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  1. Lymphocytes from wasted mice express enhanced spontaneous and {gamma}-ray-induced apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Woloschak, G.E. |; Chang-Liu, Chin-Mei; Chung, Jen; Libertin, C.R.

    1993-09-01

    Mice bearing the autosomal recessive mutation wasted (wst/wst) display a disease pattern including faulty repair of DNA damage in lymphocytes after radiation exposure, neurologic abnormalities, and immunodeficiency. Many of the features of this mouse model have suggested a premature or increased spontaneous frequency of apoptosis in thymocytes; past work has shown an inability to establish cultured T cell lines, an abnormally high death rate of stimulated T cells in culture, and an increased sensitivity of T cells to the killing effects of ionizing radiations in wst/wst mice relative to controls. The experiments reported here were designed to examine splenic and thymic lymphocytes from wasted and control mice for signs of early apoptosis. Our results revealed enhanced expression of Rp-8 mRNA (associated with apoptosis) in thymic lymphocytes and reduced expression in splenic lymphocytes of wst/wst mice relative to controls; expression of Rp-2 and Td-30 mRNA (induced during apoptosis) were not detectable in spleen or thymus. Higher spontaneous DNA fragmentation was observed in wasted mice than in controls; however, {gamma}-ray-induced DNA fragmentation peaked at a lower dose and occurred to a greater extent in wasted mice relative to controls. These results provide evidence for high spontaneous and {gamma}-ray-induced apoptosis in T cells of wasted mice as a mechanism underlying the observed lymphocyte and DNA repair abnormalities.

  2. Interferon treatment of mice: enhanced expression of histocompatibility antigens on lymphoid cells.

    PubMed Central

    Lindahl, P; Gresser, I; Leary, P; Tovey, M

    1976-01-01

    Treatment of young and mature mice with potent mouse interferon preparations results in a marked enhancement of the expression of histocompatibility antigens on the surface of thymocytes and splenic lymphocytes as measured by an enhanced absorption of alloantiserum. We postulate that such modifications of the cell surface may reflect an effect of interferon on lymphocyte maturation and may be relevant to the effect of interferon on lymphocyte function. PMID:1063409

  3. Ectopic catalase expression in mitochondria by adeno-associated virus enhances exercise performance in mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Dejia; Lai, Yi; Yue, Yongping; Rabinovitch, Peter S; Hakim, Chady; Duan, Dongsheng

    2009-08-19

    Oxidative stress is thought to compromise muscle contractility. However, administration of generic antioxidants has failed to convincingly improve performance during exhaustive exercise. One possible explanation may relate to the inability of the supplemented antioxidants to effectively eliminate excessive free radicals at the site of generation. Here, we tested whether delivering catalase to the mitochondria, a site of free radical production in contracting muscle, could improve treadmill performance in C57Bl/6 mice. Recombinant adeno-associated virus serotype-9 (AV.RSV.MCAT) was generated to express a mitochondria-targeted catalase gene. AV.RSV.MCAT was delivered to newborn C57Bl/6 mouse circulation at the dose of 10(12) vector genome particles per mouse. Three months later, we observed a approximately 2 to 10-fold increase of catalase protein and activity in skeletal muscle and the heart. Subcellular fractionation western blot and double immunofluorescence staining confirmed ectopic catalase expression in the mitochondria. Compared with untreated control mice, absolute running distance and body weight normalized running distance were significantly improved in AV.RSV.MCAT infected mice during exhaustive treadmill running. Interestingly, ex vivo contractility of the extensor digitorum longus muscle was not altered. Taken together, we have demonstrated that forced catalase expression in the mitochondria enhances exercise performance. Our result provides a framework for further elucidating the underlying mechanism. It also raises the hope of applying similar strategies to remove excessive, pathogenic free radicals in certain muscle diseases (such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy) and ameliorate muscle disease.

  4. Enhanced human papillomavirus type 8 oncogene expression levels are crucial for skin tumorigenesis in transgenic mice

    SciTech Connect

    Hufbauer, M.; Lazic, D.; Akguel, B.; Brandsma, J.L.; Pfister, H.; Weissenborn, S.J.

    2010-08-01

    Human papillomavirus 8 (HPV8) is involved in skin cancer development in epidermodysplasia verruciformis patients. Transgenic mice expressing HPV8 early genes (HPV8-CER) developed papillomas, dysplasias and squamous cell carcinomas. UVA/B-irradiation and mechanical wounding of HPV8-CER mouse skin led to prompt papilloma induction in about 3 weeks. The aim of this study was to analyze the kinetics and level of transgene expression in response to skin irritations. Transgene expression was already enhanced 1 to 2 days after UVA/B-irradiation or tape-stripping and maintained during papilloma development. The enhanced transgene expression could be assigned to UVB and not to UVA. Papilloma development was thus always paralleled by an increased transgene expression irrespective of the type of skin irritation. A knock-down of E6 mRNA by tattooing HPV8-E6-specific siRNA led to a delay and a lower incidence of papilloma development. This indicates that the early increase of viral oncogene expression is crucial for induction of papillomatosis.

  5. Paradoxical enhancement of fear expression and extinction deficits in mice resilient to social defeat.

    PubMed

    Meduri, Jeremy D; Farnbauch, Laure A; Jasnow, Aaron M

    2013-11-01

    The exposure to stress has been associated with increased depressive and anxiety symptoms, yet not all individuals respond negatively to the experience of stress. Recent rodent social defeat models demonstrate similar individual differences in response to social stress. In particular, mice subjected to chronic social defeat have been characterized as being either "susceptible" or "resilient" by the level of social interaction following social defeat. Susceptibility is associated with lasting social avoidance as well as increased anxiety-like behavior, and depressive-like symptoms. Resilient animals, however, do not show social avoidance or increased depressive-like symptoms, but retain increased anxiety-like behavior. Thus, it is unclear what "resilience" as measured by social interaction represents in terms of an overall behavioral and physiological phenotype. Here, we use an acute social defeat procedure, which produces distinct behavioral phenotypes in social interaction with no apparent changes in anxiety-like behavior. Susceptible mice display lasting social avoidance, whereas resilient mice display normal social interaction. Susceptible mice also displayed deficits in fear extinction retention but had normal within-session extinction. Paradoxically, resilience was associated with enhanced fear expression, and severe deficits in fear extinction and extinction retention beyond that observed in susceptible mice. These effects in resilient mice were only apparent after the experience of social stress and were not due to impaired behavioral flexibility. These data suggest that mechanisms controlling resilience to acute social defeat as characterized by social interaction leave animals vulnerable to maladaptive fear behavior. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Hippocampal gene expression patterns underlying the enhancement of memory by running in aged mice

    PubMed Central

    Stranahan, Alexis M.; Lee, Kim; Becker, Kevin G.; Zhang, Yonqing; Maudsley, Stuart; Martin, Bronwen; Cutler, Roy G.; Mattson, Mark P.

    2009-01-01

    Physical activity preserves cognition in the aging brain, but the mechanisms remain obscure. In order to identify candidate genes and pathways responsible for the preservation of cognitive function by exercise, we trained mice that had been exposed to lifelong running or sedentary lifestyle for 16 months in the hippocampus-dependent water maze. After water maze training, we analyzed the expression of 24,000 genes in the hippocampus using Illumina bead microarray. Runners show greater activation of genes associated with synaptic plasticity and mitochondrial function, and also exhibit significant downregulation of genes associated with oxidative stress and lipid metabolism. Running also modified the effects of learning on the expression of genes involved in cell excitability, energy metabolism, and insulin, MAP kinase and Wnt signaling. These results suggest that the enhancement of cognitive function by lifelong exercise is associated with an altered transcriptional profile following learning. PMID:19070401

  7. Nerve Growth Factor Promoter Activity Revealed in Mice Expressing Enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein

    PubMed Central

    Kawaja, Michael D.; Smithson, Laura J.; Elliott, Janet; Trinh, Gina; Crotty, Anne-Marie; Michalski, Bernadeta; Fahnestock, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) and its precursor proNGF are perhaps the best described growth factors of the mammalian nervous system. There remains, however, a paucity of information regarding the precise cellular sites of proNGF/NGF synthesis. Here we report the generation of transgenic mice in which the NGF promoter controls the ectopic synthesis of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). These transgenic mice provide an unprecedented resolution of both neural cells (e.g., neocortical and hippocampal neurons) and non-neural cells (e.g., renal interstitial cells and thymic reticular cells) that display NGF promoter activity from postnatal development to adulthood. Moreover, the transgene is inducible by injury. At 2 days after sciatic nerve ligation, a robust population of EGFP-positive cells is seen in the proximal nerve stump. These transgenic mice offer novel insights into the cellular sites of NGF promoter activity and can be used as models for investigating the regulation of proNGF/NGF expression after injury. PMID:21456011

  8. Enhanced expression of Nrf2 in mice attenuates the fatty liver produced by a methionine- and choline-deficient diet

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yu-Kun Jennifer; Yeager, Ronnie L.; Tanaka, Yuji; Klaassen, Curtis D.

    2010-06-15

    Oxidative stress has been proposed as an important promoter of the progression of fatty liver diseases. The current study investigates the potential functions of the Nrf2-Keap1 signaling pathway, an important hepatic oxidative stress sensor, in a rodent fatty liver model. Mice with no (Nrf2-null), normal (wild type, WT), and enhanced (Keap1 knockdown, K1-kd) expression of Nrf2 were fed a methionine- and choline-deficient (MCD) diet or a control diet for 5 days. Compared to WT mice, the MCD diet-caused hepatosteatosis was more severe in the Nrf2-null mice and less in the K1-kd mice. The Nrf2-null mice had lower hepatic glutathione and exhibited more lipid peroxidation, whereas the K1-kd mice had the highest amount of glutathione in the liver and developed the least lipid peroxidation among the three genotypes fed the MCD diet. The Nrf2 signaling pathway was activated by the MCD diet, and the Nrf2-targeted cytoprotective genes Nqo1 and Gst{alpha}1/2 were induced in WT and even more in K1-kd mice. In addition, Nrf2-null mice on both control and MCD diets exhibited altered expression profiles of fatty acid metabolism genes, indicating Nrf2 may influence lipid metabolism in liver. For example, mRNA levels of long chain fatty acid translocase CD36 and the endocrine hormone Fgf21 were higher in livers of Nrf2-null mice and lower in the K1-kd mice than WT mice fed the MCD diet. Taken together, these observations indicate that Nrf2 could decelerate the onset of fatty livers caused by the MCD diet by increasing hepatic antioxidant and detoxification capabilities.

  9. Clavulanic acid enhances glutamate transporter subtype I (GLT-1) expression and decreases reinforcing efficacy of cocaine in mice

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae; John, Joel; Langford, Dianne; Walker, Ellen; Ward, Sara; Rawls, Scott M.

    2015-01-01

    The β-lactam antibiotic ceftriaxone (CTX) reduces cocaine reinforcement and relapse in preclinical assays through a mechanism involving activation of glutamate transporter subtype 1 (GLT-1). However, its poor brain penetrability and intravenous administration route may limit its therapeutic utility for indications related to CNS diseases. An alternative is clavulanic acid (CA), a structural analog of CTX that retains the β-lactam core required for GLT-1 activity but displays enhanced brain penetrability and oral activity relative to CTX. Here, we tested the hypothesis that CA (1, 10 mg/kg ip) would enhance GLT-1 expression and decrease cocaine self-administration (SA) in mice, but at lower doses than CTX. Experiments revealed that GLT-1 transporter expression in the nucleus accumbens of mice treated with repeated CA (1, 10 mg/kg) was enhanced relative to saline-treated mice. Repeated CA treatment (1 mg/kg) reduced the reinforcing efficacy of cocaine (0.56 mg/kg/inf) in mice maintained on a progressive-ratio (PR) schedule of reinforcement but did not affect acquisition of cocaine SA under fixed-ratio responding or acquisition or retention of learning. These findings suggest that the β-lactamase inhibitor CA can activate the cellular glutamate reuptake system in the brain reward circuit and reduce cocaine’s reinforcing efficacy at 100-fold lower doses than CTX. PMID:26543027

  10. Clavulanic acid enhances glutamate transporter subtype I (GLT-1) expression and decreases reinforcing efficacy of cocaine in mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae; John, Joel; Langford, Dianne; Walker, Ellen; Ward, Sara; Rawls, Scott M

    2016-03-01

    The β-lactam antibiotic ceftriaxone (CTX) reduces cocaine reinforcement and relapse in preclinical assays through a mechanism involving activation of glutamate transporter subtype 1 (GLT-1). However, its poor brain penetrability and intravenous administration route may limit its therapeutic utility for indications related to CNS diseases. An alternative is clavulanic acid (CA), a structural analog of CTX that retains the β-lactam core required for GLT-1 activity but displays enhanced brain penetrability and oral activity relative to CTX. Here, we tested the hypothesis that CA (1, 10 mg/kg ip) would enhance GLT-1 expression and decrease cocaine self-administration (SA) in mice, but at lower doses than CTX. Experiments revealed that GLT-1 transporter expression in the nucleus accumbens of mice treated with repeated CA (1, 10 mg/kg) was enhanced relative to saline-treated mice. Repeated CA treatment (1 mg/kg) reduced the reinforcing efficacy of cocaine (0.56 mg/kg/inf) in mice maintained on a progressive-ratio (PR) schedule of reinforcement but did not affect acquisition of cocaine SA under fixed-ratio responding or acquisition or retention of learning. These findings suggest that the β-lactamase inhibitor CA can activate the cellular glutamate reuptake system in the brain reward circuit and reduce cocaine's reinforcing efficacy at 100-fold lower doses than CTX.

  11. Passive transfer of interferon-γ over-expressing macrophages enhances resistance of SCID mice to Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection.

    PubMed

    Pasula, Rajamouli; Martin, William J; Kesavalu, Banu Rekha; Abdalla, Maher Y; Britigan, Bradley E

    2017-02-23

    Infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) is associated with increased deaths worldwide. Alveolar macrophages (AMs) play a critical role in host defense against infection with this pathogen. In this work we tested the hypothesis that passive transfer of normal AMs, IFN-γ activated AMs, or macrophages transduced to over-express IFN-γ into the lungs of immunosuppressed SCID mice, where resident macrophages are present but not functional, would enhance alveolar immunity and increase clearance of pulmonary M.tb infection. Accordingly, SCID mice were infected with M.tb intratracheally (I.T.), following which they received either control macrophages or macrophages overexpressing IFN-γ (J774A.1). The extent of M.tb infection was assessed at 30days post-M.tb infection. SCID mice administered macrophages over-expressing IFN-γ showed a significant decrease in M.tb burden and increased survival compared to J774A.1 control macrophages or untreated mice. This was further associated with a significant increase in IFN-γ and TNF-α mRNA and protein expression, as well as NF-κB (p65) mRNA, in the lungs. The increase in IFN-γ and TNF-α lung levels was inversely proportional to the number of M.tb organisms recovered. These results provide evidence that administration of macrophages overexpressing IFN-γ inhibit M.tb growth in vivo and may enhance host defense against M.tb infection.

  12. Sevoflurane pretreatment enhance HIF-2α expression in mice after renal ischemia/reperfusion injury

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Beijie; Zhan, Qionghui; Chen, Jue; Xu, Huan; He, Zhenzhou

    2015-01-01

    Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury often occurs, which is one of the major causes of acute kidney injury, thus increasing in-hospital mortality. HIF-2α has a protective role against ischemia of the kidney. Renal ischemia/reperfusion under sevoflurane anesthesia resulted in drastic improvements in renal function. We hypothesized that underlying mechanism responsible for renal protection from sevoflurane pretreatment involves the upregulation of HIF-2α. Sevoflurane pretreatment were performed on WT and HIF-2α knockout mice before renal ischemia/reperfusion. Levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine (Cr) were determined with a standard clinical automatic analyzer. The left kidneys were taken for morphological examination. Expression of HIF-2α in kidney tissue was examined by western blotting. In WT mice, group I/R injury had significantly higher BUN and Cr levels than group control, whereas group I/R + Sev had significantly lower BUN and Cr levels than group I/R injury. Renal HIF-2α expression levels were significantly higher in WT mice of group I/R + Sev than group control and group I/R. In HIF-2α-/- mice, group I/R + Sev showed much higher BUN and Cr levels and severer histological damage than group I/R and group control. Renal HIF-2α expression levels were significantly higher in WT mice of group I/R + Sev than group control and group I/R. Our findings suggested that HIF-2α might contribute to the beneficial effect of sevoflurane in renal ischemia/reperfusion injury. PMID:26722509

  13. Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide–Null Mice Demonstrate Enhanced Sweet Taste Preference, Dysglycemia, and Reduced Taste Bud Leptin Receptor Expression

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Bronwen; Shin, Yu-Kyong; White, Caitlin M.; Ji, Sunggoan; Kim, Wook; Carlson, Olga D.; Napora, Joshua K.; Chadwick, Wayne; Chapter, Megan; Waschek, James A.; Mattson, Mark P.; Maudsley, Stuart; Egan, Josephine M.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE It is becoming apparent that there is a strong link between taste perception and energy homeostasis. Recent evidence implicates gut-related hormones in taste perception, including glucagon-like peptide 1 and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP). We used VIP knockout mice to investigate VIP's specific role in taste perception and connection to energy regulation. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Body weight, food intake, and plasma levels of multiple energy-regulating hormones were measured and pancreatic morphology was determined. In addition, the immunocytochemical profile of taste cells and gustatory behavior were examined in wild-type and VIP knockout mice. RESULTS VIP knockout mice demonstrate elevated plasma glucose, insulin, and leptin levels, with no islet β-cell number/topography alteration. VIP and its receptors (VPAC1, VPAC2) were identified in type II taste cells of the taste bud, and VIP knockout mice exhibit enhanced taste preference to sweet tastants. VIP knockout mouse taste cells show a significant decrease in leptin receptor expression and elevated expression of glucagon-like peptide 1, which may explain sweet taste preference of VIP knockout mice. CONCLUSIONS This study suggests that the tongue can play a direct role in modulating energy intake to correct peripheral glycemic imbalances. In this way, we could view the tongue as a sensory mechanism that is bidirectionally regulated and thus forms a bridge between available foodstuffs and the intricate hormonal balance in the animal itself. PMID:20150284

  14. Enhancing survival motor neuron expression extends lifespan and attenuates neurodegeneration in mutant TDP-43 mice.

    PubMed

    Perera, Nirma D; Sheean, Rebecca K; Crouch, Peter J; White, Anthony R; Horne, Malcolm K; Turner, Bradley J

    2016-09-15

    Defects in the RNA-binding proteins survival motor neuron (SMN) and TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) cause progressive motor neuron degeneration in spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), respectively. While low levels of SMN protein in motor neurons result in SMA, recent studies implicate abnormal SMN levels and function in ALS pathogenesis. Here, we determine that SMN protein is upregulated early and progressively in spinal and cortical motor neurons of male transgenic mutant TDP-43(A315T) mice. Cytoplasmic SMN aggregates that contain TDP-43 and HuR were identified in motor neurons of TDP-43(A315T) mice, consistent with the incorporation of SMN into stress granules. To test the impact of augmenting SMN levels in TDP-43 proteinopathy, we demonstrate that neuronal overexpression of human SMN in TDP-43(A315T) mice delayed symptom onset and prolonged survival. SMN upregulation also countered motor neuron degeneration, attenuated activation of astrocytes and microglia and restored AMP kinase activation in spinal cords of TDP-43(A315T) mice. We also reveal that expression of another factor conferring motor neuron vulnerability, androgen receptor (AR), is reduced in spinal cords of male TDP-43(A315T) mice. These results establish that SMN overexpression in motor neurons slows disease onset and outcome by ameliorating pathological signs in this model of mutant TDP-43-mediated ALS. Further approaches to augment SMN levels using pharmacological or gene therapy agents may therefore be warranted in ALS. Our data also reinforce a novel potential link between ALS and spinal bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA), another motor neurodegenerative disease mediated by reduced AR function in motor neurons. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. EPA or DHA enhanced oxidative stress and aging protein expression in brain of d-galactose treated mice.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Yuan-Man; Yin, Mei-Chin

    2016-06-01

    Effects of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6) upon fatty acid composition, oxidative and inflammatory factors and aging proteins in brain of d-galactose (DG) treated aging mice were examined. Each fatty acid at 7 mg/kg BW/week was supplied for 8 weeks. Brain aging was induced by DG treatment (100 mg/kg body weight) via daily subcutaneous injection for 8 weeks. DG, EPA and DHA treatments changed brain fatty acid composition. DG down-regulated brain Bcl-2 expression and up-regulated Bax expression. Compared with DG groups, EPA and DHA further enhanced Bax expression. DG decreased glutathione content, increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) production, the intake of EPA or DHA caused greater ROS and GSSG formation. DG treatments up-regulated the protein expression of p47(phox) and gp91(phox), and the intake of EPA or DHA led to greater p47(phox) and gp91(phox) expression. DG increased brain prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) levels, and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expression and activity, the intake of EPA or DHA reduced brain COX-2 activity and PGE2 formation. DG enhanced brain p53, p16 and p21 expression. EPA and DHA intake led to greater p21 expression, and EPA only caused greater p53 and p16 expression. These findings suggest that these two PUFAs have toxic effects toward aging brain.

  16. Immune deficiency enhances expression of recombinant human antibody in mice after nonviral in vivo gene transfer.

    PubMed

    Kitaguchi, Kohji; Toda, Mikako; Takekoshi, Masataka; Maeda, Fumiko; Muramatsu, Tatsuo; Murai, Atsushi

    2005-10-01

    A cDNA encoding human antibody against hepatitis B virus was expressed in normal and severe combined immune deficiency (SCID) mice to clarify whether or not host immune status affects circulating levels of the recombinant human antibody (RhAb) after nonviral in vivo gene transfer. For transferring genes, either electroporation (EP) or hydrodynamics-based transfection (HD) was employed. The former was applied to the leg muscle to express the gene, while the latter primarily targeted foreign gene expression in the liver. The expressed RhAb was secreted into the blood circulation, and its existence was assayed by ELISA. Prior to the investigation of host immune status, suitable forms of plasmid expression vectors and types of electrodes were determined in normal mice. Results showed that the vector encoding both the light and heavy chains driven by the CMV promoter had the highest plasma RhAb concentrations, and a pair of pincette-type electrodes conferred the best performance. In both EP and HD, the SCID state showed an increased and prolonged RhAb production in the blood circulation due probably to suppressed recognition of RhAb as a foreign protein to the host animal. The difference in gene transfer methods demonstrated a characteristic pattern: an early and sharp rise followed by a relatively rapid decrease in HD, in contrast to a gradual rise followed by a plateau level maintained in EP. As a result, with the same amount of gene transferred, the plasma RhAb concentrations for the first 7 or 8 weeks were higher in HD than EP, while the reverse was true for the latter period. Multiple gene transfer contributed to maintaining and prolonging high RhAb concentrations in plasma by both methods with similar characteristic patterns accompanying the respective gene transfer method. These results suggest the importance of host immunological potency for maintaining plasma RhAb concentrations if these gene transfer technologies are used for clinical and therapeutic purposes.

  17. Elimination of p19ARF-expressing cells enhances pulmonary function in mice

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Michihiro; Asai, Azusa; Kawagishi, Hiroyuki; Mikawa, Ryuta; Iwashita, Yuji; Kanayama, Kazuki; Sugimoto, Kazushi; Sato, Tadashi; Maruyama, Mitsuo

    2016-01-01

    Senescent cells accumulate in many tissues as animals age and are considered to underlie several aging-associated pathologies. The tumor suppressors p19ARF and p16INK4a, both of which are encoded in the CDKN2A locus, play critical roles in inducing and maintaining permanent cell cycle arrest during cellular senescence. Although the elimination of p16INK4a-expressing cells extends the life span of the mouse, it is unclear whether tissue function is restored by the elimination of senescent cells in aged animals and whether and how p19ARF contributes to tissue aging. The aging-associated decline in lung function is characterized by an increase in compliance as well as pathogenic susceptibility to pulmonary diseases. We herein demonstrated that pulmonary function in 12-month-old mice was reversibly restored by the elimination of p19ARF-expressing cells. The ablation of p19ARF-expressing cells using a toxin receptor-mediated cell knockout system ameliorated aging-associated lung hypofunction. Furthermore, the aging-associated gene expression profile was reversed after the elimination of p19ARF. Our results indicate that the aging-associated decline in lung function was, at least partly, attributed to p19ARF and was recovered by eliminating p19ARF-expressing cells. PMID:27699227

  18. Enhanced expression of single immunoglobulin IL-1 receptor-related molecule ameliorates LPS-induced acute lung injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, XuXin; Zhao, YunFeng; Wu, XueLing; Qian, GuiSheng

    2011-02-01

    Single Ig IL-1 receptor-related molecule (SIGIRR) is one of the members of the Toll-like receptor (TLR)-IL-1 receptor superfamily. Previous studies demonstrated that SIGIRR can function as a negative regulator of IL-1 and LPS signaling. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of enhanced expression of SIGIRR on LPS-induced acute lung injury. We constructed a recombinant adenoviral vector expressing murine SIGIRR (Ad.mSIGIRR) and a control adenoviral vector containing no transgene (Ad.V). A total of 4 × 10⁷ plaque-forming units of Ad.mSIGIRR or Ad.V adenoviral vector were administered intranasally to BALB/c mice. Forty-eight hours later, all the mice were administered a single dose of LPS via i.p. injection to induce lung injury. Lungs and blood were harvested at several time points. The expression of SIGIRR in lung, the histological changes in the lung, the levels of TNF-α in serum and lung, the concentration of nitric monoxide (NO) in lung, and the activity of myeloperoxidase and nuclear transcription factor κB in the lung were examined. A second cohort of mice was followed for survival for 7 days. Administration of Ad.mSIGIRR increased the expression of SIGIRR in lung tissue, as determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, Western blot, and immunohistochemistry. Administration of Ad.mSIGIRR significantly suppressed the inflammatory reaction to LPS, attenuated the lung pathological changes, and improved the survival of mice, relative to a control adenovirus. These findings suggest that modulating the expression level of SIGIRR may be a promising potential treatment for acute lung injury.

  19. Enhanced hippocampus-dependent memory and reduced anxiety in mice over-expressing human catalase in mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Reid H J; Johnson, Lance A; Zuloaga, Damian G; Limoli, Charles L; Raber, Jacob

    2013-04-01

    Oxidative stress (OS) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a modulatory role in synaptic plasticity and signaling pathways. Mitochondria (MT), a major source of ROS because of their involvement in energy metabolism, are important for brain function. MT-generated ROS are proposed to be responsible for a significant proportion of OS and are associated with developmental abnormalities and aspects of cellular aging. The role of ROS and MT function in cognition of healthy individuals is relatively understudied. In this study, we characterized behavioral and cognitive performance of 5- to 6-month-old mice over-expressing mitochondrial catalase (MCAT). MCAT mice showed enhancements in hippocampus-dependent spatial learning and memory in the water maze and contextual fear conditioning, and reduced measures of anxiety in the elevated zero maze. Catalase activity was elevated in MCAT mice in all brain regions examined. Measures of oxidative stress (glutathione, protein carbonyl content, lipid peroxidation, and 8-hydroxyguanine) did not significantly differ between the groups. The lack of differences in these markers of oxidative stress suggests that the differences observed in this study may be due to altered redox signaling. Catalase over-expression might be sufficient to enhance cognition and reduce measures of anxiety even in the absence of alteration in levels of OS.

  20. High animal fat intake enhances prostate cancer progression and reduces glutathione peroxidase 3 expression in early stages of TRAMP mice.

    PubMed

    Chang, Seo-Na; Han, Juhee; Abdelkader, Tamer Said; Kim, Tae-Hyoun; Lee, Ji Min; Song, Juha; Kim, Kyung-Sul; Park, Jong-Hwan; Park, Jae-Hak

    2014-09-01

    Prostate cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in Western men, and more men have been diagnosed at younger ages in recent years. A high-fat Western-style diet is a known risk factor for prostate cancer and increases oxidative stress. We evaluated the association between dietary animal fat and expression of antioxidant enzymes, particularly glutathione peroxidase 3 (GPx3), in the early stages of transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate (TRAMP) mice. Six-week-old male nontransgenic and TRAMP mice were placed on high animal fat (45% Kcal fat) or control (10% Kcal fat) diets and sacrificed after 5 or 10 weeks. The histopathological score increased with age and high-fat diet consumption. The histopathological scores in dorsal and lateral lobes increased in the 10-week high-fat diet group (6.2±0.2 and 6.2±0.4, respectively) versus the 10-week control diet group (5.3±0.3 and 5.2±0.2, respectively). GPx3 decreased both at the mRNA and protein levels in mouse prostate. GPx3 mRNA expression decreased (∼36.27% and ∼23.91%, respectively) in the anterior and dorsolateral prostate of TRAMP mice fed a high-fat diet compared to TRAMP mice fed a control diet. Cholesterol treatment increased PC-3 human prostate cancer cell proliferation, decreased GPx3 mRNA and protein levels, and increased H2 O2 levels in culture medium. Moreover, increasing GPx3 mRNA expression by troglitazone in PC-3 cells decreased cell proliferation and lowered H2 O2 levels. Dietary fat enhances prostate cancer progression, possibly by suppressing GPx3 expression and increasing proliferation of prostate intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) epithelial cells. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Estrogen increases the severity of anaphylaxis in female mice through enhanced endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression and nitric oxide production.

    PubMed

    Hox, Valerie; Desai, Avanti; Bandara, Geethani; Gilfillan, Alasdair M; Metcalfe, Dean D; Olivera, Ana

    2015-03-01

    Clinical observations suggest that anaphylaxis is more common in adult women compared with adult men, although the mechanistic basis for this sex bias is not well understood. We sought to document sex-dependent differences in a mouse model of anaphylaxis and explore the role of female sex hormones and the mechanisms responsible. Passive systemic anaphylaxis was induced in female and male mice by using histamine, as well as IgE or IgG receptor aggregation. Anaphylaxis was assessed by monitoring body temperature, release of mast cell mediators and/or hematocrit, and lung weight as a measure of vascular permeability. A combination of ovariectomy, estrogen receptor antagonism, and estrogen administration techniques were used to establish estrogen involvement. Anaphylactic responses were more pronounced in female than male mice. The enhanced severity of anaphylaxis in female mice was eliminated after pretreatment with an estrogen receptor antagonist or ovariectomy but restored after administration of estradiol in ovariectomized mice, demonstrating that the sex-specific differences are due to the female steroid estradiol. Estrogen did not affect mast cell responsiveness or anaphylaxis onset. Instead, it increased tissue expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). Blockage of NOS activity with the inhibitor L-NG-nitroarginine methyl ester or genetic eNOS deficiency abolished the sex-related differences. Our study defines a contribution of estrogen through its regulation of eNOS expression and nitric oxide production to vascular hyperpermeability and intensified anaphylactic responses in female mice, providing additional mechanistic insights into risk factors and possible implications for clinical management in the further exploration of human anaphylaxis. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Maternal obesity induces epigenetic modifications to facilitate Zfp423 expression and enhance adipogenic differentiation in fetal mice.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qi-Yuan; Liang, Jun-Fang; Rogers, Carl J; Zhao, Jun-Xing; Zhu, Mei-Jun; Du, Min

    2013-11-01

    Maternal obesity (MO) predisposes offspring to obesity and type 2 diabetes despite poorly defined mechanisms. Zfp423 is the key transcription factor committing cells to the adipogenic lineage, with exceptionally dense CpG sites in its promoter. We hypothesized that MO enhances adipogenic differentiation during fetal development through inducing epigenetic changes in the Zfp423 promoter and elevating its expression. Female mice were subjected to a control (Con) or obesogenic (OB) diet for 2 months, mated, and maintained on their diets during pregnancy. Fetal tissue was harvested at embryonic day 14.5 (E14.5), when the early adipogenic commitment is initiated. The Zfp423 expression was 3.6-fold higher and DNA methylation in the Zfp423 promoter was lower in OB compared with Con. Correspondingly, repressive histone methylation (H3K27me3) was lower in the Zfp423 promoter of OB fetal tissue, accompanied by reduced binding of enhancer of zeste 2 (EZH2). Gain- and loss-of-function analysis showed that Zfp423 regulates early adipogenic differentiation in fetal progenitor cells. In summary, MO enhanced Zfp423 expression and adipogenic differentiation during fetal development, at least partially through reducing DNA methylation in the Zfp423 promoter, which is expected to durably elevate adipogenic differentiation of progenitor cells in adult tissue, programming adiposity and metabolic dysfunction later in life.

  3. A fast-evolving human NPAS3 enhancer gained reporter expression in the developing forebrain of transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Kamm, Gretel B.; López-Leal, Rodrigo; Lorenzo, Juan R.; Franchini, Lucía F.

    2013-01-01

    The developmental brain gene NPAS3 stands out as a hot spot in human evolution because it contains the largest number of human-specific, fast-evolving, conserved, non-coding elements. In this paper we studied 2xHAR142, one of these elements that is located in the fifth intron of NPAS3. Using transgenic mice, we show that the mouse and chimp 2xHAR142 orthologues behave as transcriptional enhancers driving expression of the reporter gene lacZ to a similar NPAS3 expression subdomain in the mouse central nervous system. Interestingly, the human 2xHAR142 orthologue drives lacZ expression to an extended expression pattern in the nervous system. Thus, molecular evolution of 2xHAR142 provides the first documented example of human-specific heterotopy in the forebrain promoted by a transcriptional enhancer and suggests that it may have contributed to assemble the unique properties of the human brain. PMID:24218632

  4. Enhanced Gastrointestinal Expression of Cytosolic Malic Enzyme (ME1) Induces Intestinal and Liver Lipogenic Gene Expression and Intestinal Cell Proliferation in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Al-Dwairi, Ahmed; Brown, Adam R.; Pabona, John Mark P.; Van, Trang H.; Hamdan, Hamdan; Mercado, Charles P.; Quick, Charles M.; Wight, Patricia A.; Simmen, Rosalia C. M.; Simmen, Frank A.

    2014-01-01

    The small intestine participates in lipid digestion, metabolism and transport. Cytosolic malic enzyme 1 (ME1) is an enzyme that generates NADPH used in fatty acid and cholesterol biosynthesis. Previous work has correlated liver and adipose ME1 expression with susceptibility to obesity and diabetes; however, the contributions of intestine-expressed ME1 to these conditions are unknown. We generated transgenic (Tg) mice expressing rat ME1 in the gastrointestinal epithelium under the control of the murine villin1 promoter/enhancer. Levels of intestinal ME1 protein (endogenous plus transgene) were greater in Tg than wildtype (WT) littermates. Effects of elevated intestinal ME1 on body weight, circulating insulin, select adipocytokines, blood glucose, and metabolism-related genes were examined. Male Tg mice fed a high-fat (HF) diet gained significantly more body weight than WT male littermates and had heavier livers. ME1-Tg mice had deeper intestinal and colon crypts, a greater intestinal 5-bromodeoxyuridine labeling index, and increased expression of intestinal lipogenic (Fasn, Srebf1) and cholesterol biosynthetic (Hmgcsr, Hmgcs1), genes. The livers from HF diet-fed Tg mice also exhibited an induction of cholesterol and lipogenic pathway genes and altered measures (Irs1, Irs2, Prkce) of insulin sensitivity. Results indicate that gastrointestinal ME1 via its influence on intestinal epithelial proliferation, and lipogenic and cholesterologenic genes may concomitantly impact signaling in liver to modify this tissue’s metabolic state. Our work highlights a new mouse model to address the role of intestine-expressed ME1 in whole body metabolism, hepatomegaly, and crypt cell proliferation. Intestinal ME1 may thus constitute a therapeutic target to reduce obesity-associated pathologies. PMID:25402228

  5. Enhanced neuronal plasticity and elevated endogenous sAPPα levels in mice over-expressing MMP9.

    PubMed

    Fragkouli, Apostolia; Papatheodoropoulos, Costas; Georgopoulos, Spiros; Stamatakis, Antonios; Stylianopoulou, Fotini; Tsilibary, Effie C; Tzinia, Athina K

    2012-04-01

    Evidence accumulating during the past few years points to a significant role of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) enzymatic activity in synaptic plasticity and cognitive processes. We have previously demonstrated that MMP9 is involved in receptor-mediated α-secretase-like cleavage of APP in vitro, resulting in increased secretion of sAPPα, the soluble N-terminal product of the non-amyloidogenic pathway known to be involved in neuronal plasticity and memory formation. To study the in vivo role of MMP9, we have generated transgenic mice over-expressing MMP9 in the brain. Herein, we demonstrate that MMP9 transgenic animals display enhanced performance in the non-spatial novel object recognition and the spatial water-maze task and that their enhanced performance was accompanied by increased dendritic spine density in the hippocampus and cortex following behavioural testing. Consistent with the above observations, the electrophysiological analysis revealed prolonged maintenance of long-term synaptic potentiation in hippocampal slices from MMP9 transgenic mice. Moreover, elevated sAPPα levels in the hippocampus and cortex of MPP9 transgenic animals were also observed. Overall, our results extend previous findings on the physiological role of MMP9 in neuronal plasticity and furthermore reveal that, APP may be one of the physiological proteolytic targets of MMP9 in vivo.

  6. Treadmill exercise inhibits hippocampal apoptosis through enhancing N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor expression in the MK-801-induced schizophrenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Jin Woo; Seo, Jin-Hee; Baek, Sang-Bin; Kim, Chang-Ju; Kim, Tae-Woon

    2014-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder characterized by abnormal mental functioning and disruptive behaviors. Abnormal expression of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, one of the glutamate receptor subtypes, has also been suggested to contribute to the symptoms of schizophrenia. The effect of treadmill exercise on schizophrenia-induced apoptosis in relation with NMDA receptor has not been evaluated. In the present study, we investigated the effect of treadmill exercise on neuronal apoptosis in the hippocampus using MK-801-induced schizophrenic mice. MK-801 was intraperitoneally injected once a day for 2 weeks. The mice in the exercise groups were forced to run on a treadmill exercise for 60 min, once a day for 2 weeks. In the present results, repeated injection of the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 reduced expression of NMDA receptor in hippocampal CA2-3 regions. MK-801 injection increased casapse-3 expression and enhanced cytochrome c release in the hippocampus. The ratio of Bax to Bcl-2 was higher in the MK-801-induced schizophrenia mice than the normal mice. In contrast, treadmill exercise enhanced NMDA receptor expression, suppressed caspae-3 activation and cytochrome c release, and inhibited the ratio of Bax to Bcl-2. Based on present finding, we concluded that NMDA receptor hypofunctioning induced neuronal apoptosis in MK-801-induced schizophrenic mice. Treadmill exercise suppressed neuronal apoptosis through enhancing NMDA receptor expression in schizophrenic mice. PMID:25210696

  7. Expression of the chemokine receptor CXCR7 in CXCR4-expressing human 143B osteosarcoma cells enhances lung metastasis of intratibial xenografts in SCID mice.

    PubMed

    Brennecke, Patrick; Arlt, Matthias J E; Muff, Roman; Campanile, Carmen; Gvozdenovic, Ana; Husmann, Knut; Holzwarth, Nathalie; Cameroni, Elisabetta; Ehrensperger, Felix; Thelen, Marcus; Born, Walter; Fuchs, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    More effective treatment of metastasizing osteosarcoma with a current mean 5-year survival rate of less than 20% requires more detailed knowledge on mechanisms and key regulatory molecules of the complex metastatic process. CXCR4, the receptor of the chemokine CXCL12, has been reported to promote tumor progression and metastasis in osteosarcoma. CXCR7 is a recently deorphanized CXCL12-scavenging receptor with so far not well-defined functions in tumor biology. The present study focused on a potential malignancy enhancing function of CXCR7 in interaction with CXCR4 in osteosarcoma, which was investigated in an intratibial osteosarcoma model in SCID mice, making use of the human 143B osteosarcoma cell line that spontaneously metastasizes to the lung and expresses endogenous CXCR4. 143B osteosarcoma cells stably expressing LacZ (143B-LacZ cells) were retrovirally transduced with a gene encoding HA-tagged CXCR7 (143B-LacZ-X7-HA cells). 143B-LacZ-X7-HA cells co-expressing CXCR7 and CXCR4 exhibited CXCL12 scavenging and enhanced adhesion to IL-1β-activated HUVEC cells compared to 143B-LacZ cells expressing CXCR4 alone. SCID mice intratibially injected with 143B-LacZ-X7-HA cells had significantly (p<0.05) smaller primary tumors, but significantly (p<0.05) higher numbers of lung metastases than mice injected with 143B-LacZ cells. Unexpectedly, 143B-LacZ-X7-HA cells, unlike 143B-LacZ cells, also metastasized with high incidence to the auriculum cordis. In conclusion, expression of the CXCL12 scavenging receptor CXCR7 in the CXCR4-expressing human 143B osteosarcoma cell line enhances its metastatic activity in intratibial primary tumors in SCID mice that predominantly metastasize to the lung and thereby closely mimic the human disease. These findings point to CXCR7 as a target, complementary to previously proposed CXCR4, for more effective metastasis-suppressive treatment in osteosarcoma.

  8. Estradiol replacement enhances fear memory formation, impairs extinction and reduces COMT expression levels in the hippocampus of ovariectomized female mice.

    PubMed

    McDermott, Carmel M; Liu, Dan; Ade, Catherine; Schrader, Laura A

    2015-02-01

    Females experience depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and anxiety disorders at approximately twice the rate of males, but the mechanisms underlying this difference remain undefined. The effect of sex hormones on neural substrates presents a possible mechanism. We investigated the effect of ovariectomy at two ages, before puberty and in adulthood, and 17β-estradiol (E2) replacement administered chronically in drinking water on anxiety level, fear memory formation, and extinction. Based on previous studies, we hypothesized that estradiol replacement would impair fear memory formation and enhance extinction rate. Females, age 4 weeks and 10 weeks, were divided randomly into 4 groups; sham surgery, OVX, OVX+low E2 (200nM), and OVX+high E2 (1000nM). Chronic treatment with high levels of E2 significantly increased anxiety levels measured in the elevated plus maze. In both age groups, high levels of E2 significantly increased contextual fear memory but had no effect on cued fear memory. In addition, high E2 decreased the rate of extinction in both ages. Finally, catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) is important for regulation of catecholamine levels, which play a role in fear memory formation and extinction. COMT expression in the hippocampus was significantly reduced by high E2 replacement, implying increased catecholamine levels in the hippocampus of high E2 mice. These results suggest that estradiol enhanced fear memory formation, and inhibited fear memory extinction, possibly stabilizing the fear memory in female mice. This study has implications for a neurobiological mechanism for PTSD and anxiety disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Protection against high-fat diet-induced obesity in Helz2-deficient male mice due to enhanced expression of hepatic leptin receptor.

    PubMed

    Yoshino, Satoshi; Satoh, Tetsurou; Yamada, Masanobu; Hashimoto, Koshi; Tomaru, Takuya; Katano-Toki, Akiko; Kakizaki, Satoru; Okada, Shuichi; Shimizu, Hiroyuki; Ozawa, Atsushi; Tuchiya, Takafumi; Ikota, Hayato; Nakazato, Yoichi; Mori, Munemasa; Matozaki, Takashi; Sasaki, Tsutomu; Kitamura, Tadahiro; Mori, Masatomo

    2014-09-01

    Obesity arises from impaired energy balance, which is centrally coordinated by leptin through activation of the long form of leptin receptor (Leprb). Obesity causes central leptin resistance. However, whether enhanced peripheral leptin sensitivity could overcome central leptin resistance remains obscure. A peripheral metabolic organ targeted by leptin is the liver, with low Leprb expression. We here show that mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) and obese patients with hepatosteatosis exhibit increased expression of hepatic helicase with zinc finger 2, a transcriptional coactivator (Helz2), which functions as a transcriptional coregulator of several nuclear receptors, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ in vitro. To explore the physiological importance of Helz2, we generated Helz2-deficient mice and analyzed their metabolic phenotypes. Helz2-deficient mice showing hyperleptinemia associated with central leptin resistance were protected against HFD-induced obesity and had significantly up-regulated hepatic Leprb expression. Helz2 deficiency and adenovirus-mediated liver-specific exogenous Leprb overexpression in wild-type mice significantly stimulated hepatic AMP-activated protein kinase on HFD, whereas Helz2-deficient db/db mice lacking functional Leprb did not. Fatty acid-β oxidation was increased in Helz2-deficeint hepatocytes, and Helz2-deficient mice revealed increased oxygen consumption and decreased respiratory quotient in calorimetry analyses. The enhanced hepatic AMP-activated protein kinase energy-sensing pathway in Helz2-deficient mice ameliorated hyperlipidemia, hepatosteatosis, and insulin resistance by reducing lipogenic gene expression and stimulating lipid-burning gene expression in the liver. These findings together demonstrate that Helz2 deficiency ameliorates HFD-induced metabolic abnormalities by stimulating endogenous hepatic Leprb expression, despite central leptin resistance. Hepatic HELZ2 might be a novel target molecule for

  10. Expression of human hormone-sensitive lipase in white adipose tissue of transgenic mice increases lipase activity but does not enhance in vitro lipolysis.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Stéphanie; Tavernier, Geneviève; Tiraby, Claire; Mairal, Aline; Langin, Dominique

    2003-01-01

    Hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) catalyzes the hydrolysis of acylglycerols and cholesteryl esters (CEs). The enzyme is highly expressed in adipose tissues (ATs), where it is thought to play an important role in fat mobilization. The purpose of the present work was to study the effect of a physiological increase of HSL expression in vivo. Transgenic mice were produced with a 21 kb human genomic fragment encompassing the exons encoding the adipocyte form of HSL. hHSL mRNA was expressed at 3-fold higher levels than murine HSL mRNA in white adipocytes. Transgene expression was also observed in brown adipose tissue (BAT) and skeletal muscle. The human protein was detected in ATs of transgenic (Tg) mice. The hydrolytic activities against triacylglycerol (TG), diacylglycerol (DG) analog, and CE were increased in transgenic mouse AT. However, cAMP-inducible adipocyte lipolysis was lower in transgenic animals. In the B6CBA genetic background, transgenic mice up to 14 weeks of age showed lower body weight and fat mass. The phenotype was not observed in older animals and in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). In the OF1 genetic background, there was no difference in fat mass of mice fed ad libitum. However, transgenic mice became leaner than their wild-type (WT) littermates after a 4 day calorie restriction. The data show that overexpression of HSL, despite increased lipase activity, does not lead to enhanced lipolysis.

  11. Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Infection in Elderly Mice Results in Altered Antiviral Gene Expression and Enhanced Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Terianne M.; Boyapalle, Sandhya; Sampayo, Viviana; Nguyen, Huy D.; Bedi, Raminder; Kamath, Siddharth G.; Moore, Martin L.; Mohapatra, Subhra; Mohapatra, Shyam S.

    2014-01-01

    Elderly persons are more susceptible to RSV-induced pneumonia than young people, but the molecular mechanism underlying this susceptibility is not well understood. In this study, we used an aged mouse model of RSV-induced pneumonia to examine how aging alters the lung pathology, modulates antiviral gene expressions, and the production of inflammatory cytokines in response to RSV infection. Young (2–3 months) and aged (19–21 months) mice were intranasally infected with mucogenic or non-mucogenic RSV strains, lung histology was examined, and gene expression was analyzed. Upon infection with mucogenic strains of RSV, leukocyte infiltration in the airways was elevated and prolonged in aged mice compared to young mice. Minitab factorial analysis identified several antiviral genes that are influenced by age, infection, and a combination of both factors. The expression of five antiviral genes, including pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and osteopontin (OPN), was altered by both age and infection, while age was associated with the expression of 15 antiviral genes. Both kinetics and magnitude of antiviral gene expression were diminished as a result of older age. In addition to delays in cytokine signaling and pattern recognition receptor induction, we found TLR7/8 signaling to be impaired in alveolar macrophages in aged mice. In vivo, induction of IL-1β and OPN were delayed but prolonged in aged mice upon RSV infection compared to young. In conclusion, this study demonstrates inherent differences in response to RSV infection in young vs. aged mice, accompanied by delayed antiviral gene induction and cytokine signaling. PMID:24558422

  12. Mycobacterium abscessus phospholipase C expression is induced during coculture within amoebae and enhances M. abscessus virulence in mice.

    PubMed

    Bakala N'Goma, Jean Claude; Le Moigne, Vincent; Soismier, Nathalie; Laencina, Laura; Le Chevalier, Fabien; Roux, Anne-Laure; Poncin, Isabelle; Serveau-Avesque, Carole; Rottman, Martin; Gaillard, Jean-Louis; Etienne, Gilles; Brosch, Roland; Herrmann, Jean-Louis; Canaan, Stéphane; Girard-Misguich, Fabienne

    2015-02-01

    Mycobacterium abscessus is a pathogenic, rapidly growing mycobacterium involved in pulmonary and cutaneo-mucous infections worldwide, to which cystic fibrosis patients are exquisitely susceptible. The analysis of the genome sequence of M. abscessus showed that this bacterium is endowed with the metabolic pathways typically found in environmental microorganisms that come into contact with soil, plants, and aquatic environments, where free-living amoebae are frequently present. M. abscessus also contains several genes that are characteristically found only in pathogenic bacteria. One of them is MAB_0555, encoding a putative phospholipase C (PLC) that is absent from most other rapidly growing mycobacteria, including Mycobacterium chelonae and Mycobacterium smegmatis. Here, we report that purified recombinant M. abscessus PLC is highly cytotoxic to mouse macrophages, presumably due to hydrolysis of membrane phospholipids. We further showed by constructing and using an M. abscessus PLC knockout mutant that loss of PLC activity is deleterious to M. abscessus intracellular survival in amoebae. The importance of PLC is further supported by the fact that M. abscessus PLC was found to be expressed only in amoebae. Aerosol challenge of mice with M. abscessus strains that were precultured in amoebae enhanced M. abscessus lung infectivity relative to M. abscessus grown in broth culture. Our study underlines the importance of PLC for the virulence of M. abscessus. Despite the difficulties of isolating M. abscessus from environmental sources, our findings suggest that M. abscessus has evolved in close contact with environmental protozoa, which supports the argument that amoebae may contribute to the virulence of opportunistic mycobacteria.

  13. Enhanced Hypertrophy In ob/ob Mice Due To An Impairment in Expression Of Atrial Natriuretic Peptide

    PubMed Central

    Mascareno, Eduardo; Beckles, Daniel; Dhar-Mascareno, Manya; Siddiqui, M.A.Q.

    2009-01-01

    Rationale We investigated the molecular mechanism(s) that play a role in leptin signaling during the development of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) due to pressure overload. To this end, ob/ob leptin deficient and C57BL/6J control mice were subjected transverse aortic constriction (TAC). Methods Control sham C57BL/6J and ob/ob mice, along with C57BL/6J and ob/ob leptin deficient mice were subjected transverse aortic constriction (TAC) for 15 days and then evaluated for morphological, physiological, and molecular changes associated with pressure overload hypertrophy. Results Evaluation by echocardiography revealed a significant increase in left ventricular mass (LVmass) and wall thickness in ob/ob mice subjected to transverse aortic constriction (TAC) as compared to C57BL/6J. Analysis of the expression of molecular markers of LVH, such as atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), revealed a blunted increase in the level of ANP in ob/ob mice as compared to C57BL/6J mice. We observed that leptin plays a role in modulating the transcriptional activity of the promoter of the ANP gene. Leptin acts by regulating NFATc4, a member of the nuclear factor activated T cell (NFAT) family of transcription factors in cardiomyocytes. Our in vivo studies revealed that ob/ob mice subjected to TAC failed to activate the NFATc4 in the heart, however, intraperitoneal injection of leptin in ob/ob mice restored the NFATc4 DNA-binding activity and induced expression of the ANP gene. Conclusion This study establishes the role of leptin as an anti-hypertrophic agent during pressure overload hypertrophy, and suggests that a key molecular event is the leptin mediated activation of NFATc4 that regulates the transcriptional activation of the ANP gene promoter. PMID:19560554

  14. Enhanced hypertrophy in ob/ob mice due to an impairment in expression of atrial natriuretic peptide.

    PubMed

    Mascareno, Eduardo; Beckles, Daniel; Dhar-Mascareno, Manya; Siddiqui, M A Q

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the molecular mechanism(s) that play a role in leptin signaling during the development of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) due to pressure overload. To this end, ob/ob leptin deficient and C57BL/6J control mice were subjected transverse aortic constriction (TAC). Control sham C57BL/6J and ob/ob mice, along with C57BL/6J and ob/ob leptin deficient mice were subjected transverse aortic constriction (TAC) for 15 days and then evaluated for morphological, physiological, and molecular changes associated with pressure overload hypertrophy. Evaluation by echocardiography revealed a significant increase in left ventricular mass (LVmass) and wall thickness in ob/ob mice subjected to transverse aortic constriction (TAC) as compared to C57BL/6J. Analysis of the expression of molecular markers of LVH, such as atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), revealed a blunted increase in the level of ANP in ob/ob mice as compared to C57BL/6J mice. We observed that leptin plays a role in modulating the transcriptional activity of the promoter of the ANP gene. Leptin acts by regulating NFATc4, a member of the nuclear factor activated T cell (NFAT) family of transcription factors in cardiomyocytes. Our in vivo studies revealed that ob/ob mice subjected to TAC failed to activate the NFATc4 in the heart, however, intraperitoneal injection of leptin in ob/ob mice restored the NFATc4 DNA-binding activity and induced expression of the ANP gene. This study establishes the role of leptin as an anti-hypertrophic agent during pressure overload hypertrophy, and suggests that a key molecular event is the leptin mediated activation of NFATc4 that regulates the transcriptional activation of the ANP gene promoter.

  15. Folic acid deficiency enhances abeta accumulation in APP/PS1 mice brain and decreases amyloid-associated miRNAs expression.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huan; Tian, Tian; Qin, Shanchun; Li, Wen; Zhang, Xumei; Wang, Xuan; Gao, Yuxia; Huang, Guowei

    2015-12-01

    Recent efforts have revealed the microRNA (miRNA) pathways in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Epidemiological studies have revealed an association between folic acid deficiency and AD risk. However, the effects of folic acid deficiency on miRNA expression in AD animals have not been observed. We aimed to find if folic acid deficiency may enhance amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide deposition and regulate amyloid-associated miRNAs and their target genes expression in APP/PS1 mice. APP/PS1 mice and N2a cells were treated with folic acid-deficient diet or medium. Cognitive function of mice was assessed using the Morris water maze. miRNA profile was tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) array. Different expressional miRNAs were validated by real-time PCR. The deposition of Aβ plaques was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. APP and BACE1 proteins in mice brain and N2a cells were determined by Western blot. Folic acid deficiency aggravated amyloid pathology in AD mice. The AD+FD group showed shorter time spent in the target zone during the probe test. Analysis of miRNAs predicted to target these genes revealed several miRNA candidates that were differentially modulated by folic acid deficiency. In APP/PS1 mice brains and N2a cells with folic acid-deficient treatment, miR-106a-5p, miR-200b-3p and miR-339-5p were down-regulated, and their target genes APP and BACE1 were up-regulated. In conclusion, folic acid deficiency can enhance Aβ accumulation in APP/PS1 mice brain and decrease amyloid-associated miRNAs expression.

  16. Memory in aged mice is rescued by enhanced expression of the GluN2B subunit of the NMDA receptor

    PubMed Central

    Brim, B. L.; Haskell, R.; Awedikian, R.; Ellinwood, N.M.; Jin, L.; Kumar, A.; Foster, T.C.; Magnusson, K.

    2012-01-01

    The GluN2B subunit of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor shows age-related declines in expression across the frontal cortex and hippocampus. This decline is strongly correlated to age-related memory declines. This study was designed to determine if increasing GluN2B subunit expression in the frontal lobe or hippocampus would improve memory in aged mice. Mice were injected bilaterally with either the GluN2B vector, containing cDNA specific for the GluN2B subunit and enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein (eGFP); a control vector or vehicle. Spatial memory, cognitive flexibility, and associative memory were assessed using the Morris water maze. Aged mice, with increased GluN2B subunit expression, exhibited improved long-term spatial memory, comparable to young mice. However, memory was rescued on different days in the Morris water maze; early for hippocampal GluN2B subunit enrichment and later for the frontal lobe. A higher concentration of the GluN2B antagonist, Ro 25-6981, was required to impair long-term spatial memory in aged mice with enhanced GluN2B expression, as compared to aged controls, suggesting there was an increase in the number of GluN2B-containing NMDA receptors. In addition, hippocampal slices from aged mice with increased GluN2B subunit expression exhibited enhanced NMDA receptor-mediated excitatory post-synaptic potentials (EPSP). Treatment with Ro 25-6981 showed that a greater proportion of the NMDA receptor-mediated EPSP was due to the GluN2B subunit in these animals, as compared to aged controls. These results suggest that increasing the production of the GluN2B subunit in aged animals enhances memory and synaptic transmission. Therapies that enhance GluN2B subunit expression within the aged brain may be useful for ameliorating age-related memory declines. PMID:23103326

  17. Environmental enrichment enhances neurogranin expression and hippocampal learning and memory but fails to rescue the impairments of neurogranin null mutant mice.

    PubMed

    Huang, Freesia L; Huang, Kuo-Ping; Wu, Junfang; Boucheron, Catherine

    2006-06-07

    Environmental enrichment is known to enhance hippocampal neurogenesis and cognitive functions. Neurogranin (Ng), a specific substrate of protein kinase C (PKC), is abundantly expressed in brain regions important for cognitive functions. Deletion of Ng in mice causes severe deficits in spatial learning and long-term potentiation (LTP) in the hippocampal CA1 region. These Ng-/- mice, as compared with Ng+/+, respond poorly after treatment of their hippocampal slices with agents that activate signaling molecules important for learning and memory, including Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (alphaCaMKII), PKC, protein kinase A (PKA), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB). In the present study, adult mice were housed in either regular home cages (control group) or more spacious cages with an exercise wheel and change of toys twice per week (enriched group) for at least 3 weeks. Enriched Ng+/+ and Ng+/- mice showed enhanced LTP in the hippocampal CA1 after high-frequency stimulation, but Ng-/- mice were affected only minimally. Behaviorally, the enriched Ng+/+ and Ng+/-, but not Ng-/- mice, performed significantly better than their respective control cohorts in Morris water maze and in step-down fear conditioning. Enriched Ng+/- mice also showed improvement in the radial arm maze. Quantitative immunoblot analyses showed that the enriched groups of all three genotypes exhibited elevated hippocampal levels of alphaCaMKII and CREB, but not ERK. Interestingly, enrichment caused a significant increase in hippocampal Ng levels both in Ng+/+ and Ng+/- mice that seemed to contribute to their improved LTP and behavioral performances. These results suggest that Ng gates the neuronal signaling reactions involved in learning and memory. During environmental enrichment, these Ng-regulated reactions are also critical for the enhancement of synaptic plasticity and cognitive functions.

  18. Enhanced expression of epithelial sodium channels causes salt-induced hypertension in mice through inhibition of the α2-isoform of Na+, K+-ATPase.

    PubMed

    Leenen, Frans H H; Hou, Xiaohong; Wang, Hong-Wei; Ahmad, Monir

    2015-05-01

    Knockout of the Nedd4-2 gene in mice results in overexpression of epithelial sodium channels (ENaC) on the plasma membrane in the kidney, choroid plexus and brain nuclei. These mice exhibit enhanced pressor responses to CSF [Na(+)] as well as dietary salt-induced hypertension which both can be blocked by central infusion of the ENaC blocker benzamil. Functional studies suggest that ENaC activation in the CNS results in release of endogenous ouabain (EO) and inhibition of the α2-isoform of Na(+), K(+)-ATPase. To test this concept more specifically, we studied Nedd4-2(-/-) mice expressing the ouabain-resistant α2R/R-isoform of Na(+), K(+)-ATPase. Intracerebroventricular (icv) infusion of Na(+)-rich aCSF (225 mmol/L Na(+) at 0.4 μL/min) increased MAP by 10-15 mmHg in wild-type mice and by 25-30 mmHg in Nedd4-2(-/-) mice, but by only ~5 mmHg in α2R/R and in α2R/R/Nedd4-2(-/-) mice. Icv infusion of EO-binding Fab fragments also blocked the BP response in Nedd4-2(-/-) mice. In Nedd4-2(-/-) mice, 8% high-salt diet increased MAP by 25-30 mmHg, but in α2R/R/Nedd4-2(-/-) mice, it increased by only 5-10 mmHg. In contrast, Nedd4-2(-/-) or α2R/R did not affect the hypertension caused by sc infusion of Ang II. These findings substantiate the concept that enhanced ENaC activity causes salt-induced pressor responses mainly through EO inhibiting the α2-isoform of Na(+), K(+)-ATPase in the brain.

  19. Mycobacterium abscessus Phospholipase C Expression Is Induced during Coculture within Amoebae and Enhances M. abscessus Virulence in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Bakala N'Goma, Jean Claude; Le Moigne, Vincent; Soismier, Nathalie; Laencina, Laura; Le Chevalier, Fabien; Roux, Anne-Laure; Poncin, Isabelle; Serveau-Avesque, Carole; Rottman, Martin; Gaillard, Jean-Louis; Etienne, Gilles; Brosch, Roland; Canaan, Stéphane

    2014-01-01

    Mycobacterium abscessus is a pathogenic, rapidly growing mycobacterium involved in pulmonary and cutaneo-mucous infections worldwide, to which cystic fibrosis patients are exquisitely susceptible. The analysis of the genome sequence of M. abscessus showed that this bacterium is endowed with the metabolic pathways typically found in environmental microorganisms that come into contact with soil, plants, and aquatic environments, where free-living amoebae are frequently present. M. abscessus also contains several genes that are characteristically found only in pathogenic bacteria. One of them is MAB_0555, encoding a putative phospholipase C (PLC) that is absent from most other rapidly growing mycobacteria, including Mycobacterium chelonae and Mycobacterium smegmatis. Here, we report that purified recombinant M. abscessus PLC is highly cytotoxic to mouse macrophages, presumably due to hydrolysis of membrane phospholipids. We further showed by constructing and using an M. abscessus PLC knockout mutant that loss of PLC activity is deleterious to M. abscessus intracellular survival in amoebae. The importance of PLC is further supported by the fact that M. abscessus PLC was found to be expressed only in amoebae. Aerosol challenge of mice with M. abscessus strains that were precultured in amoebae enhanced M. abscessus lung infectivity relative to M. abscessus grown in broth culture. Our study underlines the importance of PLC for the virulence of M. abscessus. Despite the difficulties of isolating M. abscessus from environmental sources, our findings suggest that M. abscessus has evolved in close contact with environmental protozoa, which supports the argument that amoebae may contribute to the virulence of opportunistic mycobacteria. PMID:25486995

  20. Hepatitis B virus HBx protein impairs liver regeneration through enhanced expression of IL-6 in transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Quétier, Ivan; Brezillon, Nicolas; Duriez, Marion; Massinet, Hélène; Giang, Eric; Ahodantin, James; Lamant, Céline; Brunelle, Marie-Noëlle; Soussan, Patrick; Kremsdorf, Dina

    2013-08-01

    Conflicting results have been reported regarding the impact of hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) expression on liver regeneration triggered by partial hepatectomy (PH). In the present report we investigated the mechanisms by which HBx protein alters hepatocyte proliferation after PH. PH was performed on a transgenic mouse model in which HBx expression is under the control of viral regulatory elements and liver regeneration was monitored. LPS, IL-6 neutralizing antibody, and SB203580 were injected after PH to evaluate IL-6 participation during liver regeneration. Cell cycle progression of hepatocytes was delayed in HBx transgenic mice compared to WT animals. Moreover, HBx induced higher secretion of IL-6 soon after PH. Upregulation of IL-6 was associated with an elevation of STAT3 phosphorylation, SOCS3 transcript accumulation and a decrease in ERK1/2 phosphorylation in the livers of HBx transgenic mice. The involvement of IL-6 overexpression in cell cycle deregulation was confirmed by the inhibition of liver regeneration in control mice after the upregulation of IL-6 expression using LPS. In addition, IL-6 neutralization with antibodies was able to restore liver regeneration in HBx mice. Finally, the direct role of p38 in IL-6 secretion after PH was demonstrated using SB203580, a pharmacological inhibitor. HBx is able to induce delayed hepatocyte proliferation after PH, and HBx-induced IL-6 overexpression is involved in delayed liver regeneration. By modulating IL-6 expression during liver proliferation induced by stimulation of the cellular microenvironment, HBx may participate in cell cycle deregulation and progression of liver disease. Copyright © 2013 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. A highly conserved NF-κB-responsive enhancer is critical for thymic expression of Aire in mice.

    PubMed

    Haljasorg, Uku; Bichele, Rudolf; Saare, Mario; Guha, Mithu; Maslovskaja, Julia; Kõnd, Karin; Remm, Anu; Pihlap, Maire; Tomson, Laura; Kisand, Kai; Laan, Martti; Peterson, Pärt

    2015-12-01

    Autoimmune regulator (Aire) has a unique expression pattern in thymic medullary epithelial cells (mTECs), in which it plays a critical role in the activation of tissue-specific antigens. The expression of Aire in mTECs is activated by receptor activator of nuclear factor κB (RANK) signaling; however, the molecular mechanism behind this activation is unknown. Here, we characterize a conserved noncoding sequence 1 (CNS1) containing two NF-κB binding sites upstream of the Aire coding region. We show that CNS1-deficient mice lack thymic expression of Aire and share several features of Aire-knockout mice, including downregulation of Aire-dependent genes, impaired terminal differentiation of the mTEC population, and reduced production of thymic Treg cells. In addition, we show that CNS1 is indispensable for RANK-induced Aire expression and that CNS1 is activated by NF-κB pathway complexes containing RelA. Together, our results indicate that CNS1 is a critical link between RANK signaling, NF-κB activation, and thymic expression of Aire. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Transgenic cyclooxygenase-2 expression and high salt enhanced susceptibility to chemical-induced gastric cancer development in mice.

    PubMed

    Leung, Wai K; Wu, Kai-chun; Wong, Christine Y P; Cheng, Alfred S L; Ching, Arthur K K; Chan, Anthony W H; Chong, Wilson W S; Go, Minnie Y Y; Yu, Jun; To, Ka-Fai; Wang, Xin; Chui, Y L; Fan, D M; Sung, Joseph J Y

    2008-08-01

    Cyclooxoygenase (COX)-2 overexpression is involved in gastric carcinogenesis. While high-salt intake is a known risk factor for gastric cancer development, we determined the effects of high salt on gastric chemical carcinogenesis in COX-2 transgenic (TG) mice. COX-2 TG mice were developed in C57/BL6 strain using the full-length human cox-2 complementary DNA construct. Six-week-old COX-2 TG and wild-type (WT) littermates were randomly allocated to receive alternate week of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU, 240 p.p.m.) in drinking water or control for 10 weeks. Two groups of mice were further treated with 10% NaCl during the initial 10 weeks. All mice were killed at the end of week 50. Both forced COX-2 overexpression and high-salt intake significantly increased the frequency of gastric cancer development in mice as compared with WT littermates treated with MNU alone. However, no additive effect was observed on the combination of high salt and COX-2 expression. We further showed that MNU and high-salt treatment increased chronic inflammatory infiltrates and induced prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) production in the non-cancerous stomach. Whereas high-salt treatment markedly increased the expression of inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interferon-gamma, interleukin (IL)-1 beta and IL-6) in the gastric mucosa, COX-2 overexpression significantly altered the cell kinetics in the MNU-induced gastric cancer model. In conclusion, both high salt and COX-2 overexpression promote chemical-induced gastric carcinogenesis, possibly related to chronic inflammation, induction of PGE(2), disruption of cell kinetics and induction of inflammatory cytokines.

  3. Expression of CYP3A in chronic ethanol-fed mice is mediated by endogenous pregnane X receptor ligands formed by enhanced cholesterol metabolism.

    PubMed

    Je, Young-Tae; Sim, Woo-Cheol; Kim, Dong-Gwang; Jung, Byung-Hwa; Shin, Ho-Sang; Lee, Byung-Hoon

    2015-04-01

    Pregnane X receptor (PXR) is a nuclear receptor that plays a key regulatory role in xenobiotic metabolism in a ligand-dependent manner. Recently, ethanol was reported to be either an inducer or inhibitor of Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A expression. According to our recent microarray data, chronic ethanol upregulates the expression of the genes associated with oxidative phase I drug metabolism, phase II conjugation reaction and phase III xenobiotic transport, most of which are known to be regulated by PXR. In this study, we investigated the effects of chronic ethanol on the expression and activity of CYP3A11 in mice and the role of PXR. Ethanol was administrated to male ICR mice by feeding a standard Lieber-DeCarli diet containing 36 % ethanol for 4 weeks. Ethanol significantly increased hepatic mRNA expression of Pxr and Cyp3a11. Treatment of mice with ethanol increased nuclear translocation of PXR. Consistent with the increase in nuclear PXR, ethanol significantly increased the binding of PXR to the Cyp3a11 promoter. Hepatic cholesterol level and bile acid synthesis are increased by ethanol treatment. The level of some cholesterol metabolites, such as 5β-cholestane-3α,7α,12α-triol, 7α-hydroxy-4-cholestene-3-one and lithocholic acid, that have been identified as potent PXR agonists are increased in the livers of ethanol-treated mice. In summary, chronic ethanol upregulates the expression of Pxr and Cyp3a11 mRNAs and proteins in mice by PXR activation mediated by enhanced cholesterol metabolism and bile acid synthesis. Our data provide some critical information needed to understand the molecular mechanisms of ethanol-induced CYP3A expression.

  4. Glutaminase1 heterozygous mice show enhanced trace fear conditioning and Arc/Arg3.1 expression in hippocampus and cingulate cortex.

    PubMed

    Hazan, Liran; Gaisler-Salomon, Inna

    2014-12-01

    Mice heterozygous for a mutation in the glutaminase (GLS1) gene (GLS1 HZ mice), with reduced glutamate recycling and release, display reduced hippocampal function as well as memory of contextual cues in a delay fear conditioning (FC) paradigm. Here, we asked whether this deficit reflects an inability to process contextual information or a selective alteration in salience attribution. In addition, we asked whether baseline and activity-induced hippocampal activity were diminished in GLS1 HZ mice. For this purpose, we manipulated the relative salience of the conditioned stimulus (CS) and contextual cues in FC tasks, and examined gene expression of the immediate early gene Arc (Arc/Arg3.1) in hippocampus and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) following trace FC (tFC). The results indicate that GLS1 HZ mice succeed in processing contextual information when the salient CS is absent or less predictive. In addition, in the hippocampus-dependent tFC paradigm GLS1 HZ mice display enhanced CS learning. Furthermore, while baseline arc activation was reduced in GLS1 HZ mice in the hippocampus, in line with previous fMRI findings, it was enhanced in the hippocampus and anterior cingulate cortex following tFC. These findings suggest that GLS1 HZ mice have a pro-cognitive profile in the tFC paradigm, and this phenotype involves activation of both hippocampus and ACC. Taken together with previous work on the GLS1 HZ mouse, this study sheds light on the importance of glutamate transmission to memory processes that require the allocation of attentional resources, and extends our understanding of the underpinnings of attention deficits in SZ. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  5. Human beta-globin gene expression in transgenic mice is enhanced by a distant DNase I hypersensitive site.

    PubMed Central

    Curtin, P T; Liu, D P; Liu, W; Chang, J C; Kan, Y W

    1989-01-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that erythroid-specific DNase I hypersensitive sites (HS) located far upstream of the human beta-globin gene are important in regulating beta-globin gene expression. We used the polymerase chain reaction technique to amplify and clone an 882-base-pair DNA fragment spanning one of these HS, designated HSII, which is located 54 kilobases upstream of the beta-globin gene. The cloned HSII fragment was linked to a human beta-globin gene in either the genomic (HSII-beta) or antigenomic (HSII-beta) orientation. These two constructs and a beta-globin gene alone (beta) were injected into fertilized mouse eggs, and expression was analyzed in liver and brain from day-16 transgenic fetuses. Five of 7 beta-transgenic fetuses expressed human beta-globin mRNA, but the level of expression per gene copy was low, ranging from 0.93 to 22.4% of mouse alpha-globin mRNA (average 9.9%). In contrast, 11 of 12 HSII-beta transgenic fetuses expressed beta-globin mRNA at levels per gene copy ranging from 31.3 to 336.6% of mouse alpha-globin mRNA (average 139.5%). Only three fetuses containing intact copies of the HSII-beta construct were produced. Two of three expressed human beta-globin mRNA at levels per gene copy of 179.2 and 387.1%. Expression of human beta-globin mRNA was tissue-specific in all three types of transgenic fetuses. These studies demonstrate that a small DNA fragment containing a single erythroid-specific HS can stimulate high-level human beta-globin gene expression in transgenic mice. Images PMID:2780563

  6. Engineered expression of polysialic acid enhances Purkinje cell axonal regeneration in L1/GAP-43 double transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Xinyu; Yeh, John; Richardson, Peter; Bo, Xuenong

    2007-01-01

    Purkinje axons in adult mammals are generally unable to regenerate after axotomy. Our recent work has shown that over-expression of growth related genes, GAP-43 and L1, in Purkinje cells increased their axonal outgrowth into a predegenerated peripheral nerve graft, but not into a fresh graft [Zhang et al., (2005) Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA, 102, 14883-14888]. In the current study we investigated whether engineered expression of growth permissive molecule polysialic acid (PSA) in the glial scar or on transplanted Schwann cells could overcome the inhibitory environment and promote Purkinje axonal regeneration. A stab wound was introduced in the cerebellum of the L1/GAP-43 transgenic mice and a lentiviral vector (LV) carrying the polysialyltransferase (PST) cDNA (LV/PST) was injected into the lesion site to transduce the cells in the glial scar. Regenerating Purkinje axons were examined by calbindin immunostaining. There was increased Purkinje axonal sprouting in the area expressing high-level PSA. However, Purkinje axons were unable to grow into the lesion cavity. In the second set of experiments when LV/PST transduced Schwann cells were transplanted into the lesion site, the number of Purkinje axons growing into the transplant was nine times more than that growing into Schwann cell transplant expressing GFP two months post operation. Our result suggests that transplanted Schwann cells engineered to express PSA support axonal regeneration better than naïve Schwann cells.

  7. Perinatal malnutrition stimulates motivation through reward and enhances drd(1a) receptor expression in the ventral striatum of adult mice.

    PubMed

    de Melo Martimiano, Paula Honório; da Silva, Gilvanildo Roberto; Coimbra, Vanessa Fernandes da Silva Almeida; Matos, Rhowena Jane Barbosa; de Souza, Bruno Fernando Pereira; da Silva, Amanda Alves Marcelino; de Melo, Diogo D'Paula Cunha Brasileiro; de Souza, Sandra Lopes; de Freitas, Manuela Figueiroa Lyra

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of protein perinatal malnutrition on the function of dopamine DRD1 and DRD2 receptors in regards to motivation and food consumption in adult mice. The study also analyzed the effect of protein perinatal malnutrition on the gene expression of these receptors in the ventral striatum. Wistar lineage mice were divided into two groups according to maternal diet: control (17% casein), n=30 and low protein (8% casein), n=30. Between 30 and 120days of life, the following factors were measured: body weight; the effect of dopamine D1 and D2 agonists on the ingestion of palatable food; the motivational aspect under the action of the D1 (SKF 38393) and D2 Quinpirole dopaminergic agonists; and the gene expression of DRD1 and DRD2 receptors in the ventral striatum. The body weights of the malnourished animals remained significantly lower than those of the control group from 30 to 120days of life. Malnourished animals ingested a greater quantity of palatable food. There was a decrease in palatable diet consumption in both the control and malnourished groups after the application of D1 and D2 agonists; however, the anorexic effect of the D1 agonist was understated in malnourished animals. Perinatal malnutrition increases the motivational behavior of the animal when food reward is used. There was an increase in gene expression of the DRD1a receptor in the ventral striatum of malnourished animals, and there were no significant changes concerning the DRD2 receptor. Perinatal protein malnutrition stimulates hedonic control of eating behavior by promoting increased intake of palatable foods, possibly due to increased expression of dopamine receptor DRD1a in the ventral striatum. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Mice heterozygous for neurotrophin-3 display enhanced vulnerability to excitotoxicity in the striatum through increased expression of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors.

    PubMed

    Torres-Peraza, J; Pezzi, S; Canals, J M; Gavaldà, N; García-Martínez, J M; Pérez-Navarro, E; Alberch, J

    2007-01-19

    The striatum is one of the brain areas most vulnerable to excitotoxicity, a lesion that can be prevented by neurotrophins. In the present study, intrastriatal injection of the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) agonist quinolinate (QUIN) was performed in mice heterozygous for neurotrophin-3 (NT3 +/-) or brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF +/-) to analyze the role of endogenous neurotrophins on the regulation of striatal neurons susceptibility to excitotoxic injury. QUIN injection induced a decrease in dopamine- and cyclic AMP-regulated phosphoprotein of 32 kDa (DARPP-32) protein levels that was higher in NT-3 +/- than in BDNF+/- or wild type animals. This enhanced susceptibility was specific for enkephalin- and tachykinin-positive projection neurons, and also for parvalbumin-positive interneurons. However the excitotoxic damage in large interneurons was not modified in NT-3 +/- mice compared with wild type animals. This effect can be related to the regulation of NMDARs by endogenous NT-3. Thus, our results show that there is an age-dependent regulation of NMDAR subunits NR1 and NR2A, but not NR2B, in NT-3 +/- mice. The deficit of endogenous NT-3 induced a decrease in NR1 and NR2A subunits at postnatal day (P) 0 and P3 mice respectively, whereas an upregulation was observed in 12 week old NT-3 +/- mice. This differential effect was also observed after administration of exogenous NT-3. In primary striatal cultures, NT-3 treatment induced an enhancement in NR2A, but not NR2B, protein levels. However, intrastriatal grafting of NT-3 secreting-cells in adult wild type mice produced a down-regulation of NR2A subunit. In conclusion, NT-3 regulates the expression of NMDAR subunits modifying striatal neuronal properties that confers the differential vulnerability to excitotoxicity in projection neurons and interneurons in the striatum.

  9. Transgenic expression of human neutrophil peptide-1 enhances hepatic fibrosis in mice fed a choline-deficient, L-amino acid-defined diet.

    PubMed

    Ibusuki, Rie; Uto, Hirofumi; Arima, Shiho; Mawatari, Seiichi; Setoguchi, Yoshiko; Iwashita, Yuji; Hashimoto, Shinichi; Maeda, Takuro; Tanoue, Shiro; Kanmura, Shuji; Oketani, Makoto; Ido, Akio; Tsubouchi, Hirohito

    2013-11-01

    Neutrophils infiltrate the livers of patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Human neutrophil peptides (HNPs) induce cytokine and chemokine production under inflammatory conditions, which may contribute to the progression of NASH. In this study, we focused on the effects of HNP-1 on hepatic steatosis and fibrosis in a mouse model of NASH induced by a choline-deficient, L-amino acid-defined (CDAA) diet. We generated transgenic mice expressing HNP-1 under the control of a β-actin-based promoter. HNP-1 transgenic and wild-type C57BL/6N mice were fed a CDAA diet for 16 weeks to induce hepatic steatosis and fibrosis. Serological and histological features were examined, and the effects of HNP-1 on hepatic stellate cell lines were assessed. HNP-1 transgenic and wild-type mice fed the CDAA diet showed no significant differences in serum alanine aminotransferase levels or the degree of hepatic steatosis based on Oil red O staining and hepatic triglyceride content. In contrast, Sirius Red and Azan staining showed significantly more severe hepatic fibrosis in HNP-1 transgenic mice compared with wild-type mice. In addition, significantly more α-smooth muscle actin-positive hepatic stellate cells were observed in the transgenic mice than in the wild-type mice. Finally, the proliferation of the LI90 hepatic stellate cell line increased in response to HNP-1. Our data indicate that HNP-1 enhances hepatic fibrosis in fatty liver by inducing hepatic stellate cell proliferation. Thus, neutrophil-derived HNP-1 may contribute to the progression of NASH. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Vermectomy enhances parvalbumin expression and improves motor performance in weaver mutant mice: an animal model for cerebellar ataxia.

    PubMed

    Grüsser-Cornehls, U; Grüsser, C; Bäurle, J

    1999-01-01

    In the Weaver mutant mouse (wv/wv), an animal model for hereditary cerebellar ataxia, electrophysiological experiments have revealed a disorganized output of cerebellar Purkinje cells (the latter using GABA as an inhibitory transmitter) which, by a cascade of mechanisms, was thought to be the cause of the poor motor abilities. In Purkinje cell degeneration mice (pcd/pcd) lacking nearly all Purkinje cells and displaying milder motor deficiencies than wv, in comparison to wild-type mice, a strong increase in parvalbumin- and (co-localized with parvalbumin) glycine-immunopositive somata in the deep cerebellar and vestibular nuclei has recently been found. It was therefore intriguing to investigate whether motor performance in weaver mutants could be ameliorated by applying cerebellar lesions to eliminate the faulty output and to look for a change in transmitter weighting, indicated by a strong increase in parvalbumin-positive somata in areas (the respective target areas) which were formerly devoid of it. Ten Weaver mutants were subjected to cerebellar lesions. After removal of the vermis a total abolition of tremor, a definite improvement in the balance of affected body parts, an increase in locomotor activity when tested in an open-field matrix, and a strong increase in parvalbumin expression in Weaver mutant deep cerebellar and vestibular nuclei in comparison to wild-types have indeed been found. Increase in motor activity (or explorative behaviour) has been placed in relation to learning mechanisms. The increase in parvalbumin expression and the observed improvement in motor abilities and mechanisms probably related to learning underline the hypothesis that any change in the physiological equilibrium of the brain function by removal of input or output related to an assembly of nerve cells leads to a cascade of changes at the transmitter and neuronal level in near or distant connected brain structures.

  11. Oral administration of Enterococcus faecalis EC-12 cell preparation improves villous atrophy after weaning through enhancement of growth factor expression in mice.

    PubMed

    Ushida, Kazunari; Yoshida, Yoko; Tsukahara, Takamitsu; Watanabe, Takumi; Inoue, Ryo

    2010-06-01

    Lactic acid bacteria, either alive or dead, can improve villous atrophy caused by weaning in both piglets and mice. In this experiment, we tried to detect the molecules involved in this phenomenon with a real-time RT-PCR array approach. Weaning pups of mice were administered either a suspension of an Enterococcus faecalis EC-12 dried cell preparation (EC-12) or saline for 11 consecutive days after weaning. The jejunal and ileal villous heights were measured histologically, and the expression levels of 86 genes were analyzed for the jejunal and ileal epithelial cells and the lamina propria (LP). EC-12 induced significantly higher villous height in the jejunum and the ileum. Interleukin (IL)-6, fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-7, -10, and -22, and the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) beta in the jejunal and the ileal LP were the most enhanced genes by EC-12. The possible role of these molecules in the improvement of villous atrophy is discussed.

  12. Spherical nucleic acid targeting microRNA-99b enhances intestinal MFG-E8 gene expression and restores enterocyte migration in lipopolysaccharide-induced septic mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiao; Hao, Liangliang; Bu, Heng-Fu; Scott, Alexander W.; Tian, Ke; Liu, Fangyi; De Plaen, Isabelle G.; Liu, Yulan; Mirkin, Chad A.; Tan, Xiao-Di

    2016-01-01

    Milk fat globule-EGF factor 8 (MFG-E8) maintains the intestinal homeostasis by enhancing enterocyte migration and attenuating inflammation. We previously reported that sepsis is associated with down-regulation of intestinal MFG-E8 and impairment of enterocyte migration. Here, we showed that impairment of intestinal epithelial cell migration occurred in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced septic mice. Treatment of RAW264.7 cells (a murine macrophage-like cell line) with LPS increased expression of miR-99b, a microRNA that is predicted to target mouse MFG-E8 3′UTR. Using a luciferase assay, we showed that miR-99b mimic suppressed the activity of a reporter containing MFG-E8 3′UTR. This suggests the role of miR-99b in inhibition of MFG-E8 gene expression. In addition, we developed an anti-miR99b spherical nucleic acid nanoparticle conjugate (SNA-NCanti-miR99b). Treatment of both naïve and LPS-challenged cells with SNA-NCanti-miR99b enhanced MFG-E8 expression in the cells. Administration of SNA-NCanti-miR99b rescued intestinal MFG-E8 expression in LPS-induced septic mice and attenuated LPS inhibitory effects on intestinal epithelial cell migration along the crypt-villus axis. Collectively, our study suggests that LPS represses MFG-E8 expression and disrupts enterocyte migration via a miR-99b dependent mechanism. Furthermore, this work shows that SNA-NCanti-miR99b is a novel nanoparticle-conjugate capable of rescuing MFG-E8 gene expression and maintaining intestinal epithelial homeostasis in sepsis. PMID:27538453

  13. Effect of enhanced expression of COL8A1 on lymphatic metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma in mice

    PubMed Central

    MA, ZHEN-HAI; MA, JIN-HUI; JIA, LI; ZHAO, YONG-FU

    2012-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the influence of COL8A1 expression on cell invasiveness, drug sensitivity and tumorigenicity of hepatocellular carcinoma Hepa1-6 cells with low metastatic potential. COL8A1-1-pEGFP-N2 and pEGFP-N2 were transfected into experimental and control group cells. The COL8A1 expression in transfected Hepa1-6 cells was analyzed with RT-PCR and western blot analysis. The invasive potential of transfected Hepa1-6 cells was tested in invasion experiments in vitro and the tumorigenic ability of the transfected Hepa1-6 cells was tested in mouse tumors in vivo. Hepa1-6 cell proliferation and D-limonene sensitivity was analyzed using the MTT method. Expression of COL8A1 in the Hepa1-6/COL8A1 group showed a significant increase when compared with the untransfected cells of the Hepa1-6 control group and empty-plasmid transfected cells from the Hepa1-6/mock control group. Enhanced COL8A1 expression increased cell proliferation and matrix adhesion ability via invasion and tumorigenesis in vivo while the sensitivity to D-limonene was concurrently inhibited. The expression of COL8A1 in hepatocarcinoma cells was correlated with increased tumor cell proliferation, invasion, in vivo tumorigenicity and reduced antitumor drug sensitivity, and may provide novel targets for tumor therapy. PMID:23170115

  14. Inducible enhancement of memory storage and synaptic plasticity in transgenic mice expressing an inhibitor of ATF4 (CREB-2) and C/EBP proteins.

    PubMed

    Chen, Amy; Muzzio, Isabel A; Malleret, Gaël; Bartsch, Dusan; Verbitsky, Miguel; Pavlidis, Paul; Yonan, Amanda L; Vronskaya, Svetlana; Grody, Michael B; Cepeda, Ivan; Gilliam, T Conrad; Kandel, Eric R

    2003-08-14

    To examine the role of C/EBP-related transcription factors in long-term synaptic plasticity and memory storage, we have used the tetracycline-regulated system and expressed in the forebrain of mice a broad dominant-negative inhibitor of C/EBP (EGFP-AZIP), which preferentially interacts with several inhibiting isoforms of C/EBP. EGFP-AZIP also reduces the expression of ATF4, a distant member of the C/EBP family of transcription factors that is homologous to the Aplysia memory suppressor gene ApCREB-2. Consistent with the removal of inhibitory constraints on transcription, we find an increase in the pattern of gene transcripts in the hippocampus of EGFP-AZIP transgenic mice and both a reversibly enhanced hippocampal-based spatial memory and LTP. These results suggest that several proteins within the C/EBP family including ATF4 (CREB-2) act to constrain long-term synaptic changes and memory formation. Relief of this inhibition lowers the threshold for hippocampal-dependent long-term synaptic potentiation and memory storage in mice.

  15. In vivo expression of the Arf6 Guanine-nucleotide exchange factor cytohesin-1 in mice exhibits enhanced myelin thickness in nerves.

    PubMed

    Torii, Tomohiro; Miyamoto, Yuki; Onami, Naoko; Tsumura, Hideki; Nemoto, Noriko; Kawahara, Katsumasa; Kato, Minoru; Kotera, Jun; Nakamura, Kazuaki; Tanoue, Akito; Yamauchi, Junji

    2013-10-01

    The myelin sheath consists of a unique multiple layer structure that acts as an insulator between neuronal axons to enhance the propagation of the action potential. In neuropathies such as demyelinating or dismyelinating diseases, chronic demyelination and defective remyelination occur repeatedly, leading to more severe neuropathy. As yet, little is known about the possibility of drug target-specific medicine for such diseases. In the developing peripheral nervous system (PNS), myelin sheaths form as Schwann cells wrap individual axons. It is thought that the development of a drug promoting myelination by Schwann cells would provide effective therapy against peripheral nerve disorders: to test such treatment, genetically modified mice overexpressing the drug target molecules are needed. We previously identified an Arf6 activator, the guanine-nucleotide exchange factor cytohesin-1, as the signaling molecule controlling myelination of peripheral axons by Schwann cells; yet, the important issue of whether cytohesin-1 itself promotes myelin thickness in vivo has remained unclear. Herein, we show that, in mouse PNS nerves, Schwann cell-specific expression of wild-type cytohesin-1 exhibits enhanced myelin thickness. Downstream activation of Arf6 is also seen in these transgenic mice, revealing the involvement of the cytohesin-1 and Arf6 signaling unit in promoting myelination. These results suggest that cytohesin-1 may be a candidate for the basis of a therapy for peripheral neuropathies through its enhancement of myelin thickness.

  16. A novel recombinant BCG-expressing pro-apoptotic protein BAX enhances Th1 protective immune responses in mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Guanghua; Liu, Guoyuan; Song, Na; Kong, Cong; Huang, Qi; Su, Haibo; Bi, Aixiao; Luo, Liulin; Zhu, Lin; Xu, Ying; Wang, Honghai

    2015-08-01

    One-third of the world's population is infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). The protective efficacy of bacille Calmette Guérin (BCG) vaccine against tuberculosis (TB) in adults is highly controversial even though the BCG vaccine has been available for more than 90 years. Because BCG is effective against infantile tuberculosis meningitis and miliary tuberculosis in young children and provides cost-effective prevention from tuberculosis for developing countries, it would be desirable to modify the existing BCG vaccine to provide more comprehensive protection. In our study, we constructed a novel recombinant BCG strain expressing pro-apoptotic BAX (rBCG::BAX) and demonstrated that it significantly induced the apoptosis of macrophages infected with rBCG::BAX both in vitro and in vivo. In addition, it significantly enhanced Ag85B-specific IFN-γ enzyme-linked immunospot responses, IFN-γ secretion, IL-2 secretion and the ratio of Ag85B-specific IgG2b/IgG1, and it significantly decreased Ag85B-specific IL-4. Furthermore, it presumably facilitated antigen presentation by inducing a significant up-regulation in the expression of MHC-II and B7.1 (CD80) co-stimulatory molecules on macrophages. In conclusion, these results suggest that the rBCG::BAX strain elicited predominantly a Th1 protective immune responses and might be a potential tuberculosis vaccine candidate for further study.

  17. Acidified bile acids enhance tumor progression and telomerase activity of gastric cancer in mice dependent on c-Myc expression.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaolong; Sun, Lei; Wang, Xijing; Kang, Huafeng; Ma, Xiaobin; Wang, Meng; Lin, Shuai; Liu, Meng; Dai, Cong; Dai, Zhijun

    2017-03-01

    c-Myc overexpression has been implicated in several malignancies including gastric cancer. Here, we report that acidified bile acids enhance tumor progression and telomerase activity in gastric cancer via c-Myc activation both in vivo and in vitro. c-Myc mRNA and protein levels were assessed in ten primary and five local recurrent gastric cancer samples by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blotting analysis. The gastric cancer cell line MGC803 was exposed to bile salts (100 μmol/L glycochenodeoxycholic acid and deoxycholic acid) in an acid medium (pH 5.5) for 10 min daily for 60 weeks to develop an MGC803-resistant cell line. Control MGC803 cells were grown without acids or bile salts for 60 weeks as a control. Cell morphology, proliferation, colony formation and apoptosis of MGC803-resistant cells were analyzed after 60 weeks. To determine the involvement of c-Myc in tumor progression and telomere aging in MGC803-resistant cells, we generated xenografts in nude mice and measured xenograft volume and in vivo telomerase activity. The c-Myc and hTERT protein and mRNA levels were significantly higher in local recurrent gastric cancer samples than in primary gastric cancer samples. MGC803-resistant cells showed a marked phenotypic change under normal growth conditions with more clusters and acini, and exhibited increased cell viability and colony formation and decreased apoptosis in vitro. These phenotypic changes were found to be dependent on c-Myc activation using the c-Myc inhibitor 10058-F4. MGC803-resistant cells also showed a c-Myc-dependent increase in xenograft growth and telomerase activity in vivo. In conclusion, these observations support the hypothesis that acidified bile acids enhance tumor progression and telomerase activity in gastric cancer and that these effects are dependent on c-Myc activity. These findings suggest that acidified bile acids play an important role in the malignant progression of local recurrent

  18. Purple Tea and Its Extract Suppress Diet-induced Fat Accumulation in Mice and Human Subjects by Inhibiting Fat Absorption and Enhancing Hepatic Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase Expression.

    PubMed

    Shimoda, Hiroshi; Hitoe, Shoketsu; Nakamura, Seikou; Matsuda, Hisashi

    2015-06-01

    A number of clinical trials have been completed using green tea and black tea to investigate their effect in controlling weight in overweight adults. The results of these investigations, however, have often been contradictory, with some trials reporting positive effects of tea supplementation and some trials reporting no effect. As a result, the use of these teas for weight loss is controversial. Purple tea is a variety of green tea developed in Kenya (called TRFK306), which in addition to certain tea constituents found in green tea, also contains anthocyanins. The major constituents in the leaves of purple tea are caffeine, theobromine, epigallocatechin (ECG), epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and 1,2-di-O-galloyl-4,6-O-(S)-hexahydroxydiphenoyl-β-D-glucose (GHG). We investigated the efficacy of purple tea extract (PTE) on diet-induced fat accumulation in mice. PTE administration (200 mg/kg) significantly suppressed body weight gain, liver weight, abdominal fat and triglycerides in serum and liver. Protein expression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT) 1A was also enhanced. In olive oil loaded mice, PTE (100 mg/kg) and caffeine (25 mg/kg) suppressed fat absorption. PTE (10 μg/mL) and GHG (10 μg/mL) also enhanced protein expression of CPT1A in HepG2 hepatoma. Moreover, 4-week daily consumption of purple tea drink in humans improved obesity parameters compared to baseline, including body weight (79.9 ± 3.1 kg vs 80.8 ± 3.2, p<0.05), body mass index (BMI) (26.8 ± 0.6 vs 27.0 ± 0.6, p<0.05) and body fat mass (21.0 ± 1.4 kg vs 21.8 ± 1.5, p<0.01). In conclusion, PTE could control diet-induced weight gain by suppression of fat absorption and enhancement of hepatic fat metabolism.

  19. Purple Tea and Its Extract Suppress Diet-induced Fat Accumulation in Mice and Human Subjects by Inhibiting Fat Absorption and Enhancing Hepatic Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase Expression

    PubMed Central

    Shimoda, Hiroshi; Hitoe, Shoketsu; Nakamura, Seikou; Matsuda, Hisashi

    2015-01-01

    A number of clinical trials have been completed using green tea and black tea to investigate their effect in controlling weight in overweight adults. The results of these investigations, however, have often been contradictory, with some trials reporting positive effects of tea supplementation and some trials reporting no effect. As a result, the use of these teas for weight loss is controversial. Purple tea is a variety of green tea developed in Kenya (called TRFK306), which in addition to certain tea constituents found in green tea, also contains anthocyanins. The major constituents in the leaves of purple tea are caffeine, theobromine, epigallocatechin (ECG), epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and 1,2-di-O-galloyl-4,6-O-(S)-hexahydroxydiphenoyl-β-D-glucose (GHG). We investigated the efficacy of purple tea extract (PTE) on diet-induced fat accumulation in mice. PTE administration (200 mg/kg) significantly suppressed body weight gain, liver weight, abdominal fat and triglycerides in serum and liver. Protein expression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT) 1A was also enhanced. In olive oil loaded mice, PTE (100 mg/kg) and caffeine (25 mg/kg) suppressed fat absorption. PTE (10 μg/mL) and GHG (10 μg/mL) also enhanced protein expression of CPT1A in HepG2 hepatoma. Moreover, 4-week daily consumption of purple tea drink in humans improved obesity parameters compared to baseline, including body weight (79.9 ± 3.1 kg vs 80.8 ± 3.2, p<0.05), body mass index (BMI) (26.8 ± 0.6 vs 27.0 ± 0.6, p<0.05) and body fat mass (21.0 ± 1.4 kg vs 21.8 ± 1.5, p<0.01). In conclusion, PTE could control diet-induced weight gain by suppression of fat absorption and enhancement of hepatic fat metabolism PMID:26199579

  20. Enhanced pan-peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gene and protein expression in adipose tissue of diet-induced obese mice treated with telmisartan.

    PubMed

    Penna-de-Carvalho, Aline; Graus-Nunes, Francielle; Rabelo-Andrade, Júlia; Mandarim-de-Lacerda, Carlos Alberto; Souza-Mello, Vanessa

    2014-12-01

    Telmisartan has previously been used to target obesity, showing peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) β/δ-related effects in white adipose tissue (WAT). We sought to evaluate whether telmisartan enhances gene and protein expression of all PPAR isoforms in WAT and brown adipose tissue (BAT), as well as their downstream effects upon insulin resistance, adipokine profile and adaptive thermogenesis. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed standard chow (SC; 10% lipids) or high-fat diet (HF; 50% lipids) for 10 weeks. Animals were then randomly allocated into the following four groups: SC, SC-T, HF and HF-T. Telmisartan [10 mg (kg diet)(-1)] was administered for 4 weeks in the diet. Animals in the HF group were overweight and exhibited hypertension, insulin resistance, decreased energy expenditure, a pro-inflammatory adipokine profile and abnormal fat pad mass distribution. Animals in the HF group showed decreased expression of PPARα, β/δ and γ in WAT and BAT, resulting in impaired glucose uptake and insufficient thermogenesis. Due to the improvement in the adipokine profile and enhanced insulin sensitivity with adequate insulin-stimulated glucose uptake after treatment with telmisartan, the activation of all PPAR isoforms in WAT was beneficial. In BAT, telmisartan induced sustained sympathetic activation, because the β3-adrenergic receptor was induced by PPARβ/δ, while uncoupling protein 1 was induced by PPARα to promote thermogenesis. Telmisartan exerted anti-obesity effects through higher pan-PPAR gene and protein expression. Upon PPARα, β/δ and γ (pan-PPAR) agonism in adipose tissue of obese mice, telmisartan ameliorates inflammation and insulin resistance, as well as inducing non-shivering thermogenesis. Our results point to new therapeutic targets for the control of obesity and comorbidities through pan-PPAR-related effects. © 2014 The Authors. Experimental Physiology © 2014 The Physiological Society.

  1. Multifunctional interleukin-1beta promotes metastasis of human lung cancer cells in SCID mice via enhanced expression of adhesion-, invasion- and angiogenesis-related molecules.

    PubMed

    Yano, Seiji; Nokihara, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Akihiko; Goto, Hisatsugu; Ogawa, Hirohisa; Kanematsu, Takanori; Miki, Toyokazu; Uehara, Hisanori; Saijo, Yasuo; Nukiwa, Toshihiro; Sone, Saburo

    2003-03-01

    We examined whether interleukin-1 (IL-1), a multifunctional proinflammatory cytokine, progresses or regresses metastasis of lung cancer. Exogenous IL-1beta enhanced expression of various cytokines (IL-6, IL-8, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)) and intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) by A549, PC14, RERF-LC-AI, and SBC-3 cells expressing IL-1 receptors. A549 cells transduced with human IL-1beta-gene with the growth-hormone signaling-peptide sequence (A549/IL-1beta) secreted a large amount of IL-1beta protein. Overexpression of IL-1beta resulted in augmentation of expression of the cytokines, ICAM-1, and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2). A549/IL-1beta cells intravenously inoculated into severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice distributed to the lung more efficiently and developed lung metastasis much more rapidly than did control A549 cells. Treatment of SCID mice with anti-IL-1beta antibody inhibited formation of lung metastasis by A549/IL-1beta cells. Moreover, A549/IL-1beta cells inoculated in the subcutis grew more rapidly, without necrosis, than did control A549 cells, which produced smaller tumors with central necrosis, suggesting involvement of angiogenesis in addition to enhanced binding in the high metastatic potential of A549/IL-1beta cells. Histological analyses showed that more host-cell infiltration, fewer apoptotic cells, more vascularization, and higher MMP activity were observed in tumors derived from A549/IL-1beta cells, compared with tumors derived from control A549 cells. These findings suggest that IL-1beta facilitates metastasis of lung cancer via promoting multiple events, including adhesion, invasion and angiogenesis.

  2. Enhanced nociception in Angelman syndrome model mice.

    PubMed

    McCoy, Eric S; Taylor-Blake, Bonnie; Aita, Megumi; Simon, Jeremy M; Philpot, Benjamin D; Zylka, Mark J

    2017-09-20

    Angelman syndrome (AS) is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder caused by mutation or deletion of the maternal UBE3A allele. The maternal UBE3A allele is expressed in nearly all neurons of the brain and spinal cord, whereas the paternal UBE3A allele is repressed by an extremely long antisense transcript (UBE3A-ATS). Little is known about expression of UBE3A in the peripheral nervous system, where loss of maternal UBE3A might contribute to AS phenotypes. Here we sought to examine maternal and paternal Ube3a expression in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons and to evaluate whether nociceptive responses were affected in AS model mice (global deletion of maternal Ube3a allele; Ube3a(m-/p+) ). We found that most large-diameter proprioceptive and mechanosensitive DRG neurons expressed maternal Ube3a and paternal Ube3a-ATS In contrast, most small-diameter neurons expressed Ube3a biallelically and had low to undetectable levels of Ube3a-ATS Analysis of single-cell DRG transcriptomes further suggested that Ube3a is expressed monoallelically in myelinated large-diameter neurons and biallelically in unmyelinated small-diameter neurons. Behavioral responses to some noxious thermal and mechanical stimuli were enhanced in male and female AS model mice; however, nociceptive responses were not altered by the conditional deletion of maternal Ube3a in the DRG. These data suggest that the enhanced nociceptive responses in AS model mice are due to loss of maternal Ube3a in the central, but not peripheral, nervous system. Our study provides new insights into sensory processing deficits associated with AS.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENTAngelman syndrome (AS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by loss or mutation of the maternal UBE3A allele. While sensory processing deficits are frequently associated with AS, it is currently unknown if Ube3a is expressed in peripheral sensory neurons or if maternal deletion of Ube3a affects somatosensory responses. Here, we found that Ube3a is primarily

  3. Metformin enhancing the antitumor efficacy of carboplatin against Ehrlich solid carcinoma grown in diabetic mice: Effect on IGF-1 and tumoral expression of IGF-1 receptors.

    PubMed

    Abo-Elmatty, Dina M; Ahmed, Eman A; Tawfik, Mona K; Helmy, Seham A

    2017-03-01

    Diabetes has been listed as a risk factor for various types of cancer. Cancer cell development can be promoted by increased levels of IGF-1 and hyperinsulinemia that are associated with diabetes type II. Metformin is an anti-diabetic agent and its potential antitumor impact has become the objective of numerous studies. In this vein, we hypothesize that using metformin in diabetes type II mice may synergistic with carboplatin for reducing the risk of cancer. Therefore, the study aimed to evaluate the in vivo antitumor activity of metformin against solid EAC tumor growth in female diabetic mice and its potential pro-apoptotic and anti-proliferative effects with clarification of its inconclusive biological mechanisms. Mice were assigned into nine groups; normal control, diabetic control, diabetic plus EAC control, EAC control, and treated groups received carboplatin and/or metformin (100, 200mg/kg). Metformin administration especially with high dose potentiated the antitumor activity of carboplatin displayed by increased pro-apoptotic activators "caspase-3 and bax" and reduced anti-apoptotic protein bcl-2. This was confirmed by the histopathological scores. Moreover, the combination therapy was effective in attenuating the expression of the pro-angiogenic mediator "VEGF" and the microvessel density as revealed by the CD34. Additionally, this combination down-regulated the high levels of the mutagenic element "IGF-1" and its receptor expression, and attenuated the intensity of inflammatory mediators. In conclusion, it was found that metformin therapy could enhance apoptotic marker, and suppress the neovascularization and proliferation process. This clarified the ability of metformin to support carboplatin activity in reducing tumor progression in type II diabetes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Reduced B Lymphoid Kinase (Blk) Expression Enhances Proinflammatory Cytokine Production and Induces Nephrosis in C57BL/6-lpr/lpr Mice

    PubMed Central

    Papillion, Amber M.; Tatum, Arthur H.; Princiotta, Michael F.; Hayes, Sandra M.

    2014-01-01

    BLK, which encodes B lymphoid kinase, was recently identified in genome wide association studies as a susceptibility gene for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and risk alleles mapping to the BLK locus result in reduced gene expression. To determine whether BLK is indeed a bona fide susceptibility gene, we developed an experimental mouse model, namely the Blk+/−.lpr/lpr (Blk+/−.lpr) mouse, in which Blk expression levels are reduced to levels comparable to those in individuals carrying a risk allele. Here, we report that Blk is expressed not only in B cells, but also in IL-17-producing γδ and DN αβ T cells and in plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs). Moreover, we found that solely reducing Blk expression in C57BL/6-lpr/lpr mice enhanced proinflammatory cytokine production and accelerated the onset of lymphoproliferation, proteinuria, and kidney disease. Together, these findings suggest that BLK risk alleles confer susceptibility to SLE through the dysregulation of a proinflammatory cytokine network. PMID:24637841

  5. Polypodium leucotomos decreases UV-induced epidermal cell proliferation and enhances p53 expression and plasma antioxidant capacity in hairless mice.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Yanes, Esperanza; Juarranz, Ángeles; Cuevas, Jesús; Gonzalez, Salvador; Mallol, Jordi

    2012-08-01

    A single dose of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) induces significant changes in blood and skin of hairless mice. Oral administration of a hydrophilic extract of the fern Polypodium leucotomos (PL, 300 mg/kg during 5 days before UVR and for two additional days after irradiation) modulates some of the effects of UVR. Most significantly, PL administration reduced the number of proliferating cells by 13%, increased the number of p53(+) cells by 63%, enhanced the antioxidant plasma capacity (ORAC) by 30% and reinforced the network of dermal elastic fibres. Western blot analysis of skin antioxidant-related enzymes failed to demonstrate significant changes caused by PL. Thus, the beneficial effect of PL likely owes to its antioxidant and anti-ROS properties rather than its modulation of the expression of endogenous antioxidant systems. These data provide mechanistic clues for its efficacy as a systemic photoprotective agent with antioxidant and anti-photo-ageing properties.

  6. A pseudotype baculovirus expressing the capsid protein of foot-and-mouth disease virus and a T-Cell immunogen shows enhanced immunogenicity in mice

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious disease of livestock which causes severe economic loss in cloven-hoofed animals. Vaccination is still a major strategy in developing countries to control FMD. Currently, inactivated vaccine of FMDV has been used in many countries with limited success and safety concerns. Development of a novel effective vaccine is must. Methods In the present study, two recombinant pseudotype baculoviruses, one expressing the capsid of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) under the control of a cytomegalovirus immediate early enhancer/promoter (CMV-IE), and the other the caspid plus a T-cell immunogen coding region under a CAG promoter were constructed, and their expression was characterized in mammalian cells. In addition, their immunogenicity in a mouse model was investigated. The humoral and cell-mediated immune responses induced by pseudotype baculovirus were compared with those of inactivated vaccine. Results Indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and indirect sandwich-ELISA (IS-ELISA) showed both recombinant baculoviruses (with or without T-cell epitopes) were transduced efficiently and expressed target proteins in BHK-21 cells. In mice, intramuscular inoculation of recombinants with 1 × 109 or 1 × 1010 PFU/mouse induced the production of FMDV-specific neutralizing antibodies and gamma interferon (IFN-γ). Furthermore, recombinant baculovirus with T-cell epitopes had better immunogenicity than the recombinant without T-cell epitopes as demonstrated by significantly enhanced IFN-γ production (P < 0.01) and higher neutralizing antibody titer (P < 0.05). Although the inactivated vaccine produced the highest titer of neutralizing antibodies, a lower IFN-γ expression was observed compared to the two recombinant pseudotype baculoviruses. Conclusions These results indicate that pseudotype baculovirus-mediated gene delivery could be a alternative strategy to develop a new generation of vaccines against FMDV infection

  7. Decreased expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in BDNF(+/-) mice is associated with enhanced recovery of motor performance and increased neuroblast number following experimental stroke.

    PubMed

    Nygren, Josefine; Kokaia, Merab; Wieloch, Tadeusz

    2006-08-15

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is involved in brain plasticity and neuronal survival. Generally, BDNF enhances synaptic activity and neurite growth, although the effect of BDNF on neuronal survival and brain plasticity following injury is equivocal. Housing rats in an enriched environment after experimental stroke enhances recovery of sensory-motor function, which is associated with a decrease in the BDNF mRNA and protein levels. We used BDNF(+/-) mice and wild-type littermate mice to investigate whether the decrease in the brain levels of BDNF affected motor function or infarct volume following transient occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (tMCAO) for 40 min. We found that the BDNF(+/-) mice had a significantly improved motor function on the rotating pole test 2 weeks after tMCAO compared with wild-type mice. When intermittently exposed to an enriched environment following tMCAO, the wild-type mice improved motor function to the same degree as BDNF(+/-) mice. There was no effect of BDNF reduction on infarct volume. Neurogenesis is induced following experimental stroke, and in the striatum of BDNF(+/-) mice significantly increased numbers of neuroblasts compared with wild-type mice were seen, both in standard and in enriched conditions. We conclude that decreasing brain levels of BDNF enhances the recovery of function following experimental stroke.

  8. Generation of knock-in mice that express nuclear enhanced green fluorescent protein and tamoxifen-inducible Cre recombinase in the notochord from Foxa2 and T loci.

    PubMed

    Imuta, Yu; Kiyonari, Hiroshi; Jang, Chuan-Wei; Behringer, Richard R; Sasaki, Hiroshi

    2013-03-01

    The node and the notochord are important embryonic signaling centers that control embryonic pattern formation. Notochord progenitor cells present in the node and later in the posterior end of the notochord move anteriorly to generate the notochord. To understand the dynamics of cell movement during notochord development and the molecular mechanisms controlling this event, analyses of cell movements using time-lapse imaging and conditional manipulation of gene activities are required. To achieve this goal, we generated two knock-in mouse lines that simultaneously express nuclear enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) and tamoxifen-inducible Cre, CreER(T2) , from two notochord gene loci, Foxa2 and T (Brachury). In Foxa2(nEGFP-CreERT2/+) and T(nEGFP-CreERT2/+) embryos, nuclei of the Foxa2 or T-expressing cells, which include the node, notochord, and endoderm (Foxa2) or wide range of posterior mesoderm (T), were labeled with EGFP at intensities that can be used for live imaging. Cre activity was also induced in cells expressing Foxa2 and T 1 day after tamoxifen administration. These mice are expected to be useful tools for analyzing the mechanisms of notochord development.

  9. Infantile postnatal exposure to lead (Pb) enhances tau expression in the cerebral cortex of aged mice: relevance to AD.

    PubMed

    Bihaqi, Syed Waseem; Bahmani, Azadeh; Adem, Abdu; Zawia, Nasser H

    2014-09-01

    The sporadic nature in over 90% of Alzheimer's disease (AD) cases, the differential susceptibility and course of illness, and latent onset of the disease suggest involvement of an environmental component in the etiology of late onset AD (LOAD). Recent reports from our lab have demonstrated that molecular alterations favor abundant tau phosphorylation and immunoreactivity in the frontal cortex of aged primates with infantile lead (Pb) exposure (Bihaqi and Zawia, 2013). Here we report that developmental Pb exposure results in elevation of protein and mRNA levels of tau in aged mice. Western blot analysis revealed aberrant site-specific tau hyperphosphorylation accompanied by elevated cyclin dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) levels in aged mice with prior Pb exposure. Mice with developmental Pb exposure also displayed altered protein ratio of p35/p25 with more Serine/Threonine phosphatase activity at old age. These changes favored increase in tau phosphorylation, thus providing evidence that neurodegenerative diseases may be in part due to environmental influences that occur during development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Chromium–Insulin Reduces Insulin Clearance and Enhances Insulin Signaling by Suppressing Hepatic Insulin-Degrading Enzyme and Proteasome Protein Expression in KKAy Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhong Q.; Yu, Yongmei; Zhang, Xian H.; Komorowski, James

    2014-01-01

    JDS–chromium–insulin (CRI)-003 is a novel form of insulin that has been directly conjugated with chromium (Cr) instead of zinc. Our hypothesis was that CRI enhances insulin’s effects by altering insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE) and proteasome enzymes. To test this hypothesis, we measured hepatic IDE content and proteasome parameters in a diabetic animal model. Male KKAy mice were randomly divided into three groups (n = 8/group); Sham (saline), human regular insulin (Reg-In), and chromium conjugated human insulin (CRI), respectively. Interventions were initiated at doses of 2 U insulin/kg body weight daily for 8-weeks. Plasma glucose and insulin were measured. Hepatic IDE, proteasome, and insulin signaling proteins were determined by western blotting. Insulin tolerance tests at week 7 showed that both insulin treatments significantly reduced glucose concentrations and increased insulin levels compared with the Sham group, CRI significantly reduced glucose at 4 and 6 h relative to Reg-In (P < 0.05), suggesting the effects of CRI on reducing glucose last longer than Reg-In. CRI treatment significantly increased hepatic IRS-1 and Akt1 and reduced IDE, 20S as well as 19S protein abundance (P < 0.01, P < 0.05, and P < 0.001, respectively), but Reg-In only significantly increased Akt1 (P < 0.05). Similar results were also observed in Reg-In- and CRI-treated HepG2 cells. This study, for the first time, demonstrates that CRI reduces plasma insulin clearance by inhibition of hepatic IDE protein expression and enhances insulin signaling as well as prevents degradation of IRS-1 and IRS-2 by suppressing ubiquitin-proteasome pathway in diabetic mice. PMID:25071716

  11. Engraftment of human HSCs in nonirradiated newborn NOD-scid IL2rγnull mice is enhanced by transgenic expression of membrane-bound human SCF

    PubMed Central

    Racki, Waldemar J.; Leif, Jean; Burzenski, Lisa; Hosur, Vishnu; Wetmore, Amber; Gott, Bruce; Herlihy, Mary; Ignotz, Ronald; Dunn, Raymond; Shultz, Leonard D.; Greiner, Dale L.

    2012-01-01

    Immunodeficient mice engrafted with human HSCs support multidisciplinary translational experimentation, including the study of human hematopoiesis. Heightened levels of human HSC engraftment are observed in immunodeficient mice expressing mutations in the IL2-receptor common γ chain (IL2rg) gene, including NOD-scid IL2rγnull (NSG) mice. Engraftment of human HSC requires preconditioning of immunodeficient recipients, usually with irradiation. Such preconditioning increases the expression of stem cell factor (SCF), which is critical for HSC engraftment, proliferation, and survival. We hypothesized that transgenic expression of human membrane-bound stem cell factor Tg(hu-mSCF)] would increase levels of human HSC engraftment in nonirradiated NSG mice and eliminate complications associated with irradiation. Surprisingly, detectable levels of human CD45+ cell chimerism were observed after transplantation of cord blood–derived human HSCs into nonirradiated adult as well as newborn NSG mice. However, transgenic expression of human mSCF enabled heightened levels of human hematopoietic cell chimerism in the absence of irradiation. Moreover, nonirradiated NSG-Tg(hu-mSCF) mice engrafted as newborns with human HSCs rejected human skin grafts from a histoincompatible donor, indicating the development of a functional human immune system. These data provide a new immunodeficient mouse model that does not require irradiation preconditioning for human HSC engraftment and immune system development. PMID:22246028

  12. Arctigenin efficiently enhanced sedentary mice treadmill endurance.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xuan; Zhuang, Jingjing; Chen, Jing; Yu, Liang; Hu, Lihong; Jiang, Hualiang; Shen, Xu

    2011-01-01

    Physical inactivity is considered as one of the potential risk factors for the development of type 2 diabetes and other metabolic diseases, while endurance exercise training could enhance fat oxidation that is associated with insulin sensitivity improvement in obesity. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) as an energy sensor plays pivotal roles in the regulation of energy homeostasis, and its activation could improve glucose uptake, promote mitochondrial biogenesis and increase glycolysis. Recent research has even suggested that AMPK activation contributed to endurance enhancement without exercise. Here we report that the natural product arctigenin from the traditional herb Arctium lappa L. (Compositae) strongly increased AMPK phosphorylation and subsequently up-regulated its downstream pathway in both H9C2 and C2C12 cells. It was discovered that arctigenin phosphorylated AMPK via calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase (CaMKK) and serine/threonine kinase 11(LKB1)-dependent pathways. Mice treadmill based in vivo assay further indicated that administration of arctigenin improved efficiently mice endurance as reflected by the increased fatigue time and distance, and potently enhanced mitochondrial biogenesis and fatty acid oxidation (FAO) related genes expression in muscle tissues. Our results thus suggested that arctigenin might be used as a potential lead compound for the discovery of the agents with mimic exercise training effects to treat metabolic diseases.

  13. Arctigenin Efficiently Enhanced Sedentary Mice Treadmill Endurance

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jing; Yu, Liang; Hu, Lihong; Jiang, Hualiang; Shen, Xu

    2011-01-01

    Physical inactivity is considered as one of the potential risk factors for the development of type 2 diabetes and other metabolic diseases, while endurance exercise training could enhance fat oxidation that is associated with insulin sensitivity improvement in obesity. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) as an energy sensor plays pivotal roles in the regulation of energy homeostasis, and its activation could improve glucose uptake, promote mitochondrial biogenesis and increase glycolysis. Recent research has even suggested that AMPK activation contributed to endurance enhancement without exercise. Here we report that the natural product arctigenin from the traditional herb Arctium lappa L. (Compositae) strongly increased AMPK phosphorylation and subsequently up-regulated its downstream pathway in both H9C2 and C2C12 cells. It was discovered that arctigenin phosphorylated AMPK via calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase (CaMKK) and serine/threonine kinase 11(LKB1)-dependent pathways. Mice treadmill based in vivo assay further indicated that administration of arctigenin improved efficiently mice endurance as reflected by the increased fatigue time and distance, and potently enhanced mitochondrial biogenesis and fatty acid oxidation (FAO) related genes expression in muscle tissues. Our results thus suggested that arctigenin might be used as a potential lead compound for the discovery of the agents with mimic exercise training effects to treat metabolic diseases. PMID:21887385

  14. Vitamin D receptor signaling enhances locomotive ability in mice.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Sadaoki; Suzuki, Miho; Tashiro, Yoshihito; Tanaka, Keisuke; Takeda, Satoshi; Aizawa, Ken; Hirata, Michinori; Yogo, Kenji; Endo, Koichi

    2015-01-01

    Bone fractures markedly reduce quality of life and life expectancy in elderly people. Although osteoporosis increases bone fragility, fractures frequently occur in patients with normal bone mineral density. Because most fractures occur on falling, preventing falls is another focus for reducing bone fractures. In this study, we investigated the role of vitamin D receptor (VDR) signaling in locomotive ability. In the rotarod test, physical exercise enhanced locomotive ability of wild-type (WT) mice by 1.6-fold, whereas exercise did not enhance locomotive ability of VDR knockout (KO) mice. Compared with WT mice, VDR KO mice had smaller peripheral nerve axonal diameter and disordered AChR morphology on the extensor digitorum longus muscle. Eldecalcitol (ED-71, ELD), an analog of 1,25(OH)2 D3 , administered to rotarod-trained C57BL/6 mice enhanced locomotor performance compared with vehicle-treated nontrained mice. The area of AChR cluster on the extensor digitorum longus was greater in ELD-treated mice than in vehicle-treated mice. ELD and 1,25(OH)2 D3 enhanced expression of IGF-1, myelin basic protein, and VDR in rat primary Schwann cells. VDR signaling regulates neuromuscular maintenance and enhances locomotive ability after physical exercise. Further investigation is required, but Schwann cells and the neuromuscular junction are targets of vitamin D3 signaling in locomotive ability.

  15. Loss of RhoB Expression Enhances the Myelodysplastic Phenotype of Mammalian Diaphanous-Related Formin mDia1 Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    DeWard, Aaron D.; Leali, Kellie; West, Richard A.; Prendergast, George C.; Alberts, Arthur S.

    2009-01-01

    Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is characterized by ineffective hematopoiesis and hyperplastic bone marrow. Complete loss or interstitial deletions of the long arm of chromosome 5 occur frequently in MDS. One candidate tumor suppressor on 5q is the mammalian Diaphanous (mDia)-related formin mDia1, encoded by DIAPH1 (5q31.3). mDia-family formins act as effectors for Rho-family small GTP-binding proteins including RhoB, which has also been shown to possess tumor suppressor activity. Mice lacking the Drf1 gene that encodes mDia1 develop age-dependent myelodysplastic features. We crossed mDia1 and RhoB knockout mice to test whether the additional loss of RhoB expression would compound the myelodysplastic phenotype. Drf1−/−RhoB−/− mice are fertile and develop normally. Relative to age-matched Drf1−/−RhoB+/− mice, the age of myelodysplasia onset was earlier in Drf1−/−RhoB−/− animals—including abnormally shaped erythrocytes, splenomegaly, and extramedullary hematopoiesis. In addition, we observed a statistically significant increase in the number of activated monocytes/macrophages in both the spleen and bone marrow of Drf1−/−RhoB−/− mice relative to Drf1−/−RhoB+/− mice. These data suggest a role for RhoB-regulated mDia1 in the regulation of hematopoietic progenitor cells. PMID:19768111

  16. Loss of RhoB expression enhances the myelodysplastic phenotype of mammalian diaphanous-related Formin mDia1 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    DeWard, Aaron D; Leali, Kellie; West, Richard A; Prendergast, George C; Alberts, Arthur S

    2009-09-21

    Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is characterized by ineffective hematopoiesis and hyperplastic bone marrow. Complete loss or interstitial deletions of the long arm of chromosome 5 occur frequently in MDS. One candidate tumor suppressor on 5q is the mammalian Diaphanous (mDia)-related formin mDia1, encoded by DIAPH1 (5q31.3). mDia-family formins act as effectors for Rho-family small GTP-binding proteins including RhoB, which has also been shown to possess tumor suppressor activity. Mice lacking the Drf1 gene that encodes mDia1 develop age-dependent myelodysplastic features. We crossed mDia1 and RhoB knockout mice to test whether the additional loss of RhoB expression would compound the myelodysplastic phenotype. Drf1(-/-)RhoB(-/-) mice are fertile and develop normally. Relative to age-matched Drf1(-/-)RhoB(+/-) mice, the age of myelodysplasia onset was earlier in Drf1(-/-)RhoB(-/-) animals--including abnormally shaped erythrocytes, splenomegaly, and extramedullary hematopoiesis. In addition, we observed a statistically significant increase in the number of activated monocytes/macrophages in both the spleen and bone marrow of Drf1(-/-)RhoB(-/-) mice relative to Drf1(-/-)RhoB(+/-) mice. These data suggest a role for RhoB-regulated mDia1 in the regulation of hematopoietic progenitor cells.

  17. Voluntary exercise and green tea enhance the expression of genes related to energy utilization and attenuate metabolic syndrome in high fat fed mice.

    PubMed

    Sae-Tan, Sudathip; Rogers, Connie J; Lambert, Joshua D

    2014-05-01

    Obesity and metabolic syndrome are growing public health problems. We investigated the effects of decaffeinated green tea extract (GTE) and voluntary running exercise (Ex) alone or in combination against obesity and metabolic syndrome in high fat (HF) fed C57BL/6J mice. After 16 wk, GTE + Ex treatment reduced final body mass (27.1% decrease) and total visceral fat mass (36.6% decrease) compared to HF-fed mice. GTE + Ex reduced fasting blood glucose (17% decrease), plasma insulin (65% decrease), and insulin resistance (65% decrease) compared to HF-fed mice. GTE or Ex alone had less significant effects. In the skeletal muscle, the combination of Ex and GTE increased the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (Ppargc1a), mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase 5 (mt-Nd5), mitochondrial cytochrome b (mt-Cytb), and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase III (mt-Co3). An increase in hepatic expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (Ppara) and liver carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1α (Cpt1a) and a decrease in hepatic expression of stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (Scd1) mRNA was observed in GTE + Ex mice. GTE + Ex was more effective than either treatment alone in reducing diet-induced obesity. These effects are due in part to modulation of genes related to energy metabolism and de novo lipogenesis. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Long-term insulin-like growth factor-I expression in skeletal muscles attenuates the enhanced in vitro proliferation ability of the resident satellite cells in transgenic mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chakravarthy, M. V.; Fiorotto, M. L.; Schwartz, R. J.; Booth, F. W.

    2001-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) overexpression for 1-month in mouse skeletal muscle increases satellite cell proliferation potential. However, it is unknown whether this beneficial enhancement by IGF-I expression would persist over a longer-term duration in aged mice. This is an important issue to address if a prolonged course of IGF-I is to be used clinically in muscle-wasting conditions where satellite cells may become limiting. Using the IGF-I transgenic (IGF-I Tg) mouse that selectively expresses the IGF-I transgene in striated muscles, we found that 18-months of continuous IGF-I overexpression led to a loss in the enhanced in vitro proliferative capacity of satellite cells from Tg skeletal muscles. Also 18-month-old IGF-I Tg satellite cells lost the enhanced BrdU incorporation, greater pRb and Akt phosphorylations, and decreased p27(Kip1) levels initially observed in cells from 1-month-old IGF-I Tg mice. The levels of those biochemical markers reverted to similar values seen in the 18-months WT littermates. These findings, therefore, suggest that there is no further beneficial effect on enhancing satellite cell proliferation ability with persistent long-term expression of IGF-I in skeletal muscles of these transgenic mice.

  19. Long-term insulin-like growth factor-I expression in skeletal muscles attenuates the enhanced in vitro proliferation ability of the resident satellite cells in transgenic mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chakravarthy, M. V.; Fiorotto, M. L.; Schwartz, R. J.; Booth, F. W.

    2001-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) overexpression for 1-month in mouse skeletal muscle increases satellite cell proliferation potential. However, it is unknown whether this beneficial enhancement by IGF-I expression would persist over a longer-term duration in aged mice. This is an important issue to address if a prolonged course of IGF-I is to be used clinically in muscle-wasting conditions where satellite cells may become limiting. Using the IGF-I transgenic (IGF-I Tg) mouse that selectively expresses the IGF-I transgene in striated muscles, we found that 18-months of continuous IGF-I overexpression led to a loss in the enhanced in vitro proliferative capacity of satellite cells from Tg skeletal muscles. Also 18-month-old IGF-I Tg satellite cells lost the enhanced BrdU incorporation, greater pRb and Akt phosphorylations, and decreased p27(Kip1) levels initially observed in cells from 1-month-old IGF-I Tg mice. The levels of those biochemical markers reverted to similar values seen in the 18-months WT littermates. These findings, therefore, suggest that there is no further beneficial effect on enhancing satellite cell proliferation ability with persistent long-term expression of IGF-I in skeletal muscles of these transgenic mice.

  20. Inhibition of SLC7A11 by Sulfasalazine Enhances Osteogenic Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells by Modulating BMP2/4 Expression and Suppresses Bone Loss in Ovariectomized Mice.

    PubMed

    Jin, Chanyuan; Zhang, Ping; Zhang, Min; Zhang, Xiao; Lv, Longwei; Liu, Hao; Liu, Yunsong; Zhou, Yongsheng

    2017-03-01

    An imbalance in osteogenesis and adipogenesis is a crucial pathological factor in the development of osteoporosis. Many attempts have been made to develop drugs to prevent and treat this disease. In the present study, we investigated the phenomenon whereby downregulation of SLC7A11 significantly enhanced the osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in vitro, and promoted the bone formation in vivo. Sulfasalazine (SAS), an inhibitor of SLC7A11, increased the osteogenic potential effectively. Mechanistically, inhibition of SLC7A11 by SAS treatment or knockdown of SLC7A11 increased BMP2/4 expression dramatically. In addition, we detected increased Slc7a11 expression in bone marrow MSCs of ovariectomized (OVX) mice. Remarkably, SAS treatment attenuated bone loss in ovariectomized mice. Together, our data suggested that SAS could be used to treat osteoporosis by enhancing osteogenic differentiation of MSCs. © 2016 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  1. Enhancing the value of psychiatric mouse models; differential expression of developmental behavioral and cognitive profiles in four inbred strains of mice.

    PubMed

    Molenhuis, Remco T; de Visser, Leonie; Bruining, Hilgo; Kas, Martien J

    2014-06-01

    The behavioral characterization of animal models of psychiatric disorders is often based upon independent traits measured at adult age. To model the neurodevelopmental aspects of psychiatric pathogenesis, we introduce a novel approach for a developmental behavioral analysis in mice. C57BL/6J (C57) mice were used as a reference strain and compared with 129S1/SvImJ (129Sv), BTBR T+tf/J (BTBR) and A/J (AJ) strains as marker strains for aberrant development. Mice were assessed at pre-adolescence (4 weeks), adolescence (6 weeks), early adulthood (8 weeks) and in adulthood (10-12 weeks) on a series of behavioral tasks measuring general health, neurological reflexes, locomotor activity, anxiety, short- and long-term memory and cognitive flexibility. Developmental delays in short-term object memory were associated with either a hypo-reactive profile in 129Sv mice or a hyper-reactive profile in BTBR mice. Furthermore, BTBR mice showed persistent high levels of repetitive grooming behavior during all developmental stages that was associated with the adult expression of cognitive rigidity. In addition, strain differences in development were observed in puberty onset, touch escape, and body position. These data showed that this longitudinal testing battery provides sufficient behavioral and cognitive resolution during different development stages and offers the opportunity to address the behavioral developmental trajectory in genetic mouse models for neurodevelopmental disorders. Furthermore, the data revealed that the assessment of multiple behavioral and cognitive domains at different developmental stages is critical to determine confounding factors (e.g., impaired motor behavior) that may interfere with the behavioral testing performance in mouse models for brain disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  2. Enhanced Autophagy in Polycystic Kidneys of AQP11 Null Mice

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Yasuko; Watari, Mayumi; Saito, Tatsuya; Morishita, Yoshiyuki; Ishibashi, Kenichi

    2016-01-01

    Aquaporin-11 (AQP11) is an intracellular water channel expressed at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of the proximal tubule. Its gene disruption in mice leads to intracellular vacuole formation at one week and the subsequent development of polycystic kidneys by three weeks. As the damaged proximal tubular cells with intracellular vacuoles form cysts later, we postulated that autophagy may play a role in the cyst formation and examined autophagy activity before and after cyst development in AQP11(−/−) kidneys. PCR analysis showed the increased expression of the transcript encoding LC3 (Map1lc3b) as well as other autophagy-related genes in AQP11(−/−) mice. Using green fluorescent protein (GFP)-LC3 transgenic mice and AQP11(−/−) mice, we found that the number of GFP-LC3–positive puncta was increased in the proximal tubule of AQP11(−/−) mice before the cyst formation. Interestingly, they were also observed in the cyst-lining epithelial cell. Further PCR analyses revealed the enhanced expression of apoptosis-related and ER stress–related caspase genes before and after the cyst formation, which may cause the enhanced autophagy. These results suggest the involvement of autophagy in the development and maintenance of kidney cysts in AQP11(−/−) mice. PMID:27916883

  3. Enhancement of mouse germ cell-associated genes expression by injection of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells into the testis of chemical-induced azoospermic mice.

    PubMed

    Yang, Rui-Feng; Liu, Tai-Hua; Zhao, Kai; Xiong, Cheng-Liang

    2014-01-01

    Various methods are currently under investigation to preserve fertility in males treated with high-dose chemotherapy and radiation for malignant and nonmalignant disorders. Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (HUC-MSCs), which possess potent immunosuppressive function and secrete various cytokines and growth factors, have the potential clinical applications. As a potential alternative, we investigate whether injection of HUC-MSCs into the interstitial compartment of the testes to promote spermatogenic regeneration efficiently. HUC-MSCs were isolated from different sources of umbilical cords and injected into the interstitial space of one testis from 10 busulfan-treated mice (saline and HEK293 cells injections were performed in a separate set of mice) and the other testis remained uninjected. Three weeks after MSCs injection, Relative quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was used to identify the expression of 10 of germ cell associated, which are all related to meiosis, demonstrated higher levels of spermatogenic gene expression (2-8 fold) in HUC-MSCs injected testes compared to the contralateral uninjected testes (five mice). Protein levels for germ cell-specific genes, miwi, vasa and synaptonemal complex protein (Scp3) were also higher in MSC-treated testes compared to injected controls 3 weeks after treatment. However, no different expression was detected in saline water and HEK293 cells injection control group. We have demonstrated HUC-MSCs could affect mouse germ cell-specific genes expression. The results also provide a possibility that the transplanted HUC-MSCs may promote the recovery of spermatogenesis. This study provides further evidence for preclinical therapeutic effects of HUC-MSCs, and explores a new approach to the treatment of azoospermia.

  4. The Sirt1 activator SRT3025 provides atheroprotection in Apoe−/− mice by reducing hepatic Pcsk9 secretion and enhancing Ldlr expression

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Melroy X.; van Tits, Lambertus J.; Lohmann, Christine; Arsiwala, Tasneem; Winnik, Stephan; Tailleux, Anne; Stein, Sokrates; Gomes, Ana P.; Suri, Vipin; Ellis, James L.; Lutz, Thomas A.; Hottiger, Michael O.; Sinclair, David A.; Auwerx, Johan; Schoonjans, Kristina; Staels, Bart; Lüscher, Thomas F.; Matter, Christian M.

    2015-01-01

    Aims The deacetylase sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) exerts beneficial effects on lipid metabolism, but its roles in plasma LDL-cholesterol regulation and atherosclerosis are controversial. Thus, we applied the pharmacological Sirt1 activator SRT3025 in a mouse model of atherosclerosis and in hepatocyte culture. Methods and results Apolipoprotein E-deficient (Apoe−/−) mice were fed a high-cholesterol diet (1.25% w/w) supplemented with SRT3025 (3.18 g kg−1 diet) for 12 weeks. In vitro, the drug activated wild-type Sirt1 protein, but not the activation-resistant Sirt1 mutant; in vivo, it increased deacetylation of hepatic p65 and skeletal muscle Foxo1. SRT3025 treatment decreased plasma levels of LDL-cholesterol and total cholesterol and reduced atherosclerosis. Drug treatment did not change mRNA expression of hepatic LDL receptor (Ldlr) and proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (Pcsk9), but increased their protein expression indicating post-translational effects. Consistent with hepatocyte Ldlr and Pcsk9 accumulation, we found reduced plasma levels of Pcsk9 after pharmacological Sirt1 activation. In vitro administration of SRT3025 to cultured AML12 hepatocytes attenuated Pcsk9 secretion and its binding to Ldlr, thereby reducing Pcsk9-mediated Ldlr degradation and increasing Ldlr expression and LDL uptake. Co-administration of exogenous Pcsk9 with SRT3025 blunted these effects. Sirt1 activation with SRT3025 in Ldlr−/− mice reduced neither plasma Pcsk9, nor LDL-cholesterol levels, nor atherosclerosis. Conclusion We identify reduction in Pcsk9 secretion as a novel effect of Sirt1 activity and uncover Ldlr as a prerequisite for Sirt1-mediated atheroprotection in mice. Pharmacological activation of Sirt1 appears promising to be tested in patients for its effects on plasma Pcsk9, LDL-cholesterol, and atherosclerosis. PMID:24603306

  5. Intermittent Cold Exposure Enhances Fat Accumulation in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Hyung sun; Qiao, Liping; Bosco, Chris; Leong, Lok-Hei; Lytle, Nikki; Feng, Gen-Sheng; Chi, Nai-Wen; Shao, Jianhua

    2014-01-01

    Due to its high energy consuming characteristics, brown adipose tissue (BAT) has been suggested as a key player in energy metabolism. Cold exposure is a physiological activator of BAT. Intermittent cold exposure (ICE), unlike persistent exposure, is clinically feasible. The main objective of this study was to investigate whether ICE reduces adiposity in C57BL/6 mice. Surprisingly, we found that ICE actually increased adiposity despite enhancing Ucp1 expression in BAT and inducing beige adipocytes in subcutaneous white adipose tissue. ICE did not alter basal systemic insulin sensitivity, but it increased liver triglyceride content and secretion rate as well as blood triglyceride levels. Gene profiling further demonstrated that ICE, despite suppressing lipogenic gene expression in white adipose tissue and liver during cold exposure, enhanced lipogenesis between the exposure periods. Together, our results indicate that despite enhancing BAT recruitment, ICE in mice increases fat accumulation by stimulating de novo lipogenesis. PMID:24789228

  6. Intermittent cold exposure enhances fat accumulation in mice.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Hyung Sun; Qiao, Liping; Bosco, Chris; Leong, Lok-Hei; Lytle, Nikki; Feng, Gen-Sheng; Chi, Nai-Wen; Shao, Jianhua

    2014-01-01

    Due to its high energy consuming characteristics, brown adipose tissue (BAT) has been suggested as a key player in energy metabolism. Cold exposure is a physiological activator of BAT. Intermittent cold exposure (ICE), unlike persistent exposure, is clinically feasible. The main objective of this study was to investigate whether ICE reduces adiposity in C57BL/6 mice. Surprisingly, we found that ICE actually increased adiposity despite enhancing Ucp1 expression in BAT and inducing beige adipocytes in subcutaneous white adipose tissue. ICE did not alter basal systemic insulin sensitivity, but it increased liver triglyceride content and secretion rate as well as blood triglyceride levels. Gene profiling further demonstrated that ICE, despite suppressing lipogenic gene expression in white adipose tissue and liver during cold exposure, enhanced lipogenesis between the exposure periods. Together, our results indicate that despite enhancing BAT recruitment, ICE in mice increases fat accumulation by stimulating de novo lipogenesis.

  7. Short-term Low-strain Vibration Enhances Chemo-transport Yet Does Not Stimulate Osteogenic Gene Expression or Cortical Bone Formation in Adult Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kotiya, Akhilesh A.; Bayly, Philip V.; Silva, Matthew J.

    2010-01-01

    Development of low-magnitude mechanical stimulation (LMMS) based treatment strategies for a variety of orthopaedic issues requires better understanding of mechano-transduction and bone adaptation. Our overall goal was to study the tissue and molecular level changes in cortical bone in response to low-strain vibration (LSV: 70 Hz, 0.5 g, 300 με) and compare these to changes in response to a known anabolic stimulus: high-strain compression (HSC: rest inserted loading, 1000 με). Adult (6–7 month) C57BL/6 mice were used for the study and non-invasive axial compression of the tibia was used as a loading model. We first studied bone adaptation at the tibial mid-diaphysis, using dynamic histomorphometry, in response to daily loading of 15 min LSV or 60 cycles HSC for 5 consecutive days. We found that bone formation rate and mineral apposition rate were significantly increased in response to HSC but not LSV. The second aim was to compare chemo-transport in response to 5 min of LSV versus 5 min (30 cycles) of HSC. Chemo-transport increased significantly in response to both loading stimuli, particularly in the medial and the lateral quadrants of the cross section. Finally, we evaluated the expression of genes related to mechano-responsiveness, osteoblast differentiation, and matrix mineralization in tibias subjected to 15 min LSV or 60 cycles HSC for 1 day (4-hour time point) or 4 consecutive days (4-day time point). The expression level of most of the genes remained unchanged in response to LSV at both time points. In contrast, the expression level of all the genes changed significantly in response to HSC at the 4-hour time point. We conclude that short-term, low-strain vibration results in increased chemo-transport, yet does not stimulate an increase in mechano-responsive or osteogenic gene expression, and cortical bone formation in tibias of adult mice. PMID:20937421

  8. Adjuvant-enhanced antibody and cellular responses to inclusion bodies expressing FhSAP2 correlates with protection of mice to Fasciola hepatica.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Francheska; Espino, Ana M

    2016-01-01

    Fasciola hepatica saposin-like protein-2 (FhSAP2) is a protein differentially expressed in various developmental stages of F. hepatica. Recombinant FhSAP2 has demonstrated the induction of partial protection in mice and rabbits when it is administered subcutaneously (SC) in Freund's adjuvant. Because FhSAP2 is overexpressed in bacteria in the form of inclusion bodies (IBs), we isolated IBs expressing FhSAP2 and tested their immunogenicity when administered SC in mice emulsified in two different adjuvants: QS-21 and Montanide TM ISA720. Animals received three injections containing 20 μg of protein two weeks apart and 4 weeks after the third injection, mice were infected with 10 F. hepatica metacercariae by oral route. The percentages of protection induced by FhSAP2-IBs were estimated to be between 60.0 and 62.5% when compared with adjuvant-vaccinated, infected controls. By determining the levels of IgG1 and IgG2a antibodies and IL-4 and IFNγ cytokines in the serum of experimental animals, it was found that both Th1 and Th2 immune responses were significantly increased in the FhSAP2-IBs vaccinated groups compared with the adjuvant-vaccinated, infected control groups. The adjuvant-vaccinated groups had significantly lower IgG1 to IgG2a ratios and lower IL-4 to IFNγ ratios than the FhSAP2-IBs vaccinated animals, which is indicative of higher levels of Th2 immune responses. Irrespective to the adjuvant used, animals vaccinated with FhSAP2-IBs exhibited significantly higher survival percentage and less liver damage than the adjuvant-control groups. This study suggests that FhSAP2 has potential as vaccine against F. hepatica and that the protection elicited by this molecule could be linked to a mechanism driven by the CD4-Th1 cells. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Expression of Gal4-dependent transgenes in cells of the mononuclear phagocyte system labeled with enhanced cyan fluorescent protein using Csf1r-Gal4VP16/UAS-ECFP double-transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Ovchinnikov, Dmitry A; van Zuylen, Wendy J M; DeBats, Claire E E; Alexander, Kylie A; Kellie, Stuart; Hume, David A

    2008-02-01

    We generated double-transgenic mice carrying cointegrated tissue-specific Gal4 and Gal4 reporter transgenes to direct transgene overexpression in the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS). A modified promoter of the Csf1r (c-fms) gene, containing a deletion of the trophoblast-specific promoter, was used to drive the expression of Gal4VP16 transcriptional activator specifically in macrophages. This module was cointegrated with a fluorescent reporter, enhanced cyan fluorescent protein (ECFP), driven by a Gal4-dependent promoter. ECFP fluorescence was first detected in forming blood islands of the yolk sac at 8 dpc, then in macrophages in the yolk sac and the embryo proper. In adult mice ECFP was detected primarily in monocytes, tissue macrophages, microglia, and dendritic cells, including Langerhans cells of the skin. Crossing of these mice to transgenics containing tagged protein under control of a Gal4-dependent promoter directed expression of that protein in mononuclear phagocytes of double-transgenic animals. The new mouse line provides a useful tool for overexpression of transgenes in cells of the myeloid lineage, while simultaneously labeling them by ECFP expression.

  10. Allergic Lung Inflammation Reduces Tissue Invasion and Enhances Survival from Pulmonary Pneumococcal Infection in Mice, Which Correlates with Increased Expression of Transforming Growth Factor β1 and SiglecF(low) Alveolar Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Sanfilippo, Alan M; Furuya, Yoichi; Roberts, Sean; Salmon, Sharon L; Metzger, Dennis W

    2015-07-01

    Asthma is generally thought to confer an increased risk for invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in humans. However, recent reports suggest that mortality rates from IPD are unaffected in patients with asthma and that chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a condition similar to asthma, protects against the development of complicated pneumonia. To clarify the effects of asthma on the subsequent susceptibility to pneumococcal infection, ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic lung inflammation (ALI) was induced in mice followed by intranasal infection with A66.1 serotype 3 Streptococcus pneumoniae. Surprisingly, mice with ALI were significantly more resistant to lethal infection than non-ALI mice. The heightened resistance observed following ALI correlated with enhanced early clearance of pneumococci from the lung, decreased bacterial invasion from the airway into the lung tissue, a blunted inflammatory cytokine and neutrophil response to infection, and enhanced expression of transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1). Neutrophil depletion prior to infection had no effect on enhanced early bacterial clearance or resistance to IPD in mice with ALI. Although eosinophils recruited into the lung during ALI appeared to be capable of phagocytizing bacteria, neutralization of interleukin-5 (IL-5) to inhibit eosinophil recruitment likewise had no effect on early clearance or survival following infection. However, enhanced resistance was associated with an increase in levels of clodronate-sensitive, phagocytic SiglecF(low) alveolar macrophages within the airways following ALI. These findings suggest that, while the risk of developing IPD may actually be decreased in patients with acute asthma, additional clinical data are needed to better understand the risk of IPD in patients with different asthma phenotypes.

  11. Expressing fear enhances sensory acquisition.

    PubMed

    Susskind, Joshua M; Lee, Daniel H; Cusi, Andrée; Feiman, Roman; Grabski, Wojtek; Anderson, Adam K

    2008-07-01

    It has been proposed that facial expression production originates in sensory regulation. Here we demonstrate that facial expressions of fear are configured to enhance sensory acquisition. A statistical model of expression appearance revealed that fear and disgust expressions have opposite shape and surface reflectance features. We hypothesized that this reflects a fundamental antagonism serving to augment versus diminish sensory exposure. In keeping with this hypothesis, when subjects posed expressions of fear, they had a subjectively larger visual field, faster eye movements during target localization and an increase in nasal volume and air velocity during inspiration. The opposite pattern was found for disgust. Fear may therefore work to enhance perception, whereas disgust dampens it. These convergent results provide support for the Darwinian hypothesis that facial expressions are not arbitrary configurations for social communication, but rather, expressions may have originated in altering the sensory interface with the physical world.

  12. Enhancing immune responses of EV71 VP1 DNA vaccine by co-inoculating plasmid IL-12 or GM-CSF expressing vector in mice.

    PubMed

    Peng, X; Fang, X; Li, J; Kong, L; Li, B; Ding, X

    2016-04-30

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a major causative viral agent for large outbreaks of hand, foot, and mouth disease in children and infants, yet there is no vaccine or effective antiviral treatment for severe EV71 infection. The immunogenicity of EV71 VP1 DNA vaccine and the immunoregulatory activity of interleukin-12 (IL-12) or granulocyte-monocyte colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) were investigated. DNA vaccine plasmids, pcDNA-VP1, pcDNA-IL-12 and pcDNA-GM-CSF were constructed and inoculated into BALB/c mice with or without pcDNA-IL-12 or pcDNA-GM-CSF by intramuscular injection. Cellular and humoral immune responses were assessed by indirect ELISA, lymphocyte proliferation assays, cytokine release assay and FACS. The VP1 DNA vaccine had good immunogenicity and can induce specific humoral and cellular immunity in BALB/c mice, while IL-2 or GM-CSF plays an immunoadjuvant role and enhances specific immune responses. This study provides a frame of reference for the design of DNA vaccines against EV71.

  13. HDAC1-3 inhibitor MS-275 enhances IL10 expression in RAW264.7 macrophages and reduces cigarette smoke-induced airway inflammation in mice

    PubMed Central

    Leus, Niek G. J.; van den Bosch, Thea; van der Wouden, Petra E.; Krist, Kim; Ourailidou, Maria E.; Eleftheriadis, Nikolaos; Kistemaker, Loes E. M.; Bos, Sophie; Gjaltema, Rutger A. F.; Mekonnen, Solomon A.; Bischoff, Rainer; Gosens, Reinoud; Haisma, Hidde J.; Dekker, Frank J.

    2017-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) constitutes a major health burden. Studying underlying molecular mechanisms could lead to new therapeutic targets. Macrophages are orchestrators of COPD, by releasing pro-inflammatory cytokines. This process relies on transcription factors such as NF-κB, among others. NF-κB is regulated by lysine acetylation; a post-translational modification installed by histone acetyltransferases and removed by histone deacetylases (HDACs). We hypothesized that small molecule HDAC inhibitors (HDACi) targeting class I HDACs members that can regulate NF-κB could attenuate inflammatory responses in COPD via modulation of the NF-κB signaling output. MS-275 is an isoform-selective inhibitor of HDAC1-3. In precision-cut lung slices and RAW264.7 macrophages, MS-275 upregulated the expression of both pro- and anti-inflammatory genes, implying mixed effects. Interestingly, anti-inflammatory IL10 expression was upregulated in these model systems. In the macrophages, this was associated with increased NF-κB activity, acetylation, nuclear translocation, and binding to the IL10 promoter. Importantly, in an in vivo model of cigarette smoke-exposed C57Bl/6 mice, MS-275 robustly attenuated inflammatory expression of KC and neutrophil influx in the lungs. This study highlights for the first time the potential of isoform-selective HDACi for the treatment of inflammatory lung diseases like COPD. PMID:28344354

  14. The absence of a microbiota enhances TSLP expression in mice with defective skin barrier but does not affect the severity of their allergic inflammation.

    PubMed

    Yockey, Laura J; Demehri, Shadmehr; Turkoz, Mustafa; Turkoz, Ahu; Ahern, Philip P; Jassim, Omar; Manivasagam, Sindhu; Kearney, John F; Gordon, Jeffrey I; Kopan, Raphael

    2013-12-01

    Evidence is accumulating to suggest that our indigenous microbial communities (microbiota) may have a role in modulating allergic and immune disorders of the skin. To examine the link between the microbiota and atopic dermatitis (AD), we examined a mouse model of defective cutaneous barrier function with an AD-like disease due to loss of Notch signaling. Comparisons of conventionally raised and germ-free (GF) mice revealed a similar degree of allergic skin inflammation, systemic atopy, and airway hypersensitivity. GF mutant animals expressed significantly higher levels of thymic stromal lymphopoietin, a major proinflammatory cytokine released by skin with defective barrier function, resulting in a more severe B-lymphoproliferative disorder that persisted into adulthood. These findings suggest a role for the microbiota in ameliorating stress signals released by keratinocytes in response to perturbation in cutaneous barrier function.

  15. Ablation of Chop Transiently Enhances Photoreceptor Survival but Does Not Prevent Retinal Degeneration in Transgenic Mice Expressing Human P23H Rhodopsin.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Wei-Chieh; Joseph, Victory; Yasumura, Douglas; Matthes, Michael T; Lewin, Alfred S; Gorbatyuk, Marina S; Ahern, Kelly; LaVail, Matthew M; Lin, Jonathan H

    2016-01-01

    RHO (Rod opsin) encodes a G-protein coupled receptor that is expressed exclusively by rod photoreceptors of the retina and forms the essential photopigment, rhodopsin, when coupled with 11-cis-retinal. Many rod opsin disease -mutations cause rod opsin protein misfolding and trigger endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, leading to activation of the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR) signal transduction network. Chop is a transcriptional activator that is induced by ER stress and promotes cell death in response to chronic ER stress. Here, we examined the role of Chop in transgenic mice expressing human P23H rhodopsin (hP23H Rho Tg) that undergo retinal degeneration. With the exception of one time point, we found no significant induction of Chop in these animals and no significant change in retinal degeneration by histology and electrophysiology when hP23H Rho Tg animals were bred into a Chop (-/-) background. Our results indicate that Chop does not play a significant causal role during retinal degeneration in these animals. We suggest that other modules of the ER stress-induced UPR signaling network may be involved photoreceptor disease induced by P23H rhodopsin.

  16. Rhes suppression enhances disease phenotypes in Huntington's disease mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, John H; Sowada, Matthew J; Boudreau, Ryan L; Aerts, Andrea M; Thedens, Daniel R; Nopoulos, Peg; Davidson, Beverly L

    2014-01-01

    In Huntington's disease (HD) mutant HTT is ubiquitously expressed yet the striatum undergoes profound early degeneration. Cell culture studies suggest that a striatal-enriched protein, Rhes, may account for this vulnerability. We investigated the therapeutic potential of silencing Rhes in vivo using inhibitory RNAs (miRhes). While Rhes suppression was tolerated in wildtype mice, it failed to improve rotarod function in two distinct HD mouse models. Additionally, miRhes treated HD mice had increased anxiety-like behaviors and enhanced striatal atrophy as measured by longitudinal MRI when compared to control treated mice. These findings raise caution regarding the long-term implementation of inhibiting Rhes as a therapy for HD.

  17. Dietary sericin enhances epidermal levels of glucosylceramides and ceramides with up-regulating protein expressions of glucosylceramide synthase, β-glucocerebrosidase and acidic sphingomyelinase in NC/Nga mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyunae; Lee, Jongsun; Cho, Yunhi

    2012-12-01

    We have previously reported that dietary sericin improves epidermal dryness with the increased total Ceramide (Cer) in NC/Nga mice, an animal model of atopic dermatitis (AD). In this study, we hypothesized that the increased level of total Cer induced by dietary sericin would be related to the altered metabolism of glucosylceramide (GlcCer) and sphingomyelin (SM), major precursors of Cer generation. NC/Nga mice were fed a control diet (group CA: atopic control) or diets with 1% silk protein, either sericin (group S) or fibroin (group F) for 10 weeks. In the epidermis of group CA, total Cer (including Cer1, 2, 3/4 and 6) and all GlcCer species were reduced; these levels in group S were increased to levels similar to or higher than in the normal control group of BALB/c mice (group C). In addition, the protein expressions, but not mRNA expressions, of GlcCer synthase, β-glucocerebrosidase, and acidic sphingomyelinase, enzymes for GlcCer synthesis, GlcCer and SM hydrolysis, respectively, were highly increased in group S. The epidermal levels of total Cer (including Cer2, 3/4, and 6) and all GlcCer species and of these enzyme proteins in group F were lower than in group S. Notably, alterations in total SM, SM1, SM3, and SM synthase 1, which were increased in group CA, were not significant between groups S and F. Cer5 and SM2 were not altered among groups. Dietary sericin enhanced the epidermal levels of all GlcCer and most Cer species with up-regulating protein expressions of GlcCer synthase, β-glucocerebrosidase, and acidic sphingomyelinase.

  18. Running enhances spatial pattern separation in mice

    PubMed Central

    Creer, David J.; Romberg, Carola; Saksida, Lisa M.; van Praag, Henriette; Bussey, Timothy J.

    2010-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that regular exercise improves brain health and promotes synaptic plasticity and hippocampal neurogenesis. Exercise improves learning, but specific mechanisms of information processing influenced by physical activity are unknown. Here, we report that voluntary running enhanced the ability of adult (3 months old) male C57BL/6 mice to discriminate between the locations of two adjacent identical stimuli. Improved spatial pattern separation in adult runners was tightly correlated with increased neurogenesis. In contrast, very aged (22 months old) mice had impaired spatial discrimination and low basal cell genesis that was refractory to running. These findings suggest that the addition of newly born neurons may bolster dentate gyrus-mediated encoding of fine spatial distinctions. PMID:20133882

  19. Attenuated Escherichia coli strains expressing the colonization factor antigen I (CFA/I) and a detoxified heat-labile enterotoxin (LThK63) enhance clearance of ETEC from the lungs of mice and protect mice from intestinal ETEC colonization and LT-induced fluid accumulation.

    PubMed

    Byrd, Wyatt; Boedeker, Edgar C

    2013-03-15

    Although enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) infections are important causes of infantile and traveler's diarrhea there is no licensed vaccine available for those at-risk. Our goal is to develop a safe, live attenuated ETEC vaccine. We used an attenuated E. coli strain (O157:H7, Δ-intimin, Stx1-neg, Stx2-neg) as a vector (ZCR533) to prepare two vaccine strains, one strain expressing colonization factor antigen I (ZCR533-CFA/I) and one strain expressing CFA/I and a detoxified heat-labile enterotoxin (ZCR533-CFA/I+LThK63) to deliver ETEC antigens to mucosal sites in BALB/c mice. Following intranasal and intragastric immunization with the vaccine strains, serum IgG and IgA antibodies were measured to the CFA/I antigen, however, only serum IgG antibodies were detected to the heat-labile enterotoxin. Intranasal administration of the vaccine strains induced respiratory and intestinal antibody responses to the CFA/I and LT antigens, while intragastric administration induced only intestinal antibody responses with no respiratory antibodies detected to the CFA/I and LT antigens. Mice immunized intranasally with the vaccine strains showed enhanced clearance of wild-type (wt) ETEC bacteria from the lungs. Mice immunized intranasally and intragastrically with the vaccine strains were protected from intestinal colonization following oral challenge with ETEC wt bacteria. Mice immunized intragastrically with the ZCR533-CFA/I+LThK63 vaccine strain had less fluid accumulate in their intestine following challenge with ETEC wt bacteria or with purified LT as compared to the sham mice indicating that the immunized mice were protected from LT-induced intestinal fluid accumulation. Thus, mice intragastrically immunized with the ZCR533-CFA/I+LThK63 vaccine strain were able to effectively neutralize the activity of the LT enterotoxin. However, no difference in intestinal fluid accumulation was detected in the mice immunized intranasally with the vaccine strain as compared to the sham

  20. Microinjection of Cre recombinase protein into zygotes enables specific deletion of two eukaryotic selection cassettes and enhances the expression of a DsRed2 reporter gene in Ccr2/Ccr5 double-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Luckow, Bruno; Hänggli, Amy; Maier, Holger; Chilla, Silvia; Loewe, Robert P; Dehmel, Stefan; Schlöndorff, Detlef; Loetscher, Pius; Zerwes, Hans-Günter; Müller, Matthias

    2009-08-01

    The chemokine receptors CCR2 and CCR5 represent potential novel therapeutic targets to treat important inflammatory and infectious diseases, including atherosclerosis and HIV infection. To study the functions of both receptors in vivo, we aimed to generate Ccr2/Ccr5 double-deficient mice. As these genes are separated by <20 kb, they were inactivated consecutively by two rounds of gene targeting in embryonic stem (ES) cells. Thereby neomycin and hygromycin selection cassettes flanked by four identical loxP recognition sequences for Cre recombinase were integrated into the ES cell genome together with EGFP and DsRed2 reporter genes. Both selection cassettes could be deleted in vitro by transiently transfecting ES cells with Cre expression vectors. However, after blastocyst microinjection these cells yielded only weak chimeras, and germline transmission was not achieved. Therefore, Ccr2/Ccr5 double-deficient mice were generated from ES cells still carrying both selection cassettes. Microinjection of zygotes with a recombinant fusion protein consisting of maltose-binding protein and Cre (MBP-Cre) allowed the selective deletion of both cassettes. All sequences in between and both reporter genes were left intact. Deletion of both selection cassettes resulted in enhanced DsRed2 reporter gene expression. Cre protein microinjection of zygotes represents a novel approach to perform complex recombination tasks.

  1. Enhanced cartilage regeneration in MIA/CD-RAP deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Schmid, R; Schiffner, S; Opolka, A; Grässel, S; Schubert, T; Moser, M; Bosserhoff, A-K

    2010-11-11

    Melanoma inhibitory activity/cartilage-derived retinoic acid-sensitive protein (MIA/CD-RAP) is a small soluble protein secreted from chondrocytes. It was identified as the prototype of a family of extracellular proteins adopting an SH3 domain-like fold. In order to study the consequences of MIA/CD-RAP deficiency in detail we used mice with a targeted gene disruption of MIA/CD-RAP (MIA-/-) and analyzed cartilage organisation and differentiation in in vivo and in vitro models. Cartilage formation and regeneration was determined in models for osteoarthritis and fracture healing in vivo, in addition to in vitro studies using mesenchymal stem cells of MIA-/- mice. Interestingly, our data suggest enhanced chondrocytic regeneration in the MIA-/- mice, modulated by enhanced proliferation and delayed differentiation. Expression analysis of cartilage tissue derived from MIA-/- mice revealed strong downregulation of nuclear RNA-binding protein 54-kDa (p54(nrb)), a recently described modulator of Sox9 activity. In this study, we present p54(nrb) as a mediator of MIA/CD-RAP to promote chondrogenesis. Taken together, our data indicate that MIA/CD-RAP is required for differentiation in cartilage potentially by regulating signaling processes during differentiation.

  2. Enhanced cartilage regeneration in MIA/CD-RAP deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Schmid, R; Schiffner, S; Opolka, A; Grässel, S; Schubert, T; Moser, M; Bosserhoff, A-K

    2010-01-01

    Melanoma inhibitory activity/cartilage-derived retinoic acid-sensitive protein (MIA/CD-RAP) is a small soluble protein secreted from chondrocytes. It was identified as the prototype of a family of extracellular proteins adopting an SH3 domain-like fold. In order to study the consequences of MIA/CD-RAP deficiency in detail we used mice with a targeted gene disruption of MIA/CD-RAP (MIA−/−) and analyzed cartilage organisation and differentiation in in vivo and in vitro models. Cartilage formation and regeneration was determined in models for osteoarthritis and fracture healing in vivo, in addition to in vitro studies using mesenchymal stem cells of MIA−/− mice. Interestingly, our data suggest enhanced chondrocytic regeneration in the MIA−/− mice, modulated by enhanced proliferation and delayed differentiation. Expression analysis of cartilage tissue derived from MIA−/− mice revealed strong downregulation of nuclear RNA-binding protein 54-kDa (p54nrb), a recently described modulator of Sox9 activity. In this study, we present p54nrb as a mediator of MIA/CD-RAP to promote chondrogenesis. Taken together, our data indicate that MIA/CD-RAP is required for differentiation in cartilage potentially by regulating signaling processes during differentiation. PMID:21368873

  3. Networks of Transcription Factors for Oct4 Expression in Mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Yu-Qiang

    2017-09-01

    The present review aimed to assess the networks of transcription factors regulating the Oct4 expression in mice. Through a comprehensive analysis of the binding sites and the interrelationships of the transcription factors of Oct4, it is found that transcription factors of Oct4 form three regulating complexes centered by Oct4-Sox2, Nanog, and Lrh1. They bind on CR4, CR2, and CR1 regions of Oct4 promoter/enhancer, respectively, to activate Oct4 transcription synergistically. This article also discusses the mechanisms of fine-tuning the Oct4 expression. These findings have important implications in the field of stem cell and developmental biology.

  4. Depletion of gangliosides enhances cartilage degradation in mice.

    PubMed

    Sasazawa, F; Onodera, T; Yamashita, T; Seito, N; Tsukuda, Y; Fujitani, N; Shinohara, Y; Iwasaki, N

    2014-02-01

    Glycosphingolipids (GSLs) are ubiquitous membrane components that play a functional role in maintaining chondrocyte homeostasis. We investigated the potential role of gangliosides, one of the major components of GSLs, in osteoarthritis (OA) pathogenesis. Both age-associated and instability-induced OA models were generated using GM3 synthase knockout (GM3S(-/-)) mice. A cartilage degradation model and transiently GM3S-transfected chondrocytes were analyzed to evaluate the function of gangliosides in OA development. The amount of each series of GSLs in chondrocytes after IL-1α stimulation was profiled using mass spectrometry (MS). OA changes in GM3S(-/-) mice were dramatically enhanced with aging compared to those in wild-type (WT) mice. GM3S(-/-) mice showed more severe instability-induced pathologic OA in vivo. Ganglioside deficiency also led to the induction of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13 and ADAMTS-5 secretion and chondrocyte apoptosis in vitro. In contrast, transient GM3S transfection of chondrocytes suppressed MMP-13 and ADAMTS-5 expression after interleukin (IL)-1α stimulation. GSL profiling revealed the presence of abundant gangliosides in chondrocytes after IL-1α stimulation. Gangliosides play a critical role in OA pathogenesis by regulating the expression of MMP-13 and ADAMTS-5 and chondrocyte apoptosis. Based on the obtained results, we propose that gangliosides are potential target molecules for the development of novel OA treatments. Copyright © 2013 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Cardiac hypertrophy in mice expressing unphosphorylatable phospholemman.

    PubMed

    Boguslavskyi, Andrii; Pavlovic, Davor; Aughton, Karen; Clark, James E; Howie, Jacqueline; Fuller, William; Shattock, Michael J

    2014-10-01

    Elevation of intracellular Na in the failing myocardium contributes to contractile dysfunction, the negative force-frequency relationship, and arrhythmias. Although phospholemman (PLM) is recognized to form the link between signalling pathways and Na/K pump activity, the possibility that defects in its regulation contribute to elevation of intracellular Na has not been investigated. Our aim was to test the hypothesis that the prevention of PLM phosphorylation in a PLM(3SA) knock-in mouse (in which PLM has been rendered unphosphorylatable) will exacerbate cardiac hypertrophy and cellular Na overload. Testing this hypothesis should determine whether changes in PLM phosphorylation are simply bystander effects or are causally involved in disease progression. In wild-type (WT) mice, aortic constriction resulted in hypophosphorylation of PLM with no change in Na/K pump expression. This under-phosphorylation of PLM occurred at 3 days post-banding and was associated with a progressive decline in Na/K pump current and elevation of [Na]i. Echocardiography, morphometry, and pressure-volume (PV) catheterization confirmed remodelling, dilation, and contractile dysfunction, respectively. In PLM(3SA) mice, expression of Na/K ATPase was increased and PLM decreased such that net Na/K pump current under quiescent conditions was unchanged (cf. WT myocytes); [Na(+)]i was increased and forward-mode Na/Ca exchanger was reduced in paced PLM(3SA) myocytes. Cardiac hypertrophy and Na/K pump inhibition were significantly exacerbated in banded PLM(3SA) mice compared with banded WT. Decreased phosphorylation of PLM reduces Na/K pump activity and exacerbates Na overload, contractile dysfunction, and adverse remodelling following aortic constriction in mice. This suggests a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of heart failure. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology.

  6. Cardiac hypertrophy in mice expressing unphosphorylatable phospholemman

    PubMed Central

    Boguslavskyi, Andrii; Pavlovic, Davor; Aughton, Karen; Clark, James E.; Howie, Jacqueline; Fuller, William; Shattock, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Aims Elevation of intracellular Na in the failing myocardium contributes to contractile dysfunction, the negative force–frequency relationship, and arrhythmias. Although phospholemman (PLM) is recognized to form the link between signalling pathways and Na/K pump activity, the possibility that defects in its regulation contribute to elevation of intracellular Na has not been investigated. Our aim was to test the hypothesis that the prevention of PLM phosphorylation in a PLM3SA knock-in mouse (in which PLM has been rendered unphosphorylatable) will exacerbate cardiac hypertrophy and cellular Na overload. Testing this hypothesis should determine whether changes in PLM phosphorylation are simply bystander effects or are causally involved in disease progression. Methods and results In wild-type (WT) mice, aortic constriction resulted in hypophosphorylation of PLM with no change in Na/K pump expression. This under-phosphorylation of PLM occurred at 3 days post-banding and was associated with a progressive decline in Na/K pump current and elevation of [Na]i. Echocardiography, morphometry, and pressure-volume (PV) catheterization confirmed remodelling, dilation, and contractile dysfunction, respectively. In PLM3SA mice, expression of Na/K ATPase was increased and PLM decreased such that net Na/K pump current under quiescent conditions was unchanged (cf. WT myocytes); [Na+]i was increased and forward-mode Na/Ca exchanger was reduced in paced PLM3SA myocytes. Cardiac hypertrophy and Na/K pump inhibition were significantly exacerbated in banded PLM3SA mice compared with banded WT. Conclusions Decreased phosphorylation of PLM reduces Na/K pump activity and exacerbates Na overload, contractile dysfunction, and adverse remodelling following aortic constriction in mice. This suggests a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of heart failure. PMID:25103111

  7. MondoA deficiency enhances sprint performance in mice

    PubMed Central

    Imamura, Minako; Chang, Benny Hung-Junn; Kohjima, Motoyuki; Li, Ming; Hwang, Byounghoon; Taegtmeyer, Heinrich; Harris, Robert A.; Chan, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    MondoA is a basic helix–loop–helix (bHLH)/leucine zipper (ZIP) transcription factor that is expressed predominantly in skeletal muscle. Studies in vitro suggest that the Max-like protein X (MondoA:Mlx) heterodimer senses the intracellular energy status and directly targets the promoter region of thioredoxin interacting protein (Txnip) and possibly glycolytic enzymes. We generated MondoA-inactivated (MondoA−/−) mice by gene targeting. MondoA−/− mice had normal body weight at birth, exhibited normal growth and appeared to be healthy. However, they exhibited unique metabolic characteristics. MondoA−/− mice built up serum lactate and alanine levels and utilized fatty acids for fuel during exercise. Gene expression and promoter analysis suggested that MondoA functionally represses peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor γ co-activator-1α (PGC-1α)–mediated activation of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (PDK4) transcription. PDK4 normally down-regulates the activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase, an enzyme complex that catalyses the decarboxylation of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA for entry into the Krebs cycle; in the absence of MondoA, pyruvate is diverted towards lactate and alanine, both products of glycolysis. Dynamic testing revealed that MondoA−/− mice excel in sprinting as their skeletal muscles display an enhanced glycolytic capacity. Our studies uncover a hitherto unappreciated function of MondoA in fuel selection in vivo. Lack of MondoA results in enhanced exercise capacity with sprinting. PMID:25145386

  8. Four-Component Staphylococcus aureus Vaccine 4C-Staph Enhances Fcγ Receptor Expression in Neutrophils and Monocytes and Mitigates S. aureus Infection in Neutropenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Torre, Antonina; Bacconi, Marta; Sammicheli, Chiara; Galletti, Bruno; Laera, Donatello; Fontana, Maria Rita; Grandi, Guido; De Gregorio, Ennio; Bagnoli, Fabio; Nuti, Sandra; Bertholet, Sylvie

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a human bacterial pathogen causing a variety of diseases. The occurrence of multidrug-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus underlines the need for a vaccine. Defining immune correlates of protection may support the design of an effective vaccine. We used a murine Staphylococcus aureus infection model, in which bacteria were inoculated in an air pouch generated on the back of the animal. Analysis of the air-pouch content in mice immunized or not with an adjuvanted multiantigen vaccine formulation, four-component S. aureus vaccine (4C-Staph), prior to infection allowed us to measure bacteria, cytokines, and 4C-Staph-specific antibodies and to analyze host immune cells recruited to the infection site. Immunization with 4C-Staph resulted in accumulation of antigen-specific antibodies in the pouch and mitigated the infection. Neutrophils were the most abundant cells in the pouch, and they showed the upregulation of Fcγ receptor (FcγR) following immunization with 4C-Staph. Reduction of the infection was also obtained in mice immunized with 4C-Staph and depleted of neutrophils; these mice showed an increase in monocytes and macrophages. Upregulation of the FcγR and the presence of antigen-specific antibodies induced by immunization with 4C-Staph may contribute to increase bacterial opsonophagocytosis. Protection in neutropenic mice indicated that an effective vaccine could activate alternative protection mechanisms compensating for neutropenia, a condition often occurring in S. aureus-infected patients. PMID:26015481

  9. Four-component Staphylococcus aureus vaccine 4C-staph enhances Fcγ receptor expression in neutrophils and monocytes and mitigates S. aureus infection in neutropenic mice.

    PubMed

    Torre, Antonina; Bacconi, Marta; Sammicheli, Chiara; Galletti, Bruno; Laera, Donatello; Fontana, Maria Rita; Grandi, Guido; De Gregorio, Ennio; Bagnoli, Fabio; Nuti, Sandra; Bertholet, Sylvie; Bensi, Giuliano

    2015-08-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a human bacterial pathogen causing a variety of diseases. The occurrence of multidrug-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus underlines the need for a vaccine. Defining immune correlates of protection may support the design of an effective vaccine. We used a murine Staphylococcus aureus infection model, in which bacteria were inoculated in an air pouch generated on the back of the animal. Analysis of the air-pouch content in mice immunized or not with an adjuvanted multiantigen vaccine formulation, four-component S. aureus vaccine (4C-Staph), prior to infection allowed us to measure bacteria, cytokines, and 4C-Staph-specific antibodies and to analyze host immune cells recruited to the infection site. Immunization with 4C-Staph resulted in accumulation of antigen-specific antibodies in the pouch and mitigated the infection. Neutrophils were the most abundant cells in the pouch, and they showed the upregulation of Fcγ receptor (FcγR) following immunization with 4C-Staph. Reduction of the infection was also obtained in mice immunized with 4C-Staph and depleted of neutrophils; these mice showed an increase in monocytes and macrophages. Upregulation of the FcγR and the presence of antigen-specific antibodies induced by immunization with 4C-Staph may contribute to increase bacterial opsonophagocytosis. Protection in neutropenic mice indicated that an effective vaccine could activate alternative protection mechanisms compensating for neutropenia, a condition often occurring in S. aureus-infected patients. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  10. Enhanced Dopamine Transporter Activity in Middle-Aged Gdnf Heterozygous Mice

    PubMed Central

    Littrell, Ofelia M.; Pomerleau, Francois; Huettl, Peter; Surgener, Stewart; McGinty, Jacqueline F.; Middaugh, Lawrence D.; Granholm, Ann-Charlotte; Gerhardt, Greg A.; Boger, Heather A.

    2010-01-01

    Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) supports the viability of midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons that degenerate in Parkinson’s disease. Middle aged, 12-month-old, Gdnf heterozygous (Gdnf+/−) mice have diminished spontaneous locomotor activity and enhanced synaptosomal DA uptake compared to wildtype mice. In this study, dopamine transporter (DAT) function in middle-aged, 12-month-old Gdnf+/− mice was more thoroughly investigated using in vivo electrochemistry. Gdnf+/− mice injected with the DAT inhibitor, nomifensine, exhibited significantly more locomotor activity than wildtype mice. In vivo electrochemistry with carbon fiber microelectrodes demonstrated enhanced clearance of DA in the striatum of Gdnf+/− mice, suggesting greater surface expression of DAT than in wildtype littermates. Additionally, 12 month old Gdnf+/− mice expressed greater D2 receptor mRNA and protein in the striatum than wildtype mice. Neurochemical analyses of striatal tissue samples indicated significant reductions in DA and a faster DA metabolic rate in Gdnf+/− mice than in wildtype mice. Altogether, these data support an important role for GDNF in the regulation of uptake, synthesis, and metabolism of DA during aging. PMID:21144620

  11. Lymphopoiesis in transgenic mice over-expressing Artemis.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Munoz, P; Abramowski, V; Jacquot, S; André, P; Charrier, S; Lipson-Ruffert, K; Fischer, A; Galy, A; Cavazzana, M; de Villartay, J-P

    2016-02-01

    Artemis is a factor of the non-homologous end joining pathway involved in DNA double-strand break repair that has a critical role in V(D)J recombination. Mutations in DCLRE1C/ARTEMIS gene result in radiosensitive severe combined immunodeficiency in humans owing to a lack of mature T and B cells. Given the known drawbacks of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), gene therapy appears as a promising alternative for these patients. However, the safety of an unregulated expression of Artemis has to be established. We developed a transgenic mouse model expressing human Artemis under the control of the strong CMV early enhancer/chicken beta actin promoter through knock-in at the ROSA26 locus to analyze this issue. Transgenic mice present a normal development, maturation and function of T and B cells with no signs of lymphopoietic malignancies for up to 15 months. These results suggest that the over-expression of Artemis in mice (up to 40 times) has no deleterious effects in early and mature lymphoid cells and support the safety of gene therapy as a possible curative treatment for Artemis-deficient patients.

  12. An enhancer from the 8q24 prostate cancer risk region is sufficient to direct reporter gene expression to a subset of prostate stem-like epithelial cells in transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Ting, Man-Chun; Liao, Chun-Peng; Yan, Chunli; Jia, Li; Groshen, Susan; Frenkel, Baruch; Roy-Burman, Pradip; Coetzee, Gerhard A.; Maxson, Robert

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Regions in the 8q24 gene desert contribute significantly to the risk of prostate cancer and other adult cancers. This region contains several DNA regions with enhancer activity in cultured cells. One such segment, histone acetylation peak 10 (AcP10), contains a risk single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) that is significantly associated with the pathogenesis of colorectal, prostate and other cancers. The mechanism by which AcP10 influences cancer risk remains unknown. Here we show that AcP10 contains a sequence that is highly conserved across terrestrial vertebrates and is capable in transgenic mice of directing reporter gene expression to a subset of prostate lumenal epithelial cells. These cells include a small population of Nkx3.1-positive cells that persist even after androgen ablation. Castration-resistant Nkx3.1-positive (CARN) cells were shown by others to function both as stem cells and cells of origin of prostate cancer. Our results thus provide a mechanism by which AcP10 could influence prostate cancer risk. PMID:22279083

  13. FAK-heterozygous mice display enhanced tumour angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Kostourou, Vassiliki; Lechertier, Tanguy; Reynolds, Louise E.; Lees, Delphine M.; Baker, Marianne; Jones, Dylan T.; Tavora, Bernardo; Ramjaun, Antoine R.; Birdsey, Graeme M.; Robinson, Stephen D.; Parsons, Maddy; Randi, Anna M.; Hart, Ian R; Hodivala-Dilke, Kairbaan

    2013-01-01

    Genetic ablation of endothelial Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK) can inhibit pathological angiogenesis, suggesting that loss of endothelial FAK is sufficient to reduce neovascularisation. Here we show that reduced stromal-FAK expression in FAK-heterozygous mice unexpectedly enhances both B16F0 and CMT19T tumour growth and angiogenesis. We further demonstrate that cell proliferation and microvessel sprouting, but not migration, are increased in serum-stimulated FAK-heterozygous endothelial cells. FAK-heterozygous endothelial cells display an imbalance in FAK phosphorylation at pY397 and pY861 without changes in Pyk2 or Erk1/2 activity. By contrast, serum-stimulated phosphorylation of Akt is enhanced in FAK-heterozygous endothelial cells and these cells are more sensitive to Akt inhibition. Additionally, low doses of a pharmacological FAK inhibitor, although too low to affect FAK autophosphorylation in vitro, can enhance angiogenesis ex vivo and tumor growth in vivo. Our results highlight a potential novel role for FAK as a non-linear, dose-dependent regulator of angiogenesis where heterozygous levels of FAK enhance angiogenesis. PMID:23799510

  14. Hepatic NAD salvage pathway is enhanced in mice on a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Penke, Melanie; Larsen, Per S; Schuster, Susanne; Dall, Morten; Jensen, Benjamin A H; Gorski, Theresa; Meusel, Andrej; Richter, Sandy; Vienberg, Sara G; Treebak, Jonas T; Kiess, Wieland; Garten, Antje

    2015-09-05

    Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (Nampt) is the rate-limiting enzyme for NAD salvage and the abundance of Nampt has been shown to be altered in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. It is, however, unknown how hepatic Nampt is regulated in response to accumulation of lipids in the liver of mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). HFD mice gained more weight, stored more hepatic lipids and had an impaired glucose tolerance compared with control mice. NAD levels as well as Nampt mRNA expression, protein abundance and activity were significantly increased in HFD mice. Enhanced NAD levels were associated with deacetylation of p53 and Nfκb indicating increased activation of Sirt1. Despite impaired glucose tolerance and increased hepatic lipid levels in HFD mice, NAD metabolism was significantly enhanced. Thus, improved NAD metabolism may be a compensatory mechanism to protect against negative impact of hepatic lipid accumulation.

  15. Both core and F proteins of hepatitis C virus could enhance cell proliferation in transgenic mice

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Wen-Ta; Li, Hui-Chun; Lee, Shen-Kao; Ma, Hsin-Chieh; Yang, Chee-Hing; Chen, Hung-Ling; Lo, Shih-Yen

    2013-05-24

    Highlights: •HCV core and F proteins could induce hepatocyte proliferation in the transgenic mice. •β-Catenin signaling pathway was activated by core protein in the transgenic mice. •β-Catenin signaling pathway was activated by myc-F protein in the transgenic mice. •Expression of SMA protein was enhanced by core but not myc-F protein. -- Abstract: The role of the protein encoded by the alternative open reading frame (ARF/F/core+1) of the Hepatitis C virus (HCV) genome in viral pathogenesis remains unknown. The different forms of ARF/F/core+1 protein were labile in cultured cells, a myc-tag fused at the N-terminus of the F protein made it more stable. To determine the role of core and F proteins in HCV pathogenesis, transgenic mice with either protein expression under the control of Albumin promoter were generated. Expression of core protein and F protein with myc tag (myc-F) could be detected by Western blotting analysis in the livers of these mice. The ratio of liver to body weight is increased for both core and myc-F transgenic mice compared to that of wild type mice. Indeed, the proliferating cell nuclear antigen protein, a proliferation marker, was up-regulated in the transgenic mice with core or myc-F protein. Further analyses by microarray and Western blotting suggested that β-catenin signaling pathway was activated by either core or myc-F protein in the transgenic mice. These transgenic mice were further treated with either Diethynitrosamine (a tumor initiator) or Phenobarbital (a tumor promoter). Phenobarbital but not Diethynitrosamine treatment could increase the liver/body weight ratio of these mice. However, no tumor formation was observed in these mice. In conclusion, HCV core and myc-F proteins could induce hepatocyte proliferation in the transgenic mice possibly through β-catenin signaling pathway.

  16. Reduced COX-2 Expression in Aged Mice Is Associated With Impaired Fracture Healing

    PubMed Central

    Naik, Amish A; Xie, Chao; Zuscik, Michael J; Kingsley, Paul; Schwarz, Edward M; Awad, Hani; Guldberg, Robert; Drissi, Hicham; Puzas, J Edward; Boyce, Brendan; Zhang, Xinping; O'Keefe, Regis J

    2009-01-01

    The cellular and molecular events responsible for reduced fracture healing with aging are unknown. Cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), the inducible regulator of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) synthesis, is critical for normal bone repair. A femoral fracture repair model was used in mice at either 7–9 or 52–56 wk of age, and healing was evaluated by imaging, histology, and gene expression studies. Aging was associated with a decreased rate of chondrogenesis, decreased bone formation, reduced callus vascularization, delayed remodeling, and altered expression of genes involved in repair and remodeling. COX-2 expression in young mice peaked at 5 days, coinciding with the transition of mesenchymal progenitors to cartilage and the onset of expression of early cartilage markers. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry showed that COX-2 is expressed primarily in early cartilage precursors that co-express col-2. COX-2 expression was reduced by 75% and 65% in fractures from aged mice compared with young mice on days 5 and 7, respectively. Local administration of an EP4 agonist to the fracture repair site in aged mice enhanced the rate of chondrogenesis and bone formation to levels observed in young mice, suggesting that the expression of COX-2 during the early inflammatory phase of repair regulates critical subsequent events including chondrogenesis, bone formation, and remodeling. The findings suggest that COX-2/EP4 agonists may compensate for deficient molecular signals that result in the reduced fracture healing associated with aging. PMID:18847332

  17. [Generation of transgenic mice expressing human lysozyme in mammary gland].

    PubMed

    Yan, Hua; Li, Guo-cai; Sun, Huai-chang

    2005-10-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of generating animal mammary gland bioreactors expressing human lysozyme (hLYZ). The recombinant vector p205C3-hLYZ, as a result of connecting the hLYZ cDNA with the mammry gland expression vector p205C3, was used to generate transfer genic mice by microinjection. A total of 136 F0 mice were obtained, of which 7 (2 females and 5 males) and 4 (1 females and 3 males) were found to contain the transfer-gene by PCR and Southern blotting respectively. The results of Western blotting indicated that the expressed protein had the same molecular weight as that of normal hLYZ. From the F1 generation on, the mice mated only with their brothers or sisters and a colony of F7 transgenic mice was obtained. Among the offspring, the female transgenic mice maintained and expressed the transfer-gene stably with an expression level as high as 750 mg/L. The expressed protein had strong tissue specificity, and in addition to the mammary glands, some degree of ectropic expression in the spleens and intestines of the transgenic mice was confirmed by dot blotting assay. These data indicate that the mice mammary gland bioreactors expressing hLYZ have been successfully generated.

  18. CHIP enhances angiogenesis and restores cardiac function after infarction in transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Xu, Cheng-Wei; Zhang, Tian-Peng; Wang, Hong-Xia; Yang, Hui; Li, Hui-Hua

    2013-01-01

    Carboxyl terminus of Hsp70-interacting protein (CHIP) is a chaperone/ubiquitin ligase that plays an important role in stress-induced apoptosis. However, the effect of CHIP on angiogenesis, cardiac function and survival 4 weeks after myocardial infarction (MI) remain to be explored. Wild-type (WT) and transgenic mice (TG) with cardiac-specific overexpression of CHIP were used for coronary artery ligation. The cardiac function, cardiomyocyte apoptosis, inflammation and angiogenesis were examined by echocardiography, histological analysis, real-time PCR and Western blot analysis. At 4 weeks of after coronary artery ligation, echocardiography demonstrated that cardiac remodeling and dysfunction were prevented in TG mice compared with WT mice. The infarct size, cardiomyocyte apoptosis and inflammation were significantly reduced in TG mice than in WT mice. The survival rate after MI in TG mice was higher than that of WT mice. Furthermore, the levels of p53 protein was markedly decreased, but the expression of HIF-1α and VEGF, and the formation of capillary and arteriole after MI were significantly enhanced in TG mice compared with WT mice. We report the first in vivo evidence that CHIP enhances angiogenesis, inhibits inflammation, restores cardiac function, and improves survival at 4 weeks after MI. The present study expands on previous results and defines a novel mechanism. Thus, increased CHIP level may provide a novel therapeutic approach for left ventricular dysfunction after MI. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Enhancing Methotrexate Tolerance with Folate Tagged Liposomes in Arthritic Mice.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Eugénia; Lager, Franck; Le Roux, Delphine; Nogueira, Patrícia; Freitas, Jaime; Charvet, Celine; Renault, Gilles; Loureiro, Ana; Almeida, Catarina R; Ohradanova-Repic, Anna; Machacek, Christian; Bernardes, Gonçalo J L; Moreira, Alexandra; Stockinger, Hannes; Burnet, Michael; Carmo, Alexandre M; Gomes, Andreia C; Preto, Ana; Bismuth, Georges; Cavaco-Paulo, Artur

    2015-12-01

    Methotrexate is the first line of treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Since many patients become unresponsive to methotrexate treatment, only very expensive biological therapies are effective and increased methotrexate tolerance strategies need to be identified. Here we propose the encapsulation of methotrexate in a new liposomal formulation using a hydrophobic fragment of surfactant protein conjugated to a linker and folate to enhance their tolerance and efficacy. In this study we aim to evaluate the efficiency of this system to treat rheumatoid arthritis, by targeting folate receptor β present at the surface of activated macrophages, key effector cells in this pathology. The specificity of our liposomal formulation to target folate receptor β was investigated both in vitro as in vivo using a mouse model of arthritis (collagen-induced arthritis in DBA/1J mice strain). In both systems, the liposomal constructs were shown to be highly specific and efficient in targeting folate receptor β. These liposomal formulations also significantly increase the clinical benefit of the encapsulated methotrexate in vivo in arthritic mice, together with reduced expression of CD39 and CD73 ectonucleotidases by joint-infiltrating macrophages. Thus, our formulation might be a promising cost effective way to treat rheumatoid arthritis and delay or reduce methotrexate intolerance.

  20. Genes and signaling pathways involved in memory enhancement in mutant mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yong-Seok

    2014-06-04

    Mutant mice have been used successfully as a tool for investigating the mechanisms of memory at multiple levels, from genes to behavior. In most cases, manipulating a gene expressed in the brain impairs cognitive functions such as memory and their underlying cellular mechanisms, including synaptic plasticity. However, a remarkable number of mutations have been shown to enhance memory in mice. Understanding how to improve a system provides valuable insights into how the system works under normal conditions, because this involves understanding what the crucial components are. Therefore, more can be learned about the basic mechanisms of memory by studying mutant mice with enhanced memory. This review will summarize the genes and signaling pathways that are altered in the mutants with enhanced memory, as well as their roles in synaptic plasticity. Finally, I will discuss how knowledge of memory-enhancing mechanisms could be used to develop treatments for cognitive disorders associated with impaired plasticity.

  1. Genes and signaling pathways involved in memory enhancement in mutant mice

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Mutant mice have been used successfully as a tool for investigating the mechanisms of memory at multiple levels, from genes to behavior. In most cases, manipulating a gene expressed in the brain impairs cognitive functions such as memory and their underlying cellular mechanisms, including synaptic plasticity. However, a remarkable number of mutations have been shown to enhance memory in mice. Understanding how to improve a system provides valuable insights into how the system works under normal conditions, because this involves understanding what the crucial components are. Therefore, more can be learned about the basic mechanisms of memory by studying mutant mice with enhanced memory. This review will summarize the genes and signaling pathways that are altered in the mutants with enhanced memory, as well as their roles in synaptic plasticity. Finally, I will discuss how knowledge of memory-enhancing mechanisms could be used to develop treatments for cognitive disorders associated with impaired plasticity. PMID:24894914

  2. Endothelial Expression of Scavenger Receptor Class B, Type I Protects against Development of Atherosclerosis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The role of scavenger receptor class B, type I (SR-BI) in endothelial cells (EC) was examined in several novel transgenic mouse models expressing SR-BI in endothelium of mice with normal C57Bl6/N, apoE-KO, or Scarb1-KO backgrounds. Mice were also created expressing SR-BI exclusively in endothelium and liver. Endothelial expression of the Tie2-Scarb1 transgene had no significant effect on plasma lipoprotein levels in mice on a normal chow diet but on an atherogenic diet, significantly decreased plasma cholesterol levels, increased plasma HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) levels, and protected mice against atherosclerosis. In 8-month-old apoE-KO mice fed a normal chow diet, the Tie2-Scarb1 transgene decreased aortic lesions by 24%. Mice expressing SR-BI only in EC and liver had a 1.5 ± 0.1-fold increase in plasma cholesterol compared to mice synthesizing SR-BI only in liver. This elevation was due mostly to increased HDL-C. In EC culture studies, SR-BI was found to be present in both basolateral and apical membranes but greater cellular uptake of cholesterol from HDL was found in the basolateral compartment. In summary, enhanced expression of SR-BI in EC resulted in a less atherogenic lipoprotein profile and decreased atherosclerosis, suggesting a possible role for endothelial SR-BI in the flux of cholesterol across EC. PMID:26504816

  3. Brain fibronectin expression in prenatally irradiated mice

    SciTech Connect

    Meznarich, H.K.; McCoy, L.S.; Bale, T.L.; Stiegler, G.L.; Sikov, M.R. )

    1993-01-01

    Activation of gene transcription by radiation has been recently demonstrated in vivo. However, little is known on the specificity of these alterations on gene transcription. Prenatal irradiation is a known teratogen that affects the developing mammalian central nervous system (CNS). Altered neuronal migration has been suggested as a mechanism for abnormal development of prenatally irradiated brains. Fibronectin (FN), an extracellular glycoprotein, is essential for neural crest cell migration and neural cell growth. In addition, elevated levels of FN have been found in the extracellular matrix of irradiated lung. To test whether brain FN is affected by radiation, either FN level in insoluble matrix fraction or expression of FN mRNA was examined pre- and postnatally after irradiation. Mice (CD1), at 13 d of gestation (DG), served either as controls or were irradiated with 14 DG, 17 DG, or 5,6, or 14 d postnatal. Brain and liver were collected from offspring and analyzed for either total FN protein levels or relative mRNAs for FN and tubulin. Results of prenatal irradiation on reduction of postnatal brain weight relative to whole are comparable to that reported by others. Insoluble matrix fraction (IMF) per gram of brain, liver, lung, and heart weight was not significantly different either between control and irradiated groups or between postnatal stages, suggesting that radiation did not affect the IMF. However, total amounts of FN in brain IMF at 17 DG were significantly different (p < .02) between normal (1.66 [+-] 0.80 [mu]g) and irradiated brains (0.58 [+-] 0.22 [mu]g). FN mRNA was detectable at 13, 14, and 17 DG, but was not detectable at 6 and 14 d postnatal, indicating that FN mRNA is developmentally regulated. 41 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Aging enhances liver fibrotic response in mice through hampering extracellular matrix remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Delire, Bénédicte; Lebrun, Valérie; Selvais, Charlotte; Henriet, Patrick; Bertrand, Amélie; Horsmans, Yves; Leclercq, Isabelle A.

    2017-01-01

    Clinical data identify age as a factor for severe liver fibrosis. We evaluate whether and how aging modulates the fibrotic response in a mouse model. Liver fibrosis was induced by CCl4 injections (thrice weekly for 2 weeks) in 7 weeks- and 15 months-old mice (young and old, respectively). Livers were analyzed for fibrosis, inflammation and remodeling 48 and 96 hours after the last injection. Old mice developed more severe fibrosis compared to young ones as evaluated by sirius red morphometry. Expression of pro-fibrogenic genes was equally induced in the two age-groups but enhanced fibrolysis in young mice was demonstrated by a significantly higher Mmp13 induction and collagenase activity. While fibrosis resolution occurred in young mice within 96 hours, no significant fibrosis attenuation was observed in old mice. Although recruitment of monocytes-derived macrophages was similar in young and old livers, young macrophages had globally a remodeling phenotype while old ones, a pro-fibrogenic phenotype. Moreover, we observed a higher proportion of thick fibers and enhanced expression of enzymes involved in collagen maturation in old mice. Conclusion Impaired fibrolysis of a matrix less prone to remodeling associated with a pro-inflammatory phenotype of infiltrated macrophages contribute to a more severe fibrosis in old mice. PMID:27941216

  5. Idiotypic manipulation in mice: BALB/c mice can express the crossreactive idiotype of A/J mice.

    PubMed Central

    Moser, M; Leo, O; Hiernaux, J; Urbain, J

    1983-01-01

    The response of A/J mice to arsonate-coupled keyhole limpet hemocyanin is characterized by a crossreactive idiotype (CRIA). CRIA+ antibodies are restricted to the Igh-Ic haplotype and are never expressed in BALB/c mice after immunization with antigen. Studies at the DNA level suggest that the gene encoding the CRIA heavy chain in A/J mice is probably absent in the genome of BALB/c mice. Despite this, using the immunization cascade tool, we have been able to induce the expression of CRIA+ antibodies in BALB/c mice. These studies led to an apparent paradox, whose understanding will provide new insights into the regulatory mechanisms of the immune system. We suggest that clones secreting CRIA-like Igs in BALB/c mice are "somatic variants" that could arise from gene conversion events. PMID:6576348

  6. Enhanced contextual fear memory in central serotonin-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Dai, Jin-Xia; Han, Hui-Li; Tian, Meng; Cao, Jun; Xiu, Jian-Bo; Song, Ning-Ning; Huang, Ying; Xu, Tian-Le; Ding, Yu-Qiang; Xu, Lin

    2008-08-19

    Central serotonin (5-HT) dysregulation contributes to the susceptibility for mental disorders, including depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder, and learning and memory deficits. We report that the formation of hippocampus-dependent spatial memory is compromised, but the acquisition and retrieval of contextual fear memory are enhanced, in central 5-HT-deficient mice. Genetic deletion of serotonin in the brain was achieved by inactivating Lmx1b selectively in the raphe nuclei of the brainstem, resulting in a near-complete loss of 5-HT throughout the brain. These 5-HT-deficient mice exhibited no gross abnormality in brain structures and had normal locomotor activity. Spatial learning in the Morris water maze was unaffected, but the retrieval of spatial memory was impaired. In contrast, contextual fear learning and memory induced by foot-shock conditioning was markedly enhanced, but this enhancement could be prevented by intracerebroventricular administration of 5-HT. Foot shock impaired long-term potentiation and facilitated long-term depression in hippocampal slices in WT mice but had no effect in 5-HT-deficient mice. Furthermore, bath application of 5-HT in 5-HT-deficient mice restored foot shock-induced alterations of hippocampal synaptic plasticity. Thus, central 5-HT regulates hippocampus-dependent contextual fear memory, and 5-HT modulation of hippocampal synaptic plasticity may be the underlying mechanism. The enhanced fear memory in 5-HT-deficient mice supports the notion that 5-HT deficiency confers susceptibility to posttraumatic stress disorder in humans.

  7. Caloric restriction enhances fear extinction learning in mice.

    PubMed

    Riddle, Megan C; McKenna, Morgan C; Yoon, Yone J; Pattwell, Siobhan S; Santos, Patricia Mae G; Casey, B J; Glatt, Charles E

    2013-05-01

    Fear extinction learning, the ability to reassess a learned cue of danger as safe when it no longer predicts aversive events, is often dysregulated in anxiety disorders. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI's) enhance neural plasticity and their ability to enhance fear extinction learning may explain their anxiolytic properties. Caloric restriction (CR) has SSRI-like effects on neural plasticity and anxiety-related behavior. We implemented CR in mice to determine its effects on conditioned-fear responses. Wild type and serotonin transporter (SERT) knockout mice underwent CR for 7 days leading to significant weight loss. Mice were then tested for cued fear learning and anxiety-related behavior. CR markedly enhanced fear extinction learning and its retention in adolescent female mice, and adults of both sexes. These effects of CR were absent in SERT knockout mice. Moreover, CR phenocopied behavioral and molecular effects of chronic fluoxetine, but there was no additive effect of CR in fluoxetine-treated mice. These results demonstrate that CR enhances fear extinction learning through a SERT-dependent mechanism. These results may have implications for eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa (AN), in which there is a high prevalence of anxiety before the onset of dietary restriction and support proposals that in AN, CR is a motivated effort to control dysregulated fear responses and elevated anxiety.

  8. AGEMAP: A Gene Expression Database for Aging in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Owen, Art B; Ingram, Donald K; Lustig, Ana; Carter, Arnell; Weeraratna, Ashani T; Taub, Dennis D; Gorospe, Myriam; Mazan-Mamczarz, Krystyna; Lakatta, Edward G; Boheler, Kenneth R; Xu, Xiangru; Mattson, Mark P; Falco, Geppino; Ko, Minoru S. H; Schlessinger, David; Firman, Jeffrey; Kummerfeld, Sarah K; Wood, William H; Zonderman, Alan B; Kim, Stuart K; Becker, Kevin G

    2007-01-01

    We present the AGEMAP (Atlas of Gene Expression in Mouse Aging Project) gene expression database, which is a resource that catalogs changes in gene expression as a function of age in mice. The AGEMAP database includes expression changes for 8,932 genes in 16 tissues as a function of age. We found great heterogeneity in the amount of transcriptional changes with age in different tissues. Some tissues displayed large transcriptional differences in old mice, suggesting that these tissues may contribute strongly to organismal decline. Other tissues showed few or no changes in expression with age, indicating strong levels of homeostasis throughout life. Based on the pattern of age-related transcriptional changes, we found that tissues could be classified into one of three aging processes: (1) a pattern common to neural tissues, (2) a pattern for vascular tissues, and (3) a pattern for steroid-responsive tissues. We observed that different tissues age in a coordinated fashion in individual mice, such that certain mice exhibit rapid aging, whereas others exhibit slow aging for multiple tissues. Finally, we compared the transcriptional profiles for aging in mice to those from humans, flies, and worms. We found that genes involved in the electron transport chain show common age regulation in all four species, indicating that these genes may be exceptionally good markers of aging. However, we saw no overall correlation of age regulation between mice and humans, suggesting that aging processes in mice and humans may be fundamentally different. PMID:18081424

  9. Facial expressions of mice in aggressive and fearful contexts.

    PubMed

    Defensor, Erwin B; Corley, Michael J; Blanchard, Robert J; Blanchard, D Caroline

    2012-12-05

    Some animals display a variety of context dependent facial expressions. Previous studies have shown that rodents display a facial grimace while in pain. To determine if the facial expressions of mice extend beyond pain, facial expressions were analyzed in the presence of non-social, social and predator stimuli. In a vibrissae contact test, the whiskers of mice were stroked by the bristles of a brush. In a social proximity test, two mice were placed together in a small chamber where contact was virtually unavoidable. In a resident-intruder test of aggression, an unknown mouse was placed into the homecage of another mouse. In a cat odor exposure test and in a live rat exposure test, mice were presented with the respective stimuli. Results from this study indicated that mice showed two patterns of expression, either a full display of changes in the measured facial components, characterized by tightened eyes, flattened ears, nose swells and cheek swells; or a more limited display of these facial changes. The full display of changes occurred in the vibrissae contact test, the social proximity test, and in resident mice in the resident-intruder test. The more limited display of facial changes occurred in the cat odor exposure test, the rat exposure test and in intruder mice in the resident-intruder test. The differential display of facial changes across conditions indicated that mice showed tightened eyes and flattened ears in situations that provided the immediate potential for contact, suggesting that such changes are involved in protection of sensitive and/or vulnerable body parts. Furthermore, the display of facial expressions by mice indicates that these expressions are widely distributed across evolution.

  10. Enhanced activation of dendritic cells by autologous apoptotic microvesicles in MRL/lpr mice.

    PubMed

    Dieker, Jürgen; Hilbrands, Luuk; Thielen, Astrid; Dijkman, Henry; Berden, Jo H; van der Vlag, Johan

    2015-04-16

    Systemic lupus erythematosus is associated with a persistent circulation of modified autoantigen-containing apoptotic debris that might be capable of breaking tolerance. We aimed to evaluate apoptotic microvesicles obtained from lupus or control mice for the presence of apoptosis-associated chromatin modifications and for their capacity to stimulate dendritic cells (DC) from lupus and control mice. Apoptotic microvesicles were in vitro generated from splenocytes, and ex vivo isolated from plasma of both MRL/lpr lupus mice and normal BALB/c mice. Microvesicles were analyzed using flow cytometry. Bone marrow-derived (BM)-DC cultured from MRL/lpr or BALB/c mice were incubated with microvesicles and CD40 expression and cytokine production were determined as measure of activation. Microvesicles derived from apoptotic splenocytes or plasma of MRL/lpr mice contained more modified chromatin compared to microvesicles of BALB/c mice, and showed enhanced activation of DC, either from MRL/lpr or BALB/c mice, and consecutively an enhanced DC-mediated activation of splenocytes. The content of apoptosis-modified chromatin in microvesicles of apoptotic splenocytes correlated with their potency to induce interleukin-6 (IL-6) production by DC. Microvesicle-activated MRL/lpr DC showed a significant higher production of IL-6 and tumor growth factor-β (TGF-β) compared to BALB/c DC, and were more potent in the activation of splenocytes. Apoptotic microvesicles from MRL/lpr mice are more potent activators of DC, and DC from MRL/lpr mice appear relatively more sensitive to activation by apoptotic microvesicles. Our findings indicate that aberrations at the level of apoptotic microvesicles and possibly DC contribute to the autoimmune response against chromatin in MRL/lpr mice.

  11. Angiopoietin-1 enhances skeletal muscle regeneration in mice.

    PubMed

    Mofarrahi, Mahroo; McClung, Joseph M; Kontos, Christopher D; Davis, Elaine C; Tappuni, Bassman; Moroz, Nicolay; Pickett, Amy E; Huck, Laurent; Harel, Sharon; Danialou, Gawiyou; Hussain, Sabah N A

    2015-04-01

    Activation of muscle progenitor cell myogenesis and endothelial cell angiogenesis is critical for the recovery of skeletal muscle from injury. Angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1), a ligand of Tie-2 receptors, enhances angiogenesis and skeletal muscle satellite cell survival; however, its role in skeletal muscle regeneration after injury is unknown. We assessed the effects of Ang-1 on fiber regeneration, myogenesis, and angiogenesis in injured skeletal muscle (tibialis anterior, TA) in mice. We also assessed endogenous Ang-1 levels and localization in intact and injured TA muscles. TA fiber injury was triggered by cardiotoxin injection. Endogenous Ang-1 mRNA levels immediately decreased in response to cardiotoxin then increased during the 2 wk. Ang-1 protein was expressed in satellite cells, both in noninjured and recovering TA muscles. Positive Ang-1 staining was present in blood vessels but not in nerve fibers. Four days after the initiation of injury, injection of adenoviral Ang-1 into injured muscles resulted in significant increases in in situ TA muscle contractility, muscle fiber regeneration, and capillary density. In cultured human skeletal myoblasts, recombinant Ang-1 protein increased survival, proliferation, migration, and differentiation into myotubes. The latter effect was associated with significant upregulation of the expression of the myogenic regulatory factors MyoD and Myogenin and certain genes involved in cell cycle regulation. We conclude that Ang-1 strongly enhances skeletal muscle regeneration in response to fiber injury and that this effect is mediated through induction of the myogenesis program in muscle progenitor cells and the angiogenesis program in endothelial cells.

  12. Enhancement of allergic lung sensitization in mice by ozone inhalation

    SciTech Connect

    Osebold, J.W.; Zee, Y.C.; Gershwin, L.J.

    1988-07-01

    Inhaled ozone was found to exert an enhancing effect for allergic lung sensitization when mice contracted an aerosolized allergen. The animals were exposed to ozone concentrations of 0.24, 0.16, 0.13, and 0.10 ppm. After 4 days of continuous ozone exposure, the mice had allergen contact from an aerosolized solution of ovalbumin. The animals were then maintained in ambient air for several days before the cycle of ozone and aerosolized allergen was repeated over four allergen contact cycles. Mice were rested in ambient air for a week after the last allergen contact, and they were then tested for allergic sensitization by the intravenous injection of 2 mg of ovalbumin to induce anaphylactic shock in allergic individuals. The control groups of mice were maintained in ambient air throughout the experiment, but they experienced identical allergen contact with the ozone-exposed mice. The phenomenon of allergic enhancement from ozone inhalation was detected at 0.24, 0.16, and 0.13 ppm of ozone. The enhancing effect disappeared at 0.10 ppm of ozone. The study indicated a potential for increasing the number of allergically sensitized individuals when various allergens are inhaled during periods of high ozone exposure with the consequent adverse changes on respiratory membranes. The significance to human health of the allergic enhancement phenomenon by ozone needs investigation.

  13. Immune enhancement during chronic ethanol feeding in mice - Autoimmune phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Honchel, R.; Rhoads, C.A.; Fitzpatrick, E.A.; McClain, C.J.; Kaplan, A.M.; Cohen, D.A. )

    1991-03-11

    Chronic alcohol abuse in humans is often associated with diminished immune reactivity and enhanced susceptibility to infections. However, many alcohol-dependent individuals display signs of autoimmunity, which has been implicated in alcohol-associated liver damage. This study demonstrates that C57Bl/6 mice placed on the Lieber-DeCarli liquid ethanol diet for up to 9 weeks displayed augmented immune reactivity as compared to mice placed on an isocaloric control diet. Spleen cells were significantly more responsive to the mitogens, LPS and ConA, as early as 3 weeks after initiation of EtOH feeding and this hyperresponsiveness persisted throughout the 9 week feeding period. Similar enhancement of the mixed lymphocyte response was also seen in EtOH fed mice. The enhancement of immune responsiveness was not related to a change in the numbers or percentages of B cells, T cells, or in the CD4/CD8 T cell ratios as determined by flow cytometry. These studies indicate that under certain conditions of ethanol feeding in mice, enhancement rather than suppression of the immune system may occur. This system may be a model to evaluate possible induction of autoimmune responses during chronic ethanol abuse. Studies are underway to measure the presence of auto-antibodies in the sera of these ethanol fed mice.

  14. Somatostatin regulates tight junction proteins expression in colitis mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao; Wang, Qian; Xu, Hua; Tao, Liping; Lu, Jing; Cai, Lin; Wang, Chunhui

    2014-01-01

    Tight junction plays a critical role in intestinal defence. The alteration and perturbation of tight junction proteins could induce intestine barrier damage, and lead to the malabsorption of electrolytes and water. Previous studies had showed that colonic infection and inflammation could lead to the alteration of tight junction function, and somatostatin could protect intestinal epithelia. Thus, this study could explore that whether somatostatin could regulate tight junction in colitis mice. Colitis mice with diarrhea were induced by Citrobacter rodentium (CR) and Dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). In CR infected model, cladudin-1 and claudin-3 expression significantly decreased compared with the control mice (P<0.05); after octreotide treatment, claudin-1 and claudin-3 expression significantly increased compared with untreated CR infected mice (P<0.05). In DSS colitis model, occludin and claudin-3 expression significantly decreased compared with the control mice (P<0.05); and octreotide treatment could only significantly upregulate claudin-3 expression compared with untreated DSS colitis mice (P<0.05). To testify our results in vivo, we repeated the models in caco-2 cells by exposed with enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (E. Coli) and Tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α). The results in vitro were consistent with in vivo study. The results suggested that somatostatin play a role in intestinal barrier protection by modulating tight junction proteins expression.

  15. Somatostatin regulates tight junction proteins expression in colitis mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiao; Wang, Qian; Xu, Hua; Tao, Liping; Lu, Jing; Cai, Lin; Wang, Chunhui

    2014-01-01

    Tight junction plays a critical role in intestinal defence. The alteration and perturbation of tight junction proteins could induce intestine barrier damage, and lead to the malabsorption of electrolytes and water. Previous studies had showed that colonic infection and inflammation could lead to the alteration of tight junction function, and somatostatin could protect intestinal epithelia. Thus, this study could explore that whether somatostatin could regulate tight junction in colitis mice. Colitis mice with diarrhea were induced by Citrobacter rodentium (CR) and Dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). In CR infected model, cladudin-1 and claudin-3 expression significantly decreased compared with the control mice (P < 0.05); after octreotide treatment, claudin-1 and claudin-3 expression significantly increased compared with untreated CR infected mice (P < 0.05). In DSS colitis model, occludin and claudin-3 expression significantly decreased compared with the control mice (P < 0.05); and octreotide treatment could only significantly upregulate claudin-3 expression compared with untreated DSS colitis mice (P < 0.05). To testify our results in vivo, we repeated the models in caco-2 cells by exposed with enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (E. Coli) and Tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α). The results in vitro were consistent with in vivo study. The results suggested that somatostatin play a role in intestinal barrier protection by modulating tight junction proteins expression. PMID:24966923

  16. Cognitive-enhancing effects of hydrolysate of polygalasaponin in SAMP8 mice*

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Pan; Xu, Shu-ping; Wang, Ke-zhu; Lu, Cong; Zhang, Hong-xia; Pan, Rui-le; Qi, Chang; Yang, Yan-yan; Li, Ying-hui; Liu, Xin-min

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of the study is to evaluate the cognitive-enhancing effects of hydrolysate of polygalasaponin (HPS) on senescence accelerate mouse P8 (SAMP8) mice, an effective Alzheimer’s disease (AD) model, and to research the relevant mechanisms. Methods: The cognitive-enhancing effects of HPS on SAMP8 mice were assessed using Morris water maze (MWM) and step-through passive avoidance tests. Then N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor subunit expression for both the cortex and hippocampus of mice was observed using Western blotting. Results: HPS (25 and 50 mg/kg) improved the escape rate and decreased the escape latency and time spent in the target quadrant for the SAMP8 mice in the MWM after oral administration of HPS for 10 d. Moreover, it decreased error times in the passive avoidance tests. Western blotting showed that HPS was able to reverse the levels of NMDAR1 and NMDAR2B expression in the cortex or hippocampus of model mice. Conclusions: The present study suggested that HPS can improve cognitive deficits in SAMP8 mice, and this mechanism might be associated with NMDA receptor (NMDAR)-related pathways. PMID:27381727

  17. PPARgamma agonist pioglitazone does not enhance performance in mice.

    PubMed

    Sanchis-Gomar, Fabian; Pareja-Galeano, Helios; Martinez-Bello, Vladimir E

    2014-09-01

    Peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) delta and adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinases (AMPKs) regulate the metabolic and contractile characteristics of myofibres. PPAR proteins are nuclear receptors that function as transcription factors and regulate the expression of multiple genes. AMPK has been described as a master metabolic regulator which also controls gene expression through the direct phosphorylation of some nuclear proteins. Since it was discovered that both PPARdelta agonists (GW1516) and AMPK activators (5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-D-ribofuranoside, known as AICAR) are very effective performance-enhancing substances in sedentary mice, the World Anti-doping Agency (WADA) included AICAR and GW1516 in the prohibited list of substances as metabolic modulators in the class 'Hormone and metabolic modulators'. Thiazolidinediones are PPARgamma agonists that can induce similar biological effects to those of PPARdelta and PPARdelta-AMPK agonists. Thus in this study, the effects of pioglitazone on mitochondrial biogenesis and performance were evaluated. Blood glucose levels and the protein expression of the intermediates involved in the mitochondrial biogenesis pathway and the citrate synthase activity were determined in both gastrocnemius and soleus muscles. Maximal aerobic velocity (MAV), endurance capacity, and grip strength before and after the training period were also determined. The MAV endurance capacity and grip strength of trained animals significantly increased. We found that the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) and the nuclear respiratory factor-1 (NRF-1) protein content and citrate synthase activity significantly increased in the soleus muscle of trained animals. No effect of treatment was found. Therefore in our study, pioglitazone administration did not affect mitochondrial biogenesis signaling pathway. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Enhanced Functional Recovery in MRL/MpJ Mice after Spinal Cord Dorsal Hemisection

    PubMed Central

    Thuret, Sandrine; Thallmair, Michaela; Horky, Laura L.; Gage, Fred H.

    2012-01-01

    Adult MRL/MpJ mice have been shown to possess unique regeneration capabilities. They are able to heal an ear-punched hole or an injured heart with normal tissue architecture and without scar formation. Here we present functional and histological evidence for enhanced recovery following spinal cord injury (SCI) in MRL/MpJ mice. A control group (C57BL/6 mice) and MRL/MpJ mice underwent a dorsal hemisection at T9 (thoracic vertebra 9). Our data show that MRL/MpJ mice recovered motor function significantly faster and more completely. We observed enhanced regeneration of the corticospinal tract (CST). Furthermore, we observed a reduced astrocytic response and fewer micro-cavities at the injury site, which appear to create a more growth-permissive environment for the injured axons. Our data suggest that the reduced astrocytic response is in part due to a lower lesion-induced increase of cell proliferation post-SCI, and a reduced astrocytic differentiation of the proliferating cells. Interestingly, we also found an increased number of proliferating microglia, which could be involved in the MRL/MpJ spinal cord repair mechanisms. Finally, to evaluate the molecular basis of faster spinal cord repair, we examined the difference in gene expression changes in MRL/MpJ and C57BL/6 mice after SCI. Our microarray data support our histological findings and reveal a transcriptional profile associated with a more efficient spinal cord repair in MRL/MpJ mice. PMID:22348029

  19. Enhanced functional recovery in MRL/MpJ mice after spinal cord dorsal hemisection.

    PubMed

    Thuret, Sandrine; Thallmair, Michaela; Horky, Laura L; Gage, Fred H

    2012-01-01

    Adult MRL/MpJ mice have been shown to possess unique regeneration capabilities. They are able to heal an ear-punched hole or an injured heart with normal tissue architecture and without scar formation. Here we present functional and histological evidence for enhanced recovery following spinal cord injury (SCI) in MRL/MpJ mice. A control group (C57BL/6 mice) and MRL/MpJ mice underwent a dorsal hemisection at T9 (thoracic vertebra 9). Our data show that MRL/MpJ mice recovered motor function significantly faster and more completely. We observed enhanced regeneration of the corticospinal tract (CST). Furthermore, we observed a reduced astrocytic response and fewer micro-cavities at the injury site, which appear to create a more growth-permissive environment for the injured axons. Our data suggest that the reduced astrocytic response is in part due to a lower lesion-induced increase of cell proliferation post-SCI, and a reduced astrocytic differentiation of the proliferating cells. Interestingly, we also found an increased number of proliferating microglia, which could be involved in the MRL/MpJ spinal cord repair mechanisms. Finally, to evaluate the molecular basis of faster spinal cord repair, we examined the difference in gene expression changes in MRL/MpJ and C57BL/6 mice after SCI. Our microarray data support our histological findings and reveal a transcriptional profile associated with a more efficient spinal cord repair in MRL/MpJ mice.

  20. Temporal requirement for high SMN expression in SMA mice

    PubMed Central

    Le, Thanh T.; McGovern, Vicki L.; Alwine, Isaac E.; Wang, Xueyong; Massoni-Laporte, Aurelie; Rich, Mark M.; Burghes, Arthur H.M.

    2011-01-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is caused by loss of the survival motor neuron 1 gene (SMN1) and retention of the SMN2 gene, resulting in reduced SMN. SMA mice can be rescued with high expression of SMN in neurons, but when is this high expression required? We have developed a SMA mouse with inducible expression of SMN to address the temporal requirement for high SMN expression. Both embryonic and early postnatal induction of SMN resulted in a dramatic increase in survival with some mice living greater than 200 days. The mice had no marked motor deficits and neuromuscular junction (NMJ) function was near normal thus it appears that induction of SMN in postnatal SMA mice rescues motor function. Early postnatal SMN induction, followed by a 1-month removal of induction at 28 days of age, resulted in no morphological or electrophysiological abnormalities at the NMJ and no overt motor phenotype. Upon removal of SMN induction, five mice survived for just over 1 month and two female mice have survived past 8 months of age. We suggest that there is a postnatal period of time when high SMN levels are required. Furthermore, two copies of SMN2 provide the minimal amount of SMN necessary to maintain survival during adulthood. Finally, in the course of SMA, early induction of SMN is most efficacious. PMID:21672919

  1. Loss of HSulf-1 expression enhances tumorigenicity by inhibiting Bim expression in ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    He, Xiaoping; Khurana, Ashwani; Roy, Debarshi; Kaufmann, Scott; Shridhar, Viji

    2014-10-15

    The expression of human Sulfatase1 (HSulf-1) is downregulated in the majority of primary ovarian cancer tumors, but the functional consequence of this downregulation remains unclear. Using two different shRNAs (Sh1 and Sh2), HSulf-1 expression was stably downregulated in ovarian cancer OV202 cells. We found that HSulf-1-deficient OV202 Sh1 and Sh2 cells formed colonies in soft agar. In contrast, nontargeting control (NTC) shRNA-transduced OV202 cells did not form any colonies. Moreover, subcutaneous injection of OV202 HSulf-1-deficient cells resulted in tumor formation in nude mice, whereas OV202 NTC cells did not. Also, ectopic expression of HSulf-1 in ovarian cancer SKOV3 cells significantly suppressed tumor growth in nude mice. Here, we show that HSulf-1-deficient OV202 cells have markedly decreased expression of proapoptotic Bim protein, which can be rescued by restoring HSulf-1 expression in OV202 Sh1 cells. Enhanced expression of HSulf-1 in HSulf-1-deficient SKOV3 cells resulted in increased Bim expression. Decreased Bim levels after loss of HSulf-1 were due to increased p-ERK, because inhibition of ERK activity with PD98059 resulted in increased Bim expression. However, treatment with a PI3 kinase/AKT inhibitor, LY294002, failed to show any change in Bim protein level. Importantly, rescuing Bim expression in HSulf-1 knockdown cells significantly retarded tumor growth in nude mice. Collectively, these results suggest that loss of HSulf-1 expression promotes tumorigenicity in ovarian cancer through regulating Bim expression.

  2. Enhanced malignant tumorigenesis in Cdk4 transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Miliani de Marval, Paula L; Macias, Everardo; Conti, Claudio J; Rodriguez-Puebla, Marcelo L

    2004-03-11

    In a previous study, we reported that overexpression of cyclin-dependent kinase-4 (CDK4) in mouse epidermis results in epidermal hyperplasia, hypertrophy and severe dermal fibrosis. In this study, we have investigated the susceptibility to skin tumor formation by forced expression of CDK4. Skin tumors from transgenic mice showed a dramatic increase in the rate of malignant progression to squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) in an initiation-promotion protocol. Histopathological analysis of papillomas from transgenic mice showed an elevated number of premalignant lesions characterized by dysplasia and marked atypia. Interestingly, transgenic mice also developed tumors in initiated but not promoted skin, demonstrating that CDK4 replaced the action of tumor promoters. These results suggest that expression of cyclin D1 upon ras activation synergizes with CDK4 overexpression. However, cyclin D1 transgenic mice and double transgenic mice for cyclin D1 and CDK4 did not show increased malignant progression in comparison to CDK4 transgenic mice. Biochemical analysis of tumors showed that CDK4 sequesters the CDK2 inhibitors p27Kip1 and p21Cip1, suggesting that indirect activation of CDK2 plays an important role in tumor development. These results indicate that, contrary to the general assumption, the catalytic subunit, CDK4, has higher oncogenic activity than cyclin D1, revealing a potential use of CDK4 as therapeutic target.

  3. Enhanced Malignant Tumorigenesis in Cdk4-Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Miliani de Marval, Paula L.; Macias, Everardo; Conti, Claudio J.; Rodriguez-Puebla, Marcelo L.

    2010-01-01

    In a previous study, we reported that overexpression of CDK4 in mouse epidermis results in epidermal hyperplasia, hypertrophy and severe dermal fibrosis. In this study, we have investigated the susceptibility to skin tumor formation by forced expression of CDK4. Skin tumors from transgenic mice showed a dramatic increase in the rate of malignant progression to squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) in an initiation-promotion protocol. Histopathological analysis of papillomas from transgenic mice showed an elevated number of premalignant lesions characterized by dysplasia and marked atypia. Interestingly, transgenic mice also developed tumors in initiated but not promoted skin, demonstrating that CDK4 replaced the action of tumor promoters. These results suggest that expression of cyclin D1 upon ras activation synergizes with CDK4 overexpression. However, cyclin D1 transgenic mice and double transgenic mice for cyclin D1 and CDK4 did not show increased malignant progression in comparison to CDK4 transgenic mice. Biochemical analysis of tumors showed that CDK4 sequesters the CDK2 inhibitors p27Kip1 and p21Cip1 suggesting that indirect activation of CDK2 plays an important role in tumor development. These results indicate that, contrary to the general assumption, the catalytic subunit, CDK4, has higher oncogenic activity than cyclin D1, revealing a potential use of CDK4 as therapeutic target. PMID:14647432

  4. Gene expression in the lung of p53 mutant mice exposed to cigarette smoke.

    PubMed

    Izzotti, Alberto; Cartiglia, Cristina; Longobardi, Mariagrazia; Bagnasco, Maria; Merello, Andrea; You, Ming; Lubet, Ronald A; De Flora, Silvio

    2004-12-01

    We showed previously that p53 mutations play a role in cigarette smoke-related carcinogenesis not only in humans but also in A/J mice. In fact, (UL53-3 x A/J)F(1) mice, carrying a dominant-negative germ-line p53 mutation, responded to exposure to environmental cigarette smoke more efficiently than their wild-type (wt) littermate controls in terms of molecular alterations, cytogenetic damage, and lung tumor yield. To clarify the mechanisms involved, we analyzed by cDNA array the expression of 1,185 cancer-related genes in the lung of the same mice. Neither environmental cigarette smoke nor the p53 status affected the expression of the p53 gene, but the p53 mutation strikingly increased the basal levels of p53 nuclear protein in the lung. Environmental cigarette smoke increased p53 protein levels in wt mice only. The p53 mutation enhanced the expression of positive cell cycle regulators in sham-exposed mice, which suggests a physiologic protective role of p53. In environmental cigarette smoke-exposed mice, the p53 mutation resulted in a lack of induction of proapoptotic genes and in overexpression of genes involved in cell proliferation, signal transduction, angiogenesis, inflammation, and immune response. Mutant mice and wt mice reacted to environmental cigarette smoke in a similar manner regarding genes involved in metabolism of xenobiotics, multidrug resistance, and protein repair. Irrespective of the p53 status, environmental cigarette smoke poorly affected the expression of oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes, and DNA repair genes. Taken together, these findings may explain the increased susceptibility of p53 mutant mice to smoke-related alterations of intermediate biomarkers and lung carcinogenesis.

  5. Dopamine D2 receptor over-expression alters behavior and physiology in Drd2-EGFP mice

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Paul F.; Christensen, Christine H.; Hazelwood, Lisa A.; Dobi, Alice; Bock, Roland; Sibley, David R.; Mateo, Yolanda; Alvarez, Veronica A.

    2011-01-01

    BAC transgenic mice expressing the fluorescent reporter protein EGFP under the control of the D1 and D2 dopamine receptor promoters (Drd1-EGFP and Drd2-EGFP) have been widely used to study striatal function and have contributed to our understanding of the physiological and pathological function of the basal ganglia. These tools were produced and promptly made available to address questions in a cell-specific manner that has transformed the way we frame hypotheses in neuroscience. However, these mice have not been fully characterized until now. We found that Drd2-EGFP mice display a ~40% increase in membrane expression of the dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) and a two-fold increase in D2R mRNA levels in the striatum when compared to wild-type and Drd1-EGFP mice D2R over-expression was accompanied by behavioral hypersensitivity to D2R-like agonists, as well as enhanced electrophysiological responses to D2R activation in midbrain dopaminergic neurons. DA transients evoked by stimulation in the nucleus accumbens showed slower clearance in Drd2-EGFP mice and cocaine actions on DA clearance were impaired in these mice. Thus, it was not surprising to find that Drd2-EGFP mice were hyperactive when exposed to a novel environment and locomotion was suppressed by acute cocaine administration. All together, this study demonstrates that Drd2-EGFP mice over-express D2R and have altered dopaminergic signaling that fundamentally differentiates them from wild-type and Drd1-EGFP mice. PMID:21209197

  6. Possible Involvement of Nitric Oxide in Enhanced Liver Injury and Fibrogenesis during Cholestasis in Cytoglobin-deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Van Thuy, Tuong Thi; Thuy, Le Thi Thanh; Yoshizato, Katsutoshi; Kawada, Norifumi

    2017-01-01

    This study clarified the role of Cygb, the fourth globin in mammals originally discovered in rat hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), in cholestatic liver disease. Bile duct ligation (BDL) augmented inflammatory reactions as revealed by increased infiltrating neutrophils, CD68+-macrophages, and chemokine expression in Cygb−/− mice. In these mice, impairment of bile canalicular indicated by the loss of CD10 expression, down-regulation of bile salt transporters, increased total bile acid, and massive apoptotic and necrotic hepatocytes occurred with the release of cytochrome c, activation of caspase 3, resulting in reduced animal survival compared to wild-type mice. In Cygb−/− mouse liver, all of NO metabolites and oxidative stress were increased. Treatment with NO inhibitor restrained all above phenotypes and restored CD10 expression in BDL Cygb−/− mice, while administration of NO donor aggravated liver damage in BDL-wild type mice to the same extent of BDL-Cygb−/− mice. N-acetylcysteine administration had a negligible effect in all groups. In mice of BDL for 1–3 weeks, expression of all fibrosis-related markers was significantly increased in Cygb−/− mice compared with wild-type mice. Thus, Cygb deficiency in HSCs enhances hepatocyte damage and inflammation in early phase and fibrosis development in late phase in mice subjected to BDL, presumably via altered NO metabolism. PMID:28157235

  7. Gene expression profile analyses of mice livers injured by Leigongteng

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yong; Zhang, Xiao-Ming; Han, Feng-Mei; Du, Peng; Xia, Qi-Song

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To analyze the gene expression profiles of mice livers injured by Leigongteng and explore the relationship between the differentially expressed genes and liver damage. METHODS: The experimental mice were randomly divided into a control group and a liver-injured group in which the mice were administrated 33 μγ of triptolide/kg per day for 30 d. Liver mRNAs were extracted from animals in both groups and were reverse-transcribed to cDNA with dUTP labeled by different fluorescence (Cy3, Cy5) as hybridization probes. The mixed probes were hybridized with oligonucleotide microarray chips. The fluorescent signal results were acquired by scanner and analyzed with software. RESULTS: Among the 35852 target genes, 29 genes were found to be significantly differentially expressed, with 20 genes up-regulated and 9 genes down-regulated. The reliability of the differentially expressed genes was validated by RT-PCR experiments of 5 randomly selected differentially expressed genes. CONCLUSION: Based on the biological functions of the differentially expressed genes, it is obvious that the occurrence and development of liver damage induced by Leigongteng in mice are highly associated with immune response, metabolism, apoptosis and the cell skeleton of liver cells. This might be important for elucidating the regulatory network of gene expression associated with liver damage and it may also be important for discovering the pathogenic mechanisms of liver damage induced by Leigongteng. PMID:17659714

  8. Expression of human transferrin can be regulated effectively by rabbit transferrin regulatory elements in transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jingbin; Gong, Xiuli; Pan, Shubiao; Guo, Xinbing; Ren, Zhaorui; Zeng, Yitao

    2014-06-01

    Human transferrin (hTF) belongs to the iron-binding glycoprotein family. It plays an important role in iron transport throughout the body. Transgenic mice are a good model to study how to produce functional hTF on a large-scale. We have improved the expression of hTF and investigated its regulatory mechanism in transgenic mice. Three expression constructs were prepared in which hTF expression was controlled by different regulatory cassettes of rabbit transferrin (rTF). hTF was secreted into serum of transgenic mice when its expression was controlled by the rTF promoter and enhancer, whereas the rTF enhancer in tandem with the rTF promoter repressed hTF secretion into milk. A significant inverse relationship between methylation of the rTF promoter and hTF expression was observed in liver, heart, mammary gland, and muscle of transgenic mice. The highest concentration of hTF was 700 μg/ml in milk.

  9. Gene expression profile in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice kidneys undergoing glomerulosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Wada, J; Zhang, H; Tsuchiyama, Y; Hiragushi, K; Hida, K; Shikata, K; Kanwar, Y S; Makino, H

    2001-04-01

    To elucidate the molecular mechanism of diabetic nephropathy, a high-density DNA filter array was employed to survey the gene expression profile of streptozotocin-induced diabetic CD-1 (ICR) mouse kidneys. Ten-week-old CD-1 male mice were divided into four groups: (1) control, (2) unilaterally nephrectomized (UX) mice, (3) streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic (STZ) mice, and (4) STZ mice with unilateral renal ablation (STZ-UX). Pathological changes were examined at 24 weeks after the induction. The gene expression profile was compared between the control and STZ mice by a Gene Discovery Array (GDA). The glomeruli in UX mouse kidney showed prominent glomerular hypertrophy, while the accumulation of mesangial matrix was minimal. Both STZ and STZ + UX mice had significant glomerular hypertrophy and glomerulosclerosis, and the lesions were not enhanced by renal ablation. By comparison between control and STZ mice, 16 clones that increased in expression with the induction of diabetes and 65 clones that decreased in diabetic kidneys were identified. The 37 known genes were related to glucose and lipid metabolism, ion transport, transcription factors, signaling molecules, and extracellular matrix-related molecules. The genes known to be involved in cell differentiation and organogenesis in various tissues (that is, Unc-18 homolog, POU domain transcription factor 2, lunatic fringe gene homolog, fibrous sheath component 1, Sox-17, fibulin 2, and MRJ) were found to be differentially expressed in the early phase of diabetic kidneys. Hyperglycemia is a major determinant of glomerulosclerosis in STZ-induced diabetic CD-1 mice, and the altered gene expression in the early phase of diabetic kidney may be critical for the development of diabetic nephropathy.

  10. Coordinated patterns of gene expressions for adult muscle build-up in transgenic mice expressing myostatin propeptide.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Baoping; Li, Eileena J; Wall, Robert J; Yang, Jinzeng

    2009-07-08

    Skeletal muscle growth and maintenance are essential for human health. One of the muscle regulatory genes, namely myostatin, a member of transforming growth factor-beta, plays a dominant role in the genetic control of muscle mass. Myostatin is synthesized as a precursor protein, which generates the N-terminal propeptide and the C-terminal mature myostatin peptide by a post-translational cleavage event. Previously, transgenic over-expression of myostatin propeptide in skeletal muscle results in significant muscle growth in early stages of development. The objectives of present study were to further characterize muscle growth in later stages of life and to identify genes and their expression patterns that are responsible for adult muscle build-up by myostatin propeptide. Immunohistochemical staining with an antibody to the N-terminus indicates a high level of myostatin propeptide present in the muscles of transgenic mice while there were no apparent differences in myostatin protein distribution in the muscle fibers between the transgenic and wild-type mice. Main individual muscles increased by 76-152% in the transgenic mice over their wild-type littermate mice at 12 months of age. A large number of nuclei were localized in the central and basal lamina of the myofibers in the transgenic mice as the number of nuclei per fiber and 100 microm(2) area was significantly higher in transgenic mice than wild-type mice. By systemic comparisons of global mRNA expression patterns between transgenic mice and wild-type littermates using microarray and qRT-PCR techniques, we have identified distinct gene expression patterns to support adult muscle build-up by myostatin propeptide, which are comprised of enhanced expressions of myogenic regulatory factors and extracelullar matrix components, and differentially down-regulated expressions of genes related to protein degradation and mitochondrial ATP synthesis. The results present a coordinated pattern of gene expressions for reduced

  11. Coordinated patterns of gene expressions for adult muscle build-up in transgenic mice expressing myostatin propeptide

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Baoping; Li, Eileena J; Wall, Robert J; Yang, Jinzeng

    2009-01-01

    Background Skeletal muscle growth and maintenance are essential for human health. One of the muscle regulatory genes, namely myostatin, a member of transforming growth factor-β, plays a dominant role in the genetic control of muscle mass. Myostatin is synthesized as a precursor protein, which generates the N-terminal propeptide and the C-terminal mature myostatin peptide by a post-translational cleavage event. Previously, transgenic over-expression of myostatin propeptide in skeletal muscle results in significant muscle growth in early stages of development. The objectives of present study were to further characterize muscle growth in later stages of life and to identify genes and their expression patterns that are responsible for adult muscle build-up by myostatin propeptide. Results Immunohistochemical staining with an antibody to the N-terminus indicates a high level of myostatin propeptide present in the muscles of transgenic mice while there were no apparent differences in myostatin protein distribution in the muscle fibers between the transgenic and wild-type mice. Main individual muscles increased by 76–152% in the transgenic mice over their wild-type littermate mice at 12 months of age. A large number of nuclei were localized in the central and basal lamina of the myofibers in the transgenic mice as the number of nuclei per fiber and 100 μm2 area was significantly higher in transgenic mice than wild-type mice. By systemic comparisons of global mRNA expression patterns between transgenic mice and wild-type littermates using microarray and qRT-PCR techniques, we have identified distinct gene expression patterns to support adult muscle build-up by myostatin propeptide, which are comprised of enhanced expressions of myogenic regulatory factors and extracelullar matrix components, and differentially down-regulated expressions of genes related to protein degradation and mitochondrial ATP synthesis. Conclusion The results present a coordinated pattern of gene

  12. Dendrobium nobile Lindl. alkaloids regulate metabolism gene expression in livers of mice.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yun-Yan; Xu, Ya-Sha; Wang, Yuan; Wu, Qin; Lu, Yuan-Fu; Liu, Jie; Shi, Jing-Shan

    2017-10-01

    In our previous studies, Dendrobium nobile Lindl. alkaloids (DNLA) has been shown to have glucose-lowering and antihyperlipidaemia effects in diabetic rats, in rats fed with high-fat diets, and in mice challenged with adrenaline. This study aimed to examine the effects of DNLA on the expression of glucose and lipid metabolism genes in livers of mice. Mice were given DNLA at doses of 10-80 mg/kg, po for 8 days, and livers were removed for total RNA and protein isolation to perform real-time RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. Dendrobium nobile Lindl. alkaloids increased PGC1α at mRNA and protein levels and increased glucose metabolism gene Glut2 and FoxO1 expression. DNLA also increased the expression of fatty acid β-oxidation genes Acox1 and Cpt1a. The lipid synthesis regulator Srebp1 (sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1) was decreased, while the lipolysis gene ATGL was increased. Interestingly, DNLA increased the expression of antioxidant gene metallothionein-1 and NADPH quinone oxidoreductase-1 (Nqo1) in livers of mice. Western blot on selected proteins confirmed these changes including the increased expression of GLUT4 and PPARα. DNLA has beneficial effects on liver glucose and lipid metabolism gene expressions, and enhances the Nrf2-antioxidant pathway gene expressions, which could play integrated roles in regulating metabolic disorders. © 2017 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  13. Toll-like receptor 7-mediated enhancement of contextual fear memory in mice.

    PubMed

    Kubo, Yasunori; Yanagawa, Yoshiki; Matsumoto, Machiko; Hiraide, Sachiko; Kobayashi, Masanobu; Togashi, Hiroko

    2012-10-01

    Toll-like receptor (TLR) 7 recognizes viral single-stranded RNA and triggers production of the type I interferons (IFNs) IFN-α and IFN-β. Imiquimod, a synthetic TLR7 ligand, induces production of type I IFNs and is used clinically as an antiviral and antitumor drug. In the present study, we examined the effect of imiquimod on conditioned and innate fear behaviors in mice. Imiquimod was administered 2, 4, or 15 h before contextual fear conditioning. Imiquimod treatment 4 or 15 h before fear conditioning significantly enhanced context-dependent freezing behavior. This imiquimod-induced enhancement of fear-related behaviors was observed 120 h after fear conditioning. In contrast, imiquimod failed to enhance context-dependent freezing behavior in TLR7 knockout mice. Imiquimod had no significant effect on pain threshold or on innate fear-related behavior, as measured by the elevated plus-maze. The levels of type I IFN mRNA in the brain were significantly increased at 2 h after imiquimod treatment. Imiquimod also increased interleukin (IL)-1β mRNA expression in the brain at 4 h following administration, while mRNA expression of F4/80, a macrophage marker, was unaffected by imiquimod treatment. Our findings suggest that TLR7-mediated signaling enhances contextual fear memory in mice, possibly by inducing the expression of type I IFNs and IL-1β in the brain. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Leptin responsiveness in mice that ectopically express agouti protein.

    PubMed

    Harris, Ruth B S; Mitchell, Tiffany D; Mynatt, Randall L

    Agouti protein is an endogenous antagonist of melanocortin receptors (MCR), including MCR3 and MCR4, which have been implicated as part of the hypothalamic mechanism that mediates leptin-induced hypophagia. In this experiment we examined the effects of peripheral and central leptin administration in male and female beta-actin promoter (BAPa) mice that express agouti protein ectopically and have a phenotype that includes obesity and diabetes which is exaggerated in males compared with females. Intraperitoneal infusion of 10 microg leptin/day for 13 days caused weight loss and a transient inhibition of food intake in wild-type mice, with a greater effect in males than females. Male BAPa mice were resistant to leptin infusion whereas female mice lost weight. All of the mice lost body weight following a single intracerebroventricular injection of leptin but the effect was greater in female BAPa mice than any other group. There also was a delayed suppression of food intake that was the same for wild-type and BAPa female mice, whereas food intake recovered faster in BAPa than wild-type males. The dissociation between food intake and body weight loss implies a significant effect of leptin on energy expenditure in BAPa mice. These results demonstrate that the effect of leptin on energy balance is not entirely dependent upon the melanocortin system.

  15. Aberrant Calreticulin Expression in Articular Cartilage of Dio2 Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Bomer, Nils; Cornelis, Frederique M. F.; Ramos, Yolande F. M.; den Hollander, Wouter; Lakenberg, Nico; van der Breggen, Ruud; Storms, Lies; Slagboom, P. Eline; Lories, Rik J. U.; Meulenbelt, Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    Objective To identify intrinsic differences in cartilage gene expression profiles between wild-type- and Dio2-/--mice, as a mechanism to investigate factors that contribute to prolonged healthy tissue homeostasis. Methods Previously generated microarray-data (Illumina MouseWG-6 v2) of knee cartilage of wild-type and Dio2 -/- -mice were re-analyzed to identify differential expressed genes independent of mechanical loading conditions by forced treadmill-running. RT-qPCR and western blot analyses of overexpression and knockdown of Calr in mouse chondro-progenitor cells (ATDC5) were applied to assess the direct effect of differential Calr expression on cartilage deposition. Results Differential expression analyses of articular cartilage of Dio2-/- (N = 9) and wild-type-mice (N = 11) while applying a cutoff threshold (P < 0.05 (FDR) and FC > |1,5|) resulted in 1 probe located in Calreticulin (Calr) that was found significantly downregulated in Dio2-/- mice (FC = -1.731; P = 0.044). Furthermore, overexpression of Calr during early chondrogenesis in ATDC5 cells leads to decreased proteoglycan deposition and corresponding lower Aggrecan expression, whereas knocking down Calr expression does not lead to histological differences of matrix composition. Conclusion We here demonstrate that the beneficial homeostatic state of articular cartilage in Dio2-/- mice is accompanied with significant lower expression of Calr. Functional analyses further showed that upregulation of Calr expression could act as an initiator of cartilage destruction. The consistent association between Calr and Dio2 expression suggests that enhanced expression of these genes facilitate detrimental effects on cartilage integrity. PMID:27163789

  16. Nuclear expression of a mitochondrial DNA gene: mitochondrial targeting of allotopically expressed mutant ATP6 in transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Dunn, David A; Pinkert, Carl A

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear encoding of mitochondrial DNA transgenes followed by mitochondrial targeting of the expressed proteins (allotopic expression; AE) represents a potentially powerful strategy for creating animal models of mtDNA disease. Mice were created that allotopically express either a mutant (A6M) or wildtype (A6W) mt-Atp6 transgene. Compared to non-transgenic controls, A6M mice displayed neuromuscular and motor deficiencies (wire hang, pole, and balance beam analyses; P < 0.05), no locomotor differences (gait analysis; P < 0.05) and enhanced endurance in Rota-Rod evaluations (P < 0.05). A6W mice exhibited inferior muscle strength (wire hang test; P < 0.05), no difference in balance beam footsteps, accelerating Rota-Rod, pole test and gait analyses; (P < 0.05) and superior performance in balance beam time-to-cross and constant velocity Rota-Rod analyses (P < 0.05) in comparison to non-transgenic control mice. Mice of both transgenic lines did not differ from non-transgenic controls in a number of bioenergetic and biochemical tests including measurements of serum lactate and mitochondrial MnSOD protein levels, ATP synthesis rate, and oxygen consumption (P > 0.05). This study illustrates a mouse model capable of circumventing in vivo mitochondrial mutations. Moreover, it provides evidence supporting AE as a tool for mtDNA disease research with implications in development of DNA-based therapeutics.

  17. Lycopersicon esculentum Extract Enhances Cognitive Function and Hippocampal Neurogenesis in Aged Mice

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Jung-Soo; Han, Mira; Shin, Hee Soon; Shon, Dong-Hwa; Lee, Soon-Tae; Shin, Chang-Yup; Lee, Yuri; Lee, Dong Hun; Chung, Jin Ho

    2016-01-01

    A decrease in adult neurogenesis is associated with the aging process, and this decrease is closely related to memory impairment. Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) is a fruit with diverse bioactive nutrients that is consumed worldwide. In this study, we investigated the cognition-enhancing effect of tomato ethanolic extracts (TEE) in aged mice. Six weeks of oral TEE administration in 12-month-old aged mice significantly increased their exploration time of novel objects when compared to vehicle-treated mice. The TEE supplement increased doublecortin (DCX)-positive cells and postsynaptic density-95 (PSD95) expression in mice hippocampus. Moreover, we found an increased expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and subsequently-activated extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK)/cAMP response element binding (CREB) signaling pathway in the TEE-supplemented mice hippocampus. In conclusion, the oral administration of TEE exhibits a cognition-enhancing effect, and the putative underlying mechanism is the induction of BDNF signaling-mediated proliferation and synapse formation in the hippocampus. These findings indicate that TEE could be a candidate for treatment of age-related memory impairment and neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:27792185

  18. Lycopersicon esculentum Extract Enhances Cognitive Function and Hippocampal Neurogenesis in Aged Mice.

    PubMed

    Bae, Jung-Soo; Han, Mira; Shin, Hee Soon; Shon, Dong-Hwa; Lee, Soon-Tae; Shin, Chang-Yup; Lee, Yuri; Lee, Dong Hun; Chung, Jin Ho

    2016-10-26

    A decrease in adult neurogenesis is associated with the aging process, and this decrease is closely related to memory impairment. Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) is a fruit with diverse bioactive nutrients that is consumed worldwide. In this study, we investigated the cognition-enhancing effect of tomato ethanolic extracts (TEE) in aged mice. Six weeks of oral TEE administration in 12-month-old aged mice significantly increased their exploration time of novel objects when compared to vehicle-treated mice. The TEE supplement increased doublecortin (DCX)-positive cells and postsynaptic density-95 (PSD95) expression in mice hippocampus. Moreover, we found an increased expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and subsequently-activated extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK)/cAMP response element binding (CREB) signaling pathway in the TEE-supplemented mice hippocampus. In conclusion, the oral administration of TEE exhibits a cognition-enhancing effect, and the putative underlying mechanism is the induction of BDNF signaling-mediated proliferation and synapse formation in the hippocampus. These findings indicate that TEE could be a candidate for treatment of age-related memory impairment and neurodegenerative disorders.

  19. Inhibition of estrogen biosynthesis enhances lymphoma growth in mice.

    PubMed

    Talaber, Gergely; Yakimchuk, Konstantin; Guan, Jiyu; Inzunza, Jose; Okret, Sam

    2016-04-12

    Most lymphomas show higher incidence and poorer prognosis in males compared to females. However, the endocrine contribution to this gender difference is not entirely known. Here we show that castration accelerates lymphoma growth in C57BL6 male mice grafted with murine EG7 T cell lymphoma cells. However, the androgen receptor antagonist Bicalutamide did not affect lymphoma growth, suggesting no impact of androgen receptor signaling on lymphoma progression. In contrast, inhibition of androgen-to-estrogen conversion by the aromatase inhibitor (AI) Letrozole induced faster lymphoma growth in mice, suggesting that androgens impact lymphoma growth through its conversion to estrogens. This was supported by the inability of dihydrotestosterone, which is not converted to estrogens by aromatase, to influence lymphoma growth in castrated male mice. Lymphoma growth was also stimulated in immunocompromised mice grafted with human B cell lymphoma (Granta-519) and treated with either reversible or irreversible AIs, showing that the blockage of estrogen synthesis caused enhanced growth of both murine T and human B cell lymphomas and with different AIs. Additionally, AI-treated EG7 lymphomas showed accelerated growth not only in male but also in intact female mice. Altogether, our results demonstrate that aromatase inhibition accelerates lymphoma growth but not androgens per se, highlighting a protective role of estrogens in lymphoma pathogenesis. These results also raise concern that the use of AIs in women with breast cancer might enhance lymphoma progression.

  20. Inhibition of estrogen biosynthesis enhances lymphoma growth in mice

    PubMed Central

    Talaber, Gergely; Yakimchuk, Konstantin; Guan, Jiyu; Inzunza, Jose; Okret, Sam

    2016-01-01

    Most lymphomas show higher incidence and poorer prognosis in males compared to females. However, the endocrine contribution to this gender difference is not entirely known. Here we show that castration accelerates lymphoma growth in C57BL6 male mice grafted with murine EG7 T cell lymphoma cells. However, the androgen receptor antagonist Bicalutamide did not affect lymphoma growth, suggesting no impact of androgen receptor signaling on lymphoma progression. In contrast, inhibition of androgen-to-estrogen conversion by the aromatase inhibitor (AI) Letrozole induced faster lymphoma growth in mice, suggesting that androgens impact lymphoma growth through its conversion to estrogens. This was supported by the inability of dihydrotestosterone, which is not converted to estrogens by aromatase, to influence lymphoma growth in castrated male mice. Lymphoma growth was also stimulated in immunocompromised mice grafted with human B cell lymphoma (Granta-519) and treated with either reversible or irreversible AIs, showing that the blockage of estrogen synthesis caused enhanced growth of both murine T and human B cell lymphomas and with different AIs. Additionally, AI-treated EG7 lymphomas showed accelerated growth not only in male but also in intact female mice. Altogether, our results demonstrate that aromatase inhibition accelerates lymphoma growth but not androgens per se, highlighting a protective role of estrogens in lymphoma pathogenesis. These results also raise concern that the use of AIs in women with breast cancer might enhance lymphoma progression. PMID:26943574

  1. Loss of Bak enhances lymphocytosis but does not ameliorate thrombocytopaenia in BCL-2 transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Vandenberg, C J; Josefsson, E C; Campbell, K J; James, C; Lawlor, K E; Kile, B T; Cory, S

    2014-05-01

    Bax and Bak are critical effectors of apoptosis. Although both are widely expressed and usually functionally redundant, recent studies suggest that Bak has particular importance in certain cell types. Genetic and biochemical studies indicate that Bak activation is prevented primarily by Mcl-1 and Bcl-xL, whereas Bax is held in check by all pro-survival Bcl-2 homologues, including Bcl-2 itself. In this study, we have investigated whether loss of Bak or elevated Mcl-1 modulates haemopoietic abnormalities provoked by overexpression of Bcl-2. The Mcl-1 transgene had little impact, probably because the expression level was insufficient to effectively reduce Bak activation. However, loss of Bak enhanced lymphocytosis in vavP-BCL-2 transgenic mice and increased resistance of their thymocytes to some cytotoxic agents, implying that Bak-specific signals can be triggered in certain lymphoid populations. Nevertheless, lack of Bak had no significant impact on thymic abnormalities in vavP-BCL-2tg mice, which kinetic analysis suggested was due to accumulation of self-reactive thymocytes that resist deletion. Intriguingly, although Bak(-/-) mice have elevated platelet counts, Bak(-/-)vavP-BCL-2 mice, like vavP-BCL-2 littermates, were thrombocytopaenic. To clarify why, the vavP-BCL-2 platelet phenotype was scrutinised more closely. Platelet life span was found to be elevated in vavP-BCL-2 mice, which should have provoked thrombocytosis, as in Bak(-/-) mice. Analysis of bone marrow chimaeric mice suggested the low platelet phenotype was due principally to extrinsic factors. Following splenectomy, blood platelets remained lower in vavP-BCL-2 than wild-type mice. However, in Rag1(-/-) BCL-2tg mice, platelet levels were normal, implying that elevated lymphocytes are primarily responsible for BCL-2tg-induced thrombocytopaenia.

  2. Loss of Bak enhances lymphocytosis but does not ameliorate thrombocytopaenia in BCL-2 transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Vandenberg, C J; Josefsson, E C; Campbell, K J; James, C; Lawlor, K E; Kile, B T; Cory, S

    2014-01-01

    Bax and Bak are critical effectors of apoptosis. Although both are widely expressed and usually functionally redundant, recent studies suggest that Bak has particular importance in certain cell types. Genetic and biochemical studies indicate that Bak activation is prevented primarily by Mcl-1 and Bcl-xL, whereas Bax is held in check by all pro-survival Bcl-2 homologues, including Bcl-2 itself. In this study, we have investigated whether loss of Bak or elevated Mcl-1 modulates haemopoietic abnormalities provoked by overexpression of Bcl-2. The Mcl-1 transgene had little impact, probably because the expression level was insufficient to effectively reduce Bak activation. However, loss of Bak enhanced lymphocytosis in vavP-BCL-2 transgenic mice and increased resistance of their thymocytes to some cytotoxic agents, implying that Bak-specific signals can be triggered in certain lymphoid populations. Nevertheless, lack of Bak had no significant impact on thymic abnormalities in vavP-BCL-2tg mice, which kinetic analysis suggested was due to accumulation of self-reactive thymocytes that resist deletion. Intriguingly, although Bak−/− mice have elevated platelet counts, Bak−/−vavP-BCL-2 mice, like vavP-BCL-2 littermates, were thrombocytopaenic. To clarify why, the vavP-BCL-2 platelet phenotype was scrutinised more closely. Platelet life span was found to be elevated in vavP-BCL-2 mice, which should have provoked thrombocytosis, as in Bak−/− mice. Analysis of bone marrow chimaeric mice suggested the low platelet phenotype was due principally to extrinsic factors. Following splenectomy, blood platelets remained lower in vavP-BCL-2 than wild-type mice. However, in Rag1−/− BCL-2tg mice, platelet levels were normal, implying that elevated lymphocytes are primarily responsible for BCL-2tg-induced thrombocytopaenia. PMID:24464220

  3. Fasting activated histaminergic neurons and enhanced arousal effect of caffeine in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi-Qun; Li, Rui; Wu, Xu; Zhu, Fen; Takata, Yohko; Zhang, Ze; Zhang, Meng-Qi; Li, Shan-Qun; Qu, Wei-Min

    2015-06-01

    Caffeine, a popular psychoactive compound, promotes wakefulness via blocking adenosine A2A receptors in the shell of the nucleus accumbens, which projects to the arousal histaminergic tuberomammillary nucleus (TMN). The TMN controls several behaviors such as wakefulness and feeding. Fasting has been reported to activate the TMN histaminergic neurons to increase arousal. Therefore, we propose that caffeine may promote greater arousal under fasting rather than normal feeding conditions. In the current study, locomotor activity recording, electroencephalogram (EEG) and electromyogram recording and c-Fos expression were used in wild type (WT) and histamine H1 receptor (H1R) knockout (KO) mice to investigate the arousal effects of caffeine under fasting conditions. Caffeine (15mg/kg) enhanced locomotor activity in fasted mice for 5h, but only did so for 3h in normally fed animals. Pretreatment with the H1R antagonist pyrilamine abolished caffeine-induced stimulation on locomotor activity in fasted mice. EEG recordings confirmed that caffeine-induced wakefulness for 3h in fed WT mice, and for 5h in fasted ones. A stimulatory effect of caffeine was not observed in fasted H1R KO mice. Furthermore, c-Fos expression was increased in the TMN under fasting conditions. These results indicate that caffeine had greater wakefulness-promoting effects in fasted mice through the mediation of H1R.

  4. Partially Redundant Enhancers Cooperatively Maintain Mammalian Pomc Expression Above a Critical Functional Threshold

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Daniel D.; de Souza, Flavio S. J.; Nasif, Sofia; Yamashita, Miho; López-Leal, Rodrigo; Meece, Kana; Sampath, Harini; Mercer, Aaron J.; Wardlaw, Sharon L.

    2015-01-01

    Cell-specific expression of many genes is conveyed by multiple enhancers, with each individual enhancer controlling a particular expression domain. In contrast, multiple enhancers drive similar expression patterns of some genes involved in embryonic development, suggesting regulatory redundancy. Work in Drosophila has indicated that functionally overlapping enhancers canalize development by buffering gene expression against environmental and genetic disturbances. However, little is known about regulatory redundancy in vertebrates and in genes mainly expressed during adulthood. Here we study nPE1 and nPE2, two phylogenetically conserved mammalian enhancers that drive expression of the proopiomelanocortin gene (Pomc) to the same set of hypothalamic neurons. The simultaneous deletion of both enhancers abolished Pomc expression at all ages and induced a profound metabolic dysfunction including early-onset extreme obesity. Targeted inactivation of either nPE1 or nPE2 led to very low levels of Pomc expression during early embryonic development indicating that both enhancers function synergistically. In adult mice, however, Pomc expression is controlled additively by both enhancers, with nPE1 being responsible for ∼80% and nPE2 for ∼20% of Pomc transcription. Consequently, nPE1 knockout mice exhibit mild obesity whereas nPE2-deficient mice maintain a normal body weight. These results suggest that nPE2-driven Pomc expression is compensated by nPE1 at later stages of development, essentially rescuing the earlier phenotype of nPE2 deficiency. Together, these results reveal that cooperative interactions between the enhancers confer robustness of Pomc expression against gene regulatory disturbances and preclude deleterious metabolic phenotypes caused by Pomc deficiency in adulthood. Thus, our study demonstrates that enhancer redundancy can be used by genes that control adult physiology in mammals and underlines the potential significance of regulatory sequence mutations in

  5. Stress induces altered CRE/CREB pathway activity and BDNF expression in the hippocampus of glucocorticoid receptor-impaired mice.

    PubMed

    Alboni, Silvia; Tascedda, Fabio; Corsini, Daniela; Benatti, Cristina; Caggia, Federica; Capone, Giacomo; Barden, Nicholas; Blom, Joan M C; Brunello, Nicoletta

    2011-06-01

    The gene coding for the neurotrophin Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) is a stress-responsive gene. Changes in its expression may underlie some of the pathological effects of stress-related disorders like depression. Data on the stress-induced regulation of the expression of BDNF in pathological conditions are rare because often research is conducted using healthy animals. In our experiments, we used transgenic mice with glucocorticoid receptor impaired (GR-i) expression in the hypothalamus created as a tool to study the neuroendocrine changes occurring in stress-related disorders. First, under basal condition, GR-i mice displayed lower levels of BDNF exons IX and IV and decreased CRE(BDNF) binding activity with respect to wild-type (WT) mice in the hippocampus. Then, we exposed GR-i and WT mice to an acute restraint stress (ARS) to test the hypothesis that GR-i mice display: 1] different ARS induced expression of BDNF, and 2] altered activation of signaling pathways implicated in regulating BDNF gene expression in the hippocampus with respect to WT mice. Results indicate that ARS enhanced BDNF mRNA expression mainly in the CA3 hippocampal sub-region of GR-i mice in the presence of enhanced levels of pro-BDNF protein, while no effect was observed in WT mice. Moreover, ARS reduced CREB signaling and binding to the BDNF promoter in GR-i mice but enhanced signaling and binding, possibly through ERK1/2 activation, in WT mice. Thus, life-long central GR dysfunction resulted in an altered sensitivity at the transcriptional level that may underlie an impaired response to an acute psycho-physical stress. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Trends in neuropharmacology: in memory of Erminio Costa'.

  6. Effects of Repeated Ethanol Exposures on NMDA Receptor Expression and Locomotor Sensitization in Mice Expressing Ethanol Resistant NMDA Receptors

    PubMed Central

    den Hartog, Carolina R.; Gilstrap, Meghin; Eaton, Bethany; Lench, Daniel H.; Mulholland, Patrick J.; Homanics, Gregg. E.; Woodward, John J.

    2017-01-01

    Evidence from a large number of preclinical studies suggests that chronic exposure to drugs of abuse, such as psychostimulants or ethanol induces changes in glutamatergic transmission in key brain areas associated with reward and control of behavior. These changes include alterations in the expression of ionotropic glutamate receptors including N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDAR) that are important for regulating neuronal activity and synaptic plasticity. NMDA receptors are inhibited by ethanol and reductions in NMDA-mediated signaling are thought to trigger homestatic responses that limit ethanol's effects on glutamatergic transmission. Following repeated exposures to ethanol, these homeostatic responses may become unstable leading to an altered glutamatergic state that contributes to the escalations in drinking and cognitive deficits observed in alcohol-dependent subjects. An important unanswered question is whether ethanol-induced changes in NMDAR expression are modulated by the intrinsic sensitivity of the receptor to ethanol. In this study, we examined the effects of ethanol on NMDAR subunit expression in cortical (orbitofrontal, medial prefrontal), striatal (dorsal and ventral striatum) and limbic (dorsal hippocampus, basolateral amygdala) areas in mice genetically modified to express ethanol-resistant receptors (F639A mice). These mice have been previously shown to drink more ethanol than their wild-type counterparts and have altered behavioral responses to certain actions of ethanol. Following long-term voluntary drinking, F639A mice showed elevations in GluN2A but not GluN1 or GluN2B expression as compared to wild-type mice. Mice treated with repeated injections with ethanol (2–3.5 g/kg; i.p.) showed changes in NMDAR expression that varied in a complex manner with genotype, brain region, subunit type and exposure protocol all contributing to the observed response. F639A mice, but not wild-type mice, showed enhanced motor activity following repeated

  7. Abnormal serotonin receptor expression in DBA/2 mice associated with susceptibility to sudden death due to respiratory arrest.

    PubMed

    Uteshev, Victor V; Tupal, Srinivasan; Mhaskar, Yashanad; Faingold, Carl L

    2010-02-01

    Previous studies indicate that DBA/2 mice may be a useful model of human sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP), since these mice exhibit generalized convulsive seizures followed by respiratory arrest (RA). Respiratory deficits, following generalized convulsive seizures, are observed prior to SUDEP in patients. RA that occurs in DBA/2 mice following sound-induced seizures can be prevented by treatments that activate serotonin (5-HT) receptors. 5-HT receptor subtypes in brainstem respiratory centers are important in regulating normal respiration. The present study compared the expression of 5-HT subtype receptor proteins in excised brainstem tissue, containing the rostral ventral medulla respiratory region in DBA/2 mice vs. seizure-resistant C57BL/6J mice, using Western blot analysis. The results indicate that expression of specific 5-HT(2C), 5-HT(3), and 5-HT(4) receptor proteins in the brainstem tissue of DBA/2 mice is significantly diminished, while expression of the 5-HT(2B) receptors is significantly enhanced as compared to C57BL/6J mice. No difference in expression of 5-HT transporter protein is seen. These findings suggest that the DBA/2 mice are susceptible to RA, in part, because of the altered expression of 5-HT receptors. Preliminary studies indicate that 5-HT(2C) receptors may be particularly important, since a 5-HT(2C) agonist is very effective in blocking RA in DBA/2 mice.

  8. Expression of oxidative phosphorylation components in mitochondria of long-living Ames dwarf mice.

    PubMed

    Brown-Borg, Holly M; Johnson, W Thomas; Rakoczy, Sharlene G

    2012-02-01

    Reduced signaling of the growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) pathway is associated with extended life span in several species. Ames dwarf mice are GH-deficient and live >50% longer than wild-type littermates. Previously, we have shown that tissues from Ames mice exhibit elevated levels of antioxidative enzymes, less H(2)O(2) production, and lower oxidative damage suggesting that mitochondrial function may differ between genotypes. To explore the relationship between hormone deficiency and mitochondria in mice with extended longevity, we evaluated activity, protein, and gene expression of oxidative phosphorylation components in dwarf and wild-type mice at varying ages. Liver complex I + III activity was higher in dwarf mice compared to wild-type mice. The activity of I + III decreased between 3 and 20 months of age in both genotypes with greater declines in wild-type mice in liver and skeletal muscle. Complex IV activities in the kidney were elevated in 3- and 20-month-old dwarf mice relative to wild-type mice. In Ames mice, protein levels of the 39 kDa complex I subunit were elevated at 20 months of age when compared to wild-type mouse mitochondria for every tissue examined. Kidney and liver mitochondria from 20-month-old dwarf mice had elevated levels of both mitochondrially-encoded and nuclear-encoded complex IV proteins compared to wild-type mice (p < 0.05). Higher liver ANT1 and PGC-1α mRNA levels were also observed in dwarf mice. Overall, we found that several components of the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) system were elevated in Ames mice. Mitochondrial to nuclear DNA ratios were not different between genotypes despite the marked increase in PGC-1α levels in dwarf mice. The increased OXPHOS activities, along with lower ROS production in dwarf mice, predict enhanced mitochondrial function and efficiency, two factors likely contributing to long-life in Ames mice.

  9. Microarray expression profiling identifies genes with altered expression in HDL-deficient mice

    SciTech Connect

    Callow, Matthew J.; Dudoit, Sandrine; Gong, Elaine L.; Speed, Terence P.; Rubin, Edward M.

    2000-05-05

    Based on the assumption that severe alterations in the expression of genes known to be involved in HDL metabolism may affect the expression of other genes we screened an array of over 5000 mouse expressed sequence tags (ESTs) for altered gene expression in the livers of two lines of mice with dramatic decreases in HDL plasma concentrations. Labeled cDNA from livers of apolipoprotein AI (apo AI) knockout mice, Scavenger Receptor BI (SR-BI) transgenic mice and control mice were co-hybridized to microarrays. Two-sample t-statistics were used to identify genes with altered expression levels in the knockout or transgenic mice compared with the control mice. In the SR-BI group we found 9 array elements representing at least 5 genes to be significantly altered on the basis of an adjusted p value of less than 0.05. In the apo AI knockout group 8 array elements representing 4 genes were altered compared with the control group (p < 0.05). Several of the genes identified in the SR-BI transgenic suggest altered sterol metabolism and oxidative processes. These studies illustrate the use of multiple-testing methods for the identification of genes with altered expression in replicated microarray experiments of apo AI knockout and SR-BI transgenic mice.

  10. Mice Expressing RHAG and RHD Human Blood Group Genes

    PubMed Central

    Goossens, Dominique; da Silva, Nelly; Metral, Sylvain; Cortes, Ulrich; Callebaut, Isabelle; Picot, Julien; Mouro-Chanteloup, Isabelle; Cartron, Jean-Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Anti-RhD prophylaxis of haemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN) is highly effective, but as the suppressive mechanism remains uncertain, a mouse model would be of interest. Here we have generated transgenic mice expressing human RhAG and RhD erythrocyte membrane proteins in the presence and, for human RhAG, in the absence, of mouse Rhag. Human RhAG associates with mouse Rh but not mouse Rhag on red blood cells. In Rhag knockout mice transgenic for human RHAG, the mouse Rh protein is “rescued” (re-expressed), and co-immunoprecipitates with human RhAG, indicating the presence of hetero-complexes which associate mouse and human proteins. RhD antigen was expressed from a human RHD gene on a BAC or from RHD cDNA under control of β-globin regulatory elements. RhD was never observed alone, strongly indicative that its expression absolutely depends on the presence of transgenic human RhAG. This first expression of RhD in mice is an important step in the creation of a mouse model of RhD allo-immunisation and HDFN, in conjunction with the Rh-Rhag knockout mice we have developed previously. PMID:24260394

  11. Disruption of Protein Kinase A in Mice Enhances Healthy Aging

    PubMed Central

    Enns, Linda C.; Morton, John F.; Treuting, Piper R.; Emond, Mary J.; Wolf, Norman S.; McKnight, G. S.; Rabinovitch, Peter S.; Ladiges, Warren C.

    2009-01-01

    Mutations that cause a reduction in protein kinase A (PKA) activity have been shown to extend lifespan in yeast. Loss of function of mammalian RIIβ, a regulatory subunit of PKA expressed in brain and adipose tissue, results in mice that are lean and insulin sensitive. It was therefore hypothesized that RIIB null (RIIβ−/−) mice would express anti-aging phenotypes. We conducted lifespan studies using 40 mutant and 40 wild type (WT) littermates of equal gender numbers and found that both the median and maximum lifespans were significantly increased in mutant males compared to WT littermates. The median lifespan was increased from 884 days to 1005 days (p = 0.006 as determined by the log rank test) and the 80% lifespan (defined here as 80% deaths) was increased from 941 days to 1073 days (p = 0.004 as determined by the Wang-Allison test). There was no difference in either median or 80% lifespan in female genotypes. WT mice of both genders became increasingly obese with age, while mutant mice maintained their lean phenotype into old age. Adiposity was found to correlate with lifespan for males only. 50% of male mice between 30 and 35 g, corresponding to about 5% body fat, for either genotype lived over 1000 days. No male mouse outside of this weight range achieved this lifespan. During their last month of life, WT mice began losing weight (a total of 8% and 15% of body weight was lost for males and females, respectively), but RIIβ−/− male mice maintained their lean body mass to end of life. This attenuation of decline was not seen in female mutant mice. Old male mutant mice were insulin sensitive throughout their life. Both genders showed modestly lower blood glucose levels in old mutants compared to WT. Male mutants were also resistant to age-induced fatty liver. Pathological assessment of tissues from end of life male mutant mice showed a decrease in tumor incidence, decreased severity of renal lesions, and a trend towards a decrease in age

  12. Enhanced neurodegeneration after a high dose of methamphetamine in Adenosine A3 receptor Null mutant mice

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Hui; Luo, Yu; Yu, Seong-Jin; Wang, Yun

    2011-01-01

    Previous reports have indicated that adenosine A3 receptor (A3R) knockout mice are more sensitive to ischemic or hypoxic brain injury. The purpose of this study was to examine if suppression of A3R expression is associated with increase in sensitivity to injury induced by a high dose of methamphetamine (Meth). Adult male A3R null mutant (−/−) mice and their controls (+/+) were injected with 4 doses (2 hours apart) of Meth (10 mg/kg) or saline. Animals were placed in a behavioral activity chamber, equipped with food and water, for 52 hours starting from one day after injections. The first 4 hours were used for studying exploratory behaviors and the next 48 hours were used to measure locomotor activity. High doses of Meth equally reduced the 4-hour exploratory behavior in −/− and +/+ mice. Meth suppressed locomotor activity between 4 and 52 hours in both groups, with a greater reduction being found in the −/− mice. Brain tissues were collected at 3 days after the Meth or saline injections. Meth treatment reduced striatal dopamine (DA) levels in both +/+ and −/− mice, examined by HPLC, with an increase in DOPAC/DA ratio being found only in −/− animals. Meth also significantly increased ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1 (Iba-1) and cleaved caspase-3 level in striatum as well as Iba-1 and TNFα mRNA expression in nigra in −/−, compared to +/+, mice. Previous studies have shown that pharmacological suppression of VMAT2 by reserpine enhanced Meth toxicity by increasing cytosolic DA and inflammation. A significant reduction in striatal VMAT2 expression was found in −/− mice, compared to +/+ mice, suggesting that increase in sensitivity to Meth injury in −/− mice may be related to a reduction in VMAT2 expression in these mice. In conclusion, our data suggest that A3R −/− mice are more sensitive to high doses of Meth. PMID:21867746

  13. Changes in Gene Expression Associated with FTO Overexpression in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Holger B.; McMurray, Fiona; Lafond, Mathilde; Boutens, Lily; Cox, Roger; Ashcroft, Frances M.

    2014-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the first intron of the fat-mass-and-obesity-related gene FTO are associated with increased body weight and adiposity. Increased expression of FTO is likely underlying this obesity phenotype, as mice with two additional copies of Fto (FTO-4 mice) exhibit increased adiposity and are hyperphagic. FTO is a demethylase of single stranded DNA and RNA, and one of its targets is the m6A modification in RNA, which might play a role in the regulation of gene expression. In this study, we aimed to examine the changes in gene expression that occur in FTO-4 mice in order to gain more insight into the underlying mechanisms by which FTO influences body weight and adiposity. Our results indicate an upregulation of anabolic pathways and a downregulation of catabolic pathways in FTO-4 mice. Interestingly, although genes involved in methylation were differentially regulated in skeletal muscle of FTO-4 mice, no effect of FTO overexpression on m6A methylation of total mRNA was detected. PMID:24842286

  14. Transcriptome analysis identifies pathways associated with enhanced maternal performance in QSi5 mice

    PubMed Central

    Ramanathan, Palaniappan; Martin, Ian C; Gardiner-Garden, Margaret; Thomson, Peter C; Taylor, Rosanne M; Ormandy, Christopher J; Moran, Christopher; Williamson, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Background Highly fecund mouse strains provide an ideal model to understand the factors affecting maternal performance. The QSi5 inbred strain of mice was selected for high fecundity and low inter-litter interval, and is very successful at weaning large numbers of offspring when compared to other inbred strains. Results Post-natal pup weight gain was used to estimate mammary gland output and to compare the performance of QSi5 mice to CBA mice. Cumulative litter weights and individual pup weight gain was significantly higher throughout the first eight days of lactation in QSi5 mice compared to CBA mice. Morphometric analysis of mammary glands during pregnancy in QSi5 mice revealed a 150 percent greater ductal side branching compared to CBA mice (P < 0.001). Ontology and pathway classification of transcript profiles from the two strains identified an enrichment of genes involved in a number of pathways, including the MAPK, tight junction, insulin signalling and Wnt signalling. Eleven of these genes, including six genes from the MAPK signalling pathway, were identified as associated with postnatal growth. Further, positive mediators of Wnt signalling, including Wnt4, Csnk2a1 and Smad4, were over-represented in the QSi5 strain profile, while negative regulators, including Dkkl1, Ppp2r1a and Nlk, were under-represented. These findings are consistent with the role of Wnt and MAPK signalling pathway in ductal morphogenesis and lobuloalveolar development suggesting enhanced activity in QSi5 mice. A similar pattern of phenotype concordance was seen amongst 12 genes from the tight junction pathway, but a pattern did not emerge from the insulin signalling genes. Amongst a group of differentially expressed imprinted genes, two maternal imprinted genes that suppress growth induced via the IGF signalling pathway, Grb10 and Igf2r, were under-represented in QSi5 mice. Whereas Peg3 and Plagl1, both paternally imprinted genes that enhance neonatal growth, were over-represented in

  15. Renal Xenobiotic Transporters are Differentially Expressed In Mice Following Cisplatin Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Aleksunes, Lauren M; Augustine, Lisa M; Scheffer, George L; Cherrington, Nathan J; Manautou, José E

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this study was to identify alterations in mRNA and protein expression of various xenobiotic transport proteins in mouse kidney during cisplatin-induced acute renal failure. For this purpose, male C57BL/6J mice received a single dose of cisplatin (18 mg/kg, ip) or vehicle. Four days later, tissues were collected for assessment of plasma BUN, histopathological analysis of renal lesions, and mRNA and western blot analysis of renal transporters including organic anion and cation transporters (Oat, Oct), organic anion transporting polypeptides (Oatp), multidrug resistance-associated proteins (Mrp), multidrug resistance proteins (Mdr), breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp) and multidrug and toxin extrusion proteins (Mate). Cisplatin treatment caused necrosis of renal proximal tubules along with elevated plasma BUN and renal kidney injury molecule-1 mRNA expression. Cisplatin-induced renal injury increased mRNA and protein levels of the efflux transporters Mrp2, Mrp4, Mrp5, Mdr1a and Mdr1b. Uptake transporters Oatp2a1 and Oatp2b1 mRNA were also up-regulated following cisplatin. By contrast, expression of Oat1, Oat2, Oct2 and Oatp1a1 mRNA was reduced in cisplatin-treated mice. Expression of several uptake and efflux transporters was unchanged in cisplatin-treated mice. Apical staining of Mrp2 and Mrp4 proteins was enhanced in proximal tubules from cisplatin-treated mice. Collectively, these expression patterns suggest coordinated regulation of uptake and efflux pathways during cisplatin-induced renal injury. Reduced expression of basolateral and apical uptake transporters along with enhanced transcription of export transporters likely represents an adaptation to lower intracellular accumulation of chemicals, prevent their reabsorption and enhance urinary clearance. PMID:18640236

  16. The construction and expression of lysine-rich gene in the mammary gland of transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xin; Zhang, Peng; Song, Guangqi; Chen, Yue; Wang, Zhongwei; Yin, Yupeng; Kong, Delong; Zhang, Sheng; Zhao, Zhihui; Ouyang, Hongsheng; Tang, Bo; Li, Ziyi

    2012-08-01

    Lysine is the limiting amino acid in cereal grains, which represent a major source of human food and animal feed worldwide, and is considered the most important of the essential amino acids. In this study, β-casein, αS2-casein, and lactotransferrin cDNA clone fragments encoding lysine-rich peptides were fused together to generate a lysine-rich (LR) gene and the mammary gland-specific expression vector pBC1-LR-NEO(r) was constructed. Transgenic mice were generated by pronuclear microinjection of the linearized expression vectors harboring the LR transgene. The transgenic mice and their offspring were examined using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR), Southern blotting, reverse transcriptase-PCR, in situ hybridization, and Western blotting techniques. Our results showed that the LR gene was successfully integrated into the mouse genome and was transmitted stably. The specific LR gene expression was restricted to the mammary gland, active alveoli of the transgenic female mice during lactation. The lysine level of the two transgenic lines was significantly higher than that of nontransgenic controls (p<0.05). In addition, the growth performance of transgenic pups was enhanced by directly feeding them the LR protein-enriched transgenic milk. Our results demonstrated that lysine-rich gene was successfully constructed and expressed in mammary gland of transgenic mice. This study will provide a better understanding of how mammary gland expression systems that increase the lysine content of milk can be applied to other mammals, such as cows.

  17. The Construction and Expression of Lysine-Rich Gene in the Mammary Gland of Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xin; Zhang, Peng; Song, Guangqi; Chen, Yue; Wang, Zhongwei; Yin, Yupeng; Kong, Delong; Zhang, Sheng; Zhao, Zhihui; Ouyang, Hongsheng

    2012-01-01

    Lysine is the limiting amino acid in cereal grains, which represent a major source of human food and animal feed worldwide, and is considered the most important of the essential amino acids. In this study, β-casein, αS2-casein, and lactotransferrin cDNA clone fragments encoding lysine-rich peptides were fused together to generate a lysine-rich (LR) gene and the mammary gland-specific expression vector pBC1-LR-NEOr was constructed. Transgenic mice were generated by pronuclear microinjection of the linearized expression vectors harboring the LR transgene. The transgenic mice and their offspring were examined using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR), Southern blotting, reverse transcriptase–PCR, in situ hybridization, and Western blotting techniques. Our results showed that the LR gene was successfully integrated into the mouse genome and was transmitted stably. The specific LR gene expression was restricted to the mammary gland, active alveoli of the transgenic female mice during lactation. The lysine level of the two transgenic lines was significantly higher than that of nontransgenic controls (p<0.05). In addition, the growth performance of transgenic pups was enhanced by directly feeding them the LR protein-enriched transgenic milk. Our results demonstrated that lysine-rich gene was successfully constructed and expressed in mammary gland of transgenic mice. This study will provide a better understanding of how mammary gland expression systems that increase the lysine content of milk can be applied to other mammals, such as cows. PMID:22577831

  18. Selectively enhanced contextual fear conditioning in mice lacking the transcriptional regulator CCAAT/enhancer binding protein δ

    PubMed Central

    Sterneck, Esta; Paylor, Richard; Jackson-Lewis, Vernice; Libbey, Megan; Przedborski, Serge; Tessarollo, Lino; Crawley, Jacqueline N.; Johnson, Peter F.

    1998-01-01

    CCAAT/enhancer binding protein δ (C/EBPδ) is a transcriptional regulator implicated in the hepatic acute phase response and in adipogenic and myeloid cell differentiation. We found that C/EBPδ is widely expressed in the peripheral and central nervous systems, including neurons of the hippocampal formation, indicating a role in neural functions. To examine the role of C/EBPδ in vivo, we generated mice with a targeted deletion of the C/EBPδ gene. This mutation does not interfere with normal embryonic and postnatal development. Performance in a battery of behavioral tests indicates that basic neurological functions are normal. Furthermore, performance in a Morris water maze task suggests that C/EBPδ mutant mice have normal spatial learning. However, in the contextual and auditory-cue-conditioned fear task, C/EBPδ null mice displayed significantly more conditioned freezing to the test context than did wild-type controls, but equivalent conditioning to the auditory cue. These data demonstrate a selectively enhanced contextual fear response in mice carrying a targeted genomic mutation and implicate C/EBPδ in the regulation of a specific type of learning and memory. PMID:9724803

  19. Environmental enrichment enhances cellular plasticity in transgenic mice with Alzheimer-like pathology.

    PubMed

    Herring, Arne; Ambrée, Oliver; Tomm, Manuel; Habermann, Henrik; Sachser, Norbert; Paulus, Werner; Keyvani, Kathy

    2009-03-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is accompanied by hippocampal neuronal loss and abnormal neurogenesis, both of which probably contributing to AD-related cognitive deficits. Mounting evidence indicates that cognitive and physical stimulation provided by environmental enrichment improves neurogenesis in healthy animals and counteracts beta-amyloid pathology in mouse models of AD. Here, we hypothesized that environmental enrichment has also an impact on hippocampal neurogenesis in mice with AD-like pathology. Therefore, TgCRND8 mice and wild type littermates were either housed under standard conditions or in an enriched environment for 4 months. Standard housed TgCRND8 mice revealed diminished hippocampal cell proliferation and reduced number of mature newborn neurons compared to wild type littermates under the same housing condition. However, environmental enrichment reversed this genotype effect. Here, we show that cognitive and physical stimulation is capable of increasing the number of newborn mature hippocampal neurons in transgenic mice to wild type levels. Moreover, the expression of various plasticity associated molecules was enhanced in transgenic mice due to enriched housing. This study identifies that environmental enrichment improves diminished cellular plasticity in AD brain, probably enhancing the brain capacity to better compensate for neurodegeneration.

  20. Gomafu lncRNA knockout mice exhibit mild hyperactivity with enhanced responsiveness to the psychostimulant methamphetamine

    PubMed Central

    Ip, Joanna Y.; Sone, Masamitsu; Nashiki, Chieko; Pan, Qun; Kitaichi, Kiyoyuki; Yanaka, Kaori; Abe, Takaya; Takao, Keizo; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi; Blencowe, Benjamin J.; Nakagawa, Shinichi

    2016-01-01

    The long noncoding RNA Gomafu/MIAT/Rncr2 is thought to function in retinal cell specification, stem cell differentiation and the control of alternative splicing. To further investigate physiological functions of Gomafu, we created mouse knockout (KO) model that completely lacks the Gomafu gene. The KO mice did not exhibit any developmental deficits. However, behavioral tests revealed that the KO mice are hyperactive. This hyperactive behavior was enhanced when the KO mice were treated with the psychostimulant methamphetamine, which was associated with an increase in dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens. RNA sequencing analyses identified a small number of genes affected by the deficiency of Gomafu, a subset of which are known to have important neurobiological functions. These observations suggest that Gomafu modifies mouse behavior thorough a mild modulation of gene expression and/or alternative splicing of target genes. PMID:27251103

  1. Hepatic and renal Bcrp transporter expression in mice treated with perfluorooctanoic acid

    PubMed Central

    Eldasher, Lobna M.; Wen, Xia; Little, Michael S.; Bircsak, Kristin M.; Yacovino, Lindsay L.; Aleksunes, Lauren M.

    2013-01-01

    The breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp) is an efflux transporter that participates in the biliary and renal excretion of drugs and environmental chemicals. Recent evidence suggests that pharmacological activation of the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha (PPARα) can up-regulate the hepatic expression of Bcrp. The current study investigated the regulation of hepatic and renal Bcrp mRNA and protein in mice treated with the PPARα agonist perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and the ability of PFOA to alter human BCRP function in vitro. Bcrp mRNA and protein expression were quantified in the livers and kidneys of male C57BL/6 mice treated with vehicle or PFOA (1 or 3 mg/kg/day oral gavage) for 7 days. PFOA treatment increased liver weights as well as the hepatic mRNA and protein expression of the PPARα target gene, cytochrome P450 4a14. Compared to vehicle-treated control mice, PFOA increased hepatic Bcrp mRNA and protein between 1.5- and 3-fold. Immunofluorescent staining confirmed enhanced canalicular Bcrp staining in liver sections from PFOA-treated mice. The kidney expression of cytochrome P450 4a14 mRNA, but not Bcrp, was increased in mice treated with PFOA. Micromolar concentrations of PFOA decreased human BCRP ATPase activity and inhibited BCRP-mediated transport in inverted membrane vesicles. Together, these studies demonstrate that PFOA induces hepatic Bcrp expression in mice and may inhibit human BCRP transporter function at concentrations that exceed levels observed in humans. PMID:23435180

  2. Characteristics of resistance to Listeria monocytogenes enhanced by Corynebacterium parvum in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Miyata, H; Nomoto, K; Takeya, K

    1980-01-01

    In mice pre-treated with Corynebacterium parvum, Listeria monocytogenes was cleared rapidly from the blood and bacterial growth in the liver and spleen was inhibited effectively during the early phase of infection. This enhanced resistance could be transferred with peritoneal exudate cells (PEC) but not with non-adherent spleen cells. In spite of earlier elimination of bacteria, pre-treated mice developed lower levels of delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) to bacteria than untreated immune control mice, but the control levels of DTH could be reached by increasing the challenge dose of bacteria in C. parvum-pre-treated mice. Additionally, C. parvum did not inhibit the expression of antibacterial immunity when immune mice were rechallenged. It appeared that the active suppression of the T-cell mediated immune response by C. parvum-activated macrophages was not seen during the course of L. monocytogenes infection, and that the lower levels of DTH seen in mice pre-treated with C. parvum were attributable to an insufficient antigenic stimulus following the accelerated elimination of bacteria by non-specifically activated macrophages during the early phase of infection. PMID:6968291

  3. Alternative Mechanisms of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Clearance in Perforin Knockout Mice Lead to Enhanced Disease

    PubMed Central

    Aung, Sandra; Rutigliano, John A.; Graham, Barney S.

    2001-01-01

    Virus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes are key effectors for the clearance of virus-infected cells and are required for the normal clearance of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in mice. Although perforin/granzyme-mediated lysis of infected cells is thought to be the major molecular mechanism used by CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes for elimination of virus, its role in RSV has not been reported. Here, we show that viral clearance in perforin knockout (PKO) mice is slightly delayed but that both PKO and wild-type mice clear virus by day 10, suggesting an alternative mechanism of RSV clearance. Effector T cells from the lungs of both groups of mice were shown to lyse Fas (CD95)-overexpressing target cells in greater numbers than target cells expressing low levels of Fas, suggesting that Fas ligand (CD95L)-mediated target cell lysis was occurring in vivo. This cell lysis was associated with a delay in RSV-induced disease in PKO mice compared to the time of disease onset for wild-type controls, which correlated with increased and prolonged production of gamma interferon and tumor necrosis factor alpha levels in PKO mice. We conclude that while perforin is not necessary for the clearance of primary RSV infection, the use of alternative CTL target cell killing mechanisms is less efficient and can lead to enhanced disease. PMID:11559824

  4. c-Fos expression during temporal order judgment in mice.

    PubMed

    Wada, Makoto; Higo, Noriyuki; Moizumi, Shunjiro; Kitazawa, Shigeru

    2010-05-05

    The neuronal mechanisms for ordering sensory signals in time still need to be clarified despite a long history of research. To address this issue, we recently developed a behavioral task of temporal order judgment in mice. In the present study, we examined the expression of c-Fos, a marker of neural activation, in mice just after they carried out the temporal order judgment task. The expression of c-Fos was examined in C57BL/6N mice (male, n = 5) that were trained to judge the order of two air-puff stimuli delivered bilaterally to the right and left whiskers with stimulation intervals of 50-750 ms. The mice were rewarded with a food pellet when they responded by orienting their head toward the first stimulus (n = 2) or toward the second stimulus (n = 3) after a visual "go" signal. c-Fos-stained cell densities of these mice (test group) were compared with those of two control groups in coronal brain sections prepared at bregma -2, -1, 0, +1, and +2 mm by applying statistical parametric mapping to the c-Fos immuno-stained sections. The expression of c-Fos was significantly higher in the test group than in the other groups in the bilateral barrel fields of the primary somatosensory cortex, the left secondary somatosensory cortex, the dorsal part of the right secondary auditory cortex. Laminar analyses in the primary somatosensory cortex revealed that c-Fos expression in the test group was most evident in layers II and III, where callosal fibers project. The results suggest that temporal order judgment involves processing bilateral somatosensory signals through the supragranular layers of the primary sensory cortex and in the multimodal sensory areas, including marginal zone between the primary somatosensory cortex and the secondary sensory cortex.

  5. The effect of centaurein on interferon-{gamma} expression and Listeria infection in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, S.-L.; Yeh, H.-H.; Lin, Y.-S.; Chiang, Y.-M.; Wu, T.-K. . E-mail: tkwmll@mail.nctu.edu.tw; Yang, W.-C. . E-mail: wcyang@gate.sinica.edu.tw

    2007-02-15

    We previously found that centaurein enhanced IFN-{gamma} transcription in T cells. Here, we demonstrate that centaurein increased the IFN-{gamma} expression in T and NK cells and the serum IFN-{gamma} level in mice. Centaurein elevated the transcription of T-bet but not GATA-3, which is consistent with its effect on that of IFN-{gamma} but not IL-4. Additionally, centaurein effectively protected mice against Listeria infection. Moreover, centaurein per se or in combination with antibiotics could treat Listeria infection. Our mechanistic studies suggest that centaurein augments IFN-{gamma} expression via a transcriptional up-regulation of T-bet and that centaurein protects against or treats Listeria infection via a modulation of IFN-{gamma} expression.

  6. The expression of intact and mutant human apoAI/CIII/AIV/AV gene cluster in transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jun; Wei, Yusheng; Huang, Yue; Liu, Depei; Liu, Guang; Wu, Min; Wu, Lin; Zhang, Qingjun; Zhang, Zhuqin; Zhang, Ran; Liang, Chihchuan

    2005-04-01

    The apoAI/CIII/AIV gene cluster is involved in lipid metabolism and has a complex pattern of gene expression modulated by a common regulatory element, the apoCIII enhancer. A new member of this cluster, apolipoprotein (apo) AV, has recently been discovered as a novel modifier in triglyceride metabolism. To determine the expression of all four apo genes in combination and, most importantly, whether the transcription of apoAV is coregulated by the apoCIII enhancer in the cluster, we generated an intact transgenic line carrying the 116-kb human apoAI/CIII/AIV/AV gene cluster and a mutant transgenic line in which the apoCIII enhancer was deleted from the 116-kb structure. We demonstrated that the apoCIII enhancer regulated hepatic and intestinal apoAI, apoCIII, and apoAIV expression; however, it did not direct the newly identified apoAV in the cluster. Furthermore, human apo genes displayed integrated position-independent expression and a closer approximation of copy number-dependent expression in the intact transgenic mice. Because apoCIII and apoAV play opposite roles in triglyceride homeostasis, we analyzed the lipid profiles in our transgenic mice to assess the effects of human apoAI gene cluster expression on lipid metabolism. The triglyceride level was elevated in intact transgenic mice but decreased in mutant ones compared with nontransgenic mice. In addition, the expression of human apoAI and apoAIV elevated high density lipoprotein cholesterol in transgenic mice fed an atherogenic diet. In conclusion, our studies with human apoAI/CIII/AIV/AV gene cluster transgenic models showed that the apoCIII enhancer regulated expression of apoAI, apo-CIII, and apoAIV but not apoAV in vivo and showed the influences of expression of the entire cluster on lipid metabolism.

  7. Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections Enhance Cigarette Smoke Induced COPD in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Foronjy, Robert F.; Dabo, Abdoulaye J.; Taggart, Clifford C.; Weldon, Sinead; Geraghty, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial viral (RSV) infections are a frequent cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations, which are a major factor in disease progression and mortality. RSV is able to evade antiviral defenses to persist in the lungs of COPD patients. Though RSV infection has been identified in COPD, its contribution to cigarette smoke-induced airway inflammation and lung tissue destruction has not been established. Here we examine the long-term effects of cigarette smoke exposure, in combination with monthly RSV infections, on pulmonary inflammation, protease production and remodeling in mice. RSV exposures enhanced the influx of macrophages, neutrophils and lymphocytes to the airways of cigarette smoke exposed C57BL/6J mice. This infiltration of cells was most pronounced around the vasculature and bronchial airways. By itself, RSV caused significant airspace enlargement and fibrosis in mice and these effects were accentuated with concomitant smoke exposure. Combined stimulation with both smoke and RSV synergistically induced cytokine (IL-1α, IL-17, IFN-γ, KC, IL-13, CXCL9, RANTES, MIF and GM-CSF) and protease (MMP-2, -8, -12, -13, -16 and cathepsins E, S, W and Z) expression. In addition, RSV exposure caused marked apoptosis within the airways of infected mice, which was augmented by cigarette smoke exposure. RSV and smoke exposure also reduced protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) and protein tyrosine phosphates (PTP1B) expression and activity. This is significant as these phosphatases counter smoke-induced inflammation and protease expression. Together, these findings show for the first time that recurrent RSV infection markedly enhances inflammation, apoptosis and tissue destruction in smoke-exposed mice. Indeed, these results indicate that preventing RSV transmission and infection has the potential to significantly impact on COPD severity and progression. PMID:24587397

  8. Running reduces stress and enhances cell genesis in aged mice.

    PubMed

    Kannangara, Timal S; Lucero, Melanie J; Gil-Mohapel, Joana; Drapala, Robert J; Simpson, Jessica M; Christie, Brian R; van Praag, Henriette

    2011-12-01

    Cell proliferation and neurogenesis are diminished in the aging mouse dentate gyrus. However, it is not known whether isolated or social living affects cell genesis and stress levels in old animals. To address this question, aged (17-18 months old) female C57Bl/6 mice were single or group housed, under sedentary or running conditions. We demonstrate that both individual and socially housed aged C57Bl/6 mice have comparable basal cell proliferation levels and demonstrate increased running-induced cell genesis. To assess stress levels in young and aged mice, corticosterone (CORT) was measured at the onset of the active/dark cycle and 4h later. In young mice, no differences in CORT levels were observed as a result of physical activity or housing conditions. However, a significant increase in stress in socially housed, aged sedentary animals was observed at the onset of the dark cycle; CORT returned to basal levels 4h later. Together, these results indicate that voluntary exercise reduces stress in group housed aged animals and enhances hippocampal cell proliferation.

  9. Enhanced insulin clearance in mice lacking TRPM8 channels

    PubMed Central

    McCoy, Daniel D.; Zhou, Ligang; Nguyen, Anh-Khoi; Watts, Alan G.; Donovan, Casey M.

    2013-01-01

    Blood glucose concentration is tightly regulated by the rate of insulin secretion and clearance, a process partially controlled by sensory neurons serving as metabolic sensors in relevant tissues. The activity of these neurons is regulated by the products of metabolism which regulate transmitter release, and recent evidence suggests that neuronally expressed ion channels of the transient receptor potential (TRP) family function in this critical process. Here, we report the novel finding that the cold and menthol-gated channel TRPM8 is necessary for proper insulin homeostasis. Mice lacking TRPM8 respond normally to a glucose challenge while exhibiting prolonged hypoglycemia in response to insulin. Additionally, Trpm8-/- mice have increased rates of insulin clearance compared with wild-type animals and increased expression of insulin-degrading enzyme in the liver. TRPM8 channels are not expressed in the liver, but TRPM8-expressing sensory afferents innervate the hepatic portal vein, suggesting a TRPM8-mediated neuronal control of liver insulin clearance. These results demonstrate that TRPM8 is a novel regulator of serum insulin and support the role of sensory innervation in metabolic homeostasis. PMID:23651844

  10. Exocrine pancreatic disorders in transsgenic mice expressing human keratin 8

    PubMed Central

    Casanova, M. Llanos; Bravo, Ana; Ramírez, Angel; Escobar, Gabriela Morreale de; Were, Felipe; Merlino, Glenn; Vidal, Miguel; Jorcano, José L.

    1999-01-01

    Keratins K8 and K18 are the major components of the intermediate-filament cytoskeleton of simple epithelia. Increased levels of these keratins have been correlated with various tumor cell characteristics, including progression to malignancy, invasive behavior, and drug sensitivity, although a role for K8/K18 in tumorigenesis has not yet been demonstrated. To examine the function of these keratins, we generated mice expressing the human K8 (hk8) gene, which leads to a moderate keratin-content increase in their simple epithelia. These mice displayed progressive exocrine pancreas alterations, including dysplasia and loss of acinar architecture, redifferentiation of acinar to ductal cells, inflammation, fibrosis, and substitution of exocrine by adipose tissue, as well as increased cell proliferation and apoptosis. Histological changes were not observed in other simple epithelia, such as the liver. Electron microscopy showed that transgenic acinar cells have keratins organized in abundant filament bundles dispersed throughout the cytoplasm, in contrast to control acinar cells, which have scarce and apically concentrated filaments. The phenotype found was very similar to that reported for transgenic mice expressing a dominant-negative mutant TGF-β type II receptor (TGFβRII mice). We show that these TGFβRII mutant mice also have elevated K8/K18 levels. These results indicate that simple epithelial keratins play a relevant role in the regulation of exocrine pancreas homeostasis and support the idea that disruption of mechanisms that normally regulate keratin expression in vivo could be related to inflammatory and neoplastic pancreatic disorders. PMID:10359568

  11. Changes in photoperiod alter Glut4 expression in skeletal muscle of C57BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Tashiro, Ayako; Shibata, Satomi; Takai, Yusuke; Uchiwa, Tatsuhiro; Furuse, Mitsuhiro; Yasuo, Shinobu

    2017-03-25

    Seasonal changes in photoperiod influence body weight and metabolism in mice. Here, we examined the effect of changes in photoperiod on the expression of glucose transporter genes in the skeletal muscle and adipose tissue of C57BL/6J mice. Glut4 expression was lower in the gastrocnemius muscle of mice exposed to a short-duration day (SD) than those to a long-duration day (LD), with accompanying changes in GLUT4 protein levels. Although Glut4 expression in the mouse soleus muscle was higher under SD than under LD, GLUT4 protein levels remained unchanged. To confirm the functional significance of photoperiod-induced changes in Glut4 expression, we checked for variations in insulin sensitivity. Blood glucose levels after insulin injection remained high under SD, suggesting that the mice exposed to SD showed lower sensitivity to insulin than those exposed to LD. We also attempted to clarify the relationship between Glut4 expression and physical activity in the mice following changes in photoperiod. Locomotor activity, as detected via infrared beam sensor, was lower under SD than under LD. However, when we facilitated voluntary activity by using running wheels, the rotation of wheels was similar for both groups of mice. Although physical activity levels were enhanced due to running wheels, Glut4 expression in the gastrocnemius muscle remained unchanged. Thus, variations in photoperiod altered Glut4 expression in the mouse skeletal muscle, with subsequent changes in GLUT4 protein levels and insulin sensitivity; these effects might be independent of physical activity.

  12. TLR9 expression is required for the development of cigarette smoke-induced emphysema in mice.

    PubMed

    Foronjy, Robert F; Salathe, Matthias A; Dabo, Abdoulaye J; Baumlin, Nathalie; Cummins, Neville; Eden, Edward; Geraghty, Patrick

    2016-07-01

    The expression of Toll-like receptor (TLR)-9, a pathogen recognition receptor that recognizes unmethylated CpG sequences in microbial DNA molecules, is linked to the pathogenesis of several lung diseases. TLR9 expression and signaling was investigated in animal and cell models of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We observed enhanced TLR9 expression in mouse lungs following exposure to cigarette smoke. Tlr9(-/-) mice were resistant to cigarette smoke-induced loss of lung function as determined by mean linear intercept, total lung capacity, lung compliance, and tissue elastance analysis. Tlr9 expression also regulated smoke-mediated immune cell recruitment to the lung; apoptosis; expression of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), the CXCL5 protein, and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2); and protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) activity in the lung. PTP1B, a phosphatase with anti-inflammatory abilities, was identified as binding to TLR9. In vivo delivery of a TLR9 agonist enhanced TLR9 binding to PTP1B, which inactivated PTP1B. Ptp1b(-/-) mice had elevated lung concentrations of G-CSF, CXCL5, and MMP-2, and tissue expression of type-1 interferon following TLR9 agonist administration, compared with wild-type mice. TLR9 responses were further determined in fully differentiated normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells isolated from nonsmoker, smoker, and COPD donors, and then cultured at air liquid interface. NHBE cells from smokers and patients with COPD expressed more TLR9 and secreted greater levels of G-CSF, IL-6, CXCL5, IL-1β, and MMP-2 upon TLR9 ligand stimulation compared with cells from nonsmoker donors. Although TLR9 combats infection, our results indicate that TLR9 induction can affect lung function by inactivating PTP1B and upregulating expression of proinflammatory cytokines. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  13. Methane limit LPS-induced NF-κB/MAPKs signal in macrophages and suppress immune response in mice by enhancing PI3K/AKT/GSK-3β-mediated IL-10 expression

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xu; Li, Na; Shao, Han; Meng, Yan; Wang, Liping; Wu, Qian; Yao, Ying; Li, Jinbao; Bian, Jinjun; Zhang, Yan; Deng, Xiaoming

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory diseases such as sepsis and autoimmune colitis, characterized by an overwhelming activation of the immune system and the counteracting anti-inflammatory response, remain a major health problem in worldwide. Emerging evidence suggests that methane have a protective effect on many animal models, like ischaemia reperfusion injury and diabetes-associated diseases. Whether methane could modulating inflammatory diseases remains largely unknown. Here we show that methane-rich saline (MS) ip treatment (16 ml/kg) alleviated endotoxin shock, bacteria-induced sepsis and dextran-sulfate-sodium-induced colitis in mice via decreased production of TNF-α and IL-6. In MS-treated macrophages, LPS-induced activation of NF-κb/MAPKs was attenuated. Interestingly, MS treatment significantly elevated the levels of IL-10 both in vitro and in vivo. Neutralization of IL-10 abrogated the therapeutic effect of MS. Moreover, anti-IL10 blockade partially restored the MS-mediated attenuation of NF-κb/MAPKs phosphorylation. We further found that MS resulted in markedly enhanced phosphorylation of GSK-3β and AKT, which both mediate the release of Il-10. Additionally, inhibition of PI3K attenuated MS-mediated p-GSK-3β and IL-10 production and reversed the suppressed activation of NF-κb/ MAPKs in response to LPS. Our results reveal a novel effect and mechanisms of methane and support the potential value of MS as a therapeutic approach in innate inflammatory diseases. PMID:27405597

  14. Constitutive adipocyte mTORC1 activation enhances mitochondrial activity and reduces visceral adiposity in mice.

    PubMed

    Magdalon, Juliana; Chimin, Patricia; Belchior, Thiago; Neves, Rodrigo X; Vieira-Lara, Marcel A; Andrade, Maynara L; Farias, Talita S; Bolsoni-Lopes, Andressa; Paschoal, Vivian A; Yamashita, Alex S; Kowaltowski, Alicia J; Festuccia, William T

    2016-05-01

    Mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) loss of function reduces adiposity whereas partial mTORC1 inhibition enhances fat deposition. Herein we evaluated how constitutive mTORC1 activation in adipocytes modulates adiposity in vivo. Mice with constitutive mTORC1 activation in adipocytes induced by tuberous sclerosis complex (Tsc)1 deletion and littermate controls were evaluated for body mass, energy expenditure, glucose and fatty acid metabolism, mitochondrial function, mRNA and protein contents. Adipocyte-specific Tsc1 deletion reduced visceral, but not subcutaneous, fat mass, as well as adipocyte number and diameter, phenotypes that were associated with increased lipolysis, UCP-1 content (browning) and mRNA levels of pro-browning transcriptional factors C/EBPβ and ERRα. Adipocyte Tsc1 deletion enhanced mitochondrial oxidative activity, fatty acid oxidation and the expression of PGC-1α and PPARα in both visceral and subcutaneous fat. In brown adipocytes, however, Tsc1 deletion did not affect UCP-1 content and basal respiration. Adipocyte Tsc1 deletion also reduced visceral adiposity and enhanced glucose tolerance, liver and muscle insulin signaling and adiponectin secretion in mice fed with purified low- or high-fat diet. In conclusion, adipocyte-specific Tsc1 deletion enhances mitochondrial activity, induces browning and reduces visceral adiposity in mice.

  15. DNA content, chromatin supraorganization, nuclear glycoproteins and RNA amounts in hepatocytes of mice expressing insulin-dependent diabetes.

    PubMed

    Mello, Maria Luiza S; Aldrovani, Marcela; Moraes, Alberto Silva; Guaraldo, Ana Maria Aparecida; Vidal, Benedicto de Campos

    2009-01-01

    Chromatin supraorganization and extensibility and nuclear glycoprotein content have been reported to change in hepatocytes from mice during development and aging, as well as under starvation and refeeding conditions. In non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice, the expression of insulin-dependent diabetes may be accompanied by metabolic changes in the liver. These changes are likely to be similar to those involved in the aging processes of non-diabetic animals. Therefore, we hypothesized that the chromatin organization, as well as the physical properties and compositions of hepatocyte nuclei would also be affected in NOD mice in the same way as those in aged non-diabetic mice. Nuclear image parameters were evaluated by image analysis of Feulgen-stained preparations. Chromatin extensibility in response to gravity was observed with polarized light after lysis and toluidine blue staining. The Con-A response of nuclear glycoproteins was evaluated with scanning microspectrophotometry. These characteristics were assessed using hepatocyte imprints from female NOD mice after a 28-day period of diabetes expression. Observations and measurements were made in comparison to healthy BALB/c mice. Total RNA amounts were determined for livers of NOD and BALB/c mice. Enhanced polyploidy levels, a decrease in chromatin higher-order packing states, an increased frequency of extended chromatin fiber formation, and deeper Con-A-responsive chromatin areas were observed in the hepatocytes of the NOD mice expressing insulin-dependent diabetes. Reduced amounts of total RNA were also found in the livers of these mice. Our findings for NOD mice expressing insulin-dependent diabetes are consistent with previously reported data for old-aged mice of the inbred strain A/Uni and may reflect changes in transcriptional activities associated with the stressful physiological demands on the liver during the expression of diabetes.

  16. Pulmonary hypertension in smoking mice over-expressing protease-activated receptor-2.

    PubMed

    De Cunto, G; Cardini, S; Cirino, G; Geppetti, P; Lungarella, G; Lucattelli, M

    2011-04-01

    The mechanism(s) involved in the development of pulmonary hypertension (PH) in COPD is still the object of investigation. Cigarette smoke (CS) may lead to remodelling of intrapulmonary vessels and dynamic changes in vascular function, at least in some smokers. A role for proteases in PH has been recently put forward. We investigated, in smoking mice, the role of protease-activated receptor (PAR)-2 in the pathogenesis of PH associated with emphysema. We demonstrated that CS exposure can modulate PAR-2 expression in mouse lung. Acute CS exposure induces in wildtype (WT) and in transgenic mice over-expressing PAR-2 (FVB(PAR-2-TgN)) a similar degree of neutrophil influx in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids. After chronic CS exposure WT and FVB(PAR-2-TgN) mice show emphysema, but only transgenic mice develop muscularisation of small intrapulmonary vessels that precedes the development of PH (~45% increase) and right ventricular hypertrophy. Smoking in FVB(PAR-2-TgN) mice results in an imbalance between vasoconstrictors (especially endothelin-1) and vasodilators (i.e. vascular endothelial growth factor, endothelial nitric oxide synthase and inducible nitric oxide synthase) and enhanced production of growth factors involved both in fibroblast-smooth muscle cell transaction (i.e. platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and transforming growth factor β) and vascular cell proliferation (PDGF). PAR-2 signalling can influence the production and release of many factors, which may play a role in the development of PH in smokers.

  17. Hypomorphic sialidase expression decreases serum cholesterol by downregulation of VLDL production in mice.

    PubMed

    Yang, Abraham; Gyulay, Gabriel; Mitchell, Mark; White, Elizabeth; Trigatti, Bernardo L; Igdoura, Suleiman A

    2012-12-01

    Lipoprotein metabolism is an important contributing factor in the development and progression of atherosclerosis. Plasma lipoproteins and their receptors are heavily glycosylated and sialylated, and levels of sialic acids modulate their biological functions. Sialylation is controlled by the activities of sialyltranferases and sialidases. To address the impact of sialidase (neu1) activity on lipoprotein metabolism, we have generated a mouse model with a hypomorphic neu1 allele (B6.SM) that displays reduced sialidase expression and sialidase activity. The objectives of this study are to determine the impact of sialidase on the rate of hepatic lipoprotein secretion and lipoprotein uptake. Our results indicate that hepatic levels of cholesterol and triglycerides are significantly higher in B6.SM mice compared with C57Bl/6 mice; however, VLDL-triglyceride production rate is lower. In addition, B6.SM mice show significantly lower levels of hepatic microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) and active sterol-regulatory element binding protein (SREBP)-2 but higher levels of diglyceride acyltransferase (DGAT)2; these are all indicative of increased hepatic lipid storage. Rescue of sialidase activity in hypomorphic sialidase mice using helper-dependent adenovirus resulted in increased VLDL production and an increase in MTP levels. Furthermore, hypomorphic sialidase expression results in stabilization of hepatic LDL receptor (LDLR) protein expression, which enhances LDL uptake. These findings provide novel evidence for a central role of sialidase in the cross talk between the uptake and production of lipoproteins.

  18. Co-expression of the Bcl-xL antiapoptotic protein enhances the induction of Th1-like immune responses in mice immunized with DNA vaccines encoding FMDV B and T cell epitopes.

    PubMed

    Gülçe İz, Sultan; Döşkaya, Mert; Borrego, Belen; Rodriguez, Fernando; Gürüz, Yüksel; Gürhan, Ismet Deliloğlu

    2013-09-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is one of the most devastating animal diseases, affecting all cloven-hoofed domestic and wild animal species. Previous studies from our group using DNA vaccines encoding FMD virus (FMDV) B and T cell epitopes targeted to antigen presenting cells, allowed demonstrating total protection from FMDV homologous challenge in those animals efficiently primed for both humoral and cellular specific responses (Borrego et al. Antivir Res 92:359-363, 2011). In this study, a new DNA vaccine prototype expected to induce stronger and cross-reactive immune responses against FMDV which was designed by making two main modifications: i) adding a new B-cell epitope from the O-serotype to the B and T-cell epitopes from the C-serotype and ii) using a dual promoter plasmid that allowed inserting a new cistron encoding the anti-apoptotic Bcl-xL gene under the control of the internal ribosomal entry site (IRES) of encephalomyocarditis virus aiming to increase and optimize the antigen presentation of the encoded FMDV epitopes after in vivo immunization. In vitro studies showed that Bcl-xL significantly prolonged the survival of DNA transfected cells (p < 0.001). Accordingly, vaccination of Swiss out-bred mice with the dual promoter plasmid increased the total IgG responses induced against each of the FMDV epitopes however no significant differences observed between groups. The humoral immune response was polarized through IgG2a in all vaccination groups (p < 0.05); except peptide T3A; in correspondence with the Th1-like response observed, a clear bias towards the induction of specific IFN-γ secreting CD4⁺ and CD8⁺ T cell responses was also observed, being significantly higher (p < 0.05) in the group of mice immunized with the plasmid co-expressing Bcl-xL and the FMDV B and T cell epitopes.

  19. Relative transgene expression frequencies in homozygous versus hemizygous transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Chang, Su-Ping; Opsahl, Margaret L; Whitelaw, C Bruce A; Morley, Steven D; West, John D

    2013-12-01

    We have used a simple binomial model of stochastic transgene inactivation at the level of the chromosome or transgene, rather than the cellular level, for the analysis of two mouse transgenic lines that show variegated patterns of expression. This predicts the percentages of cells that express one, both or neither alleles of the transgene in homozygotes from the observed percentages of cells, which express the transgene in hemizygotes. It adequately explained the relationship between the numbers of cells expressing the transgene in hemizygous and homozygous mosaic 21OH/LacZ mouse adrenals and mosaic BLG/7 mouse mammary glands. The binomial model also predicted that a small proportion of cells in mosaic mammary glands of BLG/7 homozygotes would express both BLG/7 alleles but published data indicated that all cells expressing the transgene showed monoallelic expression. Although it didn't fit all of the BLG/7 data as precisely as a more complex model, which used several ad hoc assumptions to explain these results, the simple binomial model was able to explain the relationship in observed transgene expression frequencies between hemizygous and homozygous mosaic tissues for both 21OH/LacZ and BLG/7 mice. It may prove to be a useful general model for analysing other transgenic animals showing mosaic transgene expression.

  20. Inhalation of diesel exhaust enhances allergen-related eosinophil recruitment and airway hyperresponsiveness in mice.

    PubMed

    Takano, H; Ichinose, T; Miyabara, Y; Shibuya, T; Lim, H B; Yoshikawa, T; Sagai, M

    1998-06-01

    We have previously shown that intratracheal instillation of suspension of diesel exhaust particles enhances allergen-related eosinophilic airway inflammation, airway hyperresponsiveness, and local expression of interleukin (IL)-5 and granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) in mice. The present study was designed to elucidate the effects of daily inhalation of diesel exhaust (DE) on the allergen-related respiratory disease. ICR mice were exposed for 40 weeks to clean air or DE at a soot concentration of 0.3, 1.0, or 3.0 mg/m3 with aerosol allergen challenges (1% ovalbumin in isotonic saline for 6 min) at 3-week intervals during the last 24 weeks of exposures. Exposure to DE enhanced allergen-related eosinophil recruitment to the submucosal layers of the airways and to the bronchoalveolar space, and increased protein levels of GM-CSF and IL-5 in the lung in a dose-dependent manner compared to exposure to clean air. There were strong correlations between the number of eosinophils in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and IL-5 concentrations in BAL supernatants and lung tissue supernatants. In addition, the increases in eosinophil recruitment and local cytokine expression were accompanied by goblet cell proliferation in the bronchial epithelium and airway hyperresponsiveness to inhaled acetylcholine. In contrast, the control mice exposed for 40 weeks to clean air or DE at a soot concentration of 0.3, 1.0, or 3.0 mg/m3 without allergen provocation showed no eosinophil recruitment to the submucosal layers of the airways nor to the bronchoalveolar space and few goblet cells in the bronchial epithelium. The present study provides experimental evidence that daily inhalation of DE can enhance allergen-related respiratory diseases such as allergic asthma. This effect may be mediated by the enhanced local expression of IL-5 and GM-CSF. Increased ambient levels of DE may be implicated in the increasing prevalence of bronchial asthma in recent years.

  1. Regulated expression of the human gastrin gene in mice.

    PubMed

    Mensah-Osman, Edith; Labut, Ed; Zavros, Yana; El-Zaatari, Mohamad; Law, David J; Merchant, Juanita L

    2008-11-29

    Gastrin is secreted from neuroendocrine cells residing in the adult antrum called G cells, but constitutively low levels are also expressed in the duodenum and fetal pancreas. Gastrin normally regulates gastric acid secretion by stimulating the proliferation of enterochromaffin-like cells and the release of histamine. Gastrin and progastrin forms are expressed in a number of pathological conditions and malignancies. However, the DNA regulatory elements in the human versus the mouse gastrin promoters differ suggesting differences in their transcriptional control. Thus, we describe here the expression of the human gastrin gene using a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) in the antral and duodenal cells of gastrin null mice. All 5 founder lines expressed the 253 kb human gastrin BAC. hGasBAC transgenic mice were bred onto a gastrin null background so that the levels of human gastrin peptide could be analyzed by immunohistochemistry and radioimmunoassay without detecting endogenous mouse gastrin. We have shown previously that chronically elevated gastrin levels suppress somatostatin. Indeed, infusion of amidated rat gastrin depressed somatostatin levels, stimulated gastric acid secretion and an increase in the numbers of G cells in the antrum and duodenum. In conclusion, human gastrin was expressed in mouse enteroendocrine cells and was regulated by somatostatin. This mouse model provides a unique opportunity to study regulation of the human gastrin promoter in vivo by somatostatin and possibly other extracellular regulators contributing to our understanding of the mechanisms involved in transcriptional control of the human gene.

  2. Thyroid hormones regulate selenoprotein expression and selenium status in mice.

    PubMed

    Mittag, Jens; Behrends, Thomas; Hoefig, Carolin S; Vennström, Björn; Schomburg, Lutz

    2010-09-22

    Impaired expression of selenium-containing proteins leads to perturbed thyroid hormone (TH) levels, indicating the central importance of selenium for TH homeostasis. Moreover, critically ill patients with declining serum selenium develop a syndrome of low circulating TH and a central downregulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis. This prompted us to test the reciprocal effect, i.e., if TH status would also regulate selenoprotein expression and selenium levels. To investigate the TH dependency of selenium metabolism, we analyzed mice expressing a mutant TH receptor α1 (TRα1+m) that confers a receptor-mediated hypothyroidism. Serum selenium was reduced in these animals, which was a direct consequence of the mutant TRα1 and not related to their metabolic alterations. Accordingly, hyperthyroidism, genetically caused by the inactivation of TRβ or by oral TH treatment of adult mice, increased serum selenium levels in TRα1+m and controls, thus demonstrating a novel and specific role for TRα1 in selenium metabolism. Furthermore, TH affected the mRNA levels for several enzymes involved in selenoprotein biosynthesis as well as serum selenoprotein P concentrations and the expression of other antioxidative selenoproteins. Taken together, our results show that TH positively affects the serum selenium status and regulates the expression of several selenoproteins. This demonstrates that selenium and TH metabolism are interconnected through a feed-forward regulation, which can in part explain the rapid parallel downregulation of both systems in critical illness.

  3. Age-related vascular gene expression profiling in mice.

    PubMed

    Rammos, Christos; Hendgen-Cotta, Ulrike B; Deenen, Rene; Pohl, Julia; Stock, Pia; Hinzmann, Christian; Kelm, Malte; Rassaf, Tienush

    2014-01-01

    Increasing age involves a number of detrimental changes in the cardiovascular system and particularly on the large arteries. It deteriorates vascular integrity and leads to increased vascular stiffness entailing hypertension with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The consequences of continuous oxidative stress and damages to biomolecules include altered gene expression, genomic instability, mutations, loss of cell division and cellular responses to increased stress. Many studies have been performed in aged C57BL/6 mice; however, analyses of the age-related changes that occur at a gene expression level and transcriptional profile in vascular tissue have not been elucidated in depth. To determine the changes of the vascular transcriptome, we conducted gene expression microarray experiments on aortas of adult and old mice, in which age-related vascular dysfunction was confirmed by increased stiffness and associated systolic hypertension. Our results highlight differentially expressed genes overrepresented in Gene Ontology categories. Molecular interaction and reaction pathways involved in vascular functions and disease, within the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) pathway, the renin-angiotensin system and the detoxification systems are displayed. Our results provide insight to an altered gene expression profile related to age, thus offering useful clues to counteract or prevent vascular aging and its detrimental consequences. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Enhanced neurogenesis in Alzheimer's disease transgenic (PDGF-APPSw,Ind) mice.

    PubMed

    Jin, Kunlin; Galvan, Veronica; Xie, Lin; Mao, Xiao Ou; Gorostiza, Olivia F; Bredesen, Dale E; Greenberg, David A

    2004-09-07

    Neurogenesis continues in the adult brain and is increased in certain pathological states. We reported recently that neurogenesis is enhanced in hippocampus of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). We now report that the effect of AD on neurogenesis can be reproduced in a transgenic mouse model. PDGF-APP(Sw,Ind) mice, which express the Swedish and Indiana amyloid precursor protein mutations, show increased incorporation of BrdUrd and expression of immature neuronal markers in two neuroproliferative regions: the dentate gyrus and subventricular zone. These changes, consisting of approximately 2-fold increases in the number of BrdUrd-labeled cells, were observed at age 3 months, when neuronal loss and amyloid deposition are not detected. Because enhanced neurogenesis occurs in both AD and an animal model of AD, it seems to be caused by the disease itself and not by confounding clinical factors. As neurogenesis is increased in PDGF-APP(Sw,Ind) mice in the absence of neuronal loss, it must be triggered by more subtle disease manifestations, such as impaired neurotransmission. Enhanced neurogenesis in AD and animal models of AD suggests that neurogenesis may be a compensatory response and that measures to enhance neurogenesis further could have therapeutic potential.

  5. Apoptosis inhibitor of macrophage protein enhances intraluminal debris clearance and ameliorates acute kidney injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Arai, Satoko; Kitada, Kento; Yamazaki, Tomoko; Takai, Ryosuke; Zhang, Xizhong; Tsugawa, Yoji; Sugisawa, Ryoichi; Matsumoto, Ayaka; Mori, Mayumi; Yoshihara, Yasunori; Doi, Kent; Maehara, Natsumi; Kusunoki, Shunsuke; Takahata, Akiko; Noiri, Eisei; Suzuki, Yusuke; Yahagi, Naoki; Nishiyama, Akira; Gunaratnam, Lakshman; Takano, Tomoko; Miyazaki, Toru

    2016-02-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is associated with prolonged hospitalization and high mortality, and it predisposes individuals to chronic kidney disease. To date, no effective AKI treatments have been established. Here we show that the apoptosis inhibitor of macrophage (AIM) protein on intraluminal debris interacts with kidney injury molecule (KIM)-1 and promotes recovery from AKI. During AKI, the concentration of AIM increases in the urine, and AIM accumulates on necrotic cell debris within the kidney proximal tubules. The AIM present in this cellular debris binds to KIM-1, which is expressed on injured tubular epithelial cells, and enhances the phagocytic removal of the debris by the epithelial cells, thus contributing to kidney tissue repair. When subjected to ischemia-reperfusion (IR)-induced AKI, AIM-deficient mice exhibited abrogated debris clearance and persistent renal inflammation, resulting in higher mortality than wild-type (WT) mice due to progressive renal dysfunction. Treatment of mice with IR-induced AKI using recombinant AIM resulted in the removal of the debris, thereby ameliorating renal pathology. We observed this effect in both AIM-deficient and WT mice, but not in KIM-1-deficient mice. Our findings provide a basis for the development of potentially novel therapies for AKI.

  6. Vaccine adjuvant ginsenoside Rg1 enhances immune responses against hepatitis B surface antigen in mice.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ding; Yuan, Qin; Cui, Qianqian; Liu, Chaoqi; Zhou, Zhiyong; Zhao, Haixia; Dun, Yaoyan; Wang, Ting; Zhang, Changcheng

    2016-06-01

    The adjuvant effect of ginsenoside Rg1 on immune responses against hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in mice was investigated. Female BALB/c mice were subcutaneously injected with saline or HBsAg antigen with or without Rg1 on days 7 and 21. Samples were collected 2 weeks after the boosting for the detection of anti-HBsAg immunoglobulin G (IgG) isotypes in sera and gamma interferon (IFN-γ) and interleukin-4 (IL-4) produced in splenocytes. The innate and adaptive immune responses were measured in mice immunized as described above. The results showed that ginsenoside Rg1 had adjuvant properties in stimulating IgG, splenocyte proliferation, and mRNA expression of cytokines IFN-γ and IL-4, as well as the expression of cell surface marker TLR4 in the HBsAg-immunized mice. These results indicate that Rg1 enhances both Th1 (IgG2b and IFN-γ) and Th2 (IgG1 and IL-4) responses. In addition, the TLR4 signaling pathway is involved in the adjuvant activities of ginsenoside Rg1.

  7. Cocaine supersensitivity and enhanced motivation for reward in mice lacking dopamine D2 autoreceptors

    PubMed Central

    Bello, Estefanía P; Mateo, Yolanda; Gelman, Diego M; Noaín, Daniela; Shin, Jung H; Low, Malcolm J; Alvarez, Verónica A; Lovinger, David M; Rubinstein, Marcelo

    2011-01-01

    Dopamine (DA) D2 receptors expressed in DA neurons (D2 autoreceptors) exert a negative feedback regulation that reduces DA neuron firing, DA synthesis and DA release. As D2 receptors are mostly expressed in postsynaptic neurons, pharmacological and genetic approaches have been unable to definitively address the in vivo contribution of D2 autoreceptors to DA-mediated behaviors. We found that midbrain DA neurons from mice deficient in D2 autoreceptors (Drd2loxP/loxP; Dat+/IRES-cre, referred to as autoDrd2KO mice) lacked DA-mediated somatodendritic synaptic responses and inhibition of DA release. AutoDrd2KO mice displayed elevated DA synthesis and release, hyperlocomotion and supersensitivity to the psychomotor effects of cocaine. The mice also exhibited increased place preference for cocaine and enhanced motivation for food reward. Our results highlight the importance of D2 autoreceptors in the regulation of DA neurotransmission and demonstrate that D2 autoreceptors are important for normal motor function, food-seeking behavior, and sensitivity to the locomotor and rewarding properties of cocaine. PMID:21743470

  8. BAC transgenic mice provide evidence that p53 expression is highly regulated in vivo.

    PubMed

    Chen, L; Zhang, G X; Zhou, Y; Zhang, C X; Xie, Y Y; Xiang, C; He, X Y; Zhang, Q; Liu, G

    2015-09-17

    p53 is an important tumor suppressor and stress response mediator. Proper control of p53 level and activity is tightly associated with its function. Posttranslational modifications and the interactions with Mdm2 and Mdm4 are major mechanisms controlling p53 activity and stability. As p53 protein is short-lived and hardly detectable in unstressed situations, less is known on its basal level expression and the corresponding controlling mechanisms in vivo. In addition, it also remains obscure how p53 expression might contribute to its functional regulation. In this study, we established bacterial artificial chromosome transgenic E.coli β-galactosidase Z gene reporter mice to monitor p53 expression in mouse tissues and identify important regulatory elements critical for the expression in vivo. We revealed preferentially high level of p53 reporter expressions in the proliferating, but not the differentiated compartments of the majority of tissues during development and tissue homeostasis. In addition, tumors as well as regenerating tissues in the p53 reporter mice also expressed high level of β-gal. Furthermore, both the enhancer box sequence (CANNTG) in the p53 promoter and the 3' terminal untranslated region element were critical in mediating the high-level expression of the reporter. We also provided evidence that cellular myelocytomatosis oncogene was a critical player regulating p53 mRNA expression in proliferating cells and tissues. Finally, we found robust p53 activation preferentially in the proliferating compartment of mouse tissues upon DNA damage and the proliferating cells exhibited an enhanced p53 response as compared with cells in a quiescent state. Together, these results suggested a highly regulated expression pattern of p53 in the proliferating compartment controlled by both transcriptional and posttranscriptional mechanisms, and such regulated p53 expression may impose functional significance upon stress by setting up a precautionary mode in defense

  9. Quinine enhances the behavioral stimulant effect of cocaine in mice.

    PubMed

    Huertas, Adriana; Wessinger, William D; Kucheryavykh, Yuri V; Sanabria, Priscila; Eaton, Misty J; Skatchkov, Serguei N; Rojas, Legier V; Maldonado-Martínez, Gerónimo; Inyushin, Mikhail Y

    2015-02-01

    The Na(+)-dependent dopamine transporter (DAT) is primarily responsible for regulating free dopamine (DA) concentrations in the brain by participating in the majority of DA uptake; however, other DA transporters may also participate, especially if cocaine or other drugs of abuse compromise DAT. Recently, such cocaine-insensitive low-affinity mono- and poly-amine OCT transporters were described in astrocytes which use DA as a substrate. These transporters are from a different transporter family and while insensitive to cocaine, they are specifically blocked by quinine and some steroids. Quinine is inexpensive and is often found in injected street drugs as an "adulterant". The present study was designed to determine the participation of OCTs in cocaine dependent behavioral and physiological changes in mice. Using FVB mice we showed, that daily single injections of quinine (10 mg/kg, i.p.) co-administered with cocaine (15 mg/kg, i.p.) for 10 days significantly enhanced cocaine-induced locomotor behavioral sensitization. Quinine had no significant effect on the time course of behavioral activation. In astrocytes from the ventral tegmental area of mice, transporter currents of quinine-sensitive monoamine transporters were also augmented after two weeks of cocaine administration. The importance of low-affinity high-capacity transporters for DA clearance is discussed, explaining the known ability of systemically administered DAT inhibitors to anomalously increase DA clearance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Enhanced insulin signaling in density-enhanced phosphatase-1 (DEP-1) knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Krüger, Janine; Brachs, Sebastian; Trappiel, Manuela; Kintscher, Ulrich; Meyborg, Heike; Wellnhofer, Ernst; Thöne-Reineke, Christa; Stawowy, Philipp; Östman, Arne; Birkenfeld, Andreas L.; Böhmer, Frank D.; Kappert, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Objective Insulin resistance can be triggered by enhanced dephosphorylation of the insulin receptor or downstream components in the insulin signaling cascade through protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs). Downregulating density-enhanced phosphatase-1 (DEP-1) resulted in an improved metabolic status in previous analyses. This phenotype was primarily caused by hepatic DEP-1 reduction. Methods Here we further elucidated the role of DEP-1 in glucose homeostasis by employing a conventional knockout model to explore the specific contribution of DEP-1 in metabolic tissues. Ptprj−/− (DEP-1 deficient) and wild-type C57BL/6 mice were fed a low-fat or high-fat diet. Metabolic phenotyping was combined with analyses of phosphorylation patterns of insulin signaling components. Additionally, experiments with skeletal muscle cells and muscle tissue were performed to assess the role of DEP-1 for glucose uptake. Results High-fat diet fed-Ptprj−/− mice displayed enhanced insulin sensitivity and improved glucose tolerance. Furthermore, leptin levels and blood pressure were reduced in Ptprj−/− mice. DEP-1 deficiency resulted in increased phosphorylation of components of the insulin signaling cascade in liver, skeletal muscle and adipose tissue after insulin challenge. The beneficial effect on glucose homeostasis in vivo was corroborated by increased glucose uptake in skeletal muscle cells in which DEP-1 was downregulated, and in skeletal muscle of Ptprj−/− mice. Conclusion Together, these data establish DEP-1 as novel negative regulator of insulin signaling. PMID:25830095

  11. Muscle Structure Influences Utrophin Expression in mdx Mice

    PubMed Central

    Banks, Glen B.; Combs, Ariana C.; Odom, Guy L.; Bloch, Robert J.; Chamberlain, Jeffrey S.

    2014-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a severe muscle wasting disorder caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene. To examine the influence of muscle structure on the pathogenesis of DMD we generated mdx4cv:desmin double knockout (dko) mice. The dko male mice died of apparent cardiorespiratory failure at a median age of 76 days compared to 609 days for the desmin−/− mice. An ∼2.5 fold increase in utrophin expression in the dko skeletal muscles prevented necrosis in ∼91% of 1a, 2a and 2d/x fiber-types. In contrast, utrophin expression was reduced in the extrasynaptic sarcolemma of the dko fast 2b fibers leading to increased membrane fragility and dystrophic pathology. Despite lacking extrasynaptic utrophin, the dko fast 2b fibers were less dystrophic than the mdx4cv fast 2b fibers suggesting utrophin-independent mechanisms were also contributing to the reduced dystrophic pathology. We found no overt change in the regenerative capacity of muscle stem cells when comparing the wild-type, desmin−/−, mdx4cv and dko gastrocnemius muscles injured with notexin. Utrophin could form costameric striations with α-sarcomeric actin in the dko to maintain the integrity of the membrane, but the lack of restoration of the NODS (nNOS, α-dystrobrevin 1 and 2, α1-syntrophin) complex and desmin coincided with profound changes to the sarcomere alignment in the diaphragm, deposition of collagen between the myofibers, and impaired diaphragm function. We conclude that the dko mice may provide new insights into the structural mechanisms that influence endogenous utrophin expression that are pertinent for developing a therapy for DMD. PMID:24922526

  12. A role for the endocannabinoid system in exercise-induced spatial memory enhancement in mice.

    PubMed

    Ferreira-Vieira, Talita H; Bastos, Cristiane P; Pereira, Grace S; Moreira, Fabricio A; Massensini, André R

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that physical exercise has positive effects on cognitive functions and hippocampal plasticity. However, the underlying mechanisms have remained to be further investigated. Here we investigated the hypothesis that the memory-enhancement promoted by physical exercise relies on facilitation of the endocannabinoid system. We observed that the spatial memory tested in the object location paradigm did not persist in sedentary mice, but could be improved by 1 week of treadmill running. In addition, exercise up-regulated CB1 receptor and BDNF expression in the hippocampus. To verify if these changes required CB1 activation, we treated the mice with the selective antagonist, AM251, before each period of physical activity. In line with our hypothesis, this drug prevented the exercise-induced memory enhancement and BDNF expression. Furthermore, AM251 reduced CB1 expression. To test if facilitating the endocannabinoid system signaling would mimic the alterations observed after exercise, we treated sedentary animals during 1 week with the anandamide-hydrolysis inhibitor, URB597. Mice treated with this drug recognized the object in a new location and have increased levels of CB1 and BDNF expression in the hippocampus, showing that potentiating the endocanabinoid system equally benefits memory. In conclusion, the favorable effects of exercise upon spatial memory and BDNF expression depend on facilitation of CB1 receptor signaling, which can be mimic by inhibition of anandamide hydrolysis in sedentary animals. Our results suggest that, at least in part, the promnesic effect of the exercise is dependent of CB1 receptor activation and is mediated by BDNF.

  13. Enhanced glucose tolerance in pancreatic-derived factor (PANDER) knockout C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Moak, Shari L; Dougan, Grace C; MarElia, Catherine B; Danse, Whitney A; Fernandez, Amanda M; Kuehl, Melanie N; Athanason, Mark G; Burkhardt, Brant R

    2014-11-01

    Pancreatic-derived factor (PANDER; also known as FAM3B) is a uniquely structured protein strongly expressed within and secreted from the endocrine pancreas. PANDER has been hypothesized to regulate fasting and fed glucose homeostasis, hepatic lipogenesis and insulin signaling, and to serve a potential role in the onset or progression of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Despite having potentially pivotal pleiotropic roles in glycemic regulation and T2D, there has been limited generation of stable animal models for the investigation of PANDER function, and there are no models on well-established genetic murine backgrounds for T2D. Our aim was to generate an enhanced murine model to further elucidate the biological function of PANDER. Therefore, a pure-bred PANDER knockout C57BL/6 (PANKO-C57) model was created and phenotypically characterized with respect to glycemic regulation and hepatic insulin signaling. The PANKO-C57 model exhibited an enhanced metabolic phenotype, particularly with regard to enhanced glucose tolerance. Male PANKO-C57 mice displayed decreased fasting plasma insulin and C-peptide levels, whereas leptin levels were increased as compared with matched C57BL/6J wild-type mice. Despite similar peripheral insulin sensitivity between both groups, hepatic insulin signaling was significantly increased during fasting conditions, as demonstrated by increased phosphorylation of hepatic PKB/Akt and AMPK, along with mature SREBP-1 expression. Insulin stimulation of PANKO-C57 mice resulted in increased hepatic triglyceride and glycogen content as compared with wild-type C57BL/6 mice. In summary, the PANKO-C57 mouse represents a suitable model for the investigation of PANDER in multiple metabolic states and provides an additional tool to elucidate the biological function and potential role in T2D. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  14. Enhanced glucose tolerance in pancreatic-derived factor (PANDER) knockout C57BL/6 mice

    PubMed Central

    Moak, Shari L.; Dougan, Grace C.; MarElia, Catherine B.; Danse, Whitney A.; Fernandez, Amanda M.; Kuehl, Melanie N.; Athanason, Mark G.; Burkhardt, Brant R.

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic-derived factor (PANDER; also known as FAM3B) is a uniquely structured protein strongly expressed within and secreted from the endocrine pancreas. PANDER has been hypothesized to regulate fasting and fed glucose homeostasis, hepatic lipogenesis and insulin signaling, and to serve a potential role in the onset or progression of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Despite having potentially pivotal pleiotropic roles in glycemic regulation and T2D, there has been limited generation of stable animal models for the investigation of PANDER function, and there are no models on well-established genetic murine backgrounds for T2D. Our aim was to generate an enhanced murine model to further elucidate the biological function of PANDER. Therefore, a pure-bred PANDER knockout C57BL/6 (PANKO-C57) model was created and phenotypically characterized with respect to glycemic regulation and hepatic insulin signaling. The PANKO-C57 model exhibited an enhanced metabolic phenotype, particularly with regard to enhanced glucose tolerance. Male PANKO-C57 mice displayed decreased fasting plasma insulin and C-peptide levels, whereas leptin levels were increased as compared with matched C57BL/6J wild-type mice. Despite similar peripheral insulin sensitivity between both groups, hepatic insulin signaling was significantly increased during fasting conditions, as demonstrated by increased phosphorylation of hepatic PKB/Akt and AMPK, along with mature SREBP-1 expression. Insulin stimulation of PANKO-C57 mice resulted in increased hepatic triglyceride and glycogen content as compared with wild-type C57BL/6 mice. In summary, the PANKO-C57 mouse represents a suitable model for the investigation of PANDER in multiple metabolic states and provides an additional tool to elucidate the biological function and potential role in T2D. PMID:25217499

  15. Deinococcus radiodurans pprI expression enhances the radioresistance of eukaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Ling; Yue, Ling; Shi, Yi; Ren, Lili; Chen, Tingting; Li, Na; Zhang, Shuyu; Yang, Wei; Yang, Zhanshan

    2016-01-01

    PprI accelerates radiation-induced DNA damage repair via regulating the expression of DNA repair genes and enhances antioxidative enzyme activity in Deinococcus radiodurans after radiation. The main aim of our study was to determine whether the expression of pprI gene could fulfil its DNA repair function in eukaryotes and enhance the radioresistance of eukaryotic organism or not. In this study, we constructed pEGFP-c1-pprI eukaryotic expression vector and established a human lung epithelial cell line BEAS-2B with stable integration of pprI gene. We found that pprIexpression enhanced radioresistance of BEAS-2B cells, decreased γ-H2AX foci formation and apoptosis in irradiated BEAS-2B cells and alleviated radiation induced G2/M arrest of BEAS-2B cells. Moreover, we transferred pEGFP-c1-pprI vector into muscle of BALB/c mice by in vivo electroporation and studied the protective effect of prokaryotic pprI gene in irradiated mice. We found that pprI expression alleviated acute radiation induced hematopoietic system, lung, small intestine and testis damage and increased survival rate of irradiated mice via regulating Rad51 expression in different organs. These findings suggest that prokaryotic pprI gene expression in mammalian cells could enhance radioresistance in vitro and in vivo. PMID:26992215

  16. Role of oxidative stress on diesel-enhanced influenza infection in mice

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that air pollutants, including diesel exhaust (DE), reduce host defenses, resulting in decreased resistance to respiratory infections. This study sought to determine if DE exposure could affect the severity of an ongoing influenza infection in mice, and examine if this could be modulated with antioxidants. BALB/c mice were treated by oropharyngeal aspiration with 50 plaque forming units of influenza A/HongKong/8/68 and immediately exposed to air or 0.5 mg/m3 DE (4 hrs/day, 14 days). Mice were necropsied on days 1, 4, 8 and 14 post-infection and lungs were assessed for virus titers, lung inflammation, immune cytokine expression and pulmonary responsiveness (PR) to inhaled methacholine. Exposure to DE during the course of infection caused an increase in viral titers at days 4 and 8 post-infection, which was associated with increased neutrophils and protein in the BAL, and an early increase in PR. Increased virus load was not caused by decreased interferon levels, since IFN-β levels were enhanced in these mice. Expression and production of IL-4 was significantly increased on day 1 and 4 p.i. while expression of the Th1 cytokines, IFN-γ and IL-12p40 was decreased. Treatment with the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine did not affect diesel-enhanced virus titers but blocked the DE-induced changes in cytokine profiles and lung inflammation. We conclude that exposure to DE during an influenza infection polarizes the local immune responses to an IL-4 dominated profile in association with increased viral disease, and some aspects of this effect can be reversed with antioxidants. PMID:21092162

  17. Kidney EPO expression during chronic hypoxia in aged mice.

    PubMed

    Benderro, Girriso F; LaManna, Joseph C

    2013-01-01

    In order to maintain normal cellular function, mammalian tissue oxygen concentrations must be tightly regulated within a narrow physiological range. The hormone erythropoietin (EPO) is essential for maintenance of tissue oxygen supply by stimulating red blood cell production and promoting their survival. In this study we compared the effects of 290 Torr atmospheric pressure on the kidney EPO protein levels in young (4-month-old) and aged (24-month-old) C57BL/6 mice. The mice were sacrificed after being anesthetized, and kidney samples were collected and processed by Western blot analysis. Relatively low basal expression of EPO during normoxia in young mice showed significant upregulation in hypoxia and stayed upregulated throughout the hypoxic period (threefold compared to normoxic control), showing a slight decline toward the third week. Whereas, a relatively higher normoxic basal EPO protein level in aged mice did not show significant increase until seventh day of hypoxia, but showed significant upregulation in prolonged hypoxia. Hence, we confirmed that there is a progressively increased accumulation of EPO during chronic hypoxia in young and aged mouse kidney, and the EPO upregulation during hypoxia showed a similarity with the pattern of increase in hematocrit, which we have reported previously.

  18. Cardiac hypertrophy is enhanced in PPAR alpha-/- mice in response to chronic pressure overload.

    PubMed

    Smeets, Pascal J H; Teunissen, Birgit E J; Willemsen, Peter H M; van Nieuwenhoven, Frans A; Brouns, Agnieszka E; Janssen, Ben J A; Cleutjens, Jack P M; Staels, Bart; van der Vusse, Ger J; van Bilsen, Marc

    2008-04-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPARalpha) is a nuclear receptor regulating cardiac metabolism that also has anti-inflammatory properties. Since the activation of inflammatory signalling pathways is considered to be important in cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis, it is anticipated that PPARalpha modulates cardiac remodelling. Accordingly, in this study the hypothesis was tested that the absence of PPARalpha aggravates the cardiac hypertrophic response to pressure overload. Male PPARalpha-/- and wild-type mice were subjected to transverse aortic constriction (TAC) for 28 days. TAC resulted in a more pronounced increase in ventricular weight and left ventricular (LV) wall thickness in PPARalpha-/- than in wild-type mice. Compared with sham-operated mice, TAC did not affect cardiac function in wild-type mice, but significantly depressed LV ejection fraction and LV contractility in PPARalpha-/- mice. Moreover, after TAC mRNA levels of hypertrophic (atrial natriuretic factor, alpha-skeletal actin), fibrotic (collagen 1, matrix metalloproteinase-2), and inflammatory (interleukin-6, tumour necrosis factor-alpha, cyclo-oxygenase-2) marker genes were higher in PPARalpha-/- than in wild-type mice. The mRNA levels of genes involved in fatty acid metabolism (long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase, hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase) were decreased in PPARalpha-/- mice, but were not further compromised by TAC. The present findings show that the absence of PPARalpha results in a more pronounced hypertrophic growth response and cardiac dysfunction that are associated with an enhanced expression of markers of inflammation and extracellular matrix remodelling. These findings indicate that PPARalpha exerts salutary effects during cardiac hypertrophy.

  19. Liver iron modulates hepcidin expression during chronically elevated erythropoiesis in mice.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Víctor; Gammella, Elena; Recalcati, Stefania; Santambrogio, Paolo; Naldi, Arianne Monge; Vogel, Johannes; Gassmann, Max; Cairo, Gaetano

    2013-12-01

    The liver-derived peptide hepcidin controls the balance between iron demand and iron supply. By inhibiting the iron export activity of ferroportin, hepcidin modulates iron absorption and delivery from the body's stores. The regulation of hepcidin, however, is not completely understood and includes a variety of different signals. We studied iron metabolism and hepcidin expression in mice constitutively overexpressing erythropoietin (Epo) (Tg6 mice), which leads to excessive erythropoiesis. We observed a very strong down-regulation of hepcidin in Tg6 mice that was accompanied by a strong increase in duodenal expression of ferroportin and divalent metal tranporter-1, as well as enhanced duodenal iron absorption. Despite these compensatory mechanisms, Tg6 mice displayed marked circulating iron deficiency and low levels of iron in liver, spleen, and muscle. To elucidate the primary signal affecting hepcidin expression during chronically elevated erythropoiesis, we increased iron availability by either providing iron (thus further increasing the hematocrit) or reducing erythropoiesis-dependent iron consumption by means of splenectomy. Both treatments increased liver iron and up-regulated hepcidin expression and the BMP6/SMAD pathway despite continuously high plasma Epo levels and sustained erythropoiesis. This suggests that hepcidin expression is not controlled by erythropoietic signals directly in this setting. Rather, these results indicate that iron consumption for erythropoiesis modulates liver iron content, and ultimately BMP6 and hepcidin. Analysis of the BMP6/SMAD pathway targets showed that inhibitor of DNA binding 1 (ID1) and SMAD7, but not transmembrane serine protease 6 (TMPRSS6), were up-regulated by increased iron availability and thus may be involved in setting the upper limit of hepcidin. We provide evidence that under conditions of excessive and effective erythropoiesis, liver iron regulates hepcidin expression through the BMP6/SMAD pathway. © 2013 by

  20. Guaifenesin enhances the analgesic potency of paracetamol in mice.

    PubMed

    Dolezal, T; Krsiak, M

    2002-12-01

    Guaifenesin is used as an expectorant and it has been reported to possess muscle relaxant and sedative activity. Guaifenesin has been used as a component of composite OTC analgesics containing paracetamol for many years. The aim of our study was to ascertain effects of guaifenesin on paracetamol analgesic activity and locomotor performance. Antinociceptive efficacy was tested in mice using an acetic acid (0.7%) writhing test. Locomotor performance was tested in rota-rod test and activity cage. All drugs were given orally and tested in mice. In combination with a subeffective dose of guaifenesin (200 mg/kg), the ED(50) for paracetamol in the writhing test was significantly lower (82.2 mg/kg) than that of paracetamol administered alone (233.7 mg/kg). Guaifenesin alone did not show an analgesic effect. Guaifenesin did not produce statistically significant locomotor impairment in the rota-rod test at doses enhancing analgesic activity of paracetamol, although there was a trend for decreased locomotor activity in activity cage. The present results indicate that guaifenesin may enhance analgesic activity of paracetamol.

  1. Enhanced erythropoiesis in mice exposed to low environmental temperature.

    PubMed

    Maekawa, Shun; Iemura, Hitomi; Kato, Takashi

    2013-03-01

    Hematopoietic responses to environmental factors are not fully characterized. Polycythemia has been reported during exposure to low temperatures in ectothermic animals. The relationship between the causes of polycythemia and erythropoiesis during low temperature exposure is not fully understood. In this study, we exposed C57BL/6 mice to 5°C and monitored the blood cell counts and erythropoiesis. The hematocrit level increased from 45.6 to 52.2% after 14 days. Likewise, the hemoglobin concentration, initially 15.1 g dl(-1), rose to 16.0 g dl(-1). The reticulocyte production index significantly increased from 4 to 8% after 7 days. We examined the anatomy and cell composition of the spleens of the mice. On day 5, the spleens were ∼6 mg g(-1) of body mass, which was twofold greater than the spleens on day 0. Flow cytometry showed fourfold more proerythroblasts on day 5, compared with day 0. Additionally, the number of late-stage mature erythroblasts increased on day 14. Erythropoietin mRNA levels increased in the kidneys, and hypoxia-inducible genes were enhanced in the kidney. Our findings indicated that low ambient temperature is a novel erythropoietic stress, which induces polycythemia by enhanced erythropoiesis.

  2. l-Ornithine affects peripheral clock gene expression in mice.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Takafumi; Haraguchi, Atsushi; Kuwahara, Mari; Nakamura, Kaai; Hamaguchi, Yutaro; Ikeda, Yuko; Ishida, Yuko; Wang, Guanying; Shirakawa, Chise; Tanihata, Yoko; Ohara, Kazuaki; Shibata, Shigenobu

    2016-10-05

    The peripheral circadian clock is entrained by factors in the external environment such as scheduled feeding, exercise, and mental and physical stresses. In addition, recent studies in mice demonstrated that some food components have the potential to control the peripheral circadian clock during scheduled feeding, although information about these components remains limited. l-Ornithine is a type of non-protein amino acid that is present in foods and has been reported to have various physiological functions. In human trials, for example, l-ornithine intake improved a subjective index of sleep quality. Here we demonstrate, using an in vivo monitoring system, that repeated oral administration of l-ornithine at an early inactive period in mice induced a phase advance in the rhythm of PER2 expression. By contrast, l-ornithine administration to mouse embryonic fibroblasts did not affect the expression of PER2, indicating that l-ornithine indirectly alters the phase of PER2. l-Ornithine also increased plasma levels of insulin, glucose and glucagon-like peptide-1 alongside mPer2 expression, suggesting that it exerts its effects probably via insulin secretion. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that l-ornithine affects peripheral clock gene expression and may expand the possibilities of L-ornithine as a health food.

  3. l-Ornithine affects peripheral clock gene expression in mice

    PubMed Central

    Fukuda, Takafumi; Haraguchi, Atsushi; Kuwahara, Mari; Nakamura, Kaai; Hamaguchi, Yutaro; Ikeda, Yuko; Ishida, Yuko; Wang, Guanying; Shirakawa, Chise; Tanihata, Yoko; Ohara, Kazuaki; Shibata, Shigenobu

    2016-01-01

    The peripheral circadian clock is entrained by factors in the external environment such as scheduled feeding, exercise, and mental and physical stresses. In addition, recent studies in mice demonstrated that some food components have the potential to control the peripheral circadian clock during scheduled feeding, although information about these components remains limited. l-Ornithine is a type of non-protein amino acid that is present in foods and has been reported to have various physiological functions. In human trials, for example, l-ornithine intake improved a subjective index of sleep quality. Here we demonstrate, using an in vivo monitoring system, that repeated oral administration of l-ornithine at an early inactive period in mice induced a phase advance in the rhythm of PER2 expression. By contrast, l-ornithine administration to mouse embryonic fibroblasts did not affect the expression of PER2, indicating that l-ornithine indirectly alters the phase of PER2. l-Ornithine also increased plasma levels of insulin, glucose and glucagon-like peptide-1 alongside mPer2 expression, suggesting that it exerts its effects probably via insulin secretion. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that l-ornithine affects peripheral clock gene expression and may expand the possibilities of L-ornithine as a health food. PMID:27703199

  4. Deficiency of CCAAT/Enhancer Binding Protein-Epsilon Reduces Atherosclerotic Lesions in LDLR−/− Mice

    PubMed Central

    Okamoto, Ryoko; Gery, Sigal; Gombart, Adrian F.; Wang, Xuping; Castellani, Lawrence W.; Akagi, Tadayuki; Chen, Shuang; Arditi, Moshe; Ho, Quoc; Lusis, Aldons J.; Li, Quanlin; Koeffler, H. Phillip

    2014-01-01

    The CCAAT/enhancer binding proteins (C/EBPs) are transcription factors involved in hematopoietic cell development and induction of several inflammatory mediators. C/EBPε is expressed only in myeloid cells including monocytes/macrophages. Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disorder of the vascular wall and circulating immune cells such as monocytes/macrophages. Mice deficient in the low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor (Ldlr−/−) fed on a high cholesterol diet (HCD) show elevated blood cholesterol levels and are widely used as models to study human atherosclerosis. In this study, we generated Ldlr and Cebpe double-knockout (llee) mice and compared their atherogenic phenotypes to Ldlr single deficient (llEE) mice after HCD. Macrophages from llee mice have reduced lipid uptake by foam cells and impaired phagokinetic motility in vitro compared to macrophages from llEE mice. Also, compared to llEE mice, llee mice have alterations of lipid metabolism, and reduced atheroma and obesity, particularly the males. Peritoneal macrophages of llee male mice have reduced mRNA expression of FABP4, a fatty acid binding protein implicated in atherosclerosis. Overall, our study suggests that the myeloid specific factor C/EBPε is involved in systemic lipid metabolism and that silencing of C/EBPε could decrease the development of atherosclerosis. PMID:24489659

  5. Generation and characterization of transgenic mice expressing cobra venom factor.

    PubMed

    Andrä, Jörg; Halter, Roman; Kock, Michael A; Niemann, Heiner; Vogel, Carl-Wilhelm; Paul, Dieter

    2002-10-01

    Cobra venom factor (CVF), the anticomplementary protein in cobra venom, activates the alternative complement pathway, eventually leading to complement consumption. Here, we describe the development of a transgenic mouse model for CVF. We generated a DNA construct containing the full-length cDNA for single-chain pre-pro-CVF. Expression of CVF was controlled by the alpha(1)-antitrypsin promoter to achieve liver-specific expression. Linearized DNA was microinjected into murine ovary cells (strain CD(2)F(1) (BALB/cxDBA/2J)) and the newborn mice were analyzed for stable integration of CVF DNA. After establishing the transgene, mice were propagated in a BALB/c background. The CVF mRNA was detected in the liver and, in some animals, in the kidney. CVF protein was detected in small amounts in the serum. Serum complement hemolytic activity in CVF-transgenic mice was virtually absent. The concentration of plasma C3 was significantly reduced. The CVF-transgenic animals show no unusual phenotype. They provide an animal model to study the effect of long-term complement depletion by continued activation, as well as the role of complement in host immune response and pathogenesis of disease.

  6. Cognitive-Enhancing Effect of Aronia melanocarpa Extract against Memory Impairment Induced by Scopolamine in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyeon Yong; Weon, Jin Bae; Jung, Youn Sik; Kim, Nam Young; Kim, Myong Ki; Ma, Choong Je

    2016-01-01

    Aronia melanocarpa (A. melanocarpa) berries are a fruit with a marked antioxidant effect. The objective of this study was to confirm the effect of A. melanocarpa berries extract against scopolamine-induced memory impairment in mice using the Morris water maze and passive avoidance test. Moreover, we determined a possible mechanism of the cognitive-enhancing effect involving AChE activity and BDNF and p-CREB expression in the hippocampus of mice. A. melanocarpa berries extract attenuated the learning and memory impairment induced by scopolamine in the Morris water maze (79.3 ± 0.8 s of 200 mg/kg and 64.4 ± 10.7 s of 400 mg/kg on day 4) and passive avoidance tests (46.0 ± 41.1 s of 200 mg/kg and 25.6 ± 18.7 s of 400 mg/kg). A. melanocarpa berries extract reduced the acetylcholinesterase level in the hippocampus of scopolamine-injected mice and increased BDNF and p-CREB expression in the hippocampus. The major compound, cyanidin-3-O-galactoside, also reversed memory impairment. These results showed that A. melanocarpa berries extract improved memory impairment by inhibiting AChE and increasing BDNF and p-CREB expression, and cyanidin-3-O-galactoside may be responsible for the effect of A. melanocarpa berries extract. PMID:27239211

  7. Frostbite Protection in Mice Expressing an Antifreeze Glycoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Heisig, Martin; Mattessich, Sarah; Rembisz, Alison; Acar, Ali; Shapiro, Martin; Booth, Carmen J.; Neelakanta, Girish; Fikrig, Erol

    2015-01-01

    Ectotherms in northern latitudes are seasonally exposed to cold temperatures. To improve survival under cold stress, they use diverse mechanisms to increase temperature resistance and prevent tissue damage. The accumulation of anti-freeze proteins that improve cold hardiness occurs in diverse species including plants, arthropods, fish, and amphibians. We previously identified an Ixodes scapularis anti-freeze glycoprotein, named IAFGP, and demonstrated its cold protective function in the natural tick host and in a transgenic Drosophila model. Here we show, in a transgenic mouse model expressing an anti-freeze glycoprotein, that IAFGP protects mammalian cells and mice from cold shock and frostbite respectively. Transgenic skin samples showed reduced cell death upon cold storage ex vivo and transgenic mice demonstrated increased resistance to frostbite injury in vivo. IAFGP actively protects mammalian tissue from freezing, suggesting its application for the prevention of frostbite, and other diseases associated with cold exposure. PMID:25714402

  8. Polycythemia in transgenic mice expressing the human erythropoietin gene

    SciTech Connect

    Semenza, G.L.; Traystman, M.D.; Gearhart, J.D.; Antonarakis, S.E. )

    1989-04-01

    Erythropoietin is a glycoprotein hormone that regulates mammalian erythropoiesis. To study the expression of the human erythropoietin gene, EPO, 4 kilobases of DNA encompassing the gene with 0.4 kilobase of 5{prime} flanking sequence and 0.7 kilobase of 3{prime} flanking sequence was microinjected into fertilized mouse eggs. Transgenic mice were generated that are polycythemic, with increased erythrocytic indices in peripheral blood, increased numbers of erythroid precursors in hematopoietic tissue, and increased serum erythropoietin levels. Transgenic homozygotes show a greater degree of polycythemia than do heterozygotes as well as striking extramedullary erythropoiesis. Human erythropoietin RNA was found not only in fetal liver, adult liver, and kidney but also in all other transgenic tissues analyzed. Anemia induced increased human erythropoietin RNA levels in liver but not kidney. These transgenic mice represent a unique model of polycythemia due to increased erythropoietin levels.

  9. Increased activin bioavailability enhances hepatic insulin sensitivity while inducing hepatic steatosis in male mice.

    PubMed

    Ungerleider, Nathan A; Bonomi, Lara M; Brown, Melissa L; Schneyer, Alan L

    2013-06-01

    The development of insulin resistance is tightly linked to fatty liver disease and is considered a major health concern worldwide, although their mechanistic relationship remains controversial. Activin has emerging roles in nutrient homeostasis, but its metabolic effects on hepatocytes remain unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of increased endogenous activin bioactivity on hepatic nutrient homeostasis by creating mice with inactivating mutations that deplete the circulating activin antagonists follistatin-like-3 (FSTL3) or the follistatin 315 isoform (FST315; FST288-only mice). We investigated liver histology and lipid content, hepatic insulin sensitivity, and metabolic gene expression including the HepG2 cell and primary hepatocyte response to activin treatment. Both FSTL3-knockout and FST288-only mice had extensive hepatic steatosis and elevated hepatic triglyceride content. Unexpectedly, insulin signaling, as assessed by phospho-Akt (a.k.a. protein kinase B), was enhanced in both mouse models. Pretreatment of HepG2 cells with activin A increased their response to subsequent insulin challenge. Gene expression analysis suggests that increased lipid uptake, enhanced de novo lipid synthesis, decreased lipolysis, and/or enhanced glucose uptake contribute to increased hepatic triglyceride content in these models. However, activin treatment recapitulated only some of these gene changes, suggesting that increased activin bioactivity may be only partially responsible for this phenotype. Nevertheless, our results indicate that activin enhances hepatocyte insulin response, which ultimately leads to hepatic steatosis despite the increased insulin sensitivity. Thus, regulation of activin bioactivity is critical for maintaining normal liver lipid homeostasis and response to insulin, whereas activin agonists may be useful for increasing liver insulin sensitivity.

  10. Hepatocyte-specific IKKβ expression aggravates atherosclerosis development in APOE*3-Leiden mice

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Man C.; van Diepen, Janna A.; Hu, Lihui; Guigas, Bruno; de Boer, Hetty C.; van Puijvelde, Gijs H.; Kuiper, Johan; van Zonneveld, Anton J.; Shoelson, Steven E.; Voshol, Peter J.; Romijn, Johannes A.; Havekes, Louis M.; Tamsma, Jouke T.; Rensen, Patrick C.N.; Hiemstra, Pieter S.; Berbée, Jimmy F.P.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The liver is the key organ involved in systemic inflammation, but the relation between hepatic inflammation and atherogenesis is poorly understood. Since nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) is a central regulator of inflammatory processes, we hypothesized that chronically enhanced hepatic NF-κB activation, through hepatocyte-specific expression of IκB kinase-β (IKKβ) (LIKK), will aggravate atherosclerosis development in APOE*3-Leiden (E3L) mice. Methods and Results E3L.LIKK and E3L control littermates were fed a Western-type diet for 24 weeks. E3L.LIKK mice showed a 2.3-fold increased atherosclerotic lesion area and more advanced atherosclerosis in the aortic root with less segments without atherosclerotic lesions (11 vs. 42%), and more segments with mild (63% vs. 44%) and severe (26% vs. 14 %) lesions. Expression of LIKK did not affect basal levels of inflammatory parameters, but plasma cytokine levels tended to be higher in E3L.LIKK mice after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration. E3L.LIKK mice showed transiently increased plasma cholesterol levels, confined to (V)LDL. This transient character resulted in a mild (+17%) increased cumulative plasma cholesterol exposure. Conclusion We conclude that selective activation of NF-κB in hepatocytes considerably promotes atherosclerosis development which is (at least partly) explained by an increased sensitivity to proinflammatory triggers and transiently increased plasma cholesterol levels. PMID:21798539

  11. Methanol teratogenicity in mutant mice with deficient catalase activity and transgenic mice expressing human catalase.

    PubMed

    Siu, Michelle T; Wiley, Michael J; Wells, Peter G

    2013-04-01

    The role of catalase in methanol (MeOH) teratogenesis is unclear. In rodents it both detoxifies reactive oxygen species (ROS) and metabolizes MeOH and its formic acid (FA) metabolite. We treated pregnant mice expressing either high (hCat) or low catalase activity (aCat), or their wild-type (WT) controls, with either MeOH (4g/kg ip) or saline. hCat mice and WTs were similarly susceptible to MeOH-initiated ophthalmic abnormalities and cleft palates. aCat and WT mice appeared resistant, precluding assessment of the developmental impact of catalase deficiency. Catalase activity was respectively increased at least 1.5-fold, and decreased by at least 35%, in hCat and aCat embryos and maternal livers. MeOH and FA pharmacokinetic profiles were similar among hCat, aCat and WT strains. Although the hCat results imply no ROS involvement, embryo culture studies suggest this may be confounded by maternal factors and/or a requirement for higher catalase activity in the hCat mice. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The enhancement of immune function and activation of NF-κB by resveratrol-treatment in immunosuppressive mice.

    PubMed

    Lai, Xin; Pei, Qingsheng; Song, Xu; Zhou, Xun; Yin, Zhongqiong; Jia, Renyong; Zou, Yuanfeng; Li, Lixia; Yue, Guizhou; Liang, Xiaoxia; Yin, Lizi; Lv, Cheng; Jing, Bo

    2016-04-01

    Resveratrol, a kind of natural product found in over 70 plants, possesses both immunomodulatory and anticancer effects. Many reports have shown that resveratrol has the bidirectional regulation effects on antigen presenting and cellular immunity. However, few reports have evaluated the effects of resveratrol on reinforcing immunity recovery via activating nuclear factor -κappa B (NF-κB). In the present study, we investigated the effects of resveratrol on recovery and reconstruction of immune function by detecting nonspecific and specific immunity in immunosuppressive mice. We found that, compared to the immunosuppressive mice, the spleen index and spleen lymphocyte proliferation of resveratrol-treated mice (30 mg/kg body weight) were enhanced. After resveratrol-treatment (15 mg/kg body weight), the function of peritoneal macrophages was enhanced and the CD4+ cells were increased in peripheral blood. The expressions of serum cytokines related to immune function, including interleukin (IL)-1α/β, IL-2, tumor necrosis factor-α and NF-κB were up-regulated in a dose-dependent manner. The expression of the transcription factor NF-κB in spleen was enhanced after resveratrol-treatment. The immuno-enhancement effects of resveratrol were similar to that of levamisole (served as positive control). These results demonstrated that resveratrol had potent immune enhancement activity in immunosuppressive mice, and one possible mechanism of action was to activate the NF-κB.

  13. Efficient Generation of Mice with Consistent Transgene Expression by FEEST

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Lei; Jiang, Yonghua; Mu, Libing; Liu, Yanbin; Wang, Fengchao; Wang, Peng; Zhang, Aiqun; Tang, Nan; Chen, Ting; Luo, Minmin; Yu, Lei; Gao, Shaorong; Chen, Liang

    2015-01-01

    Transgenic mouse models are widely used in biomedical research; however, current techniques for producing transgenic mice are limited due to the unpredictable nature of transgene expression. Here, we report a novel, highly efficient technique for the generation of transgenic mice with single-copy integration of the transgene and guaranteed expression of the gene-of-interest (GOI). We refer to this technique as functionally enriched ES cell transgenics, or FEEST. ES cells harboring an inducible Cre gene enabled the efficient selection of transgenic ES cell clones using hygromycin before Cre-mediated recombination. Expression of the GOI was confirmed by assaying for the GFP after Cre recombination. As a proof-of-principle, we produced a transgenic mouse line containing Cre-activatable tTA (cl-tTA6). This tTA mouse model was able to induce tumor formation when crossed with a transgenic mouse line containing a doxycycline-inducible oncogene. We also showed that the cl-tTA6 mouse is a valuable tool for faithfully recapitulating the clinical course of tumor development. We showed that FEEST can be easily adapted for other genes by preparing a transgenic mouse model of conditionally activatable EGFR L858R. Thus, FEEST is a technique with the potential to generate transgenic mouse models at a genome-wide scale. PMID:26573149

  14. Generation of Venus reporter knock-in mice revealed MAGI-2 expression patterns in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Ihara, Kan-ichiro; Nishimura, Tomoki; Fukuda, Tomokazu; Ookura, Tetsuya; Nishimori, Katsuhiko

    2012-01-01

    The membrane-associated guanylate kinase inverted 2 (MAGI-2) protein, which is known to localize at the tight junction of epithelial cells, contains multiple copies of the PDZ and WW domains in its structure. Although the expression pattern of Magi2 mRNA in representative organs has been previously published, its detailed cellular distribution at the histological level remains unknown. Such detailed information would be useful to clarify the biological function of MAGI-2. Here, we report the generation of Venus reporter knock-in mice for Magi2 in which exon 6 of the gene was substituted by the Venus-encoding sequence. We detected the expression of the Venus reporter protein in kidney podocytes from these knock-in mice. We also detected Venus reporter protein expression in spermatids within the testes and within neurons in various regions of the brain. Detection of the reporter protein from these diverse locations indicated the endogenous expression of MAGI-2 in these tissues. Our data suggested a potential function of MAGI-2 in the glomerular filtration process and sperm cell maturation. These data indicate that the Venus reporter knock-in mouse for Magi2 is a useful model for the further study of Magi2 gene function.

  15. Aging enhances contraction to thromboxane A2 in aorta from female senescence-accelerated mice.

    PubMed

    Novella, Susana; Dantas, Ana Paula; Segarra, Gloria; Novensa, Laura; Heras, Magda; Hermenegildo, Carlos; Medina, Pascual

    2013-02-01

    The time-course for aging-associated effects on vascular reactivity to U46619, a stable analogue of thromboxane A(2) (TXA(2)), was studied in aorta from female senescence-accelerated mice-prone (SAMP8), a murine model of accelerated senescence. SAMP8 and senescence-accelerated mice-resistant (SAMR1) were divided into three groups: 3-, 6- and 10-month-old. Contractile curves to U46619 (10(-9) to 10(-6) M) were performed in aortic rings in the absence or in the presence of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 10(-4) M) and/or cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor indomethacin (10(-5) M). Protein and gene expression for COX-1 and COX-2 were determined by immunofluorescence and real-time PCR, respectively. Maximal contraction to U46619 was markedly higher in SAMP8 at all ages. In SAMR1, increases were seen at 10 months, while SAMP8 displays augmented contraction at 6 months, which was further increased at 10 months. L-NAME enhanced U46619 contractions in both 6-month-old groups, although the increase was higher on vessels from SAMR1 at this age. Indomethacin equally increased U46619 contractions in both 3-month-old groups, suggesting the production of vasodilator prostaglandin in young animals. In contrast, at 6 and 10 months indomethacin decreased U46619 contractions in both groups, indicating an aging-associated swap to a release of contractile prostanoids in aorta. In conclusion, aging enhances contractile responses to TXA(2) in aorta from female mice by a mechanism involving a decrease of NO production and increased action of contractile prostanoids. This process occurs earlier in SAMP8 mice, establishing these mice as good model to study cardiovascular aging in a convenient and standard time-course.

  16. L-Carnitine enhances exercise endurance capacity by promoting muscle oxidative metabolism in mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jun Ho; Pan, Jeong Hoon; Lee, Eui Seop; Kim, Young Jun

    2015-08-21

    L-Carnitine (LC), the bioactive form of carnitine, has been shown to play a key role in muscle fuel metabolism during exercise, resulting in increased fatty acid oxidation and energy expenditure. However, whether LC contributes to improved endurance exercise performance remains controversial. This study was designed to investigate the effects of LC administration on endurance capacity and energy metabolism in mice during treadmill exercise. Male C57BL/6 mice were divided into two groups (sedentary and exercise) and received daily oral administration of LC (150 mg/kg) or vehicle with a high-fat diet for 3 weeks. During the experimental period, all animals were trained three times a week on a motorized treadmill, and the total running time until exhaustion was used as the index of endurance capacity. LC administration induced a significant increase in maximum running time with a reduction of body fat compared with the control group when mice were subjected to programmed exercise. The serum levels of triglyceride, non-esterified fatty acid, and urea nitrogen were significantly lower in the LC group than the corresponding levels in the control group, while serum ketone body levels were higher in the LC group. Muscle glycogen content of LC administered-mice was higher than that of control mice, concomitant with reduced triglyceride content. Importantly, muscle mRNA and protein expressions revealed enhanced fatty acid uptake and oxidative metabolism and increased mitochondrial biogenesis by LC administration. These results suggest that LC administration promotes fat oxidation and mitochondrial biogenesis while sparing stored glycogen in skeletal muscle during prolonged exercise, resulting in enhanced endurance capacity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. STRIATAL-ENRICHED PROTEIN TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE (STEP) KNOCKOUT MICE HAVE ENHANCED HIPPOCAMPAL MEMORY

    PubMed Central

    Venkitaramani, Deepa V.; Moura, Paula J.; Picciotto, Marina R.; Lombroso, Paul J.

    2011-01-01

    STEP is a brain-specific phosphatase that opposes synaptic strengthening by the regulation of key synaptic signaling proteins. Previous studies suggest a possible role for STriatal-Enriched protein tyrosine Phosphatase (STEP) in learning and memory. To demonstrate the functional importance of STEP in learning and memory, we generated STEP knockout (KO) mice and examined the effect of deletion of STEP on behavioral performance, as well as the phosphorylation and expression of its substrates. Here we report that loss of STEP leads to significantly enhanced performance in hippocampal-dependent learning and memory tasks. In addition, STEP KO mice displayed greater dominance behavior, although they were normal in their motivation, motor coordination, visual acuity and social interactions. STEP KO mice displayed enhanced tyrosine phosphorylation of extracellular-signal regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), the NR2B subunit of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR), Proline-rich tyrosine kinase (Pyk2), as well as an increased phosphorylation of ERK1/2 substrates. Concomitant to the increased phosphorylation of NR2B, synaptosomal expression of NR1/NR2B NMDARs was increased in STEP KO mice, as was the GluR1/GluR2 containing α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionic acid receptors (AMPAR), providing a potential molecular mechanism for the improved cognitive performance. The data support a role for STEP in the regulation of synaptic strengthening. The absence of STEP improves cognitive performance, and may do so by the regulation of downstream effectors necessary for synaptic transmission. PMID:21501258

  18. Increased hepcidin in transferrin-treated thalassemic mice correlates with increased liver BMP2 expression and decreased hepatocyte ERK activation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Huiyong; Choesang, Tenzin; Li, Huihui; Sun, Shuming; Pham, Petra; Bao, Weili; Feola, Maria; Westerman, Mark; Li, Guiyuan; Follenzi, Antonia; Blanc, Lionel; Rivella, Stefano; Fleming, Robert E; Ginzburg, Yelena Z

    2016-03-01

    Iron overload results in significant morbidity and mortality in β-thalassemic patients. Insufficient hepcidin is implicated in parenchymal iron overload in β-thalassemia and approaches to increase hepcidin have therapeutic potential. We have previously shown that exogenous apo-transferrin markedly ameliorates ineffective erythropoiesis and increases hepcidin expression in Hbb(th1/th1) (thalassemic) mice. We utilize in vivo and in vitro systems to investigate effects of exogenous apo-transferrin on Smad and ERK1/2 signaling, pathways that participate in hepcidin regulation. Our results demonstrate that apo-transferrin increases hepcidin expression in vivo despite decreased circulating and parenchymal iron concentrations and unchanged liver Bmp6 mRNA expression in thalassemic mice. Hepatocytes from apo-transferrin-treated mice demonstrate decreased ERK1/2 pathway and increased serum BMP2 concentration and hepatocyte BMP2 expression. Furthermore, hepatocyte ERK1/2 phosphorylation is enhanced by neutralizing anti-BMP2/4 antibodies and suppressed in vitro in a dose-dependent manner by BMP2, resulting in converse effects on hepcidin expression, and hepatocytes treated with MEK/ERK1/2 inhibitor U0126 in combination with BMP2 exhibit an additive increase in hepcidin expression. Lastly, bone marrow erythroferrone expression is normalized in apo-transferrin treated thalassemic mice but increased in apo-transferrin injected wild-type mice. These findings suggest that increased hepcidin expression after exogenous apo-transferrin is in part independent of erythroferrone and support a model in which apo-transferrin treatment in thalassemic mice increases BMP2 expression in the liver and other organs, decreases hepatocellular ERK1/2 activation, and increases nuclear Smad to increase hepcidin expression in hepatocytes.

  19. Human IL-32 expression protects mice against a hypervirulent strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Xiyuan; Shang, Shaobin; Henao-Tamayo, Marcela; Basaraba, Randall J.; Ovrutsky, Alida R.; Matsuda, Jennifer L.; Takeda, Katsuyuki; Chan, Mallory M.; Dakhama, Azzeddine; Kinney, William H.; Trostel, Jessica; Bai, An; Honda, Jennifer R.; Achcar, Rosane; Hartney, John; Joosten, Leo A. B.; Kim, Soo-Hyun; Orme, Ian; Dinarello, Charles A.; Ordway, Diane J.; Chan, Edward D.

    2015-01-01

    Silencing of interleukin-32 (IL-32) in a differentiated human promonocytic cell line impairs killing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) but the role of IL-32 in vivo against MTB remains unknown. To study the effects of IL-32 in vivo, a transgenic mouse was generated in which the human IL-32γ gene is expressed using the surfactant protein C promoter (SPC-IL-32γTg). Wild-type and SPC-IL-32γTg mice were infected with a low-dose aerosol of a hypervirulent strain of MTB (W-Beijing HN878). At 30 and 60 d after infection, the transgenic mice had 66% and 85% fewer MTB in the lungs and 49% and 68% fewer MTB in the spleens, respectively; the transgenic mice also exhibited greater survival. Increased numbers of host-protective innate and adaptive immune cells were present in SPC-IL-32γTg mice, including tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) positive lung macrophages and dendritic cells, and IFN-gamma (IFNγ) and TNFα positive CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in the lungs and mediastinal lymph nodes. Alveolar macrophages from transgenic mice infected with MTB ex vivo had reduced bacterial burden and increased colocalization of green fluorescent protein-labeled MTB with lysosomes. Furthermore, mouse macrophages made to express IL-32γ but not the splice variant IL-32β were better able to limit MTB growth than macrophages capable of producing both. The lungs of patients with tuberculosis showed increased IL-32 expression, particularly in macrophages of granulomas and airway epithelial cells but also B cells and T cells. We conclude that IL-32γ enhances host immunity to MTB. PMID:25820174

  20. Reduced cortical BDNF expression and aberrant memory in Carf knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    McDowell, Kelli A.; Hutchinson, Ashley N.; Wong-Goodrich, Sarah J.E.; Presby, Matthew M.; Su, Dan; Rodriguiz, Ramona M.; Law, Krystal C.; Williams, Christina L.; Wetsel, William C.; West, Anne E.

    2010-01-01

    Transcription factors are a key point of convergence between the cell-intrinsic and extracellular signals that guide synaptic development and brain plasticity. Calcium-Response Factor (CaRF) is a unique transcription factor first identified as a binding protein for a calcium-response element in the gene encoding Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (Bdnf). We have now generated Carf knockout (KO) mice to characterize the function of this factor in vivo. Intriguingly, Carf KO mice have selectively reduced expression of Bdnf exon IV-containing mRNA transcripts and BDNF protein in the cerebral cortex while BDNF levels in the hippocampus and striatum remain unchanged, implicating CaRF as a brain region-selective regulator of BDNF expression. At the cellular level, Carf KO mice show altered expression of GABAergic proteins at striatal synapses, raising the possibility that CaRF may contribute to aspects of inhibitory synapse development. Carf KO mice show normal spatial learning in the Morris water maze and normal context-dependent fear conditioning. However they have an enhanced ability to find a new platform location on the first day of reversal training in the water maze and they extinguish conditioned fear more slowly than their wildtype (WT) littermates. Finally, Carf KO mice show normal short-term and long-term memory in a novel object recognition task, but exhibit impairments during the remote memory phase of testing. Taken together these data reveal novel roles for CaRF in the organization and/or function of neural circuits that underlie essential aspects of learning and memory. PMID:20519520

  1. Reduced cortical BDNF expression and aberrant memory in Carf knock-out mice.

    PubMed

    McDowell, Kelli A; Hutchinson, Ashley N; Wong-Goodrich, Sarah J E; Presby, Matthew M; Su, Dan; Rodriguiz, Ramona M; Law, Krystal C; Williams, Christina L; Wetsel, William C; West, Anne E

    2010-06-02

    Transcription factors are a key point of convergence between the cell-intrinsic and extracellular signals that guide synaptic development and brain plasticity. Calcium-response factor (CaRF) is a unique transcription factor first identified as a binding protein for a calcium-response element in the gene encoding brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf). We have now generated Carf knock-out (KO) mice to characterize the function of this factor in vivo. Intriguingly, Carf KO mice have selectively reduced expression of Bdnf exon IV-containing mRNA transcripts and BDNF protein in the cerebral cortex, whereas BDNF levels in the hippocampus and striatum remain unchanged, implicating CaRF as a brain region-selective regulator of BDNF expression. At the cellular level, Carf KO mice show altered expression of GABAergic proteins at striatal synapses, raising the possibility that CaRF may contribute to aspects of inhibitory synapse development. Carf KO mice show normal spatial learning in the Morris water maze and normal context-dependent fear conditioning. However they have an enhanced ability to find a new platform location on the first day of reversal training in the water maze and they extinguish conditioned fear more slowly than their wild-type littermates. Finally, Carf KO mice show normal short-term (STM) and long-term memory (LTM) in a novel object recognition task, but exhibit impairments during the remote memory phase of testing. Together, these data reveal novel roles for CaRF in the organization and/or function of neural circuits that underlie essential aspects of learning and memory.

  2. Expression of a Pim-1 transgene accelerates lymphoproliferation and inhibits apoptosis in lpr/lpr mice.

    PubMed Central

    Möröy, T; Grzeschiczek, A; Petzold, S; Hartmann, K U

    1993-01-01

    Transgenic mice expressing the Pim-1 kinase are predisposed to develop T-cell lymphomas with a long latency period of about 7-9 months. However, the exact functional basis of the oncogenic activity of Pim-1 remains obscure. C57BL/6 mice homozygous for the lpr mutation develop a well-described lymphoproliferative syndrome at about 26-30 weeks of age. This syndrome is characterized mainly by the accumulation of abnormal T cells in lymph nodes because of the lack of Fas receptor-induced apoptosis. We find that backcross of E mu-Pim-1 transgenics (mice with a transgene that carries the mouse Pim-1 gene under the transcriptional control of the immunoglobulin heavy chain gene enhancer E mu) into lpr/lpr mice results in strong acceleration of lymphoproliferation and dramatic enlargement of lymph nodes. In addition, we show here that cultured lymph node cells from E mu-Pim-1 lpr/lpr mice are rescued from rapid apoptosis that normally occurs in nontransgenic lpr cells in vitro. We also present evidence that CD4+/CD8+ double-positive thymocytes from lpr/lpr mice are sensitive to dexamethasone-induced apoptosis, although lpr/lpr mice lack the Fas receptor. In contrast, E mu-Pim-1 lpr/lpr animals show considerable protection from dexamethasone-induced apoptosis. These results show that Pim-1 can strongly accelerate lymphoproliferation through inhibition of apoptosis and thereby provide first insight into the functional basis for the oncogenic activity of Pim-1. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 PMID:7504280

  3. Sleep selectively enhances hippocampus-dependent memory in mice.

    PubMed

    Cai, Denise J; Shuman, Tristan; Gorman, Michael R; Sage, Jennifer R; Anagnostaras, Stephan G

    2009-08-01

    Sleep has been implicated as playing a critical role in memory consolidation. Emerging evidence suggests that reactivation of memories during sleep may facilitate the transfer of declarative memories from the hippocampus to the neocortex. Previous rodent studies have utilized sleep-deprivation to examine the role of sleep in memory consolidation. The present study uses a novel, naturalistic paradigm to study the effect of a sleep phase on rodent Pavlovian fear conditioning, a task with both hippocampus-dependent and -independent components (contextual vs. cued memories). Mice were trained 1 hour before their sleep/rest phase or awake/active phase and then tested for contextual and cued fear 12 or 24 hr later. The authors found that hippocampus-dependent contextual memory was enhanced if tested after a sleep phase within 24 hr of training. This enhancement was specific to context, not cued, memory. These findings provide direct evidence of a role for sleep in enhancing hippocampus-dependent memory consolidation in rodents and detail a novel paradigm for examining sleep-induced memory effects. 2009 APA, all rights reserved

  4. A metabolomic study of the PPARδ agonist GW501516 for enhancing running endurance in Kunming mice

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wei; Gao, Rong; Xie, Xinni; Zheng, Zhibing; Li, Haijing; Li, Song; Dong, Fangting; Wang, Lili

    2015-01-01

    Exercise can increase peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-δ (PPARδ) expression in skeletal muscle. PPARδ regulates muscle metabolism and reprograms muscle fibre types to enhance running endurance. This study utilized metabolomic profiling to examine the effects of GW501516, a PPARδ agonist, on running endurance in mice. While training alone increased the exhaustive running performance, GW501516 treatment enhanced running endurance and the proportion of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH)-positive muscle fibres in both trained and untrained mice. Furthermore, increased levels of intermediate metabolites and key enzymes in fatty acid oxidation pathways were observed following training and/or treatment. Training alone increased serum inositol, glucogenic amino acids, and branch chain amino acids. However, GW501516 increased serum galactose and β-hydroxybutyrate, independent of training. Additionally, GW501516 alone raised serum unsaturated fatty acid levels, especially polyunsaturated fatty acids, but levels increased even more when combined with training. These findings suggest that mechanisms behind enhanced running capacity are not identical for GW501516 and training. Training increases energy availability by promoting catabolism of proteins, and gluconeogenesis, whereas GW501516 enhances specific consumption of fatty acids and reducing glucose utilization. PMID:25943561

  5. Muscle-directed gene therapy for phenylketonuria (PKU): Development of transgenic mice with muscle-specific phenylalanine hydroxylase expression

    SciTech Connect

    Harding, C.O.; Messing, A.; Wolff, J.A.

    1994-09-01

    Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an attractive target for gene therapy because of shortcomings in current therapy including lifelong commitment to a difficult and expensive diet, persistent mild cognitive deficits in some children despite adequate dietary therapy, and maternal PKU syndrome. Phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) is normally expressed only in liver, but we propose to treat PKU by introducing the gene for PAH into muscle. In order to evaluate both the safety and efficacy of this approach, we have a developed a trangenic mouse which expresses PAH in both cardiac and skeletal muscle. The transgene includes promoter and enhancer sequences from the mouse muscle creatine kinase (MCK) gene fused to the mouse liver PAH cDNA. Mice which have inherited the transgene are healthy, active, and do not exhibit any signs of muscle weakness or wasting. Ectopic PAH expression in muscle is not detrimental to the health, neurologic function, or reproduction of the mice. Pah{sup enu2} hyperphenylalaninemic mice, a model of human PAH deficiency, bred to carry the transgene have substantial PAH expression in cardiac and skeletal muscle but none in liver. Muscle PAH expression alone does not complement the hyperphenylalaninemic phenotype of Pah{sup enu2} mice. However, administration of reduced tetrahydrobiopterin to transgenic Pah{sup enu2} mice is associated with a 25% mean decrease in serum phenylalanine levels. We predict that ectopic expression of PAH in muscle along with adequate muscle supplies of reduced biopterin cofactor will decrease hyperphenylalaninemia in PKU.

  6. Conditional Expression of the Androgen Receptor Increases Susceptibility of Bladder Cancer in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Luong, Richard; Yu, Eun-Jeong; He, Yongfeng; Gonzalgo, Mark L.; Sun, Zijie

    2016-01-01

    Bladder cancer represents a significant human tumor burden, accounting for about 7.7% and 2.4% of all cancer cases in males and females, respectively. While men have a higher risk of developing bladder cancer, women tend to present at a later stage of disease and with more aggressive tumors. Previous studies have suggested a promotional role of androgen signaling in enhancing bladder cancer development. To directly assess the role of androgens in bladder tumorigenesis, we have developed a novel transgenic mouse strain, R26hARLoxP/+:Upk3aGCE/+, in which the human AR transgene is conditionally expressed in bladder urothelium. Intriguingly, both male and female R26hARLoxP/+:Upk3aGCE/+ mice display a higher incidence of urothelial cell carcinoma (UCC) than the age and sex matched control littermates in response to the carcinogen, N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl) nitrosamine (BBN). We detect expression of the human AR transgene in CK5-positive and p63-positive basal cells in bladder urothelium. Further analyses of UCC tissues from R26hARLoxP/+:Upk3aGCE/+ mice showed that the majority of tumor cells are of urothelial basal cell origin. Positive immunostaining of transgenic AR protein was observed in the majority of tumor cells of the transgenic mice, providing a link between transgenic AR expression and oncogenic transformation. We observed an increase in Ki67 positive cells within the UCC lesions of transgenic AR mice. Manipulating endogenous androgen levels by castration and androgen supplementation directly affected bladder tumor development in male and female R26hARLoxP/+:Upk3aGCE/+ mice, respectively. Taken together, our data demonstrate for the first time that conditional activation of transgenic AR expression in bladder urothelium enhances carciongen-induced bladder tumor formation in mice. This new AR transgenic mouse line mimics certain features of human bladder cancer and can be used to study bladder tumorigenesis and for drug development. PMID:26862755

  7. Adipose-specific knockout of raptor results in lean mice with enhanced mitochondrial respiration.

    PubMed

    Polak, Pazit; Cybulski, Nadine; Feige, Jerome N; Auwerx, Johan; Rüegg, Markus A; Hall, Michael N

    2008-11-01

    raptor is a specific and essential component of mammalian TOR complex 1 (mTORC1), a key regulator of cell growth and metabolism. To investigate a role of adipose mTORC1 in regulation of adipose and whole-body metabolism, we generated mice with an adipose-specific knockout of raptor (raptor(ad-/-)). Compared to control littermates, raptor(ad-/-) mice had substantially less adipose tissue, were protected against diet-induced obesity and hypercholesterolemia, and exhibited improved insulin sensitivity. Leanness was in spite of reduced physical activity and unaffected caloric intake, lipolysis, and absorption of lipids from the food. White adipose tissue of raptor(ad-/-) mice displayed enhanced expression of genes encoding mitochondrial uncoupling proteins characteristic of brown fat. Leanness of the raptor(ad-/-) mice was attributed to elevated energy expenditure due to mitochondrial uncoupling. These results suggest that adipose mTORC1 is a regulator of adipose metabolism and, thereby, controls whole-body energy homeostasis.

  8. Osthole Upregulates BDNF to Enhance Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis in APP/PS1 Transgenic Mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong; Xue, Xinhong; Shi, Huijian; Qi, Lifeng; Gong, Dianrong

    2015-01-01

    Adult hippocampal neurogenesis occurs in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the mouse hippocampus, and plays roles in learning and memory progresses. In amyloid precursor protein (APP)/presenilin 1 (PS1) transgenic mice, a rodent model of Alzheimer's disease (AD), severe impairment of neurogenesis in the dentate subgranular zone (SGZ) of the DG has been reported. Osthole, an active constituent of Cnidium monnieri (L.) CUSSON, has been reported to exert neuroprotective effects and may promote neural stem cell proliferation. However, whether osthole ameliorates spatial memory deficits and improves hippocampal neurogenesis in APP/PS1 mice remains unknown. In this study we found that osthole (30 mg/kg intraperitoneally (i.p.) once daily) treatment dramatically ameliorated the cognitive impairments by Morris Water Maze test and passive avoidance test, and augmented neurogenesis in the DG of hippocampus in APP/PS1 mice. Furthermore, osthole treatment upregulated expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and enhanced activation of the BDNF receptor tyrosine receptor kinase B (TrkB) following increased phosphorylation of cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB), indicating that osthole improves neurogenesis via stimulating BDNF/TrkB/CREB signaling in APP/PS1 transgenic mice.

  9. Ascorbic Acid: a promising memory-enhancer in mice.

    PubMed

    Parle, Milind; Dhingra, Dinesh

    2003-10-01

    Alzheimer's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a gradual decline in memory. The occurrence of Alzheimer's disease is commonplace among the Asian population, particularly among senior citizens. The present study was undertaken to assess the potential of ascorbic acid as a memory-enhancer. Swiss mice of either sex were employed in the present investigation. Elevated plus-maze and passive-avoidance apparatus served as the exteroceptive behavioral models, and diazepam-, scopolamine-, and aging-induced amnesia served as the interoceptive behavioral models. Ascorbic acid (60, 120 mg/kg) injected for 3 and 8 consecutive days improved learning and memory of aged mice as indicated by decreased transfer-latency and increased step-down latency. Furthermore, ascorbic acid provided protection to the young animals from scopolamine- and diazepam-induced impairment of memory. Ascorbic acid was found to be more potent than piracetam as reflected by the smaller dose, more pronounced effect, and quicker onset of action. Ascorbic acid has shown promise as a powerful memory-improving agent particularly effective in aged animals. Hence, ascorbic acid might prove to be a useful memory-restorative agent in the treatment of dementia seen in elderly individuals. The underlying mechanism of action of ascorbic acid may be attributed to its antioxidant property.

  10. Low TGFβ1 expression prevents and high expression exacerbates diabetic nephropathy in mice

    PubMed Central

    Hathaway, Catherine K.; Gasim, Adil M. H.; Grant, Ruriko; Chang, Albert S.; Kim, Hyung-Suk; Madden, Victoria J.; Bagnell, C. Robert; Jennette, J. Charles; Smithies, Oliver; Kakoki, Masao

    2015-01-01

    Nephropathy develops in many but not all patients with long-standing type 1 diabetes. Substantial efforts to identify genotypic differences explaining this differential susceptibility have been made, with limited success. Here, we show that the expression of the transforming growth factor β1 gene (Tgfb1) affects the development of diabetic nephropathy in mice. To do this we genetically varied Tgfb1 expression in five steps, 10%, 60%, 100%, 150%, and 300% of normal, in mice with type 1 diabetes caused by the Akita mutation in the insulin gene (Ins2Akita). Although plasma glucose levels were not affected by Tgfb1 genotype, many features of diabetic nephropathy (mesangial expansion, elevated plasma creatinine and urea, decreased creatinine clearance and albuminuria) were progressively ameliorated as Tgfb1 expression decreased and were progressively exacerbated when expression was increased. The diabetic 10% hypomorphs had comparable creatinine clearance and albumin excretion to wild-type mice and no harmful changes in renal morphology. The diabetic 300% hypermorphs had ∼1/3 the creatinine clearance of wild-type mice, >20× their albumin excretion, ∼3× thicker glomerular basement membranes and severe podocyte effacement, matching human diabetic nephropathy. Switching Tgfb1 expression from low to high in the tubules of the hypomorphs increased their albumin excretion more than 10-fold but creatinine clearance remained high. Switching Tgfb1 expression from low to high in the podocytes markedly decreased creatinine clearance, but minimally increased albumin excretion. Decreasing expression of Tgfb1 could be a promising option for preventing loss of renal function in diabetes. PMID:25902541

  11. Generalisation of conditioned fear and its behavioural expression in mice.

    PubMed

    Laxmi, T Rao; Stork, Oliver; Pape, Hans-Christian

    2003-10-17

    Mice are favourite subjects in molecular and genetic memory research and frequently studied with classical fear conditioning paradigms that use an auditory cue (conditioned stimulus, CS(+)) to predict an aversive, unconditioned stimulus (US). Yet the conditions that control fear memory specificity and generalisation and their behavioural expression in such conditioned mice have not been analysed systematically. In the current study we addressed these issues in the most widely used mouse strain of behavioural genetics, C57Bl/6. In keeping with findings in other species we demonstrate the dependence of fear memory generalisation on training intensity (i.e. both US intensity and the number of CS(+) and US applied) after both excitatory (explicitly paired presentation of CS(+) and US) and inhibitory training (explicitly unpaired presentation of CS(+) and US). Furthermore, inhibitory overtraining was associated with changes of uncued anxiety-like behaviour in a light/dark exploration test, indicative of an emotional sensitisation reaction as consequence of a lack of US predictability. Together our results describe the qualitatively and quantitatively different increases of defensive behaviour in response to conditioned stimuli of different salience and identify training conditions that lead to fear memory generalisation and emotional sensitisation in C57Bl/6 inbred mice.

  12. Dietary wolfberry supplementation enhances the protective effect of flu vaccine against influenza challenge in aged mice.

    PubMed

    Du, Xiaogang; Wang, Junpeng; Niu, Xinli; Smith, Donald; Wu, Dayong; Meydani, Simin Nikbin

    2014-02-01

    Current vaccines for influenza do not fully protect the aged against influenza infection. Although wolfberry (goji berry) has been shown to improve immune response, including enhanced antibody production, after vaccination in the aged, it is not known if this effect would translate to better protection after influenza infection, nor is its underlying mechanism well understood. To address these issues, we conducted a study using a 2 × 2 design in which aged male mice (20-22 mo) were fed a control or a 5% wolfberry diet for 30 d, then immunized with an influenza vaccine or saline (control) on days 31 and 52 of the dietary intervention, and finally challenged with influenza A/Puerto Rico/8/34 virus. Mice fed wolfberry had higher influenza antibody titers and improved symptoms (less postinfection weight loss) compared with the mice treated by vaccine alone. Furthermore, an in vitro mechanistic study showed that wolfberry supplementation enhanced maturation and activity of antigen-presenting dendritic cells (DCs) in aged mice, as indicated by phenotypic change in expression of DC activation markers major histocompatibility complex class II, cluster of differentiation (CD) 40, CD80, and CD86, and functional change in DC production of cytokines interleukin-12 and tumor necrosis factor-α as well as DC endocytosis. Also, adoptive transfer of wolfberry-treated bone marrow DCs (loaded with ovalbumin(323-339)-peptide) promoted antigen-specific T cell proliferation as well as interleukin-4 and interferon-γ production in CD4(+) T cells. In summary, our data indicate that dietary wolfberry enhances the efficacy of influenza vaccination, resulting in better host protection to prevent subsequent influenza infection; this effect may be partly attributed to improved DC function.

  13. C/EBPε mediates nicotinamide-enhanced clearance of Staphylococcus aureus in mice.

    PubMed

    Kyme, Pierre; Thoennissen, Nils H; Tseng, Ching Wen; Thoennissen, Gabriela B; Wolf, Andrea J; Shimada, Kenichi; Krug, Utz O; Lee, Kunik; Müller-Tidow, Carsten; Berdel, Wolfgang E; Hardy, W David; Gombart, Adrian F; Koeffler, H Phillip; Liu, George Y

    2012-09-01

    The myeloid-specific transcription factor, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein ε (C/EBPε) is a critical mediator of myelopoiesis. Mutation of this gene is responsible for neutrophil-specific granule deficiency in humans, a condition that confers susceptibility to Staphylococcus aureus infection. We found that C/EBPε-deficient mice are severely affected by infection with S. aureus, and C/EBPε deficiency in neutrophils contributes to the infectious phenotype. Conversely, exposure to the epigenetic modulator nicotinamide (vitamin B3) increased expression of C/EBPε in WT myeloid cells. Further, nicotinamide increased the activity of C/EBPε and select downstream antimicrobial targets, particularly in neutrophils. In a systemic murine infection model as well as in murine and human peripheral blood, nicotinamide enhanced killing of S. aureus by up to 1,000 fold but had no effect when administered to either C/EBPε-deficient mice or mice depleted of neutrophils. Nicotinamide was efficacious in both prophylactic and therapeutic settings. Our findings suggest that C/EBPε is an important target to boost killing of bacteria by the innate immune system.

  14. C/EBPε mediates nicotinamide-enhanced clearance of Staphylococcus aureus in mice

    PubMed Central

    Kyme, Pierre; Thoennissen, Nils H.; Tseng, Ching Wen; Thoennissen, Gabriela B.; Wolf, Andrea J.; Shimada, Kenichi; Krug, Utz O.; Lee, Kunik; Müller-Tidow, Carsten; Berdel, Wolfgang E.; Hardy, W. David; Gombart, Adrian F.; Koeffler, H. Phillip; Liu, George Y.

    2012-01-01

    The myeloid-specific transcription factor, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein ε (C/EBPε) is a critical mediator of myelopoiesis. Mutation of this gene is responsible for neutrophil-specific granule deficiency in humans, a condition that confers susceptibility to Staphylococcus aureus infection. We found that C/EBPε-deficient mice are severely affected by infection with S. aureus, and C/EBPε deficiency in neutrophils contributes to the infectious phenotype. Conversely, exposure to the epigenetic modulator nicotinamide (vitamin B3) increased expression of C/EBPε in WT myeloid cells. Further, nicotinamide increased the activity of C/EBPε and select downstream antimicrobial targets, particularly in neutrophils. In a systemic murine infection model as well as in murine and human peripheral blood, nicotinamide enhanced killing of S. aureus by up to 1,000 fold but had no effect when administered to either C/EBPε-deficient mice or mice depleted of neutrophils. Nicotinamide was efficacious in both prophylactic and therapeutic settings. Our findings suggest that C/EBPε is an important target to boost killing of bacteria by the innate immune system. PMID:22922257

  15. Life Extension Factor Klotho Prevents Mortality and Enhances Cognition in hAPP Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Lei; Sanchez, Pascal E.; Worden, Kurtresha; Broestl, Lauren; Johnson, Erik; Ho, Kaitlyn; Yu, Gui-Qiu; Kim, Daniel; Betourne, Alexander; Kuro-o, Makoto; Masliah, Eliezer; Abraham, Carmela R.

    2015-01-01

    Aging is the principal demographic risk factor for Alzheimer disease (AD), the most common neurodegenerative disorder. Klotho is a key modulator of the aging process and, when overexpressed, extends mammalian lifespan, increases synaptic plasticity, and enhances cognition. Whether klotho can counteract deficits related to neurodegenerative diseases, such as AD, is unknown. Here we show that elevating klotho expression decreases premature mortality and network dysfunction in human amyloid precursor protein (hAPP) transgenic mice, which simulate key aspects of AD. Increasing klotho levels prevented depletion of NMDA receptor (NMDAR) subunits in the hippocampus and enhanced spatial learning and memory in hAPP mice. Klotho elevation in hAPP mice increased the abundance of the GluN2B subunit of NMDAR in postsynaptic densities and NMDAR-dependent long-term potentiation, which is critical for learning and memory. Thus, increasing wild-type klotho levels or activities improves synaptic and cognitive functions, and may be of therapeutic benefit in AD and other cognitive disorders. PMID:25673831

  16. Enhancement of spatial learning by predator odor in mice: involvement of amygdala and hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Galliot, Emmanuel; Levaillant, Maryline; Beard, Elidie; Millot, Jean-Louis; Pourié, Gregory

    2010-02-01

    Olfaction has particular links with learning and memory compared with other sensory cues, due to the interrelations between their neural circuitry. The present study deals with the effects of a putative stressor (i.e. a predator odor) on visuo-spatial learning in mice. Firstly, the results show that a predator odor spread during the Morris water maze task led to learning enhancement. In addition, a stereotaxic approach was used to investigate the involvement of the amygdala in this hippocampus-dependent type of learning. Thus, the performance of mice in visuo-spatial learning under predator odor conditions was dramatically reduced by an ibotenate bilateral amygdala lesion. The involvement of the amygdala was confirmed by a reduced expression of c-fos in the CA1 hippocampus of amygdala-lesioned mice at the end of the learning procedure. Mild exposure to a predator odor during hippocampus-dependent learning therefore leads to an enhancement of performance through the co-activation of the amygdala, probably by a stress mediated mechanism.

  17. Enhancement of intestinal eosinophilia during Hymenolepis nana infection in mice.

    PubMed

    Niwa, A; Miyazato, T

    1996-03-01

    The ability of Hymenolepis nana oncosphere extract to induce eosinophil chemotactic response was examined in vitro and in vivo. The extract showed a chemotactic activity specific for eosinophils but not for neutrophils. Partially purified eosinophil chemotactic factors (ECFs) from the oncosphere extract showed apparent molecular mass from 5.5 to 9.6kDa and 30 to 40kDa. These were resistant to heating and proteinase K digestion but sensitive to periodate oxidation. Peritoneal injection of the crude extract or partially purified ECFs to mice resulted in a preferential eosinophil infiltration. The chemotactic activity for eosinophils was not separable from the adhesion molecule expression or oxygen radical-inducing activity by means of chromatography or chemical treatments. Furthermore, histological examination demonstrated a marked tissue eosinophilia around H. nana larvae in the intestinal lamina propria of both humoral and cell-mediated immunodeficiency mice. The present findings suggest that H. nana oncosphere-derived molecules facilitate in vivo the intestinal eosinophilia during the infection.

  18. Downregulation of Clock in circulatory system leads to an enhancement of fibrinolysis in mice.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Shuting; Jiang, Zhou; Zou, Yan; Chen, Chen; Wang, Yuhui; Liu, Yanyou; Xiao, Jing; Guo, Huiling; Wang, Zhengrong

    2011-09-01

    As a main component of circadian genes, clock plays not only an important role in circadian rhythm but also in the regulation of many physiological systems. The dysfunction of clock genes is associated with the development of various disorders. Many studies have investigated the association between clock genes and blood coagulation and the fibrinolytic system. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of downregulation of circulatory Clock on blood coagulation and fibrinolysis at the initial stage of active phase in male mice. Downregulation of the expression of the Clock gene by siRNA and, subsequently, its effect on the thrombotic potential and the expression of relative coagulative and/or fibrinolytic factors were investigated. It was found that the Clock interfered mice were less liable to thrombosis and showed prolonged prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) at Zeitgeber time (ZT) 15. Meanwhile, these mice also showed an increase in factor VII (FVII) and a decrease in thrombomodulin (TM) and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) at ZT 15 at both transcriptional and translational levels. PT, APTT and mRNA expressions of fvii, tm and pai-1 were analyzed with the least-squares fit of a 24-h cosine function by single cosinor method; no circadian rhythm was determined in PT and APTT, and a higher amplitude of fvii in the Clock RNAi group was found with a circadian phase shift, while lower amplitudes of tm and pai-1 were found in the Clock RNAi group with nearly no phase shift. All these results suggest that downregulation of the Clock gene in circulatory system has an effect on factors involved in both blood coagulation and fibrinolysis resulting in an enhancement in mice. This may be considered as an indication that Clock regulates thrombotic homeostasis through the fibrinolytic system.

  19. Interleukin 6 deficiency modulates the hypothalamic expression of energy balance regulating peptides during pregnancy in mice.

    PubMed

    Pazos, Patricia; Lima, Luis; Casanueva, Felipe F; Diéguez, Carlos; García, María C

    2013-01-01

    Pregnancy is associated with hyperphagia, increased adiposity and multiple neuroendocrine adaptations. Maternal adipose tissue secretes rising amounts of interleukin 6 (IL6), which acts peripherally modulating metabolic function and centrally increasing energy expenditure and reducing body fat. To explore the role of IL6 in the central mechanisms governing dam's energy homeostasis, early, mid and late pregnant (gestational days 7, 13 and 18) wild-type (WT) and Il6 knockout mice (Il6-KO) were compared with virgin controls at diestrus. Food intake, body weight and composition as well as indirect calorimetry measurements were performed in vivo. Anabolic and orexigenic peptides: neuropeptide Y (Npy) and agouti-related peptide (Agrp); and catabolic and anorectic neuropeptides: proopiomelanocortin (Pomc), corticotrophin and thyrotropin-releasing hormone (Crh and Trh) mRNA levels were determined by in situ hybridization. Real time-PCR and western-blot were used for additional tissue gene expression and protein studies. Non-pregnant Il6-KO mice were leaner than WT mice due to a decrease in fat but not in lean body mass. Pregnant Il6-KO mice had higher fat accretion despite similar body weight gain than WT controls. A decreased fat utilization in absence of Il6 might explain this effect, as shown by increased respiratory exchange ratio (RER) in virgin Il6-KO mice. Il6 mRNA levels were markedly enhanced in adipose tissue but reduced in hypothalamus of mid and late pregnant WT mice. Trh expression was also stimulated at gestational day 13 and lack of Il6 blunted this effect. Conversely, in late pregnant mice lessened hypothalamic Il6 receptor alpha (Il6ra), Pomc and Crh mRNA were observed. Il6 deficiency during this stage up-regulated Npy and Agrp expression, while restoring Pomc mRNA levels to virgin values. Together these results demonstrate that IL6/IL6Ra system modulates Npy/Agrp, Pomc and Trh expression during mouse pregnancy, supporting a role of IL6 in the central

  20. Interleukin 6 Deficiency Modulates the Hypothalamic Expression of Energy Balance Regulating Peptides during Pregnancy in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Pazos, Patricia; Lima, Luis; Casanueva, Felipe F.; Diéguez, Carlos; García, María C.

    2013-01-01

    Pregnancy is associated with hyperphagia, increased adiposity and multiple neuroendocrine adaptations. Maternal adipose tissue secretes rising amounts of interleukin 6 (IL6), which acts peripherally modulating metabolic function and centrally increasing energy expenditure and reducing body fat. To explore the role of IL6 in the central mechanisms governing dam's energy homeostasis, early, mid and late pregnant (gestational days 7, 13 and 18) wild-type (WT) and Il6 knockout mice (Il6-KO) were compared with virgin controls at diestrus. Food intake, body weight and composition as well as indirect calorimetry measurements were performed in vivo. Anabolic and orexigenic peptides: neuropeptide Y (Npy) and agouti-related peptide (Agrp); and catabolic and anorectic neuropeptides: proopiomelanocortin (Pomc), corticotrophin and thyrotropin-releasing hormone (Crh and Trh) mRNA levels were determined by in situ hybridization. Real time-PCR and western-blot were used for additional tissue gene expression and protein studies. Non-pregnant Il6-KO mice were leaner than WT mice due to a decrease in fat but not in lean body mass. Pregnant Il6-KO mice had higher fat accretion despite similar body weight gain than WT controls. A decreased fat utilization in absence of Il6 might explain this effect, as shown by increased respiratory exchange ratio (RER) in virgin Il6-KO mice. Il6 mRNA levels were markedly enhanced in adipose tissue but reduced in hypothalamus of mid and late pregnant WT mice. Trh expression was also stimulated at gestational day 13 and lack of Il6 blunted this effect. Conversely, in late pregnant mice lessened hypothalamic Il6 receptor alpha (Il6ra), Pomc and Crh mRNA were observed. Il6 deficiency during this stage up-regulated Npy and Agrp expression, while restoring Pomc mRNA levels to virgin values. Together these results demonstrate that IL6/IL6Ra system modulates Npy/Agrp, Pomc and Trh expression during mouse pregnancy, supporting a role of IL6 in the central

  1. IFN-γ-producing NKT cells exacerbate sepsis by enhancing C5a generation via IL-10-mediated inhibition of CD55 expression on neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji Hyung; Oh, Sae Jin; Ahn, Sehee; Chung, Doo Hyun

    2014-07-01

    A role for NKT cells has been implicated in sepsis, but the mechanism by which NKT cells contribute to sepsis remains unclear. Here, we examined WT and NKT-cell-deficient mice of C57BL/6 background during cecal ligation and puncture-induced sepsis. The levels of C5a, IFN-γ, and IL-10 were higher in the serum and peritoneal fluid of WT mice than in those of CD1d(-/-) mice, while the mortality rate was lower in CD1d(-/-) mice than in WT mice. C5a blockade decreased mortality of WT mice during sepsis, whereas it did not alter that of CD1d(-/-) mice. As assessed by intracellular staining, NKT cells expressed IFN-γ, while neutrophils expressed IL-10. Upon coculture, IL-10-deficient NKT cells enhanced IL-10 production by WT, but not IFN-γR-deficient, neutrophils. Meanwhile, CD1d(-/-) mice exhibited high CD55 expression on neutrophils during sepsis, whereas those cells from WT mice expressed minimal levels of CD55. Recombinant IL-10 administration into CD1d(-/-) mice reduced CD55 expression on neutrophils. Furthermore, adoptive transfer of sorted WT, but not IFN-γ-deficient, NKT cells into CD1d(-/-) mice suppressed CD55 expression on neutrophils, but increased IL-10 and C5a levels. Taken together, IFN-γ-producing NKT cells enhance C5a generation via IL-10-mediated inhibition of CD55 expression on neutrophils, thereby exacerbating sepsis.

  2. Neuropeptide Y expression and function during osteoblast differentiation--insights from transthyretin knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Ana F; Liz, Márcia A; Franquinho, Filipa; Teixeira, Liliana; Sousa, Vera; Chenu, Chantal; Lamghari, Meriem; Sousa, Mónica M

    2010-01-01

    To better understand the role of neuropeptide Y (NPY) in bone homeostasis, as its function in the regulation of bone mass is unclear, we assessed its expression in this tissue. By immunohistochemistry, we demonstrated, both at embryonic stages and in the adult, that NPY is synthesized by osteoblasts, osteocytes, and chondrocytes. Moreover, peptidylglycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase, the enzyme responsible for NPY activation by amidation, was also expressed in these cell types. Using transthyretin (TTR) KO mice as a model of augmented NPY levels, we showed that this strain has increased NPY content in the bone, further validating the expression of this neuropeptide by bone cells. Moreover, the higher amidated neuropeptide levels in TTR KO mice were related to increased bone mineral density and trabecular volume. Additionally, RT-PCR analysis established that NPY is not only expressed in MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells and bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs), but is also detectable by RIA in BMSCs undergoing osteoblastic differentiation. In agreement with our in vivo observations, in vitro, TTR KO BMSCs differentiated in osteoblasts had increased NPY levels and exhibited enhanced competence in undergoing osteoblastic differentiation. In summary, this work contributes to a better understanding of the role of NPY in the regulation of bone formation by showing that this neuropeptide is expressed in bone cells and that increased amidated neuropeptide content is related to increased bone mass.

  3. Rubicon deficiency enhances cardiac autophagy and protects mice from lipopolysaccharide-induced lethality and reduction in stroke volume.

    PubMed

    Zi, Zhenguo; Song, Zongpei; Zhang, Shasha; Ye, Yong; Li, Can; Xu, Mingqing; Zou, Yunzeng; He, Lin; Zhu, Hongxin

    2015-03-01

    : Rubicon has been suggested to suppress autophagosome maturation by negatively regulating PI3KC3/Vps34 activity. However, the physiological function of Rubicon remains elusive. We hypothesized that Rubicon deficiency enhances autophagic flux in the heart and affects cardiac function. Rubicon knockout (KO) mice were generated by piggyBac transposition. Loss of Rubicon was demonstrated at both mRNA and protein levels. Rubicon KO mice were born in Mendelian ratios. Autophagic flux, assessed by bafilomycin A1-induced changes in LC3 II protein abundance, was enhanced in the heart of Rubicon KO mice compared with wild-type (WT) controls. Hematoxylin-eosin staining and picrosirius red staining showed that Rubicon KO mice exhibited normal baseline cardiac morphology. Echocardiography revealed that ejection fraction and fractional shortening, 2 indices of cardiac function, were comparable between Rubicon KO mice at 2, 8, and 12 months of age (n = 6-8 for each age group) and the corresponding WT controls (n = 6-8 for each age group). In a mouse model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced sepsis, the survival time of LPS-treated Rubicon KO mice (n = 10) was prolonged compared with LPS-treated WT controls (n = 11). Echocardiography revealed that Rubicon deficiency partially normalized LPS-induced reduction in stroke volume and cardiac output 12 hours after LPS administration compared with LPS-treated WT controls (n = 6 for each group). Autophagic flux was enhanced in Rubicon-deficient hearts 12 hours after LPS treatment compared with LPS-treated WT controls. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction suggested that proinflammatory cytokine expression was not significantly different between LPS-treated Rubicon KO mice and WT controls (n = 3 for each group). Our data demonstrate for the first time that Rubicon deficiency enhances autophagic flux in the heart and protects mice from lethality and reduction in stroke volume induced by LPS.

  4. Human coxsackie adenovirus receptor (CAR) expression in transgenic mouse prostate tumors enhances adenoviral delivery of genes.

    PubMed

    Bao, Yunhua; Peng, Weidan; Verbitsky, Amy; Chen, Jiping; Wu, Lily; Rauen, Katherine A; Sawicki, Janet A

    2005-09-01

    Transgenic mice that recapitulate the progression of human diseases are potentially useful models for testing the effectiveness of new therapeutic strategies. Their use in pre-clinical testing of adenovirally-delivered gene therapies, however, is limited because of restricted cell surface expression of Coxsackie adenovirus receptor (CAR) in mice. To develop a more suitable transgenic mouse model for testing adenoviral-based gene therapies for prostate cancer, we generated prostate specific antigen/human CAR (PSA/hCAR) transgenic mice in which a chimeric enhancer/promoter sequence of the human PSA gene drives expression of a functional hCAR coding sequence. Expression of an adenovirally-delivered luciferase reporter gene in prostate tumor cells in bigenic mice (PSA/hCAR + TRAMP) was enhanced compared to the level in tumor cells lacking the PSA/hCAR transgene. Breeding PSA/hCAR mice to existing transgenic mouse models for prostate cancer (e.g., TRAMP) results in improved mouse models for testing adenovirally-delivered therapeutic genes. Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Transplantation of bone marrow genetically engineered to express proinsulin II protects against autoimmune insulitis in NOD mice.

    PubMed

    Chan, James; Clements, Warren; Field, Judith; Nasa, Zeyad; Lock, Peter; Yap, Felicia; Toh, Ban-Hock; Alderuccio, Frank

    2006-11-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a T-cell-dependent autoimmune disease resulting from destructive inflammation (insulitis) of the insulin-producing pancreatic beta-cells. Transgenic expression of proinsulin II by a MHC class II promoter or transfer of bone marrow from these transgenic mice protects NOD mice from insulitis and diabetes. We assessed the feasibility of gene therapy in the NOD mouse as an approach to treat T1D by ex vivo genetic manipulation of normal hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) with proinsulin II followed by transfer to recipient mice. HSCs were isolated from 6-8-week-old NOD female mice and transduced in vitro with retrovirus encoding enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) and either proinsulin II or control autoantigen. Additional control groups included mice transferred with non-manipulated bone marrow and mice which did not receive bone marrow transfer. EGFP-sorted or non-sorted HSCs were transferred into pre-conditioned 3-4-week-old female NOD mice and insulitis was assessed 8 weeks post-transfer. Chimerism was established in all major lymphoid tissues, ranging from 5-15% in non-sorted bone marrow transplants to 20-45% in EGFP-sorted bone marrow transplants. The incidence and degree of insulitis was significantly reduced in mice receiving proinsulin II bone marrow compared to controls. However, the incidence of sialitis in mice receiving proinsulin II bone marrow and control mice was not altered, indicating protection from insulitis was antigen specific. We show for the first time that ex vivo genetic manipulation of HSCs to express proinsulin II followed by transplantation to NOD mice can establish molecular chimerism and protect from destructive insulitis in an antigen-specific manner.

  6. Liver specific expression of Cu/ZnSOD extends the lifespan of Sod1 null mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yiqiang; Liu, Yuhong; Walsh, Michael; Bokov, Alex; Ikeno, Yuji; Jang, Young C; Perez, Viviana I; Van Remmen, Holly; Richardson, Arlan

    2016-03-01

    Genetic ablation of CuZn-superoxide dismutase (Sod1) in mice (Sod1(-/-) mice) leads to shortened lifespan with a dramatic increase in hepatocellular carcinoma and accelerated aging phenotypes, including early onset sarcopenia. To study the tissue specific effects of oxidative stress in the Sod1(-/-) mice, we generated mice that only express the human SOD1 gene specifically in the liver of Sod1(-/-) mice (Sod1(-/-)/hSOD1(alb) mice). Expression of hSOD1 in the liver of Sod1(-/-) mice improved liver function, reduced oxidative damage in liver, and partially restored the expression of several genes involved in tumorigenesis, which are abnormally expressed in the livers of the Sod1(-/-) mice. However, liver specific expression of hSOD1 did not prevent the loss of body weight and muscle mass and alterations in the structure of neuromuscular junctions. The expression of hSOD1 in the liver of Sod1(-/-) mice significantly improved the lifespan of Sod1(-/-) mice; however, the lifespan of the Sod1(-/-)/hSOD1(alb) mice was still significantly shorter than wild type mice.

  7. Gender-specific reduction of hepatic Mrp2 expression by high-fat diet protects female mice from ANIT toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Kong, Bo; Csanaky, Iván L.; Aleksunes, Lauren M.; Patni, Meghan; Chen, Qi; Ma, Xiaochao; Jaeschke, Hartmut; Weir, Scott; Broward, Melinda; Klaassen, Curtis D.; Guo, Grace L.

    2012-06-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that feeding a high-fat diet (HFD) to rodents affects the expression of genes involved in drug transport. However, gender-specific effects of HFD on drug transport are not known. The multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (Mrp2, Abcc2) is a transporter highly expressed in the hepatocyte canalicular membrane and is important for biliary excretion of glutathione-conjugated chemicals. The current study showed that hepatic Mrp2 expression was reduced by HFD feeding only in female, but not male, C57BL/6J mice. In order to determine whether down-regulation of Mrp2 in female mice altered chemical disposition and toxicity, the biliary excretion and hepatotoxicity of the Mrp2 substrate, α-naphthylisothiocyanate (ANIT), were assessed in male and female mice fed control diet or HFD for 4 weeks. ANIT-induced biliary injury is a commonly used model of experimental cholestasis and has been shown to be dependent upon Mrp2-mediated efflux of an ANIT glutathione conjugate that selectively injures biliary epithelial cells. Interestingly, HFD feeding significantly reduced early-phase biliary ANIT excretion in female mice and largely protected against ANIT-induced liver injury. In summary, the current study showed that, at least in mice, HFD feeding can differentially regulate Mrp2 expression and function and depending upon the chemical exposure may enhance or reduce susceptibility to toxicity. Taken together, these data provide a novel interaction between diet and gender in regulating hepatobiliary excretion and susceptibility to injury. -- Highlights: ► High-fat diet decreases hepatic Mrp2 expression only in female but not in male mice. ► HFD significantly reduces early-phase biliary ANIT excretion in female mice. ► HFD protects female mice against ANIT-induced liver injury.

  8. Engineered silica nanoparticles act as adjuvants to enhance allergic airway disease in mice

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background With the increase in production and use of engineered nanoparticles (NP; ≤ 100 nm), safety concerns have risen about the potential health effects of occupational or environmental NP exposure. Results of animal toxicology studies suggest that inhalation of NP may cause pulmonary injury with subsequent acute or chronic inflammation. People with chronic respiratory diseases like asthma or allergic rhinitis may be even more susceptible to toxic effects of inhaled NP. Few studies, however, have investigated adverse effects of inhaled NP that may enhance the development of allergic airway disease. Methods We investigated the potential of polyethylene glycol coated amorphous silica NP (SNP; 90 nm diameter) to promote allergic airway disease when co-exposed during sensitization with an allergen. BALB/c mice were sensitized by intranasal instillation with 0.02% ovalbumin (OVA; allergen) or saline (control), and co-exposed to 0, 10, 100, or 400 μg of SNP. OVA-sensitized mice were then challenged intranasally with 0.5% OVA 14 and 15 days after sensitization, and all animals were sacrificed a day after the last OVA challenge. Blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were collected, and pulmonary tissue was processed for histopathology and biochemical and molecular analyses. Results Co-exposure to SNP during OVA sensitization caused a dose-dependent enhancement of allergic airway disease upon challenge with OVA alone. This adjuvant-like effect was manifested by significantly greater OVA-specific serum IgE, airway eosinophil infiltration, mucous cell metaplasia, and Th2 and Th17 cytokine gene and protein expression, as compared to mice that were sensitized to OVA without SNP. In saline controls, SNP exposure did cause a moderate increase in airway neutrophils at the highest doses. Conclusions These results suggest that airway exposure to engineered SNP could enhance allergen sensitization and foster greater manifestation of allergic airway disease upon

  9. Engineered silica nanoparticles act as adjuvants to enhance allergic airway disease in mice.

    PubMed

    Brandenberger, Christina; Rowley, Nicole L; Jackson-Humbles, Daven N; Zhang, Quanxuan; Bramble, Lori A; Lewandowski, Ryan P; Wagner, James G; Chen, Weimin; Kaplan, Barbara L; Kaminski, Norbert E; Baker, Gregory L; Worden, Robert M; Harkema, Jack R

    2013-07-01

    With the increase in production and use of engineered nanoparticles (NP; ≤ 100 nm), safety concerns have risen about the potential health effects of occupational or environmental NP exposure. Results of animal toxicology studies suggest that inhalation of NP may cause pulmonary injury with subsequent acute or chronic inflammation. People with chronic respiratory diseases like asthma or allergic rhinitis may be even more susceptible to toxic effects of inhaled NP. Few studies, however, have investigated adverse effects of inhaled NP that may enhance the development of allergic airway disease. We investigated the potential of polyethylene glycol coated amorphous silica NP (SNP; 90 nm diameter) to promote allergic airway disease when co-exposed during sensitization with an allergen. BALB/c mice were sensitized by intranasal instillation with 0.02% ovalbumin (OVA; allergen) or saline (control), and co-exposed to 0, 10, 100, or 400 μg of SNP. OVA-sensitized mice were then challenged intranasally with 0.5% OVA 14 and 15 days after sensitization, and all animals were sacrificed a day after the last OVA challenge. Blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were collected, and pulmonary tissue was processed for histopathology and biochemical and molecular analyses. Co-exposure to SNP during OVA sensitization caused a dose-dependent enhancement of allergic airway disease upon challenge with OVA alone. This adjuvant-like effect was manifested by significantly greater OVA-specific serum IgE, airway eosinophil infiltration, mucous cell metaplasia, and Th2 and Th17 cytokine gene and protein expression, as compared to mice that were sensitized to OVA without SNP. In saline controls, SNP exposure did cause a moderate increase in airway neutrophils at the highest doses. These results suggest that airway exposure to engineered SNP could enhance allergen sensitization and foster greater manifestation of allergic airway disease upon secondary allergen exposures. Whereas SNP

  10. [Effect of Euphorbia kansui on urination and kidney AQP2, IL-1beta and TNF-alpha mRNA expression of mice injected with normal saline].

    PubMed

    Li, Huiyu; Lei, Fan; Wang, Yugang; Xiao, Xinyue; Hu, Jun; Cheng, Xianlong; Xing, Dongming; Hua, Lei; Lin, Ruichao; Du, Lijun

    2012-03-01

    To observe the effect of Euphorbia kansui (E. KS) alcohol extracts on urination and kidney-related expressions of mice injected with normal saline and to discuss its impact on kidney. Mice intraperitoneally injected with normal saline were observed for urination and changes in kidney-related histiocytic factors of after intragastrical administration of E. KS and compared with normal mice. E. KS alcohol extracts can promote urination of mice injected with normal saline and enhance peripheral serum creatinine, with no obvious pathological change showed in tissue sections. It had a certain effect on reducing AQP2 expression and enhancing TNF-alpha expression. Euphorbia kansui in large dose has a remarkable effect on kidney but may be accompanied with pathological reactions to some extent, especially the dose of 1.2 g x kg(-1). The pathological reactions may be related with increased serum creatinine and TNF-alpha expression.

  11. Context-dependent perturbation of neural systems in transgenic mice expressing a cytosolic prion protein.

    PubMed

    Faas, Henryk; Jackson, Walker S; Borkowski, Andrew W; Wang, Xinhe; Ma, Jiyan; Lindquist, Susan; Jasanoff, Alan

    2010-02-01

    We analyzed the relationship between pathogenic protein expression and perturbations to brain anatomy and physiology in a genetic model of prion disease. In this model, the mouse line 1D4, neuropathology is promoted by accumulation of a cytosolic form of the prion protein (cyPrP). CyPrP distribution was determined and compared with anatomical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data, a form of functional MRI based on manganese labeling, and immediate early gene mapping with an antibody to c-Fos. Significant discrepancies between 1D4 and control mice became apparent well in advance of overt behavioral pathology in the mutant mice. Alterations to brain structure and function in the mutants varied among brain regions, however, and differed strikingly even among regions with the highest levels of cyPrP expression. In the cerebellum, gross neurodegeneration was accompanied by increased Mn(2+)-enhanced MRI signal, raising the possibility that compensatory mechanisms act to preserve cerebellar function in the face of massive atrophy. In the hippocampus of 1D4 mice, no significant structural alterations were observed, but both Mn(2+)-enhanced MRI and c-Fos data indicated perturbations to neurophysiology. In the neocortex, there were no clear neural activity differences between 1D4 and control animals, but mutant mice showed significant reduction in cortical thickness. Our finding that distinct combinations of anatomical and functional abnormalities accompanied cyPrP overexpression in different parts of the brain indicates the importance of context in conditioning effects of protein pathogens, and exemplifies the notion that neurodegenerative phenotypes extend beyond cell death and the immediate consequences of atrophy for particular neural systems.

  12. Caloric restriction preserves memory and reduces anxiety of aging mice with early enhancement of neurovascular functions

    PubMed Central

    Parikh, Ishita; Guo, Janet; Chuang, Kai-Hsiang; Zhong, Yu; Rempe, Ralf G.; Hoffman, Jared D.; Armstrong, Rachel; Bauer, Björn; Hartz, Anika M.S.; Lin, Ai-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Neurovascular integrity plays an important role in protecting cognitive and mental health in aging. Lifestyle interventions that sustain neurovascular integrity may thus be critical on preserving brain functions in aging and reducing the risk for age-related neurodegenerative disorders. Here we show that caloric restriction (CR) had an early effect on neurovascular enhancements, and played a critical role in preserving vascular, cognitive and mental health in aging. In particular, we found that CR significantly enhanced cerebral blood flow (CBF) and blood-brain barrier function in young mice at 5-6 months of age. The neurovascular enhancements were associated with reduced mammalian target of rapamycin expression, elevated endothelial nitric oxide synthase signaling, and increased ketone bodies utilization. With age, CR decelerated the rate of decline in CBF. The preserved CBF in hippocampus and frontal cortex were highly correlated with preserved memory and learning, and reduced anxiety, of the aging mice treated with CR (18-20 months of age). Our results suggest that dietary intervention started in the early stage (e.g., young adults) may benefit cognitive and mental reserve in aging. Understanding nutritional effects on neurovascular functions may have profound implications in human brain aging and age-related neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:27829242

  13. Conditional deletion of cardiomyocyte peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ enhances myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Hobson, Michael J; Hake, Paul W; O'Connor, Michael; Schulte, Christine; Moore, Victoria; James, Jeanne M; Piraino, Giovanna; Zingarelli, Basilia

    2014-01-01

    The nuclear transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) is a key regulator of the inflammatory response to an array of biologic insults. We have previously demonstrated that PPARγ ligands reduce myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury in rodents. In the current study, we directly determined the role of cardiomyocyte PPARγ in ischemia-reperfusion injury, using a model of conditional cardiomyocyte-specific deletion of PPARγ in vivo. In mice, α-myosin heavy chain-restricted Cre-mediated PPARγ deficiency was induced by tamoxifen treatment (30 mg/kg intraperitoneally) for 4 days (PPARγ mice), whereas controls included mice treated with the oil diluent vehicle (PPARγ mice). Western blot and histochemical analyses confirmed that expression of PPARγ protein was abolished in cardiomyocytes of mice treated with tamoxifen, but not with vehicle. After tamoxifen or vehicle treatment, animals were subjected to 30-min ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery followed by 2-h reperfusion. In PPARγ mice, myocardial ischemia and reperfusion induced extensive myocardial damage, which was associated with elevated tissue activity of myeloperoxidase, indicating infiltration of neutrophils, and elevated plasma levels of troponin I when compared with PPARγ mice. Upon echocardiographic analysis, PPARγ mice also demonstrated ventricular dilatation and systolic dysfunction. Plasma levels of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin 1β and interleukin 6 were higher in PPARγ mice when compared with PPARγ mice. These pathological events in PPARγ mice were associated with enhanced nuclear factor κB DNA binding in the infarcted hearts. Thus, our data suggest that cardiomyocyte PPARγ is a crucial protective receptor and may prevent reperfusion injury by modulating mechanisms of inflammation.

  14. Dietary Iron Enhances Colonic Inflammation and IL-6/IL-11-Stat3 Signaling Promoting Colonic Tumor Development in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Desiree S.; Fu, S. Kristine; Forrest, Cynthia H.; Croft, Kevin D.; Olynyk, John K.; Lawrance, Ian C.; Trinder, Debbie

    2013-01-01

    Chronic intestinal inflammation and high dietary iron are associated with colorectal cancer development. The role of Stat3 activation in iron-induced colonic inflammation and tumorigenesis was investigated in a mouse model of inflammation-associated colorectal cancer. Mice, fed either an iron-supplemented or control diet, were treated with azoxymethane and dextran sodium sulfate (DSS). Intestinal inflammation and tumor development were assessed by endoscopy and histology, gene expression by real-time PCR, Stat3 phosphorylation by immunoblot, cytokines by ELISA and apoptosis by TUNEL assay. Colonic inflammation was more severe in mice fed an iron-supplemented compared with a control diet one week post-DSS treatment, with enhanced colonic IL-6 and IL-11 release and Stat3 phosphorylation. Both IL-6 and ferritin, the iron storage protein, co-localized with macrophages suggesting iron may act directly on IL-6 producing-macrophages. Iron increased DSS-induced colonic epithelial cell proliferation and apoptosis consistent with enhanced mucosal damage. DSS-treated mice developed anemia that was not alleviated by dietary iron supplementation. Six weeks post-DSS treatment, iron-supplemented mice developed more and larger colonic tumors compared with control mice. Intratumoral IL-6 and IL-11 expression increased in DSS-treated mice and IL-6, and possibly IL-11, were enhanced by dietary iron. Gene expression of iron importers, divalent metal transporter 1 and transferrin receptor 1, increased and iron exporter, ferroportin, decreased in colonic tumors suggesting increased iron uptake. Dietary iron and colonic inflammation synergistically activated colonic IL-6/IL-11-Stat3 signaling promoting tumorigenesis. Oral iron therapy may be detrimental in inflammatory bowel disease since it may exacerbate colonic inflammation and increase colorectal cancer risk. PMID:24223168

  15. Angiotensin converting enzyme over expression in myelocytes enhances the immune response

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, Kenneth E.; Gonzalez-Villalobos, Romer A.; Giani, Jorge F.; Shah, Kandarp; Bernstein, Ellen; Janjulia, Tea; Koronyo, Yosef; Shi, Peng D.; Koronyo-Hamaoui, Maya; Fuchs, Sebastien; Shen, Xiao Z.

    2015-01-01

    Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) plays an important role in blood pressure control. ACE also has effects on renal function, reproduction, hematopoiesis and several aspects of the immune response. ACE 10/10 mice over express ACE in monocytic cells; macrophages from ACE 10/10 mice demonstrate increased polarization towards a proinflammatory phenotype. As a result, ACE 10/10 mice have a highly effective immune response following challenge with either melanoma, bacterial infection or Alzheimer’s disease. The ACE 10/10 mice suggest that enhanced monocytic function greatly contributes to the ability of the immune response to defend against a wide variety of antigenic and non-antigenic challenges. PMID:24633750

  16. Berberine enhances antidiabetic effects and attenuates untoward effects of canagliflozin in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Tian, Cai-Ming; Jiang, Xin; Ouyang, Xiao-Xi; Zhang, Ya-Ou; Xie, Wei-Dong

    2016-07-01

    The present study aimed at determining whether berberine can enhance the antidiabetic effects and alleviate the adverse effects of canagliflozin in diabetes mellitus. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice were introduced, and the combined effects of berberine and canagliflozin on glucose metabolism and kidney functions were investigated. Our results showed that berberine combined with canagliflozin (BC) increased reduction of fasting and postprandial blood glucose, diet, and water intake compared with berberine or canagliflozin alone. Interestingly, BC showed greater decrease in blood urea nitrogen and creatinine levels and lower total urine glucose excretion than canagliflozin alone. In addition, BC showed increased phosphorylated 5' AMP-activated protein kinase (pAMPK) expression and decreased tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) levels in kidneys, compared with berberine or canagliflozin alone. These results indicated that BC was a stronger antidiabetic than berberine or canagliflozin alone with less negative side effects on the kidneys in the diabetic mice. The antidiabetic effect was likely to be mediated by synergically promoting the expression of pAMPK and reducing the expression of TNFα in kidneys. The present study represented the first report that canagliflozin combined with berberine was a promising treatment for diabetes mellitus. The exact underlying mechanisms of action should be investigated in future studies.

  17. PKCδ inhibition enhances tyrosine hydroxylase phosphorylation in mice after methamphetamine treatment

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Xuan-Khanh Thi; Bing, Guoying; Bach, Jae-Hyung; Park, Dae Hun; Nakayama, Keiichi; Ali, Syed F.; Kanthasamy, Anumantha G.; Cadet, Jean L.; Nabeshima, Toshitaka; Kim, Hyoung-Chun

    2014-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the specific role of protein kinase C (PKC) δ in methamphetamine (MA)-induced dopaminergic toxicity. A multiple-dose administration regimen of MA significantly increases PKCδ expression, while rottlerin, a PKCδ inhibitor, significantly attenuates MA-induced hyperthermia and behavioural deficits. These behavioural effects were not significantly observed in PKCδ antisense oligonucleotide (ASO)-treated- or PKCδ knockout (−/−)-mice. There were no MA-induced significant decreases of dopamine (DA) content or tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression in the striatum in rottlerin-treated-, ASO-treated- or PKCδ (−/−)-mice. The administration of MA also results in a significant decrease of TH phosphorylation at ser 40, but not ser 31, while the inhibition of PKCδ consistently and significantly attenuates MA-induced reduction in the phosphorylation of TH at ser 40. Therefore, these results suggest that the MA-induced enhancement of PKCδ expression is a critical factor in the impairment of TH phosphorylation at ser 40 and that pharmacological or genetic inhibition of PKCδ may be protective against MA-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity in vivo. PMID:21672585

  18. PKCδ inhibition enhances tyrosine hydroxylase phosphorylation in mice after methamphetamine treatment.

    PubMed

    Shin, Eun-Joo; Duong, Chu Xuan; Nguyen, Xuan-Khanh Thi; Bing, Guoying; Bach, Jae-Hyung; Park, Dae Hun; Nakayama, Keiichi; Ali, Syed F; Kanthasamy, Anumantha G; Cadet, Jean L; Nabeshima, Toshitaka; Kim, Hyoung-Chun

    2011-08-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the specific role of protein kinase C (PKC) δ in methamphetamine (MA)-induced dopaminergic toxicity. A multiple-dose administration regimen of MA significantly increases PKCδ expression, while rottlerin, a PKCδ inhibitor, significantly attenuates MA-induced hyperthermia and behavioral deficits. These behavioral effects were not significantly observed in PKCδ antisense oligonucleotide (ASO)-treated- or PKCδ knockout (-/-)-mice. There were no MA-induced significant decreases of dopamine (DA) content or tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression in the striatum in rottlerin-treated-, ASO-treated- or PKCδ (-/-)-mice. The administration of MA also results in a significant decrease of TH phosphorylation at ser 40, but not ser 31, while the inhibition of PKCδ consistently and significantly attenuates MA-induced reduction in the phosphorylation of TH at ser 40. Therefore, these results suggest that the MA-induced enhancement of PKCδ expression is a critical factor in the impairment of TH phosphorylation at ser 40 and that pharmacological or genetic inhibition of PKCδ may be protective against MA-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity in vivo. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Lethal cutaneous disease in transgenic mice conditionally expressing type I human T cell leukemia virus Tax.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Hakju; Ogle, Louise; Benitez, Bobby; Bohuslav, Jan; Montano, Mauricio; Felsher, Dean W; Greene, Warner C

    2005-10-21

    Type I human T cell leukemia virus (HTLV-I) is etiologically linked with adult T cell leukemia, an aggressive and usually fatal expansion of activated CD4+ T lymphocytes that frequently traffic to skin. T cell transformation induced by HTLV-I involves the action of the 40-kDa viral Tax transactivator protein. Tax both stimulates the HTLV-I long terminal repeat and deregulates the expression of select cellular genes by altering the activity of specific host transcription factors, including cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein (CREB)/activating transcription factor, NF-kappaB/Rel, and serum response factor. To study initiating events involved in HTLV-I Tax-induced T cell transformation, we generated "Tet-off" transgenic mice conditionally expressing in a lymphocyte-restricted manner (EmuSR alpha promoter-enhancer) either wild-type Tax or mutant forms of Tax that selectively compromise the NF-kappaB (M22) or CREB/activating transcription factor (M47) activation pathways. Wild-type Tax and M47 Tax-expressing mice, but not M22-Tax expressing mice, developed progressive alopecia, hyperkeratosis, and skin lesions containing profuse activated CD4 T cell infiltrates with evidence of deregulated inflammatory cytokine production. In addition, these animals displayed systemic lymphadenopathy and splenomegaly. These findings suggest that Tax-mediated activation of NF-kappaB plays a key role in the development of this aggressive skin disease that shares several features in common with the skin disease occurring during the preleukemic stage in HTLV-I-infected patients. Of note, this skin disease completely resolved when Tax transgene expression was suppressed by administration of doxycycline, emphasizing the key role played by this viral oncoprotein in the observed pathology.

  20. Novel enhanced green fluorescent protein-expressing NOG mouse for analyzing the microenvironment of xenograft tissues.

    PubMed

    Higuchi, Yuichiro; Kawai, Kenji; Yamamoto, Masafumi; Kuronuma, Miyuki; Ando, Yasuhiko; Katano, Ikumi; Nakamura, Masato; Suemizu, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    The interaction between transplanted cells and host tissues is important for the growth and maintenance of transplanted cells. To analyze the mechanisms of these interactions, a systemic fluorescent protein-expressing mouse is a useful recipient. In this study, we generated a novel NOG strain, which strongly expresses enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP; PgkEGFP-NOG), especially in the liver, kidney, gastrointestinal tract, and testis. Because the host tissues expressed EGFP, xenotransplanted human cancer cells were clearly identified as EGFP-negative colonies in PgkEGFP-NOG mice. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that EGFP-expressing stromal tissues formed a complicated tumor microenvironment within xenograft tissues. Moreover, a similar microenvironment was observed in human iPS cell-derived teratomas. Collectively, these results indicated that a suitable microenvironment is essential for the growth and maintenance of xenotransplanted cells and that PgkEGFP-NOG mice represent a useful animal model for analyzing the mechanisms of microenvironment formation.

  1. Cigarette smoke enhances abdominal aortic aneurysm formation in angiotensin II-treated apolipoprotein E-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Stolle, Katrin; Berges, An; Lietz, Michael; Lebrun, Stefan; Wallerath, Thomas

    2010-12-15

    Cigarette smoke, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension with the risk of development and progression of atherosclerosis and associated pathologies such as abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) are correlated. We examined the interaction of cigarette mainstream smoke (MS) and angiotensin-II (Ang II)-induced hypertension in the atherosclerotic process using hyperlipidemic apolipoprotein E-knockout (ApoE(-/-)) mice. ApoE(-/-) mice were treated with Ang II for 4 weeks and then further exposed to MS or to fresh air for 4 weeks. AAA formation was observed in all mice treated with Ang II, regardless of smoke exposure; however, smoke exposure increased the incidence of AAA in these mice. Ang II treatment resulted in higher gene expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-2, -3, -8, -9, and -12 in the abdominal aortas, which was further increased by MS exposure. The proteolytic activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9 was also enhanced in Ang II-treated mice exposed to MS, but only minor changes were seen with either smoke exposure or Ang II treatment alone. This study shows for the first time that both formation and severity of AAA in hypertensive ApoE(-/-) mice are accelerated by exposure to MS and that the proteolytic activity of MMPs is enhanced by the combination of Ang II and MS. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Enhanced perisomatic inhibition and impaired long-term potentiation in the CA1 region of juvenile CHL1-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Nikonenko, Alexander G; Sun, Mu; Lepsveridze, Eka; Apostolova, Ivayla; Petrova, Iveta; Irintchev, Andrey; Dityatev, Alexander; Schachner, Melitta

    2006-04-01

    The cell adhesion molecule, CHL1, like its close homologue L1, is important for normal brain development and function. In this study, we analysed the functional role of CHL1 in synaptic transmission in the CA1 region of the hippocampus using juvenile CHL1-deficient (CHL1-/-) and wild-type (CHL1+/+) mice. Inhibitory postsynaptic currents evoked in pyramidal cells by minimal stimulation of perisomatically projecting interneurons were increased in CHL1-/- mice compared with wild-type littermates. Also, long-term potentiation (LTP) at CA3-CA1 excitatory synapses was reduced under physiological conditions in CHL1-/- mice. This abnormality was abolished by application of a GABAA receptor antagonist, suggesting that enhanced inhibition is the cause of LTP impairment. Quantitative ultrastructural and immunohistochemical analyses revealed aberrations possibly related to the abnormally high inhibition observed in CHL1-/- mice. The length and linear density of active zones in symmetric synapses on pyramidal cell bodies, as well as number of perisomatic puncta containing inhibitory axonal markers were increased. Density and total number of parvalbumin-positive interneurons was also abnormally high. These observations and the finding that CA1 interneurons express CHL1 protein indicate that CHL1 is important for regulation of inhibitory synaptic transmission and interneuron populations in the postnatal brain. The observed enhancement of inhibitory transmission in CHL1-/- mice is in contrast to the previous finding of reduced inhibition in L1 deficient mice and indicates different functions of these two closely related molecules.

  3. Hepatocyte-specific IKK-β activation enhances VLDL-triglyceride production in APOE*3-Leiden mice[S

    PubMed Central

    van Diepen, Janna A.; Wong, Man C.; Guigas, Bruno; Bos, Jasper; Stienstra, Rinke; Hodson, Leanne; Shoelson, Steven E.; Berbée, Jimmy F. P.; Rensen, Patrick C. N.; Romijn, Johannes A.; Havekes, Louis M.; Voshol, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    Low-grade inflammation in different tissues, including activation of the nuclear factor κB pathway in liver, is involved in metabolic disorders such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). In this study, we investigated the relation between chronic hepatocyte-specific overexpression of IkB kinase (IKK)-β and hypertriglyceridemia, an important risk factor for CVD, by evaluating whether activation of IKK-β only in the hepatocyte affects VLDL-triglyceride (TG) metabolism directly. Transgenic overexpression of constitutively active human IKK-β specifically in hepatocytes of hyperlipidemic APOE*3-Leiden mice clearly induced hypertriglyceridemia. Mechanistic in vivo studies revealed that the hypertriglyceridemia was caused by increased hepatic VLDL-TG production rather than a change in plasma VLDL-TG clearance. Studies in primary hepatocytes showed that IKK-β overexpression also enhances TG secretion in vitro, indicating a direct relation between IKK-β activation and TG production within the hepatocyte. Hepatic lipid analysis and hepatic gene expression analysis of pathways involved in lipid metabolism suggested that hepatocyte-specific IKK-β overexpression increases VLDL production not by increased steatosis or decreased FA oxidation, but most likely by carbohydrate-responsive element binding protein-mediated upregulation of Fas expression. These findings implicate that specific activation of inflammatory pathways exclusively within hepatocytes induces hypertriglyceridemia. Furthermore, we identify the hepatocytic IKK-β pathway as a possible target to treat hypertriglyceridemia. PMID:21357939

  4. Expression of ABCG2 (BCRP) in mouse models with enhanced erythropoiesis

    PubMed Central

    Latunde-Dada, Gladys O.; Laftah, Abas H.; Masaratana, Patarabutr; McKie, Andrew T.; Simpson, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Haem is a structural component of numerous cellular proteins which contributes significantly to iron metabolic processes in mammals but its toxicity demands that cellular levels must be tightly regulated. Breast Cancer Resistance Protein (BCRP/ABCG2), an ATP Binding Cassette G-member protein has been shown to possess porphyrin/haem efflux function. The current study evaluated the expression and regulation of Abcg2 mRNA and protein levels in mouse tissues involved in erythropoiesis. Abcg2 mRNA expression was enhanced in bone marrow hemopoietic progenitor cells from mice that were treated with phenylhydrazine (PHZ). Abcg2 mRNA expression was increased particularly in the extramedullary haematopoietic tissues from all the mice models with enhanced erythropoiesis. Haem oxygenase (ho1) levels tended to increase in the liver of mice with enhanced erythropoiesis and gene expression patterns differed from those observed in the spleen. Efflux of haem biosynthetic metabolites might be dependent on the relative abundance of Abcg2 or ho1 during erythropoiesis. Abcg2 appears to act principally as a safety valve regulating porphyrin levels during the early stages of erythropoiesis and its role in systemic haem metabolism and erythrophagocytosis, in particular, awaits further clarification. PMID:25028581

  5. Dietary aluminosilicate supplement enhances immune activity in mice and reinforces clearance of porcine circovirus type 2 in experimentally infected pigs.

    PubMed

    Jung, Bock-Gie; Toan, Nguyen Tat; Cho, Sun-Ju; Ko, Jae-hyung; Jung, Yeon-Kwon; Lee, Bong-Joo

    2010-07-14

    Aluminosilicate is the major component of clay minerals such as zeolite, bentonite and clinoptilolite. The minerals possess a number of beneficial activities, especially in regulating the immune system. The aims of the present study were to evaluate immune enhancing effects of dietary aluminosilicate supplement (DAS) in mice, and to demonstrate clearance effects of DAS against porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) in experimentally infected pigs as an initial step towards the development of an antibiotic substitute for use in pigs. Relative messenger RNA expression levels of interferon-gamma, interleukin-4 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha, phagocytic activities of polymorphonuclear leucocytes, serum antibody production level and spleen B cell ratio were significantly increased in the DAS groups of mice compared with the control group (each feeding group had three replications with 5 mice each). The results indicated that general immune activity including cellular and humoral immunity could be enhanced by DAS in mice. In experimentally PCV2-infected pigs, the load of viral genome in nasal swab, serum and lung of the DAS group of pigs was significantly decreased compared with the control group at 28 days post-infection (each group three pigs). Corresponding histopathological analyses demonstrated that pigs in the DAS group displayed mild and less severe abnormal changes compared with the control group, indicating that DAS reinforces clearance of PCV2 in experimentally infected pigs. This may relate to general immune enhancing effects of DAS in mice. Therefore DAS will help the health of animal, especially in swine.

  6. TRACE AND CONTEXTUAL FEAR CONDITIONING IS ENHANCED IN MICE LACKING THE α4 SUBUNIT OF THE GABAA RECEPTOR

    PubMed Central

    Moore, M.D.; Cushman, J.; Chandra, D.; Homanics, G.E.; Olsen, R.W.; Fanselow, M.S.

    2014-01-01

    The GABAAR α4 subunit is highly expressed in the dentate gyrus region of the hippocampus at predominantly extra-synaptic locations where, along with the GABAAR δ subunit, it forms GABAA receptors that mediate a tonic inhibitory current. The present study was designed to test hippocampus-dependent and hippocampus-independent learning and memory in GABAAR α4 subunit-deficient mice using trace and delay fear conditioning, respectively. Mice were of a mixed C57Bl/6J X 129S1/X1 genetic background from α4 heterozygous breeding pairs. The α4-knockout mice showed enhanced trace and contextual fear conditioning consistent with an enhancement of hippocampus-dependent learning and memory. These enhancements were sex-dependent, similar to previous studies in GABAAR δ knockout mice, but differences were present in both males and females. The convergent findings between α4 and δ-knockout mice suggests that tonic inhibition mediated by α4βδ GABAA receptors negatively modulates learning and memory processes and provides further evidence that tonic inhibition makes important functional contributions to learning and behavior. PMID:20018248

  7. Enhanced GLUT4-Dependent Glucose Transport Relieves Nutrient Stress in Obese Mice Through Changes in Lipid and Amino Acid Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Gurley, Jami M; Ilkayeva, Olga; Jackson, Robert M; Griesel, Beth A; White, Phillip; Matsuzaki, Satochi; Qaisar, Rizwan; Van Remmen, Holly; Humphries, Kenneth M; Newgard, Christopher B; Olson, Ann Louise

    2016-12-01

    Impaired GLUT4-dependent glucose uptake is a contributing factor in the development of whole-body insulin resistance in obese patients and obese animal models. Previously, we demonstrated that transgenic mice engineered to express the human GLUT4 gene under the control of the human GLUT4 promoter (i.e., transgenic [TG] mice) are resistant to obesity-induced insulin resistance. A likely mechanism underlying increased insulin sensitivity is increased glucose uptake in skeletal muscle. The purpose of this study was to investigate the broader metabolic consequences of enhanced glucose uptake into muscle. We observed that the expression of several nuclear and mitochondrially encoded mitochondrial enzymes was decreased in TG mice but that mitochondrial number, size, and fatty acid respiration rates were unchanged. Interestingly, both pyruvate and glutamate respiration rates were decreased in TG mice. Metabolomics analyses of skeletal muscle samples revealed that increased GLUT4 transgene expression was associated with decreased levels of some tricarboxylic acid intermediates and amino acids, whereas the levels of several glucogenic amino acids were elevated. Furthermore, fasting acyl carnitines in obese TG mice were decreased, indicating that increased GLUT4-dependent glucose flux decreases nutrient stress by altering lipid and amino acid metabolism in skeletal muscle.

  8. Immunisation with proteins expressed during chronic murine melioidosis provides enhanced protection against disease.

    PubMed

    Champion, Olivia L; Gourlay, Louise J; Scott, Andrew E; Lassaux, Patricia; Conejero, Laura; Perletti, Lucia; Hemsley, Claudia; Prior, Joann; Bancroft, Gregory; Bolognesi, Martino; Titball, Richard W

    2016-03-29

    There is an urgent need for an effective vaccine against human disease caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei, and although a wide range of candidates have been tested in mice none provide high level protection. We considered this might reflect the inability of these vaccine candidates to protect against chronic disease. Using Q-RT PCR we have identified 6 genes which are expressed in bacteria colonising spleens and lungs of chronically infected mice. Three of the genes (BPSL1897, BPSL3369 and BPSL2287) have been expressed in Escherichia coli and the encoded proteins purified. We have also included BPSL2765, a protein known to induce immune responses associated with a reduced incidence of chronic/recurrent disease in humans. Immunisation of mice with a combination of these antigens resulted in the induction of antibody responses against all of the proteins. Compared with mice immunised with capsular polysaccharide or LolC protein, mice immunised with the combination of chronic stage antigens showed enhanced protection against experimental disease in mice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Associations among exposure to methylmercury, reduced Reelin expression, and gender in the cerebellum of developing mice.

    PubMed

    Biamonte, Filippo; Latini, Laura; Giorgi, Filippo Sean; Zingariello, Maria; Marino, Ramona; De Luca, Roberto; D'Ilio, Sonia; Majorani, Costanza; Petrucci, Francesco; Violante, Nicola; Senofonte, Oreste; Molinari, Marco; Keller, Flavio

    2014-12-01

    Genetic risk factors acting during pregnancy or early after birth have been proposed to account for the exponential increase of autism diagnoses in the past 20 years. In particular, a potential link with exposure to environmental mercury has been suggested. Male sex constitutes a second risk factor for autism. A third potential genetic risk factor is decreased Reelin expression. Male heterozygous reeler (rl(+/-)) mice show an autism-like phenotype, including Purkinje cells (PCs) loss and behavioral rigidity. We evaluated the complex interactions between 3 risk factors, i.e. genetic status, sex, and exposure to methylmercury (MeHg), in rl(+/-) mice. Mice were exposed to MeHg during the prenatal and early postnatal period, either at a subtoxic dose (2 ppm in Dams' drinking water), or at a toxic dose (6 ppm Dams' drinking water), based on observations in other rodent species and mice strains. We show that: (a) 2 ppm MeHg does not cause PCs loss in the different animal groups, and does not enhance PCs loss in rl(+/-) males; consistent with a lack of overt neurotoxicity, 2 ppm MeHg per se does not cause behavioral alterations (separation-induced ultrasonic calls in newborns, or sociability and social preference in adults); (b) in stark contrast, 6 ppm MeHg causes a dramatic reduction of PCs number in all groups, irrespective of genotype and sex. Cytochrome C release from mitochondria of PCs is enhanced in 6 ppm MeHg-exposed groups, with a concomitant increase of μ-calpain active subunit. At the behavioral level, 6 ppm MeHg exposure strongly increases ultrasonic vocalizations in all animal groups. Notably, 6 ppm MeHg significantly decreases sociability in rl(+/-) male mice, while the 2 ppm group does not show such as decrease. At a subtoxic dose, MeHg does not enhance the autism-like phenotype of male rl(+/-) mice. At the higher MeHg dose, the scenario is more complex, with some "autism-like" features (loss of sociability, preference for sameness) being evidently

  10. Radiation Exposure Alters Expression of Metabolic Enzyme Genes In Mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wotring, Virginia E.; Mangala, L. S.; Zhang, Y.; Wu, H.

    2010-01-01

    Most pharmaceuticals are metabolized by the liver. The health of the liver, especially the rate of its metabolic enzymes, determines the concentration of circulating drugs as well as the duration of their efficacy. Because of the importance of the liver in drug metabolism it is important to understand the effects of spaceflight on the enzymes of the liver. Exposure to cosmic radiation is one aspect of spaceflight that can be modeled in ground experiments. This study is an effort to examine the effects of adaptive mechanisms that may be triggered by early exposure to low radiation doses. Using procedures approved by the JSC Animal Care & Use Committee, C57 male mice were exposed to Cs-137 in groups: controls, low dose (50 mGy), high dose (6Gy) and a fourth group that received both radiation doses separated by 24 hours. Animals were anesthetized and sacrificed 4 hours after their last radiation exposure. Livers were removed immediately and flash-frozen in liquid nitrogen. Tissue was homogenized, RNA extracted and purified (Absolutely RNA, Agilent). Quality of RNA samples was evaluated (Agilent Bioanalyzer 2100). Complementary DNA was prepared from high-quality RNA samples, and used to run RT-qPCR screening arrays for DNA Repair and Drug Metabolism (SuperArray, SABiosciences/Qiagen; BioRad Cfx96 qPCR System). Of 91 drug metabolism genes examined, expression of 7 was altered by at least one treatment condition. Genes that had elevated expression include those that metabolize promethazine and steroids (4-8-fold), many that reduce oxidation products, and one that reduces heavy metal exposure (greater than 200-fold). Of the 91 DNA repair and general metabolism genes examined, expression of 14 was altered by at least one treatment condition. These gene expression changes are likely homeostatic and could lead to development of new radioprotective countermeasures.

  11. Resveratrol-enhanced autophagic flux ameliorates myocardial oxidative stress injury in diabetic mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bo; Yang, Qing; Sun, Yuan-yuan; Xing, Yi-fan; Wang, Ying-bin; Lu, Xiao-ting; Bai, Wen-wu; Liu, Xiao-qiong; Zhao, Yu-xia

    2014-01-01

    Autophagic dysfunction is observed in diabetes mellitus. Resveratrol has a beneficial effect on diabetic cardiomyopathy. Whether the resveratrol-induced improvement in cardiac function in diabetes is via regulating autophagy remains unclear. We investigated the mechanisms underlying resveratrol-mediated protection against heart failure in diabetic mice, with a focus on the role of sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) in regulating autophagic flux. Diabetic cardiomyopathy in mice was induced by streptozotocin (STZ). Long-term resveratrol treatment improved cardiac function, ameliorated oxidative injury and reduced apoptosis in the diabetic mouse heart. Western blot analysis revealed that resveratrol decreased p62 protein expression and promoted SIRT1 activity and Rab7 expression. Inhibiting autophagic flux with bafilomycin A1 increased diabetic mouse mortality and attenuated resveratrol-induced down-regulation of p62, but not SIRT1 activity or Rab7 expression in diabetic mouse hearts. In cultured H9C2 cells, redundant or overactive H2O2 increased p62 and cleaved caspase 3 expression as well as acetylated forkhead box protein O1 (FOXO1) and inhibited SIRT1 expression. Sirtinol, SIRT1 and Rab7 siRNA impaired the resveratrol amelioration of dysfunctional autophagic flux and reduced apoptosis under oxidative conditions. Furthermore, resveratrol enhanced FOXO1 DNA binding at the Rab7 promoter region through a SIRT1-dependent pathway. These results highlight the role of the SIRT1/FOXO1/Rab7 axis in the effect of resveratrol on autophagic flux in vivo and in vitro, which suggests a therapeutic strategy for diabetic cardiomyopathy. PMID:24889822

  12. Blockade of Tim-1 and Tim-4 Enhances Atherosclerosis in LDL Receptor-Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Foks, Amanda C.; Engelbertsen, Daniel; Kuperwaser, Felicia; Alberts-Grill, Noah; Gonen, Ayelet; Witztum, Joseph L.; Lederer, James; Jarolim, Petr; DeKruyff, Rosemarie H.; Freeman, Gordon J.; Lichtman, Andrew H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain (Tim) proteins are expressed by numerous immune cells, recognize phosphatidylserine (PS) on apoptotic cells and function as costimulators or coinhibitors. Tim-1 is expressed by activated T cells but is also found on dendritic cells and B cells. Tim-4, present on macrophages and dendritic cells, plays a critical role in apoptotic cell clearance, regulates the number of PS-expressing activated T cells and is genetically associated with low LDL and triglyceride levels. Since these functions of Tim-1 and Tim-4 could affect atherosclerosis, their modulation has potential therapeutic value in cardiovascular disease. Approach and Results ldlr−/− mice were fed a high-fat diet for 4 weeks while being treated with control (rat IgG1) or anti-Tim-1 (3D10) or -Tim-4 (21H12) mAbs that block PS recognition and phagocytosis. Both anti-Tim-1 and anti-Tim-4 treatments enhance atherosclerosis by 45% compared with controls by impairment of efferocytosis and increasing aortic CD4+T cells. Consistently, anti-Tim-4-treated mice show increased percentages of activated T cells and 'late' apoptotic cells in the circulation. Moreover, in vitro blockade of Tim-4 inhibited efferocytosis of oxLDL-induced apoptotic macrophages. Whereas anti-Tim-4 treatment increased Th1 and Th2 responses, anti-Tim-1 induced Th2 responses but dramatically reduced the percentage of Tregs. Finally, combined blockade of Tim-1 and Tim-4 increased atherosclerotic lesion size by 59%. Conclusion Blockade of Tim-4 aggravates atherosclerosis likely by prevention of phagocytosis of PS-expressing apoptotic cells and activated T cells by Tim-4-expressing cells, whereas Tim-1-associated effects on atherosclerosis are related to changes in Th1/Th2 balance and reduced circulating Tregs. PMID:26821944

  13. Dietary Macronutrient Composition Directs ChREBP Isoform Expression and Glucose Metabolism in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Victor; Youngs, Kristina; Cowley, Michael A.; Sleeman, Mark W.

    2016-01-01

    Carbohydrate response element binding protein (ChREBP) is a lipogenic transcription factor that is thought to be involved in the development of hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance. Increased ChREBP expression in liver results in increased hepatic steatosis, and the isoform ChREBPβ in adipose tissue can predict insulin sensitivity in obese humans. As ChREBP is activated by glucose, it was postulated that the composition of diet would regulate ChREBP isoform expression in metabolically relevant tissues. We compared the effects of diets with high complex carbohydrate, high fat, or a normal chow on ChREBP expression and metabolic parameters in C57BL/6 mice. We found that diets high in fat decrease ChREBP expression in adipose tissue, but isocaloric diets high in carbohydrate have no effect. Interestingly, this decrease in adipose ChREBP was associated with increased inflammatory markers. In the same animals a high carbohydrate diet induced a robust increase in hepatic ChREBPβ expression (≈2-fold; p = 0.0002), but little detectable change in the more abundant ChREBPα transcript. This change was accompanied by increased expression of target genes liver pyruvate kinase (p<0.0001), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (p = 0.0191) and stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (p = 0.0045). This increase in ChREBP expression was associated with increased hepatic steatosis, despite no changes in body weight or body fat when compared to chow-fed mice. Unexpectedly, mice fed a high carbohydrate diet displayed enhanced sensitivity to exogenous insulin, despite having mild glucose intolerance and increased liver steatosis. In summary, we have shown the composition of diet can selectively regulate ChREBP isoform expression in a tissue specific manner. Furthermore, we have shown a high complex carbohydrate diet selectively increases hepatic ChREBPβ expression, which associates with hepatic steatosis but not insulin resistance. In contrast, a high fat diet reduces adipose ChREBP, which associates

  14. GABAA receptor γ2 subunit knockdown mice have enhanced anxiety-like behavior but unaltered hypnotic response to benzodiazepines

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, Dev; Korpi, Esa R; Miralles, Celia P; De Blas, Angel L; Homanics, Gregg E

    2005-01-01

    Background Gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptors (GABAA-Rs) are the major inhibitory receptors in the mammalian brain and are modulated by a number of sedative/hypnotic drugs including benzodiazepines and anesthetics. The significance of specific GABAA-Rs subunits with respect to behavior and in vivo drug responses is incompletely understood. The γ2 subunit is highly expressed throughout the brain. Global γ2 knockout mice are insensitive to the hypnotic effects of diazepam and die perinatally. Heterozygous γ2 global knockout mice are viable and have increased anxiety-like behaviors. To further investigate the role of the γ2 subunit in behavior and whole animal drug action, we used gene targeting to create a novel mouse line with attenuated γ2 expression, i.e., γ2 knockdown mice. Results Knockdown mice were created by inserting a neomycin resistance cassette into intron 8 of the γ2 gene. Knockdown mice, on average, showed a 65% reduction of γ2 subunit mRNA compared to controls; however γ2 gene expression was highly variable in these mice, ranging from 10–95% of normal. Immunohistochemical studies demonstrated that γ2 protein levels were also variably reduced. Pharmacological studies using autoradiography on frozen brain sections demonstrated that binding of the benzodiazepine site ligand Ro15-4513 was decreased in mutant mice compared to controls. Behaviorally, knockdown mice displayed enhanced anxiety-like behaviors on the elevated plus maze and forced novelty exploration tests. Surprisingly, mutant mice had an unaltered response to hypnotic doses of the benzodiazepine site ligands diazepam, midazolam and zolpidem as well as ethanol and pentobarbital. Lastly, we demonstrated that the γ2 knockdown mouse line can be used to create γ2 global knockout mice by crossing to a general deleter cre-expressing mouse line. Conclusion We conclude that: 1) insertion of a neomycin resistance gene into intron 8 of the γ2 gene variably reduced the amount of γ2

  15. Diminazene enhances stability of atherosclerotic plaques in ApoE-deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Fraga-Silva, Rodrigo A.; Montecucco, Fabrizio; Costa-Fraga, Fabiana P.; Nencioni, Alessio; Caffa, Irene; Bragina, Maiia E.; Mach, François; Raizada, Mohan K.; Santos, Robson A.S.; da Silva, Rafaela F.; Stergiopulos, Nikolaos

    2017-01-01

    Angiotensin (Ang) II contributes to the development of atherosclerosis, while Ang-(1–7) has atheroprotective actions. Accordingly, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), which breaks-down Ang II and forms Ang-(1–7), has been suggested as a target against atherosclerosis. Here we investigated the actions of diminazene, a recently developed ACE2 activator compound, in a model of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque. Atherosclerotic plaque formation was induced in the carotid artery of ApoE-deficient mice by a shear stress (SS) modiffer device. The animals were treated with diminazene (15 mg/kg/day) or vehicle. ACE2 was strongly expressed in the aortic root and low SS-induced carotid plaques, but poorly expressed in the oscillatory SS-induced carotid plaques. Diminazene treatment did not change the lesion size, but ameliorated the composition of aortic root and low SS-induced carotid plaques by increasing collagen content and decreasing both MMP-9 expression and macrophage infiltration. Interestingly, these beneficial effects were not observed in the oscillatory SS-induced plaque. Additionally, diminazene treatment decreased intraplaque ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression, circulating cytokine and chemokine levels and serum triglycerides. In summary, ACE2 was distinctively expressed in atherosclerotic plaques, which depends on the local pattern of shear stress. Moreover, diminazene treatment enhances the stability of atherosclerotic plaques. PMID:26304699

  16. [Gene angora enhances the effects of gene waved alopecia in mice].

    PubMed

    Malinina, N A; Koniukhova, B V; Nesterova, A P

    2007-11-01

    Interaction between the mutant gene angora-Y (Fgf5(go-Y)) and the mutant gene waved alopecia (wal) in mice has been studied. Gene Fgf5(go-Y) in a homozygous state increases the length of hair of all types, whereas the homozygotes at wal gene display a waved hair with subsequent development of partial alopecia. Crosses between Fgf5(go-Y)/Fgf5(go-Y) and wal/wal mice gave the animals displaying the genotypes +/Fgf5(go-Y) wal/wal and Fgf5(go-Y)/Fgf5(go-Y) wal/walas well as F2 +/+ wal/wal mice. The first signs of alopecia in F2 +/+ wal/wal appear at the same time as in the mutant wal/wal BALB/c mice. This demonstrates that the genetic background has no effect on the expression of mutant gene wal. A single dose of gene Fgf5(go-Y) in +/Fgf5(go-Y) wal/wal mice causes a considerably earlier appearance of the first signs of alopecia compared with the +/+ wal/wal single homozygotes. The signs of alopecia in double homozygotes Fgf5(go-Y)/Fgf5(go-Y) wal/wal appear even earlier than in the mice +/Fgf5(go-Y) wal/wal. By the end of the first month after birth, the majority of double homozygotes have a virtually bold back with preserved scarce long hairs, guard hairs. Alopecia covers also the sides and belly. However, the head retains its hair and the regions of thinned long hairs remain on the limbs and near the tail base. The data obtained demonstrate that gene Fgf5(go-Y) is a modifier of gene wal, as it enhances considerably the effect of gene wal. This appears in an earlier development of alopecia and its more pronounced progress in the mice with genotypes +/Fgf5(go-Y) wal/wal and, particularly, Fgf5(go-Y)/Fgf5(go-Y) wal/wal.

  17. SH2B1 in β-cells promotes insulin expression and glucose metabolism in mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zheng; Morris, David L; Jiang, Lin; Liu, Yong; Rui, Liangyou

    2014-05-01

    Insulin deficiency drives the progression of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Pancreatic β-cell insulin expression and secretion are tightly regulated by nutrients and hormones; however, intracellular signaling proteins that mediate nutrient and hormonal regulation of insulin synthesis and secretion are not fully understood. SH2B1 is an SH2 domain-containing adaptor protein. It enhances the activation of the Janus tyrosine kinase 2 (JAK2)/signal transducer and activator of transcription and the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathways in response to a verity of hormones, growth factors, and cytokines. Here we identify SH2B1 as a new regulator of insulin expression. In rat INS-1 832/13 β-cells, SH2B1 knockdown decreased, whereas SH2B1 overexpression increased, both insulin expression and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. SH2B1-deficent islets also had reduced insulin expression, insulin content, and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Heterozygous deletion of SH2B1 decreased pancreatic insulin content and plasma insulin levels in leptin-deficient ob/ob mice, thus exacerbating hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance. In addition, overexpression of JAK2 increased insulin promoter activity, and SH2B1 enhanced the ability of JAK2 to activate the insulin promoter. Overexpression of SH2B1 also increased the expression of Pdx1 and the recruitment of Pdx1 to the insulin promoter in INS-1 832/13 cells, whereas silencing of SH2B1 had the opposite effects. Consistently, Pdx1 expression was lower in SH2B1-deficient islets. These data suggest that the SH2B1 in β-cells promotes insulin synthesis and secretion at least in part by enhancing activation of JAK2 and/or Pdx1 pathways in response to hormonal and nutritional signals.

  18. Increased TNFR1 expression and signaling in injured peripheral nerves of mice with reduced BACE1 activity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lijuan; Fissel, John A; Tasnim, Aniqa; Borzan, Jasenka; Gocke, Anne; Calabresi, Peter A; Farah, Mohamed H

    2016-09-01

    Hematogenous macrophages remove myelin debris from injured peripheral nerves to provide a micro-environment conducive to axonal regeneration. Previously, we observed that injured peripheral nerves from Beta-site APP Cleaving Enzyme 1 (BACE1) knockout (KO) mice displayed earlier influx of and enhanced phagocytosis by macrophages when compared to wild-type (WT) mice. These observations suggest that BACE1 might regulate macrophage influx into distal stumps of injured nerves. To determine through which pathway BACE1 influences macrophage influx, we used a mouse inflammation antibody array to assay the expression of inflammation-related proteins in injured nerves of BACE1 KO and WT mice. The most significant change was in expression of tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1) in the distal stump of injured BACE1 KO nerves. Western blotting of protein extracts confirmed increased expression of TNFR1 and its downstream transcriptional factor NFκB in the BACE1 KO distal stumps. Additionally, treatment of WT mice with a BACE1 inhibitor resulted in increased TNFR1 expression and signaling in the distal stump of injured nerves. Exogenous TNFα increased nuclear translocation of p65 NFκB in BACE1 KO tissue and cultured fibroblasts compared with control WT. BACE1 regulates TNFR1 expression at the level of gene expression and not through proteolytic processing. The accelerated macrophage influx in injured nerves of BACE1 KO mice correlates with increased expression and signaling via TNFR1, indicating a link between BACE1 activity and TNFR1 expression/signaling that might contribute to repair of the injured nervous system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Short-duration intermittent hypoxia enhances endurance capacity by improving muscle fatty acid metabolism in mice.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Junichi

    2016-04-01

    This study was designed to (1) investigate the effects of acute short-duration intermittent hypoxia on musclemRNAand microRNAexpression levels; and (2) clarify the mechanisms by which short-duration intermittent hypoxia improves endurance capacity. Experiment-1: Male mice were subjected to either acute 1-h hypoxia (12% O2), acute short-duration intermittent hypoxia (12% O2for 15 min, room air for 10 min, 4 times, Int-Hypo), or acute endurance exercise (Ex). The expression of vascular endothelial growth factor-AmRNAwas significantly greater than the control at 0 h post Ex and 6 h post Int-Hypo in the deep red region of the gastrocnemius muscle. miR-16 expression levels were significantly lower at 6 and 10 h post Int-Hypo. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α)mRNAlevels were significantly greater than the control at 3 h post Ex and 6 h post Int-Hypo. miR-23a expression levels were lower than the control at 6-24 h post Int-Hypo. Experiment-2: Mice were subjected to normoxic exercise training with or without intermittent hypoxia for 3 weeks. Increases in maximal exercise capacity were significantly greater by training with short-duration intermittent hypoxia (IntTr) than without hypoxia. Both 3-Hydroxyacyl-CoA-dehydrogenase and total carnitine palmitoyl transferase activities were significantly enhanced in IntTr. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta andPGC-1α mRNAlevels were both significantly greater in IntTr than in the sedentary controls. These results suggest that exercise training under normoxic conditions with exposure to short-duration intermittent hypoxia represents a beneficial strategy for increasing endurance performance by enhancing fatty acid metabolism in skeletal muscle.

  20. Selective Enhancement of Dopamine Release in the Ventral Pallidum of Methamphetamine-Sensitized Mice

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Drugs of abuse induce sensitization, which is defined as enhanced response to additional drug following a period of withdrawal. Sensitization occurs in both humans and animal models of drug reinforcement and contributes substantially to the addictive nature of drugs of abuse, because it is thought to represent enhanced motivational wanting for drug. The ventral pallidum, a key member of the reward pathway, contributes to behaviors associated with reward, such as sensitization. Dopamine inputs to the ventral pallidum have not been directly characterized. Here we provide anatomical, neurochemical, and behavioral evidence demonstrating that dopamine terminals in the ventral pallidum contribute to reward in mice. We report subregional differences in dopamine release, measured by ex vivo fast-scan cyclic voltammetry: rostral ventral pallidum exhibits increased dopamine release and uptake compared with caudal ventral pallidum, which is correlated with tissue expression of dopaminergic proteins. We then subjected mice to a methamphetamine-sensitization protocol to investigate the contribution of dopaminergic projections to the region in reward related behavior. Methamphetamine-sensitized animals displayed a 508% and 307% increase in baseline dopamine release in the rostral and caudal ventral pallidum, respectively. Augmented dopamine release in the rostral ventral pallidum was significantly correlated with sensitized locomotor activity. Moreover, this presynaptic dopaminergic plasticity occurred only in the ventral pallidum and not in the ventral or dorsal striatum, suggesting that dopamine release in the ventral pallidum may be integrally important to drug-induced sensitization. PMID:27501345

  1. Selective Enhancement of Dopamine Release in the Ventral Pallidum of Methamphetamine-Sensitized Mice.

    PubMed

    Stout, Kristen A; Dunn, Amy R; Lohr, Kelly M; Alter, Shawn P; Cliburn, Rachel A; Guillot, Thomas S; Miller, Gary W

    2016-10-19

    Drugs of abuse induce sensitization, which is defined as enhanced response to additional drug following a period of withdrawal. Sensitization occurs in both humans and animal models of drug reinforcement and contributes substantially to the addictive nature of drugs of abuse, because it is thought to represent enhanced motivational wanting for drug. The ventral pallidum, a key member of the reward pathway, contributes to behaviors associated with reward, such as sensitization. Dopamine inputs to the ventral pallidum have not been directly characterized. Here we provide anatomical, neurochemical, and behavioral evidence demonstrating that dopamine terminals in the ventral pallidum contribute to reward in mice. We report subregional differences in dopamine release, measured by ex vivo fast-scan cyclic voltammetry: rostral ventral pallidum exhibits increased dopamine release and uptake compared with caudal ventral pallidum, which is correlated with tissue expression of dopaminergic proteins. We then subjected mice to a methamphetamine-sensitization protocol to investigate the contribution of dopaminergic projections to the region in reward related behavior. Methamphetamine-sensitized animals displayed a 508% and 307% increase in baseline dopamine release in the rostral and caudal ventral pallidum, respectively. Augmented dopamine release in the rostral ventral pallidum was significantly correlated with sensitized locomotor activity. Moreover, this presynaptic dopaminergic plasticity occurred only in the ventral pallidum and not in the ventral or dorsal striatum, suggesting that dopamine release in the ventral pallidum may be integrally important to drug-induced sensitization.

  2. Trace fear conditioning is enhanced in mice lacking the δ subunit of the GABAA receptor

    PubMed Central

    Wiltgen, Brian J.; Sanders, Matthew J.; Ferguson, Carolyn; Homanics, Gregg E.; Fanselow, Michael S.

    2005-01-01

    The δ subunit of the GABAA receptor (GABAAR) is highly expressed in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. Genetic deletion of this subunit reduces synaptic and extrasynaptic inhibition and decreases sensitivity to neurosteroids. This paper examines the effect of these changes on hippocampus-dependent trace fear conditioning. Compared to controls, δ knockout mice exhibited enhanced acquisition of tone and context fear. Hippocampus-independent delay conditioning was normal in these animals. These results suggest that reduced inhibition in the dentate gyrus facilitates the acquisition of trace fear conditioning. However, the enhancement in trace conditioning was only observed in female knockout mice. The sex-specificity of this effect may be a result of neuroactive steroids. These compounds vary during the estrus cycle, can increase GABAergic inhibition, and have been shown to impair hippocampus-dependent learning. We propose that activation of GABAARs by neuroactive steroids inhibits learning processes in the hippocampus. Knockouts are immune to this effect because of the reduced neurosteroid sensitivity that accompanies deletion of the δ subunit. Relationships between neurosteroids, hippocampal excitability, and memory are discussed. PMID:15897254

  3. Computer-enhanced emotion in facial expressions.

    PubMed Central

    Calder, A J; Young, A W; Rowland, D; Perrett, D I

    1997-01-01

    Benson & Perrett's (1991 b) computer-based caricature procedure was used to alter the positions of anatomical landmarks in photographs of emotional facial expressions with respect to their locations in a reference norm face (e.g. a neutral expression). Exaggerating the differences between an expression and its norm produces caricatured images, whereas reducing the differences produces 'anti-caricatures'. Experiment 1 showed that caricatured (+50% different from neutral) expressions were recognized significantly faster than the veridical (0%, undistorted) expressions. This held for all six basic emotions from the Ekman & Friesen (1976) series, and the effect generalized across different posers. For experiment 2, caricatured (+50%) and anti-caricatured (-50%) images were prepared using two types of reference norm; a neutral-expression norm, which would be optimal if facial expression recognition involves monitoring changes in the positioning of underlying facial muscles, and a perceptually-based norm involving an average of the expressions of six basic emotions (excluding neutral) in the Ekman & Friesen (1976) series. The results showed that the caricatured images were identified significantly faster, and the anti-caricatured images significantly slower, than the veridical expressions. Furthermore, the neutral-expression and average-expression norm caricatures produced the same pattern of results. PMID:9265191

  4. Immunostimulatory effects of recombinant Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae expressing porcine interleukin-18 in mice and pigs.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Yohsuke; Minagawa, Yu; Shi, Fang; Eguchi, Masahiro; Muneta, Yoshihiro; Shimoji, Yoshihiro

    2012-09-01

    Interleukin-18 (IL-18), which was originally called gamma interferon (IFN-γ)-inducing factor, has been shown to play an important role in innate and acquired immune responses. In this study, attenuated Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae strains were engineered to produce porcine IL-18 (poIL-18) and evaluated for their potential immunostimulatory effect in animals. Recombinant poIL-18 was successfully expressed in the recombinant E. rhusiopathiae strains YS-1/IL-18 and KO/IL-18. The culture supernatant of YS-1/IL-18 was confirmed to induce IFN-γ production in murine splenocytes in vitro, and this production was inhibited by incubation with anti-poIL-18 monoclonal antibodies. Furthermore, more IFN-γ production was induced upon stimulation of splenocytes with concanavalin A for splenocytes from mice that were intraperitoneally inoculated with YS-1/IL-18 than for splenocytes from control mice inoculated with the parent strain YS-1. Peritoneal macrophages from mice preinoculated with YS-1/IL-18 exhibited enhanced phagocytosis of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium compared with peritoneal macrophages from control mice preinoculated with YS-1. We also confirmed the immunostimulatory effect on humoral immune responses against antigens of E. rhusiopathiae and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae in gnotobiotic pigs that were orally preinoculated with KO/IL-18. Thus, these results provide evidence that E. rhusiopathiae is a promising vector for the expression of host cytokines and suggest the potential utility of E. rhusiopathiae vector-encoded cytokines in the activation of host innate and acquired immune responses.

  5. Immunostimulatory Effects of Recombinant Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae Expressing Porcine Interleukin-18 in Mice and Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Ogawa, Yohsuke; Minagawa, Yu; Shi, Fang; Eguchi, Masahiro; Muneta, Yoshihiro

    2012-01-01

    Interleukin-18 (IL-18), which was originally called gamma interferon (IFN-γ)-inducing factor, has been shown to play an important role in innate and acquired immune responses. In this study, attenuated Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae strains were engineered to produce porcine IL-18 (poIL-18) and evaluated for their potential immunostimulatory effect in animals. Recombinant poIL-18 was successfully expressed in the recombinant E. rhusiopathiae strains YS-1/IL-18 and KO/IL-18. The culture supernatant of YS-1/IL-18 was confirmed to induce IFN-γ production in murine splenocytes in vitro, and this production was inhibited by incubation with anti-poIL-18 monoclonal antibodies. Furthermore, more IFN-γ production was induced upon stimulation of splenocytes with concanavalin A for splenocytes from mice that were intraperitoneally inoculated with YS-1/IL-18 than for splenocytes from control mice inoculated with the parent strain YS-1. Peritoneal macrophages from mice preinoculated with YS-1/IL-18 exhibited enhanced phagocytosis of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium compared with peritoneal macrophages from control mice preinoculated with YS-1. We also confirmed the immunostimulatory effect on humoral immune responses against antigens of E. rhusiopathiae and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae in gnotobiotic pigs that were orally preinoculated with KO/IL-18. Thus, these results provide evidence that E. rhusiopathiae is a promising vector for the expression of host cytokines and suggest the potential utility of E. rhusiopathiae vector-encoded cytokines in the activation of host innate and acquired immune responses. PMID:22761300

  6. In vitro vitamin K(2) and 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) combination enhances osteoblasts anabolism of diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Poon, Christina C W; Li, Rachel W S; Seto, Sai Wang; Kong, Siu Kai; Ho, Ho Pui; Hoi, Maggie P M; Lee, Simon M Y; Ngai, Sai Ming; Chan, Shun Wan; Leung, George P H; Kwan, Yiu Wa

    2015-11-15

    In this study, we evaluated the anabolic effect and the underlying cellular mechanisms involved of vitamin K2 (10 nM) and 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) (10 nM), alone and in combination, on primary osteoblasts harvested from the iliac crests of C57BL/KsJ lean (+/+) and obese/diabetic (db/db) mice. A lower alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity plus a reduced expression of bone anabolic markers and bone formation transcription factors (osteocalcin, Runx2, Dlx5, ATF4 and OSX) were consistently detected in osteoblasts of db/db mice compared to lean mice. A significantly higher calcium deposits formation in osteoblasts was observed in lean mice when compared to db/db mice. Co-administration of vitamin K2 (10 nM) and 1,25(OH)2D3 (10 nM) caused an enhancement of calcium deposits in osteoblasts in both strains of mice. Vitamins K2 and 1,25(OH)2D3 co-administration time-dependently (7, 14 and 21 days) increased the levels of bone anabolic markers and bone formation transcription factors, with a greater magnitude of increase observed in osteoblasts of db/db mice. Combined vitamins K2 plus 1,25(OH)2D3 treatment significantly enhanced migration and the re-appearance of surface microvilli and ruffles of osteoblasts of db/db mice. Thus, our results illustrate that vitamins K2 plus D3 combination could be a novel therapeutic strategy in treating diabetes-associated osteoporosis.

  7. Dietary wolfberry upregulates carotenoid metabolic genes and enhances mitochondrial biogenesis in the retina of db/db diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Yu, Huifeng; Wark, Logan; Ji, Hua; Willard, Lloyd; Jaing, Yu; Han, Jing; He, Hui; Ortiz, Edlin; Zhang, Yunong; Medeiros, Denis M; Lin, Dingbo

    2013-07-01

    Our aim was to investigate whether dietary wolfberry altered carotenoid metabolic gene expression and enhanced mitochondrial biogenesis in the retina of diabetic mice. Six-week-old male db/db and wild-type mice were fed the control or wolfberry diets for 8 weeks. At study termination, liver and retinal tissues were collected for analysis by transmission electron microscopy, real-time PCR, immunoprecipitation, Western blot, and HPLC. Wolfberry elevated zeaxanthin and lutein levels in the liver and retinal tissues and stimulated expression of retinal scavenger receptor class B type I, glutathione S-transferase Pi 1, and β,β-carotene 9',10'-oxygenase 2, and induced activation and nuclear enrichment of retinal AMP-activated protein kinase α2 (AMPK-α2). Furthermore, wolfberry attenuated hypoxia and mitochondrial stress as demonstrated by declined expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1-α, vascular endothelial growth factor, and heat shock protein 60. Wolfberry enhanced retinal mitochondrial biogenesis in diabetic retinas as demonstrated by reversed mitochondrial dispersion in the retinal pigment epithelium, increased mitochondrial copy number, elevated citrate synthase activity, and upregulated expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ co-activator 1α, nuclear respiratory factor 1, and mitochondrial transcription factor A. Consumption of dietary wolfberry could be beneficial to retinoprotection through reversal of mitochondrial function in diabetic mice. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Expression of heat shock protein 90 in the kidneys of diabetic db/db mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Y S; Sohn, E; Jung, D H; Lee, Y M; Kim, C S; Kim, J; Kim, J S

    2014-01-01

    To identify novel genes regulated in diabetic nephropathy. Total RNA from the renal cortex of db/+ and db/db mice was isolated and DNA microarrays specific for diabetes signaling pathways were used for expression profiling. Expression of mRNA and protein was determined by RT-PCR and western blotting. The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated biotinylated UTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay and immunohistochemical staining were assessed in renal cortex of db/db mice. Microarray data revealed that 7 genes show up- or down-regulated pattern and diabetic mice specifically decreased heat shock protein (Hsp) 90α expression of genes compared to control mice (diabetic mice 0.68 vs. control mice 1 relative density). Expression of Hsp90α mRNA and Hsp90 protein was significantly decreased in the renal cortex of diabetic mice. However, Hsp70 mRNA and protein expression was not changed. Apoptosis was increased in glomeruli of diabetic mice due to increased expression of cleaved caspase-3 and Bax. Our results suggest that Hsp 90 expression was decreased in diabetic glomeruli and decreased Hsp90 expression may mediate podocyte apoptosis in type 2 diabetic kidneys.

  9. Expression of interleukin-6 by a recombinant rabies virus enhances its immunogenicity as a potential vaccine.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jun; Zhang, Boyue; Wu, Yuting; Tian, Qin; Zhao, Jing; Lyu, Ziyu; Zhang, Qiong; Mei, Mingzhu; Luo, Yongwen; Guo, Xiaofeng

    2017-02-07

    Several studies have confirmed that interleukin-6 (IL6) mediates multiple biological effects that enhance immune responses when used as an adjuvant. In the present study, recombinant rabies virus (RABV) expressing canine IL6 (rHEP-CaIL6) was rescued and its pathogenicity and immunogenicity were investigated in mice. We demonstrated that mice received a single intramuscular immunization with rHEP-CaIL6 showed an earlier increase and higher maximum titres of virus-neutralizing antibody (VNA) as well as anti-RABV antibodies compared with mice immunized with the parent strain. Moreover, survival rates of mice immunized with rHEP-CaIL6 were higher compared with mice immunized with parent HEP-Flury according to the challenge assay. Flow cytometry further confirmed that immunization with rHEP-CaIL6 induced the strong recruitment of mature B cells and CD8(+) T cells to lymph nodes, which may partially explain the high levels of VNA and enhanced cellular immunity. Quantitative real-time PCR indicated that rHEP-CaIL6 induced stronger inflammatory and immune responses in the central nervous system, which might have allowed virus clearance in the early infection phase. Furthermore, mice infected intranasally with rHEP-CaIL6 developed no clinical symptoms while mice infected with HEP-Flury showed piloerection. In summary, these data indicate that rHEP-CaIL6 induces a strong, protective immune response with a good safety profile. Therefore, a recombinant RABV strain expressing canine IL6 may aid the development of an effective, safe attenuated rabies vaccine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Depletion of Gangliosides Enhances Articular Cartilage Repair in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Matsuoka, Masatake; Onodera, Tomohiro; Homan, Kentaro; Sasazawa, Fumio; Furukawa, Jun-ichi; Momma, Daisuke; Baba, Rikiya; Hontani, Kazutoshi; Joutoku, Zenta; Matsubara, Shinji; Yamashita, Tadashi; Iwasaki, Norimasa

    2017-01-01

    Elucidation of the healing mechanisms in damaged tissues is a critical step for establishing breakthroughs in tissue engineering. Articular cartilage is clinically one of the most successful tissues to be repaired with regenerative medicine because of its homogeneous extracellular matrix and few cell types. However, we only poorly understand cartilage repair mechanisms, and hence, regenerated cartilage remains inferior to the native tissues. Here, we show that glycosylation is an important process for hypertrophic differentiation during articular cartilage repair. GM3, which is a precursor molecule for most gangliosides, was transiently expressed in surrounding damaged tissue, and depletion of GM3 synthase enhanced cartilage repair. Gangliosides also regulated chondrocyte hypertrophy via the Indian hedgehog pathway. These results identify a novel mechanism of cartilage healing through chondrocyte hypertrophy that is regulated by glycosylation. Manipulation of gangliosides and their synthases may have beneficial effects on articular cartilage repair. PMID:28252046

  11. Two weeks of metformin treatment enhances mitochondrial respiration in skeletal muscle of AMPK kinase dead but not wild type mice.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Jonas M; Larsen, Steen; Helge, Jørn W; Dela, Flemming; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen F P

    2013-01-01

    Metformin is used as an anti-diabetic drug. Metformin ameliorates insulin resistance by improving insulin sensitivity in liver and skeletal muscle. Reduced mitochondrial content has been reported in type 2 diabetic muscles and it may contribute to decreased insulin sensitivity characteristic for diabetic muscles. The molecular mechanism behind the effect of metformin is not fully clarified but inhibition of complex I in the mitochondria and also activation of the 5'AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK) has been reported in muscle. Furthermore, both AMPK activation and metformin treatment have been associated with stimulation of mitochondrial function and biogenesis. However, a causal relationship in skeletal muscle has not been investigated. We hypothesized that potential effects of in vivo metformin treatment on mitochondrial function and protein expressions in skeletal muscle are dependent upon AMPK signaling. We investigated this by two weeks of oral metformin treatment of muscle specific kinase dead α(2) (KD) AMPK mice and wild type (WT) littermates. We measured mitochondrial respiration and protein activity and expressions of key enzymes involved in mitochondrial carbohydrate and fat metabolism and oxidative phosphorylation. Mitochondrial respiration, HAD and CS activity, PDH and complex I-V and cytochrome c protein expression were all reduced in AMPK KD compared to WT tibialis anterior muscles. Surprisingly, metformin treatment only enhanced respiration in AMPK KD mice and thereby rescued the respiration defect compared to the WT mice. Metformin did not influence protein activities or expressions in either WT or AMPK KD mice.We conclude that two weeks of in vivo metformin treatment enhances mitochondrial respiration in the mitochondrial deficient AMPK KD but not WT mice. The improvement seems to be unrelated to AMPK, and does not involve changes in key mitochondrial proteins.

  12. Two Weeks of Metformin Treatment Enhances Mitochondrial Respiration in Skeletal Muscle of AMPK Kinase Dead but Not Wild Type Mice

    PubMed Central

    Helge, Jørn W.; Dela, Flemming; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen F. P.

    2013-01-01

    Metformin is used as an anti-diabetic drug. Metformin ameliorates insulin resistance by improving insulin sensitivity in liver and skeletal muscle. Reduced mitochondrial content has been reported in type 2 diabetic muscles and it may contribute to decreased insulin sensitivity characteristic for diabetic muscles. The molecular mechanism behind the effect of metformin is not fully clarified but inhibition of complex I in the mitochondria and also activation of the 5′AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK) has been reported in muscle. Furthermore, both AMPK activation and metformin treatment have been associated with stimulation of mitochondrial function and biogenesis. However, a causal relationship in skeletal muscle has not been investigated. We hypothesized that potential effects of in vivo metformin treatment on mitochondrial function and protein expressions in skeletal muscle are dependent upon AMPK signaling. We investigated this by two weeks of oral metformin treatment of muscle specific kinase dead α2 (KD) AMPK mice and wild type (WT) littermates. We measured mitochondrial respiration and protein activity and expressions of key enzymes involved in mitochondrial carbohydrate and fat metabolism and oxidative phosphorylation. Mitochondrial respiration, HAD and CS activity, PDH and complex I-V and cytochrome c protein expression were all reduced in AMPK KD compared to WT tibialis anterior muscles. Surprisingly, metformin treatment only enhanced respiration in AMPK KD mice and thereby rescued the respiration defect compared to the WT mice. Metformin did not influence protein activities or expressions in either WT or AMPK KD mice. We conclude that two weeks of in vivo metformin treatment enhances mitochondrial respiration in the mitochondrial deficient AMPK KD but not WT mice. The improvement seems to be unrelated to AMPK, and does not involve changes in key mitochondrial proteins. PMID:23341947

  13. An Intrastriatal Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Infusion Restores Striatal Gene Expression in Bdnf Heterozygous Mice

    PubMed Central

    Saylor, Alicia J.; McGinty, Jacqueline F.

    2011-01-01

    Reduction in the amount of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in corticostriatal afferents is thought to contribute to the vulnerability of medium spiny striatal neurons in Huntington’s disease. In young Bdnf heterozygous (+/−) mice, striatal medium spiny neurons express less preprodynorphin, preproenkephalin, and D3 receptor mRNA than wildtype mice. Further, in aged Bdnf+/− mice, opioid, trkB receptor, and glutamic acid decarboxylase gene expression, and the number of dendritic spines on medium spiny neurons are more affected than in wildtype or younger Bdnf+/− mice. In this study, the possibility that intrastriatal infusions of BDNF would elevate gene expression in the striatum of Bdnf+/− mice was investigated. Wildtype and Bdnf+/− mice received a single, bilateral microinjection of BDNF or PBS into the dorsal striatum. Mice were sacrificed 24 hours later and semi-quantitative in situ hybridization histochemical analysis confirmed that preprodynorphin, preproenkephalin and D3 receptor mRNA was less in the caudate-putamen and nucleus accumbens core of Bdnf+/− mice than in wildtype mice. A BDNF infusion increased preprodynorphin mRNA in the caudate-putamen and NAc core of wildtype mice and restored preprodynorphin mRNA levels in the nucleus accumbens core of Bdnf+/− mice. BDNF also restored the gene expression of preproenkephalin in the caudate-putamen of Bdnf+/− mice to wildtype levels; however, preproenkephalin mRNA in the nucleus accumbens did not differ among groups. Furthermore, BDNF increased D3 receptor mRNA in the nucleus accumbens core of wildtype and Bdnf+/− mice. These results demonstrate that exogenous BDNF restores striatal opioid and D3R gene expression in mice with genetically reduced levels of endogenous BDNF. PMID:20938680

  14. Transgenic expression of CYP7A1 in LDL receptor-deficient mice blocks diet-induced hypercholesterolemia.

    PubMed

    Ratliff, Eric P; Gutierrez, Alejandra; Davis, Roger A

    2006-07-01

    Constitutive expression of a cholesterol-7alpha-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) transgene in LDL receptor-deficient mice blocked the ability of a cholesterol-enriched diet to increase plasma levels of apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins. LDL receptor-deficient mice expressing the CYP7A1 transgene exhibited complete resistance to diet-induced hypercholesterolemia and to the accumulation of cholesterol in the liver. Hepatic mRNA expression of liver X receptor-inducible ABCG5 and ABCG8 was decreased in CYP7A1 transgenic, LDL receptor-deficient mice fed a cholesterol-enriched diet. Thus, increased biliary cholesterol excretion could not account for the maintenance of cholesterol homeostasis. CYP7A1 transgenic, LDL receptor-deficient mice fed the cholesterol-enriched diet exhibited decreased jejunal Niemann-Pick C1-Like 1 protein (NPC1L1) mRNA expression, an important mediator of intestinal cholesterol absorption. A taurocholate-enriched diet also decreased NPC1L1 mRNA expression in a farnesoid X receptor-independent manner. Reduced expression of NPC1L1 mRNA was associated with decreased cholesterol absorption ( approximately 20%; P < 0.05) exhibited by CYP7A1 transgenic LDL receptor-deficient mice fed the cholesterol-enriched diet. The combined data show that enhanced expression of CYP7A1 is an effective means to prevent the accumulation of cholesterol in the liver and of atherogenic apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins in plasma.

  15. Mutant p53 promotes epithelial-mesenchymal plasticity and enhances metastasis in mammary carcinomas of WAP-T mice.

    PubMed

    Lenfert, Eva; Maenz, Claudia; Heinlein, Christina; Jannasch, Katharina; Schumacher, Udo; Pantel, Klaus; Tolstonog, Genrich V; Deppert, Wolfgang; Wegwitz, Florian

    2015-03-15

    To study the postulated mutant p53 (mutp53) "gain of function" effects in mammary tumor development, progression and metastasis, we crossed SV40 transgenic WAP-T mice with mutant p53 transgenic WAP-mutp53 mice. Compared to tumors in monotransgenic WAP-T mice, tumors in bitransgenic WAP-T x WAP-mutp53 mice showed higher tumor grading, enhanced vascularization, and significantly increased metastasis. Bitransgenic tumors revealed a gene signature associated with the oncogenic epithelial-mesenchymal transition pathway (EMT gene signature). In cultures of WAP-T tumor-derived G-2 cancer cells, which are comprised of subpopulations displaying "mesenchymal" and "epithelial" phenotypes, this EMT gene signature was associated with the "mesenchymal" compartment. Furthermore, ectopic expression of mutp53 in G-2 cells sufficed to induce a strong EMT phenotype. In contrast to these in vitro effects, monotransgenic and bitransgenic tumors were phenotypically similar suggesting that in vivo the tumor cell phenotype might be under control of the tumor microenvironment. In support, orthotopic transplantation of G-2 cells as well as of G-2 cells expressing ectopic mutp53 into syngeneic mice resulted in tumors with a predominantly epithelial phenotype, closely similar to that of endogenous primary tumors. We conclude that induction of an EMT gene signature by mutp53 in bitransgenic tumors primarily promotes tumor cell plasticity, that is, the probability of tumor cells to undergo EMT processes under appropriate stimuli, thereby possibly increasing their potential to disseminate and metastasize. © 2014 UICC.

  16. A mouse renin distal enhancer is essential for blood pressure homeostasis in BAC-rescued renin-null mutant mice.

    PubMed

    Tanimoto, Keiji; Kanafusa, Sumiyo; Ushiki, Aki; Matsuzaki, Hitomi; Ishida, Junji; Sugiyama, Fumihiro; Fukamizu, Akiyoshi

    2014-10-01

    Renin is predominantly expressed in juxtaglomerular cells in the kidney and regulates blood pressure homeostasis. To examine possible in vivo functions of a mouse distal enhancer (mdE), we generated transgenic mice (TgM) carrying either wild-type or mdE-deficient renin BACs (bacterial artificial chromosome), integrated at the identical chromosomal site. In the kidneys of the TgM, the mdE contributed 80% to basal renin promoter activity. To test for possible physiological roles for the mdE, renin BAC transgenes were used to rescue the hypotensive renin-null mice. Interestingly, renal renin expression in the Tg(BAC):renin-null compound mice was indistinguishable between the wild-type and mutant BAC carriers. Surprisingly, however, the plasma renin activity and angiotensin I concentration in the mdE compound mutant mice were significantly lower than the same parameters in the control mice, and the mutants were consistently hypotensive, demonstrating that blood pressure homeostasis is regulated through transcriptional cis elements controlling renin activity.

  17. Distinct Effects of Chronic Dopaminergic Stimulation on Hippocampal Neurogenesis and Striatal Doublecortin Expression in Adult Mice

    PubMed Central

    Salvi, Rachele; Steigleder, Tobias; Schlachetzki, Johannes C. M.; Waldmann, Elisabeth; Schwab, Stefan; Winner, Beate; Winkler, Jürgen; Kohl, Zacharias

    2016-01-01

    While adult neurogenesis is considered to be restricted to the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) and the subventricular zone (SVZ), recent studies in humans and rodents provide evidence for newly generated neurons in regions generally considered as non-neurogenic, e.g., the striatum. Stimulating dopaminergic neurotransmission has the potential to enhance adult neurogenesis in the SVZ and the DG most likely via D2/D3 dopamine (DA) receptors. Here, we investigated the effect of two distinct preferential D2/D3 DA agonists, Pramipexole (PPX), and Ropinirole (ROP), on adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus and striatum of adult naïve mice. To determine newly generated cells in the DG incorporating 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU) a proliferation paradigm was performed in which two BrdU injections (100 mg/kg) were applied intraperitoneally within 12 h after a 14-days-DA agonist treatment. Interestingly, PPX, but not ROP significantly enhanced the proliferation in the DG by 42% compared to phosphate buffered saline (PBS)-injected control mice. To analyze the proportion of newly generated cells differentiating into mature neurons, we quantified cells co-expressing BrdU and Neuronal Nuclei (NeuN) 32 days after the last of five BrdU injections (50 mg/kg) applied at the beginning of 14-days DA agonist or PBS administration. Again, PPX only enhanced neurogenesis in the DG significantly compared to ROP- and PBS-injected mice. Moreover, we explored the pro-neurogenic effect of both DA agonists in the striatum by quantifying neuroblasts expressing doublecortin (DCX) in the entire striatum, as well as in the dorsal and ventral sub-regions separately. We observed a significantly higher number of DCX+ neuroblasts in the dorsal compared to the ventral sub-region of the striatum in PPX-injected mice. These results suggest that the stimulation of hippocampal and dorsal striatal neurogenesis may be up-regulated by PPX. The increased generation of neural cells, both in constitutively active

  18. CD33/Siglec-3 binding specificity, expression pattern, and consequences of gene deletion in mice.

    PubMed

    Brinkman-Van der Linden, Els C M; Angata, Takashi; Reynolds, Shirley A; Powell, Leland D; Hedrick, Stephen M; Varki, Ajit

    2003-06-01

    Mouse CD33/Siglec-3 (mCD33) is the apparent ortholog of human CD33/Siglec-3 (hCD33), a member of the Siglec (sialic acid-binding Ig superfamily lectin) family of sialic acid-recognizing cell-surface lectins. We examined the binding specificity and expression pattern of mCD33 and explored its functions by generating mice deficient in this molecule. Like hCD33, mCD33 is expressed on myeloid precursors in the bone marrow, albeit mostly in the more mature stages of the granulocytic lineage. Moreover, unlike hCD33, mCD33 in peripheral blood is primarily expressed on granulocytes. Also, unlike hCD33, mCD33 did not bind to alpha2-3- or alpha2-6-linked sialic acids on lactosamine units. Instead, it showed distinctive sialic acid-dependent binding only to the short O-linked glycans of certain mucins and weak binding to the sialyl-Tn epitope. Binding was enhanced by removal of 9-O-acetyl groups and attenuated by truncation of the glycerol-like side chain of sialic acids. Mice deficient in CD33 were viable and fertile in a controlled-access specific-pathogen-free vivarium, showed no major morphological or histological abnormalities, had no changes in bone marrow or peripheral leukocyte subpopulations, and had very minor differences in biochemical and erythrocyte parameters. Cellular responses to intraperitoneally injected proinflammatory stimulants, as well as subsequent interleukin-6 secretion, were also apparently unaffected. These results indicate substantial species differences in CD33 expression patterns and ligand recognition and suggest functional degeneracy between mCD33 and the other CD33-related Siglec proteins expressed on cells of the myeloid lineage.

  19. CD33/Siglec-3 Binding Specificity, Expression Pattern, and Consequences of Gene Deletion in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Brinkman-Van der Linden, Els C. M.; Angata, Takashi; Reynolds, Shirley A.; Powell, Leland D.; Hedrick, Stephen M.; Varki, Ajit

    2003-01-01

    Mouse CD33/Siglec-3 (mCD33) is the apparent ortholog of human CD33/Siglec-3 (hCD33), a member of the Siglec (sialic acid-binding Ig superfamily lectin) family of sialic acid-recognizing cell-surface lectins. We examined the binding specificity and expression pattern of mCD33 and explored its functions by generating mice deficient in this molecule. Like hCD33, mCD33 is expressed on myeloid precursors in the bone marrow, albeit mostly in the more mature stages of the granulocytic lineage. Moreover, unlike hCD33, mCD33 in peripheral blood is primarily expressed on granulocytes. Also, unlike hCD33, mCD33 did not bind to α2-3- or α2-6-linked sialic acids on lactosamine units. Instead, it showed distinctive sialic acid-dependent binding only to the short O-linked glycans of certain mucins and weak binding to the sialyl-Tn epitope. Binding was enhanced by removal of 9-O-acetyl groups and attenuated by truncation of the glycerol-like side chain of sialic acids. Mice deficient in CD33 were viable and fertile in a controlled-access specific-pathogen-free vivarium, showed no major morphological or histological abnormalities, had no changes in bone marrow or peripheral leukocyte subpopulations, and had very minor differences in biochemical and erythrocyte parameters. Cellular responses to intraperitoneally injected proinflammatory stimulants, as well as subsequent interleukin-6 secretion, were also apparently unaffected. These results indicate substantial species differences in CD33 expression patterns and ligand recognition and suggest functional degeneracy between mCD33 and the other CD33-related Siglec proteins expressed on cells of the myeloid lineage. PMID:12773563

  20. Regulatory region in choline acetyltransferase gene directs developmental and tissue-specific expression in transgenic mice.

    PubMed Central

    Lönnerberg, P; Lendahl, U; Funakoshi, H; Arhlund-Richter, L; Persson, H; Ibáñez, C F

    1995-01-01

    Acetylcholine, one of the main neurotransmitters in the nervous system, is synthesized by the enzyme choline acetyltransferase (ChAT; acetyl-CoA:choline O-acetyltransferase, EC 2.3.1.6). The molecular mechanisms controlling the establishment, maintenance, and plasticity of the cholinergic phenotype in vivo are largely unknown. A previous report showed that a 3800-bp, but not a 1450-bp, 5' flanking segment from the rat ChAT gene promoter directed cell type-specific expression of a reporter gene in cholinergic cells in vitro. Now we have characterized a distal regulatory region of the ChAT gene that confers cholinergic specificity on a heterologous downstream promoter in a cholinergic cell line and in transgenic mice. A 2342-bp segment from the 5' flanking region of the ChAT gene behaved as an enhancer in cholinergic cells but as a repressor in noncholinergic cells in an orientation-independent manner. Combined with a heterologous basal promoter, this fragment targeted transgene expression to several cholinergic regions of the central nervous system of transgenic mice, including basal forebrain, cortex, pons, and spinal cord. In eight independent transgenic lines, the pattern of transgene expression paralleled qualitatively and quantitatively that displayed by endogenous ChAT mRNA in various regions of the rat central nervous system. In the lumbar enlargement of the spinal cord, 85-90% of the transgene expression was targeted to the ventral part of the cord, where cholinergic alpha-motor neurons are located. Transgene expression in the spinal cord was developmentally regulated and responded to nerve injury in a similar way as the endogenous ChAT gene, indicating that the 2342-bp regulatory sequence contains elements controlling the plasticity of the cholinergic phenotype in developing and injured neurons. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:7732028

  1. Alterations in Ethanol-Induced Behaviors and Consumption in Knock-In Mice Expressing Ethanol-Resistant NMDA Receptors

    PubMed Central

    den Hartog, Carolina R.; Beckley, Jacob T.; Smothers, Thetford C.; Lench, Daniel H.; Holseberg, Zack L.; Fedarovich, Hleb; Gilstrap, Meghin J.; Homanics, Gregg E.; Woodward, John J.

    2013-01-01

    Ethanol's action on the brain likely reflects altered function of key ion channels such as glutamatergic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs). In this study, we determined how expression of a mutant GluN1 subunit (F639A) that reduces ethanol inhibition of NMDARs affects ethanol-induced behaviors in mice. Mice homozygous for the F639A allele died prematurely while heterozygous knock-in mice grew and bred normally. Ethanol (44 mM; ∼0.2 g/dl) significantly inhibited NMDA-mediated EPSCs in wild-type mice but had little effect on responses in knock-in mice. Knock-in mice had normal expression of GluN1 and GluN2B protein across different brain regions and a small reduction in levels of GluN2A in medial prefrontal cortex. Ethanol (0.75–2.0 g/kg; IP) increased locomotor activity in wild-type mice but had no effect on knock-in mice while MK-801 enhanced activity to the same extent in both groups. Ethanol (2.0 g/kg) reduced rotarod performance equally in both groups but knock-in mice recovered faster following a higher dose (2.5 g/kg). In the elevated zero maze, knock-in mice had a blunted anxiolytic response to ethanol (1.25 g/kg) as compared to wild-type animals. No differences were noted between wild-type and knock-in mice for ethanol-induced loss of righting reflex, sleep time, hypothermia or ethanol metabolism. Knock-in mice consumed less ethanol than wild-type mice during daily limited-access sessions but drank more in an intermittent 24 h access paradigm with no change in taste reactivity or conditioned taste aversion. Overall, these data support the hypothesis that NMDA receptors are important in regulating a specific constellation of effects following exposure to ethanol. PMID:24244696

  2. Genetic Background Modulates Gene Expression Profile Induced by Skin Irradiation in Ptch1 Mice

    SciTech Connect

    Galvan, Antonella; Noci, Sara; Mancuso, Mariateresa; Pazzaglia, Simonetta; Saran, Anna; Dragani, Tommaso A.

    2008-12-01

    Purpose: Ptch1 germ-line mutations in mice predispose to radiation-induced basal cell carcinoma of the skin, with tumor incidence modulated by the genetic background. Here, we examined the possible mechanisms underlying skin response to radiation in F1 progeny of Ptch1{sup neo67/+} mice crossed with either skin tumor-susceptible (Car-S) or -resistant (Car-R) mice and X-irradiated (3 Gy) at 2 days of age or left untreated. Methods and Materials: We conducted a gene expression profile analysis in mRNA samples extracted from the skin of irradiated or control mice, using Affymetrix whole mouse genome expression array. Confirmation of the results was done using real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Results: Analysis of the gene expression profile of normal skin of F1 mice at 4 weeks of age revealed a similar basal profile in the nonirradiated mice, but alterations in levels of 71 transcripts in irradiated Ptch1{sup neo67/+} mice of the Car-R cross and modulation of only eight genes in irradiated Ptch1{sup neo67/+} mice of the Car-S cross. Conclusions: These results indicate that neonatal irradiation causes a persistent change in the gene expression profile of the skin. The tendency of mice genetically resistant to skin tumorigenesis to show a more complex pattern of transcriptional response to radiation than do genetically susceptible mice suggests a role for this response in genetic resistance to basal cell tumorigenesis.

  3. Senescence-associated phenotypes in Akita diabetic mice are enhanced by absence of bradykinin B2 receptors

    PubMed Central

    Kakoki, Masao; Kizer, Catherine M.; Yi, Xianwen; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Kim, Hyung-Suk; Bagnell, C. Robert; Edgell, Cora-Jean S.; Maeda, Nobuyo; Jennette, J. Charles; Smithies, Oliver

    2006-01-01

    We have previously reported that genetically increased angiotensin-converting enzyme levels, or absence of the bradykinin B2 receptor, increase kidney damage in diabetic mice. We demonstrate here that this is part of a more general phenomenon — diabetes and, to a lesser degree, absence of the B2 receptor, independently but also largely additively when combined, enhance senescence-associated phenotypes in multiple tissues. Thus, at 12 months of age, indicators of senescence (alopecia, skin atrophy, kyphosis, osteoporosis, testicular atrophy, lipofuscin accumulation in renal proximal tubule and testicular Leydig cells, and apoptosis in the testis and intestine) are virtually absent in WT mice, detectable in B2 receptor–null mice, clearly apparent in mice diabetic because of a dominant mutation (Akita) in the Ins2 gene, and most obvious in Akita diabetic plus B2 receptor–null mice. Renal expression of several genes that encode proteins associated with senescence and/or apoptosis (TGF-β1, connective tissue growth factor, p53, α-synuclein, and forkhead box O1) increases in the same progression. Concomitant increases occur in 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine, point mutations and deletions in kidney mitochondrial DNA, and thiobarbituric acid–reactive substances in plasma, together with decreases in the reduced form of glutathione in erythrocytes. Thus, absence of the bradykinin B2 receptor increases the oxidative stress, mitochondrial DNA damage, and many senescence-associated phenotypes already present in untreated Akita diabetic mice. PMID:16604193

  4. Taurine-Induced Long-Lasting Enhancement of Synaptic Transmission in Mice: Role of Transporters

    PubMed Central

    Sergeeva, O A; Chepkova, A N; Doreulee, N; Eriksson, K S; Poelchen, W; Mönnighoff, I; Heller-Stilb, B; Warskulat, U; Häussinger, D; Haas, H L

    2003-01-01

    Taurine, a major osmolyte in the brain evokes a long-lasting enhancement (LLETAU) of synaptic transmission in hippocampal and cortico-striatal slices. Hippocampal LLETAU was abolished by the GABA uptake blocker nipecotic acid (NPA) but not by the taurine-uptake inhibitor guanidinoethyl sulphonate (GES). Striatal LLETAU was sensitive to GES but not to NPA. Semiquantitative PCR analysis and immunohistochemistry revealed that taurine transporter expression is significantly higher in the striatum than in the hippocampus. Taurine transporter-deficient mice displayed very low taurine levels in both structures and a low ability to develop LLETAU in the striatum, but not in the hippocampus. The different mechanisms of taurine-induced synaptic plasticity may reflect the different vulnerabilities of these brain regions under pathological conditions that are accompanied by osmotic changes such as hepatic encephalopathy. PMID:12824447

  5. Constitutive activation of CREB in mice enhances temporal association learning and increases hippocampal CA1 neuronal spine density and complexity

    PubMed Central

    Serita, Tatsurou; Fukushima, Hotaka; Kida, Satoshi

    2017-01-01

    Transcription factor CREB is believed to play essential roles in the formation of long-term memory (LTM), but not in learning and short-term memory (STM). Surprisingly, we previously showed that transgenic mice expressing a dominant active mutant of CREB (DIEDML) in the forebrain (DIEDML mice) demonstrated enhanced STM and LTM in hippocampal-dependent, rapid, one-trial learning tasks. Here we show that constitutive activation of CREB enhances hippocampal-dependent learning of temporal association in trace fear conditioning and delayed matching-to-place tasks. We then show that in DIEDML mice the apical tuft dendrites of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons, required for temporal association learning, display increased spine density, especially of thin spines and of Homer1-negative spines. In contrast, the basal and apical oblique dendrites of CA1 neurons, required for rapid one-trial learning, show increased density of thin, stubby, and mushroom spines and of Homer1-positive spines. Furthermore, DIEDML mice showed increased dendritic complexity in the proximal portion of apical CA1 dendrites to the soma. In contrast, forebrain overexpression of CaMKIV, leading to enhanced LTM but not STM, show normal learning and CA1 neuron morphology. These findings suggest that dendritic region-specific morphological changes in CA1 neurons by constitutive activation of CREB may contribute to improved learning and STM. PMID:28195219

  6. Constitutive activation of CREB in mice enhances temporal association learning and increases hippocampal CA1 neuronal spine density and complexity.

    PubMed

    Serita, Tatsurou; Fukushima, Hotaka; Kida, Satoshi

    2017-02-14

    Transcription factor CREB is believed to play essential roles in the formation of long-term memory (LTM), but not in learning and short-term memory (STM). Surprisingly, we previously showed that transgenic mice expressing a dominant active mutant of CREB (DIEDML) in the forebrain (DIEDML mice) demonstrated enhanced STM and LTM in hippocampal-dependent, rapid, one-trial learning tasks. Here we show that constitutive activation of CREB enhances hippocampal-dependent learning of temporal association in trace fear conditioning and delayed matching-to-place tasks. We then show that in DIEDML mice the apical tuft dendrites of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons, required for temporal association learning, display increased spine density, especially of thin spines and of Homer1-negative spines. In contrast, the basal and apical oblique dendrites of CA1 neurons, required for rapid one-trial learning, show increased density of thin, stubby, and mushroom spines and of Homer1-positive spines. Furthermore, DIEDML mice showed increased dendritic complexity in the proximal portion of apical CA1 dendrites to the soma. In contrast, forebrain overexpression of CaMKIV, leading to enhanced LTM but not STM, show normal learning and CA1 neuron morphology. These findings suggest that dendritic region-specific morphological changes in CA1 neurons by constitutive activation of CREB may contribute to improved learning and STM.

  7. Impaired haematopoietic stem cell differentiation and enhanced skewing towards myeloid progenitors in aged caspase-2-deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Dawar, Swati; Shahrin, Nur Hezrin; Sladojevic, Nikolina; D'Andrea, Richard J; Dorstyn, Loretta; Hiwase, Devendra K; Kumar, Sharad

    2016-01-01

    The apoptotic cysteine protease caspase-2 has been shown to suppress tumourigenesis in mice and its reduced expression correlates with poor prognosis in some human malignancies. Caspase-2-deficient mice develop normally but show ageing-related traits and, when challenged by oncogenic stimuli or certain stress, show enhanced tumour development, often accompanied by extensive aneuploidy. As stem cells are susceptible to acquiring age-related functional defects because of their self-renewal and proliferative capacity, we examined whether loss of caspase-2 promotes such defects with age. Using young and aged Casp2−/− mice, we demonstrate that deficiency of caspase-2 results in enhanced aneuploidy and DNA damage in bone marrow (BM) cells with ageing. Furthermore, we demonstrate for the first time that caspase-2 loss results in significant increase in immunophenotypically defined short-term haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and multipotent progenitors fractions in BM with a skewed differentiation towards myeloid progenitors with ageing. Caspase-2 deficiency leads to enhanced granulocyte macrophage and erythroid progenitors in aged mice. Colony-forming assays and long-term culture-initiating assay further recapitulated these results. Our results provide the first evidence of caspase-2 in regulating HSC and progenitor differentiation, as well as aneuploidy, in vivo. PMID:27906175

  8. Interleukin 37 expression in mice alters sleep responses to inflammatory agents and influenza virus infection.

    PubMed

    Davis, Christopher J; Zielinski, Mark R; Dunbrasky, Danielle; Taishi, Ping; Dinarello, Charles A; Krueger, James M

    2017-06-01

    Multiple interactions between the immune system and sleep are known, including the effects of microbial challenge on sleep or the effects of sleep loss on facets of the immune response. Cytokines regulate, in part, sleep and immune responses. Here we examine the role of an anti-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-37 (IL-37) on sleep in a mouse strain that expresses human IL-37b (IL37tg mice). Constitutive expression of the IL-37 gene in the brains of these mice under resting conditions is low; however, upon an inflammatory stimulus, expression increases dramatically. We measured sleep in three conditions; a) under baseline conditions and after 6 h of sleep loss, b) after bolus intraperitoneal administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or IL-1β and c) after intranasal influenza virus challenge. Under baseline conditions, the IL37tg mice had 7% more spontaneous non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREMS) during the light period than wild-type (WT) mice. After sleep deprivation both WT mice and IL37tg mice slept an extra 21% and 12%, respectively, during the first 6 h of recovery. NREMS responses after sleep deprivation did not significantly differ between WT mice and IL37tg mice. However, in response to either IL-1β or LPS, the increases in time spent in NREMS were about four-fold greater in the WT mice than in the IL37tg mice. In contrast, in response to a low dose of mouse-adapted H1N1 influenza virus, sleep responses developed slowly over the 6 day recording period. By day 6, NREMS increased by 10% and REMS increased by 18% in the IL37tg mice compared to the WT mice. Further, by day 4 IL37tg mice lost less weight, remained more active, and retained their body temperatures closer to baseline values than WT mice. We conclude that conditions that promote IL-37 expression attenuate morbidity to severe inflammatory challenge.

  9. REM sleep deprivation increases the expression of interleukin genes in mice hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Kang, Won Sub; Park, Hae Jeong; Chung, Joo-Ho; Kim, Jong Woo

    2013-11-27

    Recently, evidence has suggested the possible involvement of inflammatory cytokines in sleep deprivation (SD). In this study, we assessed the patterns of inflammatory gene regulation in the hypothalamus of REM SD mice. C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned to two groups, SD (n=15) and control groups (n=15). Mice in the SD group were sleep-deprived for 72h using modified multiple platforms. Microarray analysis on inflammatory genes was performed in mice hypothalamus. In addition, interleukin 1 beta (IL1β) protein expression was analyzed by the immunochemistry method. Through microarray analysis, we found that expressions of IL subfamily genes, such as IL1β (2.55-fold), IL18 (1.92-fold), IL11 receptor alpha chain 1 (1.48-fold), IL5 (1.41-fold), and IL17E genes (1.31-fold), were up-regulated in the hypothalamus of SD mice compared to the control. The increase in the expression of these genes was also confirmed by RT-PCR. Among these genes, the expression of IL1β was particularly increased in the hypothalamus of SD mice. Interestingly, we found that the protein expression of endogenous IL1β was also elevated in the hypothalamus of SD mice compared to the control mice. These results implicate that IL subfamily genes, and in particular, IL1β, may play a role in sleep regulation in the hypothalamus of REM SD mice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Penicillamine Increases Free Copper and Enhances Oxidative Stress in the Brain of Toxic Milk Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Xiao-Pu; Zhang, Wei; Li, Fu-Rong; Liang, Xiu-Ling; Li, Xun-Hua

    2012-01-01

    Wilson disease (WD) is characterized by the accumulation of copper arising from a mutation in the ATP7B gene. Penicillamine (PA) makes 10–50% of the patients with neurologic symptoms neurologically worse at the early stage of administration. The aim of this study was to determine how the copper metabolism changes and whether the change impairs the brain of toxic milk (tx) mice, an animal model of WD, during the PA administration. The free copper and protein-bound copper concentrations in the serum, cortex and basal ganglia of tx mice with PA administration for 3 days, 10 days and 14 days, respectively, were investigated. The expression of copper transporters, ATP7A and CTR1,was analyzed by real-time quantitative PCR, immunofluorescence and Western blot. Then SOD, MDA and GSH/GSSG were detected to determine whether the oxidative stress changed correspondingly. The results revealed the elevated free copper concentrations in the serum and brain, and declined protein-bound copper concentrations in the brain of tx mice during PA administration. Meanwhile, transiently increased expression of ATP7A and CTR1 was observed generally in the brain parenchyma by immunofluorescence, real-time quantitative PCR and Western blot. Additionally, ATP7A and CTR1 were observed to locate mainly at Golgi apparatus and cellular membrane respectively. Intense staining of ATP7A in the choroid plexus was found in tx mice on the 3rd and 10th day of PA treatment, but rare staining of ATP7A and CTR1 in the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Decreased GSH/GSSG and increased MDA concentrations were also viewed in the cortex and basal ganglia. Our results suggested the elevated free copper concentrations in the brain might lead to the enhanced oxidative stress during PA administration. The increased free copper in the brain might come from the copper mobilized from brain parenchyma cells but not from the serum according to the ATP7A and CTR1 expression analysis. PMID:22629446

  11. Hepatocyte-targeted HFE and TFR2 control hepcidin expression in mice.

    PubMed

    Gao, Junwei; Chen, Juxing; De Domenico, Ivana; Koeller, David M; Harding, Cary O; Fleming, Robert E; Koeberl, Dwight D; Enns, Caroline A

    2010-04-22

    Hereditary hemochromatosis is caused by mutations in the hereditary hemochromatosis protein (HFE), transferrin-receptor 2 (TfR2), hemojuvelin, hepcidin, or ferroportin genes. Hepcidin is a key iron regulator, which is secreted by the liver, and decreases serum iron levels by causing the down-regulation of the iron transporter, ferroportin. Mutations in either HFE or TfR2 lower hepcidin levels, implying that both HFE and TfR2 are necessary for regulation of hepcidin expression. In this study, we used a recombinant adeno-associated virus, AAV2/8, for hepatocyte-specific expression of either Hfe or Tfr2 in mice. Expression of Hfe in Hfe-null mice both increased Hfe and hepcidin mRNA and lowered hepatic iron and Tf saturation. Expression of Tfr2 in Tfr2-deficient mice had a similar effect, whereas expression of Hfe in Tfr2-deficient mice or of Tfr2 in Hfe-null mice had no effect on liver or serum iron levels. Expression of Hfe in wild-type mice increased hepcidin mRNA and lowered iron levels. In contrast, expression of Tfr2 had no effect on wild-type mice. These findings suggest that Hfe is limiting in formation of the Hfe/Tfr2 complex that regulates hepcidin expression. In addition, these studies show that the use of recombinant AAV vector to deliver genes is a promising approach for studying physiologic consequences of protein complexes.

  12. Hepatocyte-targeted HFE and TFR2 control hepcidin expression in mice

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Junwei; Chen, Juxing; De Domenico, Ivana; Koeller, David M.; Harding, Cary O.; Fleming, Robert E.; Koeberl, Dwight D.

    2010-01-01

    Hereditary hemochromatosis is caused by mutations in the hereditary hemochromatosis protein (HFE), transferrin-receptor 2 (TfR2), hemojuvelin, hepcidin, or ferroportin genes. Hepcidin is a key iron regulator, which is secreted by the liver, and decreases serum iron levels by causing the down-regulation of the iron transporter, ferroportin. Mutations in either HFE or TfR2 lower hepcidin levels, implying that both HFE and TfR2 are necessary for regulation of hepcidin expression. In this study, we used a recombinant adeno-associated virus, AAV2/8, for hepatocyte-specific expression of either Hfe or Tfr2 in mice. Expression of Hfe in Hfe-null mice both increased Hfe and hepcidin mRNA and lowered hepatic iron and Tf saturation. Expression of Tfr2 in Tfr2-deficient mice had a similar effect, whereas expression of Hfe in Tfr2-deficient mice or of Tfr2 in Hfe-null mice had no effect on liver or serum iron levels. Expression of Hfe in wild-type mice increased hepcidin mRNA and lowered iron levels. In contrast, expression of Tfr2 had no effect on wild-type mice. These findings suggest that Hfe is limiting in formation of the Hfe/Tfr2 complex that regulates hepcidin expression. In addition, these studies show that the use of recombinant AAV vector to deliver genes is a promising approach for studying physiologic consequences of protein complexes. PMID:20177050

  13. Expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 by myofibers in mdx mice.

    PubMed

    Torres-Palsa, Maria J; Koziol, Matthew V; Goh, Qingnian; Cicinelli, Peter A; Peterson, Jennifer M; Pizza, Francis X

    2015-11-01

    We investigated the extent to which intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), a critical protein of the inflammatory response, is expressed in skeletal muscles of mdx mice (a murine model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy). Muscles were collected from control and mdx mice at 2-24 weeks of age and analyzed for ICAM-1 expression by means of Western blot and immunofluorescence. Western blot revealed higher expression of ICAM-1 in mdx compared with control muscles through 24 weeks of age. In contrast to control muscles, ICAM-1 was expressed on the membrane of damaged, regenerating, and normal myofibers of mdx mice. CD11b+ myeloid cells also expressed ICAM-1 in mdx muscles, and CD11b+ cells were closely associated with the membrane of myofibers expressing ICAM-1. These findings support a paradigm in which ICAM-1 and its localization to myofibers in muscles of mdx mice contributes to the dystrophic pathology. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. EXPRESSION OF INTERCELLULAR ADHESION MOLECULE-1 BY MYOFIBERS IN mdx MICE

    PubMed Central

    TORRES-PALSA, MARIA J.; KOZIOL, MATTHEW V.; GOH, QINGNIAN; CICINELLI, PETER A.; PETERSON, JENNIFER M.; PIZZA, FRANCIS X.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction We investigated the extent to which intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), a critical protein of the inflammatory response, is expressed in skeletal muscles of mdx mice (a murine model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy). Methods Muscles were collected from control and mdx mice at 2–24 weeks of age and analyzed for ICAM-1 expression by means of Western blot and immunofluorescence. Results Western blot revealed higher expression of ICAM-1 in mdx compared with control muscles through 24 weeks of age. In contrast to control muscles, ICAM-1 was expressed on the membrane of damaged, regenerating, and normal myofibers of mdx mice. CD11b+ myeloid cells also expressed ICAM-1 in mdx muscles, and CD11b+ cells were closely associated with the membrane of myofibers expressing ICAM-1. Conclusions These findings support a paradigm in which ICAM-1 and its localization to myofibers in muscles of mdx mice contributes to the dystrophic pathology. PMID:25728314

  15. Overweight in Mice and Enhanced Adipogenesis In Vitro Are Associated With Lack of the Hedgehog Coreceptor Boc

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hye-Jin; Jo, Shin-Bum; Romer, Anthony I.; Lim, Hyo-Jeong; Kim, Min-Jung; Koo, Seung-Hoi

    2015-01-01

    Obesity arises from a combination of genetic, environmental, and behavioral factors. However, the processes that regulate white adipose tissue (WAT) expansion at the level of the adipocyte are not well understood. The Hedgehog (HH) pathway plays a conserved role in adipogenesis, inhibiting fat formation in vivo and in vitro, but it has not been shown that mice with reduced HH pathway activity have enhanced adiposity. We report that mice lacking the HH coreceptor BOC displayed age-related overweight and excess WAT. They also displayed alterations in some metabolic parameters but normal food intake. Furthermore, they had an exacerbated response to a high-fat diet, including enhanced weight gain and adipocyte hypertrophy, livers with greater fat accumulation, and elevated expression of genes related to adipogenesis, lipid metabolism, and adipokine production. Cultured Boc−/− mouse embryo fibroblasts showed enhanced adipogenesis relative to Boc+/+ cells, and they expressed reduced levels of HH pathway target genes. Therefore, a loss-of-function mutation in an HH pathway component is associated with WAT accumulation and overweight in mice. Variant alleles of such HH regulators may contribute to WAT accumulation in human individuals with additional genetic or lifestyle-based predisposition to obesity. PMID:25576054

  16. Chronic exposure to contaminated drinking water stimulates PPAR expression in mice livers.

    PubMed

    Shi, Peng; Zhang, Xu-Xiang; Zhang, Zongyao; Zhang, Yan; Wu, Bing; Cheng, Shupei; Li, Aimin

    2012-07-01

    Mice were fed with source water (SW) and tap water (TW) for 90 d to evaluate hepatotoxicity induced by the drinking water. Histopathologic observation showed no obvious damage to hepatic tissue in the SW and TW groups. However, microarray analysis indicated that the SW and TW exposures affected many metabolic pathways, among which PPAR (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors) signaling was most susceptible. Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated that both PPAR-α and PPAR-γ were significantly increased in the exposure groups compared to control. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay revealed that PPAR-α expression level was increased from 23.37±0.53 ng g(-1) liver weight in control group to 26.60±1.43 ng g(-1) liver weight in SW group and 27.68±1.10 ng g(-1) liver weight in TW group (p<0.05). For PPAR-γ, the expression level was also significantly enhanced from 0.83±0.07 ng g(-1) liver weight in control group to 1.11±0.20 ng g(-1) liver weight in SW group and 1.16±0.07 ng g(-1) liver weight in TW group (p<0.05). The SW and DW posed no obvious hepatotoxicity on mice and PPAR-α/-γ could be used as a novel biomarker to assess public health risk induced by slightly contaminated drinking water.

  17. Endothelial expression of human cytochrome P450 epoxygenases lowers blood pressure and attenuates hypertension-induced renal injury in mice

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Craig R.; Imig, John D.; Edin, Matthew L.; Foley, Julie; DeGraff, Laura M.; Bradbury, J. Alyce; Graves, Joan P.; Lih, Fred B.; Clark, James; Myers, Page; Perrow, A. Ligon; Lepp, Adrienne N.; Kannon, M. Alison; Ronnekleiv, Oline K.; Alkayed, Nabil J.; Falck, John R.; Tomer, Kenneth B.; Zeldin, Darryl C.

    2010-01-01

    Renal cytochrome P450 (CYP)-derived epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) regulate sodium transport and blood pressure. Although endothelial CYP-derived EETs are potent vasodilators, their contribution to the regulation of blood pressure remains unclear. Consequently, we developed transgenic mice with endothelial expression of the human CYP2J2 and CYP2C8 epoxygenases to increase endothelial EET biosynthesis. Compared to wild-type littermate controls, an attenuated afferent arteriole constrictor response to endothelin-1 and enhanced dilator response to acetylcholine was observed in CYP2J2 and CYP2C8 transgenic mice. CYP2J2 and CYP2C8 transgenic mice demonstrated modestly, but not significantly, lower mean arterial pressure under basal conditions compared to wild-type controls. However, mean arterial pressure was significantly lower in both CYP2J2 and CYP2C8 transgenic mice during coadministration of N-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester and indomethacin. In a separate experiment, a high-salt diet and subcutaneous angiotensin II was administered over 4 wk. The angiotensin/high-salt-induced increase in systolic blood pressure, proteinuria, and glomerular injury was significantly attenuated in CYP2J2 and CYP2C8 transgenic mice compared to wild-type controls. Collectively, these data demonstrate that increased endothelial CYP epoxygenase expression attenuates afferent arteriolar constrictor reactivity and hypertension-induced increases in blood pressure and renal injury in mice. We conclude that endothelial CYP epoxygenase function contributes to the regulation of blood pressure.—Lee, C. R., Imig, J. D., Edin, M. E., Foley, J., DeGraff, L. M., Bradbury, J. A., Graves, J. P., Lih, F. B., Clark, J., Myers, P., Perrow, A. L., Lepp, A. N., Kannon, M. A., Ronnekleiv, O. K., Alkayed, N. J., Falck, J. R., Tomer, K. B., Zeldin, D. C. Endothelial expression of human cytochrome P450 epoxygenases lowers blood pressure and attenuates hypertension-induced renal injury in mice. PMID:20495177

  18. Silencing hyperoxia-induced C/EBPα in neonatal mice improves lung architecture via enhanced proliferation of alveolar epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guang; Hinson, Maurice D; Bordner, Jessica E; Lin, Qing S; Fernando, Amal P; La, Ping; Wright, Clyde J; Dennery, Phyllis A

    2011-08-01

    Postnatal lung development requires proliferation and differentiation of specific cell types at precise times to promote proper alveolar formation. Hyperoxic exposure can disrupt alveolarization by inhibiting cell growth; however, it is not fully understood how this is mediated. The transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-α (C/EBPα) is highly expressed in the lung and plays a role in cell proliferation and differentiation in many tissues. After 72 h of hyperoxia, C/EBPα expression was significantly enhanced in the lungs of newborn mice. The increased C/EBPα protein was predominantly located in alveolar type II cells. Silencing of C/EBPα with a transpulmonary injection of C/EBPα small interfering RNA (siRNA) prior to hyperoxic exposure reduced expression of markers of type I cell and differentiation typically observed after hyperoxia but did not rescue the altered lung morphology at 72 h. Nevertheless, when C/EBPα hyperoxia-exposed siRNA-injected mice were allowed to recover for 2 wk in room air, lung epithelial cell proliferation was increased and lung morphology was restored compared with hyperoxia-exposed control siRNA-injected mice. These data suggest that C/EBPα is an important regulator of postnatal alveolar epithelial cell proliferation and differentiation during injury and repair.

  19. Gene targeting study reveals unexpected expression of brain-expressed X-linked 2 in endocrine and tissue stem/progenitor cells in mice.

    PubMed

    Ito, Keiichi; Yamazaki, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Ryo; Tajima, Yoko; Yanagida, Ayaka; Kobayashi, Toshihiro; Kato-Itoh, Megumi; Kakuta, Shigeru; Iwakura, Yoichiro; Nakauchi, Hiromitsu; Kamiya, Akihide

    2014-10-24

    Identification of genes specifically expressed in stem/progenitor cells is an important issue in developmental and stem cell biology. Genome-wide gene expression analyses in liver cells performed in this study have revealed a strong expression of X-linked genes that include members of the brain-expressed X-linked (Bex) gene family in stem/progenitor cells. Bex family genes are expressed abundantly in the neural cells and have been suggested to play important roles in the development of nervous tissues. However, the physiological role of its individual members and the precise expression pattern outside the nervous system remain largely unknown. Here, we focused on Bex2 and examined its role and expression pattern by generating knock-in mice; the enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP) was inserted into the Bex2 locus. Bex2-deficient mice were viable and fertile under laboratory growth conditions showing no obvious phenotypic abnormalities. Through an immunohistochemical analysis and flow cytometry-based approach, we observed unique EGFP reporter expression patterns in endocrine and stem/progenitor cells of the liver, pyloric stomach, and hematopoietic system. Although Bex2 seems to play redundant roles in vivo, these results suggest the significance and potential applications of Bex2 in studies of endocrine and stem/progenitor cells. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  20. The enhancement of TXA2 receptors-mediated contractile response in intrarenal artery dysfunction in type 2 diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Su-Juan; Qian, Jie-Sheng; Yang, Hui; Rao, Fang; Chen, Xiao-Yan; Zhang, Meng-Zhen; Shan, Zhi-Xin; Lin, Qiu-Xiong; Xue, Yu-Mei; Wu, Shu-Lin; Jiang, Li; Chen, Chun-Bo; Deng, Chun-Yu

    2017-03-09

    Thromboxane A2 (TXA2) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic vascular complications, although the underlying mechanism remains unclear. The present study investigated the alterations in TXA2 receptor signal transduction in type 2 diabetic renal arteries. The contraction of renal arterial rings in control (db/m+) mice and type 2 diabetic (db/db) mice was measured by a Multi Myograph System. Intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) in vascular smooth muscle cells was measured by Fluo-4/AM dye and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot analysis were used to determine gene and protein expression levels, respectively. A stable TXA2 mimic U46619 caused markedly stronger dose-dependent contractions in the renal arteries of db/db mice than in those of db/m(+) mice. This response was completely blocked by a TXA2 receptor antagonist GR32191 and significantly inhibited by U73122. U46619-induced vasoconstriction was increased in the presence of nifedipine in db/db mice compared with that in db/m(+) mice, whereas the response to U46619 did not differ between the two groups in the presence of SKF96365. Sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) release-mediated and CaCl2-induced contractions did not differ between the two groups. In db/db mice, store-operated Ca(2+) (SOC) entry-mediated contraction in the renal arteries and SOC entry-mediated Ca(2+) influx in smooth muscle cells were significantly increased. And the gene and protein expressions of TXA2 receptors, Orai1 and Stim1 were upregulated in the diabetic renal arteries. Therefore the enhancement of U46619-induced contraction was mediated by the upregulation of TXA2 receptors and downstream signaling in the diabetic renal arteries.

  1. Decreased food anticipatory activity of obese mice relates to hypothalamic c-Fos expression.

    PubMed

    Luna-Illades, C; Morales, T; Miranda-Anaya, M

    2017-10-01

    During daily Food Restriction (FR), obese Neotomodon alstoni mice present decreased Food Anticipatory Activity (FAA) compared to lean mice. Here, we investigated whether FOS expression in hypothalamic nuclei involved in food synchronization and anticipation parallels decreased FAA during daily FR of obese N. alstoni. Locomotor activity of lean and obese mice in ad libitum feeding conditions was monitored for at least two weeks. Then, a gradual restriction of food access was followed to establish a 5h period of daily food access. FR was maintained during at least two weeks before sacrifice of mice at the starting point of the feeding period. Obese mice subjected to FR displayed an overall reduction of FOS-positive (FOS+) hypothalamic neurons, while lean mice in a similar protocol exhibited an increase in FOS+ neurons within the arcuate and dorsomedial hypothalamic nuclei. These results are consistent with decreased FAA displayed by obese mice in comparison to lean mice. Furthermore, limbic system areas of lean mice, such as the cingulate cortex and the hippocampus, showed an increase in FOS during FR, while no responses were observed in obese mice. The daily food intake of obese mice was severely reduced during FR, compared to the ad libitum condition, whereas food intake in lean mice was not affected by FR. Current data suggests that decreased hypothalamic and limbic neuronal activation may contribute to the reduction of FAA in obese N. alstoni mice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Expression profile and histological distribution of IFITM1 and IFITM3 during H9N2 avian influenza virus infection in BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Yu, Meng; Qi, Wenbao; Huang, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Kaizhao; Ye, Jinhui; Liu, Rongchang; Wang, Heng; Ma, Yongjiang; Liao, Ming; Ning, Zhangyong

    2015-08-01

    The H9N2 avian influenza virus is a pandemic threat which has repeatedly caused infection in humans and shows enhanced replication and transmission in mice. Previous reports showed that host factors, the interferon-inducible transmembrane (IFITM) protein, can block the replication of pathogens and affect their pathogenesis. BALB/c mice are routine laboratory animals used in influenza virus research, but the effects of H9N2 influenza virus on tissue distribution and expression pattern of IFITM in these mice are unknown. Here, we investigated the expression patterns and tissue distribution of IFITM1 and IFITM3 in BALB/c mice by infection with H9N2 AIV strains with only a PB2 residue 627 difference. The results showed that the expression patterns of ITITM1 and IFITM3 differ in various tissues of BALB/c mice at different time points after infection. IFITM1 and IFITM3 showed cell- and tissue-specific distribution in the lung, heart, liver, spleen, kidney and brain. Notably, the epithelial and neuronal cells all expressed the proteins of IFITM1 and IFITM3. Our results provide the first look at differences in IFITM1 and IFITM3 expression patterns in BALB/c mice infected by H9N2 influenza viruses. This will enhance research on the interaction between AIV and host and further will elucidate the pathogenesis of influenza virus infection based on the interferon-inducible transmembrane (IFITM) protein.

  3. Expression profiling of microRNAs in optineurin (E50K) mutant transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Gao, Lin; Jiang, B O; Lei, Dawei; Zhou, Xinrong; Yuan, Huiping

    2016-02-01

    An E50K substitution in the transcription factor optineurin (OPTN) induces primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). To explore the potential role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in E50K OPTN-induced POAG, miRNA expression profiling was performed on retinal samples from OPTN (E50K) transgenic and wild-type mice. The retinas were collected from 30 transgenic and 30 wild-type mice, and miRNA expression was evaluated using a genome-wide miRNA microarray. miRNAs that were differentially expressed in retinal samples from OPTN (E50K) transgenic mice were identified and validated by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Additional gene ontology and signaling pathway analyses were performed using bioinformatics tools. A total of 48 miRNAs exhibited increased or decreased expression in the retinas from OPTN (E50K) transgenic mice when compared with the expression in the retinas from wild-type mice. A total of 5 miRNAs with increased expression in OPTN (E50K) transgenic mice could be grouped into one cluster as they belong to the miR-8 family and may act as regulators in the development of POAG in OPTN (E50K) transgenic mice. RT-qPCR results confirmed significantly increased expression of miR-141 in the retinas of OPTN (E50K) transgenic mice as compared to wild-type mice. In conclusion, these results show that certain miRNAs are differentially expressed in the retinas of OPTN (E50K) transgenic mice and may play roles in the pathogenesis of POAG induced by OPTN (E50K).

  4. Enhanced Ca2+ transport and muscle relaxation in skeletal muscle from sarcolipin-null mice

    PubMed Central

    Tupling, A. Russell; Bombardier, Eric; Gupta, Subash C.; Hussain, Dawar; Vigna, Chris; Bloemberg, Darin; Quadrilatero, Joe; Trivieri, Maria G.; Babu, Gopal J.; Backx, Peter H.; Periasamy, Muthu; MacLennan, David H.; Gramolini, Anthony O.

    2013-01-01

    Sarcolipin (SLN) inhibits sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA) pumps. To evaluate the physiological significance of SLN in skeletal muscle, we compared muscle contractility and SERCA activity between Sln-null and wild-type mice. SLN protein expression in wild-type mice was abundant in soleus and red gastrocnemius (RG), low in extensor digitorum longus (EDL), and absent from white gastrocnemius (WG). SERCA activity rates were increased in soleus and RG, but not in EDL or WG, from Sln-null muscles, compared with wild type. No differences were seen between wild-type and Sln-null EDL muscles in force-frequency curves or maximum rates of force development (+dF/dt). Maximum relaxation rates (−dF/dt) of EDL were higher in Sln-null than wild type across a range of submaximal stimulation frequencies, but not during a twitch or peak tetanic contraction. For soleus, no differences were seen between wild type and Sln-null in peak tetanic force or +dF/dt; however, force-frequency curves showed that peak force during a twitch and 10-Hz contraction was lower in Sln-null. Changes in the soleus force-frequency curve corresponded with faster rates of force relaxation at nearly all stimulation frequencies in Sln-null compared with wild type. Repeated tetanic stimulation of soleus caused increased (−dF/dt) in wild type, but not in Sln-null. No compensatory responses were detected in analysis of other Ca2+ regulatory proteins using Western blotting and immunohistochemistry or myosin heavy chain expression using immunofluorescence. These results show that 1) SLN regulates Ca2+-ATPase activity thereby regulating contractile kinetics in at least some skeletal muscles, 2) the functional significance of SLN is graded to the endogenous SLN expression level, and 3) SLN inhibitory effects on SERCA function are relieved in response to repeated contractions thus enhancing relaxation rates. PMID:21697544

  5. Protein kinase and protein phosphatase expression in the central nervous system of G93A mSOD over-expressing mice.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jie Hong; Chernoff, Ken; Pelech, Steven; Krieger, Charles

    2003-04-01

    The expressions of 78 protein kinases, 24 protein phosphatases and 31 phosphoproteins were investigated by Kinetworks trade mark analysis in brain and spinal cord tissue of transgenic mice over-expressing G93A mutant superoxide dismutase (mSOD), a murine model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). In the brains of affected mSOD mice, we observed increased expression of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA, 111% increase compared with control), and protein phosphatase 2B Aalpha-catalytic subunit (calcineurin, 109% increase), and reductions in the levels of PAK3 (76% decrease) and protein phosphatase 2C Cbeta-subunit (32% decrease). Increased Ser259 phosphorylation of Raf1 (126% increase) in mSOD mice correlated with higher expression of p73 Raf1 (147% increase). There was also increased p73 Raf1 (69% increase) and Ser259 phosphorylation (45% increase) in the spinal cords of mSOD mice. While adducin underwent enhanced phosphorylation (alphaS724, 90% increase; gammaS662, 290% increase) in mSOD brain, its phosphorylation was lower in the mSOD spinal cord (alphaS724, 53% decrease; gammaS662, 46% decrease). In spinal cords of affected mSOD mice, we also observed elevated expression of casein kinase 1delta (CK1delta, 157% increase), JAK2 (84% increase), PKA (183% increase), protein kinase C (PKC) delta (123% increase), p124 PKC micro (142% increase), and RhoA kinase (221% increase), and enhanced phosphorylation of extracellular regulated kinases 1 (ERK1, T202/Y204, 90% increase), and 2 (ERK2, T185/Y187, 73% increase), p38 MAP kinase (T180/Y182, 1570% increase), and PKBalpha (T308, 154% increase; S473, 61% increase). There was also reduced phosphorylation of RB (S780, 45% decrease; S807/S811, 65% decrease), Src (Y418, 63% decrease) and p40 SAPK/JNKbeta (T183/Y185, 43% decrease). Variability in the expression of kinases, phosphatases and phosphorylation of their substrates was observed even in mutant animals having a similar phenotype. The expression and phosphorylation

  6. Fasting and sampling time affect liver gene expression of high-fat diet-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, C Y

    2010-05-01

    Several physiological and biological variables are known to affect peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-α-dependent signaling pathway and plasma biochemical profiles. However, less is known about the effect of these variables on high-fat diet-fed mice. In a 5-week study, C57BL/6 mice were divided into control (C) and high-fat diet-fed (H) groups, whereby before dissection, each group was subdivided into non-fasted (nC and nH) and a 15-h fasted mice (fC and fH) killed in the early light cycle, and a 15-h fasted mice (eC and eH) killed in the late phase of the light cycle. Liver and blood from the vena cava were collected. Non-fasted nC and nH mice have a marginal difference in their body weight gain, whereas significant differences were found for fasted mice. In nH mice, PPAR-α, acyl-CoA oxidase and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein expressions were significantly elevated, in contrast to fatty acid synthase (Fasn), stearoyl CoA-desaturase (SCD)-1, and elongase (ELOVL)-6 expressions. Fasn was profoundly induced in fH mice, while decreased sterol regulatory-binding protein-1 and SCD-1 were found only in eH mice. Different from the gene expression profiles, plasma total cholesterol level of the eH mice was higher than controls, whereas nH mice have increased plasma non-esterified fatty acids. Only glucose level of the fH mice was higher than that observed for controls. Results showed that fasting and sampling time have significantly affected liver gene expression and plasma biochemical indices of the high-fat diet-treated mice. An overlook in these aspects can cause serious discrepancies in the experimental data and their interpretations.

  7. Alterations in Gene Expression in Mutant Amyloid Precursor Protein Transgenic Mice Lacking Niemann-Pick Type C1 Protein

    PubMed Central

    Maulik, Mahua; Thinakaran, Gopal; Kar, Satyabrata

    2013-01-01

    Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) disease, a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused mostly by mutation in NPC1 gene, is pathologically characterized by the accumulation of free cholesterol in brain and other tissues. This is accompanied by gliosis and loss of neurons in selected brain regions, including the cerebellum. Recent studies have shown that NPC disease exhibits intriguing parallels with Alzheimer’s disease, including the presence of neurofibrillary tangles and increased levels of amyloid precursor protein (APP)-derived β-amyloid (Aβ) peptides in vulnerable brain neurons. To evaluate the role of Aβ in NPC disease, we determined the gene expression profile in selected brain regions of our recently developed bigenic ANPC mice, generated by crossing APP transgenic (Tg) mice with heterozygous Npc1-deficient mice. The ANPC mice exhibited exacerbated neuronal and glial pathology compared to other genotypes [i.e., APP-Tg, double heterozygous (Dhet), Npc1-null and wild-type mice]. Analysis of expression profiles of 86 selected genes using real-time RT-PCR arrays showed a wide-spectrum of alterations in the four genotypes compared to wild-type controls. The changes observed in APP-Tg and Dhet mice are limited to only few genes involved mostly in the regulation of cholesterol metabolism, whereas Npc1-null and ANPC mice showed alterations in the expression profiles of a number of genes regulating cholesterol homeostasis, APP metabolism, vesicular trafficking and cell death mechanism in both hippocampus and cerebellum compared to wild-type mice. Intriguingly, ANPC and Npc1-null mice, with some exceptions, exhibited similar changes, although more genes were differentially expressed in the affected cerebellum than the relatively spared hippocampus. The altered gene profiles were found to match with the corresponding protein levels. These results suggest that lack of Npc1 protein can alter the expression profile of selected transcripts as well as proteins, and APP

  8. Hip1r is expressed in gastric parietal cells and is required for tubulovesicle formation and cell survival in mice

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Renu N.; Al-Menhali, Asma A.; Keeley, Theresa M.; Ren, Jianhua; El-Zaatari, Mohammed; Chen, Xunsheng; Merchant, Juanita L.; Ross, Theodora S.; Chew, Catherine S.; Samuelson, Linda C.

    2008-01-01

    Huntingtin interacting protein 1 related (Hip1r) is an F-actin– and clathrin-binding protein involved in vesicular trafficking. In this study, we demonstrate that Hip1r is abundantly expressed in the gastric parietal cell, predominantly localizing with F-actin to canalicular membranes. Hip1r may provide a critical function in vivo, as demonstrated by extensive changes to parietal cells and the gastric epithelium in Hip1r-deficient mice. Electron microscopy revealed abnormal apical canalicular membranes and loss of tubulovesicles in mutant parietal cells, suggesting that Hip1r is necessary for the normal trafficking of these secretory membranes. Accordingly, acid secretory dynamics were altered in mutant parietal cells, with enhanced activation and acid trapping, as measured in isolated gastric glands. At the whole-organ level, gastric acidity was reduced in Hip1r-deficient mice, and the gastric mucosa was grossly transformed, with fewer parietal cells due to enhanced apoptotic cell death and glandular hypertrophy associated with cellular transformation. Hip1r-deficient mice had increased expression of the gastric growth factor gastrin, and mice mutant for both gastrin and Hip1r exhibited normalization of both proliferation and gland height. Taken together, these studies demonstrate that Hip1r plays a significant role in gastric physiology, mucosal architecture, and secretory membrane dynamics in parietal cells. PMID:18535670

  9. Altered expression and function of hepatic natural killer T cells in obese and diabetic KK-A(y) mice.

    PubMed

    Yamagata, Hisafumi; Ikejima, Kenichi; Takeda, Kazuyoshi; Aoyama, Tomonori; Kon, Kazuyoshi; Okumura, Ko; Watanabe, Sumio

    2013-03-01

      To evaluate the role of natural killer (NK)T cells in the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), here we investigated the expression and function of hepatic NKT cells in KK-A(y) mice, an animal model of metabolic syndrome.   Male, 8-week-old KK-A(y) and C57Bl/6 mice were fed a high-fat (HF) diet for 4 weeks. Some mice were given daily intragastric injections of pioglitazone for 5 days prior to or after dietary treatment.   In untreated KK-A(y) mice, the percentages of NKT cells in liver mononucleolar cells were nearly one-third of those in C57Bl/6 controls. Elevations in interleukin (IL)-4 and interferon (IFN)-γ mRNA in the liver after a single injection of α-galactosylceramide (GalCer) were blunted in KK-A(y) mice largely. Percentages of NKT cells, as well as GalCer-induced increases in IL-4 mRNA, were blunted significantly in both strains after HF diet feeding for 4 weeks. Interestingly, KK-A(y) mice pretreated with pioglitazone showed significant increases in NKT cell proportion, and GalCer-induced increases in IL-4 and IFN-γ mRNA were also enhanced by pioglitazone. In KK-A(y) mice, the percentages of annexin V positive NKT cells were nearly 2.5-fold higher than those in C57Bl/6 controls; however, pioglitazone decreased annexin V positive cells significantly. Moreover, pioglitazone increased NKT cell fraction in KK-A(y) mice even after HF diet feeding.   KK-A(y) mice exhibit proportional and functional alterations in hepatic NKT cells in close relation with the development of steatohepatitis, and it is postulated that pioglitazone improves steatohepatitis in part through restoration of hepatic NKT cells. © 2012 The Japan Society of Hepatology.

  10. Curcumin enhances wound healing in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats and genetically diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Sidhu, G S; Mani, H; Gaddipati, J P; Singh, A K; Seth, P; Banaudha, K K; Patnaik, G K; Maheshwari, R K

    1999-01-01

    Tissue repair and wound healing are complex processes that involve inflammation, granulation and tissue remodeling. Interactions of different cells, extracellular matrix proteins and their receptors are involved in wound healing, and are mediated by cytokines and growth factors. Previous studies from our laboratory have shown that curcumin (diferuloylmethane), a natural product obtained from the rhizomes of Curcuma longa, enhanced cutaneous wound healing in rats and guinea pigs. In this study, we have evaluated the efficacy of curcumin treatment by oral and topical applications on impaired wound healing in diabetic rats and genetically diabetic mice using a full thickness cutaneous punch wound model. Wounds of animals treated with curcumin showed earlier re-epithelialization, improved neovascularization, increased migration of various cells including dermal myofibroblasts, fibroblasts, and macrophages into the wound bed, and a higher collagen content. Immunohistochemical localization showed an increase in transforming growth factor-beta1 in curcumin-treated wounds compared to controls. Enhanced transforming growth factor-beta1 mRNA expression in treated wounds was confirmed by in situ hybridization, and laser scan cytometry. A delay in the apoptosis patterns was seen in diabetic wounds compared to curcumin treated wounds as shown by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridyl triphosphate nick end labeling analysis. Curcumin was effective both orally and topically. These results show that curcumin enhanced wound repair in diabetic impaired healing, and could be developed as a pharmacological agent in such clinical settings.

  11. Exacerbation of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in ceramide synthase 6 knockout mice is associated with enhanced activation/migration of neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Eberle, Max; Ebel, Philipp; Mayer, Christoph A; Barthelmes, Julia; Tafferner, Nadja; Ferreiros, Nerea; Ulshöfer, Thomas; Henke, Marina; Foerch, Christian; de Bazo, Anika Männer; Grösch, Sabine; Geisslinger, Gerd; Willecke, Klaus; Schiffmann, Susanne

    2015-10-01

    Ceramides are mediators of inflammatory processes. In experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS), we observed that CerS6 mRNA expression was upregulated 15-fold in peripheral blood leukocytes before the onset of EAE symptoms. In peripheral blood leukocytes from MS patients, a 3.9-fold upregulation was found. Total genetic deletion of CerS6 and the selective deletion of CerS6 in peripheral blood leucocytes exacerbated the progression of clinical symptoms in EAE mice. This was associated with enhanced leukocyte, predominantly neutrophil infiltration and enhanced demyelination in the lumbar spinal cord of EAE mice. Interferon-gamma/tumor necrosis factor alpha (IFN-γ/TNF-α) and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) both drive EAE development and induce expression of the integrin CD11b and the chemokine receptor C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 2 (CXCR2), and we found they also induce CerS6 expression. In vivo, the genetic deletion of CerS6 enhanced the activation/migration of neutrophils, as reflected by an enhanced upregulation of CD11b and CXCR2. In vitro, the genetic deletion of CerS6 enhanced the activation status of IFN-γ/TNF-α-stimulated neutrophils, as shown by increased expression of nitric oxide and CD11b and an increased adhesion capacity. In G-CSF-stimulated neutrophils, the migration status was enhanced, as reflected by an elevated level of CXCR2 and an increased migration capacity. These data suggest that CerS6/C16-Cer mediates feedback regulation by inhibiting the formation of CD11b and CXCR2, which are induced either by IFN-γ/TNF-α or by G-CSF, respectively. We conclude that CerS6/C16-Cer mediates anti-inflammatory effects during the development of EAE and MS possibly by suppressing the migration and deactivation of neutrophils.

  12. Opposing regulation of cytochrome P450 expression by CAR and PXR in hypothyroid mice

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Young Joo; Lee, Eun Kyung; Lee, Yoon Kwang; Park, Do Joon; Jang, Hak Chul; Moore, David D.

    2012-09-01

    Clinical hypothyroidism affects various metabolic processes including drug metabolism. CYP2B and CYP3A are important cytochrome P450 drug metabolizing enzymes that are regulated by the xenobiotic receptors constitutive androstane receptor (CAR, NR1I3) and pregnane X receptor (PXR, NR1I2). We evaluated the regulation of the hepatic expression of CYPs by CAR and PXR in the hypothyroid state induced by a low-iodine diet containing 0.15% propylthiouracil. Expression of Cyp3a11 was suppressed in hypothyroid C57BL/6 wild type (WT) mice and a further decrement was observed in hypothyroid CAR{sup −/−} mice, but not in hypothyroid PXR{sup −/−} mice. In contrast, expression of Cyp2b10 was induced in both WT and PXR{sup −/−} hypothyroid mice, and this induction was abolished in CAR{sup −/−} mice and in and CAR{sup −/−} PXR{sup −/−} double knockouts. CAR mRNA expression was increased by hypothyroidism, while PXR expression remained unchanged. Carbamazepine (CBZ) is a commonly used antiepileptic that is metabolized by CYP3A isoforms. After CBZ treatment of normal chow fed mice, serum CBZ levels were highest in CAR{sup −/−} mice and lowest in WT and PXR{sup −/−} mice. Hypothyroid WT or PXR{sup −/−} mice survived chronic CBZ treatment, but all hypothyroid CAR{sup −/−} and CAR{sup −/−} PXR{sup −/−} mice died, with CAR{sup −/−}PXR{sup −/−} mice surviving longer than CAR{sup −/−} mice (12.3 ± 3.3 days vs. 6.3 ± 2.1 days, p = 0.04). All these findings suggest that hypothyroid status affects xenobiotic metabolism, with opposing responses of CAR and PXR and their CYP targets that can cancel each other out, decreasing serious metabolic derangement in response to a xenobiotic challenge. -- Highlights: ► Hypothyroid status activates CAR in mice and induces Cyp2b10 expression. ► Hypothyroid status suppresses PXR activity in mice and represses Cyp3a11 expression. ► These responses balance each other out in normal mice.

  13. Long-Range Control of Renin Gene Expression in Tsukuba Hypertensive Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ushiki, Aki; Matsuzaki, Hitomi; Ishida, Junji; Fukamizu, Akiyoshi; Tanimoto, Keiji

    2016-01-01

    Renin, a rate-limiting enzyme in the renin–angiotensin system, is regulated to maintain blood pressure homeostasis: renin gene expression in the kidney is suppressed in a hypertensive environment. We found that expression of a 15-kb human RENIN (hREN) transgene was aberrantly upregulated (>4.2-fold), while the endogenous mouse renin (mRen) gene was suppressed (>1.7-fold) in Tsukuba hypertensive mice (THM), a model for genetically induced hypertension. We then generated transgenic mice using a 13-kb mRen gene fragment that was homologous to the 15-kb hREN transgene and found that its expression was also upregulated (>3.1-fold) in THM, suggesting that putative silencing elements of the renin genes were distally located in the loci. We next examined the possible role of a previously identified mouse distal enhancer (mdE) located outside of the 13-kb mRen gene fragment. Deletion of the mdE in the context of a 156-kb mRen transgene did not affect its transcriptional repression in THM, implying that although the silencing element of the mRen gene is located within the 156-kb fragment tested, it is distinct from the mdE. Consistent with these results, deletion of the 63-kb region upstream of the mdE from the endogenous mRen gene locus abrogated its transcriptional repression in THM. We finally tested whether dysregulation of the short renin transgenes also occurred in the fetal or neonatal kidneys of THM and found that their expression was not aberrantly upregulated, demonstrating that aberrant regulation of short renin transgenes commences sometime between neonate and adult periods. PMID:27861631

  14. Abnormal iron metabolism and oxidative stress in mice expressing a mutant form of the ferritin light polypeptide gene

    PubMed Central

    Barbeito, Ana G.; Garringer, Holly J.; Baraibar, Martin A.; Gao, Xiaoying; Arredondo, Miguel; Núñez, Marco T.; Smith, Mark A.; Ghetti, Bernardino; Vidal, Ruben

    2009-01-01

    Insertional mutations in exon 4 of the ferritin light chain (FTL) gene are associated with hereditary ferritinopathy (HF) or neuroferritinopathy, an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive impairment of motor and cognitive functions. To determine the pathogenic mechanisms by which mutations in FTL lead to neurodegeneration, we investigated iron metabolism and markers of oxidative stress in the brain of transgenic (Tg) mice that express the mutant human FTL498-499InsTC cDNA. Compared with wild-type mice, brain extracts from Tg (FTL-Tg) mice showed an increase in the cytoplasmic levels of both FTL and ferritin heavy chain polypeptides, a decrease in the protein and mRNA levels of transferrin receptor-1, and a significant increase in iron levels. Transgenic mice also showed the presence of markers for lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyls, and nitrone–protein adducts in the brain. However, gene expression analysis of iron management proteins in the liver of Tg mice indicates that the FTL-Tg mouse liver is iron deficient. Our data suggest that disruption of iron metabolism in the brain has a primary role in the process of neurodegeneration in HF and that the pathogenesis of HF is likely to result from a combination of reduction in iron storage function and enhanced toxicity associated with iron-induced ferritin aggregates in the brain. PMID:19519778

  15. Progranulin is preferentially expressed in patients with psoriasis vulgaris and protects mice from psoriasis-like skin inflammation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Kun; Chen, Aijun; Zhang, Xuemei; Song, Zhixin; Xu, Hongmei; Cao, Ju; Yin, Yibing

    2015-06-01

    Progranulin (PGRN) is a multi-functional protein known to be involved in inflammation. Recent studies have found that PGRN has dual roles in inflammation and exerts anti-inflammatory and pro-inflammatory function in different diseases. However, the role of PGRN in psoriasis has not been fully elucidated. Here, we detected preferential expression of PGRN in human psoriatic lesions and serum. Moreover, serum PGRN/tumour necrosis factor-α ratio was negatively correlated with disease severity. To investigate the role of PGRN in the pathogenesis of psoriasis, we used wild-type (WT) and PGRN(-/-) mice in a model of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA) -induced psoriasis-like inflammation. We demonstrated that PGRN expression was dramatically enhanced in the psoriasis-like lesions of TPA-treated WT mice, in accordance with human psoriatic lesions. Surprisingly, PGRN(-/-) mice were more sensitive to the development of TPA-induced psoriasis-like inflammation. The mechanism underlying this increased sensitivity of PGRN(-/-) mice to TPA-induced psoriasis-like inflammation was impaired differentiation of regulatory T cells in lymph nodes and decreased recruitment of these cells in the affected skin, which results in more severe inflammation. Hence, in WT mice, PGRN promotes differentiation and recruitment of regulatory T cells at the site of inflammation, which protects the skin from an exaggerated psoriasis-like inflammatory response.

  16. Lack of endogenous IL-10 enhances production of proinflammatory cytokines and leads to Brucella abortus clearance in mice.

    PubMed

    Corsetti, Patrícia P; de Almeida, Leonardo A; Carvalho, Natália B; Azevedo, Vasco; Silva, Teane M A; Teixeira, Henrique C; Faria, Ana C; Oliveira, Sergio C

    2013-01-01

    IL-10 is a cytokine that regulates the balance between pathogen clearance and immunopathology. Brucella abortus is an intracellular bacterium that causes chronic disease in humans and domestic animals. Here we evaluated the contribution of IL-10 in host immune response and pathology during B. abortus infection. To assess the role of IL-10 in vivo, IL-10 knockout (KO) or 129 Sv/Ev (wild-type) mice were infected with B. abortus and the number of viable bacteria from the spleen was determined at 1, 2, 3, 6 and 14-weeks postinfection. IL-10 KO mice showed reduced bacterial loads in the spleen when compared to wild-type mice during all time points studied. Additionally, at 14-weeks postinfection IL-10 KO mice had totally cleared the infection. This clearance was preceded by an enhanced IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-17 responses in both the serum and the spleen of IL-10 KO mice. Additionally, dendritic cells from infected IL-10 KO mice produced elevated levels of IL-12 and TNF-α compared to wild-type animals. Histopathology analysis was performed and both KO and wild-type mice developed multifocal granulomas and necrosis in the liver. However, at six-weeks postinfection reduced numbers of granulomas was detected in IL-10 KO mice compared to wild-type animals. This reduced liver pathology at later stage of infection was accompanied by increased numbers of CD4+CD25+foxp3+ T cells and expression of TGF-β in IL-10 KO splenocytes. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that IL-10 modulates the proinflammatory immune response to B. abortus infection and the lack of IL-10 increases resistance to Brucella infection.

  17. Magnolol Enhances Hippocampal Neurogenesis and Exerts Antidepressant-Like Effects in Olfactory Bulbectomized Mice.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Nobuaki; Akae, Haruka; Hirashima, Nana; Kido, Yuki; Tanabe, Satoshi; Koseki, Mayumi; Fukuyama, Yoshiyasu; Akagi, Masaaki

    2016-11-01

    Magnolol is the main constituent of Magnolia bark and has been reported to exhibit antidepressant effects in rodent models. Hippocampal neurogenesis and neurotrophins such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor are integrally involved in the action of conventional antidepressants. Here, we investigated the effects of magnolol on depressive behaviours, impaired hippocampal neurogenesis and neurotrophin-related signal transduction in an olfactory bulbectomy (OBX) mouse model of depression. Mice were submitted to OBX to induce depressive behaviour, which was evaluated in the tail suspension test. Magnolol was administered orally by gavage needle. Neurogenesis was assessed by analysis of cells expressing NeuN, a neuronal marker, and 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) uptake. Phosphorylation levels of protein kinase B (Akt), extracellular signal-regulated kinase and cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein were evaluated by Western blot. Fourteen day treatment with magnolol (50 or 100 mg/kg/day) significantly improved OBX-induced depressive behaviour in tail suspension test. In agreement, magnolol significantly rescued impairments of hippocampal neurogenesis. Moreover, single treatments with magnolol (50 mg/kg) significantly increased phosphorylation of Akt, extracellular signal-regulated kinase and cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein after 3 h. The present data indicate that magnolol exerts antidepressant-like effects on behaviours by enhancing hippocampal neurogenesis and neurotrophin-related intracellular signalling in OBX mice. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Quercetin exhibits adjuvant activity by enhancing Th2 immune response in ovalbumin immunized mice.

    PubMed

    Singh, Divya; Tanwar, Himanshi; Jayashankar, Bindhya; Sharma, Jyoti; Murthy, Swetha; Chanda, Sudipta; Singh, Shashi Bala; Ganju, Lilly

    2017-04-02

    Quercetin, one of the most abundant of plant flavonoids, has been studied with a great deal of attention over the last several decades mainly for its properties in inflammation and allergy. In this study, we are reporting for the first time the in vivo immunostimulatory activity of quercetin in ovalbumin immunized Balb/c mice. Administration of quercetin (50mg/kg body weight) along with ovalbumin antigen showed increased ovalbumin specific serum IgG antibody titres in comparison to the control group (p<0.05). Quercetin administration not only showed predominance of Th2 immune response by increasing the IgG1 antibody titres, but also increased the infiltration of CD11c(+) dendritic cells in the mouse peritoneum and also increased LPS activated IL-1β and nitric oxide (NO) production by peritoneal macrophages. Expression of Tbx21, GATA-3 and Oct-2 proteins also enhanced in splenocytes of quercetin administered mice. Quercetin also did not cause any hemolysis in human RBCs. Overall, our findings strongly demonstrate the novel in vivo immunostimulatory and adjuvant potentials of quercetin.

  19. High-efficiency type II cell-enhanced green fluorescent protein expression facilitates cellular identification, tracking, and isolation.

    PubMed

    Vanderbilt, Jeff N; Gonzalez, Robert F; Allen, Lennell; Gillespie, AnneMarie; Leaffer, David; Dean, Willow B; Chapin, Cheryl; Dobbs, Leland G

    2015-07-01

    We have developed a transgenic mouse expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) in virtually all type II (TII) alveolar epithelial cells. The CBG mouse (SPC-BAC-EGFP) contains a bacterial artificial chromosome modified to express EGFP within the mouse surfactant protein (SP)-C gene 3' untranslated region. EGFP mRNA expression is limited to the lung. EGFP fluorescence is both limited to and exhibited by all cells expressing pro-SP-C; fluorescence is uniform throughout all lobes of the lung and does not change as mice age. EGFP(+) cells also express SP-B but do not express podoplanin, a type I (TI) cell marker. CBG mice show no evidence of lung disease with aging. In 3 hours, TII cells can be isolated in >99% purity from CBG mice by FACS; the yield of 3.7 ± 0.6 × 10(6) cells represents approximately 25 to 60% of the TII cells in the lung. By FACS analysis, approximately 0.9% of TII cells are in mitosis in uninjured lungs; after bleomycin injury, 4.1% are in mitosis. Because EGFP fluorescence can be detected for >14 days in culture, at a time that SP-C mRNA expression is essentially nil, this line may be useful for tracking TII cells in culture and in vivo. When CBG mice are crossed to transgenic mice expressing rat podoplanin, TI and TII cells can be easily simultaneously identified and isolated. When bred to other strains of mice, EGFP expression can be used to identify TII cells without the need for immunostaining for SP-C. These mice should be useful in models of mouse pulmonary disease and in studies of TII cell biology, biochemistry, and genetics.

  20. Spatiotemporal Expression and Functional Implication of CXCL14 in the Developing Mice Cerebellum

    PubMed Central

    Park, Cho Rong; Kim, Dong-Kyu; Cho, Eun Bee; You, Dong-Joo; do Rego, Jean Luc; Vaudry, David; Sun, Woong; Kim, Hyun; Seong, Jae Young; Hwang, Jong-Ik

    2012-01-01

    Cerebellar granule neurons migrate from the external granule cell layer (EGL) to the internal granule cell layer (IGL) during postnatal morphogenesis. This migration process through 4 different layers is a complex mechanism which is highly regulated by many secreted proteins. Although chemokines are well-known peptides that trigger cell migration, but with the exception of CXCL12, which is responsible for prenatal EGL formation, their functions have not been thoroughly studied in granule cell migration. In the present study, we examined cerebellar CXCL14 expression in neonatal and adult mice. CXCL14 mRNA was expressed at high levels in adult mouse cerebellum, but the protein was not detected. Nevertheless, Western blotting analysis revealed transient expression of CXCL14 in the cerebellum in early postnatal days (P1, P8), prior to the completion of granule cell migration. Looking at the distribution of CXCL14 by immunohistochemistry revealed a strong immune reactivity at the level of the Purkinje cell layer and molecular layer which was absent in the adult cerebellum. In functional assays, CXCL14 stimulated transwell migration of cultured granule cells and enhanced the spreading rate of neurons from EGL microexplants. Taken together, these results revealed the transient expression of CXCL14 by Purkinje cells in the developing cerebellum and demonstrate the ability of the chemokine to stimulate granule cell migration, suggesting that it must be involved in the postnatal maturation of the cerebellum. PMID:22843118

  1. Phycocyanin ameliorates alloxan-induced diabetes mellitus in mice: Involved in insulin signaling pathway and GK expression.

    PubMed

    Ou, Yu; Ren, Zhiheng; Wang, Jianhui; Yang, Xuegan

    2016-03-05

    The therapeutic potential and molecular mechanism of phycocyanin from Spirulina on alloxan-induced diabetes mice was investigated. In the experiment, 4-week treatment of phycocyanin at the dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight in alloxan-induced diabetes mice resulted in improved metrics in comparison with alloxan-induced diabetes group. These metrics include blood glucose levels, glycosylated serum protein (GSP), glycosylated hemoglobin (GHb) and fasting serum insulin (FINS) levels. As its molecular mode of action, phycocyanin leads to the increase of IRS-1 tyrosine phosphorylation and the decrease of IRS-1 serine phosphorylation, also accompany with increased level of Akt phosphorylation on Ser473 in the liver and pancreas in diabetic mice. In addition, phycocyanin treatment enhanced the glucokinase (GK) level in the liver and pancreas, and the glucokinase regulatory protein (GKRP) level in the liver in diabetic mice. The results suggest that phycocyanin ameliorates alloxan-induced diabetes mellitus in mice by activating insulin signaling pathway and GK expression in pancreas and liver in diabetic mice.

  2. CCAAT/enhancer binding protein {beta} deletion increases mitochondrial function and protects mice from LXR-induced hepatic steatosis

    SciTech Connect

    Rahman, Shaikh M.; Choudhury, Mahua; Janssen, Rachel C.; Baquero, Karalee C.; Miyazaki, Makoto; Friedman, Jacob E.

    2013-01-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer LXR agonist activation increases liver TG accumulation by increasing lipogenesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer C/EBP{beta}{sup -/-} mouse prevents LXR activation-mediated induction of hepatic lipogenesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer C/EBP{beta} deletion increases mitochondrial transport chain function. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Beneficial effects of LXR activation on liver cholesterol metabolism did not change. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer C/EBP{beta} inhibition might have important therapeutic potential. -- Abstract: Drugs designed specifically to activate liver X receptors (LXRs) have beneficial effects on lowering cholesterol metabolism and inflammation but unfortunately lead to severe hepatic steatosis. The transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer binding protein beta (C/EBP{beta}) is an important regulator of liver gene expression but little is known about its involvement in LXR-based steatosis and cholesterol metabolism. The present study investigated the role of C/EBP{beta} expression in LXR agonist (T0901317)-mediated alteration of hepatic triglyceride (TG) and lipogenesis in mice. C/EBP{beta} deletion in mice prevented LXR agonist-mediated induction of lipogenic gene expression in liver in conjunction with significant reduction of liver TG accumulation. Surprisingly, C/EBP{beta}{sup -/-} mice showed a major increase in liver mitochondrial electron chain function compared to WT mice. Furthermore, LXR activation in C/EBP{beta}{sup -/-} mice increased the expression of liver ATP-binding cassette transporter ABCG1, a gene implicated in cholesterol efflux and reducing blood levels of total and LDL-cholesterol. Together, these findings establish a central role for C/EBP{beta} in the LXR-mediated steatosis and mitochondrial function, without impairing the influence of LXR activation on lowering LDL and increasing HDL-cholesterol. Inactivation of C/EBP{beta} might therefore be an important therapeutic strategy to prevent LXR

  3. Suxiaojiuxin pill enhances atherosclerotic plaque stability by modulating the MMPs/TIMPs balance in ApoE-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jinbao; Zhuang, Pengwei; Lu, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Mixia; Zhang, Teng; Zhang, Yanjun; Wang, Jinlei; Liu, Dan; Tong, Yongling

    2014-08-01

    : Suxiaojiuxin pill (SX) is a famous Chinese formulated product, which has been used to treat coronary heart disease and angina pectoris in China. This study was carried out to investigate the effect and possible mechanism of SX on the stability of atherosclerotic plaque in ApoE-deficient mice. ApoE-/- mice of 6-8 weeks old were fed with high-fat diet for developing artherosclerosis. After oral administration of SX for 8 weeks, histopathology of aortic plaque was performed by Sudan III and hematoxylin-eosin staining, and muscle protein was detected by Western blotting (WB). The mRNA and proteins associated with aortic plaque stability were detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and WB, respectively. SX treatment could not only reduce serum triglyceride level and plaque area but also increase fibrous cap thickness and collagen content compared with the model group. WB results showed that SX could increase α-smooth muscle actin, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1), and TIMP-2 protein expression, whereas decrease matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) and MMP-9 protein expression. Moreover, SX could upregulate the expression of α-smooth muscle actin mRNA and downregulate the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor mRNA. These results showed that SX could enhance atherosclerotic plaque stability in ApoE-deficient mice. The mechanism may be associated with modulating the MMPs/TIMPs balance.

  4. Expression of the hepatitis delta virus large and small antigens in transgenic mice.

    PubMed Central

    Guilhot, S; Huang, S N; Xia, Y P; La Monica, N; Lai, M M; Chisari, F V

    1994-01-01

    Simultaneous infection with hepatitis delta virus (HDV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) in humans is often associated with severe viral liver disease including fulminant hepatitis. Since HBV is thought to be noncytopathic to the hepatocyte, the enhanced disease severity observed during dual infection has been attributed to either simultaneous immune responses against the two viruses or direct cytotoxic effects of HDV products on the hepatocyte or both. To examine these alternate possibilities, we produced transgenic mice that express the small and large delta antigens (HDAg) in hepatocyte nuclei at levels equal to those observed during natural HDV infection. No biological or histopathological evidence of liver disease was detectable during 18 months of observation, suggesting that neither the large nor small form of HDAg is directly cytopathic to the hepatocyte in vivo. Images PMID:8289334

  5. HCELL Expression on Murine MSC Licenses Pancreatotropism and Confers Durable Reversal of Autoimmune Diabetes in NOD Mice

    PubMed Central

    Abdi, Reza; Moore, Robert; Sakai, Shinobu; Donnelly, Conor B.; Mounayar, Marwan; Sackstein, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an immune-mediated disease resulting in destruction of insulin-producing pancreatic beta cells. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) possess potent immunomodulatory properties, garnering increasing attention as cellular therapy for T1D and other immunologic diseases. However, MSCs generally lack homing molecules, hindering their colonization at inflammatory sites following intravenous (IV) administration. Here we analyzed whether enforced E-selectin ligand expression on murine MSCs could impact their effect in reversing hyperglycemia in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. Though murine MSCs natively do not express the E-selectin binding determinant sialyl Lewisx (sLex), we found that fucosyltransferase-mediated α(1,3)-exofucosylation of murine MSCs resulted in sLex display uniquely on cell surface CD44 thereby creating HCELL, the E-selectin-binding glycoform of CD44. Following IV infusion into diabetic NOD mice, allogeneic HCELL+ MSCs showed 3-fold greater peri-islet infiltrates compared to buffer-treated (i.e., HCELL−) MSCs, with distribution in proximity to E-selectin-expressing microvessels. Exofucosylation had no effect on MSC immunosuppressive capacity in in vitro assays, however, though engraftment was temporary for both HCELL+ and HCELL− MSCs, administration of HCELL+ MSCs resulted in durable reversal of hyperglycemia, whereas only transient reversal was observed following administration of HCELL− MSCs. Notably, exofucosylation of MSCs generated from CD44−/− mice induced prominent membrane expression of sLex, but IV administration of these MSCs into hyperglycemic NOD mice showed no enhanced pancreatotropism or reversal of hyperglycemia. These findings provide evidence that glycan engineering to enforce HCELL expression boosts trafficking of infused MSCs to pancreatic islets of NOD mice and substantially improves their efficacy in reversing autoimmune diabetes. PMID:25641589

  6. HCELL Expression on Murine MSC Licenses Pancreatotropism and Confers Durable Reversal of Autoimmune Diabetes in NOD Mice.

    PubMed

    Abdi, Reza; Moore, Robert; Sakai, Shinobu; Donnelly, Conor B; Mounayar, Marwan; Sackstein, Robert

    2015-05-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an immune-mediated disease resulting in destruction of insulin-producing pancreatic beta cells. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) possess potent immunomodulatory properties, garnering increasing attention as cellular therapy for T1D and other immunologic diseases. However, MSCs generally lack homing molecules, hindering their colonization at inflammatory sites following intravenous (IV) administration. Here, we analyzed whether enforced E-selectin ligand expression on murine MSCs could impact their effect in reversing hyperglycemia in nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice. Although murine MSCs natively do not express the E-selectin-binding determinant sialyl Lewis(x) (sLe(x) ), we found that fucosyltransferase-mediated α(1,3)-exofucosylation of murine MSCs resulted in sLe(x) display uniquely on cell surface CD44 thereby creating hematopoietic cell E-/L-selectin ligand (HCELL), the E-selectin-binding glycoform of CD44. Following IV infusion into diabetic NOD mice, allogeneic HCELL(+) MSCs showed threefold greater peri-islet infiltrates compared to buffer-treated (i.e., HCELL(-) ) MSCs, with distribution in proximity to E-selectin-expressing microvessels. Exofucosylation had no effect on MSC immunosuppressive capacity in in vitro assays; however, although engraftment was temporary for both HCELL(+) and HCELL(-) MSCs, administration of HCELL(+) MSCs resulted in durable reversal of hyperglycemia, whereas only transient reversal was observed following administration of HCELL(-) MSCs. Notably, exofucosylation of MSCs generated from CD44(-/-) mice induced prominent membrane expression of sLe(x) , but IV administration of these MSCs into hyperglycemic NOD mice showed no enhanced pancreatotropism or reversal of hyperglycemia. These findings provide evidence that glycan engineering to enforce HCELL expression boosts trafficking of infused MSCs to pancreatic islets of NOD mice and substantially improves their efficacy in reversing autoimmune diabetes. Stem Cells

  7. Exercise Enhances Learning and Hippocampal Neurogenesis in Aged Mice

    PubMed Central

    Praag, Henriette van; Shubert, Tiffany; Zhao, Chunmei; Gage, Fred H.

    2005-01-01

    Aging causes changes in the hippocampus that may lead to cognitive decline in older adults. In young animals, exercise increases hippocampal neurogenesis and improves learning. We investigated whether voluntary wheel running would benefit mice that were sedentary until 19 months of age. Specifically, young and aged mice were housed with or without a running wheel and injected with bromodeoxyuridine or retrovirus to label newborn cells. After 1 month, learning was tested in the Morris water maze. Aged runners showed faster acquisition and better retention of the maze than age-matched controls. The decline in neurogenesis in aged mice was reversed to 50% of young control levels by running. Moreover, fine morphology of new neurons did not differ between young and aged runners, indicating that the initial maturation of newborn neurons was not affected by aging. Thus, voluntary exercise ameliorates some of the deleterious morphological and behavioral consequences of aging. PMID:16177036

  8. Loss of glutamic acid decarboxylase (Gad67) in Gpr88-expressing neurons induces learning and social behavior deficits in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, K; Hill, K; Labak, S; Blatt, G J; Soghomonian, J-J

    2014-09-05

    GABA is the neurotransmitter of striatal projection neurons, however the contribution of the striatal GABAergic output to behavior is not well understood. We assessed motor function, spatial learning, social behavior, olfactory and object recognition preferences in mice lacking the GABA-synthesizing enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase, Gad67, in neurons expressing the protein Gpr88, an orphan G-protein-coupled receptor primarily expressed in the striatum. Gad67-deficient mice show no impairments in motor coordination and balance, but exhibit enhanced locomotor activity and stereotypic grooming behavior. Furthermore, Gad67-deficient mice show impairments in spatial learning, social behavior, olfactory preferences, and they prefer a familiar compared to a novel object in the object recognition test. These findings provide original evidence that striatal Gad67 expression is involved in the modulation of learning and social behavior. Some of the behavioral abnormalities observed in Gad67-deficient mice are reminiscent of Autism-spectrum-disorder (ASD) deficits, suggesting that abnormal striatal GABAergic output may contribute to behavioral deficits in ASD. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Increased Bacterial Load and Expression of Antimicrobial Peptides in Skin of Barrier-Deficient Mice with Reduced Cancer Susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Natsuga, Ken; Cipolat, Sara; Watt, Fiona M.

    2016-01-01

    Mice lacking three epidermal barrier proteins—envoplakin, periplakin, and involucrin (EPI-/- mice)—have a defective cornified layer, reduced epidermal γδ T cells, and increased dermal CD4+ T cells. They are also resistant to developing skin tumors. The tumor-protective mechanism involves signaling between Rae-1 expressing keratinocytes and the natural killer group 2D receptor on immune cells, which also plays a role in host defenses against infection. Given the emerging link between bacteria and cancer, we investigated whether EPI-/- mice have an altered skin microbiota. The bacterial phyla were similar in wild-type and EPI-/- skin. However, bacteria were threefold more abundant in EPI-/- skin and penetrated deeper into the epidermis. The major epithelial defense mechanism against bacteria is production of antimicrobial proteins (AMPs). EPI-/- skin exhibited enhanced expression of antimicrobial peptides. However, reducing the bacterial load by antibiotic treatment or breeding mice under specific pathogen-free conditions did not reduce AMP expression or alleviate the abnormalities in T-cell populations. We conclude that the atopic characteristics of EPI-/- skin are a consequence of the defective barrier rather than a response to the increased bacterial load. It is therefore unlikely that the increase in skin microbiota contributes directly to the observed cancer resistance. PMID:26763429

  10. Increased Bacterial Load and Expression of Antimicrobial Peptides in Skin of Barrier-Deficient Mice with Reduced Cancer Susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Natsuga, Ken; Cipolat, Sara; Watt, Fiona M

    2016-01-01

    Mice lacking three epidermal barrier proteins-envoplakin, periplakin, and involucrin (EPI-/- mice)-have a defective cornified layer, reduced epidermal γδ T cells, and increased dermal CD4(+) T cells. They are also resistant to developing skin tumors. The tumor-protective mechanism involves signaling between Rae-1 expressing keratinocytes and the natural killer group 2D receptor on immune cells, which also plays a role in host defenses against infection. Given the emerging link between bacteria and cancer, we investigated whether EPI-/- mice have an altered skin microbiota. The bacterial phyla were similar in wild-type and EPI-/- skin. However, bacteria were threefold more abundant in EPI-/- skin and penetrated deeper into the epidermis. The major epithelial defense mechanism against bacteria is production of antimicrobial proteins (AMPs). EPI-/- skin exhibited enhanced expression of antimicrobial peptides. However, reducing the bacterial load by antibiotic treatment or breeding mice under specific pathogen-free conditions did not reduce AMP expression or alleviate the abnormalities in T-cell populations. We conclude that the atopic characteristics of EPI-/- skin are a consequence of the defective barrier rather than a response to the increased bacterial load. It is therefore unlikely that the increase in skin microbiota contributes directly to the observed cancer resistance. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Enhancement of resistance to Escherichia coli infection in mice by dihydroheptaprenol, a synthetic polyprenol derivative.

    PubMed Central

    Araki, S; Kagaya, K; Kitoh, K; Kimura, M; Fukazawa, Y

    1987-01-01

    The effect of a chemically synthesized polyprenol derivative, dihydroheptaprenol (DHP), on the nonspecific resistance of mice to infection with Escherichia coli was investigated. Mice that had been injected intramuscularly with 100 mg of DHP per kg of body weight, prepared as a microemulsion with lecithin, 1 to 4 days before infection showed enhanced resistance to subcutaneous (s.c.) infection with E. coli. When DHP-injected mice were inoculated s.c. with 3 X 10(8) E. coli, which induces fatal acute systemic infection in normal mice, propagation of bacteria in the blood, liver, and spleen was significantly inhibited. Enhanced resistance of athymic (nude) mice to E. coli infection was also induced by DHP. DHP markedly stimulated the generation of peripheral blood neutrophils, significantly enhanced clearance of E. coli from the bloodstream, and activated neutrophils and peritoneal macrophages for H2O2 generation. DHP restored the resistance to E. coli infection in cyclophosphamide-treated mice over the normal level. Furthermore, DHP shortened the period of the recovery of neutrophils and also enhanced clearance of E. coli from the bloodstream in cyclophosphamide-treated mice. DHP was nontoxic for mice and rats (400 mg/kg intramuscularly and 800 mg/kg s.c.) and nonpyrogenic at a dose of 30 mg/kg when administered intravenously to rabbits. These results suggest that the mechanism of action of DHP for enhancing resistance in mice may be, at least in part, its ability to stimulate the generation of potent neutrophils and to activate macrophages in the reticuloendothelial system. PMID:3114147

  12. Forebrain engraftment by human glial progenitor cells enhances synaptic plasticity and learning in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Han, Xiaoning; Chen, Michael; Wang, Fushun; Windrem, Martha; Wang, Su; Shanz, Steven; Xu, Qiwu; Oberheim, Nancy Ann; Bekar, Lane; Betstadt, Sarah; Silva, Alcino J; Takano, Takahiro; Goldman, Steven A; Nedergaard, Maiken

    2013-03-07

    Human astrocytes are larger and more complex than those of infraprimate mammals, suggesting that their role in neural processing has expanded with evolution. To assess the cell-autonomous and species-selective properties of human glia, we engrafted human glial progenitor cells (GPCs) into neonatal immunodeficient mice. Upon maturation, the recipient brains exhibited large numbers and high proportions of both human glial progenitors and astrocytes. The engrafted human glia were gap-junction-coupled to host astroglia, yet retained the size and pleomorphism of hominid astroglia, and propagated Ca2+ signals 3-fold faster than their hosts. Long-term potentiation (LTP) was sharply enhanced in the human glial chimeric mice, as was their learning, as assessed by Barnes maze navigation, object-location memory, and both contextual and tone fear conditioning. Mice allografted with murine GPCs showed no enhancement of either LTP or learning. These findings indicate that human glia differentially enhance both activity-dependent plasticity and learning in mice.

  13. Generation of an ABCG2{sup GFPn-puro} transgenic line - A tool to study ABCG2 expression in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Orford, Michael; Mean, Richard; Lapathitis, George; Genethliou, Nicholas; Panayiotou, Elena; Panayi, Helen; Malas, Stavros

    2009-06-26

    The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter 2 (ABCG2) is expressed by stem cells in many organs and in stem cells of solid tumors. These cells are isolated based on the side population (SP) phenotype, a Hoechst 3342 dye efflux property believed to be conferred by ABCG2. Because of the limitations of this approach we generated transgenic mice that express Nuclear GFP (GFPn) coupled to the Puromycin-resistance gene, under the control of ABCG2 promoter/enhancer sequences. We show that ABCG2 is expressed in neural progenitors of the developing forebrain and spinal cord and in embryonic and adult endothelial cells of the brain. Using the neurosphere assay, we isolated tripotent ABCG2-expressing neural stem cells from embryonic mouse brain. This transgenic line is a powerful tool for studying the expression of ABCG2 in many tissues and for performing functional studies in different experimental settings.

  14. Localized brain differences in Arc expression between mice showing low vs. high propensity to ethanol sensitization.

    PubMed

    Nona, Christina N; Lam, Marcus; Nobrega, José N

    2016-03-01

    Behavioral sensitization to ethanol (EtOH) manifests as a progressive and enduring increase in locomotor activity with repeated drug exposure. However, not all mice sensitize to EtOH and the neuronal mechanisms mediating vulnerability and resistance to EtOH sensitization remain unclear. We examined regional brain expression of the immediate early gene activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc) in order to identify brain areas in which neuroplastic changes may contribute to the development and expression of EtOH sensitization. Male DBA/2J mice received 5 biweekly injections of EtOH (2.2g/kg, i.p.) or saline (SAL). They were categorized as high- (HS) or low-sensitized (LS) on the basis of final locomotor activity scores. In both LS and HS mice sacrificed after the last sensitization injection, Arc expression was decreased throughout the brain in comparison to SAL animals. A similar pattern was seen in mice sacrificed after an EtOH challenge two weeks after the last sensitization injection. However in this cohort, Arc expression was significantly increased in the central amygdala (CeA) in LS mice and in SAL mice receiving EtOH for the first time. No significant increases in Arc expression were seen in brains of sensitized (HS) animals. These results indicate an acute EtOH challenge results in different patterns of Arc expression in brains of LS, HS, and SAL mice. The dramatic increases in Arc expression in the CeA in LS and SAL mice showing little or no behavioral activation suggests that neural activity in this region may serve to inhibit the stimulant effects of EtOH. The observation that HS mice do not show increases in Arc expression with an EtOH challenge suggests the possibility that increased tolerance to the Arc-inducing effects of EtOH may be a factor in behavioral sensitization.

  15. Differential expression of genes involved in the calcium homeostasis in masticatory muscles of MDX mice.

    PubMed

    Kunert-Keil, C H; Gredes, T; Lucke, S; Botzenhart, U; Dominiak, M; Gedrange, T

    2014-04-01

    Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) and its murine model, mdx, are characterized by Ca(2+) induced muscle damage and muscle weakness followed by distorted dentofacial morphology. In both, DMD patients and in mdx mice, could be proven so far that only the extraocular muscles (EOM) are not affected by muscular dystrophy. The EOMs are protected against calcium overload by enhanced expression of genes involved in the Ca(2+) homeostasis. We could recently demonstrate that masticatory muscles of mdx mice are differentially affected by muscle dystrophy. The dystrophic masseter and temporalis shows muscle histology comparable to all other skeletal muscles in this animal model, whereas dystrophic tongue muscles seem to develop a milder phenotype. Due to this fact it is to hypothesize that an altered Ca(2+) homeostasis seems to underlie the mdx masticatory muscle pathology. Aim of this study was to examine the mRNA and protein levels of the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) ATPases SERCA1 and SERCA2, the plasma membrane Ca(2+) ATPases Atp2b1 and Atp2b4, the sodium/calcium exchanger NCX1, the ryanodine receptor 1, parvalbumin, sarcolipin, phospholamban and the L-type Ca(2+) channel alpha-1 subunit (Cacna1s) in Musculus masseter, temporalis, and tongue of 100 day old control and mdx mice. In mdx masseter muscle significant increased mRNA levels of NCX1 and Cacna1s were found compared to control mice. In contrast, the mRNA amount of RYR1 was significant reduced in mdx temporalis muscle, whereas ATP2b4 was significant increased. In mdx tongue a down-regulation of the ATP2b1, sarcolipin and parvalbumin mRNA expression was found, whereas the phospholamban mRNA level was significantly increased compared to controls. These data were verified by western blot analyses. Our findings revealed that mdx masticatory muscles showed an unequally altered expression of genes involved in the Ca(2+) homeostasis that can support the differences in masticatory muscles response to dystrophin deficiency.

  16. Generation and characterization of transgenic mice expressing mitochondrial targeted red fluorescent protein selectively in neurons: modeling mitochondriopathy in excitotoxicity and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi; Pan, Yan; Price, Ann; Martin, Lee J

    2011-11-02

    Mitochondria have roles or appear to have roles in the pathogenesis of several chronic age-related and acute neurological disorders, including Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, and cerebral ischemia, and could be critical targets for development of rational mechanism-based, disease-modifying therapeutics for treating these disorders effectively. A deeper understanding of neural tissue mitochondria pathobiologies as definitive mediators of neural injury, disease, and cell death merits further study, and the development of additional tools to study neural mitochondria will help achieve this unmet need. We created transgenic mice that express the coral (Discosoma sp.) red fluorescent protein DsRed2 specifically in mitochondria of neurons using a construct engineered with a Thy1 promoter, specific for neuron expression, to drive expression of a fusion protein of DsRed2 with a mitochondrial targeting sequence. The biochemical and histological characterization of these mice shows the expression of mitochondrial-targeted DsRed2 to be specific for mitochondria and concentrated in distinct CNS regions, including cerebral cortex, hippocampus, thalamus, brainstem, and spinal cord. Red fluorescent mitochondria were visualized in cerebral cortical and hippocampal pyramidal neurons, ventrobasal thalamic neurons, subthalamic neurons, and spinal motor neurons. For the purpose of proof of principle application, these mice were used in excitotoxicity paradigms and double transgenic mice were generated by crossing Thy1-mitoDsRed2 mice with transgenic mice expressing enhanced-GFP (eGFP) under the control of the Hlxb9 promoter that drives eGFP expression specifically in motor neurons and by crossing Thy1-mitoDsRed2 mice to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) mice expressing human mutant superoxide dismutase-1. These novel transgenic mice will be a useful tool for better understanding the biology of mitochondria in mouse and cellular models

  17. Pre- and post-exposure safety and efficacy of attenuated rabies virus vaccines are enhanced by their expression of IFNγ

    SciTech Connect

    Barkhouse, Darryll A.; Faber, Milosz; Hooper, D. Craig

    2015-01-01

    Consistent with evidence of a strong correlation between interferon gamma (IFNγ) production and rabies virus (RABV) clearance from the CNS, we recently demonstrated that engineering a pathogenic RABV to express IFNγ highly attenuates the virus. Reasoning that IFNγ expression by RABV vaccines would enhance their safety and efficacy, we reverse-engineered two proven vaccine vectors, GAS and GASGAS, to express murine IFNγ. Mortality and morbidity were monitored during suckling mice infection, immunize/challenge experiments and mixed intracranial infections. We demonstrate that GASγ and GASγGAS are significantly attenuated in suckling mice compared to the GASGAS vaccine. GASγ better protects mice from lethal DRV4 RABV infection in both pre- and post-exposure experiments compared to GASGAS. Finally, GASγGAS reduces post-infection neurological sequelae, compared to control, during mixed intracranial infection with DRV4. These data show IFNγ expression by a vaccine vector can enhance its safety while increasing its efficacy as pre- and post-exposure treatment. - Highlights: • IFNγ expression improves attenuated rabies virus safety and immunogenicity. • IFNγ expression is safer and more immunogenic than doubling glycoprotein expression. • Co-infection with IFNγ-expressing RABV prevents wild-type rabies virus lethality. • Vaccine safety and efficacy is additive for IFNγ and double glycoprotein expression.

  18. Nur77 deficiency in mice accelerates tumor invasion and metastasis by facilitating TNFα secretion and lowering CSF-1R expression

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Shang-Shang; He, Xiao-Shun; Li, Jiang-Nan; Yang, Tian-Yu; Zhang, Shen; Gan, Wen-Juan; Li, Jian-Ming

    2017-01-01

    Nur77, an orphan member of the nuclear receptor superfamily, plays critical roles in inflammation and immunity. However, the role of Nur77 in tumor microenvironment remains elusive. Results showed that deletion of Nur77 strikingly enhanced tumor metastasis compared to WT mice. Additionally, compared to the conditioned media derived from Nur77+/+ peritoneal macrophages (CM1), the conditioned media derived from Nur77-/- peritoneal macrophages (CM2) significantly promoted the EMT of cancer cells, and greatly enhanced the migratory and invasive abilities of cancer cells. Moreover, studies using TNF-α blocking antibody demonstrated that pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α was indispensable in supporting CM2-induced EMT to drive cancer cells migration and invasion. Furthermore, we found that Nur77 promoted the expression of CSF-1R, a novel downstream target gene of Nur77, and subsequently enhanced the migration of inflammatory cells. Notably, infiltration of inflammatory cells in the tumors of Nur77-/- mice was markedly abrogated compared to Nur77+/+ mice. Collectively, these results revealed that host Nur77 expression was pivotal in antitumor immune response, and in inhibiting tumor metastasis. PMID:28170411

  19. Behavioral effects of elevated expression of human equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 in mice.

    PubMed

    Kost, Sara; Sun, Chao; Xiong, Wei; Graham, Kathryn; Cass, Carol E; Young, James D; Albensi, Benedict C; Parkinson, Fiona E

    2011-10-10

    Adenosine concentrations are regulated by purinergic enzymes and nucleoside transporters. Transgenic mice with neuronal expression of human equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (hENT1) have been generated (Parkinson et al., 2009 [7]). The present study tested the hypothesis that mice homozygous and heterozygous for the transgene exhibit differences in hENT1 mRNA and protein expression, and in behavioral responses to caffeine and ethanol, two drugs with adenosine-dependent actions. Real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to identify mice heterozygous and homozygous for the transgene. Gene expression, determined by real time PCR of cDNA reverse transcribed from cerebral cortex RNA, was 3.8-fold greater in homozygous mice. Protein abundance, determined by radioligand binding assays using 0.14nM [(3)H]S-(4-nitrobenzyl)-6-thioinosine ([(3)H]NBTI), was up to 84% greater in cortex synaptosome membranes from homozygous than from heterozygous mice. In western blots with an antibody specific for hENT1, a protein of approximately 40kDa was strongly labelled in cortex samples from homozygous mice, weakly labelled in samples from heterozygous mice and absent from samples from wild type mice. In behavioral assays, transgenic mice showed a greater response to ethanol and a reduced response to caffeine than wild type littermates; however, no significant differences between heterozygous and homozygous mice were detected. These data indicate that the difference in ENT1 function between wild type and heterozygous mice was greater than that between heterozygous and homozygous mice. Therefore, either heterozygous or homozygous hENT1 transgenic mice can be used in studies of ENT1 regulation of adenosine levels and adenosine dependent behaviors.

  20. Stat3 enhances the growth of LNCaP human prostate cancer cells in intact and castrated male nude mice.

    PubMed

    DeMiguel, Fernando; Lee, Soo Ok; Lou, Wei; Xiao, Xiao; Pflug, Beth R; Nelson, Joel B; Gao, Allen C

    2002-07-01

    Prostate cancer frequently progresses from an initial androgen dependence to androgen independence, rendering the only effective androgen ablation therapy useless. The mechanism underlying the androgen-independent progression is unknown. Stat3, a member of the family of signal transducers and activators of transcription, is activated in numerous cancers, including prostate. This study is to investigate the role of Stat3 activation in the growth of prostate cancer cells. A constitutively active Stat3 was ectopically expressed in androgen-sensitive LNCaP prostate cancer cells and resulting stable clones expressing activated Stat3 were isolated. The effect of Stat3 activation on LNCaP cell growth in response to androgen in vitro and in vivo was examined. We show that the levels of activated Stat3 are associated with the progression of androgen-independent prostate cancer. Activation of Stat3 in androgen-sensitive LNCaP prostate cancer cells results in enhancement of tumor growth in both intact and castrated male nude mice and enhances androgen receptor-mediated prostate specific antigen expression. These findings demonstrate that intracellular signaling mediated by Stat3 can enhance the growth of androgen-sensitive human LNCaP prostate cancer cells in both intact and castrated male nude mice. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Fluoxetine prevents respiratory arrest without enhancing ventilation in DBA/1 mice.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Chang; Long, Xiaoyan; Cotten, Joseph F; Forman, Stuart A; Solt, Ken; Faingold, Carl L; Feng, Hua-Jun

    2015-04-01

    Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is a fatal epileptic event. DBA/1 mice are a relevant animal model for the study of SUDEP, as these mice exhibit seizure-induced respiratory arrest (S-IRA) leading to death, which has been observed in patients with witnessed SUDEP. Fluoxetine, a selective serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine or 5-HT) reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), reduces S-IRA in DBA/1 mice. Given that DBA/1 mice with S-IRA can be resuscitated using a ventilator, we hypothesized that breathing stimulants can prevent S-IRA and that fluoxetine prevents S-IRA by enhancing ventilation in these mice. Spontaneous respiratory function in anesthetized or awake DBA/1 mice was examined using noninvasive plethysmography before and after administering fluoxetine or breathing stimulants, doxapram, and 5,6,7,8-tetrahydropyrido[4,3-d]pyrimidine (PK-THPP). The effects of these drugs on S-IRA in DBA/1 mice were tested. As reported previously, systemic administration of fluoxetine reduced S-IRA in awake DBA/1 mice, but fluoxetine in anesthetized and awake DBA/1 mice did not increase basal ventilation or the ventilatory response to 7% CO2. Both doxapram and PK-THPP increased ventilation in room air and in air+7% CO2 in anesthetized DBA/1 mice. However, neither of the breathing stimulants reduced the incidence of S-IRA. Our studies confirm that fluoxetine reduces S-IRA in DBA/1 mice without enhancing basal ventilation in the absence of seizures. Although breathing stimulants increased ventilation in the absence of seizures, they were ineffective in reducing S-IRA, indicating that drug-induced increases in ventilation are insufficient to compensate for S-IRA in DBA/1 mice.

  2. Hepatic changes in metabolic gene expression in old ghrelin and ghrelin receptor knockout mice

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ghrelin knockout (GKO) and ghrelin receptor (growth hormone secretagogue receptor) knockout (GHSRKO) mice exhibit enhanced insulin sensitivity, but the mechanism is unclear. Insulin sensitivity declines with age and is inversely associated with accumulation of lipid in liver, a key glucoregulatory ...

  3. Oxytocin knockout mice demonstrate enhanced intake of sweet and nonsweet carbohydrate solutions.

    PubMed

    Sclafani, Anthony; Rinaman, Linda; Vollmer, Regis R; Amico, Janet A

    2007-05-01

    Oxytocin knockout (OT KO) mice display enhanced intake of nutritive and nonnutritive sweet solutions (i.e., sucrose and saccharin) compared with wild-type (WT) mice of the same C57BL/6 background strain. The present study further investigated the differential behavioral response of OT KO and WT mice to sucrose solutions and also examined intake preferences of OT KO and WT mice for palatable but nonsweet isocaloric solutions of carbohydrate and fat. A progressive ratio operant licking procedure demonstrated that OT KO and WT mice display a similar motivational drive to consume 10% sucrose. A series of two-bottle intake tests revealed that OT KO mice consume significantly larger amounts of both sweet and nonsweet carbohydrate solutions (i.e., sucrose, Polycose, and cornstarch) compared with WT cohorts. Intake pattern analyses revealed that OT KO mice overconsume carbohydrate solutions by initiating more drinking bouts compared with WT mice; bout sizes did not differ between the genotypes. In contrast, OT KO and WT mice did not differ in their intake of Intralipid, a palatable soybean oil emulsion. These findings indicate that the absence of OT in mice does not affect their appetitive drive to consume palatable sucrose solutions. Instead, the absence of OT may increase daily intake of palatable sweet and nonsweet solutions of carbohydrate (but not fat) by selectively blunting or masking processes that contribute to postingestive satiety.

  4. Olfactory discrimination varies in mice with different levels of α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor expression

    PubMed Central

    Hellier, Jennifer L.; Arevalo, Nicole L.; Blatner, Megan J.; Dang, An K.; Clevenger, Amy C.; Adams, Catherine E.; Restrepo, Diego

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that schizophrenics have decreased expression of α7-nicotinic acetylcholine (α7) receptors in the hippocampus and other brain regions, paranoid delusions, disorganized speech, deficits in auditory gating (i.e., inability to inhibit neuronal responses to repetitive auditory stimuli), and difficulties in odor discrimination and detection. Here we use mice with decreased α7 expression that also show a deficit in auditory gating to determine if these mice have similar deficits in olfaction. In the adult mouse olfactory bulb (OB), α7 expression localizes in the glomerular layer; however, the functional role of α7 is unknown. We show that inbred mouse strains (i.e., C3H and C57) with varying α7 expression (e.g., α7 wild-type [α7+/+], α7 heterozygous knock-out [α7+/−] and α7 homozygous knockout mice [α7−/−]) significantly differ in odor discrimination and detection of chemically related odorant pairs. Using [125I] α-bungarotoxin (α-BGT) autoradiography, α7 expression was measured in the OB. As previously demonstrated, α-BGT binding was localized to the glomerular layer. Significantly more expression of α7 was observed in C57 α7+/+ mice compared to C3H α7+/+ mice. Furthermore, C57 α7+/+ mice were able to detect a significantly lower concentration of an odor in a mixture compared to C3H α7+/+ mice. Both C57 and C3H α7+/+ mice discriminated between chemically related odorants sooner than α7+/− or α7−/− mice. These data suggest that α7-nicotinic-receptors contribute strongly to olfactory discrimination and detection in mice and may be one of the mechanisms producing olfactory dysfunction in schizophrenics. PMID:20713028

  5. Mice Expressing a "Hyper-Sensitive" Form of the Cannabinoid Receptor 1 (CB1) Are Neither Obese Nor Diabetic

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, Mary-Jeanette; Amin, Randa; Henderson-Redmond, Angela N.; Mackie, Ken; Czyzyk, Traci A.; Morgan, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    Multiple lines of evidence implicate the endocannabinoid signaling system in the modulation of metabolic disease. Genetic or pharmacological inactivation of CB1 in rodents leads to reduced body weight, resistance to diet-induced obesity, decreased intake of highly palatable food, and increased energy expenditure. Cannabinoid agonists stimulate feeding in rodents and increased levels of endocannabinoids can disrupt lipid metabolism. Therefore, the hypothesis that sustained endocannabinoid signaling can lead to obesity and diabetes was examined in this study using S426A/S430A mutant mice expressing a desensitization-resistant CB1 receptor. These mice display exaggerated and prolonged responses to acute administration of phytocannabinoids, synthetic cannabinoids, and endocannabinoids. As a consequence these mice represent a novel model for determining the effect of enhanced endocannabinoid signaling on metabolic disease. S426A/S430A mutants consumed equivalent amounts of both high fat (45%) and low fat (10%) chow control diet compared to wild-type littermate controls. S426A/S430A mutants and wild-type mice fed either high or low fat control diet displayed similar fasting blood glucose levels and normal glucose clearance following a 2 g/kg glucose challenge. Furthermore, S426A/S430A mutants and wild-type mice consumed similar amounts of chow following an overnight fast. While both THC and JZL195 significantly increased food intake two hours after injection, this increase was similar between the S426A/S430A mutant and wildtype control mice Our results indicate that S426A/S430A mutant mice expressing the desensitization-resistant form of CB1 do not exhibit differences in body weight, food intake, glucose homeostasis, or re-feeding following a fast. PMID:27501235

  6. Skeletal phenotype of growing transgenic mice that express a function-perturbing form of beta1 integrin in osteoblasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Globus, R. K.; Amblard, D.; Nishimura, Y.; Iwaniec, U. T.; Kim, J-B; Almeida, E. A. C.; Damsky, C. D.; Wronski, T. J.; van der Meulen, M. C. H.

    2005-01-01

    Skeletal modeling entails the deposition of large amounts of extracellular matrix (ECM) to form structures tailored to withstand increasing mechanical loads during rapid growth. Specific ECM molecules bind to integrin receptors on the cell surface, thereby triggering a cascade of signaling events that affect critical cell functions. To evaluate the role of integrins during skeletal growth, transgenic mice were engineered to express a function-perturbing fragment of beta1 integrin consisting of the transmembrane domain and cytoplasmic tail under the control of the osteocalcin promoter (TG mice). Thus, transgene expression was targeted to mature cells of the osteoblast lineage, and herein we show that cultured cells resembling osteocytes from 90-day-old TG mice display impaired adhesion to collagen I, a ligand for beta1 integrin. To determine the influence of beta1 integrin on bones that are responsible for providing structural support during periods of rapid growth, we examined the phenotype of the appendicular skeleton in TG mice compared to wild type (WT) mice. According to radiographs, bones from mice of both genotypes between 14 and 90 days of age appeared similar in gross structure and density, although proximal tibiae from 35-90 days old TG mice were less curved than those of WT mice (72-92% TG/WT). Although there were only mild and transient differences in absolute bone mass and strength, once normalized to body mass, the tibial dry mass (79.1% TG/WT females), ash mass (78.5% TG/WT females), and femoral strength in torsion (71.6% TG/WT females) were reduced in TG mice compared to WT mice at 90 days of age. Similar effects of genotype on bone mass and curvature were observed in 1-year-old retired breeders, indicating that these phenotypic differences between TG and WT mice were stable well into adulthood. Effects of genotype on histomorphometric indices of cancellous bone turnover were minimal and evident only transiently during growth, but when present they

  7. Skeletal phenotype of growing transgenic mice that express a function-perturbing form of beta1 integrin in osteoblasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Globus, R. K.; Amblard, D.; Nishimura, Y.; Iwaniec, U. T.; Kim, J-B; Almeida, E. A. C.; Damsky, C. D.; Wronski, T. J.; van der Meulen, M. C. H.

    2005-01-01

    Skeletal modeling entails the deposition of large amounts of extracellular matrix (ECM) to form structures tailored to withstand increasing mechanical loads during rapid growth. Specific ECM molecules bind to integrin receptors on the cell surface, thereby triggering a cascade of signaling events that affect critical cell functions. To evaluate the role of integrins during skeletal growth, transgenic mice were engineered to express a function-perturbing fragment of beta1 integrin consisting of the transmembrane domain and cytoplasmic tail under the control of the osteocalcin promoter (TG mice). Thus, transgene expression was targeted to mature cells of the osteoblast lineage, and herein we show that cultured cells resembling osteocytes from 90-day-old TG mice display impaired adhesion to collagen I, a ligand for beta1 integrin. To determine the influence of beta1 integrin on bones that are responsible for providing structural support during periods of rapid growth, we examined the phenotype of the appendicular skeleton in TG mice compared to wild type (WT) mice. According to radiographs, bones from mice of both genotypes between 14 and 90 days of age appeared similar in gross structure and density, although proximal tibiae from 35-90 days old TG mice were less curved than those of WT mice (72-92% TG/WT). Although there were only mild and transient differences in absolute bone mass and strength, once normalized to body mass, the tibial dry mass (79.1% TG/WT females), ash mass (78.5% TG/WT females), and femoral strength in torsion (71.6% TG/WT females) were reduced in TG mice compared to WT mice at 90 days of age. Similar effects of genotype on bone mass and curvature were observed in 1-year-old retired breeders, indicating that these phenotypic differences between TG and WT mice were stable well into adulthood. Effects of genotype on histomorphometric indices of cancellous bone turnover were minimal and evident only transiently during growth, but when present they

  8. Enhancement of the immune response against Salmonella infection of mice by heat-killed multispecies combinations of lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chih-Yuan; Tsen, Hau-Yang; Lin, Chun-Li; Lin, Chien-Ku; Chuang, Li-Tsen; Chen, Chin-Shuh; Chiang, Yu-Cheng

    2013-11-01

    Heat-killed lactic acid bacteria (LAB) has advantages over live LAB in that it has a long shelf-life and is therefore easy to store and transport. From four LAB strains selected by immunomodulatory activity and adherent properties, we prepared the heat-killed multispecies combination of LAB (MLAB) and the cell walls from MLAB under two conditions (100 °C for 30 min and 121 °C for 15 min). Different effects on the adherent properties of these four LAB strains were observed, depending on the heating conditions. With mouse macrophage cells, the two heat-killed MLABs (HMLABs) showed significantly higher induction activities on the production of interleukin 12 (IL-12) than their individual strains did. Heat-killed MLABs and cell-wall preparations were able to reduce the Salmonella invasion of Caco-2 and mouse macrophage cells. Feeding mice with HMLAB could inhibit the Salmonella invasion of mice significantly. For these mice, the expression level of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α and IL-6, in mouse serum was reduced while that of the anti-inflammatory cytokine, i.e. IL-10, was enhanced. The HMLABs developed in this study showed higher protective effect against Salmonella invasion either of Caco-2 cells or of mice, relative to the heat-killed lactobacilli, which consisted of Lactobacillus acidophilus strains selected at random. In conclusion, the HMLABs were potentially useful for the protection of mice against Salmonella infection and the induced inflammation.

  9. Stressor Controllability and Fos Expression in Stress Regulatory Regions in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Liu, X.; Tang, X.; Sanford, LD

    2009-01-01

    Controllability is an important determinant of the effects of stress on behavior. We trained mice with escapable (ES) and inescapable (IS) shock and examined behavioral freezing and Fos expression in brain regions involved in stress to determine whether stressor controllability produced differential activation of these regions. Mice (C57BL/6J) were trained to escape footshock by moving to a safe chamber in a shuttlebox. This terminated shock for both ES mice (n=5) and yoked-control mice receiving IS (n=5). Handling control (HC) mice (n=5) experienced the shuttlebox, but never received footshock. Training took place on three days (20 trials per day, 0.2 mA, 5.0 sec maximum duration, 1.0 min interstimulus interval). On day 3, the animals were killed two h after training and the brains were processed for Fos expression in the amygdala, hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), laterodorsal tegmental nucleus, locus coeruleus and dorsal raphe nucleus. Fos expression after IS was greater than after ES and HC in all regions (p < .05). Fos expression after ES was greater than HC only in PVN (p < .05). Freezing in ES mice was equal to or greater than in IS mice whereas HC mice showed minimal freezing. Differential activation of brain regions implicated in stress may, in part, account for differences in behavior in the aftermath of uncontrollable and controllable stress. PMID:19275908

  10. Increased liver pathology in hepatitis C virus transgenic mice expressing the hepatitis B virus X protein

    SciTech Connect

    Keasler, Victor V.; Lerat, Herve; Madden, Charles R.; Finegold, Milton J.; McGarvey, Michael J.; Mohammed, Essam M.A.; Forbes, Stuart J.; Lemon, Stanley M.; Hadsell, Darryl L.; Grona, Shala J.; Hollinger, F. Blaine; Slagle, Betty L. . E-mail: bslagle@bcm.edu

    2006-04-10

    Transgenic mice expressing the full-length HCV coding sequence were crossed with mice that express the HBV X gene-encoded regulatory protein HBx (ATX mice) to test the hypothesis that HBx expression accelerates HCV-induced liver pathogenesis. At 16 months (mo) of age, hepatocellular carcinoma was identified in 21% of HCV/ATX mice, but in none of the single transgenic animals. Analysis of 8-mo animals revealed that, relative to HCV/WT mice, HCV/ATX mice had more severe steatosis, greater liver-to-body weight ratios, and a significant increase in the percentage of hepatocytes staining for proliferating cell nuclear antigen. Furthermore, primary hepatocytes from HCV, ATX, and HCV/ATX transgenic mice were more resistant to fas-mediated apoptosis than hepatocytes from nontransgenic littermates. These results indicate that HBx expression contributes to increased liver pathogenesis in HCV transgenic mice by a mechanism that involves an imbalance in hepatocyte death and regeneration within the context of severe steatosis.

  11. ENHANCED PRODUCTION OF CRYPTOSPORIDIUM PARVUM OOCYSTS IN IMMUNOSUPPRESSED MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recently there has been an increase in the need for fresh C. parvum oocysts for engineering and biomedical research applications. In our laboratory the emphsis has shifted from the use of dairy calves to inbred C57BL/67n mice, primarily for reasons of ease of collection and proce...

  12. Enhanced Generalization of Auditory Conditioned Fear in Juvenile Mice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ito, Wataru; Pan, Bing-Xing; Yang, Chao; Thakur, Siddarth; Morozov, Alexei

    2009-01-01

    Increased emotionality is a characteristic of human adolescence, but its animal models are limited. Here we report that generalization of auditory conditioned fear between a conditional stimulus (CS+) and a novel auditory stimulus is stronger in 4-5-wk-old mice (juveniles) than in their 9-10-wk-old counterparts (adults), whereas nonassociative…

  13. ENHANCED PRODUCTION OF CRYPTOSPORIDIUM PARVUM OOCYSTS IN IMMUNOSUPPRESSED MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recently there has been an increase in the need for fresh C. parvum oocysts for engineering and biomedical research applications. In our laboratory the emphsis has shifted from the use of dairy calves to inbred C57BL/67n mice, primarily for reasons of ease of collection and proce...

  14. Enhanced Generalization of Auditory Conditioned Fear in Juvenile Mice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ito, Wataru; Pan, Bing-Xing; Yang, Chao; Thakur, Siddarth; Morozov, Alexei

    2009-01-01

    Increased emotionality is a characteristic of human adolescence, but its animal models are limited. Here we report that generalization of auditory conditioned fear between a conditional stimulus (CS+) and a novel auditory stimulus is stronger in 4-5-wk-old mice (juveniles) than in their 9-10-wk-old counterparts (adults), whereas nonassociative…

  15. The multicopper ferroxidase hephaestin enhances intestinal iron absorption in mice.

    PubMed

    Fuqua, Brie K; Lu, Yan; Darshan, Deepak; Frazer, David M; Wilkins, Sarah J; Wolkow, Natalie; Bell, Austin G; Hsu, JoAnn; Yu, Catherine C; Chen, Huijun; Dunaief, Joshua L; Anderson, Gregory J; Vulpe, Chris D

    2014-01-01

    Hephaestin is a vertebrate multicopper ferroxidase important for the transfer of dietary iron from intestinal cells to the blood. Hephaestin is mutated in the sex-linked anemia mouse, resulting in iron deficiency. However, sex-linked anemia mice still retain some hephaestin ferroxidase activity. They survive, breed, and their anemia improves with age. To gain a better understanding of the role of hephaestin in iron homeostasis, we used the Cre-lox system to generate knockout mouse models with whole body or intestine-specific (Villin promoter) ablation of hephaestin. Both types of mice were viable, indicating that hephaestin is not essential and that other mechanisms, multicopper ferroxidase-dependent or not, must compensate for hephaestin deficiency. The knockout strains, however, both developed a microcytic, hypochromic anemia, suggesting severe iron deficiency and confirming that hephaestin plays an important role in body iron acquisition. Consistent with this, the knockout mice accumulated iron in duodenal enterocytes and had reduced intestinal iron absorption. In addition, the similarities of the phenotypes of the whole body and intestine-specific hephaestin knockout mice clarify the important role of hephaestin specifically in intestinal enterocytes in maintaining whole body iron homeostasis. These mouse models will serve as valuable tools to study the role of hephaestin and associated proteins in iron transport in the small intestine and other tissues.

  16. The Multicopper Ferroxidase Hephaestin Enhances Intestinal Iron Absorption in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Fuqua, Brie K.; Lu, Yan; Darshan, Deepak; Frazer, David M.; Wilkins, Sarah J.; Wolkow, Natalie; Bell, Austin G.; Hsu, JoAnn; Yu, Catherine C.; Chen, Huijun; Dunaief, Joshua L.; Anderson, Gregory J.; Vulpe, Chris D.

    2014-01-01

    Hephaestin is a vertebrate multicopper ferroxidase important for the transfer of dietary iron from intestinal cells to the blood. Hephaestin is mutated in the sex-linked anemia mouse, resulting in iron deficiency. However, sex-linked anemia mice still retain some hephaestin ferroxidase activity. They survive, breed, and their anemia improves with age. To gain a better understanding of the role of hephaestin in iron homeostasis, we used the Cre-lox system to generate knockout mouse models with whole body or intestine-specific (Villin promoter) ablation of hephaestin. Both types of mice were viable, indicating that hephaestin is not essential and that other mechanisms, multicopper ferroxidase-dependent or not, must compensate for hephaestin deficiency. The knockout strains, however, both developed a microcytic, hypochromic anemia, suggesting severe iron deficiency and confirming that hephaestin plays an important role in body iron acquisition. Consistent with this, the knockout mice accumulated iron in duodenal enterocytes and had reduced intestinal iron absorption. In addition, the similarities of the phenotypes of the whole body and intestine-specific hephaestin knockout mice clarify the important role of hephaestin specifically in intestinal enterocytes in maintaining whole body iron homeostasis. These mouse models will serve as valuable tools to study the role of hephaestin and associated proteins in iron transport in the small intestine and other tissues. PMID:24896847

  17. Enhanced efficacy of enzyme replacement therapy in Pompe disease through mannose-6-phosphate receptor expression in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Koeberl, Dwight D; Luo, Xiaoyan; Sun, Baodong; McVie-Wylie, Alison; Dai, Jian; Li, Songtao; Banugaria, Suhrad G; Chen, Y-T; Bali, Deeksha S

    2011-06-01

    Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with acid α-glucosidase has become available for Pompe disease; however, the response of skeletal muscle, as opposed to the heart, has been attenuated. The poor response of skeletal muscle has been attributed to the low abundance of the cation-independent mannose-6-phosphate receptor (CI-MPR) in skeletal muscle compared to heart. To further understand the role of CI-MPR in Pompe disease, muscle-specific CI-MPR conditional knockout (KO) mice were crossed with GAA-KO (Pompe disease) mice. We evaluated the impact of CI-MPR-mediated uptake of GAA by evaluating ERT in CI-MPR-KO/GAA-KO (double KO) mice. The essential role of CI-MPR was emphasized by the lack of efficacy of ERT as demonstrated by markedly reduced biochemical correction of GAA deficiency and of glycogen accumulations in double KO mice, in comparison with the administration of the same therapeutic doses in GAA-KO mice. Clenbuterol, a selective β(2)-agonist, enhanced the CI-MPR expression in skeletal tissue and also increased efficacy from GAA therapy, thereby confirming the key role of CI-MPR with regard to enzyme replacement therapy in Pompe disease. Biochemical correction improved in both muscle and non-muscle tissues, indicating that therapy could be similarly enhanced in other lysosomal storage disorders. In summary, enhanced CI-MPR expression might improve the efficacy of enzyme replacement therapy in Pompe disease through enhancing receptor-mediated uptake of GAA.

  18. Enhanced Efficacy of Enzyme Replacement Therapy in Pompe Disease Through Mannose-6-Phosphate Receptor Expression in Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Koeberl, Dwight D.; Luo, Xiaoyan; Sun, Baodong; McVie-Wylie, Alison; Dai, Jian; Li, Songtao; Banugaria, Suhrad G.; Chen, Y-T; Bali, Deeksha S.

    2011-01-01

    Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with acid α-glucosidase has become available for Pompe disease; however, the response of skeletal muscle, as opposed to the heart, has been attenuated. The poor response of skeletal muscle has been attributed to the low abundance of the cation-independent mannose-6-phosphate receptor (CI-MPR) in skeletal muscle compared to heart. To further understand the role of CI-MPR in Pompe disease, muscle-specific CI-MPR conditional knockout (KO) mice were crossed with GAA-KO (Pompe disease) mice. We evaluated the impact of CI-MPR-mediated uptake of GAA by evaluating ERT in CI-MPR-KO/GAA-KO (double KO) mice. The essential role of CI-MPR was emphasized by the lack of efficacy of ERT as demonstrated by markedly reduced biochemical correction of GAA deficiency and of glycogen accumulations in double KO mice, in comparison with administration of the same therapeutic doses in GAA-KO mice. Clenbuterol, a selective β2-agonist, enhanced CI-MPR expression in skeletal tissue and also increased efficacy from GAA therapy, thereby confirming the key role of CI-MPR with regard to enzyme replacement therapy in Pompe disease. Biochemical correction improved in both muscle and non-muscle tissues, indicating that therapy could be similarly enhanced in other lysosomal storage disorders. In summary, enhanced CI-MPR expression might improve the efficacy of enzyme replacement therapy in Pompe disease through enhancing receptor-mediated uptake of GAA. PMID:21397538

  19. Enhanced potency of replicon vaccine using one vector to simultaneously co-express antigen and interleukin-4 molecular adjuvant

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yao; An, Huai-Jie; Wei, Xiao-Qi; Xu, Qing; Yu, Yun-Zhou; Sun, Zhi-Wei

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the utility of interleukin-4 (IL-4) as molecular adjuvant of replicon vaccines for botulinum neurotoxin serotype A (BoNT/A) in mouse model. In both Balb/c and C57/BL6 mice that received the plasmid DNA replicon vaccines derived from Semliki Forest virus (SFV) encoding the Hc gene of BoNT/A (AHc), the immunogenicity was significantly modulated and enhanced by co-delivery or co-express of the IL-4 molecular adjuvant. The enhanced potencies were also produced by co-delivery or co-expression of the IL-4 molecular adjuvant in mice immunized with the recombinant SFV replicon particles (VRP) vaccines. In particular, when AHc and IL-4 were co-expressed within the same replicon vaccine vector using dual-expression or bicistronic IRES, the anti-AHc antibody titers, serum neutralization titers and survival rates of immunized mice after challenged with BoNT/A were significantly increased. These results indicate IL-4 is an effective Th2-type adjuvant for the replicon vaccines in both strain mice, and the co-expression replicon vaccines described here may be an excellent candidate for further vaccine development in other animals or humans. Thus, we described a strategy to design and develop efficient vaccines against BoNT/A or other pathogens using one replicon vector to simultaneously co-express antigen and molecular adjuvant. PMID:23291932

  20. Conditioned medium from hypoxic bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells enhances wound healing in mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lei; Xu, Yingbin; Zhao, Jingling; Zhang, Zhaoqiang; Yang, Ronghua; Xie, Julin; Liu, Xusheng; Qi, Shaohai

    2014-01-01

    Growing evidence indicates that bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) enhance wound repair via paracrine. Because the extent of environmental oxygenation affects the innate characteristics of BM-MSCs, including their stemness and migration capacity, the current study set out to elucidate and compare the impact of normoxic and hypoxic cell-culture conditions on the expression and secretion of BM-MSC-derived paracrine molecules (e.g., cytokines, growth factors and chemokines) that hypothetically contribute to cutaneous wound healing in vivo. Semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) analyses of normoxic and hypoxic BM-MSCs and their conditioned medium fractions showed that the stem cells expressed and secreted significantly higher amounts of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF),vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) interleukin 6 (IL-6) and interleukin 8 (IL-8) under hypoxic conditions. Moreover, hypoxic BM-MSC-derived conditioned medium (hypoCM) vs. normoxic BM-MSC-derived conditioned medium (norCM) or vehicle control medium significantly enhanced the proliferation of keratinocytes, fibroblasts and endothelial cells, the migration of keratinocytes, fibroblasts, endothelial cells and monocytes, and the formation of tubular structures by endothelial cells cultured on Matrigel matrix. Consistent with th