics. We found that 4 weeks of CUMS aggravated cognitive impairment and increased amyloid-β deposition in APP/PS1 mice, but did not affect C57 mice. Under non-stress conditions, compared with C57 mice, there were 8 different metabolites in APP/PS1 mice. However, following CUMS, 3 different metabolites were changed compared with untreated C57 mice. Compared to APP/PS1 mice, there were 7 different metabolites in APP/PS1+CUMS mice. Among these alterations, 3-hydroxybutyric acid, valine, serine, beta-alanine and o-phosphorylethanolamine, which are involved in sphingolipid metabolism, synthesis and degradation of ketone bodies, and amino acid metabolism. The results indicate that APP/PS1 mice are more vulnerable to stress than C57 mice, and the metabolic mechanisms of stress-related cognitive impairment in APP/PS1 mice are related to multiple pathways and networks, including sphingolipid metabolism, synthesis and degradation of ketone bodies, and amino acid metabolism. © 2017 The Author(s)Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Hemostatic and hematological abnormalities in gain-of-function fps/fes transgenic mice are associated with the angiogenic phenotype.

    PubMed

    Sangrar, W; Senis, Y; Samis, J A; Gao, Y; Richardson, M; Lee, D H; Greer, P A

    2004-11-01

    The Fps/Fes tyrosine kinase has been implicated in the regulation of hematopoiesis and inflammation. Mice expressing an activated variant of Fps/Fes (MFps) encoded by a gain-of-function mutant transgenic fps/fes allele (fps(MF)) exhibited hematological phenotypes, which suggested that Fps/Fes can direct hematopoietic lineage output. These mice also displayed marked hypervascularity and multifocal-hemangiomas which implicated this kinase in the regulation of angiogenesis. Here we explored the potential involvement of Fps/Fes in the regulation of hemostasis through effects on blood cells and the vascular endothelium. Hematological parameters of fps(MF) mice were characterized by peripheral blood analysis, histology, and transmission electron microscopy. Hemostasis parameters and platelet functions were assessed by flow cytometry and measurements of activated partial thromboplastin time, prothrombin time, thrombin clot time, platelet aggregation, bleeding times and in vitro fibrinolytic assays. Hematological and morphological analyses showed that fps(MF) mice displayed mild thrombocytopenia, anemia, red cell abnormalities and numerous hemostatic defects, including hypofibrinogenemia, hyper-fibrinolysis, impaired whole blood aggregation and a mild bleeding diathesis. fps(MF) mice displayed a complex array of hemostatic perturbations which are reminiscent of hemostatic disorders such as disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) and of hemangioma-associated pathologies such as Kasabach-Merritt phenomenon (KMS). These studies suggest that Fps/Fes influences both angiogenic and hemostatic function through regulatory effects on the endothelium.

  9. Mice Haploinsufficient for Ets1 and Fli1 Display Middle Ear Abnormalities and Model Aspects of Jacobsen Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Carpinelli, Marina R; Kruse, Elizabeth A; Arhatari, Benedicta D; Debrincat, Marlyse A; Ogier, Jacqueline M; Bories, Jean-Christophe; Kile, Benjamin T; Burt, Rachel A

    2015-07-01

    E26 transformation-specific 1 (ETS1) and friend leukemia integration 1 (FLI1) are members of the ETS family of transcription factors, of which there are 28 in humans. Both genes are hemizygous in Jacobsen syndrome, an 11q contiguous gene deletion disorder involving thrombocytopenia, facial dysmorphism, growth and mental retardation, malformation of the heart and other organs, and hearing impairment associated with recurrent ear infections. To determine whether any of these defects are because of hemizygosity for ETS1 and FLI1, we characterized the phenotype of mice heterozygous for mutant alleles of Ets1 and Fli1. Fli1(+/-) mice displayed mild thrombocytopenia, as did Ets1(+/-)Fli1(+/-) animals. Fli1(+/-) and Ets1(+/-)Fli1(+/-) mice also displayed craniofacial abnormalities, including a small middle ear cavity, short nasal bone, and malformed interface between the nasal bone process and cartilaginous nasal septum. They exhibited hearing impairment, otitis media, fusions of ossicles to the middle ear wall, and deformed stapes. Hearing impairment was more penetrant and stapes malformations were more severe in Ets1(+/-)Fli1(+/-) mice than in Fli1(+/-) mice, indicating partial functional redundancy of these transcription factors during auditory development. Our findings indicate that the short nose, otitis media, and hearing impairment in Jacobsen syndrome are likely because of hemizygosity for ETS1 and FLI1.

  10. Black Hoof Medicinal Mushroom Phellinus linteus (Agaricomycetes) Extracts Protect Against Radiation-Induced Hematopoietic Abnormality in Mice.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shu-Ming; Chen, Jen-Yin; Chen, Chin-Chu; Su, Chih-Chung; Hu, Miao-Lin

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effects of Phellinus linteus extracts (PLEs) against radiation damage in mice. First, BALB/c mice were irradiated once with γ-rays at 4, 5, 6, or 8 Gy and allowed to recover for 20 days. Results reveal that 8-Gy radiation caused death in 100% of mice on day 13, and 6-Gy radiation caused death in 86.7% of mice (13/15) at the end of the experiment, whereas 4- and 5-Gy radiation did not result in any death. We then used 5-Gy γ-ray radiation to examine the protective effects of PLEs. Mice were orally administered a PLE (500, 1000, and 1500 mg/kg) daily for 2 weeks before radiation and for 6 weeks after radiation. γ-Ray radiation significantly decreased body weight starting from week 2 after radiation. Supplementation with a median and high dose of PLE significantly restored body weights starting at weeks 5 and 3, respectively. The radiation-protective agent WR2721 (200 mg/kg intraperitoneally) restored body weights starting at week 4. White blood cells, platelets, red blood cells, and hemoglobin were significantly decreased by radiation, and PLEs (primarily at high doses) and WR2721 significantly prevented hematologic abnormality. These results suggest that PLE has potential as a radioprotective agent.

  11. Intact attentional processing but abnormal responding in M1 muscarinic receptor-deficient mice using an automated touchscreen method

    PubMed Central

    Bartko, Susan J.; Romberg, Carola; White, Benjamin; Wess, Jürgen; Bussey, Timothy J.; Saksida, Lisa M.

    2014-01-01

    Cholinergic receptors have been implicated in schizophrenia, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and Huntington’s disease. However, to better target therapeutically the appropriate receptor subsystems, we need to understand more about the functions of those subsystems. In the current series of experiments, we assessed the functional role of M1 receptors in cognition by testing M1 receptor-deficient mice (M1R−/−) on the five-choice serial reaction time test of attentional and response functions, carried out using a computer-automated touchscreen test system. In addition, we tested these mice on several tasks featuring learning, memory and perceptual challenges. An advantage of the touchscreen method is that each test in the battery is carried out in the same task setting, using the same types of stimuli, responses and feedback, thus providing a high level of control and task comparability. The surprising finding, given the predominance of the M1 receptor in cortex, was the complete lack of effect of M1 deletion on measures of attentional function per se. Moreover, M1R−/− mice performed relatively normally on tests of learning, memory and perception, although they were impaired in object recognition memory with, but not without an interposed delay interval. They did, however, show clear abnormalities on a variety of response measures: M1R−/− mice displayed fewer omissions, more premature responses, and increased perseverative responding compared to wild-types. These data suggest that M1R−/− mice display abnormal responding in the face of relatively preserved attention, learning and perception. PMID:21903112

  12. Intact attentional processing but abnormal responding in M1 muscarinic receptor-deficient mice using an automated touchscreen method.

    PubMed

    Bartko, Susan J; Romberg, Carola; White, Benjamin; Wess, Jürgen; Bussey, Timothy J; Saksida, Lisa M

    2011-12-01

    Cholinergic receptors have been implicated in schizophrenia, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and Huntington's disease. However, to better target therapeutically the appropriate receptor subsystems, we need to understand more about the functions of those subsystems. In the current series of experiments, we assessed the functional role of M(1) receptors in cognition by testing M(1) receptor-deficient mice (M1R(-/-)) on the five-choice serial reaction time test of attentional and response functions, carried out using a computer-automated touchscreen test system. In addition, we tested these mice on several tasks featuring learning, memory and perceptual challenges. An advantage of the touchscreen method is that each test in the battery is carried out in the same task setting, using the same types of stimuli, responses and feedback, thus providing a high level of control and task comparability. The surprising finding, given the predominance of the M(1) receptor in cortex, was the complete lack of effect of M(1) deletion on measures of attentional function per se. Moreover, M1R(-/-) mice performed relatively normally on tests of learning, memory and perception, although they were impaired in object recognition memory with, but not without an interposed delay interval. They did, however, show clear abnormalities on a variety of response measures: M1R(-/-) mice displayed fewer omissions, more premature responses, and increased perseverative responding compared to wild-types. These data suggest that M1R(-/-) mice display abnormal responding in the face of relatively preserved attention, learning and perception. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Dopamine D3 receptor knockout mice exhibit abnormal nociception in a sex-different manner.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peng; Xing, Bo; Chu, Zheng; Liu, Fei; Lei, Gang; Zhu, Li; Gao, Ya; Chen, Teng; Dang, Yong-Hui

    2016-09-26

    Pain is a complex and subjective experience. Previous studies have shown that mice lacking the dopamine D3 receptor (D3RKO) exhibit hypoalgesia, indicating a role of the D3 receptor in modulation of nociception. Given that there are sex differences in pain perception, there may be differences in responses to nociceptive stimuli between male and female D3RKO mice. In the current study, we examined the role of the D3 receptor in modulating nociception in male and female D3RKO mice. Acute thermal pain was modeled by hot-plate test. This test was performed at different temperatures including 52°C, 55°C, and 58°C. The von Frey hair test was applied to evaluate mechanical pain. And persistent pain produced by peripheral tissue injury and inflammation was modeled by formalin test. In the hot-plate test, compared with wild-type (WT) mice, D3RKO mice generally exhibited longer latencies at each of the three temperatures. Specially, male D3RKO mice showed hypoalgesia compared with male WT mice when the temperature was 55°C, while for the female mice, there was a statistical difference between genotypes when the test condition was 52°C. In the von Frey hair test, both male and female D3RKO mice exhibited hypoalgesia. In the formalin test, the male D3RKO mice displayed a similar nociceptive behavior as their sex-matched WT littermates, whereas significantly depressed late-phase formalin-induced nociceptive behaviors were observed in the female mutants. These findings indicated that the D3 receptor affects nociceptive behaviors in a sex-specific manner and that its absence induces more analgesic behavior in the female knockout mice. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Abnormally increased surface expression of AMPA receptors in the cerebellum, cortex and striatum of Cln3−/− mice

    PubMed Central

    Kovács, Attila D.; Hof, Caitlin; Pearce, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in the CLN3 gene cause a fatal neurodegenerative disorder, juvenile CLN3 disease. Exploring the cause of the motor coordination deficit in the Cln3−/− mouse model of the disease we have previously found that attenuation of AMPA receptor activity in 1-month-old Cln3−/− mice significantly improves their motor coordination [20]. To elucidate the mechanism of the abnormally increased AMPA receptor function in Cln3−/− mice, we examined the surface expression of AMPA receptors using surface cross-linking in brain slices from 1-month-old wild type (WT) and Cln3−/− mice. In surface cross-linked brain samples, Western blotting for AMPA receptor subunits revealed significantly increased surface levels of GluA1 and GluA2 in the cerebellum, and of GluA2 in the cortex and striatum of Cln3−/− mice as compared to WT mice. Expression levels of the GluA4 subunit were similar in the cerebellum of WT and Cln3−/− mice. While intracellular GluA1 levels in the WT and Cln3−/− cerebellum or cortex were similar, the intracellular expression of GluA1 in the Cln3−/− striatum was decreased to 56% of the WT level. Our results show a prominent increase in AMPA receptor surface expression in the brain of Cln3−/− mice and suggest that CLN3 is involved in the regulation of AMPA receptor surface expression. PMID:26375929

  15. Ethanol administration exacerbates the abnormalities in hepatic lipid oxidation in genetically obese mice

    PubMed Central

    Everitt, Hannah; Hu, Ming; Ajmo, Joanne M.; Rogers, Christopher Q.; Liang, Xiaomei; Zhang, Ray; Yin, Huquan; Choi, Alison; Bennett, Eric S.

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol consumption synergistically increases the risk and severity of liver damage in obese patients. To gain insight into cellular or molecular mechanisms underlying the development of fatty liver caused by ethanol-obesity synergism, we have carried out animal experiments that examine the effects of ethanol administration in genetically obese mice. Lean wild-type (WT) and obese (ob/ob) mice were subjected to ethanol feeding for 4 wk using a modified Lieber-DeCarli diet. After ethanol feeding, the ob/ob mice displayed much more pronounced changes in terms of liver steatosis and elevated plasma levels of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase, indicators of liver injury, compared with control mice. Mechanistic studies showed that ethanol feeding augmented the impairment of hepatic sirtuin 1 (SIRT1)-AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) signaling in the ob/ob mice. Moreover, the impairment of SIRT1-AMPK signaling was closely associated with altered hepatic functional activity of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-α and lipin-1, two vital downstream lipid regulators, which ultimately contributed to aggravated fatty liver observed in ethanol-fed ob/ob mice. Taken together, our novel findings suggest that ethanol administration to obese mice exacerbates fatty liver via impairment of the hepatic lipid metabolism pathways mediated largely by a central signaling system, the SIRT1-AMPK axis. PMID:23139221

  16. Ethanol administration exacerbates the abnormalities in hepatic lipid oxidation in genetically obese mice.

    PubMed

    Everitt, Hannah; Hu, Ming; Ajmo, Joanne M; Rogers, Christopher Q; Liang, Xiaomei; Zhang, Ray; Yin, Huquan; Choi, Alison; Bennett, Eric S; You, Min

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol consumption synergistically increases the risk and severity of liver damage in obese patients. To gain insight into cellular or molecular mechanisms underlying the development of fatty liver caused by ethanol-obesity synergism, we have carried out animal experiments that examine the effects of ethanol administration in genetically obese mice. Lean wild-type (WT) and obese (ob/ob) mice were subjected to ethanol feeding for 4 wk using a modified Lieber-DeCarli diet. After ethanol feeding, the ob/ob mice displayed much more pronounced changes in terms of liver steatosis and elevated plasma levels of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase, indicators of liver injury, compared with control mice. Mechanistic studies showed that ethanol feeding augmented the impairment of hepatic sirtuin 1 (SIRT1)-AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) signaling in the ob/ob mice. Moreover, the impairment of SIRT1-AMPK signaling was closely associated with altered hepatic functional activity of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-α and lipin-1, two vital downstream lipid regulators, which ultimately contributed to aggravated fatty liver observed in ethanol-fed ob/ob mice. Taken together, our novel findings suggest that ethanol administration to obese mice exacerbates fatty liver via impairment of the hepatic lipid metabolism pathways mediated largely by a central signaling system, the SIRT1-AMPK axis.

  17. Abnormal Patterns of Lipoprotein Lipase Release into the Plasma in GPIHBP1-deficient Mice*

    PubMed Central

    Weinstein, Michael M.; Yin, Liya; Beigneux, Anne P.; Davies, Brandon S. J.; Gin, Peter; Estrada, Kristine; Melford, Kristan; Bishop, Joseph R.; Esko, Jeffrey D.; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje M.; Fong, Loren G.; Bensadoun, André; Young, Stephen G.

    2008-01-01

    GPIHBP1-deficient mice (Gpihbp1–/–) exhibit severe chylomicronemia. GPIHBP1 is located within capillaries of muscle and adipose tissue, and expression of GPIHBP1 in Chinese hamster ovary cells confers upon those cells the ability to bind lipoprotein lipase (LPL). However, there has been absolutely no evidence that GPIHBP1 actually interacts with LPL in vivo. Heparin is known to release LPL from its in vivo binding sites, allowing it to enter the plasma. After an injection of heparin, we reasoned that LPL bound to GPIHBP1 in capillaries would be released very quickly, and we hypothesized that the kinetics of LPL entry into the plasma would differ in Gpihbp1–/– and control mice. Indeed, plasma LPL levels peaked very rapidly (within 1 min) after heparin in control mice. In contrast, plasma LPL levels in Gpihbp1–/– mice were much lower 1 min after heparin and increased slowly over 15 min. In keeping with that result, plasma triglycerides fell sharply within 10 min after heparin in wild-type mice, but were negligibly altered in the first 15 min after heparin in Gpihbp1–/– mice. Also, an injection of Intralipid released LPL into the plasma of wild-type mice but was ineffective in releasing LPL in Gpihbp1–/– mice. The observed differences in LPL release cannot be ascribed to different tissue stores of LPL, as LPL mass levels in tissues were similar in Gpihbp1–/– and control mice. The differences in LPL release after intravenous heparin and Intralipid strongly suggest that GPIHBP1 represents an important binding site for LPL in vivo. PMID:18845532

  18. In vivo cell-autonomous transcriptional abnormalities revealed in mice expressing mutant huntingtin in striatal but not cortical neurons.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Elizabeth A; Coppola, Giovanni; Tang, Bin; Kuhn, Alexandre; Kim, SoongHo; Geschwind, Daniel H; Brown, Timothy B; Luthi-Carter, Ruth; Ehrlich, Michelle E

    2011-03-15

    Huntington's disease (HD), caused by a CAG repeat expansion in the huntingtin (HTT) gene, is characterized by abnormal protein aggregates and motor and cognitive dysfunction. Htt protein is ubiquitously expressed, but the striatal medium spiny neuron (MSN) is most susceptible to dysfunction and death. Abnormal gene expression represents a core pathogenic feature of HD, but the relative roles of cell-autonomous and non-cell-autonomous effects on transcription remain unclear. To determine the extent of cell-autonomous dysregulation in the striatum in vivo, we examined genome-wide RNA expression in symptomatic D9-N171-98Q (a.k.a. DE5) transgenic mice in which the forebrain expression of the first 171 amino acids of human Htt with a 98Q repeat expansion is limited to MSNs. Microarray data generated from these mice were compared with those generated on the identical array platform from a pan-neuronal HD mouse model, R6/2, carrying two different CAG repeat lengths, and a relatively high degree of overlap of changes in gene expression was revealed. We further focused on known canonical pathways associated with excitotoxicity, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, dopamine signaling and trophic support. While genes related to excitotoxicity, dopamine signaling and trophic support were altered in both DE5 and R6/2 mice, which may be either cell autonomous or non-cell autonomous, genes related to mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress and the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor are primarily affected in DE5 transgenic mice, indicating cell-autonomous mechanisms. Overall, HD-induced dysregulation of the striatal transcriptome can be largely attributed to intrinsic effects of mutant Htt, in the absence of expression in cortical neurons.

  19. Dyrk1A Haploinsufficiency Affects Viability and Causes Developmental Delay and Abnormal Brain Morphology in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Fotaki, Vassiliki; Dierssen, Mara; Alcántara, Soledad; Martínez, Salvador; Martí, Eulàlia; Casas, Caty; Visa, Joana; Soriano, Eduardo; Estivill, Xavier; Arbonés, Maria L.

    2002-01-01

    DYRK1A is the human orthologue of the Drosophila minibrain (mnb) gene, which is involved in postembryonic neurogenesis in flies. Because of its mapping position on chromosome 21 and the neurobehavioral alterations shown by mice overexpressing this gene, involvement of DYRK1A in some of the neurological defects of Down syndrome patients has been suggested. To gain insight into its physiological role, we have generated mice deficient in Dyrk1A function by gene targeting. Dyrk1A−/− null mutants presented a general growth delay and died during midgestation. Mice heterozygous for the mutation (Dyrk1A+/−) showed decreased neonatal viability and a significant body size reduction from birth to adulthood. General neurobehavioral analysis revealed preweaning developmental delay of Dyrk1A+/− mice and specific alterations in adults. Brains of Dyrk1A+/− mice were decreased in size in a region-specific manner, although the cytoarchitecture and neuronal components in most areas were not altered. Cell counts showed increased neuronal densities in some brain regions and a specific decrease in the number of neurons in the superior colliculus, which exhibited a significant size reduction. These data provide evidence about the nonredundant, vital role of Dyrk1A and suggest a conserved mode of action that determines normal growth and brain size in both mice and flies. PMID:12192061

  20. Aromatase Deficient Female Mice Demonstrate Altered Expression of Molecules Critical for Renal Calcium Reabsorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Öz, Orhan K.; Hajibeigi, Asghar; Cummins, Carolyn; van Abel, Monique; Bindels, René J.; Kuro-o, Makoto; Pak, Charles Y. C.; Zerwekh, Joseph E.

    2007-04-01

    The incidence of kidney stones increases in women after the menopause, suggesting a role for estrogen deficiency. In order to determine if estrogen may be exerting an effect on renal calcium reabsorption, we measured urinary calcium excretion in the aromatase-deficient female mouse (ArKO) before and following estrogen therapy. ArKO mice had hypercalciuria that corrected during estrogen administration. To evaluate the mechanism by which estrogen deficiency leads to hypercalciuria, we examined the expression of several proteins involved in distal tubule renal calcium reabsorption, both at the message and protein levels. Messenger RNA levels of TRPV5, TRPV6, calbindin-D28K, the Na+/Ca++ exchanger (NCX1), and the plasma membrane calcium ATPase (PMCA1b) were significantly decreased in kidneys of ArKO mice. On the other hand, klotho mRNA levels were elevated in kidneys of ArKO mice. ArKO renal protein extracts had lower levels of calbindin-D28K but higher levels of the klotho protein. Immunochemistry demonstrated increased klotho expression in ArKO kidneys. Estradiol therapy normalized the expression of TRPV5, calbindin-D28K, PMCA1b and klotho. Taken together, these results demonstrate that estrogen deficiency produced by aromatase inactivation is sufficient to produce a renal leak of calcium and consequent hypercalciuria. This may represent one mechanism leading to the increased incidence of kidney stones following the menopause in women.

  1. Touchscreen tasks in mice to demonstrate differences between hippocampal and striatal functions.

    PubMed

    Delotterie, David F; Mathis, Chantal; Cassel, Jean-Christophe; Rosenbrock, Holger; Dorner-Ciossek, Cornelia; Marti, Anelise

    2015-04-01

    In mammals, hippocampal and striatal regions are engaged in separable cognitive processes usually assessed through species-specific paradigms. To reconcile cognitive testing among species, translational advantages of the touchscreen-based automated method have been recently promoted. However, it remains undetermined whether similar neural substrates would be involved in such behavioral tasks both in humans and rodents. To address this question, the effects of hippocampal or dorso-striatal fiber-sparing lesions were first assessed in mice through a battery of tasks (experiment A) comprising the acquisition of two touchscreen paradigms, the Paired Associates Learning (dPAL) and Visuo-Motor Conditional Learning (VMCL) tasks, and a more classical T-maze alternation task. Additionally, we sought to determine whether post-acquisition hippocampal lesions would alter memory retrieval in the dPAL task (experiment B). Pre-training lesions of dorsal striatum caused major impairments in all paradigms. In contrast, pre-training hippocampal lesions disrupted the performance of animals trained in the T-maze assay, but spared the acquisition in touchscreen tasks. Nonetheless, post-training hippocampal lesions severely impacted the recall of the previously learned dPAL task. Altogether, our data show that, after having demonstrated their potential in genetically modified mice, touchscreens also reveal perfectly adapted to taxing functional implications of brain structures in mice by means of lesion approaches. Unlike its human counterpart requiring an intact hippocampus, the acquisition of the dPAL task requires the integrity of the dorsal striatum in mice. The hippocampus only later intervenes, when acquired information needs to be retrieved. Touchscreen assays may therefore be suited to study striatal- or hippocampal-dependent forms of learnings in mice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Lack of parvalbumin in mice leads to behavioral deficits relevant to all human autism core symptoms and related neural morphofunctional abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Wöhr, M; Orduz, D; Gregory, P; Moreno, H; Khan, U; Vörckel, K J; Wolfer, D P; Welzl, H; Gall, D; Schiffmann, S N; Schwaller, B

    2015-01-01

    Gene mutations and gene copy number variants are associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Affected gene products are often part of signaling networks implicated in synapse formation and/or function leading to alterations in the excitation/inhibition (E/I) balance. Although the network of parvalbumin (PV)-expressing interneurons has gained particular attention in ASD, little is known on PV's putative role with respect to ASD. Genetic mouse models represent powerful translational tools for studying the role of genetic and neurobiological factors underlying ASD. Here, we report that PV knockout mice (PV−/−) display behavioral phenotypes with relevance to all three core symptoms present in human ASD patients: abnormal reciprocal social interactions, impairments in communication and repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior. PV-depleted mice also showed several signs of ASD-associated comorbidities, such as reduced pain sensitivity and startle responses yet increased seizure susceptibility, whereas no evidence for behavioral phenotypes with relevance to anxiety, depression and schizophrenia was obtained. Reduced social interactions and communication were also observed in heterozygous (PV+/−) mice characterized by lower PV expression levels, indicating that merely a decrease in PV levels might be sufficient to elicit core ASD-like deficits. Structural magnetic resonance imaging measurements in PV−/− and PV+/− mice further revealed ASD-associated developmental neuroanatomical changes, including transient cortical hypertrophy and cerebellar hypoplasia. Electrophysiological experiments finally demonstrated that the E/I balance in these mice is altered by modification of both inhibitory and excitatory synaptic transmission. On the basis of the reported changes in PV expression patterns in several, mostly genetic rodent models of ASD, we propose that in these models downregulation of PV might represent one of the points of convergence, thus

  3. SMC6 is an essential gene in mice, but a hypomorphic mutant in the ATPase domain has a mild phenotype with a range of subtle abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Ju, Limei; Wing, Jonathan; Taylor, Elaine; Brandt, Renata; Slijepcevic, Predrag; Horsch, Marion; Rathkolb, Birgit; Rácz, Ildikó; Becker, Lore; Hans, Wolfgang; Adler, Thure; Beckers, Johannes; Rozman, Jan; Klingenspor, Martin; Wolf, Eckhard; Zimmer, Andreas; Klopstock, Thomas; Busch, Dirk H; Gailus-Durner, Valérie; Fuchs, Helmut; de Angelis, Martin Hrabě; van der Horst, Gilbertus; Lehmann, Alan R

    2013-05-01

    Smc5-6 is a highly conserved protein complex related to cohesin and condensin involved in the structural maintenance of chromosomes. In yeasts the Smc5-6 complex is essential for proliferation and is involved in DNA repair and homologous recombination. siRNA depletion of genes involved in the Smc5-6 complex in cultured mammalian cells results in sensitivity to some DNA damaging agents. In order to gain further insight into its role in mammals we have generated mice mutated in the Smc6 gene. A complete knockout resulted in early embryonic lethality, demonstrating that this gene is essential in mammals. However, mutation of the highly conserved serine-994 to alanine in the ATP hydrolysis motif in the SMC6 C-terminal domain, resulted in mice with a surprisingly mild phenotype. With the neo gene selection marker in the intron following the mutation, resulting in reduced expression of the SMC6 gene, the mice were reduced in size, but fertile and had normal lifespans. When the neo gene was removed, the mice had normal size, but detailed phenotypic analysis revealed minor abnormalities in glucose tolerance, haematopoiesis, nociception and global gene expression patterns. Embryonic fibroblasts derived from the ser994 mutant mice were not sensitive to killing by a range of DNA damaging agents, but they were sensitive to the induction of sister chromatid exchanges induced by ultraviolet light or mitomycin C. They also accumulated more oxidative damage than wild-type cells. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Targeted ANP32E mutant mice do not demonstrate obvious movement defects.

    PubMed

    Wong, Peiyan; Leo, Vonny I; Low, Meijun; Mak, Tak W; Zhang, Xiaodong; Reilly, Patrick T

    2013-01-01

    The ANP32 family of proteins have been implicated in neuronal function through biochemical and cellular biology studies in neurons, as well as by recent behavioural studies of a gene-trapped loss-of-function mutation of Anp32e in mice, particularly with respect to fine motor function. A second targeted allele of the Anp32e, however, did not appear to demonstrate neurological phenotypes. Using a stringently controlled cohort of ten-generation backcrossed, co-caged, sex-matched, littermate pairs, we assayed for potential motor defects in the targeted ANP32E-deficient mice. We found no phenotypic difference in any assays. Since it is unlikely that the gene-trap is a more complete loss-of-function, our results suggest that ANP32E has no appreciable effect on motor functions and that genetic background differences most likely account for the gene-trap phenomena.

  5. Demonstration of abnormal notochord development by three-dimensional reconstructive imaging in the rat model of esophageal atresia.

    PubMed

    Williams, A K; Qi, B Q; Beasley, S W

    2001-01-01

    The notochord (Nt) is believed to have a role in the development of axial organs. This study was undertaken to reconstruct in three dimensions (3D) the relationship of the Nt to abnormal development of the foregut (Fg) in the adriamycin-induced rat model of esophageal atresia (EA). Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were given 1.75 mg/kg adriamycin intraperitoneally on gestational days 6 9 inclusive; control rats received i.p. saline of equal volume, or no injection. Rats were killed between days 11 and 14 and their embryos harvested, histologically sectioned serially, and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Digitized photographs were taken of serial transverse sections; these photos were traced and used as the basis for 3D reconstruction. From day 11 the normal Nt is no longer in contact with the respiratory or Fg mesenchyme. In adriamycin-treated embryos the Nt branches abnormally as it enters the Fg mesenchyme. Adherence of the Nt to the mesenchyme of the Fg exerts mechanical traction pulling the upper Fg dorsally. The severity of the Fg abnormalities correlates with the length of the ventral extension of the Nt within the Fg mesenchyme: the embryo develops atresia of the esophagus or trachea when the Nt is grossly abnormal. The Nt undergoes reactive thickening in the absence of Fg structures ventral to it. Thus, structural lesions of the Fg (e.g., atresias) are associated with abnormalities of the Nt. The relationship of the Nt to the Fg mesenchyme determines the severity of the abnormality induced by adriamycin: extensive adherence produces tracheal agenesis and EA.

  6. Axonal Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease Patient-Derived Motor Neurons Demonstrate Disease-Specific Phenotypes including Abnormal Electrophysiological Properties

    PubMed Central

    Saporta, Mario A.; Dang, Vu; Volfson, Dmitri; Zou, Bende; Xie, Xinmin (Simon); Adebola, Adijat; Liem, Ronald K.; Shy, Michael; Dimos, John T.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease (CMT) is a group of inherited peripheral neuropathies associated with mutations or copy number variations in over 70 genes encoding proteins with fundamental roles in the development and function of Schwann cells and peripheral axons. Here, we used iPSC-derived cells to identify common pathophysiological mechanisms in axonal CMT. Methods iPSC lines from patients with two distinct forms of axonal CMT (CMT2A and CMT2E) were differentiated into spinal cord motor neurons and used to study axonal structure and function and electrophysiological properties in vitro. Results iPSC-derived motor neurons exhibited gene and protein expression, ultrastructural and electrophysiological features of mature primary spinal cord motor neurons. Cytoskeletal abnormalities were found in neurons from a CMT2E (NEFL) patient and corroborated by a mouse model of the same NEFL point mutation. Abnormalities in mitochondrial trafficking were found in neurons derived from this patient, but were only mildly present in neurons from a CMT2A (MFN2) patient. Novel electrophysiological abnormalities, including reduced action potential threshold and abnormal channel current properties were observed in motor neurons derived from both of these patients. Interpretation Human iPSC-derived motor neurons from axonal CMT patients replicated key pathophysiological features observed in other models of MFN2 and NEFL mutations, including abnormal cytoskeletal and mitochondrial dynamics. Electrophysiological abnormalities found in axonal CMT iPSC-derived human motor neurons suggest that these cells are hyperexcitable and have altered sodium and calcium channel kinetics. These findings may provide a new therapeutic target for this group of heterogeneous inherited neuropathies. PMID:25448007

  7. Axonal Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease patient-derived motor neurons demonstrate disease-specific phenotypes including abnormal electrophysiological properties.

    PubMed

    Saporta, Mario A; Dang, Vu; Volfson, Dmitri; Zou, Bende; Xie, Xinmin Simon; Adebola, Adijat; Liem, Ronald K; Shy, Michael; Dimos, John T

    2015-01-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease is a group of inherited peripheral neuropathies associated with mutations or copy number variations in over 70 genes encoding proteins with fundamental roles in the development and function of Schwann cells and peripheral axons. Here, we used iPSC-derived cells to identify common pathophysiological mechanisms in axonal CMT. iPSC lines from patients with two distinct forms of axonal CMT (CMT2A and CMT2E) were differentiated into spinal cord motor neurons and used to study axonal structure and function and electrophysiological properties in vitro. iPSC-derived motor neurons exhibited gene and protein expression, ultrastructural and electrophysiological features of mature primary spinal cord motor neurons. Cytoskeletal abnormalities were found in neurons from a CMT2E (NEFL) patient and corroborated by a mouse model of the same NEFL point mutation. Abnormalities in mitochondrial trafficking were found in neurons derived from this patient, but were only mildly present in neurons from a CMT2A (MFN2) patient. Novel electrophysiological abnormalities, including reduced action potential threshold and abnormal channel current properties were observed in motor neurons derived from both of these patients. Human iPSC-derived motor neurons from axonal CMT patients replicated key pathophysiological features observed in other models of MFN2 and NEFL mutations, including abnormal cytoskeletal and mitochondrial dynamics. Electrophysiological abnormalities found in axonal CMT iPSC-derived human motor neurons suggest that these cells are hyperexcitable and have altered sodium and calcium channel kinetics. These findings may provide a new therapeutic target for this group of heterogeneous inherited neuropathies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Oral supplements of aqueous extract of tomato seeds alleviate motor abnormality, oxidative impairments and neurotoxicity induced by rotenone in mice: relevance to Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Gokul, Krishna; Muralidhara

    2014-07-01

    Although tomato seeds (an industrial by-product) are known to contain several bioactive compounds, studies describing their health effects are limited. Previously, we evidenced that aqueous extract of tomato seeds (TSE) markedly attenuated rotenone (ROT)-induced oxidative stress and neurotoxicity in Drosophila system. This study investigated the neuroprotective effect of TSE in a chronic ROT model of neurotoxicity in mice. Initially, we assessed the potential of oral supplements of TSE to modulate the levels of endogenous markers of oxidative stress in brain regions of mice. Subsequently, employing a co-exposure paradigm, the propensity of TSE (100 mg/kg bw, 3 weeks) to attenuate ROT-induced behavioral phenotype (gait abnormalities, anxiety-like state), oxidative dysfunctions and neurotoxicity was examined. We found that mice provided with TSE supplements exhibited progressive improvement in gait pattern and exploratory behavior. TSE markedly offset ROT-induced oxidative impairments, restored reduced glutathione levels, antioxidant defenses (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase) and protein carbonyls content in brain regions. Specifically, TSE effectively diminished ROT induced elevation in the activity levels of acetylcholinesterase and restored the dopamine levels in striatum. Interestingly, in mitochondria, TSE was able to restore the activity of mitochondrial complexes and redox state. Collectively, our findings in the chronic ROT model demonstrate the ability of TSE to alleviate behavioral phenotype, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and neurotoxicity. Further studies in dopaminergic cell models are necessary to understand the precise molecular mechanism/s by which tomato seed bioactives offer significant neuroprotection.

  9. Highly variable penetrance of abnormal phenotypes in embryonic lethal knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background: Identifying genes that are essential for mouse embryonic development and survival through term is a powerful and unbiased way to discover possible genetic determinants of human developmental disorders. Characterising the changes in mouse embryos that result from ablation of lethal genes is a necessary first step towards uncovering their role in normal embryonic development and establishing any correlates amongst human congenital abnormalities. Methods: Here we present results gathered to date in the Deciphering the Mechanisms of Developmental Disorders (DMDD) programme, cataloguing the morphological defects identified from comprehensive imaging of 220 homozygous mutant embryos from 42 lethal and subviable lines, analysed at E14.5. Results: Virtually all embryos show multiple abnormal phenotypes and amongst the 42 lines these affect most organ systems. Within each mutant line, the phenotypes of individual embryos form distinct but overlapping sets. Subcutaneous edema, malformations of the heart or great vessels, abnormalities in forebrain morphology and the musculature of the eyes are all prevalent phenotypes, as is loss or abnormal size of the hypoglossal nerve. Conclusions: Overall, the most striking finding is that no matter how profound the malformation, each phenotype shows highly variable penetrance within a mutant line. These findings have challenging implications for efforts to identify human disease correlates. PMID:27996060

  10. ABNORMAL MOTOR FUNCTION AND DOPAMINE NEUROTRANSMISSION IN DYT1 ΔGAG TRANSGENIC MICE

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yu; DeCuypere, Michael; LeDoux, Mark S.

    2008-01-01

    A single GAG deletion in Exon 5 of the TOR1A gene is associated with a form of early-onset primary dystonia showing less than 40% penetrance. To provide a framework for cellular and systems study of DYT1 dystonia, we characterized the genetic, behavioral, morphological and neurochemical features of transgenic mice expressing either human wild-type torsinA (hWT) or mutant torsinA (hMT1 and hMT2) and their wild-type (WT) littermates. Relative to human brain, hMT1 mice showed robust neural expression of human torsinA transcript (3.90X). In comparison with WT littermates, hMT1 mice had prolonged traversal times on both square and round raised-beam tasks and more slips on the round raised-beam task. Although there were no effects of genotype on rotarod performance and rope climbing, hMT1 mice exhibited increased hind-base widths in comparison to WT and hWT mice. In contrast to several other mouse models of DYT1 dystonia, we were unable to identify either torsinA- and ubiquitin-positive cytoplasmic inclusion bodies or nuclear bleb formation in hMT1 mice. High-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection was used to determine cerebral cortical, striatal, and cerebellar levels of dopamine (DA), norepinephrine, epinephrine, serotonin, 3, 4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), homovanillic acid (HVA) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid. Although there were no differences in striatal DA levels between WT and hMT1 mice, DOPAC and HVA concentrations and DA turnover (DOPAC/DA and HVA/DA) were significantly higher in the mutants. Our findings in DYT1 transgenic mice are compatible with previous neuroimaging and postmortem neurochemical studies of human DYT1 dystonia. Increased striatal dopamine turnover in hMT1 mice suggests that the nigrostriatal pathway may be a site of functional neuropathology in DYT1 dystonia. PMID:18299128

  11. Mice with Dab1 or Vldlr insufficiency exhibit abnormal neonatal vocalization patterns.

    PubMed

    Fraley, E R; Burkett, Z D; Day, N F; Schwartz, B A; Phelps, P E; White, S A

    2016-05-17

    Genetic and epigenetic changes in components of the Reelin-signaling pathway (RELN, DAB1) are associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) risk. Social communication deficits are a key component of the ASD diagnostic criteria, but the underlying neurogenetic mechanisms remain unknown. Reln insufficient mice exhibit ASD-like behavioral phenotypes including altered neonatal vocalization patterns. Reelin affects multiple pathways including through the receptors, Very low-density lipoprotein receptor (Vldlr), Apolipoprotein receptor 2 (Apoer2), and intracellular signaling molecule Disabled-1 (Dab1). As Vldlr was previously implicated in avian vocalization, here we investigate vocalizations of neonatal mice with a reduction or absence of these components of the Reelin-signaling pathway. Mice with low or no Dab1 expression exhibited reduced calling rates, altered call-type usage, and differential vocal development trajectories. Mice lacking Vldlr expression also had altered call repertoires, and this effect was exacerbated by deficiency in Apoer2. Together with previous findings, these observations 1) solidify a role for Reelin in vocal communication of multiple species, 2) point to the canonical Reelin-signaling pathway as critical for development of normal neonatal calling patterns in mice, and 3) suggest that mutants in this pathway could be used as murine models for Reelin-associated vocal deficits in humans.

  12. Bixin activates PPARα and improves obesity-induced abnormalities of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in mice.

    PubMed

    Goto, Tsuyoshi; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Kato, Sota; Kim, Young-Il; Kusudo, Tatsuya; Taimatsu, Aki; Egawa, Kahori; Kang, Min-Sook; Hiramatsu, Takuro; Sakamoto, Tomoya; Uemura, Taku; Hirai, Shizuka; Kobayashi, Misato; Horio, Fumihiko; Kawada, Teruo

    2012-12-05

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that regulates the expression of the genes involved in fatty acid oxidation. PPARα activators induce fatty acid oxidation in the liver, thereby improving lipid and carbohydrate metabolism in obese mice. In this study, the dietary cis-carotenoids bixin and norbixin, which are commonly used in the food coloring industry, were found to activate PPARα by luciferase reporter assays using GAL4/PPARα chimeric and full-length PPARα systems. Treatment with bixin and norbixin induced the mRNA expression of PPARα target genes involved in fatty acid oxidation in PPARα-expressing HepG2 hepatocytes. In obese KK-Ay mice, bixin treatment suppressed the development of hyperlipidemia and hepatic lipid accumulation. In the livers of bixin-treated mice, the mRNA levels of PPARα target genes related to fatty acid oxidation were up-regulated. Moreover, bixin treatment also improved obesity-induced dysfunctions of carbohydrate metabolism, such as hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and hypoadiponectinemia. Glucose tolerance test and insulin tolerance test revealed that glucose intolerance and insulin resistance in KK-Ay obese mice were attenuated by the treatment with bixin. These results indicate that bixin acts as a food-derived agonist of PPARα, and bixin treatment is useful for the management of obesity-induced metabolic dysfunctions in mice.

  13. Abnormal nonshivering thermogenesis in mice with inherited defects of fatty acid oxidation.

    PubMed Central

    Guerra, C; Koza, R A; Walsh, K; Kurtz, D M; Wood, P A; Kozak, L P

    1998-01-01

    When placed in the cold (4 degreesC), BALB/cByJ mice of both genders rapidly lose body temperature as compared with the control strain, C57BL/6J. This sensitivity to cold resembles that previously described for mice with a defect in nonshivering thermogenesis due to the targeted inactivation of the brown adipocyte-specific mitochondrial uncoupling protein gene, Ucp1. Genetic mapping of the trait placed the gene on chromosome 5 near Acads, a gene encoding the short chain acyl CoA dehydrogenase, which is mutated in BALB/cByJ mice. The analysis of candidate genes in the region indicated a defect only in the expression of Acads. Confirmation of the importance of fatty acid oxidation to thermogenesis came from our finding that mice carrying the targeted inactivation of the long chain acyl CoA dehydrogenase gene (Acadl) are also sensitive to the cold. Both of these mutations attenuate the induction of genes normally responsive to adrenergic signaling in brown adipocytes. These results suggest that the action of fatty acids as regulators of gene expression has been perturbed in the mutant mice. From a clinical perspective, it is important to determine whether defects in thermogenesis may be a phenotype in human neonates with inherited deficiencies in fatty acid beta-oxidation. PMID:9802886

  14. Severe abnormalities in the reproductive organs of mice caused by chemical substances contained in heavy oil.

    PubMed

    Nishimoto, Sogo; Yamawaki, Manami; Akiyama, Koichi; Kakinuma, Yoshimi; Kitamura, Shin-Ichi; Sugahara, Takuya

    2009-04-01

    It is well known that heavy oil pollution results in various negative impacts on the marine environment. Although there is a low possibility of direct exposure to heavy oil, the chemical substances contained in heavy oil may be released into the environment and accumulated by marine organisms which in turn can be taken by humans via the food chain. In this study, we examined the biological risk of heavy oil extract using the common mouse, whose genetic backgrounds and immune system are well known and relatively homologous to humans. Water-soluble fraction (WSF) was extracted from heavy oil with water and the extract orally administrated to female or male mice for 7 days. In the WSF administrated group, cystoma-like formation was observed in the ovary in approximately 80% of female mice. On the other hand, we found that the prostate gland size in male mice was markedly reduced in comparison with male control mice. Continuous administration of WSF for 28 days resulted in continued hypertrophy of the cystoma around the ovary and atrophy in the prostate gland. In addition, it was revealed that chemical substances within WSF have estrogenic activity. A major component of heavy oil, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), is known to present estrogenic activity. It is likely that the cystoma-like formation in female mice and atrophy of prostate gland in male resulted of estrogenic substances present in the WSF which might be the PAHs.

  15. Abnormalities in Monocyte Recruitment and Cytokine Expression in Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein 1–deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Bao; Rutledge, Barbara J.; Gu, Long; Fiorillo, Joseph; Lukacs, Nicholas W.; Kunkel, Steven L.; North, Robert; Gerard, Craig; Rollins, Barrett J.

    1998-01-01

    Monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) is a CC chemokine that attracts monocytes, memory T lymphocytes, and natural killer cells. Because other chemokines have similar target cell specificities and because CCR2, a cloned MCP-1 receptor, binds other ligands, it has been uncertain whether MCP-1 plays a unique role in recruiting mononuclear cells in vivo. To address this question, we disrupted SCYA2 (the gene encoding MCP-1) and tested MCP-1–deficient mice in models of inflammation. Despite normal numbers of circulating leukocytes and resident macrophages, MCP-1−/− mice were specifically unable to recruit monocytes 72 h after intraperitoneal thioglycollate administration. Similarly, accumulation of F4/80+ monocytes in delayed-type hypersensitivity lesions was impaired, although the swelling response was normal. Development of secondary pulmonary granulomata in response to Schistosoma mansoni eggs was blunted in MCP-1−/− mice, as was expression of IL-4, IL-5, and interferon γ in splenocytes. In contrast, MCP-1−/− mice were indistinguishable from wild-type mice in their ability to clear Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Our data indicate that MCP-1 is uniquely essential for monocyte recruitment in several inflammatory models in vivo and influences expression of cytokines related to T helper responses. PMID:9463410

  16. Abnormalities of synapses and neurons in the hippocampus of neuropsin-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Hirata, A; Yoshida, S; Inoue, N; Matsumoto-Miyai, K; Ninomiya, A; Taniguchi, M; Matsuyama, T; Kato, K; Iizasa, H; Kataoka, Y; Yoshida, N; Shiosaka, S

    2001-03-01

    In the present study, we produced null-mutant mice of neuropsin, an extracellular matrix serine protease, to examine the neural functions of this protein particularly in the hippocampus. Golgi-Cox impregnation and Nissl-staining revealed morphological change of cell soma in the mutant mice compared to wild-type mice. However, Golgi-Cox impregnation revealed no apparent change in the dendritic arborization and spine density. Quantitative electronmicroscopic analysis revealed that number of asymmetrical synapses were significantly decreased in the stratum radiatum, the major terminal field of Schaffer-collaterals, whereas free boutons still holding synaptic vesicles but with no synaptic specialization were increased in number in the same microscopic fields. An increased number of parvalbumin-immunoreactive cells (known as fast spiking cells) in mutant was also observed. These results strongly suggest that neuropsin is involved in connectivity of a group of CA1 synapses and consequently in the hippocampal networking.

  17. Short-Term Treatment with Bisphenol-A Leads to Metabolic Abnormalities in Adult Male Mice

    PubMed Central

    Batista, Thiago M.; Alonso-Magdalena, Paloma; Vieira, Elaine; Amaral, Maria Esmeria C.; Cederroth, Christopher R.; Nef, Serge; Quesada, Ivan; Carneiro, Everardo M.; Nadal, Angel

    2012-01-01

    Bisphenol-A (BPA) is one of the most widespread endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC) used as the base compound in the manufacture of polycarbonate plastics. Although evidence points to consider exposure to BPA as a risk factor for insulin resistance, its actions on whole body metabolism and on insulin-sensitive tissues are still unclear. The aim of the present work was to study the effects of low doses of BPA in insulin-sensitive peripheral tissues and whole body metabolism in adult mice. Adult mice were treated with subcutaneous injection of 100 µg/kg BPA or vehicle for 8 days. Whole body energy homeostasis was assessed with in vivo indirect calorimetry. Insulin signaling assays were conducted by western blot analysis. Mice treated with BPA were insulin resistant and had increased glucose-stimulated insulin release. BPA-treated mice had decreased food intake, lower body temperature and locomotor activity compared to control. In skeletal muscle, insulin-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of the insulin receptor β subunit was impaired in BPA-treated mice. This impairment was associated with a reduced insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation in the Thr308 residue. Both skeletal muscle and liver displayed an upregulation of IRS-1 protein by BPA. The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway was also impaired in the skeletal muscle from BPA-treated mice. In the liver, BPA effects were of lesser intensity with decreased insulin-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of the insulin receptor β subunit. In conclusion, short-term treatment with low doses of BPA slows down whole body energy metabolism and disrupts insulin signaling in peripheral tissues. Thus, our findings support the notion that BPA can be considered a risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes. PMID:22470480

  18. Retina Restored and Brain Abnormalities Ameliorated by Single-Copy Knock-In of Human NR2E1 in Null Mice

    PubMed Central

    Schmouth, J.-F.; Banks, K. G.; Mathelier, A.; Gregory-Evans, C. Y.; Castellarin, M.; Holt, R. A.; Gregory-Evans, K.; Wasserman, W. W.

    2012-01-01

    Nr2e1 encodes a stem cell fate determinant of the mouse forebrain and retina. Abnormal regulation of this gene results in retinal, brain, and behavioral abnormalities in mice. However, little is known about the functionality of human NR2E1. We investigated this functionality using a novel knock-in humanized-mouse strain carrying a single-copy bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC). We also documented, for the first time, the expression pattern of the human BAC, using an NR2E1-lacZ reporter strain. Unexpectedly, cerebrum and olfactory bulb hypoplasia, hallmarks of the Nr2e1-null phenotype, were not fully corrected in animals harboring one functional copy of human NR2E1. These results correlated with an absence of NR2E1-lacZ reporter expression in the dorsal pallium of embryos and proliferative cells of adult brains. Surprisingly, retinal histology and electroretinograms demonstrated complete correction of the retina-null phenotype. These results correlated with appropriate expression of the NR2E1-lacZ reporter in developing and adult retina. We conclude that the human BAC contained all the elements allowing correction of the mouse-null phenotype in the retina, while missing key regulatory regions important for proper spatiotemporal brain expression. This is the first time a separation of regulatory mechanisms governing NR2E1 has been demonstrated. Furthermore, candidate genomic regions controlling expression in proliferating cells during neurogenesis were identified. PMID:22290436

  19. Targeted Interneuron Depletion in the Dorsal Striatum Produces Autism-like Behavioral Abnormalities in Male but Not Female Mice.

    PubMed

    Rapanelli, Maximiliano; Frick, Luciana Romina; Xu, Meiyu; Groman, Stephanie Mary; Jindachomthong, Kantiya; Tamamaki, Nobuaki; Tanahira, Chiyoko; Taylor, Jane Rebecca; Pittenger, Christopher

    2017-08-01

    Interneuronal pathology is implicated in many neuropsychiatric disorders, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and Tourette syndrome (TS). Interneurons of the striatum, including the parvalbumin-expressing fast-spiking interneurons (FSIs) and the large cholinergic interneurons (CINs), are affected in patients with TS and in preclinical models of both ASD and TS. To test the causal importance of these neuronal abnormalities, we recapitulated them in vivo in developmentally normal mice using a combination transgenic-viral strategy for targeted toxin-mediated ablation. We found that conjoint ~50% depletion of FSIs and CINs in the dorsal striatum of male mice produces spontaneous stereotypy and marked deficits in social interaction. Strikingly, these behavioral effects are not seen in female mice; because ASD and TS have a marked male predominance, this observation reinforces the potential relevance of the finding to human disease. Neither of these effects is seen when only one or the other interneuronal population is depleted; ablation of both is required. Depletion of FSIs, but not of CINs, also produces anxiety-like behavior, as has been described previously. Behavioral pathology in male mice after conjoint FSI and CIN depletion is accompanied by increases in activity-dependent signaling in the dorsal striatum; these alterations were not observed after disruption of only one interneuron type or in doubly depleted female mice. These data indicate that disruption of CIN and FSI interneurons in the dorsal striatum is sufficient to produce network and behavioral changes of potential relevance to ASD, in a sexually dimorphic manner. Copyright © 2017 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Ameliorating effect of piperine on behavioral abnormalities and oxidative markers in sodium valproate induced autism in BALB/C mice.

    PubMed

    Pragnya, B; Kameshwari, J S L; Veeresh, B

    2014-08-15

    Post natal exposure to VPA (valproic acid) in mice induces behavioral deficits, abnormal sensitivity to sensory stimuli and self-injurious behavior, observed in autism. Piperine has been reported to have protective effect on brain. The present study aimed at evaluating effect of piperine on VPA induced neurobehavioral and biochemical alterations in BALB/c mice. Young BALB/c mice 13 days old were procured from five different litters and segregated into five groups (n=6; 3 male, 3 female) i.e., Group I served as control group, received physiological saline on PND (Post natal day) 14 & Tween 80 p.o. from PND13-40. Group II served as normal treated group and received piperine (20mg/kg p.o.) from PND 13-40 and saline s.c. on PND 14. Group III served as valproate treated group received VPA (400mg/kg s.c.) on PND 14 and Tween 80 p.o. from PND 13-40. Group IV & V served as disease treated group received VPA (400mg/kg s.c.) on PND 14 & piperine (5 & 20mg/kg p.o.) from PND 13-40 respectively. BALB/c mice pups were subjected to behavioral testing to assess motor skill development, nociceptive response, locomotion, anxiety, and cognition on various postnatal days up to PND 40. At the end of behavioral evaluation, mice were sacrificed; brain was isolated for biochemical estimations (serotonin, glutathione, MDA and nitric oxide) and histopathological examination. Our study revealed that treatment with piperine significantly improved behavioral alterations, lowered oxidative stress markers, and restored histoarchitecture of cerebellum. This ameliorating effect of piperine is attributed to its anti-oxidant activity, cognition enhancing and neuroprotective activity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Understanding normal and abnormal development of the Wolffian/epididymal duct by using transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Murashima, Aki; Xu, Bingfang; Hinton, Barry T

    2015-01-01

    The development of the Wolffian/epididymal duct is crucial for proper function and, therefore, male fertility. The development of the epididymis is complex; the initial stages form as a transient embryonic kidney; then the mesonephros is formed, which in turn undergoes extensive morphogenesis under the influence of androgens and growth factors. Thus, understanding of its full development requires a wide and multidisciplinary view. This review focuses on mouse models that display abnormalities of the Wolffian duct and mesonephric development, the importance of these mouse models toward understanding male reproductive tract development, and how these models contribute to our understanding of clinical abnormalities in humans such as congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT). PMID:26112482

  2. Abnormal thyroid hormone metabolism in mice lacking the monocarboxylate transporter 8.

    PubMed

    Trajkovic, Marija; Visser, Theo J; Mittag, Jens; Horn, Sigrun; Lukas, Jan; Darras, Veerle M; Raivich, Genadij; Bauer, Karl; Heuer, Heike

    2007-03-01

    In humans, inactivating mutations in the gene of the thyroid hormone transporter monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8; SLC16A2) lead to severe forms of psychomotor retardation combined with imbalanced thyroid hormone serum levels. The MCT8-null mice described here, however, developed without overt deficits but also exhibited distorted 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) serum levels, resulting in increased hepatic activity of type 1 deiodinase (D1). In the mutants' brains, entry of T4 was not affected, but uptake of T3 was diminished. Moreover, the T4 and T3 content in the brain of MCT8-null mice was decreased, the activity of D2 was increased, and D3 activity was decreased, indicating the hypothyroid state of this tissue. In the CNS, analysis of T3 target genes revealed that in the mutants, the neuronal T3 uptake was impaired in an area-specific manner, with strongly elevated thyrotropin-releasing hormone transcript levels in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus and slightly decreased RC3 mRNA expression in striatal neurons; however, cerebellar Purkinje cells appeared unaffected, since they did not exhibit dendritic outgrowth defects and responded normally to T3 treatment in vitro. In conclusion, the circulating thyroid hormone levels of MCT8-null mice closely resemble those of humans with MCT8 mutations, yet in the mice, CNS development is only partially affected.

  3. Abnormal thyroid hormone metabolism in mice lacking the monocarboxylate transporter 8

    PubMed Central

    Trajkovic, Marija; Visser, Theo J.; Mittag, Jens; Horn, Sigrun; Lukas, Jan; Darras, Veerle M.; Raivich, Genadij; Bauer, Karl; Heuer, Heike

    2007-01-01

    In humans, inactivating mutations in the gene of the thyroid hormone transporter monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8; SLC16A2) lead to severe forms of psychomotor retardation combined with imbalanced thyroid hormone serum levels. The MCT8-null mice described here, however, developed without overt deficits but also exhibited distorted 3,5,3′-triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) serum levels, resulting in increased hepatic activity of type 1 deiodinase (D1). In the mutants’ brains, entry of T4 was not affected, but uptake of T3 was diminished. Moreover, the T4 and T3 content in the brain of MCT8-null mice was decreased, the activity of D2 was increased, and D3 activity was decreased, indicating the hypothyroid state of this tissue. In the CNS, analysis of T3 target genes revealed that in the mutants, the neuronal T3 uptake was impaired in an area-specific manner, with strongly elevated thyrotropin-releasing hormone transcript levels in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus and slightly decreased RC3 mRNA expression in striatal neurons; however, cerebellar Purkinje cells appeared unaffected, since they did not exhibit dendritic outgrowth defects and responded normally to T3 treatment in vitro. In conclusion, the circulating thyroid hormone levels of MCT8-null mice closely resemble those of humans with MCT8 mutations, yet in the mice, CNS development is only partially affected. PMID:17318265

  4. Behavioral deficits and cholinergic pathway abnormalities in male Sanfilippo B mice.

    PubMed

    Kan, Shih-Hsin; Le, Steven Q; Bui, Quang D; Benedict, Braeden; Cushman, Jesse; Sands, Mark S; Dickson, Patricia I

    2016-10-01

    Sanfilippo B syndrome is a progressive neurological disorder caused by inability to catabolize heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycans. We studied neurobehavior in male Sanfilippo B mice and heterozygous littermate controls from 16 to 20 weeks of age. Affected mice showed reduced anxiety, with a decrease in the number of stretch-attend postures during the elevated plus maze (p=0.001) and an increased tendency to linger in the center of an open field (p=0.032). Water maze testing showed impaired spatial learning, with reduced preference for the target quadrant (p=0.01). In radial arm maze testing, affected mice failed to achieve above-chance performance in a win-shift working memory task (t-test relative to 50% chance: p=0.289), relative to controls (p=0.037). We found a 12.4% reduction in mean acetylcholinesterase activity (p<0.001) and no difference in choline acetyltransferase activity or acetylcholine in whole brain of affected male animals compared to controls. Cholinergic pathways are affected in adult-onset dementias, including Alzheimer disease. Our results suggest that male Sanfilippo B mice display neurobehavioral deficits at a relatively early age, and that as in adult dementias, they may display deficits in cholinergic pathways.

  5. High Fat Diet Produces Brain Insulin Resistance, Synaptodendritic Abnormalities and Altered Behavior in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Steven E.; Lucki, Irwin; Brookshire, Bethany R.; Carlson, Gregory C.; Browne, Carolyn A.; Kazi, Hala; Bang, Sookhee; Choi, Bo-Ran; Chen, Yong; McMullen, Mary F.; Kim, Sangwon F.

    2014-01-01

    Insulin resistance and other features of the metabolic syndrome are increasingly recognized for their effects on cognitive health. To ascertain mechanisms by which this occurs, we fed mice a very high fat diet (60% kcal by fat) for 17 days or a moderate high fat diet (HFD, 45% kcal by fat) for 8 weeks and examined changes in brain insulin signaling responses, hippocampal synaptodendritic protein expression, and spatial working memory. Compared to normal control diet mice, cerebral cortex tissues of HFD mice were insulin-resistant as evidenced by failed activation of Akt, S6 and GSK3β with ex-vivo insulin stimulation. Importantly, we found that expression of brain IPMK, which is necessary for mTOR/Akt signaling, remained decreased in HFD mice upon activation of AMPK. HFD mouse hippocampus exhibited increased expression of serine-phosphorylated insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1-pS616), a marker of insulin resistance, as well as decreased expression of PSD-95, a scaffolding protein enriched in post-synaptic densities, and synaptopodin, an actin-associated protein enriched in spine apparatuses. Spatial working memory was impaired as assessed by decreased spontaneous alternation in a T-maze. These findings indicate that HFD is associated with telencephalic insulin resistance and deleterious effects on synaptic integrity and cognitive behaviors. PMID:24686304

  6. Lipid abnormalities in alpha/beta2-syntrophin null mice are independent from ABCA1

    PubMed Central

    Hebel, Tobias; Eisinger, Kristina; Neumeier, Markus; Rein-Fischboeck, Lisa; Pohl, Rebekka; Meier, Elisabeth M.; Boettcher, Alfred; Froehner, Stanley C.; Adams, Marvin E.; Liebisch, Gerhard; Krautbauer, Sabrina; Buechler, Christa

    2015-01-01

    The syntrophins alpha (SNTA) and beta 2 (SNTB2) are molecular adaptor proteins shown to stabilize ABCA1, an essential regulator of HDL cholesterol. Furthermore, SNTB2 is involved in glucose stimulated insulin release. Hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia are characteristic features of the metabolic syndrome, a serious public health problem with rising prevalence. Therefore, it is important to understand the role of the syntrophins herein. Mice deficient for both syntrophins (SNTA/B2−/−) have normal insulin and glucose tolerance, hepatic ABCA1 protein and cholesterol. When challenged with a HFD, wild type and SNTA/B2−/− mice have similar weight gain, adiposity, serum and liver triglycerides. Hepatic ABCA1, serum insulin and insulin sensitivity are normal while glucose tolerance is impaired. Liver cholesterol is reduced, and expression of SREBP2 and HMG-CoA-R is increased in the knockout mice. Scavenger receptor-BI (SR-BI) protein is strongly diminished in the liver of SNTA/B2−/− mice while SR-BI binding protein NHERF1 is not changed and PDZK1 is even induced. Knock-down of SNTA, SNTB2 or both has no effect on hepatocyte SR-BI and PDZK1 proteins. Further, SR-BI levels are not reduced in brown adipose tissue of SNTA/B2−/− mice excluding that syntrophins directly stabilize SR-BI. SR-BI stability is regulated by MAPK and phosphorylated ERK2 is induced in the liver of the knock-out mice. Blockage of ERK activity upregulates hepatocyte SR-BI showing that increased MAPK activity contributes to low SR-BI. Sphingomyelin which is well described to regulate cholesterol metabolism is reduced in the liver and serum of the knock-out mice while the size of serum lipoproteins is not affected. Current data exclude a major function of these syntrophins in ABCA1 activity and insulin release but suggest a role in regulating glucose uptake, ERK and SR-BI levels, and sphingomyelin metabolism in obesity. PMID:25625330

  7. Defective Peripheral Nerve Development Is Linked to Abnormal Architecture and Metabolic Activity of Adipose Tissue in Nscl-2 Mutant Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ruschke, Karen; Ebelt, Henning; Klöting, Nora; Boettger, Thomas; Raum, Kay; Blüher, Matthias; Braun, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Background In mammals the interplay between the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and adipose tissue is widely unexplored. We have employed mice, which develop an adult onset of obesity due to the lack the neuronal specific transcription factor Nscl-2 to investigate the interplay between the nervous system and white adipose tissue (WAT). Methodology Changes in the architecture and innervation of WAT were compared between wildtype, Nscl2−/−, ob/ob and Nscl2−/−//ob/ob mice using morphological methods, immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry. Metabolic alterations in mutant mice and in isolated cells were investigated under basal and stimulated conditions. Principal Findings We found that Nscl-2 mutant mice show a massive reduction of innervation of white epididymal and paired subcutaneous inguinal fat tissue including sensory and autonomic nerves as demonstrated by peripherin and neurofilament staining. Reduction of innervation went along with defects in the formation of the microvasculature, accumulation of cells of the macrophage/preadipocyte lineage, a bimodal distribution of the size of fat cells, and metabolic defects of isolated adipocytes. Despite a relative insulin resistance of white adipose tissue and isolated Nscl-2 mutant adipocytes the serum level of insulin in Nscl-2 mutant mice was only slightly increased. Conclusions We conclude that the reduction of the innervation and vascularization of WAT in Nscl-2 mutant mice leads to the increase of preadipocyte/macrophage-like cells, a bimodal distribution of the size of adipocytes in WAT and an altered metabolic activity of adipocytes. PMID:19436734

  8. Proatherogenic Abnormalities Of Lipid Metabolism In SirT1 Transgenic Mice Are Mediated Through Creb Deacetylation

    PubMed Central

    Qiang, Li; Lin, Hua V.; Kim-Muller, Ja Young; Welch, Carrie L.; Gu, Wei; Accili, Domenico

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Dyslipidemia and atherosclerosis are associated with reduced insulin sensitivity and diabetes, but the mechanism is unclear. Gain-of-function of the gene encoding deacetylase SirT1 improves insulin sensitivity, and could be expected to protect against lipid abnormalities. Surprisingly, when transgenic mice overexpressing SirT1 (SirBACO) are placed on atherogenic diet, they maintain better glucose homeostasis, but develop worse lipid profiles and larger atherosclerotic lesions than controls. We show that transcription factor cAMP response element binding protein (Creb) is deacetylated in SirBACO mice. We identify Lys136 is a substrate for SirT1-dependent deacetylation that affects Creb activity by preventing its cAMP-dependent phosphorylation, leading to reduced expression of glucogenic genes, and promoting hepatic lipid accumulation and secretion. Expression of constitutively acetylated Creb (K136Q) in SirBACO mice mimics Creb activation and abolishes the dyslipidemic and insulin-sensitizing effects of SirT1 gain-of-function. We propose that SirT1-dependent Creb deacetylation regulates the balance between glucose and lipid metabolism, integrating fasting signals. PMID:22078933

  9. A mutation in NFkB interacting protein 1 results in cardiomyopathy and abnormal skin development in wa3 mice.

    PubMed

    Herron, Bruce J; Rao, Cherie; Liu, Shanming; Laprade, Lisa; Richardson, James A; Olivieri, Emily; Semsarian, Chris; Millar, Sarah E; Stubbs, Lisa; Beier, David R

    2005-03-01

    We have identified waved 3 (wa3), a novel recessive mutation that causes abnormalities of the heart and skin. The cardiac defect results in a severe and rapidly progressive dilated cardiomyopathy. We identified the gene mutated in these mice, which we call NFkB interacting protein1 (Nkip1), using positional cloning. Nkip1 is expressed in skin, heart and vascular endothelium and shares homology with a small family of proteins that play a role in the regulation of transcription factors. A C-terminal fragment of this protein was previously identified as the RelA associated inhibitor (RAI). We show that the full-length protein is larger than previously described, and we confirm that it interacts with NFkB in vivo. Expression analysis of genes known to be regulated by NFkB revealed that Intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (Icam1) expression is consistently elevated in mutant mice. This result suggests that wa3 mutant mice represent a potentially important model for the analysis of the role of inflammatory processes in heart disease.

  10. Pituitary and ovarian abnormalities demonstrated by CT and ultrasound in children with features of the McCune-Albright syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Rieth, K.G.; Comite, F.; Shawker, T.H.; Cutler, G.B. Jr.

    1984-11-01

    In a random series of 97 children referred to the National Institutes of Health with a presumptive diagnosis of precocious puberty, eight girls were found to have features of the McCune-Albright syndrome, including fibrous dysplasia of bone and/or skin lesions resembling cafe au lait spots. Radiographic evaluation of these patients included computed tomography of the head and pelvic ultrasound. The pituitary glands were suspicious for abnormality in five of the eight girls. Seven girls underwent pelvic ultrasound, and in all of them the ovaries were considered to be abnormal for their chronological age; in addition, two had functional ovarian cysts. The role of diagnostic radiological studies in the diagnosis of this syndrome is discussed.

  11. Diacylglycerol Kinase β Knockout Mice Exhibit Attention-Deficit Behavior and an Abnormal Response on Methylphenidate-Induced Hyperactivity

    PubMed Central

    Ishisaka, Mitsue; Kakefuda, Kenichi; Oyagi, Atsushi; Ono, Yoko; Tsuruma, Kazuhiro; Shimazawa, Masamitsu; Kitaichi, Kiyoyuki; Hara, Hideaki

    2012-01-01

    Background Diacylglycerol kinase (DGK) is an enzyme that phosphorylates diacylglycerol to produce phosphatidic acid. DGKβ is one of the subtypes of the DGK family and regulates many intracellular signaling pathways in the central nervous system. Previously, we demonstrated that DGKβ knockout (KO) mice showed various dysfunctions of higher brain function, such as cognitive impairment (with lower spine density), hyperactivity, reduced anxiety, and careless behavior. In the present study, we conducted further tests on DGKβ KO mice in order to investigate the function of DGKβ in the central nervous system, especially in the pathophysiology of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Methodology/Principal Findings DGKβ KO mice showed attention-deficit behavior in the object-based attention test and it was ameliorated by methylphenidate (MPH, 30 mg/kg, i.p.). In the open field test, DGKβ KO mice displayed a decreased response to the locomotor stimulating effects of MPH (30 mg/kg, i.p.), but showed a similar response to an N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, MK-801 (0.3 mg/kg, i.p.), when compared to WT mice. Examination of the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), which is involved in regulation of locomotor activity, indicated that ERK1/2 activation induced by MPH treatment was defective in the striatum of DGKβ KO mice. Conclusions/Significance These findings suggest that DGKβ KO mice showed attention-deficit and hyperactive phenotype, similar to ADHD. Furthermore, the hyporesponsiveness of DGKβ KO mice to MPH was due to dysregulation of ERK phosphorylation, and that DGKβ has a pivotal involvement in ERK regulation in the striatum. PMID:22590645

  12. Daily oral intake of theanine prevents the decline of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine incorporation in hippocampal dentate gyrus with concomitant alleviation of behavioral abnormalities in adult mice with severe traumatic stress.

    PubMed

    Takarada, Takeshi; Nakamichi, Noritaka; Kakuda, Takami; Nakazato, Ryota; Kokubo, Hiroshi; Ikeno, Shinsuke; Nakamura, Saki; Hinoi, Eiichi; Yoneda, Yukio

    2015-03-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder is a long-lasting psychiatric disease with the consequence of hippocampal atrophy in humans exposed to severe fatal stress. We demonstrated a positive correlation between the transient decline of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) and long-lasting behavioral abnormalities in mice with traumatic stress. Here, we investigated pharmacological properties of theanine on the declined BrdU incorporation and abnormal behaviors in mice with traumatic stress. Prior daily oral administration of theanine at 50-500 mg/kg for 5 days significantly prevented the decline of BrdU incorporation, while theanine significantly prevented the decline in the DG even when administered for 5 days after stress. Consecutive daily administration of theanine significantly inhibited the prolonged immobility in mice with stress in forced swimming test seen 14 days later. Although traumatic stress significantly increased spontaneous locomotor activity over 30 min even when determined 14 days later, the increased total locomotion was significantly ameliorated following the administration of theanine at 50 mg/kg for 14 days after stress. These results suggest that theanine alleviates behavioral abnormalities together with prevention of the transient decline of BrdU incorporation in the hippocampal DG in adult mice with severe traumatic stress.

  13. Multiple Structural and Functional Abnormalities in the P450 Aromatase Expressing Transgenic Male Mice Are Ameliorated by a P450 Aromatase Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiangdong; Strauss, Leena; Mäkelä, Sari; Streng, Tomi; Huhtaniemi, Ilpo; Santti, Risto; Poutanen, Matti

    2004-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to analyze the effect of a P450 aromatase inhibitor (finrozole) on 4-month-old transgenic mice expressing human P450 aromatase (P450arom) under the human ubiquitin C promoter (AROM+). AROM+ mice present several dysfunctions, such as adrenal and pituitary hyperplasia, cryptorchidism, Leydig cell hypertrophy and hyperplasia, and gynecomastia. The present study demonstrates that these abnormalities were efficiently treated by administration of a P450arom inhibitor, finrozole. The treatment normalized the reduced intratesticular and serum testosterone levels, while those of estradiol were decreased. The body weight and several affected organ weights were normalized with the treatment. Histological analysis revealed that both the pituitary and adrenal hyperplasia were diminished. Furthermore, the cryptorchid testes present in the untreated AROM+ males descended to scrotum, 4 to 15 days after inhibitor treatment. In addition, the disrupted spermatogenesis was recovered and qualitatively complete spermatogenesis appeared with the inhibitor treatment. This was associated with normalized structure of the interstitial tissue, as analyzed by immunohistochemical staining for Leydig cells and macrophages. One of the features was that the Leydig cell hypertrophy was markedly diminished in the treated mice. AROM+ mice also present with severe gynecomastia, while the development and differentiation of the mammary gland in AROM+ males was markedly diminished with the inhibitor treatment. Interestingly, the mammary gland involution was associated with the induction of androgen receptor in the epithelial cells, while estrogen receptors were still detectable in the epithelium. The data show that AROM+ mouse model is a novel tool to further analyze the use of P450arom inhibitors in the treatment of the dysfunctions in males associated with misbalanced estrogen to androgen ratio, such as pituitary adenoma, testicular dysfunction, and gynecomastia. PMID

  14. Influence of abnormally high leptin levels during pregnancy on metabolic phenotypes in progeny mice.

    PubMed

    Makarova, Elena N; Chepeleva, Elena V; Panchenko, Polina E; Bazhan, Nadezhda M

    2013-12-01

    Maternal obesity increases the risk of obesity in offspring, and obesity is accompanied by an increase in blood leptin levels. The "yellow" mutation at the mouse agouti locus (A(y)) increases blood leptin levels in C57BL preobese pregnant mice without affecting other metabolic characteristics. We investigated the influence of the A(y) mutation or leptin injection at the end of pregnancy in C57BL mice on metabolic phenotypes and the susceptibility to diet-induced obesity (DIO) in offspring. In both C57BL-A(y) and leptin-treated mice, the maternal effect was more pronounced in male offspring. Compared with males born to control mothers, males born to A(y) mothers displayed equal food intake (FI) but decreased body weight (BW) gain after weaning, equal glucose tolerance, and enhanced FI-to-BW ratios on the standard diet but the same FI and BW on the high-fat diet. Males born to A(y) mothers were less responsive to the anorectic effect of exogenous leptin and less resistant to fasting (were not hyperphagic and gained less weight during refeeding after food deprivation) compared with males born to control mothers. However, all progeny displayed equal hypothalamic expression of Agouti gene-related protein (AgRP), neuropeptide Y (NPY), and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and equal plasma leptin and glucose levels after food deprivation. Leptin injections in C57BL mice on day 17 of pregnancy decreased BW in both male and female offspring but inhibited FI and DIO only in male offspring. Our results show that hyperleptinemia during pregnancy has sex-specific long-term effects on energy balance regulation in progeny and does not predispose offspring to developing obesity.

  15. Neonatal Isoflurane Exposure Induces Neurocognitive Impairment and Abnormal Hippocampal Histone Acetylation in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Tao; Guo, Qulian; Zou, Wangyuan; Zhu, Xiaoyan; Song, Zongbin; Sun, Bei; He, Xin; Yang, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Background Neonatal exposure to isoflurane may induce long-term memory impairment in mice. Histone acetylation is an important form of chromatin modification that regulates the transcription of genes required for memory formation. This study investigated whether neonatal isoflurane exposure-induced neurocognitive impairment is related to dysregulated histone acetylation in the hippocampus and whether it can be attenuated by the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA). Methods C57BL/6 mice were exposed to 0.75% isoflurane three times (each for 4 h) at postnatal days 7, 8, and 9. Contextual fear conditioning (CFC) was tested at 3 months after anesthesia administration. TSA was intraperitoneally injected 2 h before CFC training. Hippocampal histone acetylation levels were analyzed following CFC training. Levels of the neuronal activation and synaptic plasticity marker c-Fos were investigated at the same time point. Results Mice that were neonatally exposed to isoflurane showed significant memory impairment on CFC testing. These mice also exhibited dysregulated hippocampal H4K12 acetylation and decreased c-Fos expression following CFC training. TSA attenuated isoflurane-induced memory impairment and simultaneously increased histone acetylation and c-Fos levels in the hippocampal cornu ammonis (CA)1 area 1 h after CFC training. Conclusions Memory impairment induced by repeated neonatal exposure to isoflurane is associated with dysregulated histone H4K12 acetylation in the hippocampus, which probably affects downstream c-Fos gene expression following CFC training. The HDAC inhibitor TSA successfully rescued impaired contextual fear memory, presumably by promoting histone acetylation and histone acetylation-mediated gene expression. PMID:25928815

  16. Abnormal in vitro development of ovarian follicles explanted from mice exposed to tetrachlorvinphos.

    PubMed

    Nayudu, P L; Kiesel, P S; Nowshari, M A; Hodges, J K

    1994-01-01

    A system of mouse ovarian follicle culture in which follicles can be grown from a preantral stage of development through antral formation has been developed and modified recently by Nayudu and colleagues. Follicles have been shown to grow in this culture system at a relatively constant rate and show responsiveness to LH at the end of the culture by ovulation of mature oocytes. Reported here are the distinctly different in vitro growth patterns of follicles explanted from 22- to 24-day-old mice during a period when the colony was being treated for skin parasites with tetrachlorvinphos (TCVP) (Rabond). There is to date no information on the effects of this compound on the mammalian female reproductive system. For follicles from the TCVP treated group, the duration of growth as intact follicles was markedly reduced in comparison to mice of the same strain and source not treated with TCVP. In the treated group, premature termination of follicular growth was also associated with the spontaneous expulsion of oocytes with immature nuclei and without cumulus cells. For those follicles from treated mice that did remain in culture until the day luteinizing hormone was given, the ovulatory response was poor and the maturation response of the oocytes was low in comparison with the follicles from untreated mice. The effect of the treatment on the follicles was further characterized by obvious differences in the patterns of growth. Follicles in the untreated group grew in a linear pattern at around 25 microns/day; a single phase, fast pattern for the whole culture period.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. The sequential development of abnormal prion protein accumulation in mice with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

    PubMed Central

    Muramoto, T.; Kitamoto, T.; Tateishi, J.; Goto, I.

    1992-01-01

    The distribution and sequential development of prion protein (PrP) accumulation in the central nervous system (CNS) and non-neuronal organs of mice infected with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) were investigated immunohistochemically using a new pretreatment method that greatly enhanced the immunoreactivity of PrP. Prion protein accumulation in the CNS was first detected at 30 days after inoculation and then developed near the inoculation site or periventricular area, and later spread to the whole cerebrum and then to the pons. Its staining took some characteristic forms. Among non-neuronal organs, PrP accumulated in the follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) in spleen, lymph node, Peyer's patch, and thymus. FDCs staining appeared in spleen, lymph node, and Peyer's patch at 21 or 30 days after inoculation, and in thymus at 90 days. Germinal centers developed in the thymus of some CJD-infected mice. No PrP staining was detected in any examined organs of age-matched control mice. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:1376559

  18. Abnormal spermatogenesis and male infertility in testicular zinc finger protein Zfp318-knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Ishizuka, Masamichi; Ohtsuka, Eri; Inoue, Atsuto; Odaka, Mirei; Ohshima, Hirotaka; Tamura, Norihisa; Yoshida, Kaoru; Sako, Norihisa; Baba, Tadashi; Kashiwabara, Shin-Ichi; Okabe, Masaru; Noguchi, Junko; Hagiwara, Hiromi

    2016-09-01

    Zfp318, a mouse gene with a Cys2/His2 zinc finger motif, is mainly expressed in germ cells in the testis. It encodes two alternative transcripts, which regulate androgen receptor-mediated transcriptional activation or repression by overexpression of them. However, the role of Zfp318 is still obscure in vivo, especially in spermatogenesis. To elucidate the role of Zfp318 during gamete production, we established a knockout mouse line. Zfp318-null male mice exhibited infertility, whereas Zfp318-null female mice displayed normal fertility. ZFP318 was expressed during multiple stages of spermatogenesis, from spermatocytes to round spermatids. The nuclei of secondary spermatocytes showed high levels of expression. Histological analysis and quantitative analysis of DNA content showed decreased numbers of both spermatids in the seminiferous tubules and mature spermatozoa in the epididymides of Zfp318-null mice. These results suggest that Zfp318 is expressed as a functional protein in testicular germ cells and plays an important role in meiosis during spermatogenesis.

  19. Abnormal bone growth and selective translational regulation in basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) transgenic mice.

    PubMed Central

    Coffin, J D; Florkiewicz, R Z; Neumann, J; Mort-Hopkins, T; Dorn, G W; Lightfoot, P; German, R; Howles, P N; Kier, A; O'Toole, B A

    1995-01-01

    Basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) is a pleiotropic growth factor detected in many different cells and tissues. Normally synthesized at low levels, FGF-2 is elevated in various pathologies, most notably in cancer and injury repair. To investigate the effects of elevated FGF-2, the human full-length cDNA was expressed in transgenic mice under control of a phosphoglycerate kinase promoter. Overexpression of FGF-2 caused a variety of skeletal malformations including shortening and flattening of long bones and moderate macrocephaly. Comparison by Western blot of FGF-2 transgenic mice to nontransgenic littermates showed expression of human FGF-2 protein in all major organs and tissues examined including brain, heart, lung, liver, kidney, spleen, and skeletal muscle; however, different molar ratios of FGF-2 protein isoforms were observed between different organs and tissues. Some tissues preferentially synthesize larger isoforms of FGF-2 while other tissues produce predominantly smaller 18-kDa FGF-2. Translation of the high molecular weight isoforms initiates from unconventional CUG codons and translation of the 18-kDa isoform initiates from an AUG codon in the FGF-2 mRNA. Thus the Western blot data from the FGF-2 transgenic mice suggest that tissue-specific expression of FGF-2 isoforms is regulated translationally. Images PMID:8590811

  20. Fragile X-like behaviors and abnormal cortical dendritic spines in cytoplasmic FMR1-interacting protein 2-mutant mice.

    PubMed

    Han, Kihoon; Chen, Hogmei; Gennarino, Vincenzo A; Richman, Ronald; Lu, Hui-Chen; Zoghbi, Huda Y

    2015-04-01

    Silencing of fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene and loss of fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) cause fragile X syndrome (FXS), a genetic disorder characterized by intellectual disability and autistic behaviors. FMRP is an mRNA-binding protein regulating neuronal translation of target mRNAs. Abnormalities in actin-rich dendritic spines are major neuronal features in FXS, but the molecular mechanism and identity of FMRP targets mediating this phenotype remain largely unknown. Cytoplasmic FMR1-interacting protein 2 (Cyfip2) was identified as an interactor of FMRP, and its mRNA is a highly ranked FMRP target in mouse brain. Importantly, Cyfip2 is a component of WAVE regulatory complex, a key regulator of actin cytoskeleton, suggesting that Cyfip2 could be implicated in the dendritic spine phenotype of FXS. Here, we generated and characterized Cyfip2-mutant (Cyfip2(+/-)) mice. We found that Cyfip2(+/-) mice exhibited behavioral phenotypes similar to Fmr1-null (Fmr1(-/y)) mice, an animal model of FXS. Synaptic plasticity and dendritic spines were normal in Cyfip2(+/-) hippocampus. However, dendritic spines were altered in Cyfip2(+/-) cortex, and the dendritic spine phenotype of Fmr1(-/y) cortex was aggravated in Fmr1(-/y); Cyfip2(+/-) double-mutant mice. In addition to the spine changes at basal state, metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR)-induced dendritic spine regulation was impaired in both Fmr1(-/y) and Cyfip2(+/-) cortical neurons. Mechanistically, mGluR activation induced mRNA translation-dependent increase of Cyfip2 in wild-type cortical neurons, but not in Fmr1(-/y) or Cyfip2(+/-) neurons. These results suggest that misregulation of Cyfip2 function and its mGluR-induced expression contribute to the neurobehavioral phenotypes of FXS.

  1. Abnormal glucose tolerance and insulin secretion in pancreas-specific Tcf7l2-null mice.

    PubMed

    da Silva Xavier, G; Mondragon, A; Sun, G; Chen, L; McGinty, J A; French, P M; Rutter, G A

    2012-10-01

    Individuals carrying type 2 diabetes risk alleles in TCF7L2 display decreased beta cell levels of T cell factor 7 like-2 (TCF7L2) immunoreactivity, and impaired insulin secretion and beta cell sensitivity to glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1). Here, we sought to determine whether selective deletion of Tcf7l2 in mouse pancreas impairs insulin release and glucose homeostasis. Pancreas-specific Tcf7l2-null (pTcf7l2) mice were generated by crossing mice carrying conditional knockout alleles of Tcf7l2 (Tcf7l2-flox) with mice expressing Cre recombinase under the control of the Pdx1 promoter (Pdx1.Cre). Gene expression was assessed by real-time quantitative PCR and beta cell mass by optical projection tomography. Glucose tolerance, insulin secretion from isolated islets, and plasma insulin, glucagon and GLP-1 content were assessed by standard protocols. From 12 weeks of age, pTcf7l2 mice displayed decreased oral glucose tolerance vs control littermates; from 20 weeks they had glucose intolerance upon administration of glucose by the intraperitoneal route. pTcf7l2 islets displayed impaired insulin secretion in response to 17 (vs 3.0) mmol/l glucose (54.6 ± 4.6%, p < 0.01) or to 17 mmol/l glucose plus 100 nmol/l GLP-1 (44.3 ± 4.9%, p < 0.01) compared with control islets. Glp1r (42 ± 0.08%, p < 0.01) and Ins2 (15.4 ± 4.6%, p < 0.01) expression was significantly lower in pTcf7l2 islets than in controls. Maintained on a high-fat (but not on a normal) diet, pTcf7l2 mice displayed decreased expansion of pancreatic beta cell volume vs control littermates. No differences were observed in plasma insulin, proinsulin, glucagon or GLP-1 concentrations. Selective deletion of Tcf7l2 in the pancreas replicates key aspects of the altered glucose homeostasis in human carriers of TCF7L2 risk alleles, indicating the direct role of this factor in controlling beta cell function.

  2. Demonstration of Nondeclarative Sequence Learning in Mice: Development of an Animal Analog of the Human Serial Reaction Time Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Michael A.; Hersch, Steven M.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate nondeclarative sequence learning in mice using an animal analog of the human serial reaction time task (SRT) that uses a within-group comparison of behavior in response to a repeating sequence versus a random sequence. Ten female B6CBA mice performed eleven 96-trial sessions containing 24 repetitions of a 4-trial…

  3. Complete mucosal healing defined by endoscopic Mayo subscore still demonstrates abnormalities by novel high definition colonoscopy and refined histological gradings.

    PubMed

    Iacucci, Marietta; Fort Gasia, Miriam; Hassan, Cesare; Panaccione, Remo; Kaplan, Gilaad G; Ghosh, Subrata; Gui, Xianyong

    2015-08-01

    A novel high definition colonoscopy imaging technique (i-Scan) can characterize, in detail, colonic mucosa in patients with ulcerative colitis, and may provide additional information about mucosal healing. The aim of this study was to create a more refined histological and endoscopic criteria based on this novel technique in order to redefine inflammatory activity and mucosal healing. A total of 78 patients with ulcerative colitis were assessed by high definition colonoscopy as well as by white light endoscopy (WLE). Mayo endoscopic subscores were assigned to patients according to WLE findings. Mucosal and vascular patterns on high definition colonoscopy were each graded from 1 - 4. A histological scoring system (ECAP system) was designed to reflect all histological changes in ulcerative colitis. The overall high definition imaging scores (mucosal and vascular patterns) were significantly correlated with Mayo endoscopic subscores (rs = 0.86, 95 % confidence interval [CI] 0.79 - 0.91; P < 0.0001). Of those with Mayo endoscopic subscore of 0, 30.4 % had an abnormal mucosal pattern and 73.9 % of them had an abnormal vascular pattern on high definition colonoscopy; a score of 6 or less had a sensitivity of 95.8 % (95 %CI 85.7 % - 99.3 %) and specificity of 75.9 % (95 %CI 56.5 % - 90.0 %) to detect mucosal healing as defined by Mayo endoscopy subscore of 0 or 1. Furthermore, mucosal and vascular pattern scores were also significantly correlated with most parameters of the proposed ECAP score. The subtle histological abnormalities underlying the apparently healed mucosa in ulcerative colitis could be detected using high definition colonoscopy and the refined ECAP histology scoring system. These techniques detect residual abnormalities in the majority of patients with seemingly complete mucosal healing by conventional Mayo criteria. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Abnormal response to stress and impaired NPS-induced hyperlocomotion, anxiolytic effect and corticosterone increase in mice lacking NPSR1.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hongyan; Mingler, Melissa K; McBride, Melissa L; Murphy, Andrew J; Valenzuela, David M; Yancopoulos, George D; Williams, Michael T; Vorhees, Charles V; Rothenberg, Marc E

    2010-09-01

    NPSR1 is a G protein coupled receptor expressed in multiple brain regions involved in modulation of stress. Central administration of NPS, the putative endogenous ligand of NPSR1, can induce hyperlocomotion, anxiolytic effects and activation of the HPA axis. The role of NPSR1 in the brain remains unsettled. Here we used NPSR1 gene-targeted mice to define the functional role of NPSR1 under basal conditions on locomotion, anxiety- and/or depression-like behavior, corticosterone levels, acoustic startle with prepulse inhibition, learning and memory, and under NPS-induced locomotor activation, anxiolysis, and corticosterone release. Male, but not female, NPSR1-deficient mice exhibited enhanced depression-like behavior in a forced swim test, reduced acoustic startle response, and minor changes in the Morris water maze. Neither male nor female NPSR1-deficient mice showed alterations of baseline locomotion, anxiety-like behavior, or corticosterone release after exposure to a forced swim test or methamphetamine challenge in an open-field. After intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of NPS, NPSR1-deficient mice failed to show normal NPS-induced increases in locomotion, anxiolysis, or corticosterone release compared with WT NPS-treated mice. These findings demonstrate that NPSR1 is essential in mediating NPS effects on behavior.

  5. Early Behavioral Abnormalities and Perinatal Alterations of PTEN/AKT Pathway in Valproic Acid Autism Model Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Eun-Jeong; Ahn, Sangzin; Lee, Kihwan; Mahmood, Usman; Kim, Hye-Sun

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to valproic acid (VPA) during pregnancy has been linked with increased incidence of autism, and has repeatedly been demonstrated as a useful autism mouse model. We examined the early behavioral and anatomical changes as well as molecular changes in mice prenatally exposed to VPA (VPA mice). In this study, we first showed that VPA mice showed developmental delays as assessed with self-righting, eye opening tests and impaired social recognition. In addition, we provide the first evidence that primary cultured neurons from VPA-treated embryos present an increase in dendritic spines, compared with those from control mice. Mutations in phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) gene are also known to be associated with autism, and mice with PTEN knockout show autistic characteristics. Protein expression of PTEN was decreased and the ratio of p-AKT/AKT was increased in the cerebral cortex and the hippocampus, and a distinctive anatomical change in the CA1 region of the hippocampus was observed. Taken together, our study suggests that prenatal exposure to VPA induces developmental delays and neuroanatomical changes via the reduction of PTEN level and these changes were detectable in the early days of life. PMID:27071011

  6. Early Behavioral Abnormalities and Perinatal Alterations of PTEN/AKT Pathway in Valproic Acid Autism Model Mice.

    PubMed

    Yang, Eun-Jeong; Ahn, Sangzin; Lee, Kihwan; Mahmood, Usman; Kim, Hye-Sun

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to valproic acid (VPA) during pregnancy has been linked with increased incidence of autism, and has repeatedly been demonstrated as a useful autism mouse model. We examined the early behavioral and anatomical changes as well as molecular changes in mice prenatally exposed to VPA (VPA mice). In this study, we first showed that VPA mice showed developmental delays as assessed with self-righting, eye opening tests and impaired social recognition. In addition, we provide the first evidence that primary cultured neurons from VPA-treated embryos present an increase in dendritic spines, compared with those from control mice. Mutations in phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) gene are also known to be associated with autism, and mice with PTEN knockout show autistic characteristics. Protein expression of PTEN was decreased and the ratio of p-AKT/AKT was increased in the cerebral cortex and the hippocampus, and a distinctive anatomical change in the CA1 region of the hippocampus was observed. Taken together, our study suggests that prenatal exposure to VPA induces developmental delays and neuroanatomical changes via the reduction of PTEN level and these changes were detectable in the early days of life.

  7. Loss of Rab27 function results in abnormal lung epithelium structure in mice.

    PubMed

    Bolasco, Giulia; Tracey-White, Dhani C; Tolmachova, Tanya; Thorley, Andrew J; Tetley, Teresa D; Seabra, Miguel C; Hume, Alistair N

    2011-03-01

    Rab27 small GTPases regulate secretion and movement of lysosome-related organelles such as T cell cytolytic granules and platelet-dense granules. Previous studies indicated that Rab27a and Rab27b are expressed in the murine lung suggesting that they regulate secretory processes in the lung. Consistent with those studies, we found that Rab27a and Rab27b are expressed in cell types that contain secretory granules: alveolar epithelial type II (AEII) and Clara cells. We then used Rab27a/Rab27b double knockout (DKO) mice to examine the functional consequence of loss of Rab27 proteins in the murine lung. Light and electron microscopy revealed a number of morphological changes in lungs from DKO mice when compared with those in control animals. In aged DKO mice we observed atrophy of the bronchiolar and alveolar epithelium with reduction of cells numbers, thinning of the bronchiolar epithelium and alveolar walls, and enlargement of alveolar airspaces. In these samples we also observed increased numbers of activated foamy alveolar macrophages and granulocyte containing infiltrates together with reduction in the numbers of Clara cells and AEII cells compared with control. At the ultrastructural level we observed accumulation of cytoplasmic membranes and vesicles in Clara cells. Meanwhile, AEII cells in DKO accumulated large mature lamellar bodies and lacked immature/precursor lamellar bodies. We hypothesize that the morphological changes observed at the ultrastructural level in DKO samples result from secretory defects in AEII and Clara cells and that over time these defects lead to atrophy of the epithelium.

  8. Pre-administration of curcumin prevents neonatal sevoflurane exposure-induced neurobehavioral abnormalities in mice.

    PubMed

    Ji, Mu-Huo; Qiu, Li-Li; Yang, Jiao-Jiao; Zhang, Hui; Sun, Xiao-Ru; Zhu, Si-Hai; Li, Wei-Yan; Yang, Jian-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Sevoflurane, a commonly used inhaled anesthetic, can induce neuronal apoptosis in the developing rodent brain and correlate with functional neurological impairment later in life. However, the mechanisms underlying these deleterious effects of sevoflurane remain unclear and no effective treatment is currently available. Herein, the authors investigated whether curcumin can prevent the sevoflurane anesthesia-induced cognitive impairment in mice. Six-day-old C57BL/6 mice were exposed to 3% sevoflurane 2h daily for 3 consecutive days and were treated with curcumin at the dose of 20 mg/kg or vehicle 30 min before the sevoflurane anesthesia from postnatal days 6 (P6) to P8. Cognitive functions were evaluated by open field, Morris water maze, and fear conditioning tests on P61, P63-69, and P77-78, respectively. In another separate experiment, mice were killed on day P8 or P78, and the brain tissues were harvested and then subjected to biochemistry studies. Our results showed that repeated neonatal sevoflurane exposure led to significant cognitive impairment later in life, which was associated with increased neuronal apoptosis, neuroinflammation, oxidative nitrosative stress, and decreased memory related proteins. By contrast, pre-administration of curcumin ameliorated early neuronal apoptosis, neuroinflammation, oxidative nitrosative stress, memory related proteins, and later cognitive dysfunction. In conclusion, our data suggested that curcumin pre-administration can prevent the sevoflurane exposure-induced cognitive impairment later in life, which may be partly attributed to its ability to attenuate the neural apoptosis, inflammation, and oxidative nitrosative stress in mouse brain.

  9. Abnormal Skeletal Muscle Regeneration plus Mild Alterations in Mature Fiber Type Specification in Fktn-Deficient Dystroglycanopathy Muscular Dystrophy Mice

    PubMed Central

    Foltz, Steven J.; Modi, Jill N.; Melick, Garrett A.; Abousaud, Marin I.; Luan, Junna; Fortunato, Marisa J.; Beedle, Aaron M.

    2016-01-01

    Glycosylated α-dystroglycan provides an essential link between extracellular matrix proteins, like laminin, and the cellular cytoskeleton via the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex. In secondary dystroglycanopathy muscular dystrophy, glycosylation abnormalities disrupt a complex O-mannose glycan necessary for muscle structural integrity and signaling. Fktn-deficient dystroglycanopathy mice develop moderate to severe muscular dystrophy with skeletal muscle developmental and/or regeneration defects. To gain insight into the role of glycosylated α-dystroglycan in these processes, we performed muscle fiber typing in young (2, 4 and 8 week old) and regenerated muscle. In mice with Fktn disruption during skeletal muscle specification (Myf5/Fktn KO), newly regenerated fibers (embryonic myosin heavy chain positive) peaked at 4 weeks old, while total regenerated fibers (centrally nucleated) were highest at 8 weeks old in tibialis anterior (TA) and iliopsoas, indicating peak degeneration/regeneration activity around 4 weeks of age. In contrast, mature fiber type specification at 2, 4 and 8 weeks old was relatively unchanged. Fourteen days after necrotic toxin-induced injury, there was a divergence in muscle fiber types between Myf5/Fktn KO (skeletal-muscle specific) and whole animal knockout induced with tamoxifen post-development (Tam/Fktn KO) despite equivalent time after gene deletion. Notably, Tam/Fktn KO retained higher levels of embryonic myosin heavy chain expression after injury, suggesting a delay or abnormality in differentiation programs. In mature fiber type specification post-injury, there were significant interactions between genotype and toxin parameters for type 1, 2a, and 2x fibers, and a difference between Myf5/Fktn and Tam/Fktn study groups in type 2b fibers. These data suggest that functionally glycosylated α-dystroglycan has a unique role in muscle regeneration and may influence fiber type specification post-injury. PMID:26751696

  10. X-linked Christianson syndrome: heterozygous female Slc9a6 knockout mice develop mosaic neuropathological changes and related behavioral abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Sikora, Jakub; Leddy, Jennifer; Gulinello, Maria; Walkley, Steven U.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Christianson syndrome (CS) is an X-linked neurodevelopmental and neurological disorder characterized in males by core symptoms that include non-verbal status, intellectual disability, epilepsy, truncal ataxia, postnatal microcephaly and hyperkinesis. CS is caused by mutations in the SLC9A6 gene, which encodes a multipass transmembrane sodium (potassium)-hydrogen exchanger 6 (NHE6) protein, functional in early recycling endosomes. The extent and variability of the CS phenotype in female heterozygotes, who presumably express the wild-type and mutant SLC9A6 alleles mosaically as a result of X-chromosome inactivation (XCI), have not yet been systematically characterized. Slc9a6 knockout mice (Slc9a6 KO) were generated by insertion of the bacterial lacZ/β-galactosidase (β-Gal) reporter into exon 6 of the X-linked gene. Mutant Slc9a6 KO male mice have been shown to develop late endosomal/lysosomal dysfunction associated with glycolipid accumulation in selected neuronal populations and patterned degeneration of Purkinje cells (PCs). In heterozygous female Slc9a6 KO mice, β-Gal serves as a transcriptional/XCI reporter and thus facilitates testing of effects of mosaic expression of the mutant allele on penetrance of the abnormal phenotype. Using β-Gal, we demonstrated mosaic expression of the mutant Slc9a6 allele and mosaically distributed lysosomal glycolipid accumulation and PC pathology in the brains of heterozygous Slc9a6 KO female mice. At the behavioral level, we showed that heterozygous female mice suffer from visuospatial memory and motor coordination deficits similar to but less severe than those observed in X-chromosome hemizygous mutant males. Our studies in heterozygous Slc9a6 KO female mice provide important clues for understanding the likely phenotypic range of Christianson syndrome among females heterozygous for SLC9A6 mutations and might improve diagnostic practice and genetic counseling by helping to characterize this presumably

  11. Ovariectomy and 17β-estradiol Replacement in Rats and Mice: A Visual Demonstration

    PubMed Central

    Ström, Jakob O.; Theodorsson, Annette; Ingberg, Edvin; Isaksson, Ida-Maria; Theodorsson, Elvar

    2012-01-01

    Estrogens are a family of female sexual hormones with an exceptionally wide spectrum of effects. When rats and mice are used in estrogen research they are commonly ovariectomized in order to ablate the rapidly cycling hormone production, replacing the 17β-estradiol exogenously. There is, however, lack of consensus regarding how the hormone should be administered to obtain physiological serum concentrations. This is crucial since the 17β-estradiol level/administration method profoundly influences the experimental results1-3. We have in a series of studies characterized the different modes of 17β-estradiol administration, finding that subcutaneous silastic capsules and per-oral nut-cream Nutella are superior to commercially available slow-release pellets (produced by the company Innovative Research of America) and daily injections in terms of producing physiological serum concentrations of 17β-estradiol4-6. Amongst the advantages of the nut-cream method, that previously has been used for buprenorphine administration7, is that when used for estrogen administration it resembles peroral hormone replacement therapy and is non-invasive. The subcutaneous silastic capsules are convenient and produce the most stable serum concentrations. This video article contains step-by-step demonstrations of ovariectomy and 17β-estradiol hormone replacement by silastic capsules and peroral Nutella in rats and mice, followed by a discussion of important aspects of the administration procedures. PMID:22710371

  12. Ovariectomy and 17β-estradiol replacement in rats and mice: a visual demonstration.

    PubMed

    Ström, Jakob O; Theodorsson, Annette; Ingberg, Edvin; Isaksson, Ida-Maria; Theodorsson, Elvar

    2012-06-07

    Estrogens are a family of female sexual hormones with an exceptionally wide spectrum of effects. When rats and mice are used in estrogen research they are commonly ovariectomized in order to ablate the rapidly cycling hormone production, replacing the 17β-estradiol exogenously. There is, however, lack of consensus regarding how the hormone should be administered to obtain physiological serum concentrations. This is crucial since the 17β-estradiol level/administration method profoundly influences the experimental results. We have in a series of studies characterized the different modes of 17β-estradiol administration, finding that subcutaneous silastic capsules and per-oral nut-cream Nutella are superior to commercially available slow-release pellets (produced by the company Innovative Research of America) and daily injections in terms of producing physiological serum concentrations of 17β-estradiol. Amongst the advantages of the nut-cream method, that previously has been used for buprenorphine administration, is that when used for estrogen administration it resembles peroral hormone replacement therapy and is non-invasive. The subcutaneous silastic capsules are convenient and produce the most stable serum concentrations. This video article contains step-by-step demonstrations of ovariectomy and 17β-estradiol hormone replacement by silastic capsules and peroral Nutella in rats and mice, followed by a discussion of important aspects of the administration procedures.

  13. Improving abnormal hemorheological parameters in ApoE-/- mice by Ilex kudingcha total saponins.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jiao; Wang, Xianwei; Li, Haixia; Gu, Yueqing; Tu, Pengfei; Wen, Zongyao

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the effects of Ilex kudingcha total saponins on hemorheology of ApoE-/- mice suffering from hypercholesterolemia induced by high-cholesterol diet. The mice were randomly divided into six groups: the control group, the high-cholesterol diet group, 50 mg/kg atorvastatin treatment group, 75, 150 and 300 mg/kg Ilex kudingcha saponins treatment groups, and all the drug treatment groups were fed with a high-cholesterol diet. After administration with saponins (150 mg/kg or more) and atorvastatin (50 mg/kg) for six weeks, the plasma total cholesterol (TC), whole blood viscosity (WBV), plasma viscosity (PV), and erythrocyte aggregation index (EAI) had a remarkable decrease compared with that of the high-cholesterol diet group, but the hematocrit (Hct) and erythrocyte deformation index (DI) had no significant changes. In addition, it is found that the improving effects of saponins on reducing plasma fibrinogen (Fg) levels and prolonging the blood coagulation times including activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), thrombin time (TT), and prothrombin time (PT). In conclusion, the Ilex kudingcha total saponins may have a significant therapy application of hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis by considering its actions on hemorheological characteristics.

  14. Dystrophin and utrophin "double knockout" dystrophic mice exhibit a spectrum of degenerative musculoskeletal abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Isaac, Christian; Wright, Adam; Usas, Arvydas; Li, Hongshuai; Tang, Ying; Mu, Xiaodong; Greco, Nicholas; Dong, Qing; Vo, Nam; Kang, James; Wang, Bing; Huard, Johnny

    2013-03-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a degenerative muscle disorder characterized by the lack of dystrophin expression at the sarcolemma of muscle fibers. In addition, DMD patients acquire osteopenia, fragility fractures, and scoliosis indicating that a deficiency in skeletal homeostasis coexists but little is known about the effects of DMD on bone and other connective tissues within the musculoskeletal system. Recent evidence has emerged implicating adult stem cell dysfunction in DMD myopathogenesis. Given the common mesenchymal origin of muscle and bone, we sought to investigate bone and other musculoskeletal tissues in a DMD mouse model. Here, we report that dystrophin-utrophin double knockout (dko) mice exhibit a spectrum of degenerative changes, outside skeletal muscle, in bone, articular cartilage, and intervertebral discs, in addition to reduced lifespan, muscle degeneration, spinal deformity, and cardiomyopathy previously reported. We also report these mice to have a reduced capacity for bone healing and exhibit spontaneous heterotopic ossification in the hind limb muscles. Therefore, we propose the dko mouse as a model for premature musculoskeletal aging and posit that a similar phenomenon may occur in patients with DMD.

  15. Increased sex chromosome expression and epigenetic abnormalities in spermatids from male mice with Y chromosome deletions.

    PubMed

    Reynard, Louise N; Turner, James M A

    2009-11-15

    During male meiosis, the X and Y chromosomes are transcriptionally silenced, a process termed meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI). Recent studies have shown that the sex chromosomes remain substantially transcriptionally repressed after meiosis in round spermatids, but the mechanisms involved in this later repression are poorly understood. Mice with deletions of the Y chromosome long arm (MSYq-) have increased spermatid expression of multicopy X and Y genes, and so represent a model for studying post-meiotic sex chromosome repression. Here, we show that the increase in sex chromosome transcription in spermatids from MSYq- mice affects not only multicopy but also single-copy XY genes, as well as an X-linked reporter gene. This increase in transcription is accompanied by specific changes in the sex chromosome histone code, including almost complete loss of H4K8Ac and reduction of H3K9me3 and CBX1. Together, these data show that an MSYq gene regulates sex chromosome gene expression as well as chromatin remodelling in spermatids.

  16. Postsynaptic Abnormalities at the Neuromuscular Junctions of Utrophin-deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Deconinck, Anne E.; Potter, Allyson C.; Tinsley, Jonathon M.; Wood, Sarah J.; Vater, Ruth; Young, Carol; Metzinger, Laurent; Vincent, Angela; Slater, Clarke R.; Davies, Kay E.

    1997-01-01

    Utrophin is a dystrophin-related cytoskeletal protein expressed in many tissues. It is thought to link F-actin in the internal cytoskeleton to a transmembrane protein complex similar to the dystrophin protein complex (DPC). At the adult neuromuscular junction (NMJ), utrophin is precisely colocalized with acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) and recent studies have suggested a role for utrophin in AChR cluster formation or maintenance during NMJ differentiation. We have disrupted utrophin expression by gene targeting in the mouse. Such mice have no utrophin detectable by Western blotting or immunocytochemistry. Utrophindeficient mice are healthy and show no signs of weakness. However, their NMJs have reduced numbers of AChRs (α-bungarotoxin [α-BgTx] binding reduced to ∼60% normal) and decreased postsynaptic folding, though only minimal electrophysiological changes. Utrophin is thus not essential for AChR clustering at the NMJ but may act as a component of the postsynaptic cytoskeleton, contributing to the development or maintenance of the postsynaptic folds. Defects of utrophin could underlie some forms of congenital myasthenic syndrome in which a reduction of postsynaptic folds is observed. PMID:9049253

  17. Abnormal Astrocytosis in the Basal Ganglia Pathway of Git1(-/-) Mice.

    PubMed

    Lim, Soo-Yeon; Mah, Won

    2015-06-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common neurodevelopmental disorders, affecting approximately 5% of children. However, the neural mechanisms underlying its development and treatment are yet to be elucidated. In this study, we report that an ADHD mouse model, which harbors a deletion in the Git1 locus, exhibits severe astrocytosis in the globus pallidus (GP) and thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN), which send modulatory GABAergic inputs to the thalamus. A moderate level of astrocytosis was displayed in other regions of the basal ganglia pathway, including the ventrobasal thalamus and cortex, but not in other brain regions, such as the caudate putamen, basolateral amygdala, and hippocampal CA1. This basal ganglia circuit-selective astrocytosis was detected in both in adult (2-3 months old) and juvenile (4 weeks old) Git1(-/-) mice, suggesting a developmental origin. Astrocytes play an active role in the developing synaptic circuit; therefore, we performed an immunohistochemical analysis of synaptic markers. We detected increased and decreased levels of GABA and parvalbumin (PV), respectively, in the GP. This suggests that astrocytosis may alter synaptic transmission in the basal ganglia. Intriguingly, increased GABA expression colocalized with the astrocyte marker, GFAP, indicative of an astrocytic origin. Collectively, these results suggest that defects in basal ganglia circuitry, leading to impaired inhibitory modulation of the thalamus, are neural correlates for the ADHD-associated behavioral manifestations in Git1(-/-) mice.

  18. HPC-1/syntaxin 1A gene knockout mice show abnormal behavior possibly related to a disruption in 5-HTergic systems.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Tomonori; Snada, Masumi; Kofuji, Takefumi; Yoshikawa, Takeo; Akagawa, Kimio

    2010-07-01

    HPC-1/syntaxin 1A (STX1A) is thought to regulate the exocytosis of synaptic vesicles in neurons. In recent human genetic studies, STX1A has been implicated in neuropsychological disorders. To examine whether STX1A gene ablation is responsible for abnormal neuropsychological profiles observed in human psychiatric patients, we analysed the behavioral phenotype of STX1A knockout mice. Abnormal behavior was observed in both homozygotes (STX1A(-/-)) and heterozygotes (STX1A(+/-)) in a social interaction test, a novel object exploring test and a latent inhibition (LI) test, but not in a pre-pulse inhibition test. Interestingly, attenuation of LI, which is closely related to human schizotypic symptoms, was restored by administration of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, fluoxetine, but not by the dopamine reuptake inhibitor, GBR12935, or the noradrenalin reuptake inhibitor, desipramine. We also observed that LI attenuation was restored by DOI (a 5-HT(2A) receptor agonist), but not by 8-OH-DPAT (a 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist), mCPP (a 5-HT(2C) receptor agonist), SKF 38393 (a D(1) receptor agonist), quinpirole (a D(2)/D(3) receptor agonist) or haloperidol (a D(2)/D(3) receptor antagonist). Thus, attenuation of LI is mainly caused by disruption of 5-HT-ergic systems via 5-HT(2A) receptors. In addition, 5-HT release from hippocampal and hypothalamic slices was significantly reduced. Therefore, ablation of STX1A may cause disruption of 5-HT-ergic transmission and induce abnormal behavior.

  19. Triple-transgenic Alzheimer's disease mice exhibit region-specific abnormalities in brain myelination patterns prior to appearance of amyloid and tau pathology

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Maya K.; Sudol, Kelly L.; Janelsins, Michelle C.; Mastrangelo, Michael A.; Frazer, Maria E.; Bowers, William J.

    2008-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressively debilitating brain disorder pathologically defined by extracellular amyloid plaques, intraneuronal neurofibrillary tangles, and synaptic disintegrity. AD has not been widely considered a disease of white matter, but more recent evidence suggests the existence of abnormalities in myelination patterns and myelin attrition in AD-afflicted human brains. Herein, we demonstrate that triple-transgenic AD (3xTg-AD) mice, which harbor the human amyloid precursor protein Swedish mutant transgene, presenilin knock-in mutation, and tau P301L mutant transgene, exhibit significant region-specific alterations in myelination patterns and in oligodendrocyte marker expression profiles at time points preceding the appearance of amyloid and tau pathology. These immunohistochemical signatures are coincident with age-related alterations in axonal and myelin sheath ultrastructure as visualized by comparative electron microscopic examination of 3xTg-AD and non-transgenic mouse brain tissue. Overall, these findings indicate 3xTg-AD mice represent a viable model in which to examine mechanisms underlying AD-related myelination and neural transmission defects that occur early during pre-symptomatic stages of the disease process. PMID:18661556

  20. Axonal degeneration in paraplegin-deficient mice is associated with abnormal mitochondria and impairment of axonal transport

    PubMed Central

    Ferreirinha, Fatima; Quattrini, Angelo; Pirozzi, Marinella; Valsecchi, Valentina; Dina, Giorgia; Broccoli, Vania; Auricchio, Alberto; Piemonte, Fiorella; Tozzi, Giulia; Gaeta, Laura; Casari, Giorgio; Ballabio, Andrea; Rugarli, Elena I.

    2004-01-01

    In several neurodegenerative diseases, axonal degeneration occurs before neuronal death and contributes significantly to patients’ disability. Hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) is a genetically heterogeneous condition characterized by selective degeneration of axons of the corticospinal tracts and fasciculus gracilis. HSP may therefore be considered an exemplary disease to study the local programs mediating axonal degeneration. We have developed a mouse model for autosomal recessive HSP due to mutations in the SPG7 gene encoding the mitochondrial ATPase paraplegin. Paraplegin-deficient mice are affected by a distal axonopathy of spinal and peripheral axons, characterized by axonal swelling and degeneration. We found that mitochondrial morphological abnormalities occurred in synaptic terminals and in distal regions of axons long before the first signs of swelling and degeneration and correlated with onset of motor impairment during a rotarod test. Axonal swellings occur through massive accumulation of organelles and neurofilaments, suggesting impairment of anterograde axonal transport. Retrograde axonal transport is delayed in symptomatic mice. We speculate that local failure of mitochondrial function may affect axonal transport and cause axonal degeneration. Our data suggest that a timely therapeutic intervention may prevent the loss of axons. PMID:14722615

  1. Meiosis I Arrest Abnormalities Lead to Severe Oligozoospermia in Meiosis 1 Arresting Protein (M1ap)-Deficient Mice1

    PubMed Central

    Arango, Nelson Alexander; Li, Li; Dabir, Deepa; Nicolau, Fotini; Pieretti-Vanmarcke, Rafael; Koehler, Carla; McCarrey, John R.; Lu, Naifang; Donahoe, Patricia K.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Meiosis 1 arresting protein (M1ap) is a novel vertebrate gene expressed exclusively in germ cells of the embryonic ovary and the adult testis. In male mice, M1ap expression, which is present from spermatogonia to secondary spermatocytes, is evolutionarily conserved and has a specific spatial and temporal pattern suggestive of a role during germ cell development. To test its function, mice deficient in M1ap were created. Whereas females had histologically normal ovaries, males exhibited reduced testicular size and a myriad of tubular defects, which led to severe oligozoospermia and infertility. Although some germ cells arrested at the zygotene/pachytene stages, most cells advanced to metaphase I before arresting and entering apoptosis. Cells that reached metaphase I were unable to properly align their chromosomes at the metaphase plate due to abnormal chromosome synapses and failure to form crossover foci. Depending on the state of tubular degeneration, all germ cells, with the exemption of spermatogonia, disappeared; with further deterioration, tubules displaying only Sertoli cells reminiscent of Sertoli cell-only syndrome in humans were observed. Our results uncovered an essential role for M1ap as a novel germ cell gene not previously implicated in male germ cell development and suggest that mutations in M1AP could account for some cases of nonobstructive oligozoospermia in men. PMID:23269666

  2. Blocking Endogenous Leukemia Inhibitory Factor During Placental Development in Mice Leads to Abnormal Placentation and Pregnancy Loss

    PubMed Central

    Winship, Amy; Correia, Jeanne; Krishnan, Tara; Menkhorst, Ellen; Cuman, Carly; Zhang, Jian-Guo; Nicola, Nicos A.; Dimitriadis, Evdokia

    2015-01-01

    The placenta forms the interface between the maternal and fetal circulation and is critical for the establishment of a healthy pregnancy. Specialized trophoblast cells derived from the embryonic trophectoderm play a pivotal role in the establishment of the placenta. Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) is one of the predominant cytokines present in the placenta during early pregnancy. LIF has been shown to regulate trophoblast adhesion and invasion in vitro, however its precise role in vivo is unknown. We hypothesized that LIF would be required for normal placental development in mice. LIF and LIFRα were immunolocalized to placental trophoblasts and fetal vessels in mouse implantation sites during mid-gestation. Temporally blocking LIF action during specific periods of placental development via intraperitoneal administration of our specific LIFRα antagonist, PEGLA, resulted in abnormal placental trophoblast and vascular morphology and reduced activated STAT3 but not ERK. Numerous genes regulating angiogenesis and oxidative stress were altered in the placenta in response to LIF inhibition. Pregnancy viability was also significantly compromised in PEGLA treated mice. Our data suggest that LIF plays an important role in placentation in vivo and the maintenance of healthy pregnancy. PMID:26272398

  3. Adolescent stress leads to glutamatergic disturbance through dopaminergic abnormalities in the prefrontal cortex of genetically vulnerable mice.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Yurie; Niwa, Minae; Mouri, Akihiro; Noda, Yukihiro; Fukushima, Takeshi; Ozaki, Norio; Nabeshima, Toshitaka

    2017-07-29

    Stress during the adolescent period influences postnatal maturation and behavioral patterns in adulthood. Adolescent stress-induced molecular and functional changes in neurons are the key clinical features of psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia. In the present study, we exposed genetically vulnerable mice to isolation stress to examine the molecular changes in the glutamatergic system involving N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors via dopaminergic disturbance in the prefrontal cortex (PFc). We report that late adolescent stress in combination with Disrupted-in-Schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) genetic risk elicited alterations in glutamatergic neurons in the PFc, such as increased expression of glutamate transporters, decreased extracellular levels of glutamate, decreased concentration of d-serine, and impaired activation of NMDA-Ca(2+)/calmodulin kinase II signaling. These changes resulted in behavioral deficits in locomotor activity, forced swim, social interaction, and novelty preference tests. The glutamatergic alterations in the PFc were prevented if the animals were treated with an atypical antipsychotic drug clozapine and a dopamine D1 agonist SKF81297, which suggests that the activation of dopaminergic neurons is involved in the regulation of the glutamatergic system. Our results suggest that adolescent stress combined with dopaminergic abnormalities in the PFc of genetically vulnerable mice induces glutamatergic disturbances, which leads to behavioral deficits in the young adult stage.

  4. Abnormal coronary function in mice deficient in alpha1H T-type Ca2+ channels.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chien-Chang; Lamping, Kathryn G; Nuno, Daniel W; Barresi, Rita; Prouty, Sally J; Lavoie, Julie L; Cribbs, Leanne L; England, Sarah K; Sigmund, Curt D; Weiss, Robert M; Williamson, Roger A; Hill, Joseph A; Campbell, Kevin P

    2003-11-21

    Calcium ion (Ca2+) influx through voltage-gated Ca2+ channels is important for the regulation of vascular tone. Activation of L-type Ca2+ channels initiates muscle contraction; however, the role of T-type Ca2+ channels (T-channels) is not clear. We show that mice deficient in the alpha1H T-type Ca2+ channel (alpha(1)3.2-null) have constitutively constricted coronary arterioles and focal myocardial fibrosis. Coronary arteries isolated from alpha(1)3.2-null arteries showed normal contractile responses, but reduced relaxation in response to acetylcholine and nitroprusside. Furthermore, acute blockade of T-channels with Ni2+ prevented relaxation of wild-type coronary arteries. Thus, Ca2+ influx through alpha1H T-type Ca2+ channels is essential for normal relaxation of coronary arteries.

  5. Abnormal Cerebellar Cytoarchitecture and Impaired Inhibitory Signaling in Adult Mice Lacking Testicular Orphan Nuclear Receptor 4

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yei-Tsung; Collins, Loretta L.; Uno, Hideo; Chou, Samuel M.; Meshul, Charles K.; Chang, Shu-Shi; Chang, Chawnshang

    2007-01-01

    Since Testicular orphan nuclear receptor 4 (TR4) was cloned, its physiological functions remain largely unknown. In this study, the TR4 knockout (TR4−/−) mouse model was used to investigate the role of TR4 in the adult cerebellum. Behaviorally, these null mice exhibit unsteady gait, as well as involuntary postural and kinetic movements, indicating a disturbance of cerebellar function. In the TR4−/− brain, cerebellar restricted hypoplasia is severe and cerebellar vermal lobules VI and VII are underdeveloped, while no structural alterations in the cerebral cortex are observed. Histological analysis of the TR4−/− cerebellar cortex reveals reductions in granule cell density, as well as a decreased number of parallel fiber boutons that are enlarged in size. Further analyses reveal that the levels of GABA and GAD are decreased in both Purkinje cells and interneurons of the TR4−/− cerebellum, suggesting that the inhibitory circuits signaling within and from the cerebellum may be perturbed. In addition, in the TR4−/− cerebellum, immunoreactivity of GluR2/3 was reduced in Purkinje cells, but increased in the deep cerebellar nuclei. Together, these results suggest that the behavioral phenotype of TR4−/− mice may result from disrupted inhibitory pathways in the cerebellum. No progressive atrophy was observed at various adult stages in the TR4−/− brain, therefore the disturbances most likely originate from a failure to establish proper connections between principal neurons in the cerebellum during development. PMID:17706948

  6. TallyHO obese female mice experience poor reproductive outcomes and abnormal blastocyst metabolism that is reversed by metformin.

    PubMed

    Louden, Erica D; Luzzo, Kerri M; Jimenez, Patricia T; Chi, Tiffany; Chi, Maggie; Moley, Kelle H

    2014-12-01

    Obese women experience worse reproductive outcomes than normal weight women, specifically infertility, pregnancy loss, fetal malformations and developmental delay of offspring. The aim of the present study was to use a genetic mouse model of obesity to recapitulate the human reproductive phenotype and further examine potential mechanisms and therapies. New inbred, polygenic Type 2 diabetic TallyHO mice and age-matched control C57BL/6 mice were superovulated to obtain morula or blastocyst stage embryos that were cultured in human tubal fluid (HTF) medium. Deoxyglucose uptake was determined for individual insulin-stimulated blastocysts. Apoptosis was detected by confocal microscopy using the terminal deoxyribonucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-digoxigenin nick end-labelling (TUNEL) assay and Topro-3 nuclear dye. Embryos were scored for TUNEL-positive as a percentage of total nuclei. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α expression and adiponectin expression were analysed by western immunoblot and confocal immunofluorescent microscopy. Lipid accumulation was assayed by BODIPY. Comparisons were made between TallyHO morulae cultured to blastocyst embryos in either HTF medium or HTF medium with 25 μg mL(-1) metformin. TallyHO mice developed whole body abnormal insulin tolerance, had decreased litter sizes and increased non-esterified fatty acid levels. Blastocysts from TallyHO mice exhibited increased apoptosis, decreased insulin sensitivity and decreased AMPK. A possible cause for the insulin resistance and abnormal AMPK phosphorylation was the increased TNF-α expression and lipid accumulation, as detected by BODIPY, in TallyHO blastocysts and decreased adiponectin. Culturing TallyHO morulae with the AMPK activator metformin led to a reversal of all the abnormal findings, including increased AMPK phosphorylation, improved insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and normalisation of lipid accumulation. Women with obesity and

  7. The anterolateral complex in anterior cruciate ligament deficient knees demonstrate sonographic abnormalities on high-resolution sonography.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Masahito; Herbst, Elmar; Albers, Macio; Musahl, Volker; Fu, Freddie H; Onishi, Kentaro

    2017-04-01

    The presence of anterolateral ligament of the knee is still controversial, and some physicians prefer to call this structure anterolateral complex (ALC) to infer plural nature of structures involved. The purpose of this study was to describe the scanning techniques and to classify various sonographic appearances of the tibial-side ALC of the knee in subjects with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. It was hypothesized that sonographic abnormity of the ALC would be associated with ACL injury history. Patients with a history of unilateral ACL injury were prospectively recruited, and the ALC was sonographically evaluated. During the evaluation, the lateral femoral epicondyle was visualized in anatomic transverse view first. At this location, the ALC was typically most conspicuous between the short head of the biceps femoris muscle and the posterior and deep aspect of the iliotibial band superficial to the origin of the lateral collateral ligament. The ALC was followed distally to the broad insertion centralizing to the area posterior to Gerdy's tubercle. The appearance of the distal insertion of the ALC was classified based both on echogenicity and on the presence of a Segond fracture as follows: Grade 0: isoechoic to the rest of the ALC, Grade 1: hypoechoic, Grade 2: anechoic, and Grade 3: Segond fracture. The uninjured side was similarly scanned for comparison. A total of 28 patients (13 men; mean age 22.1 ± 8.1 years old with range: 12-44; mean body mass index 25.0 with range: 18.9-39.2) were included in this study. The average time from injury to sonograhpic evaluation was 4 months (range: 2 days to 1 year). Of 28 ACL-deficient knees, 19 were (68%) graded as Grade 0 in the distal insertion of the ALC, 7 (25%) as Grade 1, 1 (3.5%) as Grade 2, and 1 (3.5%) as Grade 3. Contralateral knees showed 25 knees (89%) with Grade 0 and 3 knees (11%) with Grade 1. ACL injury history was associated with a higher incidence of sonographic abnormalities within the

  8. Diabetic Lactoferrin Deficient Mice Demonstrates Greater Susceptibility to Experimental Periodontal Disease.

    PubMed

    Alabdulmohsen, Waad; Rozario, Sonia D; Markowitz, Kenneth; Fine, Daniel H; Velliyagounder, Kabilan

    The objective of this study is to detrmine whether alloxan-induced diabetic Lactoferrin knockout (LFKO(-/-)) mice are more susceptible to periodontal disease caused by Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans compared to the diabetic wild-type (WT) mice. Diabetes was induced in mice by a single dose of alloxan (60 mg/kg) injected intravenously. Mice were categorized as diabetic when blood glucose levels >250 mg/dL were measured on the 7(th) day after the injection. Periodontal disease was experimentally induced by A. actinomycetemcomitans infection in alloxan induced diabetic WT and LFKO(-/-) mice. Fasting blood glucose levels and body weight were monitored throughout the study. At the end of the 12(th) week of infection, mice were sacrificed and bone loss among the groups was estimated by measuring the distance between cemento-enamel junction (CEJ) to the alveolar bone crest (ABC) at 12 sites on the molars. A. actinomycetemcomitans infected mice groups developed more alveolar bone loss than sham-infected animals. Diabetic LFKO(-/-) infected mice exhibited significant bone loss (P<0.01) and a higher mean fasting blood glucose level (P<0.05) when compared to diabetic WT infected mice. No statistically significant difference in fasting blood glucose level was found between the infected and sham-infected groups. Peripheral blood analysis at the end of the 12(th) week revealed a significant reduction in the platelet counts in LFKO(-/-) mice when compared to WT mice. Furthermore, diabetic LFKO(-/-) presented with lower counts than non-diabetic LFKO(-/-) mice (P<0.01). In conclusion, diabetic lactoferrin deficient mice are at a higher risk of developing periodontal infection induced by A. actinomycetemcomitans when compared to diabetic WTI mice.

  9. Overexpression of TSC-22 (transforming growth factor-β-stimulated clone-22) causes marked obesity, splenic abnormality and B cell lymphoma in transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Miwa, Yoshihiro; Horiuchi, Hideki; Furihata, Tadashi; Tachibana, Masatsugu; Fujimori, Takahiro

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we generated transgenic (Tg) mice, which overexpressed transforming growth factor (TGF)-β stimulated clone-22 (TSC-22), and investigate the functional role of TSC-22 on their development and pathogenesis. We obtained 13 Tg-founders (two mice from C57BL6/J and 11 mice from BDF1). Three of 13 Tg-founders were sterile, and the remaining Tg-founders also could generate only a limited number of the F1 generation. We obtained 32 Tg-F1 mice. Most of the Tg-mice showed marked obesity. Histopathological examination could be performed on 31 Tg-mice; seventeen mice died by some disease in their entire life and 14 mice were killed for examination. Most of the Tg-mice examined showed splenic abnormality, in which marked increase of the megakaryocytes, unclearness of the margin of the red pulp and the white pulp, and the enlargement of the white pulp was observed. B cell lymphoma was developed in 10 (71%) of 14 disease-died F1 mice. These results indicate that constitutive over-expression of TSC-22 might disturb the normal embryogenesis and the normal lipid metabolism, and induce the oncogenic differentiation of hematopoietic cells. PMID:26872059

  10. Reciprocal Effects of Oxidative Stress on Heme Oxygenase Expression and Activity Contributes to Reno-Vascular Abnormalities in EC-SOD Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kawakami, Tomoko; Puri, Nitin; Sodhi, Komal; Bellner, Lars; Takahashi, Toru; Morita, Kiyoshi; Rezzani, Rita; Oury, Tim D.; Abraham, Nader G.

    2012-01-01

    Heme oxygenase (HO) system is one of the key regulators of cellular redox homeostasis which responds to oxidative stress (ROS) via HO-1 induction. However, recent reports have suggested an inhibitory effect of ROS on HO activity. In light of these conflicting reports, this study was designed to evaluate effects of chronic oxidative stress on HO system and its role in contributing towards patho-physiological abnormalities observed in extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD, SOD3) KO animals. Experiments were performed in WT and EC-SOD(−/−) mice treated with and without HO inducer, cobalt protoporphyrin (CoPP). EC-SOD(−/−) mice exhibited oxidative stress, renal histopathological abnormalities, elevated blood pressure, impaired endothelial function, reduced p-eNOS, p-AKT and increased HO-1 expression; although, HO activity was significantly (P < 0.05) attenuated along with attenuation of serum adiponectin and vascular epoxide levels (P < 0.05). CoPP, in EC-SOD(−/−) mice, enhanced HO activity (P < 0.05) and reversed aforementioned pathophysiological abnormalities along with restoration of vascular EET, p-eNOS, p-AKT and serum adiponectin levels in these animals. Taken together our results implicate a causative role of insufficient activation of heme-HO-adiponectin system in pathophysiological abnormalities observed in animal models of chronic oxidative stress such as EC-SOD(−/−) mice. PMID:22292113

  11. Thymic abnormalities and enhanced apoptosis of thymocytes and bone marrow cells in transgenic mice overexpressing Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase: implications for Down syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Peled-Kamar, M; Lotem, J; Okon, E; Sachs, L; Groner, Y

    1995-01-01

    The copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD) gene resides on chromosome 21 and is overexpressed in Down syndrome (DS) patients. Transgenic CuZnSOD mice with elevated levels of CuZnSOD were used to determine whether, as in DS, overexpression of CuZnSOD was also associated with thymus and bone marrow abnormalities. Three independently derived transgenic CuZnSOD strains had abnormal thymi showing diminution of the cortex and loss of corticomedullary demarcation, resembling thymic defects in children with DS. Transgenic CuZnSOD mice were also more sensitive than control mice to in vivo injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), reflected by an earlier onset and enhanced apoptotic cell death in the thymus. This higher susceptibility to LPS-induced apoptosis was associated with an increased production of hydrogen peroxide and a higher degree of lipid peroxidation. When cultured under suboptimal concentrations of interleukin 3 or in the presence of tumour necrosis factor, bone marrow cells from transgenic CuZnSOD mice produced 2- to 3-fold less granulocyte and macrophage colonies than control. The results indicate that transgenic CuZnSOD mice have certain thymus and bone marrow abnormalities which are similar to those found in DS patients, and that the defects are presumably due to an increased oxidative damage resulting in enhanced cell death by apoptosis. Images PMID:7588627

  12. Longxuetongluo Capsule Improves Erythrocyte Function against Lipid Peroxidation and Abnormal Hemorheological Parameters in High Fat Diet-Induced ApoE-/- Mice.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jiao; Liu, Binglin; Lun, Qixing; Yao, Weijuan; Zhao, Yunfang; Xiao, Wei; Huang, Wenzhe; Wang, Yonghua; Li, Jun; Tu, Pengfei

    2016-01-01

    Chinese dragon's blood, the red resin of Dracaena cochinchinensis, one of the renowned traditional medicines, has been used to facilitate blood circulation and disperse blood stasis for thousands of years. Phenolic compounds are considered to be responsible for its main biological activities. In this study, total phenolic compounds of Chinese dragon's blood were made into capsule (Longxuetongluo Capsule, LTC) and their effects on the abnormal hemorheological properties were examined by high fat diet (HFD) induced ApoE-/- mice. Compared to the model group, LTC recovered the abnormal hemorheological parameters in HFD-induced ApoE-/- mice by reducing whole blood viscosity (WBV) at high rate and improving erythrocyte function. In conclusion, LTC could ameliorate erythrocyte deformability and osmotic fragility through the reduction of lipid peroxidation on plasma and erythrocyte membranes in HFD-induced ApoE-/- mice, which supported the traditional uses of Chinese dragon's blood as an effective agent for improving blood microcirculation in hypercholesterolemia.

  13. Accelerated bone formation and increased osteoblast number contribute to the abnormal tooth germ development in parathyroid hormone-related protein knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Kitahara, Y; Suda, N; Terashima, T; Baba, O; Mekaapiruk, K; Hammond, V E; Takano, Y; Ohyama, K

    2004-11-01

    Our previous study showed that tooth germs at late embryonic stage [later than embryonic day 17.5 (E17.5)] and neonatal homozygous parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP)-knockout mice are compressed or penetrated by the surrounding alveolar bone tissue. In vivo and in vitro studies have shown that the development of the tooth germ proper is not disturbed, but insufficient alveolar bone resorption, due to the decreased number and hypofunction of osteoclasts, is the main cause of this abnormality. In addition to the insufficient alveolar bone resorption, progressive bone formation toward tooth germs was observed in homozygous mice, suggesting that accelerated bone formation also contributes to this abnormality. To further investigate this, homozygous mice at E14.0 and E15.5, when alveolar bone is forming, were used for histochemical and bone histomorphometric analyses. In contrast to the late embryonic stage, the alveolar bone did not yet compress developing tooth germs in homozygous mice on E14.0, but a larger amount of bone tissue was seen compared to wild-type littermates. Histomorphometric analysis of bone at E14.0 revealed that the osteoblast numbers and surfaces in the mandibles and in the bone collar of femora of homozygous mice were significantly higher than those of wild-type mice. However, unlike our previous study showing the osteoclast surface on E18.5 in homozygous mice to be significantly lower than that of wild-type mice, this study at E14.0 showed no significant difference between the two genotypes. To evaluate the amount of calcification around tooth germs, 3D images of mandibles were reconstructed from the calcein-labeled sections of the wild-type and mutant mice. Labeling was performed at E14.0, and the mice were sacrificed 1 h after the calcein injection to minimize the effect of bone resorption. Comparison of the 3D images revealed that the labeled surface was larger around developing tooth germs in homozygous mouse than in wild-type mouse

  14. Epiphyseal abnormalities, trabecular bone loss and articular chondrocyte hypertrophy develop in the long bones of postnatal Ext1-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Sgariglia, Federica; Candela, Maria Elena; Huegel, Julianne; Jacenko, Olena; Koyama, Eiki; Yamaguchi, Yu; Pacifici, Maurizio; Enomoto-Iwamoto, Motomi

    2013-11-01

    Long bones are integral components of the limb skeleton. Recent studies have indicated that embryonic long bone development is altered by mutations in Ext genes and consequent heparan sulfate (HS) deficiency, possibly due to changes in activity and distribution of HS-binding/growth plate-associated signaling proteins. Here we asked whether Ext function is continuously required after birth to sustain growth plate function and long bone growth and organization. Compound transgenic Ext1(f/f);Col2CreERT mice were injected with tamoxifen at postnatal day 5 (P5) to ablate Ext1 in cartilage and monitored over time. The Ext1-deficient mice exhibited growth retardation already by 2weeks post-injection, as did their long bones. Mutant growth plates displayed a severe disorganization of chondrocyte columnar organization, a shortened hypertrophic zone with low expression of collagen X and MMP-13, and reduced primary spongiosa accompanied, however, by increased numbers of TRAP-positive osteoclasts at the chondro-osseous border. The mutant epiphyses were abnormal as well. Formation of a secondary ossification center was significantly delayed but interestingly, hypertrophic-like chondrocytes emerged within articular cartilage, similar to those often seen in osteoarthritic joints. Indeed, the cells displayed a large size and round shape, expressed collagen X and MMP-13 and were surrounded by an abundant Perlecan-rich pericellular matrix not seen in control articular chondrocytes. In addition, ectopic cartilaginous outgrowths developed on the lateral side of mutant growth plates over time that resembled exostotic characteristic of children with Hereditary Multiple Exostoses, a syndrome caused by Ext mutations and HS deficiency. In sum, the data do show that Ext1 is continuously required for postnatal growth and organization of long bones as well as their adjacent joints. Ext1 deficiency elicits defects that can occur in human skeletal conditions including trabecular bone loss

  15. Epigenetic regulation of dorsal raphe GABA(B1a) associated with isolation-induced abnormal responses to social stimulation in mice.

    PubMed

    Araki, Ryota; Hiraki, Yosuke; Nishida, Shoji; Kuramoto, Nobuyuki; Matsumoto, Kinzo; Yabe, Takeshi

    2016-02-01

    In isolation-reared mice, social encounter stimulation induces locomotor hyperactivity and activation of the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN), suggesting that dysregulation of dorsal raphe function may be involved in abnormal behaviors. In this study, we examined the involvement of dorsal raphe GABAergic dysregulation in the abnormal behaviors of isolation-reared mice. We also studied an epigenetic mechanism underlying abnormalities of the dorsal raphe GABAergic system. Both mRNA and protein levels of GABA(B1a), a GABA(B) receptor subunit, were increased in the DRN of isolation-reared mice, compared with these levels in group-reared mice. In contrast, mRNA levels for other GABAergic system-related genes (GABA(A) receptor α1, β2 and γ2 subunits, GABA(B) receptor 1b and 2 subunits, and glutamate decarboxylase 67 and 65) were unchanged. Intra-DRN microinjection of 0.06 nmol baclofen (a GABA(B) receptor agonist) exacerbated encounter-induced hyperactivity and aggressive behavior, while microinjection of 0.3 nmol phaclofen (a GABA(B) receptor antagonist) attenuated encounter-induced hyperactivity and aggressive behavior in isolation-reared mice. Furthermore, microinjection of 0.06 nmol baclofen elicited encounter-induced hyperactivity in group-reared mice. Neither baclofen nor phaclofen affected immobility time in the forced swim test and hyperactivity in a novel environment of isolation reared mice. Bisulfite sequence analyses revealed that the DNA methylation level of the CpG island around the transcription start site (TSS) of GABA(B1a) was decreased in the DRN of isolation-reared mice. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis showed that histone H3 was hyperacetylated around the TSS of GABA(B1a) in the DRN of isolation-reared mice. These findings indicate that an increase in dorsal raphe GABA(B1a) expression via epigenetic regulation is associated with abnormal responses to social stimulation such as encounter-induced hyperactivity and aggressive behavior in isolation

  16. Immunohistochemical demonstration of epidermal growth factor in human gastric cancer xenografts of nude mice.

    PubMed

    Yoshiyuki, T; Shimizu, Y; Onda, M; Tokunaga, A; Kiyama, T; Nishi, K; Mizutani, T; Matsukura, N; Tanaka, N; Akimoto, M

    1990-02-15

    Thirty-two surgical specimens and three cell lines of human gastric cancers were used for subcutaneous transplantation into nude mice, resulting in the establishment of eight (25%) xenografts from the surgical specimens and two (67%) from the cell lines. The localization of epidermal growth factor (EGF) in the surgical specimens and cell lines of the gastric cancers and their xenografts in nude mice was then investigated immunohistochemically. Epidermal growth factor was stained in the cytoplasm of the cancer cells, being detected in 16 (50%) of the 32 surgical specimens and in all of the cell lines. Seven (44%) of the sixteen EGF-positive surgical specimens and one (6%) of the 16 EGF-negative ones were tumorigenic in nude mice. All of the xenografts in nude mice were positive for EGF. The tumorigenicity of human gastric cancer xenografts in nude mice may, therefore, be correlated with the presence of EGF in cancer cells.

  17. Impaired associative taste learning and abnormal brain activation in kinase-defective eEF2K mice.

    PubMed

    Gildish, Iness; Manor, David; David, Orit; Sharma, Vijendra; Williams, David; Agarwala, Usha; Wang, Xuemin; Kenney, Justin W; Proud, Chris G; Rosenblum, Kobi

    2012-02-24

    Memory consolidation is defined temporally based on pharmacological interventions such as inhibitors of mRNA translation (molecular consolidation) or post-acquisition deactivation of specific brain regions (systems level consolidation). However, the relationship between molecular and systems consolidation are poorly understood. Molecular consolidation mechanisms involved in translation initiation and elongation have previously been studied in the cortex using taste-learning paradigms. For example, the levels of phosphorylation of eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2) were found to be correlated with taste learning in the gustatory cortex (GC), minutes following learning. In order to isolate the role of the eEF2 phosphorylation state at Thr-56 in both molecular and system consolidation, we analyzed cortical-dependent taste learning in eEF2K (the only known kinase for eEF2) ki mice, which exhibit reduced levels of eEF2 phosphorylation but normal levels of eEF2 and eEF2K. These mice exhibit clear attenuation of cortical-dependent associative, but not of incidental, taste learning. In order to gain a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms, we compared brain activity as measured by MEMRI (manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging) between eEF2K ki mice and WT mice during conditioned taste aversion (CTA) learning and observed clear differences between the two but saw no differences under basal conditions. Our results demonstrate that adequate levels of phosphorylation of eEF2 are essential for cortical-dependent associative learning and suggest that malfunction of memory processing at the systems level underlies this associative memory impairment.

  18. Impaired associative taste learning and abnormal brain activation in kinase-defective eEF2K mice

    PubMed Central

    Gildish, Iness; Manor, David; David, Orit; Sharma, Vijendra; Williams, David; Agarwala, Usha; Wang, Xuemin; Kenney, Justin W.; Proud, Chris G.; Rosenblum, Kobi

    2012-01-01

    Memory consolidation is defined temporally based on pharmacological interventions such as inhibitors of mRNA translation (molecular consolidation) or post-acquisition deactivation of specific brain regions (systems level consolidation). However, the relationship between molecular and systems consolidation are poorly understood. Molecular consolidation mechanisms involved in translation initiation and elongation have previously been studied in the cortex using taste-learning paradigms. For example, the levels of phosphorylation of eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2) were found to be correlated with taste learning in the gustatory cortex (GC), minutes following learning. In order to isolate the role of the eEF2 phosphorylation state at Thr-56 in both molecular and system consolidation, we analyzed cortical-dependent taste learning in eEF2K (the only known kinase for eEF2) ki mice, which exhibit reduced levels of eEF2 phosphorylation but normal levels of eEF2 and eEF2K. These mice exhibit clear attenuation of cortical-dependent associative, but not of incidental, taste learning. In order to gain a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms, we compared brain activity as measured by MEMRI (manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging) between eEF2K ki mice and WT mice during conditioned taste aversion (CTA) learning and observed clear differences between the two but saw no differences under basal conditions. Our results demonstrate that adequate levels of phosphorylation of eEF2 are essential for cortical-dependent associative learning and suggest that malfunction of memory processing at the systems level underlies this associative memory impairment. PMID:22366775

  19. Mice with mutations in Fas and Fas ligand demonstrate increased herpetic stromal keratitis following corneal infection with HSV-1

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Jessica E.; Zobell, Stephanie; Yin, Xiao-Tang; Zakaria, Hamideh; Summers, Bretton C.; Leib, David A.; Stuart, Patrick M.

    2011-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV) infection of the cornea leads to a potentially blinding immuno-inflammatory lesion of the cornea that is termed herpetic stromal keratitis (HSK). It has also been demonstrated that one of the factors that limits inflammation of the cornea is the presence of Fas ligand (FasL) on corneal epithelium and endothelium. In this study the role that FasL expression in the cornea plays following acute infection with HSV-1 was determined. HSV-1 infection of both BALB/c and C57BL/6 (B6) mice were compared to their lpr and gld counterparts. Results indicated that mice bearing mutations in the Fas antigen (lpr) displayed most severe disease while the FasL defective gld mouse displayed an intermediate phenotype. It was further demonstrated that increased disease was due to lack of Fas expression on bone-marrow derived cells. Interestingly, while virus persisted slightly longer in the corneas of mice bearing lpr and gld mutations, the persistence of infectious virus in the trigeminal ganglia was the same for all strains infected. Furthermore, B6 mice bearing lpr and gld mutations were also more resistant to virus-induced mortality than wild-type B6 mice. Thus neither disease nor mortality correlated with viral replication in these mice. Collectively, these findings indicate that the presence of FasL on the cornea restricts the entry of Fas+ bone marrow-derived inflammatory cells and thus reduces the severity of HSK. PMID:22156346

  20. Improving the Identification of Phenotypic Abnormalities and Sexual Dimorphism in Mice When Studying Rare Event Categorical Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Karp, Natasha A.; Heller, Ruth; Yaacoby, Shay; White, Jacqueline K.; Benjamini, Yoav

    2017-01-01

    Biological research frequently involves the study of phenotyping data. Many of these studies focus on rare event categorical data, and functional genomics studies typically study the presence or absence of an abnormal phenotype. With the growing interest in the role of sex, there is a need to assess the phenotype for sexual dimorphism. The identification of abnormal phenotypes for downstream research is challenged by the small sample size, the rare event nature, and the multiple testing problem, as many variables are monitored simultaneously. Here, we develop a statistical pipeline to assess statistical and biological significance while managing the multiple testing problem. We propose a two-step pipeline to initially assess for a treatment effect, in our case example genotype, and then test for an interaction with sex. We compare multiple statistical methods and use simulations to investigate the control of the type-one error rate and power. To maximize the power while addressing the multiple testing issue, we implement filters to remove data sets where the hypotheses to be tested cannot achieve significance. A motivating case study utilizing a large scale high-throughput mouse phenotyping data set from the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute Mouse Genetics Project, where the treatment is a gene ablation, demonstrates the benefits of the new pipeline on the downstream biological calls. PMID:27932544

  1. Improving the Identification of Phenotypic Abnormalities and Sexual Dimorphism in Mice When Studying Rare Event Categorical Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Karp, Natasha A; Heller, Ruth; Yaacoby, Shay; White, Jacqueline K; Benjamini, Yoav

    2017-02-01

    Biological research frequently involves the study of phenotyping data. Many of these studies focus on rare event categorical data, and functional genomics studies typically study the presence or absence of an abnormal phenotype. With the growing interest in the role of sex, there is a need to assess the phenotype for sexual dimorphism. The identification of abnormal phenotypes for downstream research is challenged by the small sample size, the rare event nature, and the multiple testing problem, as many variables are monitored simultaneously. Here, we develop a statistical pipeline to assess statistical and biological significance while managing the multiple testing problem. We propose a two-step pipeline to initially assess for a treatment effect, in our case example genotype, and then test for an interaction with sex. We compare multiple statistical methods and use simulations to investigate the control of the type-one error rate and power. To maximize the power while addressing the multiple testing issue, we implement filters to remove data sets where the hypotheses to be tested cannot achieve significance. A motivating case study utilizing a large scale high-throughput mouse phenotyping data set from the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute Mouse Genetics Project, where the treatment is a gene ablation, demonstrates the benefits of the new pipeline on the downstream biological calls. Copyright © 2017 Karp et al.

  2. Mandibular coronoid process in parathyroid hormone-related protein-deficient mice shows ectopic cartilage formation accompanied by abnormal bone modeling.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Shunichi; Suda, Naoto; Fukada, Kenji; Ohyama, Kimie; Yamashita, Yasuo; Hammond, Vicki E

    2003-07-01

    Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) null mutant mice were analyzed to investigate an additional role for PTHrP in cell differentiation. We found ectopic cartilage formation in the mandibular coronoid process in newborn mice. While many previous studies involving PTHrP gene knockout mouse have shown that the cartilage in various regions becomes smaller, this is the first report showing an "increase" of cartilage volume. Investigations of mandibular growth using normal mice indicated that coronoid secondary cartilage never formed from E 15 to d 4, but small amount of cartilage temporally formed at d 7, and this also applies to PTHrP-wild type mice. Therefore, PTHrP deficiency consequently advanced the secondary cartilage formation, which is a novel role of PTHrP in chondrocyte differentiation. In situ hybridization of matrix proteins showed that this coronoid cartilage had characteristics of the lower hypertrophic cell zone usually present at the site of endochondral bone formation and/or "chondroid bone" occasionally found in distraction osteogenesis. In addition, the coronoid process in the PTHrP-deficient mouse also showed abnormal expansion of bone marrow and an increase in the number of multinucleated osteoclasts, an indication of abnormal bone modeling. These results indicate that PTHrP is involved in bone modeling as well as in chondrocyte differentiation. In situ hybridization of matrix protein mRNAs in the abnormal mandibular condylar cartilage revealed that this cartilage was proportionally smaller, supporting previous immunohistochemical results.

  3. Conditional Expression of Parkinson's Disease-Related R1441C LRRK2 in Midbrain Dopaminergic Neurons of Mice Causes Nuclear Abnormalities without Neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Tsika, Elpida; Kannan, Meghna; Foo, Caroline Shi-Yan; Dikeman, Dustin; Glauser, Liliane; Gellhaar, Sandra; Galter, Dagmar; Knott, Graham W.; Dawson, Ted M.; Dawson, Valina L.; Moore, Darren J.

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) gene cause late-onset, autosomal dominant Parkinson's disease (PD). The clinical and neurochemical features of LRRK2-linked PD are similar to idiopathic disease although neuropathology is somewhat heterogeneous. Dominant mutations in LRRK2 precipitate neurodegeneration through a toxic gain-of-function mechanism which can be modeled in transgenic mice overexpressing human LRRK2 variants. A number of LRRK2 transgenic mouse models have been developed that display abnormalities in dopaminergic neurotransmission and alterations in tau metabolism yet without consistently inducing dopaminergic neurodegeneration. To directly explore the impact of mutant LRRK2 on the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway, we developed conditional transgenic mice that selectively express human R1441C LRRK2 in dopaminergic neurons from the endogenous murine ROSA26 promoter. The expression of R1441C LRRK2 does not induce the degeneration of substantia nigra dopaminergic neurons or striatal dopamine deficits in mice up to 2 years of age, and fails to precipitate abnormal protein inclusions containing alpha-synuclein, tau, ubiquitin or autophagy markers (LC3 and p62). Furthermore, mice expressing R1441C LRRK2 exhibit normal motor activity and olfactory function with increasing age. Intriguingly, the expression of R1441C LRRK2 induces age-dependent abnormalities of the nuclear envelope in nigral dopaminergic neurons including reduced nuclear circularity and increased invaginations of the nuclear envelope. In addition, R1441C LRRK2 mice display increased neurite complexity of cultured midbrain dopaminergic neurons. Collectively, these novel R1441C LRRK2 conditional transgenic mice reveal altered dopaminergic neuronal morphology with advancing age, and provide a useful tool for exploring the pathogenic mechanisms underlying the R1441C LRRK2 mutation in PD. PMID:25174890

  4. Compared with DBA/2J mice, C57BL/6J mice demonstrate greater preference for saccharin and less avoidance of a cocaine-paired saccharin cue

    PubMed Central

    Freet, Christopher S.; Arndt, Amanda; Grigson, Patricia S.

    2014-01-01

    Rats avoid intake of a saccharin cue when paired with a drug of abuse. While this is true for most subjects, the degree of avoidance of the drug-paired cue depends upon many factors including an individual rat’s preference for rewards. That said, the direction of this effect is complex. For example, reward-preferring Lewis rats exhibit greater cocaine-induced avoidance of a saccharin cue relative to Fischer 344 rats; while reward-preferring mice that over express ΔFosB (NSE-tTA x TetOp-ΔFosB) exhibit less avoidance of the drug-paired taste cue compared to controls. The aim here was to use two strains of commonly used mice, C57BL/6J and DBA/2J, to determine whether known differences in sensitivity to rewards will facilitate or attenuate drug-induced suppression of intake of a drug-paired taste cue. The results of Experiment 1 demonstrate that C57BL/6J mice, compared with DBA/2J mice, exhibit attenuated suppression of saccharin intake when it is paired with cocaine. The results of Experiment 2 demonstrate that strain differences in impulsivity are not likely to account for these differences. It is proposed that, while the C57BL/6J mice typically are more responsive to drug, they also are more responsive to natural rewards (in this case saccharin), and the stronger preference for saccharin serves to militate against drug. PMID:23544599

  5. Cyclic Alopecia and Abnormal Epidermal Cornification in Zdhhc13-Deficient Mice Reveal the Importance of Palmitoylation in Hair and Skin Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kai-Ming; Chen, Yi-Ju; Shen, Li-Fen; Haddad, Amir N S; Song, I-Wen; Chen, Li-Ying; Chen, Yu-Ju; Wu, Jer-Yuarn; Yen, Jeffrey J Y; Chen, Yuan-Tsong

    2015-11-01

    Many biochemical pathways involved in hair and skin development have not been investigated. Here, we reported on the lesions and investigated the mechanism underlying hair and skin abnormalities in Zdhhc13(skc4) mice with a deficiency in DHHC13, a palmitoyl-acyl transferase encoded by Zdhhc13. Homozygous affected mice showed ragged and dilapidated cuticle of the hair shaft (CUH, a hair anchoring structure), poor hair anchoring ability, and premature hair loss at early telogen phase of the hair cycle, resulting in cyclic alopecia. Furthermore, the homozygous affected mice exhibited hyperproliferation of the epidermis, disturbed cornification, fragile cornified envelope (CE, a skin barrier structure), and impaired skin barrier function. Biochemical investigations revealed that cornifelin, which contains five palmitoylation sites at cysteine residues (C58, C59, C60, C95, and C101), was a specific substrate of DHHC13 and that it was absent in the CUH and CE structures of the affected mice. Furthermore, cornifelin levels were markedly reduced when two palmitoylated cysteines were replaced with serine (C95S and C101S). Taken together, our results suggest that DHHC13 is important for hair anchoring and skin barrier function and that cornifelin deficiency contributes to cyclic alopecia and skin abnormalities in Zdhhc13(skc4) mice.

  6. Extracellular Superoxide Dismutase Ameliorates Skeletal Muscle Abnormalities, Cachexia and Exercise Intolerance in Mice with Congestive Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Okutsu, Mitsuharu; Call, Jarrod A.; Lira, Vitor A.; Zhang, Mei; Donet, Jean A.; French, Brent A.; Martin, Kyle S.; Peirce-Cottler, Shayn M.; Rembold, Christopher M.; Annex, Brian H.; Yan, Zhen

    2014-01-01

    Background Congestive heart failure (CHF) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality, and oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of cachexia (muscle wasting) and the hallmark symptom, exercise intolerance. We have previously shown that a nitric oxide (NO)-dependent antioxidant defense renders oxidative skeletal muscle resistant to catabolic wasting. Here, we aimed to identify and determine the functional role of the NO-inducible antioxidant enzyme(s) in protection against cardiac cachexia and exercise intolerance in CHF. Methods and Results We demonstrated that systemic administration of endogenous nitric oxide donor S-Nitrosoglutathione in mice blocked the reduction of extracellular superoxide dismutase (EcSOD) protein expression, the induction of MAFbx/Atrogin-1 mRNA expression and muscle atrophy induced by glucocorticoid. We further showed that endogenous EcSOD, expressed primarily by type IId/x and IIa myofibers and enriched at endothelial cells, is induced by exercise training. Muscle-specific overexpression of EcSOD by somatic gene transfer or transgenesis [muscle creatine kinase (MCK)-EcSOD] in mice significantly attenuated muscle atrophy. Importantly, when crossbred into a mouse genetic model of CHF [α-myosin heavy chain (MHC)-calsequestrin] MCK-EcSOD transgenic mice had significant attenuation of cachexia with preserved whole body muscle strength and endurance capacity in the absence of reduced heart failure. Enhanced EcSOD expression significantly ameliorated CHF-induced oxidative stress, MAFbx/Atrogin-1 mRNA expression, loss of mitochondria and vascular rarefaction in skeletal muscle. Conclusions EcSOD plays an important antioxidant defense function in skeletal muscle against cardiac cachexia and exercise intolerance in CHF. PMID:24523418

  7. Mice with Tak1 deficiency in neural crest lineage exhibit cleft palate associated with abnormal tongue development.

    PubMed

    Song, Zhongchen; Liu, Chao; Iwata, Junichi; Gu, Shuping; Suzuki, Akiko; Sun, Cheng; He, Wei; Shu, Rong; Li, Lu; Chai, Yang; Chen, YiPing

    2013-04-12

    Cleft palate represents one of the most common congenital birth defects in humans. TGFβ signaling, which is mediated by Smad-dependent and Smad-independent pathways, plays a crucial role in regulating craniofacial development and patterning, particularly in palate development. However, it remains largely unknown whether the Smad-independent pathway contributes to TGFβ signaling function during palatogenesis. In this study, we investigated the function of TGFβ activated kinase 1 (Tak1), a key regulator of Smad-independent TGFβ signaling in palate development. We show that Tak1 protein is expressed in both the epithelium and mesenchyme of the developing palatal shelves. Whereas deletion of Tak1 in the palatal epithelium or mesenchyme did not give rise to a cleft palate defect, inactivation of Tak1 in the neural crest lineage using the Wnt1-Cre transgenic allele resulted in failed palate elevation and subsequently the cleft palate formation. The failure in palate elevation in Wnt1-Cre;Tak1(F/F) mice results from a malformed tongue and micrognathia, resembling human Pierre Robin sequence cleft of the secondary palate. We found that the abnormal tongue development is associated with Fgf10 overexpression in the neural crest-derived tongue tissue. The failed palate elevation and cleft palate were recapitulated in an Fgf10-overexpressing mouse model. The repressive effect of the Tak1-mediated noncanonical TGFβ signaling on Fgf10 expression was further confirmed by inhibition of p38, a downstream kinase of Tak1, in the primary cell culture of developing tongue. Tak1 thus functions to regulate tongue development by controlling Fgf10 expression and could represent a candidate gene for mutation in human PRS clefting.

  8. Reverse-translational biomarker validation of Abnormal Repetitive Behaviors in mice: an illustration of the 4P's modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Garner, Joseph P; Thogerson, Collette M; Dufour, Brett D; Würbel, Hanno; Murray, James D; Mench, Joy A

    2011-06-01

    The NIMH's new strategic plan, with its emphasis on the "4P's" (Prediction, Pre-emption, Personalization, and Populations) and biomarker-based medicine requires a radical shift in animal modeling methodology. In particular 4P's models will be non-determinant (i.e. disease severity will depend on secondary environmental and genetic factors); and validated by reverse-translation of animal homologues to human biomarkers. A powerful consequence of the biomarker approach is that different closely related disorders have a unique fingerprint of biomarkers. Animals can be validated as a highly specific model of a single disorder by matching this 'fingerprint'; or as a model of a symptom seen in multiple disorders by matching common biomarkers. Here we illustrate this approach with two Abnormal Repetitive Behaviors (ARBs) in mice: stereotypies and barbering (hair pulling). We developed animal versions of the neuropsychological biomarkers that distinguish human ARBs, and tested the fingerprint of the different mouse ARBs. As predicted, the two mouse ARBs were associated with different biomarkers. Both barbering and stereotypy could be discounted as models of OCD (even though they are widely used as such), due to the absence of limbic biomarkers which are characteristic of OCD and hence are necessary for a valid model. Conversely barbering matched the fingerprint of trichotillomania (i.e. selective deficits in set-shifting), suggesting it may be a highly specific model of this disorder. In contrast stereotypies were correlated only with a biomarker (deficits in response shifting) correlated with stereotypies in multiple disorders, suggesting that animal stereotypies model stereotypies in multiple disorders. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. An endocrinology laboratory exercise demonstrating the effect of confinement stress on the immune system of mice.

    PubMed

    Brehe, Jacqueline; Way, Amy L

    2008-06-01

    This article describes a simple laboratory exercise for examining the effect of stress on the immune system in mice. Mice are subjected to confinement stress for 1 h, after which a sample of blood is collected via the caudal vein. Blood samples are smeared onto microscope slides, air dried, and stained with Wright's Giemsa stain. When differential white blood cell counts are performed, there are noticeable differences between the neutrophil and lymphocyte counts of stressed versus control mice. The protocol is simple enough for students to perform, and the entire experiment can be completed within 3 h. Examples of ways in which the basic protocol can be modified to accommodate a shorter laboratory class are provided. This hands-on laboratory experiment provides students with experience using the scientific method to investigate the interaction between the endocrine and immune systems in response to stress.

  10. Genetic inactivation and pharmacological blockade of sigma-1 receptors prevent paclitaxel-induced sensory-nerve mitochondrial abnormalities and neuropathic pain in mice

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Paclitaxel, a widely-used antineoplastic drug, produces a painful peripheral neuropathy that in rodents is associated with peripheral-nerve mitochondrial alterations. The sigma-1 receptor (σ1R) is a ligand-regulated molecular chaperone involved in mitochondrial calcium homeostasis and pain hypersensitivity. This receptor plays a key role in paclitaxel-induced neuropathic pain, but it is not known whether it also modulates mitochondrial abnormalities. In this study, we used a mouse model of paclitaxel-induced neuropathic pain to test the involvement of the σ1R in the mitochondrial abnormalities associated with paclitaxel, by using genetic (σ1R knockout mice) and pharmacological (σ1R antagonist) approaches. Results Paclitaxel administration to wild-type (WT) mice produced cold- and mechanical-allodynia, and an increase in the frequency of swollen and vacuolated mitochondria in myelinated A-fibers, but not in C-fibers, of the saphenous nerve. Behavioral and mitochondrial alterations were marked at 10 days after paclitaxel-administration and had resolved at day 28. In contrast, paclitaxel treatment did not induce allodynia or mitochondrial abnormalities in σ1R knockout mice. Moreover, the prophylactic treatment of WT mice with BD-1063 also prevented the neuropathic pain and mitochondrial abnormalities induced by paclitaxel. Conclusions These results suggest that activation of the σ1R is necessary for development of the sensory nerve mitochondrial damage and neuropathic pain produced by paclitaxel. Therefore, σ1R antagonists might have therapeutic value for the prevention of paclitaxel-induced neuropathy. PMID:24517272

  11. Abnormal skeletal and cardiac development, cardiomyopathy, muscle atrophy and cataracts in mice with a targeted disruption of the Nov (Ccn3) gene.

    PubMed

    Heath, Emma; Tahri, Dalal; Andermarcher, Elisabetta; Schofield, Paul; Fleming, Stewart; Boulter, Catherine A

    2008-02-20

    Signals from the extracellular environment control many aspects of cell behaviour including proliferation, survival, differentiation, adhesion and migration. It is increasingly evident that these signals can be modulated by a group of matricellular proteins called the CCN family. CCN proteins have multiple domains through which they regulate the activities of a variety of signalling molecules including TGFbeta, BMPs and integrins, thereby influencing a wide range of processes in development and disease. Whilst the developmental roles of CCN1 and CCN2 have been elucidated, very little is known about the function of CCN3 (NOV). To investigate this, we have generated mice carrying a targeted mutation in the Nov gene (Novdel3) which reveal for the first time its diverse functions in embryos and adults. By replacing Nov exon 3 with a TKneomycin cassette, we have generated Novdel3-/- mice which produce no full length NOV protein and express at a barely detectable level a mutant NOV protein that lacks the VWC domain. In Novdel3-/- embryos, and to a lesser extent in Novdel3+/- embryos, development of the appendicular and axial skeleton was affected with enlarged vertebrae, elongated long bones and digits, delayed ossification, increased bone mineralization and severe joint malformations. Primary embryo fibroblasts from Novdel3-/- mutant embryos showed enhanced chondrogenesis and osteogenesis. Cardiac development was also influenced leading to enlargement and abnormal modelling of the endocardial cushions, associated with septal defects and delayed fusion. In adults, cardiomyopathy was apparent, with hypertrophy and calcification of the septum and left ventricle dilation. Muscle atrophy was seen by 5 months of age, associated with transdifferentiation to fat. Premature tissue degeneration was also seen in the lens, with cataracts present from 6 months. We have generated the first mice with a mutation in the Nov gene (Novdel3). Our data demonstrate that NOV is a regulator of

  12. Rescue of the abnormal skeletal phenotype in Ts65Dn Down syndrome mice using genetic and therapeutic modulation of trisomic Dyrk1a.

    PubMed

    Blazek, Joshua D; Abeysekera, Irushi; Li, Jiliang; Roper, Randall J

    2015-10-15

    Trisomy 21 causes skeletal alterations in individuals with Down syndrome (DS), but the causative trisomic gene and a therapeutic approach to rescue these abnormalities are unknown. Individuals with DS display skeletal alterations including reduced bone mineral density, modified bone structure and distinctive facial features. Due to peripheral skeletal anomalies and extended longevity, individuals with DS are increasingly more susceptible to bone fractures. Understanding the genetic and developmental origin of DS skeletal abnormalities would facilitate the development of therapies to rescue these and other deficiencies associated with DS. DYRK1A is found in three copies in individuals with DS and Ts65Dn DS mice and has been hypothesized to be involved in many Trisomy 21 phenotypes including skeletal abnormalities. Return of Dyrk1a copy number to normal levels in Ts65Dn mice rescued the appendicular bone abnormalities, suggesting that appropriate levels of DYRK1A expression are critical for the development and maintenance of the DS appendicular skeleton. Therapy using the DYRK1A inhibitor epigallocatechin-3-gallate improved Ts65Dn skeletal phenotypes. These outcomes suggest that the osteopenic phenotype associated with DS may be rescued postnatally by targeting trisomic Dyrk1a.

  13. Human COL2A1-directed SV40 T antigen expression in transgenic and chimeric mice results in abnormal skeletal development

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    The ability of SV40 T antigen to cause abnormalities in cartilage development in transgenic mice and chimeras has been tested. The cis- regulatory elements of the COL2A1 gene were used to target expression of SV40 T antigen to differentiating chondrocytes in transgenic mice and chimeras derived from embryonal stem (ES) cells bearing the same transgene. The major phenotypic consequences of transgenic (pAL21) expression are malformed skeleton, disproportionate dwarfism, and perinatal/neonatal death. Expression of T antigen was tissue specific and in the main characteristic of the mouse alpha 1(II) collagen gene. Chondrocyte densities and levels of alpha 1(II) collagen mRNAs were reduced in the transgenic mice. Islands of cells which express cartilage characteristic genes such as type IIB procollagen, long form alpha 1(IX) collagen, alpha 2(XI) collagen, and aggrecan were found in the articular and growth cartilages of pAL21 chimeric fetuses and neonates. But these cells, which were expressing T antigen, were not properly organized into columns of proliferating chondrocytes. Levels of alpha 1(II) collagen mRNA were reduced in these chondrocytes. In addition, these cells did not express type X collagen, a marker for hypertrophic chondrocytes. The skeletal abnormality in pAL21 mice may therefore be due to a retardation of chondrocyte maturation or an impaired ability of chondrocytes to complete terminal differentiation and an associated paucity of some cartilage matrix components. PMID:7822417

  14. Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide–Null Mice Demonstrate Enhanced Sweet Taste Preference, Dysglycemia, and Reduced Taste Bud Leptin Receptor Expression

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Bronwen; Shin, Yu-Kyong; White, Caitlin M.; Ji, Sunggoan; Kim, Wook; Carlson, Olga D.; Napora, Joshua K.; Chadwick, Wayne; Chapter, Megan; Waschek, James A.; Mattson, Mark P.; Maudsley, Stuart; Egan, Josephine M.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE It is becoming apparent that there is a strong link between taste perception and energy homeostasis. Recent evidence implicates gut-related hormones in taste perception, including glucagon-like peptide 1 and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP). We used VIP knockout mice to investigate VIP's specific role in taste perception and connection to energy regulation. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Body weight, food intake, and plasma levels of multiple energy-regulating hormones were measured and pancreatic morphology was determined. In addition, the immunocytochemical profile of taste cells and gustatory behavior were examined in wild-type and VIP knockout mice. RESULTS VIP knockout mice demonstrate elevated plasma glucose, insulin, and leptin levels, with no islet β-cell number/topography alteration. VIP and its receptors (VPAC1, VPAC2) were identified in type II taste cells of the taste bud, and VIP knockout mice exhibit enhanced taste preference to sweet tastants. VIP knockout mouse taste cells show a significant decrease in leptin receptor expression and elevated expression of glucagon-like peptide 1, which may explain sweet taste preference of VIP knockout mice. CONCLUSIONS This study suggests that the tongue can play a direct role in modulating energy intake to correct peripheral glycemic imbalances. In this way, we could view the tongue as a sensory mechanism that is bidirectionally regulated and thus forms a bridge between available foodstuffs and the intricate hormonal balance in the animal itself. PMID:20150284

  15. Mlkl knockout mice demonstrate the indispensable role of Mlkl in necroptosis

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jianfeng; Huang, Zhe; Ren, Junming; Zhang, Zhirong; He, Peng; Li, Yangxin; Ma, Jianhui; Chen, Wanze; Zhang, Yingying; Zhou, Xiaojuan; Yang, Zhentao; Wu, Su-Qin; Chen, Lanfen; Han, Jiahuai

    2013-01-01

    Mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein (Mlkl) was recently found to interact with receptor interacting protein 3 (Rip3) and to be essential for tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-induced programmed necrosis (necroptosis) in cultured cell lines. We have generated Mlkl-deficient mice by transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs)-mediated gene disruption and found Mlkl to be dispensable for normal mouse development as well as immune cell development. Mlkl-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) and macrophages both showed resistance to necrotic but not apoptotic stimuli. Mlkl-deficient MEFs and macrophages were indistinguishable from wild-type cells in their ability to activate NF-κB, ERK, JNK, and p38 in response to TNF and lipopolysaccharides (LPS), respectively. Consistently, Mlkl-deficient macrophages and mice exhibited normal interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, and TNF production after LPS treatment. Mlkl deficiency protects mice from cerulean-induced acute pancreatitis, a necrosis-related disease, but has no effect on polymicrobial septic shock-induced animal death. Our results provide genetic evidence for the role of Mlkl in necroptosis. PMID:23835476

  16. MRL/MpJ-Fas(lpr) mice show abnormalities in ovarian function and morphology with the progression of autoimmune disease.

    PubMed

    Otani, Yuki; Ichii, Osamu; Otsuka-Kanazawa, Saori; Chihara, Masataka; Nakamura, Teppei; Kon, Yasuhiro

    2015-01-01

    The immune system is known to affect reproductive function, and maternal-fetal immune tolerance is essential for a successful pregnancy. To investigate the relationship between autoimmune disease and female reproductive function, we performed a comparative analysis of the ovarian phenotypes for C57BL/6 mice, autoimmune disease-prone MRL/MpJ (MRL/+) mice and congenic MRL/MpJ-Fas(lpr) (MRL/lpr) mice harboring a mutation in the Fas gene that speeds disease onset. Both MRL-background strains showed earlier vaginal opening than C57BL/6 mice. The estrous cycle became irregular by 6 and 12 months of age in MRL/lpr mice and mice of the other two strains, respectively. Histological analysis at 3 months revealed that the number of primordial follicles was smaller in MRL-background mice than in C57BL/6 mice after 3 months. In addition, MRL/lpr and MRL/+ mice displayed lower numbers of ovarian follicles and corpora lutea at 3 and 6 months, and 6 and 12 months, respectively, than that in age-matched C57BL/6 mice. MRL/lpr and MRL/+ mice developed ovarian interstitial glands after 3 and 6 months, respectively. In particular, MRL/lpr mice showed numerous infiltrating lymphocytes within the ovarian interstitia, and partially stratified ovarian surface epithelia with more developed microvilli than that observed in C57BL/6 mice at 6 months. No significant differences in serum hormone levels were observed between the strains. In conclusion, MRL/lpr mice display altered ovarian development, morphology and function consistent with the progression of severe autoimmune disease, as these findings are less severe in MRL/+ counterparts.

  17. Pulmonary Abnormalities in Mice with Paracoccidioidomycosis: A Sequential Study Comparing High Resolution Computed Tomography and Pathologic Findings

    PubMed Central

    Hidalgo, José Miguel; de Oliveira Pascarelli, Bernardo Miguel; Patiño, Jairo Hernando; Lenzi, Henrique Leonel; Restrepo, Angela; Cano, Luz Elena

    2010-01-01

    Background Human paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is an endemic fungal disease of pulmonary origin. Follow-up of pulmonary lesions by image studies in an experimental model of PCM has not been previously attempted. This study focuses on defining patterns, topography and intensity of lung lesions in experimentally infected PCM mice by means of a comparative analysis between High Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) and histopathologic parameters. Methodology Male BALB/c mice were intranasally inoculated with 3×106 Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (Pb) conidia (n = 50) or PBS (n = 50). HRCT was done every four weeks to determine pulmonary lesions, quantify lung density, reconstruct and quantify lung air structure. Lungs were also analyzed by histopathology and histomorphometry. Results Three different patterns of lesions were evidenced by HRCT and histopathology, as follows: nodular-diffuse, confluent and pseudo-tumoral. The lesions were mainly located around the hilus and affected more frequently the left lung. At the 4th week post-challenge HRCT showed that 80% of the Pb-infected mice had peri-bronchial consolidations associated with a significant increase in upper lung density when compared with controls, (−263±25 vs. −422±10 HU, p<0.001). After the 8th and 12th weeks, consolidation had progressed involving also the middle regions. Histopathology revealed that consolidation as assessed by HRCT was equivalent histologically to a confluent granulomatous reaction, while nodules corresponded to individual compact granulomas. At the 16th week of infection, confluent granulomas formed pseudotumoral masses that obstructed large bronchi. Discrete focal fibrosis was visible gradually around granulomas, but this finding was only evident by histopathology. Conclusions/Significance This study demonstrated that conventional HRCT is a useful tool for evaluation and quantification of pulmonary damage occurring in experimental mouse PCM. The experimental design used

  18. Induction of micronuclei and sister chromatid exchange in bone-marrow cells and abnormalities in sperm of Algerian mice (Mus spretus) exposed to cadmium, lead and zinc.

    PubMed

    Tapisso, Joaquim Torres; Marques, Carla Cristina; Mathias, Maria da Luz; Ramalhinho, Maria da Graça

    2009-08-01

    As a consequence of human activities, large amounts of cadmium, lead and zinc are released in the environment, often simultaneously. The aim of this study was to investigate under experimental conditions the DNA damage induced in Algerian mice (Mus spretus) exposed to cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) separately, or in selected combinations. Three cytogenetic end points were considered: the frequencies of micronucleated cells (MN) and sister chromatid exchange (SCE) in the bone marrow and the frequency of sperm abnormalities. Mice were treated by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections with 5 or 10 doses of aqueous solutions of cadmium acetate, lead acetate and zinc acetate in concentrations corresponding to 1/10 of the LD50, respectively, 21.5, 0.46 and 1.5 mg/kg bw. The control groups were injected in the same way with distilled water. With only one exception (Cd + Zn group treated with 5 doses), the results show a significant increase of MN in all groups for both treatments (5 and 10 doses). Similarly, the results concerning the SCE revealed a statistically significant increase in all treated animals, with the exception of the Zn group treated with 5 doses. The number of sperm abnormalities was significantly higher in animals treated with 5 doses, except in the group Pb + Zn. In animals treated with 10 doses the number of sperm abnormalities was always statistically higher compared with controls. This study indicates that cadmium, lead and zinc can induce MN, SCEs and sperm abnormalities in Algerian mice and that the clastogenic potential is dependent on the time of exposure and the interaction between the three elements, confirming the environmental damage that may result from the simultaneous action of several metals. Most relevant is the toxic potential for Zn, related with the dose, which may compromise its protective effect against other metal contaminations, such as cadmium.

  19. Compared with DBA/2J mice, C57BL/6J mice demonstrate greater preference for saccharin and less avoidance of a cocaine-paired saccharin cue.

    PubMed

    Freet, Christopher S; Arndt, Amanda; Grigson, Patricia S

    2013-06-01

    Rats avoid intake of a saccharin cue when paired with a drug of abuse. While this is true for most subjects, the degree of avoidance of the drug-paired cue depends upon many factors including an individual rat's preference for rewards. That said, the direction of this effect is complex. For example, reward-preferring Lewis rats exhibit greater cocaine-induced avoidance of a saccharin cue relative to Fischer 344 rats; while reward-preferring mice that overexpress ΔFosB (NSE-tTA × TetOp-ΔFosB) exhibit less avoidance of the drug-paired taste cue compared to controls. The aim here was to use two strains of commonly used mice, C57BL/6J and DBA/2J, to determine whether known differences in sensitivity to rewards will facilitate or attenuate drug-induced suppression of intake of a drug-paired taste cue. The results of Experiment 1 demonstrate that C57BL/6J mice, compared with DBA/2J mice, exhibit attenuated suppression of saccharin intake when it is paired with cocaine. The results of Experiment 2 demonstrate that strain differences in impulsivity are not likely to account for these differences. It is proposed that, while the C57BL/6J mice typically are more responsive to drug, they also are more responsive to natural rewards (in this case saccharin), and the stronger preference for saccharin serves to militate against drug. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  20. Neurofilament light polypeptide gene N98S mutation in mice leads to neurofilament network abnormalities and a Charcot-Marie-Tooth Type 2E phenotype.

    PubMed

    Adebola, Adijat A; Di Castri, Theo; He, Chui-Zhen; Salvatierra, Laura A; Zhao, Jian; Brown, Kristy; Lin, Chyuan-Sheng; Worman, Howard J; Liem, Ronald K H

    2015-04-15

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) is the most commonly inherited neurological disorder with a prevalence of 1 in 2500 people worldwide. Patients suffer from degeneration of the peripheral nerves that control sensory information of the foot/leg and hand/arm. Multiple mutations in the neurofilament light polypeptide gene, NEFL, cause CMT2E. Previous studies in transfected cells showed that expression of disease-associated neurofilament light chain variants results in abnormal intermediate filament networks associated with defects in axonal transport. We have now generated knock-in mice with two different point mutations in Nefl: P8R that has been reported in multiple families with variable age of onset and N98S that has been described as an early-onset, sporadic mutation in multiple individuals. Nefl(P8R/+) and Nefl(P8R/P8R) mice were indistinguishable from Nefl(+/+) in terms of behavioral phenotype. In contrast, Nefl(N98S/+) mice had a noticeable tremor, and most animals showed a hindlimb clasping phenotype. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed multiple inclusions in the cell bodies and proximal axons of spinal cord neurons, disorganized processes in the cerebellum and abnormal processes in the cerebral cortex and pons. Abnormal processes were observed as early as post-natal day 7. Electron microscopic analysis of sciatic nerves showed a reduction in the number of neurofilaments, an increase in the number of microtubules and a decrease in the axonal diameters. The Nefl(N98S/+) mice provide an excellent model to study the pathogenesis of CMT2E and should prove useful for testing potential therapies. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Mice deficient in Group VIB phospholipase A2 (iPLA2γ) exhibit relative resistance to obesity and metabolic abnormalities induced by a Western diet

    PubMed Central

    Song, Haowei; Wohltmann, Mary; Bao, Shunzhong; Ladenson, Jack H.; Semenkovich, Clay F.

    2010-01-01

    Phospholipases A2 (PLA2) play important roles in metabolic processes, and the Group VI PLA2 family is comprised of intracellular enzymes that do not require Ca2+ for catalysis. Mice deficient in Group VIA PLA2 (iPLA2β) develop more severe glucose intolerance than wild-type (WT) mice in response to dietary stress. Group VIB PLA2 (iPLA2γ) is a related enzyme distributed in membranous organelles, including mitochondria, and iPLA2γ knockout (KO) mice exhibit altered mitochondrial morphology and function. We have compared metabolic responses of iPLA2γ-KO and WT mice fed a Western diet (WD) with a high fat content. We find that KO mice are resistant to WD-induced increases in body weight and adiposity and in blood levels of cholesterol, glucose, and insulin, even though WT and KO mice exhibit similar food consumption and dietary fat digestion and absorption. KO mice are also relatively resistant to WD-induced insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, and altered patterns of fat vs. carbohydrate fuel utilization. KO skeletal muscle exhibits impaired mitochondrial β-oxidation of fatty acids, as reflected by accumulation of larger amounts of long-chain acylcarnitine (LCAC) species in KO muscle and liver compared with WT in response to WD feeding. This is associated with increased urinary excretion of LCAC and much reduced deposition of triacylglycerols in liver by WD-fed KO compared with WT mice. The iPLA2γ-deficient genotype thus results in a phenotype characterized by impaired mitochondrial oxidation of fatty acids and relative resistance to the metabolic abnormalities induced by WD. PMID:20179248

  2. Abnormal serotonin receptor expression in DBA/2 mice associated with susceptibility to sudden death due to respiratory arrest.

    PubMed

    Uteshev, Victor V; Tupal, Srinivasan; Mhaskar, Yashanad; Faingold, Carl L

    2010-02-01

    Previous studies indicate that DBA/2 mice may be a useful model of human sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP), since these mice exhibit generalized convulsive seizures followed by respiratory arrest (RA). Respiratory deficits, following generalized convulsive seizures, are observed prior to SUDEP in patients. RA that occurs in DBA/2 mice following sound-induced seizures can be prevented by treatments that activate serotonin (5-HT) receptors. 5-HT receptor subtypes in brainstem respiratory centers are important in regulating normal respiration. The present study compared the expression of 5-HT subtype receptor proteins in excised brainstem tissue, containing the rostral ventral medulla respiratory region in DBA/2 mice vs. seizure-resistant C57BL/6J mice, using Western blot analysis. The results indicate that expression of specific 5-HT(2C), 5-HT(3), and 5-HT(4) receptor proteins in the brainstem tissue of DBA/2 mice is significantly diminished, while expression of the 5-HT(2B) receptors is significantly enhanced as compared to C57BL/6J mice. No difference in expression of 5-HT transporter protein is seen. These findings suggest that the DBA/2 mice are susceptible to RA, in part, because of the altered expression of 5-HT receptors. Preliminary studies indicate that 5-HT(2C) receptors may be particularly important, since a 5-HT(2C) agonist is very effective in blocking RA in DBA/2 mice.

  3. Essential role for CCR6 in certain inflammatory diseases demonstrated using specific antagonist and knockin mice.

    PubMed

    Robert, Remy; Ang, Caroline; Sun, Guizhi; Juglair, Laurent; Lim, Ee X; Mason, Linda J; Payne, Natalie L; Bernard, Claude Ca; Mackay, Charles R

    2017-08-03

    The chemokine receptor CCR6 marks subsets of T cells and innate lymphoid cells that produce IL-17 and IL-22, and as such may play a role in the recruitment of these cells to certain inflammatory sites. However, the precise role of CCR6 has been controversial, in part because no effective monoclonal antibody (mAb) inhibitors against this receptor exist for use in mouse models of inflammation. We circumvented this problem using transgenic mice expressing human CCR6 (hCCR6) under control of its native promoter (hCCR6-Tg/mCCR6-/-). We also developed a fully humanized mAb against hCCR6 with antagonistic activity. The expression pattern of hCCR6 in hCCR6-Tg/mCCR6-/- mice was consistent with the pattern observed in humans. In mouse models of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) and psoriasis, treatment with anti-hCCR6 mAb was remarkably effective in both preventive and therapeutic regimens. For instance, in the imiquimod model of psoriasis, anti-CCR6 completely abolished all signs of inflammation. Moreover, anti-hCCR6 attenuated clinical symptoms of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein-induced (MOG-induced) EAE and reduced infiltration of inflammatory cells in the central nervous system. CCR6 plays a critical role in Th17 type inflammatory reactions, and CCR6 inhibition may offer an alternative approach for the treatment of these lesions.

  4. Essential role for CCR6 in certain inflammatory diseases demonstrated using specific antagonist and knockin mice

    PubMed Central

    Robert, Remy; Ang, Caroline; Sun, Guizhi; Juglair, Laurent; Lim, Ee X.; Mason, Linda J.; Payne, Natalie L.; Bernard, Claude C.A.; Mackay, Charles R.

    2017-01-01

    The chemokine receptor CCR6 marks subsets of T cells and innate lymphoid cells that produce IL-17 and IL-22, and as such may play a role in the recruitment of these cells to certain inflammatory sites. However, the precise role of CCR6 has been controversial, in part because no effective monoclonal antibody (mAb) inhibitors against this receptor exist for use in mouse models of inflammation. We circumvented this problem using transgenic mice expressing human CCR6 (hCCR6) under control of its native promoter (hCCR6-Tg/mCCR6–/–). We also developed a fully humanized mAb against hCCR6 with antagonistic activity. The expression pattern of hCCR6 in hCCR6-Tg/mCCR6–/– mice was consistent with the pattern observed in humans. In mouse models of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) and psoriasis, treatment with anti-hCCR6 mAb was remarkably effective in both preventive and therapeutic regimens. For instance, in the imiquimod model of psoriasis, anti-CCR6 completely abolished all signs of inflammation. Moreover, anti-hCCR6 attenuated clinical symptoms of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein–induced (MOG-induced) EAE and reduced infiltration of inflammatory cells in the central nervous system. CCR6 plays a critical role in Th17 type inflammatory reactions, and CCR6 inhibition may offer an alternative approach for the treatment of these lesions. PMID:28768901

  5. Insulin Receptor Signaling in the GnRH Neuron Plays a Role in the Abnormal GnRH Pulsatility of Obese Female Mice

    PubMed Central

    DiVall, Sara A.; Herrera, Danny; Sklar, Bonnie; Wu, Sheng; Wondisford, Fredric; Radovick, Sally; Wolfe, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Infertility associated with obesity is characterized by abnormal hormone release from reproductive tissues in the hypothalamus, pituitary, and ovary. These tissues maintain insulin sensitivity upon peripheral insulin resistance. Insulin receptor signaling may play a role in the dysregulation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion in obesity, but the interdependence of hormone secretion in the reproductive axis and the multi-hormone and tissue dysfunction in obesity hinders investigations of putative contributing factors to the disrupted GnRH secretion. To determine the role of GnRH insulin receptor signaling in the dysregulation of GnRH secretion in obesity, we created murine models of diet-induced obesity (DIO) with and without intact insulin signaling in the GnRH neuron. Obese control female mice were infertile with higher luteinizing hormone levels and higher GnRH pulse amplitude and total pulsatile secretion compared to lean control mice. In contrast, DIO mice with a GnRH specific knockout of insulin receptor had improved fertility, luteinizing hormone levels approaching lean mice, and GnRH pulse amplitude and total secretion similar to lean mice. Pituitary responsiveness was similar between genotypes. These results suggest that in the obese state, insulin receptor signaling in GnRH neurons increases GnRH pulsatile secretion and consequent LH secretion, contributing to reproductive dysfunction. PMID:25780937

  6. B cell–intrinsic deficiency of the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASp) causes severe abnormalities of the peripheral B-cell compartment in mice

    PubMed Central

    Recher, Mike; Burns, Siobhan O.; de la Fuente, Miguel A.; Volpi, Stefano; Dahlberg, Carin; Walter, Jolan E.; Moffitt, Kristin; Mathew, Divij; Honke, Nadine; Lang, Philipp A.; Patrizi, Laura; Falet, Hervé; Keszei, Marton; Mizui, Masayuki; Csizmadia, Eva; Candotti, Fabio; Nadeau, Kari; Bouma, Gerben; Delmonte, Ottavia M.; Frugoni, Francesco; Fomin, Angela B. Ferraz; Buchbinder, David; Lundequist, Emma Maria; Massaad, Michel J.; Tsokos, George C.; Hartwig, John; Manis, John; Terhorst, Cox; Geha, Raif S.; Snapper, Scott; Lang, Karl S.; Malley, Richard; Westerberg, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Wiskott Aldrich syndrome (WAS) is caused by mutations in the WAS gene that encodes for a protein (WASp) involved in cytoskeleton organization in hematopoietic cells. Several distinctive abnormalities of T, B, and natural killer lymphocytes; dendritic cells; and phagocytes have been found in WASp-deficient patients and mice; however, the in vivo consequence of WASp deficiency within individual blood cell lineages has not been definitively evaluated. By conditional gene deletion we have generated mice with selective deficiency of WASp in the B-cell lineage (B/WcKO mice). We show that this is sufficient to cause a severe reduction of marginal zone B cells and inability to respond to type II T-independent Ags, thereby recapitulating phenotypic features of complete WASp deficiency. In addition, B/WcKO mice showed prominent signs of B-cell dysregulation, as indicated by an increase in serum IgM levels, expansion of germinal center B cells and plasma cells, and elevated autoantibody production. These findings are accompanied by hyperproliferation of WASp-deficient follicular and germinal center B cells in heterozygous B/WcKO mice in vivo and excessive differentiation of WASp-deficient B cells into class-switched plasmablasts in vitro, suggesting that WASp-dependent B cell–intrinsic mechanisms critically contribute to WAS-associated autoimmunity. PMID:22302739

  7. Executive Function Deficits and Social-Behavioral Abnormality in Mice Exposed to a Low Dose of Dioxin In Utero and via Lactation

    PubMed Central

    Endo, Toshihiro; Kakeyama, Masaki; Uemura, Yukari; Haijima, Asahi; Okuno, Hiroyuki; Bito, Haruhiko; Tohyama, Chiharu

    2012-01-01

    An increasing prevalence of mental health problems has been partly ascribed to abnormal brain development that is induced upon exposure to environmental chemicals. However, it has been extremely difficult to detect and assess such causality particularly at low exposure levels. To address this question, we here investigated higher brain function in mice exposed to dioxin in utero and via lactation by using our recently developed automated behavioral flexibility test and immunohistochemistry of neuronal activation markers Arc, at the 14 brain areas. Pregnant C57BL/6 mice were given orally a low dose of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) at a dose of either 0, 0.6 or 3.0 µg/kg on gestation day 12.5. When the pups reached adulthood, they were group-housed in IntelliCage to assess their behavior. As a result, the offspring born to dams exposed to 0.6 µg TCDD/kg were shown to have behavioral inflexibility, compulsive repetitive behavior, and dramatically lowered competitive dominance. In these mice, immunohistochemistry of Arc exhibited the signs of hypoactivation of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and hyperactivation of the amygdala. Intriguingly, mice exposed to 3.0 µg/kg were hardly affected in both the behavioral and neuronal activation indices, indicating that the robust, non-monotonic dose-response relationship. In conclusion, this study showed for the first time that perinatal exposure to a low dose of TCDD in mice develops executive function deficits and social behavioral abnormality accompanied with the signs of imbalanced mPFC-amygdala activation. PMID:23251380

  8. Mice lacking GD3 synthase display morphological abnormalities in the sciatic nerve and neuronal disturbances during peripheral nerve regeneration.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro-Resende, Victor Túlio; Araújo Gomes, Tiago; de Lima, Silmara; Nascimento-Lima, Maiara; Bargas-Rega, Michele; Santiago, Marcelo Felipe; Reis, Ricardo Augusto de Melo; de Mello, Fernando Garcia

    2014-01-01

    The ganglioside 9-O-acetyl GD3 is overexpressed in peripheral nerves after lesioning, and its expression is correlated with axonal degeneration and regeneration in adult rodents. However, the biological roles of this ganglioside during the regenerative process are unclear. We used mice lacking GD3 synthase (Siat3a KO), an enzyme that converts GM3 to GD3, which can be further converted to 9-O-acetyl GD3. Morphological analyses of longitudinal and transverse sections of the sciatic nerve revealed significant differences in the transverse area and nerve thickness. The number of axons and the levels of myelin basic protein were significantly reduced in adult KO mice compared to wild-type (WT) mice. The G-ratio was increased in KO mice compared to WT mice based on quantification of thin transverse sections stained with toluidine blue. We found that neurite outgrowth was significantly reduced in the absence of GD3. However, addition of exogenous GD3 led to neurite growth after 3 days, similar to that in WT mice. To evaluate fiber regeneration after nerve lesioning, we compared the regenerated distance from the lesion site and found that this distance was one-fourth the length in KO mice compared to WT mice. KO mice in which GD3 was administered showed markedly improved regeneration compared to the control KO mice. In summary, we suggest that 9-O-acetyl GD3 plays biological roles in neuron-glia interactions, facilitating axonal growth and myelination induced by Schwann cells. Moreover, exogenous GD3 can be converted to 9-O-acetyl GD3 in mice lacking GD3 synthase, improving regeneration.

  9. Mice Lacking GD3 Synthase Display Morphological Abnormalities in the Sciatic Nerve and Neuronal Disturbances during Peripheral Nerve Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro-Resende, Victor Túlio; Gomes, Tiago Araújo; de Lima, Silmara; Nascimento-Lima, Maiara; Bargas-Rega, Michele; Santiago, Marcelo Felipe; Reis, Ricardo Augusto de Melo; de Mello, Fernando Garcia

    2014-01-01

    The ganglioside 9-O-acetyl GD3 is overexpressed in peripheral nerves after lesioning, and its expression is correlated with axonal degeneration and regeneration in adult rodents. However, the biological roles of this ganglioside during the regenerative process are unclear. We used mice lacking GD3 synthase (Siat3a KO), an enzyme that converts GM3 to GD3, which can be further converted to 9-O-acetyl GD3. Morphological analyses of longitudinal and transverse sections of the sciatic nerve revealed significant differences in the transverse area and nerve thickness. The number of axons and the levels of myelin basic protein were significantly reduced in adult KO mice compared to wild-type (WT) mice. The G-ratio was increased in KO mice compared to WT mice based on quantification of thin transverse sections stained with toluidine blue. We found that neurite outgrowth was significantly reduced in the absence of GD3. However, addition of exogenous GD3 led to neurite growth after 3 days, similar to that in WT mice. To evaluate fiber regeneration after nerve lesioning, we compared the regenerated distance from the lesion site and found that this distance was one-fourth the length in KO mice compared to WT mice. KO mice in which GD3 was administered showed markedly improved regeneration compared to the control KO mice. In summary, we suggest that 9-O-acetyl GD3 plays biological roles in neuron-glia interactions, facilitating axonal growth and myelination induced by Schwann cells. Moreover, exogenous GD3 can be converted to 9-O-acetyl GD3 in mice lacking GD3 synthase, improving regeneration. PMID:25330147

  10. Longxuetongluo Capsule Improves Erythrocyte Function against Lipid Peroxidation and Abnormal Hemorheological Parameters in High Fat Diet-Induced ApoE−/− Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Jiao; Liu, Binglin; Lun, Qixing; Yao, Weijuan; Zhao, Yunfang; Xiao, Wei; Huang, Wenzhe; Wang, Yonghua; Li, Jun; Tu, Pengfei

    2016-01-01

    Chinese dragon's blood, the red resin of Dracaena cochinchinensis, one of the renowned traditional medicines, has been used to facilitate blood circulation and disperse blood stasis for thousands of years. Phenolic compounds are considered to be responsible for its main biological activities. In this study, total phenolic compounds of Chinese dragon's blood were made into capsule (Longxuetongluo Capsule, LTC) and their effects on the abnormal hemorheological properties were examined by high fat diet (HFD) induced ApoE−/− mice. Compared to the model group, LTC recovered the abnormal hemorheological parameters in HFD-induced ApoE−/− mice by reducing whole blood viscosity (WBV) at high rate and improving erythrocyte function. In conclusion, LTC could ameliorate erythrocyte deformability and osmotic fragility through the reduction of lipid peroxidation on plasma and erythrocyte membranes in HFD-induced ApoE−/− mice, which supported the traditional uses of Chinese dragon's blood as an effective agent for improving blood microcirculation in hypercholesterolemia. PMID:26649134

  11. Leukocyte abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Gabig, T G

    1980-07-01

    Certain qualitative abnormalities in neutrophils and blood monocytes are associated with frequent, severe, and recurrent bacterial infections leading to fatal sepsis, while other qualitative defects demonstrated in vitro may have few or no clinical sequelae. These qualitative defects are discussed in terms of the specific functions of locomotion, phagocytosis, degranulation, and bacterial killing.

  12. Abnormalities in α/β-CaMKII and related mechanisms suggest synaptic dysfunction in hippocampus of LPA1 receptor knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Musazzi, Laura; Di Daniel, Elena; Maycox, Peter; Racagni, Giorgio; Popoli, Maurizio

    2011-08-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a natural lysophospholipid that regulates neuronal maturation. In mice, the deletion of the LPA1 receptor causes some phenotypic defects partly overlapping with those found in schizophrenia. In this study, we identified molecular abnormalities in hippocampal synaptic mechanisms involved in glutamatergic neurotransmission, which allow further characterization of synaptic aberrations in LPA1 knockout (KO) mice. At the synaptic level, we found dysregulation of Ca2+/calmodulin (CaM)-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) activity and phosphorylation, with markedly higher Ca2+-dependent kinase activity, probably related to increased expression levels of the β isoform of CaMKII. Conversely, although the synaptic Ca2+-independent activity of the enzyme was unchanged, autophosphorylation levels of both α and β isoforms were significantly increased in LPA1 KO mice. Moreover, in LPA1 KO mice the α/β isoform ratio of CaMKII, which plays a key role in neuronal maturation during development, was markedly decreased, as found previously in schizophrenia patients. At post-synaptic level, LPA1 KO mice showed changes in expression, phosphorylation and interactions of NMDA and AMPA receptor subunits that are consistent with basal strengthening of glutamatergic synapses. However, we measured a reduction of nuclear cAMP responsive element-binding protein phosphorylation, suggesting that activation of the NMDA receptor does not occur at the intracellular signalling level. At the presynaptic level, in line with previous evidence from schizophrenia patients and animal models of pathology, LPA1 KO mice showed accumulation of SNARE protein complexes. This study shows that CaMKII and related synaptic mechanisms at glutamatergic synapses are strongly dysregulated in LPA1 KO mice.

  13. Targeted inactivation of the mouse locus encoding coagulation factor XIII-A: hemostatic abnormalities in mutant mice and characterization of the coagulation deficit.

    PubMed

    Lauer, Peter; Metzner, Hubert J; Zettlmeissl, Gerd; Li, Meng; Smith, Austin G; Lathe, Richard; Dickneite, Gerhard

    2002-12-01

    Blood coagulation factor XIII (FXIII) promotes cross-linking of fibrin during blood coagulation; impaired clot stabilization in human genetic deficiency is associated with marked pathologies of major clinical impact, including bleeding symptoms and deficient wound healing. To investigate the role of FXIII we employed homologous recombination to generate a targeted deletion of the inferred exon 7 of the FXIII-A gene. FXIII transglutaminase activity in plasma was reduced to about 50% in mice heterozygous for the mutant allele, and was abolished in homozygous null mice. Plasma fibrin gamma-dimerization was also indetectable in the homozygous deficient animals, confirming the absence of activatable FXIII. Homozygous mutant mice were fertile, although reproduction was impaired. Bleeding episodes, hematothorax, hematoperitoneum and subcutaneous hemorrhage in mutant mice were associated with reduced survival. Arrest of tail-tip bleeding in FXIII-A deficient mice was markedly and significantly delayed; replacement of mutant mice with human plasma FXIII (Fibrogammin P) restored bleeding time to within the normal range. Thrombelastography (TEG) experiments demonstrated impaired clot stabilization in FXIII-A mutant mice, replacement with human FXIII led to dose-dependent TEG normalization. The mutant mice thus reiterate some key features of the human genetic disorder: they will be valuable in assessing the role of FXIII in other associated pathologies and the development of new therapies.

  14. Knock-in reporter mice demonstrate that DNA repair by non-homologous end joining declines with age.

    PubMed

    Vaidya, Amita; Mao, Zhiyong; Tian, Xiao; Spencer, Brianna; Seluanov, Andrei; Gorbunova, Vera

    2014-07-01

    Accumulation of genome rearrangements is a characteristic of aged tissues. Since genome rearrangements result from faulty repair of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs), we hypothesized that DNA DSB repair becomes less efficient with age. The Non-Homologous End Joining (NHEJ) pathway repairs a majority of DSBs in vertebrates. To examine age-associated changes in NHEJ, we have generated an R26NHEJ mouse model in which a GFP-based NHEJ reporter cassette is knocked-in to the ROSA26 locus. In this model, NHEJ repair of DSBs generated by the site-specific endonuclease, I-SceI, reconstitutes a functional GFP gene. In this system NHEJ efficiency can be compared across tissues of the same mouse and in mice of different age. Using R26NHEJ mice, we found that NHEJ efficiency was higher in the skin, lung, and kidney fibroblasts, and lower in the heart fibroblasts and brain astrocytes. Furthermore, we observed that NHEJ efficiency declined with age. In the 24-month old animals compared to the 5-month old animals, NHEJ efficiency declined 1.8 to 3.8-fold, depending on the tissue, with the strongest decline observed in the skin fibroblasts. The sequence analysis of 300 independent NHEJ repair events showed that, regardless of age, mice utilize microhomology sequences at a significantly higher frequency than expected by chance. Furthermore, the frequency of microhomology-mediated end joining (MMEJ) events increased in the heart and lung fibroblasts of old mice, suggesting that NHEJ becomes more mutagenic with age. In summary, our study provides a versatile mouse model for the analysis of NHEJ in a wide range of tissues and demonstrates that DNA repair by NHEJ declines with age in mice, which could provide a mechanism for age-related genomic instability and increased cancer incidence with age.

  15. Molecular phenotyping of immune cells from young NOD mice reveals abnormal metabolic pathways in the early induction phase of autoimmune diabetes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jian; Kakoola, Dorothy N; Lenchik, Nataliya I; Desiderio, Dominic M; Marshall, Dana R; Gerling, Ivan C

    2012-01-01

    Islet leukocytic infiltration (insulitis) is first obvious at around 4 weeks of age in the NOD mouse--a model for human type 1 diabetes (T1D). The molecular events that lead to insulitis and initiate autoimmune diabetes are poorly understood. Since TID is caused by numerous genes, we hypothesized that multiple molecular pathways are altered and interact to initiate this disease. We evaluated the molecular phenotype (mRNA and protein expression) and molecular networks of ex vivo unfractionated spleen leukocytes from 2 and 4 week-old NOD mice in comparison to two control strains. Analysis of the global gene expression profiles and hierarchical clustering revealed that the majority (~90%) of the differentially expressed genes in NOD mice were repressed. Furthermore, analysis using a modern suite of multiple bioinformatics approaches identified abnormal molecular pathways that can be divided broadly into 2 categories: metabolic pathways, which were predominant at 2 weeks, and immune response pathways, which were predominant at 4 weeks. Network analysis by Ingenuity pathway analysis identified key genes/molecules that may play a role in regulating these pathways. These included five that were common to both ages (TNF, HNF4A, IL15, Progesterone, and YWHAZ), and others that were unique to 2 weeks (e.g. MYC/MYCN, TGFB1, and IL2) and to 4 weeks (e.g. IFNG, beta-estradiol, p53, NFKB, AKT, PRKCA, IL12, and HLA-C). Based on the literature, genes that may play a role in regulating metabolic pathways at 2 weeks include Myc and HNF4A, and at 4 weeks, beta-estradiol, p53, Akt, HNF4A and AR. Our data suggest that abnormalities in regulation of metabolic pathways in the immune cells of young NOD mice lead to abnormalities in the immune response pathways and as such may play a role in the initiation of autoimmune diabetes. Thus, targeting metabolism may provide novel approaches to preventing and/or treating autoimmune diabetes.

  16. Development of Antihuman IgG Antibodies and Hematologic Deficits but Not Clinical Abnormalities in C57BL/6 Mice after Repeated Administration of Human Intravenous Immunoglobulin

    PubMed Central

    Loeffler, David A; Smith, Lynnae M; Klaver, Andrea C; Brzezinski, Heather A; Morrison, Essie I; Coffey, Mary P; Steficek, Barbara A; Cook, Susan S

    2012-01-01

    Intravenous immunoglobulin (IvIg) preparations consist of purified human immunoglobulins collected from large numbers of healthy persons and are used to treat autoimmune, immunodeficiency, and inflammatory disorders. Studying the effects of IvIg effects in experimental animal models might clarify its mechanisms of action in these disorders, but whether ‘serum sickness’ or other abnormalities occur after repeated IvIg administration to immunocompetent animals is unknown. In the current study, male C57BL/6 mice (8 to 10 wk old; n = 27) received IvIg (1 g/kg IP) weekly for 6 wk. They were observed for clinical abnormalities, and body weight, temperature, renal function, hematologic parameters, and serum antihuman IgG antibodies were measured before and during treatment. Postmortem evaluations were performed on kidney, spleen, liver, and heart. No clinical or histologic abnormalities were noted despite a transient increase in BUN. Mean antibody levels to human IgG on days 21 and 43 after IvIg administration were increased by 23-fold compared with pretreatment levels. 88% and 89% of the mice were antibody responders on those days. Unexpectedly, hemoglobin, hematocrit, and RBC, WBC, lymphocyte, and platelet counts decreased after IvIg administration. These findings suggest that although it does not produce serum sickness, repeated IvIg administration to immunocompetent mice induces a strong humoral immune response and hematologic deficits of unknown etiology. These factors could cause the effects of IvIg preparations in mouse models of human disease to differ from their effects in the human disorders. PMID:22330649

  17. Development of antihuman IgG antibodies and hematologic deficits but not clinical abnormalities in C57BL/6 mice after repeated administration of human intravenous immunoglobulin.

    PubMed

    Loeffler, David A; Smith, Lynnae M; Klaver, Andrea C; Brzezinski, Heather A; Morrison, Essie I; Coffey, Mary P; Steficek, Barbara A; Cook, Susan S

    2012-02-01

    Intravenous immunoglobulin (IvIg) preparations consist of purified human immunoglobulins collected from large numbers of healthy persons and are used to treat autoimmune, immunodeficiency, and inflammatory disorders. Studying the effects of IvIg effects in experimental animal models might clarify its mechanisms of action in these disorders, but whether 'serum sickness' or other abnormalities occur after repeated IvIg administration to immunocompetent animals is unknown. In the current study, male C57BL/6 mice (8 to 10 wk old; n = 27) received IvIg (1 g/kg IP) weekly for 6 wk. They were observed for clinical abnormalities, and body weight, temperature, renal function, hematologic parameters, and serum antihuman IgG antibodies were measured before and during treatment. Postmortem evaluations were performed on kidney, spleen, liver, and heart. No clinical or histologic abnormalities were noted despite a transient increase in BUN. Mean antibody levels to human IgG on days 21 and 43 after IvIg administration were increased by 23-fold compared with pretreatment levels. 88% and 89% of the mice were antibody responders on those days. Unexpectedly, hemoglobin, hematocrit, and RBC, WBC, lymphocyte, and platelet counts decreased after IvIg administration. These findings suggest that although it does not produce serum sickness, repeated IvIg administration to immunocompetent mice induces a strong humoral immune response and hematologic deficits of unknown etiology. These factors could cause the effects of IvIg preparations in mouse models of human disease to differ from their effects in the human disorders.

  18. Mice that lack the C-terminal region of Reelin exhibit behavioral abnormalities related to neuropsychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Kaori; Shoji, Hirotaka; Kohno, Takao; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi; Hattori, Mitsuharu

    2016-06-27

    The secreted glycoprotein Reelin is believed to play critical roles in the pathogenesis of several neuropsychiatric disorders. The highly basic C-terminal region (CTR) of Reelin is necessary for efficient activation of its downstream signaling, and the brain structure of knock-in mice that lack the CTR (ΔC-KI mice) is impaired. Here, we performed a comprehensive behavioral test battery on ΔC-KI mice, in order to evaluate the effects of partial loss-of-function of Reelin on brain functions. The ΔC-KI mice were hyperactive and exhibited reduced anxiety-like and social behaviors. The working memory in ΔC-KI mice was impaired in a T-maze test. There was little difference in spatial reference memory, depression-like behavior, prepulse inhibition, or fear memory between ΔC-KI and wild-type mice. These results suggest that CTR-dependent Reelin functions are required for some specific normal brain functions and that ΔC-KI mice recapitulate some aspects of neuropsychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and autism spectrum disorder.

  19. Mice that lack the C-terminal region of Reelin exhibit behavioral abnormalities related to neuropsychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    Sakai, Kaori; Shoji, Hirotaka; Kohno, Takao; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi; Hattori, Mitsuharu

    2016-01-01

    The secreted glycoprotein Reelin is believed to play critical roles in the pathogenesis of several neuropsychiatric disorders. The highly basic C-terminal region (CTR) of Reelin is necessary for efficient activation of its downstream signaling, and the brain structure of knock-in mice that lack the CTR (ΔC-KI mice) is impaired. Here, we performed a comprehensive behavioral test battery on ΔC-KI mice, in order to evaluate the effects of partial loss-of-function of Reelin on brain functions. The ΔC-KI mice were hyperactive and exhibited reduced anxiety-like and social behaviors. The working memory in ΔC-KI mice was impaired in a T-maze test. There was little difference in spatial reference memory, depression-like behavior, prepulse inhibition, or fear memory between ΔC-KI and wild-type mice. These results suggest that CTR-dependent Reelin functions are required for some specific normal brain functions and that ΔC-KI mice recapitulate some aspects of neuropsychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and autism spectrum disorder. PMID:27346785

  20. Abnormal anxiety- and depression-like behaviors in mice lacking both central serotonergic neurons and pancreatic islet cells

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Yun-Fang; Song, Ning-Ning; Mao, Rong-Rong; Li, Jin-Nan; Zhang, Qiong; Huang, Ying; Zhang, Lei; Han, Hui-Li; Ding, Yu-Qiang; Xu, Lin

    2014-01-01

    Dysfunction of central serotonin (5-HT) system has been proposed to be one of the underlying mechanisms for anxiety and depression, and the association of diabetes mellitus and psychiatric disorders has been noticed by the high prevalence of anxiety/depression in patients with diabetes mellitus. This promoted us to examine these behaviors in central 5-HT-deficient mice and those also suffering with diabetes mellitus. Mice lacking either 5-HT or central serotonergic neurons were generated by conditional deletion of Tph2 or Lmx1b respectively. Simultaneous depletion of both central serotonergic neurons and pancreatic islet cells was achieved by administration of diphtheria toxin (DT) in Pet1-Cre;Rosa26-DT receptor (DTR) mice. The central 5-HT-deficient mice showed reduced anxiety-like behaviors as they spent more time in and entered more often into the light box in the light/dark box test compared with controls; similar results were observed in the elevated plus maze test. However, they displayed no differences in the immobility time of the forced swimming and tail suspension tests suggesting normal depression-like behaviors in central 5-HT-deficient mice. As expected, DT-treated Pet1-Cre;Rosa26-DTR mice lacking both central serotonergic neurons and pancreatic islet endocrine cells exhibited several classic diabetic symptoms. Interestingly, they displayed increased anxiety-like behaviors but reduced immobility time in the forced swimming and tail suspension tests. Furthermore, the hippocampal neurogenesis was dramatically enhanced in these mice. These results suggest that the deficiency of central 5-HT may not be sufficient to induce anxiety/depression-like behaviors in mice, and the enhanced hippocampal neurogenesis may contribute to the altered depression-like behaviors in the 5-HT-deficient mice with diabetes. Our current investigation provides understanding the relationship between diabetes mellitus and psychiatric disorders. PMID:25294992

  1. Neurological and behavioral abnormalities, ventricular dilatation, altered cellular functions, inflammation, and neuronal injury in brains of mice due to common, persistent, parasitic infection

    PubMed Central

    Hermes, Gretchen; Ajioka, James W; Kelly, Krystyna A; Mui, Ernest; Roberts, Fiona; Kasza, Kristen; Mayr, Thomas; Kirisits, Michael J; Wollmann, Robert; Ferguson, David JP; Roberts, Craig W; Hwang, Jong-Hee; Trendler, Toria; Kennan, Richard P; Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Reardon, Catherine; Hickey, William F; Chen, Lieping; McLeod, Rima

    2008-01-01

    Background Worldwide, approximately two billion people are chronically infected with Toxoplasma gondii with largely unknown consequences. Methods To better understand long-term effects and pathogenesis of this common, persistent brain infection, mice were infected at a time in human years equivalent to early to mid adulthood and studied 5–12 months later. Appearance, behavior, neurologic function and brain MRIs were studied. Additional analyses of pathogenesis included: correlation of brain weight and neurologic findings; histopathology focusing on brain regions; full genome microarrays; immunohistochemistry characterizing inflammatory cells; determination of presence of tachyzoites and bradyzoites; electron microscopy; and study of markers of inflammation in serum. Histopathology in genetically resistant mice and cytokine and NRAMP knockout mice, effects of inoculation of isolated parasites, and treatment with sulfadiazine or αPD1 ligand were studied. Results Twelve months after infection, a time equivalent to middle to early elderly ages, mice had behavioral and neurological deficits, and brain MRIs showed mild to moderate ventricular dilatation. Lower brain weight correlated with greater magnitude of neurologic abnormalities and inflammation. Full genome microarrays of brains reflected inflammation causing neuronal damage (Gfap), effects on host cell protein processing (ubiquitin ligase), synapse remodeling (Complement 1q), and also increased expression of PD-1L (a ligand that allows persistent LCMV brain infection) and CD 36 (a fatty acid translocase and oxidized LDL receptor that mediates innate immune response to beta amyloid which is associated with pro-inflammation in Alzheimer's disease). Immunostaining detected no inflammation around intra-neuronal cysts, practically no free tachyzoites, and only rare bradyzoites. Nonetheless, there were perivascular, leptomeningeal inflammatory cells, particularly contiguous to the aqueduct of Sylvius and hippocampus

  2. AKAP13 Rho-GEF and PKD-Binding Domain Deficient Mice Develop Normally but Have an Abnormal Response to β-Adrenergic-Induced Cardiac Hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Spindler, Matthew J.; Burmeister, Brian T.; Huang, Yu; Hsiao, Edward C.; Salomonis, Nathan; Scott, Mark J.; Srivastava, Deepak; Carnegie, Graeme K.; Conklin, Bruce R.

    2013-01-01

    Background A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs) are scaffolding molecules that coordinate and integrate G-protein signaling events to regulate development, physiology, and disease. One family member, AKAP13, encodes for multiple protein isoforms that contain binding sites for protein kinase A (PKA) and D (PKD) and an active Rho-guanine nucleotide exchange factor (Rho-GEF) domain. In mice, AKAP13 is required for development as null embryos die by embryonic day 10.5 with cardiovascular phenotypes. Additionally, the AKAP13 Rho-GEF and PKD-binding domains mediate cardiomyocyte hypertrophy in cell culture. However, the requirements for the Rho-GEF and PKD-binding domains during development and cardiac hypertrophy are unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings To determine if these AKAP13 protein domains are required for development, we used gene-trap events to create mutant mice that lacked the Rho-GEF and/or the protein kinase D-binding domains. Surprisingly, heterozygous matings produced mutant mice at Mendelian ratios that had normal viability and fertility. The adult mutant mice also had normal cardiac structure and electrocardiograms. To determine the role of these domains during β-adrenergic-induced cardiac hypertrophy, we stressed the mice with isoproterenol. We found that heart size was increased similarly in mice lacking the Rho-GEF and PKD-binding domains and wild-type controls. However, the mutant hearts had abnormal cardiac contractility as measured by fractional shortening and ejection fraction. Conclusions These results indicate that the Rho-GEF and PKD-binding domains of AKAP13 are not required for mouse development, normal cardiac architecture, or β-adrenergic-induced cardiac hypertrophic remodeling. However, these domains regulate aspects of β-adrenergic-induced cardiac hypertrophy. PMID:23658642

  3. Immunologic abnormalities of mice bearing the gld mutation suggest a common pathway for murine nonmalignant lymphoproliferative disorders with autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Davidson, W F; Holmes, K L; Roths, J B; Morse, H C

    1985-02-01

    Mice bearing the autosomal recessive mutation gld have been shown to develop massive lymphadenopathy, hypergammaglobulinemia, and autoantibodies and to die prematurely with interstitial pneumonitis. In this study, lymphocytes from C3H gld and C3H +/+ mice were examined for a variety of phenotypic and functional characteristics. Spleens and lymph nodes of mutant mice were expanded by an aberrant population of Ly-5(B220)+ surface immunoglobulin negative cells that were Thy-1+Ly-1+ or Thy-1-Ly-1+. Cells from both tissues of mutant mice older than 8 wk were impaired in their ability to proliferate in response to allogeneic stimuli, and supernatants of cells stimulated with concanavalin A contained significantly reduced levels of interleukin 2. Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses of spleen and lymph node cells from C3H gld mice were normal at all ages tested. These results are strikingly similar to those obtained with C3H mice homozygous for the nonallelic autosomal recessive mutation lpr. We suggest that the similarities between the syndromes induced by these two mutations may reflect alterations in different enzymes that act in a common metabolic pathway of major importance to the differentiation and function of T cells.

  4. Correction of the abnormal mineral ion homeostasis with a high-calcium, high-phosphorus, high-lactose diet rescues the PDDR phenotype of mice deficient for the 25-hydroxyvitamin D-1alpha-hydroxylase (CYP27B1).

    PubMed

    Dardenne, O; Prud'homme, J; Hacking, S A; Glorieux, F H; St-Arnaud, R

    2003-04-01

    Mutations in the 25-hydroxyvitamin D-1alpha-hydroxylase gene (CYP27B1; 1alpha-OHase) cause pseudo vitamin D deficiency rickets (PDDR), while mutations in the vitamin D receptor (VDR) cause hereditary vitamin D resistance rickets. Animal models of both diseases have been engineered. The bone phenotype of VDR-ablated mice can be completely rescued by feeding the animals with a high-calcium, high-phosphorus, high-lactose diet. We have attempted to rescue the PDDR phenotype of mice deficient for the 1alpha-OHase gene by feeding them with the high-calcium diet. The rescue regimen consisted of feeding a diet containing 2% calcium, 1.25% phosphorus, 20% lactose (rescue diet) from 3 weeks of age until sacrifice at 8.5 weeks of age. Blood biochemistry analysis revealed that the rescue diet corrected the hypocalcemia and secondary hyperparathyroidism. Despite the restoration of normocalcemia, 1alpha-OHase(-/-) (and 1alpha-OHase(+/-)) animals fed the rescue diet initially gained weight less rapidly than control mice fed normal mouse chow. Although 1alpha-OHase(-/-) mice fed the rescue diet eventually reached the same weight as control animals, the treatment did not entirely correct bone growth, as femur size remained significantly smaller than that of control. Bone histology and histomorphometry confirmed that the rickets and osteomalacia were cured. The rescue diet also restored the biomechanical properties of the bone tissue within normal parameters. These results demonstrate that correction of the abnormal mineral ion homeostasis by feeding with a high-calcium rescue diet is effective to rescue the PDDR phenotype of 1alpha-OHase mutant mice. This treatment, however, does not appear as effective as 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) replacement therapy since bone growth remained impaired.

  5. Functional conservation of Pax6 regulatory elements in humans and mice demonstrated with a novel transgenic reporter mouse

    PubMed Central

    Tyas, David A; Simpson, T Ian; Carr, Catherine B; Kleinjan, Dirk A; van Heyningen, Veronica; Mason, John O; Price, David J

    2006-01-01

    Background The Pax6 transcription factor is expressed during development in the eyes and in specific CNS regions, where it is essential for normal cell proliferation and differentiation. Mice lacking one or both copies of the Pax6 gene model closely humans with loss-of-function mutations in the PAX6 locus. The sequence of the Pax6/PAX6 protein is identical in mice and humans and previous studies have shown structural conservation of the gene's regulatory regions. Results We generated a transgenic mouse expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) and neomycin resistance under the control of the entire complement of human PAX6 regulatory elements using a modified yeast artificial chromosome (YAC). Expression of GFP was studied in embryos from 9.5 days on and was confined to cells known to express Pax6. GFP expression was sufficiently strong that expressing cells could be distinguished from non-expressing cells using flow cytometry. Conclusion This work demonstrates the functional conservation of the regulatory elements controlling Pax6/PAX6 expression in mice and humans. The transgene provides an excellent tool for studying the functions of different Pax6/PAX6 regulatory elements in controlling Pax6 expression in animals that are otherwise normal. It will allow the analysis and isolation of cells in which Pax6 is activated, irrespective of the status of the endogenous locus. PMID:16674807

  6. Abnormal immune response of CCR5-deficient mice to ocular infection with herpes simplex virus type 1

    PubMed Central

    Carr, Daniel J.J.; Ash, John; Lane, Thomas E.; Kuziel, William A.

    2006-01-01

    Summary Ocular herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection elicits a strong inflammatory response that is associated with production of the β chemokines CCL3 and CCL5, which share a common receptor, CCR5. To gain insight into the role of these molecules in ocular immune responses, we infected the corneas of WT and CCR5-deficient (CCR5-/-) mice with HSV-1 and measured inflammatory parameters. In the absence of CCR5, the early infiltration of neutrophils into the cornea was diminished. Associated with this aberrant leukocyte recruitment, neutrophils in CCR5-/- mice were restricted to the stroma whereas in wild type mice these cells trafficked to the stroma and epithelial layers of the infected cornea. Virus titers and cytokine/chemokine levels in the infected tissue of these mice were similar for the first 5 days after infection. However, by day 7 post-infection, the CCR5-/- mice showed a significant elevation in the chemokines CCL2, CCL5, CXCL9, and CXCL10 in the trigeminal ganglion and brain stem as well as a significant increase in viral burden. The increase in chemokine expression was associated with an increase in the infiltration of CD4 and/or CD8 T cells into the trigeminal ganglion and brain stem of CCR5-/- mice. Surprisingly, even though infected CCR5-/- mice were less efficient at controlling the progression of virus replication, there was no difference in mortality. These results suggest that, although CCR5 plays a role in regulating leukocyte trafficking and control of virus burden, compensatory mechanisms are involved in preventing mortality following HSV-1 infection. PMID:16476970

  7. Abnormal immune response of CCR5-deficient mice to ocular infection with herpes simplex virus type 1.

    PubMed

    Carr, Daniel J J; Ash, John; Lane, Thomas E; Kuziel, William A

    2006-03-01

    Ocular herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection elicits a strong inflammatory response that is associated with production of the beta chemokines CCL3 and CCL5, which share a common receptor, CCR5. To gain insight into the role of these molecules in ocular immune responses, the corneas of wild-type (WT) and CCR5-deficient (CCR5-/-) mice were infected with HSV-1 and inflammatory parameters were measured. In the absence of CCR5, the early infiltration of neutrophils into the cornea was diminished. Associated with this aberrant leukocyte recruitment, neutrophils in CCR5-/- mice were restricted to the stroma, whereas in WT mice, these cells trafficked to the stroma and epithelial layers of the infected cornea. Virus titres and cytokine/chemokine levels in the infected tissue of these mice were similar for the first 5 days after infection. However, by day 7 post-infection, the CCR5-/- mice showed a significant elevation in the chemokines CCL2, CCL5, CXCL9 and CXCL10 in the trigeminal ganglion and brainstem, as well as a significant increase in virus burden. The increase in chemokine expression was associated with an increase in the infiltration of CD4 and/or CD8 T cells into the trigeminal ganglion and brainstem of CCR5-/- mice. Surprisingly, even though infected CCR5-/- mice were less efficient at controlling the progression of virus replication, there was no difference in mortality. These results suggest that, although CCR5 plays a role in regulating leukocyte trafficking and control of virus burden, compensatory mechanisms are involved in preventing mortality following HSV-1 infection.

  8. Abnormal iron metabolism and oxidative stress in mice expressing a mutant form of the ferritin light polypeptide gene

    PubMed Central

    Barbeito, Ana G.; Garringer, Holly J.; Baraibar, Martin A.; Gao, Xiaoying; Arredondo, Miguel; Núñez, Marco T.; Smith, Mark A.; Ghetti, Bernardino; Vidal, Ruben

    2009-01-01

    Insertional mutations in exon 4 of the ferritin light chain (FTL) gene are associated with hereditary ferritinopathy (HF) or neuroferritinopathy, an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive impairment of motor and cognitive functions. To determine the pathogenic mechanisms by which mutations in FTL lead to neurodegeneration, we investigated iron metabolism and markers of oxidative stress in the brain of transgenic (Tg) mice that express the mutant human FTL498-499InsTC cDNA. Compared with wild-type mice, brain extracts from Tg (FTL-Tg) mice showed an increase in the cytoplasmic levels of both FTL and ferritin heavy chain polypeptides, a decrease in the protein and mRNA levels of transferrin receptor-1, and a significant increase in iron levels. Transgenic mice also showed the presence of markers for lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyls, and nitrone–protein adducts in the brain. However, gene expression analysis of iron management proteins in the liver of Tg mice indicates that the FTL-Tg mouse liver is iron deficient. Our data suggest that disruption of iron metabolism in the brain has a primary role in the process of neurodegeneration in HF and that the pathogenesis of HF is likely to result from a combination of reduction in iron storage function and enhanced toxicity associated with iron-induced ferritin aggregates in the brain. PMID:19519778

  9. Abnormal pregnancy outcomes in mice using an induced periodontitis model and the haematogenous migration of Fusobacterium nucleatum sub-species to the murine placenta.

    PubMed

    Stockham, Sara; Stamford, Justine E; Roberts, Claire T; Fitzsimmons, Tracy R; Marchant, Ceilidh; Bartold, P Mark; Zilm, Peter S

    2015-01-01

    To investigate if there is subspecies specific migration to the placenta by Fusobacterium nucleatum (Fn) and to determine whether experimentally induced periodontitis results in adverse pregnancy outcomes (APO) in mice. Periodontitis was induced in pregnant mice using an inoculum of Fn and Porphyromonas gingivalis. In parallel, four sub-species of Fn were individually injected into the circulatory system. At day 18 of gestation, the placenta, liver, spleen and blood were harvested and litter size, number of viable fetuses and resorptions, maternal, fetal and placenta weights were recorded. For the direct inoculation group, some mice were allowed to deliver for assessment of length of gestation, litter size, maternal, placental and pup weight. The presence of Fn was assessed by PCR and inflammatory mediators were measured by ELISA or multiplex analysis. Mice with alveolar bone loss, a marker of periodontitis, demonstrated significantly higher fetal weights (p = 0.015) and fetal/placental weight ratios (p = 0.030). PCR analysis of maternal organs did not identify Fn in any extracted tissues. In mice that received direct injection of Fn subspecies, varying degrees of APO were observed including preterm birth, intrauterine growth restriction, and fetal loss. Haematogenous spread of only Fn subsp. nucleatum to the placenta was confirmed. Litter size was significantly smaller (p = 0.023) and the number of resorptions was higher in inoculated versus control groups. Mice injected with subsp. nucleatum had significantly increased circulating CRP levels (p = 0.020) compared to controls while the mice with induced periodontitis had increased levels of IL-6 (p = 0.047) and IL-8 (p = 0.105). Periodontitis in mice elevated fetal weight and the fetal weight/placental weight ratio. This study found that subsp. nucleatum migrated haematogenously to the placenta, leading to APO in mice. The study supports the potential role of Fn in the association between periodontitis and APO.

  10. Behavioral abnormalities in female mice following administration of aluminum adjuvants and the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine Gardasil.

    PubMed

    Inbar, Rotem; Weiss, Ronen; Tomljenovic, Lucija; Arango, Maria-Teresa; Deri, Yael; Shaw, Christopher A; Chapman, Joab; Blank, Miri; Shoenfeld, Yehuda

    2017-02-01

    Vaccine adjuvants and vaccines may induce autoimmune and inflammatory manifestations in susceptible individuals. To date most human vaccine trials utilize aluminum (Al) adjuvants as placebos despite much evidence showing that Al in vaccine-relevant exposures can be toxic to humans and animals. We sought to evaluate the effects of Al adjuvant and the HPV vaccine Gardasil versus the true placebo on behavioral and inflammatory parameters in female mice. Six-week-old C57BL/6 female mice were injected with either, Gardasil, Gardasil + pertussis toxin (Pt), Al hydroxide, or, vehicle control in amounts equivalent to human exposure. At 7.5 months of age, Gardasil and Al-injected mice spent significantly more time floating in the forced swimming test (FST) in comparison with vehicle-injected mice (Al, p = 0.009; Gardasil, p = 0.025; Gardasil + Pt, p = 0.005). The increase in floating time was already highly significant at 4.5 months of age for the Gardasil and Gardasil + Pt group (p ≤ 0.0001). No significant differences were observed in the number of stairs climbed in the staircase test which measures locomotor activity. These results indicate that differences observed in the FST were unlikely due to locomotor dysfunction, but rather due to depression. Moreover, anti-HPV antibodies from the sera of Gardasil and Gardasil + Pt-injected mice showed cross-reactivity with the mouse brain protein extract. Immunohistochemistry analysis revealed microglial activation in the CA1 area of the hippocampus of Gardasil-injected mice. It appears that Gardasil via its Al adjuvant and HPV antigens has the ability to trigger neuroinflammation and autoimmune reactions, further leading to behavioral changes.

  11. Abnormal clock gene expression and locomotor activity rhythms in two month-old female APPSwe/PS1dE9 mice.

    PubMed

    Oyegbami, Olaide; Collins, Hilary M; Pardon, Marie C; Ebling, Fran Jp; Heery, David M; Moran, Paula M

    2017-03-17

    In addition to cognitive decline, Alzheimer's disease (AD) is also characterized by agitation and disruptions in activity and sleep. These symptoms typically occur in the evening or at night and have been referred to as 'sundowning'. These symptoms are especially difficult for carers and there are no specific drug treatments. There is increasing evidence that these symptoms reflect an underlying pathology of circadian rhythm generation and transmission. We investigated whether a transgenic mouse model relevant to AD (APPswe/PS1dE9) exhibits circadian alterations in locomotor activity and expression of clock genes involved in the regulation of the circadian cycle. Female mice at 2 months of age were investigated in their home cage. Results show that the APPswe/PS1dE9 transgene alters levels and patterns in circadian rhythm of locomotor activity. Expression of the clock genes Per1, Per2, Cry1 and Cry2 was found to increase at night compared to day in wild-type control mice in the medulla/pons. This effect was blunted for Cry1 and Cry2 gene expression in APPswe/PS1dE9. In summary, this study suggests altered circadian regulation of locomotor activity is abnormal in female APPswe/PS1dE9 mice and that this alteration has biomolecular analogies in a widely available model of AD. Furthermore, the early age at which these effects are manifest suggests that these circadian effects may precede plaque development. The APPswe/PS1dE9 mouse genetic model may have potential to serve as a tool in understanding the neuropathology of circadian abnormalities in AD and as a model system to test novel therapeutic agents for these symptoms.

  12. Severe Extracellular Matrix Abnormalities and Chondrodysplasia in Mice Lacking Collagen Prolyl 4-Hydroxylase Isoenzyme II in Combination with a Reduced Amount of Isoenzyme I.

    PubMed

    Aro, Ellinoora; Salo, Antti M; Khatri, Richa; Finnilä, Mikko; Miinalainen, Ilkka; Sormunen, Raija; Pakkanen, Outi; Holster, Tiina; Soininen, Raija; Prein, Carina; Clausen-Schaumann, Hauke; Aszódi, Attila; Tuukkanen, Juha; Kivirikko, Kari I; Schipani, Ernestina; Myllyharju, Johanna

    2015-07-03

    Collagen prolyl 4-hydroxylases (C-P4H-I, C-P4H-II, and C-P4H-III) catalyze formation of 4-hydroxyproline residues required to form triple-helical collagen molecules. Vertebrate C-P4Hs are α2β2 tetramers differing in their catalytic α subunits. C-P4H-I is the major isoenzyme in most cells, and inactivation of its catalytic subunit (P4ha1(-/-)) leads to embryonic lethality in mouse, whereas P4ha1(+/-) mice have no abnormalities. To study the role of C-P4H-II, which predominates in chondrocytes, we generated P4ha2(-/-) mice. Surprisingly, they had no apparent phenotypic abnormalities. To assess possible functional complementarity, we established P4ha1(+/-);P4ha2(-/-) mice. They were smaller than their littermates, had moderate chondrodysplasia, and developed kyphosis. A transient inner cell death phenotype was detected in their developing growth plates. The columnar arrangement of proliferative chondrocytes was impaired, the amount of 4-hydroxyproline and the Tm of collagen II were reduced, and the extracellular matrix was softer in the growth plates of newborn P4ha1(+/-);P4ha2(-/-) mice. No signs of uncompensated ER stress were detected in the mutant growth plate chondrocytes. Some of these defects were also found in P4ha2(-/-) mice, although in a much milder form. Our data show that C-P4H-I can to a large extent compensate for the lack of C-P4H-II in proper endochondral bone development, but their combined partial and complete inactivation, respectively, leads to biomechanically impaired extracellular matrix, moderate chondrodysplasia, and kyphosis. Our mouse data suggest that inactivating mutations in human P4HA2 are not likely to lead to skeletal disorders, and a simultaneous decrease in P4HA1 function would most probably be required to generate such a disease phenotype. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  13. Abnormal Brain Iron Metabolism in Irp2 Deficient Mice Is Associated with Mild Neurological and Behavioral Impairments

    PubMed Central

    Zumbrennen-Bullough, Kimberly B.; Becker, Lore; Garrett, Lillian; Hölter, Sabine M.; Calzada-Wack, Julia; Mossbrugger, Ilona; Quintanilla-Fend, Leticia; Racz, Ildiko; Rathkolb, Birgit; Klopstock, Thomas; Wurst, Wolfgang; Zimmer, Andreas; Wolf, Eckhard; Fuchs, Helmut; Gailus-Durner, Valerie; de Angelis, Martin Hrabě; Romney, Steven J.; Leibold, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    Iron Regulatory Protein 2 (Irp2, Ireb2) is a central regulator of cellular iron homeostasis in vertebrates. Two global knockout mouse models have been generated to explore the role of Irp2 in regulating iron metabolism. While both mouse models show that loss of Irp2 results in microcytic anemia and altered body iron distribution, discrepant results have drawn into question the role of Irp2 in regulating brain iron metabolism. One model shows that aged Irp2 deficient mice develop adult-onset progressive neurodegeneration that is associated with axonal degeneration and loss of Purkinje cells in the central nervous system. These mice show iron deposition in white matter tracts and oligodendrocyte soma throughout the brain. A contrasting model of global Irp2 deficiency shows no overt or pathological signs of neurodegeneration or brain iron accumulation, and display only mild motor coordination and balance deficits when challenged by specific tests. Explanations for conflicting findings in the severity of the clinical phenotype, brain iron accumulation and neuronal degeneration remain unclear. Here, we describe an additional mouse model of global Irp2 deficiency. Our aged Irp2−/− mice show marked iron deposition in white matter and in oligodendrocytes while iron content is significantly reduced in neurons. Ferritin and transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1, Tfrc), expression are increased and decreased, respectively, in the brain from Irp2−/− mice. These mice show impairments in locomotion, exploration, motor coordination/balance and nociception when assessed by neurological and behavioral tests, but lack overt signs of neurodegenerative disease. Ultrastructural studies of specific brain regions show no evidence of neurodegeneration. Our data suggest that Irp2 deficiency dysregulates brain iron metabolism causing cellular dysfunction that ultimately leads to mild neurological, behavioral and nociceptive impairments. PMID:24896637

  14. Effector and Naturally Occurring Regulatory T Cells Display No Abnormalities in Activation Induced Cell Death in NOD Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kaminitz, Ayelet; Yolcu, Esma S.; Askenasy, Enosh M.; Stein, Jerry; Yaniv, Isaac; Shirwan, Haval; Askenasy, Nadir

    2011-01-01

    Background Disturbed peripheral negative regulation might contribute to evolution of autoimmune insulitis in type 1 diabetes. This study evaluates the sensitivity of naïve/effector (Teff) and regulatory T cells (Treg) to activation-induced cell death mediated by Fas cross-linking in NOD and wild-type mice. Principal Findings Both effector (CD25−, FoxP3−) and suppressor (CD25+, FoxP3+) CD4+ T cells are negatively regulated by Fas cross-linking in mixed splenocyte populations of NOD, wild type mice and FoxP3-GFP tranegenes. Proliferation rates and sensitivity to Fas cross-linking are dissociated in Treg cells: fast cycling induced by IL-2 and CD3/CD28 stimulation improve Treg resistance to Fas-ligand (FasL) in both strains. The effector and suppressor CD4+ subsets display balanced sensitivity to negative regulation under baseline conditions, IL-2 and CD3/CD28 stimulation, indicating that stimulation does not perturb immune homeostasis in NOD mice. Effective autocrine apoptosis of diabetogenic cells was evident from delayed onset and reduced incidence of adoptive disease transfer into NOD.SCID by CD4+CD25− T cells decorated with FasL protein. Treg resistant to Fas-mediated apoptosis retain suppressive activity in vitro. The only detectable differential response was reduced Teff proliferation and upregulation of CD25 following CD3-activation in NOD mice. Conclusion These data document negative regulation of effector and suppressor cells by Fas cross-linking and dissociation between sensitivity to apoptosis and proliferation in stimulated Treg. There is no evidence that perturbed AICD in NOD mice initiates or promotes autoimmune insulitis. PMID:21738739

  15. Abnormal sperm in mice with targeted deletion of the act (activator of cAMP-responsive element modulator in testis) gene

    PubMed Central

    Kotaja, Noora; De Cesare, Dario; Macho, Betina; Monaco, Lucia; Brancorsini, Stefano; Goossens, Ellen; Tournaye, Herman; Gansmuller, Anne; Sassone-Corsi, Paolo

    2004-01-01

    ACT [activator of cAMP-responsive element modulator (CREM) in testis] is a LIM-only protein that interacts with transcription factor CREM in postmeiotic male germ cells and enhances CREM-dependent transcription. CREM regulates many crucial genes required for spermatid maturation, and targeted mutation of the Crem gene in the mouse germ-line blocks spermatogenesis. Here we report the phenotype of mice in which targeted disruption of the act gene was obtained by homologous recombination. Whereas the seminiferous tubules of the act–/– mice contain all of the developmental stages of germ cells and the mice are fertile, the amount of mature sperm in the epididymis is drastically reduced. The residual sperm display severe abnormalities, including fully folded tails and aberrant head shapes. These results indicate that numerous postmeiotic genes under CREM control require the coactivator function of ACT. Thus, the fine-tuning of sperm development is achieved by the coordinated action of two transcriptional regulators. PMID:15247423

  16. A point mutation in TRPC3 causes abnormal Purkinje cell development and cerebellar ataxia in moonwalker mice

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Esther B. E.; Oliver, Peter L.; Glitsch, Maike D.; Banks, Gareth T.; Achilli, Francesca; Hardy, Andrea; Nolan, Patrick M.; Fisher, Elizabeth M. C.; Davies, Kay E.

    2009-01-01

    The hereditary ataxias are a complex group of neurological disorders characterized by the degeneration of the cerebellum and its associated connections. The molecular mechanisms that trigger the loss of Purkinje cells in this group of diseases remain incompletely understood. Here, we report a previously undescribed dominant mouse model of cerebellar ataxia, moonwalker (Mwk), that displays motor and coordination defects and loss of cerebellar Purkinje cells. Mwk mice harbor a gain-of-function mutation (T635A) in the Trpc3 gene encoding the nonselective transient receptor potential cation channel, type C3 (TRPC3), resulting in altered TRPC3 channel gating. TRPC3 is highly expressed in Purkinje cells during the phase of dendritogenesis. Interestingly, growth and differentiation of Purkinje cell dendritic arbors are profoundly impaired in Mwk mice. Our findings define a previously unknown role for TRPC3 in both dendritic development and survival of Purkinje cells, and provide a unique mechanism underlying cerebellar ataxia. PMID:19351902

  17. Semaphorin 6A knockout mice display abnormalities across ethologically-based topographies of exploration and in motor learning.

    PubMed

    Håkansson, Kerstin; Runker, Annette E; O'Sullivan, Gerard J; Mitchell, Kevin J; Waddington, John L; O'Tuathaigh, Colm M P

    2017-02-22

    Semaphorins are secreted or membrane-bound proteins implicated in neurodevelopmental processes of axon guidance and cell migration. Exploratory behaviour and motor learning was examined ethologically in Semaphorin 6A (Sema6A) mutant mice. The ethogram of initial exploration in Sema6A knockout mice was characterised by increased rearing to wall with decreased sifting; over subsequent habituation, locomotion, sniffing and rearing to wall were increased, with reduced habituation of rearing seated. Rotarod analysis indicated delayed motor learning in Sema6A heterozygous mutants. Disruption to the axonal guidance and cell migration processes regulated by Sema6A is associated with topographically specific disruption to fundamental aspects of behaviour, namely the ethogram of initial exploration and subsequent habituation to the environment, and motor learning.

  18. A plant based protective antigen [PA(dIV)] vaccine expressed in chloroplasts demonstrates protective immunity in mice against anthrax.

    PubMed

    Gorantala, Jyotsna; Grover, Sonam; Goel, Divya; Rahi, Amit; Jayadev Magani, Sri Krishna; Chandra, Subhash; Bhatnagar, Rakesh

    2011-06-15

    The currently available anthrax vaccines are limited by being incompletely characterized, potentially reactogenic and have an expanded dosage schedule. Plant based vaccines offer safe alternative for vaccine production. In the present study, we expressed domain IV of Bacillus anthracis protective antigen gene [PA(dIV)] in planta (by nuclear agrobacterium and chloroplast transformation) and E. coli [rPA(dIV)]. The presence of transgene and the expression of PA(dIV) in planta was confirmed by molecular analysis. Expression levels up to 5.3% of total soluble protein (TSP) were obtained with AT rich (71.8% AT content) PA(dIV) gene in transplastomic plants while 0.8% of TSP was obtained in nuclear transformants. Further, we investigated the protective response of plant and E. coli derived PA(dIV) in mice by intraperitoneal (i.p.) and oral immunizations with or without adjuvant. Antibody titers of >10(4) were induced upon i.p. and oral immunizations with plant derived PA(dIV) and oral immunization with E. coli derived PA(dIV). Intraperitoneal injections with adjuvanted E. coli derived PA(dIV), generated highest antibody titers of >10(5). All the immunized groups demonstrated predominant IgG1 titers over IgG2a indicating a polarized Th2 type response. We also evaluated the mucosal antibody response in orally immunized groups. When fecal extracts were analyzed, low sIgA titer was demonstrated in adjuvanted plant and E. coli derived PA(dIV) groups. Further, PA(dIV) antisera enhanced B. anthracis spore uptake by macrophages in vitro and also demonstrated an anti-germinating effect suggesting a potent role at mucosal surfaces. The antibodies from various groups were efficient in neutralizing the lethal toxin in vitro. When mice were challenged with B. anthracis, mice immunized with adjuvanted plant PA(dIV) imparted 60% and 40% protection while E. coli derived PA(dIV) conferred 100% and 80% protection upon i.p. and oral immunizations. Thus, our study is the first attempt in

  19. Molecular Phenotyping of Immune Cells from Young NOD Mice Reveals Abnormal Metabolic Pathways in the Early Induction Phase of Autoimmune Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jian; Kakoola, Dorothy N.; Lenchik, Nataliya I.; Desiderio, Dominic M.; Marshall, Dana R.; Gerling, Ivan C.

    2012-01-01

    Islet leukocytic infiltration (insulitis) is first obvious at around 4 weeks of age in the NOD mouse – a model for human type 1 diabetes (T1D). The molecular events that lead to insulitis and initiate autoimmune diabetes are poorly understood. Since TID is caused by numerous genes, we hypothesized that multiple molecular pathways are altered and interact to initiate this disease. We evaluated the molecular phenotype (mRNA and protein expression) and molecular networks of ex vivo unfractionated spleen leukocytes from 2 and 4 week-old NOD mice in comparison to two control strains. Analysis of the global gene expression profiles and hierarchical clustering revealed that the majority (∼90%) of the differentially expressed genes in NOD mice were repressed. Furthermore, analysis using a modern suite of multiple bioinformatics approaches identified abnormal molecular pathways that can be divided broadly into 2 categories: metabolic pathways, which were predominant at 2 weeks, and immune response pathways, which were predominant at 4 weeks. Network analysis by Ingenuity pathway analysis identified key genes/molecules that may play a role in regulating these pathways. These included five that were common to both ages (TNF, HNF4A, IL15, Progesterone, and YWHAZ), and others that were unique to 2 weeks (e.g. MYC/MYCN, TGFB1, and IL2) and to 4 weeks (e.g. IFNG, beta-estradiol, p53, NFKB, AKT, PRKCA, IL12, and HLA-C). Based on the literature, genes that may play a role in regulating metabolic pathways at 2 weeks include Myc and HNF4A, and at 4 weeks, beta-estradiol, p53, Akt, HNF4A and AR. Our data suggest that abnormalities in regulation of metabolic pathways in the immune cells of young NOD mice lead to abnormalities in the immune response pathways and as such may play a role in the initiation of autoimmune diabetes. Thus, targeting metabolism may provide novel approaches to preventing and/or treating autoimmune diabetes. PMID:23071669

  20. Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-6 transgenic mice: postnatal growth, brain development, and reproduction abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Bienvenu, Géraldine; Seurin, Danielle; Grellier, Pascale; Froment, Pascal; Baudrimont, Marielle; Monget, Philippe; Le Bouc, Yves; Babajko, Sylvie

    2004-05-01

    In biological fluids, IGFs bind to six distinct binding proteins (IGFBP-1 to -6). IGFBP-6 is of particular interest because it has been shown to inhibit proliferation in many cell types and to be synthesized in the central nervous system (CNS). It also has the strongest affinity for IGF-II among the IGFBPs. To study IGFBP-6 function in vivo, we established IGFBP-6 transgenic mice in which human IGFBP-6 (hIGFBP-6) cDNA is expressed under the control of the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) promoter. Northern and Western blot analysis revealed strong transgene expression in the CNS. With histological examination of the CNS, cerebellum size and weight proved to be reduced by about 25% and 35%, respectively, and there were smaller numbers of differentiated, GFAP-expressing astrocytes than in wild-type mice. Between birth and 1 month of age, transgenic mice had high levels of circulating hIGFBP-6 and reduced plasma IGF-I, and, as a result, body weight was significantly reduced. Reproductive physiology was also affected. Litter size was reduced by 27% when wild-type males were mated with 3-month-old transgenic females and by 66% when mated with 6-month-old transgenic females. Histological examination of ovaries of transgenic mice revealed a marked decrease in weight and in the number of corpora lutea, suggesting altered ovulation, and circulating LH levels were reduced by 50%. Our results indicate that this new model of transgenic mouse may prove to be a useful tool in elucidating the in vivo role of IGFBP-6 in the brain, especially in regard to hypothalamic control, and in reproductive physiology.

  1. Thymidine Kinase 2 Deficiency-Induced Mitochondrial DNA Depletion Causes Abnormal Development of Adipose Tissues and Adipokine Levels in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Villarroya, Joan; Dorado, Beatriz; Vilà, Maya R.; Garcia-Arumí, Elena; Domingo, Pere; Giralt, Marta; Hirano, Michio; Villarroya, Francesc

    2011-01-01

    Mammal adipose tissues require mitochondrial activity for proper development and differentiation. The components of the mitochondrial respiratory chain/oxidative phosphorylation system (OXPHOS) are encoded by both mitochondrial and nuclear genomes. The maintenance of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is a key element for a functional mitochondrial oxidative activity in mammalian cells. To ascertain the role of mtDNA levels in adipose tissue, we have analyzed the alterations in white (WAT) and brown (BAT) adipose tissues in thymidine kinase 2 (Tk2) H126N knockin mice, a model of TK2 deficiency-induced mtDNA depletion. We observed respectively severe and moderate mtDNA depletion in TK2-deficient BAT and WAT, showing both tissues moderate hypotrophy and reduced fat accumulation. Electron microscopy revealed altered mitochondrial morphology in brown but not in white adipocytes from TK2-deficient mice. Although significant reduction in mtDNA-encoded transcripts was observed both in WAT and BAT, protein levels from distinct OXPHOS complexes were significantly reduced only in TK2-deficient BAT. Accordingly, the activity of cytochrome c oxidase was significantly lowered only in BAT from TK2-deficient mice. The analysis of transcripts encoding up to fourteen components of specific adipose tissue functions revealed that, in both TK2-deficient WAT and BAT, there was a consistent reduction of thermogenesis related gene expression and a severe reduction in leptin mRNA. Reduced levels of resistin mRNA were found in BAT from TK2-deficient mice. Analysis of serum indicated a dramatic reduction in circulating levels of leptin and resistin. In summary, our present study establishes that mtDNA depletion leads to a moderate impairment in mitochondrial respiratory function, especially in BAT, causes substantial alterations in WAT and BAT development, and has a profound impact in the endocrine properties of adipose tissues. PMID:22216345

  2. Acute systemic 11-cis-retinal intervention improves abnormal outer retinal ion channel closure in diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Berkowitz, Bruce A; Bissig, David; Patel, Priya; Bhatia, Ankit; Roberts, Robin

    2012-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that in dark-adapted diabetic mice subnormal manganese uptake in the outer retina can be ameliorated with exogenous 11-cis-retinal intervention. Three groups were studied: age-matched controls and mice that had been diabetic for 3 months with and without acute, systemic 11-cis-retinal treatment administered 30 min before the manganese injection. Mice in each group were examined with manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI) to assess central intraretinal manganese uptake and extraocular muscle manganese uptake. Bodyweights and glycated hemoglobin were determined. Both diabetic groups had lower bodyweights and higher glycated hemoglobin levels relative to controls; no differences in these parameters between diabetic groups were noted. No substantial differences in muscle uptake were noted between any of the groups. Diabetes produced a subnormal intraretinal uptake of manganese; acute exogenous 11-cis-retinal significantly corrected only outer retinal uptake, although not to control levels. The present results provide for the first time evidence that raises the possibility of a critical role of 11-cis-retinal, a key participant of the visual cycle, in diabetes-evoked outer retinal dysfunction.

  3. Mice deficient in GEM GTPase show abnormal glucose homeostasis due to defects in beta-cell calcium handling.

    PubMed

    Gunton, Jenny E; Sisavanh, Mary; Stokes, Rebecca A; Satin, Jon; Satin, Leslie S; Zhang, Min; Liu, Sue M; Cai, Weikang; Cheng, Kim; Cooney, Gregory J; Laybutt, D Ross; So, Trina; Molero, Juan-Carlos; Grey, Shane T; Andres, Douglas A; Rolph, Michael S; Mackay, Charles R

    2012-01-01

    Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from beta-cells is a tightly regulated process that requires calcium flux to trigger exocytosis of insulin-containing vesicles. Regulation of calcium handling in beta-cells remains incompletely understood. Gem, a member of the RGK (Rad/Gem/Kir) family regulates calcium channel handling in other cell types, and Gem over-expression inhibits insulin release in insulin-secreting Min6 cells. The aim of this study was to explore the role of Gem in insulin secretion. We hypothesised that Gem may regulate insulin secretion and thus affect glucose tolerance in vivo. Gem-deficient mice were generated and their metabolic phenotype characterised by in vivo testing of glucose tolerance, insulin tolerance and insulin secretion. Calcium flux was measured in isolated islets. Gem-deficient mice were glucose intolerant and had impaired glucose stimulated insulin secretion. Furthermore, the islets of Gem-deficient mice exhibited decreased free calcium responses to glucose and the calcium oscillations seen upon glucose stimulation were smaller in amplitude and had a reduced frequency. These results suggest that Gem plays an important role in normal beta-cell function by regulation of calcium signalling.

  4. Abnormality in Wnt Signaling is Causatively Associated with Oxidative Stress-Induced Intestinal Tumorigenesis in MUTYH-Null Mice

    PubMed Central

    Isoda, Takuro; Nakatsu, Yoshimichi; Yamauchi, Kazumi; Piao, Jingshu; Yao, Takashi; Honda, Hiroshi; Nakabeppu, Yusaku; Tsuzuki, Teruhisa

    2014-01-01

    MUTYH is a DNA glycosylase that excises adenine paired with 8-oxoguanine to prevent mutagenesis in mammals. Biallelic germline mutations of MUTYH have been found in patients predisposed to a recessive form of familial adenomatous polyposis (MAP: MUTYH-associated polyposis). We previously reported that Mutyh-deficient mice showed a high susceptibility to spontaneous and oxidative stress-induced intestinal adenoma/carcinoma. Here, we performed mutation analysis of the tumor-associated genes including Apc, Ctnnb1, Kras and Trp53 in the intestinal tumors of Mutyh-deficient mice. In the 62 tumors, we identified 25 mutations in Apc of 18 tumors and 36 mutations in Ctnnb1 of 36 tumors. Altogether, 54 out of the 62 tumors (87.1%) had a mutation in either Apc or Ctnnb1; no tumor displayed mutations simultaneously in the both genes. Similar to MAP, 60 out of 61 mutations (98.3%) were identified as G:C to T:A transversions of which 85% occurred at either AGAA or TGAA sequences. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed the accumulation of β-catenin in the nuclei of tumors. No mutation was found in either Kras or Trp53 in the tumors. These results indicate that the uncontrolled activation of Wnt signaling pathway is causatively associated with oxidative stress-induced intestinal tumorigenesis in the Mutyh-deficient mice. PMID:25170306

  5. Mice Deficient in GEM GTPase Show Abnormal Glucose Homeostasis Due to Defects in Beta-Cell Calcium Handling

    PubMed Central

    Gunton, Jenny E.; Sisavanh, Mary; Stokes, Rebecca A.; Satin, Jon; Satin, Leslie S.; Zhang, Min; Liu, Sue M.; Cai, Weikang; Cheng, Kim; Cooney, Gregory J.; Laybutt, D. Ross; So, Trina; Molero, Juan-Carlos; Grey, Shane T.; Andres, Douglas A.

    2012-01-01

    Aims and Hypothesis Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from beta-cells is a tightly regulated process that requires calcium flux to trigger exocytosis of insulin-containing vesicles. Regulation of calcium handling in beta-cells remains incompletely understood. Gem, a member of the RGK (Rad/Gem/Kir) family regulates calcium channel handling in other cell types, and Gem over-expression inhibits insulin release in insulin-secreting Min6 cells. The aim of this study was to explore the role of Gem in insulin secretion. We hypothesised that Gem may regulate insulin secretion and thus affect glucose tolerance in vivo. Methods Gem-deficient mice were generated and their metabolic phenotype characterised by in vivo testing of glucose tolerance, insulin tolerance and insulin secretion. Calcium flux was measured in isolated islets. Results Gem-deficient mice were glucose intolerant and had impaired glucose stimulated insulin secretion. Furthermore, the islets of Gem-deficient mice exhibited decreased free calcium responses to glucose and the calcium oscillations seen upon glucose stimulation were smaller in amplitude and had a reduced frequency. Conclusions These results suggest that Gem plays an important role in normal beta-cell function by regulation of calcium signalling. PMID:22761801

  6. The viral theory of schizophrenia revisited: abnormal placental gene expression and structural changes with lack of evidence for H1N1 viral presence in placentae of infected mice or brains of exposed offspring.

    PubMed

    Fatemi, S Hossein; Folsom, Timothy D; Rooney, Robert J; Mori, Susumu; Kornfield, Tess E; Reutiman, Teri J; Kneeland, Rachel E; Liesch, Stephanie B; Hua, Kegang; Hsu, John; Patel, Divyen H

    2012-03-01

    , schizophrenia, and autism. Placentas from infected mice showed a number of morphological abnormalities including presence of thrombi and increased presence of immune cells. Additionally, we searched for presence of H1N1 viral-specific genes for M1/M2, NA, and NS1 in placentas of infected mice and brains of exposed offspring and found none. Our results demonstrate that prenatal viral infection disrupts structure and gene expression of the placenta, hippocampus, and prefrontal cortex potentially explaining deleterious effects in the exposed offspring without evidence for presence of viral RNAs in the target tissues. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Transgenic mice expressing caspase-6-derived N-terminal fragments of mutant huntingtin develop neurologic abnormalities with predominant cytoplasmic inclusion pathology composed largely of a smaller proteolytic derivative

    PubMed Central

    Tebbenkamp, Andrew T.N.; Green, Cameron; Xu, Guilian; Denovan-Wright, Eileen M.; Rising, Aaron C.; Fromholt, Susan E.; Brown, Hilda H.; Swing, Debbie; Mandel, Ronald J.; Tessarollo, Lino; Borchelt, David R.

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies have implicated an N-terminal caspase-6 cleavage product of mutant huntingtin (htt) as an important mediator of toxicity in Huntington's disease (HD). To directly assess the consequences of such fragments on neurologic function, we produced transgenic mice that express a caspase-6 length N-terminal fragment of mutant htt (N586) with both normal (23Q) and disease (82Q) length glutamine repeats. In contrast to mice expressing N586-23Q, mice expressing N586-82Q accumulate large cytoplasmic inclusion bodies that can be visualized with antibodies to epitopes throughout the N586 protein. However, biochemical analyses of aggregated mutant huntingtin in these mice demonstrated that the inclusion bodies are composed largely of a much smaller htt fragment (terminating before residue 115), with lesser amounts of full-length N586-82Q fragments. Mice expressing the N586-82Q fragment show symptoms typical of previously generated mice expressing mutant huntingtin fragments, including failure to maintain weight, small brain weight and reductions in specific mRNAs in the striatum. Uniquely, these N586-82Q mice develop a progressive movement disorder that includes dramatic deficits in motor performance on the rotarod and ataxia. Our findings suggest that caspase-6-derived fragments of mutant htt are capable of inducing novel HD-related phenotypes, but these fragments are not terminal cleavage products as they are subject to further proteolysis. In this scenario, mutant htt fragments derived from caspase 6, or possibly other proteases, could mediate HD pathogenesis via a ‘hit and run' type of mechanism in which caspase-6, or other larger N-terminal fragments, mediate a neurotoxic process before being cleaved to a smaller fragment that accumulates pathologically. PMID:21515588

  8. Abnormal cell-intrinsic and network excitability in the neocortex of serotonin-deficient Pet-1 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Puzerey, Pavel A; Kodama, Nathan X; Galán, Roberto F

    2016-02-01

    Neurons originating from the raphe nuclei of the brain stem are the exclusive source of serotonin (5-HT) to the cortex. Their serotonergic phenotype is specified by the transcriptional regulator Pet-1, which is also necessary for maintaining their neurotransmitter identity across development. Transgenic mice in which Pet-1 is genetically ablated (Pet-1(-/-)) show a dramatic reduction (∼80%) in forebrain 5-HT levels, yet no investigations have been carried out to assess the impact of such severe 5-HT depletion on the function of target cortical neurons. Using whole cell patch-clamp methods, two-dimensional (2D) multielectrode arrays (MEAs), 3D morphological neuronal reconstructions, and animal behavior, we investigated the impact of 5-HT depletion on cortical cell-intrinsic and network excitability. We found significant changes in several parameters of cell-intrinsic excitability in cortical pyramidal cells (PCs) as well as an increase in spontaneous synaptic excitation through 5-HT3 receptors. These changes are associated with increased local network excitability and oscillatory activity in a 5-HT2 receptor-dependent manner, consistent with previously reported hypersensitivity of cortical 5-HT2 receptors. PC morphology was also altered, with a significant reduction in dendritic complexity that may possibly act as a compensatory mechanism for increased excitability. Consistent with this interpretation, when we carried out experiments with convulsant-induced seizures to asses cortical excitability in vivo, we observed no significant differences in seizure parameters between wild-type and Pet-1(-/-) mice. Moreover, MEA recordings of propagating field potentials showed diminished propagation of activity across the cortical sheath. Together these findings reveal novel functional changes in neuronal and cortical excitability in mice lacking Pet-1.

  9. Sperm tail abnormalities in mutant mice with neo(r) gene insertion into an intron of the keratin 9 gene.

    PubMed

    Rivkin, Eugene; Eddy, Edward M; Willis, William D; Goulding, Euginia H; Suganuma, Ryota; Yanagimachi, Ryuzo; Kierszenbaum, Abraham L

    2005-10-01

    Keratin 9 (K9) is one of the components of the perinuclear ring of the manchette found in developing spermatids but is predominantly expressed in the epidermis of the footpad (palm and sole in human epidermis). As an initial step to determine the function of K9 protein in sperm development, we have generated a mutant mouse by homologous recombination of the targeting vector containing the disrupted K9 gene in which the neo(r) gene was inserted into the intron 6. This insertion resulted in the expression of two K9 mRNAs: a wild-type K9 mRNA, in which intron 6 with the neo(r) gene was completely spliced out, and a mutated form in which only a portion of the intron 6 between neo(r) gene and exon 7 was spliced out. While both heterozygous (K9(+/neo)) and homozygous (K9(neo/neo)) mutant mice expressed the wild-type form of K9 protein, the expression profile of the wild-type K9 in K9(neo/neo) mutants was modified. In addition, the open reading frame of the aberrant mRNA terminated at the exon 6/intron 6 splice site, resulting in a truncated K9 protein. Both K9(+neo) and K9(neo/neo) male mice displayed spermatids with ectopic manchette. Coiled tails were seen in maturing spermatids and epididymal sperm of mutant mice and sperm with deformed tails displayed forward motility. A predominant sperm anomaly was residual cytoplasm at the end of the mitochondria-containing middle piece tail segment. The residual cytoplasm displayed vesicles with random in situ motion, suggesting a transport impediment toward the distal end of the sperm tail. All mutant mice were fertile. Surprisingly, in oocyte nuclear injection experiments using K9(neo/neo) sperm donor, 76% of the resulting animals displayed a deletion of the neo(r) gene from the intron 6 of the mutated K9 allele. Results of this study support the view that intron 6 influences the transcriptional efficiency of the K9 gene by decreasing production of wild-type K9 and changing the expression of K9 proteins.

  10. Abnormalities in myo-inositol metabolism associated with type 2 diabetes in mice fed a high-fat diet: benefits of a dietary myo-inositol supplementation.

    PubMed

    Croze, Marine L; Géloën, Alain; Soulage, Christophe O

    2015-06-28

    We previously reported that a chronic supplementation with myo-inositol (MI) improved insulin sensitivity and reduced fat accretion in mice. We then tested the potency of such dietary intervention in the prevention of insulin resistance in C57BL/6 male mouse fed a high-fat diet (HFD). In addition, some abnormalities in inositol metabolism were reported to be associated with insulin resistance in several animal and human studies. We then investigated the presence of such anomalies (i.e. inosituria and an inositol intra-tissue depletion) in this diet-induced obesity (DIO) mouse model, as well as the potential benefit of a MI supplementation for inositol intra-tissue deficiency correction. HFD (60 % energy from fat) feeding was associated with inosituria and inositol intra-tissue depletion in the liver and kidneys. MI supplementation (0·58 mg/g per d) restored inositol pools in kidneys (partially) and liver (fully). HFD feeding for 4 months induced ectopic lipid redistribution to liver and muscles, fasting hyperglycaemia and hyperinsulinaemia, insulin resistance and obesity that were not prevented by MI supplementation, despite a significant improvement in insulin sensitivity parameter K insulin tolerance test and a reduction in white adipose tissue (WAT) mass ( - 17 %, P< 0·05). MI supplementation significantly reduced fatty acid synthase activity in epididymal WAT, which might explain its beneficial, but modest, effect on WAT accretion in HFD-fed mice. Finally, we found some abnormalities in inositol metabolism in association with a diabetic phenotype (i.e. insulin resistance and fasting hyperglycaemia) in a DIO mouse model. Dietary MI supplementation was efficient in the prevention of inositol intra-tissue depletion, but did not prevent insulin resistance or obesity efficiently in this mouse model.

  11. Mutations in the clathrin-assembly gene Picalm are responsible for the hematopoietic and iron metabolism abnormalities in fit1 mice.

    PubMed

    Klebig, Mitchell L; Wall, Melissa D; Potter, Mark D; Rowe, Erica L; Carpenter, Donald A; Rinchik, Eugene M

    2003-07-08

    Recessive N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU)-induced mutations recovered at the fitness-1 (fit1) locus in mouse chromosome 7 cause hematopoietic abnormalities, growth retardation, and shortened life span, with varying severity of the defects in different alleles. Abnormal iron distribution and metabolism and frequent scoliosis have also been associated with an allele of intermediate severity (fit14R). We report that fit14R, as well as the most severe fit15R allele, are nonsense point mutations in the mouse ortholog of the human phosphatidylinositol-binding clathrin assembly protein (PICALM) gene, whose product is involved in clathrin-mediated endocytosis. A variety of leukemias and lymphomas have been associated with translocations that fuse human PICALM with the putative transcription factor gene AF10. The Picalmfit1-5R and Picalmfit1-4R mutations are splice-donor alterations resulting in transcripts that are less abundant than normal and missing exons 4 and 17, respectively. These exon deletions introduce premature termination codons predicted to truncate the proteins near the N and C termini, respectively. No mutations in the genes encoding Picalm, clathrin, or components of the adaptor protein complex 2 (AP2) have been previously described in which the suite of disorders present in the Picalmfit1 mutant mice is apparent. These mutants thus provide unique models for exploring how the endocytic function of mouse Picalm and the transport processes mediated by clathrin and the AP2 complex contribute to normal hematopoiesis, iron metabolism, and growth.

  12. A High Fat Diet During Pregnancy and Lactation Induces Cardiac and Renal Abnormalities in GLUT4 +/- Male Mice.

    PubMed

    Kruse, Michael; Fiallo, Ariana; Tao, Jianling; Susztak, Katalin; Amann, Kerstin; Katz, Ellen B; Charron, Maureen J

    2017-07-27

    Altered nutrients during the in utero (IU) and/or lactation (L) period predispose offspring to cardio-renal diseases in adulthood. This study investigates the effect of a high fat diet (HFD) fed to female mice during IU/L on gene expression patterns associated with heart and kidney failure and hypertension in male offspring. Female wild type (WT) mice were fed either a HFD or control chow (C) prior to mating with males with a genetic heterozygous deletion of GLUT4 (G4+/-, a model of peripheral insulin resistance and hypertension) and throughout IU/L. After weaning male offspring were placed on a standard rodent chow until 24 weeks of age. All offspring exposed to a maternal HFD showed increased heart and kidney weight and reduced cardiac insulin responsiveness. G4+/- offspring on a HFD displayed early hypertension associated with increased renal gene expression of renin and the AT1- receptors compared to G4+/- on a C diet. This group showed decreased cardiac expression of key genes involved in fatty acid oxidation compared to WT on a C diet. These results indicate an interaction between a HFD diet and genotype during early life development that can enhance susceptibility to cardio-renal diseases later in life. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Triple monoamine uptake inhibitors demonstrate a pharmacologic association between excessive drinking and impulsivity in high alcohol-preferring (HAP) mice

    PubMed Central

    O’Tousa, David S.; Warnock, Kaitlin T.; Matson, Liana M.; Namjoshi, Ojas A.; Halcomb, Meredith E.; Cook, James; Grahame, Nicholas J.; June, Harry L.

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 30% of current drinkers in the US drink excessively, and are referred to as problem/hazardous drinkers. These individuals, who may not meet criteria for alcohol abuse or dependence, comprise binge, heavy drinkers, or both. Given their high prevalence, interventions that reduce the risk of binge and heavy drinking have important public health implications. Impulsivity has been repeatedly associated with excessive drinking in the clinical literature. As impulsivity is correlated with, and may play a critical role in the initiation and maintenance of excessive drinking, this behavior may be an important target for therapeutic intervention. Hence, a better understanding of pharmacological treatments capable of attenuating excessive drinking models and impulsivity may markedly improve clinical outcomes. The high alcohol-preferring (HAP) mice represent an optimal rodent model to study the relationship between impulsivity and excessive alcohol drinking, as recent evidence indicates they consume high levels of alcohol throughout their active cycle and are innately impulsive. Using this model, the present study demonstrates that the triple monoamine uptake inhibitors (TUIs) amitifadine and DOV 102, 677 effectively attenuate binge drinking, heavy drinking assessed via a 24-hour free-choice assay, and impulsivity measured by the delay discounting procedure. In contrast, 3-PBC, a GABA-A α1 preferring ligand, with mixed agonist-antagonist properties attenuates excessive drinking without affecting impulsivity. These findings suggest in the HAP mice, monoamine pathways may predominate as a common mechanism underlying impulsivity and excessive drinking, while the GABAergic system may be more salient in regulating excessive drinking. We further propose that TUIs such as amitifadine and DOV 102, 677 may be used to treat the co-occurrence of impulsivity and excessive drinking. PMID:24118509

  14. Contractile abnormalities and altered drug response in engineered heart tissue from Mybpc3-targeted knock-in mice.

    PubMed

    Stöhr, Andrea; Friedrich, Felix W; Flenner, Frederik; Geertz, Birgit; Eder, Alexandra; Schaaf, Sebastian; Hirt, Marc N; Uebeler, June; Schlossarek, Saskia; Carrier, Lucie; Hansen, Arne; Eschenhagen, Thomas

    2013-10-01

    Myosin-binding protein C (Mybpc3)-targeted knock-in mice (KI) recapitulate typical aspects of human hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. We evaluated whether these functional alterations can be reproduced in engineered heart tissue (EHT) and yield novel mechanistic information on the function of cMyBP-C. EHTs were generated from cardiac cells of neonatal KI, heterozygous (HET) or wild-type controls (WT) and developed without apparent morphological differences. KI had 70% and HET 20% lower total cMyBP-C levels than WT, accompanied by elevated fetal gene expression. Under standard culture conditions and spontaneous beating, KI EHTs showed more frequent burst beating than WT and occasional tetanic contractions (14/96). Under electrical stimulation (6Hz, 37°C) KI EHTs exhibited shorter contraction and relaxation times and a twofold higher sensitivity to external [Ca(2+)]. Accordingly, the sensitivity to verapamil was 4-fold lower and the response to isoprenaline or the Ca(2+) sensitizer EMD 57033 2- to 4-fold smaller. The loss of EMD effect was verified in 6-week-old KI mice in vivo. HET EHTs were apparently normal under basal conditions, but showed similarly altered contractile responses to [Ca(2+)], verapamil, isoprenaline and EMD. In contrast, drug-induced changes in intracellular Ca(2+) transients (Fura-2) were essentially normal. In conclusion, the present findings in auxotonically contracting EHTs support the idea that cMyBP-C's normal role is to suppress force generation at low intracellular Ca(2+) and stabilize the power-stroke step of the cross bridge cycle. Pharmacological testing in EHT unmasked a disease phenotype in HET. The altered drug response may be clinically relevant.

  15. Fertility in luteinizing hormone receptor-knockout mice after wild-type ovary transplantation demonstrates redundancy of extragonadal luteinizing hormone action

    PubMed Central

    Pakarainen, Tomi; Zhang, Fu-Ping; Poutanen, Matti; Huhtaniemi, Ilpo

    2005-01-01

    The luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR), mainly expressed in gonads, is essential for normal reproduction. However, numerous recent studies have also demonstrated LHR expression in multiple extragonadal reproductive and nonreproductive tissues. Although some effects of luteinizing hormone (LH) or its agonist, human chorionic gonadotropin, have been shown in extragonadal sites, their physiological significance remains open. In the present study, we have addressed the function of the extragonadal LHR using LHR-KO mice (LuRKO mice), in which the ovaries of prepubertal mice were orthotopically replaced with pieces of WT ovary using similarly transplanted WT mice as controls. Most ovarian transplants attained normal endocrine function in both groups of mice, as demonstrated by normal age at vaginal opening, estrous cycles, and sexual behavior. Both the LuRKO and WT mice repeatedly became pregnant (9/16 vs. 16/20 after first mating; difference not significant) and delivered similarly sized litters, which grew normally after birth, indicating normal lactation. In conclusion, fertility is restored in LuRKO mice by transplantation of WT ovarian tissue. This is achieved in the absence of extragonadal LHR expression, which indicates physiological redundancy for such receptor sites. PMID:15951841

  16. Retinoic acid down-regulates Tbx1 expression and induces abnormal differentiation of tongue muscles in fetal mice.

    PubMed

    Okano, Junko; Sakai, Yasuo; Shiota, Kohei

    2008-10-01

    Excess retinoic acid (RA) during pregnancy can cause various developmental anomalies in both humans and rodents. We investigated the mechanisms underlying the aberrant differentiation of tongue muscles in fetal mice exposed to exogenous RA in utero. RA-degrading enzymes (Cyp26a1 and Cyp26b1) were expressed at early stages of normal tongue development, but exogenous RA perturbed their expression in the fetal tongue. RA is normally distributed in the developing tongue muscles but its localization was disrupted by exogenous RA. After RA treatment, myogenic determination factors were reduced and the differentiation was significantly suppressed in tongue muscles. Tbx1, a candidate gene of DiGeorge syndrome, was down-regulated in the fetal tongue in response to excess RA. Moreover, Tbx1 as well as myogenic determination factors were not observed in tongue muscle primordia of Cyp26b1-/- fetuses. Our study suggests that RA signaling may play an essential role in tongue muscle differentiation via the regulation of Tbx1. Copyright (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Involvement of Potassium and Cation Channels in Hippocampal Abnormalities of Embryonic Ts65Dn and Tc1 Trisomic Mice.

    PubMed

    Stern, Shani; Segal, Menahem; Moses, Elisha

    2015-09-01

    Down syndrome (DS) mouse models exhibit cognitive deficits, and are used for studying the neuronal basis of DS pathology. To understand the differences in the physiology of DS model neurons, we used dissociated neuronal cultures from the hippocampi of Ts65Dn and Tc1 DS mice. Imaging of [Ca(2+)]i and whole cell patch clamp recordings were used to analyze network activity and single neuron properties, respectively. We found a decrease of ~ 30% in both fast (A-type) and slow (delayed rectifier) outward potassium currents. Depolarization of Ts65Dn and Tc1 cells produced fewer spikes than diploid cells. Their network bursts were smaller and slower than diploids, displaying a 40% reduction in Δf / f0 of the calcium signals, and a 30% reduction in propagation velocity. Additionally, Ts65Dn and Tc1 neurons exhibited changes in the action potential shape compared to diploid neurons, with an increase in the amplitude of the action potential, a lower threshold for spiking, and a sharp decrease of about 65% in the after-hyperpolarization amplitude. Numerical simulations reproduced the DS measured phenotype by variations in the conductance of the delayed rectifier and A-type, but necessitated also changes in inward rectifying and M-type potassium channels and in the hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels. We therefore conducted whole cell patch clamp measurements of M-type potassium currents, which showed a ~ 90% decrease in Ts65Dn neurons, while HCN measurements displayed an increase of ~ 65% in Ts65Dn cells. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis indicates overexpression of 40% of KCNJ15, an inward rectifying potassium channel, contributing to the increased inhibition. We thus find that changes in several types of potassium channels dominate the observed DS model phenotype.

  18. Involvement of Potassium and Cation Channels in Hippocampal Abnormalities of Embryonic Ts65Dn and Tc1 Trisomic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Stern, Shani; Segal, Menahem; Moses, Elisha

    2015-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) mouse models exhibit cognitive deficits, and are used for studying the neuronal basis of DS pathology. To understand the differences in the physiology of DS model neurons, we used dissociated neuronal cultures from the hippocampi of Ts65Dn and Tc1 DS mice. Imaging of [Ca2+]i and whole cell patch clamp recordings were used to analyze network activity and single neuron properties, respectively. We found a decrease of ~ 30% in both fast (A-type) and slow (delayed rectifier) outward potassium currents. Depolarization of Ts65Dn and Tc1 cells produced fewer spikes than diploid cells. Their network bursts were smaller and slower than diploids, displaying a 40% reduction in Δf / f0 of the calcium signals, and a 30% reduction in propagation velocity. Additionally, Ts65Dn and Tc1 neurons exhibited changes in the action potential shape compared to diploid neurons, with an increase in the amplitude of the action potential, a lower threshold for spiking, and a sharp decrease of about 65% in the after-hyperpolarization amplitude. Numerical simulations reproduced the DS measured phenotype by variations in the conductance of the delayed rectifier and A-type, but necessitated also changes in inward rectifying and M-type potassium channels and in the hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels. We therefore conducted whole cell patch clamp measurements of M-type potassium currents, which showed a ~ 90% decrease in Ts65Dn neurons, while HCN measurements displayed an increase of ~ 65% in Ts65Dn cells. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis indicates overexpression of 40% of KCNJ15, an inward rectifying potassium channel, contributing to the increased inhibition. We thus find that changes in several types of potassium channels dominate the observed DS model phenotype. PMID:26501103

  19. Effects of dietary fat energy restriction and fish oil feeding on hepatic metabolic abnormalities and insulin resistance in KK mice with high-fat diet-induced obesity.

    PubMed

    Arai, Takeshi; Kim, Hyoun-ju; Hirako, Satoshi; Nakasatomi, Maki; Chiba, Hiroshige; Matsumoto, Akiyo

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the effects of dietary fat energy restriction and fish oil intake on glucose and lipid metabolism in female KK mice with high-fat (HF) diet-induced obesity. Mice were fed a lard/safflower oil (LSO50) diet consisting of 50 energy% (en%) lard/safflower oil as the fat source for 12 weeks. Then, the mice were fed various fat energy restriction (25 en% fat) diets - LSO, FO2.5, FO12.5 or FO25 - containing 0, 2.5, 12.5, or 25 en% fish oil, respectively, for 9 weeks. Conversion from a HF diet to each fat energy restriction diet significantly decreased final body weights and visceral and subcutaneous fat mass in all fat energy restriction groups, regardless of fish oil contents. Hepatic triglyceride and cholesterol levels markedly decreased in the FO12.5 and FO25 groups, but not in the LSO group. Although plasma insulin levels did not differ among groups, the blood glucose areas under the curve in the oral glucose tolerance test were significantly lower in the FO12.5 and FO25 groups. Real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis showed fatty acid synthase mRNA levels significantly decreased in the FO25 group, and stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 mRNA levels markedly decreased in the FO12.5 and FO25 groups. These results demonstrate that body weight gains were suppressed by dietary fat energy restriction even in KK mice with HF diet-induced obesity. We also suggested that the combination of fat energy restriction and fish oil feeding decreased fat droplets and ameliorated hepatic hypertrophy and insulin resistance with suppression of de novo lipogenesis in these mice.

  20. Pleiotropy in microdeletion syndromes: neurologic and spermatogenic abnormalities in mice homozygous for the p6H deletion are likely due to dysfunction of a single gene.

    PubMed

    Rinchik, E M; Carpenter, D A; Handel, M A

    1995-07-03

    Variability and complexity of phenotypes observed in microdeletion syndromes can be due to deletion of a single gene whose product participates in several aspects of development or can be due to the deletion of a number of tightly linked genes, each adding its own effect to the syndrome. The p6H deletion in mouse chromosome 7 presents a good model with which to address this question of multigene vs. single-gene pleiotropy. Mice homozygous for the p6H deletion are diluted in pigmentation, are smaller than their littermates, and manifest a nervous jerky-gait phenotype. Male homozygotes are sterile and exhibit profound abnormalities in spermiogenesis. By using N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (EtNU) mutagenesis and a breeding protocol designed to recover recessive mutations expressed hemizygously opposite a large p-locus deletion, we have generated three noncomplementing mutations that map to the p6H deletion. Each of these EtNU-induced mutations has adverse effects on the size, nervous behavior, and progression of spermiogenesis that characterize p6H deletion homozygotes. Because EtNU is thought to induce primarily intragenic (point) mutations in mouse stem-cell spermatogonia, we propose that the trio of phenotypes (runtiness, nervous jerky gait, and male sterility) expressed in p6H deletion homozygotes is the result of deletion of a single highly pleiotropic gene. We also predict that a homologous single locus, quite possibly tightly linked and distal to the D15S12 (P) locus in human chromosome 15q11-q13, may be associated with similar developmental abnormalities in humans.

  1. Epiphyseal abnormalities, trabecular bone loss and articular chondrocyte hypertrophy develop in the long bones of postnatal Ext1-deficient mice1

    PubMed Central

    Sgariglia, Federica; Candela, Maria Elena; Huegel, Julianne; Jacenko, Olena; Koyama, Eiki; Yamaguchi, Yu; Pacifici, Maurizio; Enomoto-Iwamoto, Motomi

    2014-01-01

    Long bones are integral components of the limb skeleton. Recent studies have indicated that embryonic long bone development is altered by mutations in Ext genes and consequent heparan sulfate (HS) deficiency, possibly due to changes in activity and distribution of HS-binding/growth plate-associated signaling proteins. Here we asked whether Ext function is continuously required after birth to sustain growth plate function and long bone growth and organization. Compound transgenic Ext1f/f;Col2CreERT mice were injected with tamoxifen at postnatal day 5 (P5) to ablate Ext1 in cartilage and monitored over time. The Ext1-deficient mice exhibited growth retardation already by 2 weeks post-injection, as did their long bones. Mutant growth plates displayed a severe disorganization of chondrocyte columnar organization, a shortened hypertrophic zone with low expression of collagen X and MMP-13, and reduced primary spongiosa accompanied, however, by increased numbers of TRAP-positive osteoclasts at the chondro-osseous border. The mutant epiphyses were abnormal as well. Formation of a secondary ossification center was significantly delayed but interestingly, hypertrophic-like chondrocytes emerged within articular cartilage, similar to those often seen in osteoarthritic joints. Indeed, the cells displayed a large size and round shape, expressed collagen X and MMP-13 and were surrounded by an abundant Perlecan-rich pericellular matrix not seen in control articular chondrocytes. In addition, ectopic cartilaginous by EXT mutations and HS deficiency. In sum, the data do show that Ext1 is continuously required for postnatal growth and organization of long bones as well as their adjacent joints. Ext1 deficiency elicits defects that can occur in human skeletal conditions including trabecular bone loss, osteoarthritis and HME. PMID:23958822

  2. Morphometric abnormalities in spleen and kidney of the progeny of mice fed American cranberry extract (Vaccinium macrocarpon) during pregnancy and lactation.

    PubMed

    Bałan, B J; Lewicki, S; Siwicki, A K; Stelmasiak, M; Skopiński, P; Skopińska-Różewska, E; Wasiutyński, A; Zdanowski, R

    2017-03-28

    Cranberries and cranberry-derived diet supplements are often recommended for the treatment of urinary tract infections, also during pregnancy. These products contain strongly anti-angiogenic chemical compounds which could not be indifferent to the developing fetus. In the present work we evaluated the effect of feeding pregnant and lactating mice American cranberry extract (daily dose 0.88 mg) on the morphology and some parameters of spleen and kidney function of their adult progeny. Six weeks after delivery the morphometry of spleen and kidney, cytometric analysis of spleen lymphocytes, evaluation of humoral response to SRBC (Sheep Red Blood Cells), and examination of serum creatinine/urea concentration, were performed in the offspring. Spleens of progeny from experimental (E) group differed from the spleens of progeny of control mice in the lower number of lymphatic nodules and their larger diameter. Cytometry of spleen cells from progeny of E mothers revealed more CD19+ and CD8+ lymphocytes than in the control group. No difference was seen in the response to immunization by red blood cells of sheep (SRBC) between control and E offspring. An increase in the diameter of glomeruli was observed in the kidneys of the experimental group in comparison with the control group. No abnormalities in creatinine and urea serum level were observed. A higher concentration of VEGF and bFGF in E offspring sera in comparison to the controls was seen. Although the observed differences between the control and experimental group were not large, caution is recommended in using cranberries and their extracts during pregnancy until more research will be done on this topic.

  3. IL-1R Type 1-Deficient Mice Demonstrate an Impaired Host Immune Response against Cutaneous Vaccinia Virus Infection.

    PubMed

    Tian, Tian; Jin, Michelle Qiushuang; Dubin, Krista; King, Sandra L; Hoetzenecker, Wolfram; Murphy, George F; Chen, Chen Amy; Kupper, Thomas S; Fuhlbrigge, Robert C

    2017-06-01

    The IL-1 superfamily of cytokines and receptors has been studied extensively. However, the specific roles of IL-1 elements in host immunity to cutaneous viral infection remain elusive. In this study, we applied vaccinia virus (VACV) by scarification to IL-1R1 knockout mice (IL-1R1(-/-)) and found that these mice developed markedly larger lesions with higher viral genome copies in skin than did wild-type mice. The phenotype of infected IL-1R1(-/-) mice was similar to eczema vaccinatum, a severe side effect of VACV vaccination that may develop in humans with atopic dermatitis. Interestingly, the impaired cutaneous response of IL-1R1(-/-) mice did not reflect a systemic immune deficiency, because immunized IL-1R1(-/-) mice survived subsequent lethal VACV intranasal challenge, or defects of T cell activation or T cell homing to the site of inoculation. Histologic evaluation revealed that VACV infection and replication after scarification were limited to the epidermal layer of wild-type mice, whereas lack of IL-1R1 permitted extension of VACV infection into dermal layers of the skin. We explored the etiology of this discrepancy and determined that IL-1R1(-/-) mice contained significantly more macrophages and monocyte-derived dendritic cells in the dermis after VACV scarification. These cells were vulnerable to VACV infection and may augment the transmission of virus to adjacent skin, thus leading to larger skin lesions and satellite lesions in IL-1R1(-/-) mice. These results suggest new therapeutic strategies for treatment of eczema vaccinatum and inform assessment of risks in patients receiving IL-1 blocking Abs for treatment of chronic inflammatory disorders. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  4. In vivo demonstration of T lymphocyte migration and amelioration of ileitis in intestinal mucosa of SAMP1/Yit mice by the inhibition of MAdCAM-1

    PubMed Central

    Matsuzaki, K; Tsuzuki, Y; Matsunaga, H; Inoue, T; Miyazaki, J; Hokari, R; Okada, Y; Kawaguchi, A; Nagao, S; Itoh, K; Matsumoto, S; Miura, S

    2005-01-01

    The aetiology of Crohn's disease (CD) remains unknown. Since SAMP1/Yit mice have been reported to develop CD-like spontaneous enteric inflammation, such mice have been studied as an animal model of CD. In this study, using this model we examined T lymphocyte migration in microvessels of intestinal mucosa in vivo and the expression of adhesion molecules by immunohistochemistry. Fluorescence-labelled T lymphocytes isolated from AKR/J (control) mice were injected into the tail veins of recipient mice, and T lymphocyte migration in the postcapillary venules of Peyer's patches, submucosal microvessels, and villus capillaries of the terminal ileum was monitored using an intravital microscope. Adhesion of T lymphocytes was significantly increased in 35 week old SAMP1/Yit mice compared with that in AKR/J or 15 week old SAMP1/Yit mice. Immunohistochemical study showed increased infiltration of CD4, CD8 and β7-integrin-positive cells and increased expression of MAdCAM-1 and VCAM-1 in the terminal ileum of SAMP1/Yit mice. Antibodies against MAdCAM-1 and VCAM-1 significantly inhibited adhesion of T lymphocytes to microvessels of the terminal ileum, and anti-MAdCAM-1 antibody showed stronger suppressive effect than the anti-VCAM-1 antibody. Periodical administration of anti-MAdCAM-1 antibody twice a week for 7 weeks significantly ameliorated ileitis of SAMP1/Yit mice, but submucosal hypertrophy was not significantly suppressed. Anti-VCAM-1 antibody treatment failed to show significant resolution of ileitis. In addition, anti-MAdCAM-1 antibody treatment also attenuated established ileitis. The results demonstrate that, although MAdCAM-1 and VCAM-1 play an important role in T lymphocyte–endothelial cell interactions in SAMP1/Yit mice, MAdCAM-1 may be a more appropriate target for therapeutic modulation of chronic ileitis. PMID:15762871

  5. The effect of kefir on glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) levels in mice with colonic abnormal crypt formation (ACF) induced by azoxymethane (AOM).

    PubMed

    Cenesiz, S; Devrim, A K; Kamber, U; Sozmen, M

    2008-01-01

    In this study we investigated the effect of kefir on the levels of glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO) in the liver, stomach, spleen and colon of mice with colonic aberrant crypts formed by azoxymethane (AOM). Thirty 12 weeks old Swiss Albino mice averaging 31.5 g weight were used as experimental animals. The mice were separated into 3 groups. The first group was the control group, second group was the AOM and third group was the AOM+kefir group. We applied AOM to the second and third groups. Mice were fed ad libitum by laboratory rodent chow during the experiment period. Water was given to the first and second groups and third group received only kefir diluted with water (50%). AOM was injected subcutaneously to the second and third groups for 7 weeks (two times a week, 5 mg/kg). Six weeks after the final AOM treatment the animals were sacrificed and liver, stomach, spleen and colon samples were collected from all the groups. MDA level demonstrated an increase only in stomach for the third group (p < 0.001), while an elevation was observed for all of the four organs for the second group (spleen p < 0.001, liver p < 0.001, colon p < 0.01). GSH level showed an increase in the second group at stomach (p < 0.01) and colon (p < 0.001), while in the third group, a small increase was determined only at the colon (p < 0.05). NO level increased at all of the organs in the second group (spleen, liver, colon p < 0.001, stomach p < 0.05), but only at liver and colon in the third group 3 (p < 0.001). In conclusion these results showed that kefir plays an antioxidant role.

  6. Structural abnormalities of corpus callosum and cortical axonal tracts accompanied by decreased anxiety-like behavior and lowered sociability in spock3- mutant mice.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Ayako; Uchiyama, Koji; Nara, Tomoka; Nishimura, Naomichi; Hayasaka, Michiko; Hanaoka, Kazunori; Yamamoto, Tatsuro

    2014-01-01

    Spock3/Testican-3 is a nervous system-expressed heparan sulfate proteoglycan belonging to a subgroup of the BM-40/SPARC/osteonectin family, the role of which in brain development is unclear. Because Spock1, a member of the Spock family, inhibits their attachment to substrates and the neurite outgrowth of cultured neuronal cells, Spock3 is also thought to be similarly involved in the neuronal development. In the present study, we established a Spock3-mutant mouse harboring a deletion extending from the presumptive upstream regulatory region to exon 4 of the Spock3 locus and performed histological and behavioral studies on these mutant mice. In wild-type (WT) mice, all Spock members were clearly expressed during brain development. In adults, intense Spock1 and Spock2 expressions were observed throughout the entire brain; whereas, Spock3 expression was no longer visible except in the thalamic nuclei. Thus, Spock3 expression is mostly confined to the developmental stage of the brain. In adult mutant mice, the cells of all cortical layers were swollen. The corpus callosum was narrowed around the central region along the rostral-caudal axis and many small spaces were observed without myelin sheaths throughout the entire corpus callosum. In addition, the cortical input and output fibers did not form into thick bundled fibers as well as the WT counterparts did. Moreover, a subpopulation of corticospinal axonal fibers penetrated into the dorsal striatum with moderately altered orientations. Consistent with these modifications of brain structures, the mutant mice exhibited decreased anxiety-like behavior and lowered sociability. Together, these results demonstrate that Spock3 plays an important role in the formation or maintenance of major neuronal structures in the brain.

  7. Huntingtons Disease Mice Infected with Toxoplasma gondii Demonstrate Early Kynurenine Pathway Activation, Altered CD8+ T-Cell Responses, and Premature Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Donley, David W.; Olson, Andrew R.; Raisbeck, Merl F.; Fox, Jonathan H.; Gigley, Jason P.

    2016-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder caused by a polyglutamine-repeat expansion in the huntingtin protein. Activation of the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan degradation is implicated in the pathogenesis of HD. Indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) catalyzes the oxidation of tryptophan to kynurenine, the first step in this pathway. The prevalent, neuroinvasive protozoal pathogen Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) results in clinically silent life-long infection in immune-competent individuals. T. gondii infection results in activation of IDO which provides some protection against the parasite by depleting tryptophan which the parasite cannot synthesize. The kynurenine pathway may therefore represent a point of synergism between HD and T. gondii infection. We show here that IDO activity is elevated at least four-fold in frontal cortex and striata of non-infected N171-82Q HD mice at 14-weeks corresponding to early–advanced HD. T. gondii infection at 5 weeks resulted in elevation of cortical IDO activity in HD mice. HD-infected mice died significantly earlier than wild-type infected and HD control mice. Prior to death, infected HD mice demonstrated decreased CD8+ T-lymphocyte proliferation in brain and spleen compared to wild-type infected mice. We demonstrate for the first time that HD mice have an altered response to an infectious agent that is characterized by premature mortality, altered immune responses and early activation of IDO. Findings are relevant to understanding how T. gondii infection may interact with pathways mediating neurodegeneration in HD. PMID:27611938

  8. Huntingtons Disease Mice Infected with Toxoplasma gondii Demonstrate Early Kynurenine Pathway Activation, Altered CD8+ T-Cell Responses, and Premature Mortality.

    PubMed

    Donley, David W; Olson, Andrew R; Raisbeck, Merl F; Fox, Jonathan H; Gigley, Jason P

    2016-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder caused by a polyglutamine-repeat expansion in the huntingtin protein. Activation of the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan degradation is implicated in the pathogenesis of HD. Indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) catalyzes the oxidation of tryptophan to kynurenine, the first step in this pathway. The prevalent, neuroinvasive protozoal pathogen Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) results in clinically silent life-long infection in immune-competent individuals. T. gondii infection results in activation of IDO which provides some protection against the parasite by depleting tryptophan which the parasite cannot synthesize. The kynurenine pathway may therefore represent a point of synergism between HD and T. gondii infection. We show here that IDO activity is elevated at least four-fold in frontal cortex and striata of non-infected N171-82Q HD mice at 14-weeks corresponding to early-advanced HD. T. gondii infection at 5 weeks resulted in elevation of cortical IDO activity in HD mice. HD-infected mice died significantly earlier than wild-type infected and HD control mice. Prior to death, infected HD mice demonstrated decreased CD8+ T-lymphocyte proliferation in brain and spleen compared to wild-type infected mice. We demonstrate for the first time that HD mice have an altered response to an infectious agent that is characterized by premature mortality, altered immune responses and early activation of IDO. Findings are relevant to understanding how T. gondii infection may interact with pathways mediating neurodegeneration in HD.

  9. Boron neutron capture therapy demonstrated in mice bearing EMT6 tumors following selective delivery of boron by rationally designed liposomes

    PubMed Central

    Kueffer, Peter J.; Maitz, Charles A.; Khan, Aslam A.; Schuster, Seth A.; Shlyakhtina, Natalia I.; Jalisatgi, Satish S.; Brockman, John D.; Nigg, David W.; Hawthorne, M. Frederick

    2013-01-01

    The application of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) following liposomal delivery of a 10B-enriched polyhedral borane and a carborane against mouse mammary adenocarcinoma solid tumors was investigated. Unilamellar liposomes with a mean diameter of 134 nm or less, composed of an equimolar mixture of cholesterol and 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine and incorporating Na3[1-(2′-B10H9)-2-NH3B10H8] in the aqueous interior and K[nido-7-CH3(CH2)15-7,8-C2B9H11] in the bilayer, were injected into the tail veins of female BALB/c mice bearing right flank EMT6 tumors. Biodistribution studies indicated that two identical injections given 24 h apart resulted in tumor boron levels exceeding 67 µg/g tumor at 54 h—with tumor/blood boron ratios being greatest at 96 h (5.68:1; 43 µg boron/g tumor)—following the initial injection. For BNCT experiments, tumor-bearing mice were irradiated 54 h after the initial injection for 30 min with thermal neutrons, resulting in a total fluence of 1.6 × 1012 neutrons per cm2 (±7%). Significant suppression of tumor growth was observed in mice given BNCT vs. control mice (only 424% increase in tumor volume at 14 d post irradiation vs. 1551% in untreated controls). In a separate experiment in which mice were given a second injection/irradiation treatment 7 d after the first, the tumor growth was vastly diminished (186% tumor volume increase at 14 d). A similar response was obtained for mice irradiated for 60 min (169% increase at 14 d), suggesting that neutron fluence was the limiting factor controlling BNCT efficacy in this study. PMID:23536304

  10. Lineage targeted MHC-II transgenic mice demonstrate the role of dendritic cells in bacterial driven colitis

    PubMed Central

    Maggio-Price, Lillian; Seamons, Audrey; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Helle; Zeng, Weiping; Brabb, Thea; Ware, Carol; Lei, Mingzu; Hershberg, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) pathogenesis involves an inadequately controlled immune reaction to intestinal microbiota and CD4+ T cells, dependent upon MHC class II (MHC-II) processing and presentation by antigen presenting cells (APC), play important roles The role of professional APC (macrophages and dendritic cells (DC)) and nonprofessional APC (intestinal epithelial cells (IEC)) in microbial driven intestinal inflammation remains controversial. Methods We generated transgenic animals on a MHC-II−/− genetic background in which MHC-II is expressed on a) DC via the CD11c promoter (CD11cTg) or b) IEC via the fatty acid binding protein (liver) promoter (EpithTg). These mice were crossed with Rag2−/− mice to eliminate T and B cells (CD11cTg/Rag2−/− and EpithTg/Rag2−/−). Helicobacter bilis (Hb) infection and adoptive transfer (AT) of naïve CD4+ T cells were used to trigger IBD. Results CD11cTg/Rag2−/− mice infected with Hb+AT developed severe colitis within three weeks post AT, similar to disease in positive control Rag2−/− mice infected with Hb+AT. CD11cTg/Rag2−/− mice given AT alone or Hb alone had significantly less severe colitis. In contrast, EpithTg/Rag2−/− mice infected with Hb+AT developed mild colitis by three weeks and even after 16 weeks post adoptive transfer, had only mild lesions. Conclusions MHC-II expression restricted to DCs is sufficient to induce severe colitis in the presence of T cells and a microorganism such as Hb within three weeks of adoptive transfer. Expression of MHC-II solely on IEC in the presence of a microbial trigger and T cells was insufficient for triggering severe colitis. PMID:22619032

  11. Boron neutron capture therapy demonstrated in mice bearing EMT6 tumors following selective delivery of boron by rationally designed liposomes.

    PubMed

    Kueffer, Peter J; Maitz, Charles A; Khan, Aslam A; Schuster, Seth A; Shlyakhtina, Natalia I; Jalisatgi, Satish S; Brockman, John D; Nigg, David W; Hawthorne, M Frederick

    2013-04-16

    The application of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) following liposomal delivery of a (10)B-enriched polyhedral borane and a carborane against mouse mammary adenocarcinoma solid tumors was investigated. Unilamellar liposomes with a mean diameter of 134 nm or less, composed of an equimolar mixture of cholesterol and 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine and incorporating Na3[1-(2'-B10H9)-2-NH3B10H8] in the aqueous interior and K[nido-7-CH3(CH2)15-7,8-C2B9H11] in the bilayer, were injected into the tail veins of female BALB/c mice bearing right flank EMT6 tumors. Biodistribution studies indicated that two identical injections given 24 h apart resulted in tumor boron levels exceeding 67 µg/g tumor at 54 h--with tumor/blood boron ratios being greatest at 96 h (5.68:1; 43 µg boron/g tumor)--following the initial injection. For BNCT experiments, tumor-bearing mice were irradiated 54 h after the initial injection for 30 min with thermal neutrons, resulting in a total fluence of 1.6 × 10(12) neutrons per cm(2) (±7%). Significant suppression of tumor growth was observed in mice given BNCT vs. control mice (only 424% increase in tumor volume at 14 d post irradiation vs. 1551% in untreated controls). In a separate experiment in which mice were given a second injection/irradiation treatment 7 d after the first, the tumor growth was vastly diminished (186% tumor volume increase at 14 d). A similar response was obtained for mice irradiated for 60 min (169% increase at 14 d), suggesting that neutron fluence was the limiting factor controlling BNCT efficacy in this study.

  12. Chronic treatment with exendin(9-39)amide indicates a minor role for endogenous glucagon-like peptide-1 in metabolic abnormalities of obesity-related diabetes in ob/ob mice.

    PubMed

    Green, B D; Irwin, N; Gault, V A; Bailey, C J; O'Harte, F P M; Flatt, P R

    2005-05-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a potent insulinotropic hormone proposed to play a role in both the pathophysiology and treatment of type 2 diabetes. This study has employed the GLP-1 receptor antagonist, exendin-4(9-39)amide (Ex(9-39)) to evaluate the role of endogenous GLP-1 in genetic obesity-related diabetes and related metabolic abnormalities using ob/ob and normal mice. Acute in vivo antagonistic potency of Ex(9-39) was confirmed in ob/ob mice by blockade of the insulin-releasing and anti-hyperglycaemic actions of intraperitoneal GLP-1. In longer term studies, ob/ob mice were given once daily injections of Ex(9-39) or vehicle for 11 days. Feeding activity, body weight, and both basal and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion were not significantly affected by chronic Ex(9-39) treatment. However, significantly elevated basal glucose concentrations and impaired glucose tolerance were evident at 11 days. These disturbances in glucose homeostasis were independent of changes of insulin sensitivity and reversed by discontinuation of the Ex(9-39) for 9 days. Similar treatment of normal mice did not affect any of the parameters measured. These findings illustrate the physiological extrapancreatic glucose-lowering actions of GLP-1 in ob/ob mice and suggest that the endogenous hormone plays a minor role in the metabolic abnormalities associated with obesity-related diabetes.

  13. Interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase M-deficient mice demonstrate an improved host defense during Gram-negative pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Hoogerwerf, Jacobien J; van der Windt, Gerritje J W; Blok, Dana C; Hoogendijk, Arie J; De Vos, Alex F; van 't Veer, Cornelis; Florquin, Sandrine; Kobayashi, Koichi S; Flavell, Richard A; van der Poll, Tom

    2012-09-25

    Pneumonia is a common cause of morbidity and mortality and the most frequent source of sepsis. Bacteria that try to invade normally sterile body sites are recognized by innate immune cells through pattern recognition receptors, among which toll-like receptors (TLRs) feature prominently. Interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R)-associated kinase (IRAK)-M is a proximal inhibitor of TLR signaling expressed by epithelial cells and macrophages in the lung. To determine the role of IRAK-M in host defense against bacterial pneumonia, IRAK-M-deficient (IRAK-M(-/-)) and normal wild-type (WT) mice were infected intranasally with Klebsiella pneumoniae. IRAK-M mRNA was upregulated in lungs of WT mice with Klebsiella pneumonia, and the absence of IRAK-M resulted in a strongly improved host defense as reflected by reduced bacterial growth in the lungs, diminished dissemination to distant body sites, less peripheral tissue injury and better survival rates. Although IRAK-M(-/-) alveolar macrophages displayed enhanced responsiveness toward intact K. pneumoniae and Klebsiella lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in vitro, IRAK-M(-/-) mice did not show increased cytokine or chemokine levels in their lungs after infection in vivo. The extent of lung inflammation was increased in IRAK-M(-/-) mice shortly after K. pneumoniae infection, as determined by semiquantitative scoring of specific components of the inflammatory response in lung tissue slides. These data indicate that IRAK-M impairs host defense during pneumonia caused by a common gram-negative respiratory pathogen.

  14. Defective cancellous bone structure and abnormal response to PTH in cortical bone of mice lacking Cx43 cytoplasmic C-terminus domain.

    PubMed

    Pacheco-Costa, Rafael; Davis, Hannah M; Sorenson, Chad; Hon, Mary C; Hassan, Iraj; Reginato, Rejane D; Allen, Matthew R; Bellido, Teresita; Plotkin, Lilian I

    2015-12-01

    Connexin 43 (Cx43) forms gap junction channels and hemichannels that allow the communication among osteocytes, osteoblasts, and osteoclasts. Cx43 carboxy-terminal (CT) domain regulates channel opening and intracellular signaling by acting as a scaffold for structural and signaling proteins. To determine the role of Cx43 CT domain in bone, mice in which one allele of full length Cx43 was replaced by a mutant lacking the CT domain (Cx43(ΔCT/fl)) were studied. Cx43(ΔCT/fl) mice exhibit lower cancellous bone volume but higher cortical thickness than Cx43(fl/fl) controls, indicating that the CT domain is involved in normal cancellous bone gain but opposes cortical bone acquisition. Further, Cx43(ΔCT) is able to exert the functions of full length osteocytic Cx43 on cortical bone geometry and mechanical properties, demonstrating that domains other than the CT are responsible for Cx43 function in cortical bone. In addition, parathyroid hormone (PTH) failed to increase endocortical bone formation or energy to failure, a mechanical property that indicates resistance to fracture, in cortical bone in Cx43(ΔCT) mice with or without osteocytic full length Cx43. On the other hand, bone mass and bone formation markers were increased by the hormone in all mouse models, regardless of whether full length or Cx43(ΔCT) were or not expressed. We conclude that Cx43 CT domain is involved in proper bone acquisition; and that Cx43 expression in osteocytes is dispensable for some but not all PTH anabolic actions.

  15. Targeted disruption of Col8a1 and Col8a2 genes in mice leads to anterior segment abnormalities in the eye.

    PubMed

    Hopfer, Ulrike; Fukai, Naomi; Hopfer, Helmut; Wolf, Gunter; Joyce, Nancy; Li, En; Olsen, Bjorn R

    2005-08-01

    Collagen VIII is localized in subendothelial and subepithelial extracellular matrices. It is a major component of Descemet's membrane, a thick basement membrane under the corneal endothelium, where it forms a hexagonal lattice structure; a similar structure, albeit less extensive, may be formed in other basement membranes. We have examined the function of collagen VIII in mice by targeted inactivation of the genes encoding the two polypeptide subunits, Col8a1 and Col8a2. Analysis of these mice reveals no major structural defects in most organs, but demonstrates that type VIII collagen is required for normal anterior eye development, particularly the formation of a corneal stroma with the appropriate number of fibroblastic cell layers and Descemet's membrane of appropriate thickness. Complete lack of type VIII collagen leads to dysgenesis of the anterior segment of the eye: a globoid, keratoglobus-like protrusion of the anterior chamber with a thin corneal stroma. Descemet's membrane is markedly thinned. The corneal endothelial cells are enlarged and reduced in number, and show a decreased ability to proliferate in response to different growth factors in vitro. An important function of collagen VIII may therefore be to generate a peri- or subcellular matrix environment that permits or stimulates cell proliferation.

  16. Interleukin-1 Receptor–Associated Kinase M–Deficient Mice Demonstrate an Improved Host Defense during Gram-negative Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Hoogerwerf, Jacobien J; van der Windt, Gerritje JW; Blok, Dana C; Hoogendijk, Arie J; de Vos, Alex F; van ‘t Veer, Cornelis; Florquin, Sandrine; Kobayashi, Koichi S; Flavell, Richard A; van der Poll, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Pneumonia is a common cause of morbidity and mortality and the most frequent source of sepsis. Bacteria that try to invade normally sterile body sites are recognized by innate immune cells through pattern recognition receptors, among which toll-like receptors (TLRs) feature prominently. Interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R)–associated kinase (IRAK)-M is a proximal inhibitor of TLR signaling expressed by epithelial cells and macrophages in the lung. To determine the role of IRAK-M in host defense against bacterial pneumonia, IRAK-M-deficient (IRAK-M−/−) and normal wild-type (WT) mice were infected intranasally with Klebsiella pneumoniae. IRAK-M mRNA was upregulated in lungs of WT mice with Klebsiella pneumonia, and the absence of IRAK-M resulted in a strongly improved host defense as reflected by reduced bacterial growth in the lungs, diminished dissemination to distant body sites, less peripheral tissue injury and better survival rates. Although IRAK-M−/− alveolar macrophages displayed enhanced responsiveness toward intact K. pneumoniae and Klebsiella lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in vitro, IRAK-M−/− mice did not show increased cytokine or chemokine levels in their lungs after infection in vivo. The extent of lung inflammation was increased in IRAK-M−/− mice shortly after K. pneumoniae infection, as determined by semiquantitative scoring of specific components of the inflammatory response in lung tissue slides. These data indicate that IRAK-M impairs host defense during pneumonia caused by a common gram-negative respiratory pathogen. PMID:22729155

  17. Meiotic abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 19, describes meiotic abnormalities. These include nondisjunction of autosomes and sex chromosomes, genetic and environmental causes of nondisjunction, misdivision of the centromere, chromosomally abnormal human sperm, male infertility, parental age, and origin of diploid gametes. 57 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Motor Neuron Rescue in Spinal Muscular Atrophy Mice Demonstrates That Sensory-Motor Defects Are a Consequence, Not a Cause, of Motor Neuron Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Gogliotti, Rocky G.; Quinlan, Katharina A.; Barlow, Courtenay B.; Heier, Christopher R.; Heckman, C. J.

    2012-01-01

    The loss of motor neurons (MNs) is a hallmark of the neuromuscular disease spinal muscular atrophy (SMA); however, it is unclear whether this phenotype autonomously originates within the MN. To address this question, we developed an inducible mouse model of severe SMA that has perinatal lethality, decreased motor function, motor unit pathology, and hyperexcitable MNs. Using an Hb9-Cre allele, we increased Smn levels autonomously within MNs and demonstrate that MN rescue significantly improves all phenotypes and pathologies commonly described in SMA mice. MN rescue also corrects hyperexcitability in SMA motor neurons and prevents sensory-motor synaptic stripping. Survival in MN-rescued SMA mice is extended by only 5 d, due in part to failed autonomic innervation of the heart. Collectively, this work demonstrates that the SMA phenotype autonomously originates in MNs and that sensory-motor synapse loss is a consequence, not a cause, of MN dysfunction. PMID:22423102

  19. Narp knockout mice show normal reactivity to novelty but attenuated recovery from neophobia.

    PubMed

    Blouin, Ashley M; Lee, Jongah J; Tao, Bo; Smith, Dani R; Johnson, Alexander W; Baraban, Jay M; Reti, Irving M

    2013-11-15

    Narp knockout (KO) mice demonstrate cognitive inflexibility and addictive behavior, which are associated with abnormal reactivity to a novel stimulus. To assess reactivity to novelty, we tested Narp KO and wild-type (WT) mice on a neophobia procedure. Both Narp KO and WT mice showed a similar decrease in consumption upon initial exposure to a novel flavor, but Narp KO mice did not increase consumption with subsequent exposures to the novel flavor like the WT mice. Therefore, Narp KO mice do not have abnormal reactivity to novelty but show deficits in adapting behavior to reflect the updated value of a stimulus.

  20. The effects of sesquiterpenes-rich extract of Alpinia oxyphylla Miq. on amyloid-β-induced cognitive impairment and neuronal abnormalities in the cortex and hippocampus of mice.

    PubMed

    Shi, Shao-Huai; Zhao, Xu; Liu, Bing; Li, Huan; Liu, Ai-Jing; Wu, Bo; Bi, Kai-Shun; Jia, Ying

    2014-01-01

    As a kind of medicine which can also be used as food, Alpinia oxyphylla Miq. has a long clinical history in China. A variety of studies demonstrated the significant neuroprotective activity effects of chloroform (CF) extract from the fruits of Alpinia oxyphylla. In order to further elucidate the possible mechanisms of CF extract which mainly contains sesquiterpenes with neuroprotection on the cognitive ability, mice were injected with Aβ(1-42) and later with CF in this study. The results showed that the long-term treatment of CF enhanced the cognitive performances in behavior tests, increased activities of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-px) and decreased the level of malondialdehyde (MDA), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), and amyloid-β (Aβ), and reversed the activation of microglia, degeneration of neuronal acidophilia, and nuclear condensation in the cortex and hippocampus. These results demonstrate that CF ameliorates learning and memory deficits by attenuating oxidative stress and regulating the activation of microglia and degeneration of neuronal acidophilia to reinforce cholinergic functions.

  1. The Effects of Sesquiterpenes-Rich Extract of Alpinia oxyphylla Miq. on Amyloid-β-Induced Cognitive Impairment and Neuronal Abnormalities in the Cortex and Hippocampus of Mice

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Shao-Huai; Zhao, Xu; Liu, Bing; Li, Huan; Liu, Ai-Jing; Wu, Bo; Bi, Kai-Shun

    2014-01-01

    As a kind of medicine which can also be used as food, Alpinia oxyphylla Miq. has a long clinical history in China. A variety of studies demonstrated the significant neuroprotective activity effects of chloroform (CF) extract from the fruits of Alpinia oxyphylla. In order to further elucidate the possible mechanisms of CF extract which mainly contains sesquiterpenes with neuroprotection on the cognitive ability, mice were injected with Aβ 1−42 and later with CF in this study. The results showed that the long-term treatment of CF enhanced the cognitive performances in behavior tests, increased activities of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-px) and decreased the level of malondialdehyde (MDA), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), and amyloid-β (Aβ), and reversed the activation of microglia, degeneration of neuronal acidophilia, and nuclear condensation in the cortex and hippocampus. These results demonstrate that CF ameliorates learning and memory deficits by attenuating oxidative stress and regulating the activation of microglia and degeneration of neuronal acidophilia to reinforce cholinergic functions. PMID:25180067

  2. Unique quadruple immunofluorescence assay demonstrates mitochondrial respiratory chain dysfunction in osteoblasts of aged and PolgA−/− mice

    PubMed Central

    Dobson, Philip F.; Rocha, Mariana C.; Grady, John P.; Chrysostomou, Alexia; Hipps, Daniel; Watson, Sharon; Greaves, Laura C.; Deehan, David J.; Turnbull, Doug M.

    2016-01-01

    Fragility fractures caused by osteoporosis affect millions of people worldwide every year with significant levels of associated morbidity, mortality and costs to the healthcare economy. The pathogenesis of declining bone mineral density is poorly understood but it is inherently related to increasing age. Growing evidence in recent years, especially that provided by mouse models, suggest that accumulating somatic mitochondrial DNA mutations may cause the phenotypic changes associated with the ageing process including osteoporosis. Methods to study mitochondrial abnormalities in individual osteoblasts, osteoclasts and osteocytes are limited and impair our ability to assess the changes seen with age and in animal models of ageing. To enable the assessment of mitochondrial protein levels, we have developed a quadruple immunofluorescence method to accurately quantify the presence of mitochondrial respiratory chain components within individual bone cells. We have applied this technique to a well-established mouse model of ageing and osteoporosis and show respiratory chain deficiency. PMID:27553587

  3. Unique quadruple immunofluorescence assay demonstrates mitochondrial respiratory chain dysfunction in osteoblasts of aged and PolgA(-/-) mice.

    PubMed

    Dobson, Philip F; Rocha, Mariana C; Grady, John P; Chrysostomou, Alexia; Hipps, Daniel; Watson, Sharon; Greaves, Laura C; Deehan, David J; Turnbull, Doug M

    2016-08-24

    Fragility fractures caused by osteoporosis affect millions of people worldwide every year with significant levels of associated morbidity, mortality and costs to the healthcare economy. The pathogenesis of declining bone mineral density is poorly understood but it is inherently related to increasing age. Growing evidence in recent years, especially that provided by mouse models, suggest that accumulating somatic mitochondrial DNA mutations may cause the phenotypic changes associated with the ageing process including osteoporosis. Methods to study mitochondrial abnormalities in individual osteoblasts, osteoclasts and osteocytes are limited and impair our ability to assess the changes seen with age and in animal models of ageing. To enable the assessment of mitochondrial protein levels, we have developed a quadruple immunofluorescence method to accurately quantify the presence of mitochondrial respiratory chain components within individual bone cells. We have applied this technique to a well-established mouse model of ageing and osteoporosis and show respiratory chain deficiency.

  4. Plasma biomarkers of liver injury and inflammation demonstrate a lack of apoptosis during obstructive cholestasis in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Woolbright, Benjamin L.; Antoine, Daniel J.; Jenkins, Rosalind E.; Bajt, Mary Lynn; Park, B. Kevin; Jaeschke, Hartmut

    2013-12-15

    Cholestasis is a pathological common component of numerous liver diseases that results in hepatotoxicity, inflammation, and cirrhosis when untreated. While the predominant hypothesis in cholestatic liver injury remains hepatocyte apoptosis due to direct toxicity of hydrophobic bile acid exposure, recent work suggests that the injury occurs through inflammatory necrosis. In order to resolve this controversy, we used novel plasma biomarkers to assess the mechanisms of cell death during early cholestatic liver injury. C57Bl/6 mice underwent bile duct ligation (BDL) for 6–72 h, or sham operation. Another group of mice were given D-galactosamine and endotoxin as a positive control for apoptosis and inflammatory necrosis. Plasma levels of full length cytokeratin-18 (FL-K18), microRNA-122 (miR-122) and high mobility group box-1 protein (HMGB1) increased progressively after BDL with peak levels observed after 48 h. These results indicate extensive cell necrosis after BDL, which is supported by the time course of plasma alanine aminotransferase activities and histology. In contrast, plasma caspase-3 activity, cleaved caspase-3 protein and caspase-cleaved cytokeratin-18 fragments (cK18) were not elevated at any time during BDL suggesting the absence of apoptosis. In contrast, all plasma biomarkers of necrosis and apoptosis were elevated 6 h after Gal/End treatment. In addition, acetylated HMGB1, a marker for macrophage and monocyte activation, was increased as early as 12 h but mainly at 48–72 h. However, progressive neutrophil accumulation in the area of necrosis started at 6 h after BDL. In conclusion, these data indicate that early cholestatic liver injury in mice is an inflammatory event, and occurs through necrosis with little evidence for apoptosis. - Highlights: • The mechanism of cell death during cholestasis remains a controversial topic. • Plasma biomarkers offer new insight into cell death after bile duct ligation. • Cytokeratin-18, microRNA-122 and HMGB

  5. Congenital Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... while you are pregnant. Combination of Genetic and Environmental Problems Some congenital abnormalities may occur if there is a genetic tendency for the condition combined with exposure to certain environmental influences within the womb during critical stages of ...

  6. Carboxyl ester lipase deficiency exacerbates dietary lipid absorption abnormalities and resistance to diet-induced obesity in pancreatic triglyceride lipase knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Gilham, Dean; Labonté, Eric D; Rojas, Juan C; Jandacek, Ronald J; Howles, Philip N; Hui, David Y

    2007-08-24

    This study evaluated the contributions of carboxyl ester lipase (CEL) and pancreatic triglyceride lipase (PTL) in lipid nutrient absorption. Results showed PTL deficiency has minimal effect on triacylglycerol (TAG) absorption under low fat dietary conditions. Interestingly, PTL(-)(/)(-) mice displayed significantly reduced TAG absorption compared with wild type mice under high fat/high cholesterol dietary conditions (80.1 +/- 3.7 versus 91.5 +/- 0.7%, p < 0.05). Net TAG absorption was reduced further to 61.1 +/- 3.8% in mice lacking both PTL and CEL. Cholesterol absorption was 41% lower in PTL(-/-) mice compared with control mice (p < 0.05), but this difference was not exaggerated in PTL(-/-), CEL(-/-) mice. Retinyl palmitate absorption was reduced by 45 and 60% in PTL(-/-) mice (p < 0.05) and PTL(-/-), CEL(-/-) mice (p < 0.01), respectively. After 15 weeks of feeding, the high fat/high cholesterol diet, wild type, and CEL(-/-) mice gained approximately 24 g of body weight. However, body weight gain was 6.2 and 8.6 g less (p < 0.01) in PTL(-/-) and PTL(-/-), CEL(-/-) mice, respectively, despite their consumption of comparable amounts of the high fat/high cholesterol diet. The decrease body weight gain in PTL(-/-) and PTL(-/-), CEL(-/-) mice was attributed to their absorption of fewer calories from the high fat/high cholesterol diet, thereby resulting in less fat mass accumulation than that observed in wild type and CEL(-/-) mice. Thus, this study documents that PTL and CEL serve complementary functions, working together to mediate the absorption of a major portion of dietary fat and fat-soluble vitamin esters. The reduced lipid absorption efficiency due to PTL and CEL inactivation also resulted in protection against diet-induced obesity.

  7. Neocortical vasculature abnormalities in the Fragile X mental retardation syndrome.

    PubMed

    Galvan, Ashley M; Galvez, Roberto

    2012-08-30

    The Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the leading form of inherited mental retardation. To date, the most prominent neuronal phenotype associated with the syndrome is an abundance of long thin spines exhibiting an immature morphology. However, in addition to synaptic abnormalities, recent case studies have demonstrated that Fragile X (FX) patients also exhibit abnormal cerebral blood flow (CBF). To examine the role of the Fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) in altering CBF, we examined blood vessel density (BVD) in the visual cortex of Adult and Middle-aged FX mice. Analysis of Middle-aged FX mice demonstrated elevated BVD compared to wildtype controls, suggesting that FX mice exhibit a lack of age-induced BVD plasticity. However, Adult FX and wildtype mice did not exhibit consistent differences in BVD. These data demonstrate that FMRP is required for age-induced neocortical vasculature plasticity. Furthermore, these data suggest a new role for FMRP in blood vessel regulation that would have profound implications towards appropriately timed delivery of neuronal nutrients, thus contributing to or exacerbating FX cognitive and neuronal abnormalities.

  8. Dill seed extract improves abnormalities in lipid metabolism through peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPAR-α) activation in diabetic obese mice.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Yao, Lan; Kim, Minji; Sasako, Hiroshi; Aoyagi, Morihiro; Shono, Jinji; Tsuge, Nobuaki; Goto, Tsuyoshi; Kawada, Teruo

    2013-07-01

    Dill, a small annual herb, is widely used as a flavoring agent in dishes including salads. It has been demonstrated that dill extract and its essential oil show hypolipidemic effects in rats. However, the mechanism of these effects has not been elucidated yet. We found that dill seed extract (DSE) activated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPAR-α), an indispensable regulator for hepatic lipid metabolism, by luciferase assay. Thus, we performed DSE feeding experiments using diabetic obese model KK-Ay mice to examine the effects of DSE on PPAR-α activation in vivo. A 4-week feeding of DSE contained in a high-fat diet decreased plasma triacylglyceride and glucose levels and increased the mRNA expression levels of fatty acid oxidation-related genes in the liver. In addition, the DSE feeding as well as bezafibrate (a PPAR-α potent agonist) feeding increased oxygen consumption rate and rectal temperature. These results indicate that DSE suppresses high-fat diet-induced hyperlipidemia through hepatic PPAR-α activation.

  9. A surge of late-occurring meiotic double-strand breaks rescues synapsis abnormalities in spermatocytes of mice with hypomorphic expression of SPO11.

    PubMed

    Faieta, Monica; Di Cecca, Stefano; de Rooij, Dirk G; Luchetti, Andrea; Murdocca, Michela; Di Giacomo, Monica; Di Siena, Sara; Pellegrini, Manuela; Rossi, Pellegrino; Barchi, Marco

    2016-06-01

    Meiosis is the biological process that, after a cycle of DNA replication, halves the cellular chromosome complement, leading to the formation of haploid gametes. Haploidization is achieved via two successive rounds of chromosome segregation, meiosis I and II. In mammals, during prophase of meiosis I, homologous chromosomes align and synapse through a recombination-mediated mechanism initiated by the introduction of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) by the SPO11 protein. In male mice, if SPO11 expression and DSB number are reduced below heterozygosity levels, chromosome synapsis is delayed, chromosome tangles form at pachynema, and defective cells are eliminated by apoptosis at epithelial stage IV at a spermatogenesis-specific endpoint. Whether DSB levels produced in Spo11 (+/-) spermatocytes represent, or approximate, the threshold level required to guarantee successful homologous chromosome pairing is unknown. Using a mouse model that expresses Spo11 from a bacterial artificial chromosome, within a Spo11 (-/-) background, we demonstrate that when SPO11 expression is reduced and DSBs at zygonema are decreased (approximately 40 % below wild-type level), meiotic chromosome pairing is normal. Conversely, DMC1 foci number is increased at pachynema, suggesting that under these experimental conditions, DSBs are likely made with delayed kinetics at zygonema. In addition, we provide evidences that when zygotene-like cells receive enough DSBs before chromosome tangles develop, chromosome synapsis can be completed in most cells, preventing their apoptotic elimination.

  10. Abnormalities induced by the mutant gene, lpr. Patterns of disease and expression of murine leukemia viruses in SJL/J mice homozygous and heterozygous for lpr.

    PubMed

    Morse, H C; Roths, J B; Davidson, W F; Langdon, W Y; Fredrickson, T N; Hartley, J W

    1985-03-01

    SJL/J mice heterozygous or homozygous for the lpr mutation were compared with SJL/J-+/+ mice for longevity, histopathology, antigenic characteristics of lymphocytes and expression of murine leukemia viruses (MuLV). In comparison to +/+ mice, lpr homozygotes had a markedly shortened life span, died with infiltrative pulmonary disease, but little or no renal disease, and expressed high levels of infectious ecotropic MuLV in lymphoid tissues. SJL-lpr/+ mice had a life span intermediate between SJL-+/+ and -lpr/lpr mice, died with lymphomas that histologically resembled the neoplasms of +/+ mice, and sometimes expressed high levels of ecotropic MuLV. The lymphomas of lpr/+ could be transplanted to +/+ recipients in 78% of cases, and continuous in vitro lines were established from some of them. Similar effects on virus expression or lymphoma development were not observed in other strains homozygous or heterozygous for the lpr mutation. These results indicate that the diseases expressed by mice homozygous for the lpr mutation are highly strain-dependent, and that this gene can have an effect in the heterozygous state in SJL mice.

  11. Bone marrow transplantation from mutant lpr/lpr mice. Functional abnormalities rather than alloantigenic differences appear to determine the development of a graft-vs.-host-like syndrome.

    PubMed

    Allen, R D; Marshall, J D; Roths, J B; Sidman, C L

    1990-09-01

    Transfer of bone marrow (BM) from autoimmunity-prone mice homozygous for the lymphoproliferation (lpr) mutation to irradiated congenic +/+ recipients has previously been shown to result in a syndrome similar to chronic graft-vs.-host (GVH) disease. It has been suggested that this syndrome may be due to an antigenic difference caused by the lpr mutation itself or to antigenic differences at loci closely linked to the lpr locus (Theofilopoulos, A. N. et al., J. Exp. Med. 1985. 162:1; Mosbach-Ozmen, L. and Loor, F., Thymus 1987. 9:197). However, the results presented here indicate that alloantigenic differences do not play a role in this syndrome. Instead, the chronic disease observed in lpr/lpr----(+/+) BM chimeras appears to develop as a result of a functional defect associated with the lpr mutation which is expressed shortly after transfer of lpr/lpr BM to irradiated recipients. This defect causes an increase in the levels of serum IgG1 and IgG2, which peak at 4-5 weeks post-transfer and then decline to normal levels by 9-10 weeks post-transfer. Inflammation similar to that observed in classic GVH reactions accompanies excess IgG production in congenic +/+ recipients but not in lpr/lpr recipients of lpr/lpr BM. We demonstrate that the GVH-like response occurring in lpr/lpr----(+/+) chimeras is dependent on mature T cells, but that either lpr/lpr or (+/+) T cells can support this reaction. These results suggest that transfer of lpr/lpr BM to normal mice causes immunoregulatory disturbances which lead to nonspecific activation of T cells. We speculate that lpr/lpr BM causes a GVH-like reaction in +/+ recipients but a systemic lupus erythematosus-like syndrome in lpr/lpr recipients because of intrinsic differences in the +/+ and lpr/lpr host environments. Considering these findings, the lpr/lpr----+/+ GVH model may be useful for analysis of factors capable of inducing undesirable reactions in clinical BM transplantation between nominally histocompatible donors and

  12. Meta-Analysis Identifies Gene-by-Environment Interactions as Demonstrated in a Study of 4,965 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Joo, Jong Wha J.; Shih, Diana; Davis, Richard C.; Lusis, Aldons J.; Eskin, Eleazar

    2014-01-01

    Identifying environmentally-specific genetic effects is a key challenge in understanding the structure of complex traits. Model organisms play a crucial role in the identification of such gene-by-environment interactions, as a result of the unique ability to observe genetically similar individuals across multiple distinct environments. Many model organism studies examine the same traits but under varying environmental conditions. For example, knock-out or diet-controlled studies are often used to examine cholesterol in mice. These studies, when examined in aggregate, provide an opportunity to identify genomic loci exhibiting environmentally-dependent effects. However, the straightforward application of traditional methodologies to aggregate separate studies suffers from several problems. First, environmental conditions are often variable and do not fit the standard univariate model for interactions. Additionally, applying a multivariate model results in increased degrees of freedom and low statistical power. In this paper, we jointly analyze multiple studies with varying environmental conditions using a meta-analytic approach based on a random effects model to identify loci involved in gene-by-environment interactions. Our approach is motivated by the observation that methods for discovering gene-by-environment interactions are closely related to random effects models for meta-analysis. We show that interactions can be interpreted as heterogeneity and can be detected without utilizing the traditional uni- or multi-variate approaches for discovery of gene-by-environment interactions. We apply our new method to combine 17 mouse studies containing in aggregate 4,965 distinct animals. We identify 26 significant loci involved in High-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, many of which are consistent with previous findings. Several of these loci show significant evidence of involvement in gene-by-environment interactions. An additional advantage of our meta

  13. A Splicing Mutation in the Novel Mitochondrial Protein DNAJC11 Causes Motor Neuron Pathology Associated with Cristae Disorganization, and Lymphoid Abnormalities in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ioakeimidis, Fotis; Ott, Christine; Kozjak-Pavlovic, Vera; Violitzi, Foteini; Rinotas, Vagelis; Makrinou, Eleni; Eliopoulos, Elias; Fasseas, Costas; Kollias, George; Douni, Eleni

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial structure and function is emerging as a major contributor to neuromuscular disease, highlighting the need for the complete elucidation of the underlying molecular and pathophysiological mechanisms. Following a forward genetics approach with N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU)-mediated random mutagenesis, we identified a novel mouse model of autosomal recessive neuromuscular disease caused by a splice-site hypomorphic mutation in a novel gene of unknown function, DnaJC11. Recent findings have demonstrated that DNAJC11 protein co-immunoprecipitates with proteins of the mitochondrial contact site (MICOS) complex involved in the formation of mitochondrial cristae and cristae junctions. Homozygous mutant mice developed locomotion defects, muscle weakness, spasticity, limb tremor, leucopenia, thymic and splenic hypoplasia, general wasting and early lethality. Neuropathological analysis showed severe vacuolation of the motor neurons in the spinal cord, originating from dilatations of the endoplasmic reticulum and notably from mitochondria that had lost their proper inner membrane organization. The causal role of the identified mutation in DnaJC11 was verified in rescue experiments by overexpressing the human ortholog. The full length 63 kDa isoform of human DNAJC11 was shown to localize in the periphery of the mitochondrial outer membrane whereas putative additional isoforms displayed differential submitochondrial localization. Moreover, we showed that DNAJC11 is assembled in a high molecular weight complex, similarly to mitofilin and that downregulation of mitofilin or SAM50 affected the levels of DNAJC11 in HeLa cells. Our findings provide the first mouse mutant for a putative MICOS protein and establish a link between DNAJC11 and neuromuscular diseases. PMID:25111180

  14. Abnormal development of the locus coeruleus in Ear2(Nr2f6)-deficient mice impairs the functionality of the forebrain clock and affects nociception

    PubMed Central

    Warnecke, Marei; Oster, Henrik; Revelli, Jean-Pierre; Alvarez-Bolado, Gonzalo; Eichele, Gregor

    2005-01-01

    The orphan nuclear receptor Ear2 (Nr2f6) is transiently expressed in the rostral part of the rhombic lip in which the locus coeruleus (LC) arises. LC development, regulated by a signaling cascade (Mash1 → Phox2b → Phox2a), is disrupted in Ear2-/- embryos as revealed by an approximately threefold reduction in the number of Phox2a- and Phox2b-expressing LC progenitor cells. Mash1 expression in the rhombic lip, however, is unaffected, placing Ear2 in between Mash1 and Phox2a/b. Dopamine-β-hydroxylase and tyrosine hydroxylase staining demonstrate that >70% of LC neurons are absent in the adult with agenesis affecting primarily the dorsal division of the LC. Normally, this division projects noradrenergic efferents to the cortex that appear to be diminished in Ear2-/- since the cortical concentration of noradrenaline is four times lower in these mice. The rostral region of the cortex is known to contain a circadian pacemaker regulating adaptability to light- and restricted food-driven entrainment. In situ hybridization establishes that the circadian expression pattern of the clock gene Period1 is abolished in the Ear2-/- forebrain. Behavioral experiments reveal that Ear2 mutants have a delayed entrainment to shifted light-dark cycles and adapt less efficiently to daytime feeding schedules. We propose that neurons in the dorsal division of LC contribute to the regulation of the forebrain clock, at least in part, through targeted release of noradrenaline into the cortical area. PMID:15741322

  15. Deletion of ETS-1, a gene in the Jacobsen syndrome critical region, causes ventricular septal defects and abnormal ventricular morphology in mice.

    PubMed

    Ye, Maoqing; Coldren, Chris; Liang, Xingqun; Mattina, Teresa; Goldmuntz, Elizabeth; Benson, D Woodrow; Ivy, Dunbar; Perryman, M B; Garrett-Sinha, Lee Ann; Grossfeld, Paul

    2010-02-15

    Congenital heart defects comprise the most common form of major birth defects, affecting 0.7% of all newborn infants. Jacobsen syndrome (11q-) is a rare chromosomal disorder caused by deletions in distal 11q. We have previously determined that a wide spectrum of the most common congenital heart defects occur in 11q-, including an unprecedented high frequency of hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS). We identified an approximately 7 Mb 'cardiac critical region' in distal 11q that contains a putative causative gene(s) for congenital heart disease. In this study, we utilized chromosomal microarray mapping to characterize three patients with 11q- and congenital heart defects that carry interstitial deletions overlapping the 7 Mb cardiac critical region. We propose that this 1.2 Mb region of overlap harbors a gene(s) that causes at least a subset of the congenital heart defects that occur in 11q-. We demonstrate that one gene in this region, ETS-1 (a member of the ETS family of transcription factors), is expressed in the endocardium and neural crest during early mouse heart development. Gene-targeted deletion of ETS-1 in mice in a C57/B6 background causes, with high penetrance, large membranous ventricular septal defects and a bifid cardiac apex, and less frequently a non-apex-forming left ventricle (one of the hallmarks of HLHS). Our results implicate an important role for the ETS-1 transcription factor in mammalian heart development and should provide important insights into some of the most common forms of congenital heart disease.

  16. Abnormal neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of adult mice lacking 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D3 (1,25-(OH)2 D3).

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ying; Zhou, Rong; Yang, Rong; Zhang, Zhuo; Bai, Yinyang; Chang, Fei; Li, Lin; Sokabe, Masahiro; Goltzman, David; Miao, Dengshun; Chen, Ling

    2012-03-01

    In this study, we employed 1α-hydroxylase knockout (1α-(OH)ase(-/-) ) mice to investigate the influence of 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D(3) (1,25-(OH)(2) D(3) ) deficiency on the adult neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG). The numbers of both 24-hr-old BrdU(+) cells and proliferating cell nuclear antigen positive cells in 8-week-old 1α-(OH)ase(-/-) mice increased approximately twofold compared with wild-type littermates. In contrast, the numbers of 7- and 28-day-old BrdU(+) cells in 1α-(OH)ase(-/-) mice decreased by 50% compared with wild-type mice, while the proportion of BrdU(+) /NeuN(+) cells in BrdU(+) population showed no difference between 1α-(OH)ase(-/-) and wild-type mice. Apoptotic cells in the subgranular zone (SGZ) of DG markedly increased in 1α-(OH)ase(-/-) mice. Replenishment of 1,25-(OH)(2) D(3) , but not correction of serum calcium and phosphorus levels, completely prevented changes in the neurogenesis in 1α-(OH)ase(-/-) mice. The absence of 1,25-(OH)(2) D(3) led to an increase in the expression of L-type voltage-gated calcium channel (L-VGCC) and a decrease in the nerve growth factor (NGF) mRNA level. Treatment with the L-VGCC inhibitor nifedipine blocked the increased cell proliferations by 1,25-(OH)(2) D(3) deficiency. Administration of NGF significantly attenuated the loss of newborn neurons in 1α-(OH)ase(-/-) mice. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Continuous Exposure to a Novel Stressor Based on Water Aversion Induces Abnormal Circadian Locomotor Rhythms and Sleep-Wake Cycles in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Miyazaki, Koyomi; Itoh, Nanako; Ohyama, Sumika; Kadota, Koji; Oishi, Katsutaka

    2013-01-01

    Psychological stressors prominently affect diurnal rhythms, including locomotor activity, sleep, blood pressure, and body temperature, in humans. Here, we found that a novel continuous stress imposed by the perpetual avoidance of water on a wheel (PAWW) affected several physiological diurnal rhythms in mice. One week of PAWW stress decayed robust circadian locomotor rhythmicity, while locomotor activity was evident even during the light period when the mice are normally asleep. Daytime activity was significantly upregulated, whereas nighttime activity was downregulated, resulting in a low amplitude of activity. Total daily activity gradually decreased with increasing exposure to PAWW stress. The mice could be exposed to PAWW stress for over 3 weeks without adaptation. Furthermore, continuous PAWW stress enhanced food intake, but decreased body weight and plasma leptin levels, indicating that sleep loss and PAWW stress altered the energy balance in these mice. The diurnal rhythm of corticosterone levels was not severely affected. The body temperature rhythm was diurnal in the stressed mice, but significantly dysregulated during the dark period. Plasma catecholamines were elevated in the stressed mice. Continuous PAWW stress reduced the duration of daytime sleep, especially during the first half of the light period, and increased nighttime sleepiness. Continuous PAWW stress also simultaneously obscured sleep/wake and locomotor activity rhythms compared with control mice. These sleep architecture phenotypes under stress are similar to those of patients with insomnia. The stressed mice could be entrained to the light/dark cycle, and when they were transferred to constant darkness, they exhibited a free-running circadian rhythm with a timing of activity onset predicted by the phase of their entrained rhythms. Circadian gene expression in the liver and muscle was unaltered, indicating that the peripheral clocks in these tissues remained intact. PMID:23383193

  18. Continuous exposure to a novel stressor based on water aversion induces abnormal circadian locomotor rhythms and sleep-wake cycles in mice.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Koyomi; Itoh, Nanako; Ohyama, Sumika; Kadota, Koji; Oishi, Katsutaka

    2013-01-01

    Psychological stressors prominently affect diurnal rhythms, including locomotor activity, sleep, blood pressure, and body temperature, in humans. Here, we found that a novel continuous stress imposed by the perpetual avoidance of water on a wheel (PAWW) affected several physiological diurnal rhythms in mice. One week of PAWW stress decayed robust circadian locomotor rhythmicity, while locomotor activity was evident even during the light period when the mice are normally asleep. Daytime activity was significantly upregulated, whereas nighttime activity was downregulated, resulting in a low amplitude of activity. Total daily activity gradually decreased with increasing exposure to PAWW stress. The mice could be exposed to PAWW stress for over 3 weeks without adaptation. Furthermore, continuous PAWW stress enhanced food intake, but decreased body weight and plasma leptin levels, indicating that sleep loss and PAWW stress altered the energy balance in these mice. The diurnal rhythm of corticosterone levels was not severely affected. The body temperature rhythm was diurnal in the stressed mice, but significantly dysregulated during the dark period. Plasma catecholamines were elevated in the stressed mice. Continuous PAWW stress reduced the duration of daytime sleep, especially during the first half of the light period, and increased nighttime sleepiness. Continuous PAWW stress also simultaneously obscured sleep/wake and locomotor activity rhythms compared with control mice. These sleep architecture phenotypes under stress are similar to those of patients with insomnia. The stressed mice could be entrained to the light/dark cycle, and when they were transferred to constant darkness, they exhibited a free-running circadian rhythm with a timing of activity onset predicted by the phase of their entrained rhythms. Circadian gene expression in the liver and muscle was unaltered, indicating that the peripheral clocks in these tissues remained intact.

  19. Up-regulation of Thrombospondin-2 in Akt1-null Mice Contributes to Compromised Tissue Repair Due to Abnormalities in Fibroblast Function*

    PubMed Central

    Bancroft, Tara; Bouaouina, Mohamed; Roberts, Sophia; Lee, Monica; Calderwood, David A.; Schwartz, Martin; Simons, Michael; Sessa, William C.; Kyriakides, Themis R.

    2015-01-01

    Vascular remodeling is essential for tissue repair and is regulated by multiple factors, including thrombospondin-2 (TSP2) and hypoxia/VEGF-induced activation of Akt. In contrast to TSP2 knock-out (KO) mice, Akt1 KO mice have elevated TSP2 expression and delayed tissue repair. To investigate the contribution of increased TSP2 to Akt1 KO mice phenotypes, we generated Akt1/TSP2 double KO (DKO) mice. Full-thickness excisional wounds in DKO mice healed at an accelerated rate when compared with Akt1 KO mice. Isolated dermal Akt1 KO fibroblasts expressed increased TSP2 and displayed altered morphology and defects in migration and adhesion. These defects were rescued in DKO fibroblasts or after TSP2 knockdown. Conversely, the addition of exogenous TSP2 to WT cells induced cell morphology and migration rates that were similar to those of Akt1 KO cells. Akt1 KO fibroblasts displayed reduced adhesion to fibronectin with manganese stimulation when compared with WT and DKO cells, revealing an Akt1-dependent role for TSP2 in regulating integrin-mediated adhesions; however, this effect was not due to changes in β1 integrin surface expression or activation. Consistent with these results, Akt1 KO fibroblasts displayed reduced Rac1 activation that was dependent upon expression of TSP2 and could be rescued by a constitutively active Rac mutant. Our observations show that repression of TSP2 expression is a critical aspect of Akt1 function in tissue repair. PMID:25389299

  20. The role of quantitative changes in the epxression of insulin receptor substrate-1 and nuclear ubiquitin in abnormal glycometabolism in the livers of KKay mice and the relative therapeutic mechanisms of Astragalus polysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Ye, Yan; Deng, Tao; Wan, Xin-Yue; Ouyang, Jing-Ping; Liu, Min; Mao, Xian-Qing

    2014-02-01

    Ubiquitin and the ubiquitination pathway are important regulators of insulin signaling. The insulin receptor substrate‑1 (IRS-1), an ubiquitin-interacting adaptor protein, serves as the key docking protein in insulin signaling. The effects of this dynamic interaction and the changes in ubiquitin expression on hepatic insulin signaling, as well as the relative therapeutic effects of Astragalus polysaccharide (APS) have not yet been elucidated. In this study, we aimed to investigate the abnormal changes which occur in the levels of IRS-1 and ubiquitin in the livers of mice (mice with insulin resistance and diabetes), and to elucidate the possible mechanisms responsible for these changes. A control group (CG), an insulin resistance group (IG) and a diabetes group (DG) were respectively composed of 12-week-old C57BL/6J mice fed a normal diet, C57BL/6J mice fed a high‑fat diet and KKay mice fed a high‑fat diet, and treatment groups were composed of corresponding groups treated with APS (CG + A, IG + A, DG + A). All the mice were age-matched and grouped at random. After eight weeks, the mouse models were successfully established and the related physiological or biochemical indexes were detected using corresponding methods. Ubiquitin expression in the liver was detected by immunohistochemisty, and western blot analysis was used to detect the expression of IRS-1 and ubiquitin. The results revealed that the expression of IRS-1 in the DG was significantly lower compared to that in the CG and IG; however, the nuclear expression of ubiquitin and the ubiquitination levels of IRS-1, including body weight and blood glucose and triglyceride levels in the DG were significantly higher compared to those in the CG or IG (P<0.05). There was a significant improvement in the ubiquitination levels in DG + A, including the blood glucose and triglyceride levels compared with the DG (P<0.05). From the stage of insulin resistance to the stage of diabetes, the reduced expression of IRS-1

  1. The Abnormal Phenotypes of Cartilage and Bone in Calcium-Sensing Receptor Deficient Mice Are Dependent on the Actions of Calcium, Phosphorus, and PTH

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Chunxiang; Ding, Guoxian; Karaplis, Andrew; Brown, Edward; Goltzman, David; Miao, Dengshun

    2011-01-01

    Patients with neonatal severe hyperparathyroidism (NSHPT) are homozygous for the calcium-sensing receptor (CaR) mutation and have very high circulating PTH, abundant parathyroid hyperplasia, and severe life-threatening hypercalcemia. Mice with homozygous deletion of CaR mimic the syndrome of NSHPT. To determine effects of CaR deficiency on skeletal development and interactions between CaR and 1,25(OH)2D3 or PTH on calcium and skeletal homeostasis, we compared the skeletal phenotypes of homozygous CaR–deficient (CaR−/−) mice to those of double homozygous CaR– and 1α(OH)ase–deficient [CaR−/−1α(OH)ase−/−] mice or those of double homozygous CaR– and PTH–deficient [CaR−/−PTH−/−] mice at 2 weeks of age. Compared to wild-type littermates, CaR−/− mice had hypercalcemia, hypophosphatemia, hyperparathyroidism, and severe skeletal growth retardation. Chondrocyte proliferation and PTHrP expression in growth plates were reduced significantly, whereas trabecular volume, osteoblast number, osteocalcin-positive areas, expression of the ALP, type I collagen, osteocalcin genes, and serum ALP levels were increased significantly. Deletion of 1α(OH)ase in CaR−/− mice resulted in a longer lifespan, normocalcemia, lower serum phosphorus, greater elevation in PTH, slight improvement in skeletal growth with increased chondrocyte proliferation and PTHrP expression, and further increases in indices of osteoblastic bone formation. Deletion of PTH in CaR−/− mice resulted in rescue of early lethality, normocalcemia, increased serum phosphorus, undetectable serum PTH, normalization in skeletal growth with normal chondrocyte proliferation and enhanced PTHrP expression, and dramatic decreases in indices of osteoblastic bone formation. Our results indicate that reductions in hypercalcemia play a critical role in preventing the early lethality of CaR−/− mice and that defects in endochondral bone formation in CaR−/− mice result from effects of the

  2. Treatment with N- and C-Terminal Peptides of Parathyroid Hormone-Related Protein Partly Compensate the Skeletal Abnormalities in IGF-I Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Portal-Núñez, Sergio; Murillo-Cuesta, Silvia; Lozano, Daniel; Cediel, Rafael; Esbrit, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) deficiency causes growth delay, and IGF-I has been shown to partially mediate bone anabolism by parathyroid hormone (PTH). PTH-related protein (PTHrP) is abundant in bone, and has osteogenic features by poorly defined mechanisms. We here examined the capacity of PTHrP (1–36) and PTHrP (107–111) (osteostatin) to reverse the skeletal alterations associated with IGF-I deficiency. Igf1-null mice and their wild type littermates were treated with each PTHrP peptide (80 µg/Kg/every other day/2 weeks; 2 males and 4 females for each genotype) or saline vehicle (3 males and 3 females for each genotype). We found that treatment with either PTHrP peptide ameliorated trabecular structure in the femur in both genotypes. However, these peptides were ineffective in normalizing the altered cortical structure at this bone site in Igf1-null mice. An aberrant gene expression of factors associated with osteoblast differentiation and function, namely runx2, osteoprotegerin/receptor activator of NF-κB ligand ratio, Wnt3a, cyclin D1, connexin 43, catalase and Gadd45, as well as in osteocyte sclerostin, was found in the long bones of Igf1-null mice. These mice also displayed a lower amount of trabecular osteoblasts and osteoclasts in the tibial metaphysis than those in wild type mice. These alterations in Igf1-null mice were only partially corrected by each PTHrP peptide treatment. The skeletal expression of Igf2, Igf1 receptor and Irs2 was increased in Igf1-null mice, and this compensatory profile was further improved by treatment with each PTHrP peptide related to ERK1/2 and FoxM1 activation. In vitro, PTHrP (1–36) and osteostatin were effective in promoting bone marrow stromal cell mineralization in normal mice but not in IGF-I-deficient mice. Collectively, these findings indicate that PTHrP (1–36) and osteostatin can exert several osteogenic actions even in the absence of IGF-I in the mouse bone. PMID:24503961

  3. Mice deficient in endothelin-converting enzyme-2 exhibit abnormal responses to morphine and altered peptide levels in the spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Miller, Lydia K; Hou, Xiaowen; Rodriguiz, Ramona M; Gagnidze, Khatuna; Sweedler, Jonathan V; Wetsel, William C; Devi, Lakshmi A

    2011-12-01

    An increasing body of evidence suggests that endothelin-converting enzyme-2 (ECE-2) is a non-classical neuropeptide processing enzyme. Similar to other neuropeptide processing enzymes, ECE-2 exhibits restricted neuroendocrine distribution, intracellular localization, and an acidic pH optimum. However, unlike classical neuropeptide processing enzymes, ECE-2 exhibits a non-classical cleavage site preference for aliphatic and aromatic residues. We previously reported that ECE-2 cleaves a number of neuropeptides at non-classical sites in vitro; however its role in peptide processing in vivo is poorly understood. Given the recognized roles of neuropeptides in pain and opiate responses, we hypothesized that ECE-2 knockout (KO) mice might show altered pain and morphine responses compared with wild-type mice. We find that ECE-2 KO mice show decreased response to a single injection of morphine in hot-plate and tail-flick tests. ECE-2 KO mice also show more rapid development of tolerance with prolonged morphine treatment and fewer signs of naloxone-precipitated withdrawal. Peptidomic analyses revealed changes in the levels of a number of spinal cord peptides in ECE-2 KO as compared to wild-type mice. Taken together, our findings suggest a role for ECE-2 in the non-classical processing of spinal cord peptides and morphine responses; however, the precise mechanisms through which ECE-2 influences morphine tolerance and withdrawal remain unclear. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Neurochemistry © 2011 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  4. Mice deficient in Endothelin-Converting Enzyme-2 exhibit abnormal responses to morphine and altered peptide levels in the spinal cord

    PubMed Central

    Miller, L.K.; Hou, X.; Rodriguiz, R.M.; Gagnidze, K.; Sweedler, J. V.; Wetsel, W.C.; Devi, L.A.

    2011-01-01

    An increasing body of evidence suggests that Endothelin-converting enzyme-2 (ECE-2) is a non-classical neuropeptide processing enzyme. Similar to other neuropeptide processing enzymes, ECE-2 exhibits restricted neuroendocrine distribution, intracellular localization, and an acidic pH optimum. However, unlike classical neuropeptide processing enzymes, ECE-2 exhibits a non-classical cleavage site preference for aliphatic and aromatic residues. We previously reported that ECE-2 cleaves a number of neuropeptides at non-classical sites in vitro; however its role in peptide processing in vivo is poorly understood. Given the recognized roles of neuropeptides in pain and opiate responses, we hypothesized that ECE-2 knockout (KO) mice might show altered pain and morphine responses compared to wild-type (WT) mice. We find that ECE-2 KO mice show decreased response to a single injection of morphine in hot-plate and tail-flick tests. ECE-2 KO mice also show more rapid development of tolerance with prolonged morphine treatment and fewer signs of naloxone-precipitated withdrawal. Peptidomic analyses revealed changes in the levels of a number of spinal cord peptides in ECE-2 KO as compared to WT mice. Taken together, our findings suggest a role for ECE-2 in the non-classical processing of spinal cord peptides and morphine responses; however, the precise mechanisms through which ECE-2 influences morphine tolerance and withdrawal remain unclear. PMID:21972895

  5. The Group 2 Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor Agonist LY379268 Rescues Neuronal, Neurochemical and Motor Abnormalities in R6/2 Huntington’s Disease Mice

    PubMed Central

    Reiner, A.; Lafferty, D.C.; Wang, H.B.; Del Mar, N.; Deng, Y.P.

    2012-01-01

    Excitotoxic injury to striatum by dysfunctional cortical input or aberrant glutamate uptake may contribute to Huntington’s Disease (HD) pathogenesis. Since corticostriatal terminals possess mGluR2/3 autoreceptors, whose activation dampens glutamate release, we tested the ability of the mGluR2/3 agonist LY379268 to improve the phenotype in R6/2 HD mice with 120–125 CAG repeats. Daily subcutaneous injection of a maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of LY379268 (20mg/kg) had no evident adverse effects in WT mice, an