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  1. Arsenic-stimulated liver sinusoidal capillarization in mice requires NADPH oxidase–generated superoxide

    PubMed Central

    Straub, Adam C.; Clark, Katherine A.; Ross, Mark A.; Chandra, Ashwin G.; Li, Song; Gao, Xiang; Pagano, Patrick J.; Stolz, Donna B.; Barchowsky, Aaron

    2008-01-01

    Environmental arsenic exposure, through drinking contaminated water, is a significant risk factor for developing vascular diseases and is associated with liver portal hypertension, vascular shunting, and portal fibrosis through unknown mechanisms. We found that the addition of low doses of arsenite to the drinking water of mice resulted in marked pathologic remodeling in liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (SECs), including SEC defenestration, capillarization, increased junctional PECAM-1 expression, protein nitration, and decreased liver clearance of modified albumin. Furthermore, the pathologic changes observed after in vivo exposure were recapitulated in isolated mouse SECs exposed to arsenic in culture. To investigate the role of NADPH oxidase–generated ROS in this remodeling, we examined the effect of arsenite in the drinking water of mice deficient for the p47 subunit of the NADPH oxidase and found that knockout mice were protected from arsenite-induced capillarization and protein nitration. Furthermore, ex vivo arsenic exposure increased SEC superoxide generation, and this effect was inhibited by addition of a Nox2 inhibitor and quenched by the cell-permeant superoxide scavenger. In addition, inhibiting either oxidant generation or Rac1-GTPase blocked ex vivo arsenic-stimulated SEC differentiation and dysfunction. Our data indicate that a Nox2-based oxidase is required for SEC capillarization and that it may play a central role in vessel remodeling following environmentally relevant arsenic exposures. PMID:19033667

  2. Alcohol-induced bone loss is blocked in p47phox -/- mice lacking functional nadph oxidases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chronic ethanol (EtOH) consumption produces bone loss. Previous data suggest a role for NADPH oxidase enzymes (Nox) since the pan-Nox inhibitor diphenylene iodonium (DPI) blocks EtOH-induced bone loss in rats. The current study utilized mice in which Nox enzymes 1,2,3 and 5 are inactivated as a resu...

  3. NADPH Oxidase Contributes to Photoreceptor Degeneration in Constitutively Active RAC1 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Song, Hongman; Vijayasarathy, Camasamudram; Zeng, Yong; Marangoni, Dario; Bush, Ronald A.; Wu, Zhijian; Sieving, Paul A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The active form of small GTPase RAC1 is required for activation of NADPH oxidase (NOX), which in turn generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) in nonphagocytic cells. We explored whether NOX-induced oxidative stress contributes to rod degeneration in retinas expressing constitutively active (CA) RAC1. Methods Transgenic (Tg)–CA-RAC1 mice were given apocynin (10 mg/kg, intraperitoneal), a NOX inhibitor, or vehicle daily for up to 13 weeks. Superoxide production and oxidative damage were assessed by dihydroethidium staining and by protein carbonyls and malondialdehyde levels, respectively. Outer nuclear layer (ONL) cells were counted and electroretinogram (ERG) amplitudes measured in Tg-CA-RAC1 mice. Outer nuclear layer cells were counted in wild-type (WT) mice after transfer of CA-Rac1 gene by subretinal injection of AAV8-pOpsin-CA Rac1-GFP. Results Transgenic-CA-RAC1 retinas had significantly fewer photoreceptor cells and more apoptotic ONL cells than WT controls from postnatal week (Pw) 3 to Pw13. Superoxide accumulation and protein and lipid oxidation were increased in Tg-CA-RAC1 retinas and were reduced in mice treated with apocynin. Apocynin reduced the loss of photoreceptors and increased the rod ERG a- and b-wave amplitudes when compared with vehicle-injected transgenic controls. Photoreceptor loss was also observed in regions of adult WT retina transduced with AAV8-pOpsin-CA Rac1-GFP but not in neighboring regions that were not transduced or in AAV8-pOpsin-GFP–transduced retinas. Conclusions Constitutively active RAC1 promotes photoreceptor cell death by oxidative damage that occurs, at least partially, through NOX-induced ROS. Reactive oxygen species are likely involved in multiple forms of retinal degenerations, and our results support investigating RAC1 inhibition as a therapeutic approach that targets this disease pathway. PMID:27233035

  4. NADPH oxidase 4 regulates homocysteine metabolism and protects against acetaminophen-induced liver damage in mice.

    PubMed

    Murray, Thomas V A; Dong, Xuebin; Sawyer, Greta J; Caldwell, Anna; Halket, John; Sherwood, Roy; Quaglia, Alberto; Dew, Tracy; Anilkumar, Narayana; Burr, Simon; Mistry, Rajesh K; Martin, Daniel; Schröder, Katrin; Brandes, Ralf P; Hughes, Robin D; Shah, Ajay M; Brewer, Alison C

    2015-12-01

    Glutathione is the major intracellular redox buffer in the liver and is critical for hepatic detoxification of xenobiotics and other environmental toxins. Hepatic glutathione is also a major systemic store for other organs and thus impacts on pathologies such as Alzheimer's disease, Sickle Cell Anaemia and chronic diseases associated with aging. Glutathione levels are determined in part by the availability of cysteine, generated from homocysteine through the transsulfuration pathway. The partitioning of homocysteine between remethylation and transsulfuration pathways is known to be subject to redox-dependent regulation, but the underlying mechanisms are not known. An association between plasma Hcy and a single nucleotide polymorphism within the NADPH oxidase 4 locus led us to investigate the involvement of this reactive oxygen species- generating enzyme in homocysteine metabolism. Here we demonstrate that NADPH oxidase 4 ablation in mice results in increased flux of homocysteine through the betaine-dependent remethylation pathway to methionine, catalysed by betaine-homocysteine-methyltransferase within the liver. As a consequence NADPH oxidase 4-null mice display significantly lowered plasma homocysteine and the flux of homocysteine through the transsulfuration pathway is reduced, resulting in lower hepatic cysteine and glutathione levels. Mice deficient in NADPH oxidase 4 had markedly increased susceptibility to acetaminophen-induced hepatic injury which could be corrected by administration of N-acetyl cysteine. We thus conclude that under physiological conditions, NADPH oxidase 4-derived reactive oxygen species is a regulator of the partitioning of the metabolic flux of homocysteine, which impacts upon hepatic cysteine and glutathione levels and thereby upon defence against environmental toxins.

  5. Knock out of the NADPH oxidase Nox4 has no impact on life span in mice.

    PubMed

    Rezende, Flavia; Schürmann, Christoph; Schütz, Susanne; Harenkamp, Sabine; Herrmann, Eva; Seimetz, Michael; Weißmann, Norbert; Schröder, Katrin

    2017-04-01

    The free radical theory of aging suggests reactive oxygen species as a main reason for accumulation of damage events eventually leading to aging. Nox4, a member of the family of NADPH oxidases constitutively produces ROS and therefore has the potential to be a main driver of aging. Herein we analyzed the life span of Nox4 deficient mice and found no difference when compared to their wildtype littermates. Accordingly neither Tert expression nor telomere length was different in cells isolated from those animals. In fact, Nox4 mRNA expression in lungs of wildtype mice dropped with age. We conclude that Nox4 has no influence on lifespan of healthy mice.

  6. Relative contributions of mitochondria and NADPH oxidase to deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt hypertension in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Aihua; Jia, Zhanjun; Wang, Ningning; Tidwell, Tyson J; Yang, Tianxin

    2011-07-01

    We assessed the relative contribution of the mitochondrial respiratory chain and NADPH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) oxidase to deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt hypertension in mice. The daily mean arterial pressure was monitored by radiotelemetry in DOCA-salt-treated mice given vehicle or the mitochondrial respiratory chain complex I inhibitor rotenone. This treatment produced remarkable attenuation of DOCA-salt hypertension. Similar results were obtained with other inhibitors of mitochondrial function, including 5-hydroxydecanoate (specific for mitochondrial potassium-ATP channels), benzylguanidine (complexes I and III), and the cell-permeable manganese tetrakis (4-benzoic acid) porphyrin (a mimic of mitochondrial superoxide dismutase). In parallel with the blood pressure-lowering effect of rotenone, the DOCA-salt-induced increases in urinary 8-isoprostane excretion and in reactive oxygen species production of isolated kidney mitochondria were both significantly attenuated. Conversely, the DOCA-salt-induced reduction of urinary nitrate/nitrite excretion was significantly elevated. Following DOCA-salt treatment, mice deficient in NADPH oxidase subunits gp91(phox) or p47(phox) exhibited a partial attenuation of the hypertensive response at early but not later time points. Thus, the mitochondrial respiratory chain is a major source of oxidative stress in DOCA-salt hypertension, whereas NADPH oxidase may have a relatively minor role during the early stage of hypertension.

  7. NADPH Oxidase Contributes to Resistance against Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans-Induced Periodontitis in Mice.

    PubMed

    Bast, Antje; Kubis, Helen; Holtfreter, Birte; Ribback, Silvia; Martin, Heiner; Schreiner, Helen C; Dominik, Malte J; Breitbach, Katrin; Dombrowski, Frank; Kocher, Thomas; Steinmetz, Ivo

    2017-02-01

    Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is a Gram-negative commensal bacterium of the oral cavity which has been associated with the pathogenesis of periodontitis with severe alveolar bone destruction. The role of host factors such as reactive oxygen and nitrogen intermediates in periodontal A. actinomycetemcomitans infection and progression to periodontitis is still ill-defined. Therefore, this study aimed to analyze the role of NADPH oxidase and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in a murine model of A. actinomycetemcomitans-induced periodontitis. NADPH oxidase-deficient (gp91(phox) knockout [KO]), iNOS-deficient (iNOS KO), and C57BL/6 wild-type mice were orally infected with A. actinomycetemcomitans and analyzed for bacterial colonization at various time points. Alveolar bone mineral density and alveolar bone volume were quantified by three-dimensional micro-computed tomography, and the degree of tissue inflammation was calculated by histological analyses. At 5 weeks after infection, A. actinomycetemcomitans persisted at significantly higher levels in the murine oral cavities of infected gp91(phox) KO mice than in those of iNOS KO and C57BL/6 mice. Concomitantly, alveolar bone mineral density was significantly lower in all three infected groups than in uninfected controls, but with the highest loss of bone density in infected gp91(phox) KO mice. Only infected gp91(phox) KO mice revealed significant loss of alveolar bone volume and enhanced inflammatory cell infiltration, as well as an increased number of osteoclasts. Our results indicate that NADPH oxidase is important to control A. actinomycetemcomitans infection in the murine oral cavity and to prevent subsequent alveolar bone destruction and osteoclastogenesis.

  8. NADPH Oxidase and the Degeneration of Dopaminergic Neurons in Parkinsonian Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hernandes, Marina S.; Café-Mendes, Cecília C.; Britto, Luiz R. G.

    2013-01-01

    Several lines of investigation have implicated oxidative stress in Parkinson's disease (PD) pathogenesis, but the mechanisms involved are still unclear. In this study, we characterized the involvement of NADPH oxidase (Nox), a multisubunit enzyme that catalyzes the reduction of oxygen, in the 6-hydroxydopamine- (6-OHDA-) induced PD mice model and compared for the first time the effects of this neurotoxin in mice lacking gp91phox−/−, the catalytic subunit of Nox2, and pharmacological inhibition of Nox with apocynin. Six-OHDA induced increased protein expression of p47phox, a Nox subunit, in striatum. gp91phox−/− mice appear to be completely protected from dopaminergic cell loss, whereas the apocynin treatment conferred only a limited neuroprotection. Wt mice treated with apocynin and gp91phox−/− mice both exhibited ameliorated apomorphine-induced rotational behavior. The microglial activation observed within the striatum and the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) of 6-OHDA-injected Wt mice was prevented by apocynin treatment and was not detected in gp91phox−/− mice. Apocynin was not able to attenuate astrocyte activation in SN. The results support a role for Nox2 in the 6-OHDA-induced degeneration of dopaminergic neurons and glial cell activation in the nigrostriatal pathway and reveal that no comparable 6-OHDA effects were observed between apocynin-treated and gp91phox−/− mice groups. PMID:24379900

  9. NADPH Oxidase 1 Is Associated with Altered Host Survival and T Cell Phenotypes after Influenza A Virus Infection in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hofstetter, Amelia R.; De La Cruz, Juan A.; Cao, Weiping; Patel, Jenish; Belser, Jessica A.; McCoy, James; Liepkalns, Justine S.; Amoah, Samuel; Cheng, Guangjie; Ranjan, Priya; Diebold, Becky A.; Shieh, Wun-Ju; Zaki, Sherif; Katz, Jacqueline M.; Sambhara, Suryaprakash; Lambeth, J. David; Gangappa, Shivaprakash

    2016-01-01

    The role of the reactive oxygen species-producing NADPH oxidase family of enzymes in the pathology of influenza A virus infection remains enigmatic. Previous reports implicated NADPH oxidase 2 in influenza A virus-induced inflammation. In contrast, NADPH oxidase 1 (Nox1) was reported to decrease inflammation in mice within 7 days post-influenza A virus infection. However, the effect of NADPH oxidase 1 on lethality and adaptive immunity after influenza A virus challenge has not been explored. Here we report improved survival and decreased morbidity in mice with catalytically inactive NADPH oxidase 1 (Nox1*/Y) compared with controls after challenge with A/PR/8/34 influenza A virus. While changes in lung inflammation were not obvious between Nox1*/Y and control mice, we observed alterations in the T cell response to influenza A virus by day 15 post-infection, including increased interleukin-7 receptor-expressing virus-specific CD8+ T cells in lungs and draining lymph nodes of Nox1*/Y, and increased cytokine-producing T cells in lungs and spleen. Furthermore, a greater percentage of conventional and interstitial dendritic cells from Nox1*/Y draining lymph nodes expressed the co-stimulatory ligand CD40 within 6 days post-infection. Results indicate that NADPH oxidase 1 modulates the innate and adaptive cellular immune response to influenza virus infection, while also playing a role in host survival. Results suggest that NADPH oxidase 1 inhibitors may be beneficial as adjunct therapeutics during acute influenza infection. PMID:26910342

  10. Leflunomide induces NAD(P)H quinone dehydrogenase 1 enzyme via the aryl hydrocarbon receptor in neonatal mice.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Amrit Kumar; Patel, Ananddeep; Menon, Renuka T; Jiang, Weiwu; Wang, Lihua; Moorthy, Bhagavatula; Shivanna, Binoy

    2017-03-25

    Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) has been increasingly recognized to play a crucial role in normal physiological homeostasis. Additionally, disrupted AhR signaling leads to several pathological states in the lung and liver. AhR activation transcriptionally induces detoxifying enzymes such as cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A and NAD(P)H quinone dehydrogenase 1 (NQO1). The toxicity profiles of the classical AhR ligands such as 3-methylcholanthrene and dioxins limit their use as a therapeutic agent in humans. Hence, there is a need to identify nontoxic AhR ligands to develop AhR as a clinically relevant druggable target. Recently, we demonstrated that leflunomide, a FDA approved drug, used to treat rheumatoid arthritis in humans, induces CYP1A enzymes in adult mice via the AhR. However, the mechanisms by which this drug induces NQO1 in vivo are unknown. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that leflunomide will induce pulmonary and hepatic NQO1 enzyme in neonatal mice via AhR-dependent mechanism(s). Leflunomide elicited significant induction of pulmonary CYP1A1 and NQO1 expression in neonatal mice. Interestingly, the dose at which leflunomide increased NQO1 was significantly higher than that required to induce CYP1A1 enzyme. Likewise, it also enhanced hepatic CYP1A1, 1A2 and NQO1 expression in WT mice. In contrast, leflunomide failed to induce these enzymes in AhR-null mice. Our results indicate that leflunomide induces pulmonary and hepatic CYP1A and NQO1 enzymes via the AhR in neonatal mice. These findings have important implications to prevent and/or treat disorders such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia in human infants where AhR may play a crucial role in the disease pathogenesis.

  11. Endotoxin priming of neutrophils requires endocytosis and NADPH oxidase-dependent endosomal reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Lamb, Fred S; Hook, Jessica S; Hilkin, Brieanna M; Huber, Jody N; Volk, A Paige Davis; Moreland, Jessica G

    2012-04-06

    NADPH oxidase 2 (Nox2)-generated reactive oxygen species (ROS) are critical for neutrophil (polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN)) microbicidal function. Nox2 also plays a role in intracellular signaling, but the site of oxidase assembly is unknown. It has been proposed to occur on secondary granules. We previously demonstrated that intracellular NADPH oxidase-derived ROS production is required for endotoxin priming. We hypothesized that endotoxin drives Nox2 assembly on endosomes. Endotoxin induced ROS generation within an endosomal compartment as quantified by flow cytometry (dihydrorhodamine 123 and Oxyburst Green). Inhibition of endocytosis by the dynamin-II inhibitor Dynasore blocked endocytosis of dextran, intracellular generation of ROS, and priming of PMN by endotoxin. Confocal microscopy demonstrated a ROS-containing endosomal compartment that co-labeled with gp91(phox), p40(phox), p67(phox), and Rab5, but not with the secondary granule marker CD66b. To further characterize this compartment, PMNs were fractionated by nitrogen cavitation and differential centrifugation, followed by free flow electrophoresis. Specific subfractions made superoxide in the presence of NADPH by cell-free assay (cytochrome c). Subfraction content of membrane and cytosolic subunits of Nox2 correlated with ROS production. Following priming, there was a shift in the light membrane subfractions where ROS production was highest. CD66b was not mobilized from the secondary granule compartment. These data demonstrate a novel, nonphagosomal intracellular site for Nox2 assembly. This compartment is endocytic in origin and is required for PMN priming by endotoxin.

  12. NADPH oxidase is implicated in the pathogenesis of oxidative phosphorylation dysfunction in mice fed a high-fat diet

    PubMed Central

    García-Ruiz, Inmaculada; Solís-Muñoz, Pablo; Fernández-Moreira, Daniel; Grau, Montserrat; Muñoz-Yagüe, Teresa; Solís-Herruzo, José A.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of NADPH oxidase (NADPHox) in the pathogenesis of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) dysfunction as found in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). C57BL/6J mice were distributed in four groups: WT/SCD: six wild-type (WT) mice fed a standard chow diet (SCD); WT/HFD, six WT mice fed a HFD; NOX2−/−/SCD, six NADPHox-deficient mice on a SCD; (4) NOX2−/−/HFD, six NADPHox-deficient mice on a HFD. After 32 weeks, we studied the liver for: histology; OXPHOS complex activity; fully assembled OXPHOS complexes and their subunits; gene expression of OXPHOS subunits; oxidative and nitrosative stress; and oxidative DNA damage. In the liver of WT/HFD mice, we found a significant decreased in the activity of all OXPHOS complexes, in fully assembled complexes, in the amount of OXPHOS subunits, and in gene expression of mitochondrial DNA-encoded subunits. 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine was only increased in mitochondrial DNA. The liver of NOX−/−/HFD mice showed mild steatosis but no non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) lesions were found. OXPHOS activity, OXPHOS subunits, and assembly of subunits into OXPHOS complexes were normal in these mice. We conclude that this study shows that NADPH deficiency protects mice from developing OXPHOS dysfunction and NASH caused by a HFD. PMID:27173483

  13. NADPH oxidase 4 protects against development of endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis in LDL receptor deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Langbein, Heike; Brunssen, Coy; Hofmann, Anja; Cimalla, Peter; Brux, Melanie; Bornstein, Stefan R.; Deussen, Andreas; Koch, Edmund; Morawietz, Henning

    2016-01-01

    Aims Endothelial dysfunction is an early step in the development of atherosclerosis. Increased formation of superoxide anions by NADPH oxidase Nox1, 2, and 5 reduces nitric oxide availability and can promote endothelial dysfunction. In contrast, recent evidence supports a vasoprotective role of H2O2 produced by main endothelial isoform Nox4. Therefore, we analysed the impact of genetic deletion of Nox4 on endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis in the low-density lipoprotein receptor (Ldlr) knockout model. Methods and results Ex vivo analysis of endothelial function by Mulvany myograph showed impaired endothelial function in thoracic aorta of Nox4−/−/Ldlr−/− mice. Further progression of endothelial dysfunction due to high-fat diet increased atherosclerotic plaque burden and galectin-3 staining in Nox4−/−/Ldlr−/− mice compared with Ldlr−/− mice. Under physiological conditions, loss of Nox4 does not influence aortic vascular function. In this setting, loss of Nox4-derived H2O2 production could be partially compensated for by nNOS upregulation. Using an innovative optical coherence tomography approach, we were able to analyse endothelial function by flow-mediated vasodilation in the murine saphenous artery in vivo. This new approach revealed an altered flow-mediated dilation in Nox4−/− mice, indicating a role for Nox4 under physiological conditions in peripheral arteries in vivo. Conclusions Nox4 plays an important role in maintaining endothelial function under physiological and pathological conditions. Loss of Nox4-derived H2O2 could be partially compensated for by nNOS upregulation, but severe endothelial dysfunction is not reversible. This leads to increased atherosclerosis under atherosclerotic prone conditions. PMID:26578199

  14. Quercetin attenuates high fat diet-induced atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E knockout mice: A critical role of NADPH oxidase.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Lin; Liu, Liang; Guo, Xiaoping; Zhang, Shanshan; Wang, Jing; Zhou, Feng; Liu, Liegang; Tang, Yuhan; Yao, Ping

    2017-03-27

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have emerged as important molecules in cardiovascular function. Nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase is the major source of ROS in phagocytic and vascular cells. Several lines of evidence indicate that quercetin contributes to protecting against atherosclerosis. Herein, we investigated the effect of quercetin on alleviating atherosclerosis by regulating NADPH oxidase subunits expression in vivo, and explored the mechanism of quercetin suppressing the ROS overproduction stimulated by ox-LDL in mouse peritoneal macrophages (MPMs). Model ApoE KO mice were fed with either a normal chow diet or a high fat diet (HFD) supplemented with or without dosed quercetin for 24 weeks. Quercetin significantly reduced the atherosclerotic plaque area, alleviated the systemic oxidative stress, and suppressed aortic p47phox, p67phox expressions but partially reversed the NOX4 expression as compared to those in the HFD group. In vitro, quercetin effectively inhibited the ox-LDL induced ROS formation in MPMs, and blocked the vital step in activation of NADPH oxidase - membrane translocation of p47phox. Our findings suggest that regular consumption of dietary quercetin plays a role in preventing atherosclerosis giving its evident regulatory effect on subunits of NADPH oxidase.

  15. NADPH Oxidase Promotes Neutrophil Extracellular Trap Formation in Pulmonary Aspergillosis

    PubMed Central

    Röhm, Marc; Grimm, Melissa J.; D'Auria, Anthony C.; Almyroudis, Nikolaos G.

    2014-01-01

    NADPH oxidase is a crucial enzyme in antimicrobial host defense and in regulating inflammation. Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is an inherited disorder of NADPH oxidase in which phagocytes are defective in generation of reactive oxidant intermediates. Aspergillus species are ubiquitous, filamentous fungi, which can cause invasive aspergillosis, a major cause of morbidity and mortality in CGD, reflecting the critical role for NADPH oxidase in antifungal host defense. Activation of NADPH oxidase in neutrophils can be coupled to the release of proteins and chromatin that comingle in neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), which can augment extracellular antimicrobial host defense. NETosis can be driven by NADPH oxidase-dependent and -independent pathways. We therefore undertook an analysis of whether NADPH oxidase was required for NETosis in Aspergillus fumigatus pneumonia. Oropharyngeal instillation of live Aspergillus hyphae induced neutrophilic pneumonitis in both wild-type and NADPH oxidase-deficient (p47phox−/−) mice which had resolved in wild-type mice by day 5 but progressed in p47phox−/− mice. NETs, identified by immunostaining, were observed in lungs of wild-type mice but were absent in p47phox−/− mice. Using bona fide NETs and nuclear chromatin decondensation as an early NETosis marker, we found that NETosis required a functional NADPH oxidase in vivo and ex vivo. In addition, NADPH oxidase increased the proportion of apoptotic neutrophils. Together, our results show that NADPH oxidase is required for pulmonary clearance of Aspergillus hyphae and generation of NETs in vivo. We speculate that dual modulation of NETosis and apoptosis by NADPH oxidase enhances antifungal host defense and promotes resolution of inflammation upon infection clearance. PMID:24549323

  16. Potential role of the NADPH oxidase NOX1 in the pathogenesis of 5-fluorouracil-induced intestinal mucositis in mice.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Masashi; Kato, Shinichi; Yamanaka, Naoki; Iimori, Maho; Utsumi, Daichi; Kitahara, Yumeno; Iwata, Kazumi; Matsuno, Kuniharu; Amagase, Kikuko; Yabe-Nishimura, Chihiro; Takeuchi, Koji

    2012-05-15

    Although NADPH oxidase 1 (NOX1) has been shown to be highly expressed in the gastrointestinal tract, the physiological and pathophysiological roles of this enzyme are not yet fully understood. In the present study, we investigated the role of NOX1 in the pathogenesis of intestinal mucositis induced by the cancer chemotherapeutic agent 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in mice. Intestinal mucositis was induced in Nox1 knockout (Nox1KO) and littermate wild-type (WT) mice via single, daily administration of 5-FU for 5 days. In WT mice, 5-FU caused severe intestinal mucositis characterized by a shortening of villus height, a disruption of crypts, a loss of body weight, and diarrhea. In Nox1KO mice, however, the severity of mucositis was significantly reduced, particularly with respect to crypt disruption. The numbers of apoptotic caspase-3- and caspase-8-activated cells in the intestinal crypt increased 24 h after the first 5-FU administration but were overall significantly lower in Nox1KO than in WT mice. Furthermore, the 5-FU-mediated upregulation of TNF-α, IL-1β, and NOX1 and the production of reactive oxygen species were significantly attenuated in Nox1KO mice compared with that in WT mice. These findings suggest that NOX1 plays an important role in the pathogenesis of 5-FU-induced intestinal mucositis. NOX1-derived ROS production following administration of 5-FU may promote the apoptotic response through upregulation of inflammatory cytokines.

  17. Suppressive effects of the NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin on intestinal tumorigenesis in obese KK-A(y) and Apc mutant Min mice.

    PubMed

    Komiya, Masami; Fujii, Gen; Miyamoto, Shingo; Takahashi, Mami; Ishigamori, Rikako; Onuma, Wakana; Ishino, Kousuke; Totsuka, Yukari; Fujimoto, Kyoko; Mutoh, Michihiro

    2015-11-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for colorectal cancer. The accumulation of abdominal fat tissue causes abundant reactive oxygen species production through the activation of NADPH oxidase due to excessive insulin stimulation. The enzyme NADPH oxidase catalyzes the production of reactive oxygen species and evokes the initiation and progression of tumorigenesis. Apocynin is an NADPH oxidase inhibitor that blocks the formation of the NADPH oxidase complex (active form). In this study, we investigated the effects of apocynin on the development of azoxymethane-induced colonic aberrant crypt foci in obese KK-A(y) mice and on the development of intestinal polyps in Apc mutant Min mice. Six-week-old KK-A(y) mice were injected with azoxymethane (200 μg/mouse once per week for 3 weeks) and given 250 mg/L apocynin or 500 mg/L apocynin in their drinking water for 7 weeks. Six-week-old Min mice were also treated with 500 mg/L apocynin for 6 weeks. Treatment with apocynin reduced the number of colorectal aberrant crypt foci in KK-A(y) mice by 21% and the number of intestinal polyps in Min mice by 40% compared with untreated mice. Both groups of mice tended to show improved oxidation of serum low-density lipoprotein and 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine adducts in their adipose tissues. In addition, the inducible nitric oxide synthase mRNA levels in polyp tissues decreased. Moreover, apocynin was shown to suppress nuclear factor-κB transcriptional activity in vitro. These results suggest that apocynin and other NADPH oxidase inhibitors may be effective colorectal cancer chemopreventive agents.

  18. NADPH oxidase deficient mice develop colitis and bacteremia upon infection with normally avirulent, TTSS-1- and TTSS-2-deficient Salmonella Typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Felmy, Boas; Songhet, Pascal; Slack, Emma Marie Caroline; Müller, Andreas J; Kremer, Marcus; Van Maele, Laurye; Cayet, Delphine; Heikenwalder, Mathias; Sirard, Jean-Claude; Hardt, Wolf-Dietrich

    2013-01-01

    Infections, microbe sampling and occasional leakage of commensal microbiota and their products across the intestinal epithelial cell layer represent a permanent challenge to the intestinal immune system. The production of reactive oxygen species by NADPH oxidase is thought to be a key element of defense. Patients suffering from chronic granulomatous disease are deficient in one of the subunits of NADPH oxidase. They display a high incidence of Crohn's disease-like intestinal inflammation and are hyper-susceptible to infection with fungi and bacteria, including a 10-fold increased risk of Salmonellosis. It is not completely understood which steps of the infection process are affected by the NADPH oxidase deficiency. We employed a mouse model for Salmonella diarrhea to study how NADPH oxidase deficiency (Cybb (-/-)) affects microbe handling by the large intestinal mucosa. In this animal model, wild type S. Typhimurium causes pronounced enteropathy in wild type mice. In contrast, an avirulent S. Typhimurium mutant (S.Tm(avir); invGsseD), which lacks virulence factors boosting trans-epithelial penetration and growth in the lamina propria, cannot cause enteropathy in wild type mice. We found that Cybb (-/-) mice are efficiently infected by S.Tm(avir) and develop enteropathy by day 4 post infection. Cell depletion experiments and infections in Cybb (-/-) Myd88 (-/-) mice indicated that the S.Tm(avir)-inflicted disease in Cybb (-/-) mice hinges on CD11c(+)CX3CR1(+) monocytic phagocytes mediating colonization of the cecal lamina propria and on Myd88-dependent proinflammatory immune responses. Interestingly, in mixed bone marrow chimeras a partial reconstitution of Cybb-proficiency in the bone marrow derived compartment was sufficient to ameliorate disease severity. Our data indicate that NADPH oxidase expression is of key importance for restricting the growth of S.Tm(avir) in the mucosal lamina propria. This provides important insights into microbe handling by the large

  19. NADPH Oxidase-Derived Overproduction of Reactive Oxygen Species Impairs Postischemic Neovascularization in Mice with Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimian, Téni G; Heymes, Christophe; You, Dong; Blanc-Brude, Olivier; Mees, Barend; Waeckel, Ludovic; Duriez, Micheline; Vilar, José; Brandes, Ralph P.; Levy, Bernard I.; Shah, Ajay M.; Silvestre, Jean-Sébastien

    2006-01-01

    We hypothesized that diabetes-induced oxidative stress may affect postischemic neovascularization. The response to unilateral femoral artery ligation was studied in wild-type or gp91phox-deficient control or type 1 diabetic mice or in animals treated with the anti-oxidant N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) or with in vivo electrotransfer of a plasmid encoding dominant-negative Rac1 (50 μg) for 21 days. Postischemic neovascularization was reduced in diabetic mice in association with down-regulated vascular endothelial growth factor-A protein levels. In diabetic animals vascular endothelial growth factor levels and postischemic neovascularization were restored to nondiabetic levels by the scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by NAC administration or the inhibition of ROS generation by gp91phox deficiency or by administration of dominant-negative Rac1. Finally, diabetes reduced the ability of adherent bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells (BM-MNCs) to differentiate into endothelial progenitor cells. Treatment with NAC (3 mmol/L), apocynin (200 μmol/L), or the p38MAPK inhibitor LY333351 (10 μmol/L) up-regulated the number of endothelial progenitor cell colonies derived from diabetic BM-MNCs by 1.5-, 1.6-, and 1.5-fold, respectively (P < 0.05). In the ischemic hindlimb model, injection of diabetic BM-MNCs isolated from NAC-treated or gp91phox-deficient diabetic mice increased neovascularization by ∼1.5-fold greater than untreated diabetic BM-MNCs (P < 0.05). Thus, inhibition of NADPH oxidase-derived ROS overproduction improves the angiogenic and vasculogenic processes and restores postischemic neovascularization in type 1 diabetic mice. PMID:16877369

  20. NADPH oxidase-derived overproduction of reactive oxygen species impairs postischemic neovascularization in mice with type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimian, Téni G; Heymes, Christophe; You, Dong; Blanc-Brude, Olivier; Mees, Barend; Waeckel, Ludovic; Duriez, Micheline; Vilar, José; Brandes, Ralph P; Levy, Bernard I; Shah, Ajay M; Silvestre, Jean-Sébastien

    2006-08-01

    We hypothesized that diabetes-induced oxidative stress may affect postischemic neovascularization. The response to unilateral femoral artery ligation was studied in wild-type or gp91(phox)-deficient control or type 1 diabetic mice or in animals treated with the anti-oxidant N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) or with in vivo electrotransfer of a plasmid encoding dominant-negative Rac1 (50 microg) for 21 days. Postischemic neovascularization was reduced in diabetic mice in association with down-regulated vascular endothelial growth factor-A protein levels. In diabetic animals vascular endothelial growth factor levels and postischemic neovascularization were restored to nondiabetic levels by the scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by NAC administration or the inhibition of ROS generation by gp91(phox) deficiency or by administration of dominant-negative Rac1. Finally, diabetes reduced the ability of adherent bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells (BM-MNCs) to differentiate into endothelial progenitor cells. Treatment with NAC (3 mmol/L), apocynin (200 micromol/L), or the p38MAPK inhibitor LY333351 (10 micromol/L) up-regulated the number of endothelial progenitor cell colonies derived from diabetic BM-MNCs by 1.5-, 1.6-, and 1.5-fold, respectively (P < 0.05). In the ischemic hindlimb model, injection of diabetic BM-MNCs isolated from NAC-treated or gp91(phox)-deficient diabetic mice increased neovascularization by approximately 1.5-fold greater than untreated diabetic BM-MNCs (P < 0.05). Thus, inhibition of NADPH oxidase-derived ROS overproduction improves the angiogenic and vasculogenic processes and restores postischemic neovascularization in type 1 diabetic mice.

  1. NADPH oxidase-1 deficiency offers little protection in Salmonella typhimurium-induced typhlitis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Fong-Fong; Esworthy, R Steven; Doroshow, James H; Shen, Binghui

    2016-01-01

    AIM To test whether Nox1 plays a role in typhlitis induced by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Tm) in a mouse model. METHODS Eight-week-old male wild-type (WT) and Nox1 knockout (KO) C57BL6/J (B6) mice were administered metronidazole water for 4 d to make them susceptible to S. Tm infection by the oral route. The mice were given plain water and administered with 4 different doses of S. Tm by oral gavage. The mice were followed for another 4 d. From the time of the metronidazole application, the mice were observed twice daily and weighed daily. The ileum, cecum and colon were removed for sampling at the fourth day post-inoculation. Portions of all three tissues were fixed for histology and placed in RNAlater for mRNA/cDNA preparation and quantitative real-time PCR. The contents of the cecum were recovered for estimation of S. Tm CFU. RESULTS We found Nox1-knockout (Nox1-KO) mice were not more sensitive to S. Tm colonization and infection than WT B6 mice. This conclusion is based on the following observations: (1) S. Tm-infection induced similar weight loss in Nox1-KO mice compared to WT mice; (2) the same S. Tm CFU was recovered from the cecal content of Nox1-KO and WT mice regardless of the inoculation dose, except the lowest inoculation dose (2 × 106 CFU) for which the Nox1-KO had one-log lower CFU than WT mice; (3) there is no difference in cecal pathology between WT and Nox1-KO groups; and (4) there are no S. Tm infection-induced changes in gene expression levels (IL-1b, TNF-α, and Duox2) between WT and Nox1-KO groups. The Alpi gene expression was more suppressed by S. Tm treatment in WT than the Nox1-KO cecum. CONCLUSION Nox1 does not protect mice from S. Tm colonization. Nox1-KO provides a very minor protective effect against S. Tm infection. Using NOX1-specific inhibitors for colitis therapy should not increase risks in bacterial infection. PMID:28028364

  2. NADPH Oxidase Deficient Mice Develop Colitis and Bacteremia upon Infection with Normally Avirulent, TTSS-1- and TTSS-2-Deficient Salmonella Typhimurium

    PubMed Central

    Slack, Emma Marie Caroline; Müller, Andreas J.; Kremer, Marcus; Van Maele, Laurye; Cayet, Delphine; Heikenwalder, Mathias; Sirard, Jean-Claude; Hardt, Wolf-Dietrich

    2013-01-01

    Infections, microbe sampling and occasional leakage of commensal microbiota and their products across the intestinal epithelial cell layer represent a permanent challenge to the intestinal immune system. The production of reactive oxygen species by NADPH oxidase is thought to be a key element of defense. Patients suffering from chronic granulomatous disease are deficient in one of the subunits of NADPH oxidase. They display a high incidence of Crohn’s disease-like intestinal inflammation and are hyper-susceptible to infection with fungi and bacteria, including a 10-fold increased risk of Salmonellosis. It is not completely understood which steps of the infection process are affected by the NADPH oxidase deficiency. We employed a mouse model for Salmonella diarrhea to study how NADPH oxidase deficiency (Cybb−/−) affects microbe handling by the large intestinal mucosa. In this animal model, wild type S. Typhimurium causes pronounced enteropathy in wild type mice. In contrast, an avirulent S. Typhimurium mutant (S.Tmavir; invGsseD), which lacks virulence factors boosting trans-epithelial penetration and growth in the lamina propria, cannot cause enteropathy in wild type mice. We found that Cybb−/− mice are efficiently infected by S.Tmavir and develop enteropathy by day 4 post infection. Cell depletion experiments and infections in Cybb−/−Myd88−/− mice indicated that the S.Tmavir-inflicted disease in Cybb−/− mice hinges on CD11c+CX3CR1+ monocytic phagocytes mediating colonization of the cecal lamina propria and on Myd88-dependent proinflammatory immune responses. Interestingly, in mixed bone marrow chimeras a partial reconstitution of Cybb-proficiency in the bone marrow derived compartment was sufficient to ameliorate disease severity. Our data indicate that NADPH oxidase expression is of key importance for restricting the growth of S.Tmavir in the mucosal lamina propria. This provides important insights into microbe handling by the large

  3. NADPH Oxidase-Dependent Reactive Oxygen Species Mediate Amplified TLR4 Signaling and Sepsis-Induced Mortality in Nrf2-deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Xiaoni; Thimmulappa, Rajesh; Kombairaju, Ponvijay; Biswal, Shyam

    2010-01-01

    Sepsis syndrome is characterized by a dysregulated inflammatory response to infection. NADPH oxidase-dependent reactive oxygen species (ROS) play significant roles in the pathophysiology of sepsis. We previously showed that disruption of Nrf2, a master regulator of antioxidant defenses, caused a dysregulation of innate immune response that resulted in greater mortality in a polymicrobial sepsis and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) shock model; however, the underlying mechanisms are unclear. In the present study, compared to wild-type (Nrf2+/+) macrophages, we observed greater PKC-induced NADPH oxidase-dependent ROS generation in Nrf2-disrupted (Nrf2−/−) macrophages that was modulated by glutathione (GSH) levels. To address the NADPH oxidase-mediated hyper-inflammatory response and sepsis-induced lung injury and mortality in Nrf2−/− mice, we used double knockout mice lacking Nrf2 and NADPH oxidase subunit, gp91phox (Nrf2−/−//Gp91phox−/−). Compared to Nrf2+/+ macrophages, LPS induced greater activation of TLR4 as evident by TLR4 surface trafficking and downstream recruitment of MYD88 and TRIF in Nrf2−/− macrophages that was diminished by ablation of gp91phox. Similarly, phosphorylation of IκB and IRF3 as well as cytokine expression was markedly higher in Nrf2−/− macrophages, while it was similar in Nrf2+/+ and Nrf2−/−//Gp91phox−/−. In vivo studies showed greater LPS-induced pulmonary inflammation in Nrf2−/− mice that was significantly reduced by ablation of gp91phox. Furthermore, LPS shock and polymicrobial sepsis induced early and greater mortality in Nrf2−/− mice, while Nrf2−/−//Gp91phox−/− showed prolong survival. Together, these results demonstrate that Nrf2 is essential for the regulation of NADPH oxidase-dependent ROS-mediated TLR4 activation and lethal innate immune response in sepsis. PMID:20511556

  4. Decreased bile-acid synthesis in livers of hepatocyte-conditional NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase-null mice results in increased bile acids in serum.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xingguo; Zhang, Youcai; Klaassen, Curtis D

    2014-10-01

    NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase (Cpr) is essential for the function of microsomal cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450), including those P450s involved in bile acid (BA) synthesis. Mice with hepatocyte-specific deletion of NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase (H-Cpr-null) have been engineered to understand the in vivo function of hepatic P450s in the metabolism of xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. However, the impact of hepatic Cpr on BA homeostasis is not clear. The present study revealed that H-Cpr-null mice had a 60% decrease in total BA concentration in liver, whereas the total BA concentration in serum was almost doubled. The decreased level of cholic acid (CA) in both serum and livers of H-Cpr-null mice is likely due to diminished enzyme activity of Cyp8b1 that is essential for CA biosynthesis. Feedback mechanisms responsible for the reduced liver BA concentrations and/or increased serum BA concentrations in H-Cpr-null mice included the following: 1) enhanced alternative BA synthesis pathway, as evidenced by the fact that classic BA synthesis is diminished but chenodeoxycholic acid still increases in both serum and livers of H-Cpr-null mice; 2) inhibition of farnesoid X receptor activation, which increased the mRNA of Cyp7a1 and 8b1; 3) induction of intestinal BA transporters to facilitate BA absorption from the intestine to the circulation; 4) induction of hepatic multidrug resistance-associated protein transporters to increase BA efflux from the liver to blood; and 5) increased generation of secondary BAs. In summary, the present study reveals an important contribution of the alternative BA synthesis pathway and BA transporters in regulating BA concentrations in H-Cpr-null mice.

  5. Loss of functional NADPH oxidase-2 protects against alcohol-induced bone resorption in female p47phox-/- mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In bone, oxidant signaling through NADPH oxidase (NOX)-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) is an important stimulus for osteoclast differentiation and activity. We have previously demonstrated that chronic alcohol abuse produces bone loss through NOX-dependent mechanisms. In the current study, s...

  6. FgNoxR, a regulatory subunit of NADPH oxidases, is required for female fertility and pathogenicity in Fusarium graminearum.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chengkang; Lin, Yahong; Wang, Jianqiang; Wang, Yang; Chen, Miaoping; Norvienyeku, Justice; Li, Guangpu; Yu, Wenying; Wang, Zonghua

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium graminearum is a filamentous fungal pathogen that causes wheat Fusarium head blight. In this study, we identified FgNoxR, a regulatory subunit of NADPH oxidases (Nox) in F. graminearum, and found that it plays an important role in the pathogenicity of F. graminearum. FgNoxR is localized on punctate structures throughout the cytoplasm in aerial hyphae while these structures tend to accumulate at or near the plasma membrane, septa and hyphal tips in germinated conidia. Deletion of the FgNOXR gene results in reduced conidiation and germination. Importantly, sexual development is totally abolished in the FgNOXR deletion mutant. In addition, the disease lesion of FgNOXR deletion mutant is limited to the inoculated spikelets of wheat heads. Finally, FgNoxR interacts with FgRac1 and FgNoxA, and all three proteins are required for female fertility. Taken together, our data indicate that FgNoxR contributes to conidiation, sexual reproduction and pathogenesis in F. graminearum.

  7. Resolution of a low molecular weight G protein in neutrophil cytosol required for NADPH oxidase activation and reconstitution by recombinant Krev-1 protein.

    PubMed

    Eklund, E A; Marshall, M; Gibbs, J B; Crean, C D; Gabig, T G

    1991-07-25

    Activation of the membrane-associated NADPH oxidase in intact human neutrophils requires a receptor-associated heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein that is sensitive to pertussis toxin. Activation of this NADPH oxidase by arachidonate in a cell-free system requires an additional downstream pertussis toxin-insensitive G protein (Gabig, T. G., English, D., Akard, L. P., and Schell, M. J. (1987) (J. Biol. Chem. 262, 1685-1690) that is located in the cytosolic fraction of unstimulated cells (Gabig, T. G., Eklund, E. A., Potter, G. B., and Dykes, J. R. (1990) J. Immunol. 145, 945-951). In the present study, immunodepletion of G proteins from the cytosolic fraction of unstimulated neutrophils resulted in a loss of the ability to activate NADPH oxidase in the membrane fraction. The activity in immunodepleted cytosol was fully reconstituted by a partially purified fraction from neutrophil cytosol that contained a 21-kDa GTP-binding protein. Purified human recombinant Krev-1 p21 also completely reconstituted immunodepleted cytosol whereas recombinant human H-ras p21 or yeast RAS GTP-binding proteins had no reconstitutive activity. Rabbit antisera raised against a synthetic peptide corresponding to the effector region of Krev-1 (amino acids 31-43) completely inhibited cell-free NADPH oxidase activation, and this inhibition was blocked by the synthetic 31-43 peptide. An inhibitory monoclonal antibody specific for ras p21 amino acids 60-77 (Y13-259) had no effect on cell-free NADPH oxidase activation. Activation of the NADPH oxidase in intact neutrophils by stimulation with phorbol myristate acetate caused a marked increase in the amount of membrane-associated antigen recognized by 151 antiserum on Western blot. Thus a G protein in the cytosol of unstimulated neutrophils antigenically and functionally related to Krev-1 may be the downstream effector G protein for NADPH oxidase activation. This system represents a unique model to study molecular interactions of a ras-like G

  8. Two NADPH oxidase isoforms are required for sexual reproduction and ascospore germination in the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina.

    PubMed

    Malagnac, Fabienne; Lalucque, Hervé; Lepère, Gersende; Silar, Philippe

    2004-11-01

    NADPH oxidases are enzymes that produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) using electrons derived from intracellular NADPH. In plants and mammals, ROS have been proposed to be second messengers that signal defence responses or cell proliferation. By inactivating PaNox1 and PaNox2, two genes encoding NADPH oxidases, we demonstrate the crucial role of these enzymes in the control of two key steps of the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina life cycle. PaNox1 mutants are impaired in the differentiation of fruiting bodies from their progenitor cells, and the deletion of the PaNox2 gene specifically blocks ascospore germination. Furthermore, we show that PaNox1 likely acts upstream of PaASK1, a MAPKKK previously implicated in stationary phase differentiation and cell degeneration. Using nitro blue tetrazolium (NBT) and diaminobenzidine (DAB) assays, we detect a regulated secretion of both superoxide and peroxide during P. anserina vegetative growth. In addition, two oxidative bursts are shown to occur during fruiting body development and ascospore germination. Analysis of mutants establishes that PaNox1, PaNox2, and PaASK1, as well as a still unknown additional source of ROS, modulate these secretions. Altogether, our data point toward a role for NADPH oxidases in signalling fungal developmental transitions with respect to nutrient availability. These enzymes are conserved in other multicellular eukaryotes, suggesting that early eukaryotes were endowed with a redox network used for signalling purposes.

  9. Irreversible inactivation of macrophage and brain nitric oxide synthase by L-NG-methylarginine requires NADPH-dependent hydroxylation.

    PubMed

    Feldman, P L; Griffith, O W; Hong, H; Stuehr, D J

    1993-02-19

    L-NG-Methylarginine (NMA) is an established mechanism-based inactivator of murine macrophage nitric oxide synthase (mNOS). In this report, NMA is shown to irreversibly inhibit both mNOS (k(inact) = 0.08 min-1) and the recombinant constitutive brain NOS (bNOS). For both NOS isoforms, metabolism of NMA parallels that of the natural substrate L-arginine (ARG), in that it undergoes a regiospecific, NADPH-dependent hydroxylation to form L-NG-hydroxy-NG-methylarginine (NOHNMA). This intermediate then undergoes further NADPH-dependent oxidation to form L-citrulline (CIT). Authentic NOHNMA, synthesized from L-ornithine, irreversibly inhibited both mNOS (k(inact) = 0.10 min-1) and bNOS in an NADPH-dependent reaction. The conversion of either NMA or NOHNMA to CIT correlated with irreversible enzyme inactivation. Thus, the data suggest that enzyme inhibition occurs as a consequence of oxidative metabolism of the intermediate, NOHNMA. A unified mechanism is proposed that accounts for NO biosynthesis from ARG, for the inactivation of NOS by NMA and for the intermediacy of hydroxylated ARG or NMA derivatives in these processes.

  10. Cu, Zn Superoxide Dismutase and NADP(H) Homeostasis Are Required for Tolerance of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Shi-Xiong; Teo, Mariati; Lam, Yuen T.; Perrone, Gabriel G.

    2009-01-01

    Genome-wide screening for sensitivity to chronic endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress induced by dithiothreitol and tunicamycin (TM) identified mutants deleted for Cu, Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD) function (SOD1, CCS1) or affected in NADPH generation via the pentose phosphate pathway (TKL1, RPE1). TM-induced ER stress led to an increase in cellular superoxide accumulation and an increase in SOD1 expression and Sod1p activity. Prior adaptation of the hac1 mutant deficient in the unfolded protein response (UPR) to the superoxide-generating agent paraquat reduced cell death under ER stress. Overexpression of the ER oxidoreductase Ero1p known to generate hydrogen peroxide in vitro, did not lead to increased superoxide levels in cells subjected to ER stress. The mutants lacking SOD1, TKL1, or RPE1 exhibited decreased UPR induction under ER stress. Sensitivity of the sod1 mutant to ER stress and decreased UPR induction was partially rescued by overexpression of TKL1 encoding transketolase. These data indicate an important role for SOD and cellular NADP(H) in cell survival during ER stress, and it is proposed that accumulation of superoxide affects NADP(H) homeostasis, leading to reduced UPR induction during ER stress. PMID:19129474

  11. Microglial Cells Are Involved in the Susceptibility of NADPH Oxidase Knockout Mice to 6-Hydroxy-Dopamine-Induced Neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Hernandes, Marina S.; Santos, Graziella D. R.; Café-Mendes, Cecília C.; Lima, Larissa S.; Scavone, Cristoforo; Munhoz, Carolina D.; Britto, Luiz R. G.

    2013-01-01

    We explored the impact of Nox-2 in modulating inflammatory-mediated microglial responses in the 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced Parkinson’s disease (PD) model. Nox1 and Nox2 gene expression were found to increase in striatum, whereas a marked increase of Nox2 expression was observed in substantia nigra (SN) of wild-type (wt) mice after PD induction. Gp91phox-/- 6-OHDA-lesioned mice exhibited a significant reduction in the apomorphine-induced rotational behavior, when compared to wt mice. Immunolabeling assays indicated that striatal 6-OHDA injections reduced the number of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the SN of wt mice. In gp91phox-/- 6-OHDA-lesioned mice the DA degeneration was negligible, suggesting an involvement of Nox in 6-OHDA-mediated SN degeneration. Gp91phox-/- 6-OHDA-lesioned mice treated with minocycline, a tetracycline derivative that exerts multiple anti-inflammatory effects, including microglial inhibition, exhibited increased apomorphine-induced rotational behavior and degeneration of DA neurons after 6-OHDA injections. The same treatment also increased TNF-α release and potentiated NF-κB activation in the SN of gp91phox-/--lesioned mice. Our results demonstrate for the first time that inhibition of microglial cells increases the susceptibility of gp91phox-/- 6-OHDA lesioned mice to develop PD. Blockade of microglia leads to NF-κB activation and TNF-α release into the SN of gp91phox-/- 6-OHDA lesioned mice, a likely mechanism whereby gp91phox-/- 6-OHDA lesioned mice may be more susceptible to develop PD after microglial cell inhibition. Nox2 adds an essential level of regulation to signaling pathways underlying the inflammatory response after PD induction. PMID:24086556

  12. Regulatory role of NADPH oxidase in glycated LDL-induced upregulation of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and heat shock factor-1 in mouse embryo fibroblasts and diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ruozhi; Le, Khuong; Moghadasian, Mohammed H; Shen, Garry X

    2013-08-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the predominant cause of death in diabetic patients. Fibroblasts are one of the major types of cells in the heart or vascular wall. Increased levels of glycated low-density lipoprotein (glyLDL) were detected in diabetic patients. Previous studies in our group demonstrated that oxidized LDL increased the amounts of NADPH oxidase (NOX), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), and heat shock factor-1 (HSF1) in fibroblasts. This study examined the expression of NOX, PAI-1, and HSF1 in glyLDL-treated wild-type or HSF1-deficient mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs) and in leptin receptor-knockout (db/db) diabetic mice. Treatment with physiologically relevant levels of glyLDL increased superoxide and H2O2 release and the levels of NOX4 and p22phox (an essential component of multiple NOX complexes) in wild-type or HSF1-deficient MEFs. The levels of HSF1 and PAI-1 were increased by glyLDL in wild-type MEFs, but not in HSF1-deficient MEFs. Diphenyleneiodonium (a nonspecific NOX inhibitor) or small interfering RNA for p22phox prevented glyLDL-induced increases in the levels of NOX4, HSF1, or PAI-1 in MEFs. The amounts of NOX4, HSF1, and PAI-1 were elevated in hearts of db/db diabetic mice compared to wild-type mice. The results suggest that glyLDL increased the abundance of NOX4 or p22phox via an HSF1-independent pathway, but that of PAI-1 via an HSF1-dependent manner. NOX4 plays a crucial role in glyLDL-induced expression of HSF1 and PAI-1 in mouse fibroblasts. Increased expression of NOX4, HSF1, and PAI-1 was detected in cardiovascular tissue of diabetic mice.

  13. Nonhematopoietic NADPH oxidase regulation of lung eosinophilia and airway hyperresponsiveness in experimentally induced asthma

    PubMed Central

    Abdala-Valencia, Hiam; Earwood, Julie; Bansal, Shelly; Jansen, Michael; Babcock, George; Garvy, Beth; Wills-Karp, Marsha; Cook-Mills, Joan M.

    2009-01-01

    Pulmonary eosinophilia is one of the most consistent hallmarks of asthma. Infiltration of eosinophils into the lung in experimental asthma is dependent on the adhesion molecule vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) on endothelial cells. Ligation of VCAM-1 activates endothelial cell NADPH oxidase, which is required for VCAM-1-dependent leukocyte migration in vitro. To examine whether endothelial-derived NADPH oxidase modulates eosinophil recruitment in vivo, mice deficient in NADPH oxidase (CYBB mice) were irradiated and received wild-type hematopoietic cells to generate chimeric CYBB mice. In response to ovalbumin (OVA) challenge, the chimeric CYBB mice had increased numbers of eosinophils bound to the endothelium as well as reduced eosinophilia in the lung tissue and bronchoalveolar lavage. This occurred independent of changes in VCAM-1 expression, cytokine/chemokine levels (IL-5, IL-10, IL-13, IFNγ, or eotaxin), or numbers of T cells, neutrophils, or mononuclear cells in the lavage fluids or lung tissue of OVA-challenged mice. Importantly, the OVA-challenged chimeric CYBB mice had reduced airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). The AHR in OVA-challenged chimeric CYBB mice was restored by bypassing the endothelium with intratracheal administration of eosinophils. These data suggest that VCAM-1 induction of NADPH oxidase in the endothelium is necessary for the eosinophil recruitment during allergic inflammation. Moreover, these studies provide a basis for targeting VCAM-1-dependent signaling pathways in asthma therapies. PMID:17293377

  14. NADPH oxidase-dependent H2O2 production is required for salt-induced antioxidant defense in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Ben Rejeb, Kilani; Benzarti, Maâli; Debez, Ahmed; Bailly, Christophe; Savouré, Arnould; Abdelly, Chedly

    2015-02-01

    The involvement of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) generated by nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-oxidase (NADPH oxidase) in the antioxidant defense system was assessed in salt-challenged Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings. In the wild-type, short-term salt exposure led to a transient and significant increase of H2O2 concentration, followed by a marked increase in catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.16), ascorbate peroxidase (APX, EC 1.11.1.11) and glutathione reductase (GR, EC 1.6.4.2) activities. Pre-treatment with either a chemical trap for H2O2 (dimethylthiourea) or two widely used NADPH oxidase inhibitors (imidazol and diphenylene iodonium) significantly decreased the above-mentioned enzyme activities under salinity. Double mutant atrbohd/f plants failed to induce the antioxidant response under the culture conditions. Under long-term salinity, the wild-type was more salt-tolerant than the mutant based on the plant biomass production. The better performance of the wild-type was related to a significantly higher photosynthetic activity, a more efficient K(+) selective uptake, and to the plants' ability to deal with the salt-induced oxidative stress as compared to atrbohd/f. Altogether, these data suggest that the early H2O2 generation by NADPH oxidase under salt stress could be the beginning of a reaction cascade that triggers the antioxidant response in A. thaliana in order to overcome the subsequent reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, thereby mitigating the salt stress-derived injuries.

  15. The cytosolic component p47(phox) is not a sine qua non participant in the activation of NADPH oxidase but is required for optimal superoxide production.

    PubMed

    Koshkin, V; Lotan, O; Pick, E

    1996-11-29

    The superoxide (O-2)-generating NADPH oxidase of phagocytes is a multicomponent complex consisting of a membrane-associated flavocytochrome (cytochrome b559), bearing the NADPH binding site and two redox centers (FAD and heme) and three cytosolic activating components: p47(phox), p67(phox), and the small GTPase Rac (1 or 2). The canonical view is that the induction of O-2 generation involves the stimulus-dependent assembly of all three cytosolic components with cytochrome b559, a process mimicked in vitro by a cell-free system activated by anionic amphiphiles. We studied the requirement for individual cytosolic components in the activation of NADPH oxidase in a cell-free system consisting of purified and relipidated cytochrome b559, recombinant p47(phox), p67(phox), and Rac1, and the amphiphile, lithium dodecyl sulfate. We found that pronounced activation of NADPH oxidase can be achieved by exposing cytochrome b559 to p67(phox) and Rac1, in the total absence of p47(phox) (turnover = 60 mol O-2/s/mol cytochrome b559). However, maximal activation (turnover = 153 mol O-2/s/mol cytochrome b559) could only be obtained in the presence of p47(phox). O-2 production, in the absence of p47(phox), was dependent on: high molar ratios of p67(phox) and Rac1 to cytochrome b559, Rac1 being in the GTP-bound form, cytochrome b559 being saturated with FAD, and an optimal concentration of amphiphile. Single cytosolic components or combinations of two cytosolic components, other than p67(phox) and Rac1, were incapable of activation. We conclude that p67(phox) and Rac1 are the only cytosolic components directly involved in the induction of electron transport in cytochrome b559. p47(phox) appears to facilitate or stabilize the interaction of p67(phox) and, possibly, Rac1 with cytochrome b559, and is required for optimal generation of O-2 under physiological conditions.

  16. Inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptors and NAD(P)H mediate Ca2+ signaling required for hypoxic preconditioning of hippocampal neurons

    PubMed Central

    Bickler, Philip E.; Fahlman, Christian S.; Gray, Jonathan; McKleroy, William; Warren, Daniel E.

    2009-01-01

    Exposure of neurons to a non-lethal hypoxic stress greatly reduces cell death during subsequent severe ischemia (hypoxic preconditioning, HPC). In organotypic cultures of rat hippocampus, we demonstrate that HPC requires inositol triphosphate (IP3) receptor-dependent Ca2+ release from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) triggered by increased cytosolic NAD(P)H. Ca2+ chelation with intracellular BAPTA, ER Ca2+ store depletion with thapsigargin, IP3 receptor block with xestospongin, and RNA interference against subtype 1 of the IP3 receptor all blunted the moderate increases in [Ca2+]i (50–100 nM) required for tolerance induction. Increases in [Ca2+]i during HPC and neuroprotection following HPC was not prevented with NMDA receptor block or by removing Ca2+ from the bathing medium. Increased NAD(P)H fluorescence in CA1 neurons during hypoxia and demonstration that NADH manipulation increases [Ca2+]i in an IP3R-dependent manner revealed a primary role of cellular redox state in liberation of Ca2+ from the ER. Blockade of IP3Rs and intracellular Ca2+ chelation prevented phosphorylation of known HPC signaling targets, including MAPK p42/44 (ERK), protein kinase B (Akt) and CREB. We conclude that the endoplasmic reticulum, acting via redox/NADH-dependent intracellular Ca2+ store release, is an important mediator of the neuroprotective response to hypoxic stress. PMID:19217932

  17. Combined NADPH Oxidase 1 and Interleukin 10 Deficiency Induces Chronic Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Causes Ulcerative Colitis-Like Disease in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Tréton, Xavier; Pedruzzi, Eric; Guichard, Cécile; Ladeiro, Yannick; Sedghi, Shirin; Vallée, Mélissa; Fernandez, Neike; Bruyère, Emilie; Woerther, Paul-Louis; Ducroc, Robert; Montcuquet, Nicolas; Freund, Jean-Noel; Van Seuningen, Isabelle; Barreau, Frédérick; Marah, Assiya; Hugot, Jean-Pierre; Cazals-Hatem, Dominique; Bouhnik, Yoram; Daniel, Fanny; Ogier-Denis, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease affecting the rectum which progressively extents. Its etiology remains unknown and the number of treatments available is limited. Studies of UC patients have identified an unbalanced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in the non-inflamed colonic mucosa. Animal models with impaired ER stress are sensitive to intestinal inflammation, suggesting that an unbalanced ER stress could cause inflammation. However, there are no ER stress-regulating strategies proposed in the management of UC partly because of the lack of relevant preclinical model mimicking the disease. Here we generated the IL10/Nox1dKO mouse model which combines immune dysfunction (IL-10 deficiency) and abnormal epithelium (NADPH oxidase 1 (Nox1) deficiency) and spontaneously develops a UC-like phenotype with similar complications (colorectal cancer) than UC. Our data identified an unanticipated combined role of IL10 and Nox1 in the fine-tuning of ER stress responses in goblet cells. As in humans, the ER stress was unbalanced in mice with decreased eIF2α phosphorylation preceding inflammation. In IL10/Nox1dKO mice, salubrinal preserved eIF2α phosphorylation through inhibition of the regulatory subunit of the protein phosphatase 1 PP1R15A/GADD34 and prevented colitis. Thus, this new experimental model highlighted the central role of epithelial ER stress abnormalities in the development of colitis and defined the defective eIF2α pathway as a key pathophysiological target for UC. Therefore, specific regulators able to restore the defective eIF2α pathway could lead to the molecular remission needed to treat UC. PMID:25014110

  18. Combined NADPH oxidase 1 and interleukin 10 deficiency induces chronic endoplasmic reticulum stress and causes ulcerative colitis-like disease in mice.

    PubMed

    Tréton, Xavier; Pedruzzi, Eric; Guichard, Cécile; Ladeiro, Yannick; Sedghi, Shirin; Vallée, Mélissa; Fernandez, Neike; Bruyère, Emilie; Woerther, Paul-Louis; Ducroc, Robert; Montcuquet, Nicolas; Freund, Jean-Noel; Van Seuningen, Isabelle; Barreau, Frédérick; Marah, Assiya; Hugot, Jean-Pierre; Cazals-Hatem, Dominique; Bouhnik, Yoram; Daniel, Fanny; Ogier-Denis, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease affecting the rectum which progressively extents. Its etiology remains unknown and the number of treatments available is limited. Studies of UC patients have identified an unbalanced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in the non-inflamed colonic mucosa. Animal models with impaired ER stress are sensitive to intestinal inflammation, suggesting that an unbalanced ER stress could cause inflammation. However, there are no ER stress-regulating strategies proposed in the management of UC partly because of the lack of relevant preclinical model mimicking the disease. Here we generated the IL10/Nox1dKO mouse model which combines immune dysfunction (IL-10 deficiency) and abnormal epithelium (NADPH oxidase 1 (Nox1) deficiency) and spontaneously develops a UC-like phenotype with similar complications (colorectal cancer) than UC. Our data identified an unanticipated combined role of IL10 and Nox1 in the fine-tuning of ER stress responses in goblet cells. As in humans, the ER stress was unbalanced in mice with decreased eIF2α phosphorylation preceding inflammation. In IL10/Nox1dKO mice, salubrinal preserved eIF2α phosphorylation through inhibition of the regulatory subunit of the protein phosphatase 1 PP1R15A/GADD34 and prevented colitis. Thus, this new experimental model highlighted the central role of epithelial ER stress abnormalities in the development of colitis and defined the defective eIF2α pathway as a key pathophysiological target for UC. Therefore, specific regulators able to restore the defective eIF2α pathway could lead to the molecular remission needed to treat UC.

  19. Female mice lacking active nadph-oxidase enzymes are protected against “western diet”--induced obesity and metabolic syndrome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    NADPH oxidase (Nox) enzymes have been implicated in regulation of adipocyte differentiation and inflammation in a variety of tissues. We examined the effects of feeding AIN-93G or a “Western diet” (WD) (45% fat, 0.5% cholesterol) on development of obesity and “metabolic syndrome” in wild type (WT) m...

  20. Caveolin-1-dependent activation of the metalloprotease TACE/ADAM17 by TGF-β in hepatocytes requires activation of Src and the NADPH oxidase NOX1.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Càceres, Joaquim; Mainez, Jèssica; Mayoral, Rafael; Martín-Sanz, Paloma; Egea, Gustavo; Fabregat, Isabel

    2016-04-01

    Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) plays a dual role in hepatocytes, inducing both pro- and anti-apoptotic responses, the balance between which decides cell fate. Survival signals are mediated by the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) pathway, which is activated by TGF-β. We have previously shown that caveolin-1 (CAV1) is required for activation of the metalloprotease tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α-converting enzyme/a disintegrin and metalloproteinase 17 (TACE/ADAM17), and hence transactivation of the EGFR pathway. The specific mechanism by which TACE/ADAM17 is activated has not yet been determined. Here we show that TGF-β induces phosphorylation of sarcoma kinase (Src) in hepatocytes, a process that is impaired in Cav1(-/-) hepatocytes, coincident with a decrease in phosphorylated Src in detergent-resistant membrane fractions. TGF-β-induced activation of TACE/ADAM17 and EGFR phosphorylation were blocked using the Src inhibitor PP2. Cav1(+/+) hepatocytes showed early production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by TGF-β, which was not seen in Cav1(-/-) cells. Production of ROS was inhibited by both the NADPH oxidase 1 (NOX1) inhibitor STK301831 and NOX1 knock-down, which also impaired TACE/ADAM17 activation and thus EGFR phosphorylation. Finally, neither STK301831 nor NOX1 silencing impaired Src phosphorylation, but PP2 blocked early ROS production, showing that Src is involved in NOX1 activation. As expected, inhibition of Src or NOX1 increased TGF-β-induced cell death in Cav1(+/+) cells. In conclusion, CAV1 is required for TGF-β-mediated activation of TACE/ADAM17 through a mechanism that involves phosphorylation of Src and NOX1-mediated ROS production.

  1. NAD(P)H oxidase and renal epithelial ion transport

    PubMed Central

    Schreck, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    A fundamental requirement for cellular vitality is the maintenance of plasma ion concentration within strict ranges. It is the function of the kidney to match urinary excretion of ions with daily ion intake and nonrenal losses to maintain a stable ionic milieu. NADPH oxidase is a source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) within many cell types, including the transporting renal epithelia. The focus of this review is to describe the role of NADPH oxidase-derived ROS toward local renal tubular ion transport in each nephron segment and to discuss how NADPH oxidase-derived ROS signaling within the nephron may mediate ion homeostasis. In each case, we will attempt to identify the various subunits of NADPH oxidase and reactive oxygen species involved and the ion transporters, which these affect. We will first review the role of NADPH oxidase on renal Na+ and K+ transport. Finally, we will review the relationship between tubular H+ efflux and NADPH oxidase activity. PMID:21270341

  2. Temporal requirement for high SMN expression in SMA mice

    PubMed Central

    Le, Thanh T.; McGovern, Vicki L.; Alwine, Isaac E.; Wang, Xueyong; Massoni-Laporte, Aurelie; Rich, Mark M.; Burghes, Arthur H.M.

    2011-01-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is caused by loss of the survival motor neuron 1 gene (SMN1) and retention of the SMN2 gene, resulting in reduced SMN. SMA mice can be rescued with high expression of SMN in neurons, but when is this high expression required? We have developed a SMA mouse with inducible expression of SMN to address the temporal requirement for high SMN expression. Both embryonic and early postnatal induction of SMN resulted in a dramatic increase in survival with some mice living greater than 200 days. The mice had no marked motor deficits and neuromuscular junction (NMJ) function was near normal thus it appears that induction of SMN in postnatal SMA mice rescues motor function. Early postnatal SMN induction, followed by a 1-month removal of induction at 28 days of age, resulted in no morphological or electrophysiological abnormalities at the NMJ and no overt motor phenotype. Upon removal of SMN induction, five mice survived for just over 1 month and two female mice have survived past 8 months of age. We suggest that there is a postnatal period of time when high SMN levels are required. Furthermore, two copies of SMN2 provide the minimal amount of SMN necessary to maintain survival during adulthood. Finally, in the course of SMA, early induction of SMN is most efficacious. PMID:21672919

  3. NADPH oxidase and lipid raft-associated redox signaling are required for PCB153-induced upregulation of cell adhesion molecules in human brain endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Eum, Sung Yong Andras, Ibolya; Hennig, Bernhard; Toborek, Michal

    2009-10-15

    Exposure to persistent organic pollutants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), can lead to chronic inflammation and the development of vascular diseases. Because cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) of the cerebrovascular endothelium regulate infiltration of inflammatory cells into the brain, we have explored the molecular mechanisms by which ortho-substituted polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), such as PCB153, can upregulate CAMs in brain endothelial cells. Exposure to PCB153 increased expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), as well as elevated adhesion of leukocytes to brain endothelial cells. These effects were impeded by inhibitors of EGFR, JAKs, or Src activity. In addition, pharmacological inhibition of NADPH oxidase or disruption of lipid rafts by cholesterol depleting agents blocked PCB153-induced phosphorylation of JAK and Src kinases and upregulation of CAMs. In contrast, silencing of caveolin-1 by siRNA interference did not affect upregulation of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 in brain endothelial cells stimulated by PCB153. Results of the present study indicate that lipid raft-dependent NADPH oxidase/JAK/EGFR signaling mechanisms regulate the expression of CAMs in brain endothelial cells and adhesion of leukocytes to endothelial monolayers. Due to its role in leukocyte infiltration, induction of CAMs may contribute to PCB-induced cerebrovascular disorders and neurotoxic effects in the CNS.

  4. p47(phox) is required for afferent arteriolar contractile responses to angiotensin II and perfusion pressure in mice.

    PubMed

    Lai, En Yin; Solis, Glenn; Luo, Zaiming; Carlstrom, Mattias; Sandberg, Kathryn; Holland, Steven; Wellstein, Anton; Welch, William J; Wilcox, Christopher S

    2012-02-01

    Myogenic and angiotensin contractions of afferent arterioles generate reactive oxygen species. Resistance vessels express neutrophil oxidase-2 and -4. Angiotensin II activates p47(phox)/neutrophil oxidase-2, whereas it downregulates NOX-4. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that p47(phox) enhances afferent arteriolar angiotensin contractions. Angiotensin II infusion in p47(phox) +/+ but not -/- mice increased renal cortical NADPH oxidase activity (7±1-12±1 [P<0.01] versus 5±1-7±1 10(3) · RLU · min(-1) · μg protein(-1) [P value not significant]), mean arterial pressure (77±2-91±2 [P<0.005] versus 74±2-77±1 mm Hg [P value not significant]), and renal vascular resistance (7.5±0.4-10.1±0.7 [P<0.01] versus 7.9±0.4-8.3±0.4 mm Hg/mL · min(-1) · gram kidney weight(-1) [P value not significant]). Afferent arterioles from p47(phox) -/- mice had a lesser myogenic response (3.1±0.4 versus 1.4±0.2 dynes · cm(-1) · mm Hg(-1); P<0.02) and a lesser (P<0.05) contraction to 10(-6) M angiotensin II (diameter change +/+: 9.3±0.2-3.4±0.6 μm versus -/-: 9.9±0.6-7.5±0.4 μm). Angiotensin and increased perfusion pressure generated significantly (P<0.05) more reactive oxygen species in p47(phox) +/+ than -/- arterioles. Angiotensin II infusion increased the maximum responsiveness of afferent arterioles from p47(phox) +/+ mice to 10(-6) M angiotensin II yet decreased the response in p47(phox) -/- mice. The angiotensin infusion increased the sensitivity to angiotensin II only in p47(phox) +/+ mice. We conclude that p47(phox) is required to enhance renal NADPH oxidase activity and basal afferent arteriolar myogenic and angiotensin II contractions and to switch afferent arteriolar tachyphylaxis to sensitization to angiotensin during a prolonged angiotensin infusion. These effects likely contribute to hypertension and renal vasoconstriction during infusion of angiotensin II.

  5. Lutein prevents high fat diet-induced atherosclerosis in ApoE-deficient mice by inhibiting NADPH oxidase and increasing PPAR expression.

    PubMed

    Han, Hao; Cui, Wei; Wang, Linzhi; Xiong, Yufang; Liu, Liegang; Sun, Xiufa; Hao, Liping

    2015-03-01

    Epidemiological and experimental studies provide supportive evidence that lutein, a major carotenoid, may act as a chemopreventive agent against atherosclerosis, although the underlying molecular mechanisms are not well understood. The main aim of this study was to investigate the effects of lutein on the alleviation of atherosclerosis and its molecular mechanisms involved in oxidative stress and lipid metabolism. Male apolipoprotein E knockout mice (n = 55) were fed either a normal chow diet or a high fat diet (HFD) supplemented with or without lutein for 24 weeks. The results showed that a HFD induced atherosclerosis formation, lipid metabolism disorders and oxidative stress, but noticeable improvements were observed in the lutein treated group. Additionally, lutein supplementation reversed the decreased protein expression of aortic heme oxygenase-1 and increased the mRNA and protein expressions of aortic nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase stimulated by a HFD. Furthermore, the decreased mRNA and protein expression levels of hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α, carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A, acyl CoA oxidase 1, low density lipoprotein receptors and scavenger receptor class B type I observed in mice with atherosclerosis were markedly enhanced after treatment with lutein. Taken together, these data add new evidence supporting the anti-atherogenic properties of lutein and describing its mechanisms of action in atherosclerosis prevention, including oxidative stress and lipid metabolism improvements.

  6. Tomato SlRbohB, a member of the NADPH oxidase family, is required for disease resistance against Botrytis cinerea and tolerance to drought stress

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaohui; Zhang, Huijuan; Tian, Limei; Huang, Lei; Liu, Shixia; Li, Dayong; Song, Fengming

    2015-01-01

    NADPH oxidases (also known as respiratory burst oxidase homologs, Rbohs) are key enzymes that catalyze the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in plants. In the present study, eight SlRboh genes were identified in tomato and their possible involvement in resistance to Botrytis cinerea and drought tolerance was examined. Expression of SlRbohs was induced by B. cinerea and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato but displayed distinct patterns. Virus-induced gene silencing based silencing of SlRbohB resulted in reduced resistance to B. cinerea but silencing of other SlRbohs did not affect the resistance. Compared to non-silenced plants, the SlRbohB-silenced plants accumulated more ROS and displayed attenuated expression of defense genes after infection with B. cinerea. Silencing of SlRbohB also suppressed flg22-induced ROS burst and the expression of SlLrr22, a marker gene related to PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI). Transient expression of SlRbohB in Nicotiana benthamiana led to enhanced resistance to B. cinerea. Furthermore, silencing of SlRbohB resulted in decreased drought tolerance, accelerated water loss in leaves and the altered expression of drought-responsive genes. Our data demonstrate that SlRbohB positively regulates the resistance to B. cinerea, flg22-induced PTI, and drought tolerance in tomato. PMID:26157450

  7. NADPH-generating systems in bacteria and archaea

    PubMed Central

    Spaans, Sebastiaan K.; Weusthuis, Ruud A.; van der Oost, John; Kengen, Servé W. M.

    2015-01-01

    Reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) is an essential electron donor in all organisms. It provides the reducing power that drives numerous anabolic reactions, including those responsible for the biosynthesis of all major cell components and many products in biotechnology. The efficient synthesis of many of these products, however, is limited by the rate of NADPH regeneration. Hence, a thorough understanding of the reactions involved in the generation of NADPH is required to increase its turnover through rational strain improvement. Traditionally, the main engineering targets for increasing NADPH availability have included the dehydrogenase reactions of the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway and the isocitrate dehydrogenase step of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. However, the importance of alternative NADPH-generating reactions has recently become evident. In the current review, the major canonical and non-canonical reactions involved in the production and regeneration of NADPH in prokaryotes are described, and their key enzymes are discussed. In addition, an overview of how different enzymes have been applied to increase NADPH availability and thereby enhance productivity is provided. PMID:26284036

  8. Rad9a is required for spermatogonia differentiation in mice

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Lin; Wang, Zhen-Bo; Qi, Shu-Tao; Ma, Xue-Shan; Liang, Qiu-Xia; Lei, Guo; Meng, Tie-Gang; Liang, Li-Feng; Xian, Ye-Xin; Hou, Yi; Sun, Xiao-Fang; Zhao, Yong; Wang, Wei-Hua; Sun, Qing-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Spermatogenesis in testes requires precise spermatogonia differentiation. Spermatocytes lacking the Rad9a gene are arrested in pachytene prophase, implying a possible role for RAD9A in spermatogonia differentiation. However, numerous RAD9A-positive pachytene spermatocytes are still observed in mouse testes following Rad9a excision using the Stra8-Cre system, and it is unclear whether Rad9a deletion in spermatogonia interrupts differentiation. Here, we generated a mouse model in which Rad9a was specifically deleted in spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) using Cre recombinase expression driven by the germ cell-specific Vasa promoter. Adult Rad9a-null male mice were infertile as a result of completely blocked spermatogonia differentiation. No early spermatocytes were detected in mutant testicular cords of 9-day-old mice. Mutant spermatogonia were prone to apoptosis, although proliferation rates were unaffected. Rad9a deletion also resulted in malformation of seminiferous tubules, in which cells assembled irregularly into clusters, and malformation led to testicular cord disruption. Our findings suggest that Rad9a is indispensable for spermatogonia differentiation and testicular development in mice. PMID:27861152

  9. Enzymic analysis of NADPH metabolism in beta-lactam-producing Penicillium chrysogenum: presence of a mitochondrial NADPH dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Harris, Diana M; Diderich, Jasper A; van der Krogt, Zita A; Luttik, Marijke A H; Raamsdonk, Léonie M; Bovenberg, Roel A L; van Gulik, Walter M; van Dijken, Johannes P; Pronk, Jack T

    2006-03-01

    Based on assumed reaction network structures, NADPH availability has been proposed to be a key constraint in beta-lactam production by Penicillium chrysogenum. In this study, NADPH metabolism was investigated in glucose-limited chemostat cultures of an industrial P. chrysogenum strain. Enzyme assays confirmed the NADP(+)-specificity of the dehydrogenases of the pentose-phosphate pathway and the presence of NADP(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase. Pyruvate decarboxylase/NADP(+)-linked acetaldehyde dehydrogenase and NADP(+)-linked glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase were not detected. Although the NADPH requirement of penicillin-G-producing chemostat cultures was calculated to be 1.4-1.6-fold higher than that of non-producing cultures, in vitro measured activities of the major NADPH-providing enzymes were the same. Isolated mitochondria showed high rates of antimycin A-sensitive respiration of NADPH, thus indicating the presence of a mitochondrial NADPH dehydrogenase that oxidises cytosolic NADPH. The presence of this enzyme in P. chrysogenum might have important implications for stoichiometric modelling of central carbon metabolism and beta-lactam production and may provide an interesting target for metabolic engineering.

  10. Nitric oxide is required for the auxin-induced activation of NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase and protein denitrosylation during root growth responses in arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Correa-Aragunde, Natalia; Cejudo, Francisco J.; Lamattina, Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Auxin is the main phytohormone controlling root development in plants. This study uses pharmacological and genetic approaches to examine the role of auxin and nitric oxide (NO) in the activation of NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase (NTR), and the effect that this activity has on root growth responses in Arabidopsis thaliana. Methods Arabidopsis seedlings were treated with auxin with or without the NTR inhibitors auranofin (ANF) and 1-chloro-2, 4-dinitrobenzene (DNCB). NTR activity, lateral root (LR) formation and S-nitrosothiol content were measured in roots. Protein S-nitrosylation was analysed by the biotin switch method in wild-type arabidopsis and in the double mutant ntra ntrb. Key Results The auxin-mediated induction of NTR activity is inhibited by the NO scavenger 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (CPTIO), suggesting that NO is downstream of auxin in this regulatory pathway. The NTR inhibitors ANF and DNCB prevent auxin-mediated activation of NTR and LR formation. Moreover, ANF and DNCB also inhibit auxin-induced DR5 : : GUS and BA3 : : GUS gene expression, suggesting that the auxin signalling pathway is compromised without full NTR activity. Treatment of roots with ANF and DNCB increases total nitrosothiols (SNO) content and protein S-nitrosylation, suggesting a role of the NTR-thioredoxin (Trx)-redox system in protein denitrosylation. In agreement with these results, the level of S-nitrosylated proteins is increased in the arabidopsis double mutant ntra ntrb as compared with the wild-type. Conclusions The results support for the idea that NTR is involved in protein denitrosylation during auxin-mediated root development. The fact that a high NO concentration induces NTR activity suggests that a feedback mechanism to control massive and unregulated protein S-nitrosylation could be operating in plant cells. PMID:26229066

  11. CD34 EXPRESSION BY HAIR FOLLICLE STEM CELLS IS REQUIRED FOR SKIN TUMOR DEVELOPMENT IN MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    We used knockout mice to show that a cell surface protein called CD34 is required for skin tumor formation in mice. Wild type mice treated with 7-12-Dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) and a tumor promoter developed papillomas. When we treated CD34 knockout (KO) mice the same way, n...

  12. NADPH oxidase signal transduces angiotensin II in hepatic stellate cells and is critical in hepatic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Bataller, Ramón; Schwabe, Robert F.; Choi, Youkyung H.; Yang, Liu; Paik, Yong Han; Lindquist, Jeffrey; Qian, Ting; Schoonhoven, Robert; Hagedorn, Curt H.; Lemasters, John J.; Brenner, David A.

    2003-01-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) is a pro-oxidant and fibrogenic cytokine. We investigated the role of NADPH oxidase in Ang II–induced effects in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), a fibrogenic cell type. Human HSCs express mRNAs of key components of nonphagocytic NADPH oxidase. Ang II phosphorylated p47phox, a regulatory subunit of NADPH oxidase, and induced reactive oxygen species formation via NADPH oxidase activity. Ang II phosphorylated AKT and MAPKs and increased AP-1 DNA binding in a redox-sensitive manner. Ang II stimulated DNA synthesis, cell migration, procollagen α1(I) mRNA expression, and secretion of TGF-β1 and inflammatory cytokines. These effects were attenuated by N-acetylcysteine and diphenylene iodonium, an NADPH oxidase inhibitor. Moreover, Ang II induced upregulation of genes potentially involved in hepatic wound-healing response in a redox-sensitive manner, as assessed by microarray analysis. HSCs isolated from p47phox–/– mice displayed a blunted response to Ang II compared with WT cells. We also assessed the role of NADPH oxidase in experimental liver fibrosis. After bile duct ligation, p47phox–/– mice showed attenuated liver injury and fibrosis compared with WT counterparts. Moreover, expression of smooth muscle α-actin and expression of TGF-β1 were reduced in p47phox–/– mice. Thus, NADPH oxidase mediates the actions of Ang II on HSCs and plays a critical role in liver fibrogenesis. PMID:14597764

  13. ZPAC is required for normal spermatogenesis in mice.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Er-Wei; Yang, Xiao-Gan; Lu, Yang-Qing; Xie, Long; Shang, Jiang-Hua; Li, Di; Yang, Huan; Hu, Lin-Lin; Zhao, Hui-Min; Lu, Sheng-Sheng; Lu, Ke-Huan

    2015-10-01

    The ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, involved in genetic recombination and sex-chromosome silencing during meiosis, plays critical roles in the specification of germ-line stem cells and the differentiation of gametes from gonocytes. Zygote-specific proteasome assembly chaperone (ZPAC) is expressed in the early mouse embryo, where it is important for progression of the mouse maternal-to-zygotic transition. The role of ZPAC during spermatogenesis in the adult gonads, however, remains unknown. In this study, rapid amplification of cDNA ends was used to determine the Zpac cDNA sequence, a 1584-bp transcript that includes a putative 1122-bp open reading frame coding for a 373 amino acid protein. Western blot and immunohistochemistry revealed that ZPAC was specifically expressed in gonads. To further dissect the function of ZPAC during spermatogenesis, we employed PiggyBac-based RNA interference vectors for transgenesis combined with cell transplantation to deplete Zpac during spermatogenesis. This RNAi-mediate depletion in Zpac expression disrupted normal spermatogenesis from spermatogonial stem cells. Two independent yeast two-hybrid screens further revealed an interaction between ZPAC and SYCE1. Together, these data suggest that ZPAC is required for normal spermatogenesis in mice.

  14. NADPH Oxidases in Vascular Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Konior, Anna; Schramm, Agata; Czesnikiewicz-Guzik, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a critical role in vascular disease. While there are many possible sources of ROS, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases play a central role. They are a source of “kindling radicals,” which affect other enzymes, such as nitric oxide synthase endothelial nitric oxide synthase or xanthine oxidase. This is important, as risk factors for atherosclerosis (hypertension, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, and smoking) regulate the expression and activity of NADPH oxidases in the vessel wall. Recent Advances: There are seven isoforms in mammals: Nox1, Nox2, Nox3, Nox4, Nox5, Duox1 and Duox2. Nox1, Nox2, Nox4, and Nox5 are expressed in endothelium, vascular smooth muscle cells, fibroblasts, or perivascular adipocytes. Other homologues have not been found or are expressed at very low levels; their roles have not been established. Nox1/Nox2 promote the development of endothelial dysfunction, hypertension, and inflammation. Nox4 may have a role in protecting the vasculature during stress; however, when its activity is increased, it may be detrimental. Calcium-dependent Nox5 has been implicated in oxidative damage in human atherosclerosis. Critical Issues: NADPH oxidase-derived ROS play a role in vascular pathology as well as in the maintenance of normal physiological vascular function. We also discuss recently elucidated mechanisms such as the role of NADPH oxidases in vascular protection, vascular inflammation, pulmonary hypertension, tumor angiogenesis, and central nervous system regulation of vascular function and hypertension. Future Directions: Understanding the role of individual oxidases and interactions between homologues in vascular disease is critical for efficient pharmacological regulation of vascular NADPH oxidases in both the laboratory and clinical practice. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 2794–2814. PMID:24180474

  15. The NADPH oxidase Nox4 has anti-atherosclerotic functions

    PubMed Central

    Schürmann, Christoph; Rezende, Flavia; Kruse, Christoph; Yasar, Yakub; Löwe, Oliver; Fork, Christian; van de Sluis, Bart; Bremer, Rolf; Weissmann, Norbert; Shah, Ajay M.; Jo, Hanjoong; Brandes, Ralf P.; Schröder, Katrin

    2015-01-01

    Aims Oxidative stress is thought to be a risk for cardiovascular disease and NADPH oxidases of the Nox family are important producers of reactive oxygen species. Within the Nox family, the NADPH oxidase Nox4 has a unique position as it is constitutively active and produces H2O2 rather than O2− . Nox4 is therefore incapable of scavenging NO and its low constitutive H2O2 production might even be beneficial. We hypothesized that Nox4 acts as an endogenous anti-atherosclerotic enzyme. Methods and results Tamoxifen-induced Nox4-knockout mice were crossed with ApoE−/− mice and spontaneous atherosclerosis under regular chow as well as accelerated atherosclerosis in response to partial carotid artery ligation under high-fat diet were determined. Deletion of Nox4 resulted in increased atherosclerosis formation in both models. Mechanistically, pro-atherosclerotic and pro-inflammatory changes in gene expression were observed prior to plaque development. Moreover, inhibition of Nox4 or deletion of the enzyme in the endothelium but not in macrophages resulted in increased adhesion of macrophages to the endothelial surface. Conclusions The H2O2-producing NADPH oxidase Nox4 is an endogenous anti-atherosclerotic enzyme. Nox4 inhibitors, currently under clinical evaluation, should be carefully monitored for cardiovascular side-effects. PMID:26385958

  16. [NADPH oxidases, Nox: new isoenzymes family].

    PubMed

    Chuong Nguyen, Minh Vu; Lardy, Bernard; Paclet, Marie-Hélène; Rousset, Francis; Berthier, Sylvie; Baillet, Athan; Grange, Laurent; Gaudin, Philippe; Morel, Françoise

    2015-01-01

    NADPH oxidases, Nox, are a family of isoenzymes, composed of seven members, whose sole function is to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS). Although Nox catalyze the same enzymatic reaction, they acquired from a common ancestor during evolution, specificities related to their tissue expression, subcellular localization, activation mechanisms and regulation. Their functions could vary depending on the pathophysiological state of the tissues. Indeed, ROS are not only bactericidal weapons in phagocytes but also essential cellular signaling molecules and their overproduction is involved in chronic diseases and diseases of aging. The understanding of the mechanisms involved in the function of Nox and the emergence of Nox inhibitors, require a thorough knowledge of their nature and structure. The objectives of this review are to highlight, in a structure/function approach, the main similar and differentiated properties shared by the human Nox isoenzymes.

  17. Neither Dectin-2 nor the Mannose Receptor Is Required for Resistance to Coccidioides immitis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Viriyakosol, Suganya; Jimenez, Maria del Pilar; Saijo, Sinobu

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the roles of the mannose receptor (MR) and Dectin-2 in resistance to pulmonary coccidioidomycosis in C57BL/6 (B6) mice and in the interaction of myeloid cells with spherules, using B6 mice with targeted mutations in Mrc1 and Clec4n. Spherules are the tissue form of Coccidioides, and we determined that the MR on bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDC) was important for recognition of spherules (formalin-killed spherules [FKS]) and for secretion of interleukin 10 (IL-10) and proinflammatory cytokines in response to FKS by both elicited macrophages and BMDC. Infected MR knockout (KO) mice produced more IL-10 in their lungs than did B6 mice, and MR KO mice also made more protective Th-17 cytokines. In contrast to the MR, Dectin-2 was not required for recognition of FKS by BMDC or for the production of cytokines by BMDC in response to FKS. However, Dectin-2 KO was required for stimulation of elicited peritoneal macrophages. Despite that, lung cytokine levels were not significantly different in Dectin-2 KO mice and B6 mice 14 days after infection, except for IL-1β, which was higher in Dectin-2 KO lungs. Although both Dectin-2−/− and MR−/− myeloid cells had reduced proinflammatory cytokine responses to FKS in vitro, neither MR nor Dectin-2 deficiency reduced the resistance of B6 mice to pulmonary coccidioidomycosis. PMID:24379281

  18. Targeting NADPH Oxidase Decreases Oxidative Stress in the Transgenic Sickle Cell Mouse Penis

    PubMed Central

    Musicki, Biljana; Liu, Tongyun; Sezen, Sena F.; Burnett, Arthur L.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a state of chronic vasculopathy characterized by endothelial dysfunction and increased oxidative stress, but the sources and mechanisms responsible for reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in the penis are unknown. Aims We evaluated whether SCD activates NADPH oxidase, induces endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) uncoupling, and decreases antioxidants in the SCD mouse penis. We further tested the hypothesis that targeting NADPH oxidase decreases oxidative stress in the SCD mouse penis. Methods SCD transgenic (sickle) mice were used as an animal model of SCD. Hemizygous (hemi) mice served as controls. Mice received an NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin (10 mM in drinking water) or vehicle. Penes were excised at baseline for molecular studies. Markers of oxidative stress (4-hydroxy-2-nonenal [HNE]), sources of ROS (eNOS uncoupling and NADPH oxidase subunits p67phox, p47phox, and gp91phox), and enzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase [SOD]1, SOD2, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase-1 [GPx1]) were measured by Western blot in penes. Main Outcome Measures Sources of ROS, oxidative stress, and enzymatic antioxidants in the SCD penis. Results Relative to hemi mice, SCD increased (P < 0.05) protein expression of NADPH oxidase subunits p67phox, p47phox, and gp91phox, 4-HNE-modified proteins, induced eNOS uncoupling, and reduced Gpx1 expression in the penis. Apocynin treatment of sickle mice reversed (P < 0.05) the abnormalities in protein expressions of p47phox, gp91phox (but not p67phox) and 4-HNE, but only slightly (P > 0.05) prevented eNOS uncoupling in the penis. Apocynin treatment of hemi mice did not affect any of these parameters. Conclusion NADPH oxidase and eNOS uncoupling are sources of oxidative stress in the SCD penis; decreased GPx1 further contributes to oxidative stress. Inhibition of NADPH oxidase upregulation decreases oxidative stress, implying a major role for NADPH oxidase as a ROS source and a

  19. tmie Is required for gentamicin uptake by the hair cells of mice.

    PubMed

    Park, Seojin; Lee, Jeong-Han; Cho, Hyun-Ju; Lee, Kyu-yup; Kim, Myoung Ok; Yun, Byung-Wook; Ryoo, ZaeYoung

    2013-04-01

    The circling (cir/cir) mouse is a spontaneous model of deafness due to deletion of a 40-kb genomic region that includes the transmembrane inner ear (tmie) gene. In addition to being deaf, cir/cir mice exhibit abnormal behaviors including circling and hyperactivity. Here we investigated differences between 3-d-old (that is, before hair-cell degeneration) cir/cir and phenotypically normal (+/cir) mice and the reason underlying the degeneration of the inner ear structure of cir/cir mice. To this end, we used gentamicin, gentamicin-Texas red conjugate, and FM1-43 to investigate mechanotransducer channel activity in the hair cells of cir/cir mice; these compounds are presumed to enter hair cells through the mechanotransducer channel. Although the structure of the inner ear of +/cir mice was equivalent to that of cir/cir mice, the hair cells of cir/cir mice (unlike +/cir) did not take up gentamicin, gentamicin-Texas red conjugate, or FM1-43. These findings suggest that hair cells in cir/cir mice demonstrate abnormal maturation and mechanotransduction. In addition, our current results indicate that tmie is required for maturation and maintenance of hair cells.

  20. Effects of Differing Response-Force Requirements on Food-Maintained Responding in CD-1 Mice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarcone, Troy J.; Chen, Rong; Fowler, Stephen C.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of force requirements on response effort was examined using outbred (CD-1) mice trained to press a disk with their snout. Lateral peak forces greater than 2 g were defined as threshold responses (i.e., all measured responses). Different force requirements were used to define criterion responses (a subclass of threshold responses) that…

  1. Neuropil and neuronal changes in hippocampal NADPH-diaphorase histochemistry in the ME7 model of murine prion disease.

    PubMed

    Picanço-Diniz, C W; Boche, D; Gomes-Leal, W; Perry, V H; Cunningham, C

    2004-06-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) has been implicated in neurotoxicity and cerebral blood flow changes in chronic neurodegeneration, but its activity in the mammalian prion diseases has not been studied in detail. Nicotine adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-diaphorase (NADPH-d) histochemistry is a simple and robust histochemical procedure that allows localization of the tissue distribution of NO synthases. The aim of the present study is to assess whether NADPH-d histochemical activity is altered in the hippocampus in the ME7 model of prion disease in C57BL/6J mice. At early and late stages after the initiation of the disease we assessed features of the NADPH-d positive cells and the neuropil histochemical activity in CA1 and dentate gyrus using densitometric analysis. In C57BL/6J mice 13 weeks postinjection of the prion agent ME7, when behavioural changes first become apparent, neuropil NADPH-d histochemical staining increases, whereas at late stages it decreases dramatically. Both type I and type II NADPH-d positive cells were found to survive throughout the hippocampal formation into the late stages of the disease, but diaphorase activity was reduced in dendritic branches and abnormal varicosities were present in both dendritic and axonal processes of NADPH-d positive type I cells. The pathophysiological implications of the results remain to be investigated but both blood flow alteration and NO neurotoxicity may be features of the disease.

  2. Protein Kinase Cβ Is Required for Lupus Development in Sle Mice

    PubMed Central

    Oleksyn, David; Pulvino, Mary; Zhao, Jiyong; Misra, Ravi; Vosoughi, Aram; Jenks, Scott; Tipton, Christopher; Lund, Frances; Schwartz, George; Goldman, Bruce; Mohan, Chandra; Mehta, Kamal; Mehta, Madhu; Leitgets, Michael; Sanz, Ignacio; Chen, Luojing

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the requirement for protein kinase Cβ (PKCβ) in the development of lupus in mice, and to explore the potential of targeting PKCβ as a therapeutic strategy in lupus. Methods Congenic mice bearing the disease loci Sle1 or Sle1 and Sle3, which represent different stages of severity in the development of lupus, were crossed with PKCβ-deficient mice. The effect of PKCβ deficiency in lupus development was analyzed. In addition, the effects of the PKCβ-specific inhibitor enzastaurin on the survival of B cells from mice with lupus and human 9G4-positive B cells as well as the in vivo effect of enzastaurin treatment on the development of lupus in Sle mice were investigated. Results In Sle mice, PKCβ deficiency abrogated lupus-associated phenotypes, including high autoantibody levels, proteinuria, and histologic features of lupus nephritis. Significant decreases in spleen size and in the peritoneal B-1 cell population, reduced numbers of activated CD4 T cells, and normalized CD4:CD8 ratios were observed. PKCβ deficiency induced an anergic B cell phenotype and preferentially inhibited autoreactive plasma cells and autoantibodies in mice with lupus. Inhibition of PKCβ enhanced apoptosis of both B cells from Sle mice and human autoreactive B cells (9G4 positive). Treatment of Sle mice with the PKCβ-specific inhibitor enzastaurin prevented the development of lupus. Conclusion This study identifies PKCβ as a central mediator of lupus pathogenesis, suggesting that PKCβ represents a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus. Moreover, the results indicate the feasibility of using a PKCβ inhibitor for the treatment of lupus. PMID:23280626

  3. NADPH oxidase gp91phox contributes to RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation by upregulating NFATc1

    PubMed Central

    Kang, In Soon; Kim, Chaekyun

    2016-01-01

    Bone-marrow derived monocyte-macrophages (BMMs) differentiate into osteoclasts by M-CSF along subsequent RANKL stimulation possibly in collaboration with many other unknown cytokines released by pre- or mature osteoblasts. The differentiation process requires receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL)/RANK signaling and reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as superoxide anion (O2•−). Gp91phox, a plasma membrane subunit of NADPH oxidase (Nox), is constitutively expressed in BMMs and plays a major role in superoxide anion production. In this study, we found that mice deficient in gp91phox (gp91phox−/−) showed defects in osteoclast differentiation. Femurs of these mice produced osteoclasts at about 70% of the levels seen in femurs from wild-type mice, and accordingly exhibited excessive bone density. This abnormal bone growth in the femurs of gp91phox−/− mice resulted from impaired osteoclast differentiation. In addition, gp91phox−/− mice were defective for RANKL-induced expression of nuclear factor of activated T cells c1 (NFATc1). However, H2O2 treatment compensated for gp91phox deficiency in BMMs, almost completely rescuing osteoclast differentiation. Treating wild-type BMMs with antioxidants and superoxide inhibitors resulted in a differentiation defect resembling the phenotype of gp91phox−/− BMMs. Therefore, our results demonstrate that gp91phox-derived superoxide is important for promoting efficient osteoclast differentiation by inducing NFATc1 as a downstream signaling mediator of RANK. PMID:27897222

  4. The Brucella abortus Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase is required for optimal resistance to oxidative killing by murine macrophages and wild-type virulence in experimentally infected mice.

    PubMed

    Gee, Jason M; Valderas, Michelle Wright; Kovach, Michael E; Grippe, Vanessa K; Robertson, Gregory T; Ng, Wai-Leung; Richardson, John M; Winkler, Malcolm E; Roop, R Martin

    2005-05-01

    Two-dimensional gel electrophoretic analysis of cell lysates from Brucella abortus 2308 and the isogenic hfq mutant Hfq3 revealed that the RNA binding protein Hfq (also known as host factor I or HF-I) is required for the optimal stationary phase production of the periplasmic Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase SodC. An isogenic sodC mutant, designated MEK2, was constructed from B. abortus 2308 by gene replacement, and the sodC mutant exhibited much greater susceptibility to killing by O(2)(-) generated by pyrogallol and the xanthine oxidase reaction than the parental 2308 strain supporting a role for SodC in protecting this bacterium from O(2)(-) of exogenous origin. The B. abortus sodC mutant was also found to be much more sensitive to killing by cultured resident peritoneal macrophages from C57BL6J mice than 2308, and the attenuation displayed by MEK2 in cultured murine macrophages was enhanced when these phagocytes were treated with gamma interferon (IFN-gamma). The attenuation displayed by the B. abortus sodC mutant in both resting and IFN-gamma-activated macrophages was alleviated, however, when these host cells were treated with the NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin. Consistent with its increased susceptibility to killing by cultured murine macrophages, the B. abortus sodC mutant also displayed significant attenuation in experimentally infected C57BL6J mice compared to the parental strain. These experimental findings indicate that SodC protects B. abortus 2308 from the respiratory burst of host macrophages. They also suggest that reduced SodC levels may contribute to the attenuation displayed by the B. abortus hfq mutant Hfq3 in the mouse model.

  5. Glucose regulates enzymatic sources of mitochondrial NADPH in skeletal muscle cells; a novel role for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Mailloux, Ryan J; Harper, Mary-Ellen

    2010-07-01

    Reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADPH) is a functionally important metabolite required to support numerous cellular processes. However, despite the identification of numerous NADPH-producing enzymes, the mechanisms underlying how the organellar pools of NADPH are maintained remain elusive. Here, we have identified glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) as an important source of NADPH in mitochondria. Activity analysis, submitochondrial fractionation, fluorescence microscopy, and protease sensitivity assays revealed that G6PDH is localized to the mitochondrial matrix. 6-ANAM, a specific G6PDH inhibitor, depleted mitochondrial NADPH pools and increased oxidative stress revealing the importance of G6PDH in NADPH maintenance. We also show that glucose availability and differences in metabolic state modulate the enzymatic sources of NADPH in mitochondria. Indeed, cells cultured in high glucose (HG) not only adopted a glycolytic phenotype but also relied heavily on matrix-associated G6PDH as a source of NADPH. In contrast, cells exposed to low-glucose (LG) concentrations, which displayed increased oxygen consumption, mitochondrial metabolic efficiency, and decreased glycolysis, relied predominantly on isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH) as the principal NADPH-producing enzyme in the mitochondria. Culturing glycolytic cells in LG for 48 h decreased G6PDH and increased ICDH protein levels in the mitochondria, further pointing to the regulatory role of glucose. 2-Deoxyglucose treatment also prevented the increase of mitochondrial G6PDH in response to HG. The role of glucose in regulating enzymatic sources of mitochondrial NADPH pool maintenance was confirmed using human myotubes from obese adults with a history of type 2 diabetes mellitus (post-T2DM). Myotubes from post-T2DM participants failed to increase mitochondrial G6PDH in response to HG in contrast to mitochondria in myotubes from control participants (non-T2DM). Hence, we not only identified a matrix

  6. The Ca2+-Regulation of the Mitochondrial External NADPH Dehydrogenase in Plants Is Controlled by Cytosolic pH.

    PubMed

    Hao, Meng-Shu; Jensen, Anna M; Boquist, Ann-Sofie; Liu, Yun-Jun; Rasmusson, Allan G

    2015-01-01

    NADPH is a key reductant carrier that maintains internal redox and antioxidant status, and that links biosynthetic, catabolic and signalling pathways. Plants have a mitochondrial external NADPH oxidation pathway, which depends on Ca2+ and pH in vitro, but concentrations of Ca2+ needed are not known. We have determined the K0.5(Ca2+) of the external NADPH dehydrogenase from Solanum tuberosum mitochondria and membranes of E. coli expressing Arabidopsis thaliana NDB1 over the physiological pH range using O2 and decylubiquinone as electron acceptors. The K0.5(Ca2+) of NADPH oxidation was generally higher than for NADH oxidation, and unlike the latter, it depended on pH. At pH 7.5, K0.5(Ca2+) for NADPH oxidation was high (≈100 μM), yet 20-fold lower K0.5(Ca2+) values were determined at pH 6.8. Lower K0.5(Ca2+) values were observed with decylubiquinone than with O2 as terminal electron acceptor. NADPH oxidation responded to changes in Ca2+ concentrations more rapidly than NADH oxidation did. Thus, cytosolic acidification is an important activator of external NADPH oxidation, by decreasing the Ca2+-requirements for NDB1. The results are discussed in relation to the present knowledge on how whole cell NADPH redox homeostasis is affected in plants modified for the NDB1 gene.

  7. The Ca2+-Regulation of the Mitochondrial External NADPH Dehydrogenase in Plants Is Controlled by Cytosolic pH

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Meng-Shu; Jensen, Anna M.; Boquist, Ann-Sofie; Liu, Yun-Jun; Rasmusson, Allan G.

    2015-01-01

    NADPH is a key reductant carrier that maintains internal redox and antioxidant status, and that links biosynthetic, catabolic and signalling pathways. Plants have a mitochondrial external NADPH oxidation pathway, which depends on Ca2+ and pH in vitro, but concentrations of Ca2+ needed are not known. We have determined the K0.5(Ca2+) of the external NADPH dehydrogenase from Solanum tuberosum mitochondria and membranes of E. coli expressing Arabidopsis thaliana NDB1 over the physiological pH range using O2 and decylubiquinone as electron acceptors. The K0.5(Ca2+) of NADPH oxidation was generally higher than for NADH oxidation, and unlike the latter, it depended on pH. At pH 7.5, K0.5(Ca2+) for NADPH oxidation was high (≈100 μM), yet 20-fold lower K0.5(Ca2+) values were determined at pH 6.8. Lower K0.5(Ca2+) values were observed with decylubiquinone than with O2 as terminal electron acceptor. NADPH oxidation responded to changes in Ca2+ concentrations more rapidly than NADH oxidation did. Thus, cytosolic acidification is an important activator of external NADPH oxidation, by decreasing the Ca2+-requirements for NDB1. The results are discussed in relation to the present knowledge on how whole cell NADPH redox homeostasis is affected in plants modified for the NDB1 gene. PMID:26413894

  8. Vascular Wall ACE is not required for Atherogenesis in ApoE-/- mice

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Daiana; Bernstein, Kenneth E.; Fuchs, Sebastian; Adams, Jonathan; Synetos, Andreas; Taylor, W. Robert

    2009-01-01

    Background It has been proposed that elements of the renin angiotensin system expressed in the arterial wall are critical for the development of atherosclerosis. Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) is highly expressed by the endothelium and is responsible for a critical enzymatic step in the generation of angiotensin II. However, the functional contribution of ACE expression in the vascular wall in atherogenesis is unknown. Therefore, we made use of unique genetic models in which mice without expression of ACE in the vascular wall were crossed with apoE-/- mice in order to determine the contribution of tissue ACE expression to atherosclerotic lesion formation. Methods and Results Mice expressing either a soluble form of ACE (ACE 2/2) or mice with somatic ACE expression restricted to the liver and kidney (ACE 3/3) on an ApoE-/- background were placed on a standard chow or Western diet for 6 months. Atherosclerotic lesion area in the ACE 2/2 mice was significantly lower than that seen in the ACE 3/3 mice. However, these animals also had significantly lower blood pressure and reduced plasma ACE activity which precluded establishing a specific causal relationship between absent tissue ACE activity and decreased atherosclerotic lesion extent. Therefore, we studied the ACE 3/3 mice which are normotensive and lack vascular ACE expression. In the ACE 3/3 animals, atherosclerotic lesion area was no different from wild type controls despite reduced plasma ACE activity. Conclusions We concluded that under these experimental conditions, expression of ACE in the arterial wall is not required for atherosclerotic lesion formation. PMID:19880118

  9. Urotensin II Inhibits Skeletal Muscle Glucose Transport Signaling Pathways via the NADPH Oxidase Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hong-Xia; Wu, Xin-Rui; Yang, Hui; Yin, Chun-Lin; Shi, Li-Jin; Wang, Xue-Jiang

    2013-01-01

    Our previous studies have demonstrated that the urotensin (UII) and its receptor are up-regulated in the skeletal muscle of mice with type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM), but the significance of UII in skeletal muscle insulin resistance remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of UII on NADPH oxidase and glucose transport signaling pathways in the skeletal muscle of mice with T2DM and in C2C12 mouse myotube cells. KK/upj-AY/J mice (KK) mice were divided into the following groups: KK group, with saline treatment for 2 weeks; KK+ urantide group, with daily 30 µg/kg body weight injections over the same time period of urantide, a potent urotensin II antagonist peptide; Non-diabetic C57BL/6J mice were used as normal controls. After urantide treatment, mice were subjected to an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test, in addition to measurements of the levels of ROS, NADPH oxidase and the phosphorylated AKT, PKC and ERK. C2C12 cells were incubated with serum-free DMEM for 24 hours before conducting the experiments, and then administrated with 100 nM UII for 2 hours or 24 hours. Urantide treatment improved glucose tolerance, decreased the translocation of the NADPH subunits p40-phox and p47-phox, and increased levels of the phosphorylated PKC, AKT and ERK. In contrast, UII treatment increased ROS production and p47-phox and p67-phox translocation, and decreased the phosphorylated AKT, ERK1/2 and p38MAPK; Apocynin abrogated this effect. In conclusion, UII increased ROS production by NADPH oxidase, leading to the inhibition of signaling pathways involving glucose transport, such as AKT/PKC/ERK. Our data imply a role for UII at the molecular level in glucose homeostasis, and possibly in skeletal muscle insulin resistance in T2DM. PMID:24116164

  10. NADPH Oxidase 4 is required for interleukin-1β-mediated activation of protein kinase Cδ and downstream activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase signaling in smooth muscle

    PubMed Central

    Ginnan, Roman; Jourd’heuil, Frances L.; Guikema, Benjamin; Simons, Malorie; Singer, Harold A.; Jourd’heuil, David

    2012-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated in the vascular wall upon stimulation by pro-inflammatory cytokines and are important mediators of diverse cellular responses that occur as a result of vascular injury. Member of the NADPH oxidase (NOX) family of proteins have been identified in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSM) as important sources of ROS. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that NOX4 is a proximal mediator of IL-1β-dependent activation of PKCδ and increases IL-1β stimulated c-Jun kinase (JNK) signaling in primary rat aortic VSM cells. We found that stimulation of VSM cells with IL-1β increased PKCδ activity and intracellular ROS generation. SiRNA silencing of NOX4 but not NOX1 ablated the IL-1β-dependent increase in ROS production. Pharmacological inhibition of PKCδ activity as well as siRNA depletion of PKCδ or NOX4 blocked the IL-1β-dependent activation of JNK. Further studies showed that the IL-1β-dependent upregulation of iNOS expression was inhibited through JNK inhibition and NOX4 silencing. Taken together, these results indicate that IL-1β-dependent activation of PKCδ is modulated by NOX4-derived ROS. Our study positions PKCδ as an important redox sensitive mediator of IL-1β-dependent signaling and downstream activation of inflammatory mediators in VSM cells. PMID:23022406

  11. Runx2 Expression in Smooth Muscle Cells Is Required for Arterial Medial Calcification in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Mu-En; Chen, Theodore; Leaf, Elizabeth M.; Speer, Mei Y.; Giachelli, Cecilia M.

    2016-01-01

    Arterial medial calcification (AMC) is a hallmark of aging, diabetes, and chronic kidney disease. Smooth muscle cell (SMC) transition to an osteogenic phenotype is a common feature of AMC, and is preceded by expression of runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), a master regulator of bone development. Whether SMC-specific Runx2 expression is required for osteogenic phenotype change and AMC remains unknown. We therefore created an improved targeting construct to generate mice with floxed Runx2 alleles (Runx2f/f) that do not produce truncated Runx2 proteins after Cre recombination, thereby preventing potential off-target effects. SMC-specific deletion using SM22–recombinase transgenic allele mice (Runx2ΔSM) led to viable mice with normal bone and arterial morphology. After vitamin D overload, arterial SMCs in Runx2f/f mice expressed Runx2, underwent osteogenic phenotype change, and developed severe AMC. In contrast, vitamin D–treated Runx2ΔSM mice had no Runx2 in blood vessels, maintained SMC phenotype, and did not develop AMC. Runx2 deletion did not affect serum calcium, phosphate, fibroblast growth factor-23, or alkaline phosphatase levels. In vitro, Runx2f/f SMCs calcified to a much greater extent than those derived from Runx2ΔSM mice. These data indicate a critical role of Runx2 in SMC osteogenic phenotype change and mineral deposition in a mouse model of AMC, suggesting that Runx2 and downstream osteogenic pathways in SMCs may be useful therapeutic targets for treating or preventing AMC in high-risk patients. PMID:25987250

  12. Comparative study of the tissue distribution of NADH and NADPH-dependent chloral hydrate reducing enzymes in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Ogino, Keiki; Hobara, Tatsuya; Kobayashi, Haruo; Iwamoto, Susumu )

    1990-03-01

    Chloral hydrate (CH), an intermediate metabolite of trichloroethylene, is reduced to trichloroethanol (TCE) by alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde reductase. Alcohol dehydrogenase requires reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH), and aldehyde reductase requires reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH). No reports have appeared concerning comparative studies of the tissue distribution of CH-reducing enzymes. In this report, NADH and NADPH-dependent CH-reducing activities were investigated in various organs of the rat.

  13. Exploiting algal NADPH oxidase for biophotovoltaic energy.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Alexander; Laohavisit, Anuphon; Blaby, Ian K; Bombelli, Paolo; Howe, Christopher J; Merchant, Sabeeha S; Davies, Julia M; Smith, Alison G

    2016-01-01

    Photosynthetic microbes exhibit light-dependent electron export across the cell membrane, which can generate electricity in biological photovoltaic (BPV) devices. How electrons are exported remains to be determined; the identification of mechanisms would help selection or generation of photosynthetic microbes capable of enhanced electrical output. We show that plasma membrane NADPH oxidase activity is a significant component of light-dependent generation of electricity by the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. NADPH oxidases export electrons across the plasma membrane to form superoxide anion from oxygen. The C. reinhardtii mutant lacking the NADPH oxidase encoded by RBO1 is impaired in both extracellular superoxide anion production and current generation in a BPV device. Complementation with the wild-type gene restores both capacities, demonstrating the role of the enzyme in electron export. Monitoring light-dependent extracellular superoxide production with a colorimetric assay is shown to be an effective way of screening for electrogenic potential of candidate algal strains. The results show that algal NADPH oxidases are important for superoxide anion production and open avenues for optimizing the biological component of these devices.

  14. PLATELET-ASSOCIATED NAD(P)H OXIDASE CONTRIBUTES TO THE THROMBOGENIC PHENOTYPE INDUCED BY HYPERCHOLESTEROLEMIA

    PubMed Central

    Stokes, Karen Y.; Russell, Janice M.; Jennings, Merilyn H.; Alexander, J. Steven; Granger., D. Neil

    2007-01-01

    Elevated cholesterol levels promote pro-inflammatory and prothrombogenic responses in venules and impaired endothelium-dependent arteriolar dilation. Although NAD(P)H oxidase-derived superoxide has been implicated in the altered vascular responses to hypercholesterolemia, it remains unclear whether this oxidative pathway mediates the associated arteriolar dysfunction and platelet adhesion in venules. Platelet and leukocyte adhesion in cremasteric postcapillary venules, and arteriolar dilation responses to acetylcholine were monitored in wild-type (WT), Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase transgenic (SOD-TgN) and NAD(P)H oxidase-knockout (gp91phox-/-) mice placed on normal (ND) or high cholesterol (HC) diet for 2 wk. HC elicited increased platelet and leukocyte adhesion in WT mice, versus ND. Cytosolic subunits of NAD(P)H oxidase (p47phox and p67phox) were expressed in platelets. This was not altered by hypercholesterolemia, however platelets and leukocytes from HC mice exhibited elevated generation of reactive oxygen species when compared to ND mice. Hypercholesterolemia-induced leukocyte recruitment was attenuated in SOD-TgN-HC and gp91phox-/--HC mice. Recruitment of platelets derived from WT-HC mice in venules of SOD-TgN-HC or gp91phox-/--HC recipients was comparable to ND levels. Adhesion of SOD-TgN-HC platelets paralleled the leukocyte response and was attenuated in SOD-TgN-HC recipients, but not in WT-HC recipients. However, gp91phox-/--HC platelets exhibited low levels of adhesion comparable to WT-ND in both hypercholesterolemic gp91phox-/- and WT recipients. Arteriolar dysfunction was evident in WT-HC mice, compared to WT-ND. Overexpression of SOD or, to a lesser extent, gp91phox deficiency, restored arteriolar vasorelaxation responses towards WT-ND levels. These findings reveal a novel role for platelet-associated NAD(P)H oxidase in producing the thrombogenic phenotype in hypercholesterolemia and demonstrate that NAD(P)H oxidase-derived superoxide mediates the HC

  15. Functional requirement of CCN2 for intramembranous bone formation in embryonic mice

    PubMed Central

    Kawaki, Harumi; Kubota, Satoshi; Suzuki, Akiko; Yamada, Tomohiro; Matsumura, Tatsushi; Mandai, Toshiko; Yao, Mayumi; Maeda, Takeyasu; Lyons, Karen M.; Takigawa, Masaharu

    2009-01-01

    CCN2 is best known as a promoter of chondrocyte differentiation among the CCN family members, and Ccn2 null mutant mice display skeletal dysmorphisms. However, little is known concerning the roles of CCN2 during bone formation. We herein present a comparative analysis of wild-type and Ccn2 null mice to investigate the roles of CCN2 in bone development. Multiple histochemical methods were employed to analyze the effects of CCN2 deletion in vivo, and effects of CCN2 on the osteogenic response were evaluated with the isolated and cultured osteoblasts. As a result, we found a drastic reduction of the osteoblastic phenotype in Ccn2 null mutants. Importantly, addition of exogenous CCN2 promoted every step of osteoblast differentiation and rescued the attenuated activities of the Ccn2 null osteoblasts. These results suggest that CCN2 is required not only for the regulation of cartilage and subsequent events, but also for the normal intramembranous bone development. PMID:18067859

  16. Brain cholesterol turnover required for geranylgeraniol production and learning in mice.

    PubMed

    Kotti, Tiina J; Ramirez, Denise M O; Pfeiffer, Brad E; Huber, Kimberly M; Russell, David W

    2006-03-07

    The mevalonate pathway produces cholesterol and nonsterol isoprenoids, such as geranylgeraniol. In the brain, a fraction of cholesterol is metabolized in neurons by the enzyme cholesterol 24-hydroxylase, and this depletion activates the mevalonate pathway. Brains from mice lacking 24-hydroxylase excrete cholesterol more slowly, and the tissue compensates by suppressing the mevalonate pathway. Here we report that this suppression causes a defect in learning. 24-Hydroxylase knockout mice exhibit severe deficiencies in spatial, associative, and motor learning, and in hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP). Acute treatment of wild-type hippocampal slices with an inhibitor of the mevalonate pathway (a statin) also impairs LTP. The effects of statin treatment and genetic elimination of 24-hydroxylase on LTP are reversed by a 20-min treatment with geranylgeraniol but not by cholesterol. We conclude that cholesterol turnover in brain activates the mevalonate pathway and that a constant production of geranylgeraniol in a small subset of neurons is required for LTP and learning.

  17. Study on cellular events in post-thymectomy autoimmune oophoritis in mice. II. Requirement of Lyt-1 cells in normal female mice for the prevention of oophoritis

    SciTech Connect

    Sakaguchi, S.; Takahashi, T.; Nishizuka, Y.

    1982-12-01

    Autoimmune oophoritis that develops in A/J mice after neonatally thymectomy (NTx) was prevented by a single intraperitoneal injection of spleen cells or thymocytes from normal adult female mice. Prevention of oophoritis was achieved when spleen cells were given within 2 wk after Tx. When spleen cells were obtained from neonatally oophorectomized mice, four times more cells were required for the prevention of oophoritis, but those from the mice oophorectomized on day 7 after birth had equivalent capacity to prevent oophoritis to those from normal female mice. The spleen cells from normal A/J mice that prevented the development of oophoritis in NTx A/J mice were Thy-1+, Lyt-1+,23-, Ia-, Qa-1-, sensitive to in vitro irradiation with 400 rad, resistant to administration of cyclophosphamide or anti-thymocyte serum, and were not eliminated by adult thymectomy. Thymocytes with oophoritis-preventing capacity were also found to be Lyt-1+,23- and TL-1,2,3-. These results seem to correlate well with the finding that the Lyt-1 subpopulation is substantially decreased in NTx mice. The results suggest that, in this post-thymectomy autoimmune oophoritis, NTx abrogates the Lyt-1 T cell subpopulation that serves as suppressive or regulatory cells over developing self-reactive cells directed toward ovarian antigens, and eventually may cause autoimmune oophoritis.

  18. Neither the SCN nor the adrenals are required for circadian time-place learning in mice

    PubMed Central

    Papantoniou, Christos; Gerkema, Menno P.; Van Der Zee, Eddy A.

    2014-01-01

    During Time-Place Learning (TPL), animals link biological significant events (e.g. encountering predators, food, mates) with the location and time of occurrence in the environment. This allows animals to anticipate which locations to visit or avoid based on previous experience and knowledge of the current time of day. The TPL task applied in this study consists of three daily sessions in a three-arm maze, with a food reward at the end of each arm. During each session, mice should avoid one specific arm to avoid a foot-shock. We previously demonstrated that, rather than using external cue-based strategies, mice use an internal clock (circadian strategy) for TPL, referred to as circadian TPL (cTPL). It is unknown in which brain region(s) or peripheral organ(s) the consulted clock underlying cTPL resides. Three candidates were examined in this study: (a) the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), a light entrainable oscillator (LEO) and considered the master circadian clock in the brain, (b) the food entrainable oscillator (FEO), entrained by restricted food availability, and (c) the adrenal glands, harboring an important peripheral oscillator. cTPL performance should be affected if the underlying oscillator system is abruptly phase-shifted. Therefore, we first investigated cTPL sensitivity to abrupt light and food shifts. Next we investigated cTPL in SCN-lesioned- and adrenalectomized mice. Abrupt FEO phase-shifts (induced by advancing and delaying feeding time) affected TPL performance in specific test sessions while a LEO phase-shift (induced by a light pulse) more severely affected TPL performance in all three daily test sessions. SCN-lesioned mice showed no TPL deficiencies compared to SHAM-lesioned mice. Moreover, both SHAM- and SCN-lesioned mice showed unaffected cTPL performance when re-tested after bilateral adrenalectomy. We conclude that, although cTPL is sensitive to timing manipulations with light as well as food, neither the SCN nor the adrenals are required for

  19. Role of NADPH oxidases and reactive oxygen species in regulation of bone turnover and the skeletal toxicity of alcohol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent studies with genetically modified mice and dietary antioxidants have suggested an important role for superoxide derived from NADPH oxidase (NOX) enzymes and other reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as hydrogen peroxide in regulation of normal bone turnover during development and also in the r...

  20. Recombinant expression and biochemical characterization of an NADPH:flavin oxidoreductase from Entamoeba histolytica.

    PubMed Central

    Bruchhaus, I; Richter, S; Tannich, E

    1998-01-01

    The gene encoding a putative NADPH:flavin oxidoreductase of the protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica (Eh34) was recombinantly expressed in Escherichia coli. The purified recombinant protein (recEh34) has a molecular mass of about 35 kDa upon SDS/PAGE analysis, exhibits a flavoprotein-like absorption spectrum and contains 1 mol of non-covalently bound FMN per mol of protein. RecEh34 reveals two different enzymic activities. It catalyses the NADPH-dependent reduction of oxygen to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), as well as of disulphides such as 5,5'-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid) (DTNB) and cystine. The disulphide reductase but not the H2O2-forming NADPH oxidase activity is inhibitable by sulphydryl-active compounds, indicating that a thiol component is part of the active site for the disulphide reductase activity, whereas for the H2O2-forming NADPH oxidase activity only the flavin is required. Compared with the recombinant protein, similar activities are present in amoebic extracts. Native Eh34 is active in a monomeric as well as in a dimeric state. In contrast to recEh34, no flavin was associated with the native protein. However, both NADPH oxidase as well as DTNB reductase activity were found to be dependent on the addition of FAD or FMN. PMID:9494088

  1. Use of NAD(P)H and Flavoprotein Autofluorescence Transients to Probe Neuron and Astrocyte Responses to Synaptic Activation

    PubMed Central

    Shuttleworth, C. William

    2010-01-01

    Synaptic stimulation in brain slices is accompanied by changes in tissue autofluorescence, which are a consequence of changes in tissue metabolism. Autofluorescence excited by ultraviolet light has been most extensively studied, and is due to reduced pyridine nucleotides (NADH and NADPH, collectively termed NAD(P)H). Stimulation generates a characteristic compound NAD(P)H response, comprising an initial fluorescence decrease and then an overshooting increase that slowly recovers to baseline levels. Evoked NAD(P)H transients are relatively easy to record, do not require the addition of exogenous indicators and have good signal-noise ratios. These characteristics make NAD(P)H imaging methods very useful for tracking the spread of neuronal activity in complex brain tissues, however the cellular basis of synaptically-evoked autofluorescence transients has been the subject of recent debate. Of particular importance is the question of whether signals are due primarily to changes in neuronal mitochondrial function, and/or whether astrocyte metabolism triggered by glutamate uptake may be a significant contributor to the overshooting NAD(P)H fluorescence increases. This mini-review addresses the subcellular origins of NAD(P)H autofluorescence and the evidence for mitochondrial and glycolytic contributions to compound transients. It is concluded that there is no direct evidence for a contribution to NAD(P)H signals from glycolysis in astrocytes following synaptic glutamate uptake. In contrast, multiple lines of evidence, including from complimentary flavoprotein autofluorescence signals, imply that mitochondrial NADH dynamics in neurons dominate compound evoked NAD(P)H transients. These signals are thus appropriate for studies of mitochondrial function and dysfunction in brain slices, in addition to providing robust maps of postsynaptic neuronal activation following physiological activation. PMID:20036704

  2. NFAT is required for spontaneous pulmonary hypertension in superoxide dismutase 1 knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Ramiro-Diaz, Juan Manuel; Nitta, Carlos H.; Maston, Levi D.; Codianni, Simon; Giermakowska, Wieslawa; Resta, Thomas C.

    2013-01-01

    Elevated reactive oxygen species are implicated in pulmonary hypertension (PH). Superoxide dismutase (SOD) limits superoxide bioavailability, and decreased SOD activity is associated with PH. A decrease in SOD activity is expected to increase superoxide and reduce hydrogen peroxide levels. Such an imbalance of superoxide/hydrogen peroxide has been implicated as a mediator of nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) activation in epidermal cells. We have shown that NFATc3 is required for chronic hypoxia-induced PH. However, it is unknown whether NFATc3 is activated in the pulmonary circulation in a mouse model of decreased SOD1 activity and whether this leads to PH. Therefore, we hypothesized that an elevated pulmonary arterial superoxide/hydrogen peroxide ratio activates NFATc3, leading to PH. We found that SOD1 knockout (KO) mice have elevated pulmonary arterial wall superoxide and decreased hydrogen peroxide levels compared with wild-type (WT) littermates. Right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP) was elevated in SOD1 KO and was associated with pulmonary arterial remodeling. Vasoreactivity to endothelin-1 was also greater in SOD1 KO vs. WT mice. NFAT activity and NFATc3 nuclear localization were increased in pulmonary arteries from SOD1 KO vs. WT mice. Administration of A-285222 (selective NFAT inhibitor) decreased RVSP, arterial wall thickness, vasoreactivity, and NFAT activity in SOD1 KO mice to WT levels. The SOD mimetic, tempol, also reduced NFAT activity, NFATc3 nuclear localization, and RVSP to WT levels. These findings suggest that an elevated superoxide/hydrogen peroxide ratio activates NFAT in pulmonary arteries, which induces vascular remodeling and increases vascular reactivity leading to PH. PMID:23475768

  3. C-6 proton of tetrahydrobiopterin is acquired from water, not NADPH, during de novo biosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, G.K.; Cichetti, J.A.; Chandrasurin, P.; Nichol, C.A.

    1985-05-10

    Tetrahydrobiopterin, the cofactor for the aromatic amino acid hydroxylases, is synthesized in mammals from GTP via a pathway involving both dihydropterin and tetrahydropterin intermediates. In this work, the authors have investigated the mechanism of conversion of the product formed from GTP, 7,8-dihydroneopterin triphosphate, into the tetrahydropterin intermediates. Tetrahydrobiopterin can be oxidized under conditions which yield pterin or pterin 6-carboxylate without exchange of the C-6 and C-7 protons. Using these techniques, a gas chromatography/mass spectrometry method was developed to determine that in the biosynthesis of tetrahydrobiopterin de novo, in preparations of bovine adrenal medulla, the C-6 proton of tetrahydrobiopterin is derived from water and not from NADPH. In contrast, the C-6 proton of tetrahydrobiopterin produced from sepiapterin (6-lactoyl-7,8-dihydropterin) comes from NADPH. The results are consistent with evidence for the formation of the first tetrahydropterin intermediate by a tautomerization without any requirement for NADPH.

  4. Natural Compounds as Modulators of NADPH Oxidases

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are cellular signals generated ubiquitously by all mammalian cells, but their relative unbalance triggers also diseases through intracellular damage to DNA, RNA, proteins, and lipids. NADPH oxidases (NOX) are the only known enzyme family with the sole function to produce ROS. The NOX physiological functions concern host defence, cellular signaling, regulation of gene expression, and cell differentiation. On the other hand, increased NOX activity contributes to a wide range of pathological processes, including cardiovascular diseases, neurodegeneration, organ failure, and cancer. Therefore targeting these enzymatic ROS sources by natural compounds, without affecting the physiological redox state, may be an important tool. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge of the role of NOX enzymes in physiology and pathology and provides an overview of the currently available NADPH oxidase inhibitors derived from natural extracts such as polyphenols. PMID:24381714

  5. Substance P Exacerbates Dopaminergic Neurodegeneration through Neurokinin-1 Receptor-Independent Activation of Microglial NADPH Oxidase

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Chun-Hsien; Qian, Li; Chen, Shih-Heng; Wilson, Belinda; Oyarzabal, Esteban; Jiang, Lulu; Ali, Syed; Robinson, Bonnie; Kim, Hyoung-Chun

    2014-01-01

    Although dysregulated substance P (SP) has been implicated in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease (PD), how SP affects the survival of dopaminergic neurons remains unclear. Here, we found that mice lacking endogenous SP (TAC1−/−), but not those deficient in the SP receptor (neurokinin-1 receptor, NK1R), were more resistant to lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced nigral dopaminergic neurodegeneration than wild-type controls, suggesting a NK1R-independent toxic action of SP. In vitro dose–response studies revealed that exogenous SP enhanced LPS- and 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+)-induced dopaminergic neurodegeneration in a bimodal manner, peaking at submicromolar and subpicomolar concentrations, but was substantially less effective at intermediate concentrations. Mechanistically, the actions of submicromolar levels of SP were NK1R-dependent, whereas subpicomolar SP-elicited actions required microglial NADPH oxidase (NOX2), the key superoxide-producing enzyme, but not NK1R. Subpicomolar concentrations of SP activated NOX2 by binding to the catalytic subunit gp91phox and inducing membrane translocation of the cytosolic subunits p47phox and p67phox. The importance of NOX2 was further corroborated by showing that inhibition or disruption of NOX2 blocked subpicomolar SP-exacerbated neurotoxicity. Together, our findings revealed a critical role of microglial NOX2 in mediating the neuroinflammatory and dopaminergic neurodegenerative effects of SP, which may provide new insights into the pathogenesis of PD. PMID:25209287

  6. Bacillus Calmette-Guerin Infection in NADPH Oxidase Deficiency: Defective Mycobacterial Sequestration and Granuloma Formation

    PubMed Central

    Deffert, Christine; Schäppi, Michela G.; Pache, Jean-Claude; Cachat, Julien; Vesin, Dominique; Bisig, Ruth; Ma Mulone, Xiaojuan; Kelkka, Tiina; Holmdahl, Rikard

    2014-01-01

    Patients with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) lack generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) through the phagocyte NADPH oxidase NOX2. CGD is an immune deficiency that leads to frequent infections with certain pathogens; this is well documented for S. aureus and A. fumigatus, but less clear for mycobacteria. We therefore performed an extensive literature search which yielded 297 cases of CGD patients with mycobacterial infections; M. bovis BCG was most commonly described (74%). The relationship between NOX2 deficiency and BCG infection however has never been studied in a mouse model. We therefore investigated BCG infection in three different mouse models of CGD: Ncf1 mutants in two different genetic backgrounds and Cybb knock-out mice. In addition, we investigated a macrophage-specific rescue (transgenic expression of Ncf1 under the control of the CD68 promoter). Wild-type mice did not develop severe disease upon BCG injection. In contrast, all three types of CGD mice were highly susceptible to BCG, as witnessed by a severe weight loss, development of hemorrhagic pneumonia, and a high mortality (∼50%). Rescue of NOX2 activity in macrophages restored BCG resistance, similar as seen in wild-type mice. Granulomas from mycobacteria-infected wild-type mice generated ROS, while granulomas from CGD mice did not. Bacterial load in CGD mice was only moderately increased, suggesting that it was not crucial for the observed phenotype. CGD mice responded with massively enhanced cytokine release (TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-17 and IL-12) early after BCG infection, which might account for severity of the disease. Finally, in wild-type mice, macrophages formed clusters and restricted mycobacteria to granulomas, while macrophages and mycobacteria were diffusely distributed in lung tissue from CGD mice. Our results demonstrate that lack of the NADPH oxidase leads to a markedly increased severity of BCG infection through mechanisms including increased cytokine production and impaired

  7. Redox-mediated signal transduction by cardiovascular Nox NADPH oxidases.

    PubMed

    Brandes, Ralf P; Weissmann, Norbert; Schröder, Katrin

    2014-08-01

    The only known function of the Nox family of NADPH oxidases is the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Some Nox enzymes show high tissue-specific expression and the ROS locally produced are required for synthesis of hormones or tissue components. In the cardiovascular system, Nox enzymes are low abundant and function as redox-modulators. By reacting with thiols, nitric oxide (NO) or trace metals, Nox-derived ROS elicit a plethora of cellular responses required for physiological growth factor signaling and the induction and adaptation to pathological processes. The interactions of Nox-derived ROS with signaling elements in the cardiovascular system are highly diverse and will be detailed in this article, which is part of a Special Issue entitled "Redox Signalling in the Cardiovascular System".

  8. NADPH diaphorase-positive neurons in the lizard hippocampus: a distinct subpopulation of GABAergic interneurons.

    PubMed

    Dávila, J C; Megías, M; Andreu, M J; Real, M A; Guirado, S

    1995-01-01

    We analyzed the distribution and light-microscopic features of the NADPH diaphorase-containing structures in the lizard hippocampus, likely to correspond to nitric oxide synthase-containing cells and fibers, and thus likely to release nitric oxide. We also studied co-localization of NADPH diaphorase with the neurotransmitter GABA, the calcium-binding protein parvalbumin, and the neuropeptide somatostatin, in order to examine whether putative nitric oxide-synthesizing neurons represent a different subpopulation of GABA cells, on which the authors recently reported in lizards. We also studied co-localization of NADPH diaphorase with parvalbumin or somatostatin in mice to ascertain whether the characteristics of this population in reptiles parallel the situation in mammals. Most of the positive NADPH diaphorase neurons were stained in a Golgi-like manner and were in the plexiform layers of the lizard hippocampus with morphologies ranging from bipolar to multipolar. Co-localization with GABA was 100%, and NADPH diaphorase-positive neurons in the lizard hippocampus did not contain parvalbumin or somatostatin. The results indicate that putative nitric oxide-synthesizing neurons represent a distinct subpopulation of GABA interneurons in the lizard hippocampus. Two different types of fibers were described in the plexiform layers: one type bearing thick varicosities, and the other thinner ones. We discuss the possibility that at least part of the positive fibers arise from a hypothalamic aminergic nucleus contacting the third ventricle, the periventricular hypothalamic organ. Most radial glia were stained almost completely and formed typical end-feet both at the pia and around capillaries. The results of this study confirm that the capacity for synthesizing nitric oxide is linked to a determined set of neuronal markers depending on the specific brain region, and they provide new resemblances between hippocampal regions in different classes of vertebrates.

  9. The type VI secretion system gene cluster of Salmonella typhimurium: required for full virulence in mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ji; Guo, Ji-Tao; Li, Yong-Guo; Johnston, Randal N; Liu, Gui-Rong; Liu, Shu-Lin

    2013-07-01

    Type VI secretion system (T6SS) has increasingly been believed to participate in the infection process for many bacterial pathogens, but its role in the virulence of Salmonella typhimurium remains unclear. To look into this, we deleted the T6SS cluster from the genome of S. typhimurium 14028s and analyzed the phenotype of the resulting T6SS knockout mutant (T6SSKO mutant) in vitro and in vivo. We found that the T6SSKO mutant exhibited reduced capability in colonizing the spleen and liver in an in vivo colonization competition model in BALB/c mice infected by the oral route. Additionally, infection via intraperitoneal administration also showed that the T6SSKO mutant was less capable of colonizing the mouse spleen and liver than the wild-type strain. We did not detect significant differences between the T6SSKO and wild-type strains in epithelial cell invasion tests. However, in the macrophage RAW264.7 cell line, the T6SSKO mutant survived and proliferated significantly more poorly than the wild-type strain. These findings indicate that T6SS gene cluster is required for full virulence of S. typhimurium 14028s in BALB/c mice, possibly due to its roles in bacterial survival and proliferation in macrophages.

  10. Effects of Differing Response-Force Requirements on Food-Maintained Responding in C57BL/6J Mice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarcone, Troy J.; Chen, Rong; Fowler, Stephen C.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of force requirements on response effort was examined using inbred C57BL/6J mice trained to press a disk with their snout. Lateral peak forces greater than 2 g were defined as responses (i.e., all responses above the measurement threshold). Different, higher force requirements were used to define criterion responses (a subclass of all…

  11. TASK channels are not required to mount an aldosterone secretory response to metabolic acidosis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Guagliardo, Nick A.; Yao, Junlan; Bayliss, Douglas A.; Barrett, Paula Q.

    2010-01-01

    The stimulation of aldosterone production by acidosis enhances proton excretion and serves to limit disturbances in systemic acid-base equilibrium. Yet, the mechanisms by which protons stimulate aldosterone production from cells of the adrenal cortex remain largely unknown. TWIK-related acid sensitive K channels (TASK) are inhibited by extracellular protons within the physiological range and have emerged as important regulators of aldosterone production in the adrenal cortex. Here we show that congenic C57BL/6J mice with genetic deletion of TASK-1 (K2P3.1) and TASK-3 (K2P9.1) channel subunits overproduce aldosterone and display an enhanced sensitivity to steroidogenic stimuli, including a more pronounced steroidogenic response to chronic NH4Cl loading. Thus, we conclude that TASK channels are not required for the stimulation of aldosterone production by protons but their inhibition by physiological acidosis may contribute to full expression of the steroidogenic response. PMID:21111026

  12. The Histone Methyltransferase Ash1l is Required for Epidermal Homeostasis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Gang; Ye, Zhisheng; Shi, Cheng; Sun, Ling; Han, Min; Zhuang, Yuan; Xu, Tian; Zhao, Shimin; Wu, Xiaohui

    2017-01-01

    Epidermal homeostasis under normal and healing conditions are critical for the physical and functional maintenance of the skin barrier. It requires a proper balance between keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation under genetic and epigenetic regulations. Here we show that mice carrying a hypomorphic mutation of the histone methyltransferase Ash1l [(absent, small, or homeotic)-like (Drosophila)] develop epidermal hyperplasia and impaired epidermal stratification upon aging. In adult mutants, loss of Ash1l leads to more proliferative keratinocytes in disturbed differentiation stages. After wounding, Ash1l mutation leads to delayed re-epithlialization but increased keratinocyte proliferation at the wound edge. Elevated c-Myc expression could be observed in both aged and wounded mutant tissues. Taken together, these observations revealed an important role of the epigenetic regulator Ash1l in epidermal homeostasis. PMID:28374742

  13. Serotonin signaling in the brain of adult female mice is required for sexual preference

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shasha; Liu, Yan; Rao, Yi

    2013-01-01

    A role for serotonin in male sexual preference was recently uncovered by our finding that male mutant mice lacking serotonin have lost sexual preference. Here we show that female mouse mutants lacking either central serotonergic neurons or serotonin prefer female over male genital odors when given a choice, and displayed increased female–female mounting when presented either with a choice of a male and a female target or only with a female target. Pharmacological manipulations and genetic rescue experiments showed that serotonin is required in adults. Behavioral changes caused by deficient serotonergic signaling were not due to changes in plasma concentrations of sex hormones. We demonstrate that a genetic manipulation reverses sexual preference without involving sex hormones. Our results indicate that serotonin controls sexual preference. PMID:23716677

  14. Unique targeting of cytosolic phospholipase A2 to plasma membranes mediated by the NADPH oxidase in phagocytes

    PubMed Central

    Shmelzer, Zeev; Haddad, Nurit; Admon, Ester; Pessach, Itai; Leto, Thomas L.; Eitan-Hazan, Zahit; Hershfinkel, Michal; Levy, Rachel

    2003-01-01

    Cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2)–generated arachidonic acid (AA) has been shown to be an essential requirement for the activation of NADPH oxidase, in addition to its being the major enzyme involved in the formation of eicosanoid at the nuclear membranes. The mechanism by which cPLA2 regulates NADPH oxidase activity is not known, particularly since the NADPH oxidase complex is localized in the plasma membranes of stimulated cells. The present study is the first to demonstrate that upon stimulation cPLA2 is transiently recruited to the plasma membranes by a functional NADPH oxidase in neutrophils and in granulocyte-like PLB-985 cells. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments and double labeling immunofluorescence analysis demonstrated the unique colocalization of cPLA2 and the NADPH oxidase in plasma membranes of stimulated cells, in correlation with the kinetic burst of superoxide production. A specific affinity in vitro binding was detected between GST-p47phox or GST-p67phox and cPLA2 in lysates of stimulated cells. The association between these two enzymes provides the molecular basis for AA released by cPLA2 to activate the assembled NADPH oxidase. The ability of cPLA2 to regulate two different functions in the same cells (superoxide generation and eicosanoid production) is achieved by a novel dual subcellular localization of cPLA2 to different targets. PMID:12913107

  15. Purification of the enzyme NADPH: protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase.

    PubMed

    Beer, N S; Griffiths, W T

    1981-04-01

    A procedure for the purification of the enzyme NADPH:protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase is described. This involves fractionation of sonicated oat etioplast membranes by discontinuous-sucrose-density-gradient centrifugation, which gives membranes in which the enzyme is present at a high specific activity. The enzyme is solubilized from the membranes with Triton X-100, followed by gel filtration of the extract; enzyme activity is eluted in fractions corresponding to a mol.wt of approx. 35000. Sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis of the enzyme-containing fractions from gel filtration shows two peptides, of mol.wts. approx. 35000 and 37000.

  16. Globular adiponectin elicits neuroprotection by inhibiting NADPH oxidase-mediated oxidative damage in ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Song, W; Huo, T; Guo, F; Wang, H; Wei, H; Yang, Q; Dong, H; Wang, Q; Xiong, L

    2013-09-17

    Recent studies indicate that adiponectin can attenuate cerebral ischemic lesions via its functional area located in the C-terminal globular domain, which is called globular adiponectin (gAD). However, the mechanisms underlying this action remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the antioxidant properties of gAD during cerebral ischemia. Adult male C57BL/6 mice received an intracerebral injection of gAD with or without tetrabromocinnamic acid (TBCA, a NADPH oxidase activator). Mice were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) after gAD injection. Infarct volume, neurological function, the activity of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase [SOD], catalase), the content of malondialdehyde (MDA), and the expression of Bax, Bcl-2, cleaved caspase-3 and NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2) were examined at 24h after MCAO. Infarct volume was attenuated in gAD-transduced mice when compared with mice in the MCAO group, with significant improvement in neurological function. In addition, neuronal apoptosis was attenuated, along with the expression of Bax/Bcl-2 and cleaved caspase 3. Furthermore, the activities of SOD and catalase increased, and the content of MDA reduced. However, TBCA blocked the effect of gAD on cerebral protection and its antioxidant abilities. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the neuroprotective action of gAD may result from the promotion of antioxidant capacity by inhibiting the NOX2 signaling system.

  17. NADPH Oxidase-Dependent NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation and its Important Role in Lung Fibrosis by Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Sun, Bingbing; Wang, Xiang; Ji, Zhaoxia; Wang, Meiying; Liao, Yu-Pei; Chang, Chong Hyun; Li, Ruibin; Zhang, Haiyuan; Nel, André E; Xia, Tian

    2015-05-06

    The purpose of this paper is to elucidate the key role of NADPH oxidase in NLRP3 inflammasome activation and generation of pulmonary fibrosis by multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). Although it is known that oxidative stress plays a role in pulmonary fibrosis by single-walled CNTs, the role of specific sources of reactive oxygen species, including NADPH oxidase, in inflammasome activation remains to be clarified. In this study, three long aspect ratio (LAR) materials (MWCNTs, single-walled carbon nanotubes, and silver nanowires) are used to compare with spherical carbon black and silver nanoparticles for their ability to trigger oxygen burst activity and NLRP3 assembly. All LAR materials but not spherical nanoparticles induce robust NADPH oxidase activation and respiratory burst activity in THP-1 cells, which are blunted in p22(phox) -deficient cells. The NADPH oxidase is directly involved in lysosomal damage by LAR materials, as demonstrated by decreased cathepsin B release and IL-1β production in p22(phox) -deficient cells. Reduced respiratory burst activity and inflammasome activation are also observed in bone marrow-derived macrophages from p47(phox) -deficient mice. Moreover, p47(phox) -deficient mice have reduced IL-1β production and lung collagen deposition in response to MWCNTs. Lung fibrosis is also suppressed by N-acetyl-cysteine in wild-type animals exposed to MWCNTs.

  18. Contrasting Influence of NADPH and a NADPH-Regenerating System on the Metabolism of Carbonyl-Containing Compounds in Hepatic Microsomes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Carbonyl containing xenobiotics may be susceptible to NADPH-dependent cytochrome P450 (P450) and carbonyl-reduction reactions. In vitro hepatic microsome assays are routinely supplied NADPH either by direct addition of NADPH or via an NADPH-regenerating system (NRS). In contrast ...

  19. Micro-RNA 21 inhibition of SMAD7 enhances fibrogenesis via leptin-mediated NADPH oxidase in experimental and human nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.

    PubMed

    Dattaroy, Diptadip; Pourhoseini, Sahar; Das, Suvarthi; Alhasson, Firas; Seth, Ratanesh Kumar; Nagarkatti, Mitzi; Michelotti, Gregory A; Diehl, Anna Mae; Chatterjee, Saurabh

    2015-02-15

    Hepatic fibrosis in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is the common pathophysiological process resulting from chronic liver inflammation and oxidative stress. Although significant research has been carried out on the role of leptin-induced NADPH oxidase in fibrogenesis, the molecular mechanisms that connect the leptin-NADPH oxidase axis in upregulation of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β signaling have been unclear. We aimed to investigate the role of leptin-mediated upregulation of NADPH oxidase and its subsequent induction of micro-RNA 21 (miR21) in fibrogenesis. Human NASH livers and a high-fat (60% kcal) diet-fed chronic mouse model, where hepatotoxin bromodichloromethane was used to induce NASH, were used for this study. To prove the role of the leptin-NADPH oxidase-miR21 axis, mice deficient in genes for leptin, p47phox, and miR21 were used. Results showed that wild-type mice and human livers with NASH had increased oxidative stress, increased p47phox expression, augmented NF-κB activation, and increased miR21 levels. These mice and human livers showed increased TGF-β, SMAD2/3-SMAD4 colocalizations in the nucleus, increased immunoreactivity against Col1α, and α-SMA with a concomitant decrease in protein levels of SMAD7. Mice that were deficient in leptin or p47phox had decreased activated NF-κB and miR21 levels, suggesting the role of leptin and NADPH oxidase in inducing NF-κB-mediated miR21 expression. Further miR21 knockout mice had decreased colocalization events of SMAD2/3-SMAD4 in the nucleus, increased SMAD7 levels, and decreased fibrogenesis. Taken together, the studies show the novel role of leptin-NADPH oxidase induction of miR21 as a key regulator of TGF-β signaling and fibrogenesis in experimental and human NASH.

  20. Helminth protection against autoimmune diabetes in NOD mice is independent of a type 2 immune shift and requires TGFβ

    PubMed Central

    Hübner, Marc P; Shi, Yinghui; Torrero, Marina N; Mueller, Ellen; Larson, David; Soloviova, Kateryna; Gondorf, Fabian; Hoerauf, Achim; Killoran, Kristin E.; Stocker, J Thomas; Davies, Stephen J; Tarbell, Kristin V; Mitre, Edward

    2011-01-01

    Leading hypotheses to explain helminth-mediated protection against autoimmunity postulate that type 2 or regulatory immune responses induced by helminth infections in the host limit pathogenic Th1-driven autoimmune responses. We tested these hypotheses by investigating whether infection with the filarial nematode Litomosoides sigmodontis prevents diabetes onset in IL-4-deficient nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice and whether depletion or absence of regulatory T cells, IL-10, or TGFβ alters helminth-mediated protection. In contrast to IL-4-competent NOD mice, IL-4-deficient NOD mice failed to develop a type 2 shift in either cytokine or antibody production during L. sigmodontis infection. Despite the absence of a type 2 immune shift, infection of IL-4-deficient NOD mice with L. sigmodontis prevented diabetes onset in all mice studied. Infections in immunocompetent and IL-4-deficient NOD mice were accompanied by increases in CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ regulatory T cell frequencies and numbers, respectively, and helminth infection increased proliferation of CD4+FoxP3+ cells. However, depletion of CD25+ cells in NOD mice or FoxP3+ T cells from splenocytes transferred into NOD.scid mice did not decrease helminth-mediated protection against diabetes onset. Continuous depletion of the anti-inflammatory cytokine TGFβ, but not blockade of IL-10 signaling, prevented the beneficial effect of helminth infection on diabetes. Changes in Th17 responses did not seem to play an important role in helminth-mediated protection against autoimmunity as helminth infection was not associated with a decreased Th17 immune response. This study demonstrates that L. sigmodontis-mediated protection against diabetes in NOD mice is not dependent on the induction of a type 2 immune shift but does require TGFβ. PMID:22174447

  1. A pathway for repair of NAD(P)H in plants.

    PubMed

    Colinas, Maite; Shaw, Holly V; Loubéry, Sylvain; Kaufmann, Markus; Moulin, Michael; Fitzpatrick, Teresa B

    2014-05-23

    Unwanted enzyme side reactions and spontaneous decomposition of metabolites can lead to a build-up of compounds that compete with natural enzyme substrates and must be dealt with for efficient metabolism. It has recently been realized that there are enzymes that process such compounds, formulating the concept of metabolite repair. NADH and NADPH are vital cellular redox cofactors but can form non-functional hydrates (named NAD(P)HX) spontaneously or enzymatically that compete with enzymes dependent on NAD(P)H, impairing normal enzyme function. Here we report on the functional characterization of components of a potential NAD(P)H repair pathway in plants comprising a stereospecific dehydratase (NNRD) and an epimerase (NNRE), the latter being fused to a vitamin B6 salvage enzyme. Through the use of the recombinant proteins, we show that the ATP-dependent NNRD and NNRE act concomitantly to restore NAD(P)HX to NAD(P)H. NNRD behaves as a tetramer and NNRE as a dimer, but the proteins do not physically interact. In vivo fluorescence analysis demonstrates that the proteins are localized to mitochondria and/or plastids, implicating these as the key organelles where this repair is required. Expression analysis indicates that whereas NNRE is present ubiquitously, NNRD is restricted to seeds but appears to be dispensable during the normal Arabidopsis life cycle.

  2. The complex roles of NADPH oxidases in fungal infection

    PubMed Central

    Hogan, Deborah; Wheeler, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    Summary NADPH oxidases play key roles in immunity and inflammation that go beyond the production of microbicidal reactive oxygen species (ROS). The past decade has brought a new appreciation for the diversity of roles played by ROS in signaling associated with inflammation and immunity. NADPH oxidase activity affects disease outcome during infections by human pathogenic fungi, an important group of emerging and opportunistic pathogens that includes Candida, Aspergillus and Cryptococcus species. Here we review how alternative roles of NADPH oxidase activity impact fungal infection and how ROS signaling affects fungal physiology. Particular attention is paid to roles for NADPH oxidase in immune migration, immunoregulation in pulmonary infection, neutrophil extracellular trap formation, autophagy and inflammasome activity. These recent advances highlight the power and versatility of spatiotemporally controlled redox regulation in the context of infection, and point to a need to understand the molecular consequences of NADPH oxidase activity in the cell. PMID:24905433

  3. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor modulates NADPH oxidase activity via direct transcriptional regulation of p40phox expression.

    PubMed

    Wada, Taira; Sunaga, Hiroshi; Ohkawara, Reiko; Shimba, Shigeki

    2013-05-01

    A member of the NADPH oxidase subunits, p40(phox) plays an important role in the regulation of NADPH oxidase activity and the subsequent production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this study, we show that mouse p40(phox) is a novel transcriptional target of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), known as a dioxin receptor or xenobiotic receptor, in the liver. Treatment of mice with 3-methylcholanthrene (3MC) increased p40(phox) gene expression in the liver, but this induction of p40(phox) gene expression was diminished by the deletion of the AhR gene in the liver. Consistent with the in vivo results, the expression of the p40(phox) gene was increased in 3MC-treated Hepa1c1c7 cells in an AhR-dependent manner. In addition, promoter analysis established p40(phox) as a transcriptional target of AhR. Studies using the RNA-interference technique revealed that p40(phox) is involved in the increase of NADPH oxidase activity and the subsequent ROS production in AhR-activated Hepa1c1c7 cells. Consequently, the results obtained here may provide a novel molecular mechanism for ROS production after exposure to dioxins.

  4. Quantitative flux analysis reveals folate-dependent NADPH production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Jing; Ye, Jiangbin; Kamphorst, Jurre J.; Shlomi, Tomer; Thompson, Craig B.; Rabinowitz, Joshua D.

    2014-06-01

    ATP is the dominant energy source in animals for mechanical and electrical work (for example, muscle contraction or neuronal firing). For chemical work, there is an equally important role for NADPH, which powers redox defence and reductive biosynthesis. The most direct route to produce NADPH from glucose is the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway, with malic enzyme sometimes also important. Although the relative contribution of glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation to ATP production has been extensively analysed, similar analysis of NADPH metabolism has been lacking. Here we demonstrate the ability to directly track, by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, the passage of deuterium from labelled substrates into NADPH, and combine this approach with carbon labelling and mathematical modelling to measure NADPH fluxes. In proliferating cells, the largest contributor to cytosolic NADPH is the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway. Surprisingly, a nearly comparable contribution comes from serine-driven one-carbon metabolism, in which oxidation of methylene tetrahydrofolate to 10-formyl-tetrahydrofolate is coupled to reduction of NADP+ to NADPH. Moreover, tracing of mitochondrial one-carbon metabolism revealed complete oxidation of 10-formyl-tetrahydrofolate to make NADPH. As folate metabolism has not previously been considered an NADPH producer, confirmation of its functional significance was undertaken through knockdown of methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase (MTHFD) genes. Depletion of either the cytosolic or mitochondrial MTHFD isozyme resulted in decreased cellular NADPH/NADP+ and reduced/oxidized glutathione ratios (GSH/GSSG) and increased cell sensitivity to oxidative stress. Thus, although the importance of folate metabolism for proliferating cells has been long recognized and attributed to its function of producing one-carbon units for nucleic acid synthesis, another crucial function of this pathway is generating reducing power.

  5. NADPH Oxidases in Lung Health and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bernard, Karen; Hecker, Louise; Luckhardt, Tracy R.; Cheng, Guangjie

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: The evolution of the lungs and circulatory systems in vertebrates ensured the availability of molecular oxygen (O2; dioxygen) for aerobic cellular metabolism of internal organs in large animals. O2 serves as the physiologic terminal acceptor of mitochondrial electron transfer and of the NADPH oxidase (Nox) family of oxidoreductases to generate primarily water and reactive oxygen species (ROS), respectively. Recent advances: The purposeful generation of ROS by Nox family enzymes suggests important roles in normal physiology and adaptation, most notably in host defense against invading pathogens and in cellular signaling. Critical issues: However, there is emerging evidence that, in the context of chronic stress and/or aging, Nox enzymes contribute to the pathogenesis of a number of lung diseases. Future Directions: Here, we review evolving functions of Nox enzymes in normal lung physiology and emerging pathophysiologic roles in lung disease. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 2838–2853. PMID:24093231

  6. Activated NHE1 is required to induce early cardiac hypertrophy in mice.

    PubMed

    Mraiche, Fatima; Oka, Tatsujiro; Gan, Xiaohong T; Karmazyn, Morris; Fliegel, Larry

    2011-06-01

    The Na+/H+ exchanger isoform 1 (NHE1) has been implicated as being causal in cardiac hypertrophy and the protein level and activity are elevated in the diseased myocardium. However, it is unclear whether mere elevation of the protein is sufficient for cardiac pathology, or whether activation of the protein is required. In this study, we examined the comparative effects of elevation of wild type and activated NHE1. Two mouse transgenic models that expressed either a wild type NHE1 protein or an activated NHE1 protein were characterized. Expression of activated NHE1 caused significant increases in heart weight to body weight, apoptosis, cross-sectional area, interstitial fibrosis and decreased cardiac performance. Expression of wild type NHE1 caused a much milder pathology. When we examined 2 or 10-week-old mouse hearts, there was neither elevation of calcineurin levels nor increased phosphorylation of ERK or p38 in either NHE1 transgenic mouse line. Expression of activated NHE1 in intact mice caused an increased sensitivity to phenylephrine-induced hypertrophy. Our results show that expression of activated NHE1 promotes cardiac hypertrophy to a much greater degree than elevated levels of wild type NHE1 alone. In addition, expression of activated NHE1 promotes greater sensitivity to neurohormonal stimulation. The results suggest that activation of NHE1 is a key component that accentuates NHE1-induced myocardial pathology.

  7. Nox NADPH Oxidases and the Endoplasmic Reticulum

    PubMed Central

    Araujo, Thaís L.S.; Abrahão, Thalita B.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Understanding isoform- and context-specific subcellular Nox reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase compartmentalization allows relevant functional inferences. This review addresses the interplay between Nox NADPH oxidases and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), an increasingly evident player in redox pathophysiology given its role in redox protein folding and stress responses. Recent Advances: Catalytic/regulatory transmembrane subunits are synthesized in the ER and their processing includes folding, N-glycosylation, heme insertion, p22phox heterodimerization, as shown for phagocyte Nox2. Dual oxidase (Duox) maturation also involves the regulation by ER-resident Duoxa2. The ER is the activation site for some isoforms, typically Nox4, but potentially other isoforms. Such location influences redox/Nox-mediated calcium signaling regulation via ER targets, such as sarcoendoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase (SERCA). Growing evidence suggests that Noxes are integral signaling elements of the unfolded protein response during ER stress, with Nox4 playing a dual prosurvival/proapoptotic role in this setting, whereas Nox2 enhances proapoptotic signaling. ER chaperones such as protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) closely interact with Noxes. PDI supports growth factor-dependent Nox1 activation and mRNA expression, as well as migration in smooth muscle cells, and PDI overexpression induces acute spontaneous Nox activation. Critical Issues: Mechanisms of PDI effects include possible support of complex formation and RhoGTPase activation. In phagocytes, PDI supports phagocytosis, Nox activation, and redox-dependent interactions with p47phox. Together, the results implicate PDI as possible Nox organizer. Future Directions: We propose that convergence between Noxes and ER may have evolutive roots given ER-related functional contexts, which paved Nox evolution, namely calcium signaling and pathogen killing. Overall, the interplay between

  8. Oncogenic Kras is required for both the initiation and maintenance of pancreatic cancer in mice

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Meredith A.; Bednar, Filip; Zhang, Yaqing; Brisset, Jean-Christophe; Galbán, Stefanie; Galbán, Craig J.; Rakshit, Sabita; Flannagan, Karen S.; Adsay, N. Volkan; Pasca di Magliano, Marina

    2012-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is almost invariably associated with mutations in the KRAS gene, most commonly KRASG12D, that result in a dominant-active form of the KRAS GTPase. However, how KRAS mutations promote pancreatic carcinogenesis is not fully understood, and whether oncogenic KRAS is required for the maintenance of pancreatic cancer has not been established. To address these questions, we generated two mouse models of pancreatic tumorigenesis: mice transgenic for inducible KrasG12D, which allows for inducible, pancreas-specific, and reversible expression of the oncogenic KrasG12D, with or without inactivation of one allele of the tumor suppressor gene p53. Here, we report that, early in tumorigenesis, induction of oncogenic KrasG12D reversibly altered normal epithelial differentiation following tissue damage, leading to precancerous lesions. Inactivation of KrasG12D in established precursor lesions and during progression to cancer led to regression of the lesions, indicating that KrasG12D was required for tumor cell survival. Strikingly, during all stages of carcinogenesis, KrasG12D upregulated Hedgehog signaling, inflammatory pathways, and several pathways known to mediate paracrine interactions between epithelial cells and their surrounding microenvironment, thus promoting formation and maintenance of the fibroinflammatory stroma that plays a pivotal role in pancreatic cancer. Our data establish that epithelial KrasG12D influences multiple cell types to drive pancreatic tumorigenesis and is essential for tumor maintenance. They also strongly support the notion that inhibiting KrasG12D, or its downstream effectors, could provide a new approach for the treatment of pancreatic cancer. PMID:22232209

  9. Connective tissue growth factor is required for skeletal development and postnatal skeletal homeostasis in male mice.

    PubMed

    Canalis, Ernesto; Zanotti, Stefano; Beamer, Wesley G; Economides, Aris N; Smerdel-Ramoya, Anna

    2010-08-01

    Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), a member of the cysteine-rich 61 (Cyr 61), CTGF, nephroblastoma overexpressed (NOV) (CCN) family of proteins, is synthesized by osteoblasts, and its overexpression inhibits osteoblastogenesis and causes osteopenia. The global inactivation of Ctgf leads to defective endochondral bone formation and perinatal lethality; therefore, the consequences of Ctgf inactivation on the postnatal skeleton are not known. To study the function of CTGF, we generated Ctgf(+/LacZ) heterozygous null mice and tissue-specific null Ctgf mice by mating Ctgf conditional mice, where Ctgf is flanked by lox sequences with mice expressing the Cre recombinase under the control of the paired-related homeobox gene 1 (Prx1) enhancer (Prx1-Cre) or the osteocalcin promoter (Oc-Cre). Ctgf(+/LacZ) heterozygous mice exhibited transient osteopenia at 1 month of age secondary to decreased trabecular number. A similar osteopenic phenotype was observed in 1-month-old Ctgf conditional null male mice generated with Prx1-Cre, suggesting that the decreased trabecular number was secondary to impaired endochondral bone formation. In contrast, when the conditional deletion of Ctgf was achieved by Oc-Cre, an osteopenic phenotype was observed only in 6-month-old male mice. Osteoblast and osteoclast number, bone formation, and eroded surface were not affected in Ctgf heterozygous or conditional null mice. In conclusion, CTGF is necessary for normal skeletal development but to a lesser extent for postnatal skeletal homeostasis.

  10. The Relationship of Intestinal Bacteria and Diet Composition to Amino Acid Requirements of White Mice

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-02-01

    intestinal flora of the NCS mice they responded like conventional mice. Rogers and Sarles (12) tested nineteen enterococcus strains and found they...Hoet, P. 1965. Indigenous, normal and autochthonous flora of the gastrointestinal tract. J. Exp. Med. 122: 67-75. 11 25. Wostman, B. S. and

  11. The oxidative pentose phosphate pathway is the primary source of NADPH for lipid overproduction from glucose in Yarrowia lipolytica.

    PubMed

    Wasylenko, Thomas M; Ahn, Woo Suk; Stephanopoulos, Gregory

    2015-07-01

    Oleaginous microbes represent an attractive means of converting a diverse range of feedstocks into oils that can be transesterified to biodiesel. However, the mechanism of lipid overproduction in these organisms is incompletely understood, hindering the development of strategies for engineering superior biocatalysts for "single-cell oil" production. In particular, it is unclear which pathways are used to generate the large quantities of NADPH required for overproduction of the highly reduced fatty acid species. While early studies implicated malic enzyme as having a key role in production of lipogenic NADPH in oleaginous fungi, several recent reports have cast doubts as to whether malic enzyme may contribute to production of lipogenic NADPH in the model oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica. To address this problem we have used (13)C-Metabolic Flux Analysis to estimate the metabolic flux distributions during lipid accumulation in two Y. lipolytica strains; a control strain and a previously published engineered strain capable of producing lipids at roughly twice the yield. We observe a dramatic rearrangement of the metabolic flux distribution in the engineered strain which supports lipid overproduction. The NADPH-producing flux through the oxidative Pentose Phosphate Pathway is approximately doubled in the engineered strain in response to the roughly two-fold increase in fatty acid biosynthesis, while the flux through malic enzyme does not differ significantly between the two strains. Moreover, the estimated rate of NADPH production in the oxidative Pentose Phosphate Pathway is in good agreement with the estimated rate of NADPH consumption in fatty acid biosynthesis in both strains. These results suggest the oxidative Pentose Phosphate Pathway is the primary source of lipogenic NADPH in Y. lipolytica.

  12. B lymphocytes not required for progression from insulitis to diabetes in non-obese diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Charlton, B; Zhang, M D; Slattery, R M

    2001-12-01

    Previous studies have implicated B lymphocytes in the pathogenesis of diabetes in the non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse. While it is clear that B lymphocytes are necessary, it has not been clear at which stage of disease they play a role; early, late or both. To clarify when B lymphocytes are needed, T lymphocytes were transferred from 5-week-old NOD female mice to age-matched NOD/severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) recipient mice. NOD/SCID mice, which lack functionally mature T and B lymphocytes, do not normally develop insulitis or insulin-dependent diabetes melitus (IDDM). The NOD/SCID mice that received purified T lymphocytes from 5-week-old NOD mice subsequently developed insulitis and diabetes even though they did not have detectable B lymphocytes. This suggests that while B lymphocytes may be essential for an initial priming event they are not requisite for disease progression in the NOD mouse.

  13. Discoidin domain receptor 2 (DDR2) is required for maintenance of spermatogenesis in male mice.

    PubMed

    Kano, Kiyoshi; Kitamura, Ayami; Matsuwaki, Takashi; Morimatsu, Masami; Naito, Kunihiko

    2010-01-01

    Discoidin domain receptor 2 (DDR2) is a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK). We recently identified homozygous smallie mutant mice (BKS.HRS. Ddr2(slie/slie)/J, Ddr2(slie/slie) mutants), which lack a functional DDR2. Ddr2(slie/slie) mutant mice are dwarfed and infertile due to peripheral dysregulation of the endocrine system. To understand the role of DDR2 signaling in spermatogenesis, we studied the expression of several receptors, enzymes, and proteins related to spermatogenesis in wild-type and Ddr2(slie/slie) mutant mice at 10 weeks and 5 months of age. DDR2 were expressed in adult wild-type male mice in Leydig cells. The number of differentiated spermatozoa in the seminal fluid was significantly lower in the Ddr2(slie/slie) mutant mice than in the wild-type mice. The number of TUNEL-positive cells was significantly greater in 5-month-old Ddr2(slie/slie) mutants. Testosterone was significantly reduced at 5 months of age, but LH was similar in both types of mice at both 10 weeks and 5 months of age. The expression levels of LH receptors (Lhcgr), StAR, P450scc, and Hsd3beta6 were not significantly different between the two types of mice at 10 weeks of age, but they were significantly reduced in 5-month-old Ddr2(slie/slie) mutants compared to wild-type mice of the same age. DDR2 was expressed in the Leydig cells of adult wild-type male mice. In conclusion, our results indicated that DDR2 signaling plays a critical role in the maintenance of male spermatogenesis.

  14. A Novel Nontoxic Inhibitor of the Activation of NADPH Oxidase Reduces Reactive Oxygen Species Production in Mouse LungS⃞

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Intae; Dodia, Chandra; Chatterjee, Shampa; Zagorski, John; Mesaros, Clementina; Blair, Ian A.; Feinstein, Sheldon I.; Jain, Mahendra

    2013-01-01

    1-Hexadecyl-3-trifluoroethylglycero-sn-2-phosphomethanol (MJ33) is a fluorinated phospholipid analog that inhibits the phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity of peroxiredoxin 6 (Prdx6). Prdx6 PLA2 activity is required for activation of NADPH oxidase 2 and subsequent generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In vitro, MJ33 inhibited agonist-stimulated production of ROS by the isolated perfused mouse lung, lung microvascular endothelial cells, and polymorphonuclear leukocytes. MJ33 (0.02–0.5 µmol MJ33/kg body weight) in mixed unilamellar liposomes was administered to C57BL/6 mice by either intratracheal (i.t.) or i.v. routes. Lung MJ33 content, measured by liquid chromatography/mass spectroscopy, showed uptake of 67–87% of the injected dose for i.t. and 23–42% for i.v. administration at 4 hours postinjection. PLA2 activity of lung homogenates was markedly inhibited (>85%) at 4 hours postadministration. Both MJ33 content and PLA2 activity gradually returned to near control levels over the subsequent 24–72 hours. Mice treated with MJ33 at 12.5–25 µmol/kg did not show changes (compared with control) in clinical symptomatology, body weight, hematocrit, and histology of lung, liver, and kidney during a 30- to 50-day observation period. Thus, the toxic dose of MJ33 was >25 µmol/kg, whereas the PLA2 inhibitory dose was approximately 0.02 µmol/kg, indicating a high margin of safety. MJ33 administered to mice prior to lung isolation markedly reduced ROS production and tissue lipid and protein oxidation during ischemia followed by reperfusion. Thus, MJ33 could be useful as a therapeutic agent to prevent ROS-mediated tissue injury associated with lung inflammation or in harvested lungs prior to transplantation. PMID:23475902

  15. The ovo gene required for cuticle formation and oogenesis in flies is involved in hair formation and spermatogenesis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Xing; Schonbaum, Christopher; Degenstein, Linda; Bai, Wenyu; Mahowald, Anthony; Fuchs, Elaine

    1998-01-01

    The Drosophila svb/ovo gene gives rise to differentially expressed transcripts encoding a zinc finger protein. svb/ovo has two distinct genetic functions: shavenbaby (svb) is required for proper formation of extracellular projections that are produced by certain epidermal cells in late-stage differentiation; ovo is required for survival and differentiation of female germ cells. We cloned a mouse gene, movo1 encoding a nuclear transcription factor that is highly similar to its fly counterpart in its zinc-finger sequences. In mice, the gene is expressed in skin, where it localizes to the differentiating cells of epidermis and hair follicles, and in testes, where it is present in spermatocytes and spermatids. Using gene targeting, we show that movo1 is required for proper development of both hair and sperm. movo1−/− mice are small, produce aberrant hairs, and display hypogenitalism, with a reduced ability to reproduce. These mice also develop abnormalities in kidney, where movo1 is also expressed. Our findings reveal remarkable parallels between mice and flies in epidermal appendage formation and in germ-cell maturation. Furthermore, they uncover a phenotype similar to that of Bardet–Biedl syndrome, a human disorder that maps to the same locus as human ovo1. PMID:9808631

  16. Sildenafil Promotes eNOS Activation and Inhibits NADPH Oxidase in the Transgenic Sickle Cell Mouse Penis

    PubMed Central

    Musicki, Biljana; Bivalacqua, Trinity J.; Champion, Hunter C.; Burnett, Arthur L.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Sickle cell disease (SCD)-associated vasculopathy in the penis is characterized by aberrant nitric oxide and phosphodiesterase (PDE) 5 signaling, and by increased oxidative stress. Preliminary clinical trials show that continuous treatment with PDE5 inhibitor sildenafil unassociated with sexual activity decreases priapic activity in patients with SCD. However, the mechanism of its vasculoprotective effect in the penis remains unclear. Aims We evaluated whether continuous administration of PDE5 inhibitor sildenafil promotes eNOS function at posttranslational levels and decreases superoxide-producing enzyme NADPH oxidase activity in the sickle cell mouse penis. Methods SCD transgenic mice were used as an animal model of SCD. WT mice served as controls. Mice received treatment with the PDE5 inhibitor sildenafil (100 mg/kg/day) or vehicle for 3 weeks. eNOS phosphorylation on Ser-1177 (positive regulatory site), eNOS interactions with heat-shock protein 90 (HSP90) (positive regulator), phosphorylated AKT (upstream mediator of eNOS phosphorylation on Ser-1177), an NADPH oxidase catalytic subunit gp91(phox), and a marker of oxidative stress (4-hydroxy-2-nonenal [HNE]) were measured by Western blot. Main Outcome Measures Effect of continuous sildenafil treatment on eNOS posttranslational activation, NADPH oxidase catalytic subunit, and oxidative stress in the penis of the sickle cell mouse. Results Continuous treatment with sildenafil reversed (P < 0.05) the abnormalities in protein expressions of P-eNOS (Ser-1177), eNOS/HSP90 interaction, P-AKT, protein expression of gp91(phox), and 4-HNE, in the sickle cell mouse penis. Sildenafil treatment of WT mice did not affect any of these parameters. Conclusion Our findings that sildenafil enhances eNOS activation and inhibits NADPH oxidase function in the sickle cell mouse penis offers a vasculoprotective molecular basis for the therapeutic effect of sildenafil in the penis in association with SCD. PMID:24251665

  17. ClC-3 deficiency prevents apoptosis induced by angiotensin II in endothelial progenitor cells via inhibition of NADPH oxidase.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Zhang, Fei-Fei; Li, Lei; Yang, Jing; Liu, Jie; Guan, Yong-Yuan; Du, Yan-Hua

    2013-10-01

    Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) play an important role in postnatal neovascularization and re-endothelialization in response to tissue ischemia and endothelial injury. It is reported that the circulating EPCs number is decreased during hypertension. However, the detailed mechanism is still unclear. Our previous studies have shown that ClC-3 chloride channel is up-regulated with the development of hypertension. This study aims to test whether ClC-3 participates in EPC apoptosis under the condition of increased oxidative stress in angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced hypertension. The results showed that stimulation with 10(-6)mol/L Ang II significantly up-regulated the endogenous ClC-3 expression and increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in EPCs of wild type mice, accompanied by an enhanced NADPH oxidase activity and the expression of gp91(phox) (NOX-2), a key catalytic subunit of NADPH oxidase. However, these effects of Ang II were significantly reduced in EPCs of ClC-3(-/-) mice. Compared with control, treatment with Ang II induced EPCs apoptosis in wild type mice, concomitantly with declined Bcl-2/Bax ratio, depressed mitochondrial membrane potential and activation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, which was remarkably prevented by both ClC-3 knockout and NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin. In addition, the role of ClC-3 deficiency in protecting EPCs against Ang II-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis was further confirmed in Ang II-infused hypertensive mice in vivo. In conclusion, ClC-3 deficiency inhibited Ang II-induced EPC apoptosis via suppressing ROS generation derived from NADPH oxidase.

  18. Influenza infection suppresses NADPH oxidase-dependent phagocytic bacterial clearance and enhances susceptibility to secondary methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection.

    PubMed

    Sun, Keer; Metzger, Dennis W

    2014-04-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has emerged as a leading contributor to mortality during recent influenza pandemics. The mechanism for this influenza-induced susceptibility to secondary S. aureus infection is poorly understood. In this study, we show that innate antibacterial immunity was significantly suppressed during the recovery stage of influenza infection, even though MRSA superinfection had no significant effect on viral burdens. Compared with mice infected with bacteria alone, postinfluenza MRSA-infected mice exhibited impaired bacterial clearance, which was not due to defective phagocyte recruitment, but rather coincided with reduced intracellular reactive oxygen species levels in alveolar macrophages and neutrophils. NADPH oxidase is responsible for reactive oxygen species production during phagocytic bacterial killing, a process also known as oxidative burst. We found that gp91(phox)-containing NADPH oxidase activity in macrophages and neutrophils was essential for optimal bacterial clearance during respiratory MRSA infections. In contrast to wild-type animals, gp91(phox-/-) mice exhibited similar defects in MRSA clearance before and after influenza infection. Using gp91(phox+/-) mosaic mice, we further demonstrate that influenza infection inhibits a cell-intrinsic contribution of NADPH oxidase to phagocyte bactericidal activity. Taken together, our results establish that influenza infection suppresses NADPH oxidase-dependent bacterial clearance and leads to susceptibility to secondary MRSA infection.

  19. Vitamin D receptor is required for dietary calcium-induced repression of calbindin-D9k expression in mice.

    PubMed

    Bolt, Merry J G; Cao, Li-Ping; Kong, Juan; Sitrin, Michael D; Li, Yan Chun

    2005-05-01

    Calbindin (CaBP), the vitamin D-dependent calcium-binding protein, is believed to play an important role in intracellular calcium transport. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of high dietary calcium on the expression of CaBP-D9k and CaBP-D28k in the presence and absence of a functional vitamin D receptor (VDR). Treatment with the HCa-Lac diet containing 2% calcium, 1.5% phosphorus and 20% lactose reversed the hypocalcemia seen in adult VDR-null mice in 3 weeks but did not significantly change the blood ionized calcium in wild-type mice. This dietary treatment dramatically suppressed both the duodenal and the renal CaBP-D9k expression in wild-type mice at both mRNA and protein levels but had little effect on the expression of the same gene in VDR-null mice. Removal of this diet gradually restored the expression of CaBP-D9k to the untreated level in wild-type mice. Only moderate or little change in CaBP-D28k expression was seen in wild-type and VDR-null mice fed with the HCa-Lac diet. The VDR content in the duodenum or kidney of wild-type mice was not altered by the dietary treatment. These results suggest that calcium regulates CaBP-D9k expression by modulating the circulating 1,25-dihydrxyvitamin D(3) level and that VDR is thus required for the dietary calcium-induced suppression of CaBP-D9k expression. Calcium regulation of the CaBP-D9k level may represent an important mechanism by which animals maintain their calcium balance.

  20. Adrenal Development in Mice Requires GATA4 and GATA6 Transcription Factors.

    PubMed

    Tevosian, Sergei G; Jiménez, Elizabeth; Hatch, Heather M; Jiang, Tianyu; Morse, Deborah A; Fox, Shawna C; Padua, Maria B

    2015-07-01

    The adrenal glands consist of an outer cortex and an inner medulla, and their primary purposes include hormone synthesis and secretion. The adrenal cortex produces a complex array of steroid hormones, whereas the medulla is part of the sympathetic nervous system and produces the catecholamines epinephrine and norepinephrine. In the mouse, GATA binding protein (GATA) 4 and GATA6 transcription factors are coexpressed in several embryonic tissues, including the adrenal cortex. To explore the roles of GATA4 and GATA6 in mouse adrenal development, we conditionally deleted these genes in adrenocortical cells using the Sf1Cre strain of animals. We report here that mice with Sf1Cre-mediated double deletion of Gata4 and Gata6 genes lack identifiable adrenal glands, steroidogenic factor 1-positive cortical cells and steroidogenic gene expression in the adrenal location. The inactivation of the Gata6 gene alone (Sf1Cre;Gata6(flox/flox)) drastically reduced the adrenal size and corticosterone production in the adult animals. Adrenocortical aplasia is expected to result in the demise of the animal within 2 weeks after birth unless glucocorticoids are provided. In accordance, Sf1Cre;Gata4(flox/flox)Gata6(flox/flox) females depend on steroid supplementation to survive after weaning. Surprisingly, Sf1Cre;Gata4(flox/flox)Gata6(flox/flox) males appear to live normal lifespans as vital steroidogenic synthesis shifts to their testes. Our results reveal a requirement for GATA factors in adrenal development and provide a novel tool to characterize the transcriptional network controlling adrenocortical cell fates.

  1. Polynitroxylated-pegylated hemoglobin attenuates fluid requirements and brain edema in combined traumatic brain injury plus hemorrhagic shock in mice

    PubMed Central

    Brockman, Erik C; Bayır, Hülya; Blasiole, Brian; Shein, Steven L; Fink, Ericka L; Dixon, CEdward; Clark, Robert SB; Vagni, Vincent A; Ma, Li; Hsia, Carleton JC; Tisherman, Samuel A; Kochanek, Patrick M

    2013-01-01

    Polynitroxylated-pegylated hemoglobin (PNPH), a bovine hemoglobin decorated with nitroxide and polyethylene glycol moieties, showed neuroprotection vs. lactated Ringer's (LR) in experimental traumatic brain injury plus hemorrhagic shock (TBI+HS). Hypothesis: Resuscitation with PNPH will reduce intracranial pressure (ICP) and brain edema and improve cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) vs. LR in experimental TBI+HS. C57/BL6 mice (n=20) underwent controlled cortical impact followed by severe HS to mean arterial pressure (MAP) of 25 to 27 mm Hg for 35 minutes. Mice (n=10/group) were then resuscitated with a 20 mL/kg bolus of 4% PNPH or LR followed by 10 mL/kg boluses targeting MAP>70 mm Hg for 90 minutes. Shed blood was then reinfused. Intracranial pressure was monitored. Mice were killed and %brain water (%BW) was measured (wet/dry weight). Mice resuscitated with PNPH vs. LR required less fluid (26.0±0.0 vs. 167.0±10.7 mL/kg, P<0.001) and had a higher MAP (79.4±0.40 vs. 59.7±0.83 mm Hg, P<0.001). The PNPH-treated mice required only 20 mL/kg while LR-resuscitated mice required multiple boluses. The PNPH-treated mice had a lower peak ICP (14.5±0.97 vs. 19.7±1.12 mm Hg, P=0.002), higher CPP during resuscitation (69.2±0.46 vs. 45.5±0.68 mm Hg, P<0.001), and lower %BW vs. LR (80.3±0.12 vs. 80.9±0.12%, P=0.003). After TBI+HS, resuscitation with PNPH lowers fluid requirements, improves ICP and CPP, and reduces brain edema vs. LR, supporting its development. PMID:23801241

  2. Method to Detect the Cellular Source of Over-Activated NADPH Oxidases Using NAD(P)H Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging.

    PubMed

    Bremer, Daniel; Leben, Ruth; Mothes, Ronja; Radbruch, Helena; Niesner, Raluca

    2017-04-03

    Fluorescence-lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) is a technique to generate images, in which the contrast is obtained by the excited-state lifetime of fluorescent molecules instead of their intensity and emission spectrum. The ubiquitous coenzymes NADH and NADPH, hereafter NAD(P)H, in cells show a short fluorescence lifetime ≈400 psec in the free-state and a longer fluorescence lifetime when bound to enzymes. The fluorescence lifetime of NAD(P)H in this state depends on the binding-site on the specific enzyme. In the case of NADPH bound to members of the NADPH oxidases family we measured a fluorescence lifetime of 3650 psec as compared to enzymes typically active in cells, in which case fluorescence lifetimes of ∼2000 psec are measured. Here we present a robust protocol based on NAD(P)H fluorescence lifetime imaging in isolated cells to distinguish between normally active enzymes and NADPH oxidases, mainly responsible for oxidative stress. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  3. Hyper-responsive Toll-like receptor 7 and 9 activation in NADPH oxidase-deficient B lymphoblasts.

    PubMed

    McLetchie, Shawna; Volpp, Bryan D; Dinauer, Mary C; Blum, Janice S

    2015-12-01

    Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is an inherited immunodeficiency linked with mutations in the multi-subunit leucocyte NADPH oxidase. Myeloid-derived phagocytic cells deficient in NADPH oxidase fail to produce sufficient levels of reactive oxygen species to clear engulfed pathogens. In this study we show that oxidase also influences B-cell functions, including responses to single-stranded RNA or unmethylated DNA by endosomal Toll-like receptors (TLRs) 7 and 9. In response to TLR7/9 ligands, B-cell lines derived from patients with CGD with mutations in either the NADPH oxidase p40(phox) or p47(phox) subunits produced only low levels of reactive oxygen species. Remarkably, cytokine secretion and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase activation by these oxidase-deficient B cells was significantly increased upon TLR7/9 activation when compared with oxidase-sufficient B cells. Increased TLR responsiveness was also detected in B cells from oxidase-deficient mice. NADPH oxidase-deficient patient-derived B cells also expressed enhanced levels of TLR7 and TLR9 mRNA and protein compared with the same cells reconstituted to restore oxidase activity. These data demonstrate that the loss of oxidase function associated with CGD can significantly impact B-cell TLR signalling in response to nucleic acids with potential repercussions for auto-reactivity in patients.

  4. Dehydroepiandrosterone promotes pulmonary artery relaxation by NADPH oxidation-elicited subunit dimerization of protein kinase G 1α

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Dhara; Kandhi, Sharath; Kelly, Melissa; Neo, Boon Hwa

    2013-01-01

    The activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) controls a vascular smooth muscle relaxing mechanism promoted by the oxidation of cytosolic NADPH, which has been associated with activation of the 1α form of protein kinase G (PKG-1α) by a thiol oxidation-elicited subunit dimerization. This PKG-1α-activation mechanism appears to contribute to responses of isolated endothelium-removed bovine pulmonary arteries (BPA) elicited by peroxide, cytosolic NADPH oxidation resulting from G6PD inhibition, and hypoxia. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is a steroid hormone with pulmonary vasodilator activity, which has beneficial effects in treating pulmonary hypertension. Because multiple mechanisms have been suggested for the vascular effects of DHEA and one of the known actions of DHEA is inhibiting G6PD, we investigated whether it promoted relaxation associated with NADPH oxidation, PKG-1α dimerization, and PKG activation detected by increased vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) phosphorylation. Relaxation of BPA to DHEA under aerobic or hypoxic conditions was associated with NADPH oxidation, PKG-1α dimerization, and increased VASP phosphorylation. The vasodilator activity of DHEA was markedly attenuated in pulmonary arteries and aorta from a PKG knockin mouse containing a serine in place of a cysteine involved in PKG dimerization. DHEA promoted increased PKG dimerization in lungs from wild-type mice, which was not detected in the PKG knockin mouse model. Thus PKG-1α dimerization is a major contributing factor to the vasodilator actions of DHEA and perhaps its beneficial effects in treating pulmonary hypertension. PMID:24375799

  5. Targeting NADPH oxidase with a novel dual Nox1/Nox4 inhibitor attenuates renal pathology in type 1 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Cavaglieri, Rita C.; Khazim, Khaled; Lee, Doug-Yoon; Bruno, Francesca; Thakur, Sachin; Fanti, Paolo; Szyndralewiez, Cédric; Barnes, Jeffrey L.; Block, Karen; Abboud, Hanna E.

    2015-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by Nox NADPH oxidases may play a critical role in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN). The efficacy of the Nox1/Nox4 inhibitor GKT137831 on the manifestations of DN was studied in OVE26 mice, a model of type 1 diabetes. Starting at 4–5 mo of age, OVE26 mice were treated with GKT137831 at 10 or 40 mg/kg, once-a-day for 4 wk. At both doses, GKT137831 inhibited NADPH oxidase activity, superoxide generation, and hydrogen peroxide production in the renal cortex from diabetic mice without affecting Nox1 or Nox4 protein expression. The increased expression of fibronectin and type IV collagen was reduced in the renal cortex, including glomeruli, of diabetic mice treated with GKT137831. GKT137831 significantly reduced glomerular hypertrophy, mesangial matrix expansion, urinary albumin excretion, and podocyte loss in OVE26 mice. GKT137831 also attenuated macrophage infiltration in glomeruli and tubulointerstitium. Collectively, our data indicate that pharmacological inhibition of Nox1/4 affords broad renoprotection in mice with preexisting diabetes and established kidney disease. This study validates the relevance of targeting Nox4 and identifies GKT137831 as a promising compound for the treatment of DN in type 1 diabetes. PMID:25656366

  6. Oxidation of External NAD(P)H by Mitochondria from Taproots and Tissue Cultures of Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris).

    PubMed Central

    Zottini, M.; Mandolino, G.; Zannoni, D.

    1993-01-01

    The present study compares the exogenous NAD(P)H oxidation and the membrane potential ([delta][psi]) generated in mitochondria isolated from different tissues of an important agricultural crop, sugar beet (Beta vulgaris}. We observed that mitochondria from taproots, cold-stored taproots, and in vitro-grown tissue cultures contain a functional NADH dehydrogenase, whereas only those isolated from tissue cultures displayed a functional NAD(P)H dehydrogenase. It is interesting that the NADH-dependent [delta][psi] of mitochondria from cold-stored taproots and from tissue cultures was not affected by free Ca2+ ions, whereas free Ca2+ was required for the mitochondrial NADPH oxidation by in vitro-grown cells and cytosolic NADH oxidation by mitochondria from fresh taproots. A tentative model accounting for the different response to Ca2+ ions of the NADH dehydrogenase in mitochondria from cold-stored taproots and tissue cultures of B. vulgaris is discussed. PMID:12231847

  7. Visually-Driven Ocular Growth in Mice Requires Functional Rod Photoreceptors

    PubMed Central

    Park, Han na; Jabbar, Seema B.; Tan, Christopher C.; Sidhu, Curran S.; Abey, Jane; Aseem, Fazila; Schmid, Gregor; Iuvone, P. Michael; Pardue, Machelle T.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Proper refractive eye growth depends on several features of the visual image and requisite retinal pathways. In this study, we determined the contribution of rod pathways to normal refractive development and form deprivation (FD) myopia by testing Gnat1−/− mice, which lack functional rods due to a mutation in rod transducin-α. Methods. Refractive development was measured in Gnat1−/− (n = 30–36) and wild-type (WT) mice (n = 5–9) from 4 to 12 weeks of age. FD was induced monocularly from 4 weeks of age using head-mounted diffuser goggles (Gnat1−/−, n = 9–10; WT, n = 7–8). Refractive state and ocular biometry were obtained weekly using a photorefractor, 1310 nm optical coherence tomography, and partial coherence interferometry. We measured retinal dopamine and its metabolite, DOPAC, using HPLC. Results. During normal development, the refractions of WT mice started at 5.36 ± 0.68 diopters (D) and became more hyperopic before plateauing at 7.78 ± 0.64 D. In contrast, refractions in Gnat1−/− mice were stable at 7.39 ± 1.22 D across all ages. Three weeks of FD induced a 2.54 ± 0.77 D myopic shift in WT mice, while Gnat1−/− mice did not respond to FD at any age. Axial lengths of Gnat1−/− and WT mice increased with age, but differences between genotypes or with goggling did not reach statistical significance and fell within the precision of the instruments. The DOPAC levels were significantly lower in Gnat1−/− mice from 2 to 12 weeks of age with DOPAC/dopamine ratio peaking earlier in Gnat1−/− compared to WT mice. No differences in dopamine were seen in response to FD or between genotypes. Conclusions. Functional rod photoreceptors are critical to normal refractive development and the response to FD in mice. Dopamine levels may not directly modulate the refractive state of the mouse eye, but tonic levels of dopamine during development may determine susceptibility to myopia. PMID:25183765

  8. Endogenous mesenchymal stromal cells in bone marrow are required to preserve muscle function in mdx mice.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Ryo; Tamai, Katsuto; Aikawa, Eriko; Nimura, Keisuke; Ishino, Saki; Kikuchi, Yasushi; Kaneda, Yasufumi

    2015-03-01

    The physiological role of "endogenous" bone marrow (BM) mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) in tissue regeneration is poorly understood. Here, we show the significant contribution of unique endogenous BM-MSC populations to muscle regeneration in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) mice (mdx). Transplantation of BM cells (BMCs) from 10-week-old mdx into 3-4-week-old mdx mice increased inflammation and fibrosis and reduced muscle function compared with mdx mice that received BMCs from 10-week-old wild-type mice, suggesting that the alteration of BMC populations in mdx mice affects the progression of muscle pathology. Two distinct MSC populations in BM, that is, hematopoietic lineage (Lin)(-) /ckit(-) /CD106(+) /CD44(+) and Lin(-) /ckit(-) /CD106(+) /CD44(-) cells, were significantly reduced in 10-week-old mdx mice in disease progression. The results of a whole-transcriptome analysis indicated that these two MSC populations have distinct gene expression profiles, indicating that the Lin(-) /ckit(-) /CD106(+) /CD44(+) and Lin(-) /ckit(-) /CD106(+) /CD44(-) MSC populations are proliferative- and dormant-state populations in BM, respectively. BM-derived Lin(-) /CD106(+) /CD44(+) MSCs abundantly migrated to damaged muscles and highly expressed tumor necrosis factor-alpha-stimulated gene/protein-6 (TSG-6), an anti-inflammatory protein, in damaged muscles. We also demonstrated that TSG-6 stimulated myoblast proliferation. The injection of Lin(-) /ckit(-) /CD106(+) /CD44(+) MSCs into the muscle of mdx mice successfully ameliorated muscle dysfunction by decreasing inflammation and enhancing muscle regeneration through TSG-6-mediated activities. Thus, we propose a novel function of the unique endogenous BM-MSC population, which countered muscle pathology progression in a DMD model.

  9. CCR6 is required for IL-23–induced psoriasis-like inflammation in mice

    PubMed Central

    Hedrick, Michael N.; Lonsdorf, Anke S.; Shirakawa, Aiko-Konno; Lee, Chyi-Chia Richard; Liao, Fang; Singh, Satya P.; Zhang, Hongwei H.; Grinberg, Alexander; Love, Paul E.; Hwang, Sam T.; Farber, Joshua M.

    2009-01-01

    Psoriasis is a common immune-mediated chronic inflammatory skin disorder, but the mechanisms of pathogenesis are still poorly understood. IL-23 is expressed in psoriatic skin, and IL-23 injection produces IL-22–dependent psoriasiform changes in mouse skin. Th17 cells produce IL-22 and display CCR6, the CCL20 receptor; CCR6+ T cells and CCL20 are abundant in psoriatic skin. We investigated a possible role for CCR6 in recruiting Th17 cells and producing psoriasiform pathology by injecting IL-23 into the skin of WT and Ccr6–/– mice. Unlike for WT mice, IL-23–injected ears of Ccr6–/– mice showed neither substantial epidermal/dermal changes nor increased Il22 mRNA expression. However, injection of IL-22 yielded equivalent psoriasiform changes in WT and Ccr6–/– mice. Surprisingly, IL-23–injected ears of WT and Ccr6–/– mice contained similar numbers of Th cells able to make IL-17A and/or IL-22. Furthermore, in ears of Rag1–/– mice, IL-23 initially induced skin changes and levels of Il22 mRNA that were indistinguishable from WT mice, revealing at least one non–T cell source for IL-22. We conclude that CCR6 is essential in a model of IL-23–induced, IL-22–mediated dermatitis, which develops in sequential T cell–independent and T cell–dependent phases. These findings reveal an expanded role for CCR6 in IL-23–related responses and identify CCR6 as a potential therapeutic target in psoriasis. PMID:19662682

  10. CCR6 is required for IL-23-induced psoriasis-like inflammation in mice.

    PubMed

    Hedrick, Michael N; Lonsdorf, Anke S; Shirakawa, Aiko-Konno; Richard Lee, Chyi-Chia; Liao, Fang; Singh, Satya P; Zhang, Hongwei H; Grinberg, Alexander; Love, Paul E; Hwang, Sam T; Farber, Joshua M

    2009-08-01

    Psoriasis is a common immune-mediated chronic inflammatory skin disorder, but the mechanisms of pathogenesis are still poorly understood. IL-23 is expressed in psoriatic skin, and IL-23 injection produces IL-22-dependent psoriasiform changes in mouse skin. Th17 cells produce IL-22 and display CCR6, the CCL20 receptor; CCR6+ T cells and CCL20 are abundant in psoriatic skin. We investigated a possible role for CCR6 in recruiting Th17 cells and producing psoriasiform pathology by injecting IL-23 into the skin of WT and Ccr6-/- mice. Unlike for WT mice, IL-23-injected ears of Ccr6-/- mice showed neither substantial epidermal/dermal changes nor increased Il22 mRNA expression. However, injection of IL-22 yielded equivalent psoriasiform changes in WT and Ccr6-/- mice. Surprisingly, IL-23-injected ears of WT and Ccr6-/- mice contained similar numbers of Th cells able to make IL-17A and/or IL-22. Furthermore, in ears of Rag1-/- mice, IL-23 initially induced skin changes and levels of Il22 mRNA that were indistinguishable from WT mice, revealing at least one non-T cell source for IL-22. We conclude that CCR6 is essential in a model of IL-23-induced, IL-22-mediated dermatitis, which develops in sequential T cell-independent and T cell-dependent phases. These findings reveal an expanded role for CCR6 in IL-23-related responses and identify CCR6 as a potential therapeutic target in psoriasis.

  11. Helicobacter hepaticus urease is not required for intestinal colonization but promotes hepatic inflammation in male A/JCr mice.

    PubMed

    Ge, Zhongming; Lee, Amy; Whary, Mark T; Rogers, Arlin B; Maurer, Kirk J; Taylor, Nancy S; Schauer, David B; Fox, James G

    2008-07-01

    Urease activity contributes to bacterial survival in the acidic environment of the stomach and is essential for persistent infection by known gastric helicobacters such as the human pathogen Helicobacter pylori. Several enterohepatic Helicobacter species (EHS) that primarily infect the less acidic intestine also have very active urease enzymes. The importance of urease and its contribution to pathogenesis for these EHS are poorly understood. In this study, we generated a urease-deficient, isogenic mutant (HhureNT9) of Helicobacter hepaticus 3B1 (Hh 3B1), an EHS that possesses a urease gene cluster similar to that of H. pylori. Lack of urease activity did not affect the level of cecal colonization by HhureNT9 compared to Hh 3B1 in male A/JCr mice (P=0.48) at 4 months post-inoculation (MPI). In contrast, there was no HhureNT9 detected in the livers of any infected mice, whereas all livers from the Hh 3B1-infected mice were PCR-positive for Hh 3B1. The mice infected with HhureNT9 developed significantly less severe hepatitis (P=0.017) and also produced significantly lower hepatic mRNA levels of proinflammatory cytokines IFN-gamma (P=0.0007) and TNF-alpha (P<0.0001) compared to the Hh 3B1-infected mice. The Hh 3B1-infected mice developed significantly higher total IgG, Th1-associated IgG2a and Th2-associated IgG1 responses to infection. These results indicate that H. hepaticus urease activity plays a crucial role in hepatic disease but is not required for cecal colonization by H. hepaticus.

  12. Glutamate transporter type 3 knockout mice have a decreased isoflurane requirement to induce loss of righting reflex.

    PubMed

    Lee, S N; Li, L; Zuo, Z

    2010-12-15

    Excitatory amino acid transporters (EAAT) uptake extracellular glutamate, the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain. EAAT type 3 (EAAT3), the main neuronal EAAT, is expressed widely in the CNS. We have shown that the volatile anesthetic isoflurane increases EAAT3 activity and trafficking to the plasma membrane. Thus, we hypothesize that EAAT3 mediates isoflurane-induced anesthesia. To test this hypothesis, the potency of isoflurane to induce immobility and hypnosis, two major components of general anesthesia, was compared in the CD-1 wild-type mice and EAAT knockout mice that had a CD-1 strain gene background. Hypnosis was assessed by loss of righting reflex in this study. The expression of EAAT1 and EAAT2, two widely expressed EAATs in the CNS, in the cerebral cortex and spinal cord was not different between the EAAT3 knockout mice and wild-type mice. The concentration required for isoflurane to cause immobility to painful stimuli, a response involving primarily reflex loops in the spinal cord, was not changed by EAAT3 knockout. However, the EAAT3 knockout mice were more sensitive to isoflurane-induced hypnotic effects, which may be mediated by hypothalamic sleep neural circuits. Interestingly, the EAAT3 knockout mice did not have an altered sensitivity to the hypnotic effects caused by ketamine, an i.v. anesthetic that is a glutamate receptor antagonist and does not affect EAAT3 activity. These results suggest that EAAT3 modulates the sensitivity of neural circuits to isoflurane. These results, along with our previous findings which suggests that isoflurane increases EAAT3 activity, indicate that EAAT3 may regulate isoflurane-induced behavioral changes, including anesthesia.

  13. Osteocytic connexin 43 is not required for the increase in bone mass induced by intermittent PTH administration in male mice

    PubMed Central

    Pacheco-Costa, R.; Davis, H.M.; Atkinson, E.G.; Katchburian, E.; Plotkin, L.I.; Reginato, R.D.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether osteocytic connexin 43 (Cx43) is required for the bone response to intermittent PTH administration, and whether the connexin is involved in maintaining the bone matrix. Methods: Human PTH(1-34) was injected to adult male mice expressing (Cx43fl/fl) or not osteocytic Cx43 (Cx43fl/fl;DMP1-8kb-Cre) daily (100 µg/kg/d) for 14 days. Results: Cx43fl/fl;DMP1-8kb-Cre mice have no difference in body weight and BMD from 1 to 4 months of age. Intermittent PTH administration increased BMD and BV/TV and induced a similar increase in type I collagen, alkaline phosphatase, runx2, osteocalcin, and bone sialoprotein expression in mice from both genotypes. On the other hand, osteocytic deletion of Cx43 did not alter mRNA levels of glycosaminoglycans, proteoglycans, collagens and osteoblast-related genes. In addition, expression of collagens assessed by immunohistochemistry was not affected by deleting osteocytic Cx43. However, PTH administration increased type II collagen only in Cx43fl/fl control mice, whereas hormone increased type I collagen expression only in Cx43fl/fl;DMP1-8kb-Cre mice. Furthermore, PTH increased maturity of collagen fibers in control, but not in Cx43-deficient mice. Conclusion: Expression of Cx43 in osteocytes is dispensable for bone anabolism induced by intermittent PTH administration; but it can modulate, at least in part, the effect of PTH on the bone matrix environment. PMID:26944823

  14. LPIAT1 regulates arachidonic acid content in phosphatidylinositol and is required for cortical lamination in mice

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyeon-Cheol; Inoue, Takao; Sasaki, Junko; Kubo, Takuya; Matsuda, Shinji; Nakasaki, Yasuko; Hattori, Mitsuharu; Tanaka, Fumiharu; Udagawa, Osamu; Kono, Nozomu; Itoh, Toshiki; Ogiso, Hideo; Taguchi, Ryo; Arita, Makoto; Sasaki, Takehiko; Arai, Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    Dietary arachidonic acid (AA) has roles in growth, neuronal development, and cognitive function in infants. AA is remarkably enriched in phosphatidylinositol (PI), an important constituent of biological membranes in mammals; however, the physiological significance of AA-containing PI remains unknown. In an RNA interference–based genetic screen using Caenorhabditis elegans, we recently cloned mboa-7 as an acyltransferase that selectively incorporates AA into PI. Here we show that lysophosphatidylinositol acyltransferase 1 (LPIAT1, also known as MBOAT7), the closest mammalian homologue, plays a crucial role in brain development in mice. Lpiat1−/− mice show almost no LPIAT activity with arachidonoyl-CoA as an acyl donor and show reduced AA contents in PI and PI phosphates. Lpiat1−/− mice die within a month and show atrophy of the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. Immunohistochemical analysis reveals disordered cortical lamination and delayed neuronal migration in the cortex of E18.5 Lpiat1−/− mice. LPIAT1 deficiency also causes disordered neuronal processes in the cortex and reduced neurite outgrowth in vitro. Taken together, these results demonstrate that AA-containing PI/PI phosphates play an important role in normal cortical lamination during brain development in mice. PMID:23097495

  15. NADPH oxidases regulate septin-mediated cytoskeletal remodeling during plant infection by the rice blast fungus

    PubMed Central

    Ryder, Lauren S.; Dagdas, Yasin F.; Mentlak, Thomas A.; Kershaw, Michael J.; Thornton, Christopher R.; Schuster, Martin; Chen, Jisheng; Wang, Zonghua; Talbot, Nicholas J.

    2013-01-01

    The rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae infects plants with a specialized cell called an appressorium, which uses turgor to drive a rigid penetration peg through the rice leaf cuticle. Here, we show that NADPH oxidases (Nox) are necessary for septin-mediated reorientation of the F-actin cytoskeleton to facilitate cuticle rupture and plant cell invasion. We report that the Nox2–NoxR complex spatially organizes a heteroligomeric septin ring at the appressorium pore, required for assembly of a toroidal F-actin network at the point of penetration peg emergence. Maintenance of the cortical F-actin network during plant infection independently requires Nox1, a second NADPH oxidase, which is necessary for penetration hypha elongation. Organization of F-actin in appressoria is disrupted by application of antioxidants, whereas latrunculin-mediated depolymerization of appressorial F-actin is competitively inhibited by reactive oxygen species, providing evidence that regulated synthesis of reactive oxygen species by fungal NADPH oxidases directly controls septin and F-actin dynamics. PMID:23382235

  16. Tissue plasminogen activator is required for the development of fetal alcohol syndrome in mice.

    PubMed

    Noel, Melissa; Norris, Erin H; Strickland, Sidney

    2011-03-22

    Ethanol exposure during developmental synaptogenesis can lead to brain defects referred to as fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), which can include mental health problems such as cognitive deficits and mental retardation. In FAS, widespread neuronal death and brain mass loss precedes behavioral and cognitive impairments in adulthood. Because tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) has been implicated in neurodegeneration, we examined whether it mediates FAS. Neonatal WT and tPA-/- mice were injected with ethanol to mimic FAS in humans. In WT mice, ethanol elicited caspase-3 activation, significant forebrain neurodegeneration, and decreased contextual fear conditioning in adults. However, tPA-deficient mice were protected from these neurotoxicities, and this protection could be abrogated by exogenous tPA. Selective pharmacological modulators of NMDA and GABAA receptor pathways revealed that the effects of tPA were mediated by the NR2B subunit of the NMDA receptor. This study identifies tPA as a critical signaling component in FAS.

  17. NADPH oxidase 4 attenuates cerebral artery changes during the progression of Marfan syndrome.

    PubMed

    Onetti, Yara; Meirelles, Thayna; Dantas, Ana P; Schröder, Katrin; Vila, Elisabet; Egea, Gustavo; Jiménez-Altayó, Francesc

    2016-05-01

    Marfan syndrome (MFS) is a connective tissue disorder that is often associated with the fibrillin-1 (Fbn1) gene mutation and characterized by cardiovascular alterations, predominantly ascending aortic aneurysms. Although neurovascular complications are uncommon in MFS, the improvement in Marfan patients' life expectancy is revealing other secondary alterations, potentially including neurovascular disorders. However, little is known about small-vessel pathophysiology in MFS. MFS is associated with hyperactivated transforming growth factor (TGF)-β signaling, which among numerous other downstream effectors, induces the NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4) isoform of NADPH oxidase, a strong enzymatic source of H2O2 We hypothesized that MFS induces middle cerebral artery (MCA) alterations and that Nox4 contributes to them. MCA properties from 3-, 6-, or 9-mo-old Marfan (Fbn1(C1039G/+)) mice were compared with those from age/sex-matched wild-type littermates. At 6 mo, Marfan compared with wild-type mice developed higher MCA wall/lumen (wild-type: 0.081 ± 0.004; Marfan: 0.093 ± 0.002; 60 mmHg; P < 0.05), coupled with increased reactive oxygen species production, TGF-β, and Nox4 expression. However, wall stiffness and myogenic autoregulation did not change. To investigate the influence of Nox4 on cerebrovascular properties, we generated Marfan mice with Nox4 deficiency (Nox4(-/-)). Strikingly, Nox4 deletion in Marfan mice aggravated MCA wall thickening (cross-sectional area; Marfan: 6,660 ± 363 μm(2); Marfan Nox4(-/-): 8,795 ± 824 μm(2); 60 mmHg; P < 0.05), accompanied by decreased TGF-β expression and increased collagen deposition and Nox1 expression. These findings provide the first evidence that Nox4 mitigates cerebral artery structural changes in a murine model of MFS.

  18. Social Recognition Memory Requires Two Stages of Protein Synthesis in Mice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Gerald; Engelmann, Mario; Richter, Karin

    2005-01-01

    Olfactory recognition memory was tested in adult male mice using a social discrimination task. The testing was conducted to begin to characterize the role of protein synthesis and the specific brain regions associated with activity in this task. Long-term olfactory recognition memory was blocked when the protein synthesis inhibitor anisomycin was…

  19. PPARδ Is Required for Exercise to Attenuate Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Endothelial Dysfunction in Diabetic Mice.

    PubMed

    Cheang, Wai San; Wong, Wing Tak; Zhao, Lei; Xu, Jian; Wang, Li; Lau, Chi Wai; Chen, Zhen Yu; Ma, Ronald Ching Wan; Xu, Aimin; Wang, Nanping; Tian, Xiao Yu; Huang, Yu

    2017-02-01

    Physical activity has profound benefits on health, especially on cardiometabolic wellness. Experiments in rodents with trained exercise have shown that exercise improves vascular function and reduces vascular inflammation by modulating the balance between nitric oxide (NO) and oxidative stress. However, the upstream regulator of exercise-induced vascular benefits is unclear. We aimed to investigate the involvement of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ (PPARδ) in exercise-induced vascular functional improvement. We show that PPARδ is a crucial mediator for exercise to exert a beneficial effect on the vascular endothelium in diabetic mice. In db/db mice and high-fat diet-induced obese mice, 4 weeks of treadmill exercise restored endothelium-dependent vasodilation of aortas and flow-mediated vasodilation in mesenteric resistance arteries, whereas genetic ablation of Ppard abolished such improvements. Exercise induces AMPK activation and subsequent PPARδ activation, which help to reduce endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and oxidative stress, thus increasing NO bioavailability in endothelial cells and vascular tissues. Chemical chaperones 4-phenylbutyric acid and tauroursodeoxycholic acid decrease ER stress and protect against endothelial dysfunction in diabetic mice. The results demonstrate that PPARδ-mediated inhibition of ER stress contributes to the vascular benefits of exercise and provides potentially effective targets for treating diabetic vasculopathy.

  20. Trace Eyeblink Conditioning Requires the Hippocampus but Not Autophosphorylation of [alpha]CaMKII in Mice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohno, Masuo; Tseng, Wilbur; Silva, Alcino J.; Disterhoft, John F.

    2005-01-01

    Little is known about signaling mechanisms underlying temporal associative learning. Here, we show that mice with a targeted point mutation that prevents autophosphorylation of [alpha]CaMKII ([alpha]CaMKII[superscript T286A]) learn trace eyeblink conditioning normally. This forms a sharp contrast to the severely impaired spatial learning in the…

  1. CARD15/NOD2 Is Required for Peyer's Patches Homeostasis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Barreau, Frédérick; Meinzer, Ulrich; Chareyre, Fabrice; Berrebi, Dominique; Niwa-Kawakita, Michiko; Dussaillant, Monique; Foligne, Benoit; Ollendorff, Vincent; Heyman, Martine; Bonacorsi, Stéphane; Lesuffleur, Thecla; Sterkers, Ghislaine; Giovannini, Marco; Hugot, Jean-Pierre

    2007-01-01

    Background CARD15/NOD2 mutations are associated with susceptibility to Crohn's Disease (CD) and Graft Versus Host Disease (GVHD). CD and GVHD are suspected to be related with the dysfunction of Peyer's patches (PP) and isolated lymphoid follicles (LFs). Using a new mouse model invalidated for Card15/Nod2 (KO), we thus analysed the impact of the gene in these lymphoid formations together with the development of experimental colitis. Methodology/Principal Findings At weeks 4, 12 and 52, the numbers of PPs and LFs were higher in KO mice while no difference was observed at birth. At weeks 4 and 12, the size and cellular composition of PPs were analysed by flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry. PPs of KO mice were larger with an increased proportion of M cells and CD4+ T-cells. KO mice were also characterised by higher concentrations of TNFα, IFNγ, IL12 and IL4 measured by ELISA. In contrast, little differences were found in the PP-free ileum and the spleen of KO mice. By Ussing chamber experiments, we found that this PP phenotype is associated with an increased of both paracellular permeability and yeast/bacterial translocation. Finally, KO mice were more susceptible to the colitis induced by TNBS. Conclusions Card15/Nod2 deficiency induces an abnormal development and function of the PPs characterised by an exaggerated immune response and an increased permeability. These observations provide a comprehensive link between the molecular defect and the Human CARD15/NOD2 associated disorders: CD and GVHD. PMID:17565376

  2. Activation of endothelial cells after exposure to ambient ultrafine particles: The role of NADPH oxidase

    SciTech Connect

    Mo Yiqun; Wan Rong; Chien Sufan; Tollerud, David J.; Zhang Qunwei

    2009-04-15

    Several studies have shown that ultrafine particles (UFPs) may pass from the lungs to the circulation because of their very small diameter, and induce lung oxidative stress with a resultant increase in lung epithelial permeability. The direct effects of UFPs on vascular endothelium remain unknown. We hypothesized that exposure to UFPs leads to endothelial cell O{sub 2}{sup {center_dot}}{sup -} generation via NADPH oxidase and results in activation of endothelial cells. Our results showed that UFPs, at a non-toxic dose, induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in mouse pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (MPMVEC) that was inhibited by pre-treatment with the ROS scavengers or inhibitors, but not with the mitochondrial inhibitor, rotenone. UFP-induced ROS generation in MPMVEC was abolished by p67{sup phox} siRNA transfection and UFPs did not cause ROS generation in MPMVEC isolated from gp91{sup phox} knock-out mice. UFP-induced ROS generation in endothelial cells was also determined in vivo by using a perfused lung model with imaging. Moreover, Western blot and immunofluorescence staining results showed that MPMVEC treated with UFPs resulted in the translocation of cytosolic proteins of NADPH oxidase, p47{sup phox}, p67{sup phox} and rac 1, to the plasma membrane. These results demonstrate that NADPH oxidase in the pulmonary endothelium is involved in ROS generation following exposure to UFPs. To investigate the activation of endothelial cells by UFP-induced oxidative stress, we determined the activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in MPMVEC. Our results showed that exposure of MPMVEC to UFPs caused increased phosphorylation of p38 and ERK1/2 MAPKs that was blocked by pre-treatment with DPI or p67{sup phox} siRNA. Exposure of MPMVEC obtained from gp91{sup phox} knock-out mice to UFPs did not cause increased phosphorylation of p38 and ERK1/2 MAPKs. These findings confirm that UFPs can cause endothelial cells to generate ROS directly

  3. Pericentrin, a centrosomal protein related to microcephalic primordial dwarfism, is required for olfactory cilia assembly in mice.

    PubMed

    Miyoshi, Ko; Kasahara, Kyosuke; Miyazaki, Ikuko; Shimizu, Shoko; Taniguchi, Manabu; Matsuzaki, Shinsuke; Tohyama, Masaya; Asanuma, Masato

    2009-10-01

    The Drosophila pericentrin-like protein has been shown to be essential for the formation of the sensory cilia of chemosensory and mechanosensory neurons by mutant analysis in flies, while the in vivo function of pericentrin, a well-studied mammalian centrosomal protein related to microcephalic primordial dwarfism, has been unclear. To determine whether pericentrin is required for ciliogenesis in mammals, we generated and analyzed mice with a hypomorphic mutation of Pcnt encoding the mouse pericentrin. Immunofluorescence analysis demonstrated that olfactory cilia of chemosensory neurons in the nasal olfactory epithelium were malformed in the homozygous mutant mice. On the other hand, the assembly of motile and primary cilia of non-neuronal epithelial cells and the formation of sperm flagella were not affected in the Pcnt-mutant mice. The defective assembly of olfactory cilia in the mutant was apparent from birth. The mutant animals displayed reduced olfactory performance in agreement with the compromised assembly of olfactory cilia. Our findings suggest that pericentrin is essential for the assembly of chemosensory cilia of olfactory receptor neurons, but it is not globally required for cilia formation in mammals.

  4. The central cannabinoid CB1 receptor is required for diet-induced obesity and rimonabant's antiobesity effects in mice.

    PubMed

    Pang, Zhen; Wu, Nancy N; Zhao, Weiguang; Chain, David C; Schaffer, Erica; Zhang, Xin; Yamdagni, Preeti; Palejwala, Vaseem A; Fan, Chunpeng; Favara, Sarah G; Dressler, Holly M; Economides, Kyriakos D; Weinstock, Daniel; Cavallo, Jean S; Naimi, Souad; Galzin, Anne-Marie; Guillot, Etienne; Pruniaux, Marie-Pierre; Tocci, Michael J; Polites, H Greg

    2011-10-01

    Cannabinoid receptor CB1 is expressed abundantly in the brain and presumably in the peripheral tissues responsible for energy metabolism. It is unclear if the antiobesity effects of rimonabant, a CB1 antagonist, are mediated through the central or the peripheral CB1 receptors. To address this question, we generated transgenic mice with central nervous system (CNS)-specific knockdown (KD) of CB1, by expressing an artificial microRNA (AMIR) under the control of the neuronal Thy1.2 promoter. In the mutant mice, CB1 expression was reduced in the brain and spinal cord, whereas no change was observed in the superior cervical ganglia (SCG), sympathetic trunk, enteric nervous system, and pancreatic ganglia. In contrast to the neuronal tissues, CB1 was undetectable in the brown adipose tissue (BAT) or the liver. Consistent with the selective loss of central CB1, agonist-induced hypothermia was attenuated in the mutant mice, but the agonist-induced delay of gastrointestinal transit (GIT), a primarily peripheral nervous system-mediated effect, was not. Compared to wild-type (WT) littermates, the mutant mice displayed reduced body weight (BW), adiposity, and feeding efficiency, and when fed a high-fat diet (HFD), showed decreased plasma insulin, leptin, cholesterol, and triglyceride levels, and elevated adiponectin levels. Furthermore, the therapeutic effects of rimonabant on food intake (FI), BW, and serum parameters were markedly reduced and correlated with the degree of CB1 KD. Thus, KD of CB1 in the CNS recapitulates the metabolic phenotype of CB1 knockout (KO) mice and diminishes rimonabant's efficacy, indicating that blockade of central CB1 is required for rimonabant's antiobesity actions.

  5. Cytosolic NADPH balancing in Penicillium chrysogenum cultivated on mixtures of glucose and ethanol.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zheng; Kuijvenhoven, Karel; van Gulik, Walter M; Heijnen, Joseph J; van Winden, Wouter A; Verheijen, Peter J T

    2011-01-01

    The in vivo flux through the oxidative branch of the pentose phosphate pathway (oxPPP) in Penicillium chrysogenum was determined during growth in glucose/ethanol carbon-limited chemostat cultures, at the same growth rate. Non-stationary (13)C flux analysis was used to measure the oxPPP flux. A nearly constant oxPPP flux was found for all glucose/ethanol ratios studied. This indicates that the cytosolic NADPH supply is independent of the amount of assimilated ethanol. The cofactor assignment in the model of van Gulik et al. (Biotechnol Bioeng 68(6):602-618, 2000) was supported using the published genome annotation of P. chrysogenum. Metabolic flux analysis showed that NADPH requirements in the cytosol remain nearly the same in these experiments due to constant biomass growth. Based on the cytosolic NADPH balance, it is known that the cytosolic aldehyde dehydrogenase in P. chrysogenum is NAD(+) dependent. Metabolic modeling shows that changing the NAD(+)-aldehyde dehydrogenase to NADP(+)-aldehyde dehydrogenase can increase the penicillin yield on substrate.

  6. Nitrate transport is independent of NADH and NAD(P)H nitrate reductases in barley seedlings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warner, R. L.; Huffaker, R. C.

    1989-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) has NADH-specific and NAD(P)H-bispecific nitrate reductase isozymes. Four isogenic lines with different nitrate reductase isozyme combinations were used to determine the role of NADH and NAD(P)H nitrate reductases on nitrate transport and assimilation in barley seedlings. Both nitrate reductase isozymes were induced by nitrate and were required for maximum nitrate assimilation in barley seedlings. Genotypes lacking the NADH isozyme (Az12) or the NAD(P)H isozyme (Az70) assimilated 65 or 85%, respectively, as much nitrate as the wild type. Nitrate assimilation by genotype (Az12;Az70) which is deficient in both nitrate reductases, was only 13% of the wild type indicating that the NADH and NAD(P)H nitrate reductase isozymes are responsible for most of the nitrate reduction in barley seedlings. For all genotypes, nitrate assimilation rates in the dark were about 55% of the rates in light. Hypotheses that nitrate reductase has direct or indirect roles in nitrate uptake were not supported by this study. Induction of nitrate transporters and the kinetics of net nitrate uptake were the same for all four genotypes indicating that neither nitrate reductase isozyme has a direct role in nitrate uptake in barley seedlings.

  7. Incretin hormone receptors are required for normal beta cell development and function in female mice.

    PubMed

    Omar, Bilal; Ahlkvist, Linda; Yamada, Yuchiro; Seino, Yutaka; Ahrén, Bo

    2016-05-01

    The incretin hormones, glucose dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), potentiate insulin secretion and are responsible for the majority of insulin secretion that occurs after a meal. They may also, however, have a fundamental role in pancreatic beta cell development and function, independently of their role in potentiating insulin secretion after a meal. This has led to observations that a loss of GIP or GLP-1 action affects normal beta cell function, however each one of the incretin hormones may compensate when the action of the other is lost and therefore the overall impact of the incretin hormones on beta cell function is not known. We therefore utilized a mouse line deficient in both the GLP-1 and GIP receptor genes, the double incretin receptor knockout (DIRKO), to determine the consequences of a lifelong, complete lack of incretin hormone action on beta cell function, in vivo, in intact animals. We found that DIRKO mice displayed impaired glucose tolerance and insulin secretion in response to both oral glucose and mixed meal tolerance tests compared to wild-type mice. Assessment of beta cell function using the hyperglycemic clamp technique revealed an 80% decrease in first phase insulin response in DIRKO mice, but a normal second phase insulin secretion. A similar decline was seen when wild-type mice were given acute intravenous injection of glucose together with the GLP-1 receptor antagonist Ex9-39. Ex vivo assessments of the pancreas revealed significantly fewer islets in the pancreata of DIRKO mice despite no differences in total pancreatic mass. Insulin secretion from isolated islets of DIRKO mice was impaired to a similar extent to that seen during the hyperglycemic clamp. Insulin secretion in wild-type islets was impaired by acute treatment with Ex9-39 to a similar extent as the in vivo intravenous glucose tolerance tests. In conclusion, a loss of the action of both incretin hormones results in direct impairment

  8. Embryonic poly(A)-binding protein (EPAB) is required for oocyte maturation and female fertility in mice

    PubMed Central

    Guzeloglu-Kayisli, Ozlem; Lalioti, Maria D.; Aydiner, Fulya; Sasson, Isaac; Ilbay, Orkan; Sakkas, Denny; Lowther, Katie M.; Mehlmann, Lisa M.; Seli, Emre

    2014-01-01

    Gene expression during oocyte maturation and early embryogenesis up to zygotic genome activation requires translational activation of maternally-derived mRNAs. EPAB [embryonic poly(A)-binding protein] is the predominant poly(A)-binding protein during this period in Xenopus, mouse and human. In Xenopus oocytes, ePAB stabilizes maternal mRNAs and promotes their translation. To assess the role of EPAB in mammalian reproduction, we generated Epab-knockout mice. Although Epab−/− males and Epab+/− of both sexes were fertile, Epab−/− female mice were infertile, and could not generate embryos or mature oocytes in vivo or in vitro. Epab−/− oocytes failed to achieve translational activation of maternally-stored mRNAs upon stimulation of oocyte maturation, including Ccnb1 (cyclin B1) and Dazl (deleted in azoospermia-like) mRNAs. Microinjection of Epab mRNA into Epab−/− germinal vesicle stage oocytes did not rescue maturation, suggesting that EPAB is also required for earlier stages of oogenesis. In addition, late antral follicles in the ovaries of Epab−/− mice exhibited impaired cumulus expansion, and a 8-fold decrease in ovulation, associated with a significant down-regulation of mRNAs encoding the EGF (epidermal growth factor)-like growth factors Areg (amphiregulin), Ereg (epiregulin) and Btc (betacellulin), and their downstream regulators, Ptgs2 (prostaglandin synthase 2), Has2 (hyaluronan synthase 2) and Tnfaip6 (tumour necrosis factor α-induced protein 6). The findings from the present study indicate that EPAB is necessary for oogenesis, folliculogenesis and female fertility in mice. PMID:22621333

  9. Bcl2 is not required for the development and maintenance of leukemia stem cells in mice

    PubMed Central

    González-Herrero, Inés; Vicente-Dueñas, Carolina; Orfao, Alberto; Flores, Teresa; Jiménez, Rafael; Cobaleda, César; Sánchez-García, Isidro

    2010-01-01

    The existence of leukemia stem cells (LSCs) responsible for tumor maintenance has been firmly established. Therefore, therapeutic targeting of these LSCs may have a profound impact on cancer eradication. The anti-apoptotic protein Bcl2 has been proposed as a therapeutic target, but its role in LSC biology has not been investigated. In order to understand the role of Bcl2 in LSC generation and maintenance, we have taken advantage of our Sca1-BCRABLp210 mouse model of human chronic myeloid leukemia and bcl2 gene-targeted mice. This study provides genetic evidence that the inhibition of Bcl2 is not critical for the generation, selection or maintenance of the tumor initiating and maintaining cells in mice. PMID:20299524

  10. Parp-2 is required to maintain hematopoiesis following sublethal γ-irradiation in mice.

    PubMed

    Farrés, Jordi; Martín-Caballero, Juan; Martínez, Carlos; Lozano, Juan J; Llacuna, Laura; Ampurdanés, Coral; Ruiz-Herguido, Cristina; Dantzer, Françoise; Schreiber, Valérie; Villunger, Andreas; Bigas, Anna; Yélamos, José

    2013-07-04

    Hematopoietic stem cells self-renew for life to guarantee the continuous supply of all blood cell lineages. Here we show that Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-2 (Parp-2) plays an essential role in hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPC) survival under steady-state conditions and in response to stress. Increased levels of cell death were observed in HSPC from untreated Parp-2-/- mice, but this deficit was compensated by increased rates of self-renewal, associated with impaired reconstitution of hematopoiesis upon serial bone marrow transplantation. Cell death after γ-irradiation correlated with an impaired capacity to repair DNA damage in the absence of Parp-2. Upon exposure to sublethal doses of γ-irradiation, Parp-2-/- mice exhibited bone marrow failure that correlated with reduced long-term repopulation potential of irradiated Parp-2-/- HSPC under competitive conditions. In line with a protective role of Parp-2 against irradiation-induced apoptosis, loss of p53 or the pro-apoptotic BH3-only protein Puma restored survival of irradiated Parp-2-/- mice, whereas loss of Noxa had no such effect. Our results show that Parp-2 plays essential roles in the surveillance of genome integrity of HSPC by orchestrating DNA repair and restraining p53-induced and Puma-mediated apoptosis. The data may affect the design of drugs targeting Parp proteins and the improvement of radiotherapy-based therapeutic strategies.

  11. Inhibition of pulmonary fibrosis in mice by CXCL10 requires glycosaminoglycan binding and syndecan-4

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Dianhua; Liang, Jiurong; Campanella, Gabriele S.; Guo, Rishu; Yu, Shuang; Xie, Ting; Liu, Ningshan; Jung, Yoosun; Homer, Robert; Meltzer, Eric B.; Li, Yuejuan; Tager, Andrew M.; Goetinck, Paul F.; Luster, Andrew D.; Noble, Paul W.

    2010-01-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis is a progressive, dysregulated response to injury culminating in compromised lung function due to excess extracellular matrix production. The heparan sulfate proteoglycan syndecan-4 is important in mediating fibroblast-matrix interactions, but its role in pulmonary fibrosis has not been explored. To investigate this issue, we used intratracheal instillation of bleomycin as a model of acute lung injury and fibrosis. We found that bleomycin treatment increased syndecan-4 expression. Moreover, we observed a marked decrease in neutrophil recruitment and an increase in both myofibroblast recruitment and interstitial fibrosis in bleomycin-treated syndecan-4–null (Sdc4–/–) mice. Subsequently, we identified a direct interaction between CXCL10, an antifibrotic chemokine, and syndecan-4 that inhibited primary lung fibroblast migration during fibrosis; mutation of the heparin-binding domain, but not the CXCR3 domain, of CXCL10 diminished this effect. Similarly, migration of fibroblasts from patients with pulmonary fibrosis was inhibited in the presence of CXCL10 protein defective in CXCR3 binding. Furthermore, administration of recombinant CXCL10 protein inhibited fibrosis in WT mice, but not in Sdc4–/– mice. Collectively, these data suggest that the direct interaction of syndecan-4 and CXCL10 in the lung interstitial compartment serves to inhibit fibroblast recruitment and subsequent fibrosis. Thus, administration of CXCL10 protein defective in CXCR3 binding may represent a novel therapy for pulmonary fibrosis. PMID:20484822

  12. A computational strategy for altering an enzyme in its cofactor preference to NAD(H) and/or NADP(H).

    PubMed

    Cui, Dongbing; Zhang, Lujia; Jiang, Shuiqin; Yao, Zhiqiang; Gao, Bei; Lin, Jinping; Yuan, Y Adam; Wei, Dongzhi

    2015-06-01

    Coenzyme engineering, especially for altered coenzyme specificity, has been a research hotspot for more than a decade. In the present study, a novel computational strategy that enhances the hydrogen-bond interaction between an enzyme and a coenzyme was developed and utilized to alter the coenzyme preference. This novel computational strategy only required the structure of the target enzyme. No other homologous enzymes were needed to achieve alteration in the coenzyme preference of a certain enzyme. Using our novel strategy, Gox2181 was reconstructed from exhibiting complete NADPH preference to exhibiting dual cofactor specificity for NADH and NADPH. Structure-guided Gox2181 mutants were designed in silico and molecular dynamics simulations were performed to evaluate the strength of hydrogen-bond interactions between the enzyme and the coenzyme NADPH. Three Gox2181 mutants displaying high structure stability and structural compatibility to NADH/NADPH were chosen for experimental confirmation. Among the three Gox2181 mutants, Gox2181-Q20R&D43S showed the highest enzymatic activity by utilizing NADPH as its coenzyme, which was even better than the wild-type enzyme. In addition, isothermal titration calorimetry analysis further verified that Gox2181-Q20R&D43S was able to interact with NADPH but the wild-type enzyme could not. This novel computational strategy represents an insightful approach for altering the cofactor preference of target enzymes.

  13. NADPH oxidase and aging drive microglial activation, oxidative stress, and dopaminergic neurodegeneration following systemic LPS administration.

    PubMed

    Qin, Liya; Liu, Yuxin; Hong, Jau-Shyong; Crews, Fulton T

    2013-06-01

    Parkinson's disease is characterized by a progressive degeneration of substantia nigra (SN) dopaminergic neurons with age. We previously found that a single systemic lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 5 mg/kg, i.p.) injection caused a slow progressive loss of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive (TH+IR) neurons in SN associated with increasing motor dysfunction. In this study, we investigated the role of NADPH oxidase (NOX) in inflammation-mediated SN neurotoxicity. A comparison of control (NOX2(+/+) ) mice with NOX subunit gp91(phox) -deficient (NOX2(-/-) ) mice 10 months after LPS administration (5 mg/kg, i.p.) resulted in a 39% (P < 0.01) loss of TH+IR neurons in NOX2(+/+) mice, whereas NOX2(-/-) mice did not show a significant decrease. Microglia (Iba1+IR) showed morphological activation in NOX2(+/+) mice, but not in NOX2(-/-) mice at 1 hr. Treatment of NOX2(+/+) mice with LPS resulted in a 12-fold increase in NOX2 mRNA in midbrain and 5.5-6.5-fold increases in NOX2 protein (+IR) in SN compared with the saline controls. Brain reactive oxygen species (ROS), determined using diphenyliodonium histochemistry, was increased by LPS in SN between 1 hr and 20 months. Diphenyliodonium (DPI), an NOX inhibitor, blocked LPS-induced activation of microglia and production of ROS, TNFα, IL-1β, and MCP-1. Although LPS increased microglial activation and ROS at all ages studied, saline control NOX2(+/+) mice showed age-related increases in microglial activation, NOX, and ROS levels at 12 and 22 months of age. Together, these results suggest that NOX contributes to persistent microglial activation, ROS production, and dopaminergic neurodegeneration that persist and continue to increase with age.

  14. NADPH oxidase and aging drive microglial activation, oxidative stress and dopaminergic neurodegeneration following systemic LPS administration

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Liya; Liu, Yuxin; Hong, Jau-Shyong; Crews, Fulton T.

    2013-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease is characterized by a progressive degeneration of substantia nigra (SN) dopaminergic neurons with age. We previously found that a single systemic lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 5 mg/kg, i.p.) injection caused a slow progressive loss of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive (TH+IR) neurons in SN associated with increasing motor dysfunction. In this study, we investigated the role of NADPH oxidase (NOX) in inflammation-mediated SN neurotoxicity. A comparison of control (NOX2+/+) mice with NOX subunit gp91phox-deficient (NOX2−/−) mice 10 months after LPS administration (5 mg/kg, i.p.) resulted in a 39% (p<0.01) loss of TH+IR neurons in NOX2+/+ mice, whereas, NOX2−/− mice did not show a significant decrease. Microglia (Iba1+IR) showed morphological activation in NOX2+/+ mice, but not in NOX2−/− mice at 1 hour. Treatment of NOX2+/+ mice with LPS resulted in a 12 fold increase in NOX2 mRNA in midbrain and 5.5–6.5 fold increases in NOX2 protein (+IR) in SN compared to the saline controls. Brain reactive oxygen species (ROS), determined by hydroethidine histochemistry, was increased by LPS in SN between 1 hour and 20 months. Diphenyliodonium (DPI), a NOX inhibitor, blocked LPS-induced activation of microglia and production of ROS, TNFα, IL-1β, and MCP-1. Although LPS increased microglial activation and ROS at all ages studied, saline control NOX2+/+ mice showed age-related increases in microglial activation, NOX and ROS levels at 12 and 22 months of age. Together, these results suggest that NOX contributes to persistent microglial activation, ROS production and dopaminergic neurodegeneration that persist and continue to increase with age. PMID:23536230

  15. Discovery of GSK2795039, a Novel Small Molecule NADPH Oxidase 2 Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Hirano, Kazufumi; Chen, Woei Shin; Chueng, Adeline L.W.; Dunne, Angela A.; Seredenina, Tamara; Filippova, Aleksandra; Ramachandran, Sumitra; Bridges, Angela; Chaudry, Laiq; Pettman, Gary; Allan, Craig; Duncan, Sarah; Lee, Kiew Ching; Lim, Jean; Ma, May Thu; Ong, Agnes B.; Ye, Nicole Y.; Nasir, Shabina; Mulyanidewi, Sri; Aw, Chiu Cheong; Oon, Pamela P.; Liao, Shihua; Li, Dizheng; Johns, Douglas G.; Miller, Neil D.; Davies, Ceri H.; Browne, Edward R.; Matsuoka, Yasuji; Chen, Deborah W.; Jaquet, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Aims: The NADPH oxidase (NOX) family of enzymes catalyzes the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). NOX enzymes not only have a key role in a variety of physiological processes but also contribute to oxidative stress in certain disease states. To date, while numerous small molecule inhibitors have been reported (in particular for NOX2), none have demonstrated inhibitory activity in vivo. As such, there is a need for the identification of improved NOX inhibitors to enable further evaluation of the biological functions of NOX enzymes in vivo as well as the therapeutic potential of NOX inhibition. In this study, both the in vitro and in vivo pharmacological profiles of GSK2795039, a novel NOX2 inhibitor, were characterized in comparison with other published NOX inhibitors. Results: GSK2795039 inhibited both the formation of ROS and the utilization of the enzyme substrates, NADPH and oxygen, in a variety of semirecombinant cell-free and cell-based NOX2 assays. It inhibited NOX2 in an NADPH competitive manner and was selective over other NOX isoforms, xanthine oxidase, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase enzymes. Following systemic administration in mice, GSK2795039 abolished the production of ROS by activated NOX2 enzyme in a paw inflammation model. Furthermore, GSK2795039 showed activity in a murine model of acute pancreatitis, reducing the levels of serum amylase triggered by systemic injection of cerulein. Innovation and Conclusions: GSK2795039 is a novel NOX2 inhibitor that is the first small molecule to demonstrate inhibition of the NOX2 enzyme in vivo. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 23, 358–374. PMID:26135714

  16. NAD kinase levels control the NADPH concentration in human cells.

    PubMed

    Pollak, Nadine; Niere, Marc; Ziegler, Mathias

    2007-11-16

    NAD kinases (NADKs) are vital, as they generate the cellular NADP pool. As opposed to three compartment-specific isoforms in plants and yeast, only a single NADK has been identified in mammals whose cytoplasmic localization we established by immunocytochemistry. To understand the physiological roles of the human enzyme, we generated and analyzed cell lines stably deficient in or overexpressing NADK. Short hairpin RNA-mediated down-regulation led to similar (about 70%) decrease of both NADK expression, activity, and the NADPH concentration and was accompanied by increased sensitivity toward H(2)O(2). Overexpression of NADK resulted in a 4-5-fold increase in the NADPH, but not NADP(+), concentration, although the recombinant enzyme phosphorylated preferentially NAD(+). Surprisingly, NADK overexpression and the ensuing increase of the NADPH level only moderately enhanced protection against oxidant treatment. Apparently, to maintain the NADPH level for the regeneration of oxidative defense systems human cells depend primarily on NADP-dependent dehydrogenases (which re-reduce NADP(+)), rather than on a net increase of NADP. The stable shifts of the NADPH level in the generated cell lines were also accompanied by alterations in the expression of peroxiredoxin 5 and Nrf2. Because the basal oxygen radical level in the cell lines was only slightly changed, the redox state of NADP may be a major transmitter of oxidative stress.

  17. Engineering an NADPH/NADP(+) Redox Biosensor in Yeast.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Sonnenschein, Nikolaus; Pihl, Thomas P B; Pedersen, Kasper R; Jensen, Michael K; Keasling, Jay D

    2016-12-16

    Genetically encoded biosensors have emerged as powerful tools for timely and precise in vivo evaluation of cellular metabolism. In particular, biosensors that can couple intercellular cues with downstream signaling responses are currently attracting major attention within health science and biotechnology. Still, there is a need for bioprospecting and engineering of more biosensors to enable real-time monitoring of specific cellular states and controlling downstream actuation. In this study, we report the engineering and application of a transcription factor-based NADPH/NADP(+) redox biosensor in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Using the biosensor, we are able to monitor the cause of oxidative stress by chemical induction, and changes in NADPH/NADP(+) ratios caused by genetic manipulations. Because of the regulatory potential of the biosensor, we also show that the biosensor can actuate upon NADPH deficiency by activation of NADPH regeneration. Finally, we couple the biosensor with an expression of dosage-sensitive genes (DSGs) and thereby create a novel tunable sensor-selector useful for synthetic selection of cells with higher NADPH/NADP(+) ratios from mixed cell populations. We show that the combination of exploitation and rational engineering of native signaling components is applicable for diagnosis, regulation, and selection of cellular redox states.

  18. NADPH OXIDASE: STRUCTURE AND ACTIVATION MECHANISMS (REVIEW). NOTE I.

    PubMed

    Filip-Ciubotaru, Florina; Manciuc, Carmen; Stoleriu, Gabriela; Foia, Liliana

    2016-01-01

    NADPH oxidase (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-oxidase), with its generically termed NOX isoforms, is the major source of ROS (reactive oxigen species) in biological systems. ROS are small oxygen-derived molecules with an important role in various biological processes (physiological or pathological). If under physiological conditions some processes are beneficial and necessary for life, under pathophysiological conditions they are noxious, harmful. NADPH oxidases are present in phagocytes and in a wide variety of nonphagocytic cells. The enzyme generates superoxide by transferring electrons from NADPH inside the cell across the membrane and coupling them to molecular oxygen to produce superoxide anion, a reactive free-radical. Structurally, NADPH oxidase is a multicomponent enzyme which includes two integral membrane proteins, glycoprotein gp9 1 Phox and adaptor protein p22(phox), which together form the heterodimeric flavocytochrome b558 that constitutes the core of the enzyme. During the resting state, the multidomain regulatory subunits p40P(phox), p47(phox), p67(Phox) are located in the cytosol organized as a complex. The activation of phagocytic NADPH oxidase occurs through a complex series of protein interactions.

  19. NOX4 NADPH Oxidase-Dependent Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress in Aging-Associated Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Vendrov, Aleksandr E.; Vendrov, Kimberly C.; Smith, Alberto; Yuan, Jinling; Sumida, Arihiro; Robidoux, Jacques; Madamanchi, Nageswara R.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Increased oxidative stress and vascular inflammation are implicated in increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence with age. We and others demonstrated that NOX1/2 NADPH oxidase inhibition, by genetic deletion of p47phox, in Apoe−/− mice decreases vascular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and atherosclerosis in young age. The present study examined whether NOX1/2 NADPH oxidases are also pivotal to aging-associated CVD. Results: Both aged (16 months) Apoe−/− and Apoe−/−/p47phox−/− mice had increased atherosclerotic lesion area, aortic stiffness, and systolic dysfunction compared with young (4 months) cohorts. Cellular and mitochondrial ROS (mtROS) levels were significantly higher in aortic wall and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) from aged wild-type and p47phox−/− mice. VSMCs from aged mice had increased mitochondrial protein oxidation and dysfunction and increased vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 expression, which was abrogated with (2-(2,2,6,6-Tetramethylpiperidin-1-oxyl-4-ylamino)-2-oxoethyl)triphenylphosphonium chloride (MitoTEMPO) treatment. NOX4 expression was increased in the vasculature and mitochondria of aged mice and its suppression with shRNA in VSMCs from aged mice decreased mtROS levels and improved function. Increased mtROS levels were associated with enhanced mitochondrial NOX4 expression in aortic VSMCs from aged subjects, and NOX4 expression levels in arterial wall correlated with age and atherosclerotic severity. Aged Apoe−/− mice treated with MitoTEMPO and 2-(2-chlorophenyl)-4-methyl-5-(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)-1H-pyrazolo[4,3-c]pyridine-3,6(2H,5H)-dione had decreased vascular ROS levels and atherosclerosis and preserved vascular and cardiac function. Innovation and Conclusion: These data suggest that NOX4, but not NOX1/2, and mitochondrial oxidative stress are mediators of CVD in aging under hyperlipidemic conditions. Regulating NOX4 activity/expression and using mitochondrial antioxidants are

  20. Embryonic Poly(A)-Binding Protein (EPAB) Is Required for Granulosa Cell EGF Signaling and Cumulus Expansion in Female Mice.

    PubMed

    Yang, Cai-Rong; Lowther, Katie M; Lalioti, Maria D; Seli, Emre

    2016-01-01

    Embryonic poly(A)-binding protein (EPAB) is the predominant poly(A)-binding protein in Xenopus, mouse, and human oocytes and early embryos before zygotic genome activation. EPAB is required for translational activation of maternally stored mRNAs in the oocyte and Epab(-/-) female mice are infertile due to impaired oocyte maturation, cumulus expansion, and ovulation. The aim of this study was to characterize the mechanism of follicular somatic cell dysfunction in Epab(-/-) mice. Using a coculture system of oocytectomized cumulus oophorus complexes (OOXs) with denuded oocytes, we found that when wild-type OOXs were cocultured with Epab(-/-) oocytes, or when Epab(-/-) OOXs were cocultured with WT oocytes, cumulus expansion failed to occur in response to epidermal growth factor (EGF). This finding suggests that oocytes and cumulus cells (CCs) from Epab(-/-) mice fail to send and receive the necessary signals required for cumulus expansion. The abnormalities in Epab(-/-) CCs are not due to lower expression of the oocyte-derived factors growth differentiation factor 9 or bone morphogenetic protein 15, because Epab(-/-) oocytes express these proteins at comparable levels with WT. Epab(-/-) granulosa cells (GCs) exhibit decreased levels of phosphorylated MEK1/2, ERK1/2, and p90 ribosomal S6 kinase in response to lutenizing hormone and EGF treatment, as well as decreased phosphorylation of the EGF receptor. In conclusion, EPAB, which is oocyte specific, is required for the ability of CCs and GCs to become responsive to LH and EGF signaling. These results emphasize the importance of oocyte-somatic communication for GC and CC function.

  1. Nrf2 promotes reparative angiogenesis through regulation of NADPH oxidase-2 in oxygen-induced retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yanhong; Gong, Junsong; Xu, Zhenhua; Duh, Elia J

    2016-10-01

    Revascularization of ischemic tissue is a highly desirable outcome in multiple diseases, including cardiovascular diseases and ischemic retinopathies. Oxidative stress and inflammation are both known to play a role in suppressing reparative angiogenesis in ischemic disease models including oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR), but the regulatory molecules governing these pathophysiologic processes in retinal ischemia are largely unknown. Nrf2 is a major stress-response transcription factor that has been implicated in regulating ischemic angiogenesis in the retina and other tissue beds. Using Nrf2-deficient mice, we investigated the effects of Nrf2 in regulating revascularization and modulating the retinal tissue milieu during ischemia. Strikingly, Nrf2's beneficial effect on reparative angiogenesis only became manifested in the later phase of ischemia in OIR, from postnatal day 14 (P14) to P17. This was temporally associated with a reduction in both oxidative stress and inflammatory mediators in wild-type compared to Nrf2(-/-) mice. Nrf2(-/-) retinas exhibited an increase in VEGF but also induction of anti-angiogenic Dll4/Notch signaling. NADPH oxidase (NOX), and especially NOX2, is a major pathogenic molecule and a particularly important contributor to oxidative stress in multiple retinal disease processes. Nrf2(-/-) mice exhibited a significant exacerbation of NOX2 induction in OIR that manifested in the later phases of ischemia. Pharmacologic inhibition of NADPH oxidase abrogated the adverse effect of Nrf2 deficiency on reparative angiogenesis. Taken together, this suggests that Nrf2 is an important regulator of the retinal milieu during tissue ischemia, and that the Nrf2/NOX2 balance may play a critical role in determining the fate of ischemic revascularization.

  2. CFAP54 is required for proper ciliary motility and assembly of the central pair apparatus in mice

    PubMed Central

    McKenzie, Casey W.; Craige, Branch; Kroeger, Tiffany V.; Finn, Rozzy; Wyatt, Todd A.; Sisson, Joseph H.; Pavlik, Jacqueline A.; Strittmatter, Lara; Hendricks, Gregory M.; Witman, George B.; Lee, Lance

    2015-01-01

    Motile cilia and flagella play critical roles in fluid clearance and cell motility, and dysfunction commonly results in the pediatric syndrome primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD). CFAP221, also known as PCDP1, is required for ciliary and flagellar function in mice and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, where it localizes to the C1d projection of the central microtubule apparatus and functions in a complex that regulates flagellar motility in a calcium-dependent manner. We demonstrate that the genes encoding the mouse homologues of the other C. reinhardtii C1d complex members are primarily expressed in motile ciliated tissues, suggesting a conserved function in mammalian motile cilia. The requirement for one of these C1d complex members, CFAP54, was identified in a mouse line with a gene-trapped allele. Homozygous mice have PCD characterized by hydrocephalus, male infertility, and mucus accumulation. The infertility results from defects in spermatogenesis. Motile cilia have a structural defect in the C1d projection, indicating that the C1d assembly mechanism requires CFAP54. This structural defect results in decreased ciliary beat frequency and perturbed cilia-driven flow. This study identifies a critical role for CFAP54 in proper assembly and function of mammalian cilia and flagella and establishes the gene-trapped allele as a new model of PCD. PMID:26224312

  3. Helicobacter Infection Is Required for Inflammation and Colon Cancer in Smad3-Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Maggio-Price, Lillian; Treuting, Piper; Zeng, Weiping; Tsang, Mark; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Helle; Iritani, Brian M.

    2017-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that intestinal microbial organisms may play an important role in triggering and sustaining inflammation in individuals afflicted with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Moreover, individuals with IBD are at increased risk for developing colorectal cancer, suggesting that chronic inflammation may initiate genetic or epigenetic changes associated with cancer development. We tested the hypothesis that bacteria may contribute to the development of colon cancer by synergizing with defective transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling, a pathway commonly mutated in human colon cancer. Although others have reported that mice deficient in the TGF-β signaling molecule SMAD3 develop colon cancer, we found that SMAD3-deficient mice maintained free of the Gram-negative enterohepatic bacteria Helicobacter spp. for up to 9 months do not develop colon cancer. Furthermore, infection of SMAD3−/− mice with Helicobacter triggers colon cancer in 50% to 66% of the animals. Using real-time PCR, we found that Helicobacter organisms concentrate in the cecum, the preferred site of tumor development. Mucinous adenocarcinomas develop 5 to 30 weeks after infection and are preceded by an early inflammatory phase, consisting of increased proliferation of epithelial cells; increased numbers of cyclooxygenase-2–positive cells, CD4+ T cells, macrophages; and increased MHC class II expression. Colonic tissue revealed increased transcripts for the oncogene c-myc and the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1α (IL-1α), IL-1β, IL-6, IFN-γ, and tumor necrosis factor-α, some of which have been implicated in colon cancer. These results suggest that bacteria may be important in triggering colorectal cancer, notably in the context of gene mutations in the TGF-β signaling pathway, one of the most commonly affected cellular pathways in colorectal cancer in humans. PMID:16424015

  4. DosS Is required for the complete virulence of mycobacterium tuberculosis in mice with classical granulomatous lesions.

    PubMed

    Gautam, Uma S; McGillivray, Amanda; Mehra, Smriti; Didier, Peter J; Midkiff, Cecily C; Kissee, Ryan S; Golden, Nadia A; Alvarez, Xavier; Niu, Tianhua; Rengarajan, Jyothi; Sherman, David R; Kaushal, Deepak

    2015-06-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) must counter hypoxia within granulomas to persist. DosR, in concert with sensor kinases DosS and DosT, regulates the response to hypoxia. Yet Mtb lacking functional DosR colonize the lungs of C57Bl/6 mice, presumably owing to the lack of organized lesions with sufficient hypoxia in that model. We compared the phenotype of the Δ-dosR, Δ-dosS, and Δ-dosT mutants to Mtb using C3HeB/FeJ mice, an alternate mouse model where lesions develop hypoxia. C3HeB/FeJ mice were infected via aerosol. The progression of infection was analyzed by tissue bacterial burden and histopathology. A measure of the comparative global immune responses was also analyzed. Although Δ-dosR and Δ-dosT grew comparably to wild-type Mtb, Δ-dosS exhibited a significant defect in bacterial burden and pathology in vivo, accompanied by ablated proinflammatory response. Δ-dosS retained the ability to induce DosR. The Δ-dosS mutant was also attenuated in murine macrophages ex vivo, with evidence of reduced expression of the proinflammatory signature. Our results show that DosS, but not DosR and DosT, is required by Mtb to survive in C3HeB/FeJ mice. The attenuation of Δ-dosS is not due to its inability to induce the DosR regulon, nor is it a result of the accumulation of hypoxia. That the in vivo growth restriction of Δ-dosS could be mimicked ex vivo suggested sensitivity to macrophage oxidative burst. Anoxic caseous centers within tuberculosis lesions eventually progress to cavities. Our results provide greater insight into the molecular mechanisms of Mtb persistence within host lungs.

  5. The TRIF-dependent signaling pathway is not required for acute cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Hua, Fang; Wang, Jun; Sayeed, Iqbal; Ishrat, Tauheed; Atif, Fahim; Stein, Donald G.

    2009-12-18

    TIR domain-containing adaptor protein (TRIF) is an adaptor protein in Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling pathways. Activation of TRIF leads to the activation of interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-{kappa}B). While studies have shown that TLRs are implicated in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury and in neuroprotection against ischemia afforded by preconditioning, little is known about TRIF's role in the pathological process following cerebral I/R. The present study investigated the role that TRIF may play in acute cerebral I/R injury. In a mouse model of cerebral I/R induced by transient middle cerebral artery occlusion, we examined the activation of NF-{kappa}B and IRF3 signaling in ischemic cerebral tissue using ELISA and Western blots. Neurological function and cerebral infarct size were also evaluated 24 h after cerebral I/R. NF-{kappa}B activity and phosphorylation of the inhibitor of kappa B (I{kappa}B{alpha}) increased in ischemic brains, but IRF3, inhibitor of {kappa}B kinase complex-{epsilon} (IKK{epsilon}), and TANK-binding kinase1 (TBK1) were not activated after cerebral I/R in wild-type (WT) mice. Interestingly, TRIF deficit did not inhibit NF-{kappa}B activity or p-I{kappa}B{alpha} induced by cerebral I/R. Moreover, although cerebral I/R induced neurological and functional impairments and brain infarction in WT mice, the deficits were not improved and brain infarct size was not reduced in TRIF knockout mice compared to WT mice. Our results demonstrate that the TRIF-dependent signaling pathway is not required for the activation of NF-{kappa}B signaling and brain injury after acute cerebral I/R.

  6. Prmt5 is required for germ cell survival during spermatogenesis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yanbo; Zhu, Tianxiang; Li, Qiuling; Liu, Chunyi; Han, Feng; Chen, Min; Zhang, Lianjun; Cui, Xiuhong; Qin, Yan; Bao, Shilai; Gao, Fei

    2015-01-01

    During germ cell development, epigenetic modifications undergo extensive remodeling. Abnormal epigenetic modifications usually result in germ cell loss and reproductive defect. Prmt5 (Protein arginine methyltransferase 5) encodes a protein arginine methyltransferase which has been demonstrated to play important roles in germ cell development during embryonic stages. In the present study, we found that Prmt5 was also abundantly expressed in male germ cells after birth. Inactivation of this gene by crossing with Stra8-Cre transgenic mice resulted in germ cell loss during spermatogenesis. Further study revealed that the germ cell development was grossly normal before P10. However, most of the germ cells in Prmt5Δ/f; Stra8-Cre mice were blocked at meiotic stage. The expression of meiosis associated genes was reduced in Prmt5Δ/f; Stra8-Cre testes compared to control testes at P10. γH2AX was detected in sex body of control germ cells at P12, whereas multiple foci were observed in Prmt5-deficient germ cells. Further study revealed that H4R3me2s was virtually absent in germ cells after Prmt5 inactivation. The results of this study indicate that Prmt5 also plays important roles in germ cell development during spermatogenesis. PMID:26072710

  7. The anorexigenic effect of serotonin is mediated by the generation of NADPH oxidase-dependent ROS.

    PubMed

    Fang, Xin-Ling; Shu, Gang; Yu, Jian-Jian; Wang, Li-Na; Yang, Jing; Zeng, Qing-Jie; Cheng, Xiao; Zhang, Zhi-Qi; Wang, Song-Bo; Gao, Ping; Zhu, Xiao-Tong; Xi, Qian-Yun; Zhang, Yong-Liang; Jiang, Qing-Yan

    2013-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) is a central inhibitor of food intake in mammals. Thus far, the intracellular mechanisms for the effect of serotonin on appetite regulation remain unclear. It has been recently demonstrated that reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the hypothalamus are a crucial integrative target for the regulation of food intake. To investigate the role of ROS in the serotonin-induced anorexigenic effects, conscious mice were treated with 5-HT alone or combination with Trolox (a ROS scavenger) or Apocynin (an NADPH oxidase inhibitor) by acute intracerebroventricular injection. Both Trolox and Apocynin reversed the anorexigenic action of 5-HT and the 5-HT-induced hypothalamic ROS elevation. The mRNA and protein expression levels of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) were dramatically increased after ICV injection with 5-HT. The anorexigenic action of 5-HT was accompanied by markedly elevated hypothalamic MDA levels and GSH-Px activity, while the SOD activity was decreased. Moreover, 5-HT significantly increased the mRNA expression of UCP-2 but reduced the levels of UCP-3. Both Trolox and Apocynin could block the 5-HT-induced changes in UCP-2 and UCP-3 gene expression. Our study demonstrates for the first time that the anorexigenic effect of 5-HT is mediated by the generation of ROS in the hypothalamus through an NADPH oxidase-dependent pathway.

  8. EmrA1 Membrane Fusion Protein of Francisella tularensis LVS is required for Resistance to Oxidative Stress, Intramacrophage Survival and Virulence in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Zhuo; Banik, Sukalyani; Rane, Harshita; Mora, Vanessa T.; Rabadi, Seham M.; Doyle, Christopher R.; Thanassi, David G.; Bakshi, Chandra Shekhar; Malik, Meenakshi

    2014-01-01

    Francisella tularensis is a Category A Biodefense agent that causes a fatal human disease known as tularemia. The pathogenicity of F. tularensis depends on its ability to persist inside host immune cells primarily by resisting an attack from host-generated reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS). Based on the ability of F. tularensis to resist high ROS/RNS levels, we have hypothesized that additional unknown factors act in conjunction with known antioxidant defenses to render ROS resistance. By screening a transposon insertion library of F. tularensis LVS in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, we have identified an oxidant sensitive mutant in putative EmrA1 (FTL_0687) secretion protein. The results demonstrate that the emrA1 mutant is highly sensitive to oxidants and several antimicrobial agents, and exhibits diminished intramacrophage growth that can be restored to wild type F. tularensis LVS levels either by transcomplementation, inhibition of ROS generation, or infection in NADPH oxidase deficient (gp91Phox−/−) macrophages. The emrA1 mutant is attenuated for virulence, which is restored by infection in gp91Phox−/− mice. Further, EmrA1 contributes to oxidative stress resistance by affecting secretion of Francisella antioxidant enzymes SodB and KatG. This study exposes unique links between transporter activity and the antioxidant defense mechanisms of F. tularensis. PMID:24397487

  9. Modulation of p47PHOX activity by site-specific phosphorylation: Akt-dependent activation of the NADPH oxidase

    PubMed Central

    Hoyal, Carolyn R.; Gutierrez, Abel; Young, Brandon M.; Catz, Sergio D.; Lin, Jun-Hsiang; Tsichlis, Philip N.; Babior, Bernard M.

    2003-01-01

    The leukocyte NADPH oxidase catalyzes the reduction of oxygen to O\\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} \\begin{equation*}{\\mathrm{_{2}^{-}}}\\end{equation*}\\end{document} at the expense of NADPH. Extensive phosphorylation of the oxidase subunit p47PHOX occurs during the activation of the enzyme in intact cells. p47PHOX carrying certain serine-to-alanine mutations fails to support NADPH oxidase activity in intact cells, suggesting that the phosphorylation of specific serines on p47PHOX is required for the activation of the oxidase. Earlier studies with both intact cells and a kinase-dependent, cell-free system have suggested that protein kinase C can phosphorylate those serines of p47PHOX whose phosphorylation is necessary for its activity. Work with inhibitors suggested that a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent pathway also can activate the oxidase. Phosphorylation of p47PHOX by Akt (protein kinase B), whose activation depends on phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, could be the final step in such a pathway. We now find that Akt activates the oxidase in vitro by phosphorylating serines S304 and S328 of p47PHOX. These results suggest that Akt could participate in the activation of the leukocyte NADPH oxidase. PMID:12704229

  10. The Role of the NADPH Oxidase NOX2 in Prion Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Sorce, Silvia; Nuvolone, Mario; Keller, Annika; Falsig, Jeppe; Varol, Ahmet; Schwarz, Petra; Bieri, Monika; Budka, Herbert; Aguzzi, Adriano

    2014-01-01

    Prion infections cause neurodegeneration, which often goes along with oxidative stress. However, the cellular source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and their pathogenetic significance are unclear. Here we analyzed the contribution of NOX2, a prominent NADPH oxidase, to prion diseases. We found that NOX2 is markedly upregulated in microglia within affected brain regions of patients with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). Similarly, NOX2 expression was upregulated in prion-inoculated mouse brains and in murine cerebellar organotypic cultured slices (COCS). We then removed microglia from COCS using a ganciclovir-dependent lineage ablation strategy. NOX2 became undetectable in ganciclovir-treated COCS, confirming its microglial origin. Upon challenge with prions, NOX2-deficient mice showed delayed onset of motor deficits and a modest, but significant prolongation of survival. Dihydroethidium assays demonstrated a conspicuous ROS burst at the terminal stage of disease in wild-type mice, but not in NOX2-ablated mice. Interestingly, the improved motor performance in NOX2 deficient mice was already measurable at earlier stages of the disease, between 13 and 16 weeks post-inoculation. We conclude that NOX2 is a major source of ROS in prion diseases and can affect prion pathogenesis. PMID:25502554

  11. A novel pyrazole derivative protects from ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis through the inhibition of NADPH oxidase

    PubMed Central

    Joo, Jung Hee; Huh, Jeong-Eun; Lee, Jee Hyun; Park, Doo Ri; Lee, Yoonji; Lee, Seul Gee; Choi, Sun; Lee, Hwa Jeong; Song, Seong-Won; Jeong, Yongmi; Goo, Ja-Il; Choi, Yongseok; Baek, Hye Kyung; Yi, Sun Shin; Park, Soo Jin; Lee, Ji Eun; Ku, Sae Kwang; Lee, Won Jae; Lee, Kee-In; Lee, Soo Young; Bae, Yun Soo

    2016-01-01

    Osteoclast cells (OCs) are differentiated from bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) by activation of receptor activator of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) ligand (RANKL). Activation of NADPH oxidase (Nox) isozymes is involved in RANKL-dependent OC differentiation, implicating Nox isozymes as therapeutic targets for treatment of osteoporosis. Here, we show that a novel pyrazole derivative, Ewha-18278 has high inhibitory potency on Nox isozymes. Blocking the activity of Nox with Ewha-18278 inhibited the responses of BMMs to RANKL, including reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, activation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases and NF-κB, and OC differentiation. To evaluate the anti-osteoporotic function of Ewha-18278, the derivative was applied to estrogen-deficient ovariectomized (OVX) ddY mice. Oral administration of Ewha-18278 (10 mg/kg/daily, 4 weeks) into the mice recovered bone mineral density, trabecular bone volume, trabecular bone length, number and thickness, compared to control OVX ddY mice. Moreover, treatment of OVX ddY mice with Ewha-18278 increased bone strength by increasing cortical bone thickness. We provide that Ewha-18278 displayed Nox inhibition and blocked the RANKL-dependent cell signaling cascade leading to reduced differentiation of OCs. Our results implicate Ewha-18278 as a novel therapeutic agent for the treatment of osteoporosis. PMID:26975635

  12. The role of the NADPH oxidase NOX2 in prion pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Sorce, Silvia; Nuvolone, Mario; Keller, Annika; Falsig, Jeppe; Varol, Ahmet; Schwarz, Petra; Bieri, Monika; Budka, Herbert; Aguzzi, Adriano

    2014-12-01

    Prion infections cause neurodegeneration, which often goes along with oxidative stress. However, the cellular source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and their pathogenetic significance are unclear. Here we analyzed the contribution of NOX2, a prominent NADPH oxidase, to prion diseases. We found that NOX2 is markedly upregulated in microglia within affected brain regions of patients with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). Similarly, NOX2 expression was upregulated in prion-inoculated mouse brains and in murine cerebellar organotypic cultured slices (COCS). We then removed microglia from COCS using a ganciclovir-dependent lineage ablation strategy. NOX2 became undetectable in ganciclovir-treated COCS, confirming its microglial origin. Upon challenge with prions, NOX2-deficient mice showed delayed onset of motor deficits and a modest, but significant prolongation of survival. Dihydroethidium assays demonstrated a conspicuous ROS burst at the terminal stage of disease in wild-type mice, but not in NOX2-ablated mice. Interestingly, the improved motor performance in NOX2 deficient mice was already measurable at earlier stages of the disease, between 13 and 16 weeks post-inoculation. We conclude that NOX2 is a major source of ROS in prion diseases and can affect prion pathogenesis.

  13. NADPH oxidase 4 deficiency increases tubular cell death during acute ischemic reperfusion injury

    PubMed Central

    Nlandu-Khodo, Stellor; Dissard, Romain; Hasler, Udo; Schäfer, Matthias; Pircher, Haymo; Jansen-Durr, Pidder; Krause, Karl Heinz; Martin, Pierre-Yves; de Seigneux, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4) is highly expressed in kidney proximal tubular cells. NOX4 constitutively produces hydrogen peroxide, which may regulate important pro-survival pathways. Renal ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) is a classical model mimicking human ischemic acute tubular necrosis. We hypothesized that NOX4 plays a protective role in kidney IRI. In wild type (WT) animals subjected to IRI, NOX4 protein expression increased after 24 hours. NOX4 KO (knock-out) and WT littermates mice were subjected to IRI. NOX4 KO mice displayed decreased renal function and more severe tubular apoptosis, decreased Bcl-2 expression and higher histologic damage scores compared to WT. Activation of NRF2 was decreased in NOX4 KO mice in response to IRI. This was related to decreased KEAP1 oxidation leading to decreased NRF2 stabilization. This resulted in decreased glutathione levels. In vitro silencing of NOX4 in cells showed an enhanced propensity to apoptosis, with reduced expression of NRF2, glutathione content and Bcl-2 expression, similar to cells derived from NOX4 KO mice. Overexpression of a constitutively active form of NRF2 (caNRF2) in NOX4 depleted cells rescued most of this phenotype in cultured cells, implying that NRF2 regulation by ROS issued from NOX4 may play an important role in its anti-apoptotic property. PMID:27924932

  14. RhoA/ROCK downregulates FPR2-mediated NADPH oxidase activation in mouse bone marrow granulocytes.

    PubMed

    Filina, Julia V; Gabdoulkhakova, Aida G; Safronova, Valentina G

    2014-10-01

    Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) express the high and low affinity receptors to formylated peptides (mFPR1 and mFPR2 in mice, accordingly). RhoA/ROCK (Rho activated kinase) pathway is crucial for cell motility and oxidase activity regulated via FPRs. There are contradictory data on RhoA-mediated regulation of NADPH oxidase activity in phagocytes. We have shown divergent Rho GTPases signaling via mFPR1 and mFPR2 to NADPH oxidase in PMNs from inflammatory site. The present study was aimed to find out the role of RhoA/ROCK in the respiratory burst activated via mFPR1 and mFPR2 in the bone marrow PMNs. Different kinetics of RhoA activation were detected with 0.1μM fMLF and 1μM WKYMVM operating via mFPR1 and mFPR2, accordingly. RhoA was translocated in fMLF-activated cells towards the cell center and juxtamembrane space versus uniform allocation in the resting cells. Specific inhibition of RhoA by CT04, Rho inhibitor I, weakly depressed the respiratory burst induced via mFPR1, but significantly increased the one induced via mFPR2. Inhibition of ROCK, the main effector of RhoA, by Y27632 led to the same effect on the respiratory burst. Regulation of mFPR2-induced respiratory response by ROCK was impossible under the cytoskeleton disruption by cytochalasin D, whereas it persisted in the case of mFPR1 activation. Thus we suggest RhoA to be one of the regulatory and signal transduction components in the respiratory burst through FPRs in the mouse bone marrow PMNs. Both mFPR1 and mFPR2 binding with a ligand trigger the activation of RhoA. FPR1 signaling through RhoA/ROCK increases NADPH-oxidase activity. But in FPR2 action RhoA/ROCK together with cytoskeleton-linked systems down-regulates NADPH-oxidase. This mechanism could restrain the reactive oxygen species dependent damage of own tissues during the chemotaxis of PMNs and in the resting cells.

  15. In vivo erythropoietin requirements of regenerating erythroid progenitors (BFU-e, CFU-e) in bone marrow of mice.

    PubMed

    Udupa, K B; Reissmann, K R

    1979-06-01

    Erythroid progenitors (B-8, B-4, CFU-e) in the femoral marrow of polycythemic mice were measured by in vitro culture assays after a single administration of BCNU or Myleran. BCNU reduced pluripotent stem cells to 40% and erythroid progenitors to less than 5% of normal. B-8, the earliest erythroid progenitors, regenerated without erythropoietin (Epo) completely within 5 days. At 14 days after BCNU, intermediate progenitors (B-4) attained 60% of their normal numbers and CFU-e attained approximately 30%. Daily injections of Epo promptly restored normal B-4 numbers and near-normal CFU-e numbers in BCNU-treated mice. After Myleran, CFU-s remained below 2% of normal for 14 days, and no regeneration of the B-8 occurred with or without daily Epo injections. The findings suggest that regneration of B-8 was dependent on cell inflow from the pluripotent stem cell compartment but was independent of the presence of Epo. Intermediate progenitors (B-4) required Epo and the presence of B-8 for complete and permanent regeneration. CFU-e were the most Epo-dependent of the three progenitors. B-4, recruited by Epo, required after their formation a second exposure to the hormone in order to progress into the CFU-e stage.

  16. Tomosyn-2 is required for normal motor performance in mice and sustains neurotransmission at motor endplates.

    PubMed

    Geerts, Cornelia J; Plomp, Jaap J; Koopmans, Bastijn; Loos, Maarten; van der Pijl, Elizabeth M; van der Valk, Martin A; Verhage, Matthijs; Groffen, Alexander J A

    2015-07-01

    Tomosyn-1 (STXBP5) is a soluble NSF attachment protein receptor complex-binding protein that inhibits vesicle fusion, but the role of tomosyn-2 (STXBP5L) in the mammalian nervous system is still unclear. Here we generated tomosyn-2 null (Tom2(KO/KO)) mice, which showed impaired motor performance. This was accompanied by synaptic changes at the neuromuscular junction, including enhanced spontaneous acetylcholine release frequency and faster depression of muscle motor endplate potentials during repetitive stimulation. The postsynaptic geometric arrangement and function of acetylcholine receptors were normal. We conclude that tomosyn-2 supports motor performance by regulation of transmitter release willingness to sustain synaptic strength during high-frequency transmission, which makes this gene a candidate for involvement in neuromuscular disorders.

  17. Fear erasure in mice requires synergy between antidepressant drugs and extinction training.

    PubMed

    Karpova, Nina N; Pickenhagen, Anouchka; Lindholm, Jesse; Tiraboschi, Ettore; Kulesskaya, Natalia; Agústsdóttir, Arna; Antila, Hanna; Popova, Dina; Akamine, Yumiko; Bahi, Amine; Sullivan, Regina; Hen, René; Drew, Liam J; Castrén, Eero

    2011-12-23

    Antidepressant drugs and psychotherapy combined are more effective in treating mood disorders than either treatment alone, but the neurobiological basis of this interaction is unknown. To investigate how antidepressants influence the response of mood-related systems to behavioral experience, we used a fear-conditioning and extinction paradigm in mice. Combining extinction training with chronic fluoxetine, but neither treatment alone, induced an enduring loss of conditioned fear memory in adult animals. Fluoxetine treatment increased synaptic plasticity, converted the fear memory circuitry to a more immature state, and acted through local brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Fluoxetine-induced plasticity may allow fear erasure by extinction-guided remodeling of the memory circuitry. Thus, the pharmacological effects of antidepressants need to be combined with psychological rehabilitation to reorganize networks rendered more plastic by the drug treatment.

  18. Cytochrome b5 and epoxide hydrolase contribute to benzo[a]pyrene-DNA adduct formation catalyzed by cytochrome P450 1A1 under low NADPH:P450 oxidoreductase conditions.

    PubMed

    Stiborová, Marie; Moserová, Michaela; Černá, Věra; Indra, Radek; Dračínský, Martin; Šulc, Miroslav; Henderson, Colin J; Wolf, C Roland; Schmeiser, Heinz H; Phillips, David H; Frei, Eva; Arlt, Volker M

    2014-04-06

    In previous studies we had administered benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) to genetically engineered mice (HRN) which do not express NADPH:cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) in hepatocytes and observed higher DNA adduct levels in livers of these mice than in wild-type mice. To elucidate the reason for this unexpected finding we have used two different settings for in vitro incubations; hepatic microsomes from control and BaP-pretreated HRN mice and reconstituted systems with cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1), POR, cytochrome b5, and epoxide hydrolase (mEH) in different ratios. In microsomes from BaP-pretreated mice, in which Cyp1a1 was induced, higher levels of BaP metabolites were formed, mainly of BaP-7,8-dihydrodiol. At a low POR:CYP1A1 ratio of 0.05:1 in the reconstituted system, the amounts of BaP diones and BaP-9-ol formed were essentially the same as at an equimolar ratio, but formation of BaP-3-ol was ∼ 1.6-fold higher. Only after addition of mEH were BaP dihydrodiols found. Two BaP-DNA adducts were formed in the presence of mEH, but only one when CYP1A1 and POR were present alone. At a ratio of POR:CYP1A1 of 0.05:1, addition of cytochrome b5 increased CYP1A1-mediated BaP oxidation to most of its metabolites indicating that cytochrome b5 participates in the electron transfer from NADPH to CYP1A1 required for enzyme activity of this CYP. BaP-9-ol was formed even by CYP1A1 reconstituted with cytochrome b5 without POR. Our results suggest that in livers of HRN mice Cyp1a1, cytochrome b5 and mEH can effectively activate BaP to DNA binding species, even in the presence of very low amounts of POR.

  19. Involvement of myeloperoxidase and NADPH oxidase in the covalent binding of amodiaquine and clozapine to neutrophils: implications for drug-induced agranulocytosis.

    PubMed

    Lobach, Alexandra R; Uetrecht, Jack

    2014-04-21

    Amodiaquine (AQ) and clozapine (CLZ) are associated with a relatively high incidence of idiosyncratic agranulocytosis, a reaction that is suspected to involve covalent binding of reactive metabolites to neutrophils. Previous studies have shown that both AQ and CLZ are oxidized to reactive intermediates in vitro by activated neutrophils or by the combination of hydrogen peroxide and myeloperoxidase (MPO). Neutrophil activation leads to an oxidative burst with activation of NADPH oxidase and the production of hydrogen peroxide. However, the importance of this pathway in covalent binding in vivo has not been examined. In this study, we found that the binding of both AQ and CLZ to neutrophils from MPO knockout mice ex vivo decreased approximately 2-fold compared to neutrophils from wild-type mice, whereas binding to activated neutrophils from gp91 knockout (NADPH oxidase null) mice decreased 6-7-fold. When the AQ studies were performed in vivo, again the binding was decreased in MPO knockout mice to about 50% of the binding in wild-type mice; however, covalent binding was significant in the absence of MPO. Surprisingly, there was no significant decrease in covalent binding of AQ to neutrophils in vivo in gp91 knockout mice. In addition, there was extensive binding of AQ to many types of bone marrow cells and to peripheral lymphocytes. These results indicate that MPO is not the only neutrophil enzyme involved in the oxidation of AQ and that NADPH oxidase is not the major source of peroxide. There was also no decrease in AQ binding to neutrophils in COX-1 or COX-2 knockout mice. We were not able to readily reproduce the AQ in vivo studies with CLZ because of its acute toxicity in mice. These are the first studies to examine the enzymes involved in the bioactivation of AQ by neutrophils in vivo.

  20. AT1a receptor signaling is required for basal and water deprivation-induced urine concentration in AT1a receptor-deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiao C.; Shao, Yuan

    2012-01-01

    It is well recognized that ANG II interacts with arginine vasopressin (AVP) to regulate water reabsorption and urine concentration in the kidney. The present study used ANG II type 1a (AT1a) receptor-deficient (Agtr1a−/−) mice to test the hypothesis that AT1a receptor signaling is required for basal and water deprivation-induced urine concentration in the renal medulla. Eight groups of wild-type (WT) and Agtr1a−/− mice were treated with or without 24-h water deprivation and 1-desamino-8-d-AVP (DDAVP; 100 ng/h ip) for 2 wk or with losartan (10 mg/kg ip) during water deprivation. Under basal conditions, Agtr1a−/− mice had lower systolic blood pressure (P < 0.01), greater than threefold higher 24-h urine excretion (WT mice: 1.3 ± 0.1 ml vs. Agtr1a−/− mice: 5.9 ± 0.7 ml, P < 0.01), and markedly decreased urine osmolality (WT mice: 1,834 ± 86 mosM/kg vs. Agtr1a−/− mice: 843 ± 170 mosM/kg, P < 0.01), without significant changes in 24-h urinary Na+ excretion. These responses in Agtr1a−/− mice were associated with lower basal plasma AVP (WT mice: 105 ± 8 pg/ml vs. Agtr1a−/− mice: 67 ± 6 pg/ml, P < 0.01) and decreases in total lysate and membrane aquaporin-2 (AQP2; 48.6 ± 7% of WT mice, P < 0.001) and adenylyl cyclase isoform III (55.6 ± 8% of WT mice, P < 0.01) proteins. Although 24-h water deprivation increased plasma AVP to the same levels in both strains, 24-h urine excretion was still higher, whereas urine osmolality remained lower, in Agtr1a−/− mice (P < 0.01). Water deprivation increased total lysate AQP2 proteins in the inner medulla but had no effect on adenylyl cyclase III, phosphorylated MAPK ERK1/2, and membrane AQP2 proteins in Agtr1a−/− mice. Furthermore, infusion of DDAVP for 2 wk was unable to correct the urine-concentrating defects in Agtr1a−/− mice. These results demonstrate that AT1a receptor-mediated ANG II signaling is required to maintain tonic AVP release and regulate V2 receptor-mediated responses to

  1. The GBS PI-2a Pilus Is Required for Virulence in Mice Neonates

    PubMed Central

    Papasergi, Salvatore; Brega, Sara; Mistou, Michel-Yves; Firon, Arnaud; Oxaran, Virginie; Dover, Ron; Teti, Giuseppe; Shai, Yechiel; Trieu-Cuot, Patrick; Dramsi, Shaynoor

    2011-01-01

    Background Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus) is a leading cause of sepsis and meningitis in newborns. Most bacterial pathogens, including gram-positive bacteria, have long filamentous structures known as pili extending from their surface. Although pili are described as adhesive organelles, they have been also implicated in many other functions including thwarting the host immune responses. We previously characterized the pilus-encoding operon PI-2a (gbs1479-1474) in strain NEM316. This pilus is composed of three structural subunit proteins: PilA (Gbs1478), PilB (Gbs1477), and PilC (Gbs1474), and its assembly involves two class C sortases (SrtC3 and SrtC4). PilB, the bona fide pilin, is the major component whereas PilA, the pilus associated adhesin, and PilC the pilus anchor are both accessory proteins incorporated into the pilus backbone. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, the role of the major pilin subunit PilB was tested in systemic virulence using 6-weeks old and newborn mice. Notably, the non-piliated ΔpilB mutant was less virulent than its wild-type counterpart in the newborn mice model. Next, we investigated the possible role(s) of PilB in resistance to innate immune host defenses, i.e. resistance to macrophage killing and to antimicrobial peptides. Phagocytosis and survival of wild-type NEM316 and its isogenic ΔpilB mutant in immortalized RAW 264.7 murine macrophages were not significantly different whereas the isogenic ΔsodA mutant was more susceptible to killing. These results were confirmed using primary peritoneal macrophages. We also tested the activities of five cationic antimicrobial peptides (AMP-1D, LL-37, colistin, polymyxin B, and mCRAMP) and found no significant difference between WT and ΔpilB strains whereas the isogenic dltA mutant showed increased sensitivity. Conclusions/Significance These results question the previously described role of PilB pilus in resistance to the host immune defenses. Interestingly, Pil

  2. Targeting NADPH oxidase and phospholipases A2 in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Simonyi, Agnes; He, Yan; Sheng, Wenwen; Sun, Albert Y; Wood, W Gibson; Weisman, Gary A; Sun, Grace Y

    2010-06-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is marked by an increase in the production of extracellular beta amyloid plaques and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles associated with a decline in brain function. Increases in oxidative stress are regarded as an early sign of AD pathophysiology, although the source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the mechanism(s) whereby beta amyloid peptides (Abeta) impact oxidative stress have not been adequately investigated. Recent studies provide strong evidence for the involvement of NADPH oxidase and its downstream oxidative signaling pathways in the toxic effects elicited by Abeta. ROS produced by NADPH oxidase activate multiple signaling pathways leading to neuronal excitotoxicity and glial cell-mediated inflammation. This review describes recent studies demonstrating the neurotoxic effects of Abeta in conjunction with ROS produced by NADPH oxidase and the downstream pathways leading to activation of cytosolic phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) and secretory PLA(2). In addition, this review also describes recent studies using botanical antioxidants to protect against oxidative damage associated with AD. Investigating the metabolic and signaling pathways involving Abeta NADPH oxidase and PLA(2) can help understand the mechanisms underlying the neurodegenerative effects of oxidative stress in AD. This information should provide new therapeutic approaches for prevention of this debilitating disease.

  3. Hippocampal and Cortical Primary Cilia Are Required for Aversive Memory in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yazdi, S. M. Zaki R.; McNair, Andrew D.; Kippe, Jordyn M.; Croyle, Mandy J.; Kraft, Timothy W.; Yoder, Bradley K.

    2014-01-01

    It has been known for decades that neurons throughout the brain possess solitary, immotile, microtubule based appendages called primary cilia. Only recently have studies tried to address the functions of these cilia and our current understanding remains poor. To determine if neuronal cilia have a role in behavior we specifically disrupted ciliogenesis in the cortex and hippocampus of mice through conditional deletion of the Intraflagellar Transport 88 (Ift88) gene. The effects on learning and memory were analyzed using both Morris Water Maze and fear conditioning paradigms. In comparison to wild type controls, cilia mutants displayed deficits in aversive learning and memory and novel object recognition. Furthermore, hippocampal neurons from mutants displayed an altered paired-pulse response, suggesting that loss of IFT88 can alter synaptic properties. A variety of other behavioral tests showed no significant differences between conditional cilia mutants and controls. This type of conditional allele approach could be used to distinguish which behavioral features of ciliopathies arise due to defects in neural development and which result from altered cell physiology. Ultimately, this could lead to an improved understanding of the basis for the cognitive deficits associated with human cilia disorders such as Bardet-Biedl syndrome, and possibly more common ailments including depression and schizophrenia. PMID:25184295

  4. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase-derived NADPH fuels superoxide production in the failing heart

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the failing heart, NADPH oxidase and uncoupled NO synthase utilize cytosolic NADPH to form superoxide. NADPH is supplied principally by the pentose phosphate pathway, whose rate-limiting enzyme is glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD). Therefore, we hypothesized that cardiac G6PD activation dr...

  5. Importin-α7 is required for enhanced influenza A virus replication in the alveolar epithelium and severe lung damage in mice.

    PubMed

    Resa-Infante, Patricia; Thieme, René; Ernst, Thomas; Arck, Petra C; Ittrich, Harald; Reimer, Rudolph; Gabriel, Gülsah

    2014-07-01

    Influenza A viruses recruit components of the nuclear import pathway to enter the host cell nucleus and promote viral replication. Here, we analyzed the role of the nuclear import factor importin-α7 in H1N1 influenza virus pulmonary tropism by using various ex vivo imaging techniques (magnetic resonance imaging, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and correlative light-electron microscopy). We infected importin-α7 gene-deficient (α7(-/-)) mice with a recombinant H1N1 influenza virus and compared the in vivo viral kinetics with those in wild-type (WT) mice. In WT mice, influenza virus replication in the bronchial and alveolar epithelium already occurred a few days after infection. Accordingly, extensive mononuclear infiltration and alveolar destruction were present in the lungs of infected WT mice, followed by 100% lethality. Conversely, in α7(-/-) mice, virus replication was restricted mostly to the bronchial epithelium with marginal alveolar infection, resulting in significantly reduced lung damage and enhanced animal survival. To investigate the host immune response during alveolar virus replication, we studied the role of primary macrophages in virus propagation and clearance. The ability of macrophages to support or clear the virus infection, as well as the host cellular immune responses, did not significantly differ between WT and α7(-/-) mice. However, cytokine and chemokine responses were generally elevated in WT mice, likely reflective of increased viral replication in the lung. In summary, these data show that a cellular factor, importin-α7, is required for enhanced virus replication in the alveolar epithelium, resulting in elevated cytokine and chemokine levels, extensive mononuclear infiltration, and thus, severe pneumonia and enhanced virulence in mice. Importance: Influenza A viruses are respiratory pathogens that may cause pneumonia in humans. Viral infection and replication in the alveoli of the respiratory tract are believed to be crucial for

  6. Acute Ethanol Intake Induces NAD(P)H Oxidase Activation and Rhoa Translocation in Resistance Arteries

    PubMed Central

    Simplicio, Janaina A.; Hipólito, Ulisses Vilela; do Vale, Gabriel Tavares; Callera, Glaucia Elena; Pereira, Camila André; Touyz, Rhian M; Tostes, Rita de Cássia; Tirapelli, Carlos R.

    2016-01-01

    Background The mechanism underlying the vascular dysfunction induced by ethanol is not totally understood. Identification of biochemical/molecular mechanisms that could explain such effects is warranted. Objective To investigate whether acute ethanol intake activates the vascular RhoA/Rho kinase pathway in resistance arteries and the role of NAD(P)H oxidase-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) on such response. We also evaluated the requirement of p47phox translocation for ethanol-induced NAD(P)H oxidase activation. Methods Male Wistar rats were orally treated with ethanol (1g/kg, p.o. gavage) or water (control). Some rats were treated with vitamin C (250 mg/kg, p.o. gavage, 5 days) before administration of water or ethanol. The mesenteric arterial bed (MAB) was collected 30 min after ethanol administration. Results Vitamin C prevented ethanol-induced increase in superoxide anion (O2-) generation and lipoperoxidation in the MAB. Catalase and superoxide dismutase activities and the reduced glutathione, nitrate and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels were not affected by ethanol. Vitamin C and 4-methylpyrazole prevented the increase on O2- generation induced by ethanol in cultured MAB vascular smooth muscle cells. Ethanol had no effect on phosphorylation levels of protein kinase B (Akt) and eNOS (Ser1177 or Thr495 residues) or MAB vascular reactivity. Vitamin C prevented ethanol-induced increase in the membrane: cytosol fraction ratio of p47phox and RhoA expression in the rat MAB. Conclusion Acute ethanol intake induces activation of the RhoA/Rho kinase pathway by a mechanism that involves ROS generation. In resistance arteries, ethanol activates NAD(P)H oxidase by inducing p47phox translocation by a redox-sensitive mechanism. PMID:27812679

  7. γδ T Cells Are Required for M2 Macrophage Polarization and Resolution of Ozone-Induced Pulmonary Inflammation in Mice.

    PubMed

    Mathews, Joel A; Kasahara, David I; Ribeiro, Luiza; Wurmbrand, Allison P; Ninin, Fernanda M C; Shore, Stephanie A

    2015-01-01

    We examined the role of γδ T cells in the induction of alternatively activated M2 macrophages and the resolution of inflammation after ozone exposure. Wildtype (WT) mice and mice deficient in γδ T cells (TCRδ-/- mice) were exposed to air or to ozone (0.3 ppm for up to 72h) and euthanized immediately or 1, 3, or 5 days after cessation of exposure. In WT mice, M2 macrophages accumulated in the lungs over the course of ozone exposure. Pulmonary mRNA abundance of the M2 genes, Arg1, Retnla, and Clec10a, also increased after ozone. In contrast, no evidence of M2 polarization was observed in TCRδ-/- mice. WT but not TCRδ-/- mice expressed the M2c polarizing cytokine, IL-17A, after ozone exposure and WT mice treated with an IL-17A neutralizing antibody exhibited attenuated ozone-induced M2 gene expression. In WT mice, ozone-induced increases in bronchoalveolar lavage neutrophils and macrophages resolved quickly after cessation of ozone exposure returning to air exposed levels within 3 days. However, lack of M2 macrophages in TCRδ-/- mice was associated with delayed clearance of inflammatory cells after cessation of ozone and increased accumulation of apoptotic macrophages in the lungs. Delayed restoration of normal lung architecture was also observed in TCRδ-/- mice. In summary, our data indicate that γδ T cells are required for the resolution of ozone-induced inflammation, likely because γδ T cells, through their secretion of IL-17A, contribute to changes in macrophage polarization that promote clearance of apoptotic cells.

  8. Histone acetyltransferase activity of MOF is required for adult but not early fetal hematopoiesis in mice.

    PubMed

    Valerio, Daria G; Xu, Haiming; Eisold, Meghan E; Woolthuis, Carolien M; Pandita, Tej K; Armstrong, Scott A

    2017-01-05

    K(lysine) acetyltransferase 8 (KAT8, also known as MOF) mediates the acetylation of histone H4 at lysine 16 (H4K16ac) and is crucial for murine embryogenesis. Lysine acetyltransferases have been shown to regulate various stages of normal hematopoiesis. However, the function of MOF in hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) development has not yet been elucidated. We set out to study the role of MOF in general hematopoiesis by using a Vav1-cre-induced conditional murine Mof knockout system and found that MOF is critical for hematopoietic cell maintenance and HSC engraftment capacity in adult hematopoiesis. Rescue experiments with a MOF histone acetyltransferase domain mutant illustrated the requirement for MOF acetyltransferase activity in the clonogenic capacity of HSCs and progenitors. In stark contrast, fetal steady-state hematopoiesis at embryonic day (E) 14.5 was not affected by homozygous Mof deletion despite dramatic loss of global H4K16ac. Hematopoietic defects start manifesting in late gestation at E17.5. The discovery that MOF and its H4K16ac activity are required for adult but not early and midgestational hematopoiesis supports the notion that multiple chromatin regulators may be crucial for hematopoiesis at varying stages of development. MOF is therefore a developmental-stage-specific chromatin regulator found to be essential for adult but not early fetal hematopoiesis.

  9. The sodium-activated potassium channel Slack is required for optimal cognitive flexibility in mice.

    PubMed

    Bausch, Anne E; Dieter, Rebekka; Nann, Yvette; Hausmann, Mario; Meyerdierks, Nora; Kaczmarek, Leonard K; Ruth, Peter; Lukowski, Robert

    2015-07-01

    Kcnt1 encoded sodium-activated potassium channels (Slack channels) are highly expressed throughout the brain where they modulate the firing patterns and general excitability of many types of neurons. Increasing evidence suggests that Slack channels may be important for higher brain functions such as cognition and normal intellectual development. In particular, recent findings have shown that human Slack mutations produce very severe intellectual disability and that Slack channels interact directly with the Fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), a protein that when missing or mutated results in Fragile X syndrome (FXS), the most common form of inherited intellectual disability and autism in humans. We have now analyzed a recently developed Kcnt1 null mouse model in several behavioral tasks to assess which aspects of memory and learning are dependent on Slack. We demonstrate that Slack deficiency results in mildly altered general locomotor activity, but normal working memory, reference memory, as well as cerebellar control of motor functions. In contrast, we find that Slack channels are required for cognitive flexibility, including reversal learning processes and the ability to adapt quickly to unfamiliar situations and environments. Our data reveal that hippocampal-dependent spatial learning capabilities require the proper function of Slack channels.

  10. The sodium-activated potassium channel Slack is required for optimal cognitive flexibility in mice

    PubMed Central

    Bausch, Anne E.; Dieter, Rebekka; Nann, Yvette; Hausmann, Mario; Meyerdierks, Nora; Kaczmarek, Leonard K.

    2015-01-01

    Kcnt1 encoded sodium-activated potassium channels (Slack channels) are highly expressed throughout the brain where they modulate the firing patterns and general excitability of many types of neurons. Increasing evidence suggests that Slack channels may be important for higher brain functions such as cognition and normal intellectual development. In particular, recent findings have shown that human Slack mutations produce very severe intellectual disability and that Slack channels interact directly with the Fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), a protein that when missing or mutated results in Fragile X syndrome (FXS), the most common form of inherited intellectual disability and autism in humans. We have now analyzed a recently developed Kcnt1 null mouse model in several behavioral tasks to assess which aspects of memory and learning are dependent on Slack. We demonstrate that Slack deficiency results in mildly altered general locomotor activity, but normal working memory, reference memory, as well as cerebellar control of motor functions. In contrast, we find that Slack channels are required for cognitive flexibility, including reversal learning processes and the ability to adapt quickly to unfamiliar situations and environments. Our data reveal that hippocampal-dependent spatial learning capabilities require the proper function of Slack channels. PMID:26077685

  11. Two distinct types of cellular mechanisms in the development of delayed hypersensitivity in mice: requirement of either mast cells or macrophages for elicitation of the response.

    PubMed Central

    Torii, I; Morikawa, S; Harada, T; Kitamura, Y

    1993-01-01

    Using mast cell-deficient mutant W/Wv mice and their normal counterpart we re-evaluated the significance of participation of mast cells in allergic inflammatory response. W/Wv mice developed immediate hypersensitivity (IH) footpad reaction (FPR) to a somewhat lesser degree than the normal mice, suggesting that the mast cell might amplify the response. To exert classical tuberculin (tbc) delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) mast cells were not an essential cellular component. Vasoactive amines were essential to develop the response, but it did not necessarily originate from mast cells. When mice were immunized with methylated human serum albumin (MHSA) emulsified in incomplete Freund's adjuvant (IFA), mast cells were required to elicit DTH FPR. This was confirmed by the lack of the response in W/Wv mice, and the restoration of FPR by local transplantation of mature mast cells into mutant mice. This mast cell-dependent (MD) DTH was different from tbc DTH as follows: mast cell dependency, macrophage dependency as revealed by ferritin sensitivity, kinetics of sensitization, effect of host's age and histopathology. Thus we concluded that there are two types of DTH in mice; one is macrophage-dependent tbc and the other is mast cell-dependent DTH. The correspondence of the DTH to the Jones-Mote (JM) DTH is discussed, although the dominance of mast cells in MD DTH lesion was not observed. Images Figure 2 Figure 4 PMID:8478030

  12. Activity of the glutathione antioxidant system and NADPH-generating enzymes in blood serum of rats with type 2 diabetes mellitus after administration of melatonin-correcting drugs.

    PubMed

    Agarkov, A A; Popova, T N; Verevkin, A N; Matasova, L V

    2014-06-01

    We studied the effects of epifamin and melaxen on serum content of reduced glutathione and activities of glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and NADPH-generating enzymes (glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and NADP-isocitrate dehydrogenase) in rats with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The concentration of reduced glutathione was decreased in rats with this disease (by 1.8 times), but increased after treatment with epifamin and melaxen (by 1.6 and 1.7 times, respectively). Activities of glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and NADPH-generating enzymes returned to the control level. Correction of melatonin concentration after treatment with the test drugs was probably followed by inhibition of free radical processes. The observed changes were accompanied by normalization of activity of the glutathione antioxidant system and NADPH-generating enzymes required for normal function of this system.

  13. Leptin’s effect on puberty in mice is relayed by the ventral premammillary nucleus and does not require signaling in Kiss1 neurons

    PubMed Central

    Donato, Jose; Cravo, Roberta M.; Frazão, Renata; Gautron, Laurent; Scott, Michael M.; Lachey, Jennifer; Castro, Inar A.; Margatho, Lisandra O.; Lee, Syann; Lee, Charlotte; Richardson, James A.; Friedman, Jeffrey; Chua, Streamson; Coppari, Roberto; Zigman, Jeffrey M.; Elmquist, Joel K.; Elias, Carol F.

    2010-01-01

    Studies in humans and rodents indicate that a minimum amount of stored energy is required for normal pubertal development. The adipocyte-derived hormone leptin is a key metabolic signal to the neuroendocrine reproductive axis. Humans and mice lacking leptin or the leptin receptor (LepR) (ob/ob and db/db mice, respectively) are infertile and fail to enter puberty. Leptin administration to leptin-deficient subjects and ob/ob mice induces puberty and restores fertility, but the exact site or sites of leptin action are unclear. Here, we found that genetic deletion of LepR selectively from hypothalamic Kiss1 neurons in mice had no effect on puberty or fertility, indicating that direct leptin signaling in Kiss1 neurons is not required for these processes. However, bilateral lesions of the ventral premammillary nucleus (PMV) of ob/ob mice blunted the ability of exogenous leptin to induce sexual maturation. Moreover, unilateral reexpression of endogenous LepR in PMV neurons was sufficient to induce puberty and improve fertility in female LepR-null mice. This LepR reexpression also normalized the increased hypothalamic GnRH content characteristic of leptin-signaling deficiency. These data suggest that the PMV is a key site for leptin’s permissive action at the onset of puberty and support the hypothesis that the multiple actions of leptin to control metabolism and reproduction are anatomically dissociated. PMID:21183787

  14. NADPH oxidase-derived reactive oxygen species in cardiac pathophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Cave, Alison; Grieve, David; Johar, Sofian; Zhang, Min; Shah, Ajay M

    2005-01-01

    Chronic heart failure, secondary to left ventricular hypertrophy or myocardial infarction, is a condition with increasing morbidity and mortality. Although the mechanisms underlying the development and progression of this condition remain a subject of intense interest, there is now growing evidence that redox-sensitive pathways play an important role. This article focuses on the involvement of reactive oxygen species derived from a family of superoxide-generating enzymes, termed NADPH oxidases (NOXs), in the pathophysiology of ventricular hypertrophy, the accompanying interstitial fibrosis and subsequent heart failure. In particular, the apparent ability of the different NADPH oxidase isoforms to define the response of a cell to a range of physiological and pathophysiological stimuli is reviewed. If confirmed, these data would suggest that independently targeting different members of the NOX family may hold the potential for therapeutic intervention in the treatment of cardiac disease. PMID:16321803

  15. Mesodermal Tbx1 is required for patterning the proximal mandible in mice

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, Vimla S.; Carpenter, Courtney; Freyer, Laina; Liao, Jun; Petti, Marilena; Morrow, Bernice E.

    2010-01-01

    Defects in the lower jaw, or mandible, occur commonly either as isolated malformations or in association with genetic syndromes. Understanding its formation and genetic pathways required for shaping its structure in mammalian model organisms will shed light into the pathogenesis of malformations in humans. The lower jaw is derived from the mandibular process of the first pharyngeal arch (MdPA1) during embryogenesis. Integral to the development of the mandible, is the signaling interplay between Fgf8 and Bmp4 in the rostral ectoderm and their downstream effector genes in the underlying neural crest derived mesenchyme. The non-neural crest MdPA1 core mesoderm is needed to form muscles of mastication, but its role in patterning the mandible is unknown. Here, we show that mesoderm specific deletion of Tbx1, a T- box transcription factor and gene for velo-cardio-facial/DiGeorge syndrome, results in defects in formation of the proximal mandible by shifting expression of Fgf8, Bmp4 and their downstream effector genes in mouse embryos at E10.5. This occurs without significant changes in cell proliferation or apoptosis at the same stage. Our results elucidate a new function for the non-neural crest core mesoderm and specifically, mesodermal Tbx1, in shaping the lower jaw. PMID:20501333

  16. Surgical Stress Resistance Induced by Single Amino Acid Deprivation Requires Gcn2 in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Wei; Robertson, Lauren; Gallinetti, Jordan; Mejia, Pedro; Vose, Sarah; Charlip, Allison; Chu, Timothy; Mitchell, James R.

    2012-01-01

    Dietary restriction, or reduced food intake without malnutrition, increases life span, health span, and acute stress resistance in model organisms from yeast to nonhuman primates. Although dietary restriction is beneficial for human health, this treatment is not widely used in the clinic. Here, we show that short-term, ad libitum feeding of diets lacking essential nutrients increased resistance to surgical stress in a mouse model of ischemia reperfusion injury. Dietary preconditioning by 6 to 14 days of total protein deprivation, or removal of the single essential amino acid tryptophan, protected against renal and hepatic ischemic injury, resulting in reduced inflammation and preserved organ function. Pharmacological treatment with halofuginone, which activated the amino acid starvation response within 3 days by mimicking proline deprivation, was also beneficial. Both dietary and pharmacological interventions required the amino acid sensor and eIF2α (eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α) kinase Gcn2 (general control nonderepressible 2), implicating the amino acid starvation response and translational control in stress protection. Thus, short-term dietary or pharmacological interventions that modulate amino acid sensing can confer stress resistance in models of surgical ischemia reperfusion injury. PMID:22277968

  17. Lhx9 gene expression during early limb development in mice requires the FGF signalling pathway.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yisheng; Wilson, Megan J

    2015-01-01

    Lhx9 is a member of the LIM-homeodomain gene family necessary for the correct development of many organs including gonads, limbs, heart and the nervous system. In the context of limb development, Lhx9 has been implicated as an integrator for Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signalling required for proximal-distal (PD) and anterior-posterior (AP) development of the limb. Three splice variants of the Lhx9 transcript are expressed during development, two of which are predicted to act in a dominant negative fashion, competing with the DNA binding version of Lhx9 for binding to cofactors via the LIM-domain. We examined the expression pattern for the three alternative splice forms of Lhx9; Lhx9α, Lhx9β and Lhx9c during early limb development. We have found that of the three Lhx9 isoforms, only Lhx9α and Lhx9c (intact homeodomain) are expressed during early limb development, each with their own distinct expression pattern. Additionally we determined that Lhx9 expression overlaps with FGF10 expression in the developing limb bud mesenchyme. Limb bud explant cultures, in the presence of signalling pathway inhibitors, also indicated that Lhx9 mRNA expression in the limb bud was dependent on FGF signalling.

  18. Action of the noradrenergic system on adult-born cells is required for olfactory learning in mice.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Melissa M; Bath, Kevin; Kuczewski, Nicola; Sacquet, Joëlle; Didier, Anne; Mandairon, Nathalie

    2012-03-14

    We have previously shown that an experience-driven improvement in olfactory discrimination (perceptual learning) requires the addition of newborn neurons in the olfactory bulb (OB). Despite this advance, the mechanisms which govern the selective survival of newborn OB neurons following learning remain largely unknown. We propose that activity of the noradrenergic system is a critical mediator providing a top-down signal to control the selective survival of newly born cells and support perceptual learning. In adult mice, we used pharmacological means to manipulate the noradrenergic system and neurogenesis and to assess their individual and additive effects on behavioral performance on a perceptual learning task. We then looked at the effects of these manipulations on regional survival of adult-born cells in the OB. Finally, using confocal imaging and electrophysiology, we investigated potential mechanisms by which noradrenaline could directly influence the survival of adult-born cells. Consistent with our hypotheses, direct manipulation of noradrenergic transmission significantly effect on adult-born cell survival and perceptual learning. Specifically, learning required both the presence of adult-born cell and noradrenaline. Finally, we provide a mechanistic link between these effects by showing that adult-born neurons receive noradrenergic projections and are responsive to noradrenaline. Based upon these data we argue that noradrenergic transmission is a key mechanism selecting adult-born neurons during learning and demonstrate that top-down neuromodulation acts on adult-born neuron survival to modulate learning performance.

  19. PKCtheta is required for alloreactivity and GVHD but not for immune responses toward leukemia and infection in mice.

    PubMed

    Valenzuela, Javier O; Iclozan, Cristina; Hossain, Mohammad S; Prlic, Martin; Hopewell, Emily; Bronk, Crystina C; Wang, Junmei; Celis, Esteban; Engelman, Robert W; Blazar, Bruce R; Bevan, Michael J; Waller, Edmund K; Yu, Xue-Zhong; Beg, Amer A

    2009-12-01

    When used as therapy for hematopoietic malignancies, allogeneic BM transplantation (BMT) relies on the graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) effect to eradicate residual tumor cells through immunologic mechanisms. However, graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), which is initiated by alloreactive donor T cells that recognize mismatched major and/or minor histocompatibility antigens and cause severe damage to hematopoietic and epithelial tissues, is a potentially lethal complication of allogeneic BMT. To enhance the therapeutic potential of BMT, we sought to find therapeutic targets that could inhibit GVHD while preserving GVL and immune responses to infectious agents. We show here that T cell responses triggered in mice by either Listeria monocytogenes or administration of antigen and adjuvant were relatively well preserved in the absence of PKC isoform theta (PKCtheta), a key regulator of TCR signaling. In contrast, PKCtheta was required for alloreactivity and GVHD induction. Furthermore, absence of PKCtheta raised the threshold for T cell activation, which selectively affected alloresponses. Most importantly, PKCtheta-deficient T cells retained the ability to respond to virus infection and to induce GVL effect after BMT. These findings suggest PKCtheta is a potentially unique therapeutic target required for GVHD induction but not for GVL or protective responses to infectious agents.

  20. Expression of SREBP-1c Requires SREBP-2-mediated Generation of a Sterol Ligand for LXR in Livers of Mice

    PubMed Central

    Rong, Shunxing; Cortés, Víctor A; Rashid, Shirya; Anderson, Norma N; McDonald, Jeffrey G; Liang, Guosheng; Moon, Young-Ah; Hammer, Robert E; Horton, Jay D

    2017-01-01

    The synthesis of cholesterol and fatty acids (FA) in the liver is independently regulated by SREBP-2 and SREBP-1c, respectively. Here, we genetically deleted Srebf-2 from hepatocytes and confirmed that SREBP-2 regulates all genes involved in cholesterol biosynthesis, the LDL receptor, and PCSK9; a secreted protein that degrades LDL receptors in the liver. Surprisingly, we found that elimination of Srebf-2 in hepatocytes of mice also markedly reduced SREBP-1c and the expression of all genes involved in FA and triglyceride synthesis that are normally regulated by SREBP-1c. The nuclear receptor LXR is necessary for Srebf-1c transcription. The deletion of Srebf-2 and subsequent lower sterol synthesis in hepatocytes eliminated the production of an endogenous sterol ligand required for LXR activity and SREBP-1c expression. These studies demonstrate that cholesterol and FA synthesis in hepatocytes are coupled and that flux through the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway is required for the maximal SREBP-1c expression and high rates of FA synthesis. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.25015.001 PMID:28244871

  1. Tumor suppressor gene Rb is required for self-renewal of spermatogonial stem cells in mice.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yueh-Chiang; de Rooij, Dirk G; Page, David C

    2013-07-30

    The retinoblastoma tumor suppressor gene Rb is essential for maintaining the quiescence and for regulating the differentiation of somatic stem cells. Inactivation of Rb in somatic stem cells typically leads to their overexpansion, often followed by increased apoptosis, defective terminal differentiation, and tumor formation. However, Rb's roles in germ-line stem cells have not been explored. We conditionally disrupted the Rb gene in mouse germ cells in vivo and discovered unanticipated consequences for GFRa1-protein-expressing A(single) (GFRa1(+) A(s)) spermatogonia, the major source of male germ-line stem cells. Rb-deficient GFRa1(+) A(s) spermatogonia were present at normal density in testes 5 d after birth, but they lacked the capacity for self-renewal, resulting in germ cell depletion by 2 mo of age. Rb deficiency did not affect the proliferative activity of GFRa1(+) A(s) spermatogonia, but their progeny were exclusively transit-amplifying progenitor spermatogonia and did not include GFRa1(+) A(s) spermatogonia. In addition, Rb deficiency caused prolonged proliferation of progenitor spermatogonia, transiently enlarging this population. Despite these defects, Rb deficiency did not block terminal differentiation into functional sperm; offspring were readily obtained from young males whose germ cell pool was not yet depleted. We conclude that Rb is required for self-renewal of germ-line stem cells, but contrary to its critical roles in somatic stem cells, it is dispensable for their proliferative activity and terminal differentiation. Thus, this study identifies an unexpected function for Rb in maintaining the stem cell pool in the male germ line.

  2. Genetic Targeting or Pharmacologic Inhibition of NADPH Oxidase Nox4 Provides Renoprotection in Long-Term Diabetic Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Jha, Jay C.; Gray, Stephen P.; Barit, David; Okabe, Jun; El-Osta, Assam; Namikoshi, Tamehachi; Thallas-Bonke, Vicki; Wingler, Kirstin; Szyndralewiez, Cedric; Heitz, Freddy; Touyz, Rhian M.; Cooper, Mark E.; Schmidt, Harald H.H.W.

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy may occur, in part, as a result of intrarenal oxidative stress. NADPH oxidases comprise the only known dedicated reactive oxygen species (ROS)–forming enzyme family. In the rodent kidney, three isoforms of the catalytic subunit of NADPH oxidase are expressed (Nox1, Nox2, and Nox4). Here we show that Nox4 is the main source of renal ROS in a mouse model of diabetic nephropathy induced by streptozotocin administration in ApoE−/− mice. Deletion of Nox4, but not of Nox1, resulted in renal protection from glomerular injury as evidenced by attenuated albuminuria, preserved structure, reduced glomerular accumulation of extracellular matrix proteins, attenuated glomerular macrophage infiltration, and reduced renal expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and NF-κB in streptozotocin-induced diabetic ApoE−/− mice. Importantly, administration of the most specific Nox1/4 inhibitor, GKT137831, replicated these renoprotective effects of Nox4 deletion. In human podocytes, silencing of the Nox4 gene resulted in reduced production of ROS and downregulation of proinflammatory and profibrotic markers that are implicated in diabetic nephropathy. Collectively, these results identify Nox4 as a key source of ROS responsible for kidney injury in diabetes and provide proof of principle for an innovative small molecule approach to treat and/or prevent chronic kidney failure. PMID:24511132

  3. The acute anorexic effect of liraglutide, a GLP-1 receptor agonist, does not require functional leptin receptor, serotonin, and hypothalamic POMC and CART activities in mice.

    PubMed

    Nonogaki, Katsunori; Kaji, Takao

    2016-10-01

    The acute anorexic effect of liraglutide, a GLP-1 receptor agonist, did not require functional leptin receptor, serotonin, and hypothalamic proopiomelanocortin and cocaine amphetamine regulated transcript activities in mice, although decrease in functional hypothalamic orexin activity might be involved in the acute anorexic effect of liraglutide.

  4. Costimulation by B7-1 and B7-2 is required for autoimmune disease in MRL-Faslpr mice.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, K; Tesch, G; Schwarting, A; Maron, R; Sharpe, A H; Kelley, V R

    2000-06-01

    Autoimmune lupus nephritis is dependent on infiltrating autoreactive leukocytes and Igs. B7 costimulatory molecules (B7-1 and B7-2) provide signals essential for T cell activation and Ig class switching. In MRL-Faslpr mice, a model of human lupus, although multiple tissues are targeted for autoimmune injury, nephritis is fatal. We identified intrarenal B7-1 and B7-2 expression, restricted to kidney-infiltrating leukocytes, before and increasing with progressive nephritis in MRL-Faslpr mice. Thus, we hypothesized that the B7 pathway is required for autoimmune disease in MRL-Faslpr mice. To investigate the role of B7 costimulatory molecules in this autoimmune disease, we generated a MRL-Faslpr strain deficient in B7-1 and B7-2. Strikingly, MRL-Faslpr mice lacking both B7 costimulators do not develop kidney (glomerular, tubular, interstitial, vascular) pathology, or proteinuria, and survive far longer. Intrarenal downstream effector transcripts (IFN-gamma, IL-12, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, CSF-1) linked to nephritis remained at normal levels compared with wild-type mice. Skin lesions and lymphoid enlargement characteristic of MRL-Faslpr mice were diminished in B7-1/B7-2-deficient MRL-Faslpr mice. B7-1/B7-2-deficient MRL-Faslpr mice did not develop leukocytic infiltrates, elevated serum IgG and isotypes (G1,G2b,G3), autoantibodies, and intrarenal IgG deposits. Our findings demonstrate that B7-1 and B7-2 costimulatory pathways are critical to the pathogenesis of autoimmune lupus.

  5. Spermatid Head Elongation with Normal Nuclear Shaping Requires ADP-Ribosyltransferase PARP11 (ARTD11) in Mice1

    PubMed Central

    Meyer-Ficca, Mirella L.; Ihara, Motomasa; Bader, Jessica J.; Leu, N. Adrian; Beneke, Sascha; Meyer, Ralph G.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Sperm are highly differentiated cells characterized by their species-specific nuclear shapes and extremely condensed chromatin. Abnormal head shapes represent a form of teratozoospermia that can impair fertilization capacity. This study shows that poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-11 (ARTD11/PARP11), a member of the ADP-ribosyltransferase (ARTD) family, is expressed preferentially in spermatids undergoing nuclear condensation and differentiation. Deletion of the Parp11 gene results in teratozoospermia and male infertility in mice due to the formation of abnormally shaped fertilization-incompetent sperm, despite normal testis weights and sperm counts. At the subcellular level, PARP11-deficient elongating spermatids reveal structural defects in the nuclear envelope and chromatin detachment associated with abnormal nuclear shaping, suggesting functional relevance of PARP11 for nuclear envelope stability and nuclear reorganization during spermiogenesis. In vitro, PARP11 exhibits mono(ADP-ribosyl)ation activity with the ability to ADP-ribosylate itself. In transfected somatic cells, PARP11 colocalizes with nuclear pore components, such as NUP153. Amino acids Y77, Q86, and R95 in the N-terminal WWE domain, as well as presence of the catalytic domain, are essential for colocalization of PARP11 with the nuclear envelope, but catalytic activity of the protein is not required for colocalization with NUP153. This study demonstrates that PARP11 is a novel enzyme important for proper sperm head shaping and identifies it as a potential factor involved in idiopathic mammalian teratozoospermia. PMID:25673562

  6. Nuclear factor kappa B-dependent Zif268 expression in hippocampus is required for recognition memory in mice.

    PubMed

    Zalcman, Gisela; Federman, Noel; de la Fuente, Verónica; Romano, Arturo

    2015-03-01

    Long-term memory formation requires gene expression after acquisition of new information. The first step in the regulation of gene expression is the participation of transcription factors (TFs) such as nuclear factor kappa B (NF-кB), which are present before the neuronal activity induced by training. It was proposed that the activation of these types of TFs allows a second step in gene regulation by induction of immediate-early genes (IEGs) whose protein products are, in turn, TFs. Between these IEGs, zif268 has been found to play a critical role in long-term memory formation and reprocessing after retrieval. Here we found in mice hippocampus that, on one hand, NF-кB was activated 45 min after training in a novel object recognition (NOR) task and that inhibiting NF-кB immediately after training by intrahippocampal administration of NF-кB Decoy DNA impaired NOR memory consolidation. On the other hand, Zif268 protein expression was induced 45 min after NOR training and the administration of DNA antisense to its mRNA post-training impaired recognition memory. Finally, we found that the inhibition of NF-кB by NF-кB Decoy DNA reduced significantly the training-induced Zif268 increment, indicating that NF-кB is involved in the regulation of Zif268 expression. Thus, the present results support the involvement of NF-кB activity-dependent Zif268 expression in the hippocampus during recognition memory consolidation.

  7. Vaccine-induced protection against 3 systemic mycoses endemic to North America requires Th17 cells in mice.

    PubMed

    Wüthrich, Marcel; Gern, Benjamin; Hung, Chiung Yu; Ersland, Karen; Rocco, Nicole; Pick-Jacobs, John; Galles, Kevin; Filutowicz, Hanna; Warner, Thomas; Evans, Michael; Cole, Garry; Klein, Bruce

    2011-02-01

    Worldwide rates of systemic fungal infections, including three of the major pathogens responsible for such infections in North America (Coccidioides posadasii, Histoplasma capsulatum, and Blastomyces dermatitidis), have soared recently, spurring interest in developing vaccines. The development of Th1 cells is believed to be crucial for protective immunity against pathogenic fungi, whereas the role of Th17 cells is vigorously debated. In models of primary fungal infection, some studies have shown that Th17 cells mediate resistance, while others have shown that they promote disease pathology. Here, we have shown that Th1 immunity is dispensable and that fungus-specific Th17 cells are sufficient for vaccine-induced protection against lethal pulmonary infection with B. dermatitidis in mice. Further, vaccine-induced Th17 cells were necessary and sufficient to protect against the three major systemic mycoses in North America. Mechanistically, Th17 cells engendered protection by recruiting and activating neutrophils and macrophages to the alveolar space, while the induction of Th17 cells and acquisition of vaccine immunity unexpectedly required the adapter molecule Myd88 but not the fungal pathogen recognition receptor Dectin-1. These data suggest that human vaccines against systemic fungal infections should be designed to induce Th17 cells if they are to be effective.

  8. The insert region of the Rac GTPases is dispensable for activation of superoxide-producing NADPH oxidases.

    PubMed

    Miyano, Kei; Koga, Hirofumi; Minakami, Reiko; Sumimoto, Hideki

    2009-08-13

    Rac1 and Rac2, which belong to the Rho subfamily of Ras-related GTPases, play an essential role in activation of gp91phox/Nox2 (cytochrome b-245, beta polypeptide; also known as Cybb), the catalytic core of the superoxide-producing NADPH oxidase in phagocytes. Rac1 also contributes to activation of the non-phagocytic oxidases Nox1 (NADPH oxidase 1) and Nox3 (NADPH oxidase 3), each related closely to gp91phox/Nox2. It has remained controversial whether the insert region of Rac (amino acids 123-135), unique to the Rho subfamily proteins, is involved in gp91phox/Nox2 activation. In the present study we show that removal of the insert region from Rac1 neither affects activation of gp91phox/Nox2, which is reconstituted under cell-free and whole-cell conditions, nor blocks its localization to phagosomes during ingestion of IgG-coated beads by macrophage-like RAW264.7 cells. The insert region of Rac2 is also dispensable for gp91phox/Nox2 activation at the cellular level. Although Rac2, as well as Rac1, is capable of enhancing superoxide production by Nox1 and Nox3, the enhancements by the two GTPases are both independent of the insert region. We also demonstrate that Rac3, a third member of the Rac family in mammals, has an ability to activate the three oxidases and that the activation does not require the insert region. Thus the insert region of the Rac GTPases does not participate in regulation of the Nox family NADPH oxidases.

  9. Parasitic worms stimulate host NADPH oxidases to produce reactive oxygen species that limit plant cell death and promote infection.

    PubMed

    Siddique, Shahid; Matera, Christiane; Radakovic, Zoran S; Hasan, M Shamim; Gutbrod, Philipp; Rozanska, Elzbieta; Sobczak, Miroslaw; Torres, Miguel Angel; Grundler, Florian M W

    2014-04-08

    Plants and animals produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) in response to infection. In plants, ROS not only activate defense responses and promote cell death to limit the spread of pathogens but also restrict the amount of cell death in response to pathogen recognition. Plants also use hormones, such as salicylic acid, to mediate immune responses to infection. However, there are long-lasting biotrophic plant-pathogen interactions, such as the interaction between parasitic nematodes and plant roots during which defense responses are suppressed and root cells are reorganized to specific nurse cell systems. In plants, ROS are primarily generated by plasma membrane-localized NADPH (reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) oxidases, and loss of NADPH oxidase activity compromises immune responses and cell death. We found that infection of Arabidopsis thaliana by the parasitic nematode Heterodera schachtii activated the NADPH oxidases RbohD and RbohF to produce ROS, which was necessary to restrict infected plant cell death and promote nurse cell formation. RbohD- and RbohF-deficient plants exhibited larger regions of cell death in response to nematode infection, and nurse cell formation was greatly reduced. Genetic disruption of SID2, which is required for salicylic acid accumulation and immune activation in nematode-infected plants, led to the increased size of nematodes in RbohD- and RbohF-deficient plants, but did not decrease plant cell death. Thus, by stimulating NADPH oxidase-generated ROS, parasitic nematodes fine-tune the pattern of plant cell death during the destructive root invasion and may antagonize salicylic acid-induced defense responses during biotrophic life stages.

  10. Elevated mitochondria-coupled NAD(P)H in endoplasmic reticulum of dopamine neurons

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Kristal R.; Cavolo, Samantha L.; Levitan, Edwin S.

    2016-01-01

    Pyridine nucleotides are redox coenzymes that are critical in bioenergetics, metabolism, and neurodegeneration. Here we use brain slice multiphoton microscopy to show that substantia nigra dopamine neurons, which are sensitive to stress in mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), display elevated combined NADH and NADPH (i.e., NAD(P)H) autofluorescence. Despite limited mitochondrial mass, organellar NAD(P)H is extensive because much of the signal is derived from the ER. Remarkably, even though pyridine nucleotides cannot cross mitochondrial and ER membranes, inhibiting mitochondrial function with an uncoupler or interrupting the electron transport chain with cyanide (CN−) alters ER NAD(P)H. The ER CN− response can occur without a change in nuclear NAD(P)H, raising the possibility of redox shuttling via the cytoplasm locally between neuronal mitochondria and the ER. We propose that coregulation of NAD(P)H in dopamine neuron mitochondria and ER coordinates cell redox stress signaling by the two organelles. PMID:27582392

  11. Enhancing biomass and ethanol production by increasing NADPH production in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yun-Nam; Park, Jong Moon

    2016-08-01

    This study demonstrates that increased NADPH production can improve biomass and ethanol production in cyanobacteria. We over-expressed the endogenous zwf gene, which encodes glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase of pentose phosphate pathway, in the model cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. zwf over-expression resulted in increased NADPH production, and promoted biomass production compared to the wild type in both autotrophic and mixotrophic conditions. Ethanol production pathway including NADPH-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase was also integrated with and without zwf over-expression. Excessive NADPH production by zwf over-expression could improve both biomass and ethanol production in the autotrophic conditions.

  12. Assessment of Cellular Redox State Using NAD(P)H Fluorescence Intensity and Lifetime

    PubMed Central

    Blacker, Thomas S.; Berecz, Tunde; Duchen, Michael R.; Szabadkai, Gyorgy

    2017-01-01

    NADH and NADPH are redox cofactors, primarily involved in catabolic and anabolic metabolic processes respectively. In addition, NADPH plays an important role in cellular antioxidant defence. In live cells and tissues, the intensity of their spectrally-identical autofluorescence, termed NAD(P)H, can be used to probe the mitochondrial redox state, while their distinct enzyme-binding characteristics can be used to separate their relative contributions to the total NAD(P)H intensity using fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM). These protocols allow differences in metabolism to be detected between cell types and altered physiological and pathological states. PMID:28286806

  13. Dynamin 2 and c-Abl are novel regulators of hyperoxia-mediated NADPH oxidase activation and reactive oxygen species production in caveolin-enriched microdomains of the endothelium.

    PubMed

    Singleton, Patrick A; Pendyala, Srikanth; Gorshkova, Irina A; Mambetsariev, Nurbek; Moitra, Jaideep; Garcia, Joe G N; Natarajan, Viswanathan

    2009-12-11

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, particularly by the endothelial NADPH oxidase family of proteins, plays a major role in the pathophysiology associated with lung inflammation, ischemia/reperfusion injury, sepsis, hyperoxia, and ventilator-associated lung injury. We examined potential regulators of ROS production and discovered that hyperoxia treatment of human pulmonary artery endothelial cells induced recruitment of the vesicular regulator, dynamin 2, the non-receptor tyrosine kinase, c-Abl, and the NADPH oxidase subunit, p47(phox), to caveolin-enriched microdomains (CEMs). Silencing caveolin-1 (which blocks CEM formation) and/or c-Abl expression with small interference RNA inhibited hyperoxia-mediated tyrosine phosphorylation and association of dynamin 2 with p47(phox) and ROS production. In addition, treatment of human pulmonary artery endothelial cells with dynamin 2 small interfering RNA or the dynamin GTPase inhibitor, Dynasore, attenuated hyperoxia-mediated ROS production and p47(phox) recruitment to CEMs. Using purified recombinant proteins, we observed that c-Abl tyrosine-phosphorylated dynamin 2, and this phosphorylation increased p47(phox)/dynamin 2 association (change in the dissociation constant (K(d)) from 85.8 to 6.9 nm). Furthermore, exposure of mice to hyperoxia increased ROS production, c-Abl activation, dynamin 2 association with p47(phox), and pulmonary leak, events that were attenuated in the caveolin-1 knock-out mouse confirming a role for CEMs in ROS generation. These results suggest that hyperoxia induces c-Abl-mediated dynamin 2 phosphorylation required for recruitment of p47(phox) to CEMs and subsequent ROS production in lung endothelium.

  14. Site requirements and kinetics of immune-dependent elimination of intravascularly administered lung stage schistosomula in mice immunized with highly irradiated cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni

    SciTech Connect

    Mangold, B.L.; Dean, D.A.; Coulson, P.S.; Wilson, R.A.

    1986-03-01

    Experiments were performed to compare the migration and survival of 75Se-labeled schistosomes, introduced by percutaneous cercarial exposure or by intravascular administration of 7-day-old lung stage schistosomula, in control and irradiated cercaria-immunized mice. Schistosomula were intravascularly introduced into the lungs, systemic organs and liver by injection via the femoral vein (FV), left ventricle (LV), and superior mesenteric vein (SMV), respectively. The fate of challenge larvae was examined by autoradiography of host tissues and by recovery of adult worms. It was found that both normal and immune elimination were site-dependent. In control mice 45%-60% of cercarial penetrants and lung schistosomula injected into the FV and LV were recoverable as adult worms, while a significantly greater number (70%-85%) were recoverable when lung schistosomula were injected into the SMV. In immunized mice, parasites introduced as either cercariae or FV-injected schistosomula were both highly sensitive to immune elimination. LV-injected schistosomula were also sensitive but to a slightly lesser degree. In contrast, schistosomula placed directly in the liver by SMV injection were totally insensitive to immune elimination. It was concluded that elimination of schistosomula in irradiated cercaria-immunized mice occurs in the lungs and/or in the systemic organs, but not in the liver. Also, it was concluded that immune elimination is not a rapid process, since more than 7 days were required after intravascular challenge for the development of demonstrable differences between control and immunized mice.

  15. Pdlim7 Regulates Arf6-Dependent Actin Dynamics and Is Required for Platelet-Mediated Thrombosis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Kaylie P.; Krcmery, Jennifer; Simon, Hans-Georg

    2016-01-01

    Upon vessel injury, platelets become activated and rapidly reorganize their actin cytoskeleton to adhere to the site of endothelial damage, triggering the formation of a fibrin-rich plug to prevent further blood loss. Inactivation of Pdlim7 provides the new perspective that regulation of actin cytoskeletal changes in platelets is dependent on the encoded PDZ-LIM protein. Loss-of-function of Pdlim7 triggers hypercoagulopathy and causes significant perinatal lethality in mice. Our in vivo and in vitro studies reveal that Pdlim7 is dynamically distributed along actin fibers, and lack of Pdlim7 leads to a marked inability to rearrange the actin cytoskeleton. Specifically, the absence of Pdlim7 prevents platelets from bundling actin fibers into a concentric ring that defines the round spread shape of activated platelets. Similarly, in mouse embryonic fibroblasts, loss of Pdlim7 abolishes the formation of stress fibers needed to adopt the typical elongated fibroblast shape. In addition to revealing a fundamental cell biological role in actin cytoskeletal organization, we also demonstrate a function of Pdlim7 in regulating the cycling between the GTP/GDP-bound states of Arf6. The small GTPase Arf6 is an essential factor required for actin dynamics, cytoskeletal rearrangements, and platelet activation. Consistent with our findings of significantly elevated initial F-actin ratios and subsequent morphological aberrations, loss of Pdlim7 causes a shift in balance towards an increased Arf6-GTP level in resting platelets. These findings identify a new Pdlim7-Arf6 axis controlling actin dynamics and implicate Pdlim7 as a primary endogenous regulator of platelet-dependent hemostasis. PMID:27792740

  16. Optimisation of the differing conditions required for bone formation in vitro by primary osteoblasts from mice and rats.

    PubMed

    Orriss, Isabel R; Hajjawi, Mark O R; Huesa, Carmen; MacRae, Vicky E; Arnett, Timothy R

    2014-11-01

    The in vitro culture of calvarial osteoblasts from neonatal rodents remains an important method for studying the regulation of bone formation. The widespread use of transgenic mice has created a particular need for a reliable, simple method that allows the differentiation and bone‑forming activity of murine osteoblasts to be studied. In the present study, we established such a method and identified key differences in optimal culture conditions between mouse and rat osteoblasts. Cells isolated from neonatal rodent calvariae by collagenase digestion were cultured for 14‑28 days before staining for tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) and bone mineralisation (alizarin red). The reliable differentiation of mouse osteoblasts, resulting in abundant TNAP expression and the formation of mineralised 'trabecular‑shaped' bone nodules, occurred only following culture in α minimum essential medium (αMEM) and took 21‑28 days. Dexamethasone (10 nM) inhibited bone mineralisation in the mouse osteoblasts. By contrast, TNAP expression and bone formation by rat osteoblasts were observed following culture in both αMEM and Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) after approximately 14 days (although ~3‑fold more effectively in αMEM) and was strongly dependent on dexamethasone. Both the mouse and rat osteoblasts required ascorbate (50 µg/ml) for osteogenic differentiation and β‑glycerophosphate (2 mM) for mineralisation. The rat and mouse osteoblasts showed similar sensitivity to the well‑established inhibitors of mineralisation, inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP; 1‑100 µM). The high efficiency of osteogenic differentiation observed following culture in αMEM, compared with culture in DMEM possibly reflects the richer formulation of the former. These findings offer a reliable technique for inducing mouse osteoblasts to form bone in vitro and a more effective method for culturing bone‑forming rat osteoblasts.

  17. Structural domains in NADPH: Protochlorophyllide oxidoreductases involved in catalysis and substrate binding. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Timko, Michael P.

    1999-09-24

    Until recently little direct information was available about specific structural determinants within the light-dependent NADPH: protochlorophyllide oxidoreductases (PORs) required for substrate and cofactor binding, catalytic activity, and thylakoid membrane localization. Based on our previous DOE-funded studies, during the past year we brought to fruition a number of ongoing experiments, initiated several new avenues of investigations, and overall have made considerable progress towards establishing the basic structural parameters governing POR function. Our studies to date have defined residues and domains involved in substrate and cofactor binding and catalysis, and elaborated on the mechanism for membrane localization of POR in developing plastids. Our results and their significance, as well as our work in progress, are detailed.

  18. Effects of social isolation and enriched environment on behavior of adult Swiss mice do not require hippocampal neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Silva, Cristiane Felisbino; Duarte, Filipe Silveira; Lima, Thereza Christina Monteiro De; de Oliveira, Cilene Lino

    2011-11-20

    Housing conditions are important determinants of animal behavior. Their impact on behavioral output depends on the behavior of interest, species, strain, and age of the animal evaluated. In the present study, male Swiss mice reared from weaning up to 8 weeks in social isolation (SI8), in enriched environment (EE8) or in standard environment (SE8) were evaluated in the elevated plus-maze (EPM), open-field (OFT) and tail-suspension (TST) tests. The effect of housing for 6 weeks in EE followed by 2 weeks in SI (EE6SI2) and the opposite condition (SI6EE2) was also studied. Housing conditions are reported to affect hippocampal neurogenesis; therefore, the expression of doublecortin (DCX) in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus (DG) of these mice was monitored. Data showed that SI8, EE8 and EE6SI2 reduced the stretching-attend postures in the EPM and explored more the center of the apparatus when compared to SE8. The time and the number of entries in the closed arms of the EPM was not affected indicating that effects of housing conditions in the EPM were not consequence of motor activity alteration. Accordingly, EE8 mice exploration of the OFT was similar to SE8. However, the SI8 mice explored the OFT more than the EE8 mice, suggesting hyperactivity induced by isolation. Behavior of Swiss mice in the TST was not altered, indicating that this test was not sensitive to the environmental changes in this mice strain. Compared to SE8, EE8 did not affect the number of DCX cells, whereas SI8, EE6SI2, and SI6EE2 decreased it. Taken together, our data suggest that the behavior of adult Swiss mice in the EPM and OFT was affected by environmental changes but that these changes seem to be independent of hippocampal neurogenesis.

  19. Calcium responses mediated by type 2 IP3-receptors are required for osmotic volume regulation of retinal glial cells in mice.

    PubMed

    Lipp, Stephan; Wurm, Antje; Pannicke, Thomas; Wiedemann, Peter; Reichenbach, Andreas; Chen, Ju; Bringmann, Andreas

    2009-06-26

    Prevention of osmotic swelling of retinal glial (Müller) cells is required to avoid detrimental decreases in the extracellular space volume during intense neuronal activity. Here, we show that glial cells in slices of the wildtype mouse retina maintain the volume of their somata constant up to approximately 4 min of perfusion with a hypoosmolar solution. However, calcium chelation with BAPTA/AM induced a rapid swelling of glial cell bodies. In glial cells of retinas from inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate-receptor type 2-deficient (IP(3)R2(-/-)) mice, hypotonic conditions caused swelling of the cell bodies without delay. Exogenous ATP (acting at P2Y(1) receptors) prevented the swelling of glial cells in retinal slices from wildtype but not from IP(3)R2(-/-) mice. Müller cells from IP(3)R2(-/-) mice displayed a strongly reduced amplitude of the ATP-evoked calcium responses as compared to cells from wildtype mice. It is concluded that endogenous calcium signaling mediated by IP(3)R2 is required for the osmotic volume regulation of retinal glial cells.

  20. Cortical bone loss caused by glucocorticoid excess requires RANKL production by osteocytes and is associated with reduced OPG expression in mice.

    PubMed

    Piemontese, Marilina; Xiong, Jinhu; Fujiwara, Yuko; Thostenson, Jeff D; O'Brien, Charles A

    2016-09-01

    Glucocorticoid excess is a major cause of low bone mass and fractures. Glucocorticoid administration decreases cortical thickness and increases cortical porosity in mice, and these changes are associated with increased osteoclast number at the endocortical surface. Receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) produced by osteocytes is required for osteoclast formation in cancellous bone as well as the increase in cortical bone resorption caused by mechanical unloading or dietary calcium deficiency. However, whether osteocyte-derived RANKL also participates in the increase in bone resorption caused by glucocorticoid excess is unknown. To address this question, we examined the effects of prednisolone on cortical bone of mice lacking RANKL production in osteocytes. Prednisolone administration increased osteoclast number at the endocortical surface, increased cortical porosity, and reduced cortical thickness in control mice, but none of these effects occurred in mice lacking RANKL in osteocytes. Prednisolone administration did not alter RANKL mRNA abundance but did reduce osteoprotegerin (OPG) mRNA abundance in osteocyte-enriched cortical bone. Similarly, dexamethasone suppressed OPG but did not increase RANKL production in cortical bone organ cultures and primary osteoblasts. These results demonstrate that RANKL produced by osteocytes is required for the cortical bone loss caused by glucocorticoid excess but suggest that the changes in endocortical resorption are driven by reduced OPG rather than elevated RANKL expression.

  1. Pharmacological evidence for the stimulation of NADPH oxidase by P2X7 receptors in mouse submandibular glands

    PubMed Central

    Seil, Michèle; Fontanils, Unai; Etxebarria, Irantzu Gorrono; Pochet, Stéphanie; Garcia-Marcos, Mikel; Marino, Aida

    2008-01-01

    ATP in the 100 μM-1 mM concentration range provoked a calcium-independent increase of the oxidation of dichlorodihydrofluorescein (DCFH) to dichlorofluorescein (DCF) by mouse submandibular cells. 3′-O-(4-benzoyl)benzoyl adenosine 5′-triphosphate (BzATP), a P2X7 agonist, but not a muscarinic or an adrenergic agonist, reproduced the effect of ATP. The inhibition of phospholipase C by U73122 or the potentiation of P2X4 receptor activation with ivermectin did not modify the response to ATP. ATP did not increase the oxidation of DCFH in cells isolated from submandibular glands of P2X7 knockout mice or in cells pretreated with a P2X7 antagonist. The inhibition of protein kinase C or of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAP kinase) or of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase blocked the oxidation of DCFH without affecting the increase of the intracellular concentration of calcium or the uptake of ethidium bromide in response to extracellular ATP. From these results it is concluded that the activation of the P2X7 receptors from submandibular glands triggers an intracellular signalling cascade involving protein kinase C and MAP kinase leading to the stimulation of NADPH oxidase and the subsequent generation of reactive oxygen species. PMID:18581262

  2. Sorbitol production in charged membrane bioreactor with coenzyme regeneration system: II. Theoretical analysis of a continuous reaction with retained and regenerated NADPH.

    PubMed

    Ikemi, M; Ishimatsu, Y; Kise, S

    1990-06-20

    A theoretical model was constructed in order to study charged membrane bioreactors (CMBRs). In this model, it was postulated that a native nicotinamide coenzyme NADP(H) can be partially retained by a charged membrane in continuous operation. A multienzyme system composed of NADPH-dependent aldose reductase (AR) and glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) was used for the production of sorbitol and gluconic acid from glucose and for the conjugated enzymatic regeneration of NADP(H). Both enzymes were studied with respect to their reaction kinetics. AR was determined to obey the Theorell-Chance mechanism. GDH reaction was approximated by the initial velocity equation of the sequential Bi-Bi mechanism since the reverse reaction could be neglected. Significant inhibitions of both enzymes by sorbitol, gluconic acid, and glucose were observed, and the mode of inhibition was estimated to modify the velocity equations. The differential equation system for each component was derived and numerically analyzed according to the model. The theoretical model elucidated several features of the CMBR. (1) When compared at the same productivity, higher retainment was found to bring about a higher coenzyme turnover number, indicating that the feed coenzyme concentration can be reduced. (2) Under constant conversion, a contradictory relationship between turnover number and residence time arises if the feed concentration of a coenzyme varies. The theoretical model predicts that there is a practically optimal concentration for using NADP(H) efficiently. This concentration was consistent with that yielding the estimated minimum total cost. (3) In this system, excess-GDH-to-AR activity was required because of differences in their kinetic constants. The amount of regeneration enzyme required can be reduced by the accumulation of excels NADPH due to coenzyme retainment. (4) Comparison with an ideal repeated batch reaction revealed that the continuously operated CMBR was vastly superior with respect to

  3. Intermittent Hypoxia-Induced Parvalbumin-Immunoreactive Interneurons Loss and Neurobehavioral Impairment is Mediated by NADPH-Oxidase-2.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Liang; Wu, Jing; Liu, Jiang; Li, Guowei; Liang, Dong

    2015-06-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea usually contribute to psychiatric diseases and cognitive impairments in adults. Loss of parvalbumin (PV)-immunoreactive interneurons (PV-IN) in the brain cortex is an important feature of psychiatric diseases, such as schizophrenia. Here we investigate the causal contribution of oxidative stress in the brain cortex to neuropathological alterations in a mouse model of sleep apnea. Wild-type (WT) and the NADPH-oxidase-2 (gp91-phox/NOX2) knock-out adult male C57BL/6J mice were exposed to intermittent hypoxia (IH) or standard room air in the same chamber. In vivo we determined the impact (1) of IH exposures on NOX2 expression, (2) of genetic gp91-phox/NOX2 knock-out and (3) of pharmacological NOX2 inhibition on IH-induced neuropathological alterations in adult mice. Endpoints were oxidative stress, PV-IN and neurobehavioral alterations. The results showed IH exposures increased NOX2 expression in the prefrontal cortex of WT mice, which was accompanied with elevations of indirect markers of oxidative stress (HNE, HIF-1α, 8-OHDG). WT mice showed loss of PV-IN in the prefrontal cortex and increased locomotion activity and anxiety levels after exposed to IH, while no change emerged in NOX2 knock-out mice. Treatment of WT mice with the antioxidant/NOX inhibitor apocynin prevented the neuropathological and neurobehavioral alterations induced by IH exposures. Our data suggest that NOX2-derived oxidative stress is involved in the loss of PV-IN in the prefrontal cortex and development of neurobehavioral alterations for adult mice exposed to IH. These results provide a molecular mechanism for the coupling between sleep apnea and brain oxidative stress as well as potential new therapeutic avenues.

  4. Amyloid-β and proinflammatory cytokines utilize a prion protein-dependent pathway to activate NADPH oxidase and induce cofilin-actin rods in hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Keifer P; Minamide, Laurie S; Kane, Sarah J; Shaw, Alisa E; Brown, David R; Pulford, Bruce; Zabel, Mark D; Lambeth, J David; Kuhn, Thomas B; Bamburg, James R

    2014-01-01

    Neurites of neurons under acute or chronic stress form bundles of filaments (rods) containing 1∶1 cofilin∶actin, which impair transport and synaptic function. Rods contain disulfide cross-linked cofilin and are induced by treatments resulting in oxidative stress. Rods form rapidly (5-30 min) in >80% of cultured hippocampal or cortical neurons treated with excitotoxic levels of glutamate or energy depleted (hypoxia/ischemia or mitochondrial inhibitors). In contrast, slow rod formation (50% of maximum response in ∼6 h) occurs in a subpopulation (∼20%) of hippocampal neurons upon exposure to soluble human amyloid-β dimer/trimer (Aβd/t) at subnanomolar concentrations. Here we show that proinflammatory cytokines (TNFα, IL-1β, IL-6) also induce rods at the same rate and within the same neuronal population as Aβd/t. Neurons from prion (PrP(C))-null mice form rods in response to glutamate or antimycin A, but not in response to proinflammatory cytokines or Aβd/t. Two pathways inducing rod formation were confirmed by demonstrating that NADPH-oxidase (NOX) activity is required for prion-dependent rod formation, but not for rods induced by glutamate or energy depletion. Surprisingly, overexpression of PrP(C) is by itself sufficient to induce rods in over 40% of hippocampal neurons through the NOX-dependent pathway. Persistence of PrP(C)-dependent rods requires the continuous activity of NOX. Removing inducers or inhibiting NOX activity in cells containing PrP(C)-dependent rods causes rod disappearance with a half-life of about 36 min. Cofilin-actin rods provide a mechanism for synapse loss bridging the amyloid and cytokine hypotheses for Alzheimer disease, and may explain how functionally diverse Aβ-binding membrane proteins induce synaptic dysfunction.

  5. Ciliary neurotrophic factor is not required for terminal sprouting and compensatory reinnervation of neuromuscular synapses: Re-evaluation of CNTF null mice

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Megan C.; Son, Young-Jin

    2007-01-01

    Loss of synaptic activity or innervation induces sprouting of intact motor nerve terminals that adds or restores nerve-muscle connectivity. Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) and terminal Schwann cells (tSCs) have been implicated as molecular and cellular mediators of the compensatory process. We wondered if the previously reported lack of terminal sprouting in CNTF null mice was due to abnormal reactivity of tSCs. To this end, we examined nerve terminal and tSC responses in CNTF null mice using experimental systems that elicited extensive sprouting in wildtype mice. Contrary to the previous report, we found that motor nerve terminals in the null mice sprout extensively in response to major sprouting-stimuli such as exogenously applied CNTF per se, botulinum toxin-elicited paralysis, and partial denervation by L4 spinal root transection. In addition, the number, length and growth patterns of terminal sprouts, and the extent of reinnervation by terminal or nodal sprouts, were similar in wildtype and null mice. tSCs in the null mice were also reactive to the sprouting-stimuli, elaborating cellular processes that accompanied terminal sprouts or guided reinnervation of denervated muscle fibers. Lastly, CNTF was absent in quiescent tSCs in intact, wildtype muscles and little if any was detected in reactive tSCs in denervated muscles. Thus, CNTF is not required for induction of nerve terminal sprouting, for reactivation of tSCs, and for compensatory reinnervation after nerve injury. We interpret these results to support the notion that compensatory sprouting in adult muscles is induced primarily by contact-mediated mechanisms, rather than by diffusible factors. PMID:17445802

  6. Decavanadate inhibits the cell-free activation of neutrophil NADPH oxidase without affecting tyrosine phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Okamura, N; Sakai, T; Nishimura, Y; Sakai, M; Araki, S; Yamaguchi, M; Ishibashi, S

    1999-08-01

    NADPH oxidase was activated by arachidonate in a cell-free system consisting of membrane and cytosol fractions prepared from guinea pig neutrophils. Vanadate apparently inhibited the NADPH oxidase activity in the cell-free system (IC50=2 microM) without phosphotyrosine accumulation. The pH dependency and stability of the inhibitory effect observed for vanadate solution indicated that decavanadate, an isopolyanion of vanadate, was responsible for the inhibition. Pervanadate (vanadyl hydroperoxide) also inhibited the oxidase activity but at a higher concentration (IC50=0.2 mM). Decavanadate lowered the Vmax but did not affect the Km value of NADPH oxidase for NADPH. Decavanadate inhibited the activation process of NADPH oxidase but not the oxidase activity itself. Decavanadate-pretreatment of membrane and cytosol fractions irreversibly decreased the abilities of both fractions to activate NADPH oxidase in the cell-free system. Translocation of p47-phox, one of the cytosolic activation factors of NADPH oxidase, from cytosol to membrane, was little affected by decavanadate. These results suggest that decavanadate inhibits the activation of NADPH oxidase in the cell-free system without affecting the phosphotyrosine phosphatase, and that decavanadate can bind to both the membrane and cytosolic activation factors when they are in a dormant state, but not to the active oxidase complex.

  7. Identification of the NAD(P)H binding site of eukaryotic UDP-galactopyranose mutase.

    PubMed

    Dhatwalia, Richa; Singh, Harkewal; Solano, Luis M; Oppenheimer, Michelle; Robinson, Reeder M; Ellerbrock, Jacob F; Sobrado, Pablo; Tanner, John J

    2012-10-31

    UDP-galactopyranose mutase (UGM) plays an essential role in galactofuranose biosynthesis in microorganisms by catalyzing the conversion of UDP-galactopyranose to UDP-galactofuranose. The enzyme has gained attention recently as a promising target for the design of new antifungal, antitrypanosomal, and antileishmanial agents. Here we report the first crystal structure of UGM complexed with its redox partner NAD(P)H. Kinetic protein crystallography was used to obtain structures of oxidized Aspergillus fumigatus UGM (AfUGM) complexed with NADPH and NADH, as well as reduced AfUGM after dissociation of NADP(+). NAD(P)H binds with the nicotinamide near the FAD isoalloxazine and the ADP moiety extending toward the mobile 200s active site flap. The nicotinamide riboside binding site overlaps that of the substrate galactopyranose moiety, and thus NADPH and substrate binding are mutually exclusive. On the other hand, the pockets for the adenine of NADPH and uracil of the substrate are distinct and separated by only 6 Å, which raises the possibility of designing novel inhibitors that bind both sites. All 12 residues that contact NADP(H) are conserved among eukaryotic UGMs. Residues that form the AMP pocket are absent in bacterial UGMs, which suggests that eukaryotic and bacterial UGMs have different NADP(H) binding sites. The structures address the longstanding question of how UGM binds NAD(P)H and provide new opportunities for drug discovery.

  8. Intact neurogenesis is required for benefits of exercise on spatial memory but not motor performance or contextual fear conditioning in C57BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Clark, P J; Brzezinska, W J; Thomas, M W; Ryzhenko, N A; Toshkov, S A; Rhodes, J S

    2008-09-09

    The mammalian hippocampus continues to generate new neurons throughout life. Experiences such as exercise, anti-depressants, and stress regulate levels of neurogenesis. Exercise increases adult hippocampal neurogenesis and enhances behavioral performance on rotarod, contextual fear and water maze in rodents. To directly test whether intact neurogenesis is required for gains in behavioral performance from exercise in C57BL/6J mice, neurogenesis was reduced using focal gamma irradiation (3 sessions of 5 Gy). Two months after treatment, mice (total n=42 males and 42 females) (Irradiated or Sham), were placed with or without running wheels (Runner or Sedentary) for 54 days. The first 10 days mice received daily injections of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) to label dividing cells. The last 14 days mice were tested on water maze (two trials per day for 5 days, then 1 h later probe test), rotarod (four trials per day for 3 days), and contextual fear conditioning (2 days), then measured for neurogenesis using immunohistochemical detection of BrdU and neuronal nuclear protein (NeuN) mature neuronal marker. Consistent with previous studies, in Sham animals, running increased neurogenesis fourfold and gains in performance were observed for the water maze (spatial learning and memory), rotarod (motor performance), and contextual fear (conditioning). These positive results provided the reference to determine whether gains in performance were blocked by irradiation. Irradiation reduced neurogenesis by 50% in both groups, Runner and Sedentary. Irradiation did not affect running or baseline performance on any task. Minimal changes in microglia associated with inflammation (using immunohistochemical detection of cd68) were detected at the time of behavioral testing. Irradiation did not reduce gains in performance on rotarod or contextual fear, however it eliminated gain in performance on the water maze. Results support the hypothesis that intact exercise-induced hippocampal neurogenesis

  9. The Endoplasmic Reticulum Chaperone Calnexin Is a NADPH Oxidase NOX4 Interacting Protein*

    PubMed Central

    Prior, Kim-Kristin; Wittig, Ilka; Leisegang, Matthias S.; Groenendyk, Jody; Weissmann, Norbert; Michalak, Marek; Jansen-Dürr, Pidder; Shah, Ajay M.; Brandes, Ralf P.

    2016-01-01

    Within the family of NADPH oxidases, NOX4 is unique as it is predominantly localized in the endoplasmic reticulum, has constitutive activity, and generates hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). We hypothesize that these features are consequences of a so far unidentified NOX4-interacting protein. Two-dimensional blue native (BN) electrophorese combined with SDS-PAGE yielded NOX4 to reside in macromolecular complexes. Interacting proteins were screened by quantitative SILAC (stable isotope labeling of amino acids in cell culture) co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP) in HEK293 cells stably overexpressing NOX4. By this technique, several interacting proteins were identified with calnexin showing the most robust interaction. Calnexin also resided in NOX4-containing complexes as demonstrated by complexome profiling from BN-PAGE. The calnexin NOX4 interaction could be confirmed by reverse Co-IP and proximity ligation assay, whereas NOX1, NOX2, or NOX5 did not interact with calnexin. Calnexin deficiency as studied in mouse embryonic fibroblasts from calnexin−/− mice or in response to calnexin shRNA reduced cellular NOX4 protein expression and reactive oxygen species formation. Our results suggest that endogenous NOX4 forms macromolecular complexes with calnexin, which are needed for the proper maturation, processing, and function of NOX4 in the endoplasmic reticulum. PMID:26861875

  10. The Endoplasmic Reticulum Chaperone Calnexin Is a NADPH Oxidase NOX4 Interacting Protein.

    PubMed

    Prior, Kim-Kristin; Wittig, Ilka; Leisegang, Matthias S; Groenendyk, Jody; Weissmann, Norbert; Michalak, Marek; Jansen-Dürr, Pidder; Shah, Ajay M; Brandes, Ralf P

    2016-03-25

    Within the family of NADPH oxidases, NOX4 is unique as it is predominantly localized in the endoplasmic reticulum, has constitutive activity, and generates hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). We hypothesize that these features are consequences of a so far unidentified NOX4-interacting protein. Two-dimensional blue native (BN) electrophorese combined with SDS-PAGE yielded NOX4 to reside in macromolecular complexes. Interacting proteins were screened by quantitative SILAC (stable isotope labeling of amino acids in cell culture) co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP) in HEK293 cells stably overexpressing NOX4. By this technique, several interacting proteins were identified with calnexin showing the most robust interaction. Calnexin also resided in NOX4-containing complexes as demonstrated by complexome profiling from BN-PAGE. The calnexin NOX4 interaction could be confirmed by reverse Co-IP and proximity ligation assay, whereas NOX1, NOX2, or NOX5 did not interact with calnexin. Calnexin deficiency as studied in mouse embryonic fibroblasts from calnexin(-/-)mice or in response to calnexin shRNA reduced cellular NOX4 protein expression and reactive oxygen species formation. Our results suggest that endogenous NOX4 forms macromolecular complexes with calnexin, which are needed for the proper maturation, processing, and function of NOX4 in the endoplasmic reticulum.

  11. The CB1 receptor is required for the establishment of the hyperlocomotor phenotype in developmentally-induced hypothyroidism in mice.

    PubMed

    Giné, Elena; Echeverry-Alzate, Victor; Lopez-Moreno, Jose Antonio; Rodriguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Perez-Castillo, Ana; Santos, Angel

    2017-04-01

    Alterations in motor functions are well-characterized features observed in humans and experimental animals with thyroid hormone dysfunctions during development. We have previously suggested the implication of the endocannabinoid system in the hyperlocomotor phenotype observed in developmentally induced hypothyroidism in rats. In this work we have further analyzed the implication of endocannabinoids in the effect of hypothyroidism on locomotor activity. To this end, we evaluated the locomotor activity in adult mice lacking the cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1R(-/-)) and in their wild type littermates (CB1R(+/+)), whose hypothyroidism was induced in day 12 of gestation and maintained during the experimental period. Our results show that hypothyroidism induced a hyperlocomotor phenotype only in CB1R(+/+), but not in CB1R(-/-) mice. In contrast with our previous results in rats, the expression of CB1R in striatum and the motor response to the cannabinoid agonist HU210 was unaltered in hypothyroid CB1R(+/+) mice suggesting that the cannabinoid system is not altered by hypothyroidism. Also, no effect of HU210 was observed in locomotion of CB1R(-/-) mice. Finally, since the dopaminergic system plays a major role in the control of locomotor activity we studied its function in hypothyroid wild type and knockout animals. Our results show no alteration in the behavioral response induced by the dopamine D1 receptor agonist SKF38393. However we observed a decreased response to the dopamine D2 receptor antagonist haloperidol only in hypothyroid CB1R(+/+) mice, which might indicate potential alterations in D2R signaling in these animals. In conclusion, our data suggest that the cannabinoid system is necessary for the induction of hyperlocomotor phenotype in mice with developmentally induced hypothyroidism.

  12. Protective response to Leishmania major in BALB/c mice requires antigen processing in the absence of DM.

    PubMed

    Kamala, Tirumalai; Nanda, Navreet K

    2009-04-15

    Protection from the parasite Leishmania major is mediated by CD4 T cells. BALB/c mice are susceptible to L. major and show a nonprotective immunodominant CD4 T cell response to Leishmania homolog of activated receptor for c-kinase (LACK) 158-173. Host genes that underlie BALB/c susceptibility to L. major infections are poorly defined. DM, a nonclassical MHC class II molecule, due to its peptide editing properties has been shown to 1) edit the repertoire of peptides displayed by APC, and 2) focus the display of epitopes by APC to the immunodominant ones. We tested the hypothesis that deficiency of DM, by causing presentation of a different array of epitopes by infected APC than that presented by DM-sufficient APC, may change the course of L. major infection in the susceptible BALB/c mice. We show herein that unlike their susceptible wild-type counterparts, BALB/c mice deficient in DM are protected from infections with L. major. Furthermore, DM-deficient mice fail to display the immunodominant LACK 158-173 on infected APC. In its place, infected DM(-/-) hosts show elicitation of CD4 T cells specific for newer epitopes not presented by wild-type L. major-infected APC. Protection of BALB/c DM(-/-) mice is dependent on IFN-gamma. DM is thus a host susceptibility gene in BALB/c mice, and Ag processing in the absence of DM results in elicitation of a protective T cell response against L. major infections. This report suggests a novel mechanism to trigger host resistance against pathogens.

  13. Limiting hepatic Bmp-Smad signaling by matriptase-2 is required for erythropoietin-mediated hepcidin suppression in mice

    PubMed Central

    Nai, Antonella; Rubio, Aude; Campanella, Alessandro; Gourbeyre, Ophélie; Artuso, Irene; Bordini, Jessica; Gineste, Aurélie; Latour, Chloé; Besson-Fournier, Céline; Lin, Herbert Y.; Coppin, Hélène; Roth, Marie-Paule; Camaschella, Clara; Silvestri, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Hepcidin, the main regulator of iron homeostasis, is repressed when erythropoiesis is acutely stimulated by erythropoietin (EPO) to favor iron supply to maturing erythroblasts. Erythroferrone (ERFE) has been identified as the erythroid regulator that inhibits hepcidin in stress erythropoiesis. A powerful hepcidin inhibitor is the serine protease matriptase-2, encoded by TMPRSS6, whose mutations cause iron refractory iron deficiency anemia. Because this condition has inappropriately elevated hepcidin in the presence of high EPO levels, a role is suggested for matriptase-2 in EPO-mediated hepcidin repression. To investigate the relationship between EPO/ERFE and matriptase-2, we show that EPO injection induces Erfe messenger RNA expression but does not suppress hepcidin in Tmprss6 knockout (KO) mice. Similarly, wild-type (WT) animals, in which the bone morphogenetic protein–mothers against decapentaplegic homolog (Bmp-Smad) pathway is upregulated by iron treatment, fail to suppress hepcidin in response to EPO. To further investigate whether the high level of Bmp-Smad signaling of Tmprss6 KO mice counteracts hepcidin suppression by EPO, we generated double KO Bmp6-Tmprss6 KO mice. Despite having Bmp-Smad signaling and hepcidin levels that are similar to WT mice under basal conditions, double KO mice do not suppress hepcidin in response to EPO. However, pharmacologic downstream inhibition of the Bmp-Smad pathway by dorsomorphin, which targets the BMP receptors, improves the hepcidin responsiveness to EPO in Tmprss6 KO mice. We concluded that the function of matriptase-2 is dominant over that of ERFE and is essential in facilitating hepcidin suppression by attenuating the BMP-SMAD signaling. PMID:26755707

  14. Separating NADH and NADPH fluorescence in live cells and tissues using FLIM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blacker, Thomas S.; Mann, Zoe F.; Gale, Jonathan E.; Ziegler, Mathias; Bain, Angus J.; Szabadkai, Gyorgy; Duchen, Michael R.

    2014-05-01

    NAD is a key determinant of cellular energy metabolism. In contrast, its phosphorylated form, NADP, plays a central role in biosynthetic pathways and antioxidant defence. The reduced forms of both pyridine nucleotides are fluorescent in living cells but they cannot be distinguished, as they are spectrally identical. Here, using genetic and pharmacological approaches to perturb NAD(P)H metabolism, we find that fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) differentiates quantitatively between the two cofactors. Systematic manipulations to change the balance between oxidative and glycolytic metabolism suggest that these states do not directly impact NAD(P)H fluorescence decay rates. The lifetime changes observed in cancers thus likely reflect shifts in the NADPH/NADH balance. Using a mathematical model, we use these experimental data to quantify the relative levels of NADH and NADPH in different cell types of a complex tissue, the mammalian cochlea. This reveals NADPH-enriched populations of cells, raising questions about their distinct metabolic roles.

  15. A dehydrogenase-mediated recycling system of NADPH in plant peroxisomes.

    PubMed Central

    Corpas, F J; Barroso, J B; Sandalio, L M; Distefano, S; Palma, J M; Lupiáñez, J A; Del Río, L A

    1998-01-01

    The presence of the two NADP-dependent dehydrogenases of the pentose phosphate pathway has been investigated in plant peroxisomes from pea (Pisum sativum L.) leaves. Both enzymes, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH; EC 1.1.1.49) and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGDH; EC 1.1.1.44), were present in the matrix of leaf peroxisomes, and their kinetic properties were studied. G6PDH and 6PGDH showed a typical Michaelis-Menten kinetic saturation curve, and had specific activities of 12.4 and 29.6 mU/mg protein, respectively. The Km values of G6PDH and 6PGDH for glucose 6-phosphate and for 6-phosphogluconate were 107.3 and 10.2 microM, respectively. Dithiothreitol did not inhibit G6PDH activity. By isoelectric focusing of peroxisomal matrices, the G6PDH activity was resolved into three isoforms with isoelectric points of 5.55, 5.30 and 4.85. The isoelectric point of peroxisomal 6PGDH was 5.10. Immunoblot analyses of peroxisomal matrix with an antibody against yeast G6PDH revealed a single cross-reactive band of 56 kDa. Post-embedment, EM immunogold labelling of G6PDH confirmed that this enzyme was localized in the peroxisomal matrices, the thylakoid membrane and matrix of chloroplasts, and the cytosol. The presence of the two oxidative enzymes of the pentose phosphate pathway in plant peroxisomes implies that these organelles have the capacity to reduce NADP+ to NADPH for its re-utilization in the peroxisomal metabolism. NADPH is particularly required for the ascorbate-glutathione cycle, which has been recently demonstrated in plant peroxisomes [Jiménez, Hernández, del Río and Sevilla (1997) Plant Physiol. 114, 275-284] and represents an important antioxidant protection system against H2O2 generated in peroxisomes. PMID:9480890

  16. Antioxidant Protection of NADPH-Depleted Oligodendrocyte Precursor Cells Is Dependent on Supply of Reduced Glutathione

    PubMed Central

    Kilanczyk, Ewa; Saraswat Ohri, Sujata; Whittemore, Scott R.

    2016-01-01

    The pentose phosphate pathway is the main source of NADPH, which by reducing oxidized glutathione, contributes to antioxidant defenses. Although oxidative stress plays a major role in white matter injury, significance of NADPH for oligodendrocyte survival has not been yet investigated. It is reported here that the NADPH antimetabolite 6-amino-NADP (6AN) was cytotoxic to cultured adult rat spinal cord oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) as well as OPC-derived oligodendrocytes. The 6AN-induced necrosis was preceded by increased production of superoxide, NADPH depletion, and lower supply of reduced glutathione. Moreover, survival of NADPH-depleted OPCs was improved by the antioxidant drug trolox. Such cells were also protected by physiological concentrations of the neurosteroid dehydroepiandrosterone (10−8 M). The protection by dehydroepiandrosterone was associated with restoration of reduced glutathione, but not NADPH, and was sensitive to inhibition of glutathione synthesis. A similar protective mechanism was engaged by the cAMP activator forskolin or the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER/GPR30) ligand G1. Finally, treatment with the glutathione precursor N-acetyl cysteine reduced cytotoxicity of 6AN. Taken together, NADPH is critical for survival of OPCs by supporting their antioxidant defenses. Consequently, injury-associated inhibition of the pentose phosphate pathway may be detrimental for the myelination or remyelination potential of the white matter. Conversely, steroid hormones and cAMP activators may promote survival of NADPH-deprived OPCs by increasing a NADPH-independent supply of reduced glutathione. Therefore, maintenance of glutathione homeostasis appears as a critical effector mechanism for OPC protection against NADPH depletion and preservation of the regenerative potential of the injured white matter. PMID:27449129

  17. WO3/Pt nanoparticles are NADPH oxidase biomimetics that mimic effector cells in vitro and in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Andrea J.; Coury, Emma L.; Meilhac, Alexandra M.; Petty, Howard R.

    2016-02-01

    To provide a means of delivering an artificial immune effector cell-like attack on tumor cells, we report the tumoricidal ability of inorganic WO3/Pt nanoparticles that mimic a leukocyte’s functional abilities. These nanoparticles route electrons from organic structures and electron carriers to form hydroxyl radicals within tumor cells. During visible light exposure, WO3/Pt nanoparticles manufacture hydroxyl radicals, degrade organic compounds, use NADPH, trigger lipid peroxidation, promote lysosomal membrane disruption, promote the loss of reduced glutathione, and activate apoptosis. In a model of advanced breast cancer metastasis to the eye’s anterior chamber, we show that WO3/Pt nanoparticles prolong the survival of 4T1 tumor-bearing Balb/c mice. This new generation of inorganic photosensitizers do not photobleach, and therefore should provide an important therapeutic advance in photodynamic therapy. As biomimetic nanoparticles destroy targeted cells, they may be useful in treating ocular and other forms of cancer.

  18. The NADPH oxidase Nox4 and aging in the heart.

    PubMed

    Ago, Tetsuro; Matsushima, Shouji; Kuroda, Junya; Zablocki, Daniela; Kitazono, Takanari; Sadoshima, Junichi

    2010-12-01

    Oxidative stress in mitochondria is believed to promote aging. Although passive leakage of electron from the mitochondrial electron transport chain has been considered as a major source of oxidative stress in the heart and the cardiomyocytes therein, enzymes actively producing reactive oxygen species may also exist in mitochondria. We have shown recently that Nox4, a member of the NADPH oxidase family, is localized on intracellular membranes, primarily at mitochondria, in cardiomyocytes. Mitochondrial expression of Nox4 is upregulated by cardiac stress and aging in the heart, where Nox4 could become a major source of oxidative stress. This raises an intriguing possibility that Nox4 may play an important role in mediating aging of the heart. Here we discuss the potential involvement of Nox4 in mitochondrial oxidative stress and aging in the heart.

  19. CD38 is required for the peripheral survival of immunotolerogenic CD4+ invariant NK T cells in nonobese diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Guang; Chen, Jing; Osborne, Melissa A; Chapman, Harold D; Besra, Gurdyal S; Porcelli, Steven A; Leiter, Edward H; Wilson, S Brian; Serreze, David V

    2006-09-01

    T cell-mediated autoimmune type-1 diabetes (T1D) in NOD mice partly results from this strain's numerical and functional defects in invariant NK T (iNKT) cells. T1D is inhibited in NOD mice treated with the iNKT cell superagonist alpha-galactosylceramide through a process involving enhanced accumulation of immunotolerogenic dendritic cells in pancreatic lymph nodes. Conversely, T1D is accelerated in NOD mice lacking CD38 molecules that play a role in dendritic cell migration to inflamed tissues. Unlike in standard NOD mice, alpha-galactosylceramide pretreatment did not protect the CD38-deficient stock from T1D induced by an adoptively transferred pancreatic beta cell-autoreactive CD8 T cell clone (AI4). We found that in the absence of CD38, ADP-ribosyltransferase 2 preferentially activates apoptotic deletion of peripheral iNKT cells, especially the CD4+ subset. Therefore, this study documents a previously unrecognized role for CD38 in maintaining survival of an iNKT cell subset that preferentially contributes to the maintenance of immunological tolerance.

  20. Role of NADPH Oxidase-4 in Human Endothelial Progenitor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hakami, Nora Y.; Ranjan, Amaresh K.; Hardikar, Anandwardhan A.; Dusting, Greg J.; Peshavariya, Hitesh M.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) display a unique ability to promote angiogenesis and restore endothelial function in injured blood vessels. NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4)-derived hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) serves as a signaling molecule and promotes endothelial cell proliferation and migration as well as protecting against cell death. However, the role of NOX4 in EPC function is not completely understood. Methods: EPCs were isolated from human saphenous vein and mammary artery discarded during bypass surgery. NOX4 gene and protein expression in EPCs were measured by real time-PCR and Western blot analysis respectively. NOX4 gene expression was inhibited using an adenoviral vector expressing human NOX4 shRNA (Ad-NOX4i). H2O2 production was measured by Amplex red assay. EPC migration was evaluated using a transwell migration assay. EPC proliferation and viability were measured using trypan blue counts. Results: Inhibition of NOX4 using Ad-NOX4i reduced Nox4 gene and protein expression as well as H2O2 formation in EPCs. Inhibition of NOX4-derived H2O2 decreased both proliferation and migration of EPCs. Interestingly, pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) decreased NOX4 expression and reduced survival of EPCs. However, the survival of EPCs was further diminished by TNF-α in NOX4-knockdown cells, suggesting that NOX4 has a protective role in EPCs. Conclusion: These findings suggest that NOX4-type NADPH oxidase is important for proliferation and migration functions of EPCs and protects against pro-inflammatory cytokine induced EPC death. These properties of NOX4 may facilitate the efficient function of EPCs which is vital for successful neovascularization. PMID:28386230

  1. Molecular Imaging of Inflammation and Platelet Adhesion in Advanced Atherosclerosis: Effects of Antioxidant Therapy with NADPH Oxidase Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ya Ni; Davidson, Brian P.; Yue, Qi; Belcik, Todd; Xie, Aris; Inaba, Yoichi; McCarty, Owen J. T.; Tormoen, Garth W.; Zhao, Yan; Ruggeri, Zaverio M.; Kaufmann, Beat A.; Lindner, Jonathan R.

    2013-01-01

    Background In atherosclerosis, local generation of reactive oxygen species amplifies the inflammatory response and contributes to plaque vulnerability. We used molecular imaging to test whether inhibition of NADPH oxidase with apocynin would reduce endothelial inflammatory activation and endothelial-platelet interactions, thereby interrupting progression to high-risk plaque phenotype. Methods and Results Mice deficient for both the LDL receptor and Apobec-1 were studied at 30 weeks of age and again after 10 weeks with or without apocynin treatment (10 or 50 mg/kg/day orally). In vivo molecular imaging of VCAM-1, P-selectin and platelet GPIbα in the thoracic aorta was performed with targeted contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEU) molecular imaging. Arterial elastic modulus and pulse wave transit time were assessed using ultra-high frequency ultrasound and invasive hemodynamic measurements. Plaque size and composition were assessed by histology. Molecular imaging in non-treated mice detected a 2-fold increase in P-selectin expression, VCAM-1 expression, and platelet adhesion between 30 and 40 wks of age. Apocynin reduced all of these endothelial events in a dose-dependent fashion (25% and 50% reduction in signal at 40 weeks for low- and high-dose apocynin). Apocynin also decreased aortic elastic modulus and increased the pulse transit time. On histology, apocynin reduced total monocyte accumulation in a dose-dependent manner as well as platelet adhesion, although total plaque area was reduced in only the high-dose apocynin treatment group. Conclusions Inhibition of NADPH oxidase in advanced atherosclerosis reduces endothelial activation and platelet adhesion; which are likely responsible for the arrest of plaque growth and improvement of vascular mechanical properties. PMID:23239832

  2. Phosphodiesterase 11A (PDE11A), Enriched in Ventral Hippocampus Neurons, is Required for Consolidation of Social but not Nonsocial Memories in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hegde, Shweta; Capell, Will R; Ibrahim, Baher A; Klett, Jennifer; Patel, Neema S; Sougiannis, Alexander T; Kelly, Michy P

    2016-01-01

    The capacity to form long-lasting social memories is critical to our health and survival. cAMP signaling in the ventral hippocampal formation (VHIPP) appears to be required for social memory formation, but the phosphodiesterase (PDE) involved remains unknown. Previously, we showed that PDE11A, which degrades cAMP and cGMP, is preferentially expressed in CA1 and subiculum of the VHIPP. Here, we determine whether PDE11A is expressed in neurons where it could directly influence synaptic plasticity and whether expression is required for the consolidation and/or retrieval of social memories. In CA1, and possibly CA2, PDE11A4 is expressed throughout neuronal cell bodies, dendrites (stratum radiatum), and axons (fimbria), but not astrocytes. Unlike PDE2A, PDE9A, or PDE10A, PDE11A4 expression begins very low at postnatal day 7 (P7) and dramatically increases until P28, at which time it stabilizes to young adult levels. This expression pattern is consistent with the fact that PDE11A is required for social long-term memory (LTM) formation during adolescence and adulthood. Male and female PDE11 knockout (KO) mice show normal short-term memory (STM) for social odor recognition (SOR) and social transmission of food preference (STFP), but no LTM 24 h post training. Importantly, PDE11A KO mice show normal LTM for nonsocial odor recognition. Deletion of PDE11A may impair memory consolidation by impairing requisite protein translation in the VHIPP. Relative to WT littermates, PDE11A KO mice show reduced expression of RSK2 and lowered phosphorylation of S6 (pS6–235/236). Together, these data suggest PDE11A is selectively required for the proper consolidation of recognition and associative social memories. PMID:27339393

  3. Characteristics of external and internal NAD(P)H dehydrogenases in Hoya carnosa mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Hong, Hoang Thi Kim; Nose, Akihiro

    2012-12-01

    This study aims at characterizing NAD(P)H dehydrogenases on the inside and outside of the inner membrane of mitochondria of one phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase-crassulacean acid metabolism plant, Hoya carnosa. In crassulacean acid metabolism plants, NADH is produced by malate decarboxylation inside and outside mitochondria. The relative importance of mitochondrial alternative NADH dehydrogenases and their association was determined in intact-and alamethicin-permeabilized mitochondria of H. carnosa to discriminate between internal and external activities. The major findings in H. carnosa mitochondria are: (i) external NADPH oxidation is totally inhibited by DPI and totally dependent on Ca(2+), (ii) external NADH oxidation is partially inhibited by DPI and mainly dependent on Ca(2+), (iii) total NADH oxidation measured in permeabilized mitochondria is partially inhibited by rotenone and also by DPI, (iv) total NADPH oxidation measured in permeabilized mitochondria is partially dependent on Ca(2+) and totally inhibited by DPI. The results suggest that complex I, external NAD(P)H dehydrogenases, and internal NAD(P)H dehydrogenases are all linked to the electron transport chain. Also, the total measurable NAD(P)H dehydrogenases activity was less than the total measurable complex I activity, and both of these enzymes could donate their electrons not only to the cytochrome pathway but also to the alternative pathway. The finding indicated that the H. carnosa mitochondrial electron transport chain is operating in a classical way, partitioning to both Complex I and alternative Alt. NAD(P)H dehydrogenases.

  4. The voltage dependence of NADPH oxidase reveals why phagocytes need proton channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeCoursey, Thomas E.; Morgan, Deri; Cherny, Vladimir V.

    2003-04-01

    The enzyme NADPH oxidase in phagocytes is important in the body's defence against microbes: it produces superoxide anions (O2-, precursors to bactericidal reactive oxygen species). Electrons move from intracellular NADPH, across a chain comprising FAD (flavin adenine dinucleotide) and two haems, to reduce extracellular O2 to O2-. NADPH oxidase is electrogenic, generating electron current (Ie) that is measurable under voltage-clamp conditions. Here we report the complete current-voltage relationship of NADPH oxidase, the first such measurement of a plasma membrane electron transporter. We find that Ie is voltage-independent from -100mV to >0mV, but is steeply inhibited by further depolarization, and is abolished at about +190mV. It was proposed that H+ efflux mediated by voltage-gated proton channels compensates Ie, because Zn2+ and Cd2+ inhibit both H+ currents and O2- production. Here we show that COS-7 cells transfected with four NADPH oxidase components, but lacking H+ channels, produce O2- in the presence of Zn2+ concentrations that inhibit O2- production in neutrophils and eosinophils. Zn2+ does not inhibit NADPH oxidase directly, but through effects on H+ channels. H+ channels optimize NADPH oxidase function by preventing membrane depolarization to inhibitory voltages.

  5. Nitric Oxide Synthase and Neuronal NADPH Diaphorase are Identical in Brain and Peripheral Tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, Ted M.; Bredt, David S.; Fotuhi, Majid; Hwang, Paul M.; Snyder, Solomon H.

    1991-09-01

    NADPH diaphorase staining neurons, uniquely resistant to toxic insults and neurodegenerative disorders, have been colocalized with neurons in the brain and peripheral tissue containing nitric oxide synthase (EC 1.14.23.-), which generates nitric oxide (NO), a recently identified neuronal messenger molecule. In the corpus striatum and cerebral cortex, NO synthase immunoreactivity and NADPH diaphorase staining are colocalized in medium to large aspiny neurons. These same neurons colocalize with somatostatin and neuropeptide Y immunoreactivity. NO synthase immunoreactivity and NADPH diaphorase staining are colocalized in the pedunculopontine nucleus with choline acetyltransferase-containing cells and are also colocalized in amacrine cells of the inner nuclear layer and ganglion cells of the retina, myenteric plexus neurons of the intestine, and ganglion cells of the adrenal medulla. Transfection of human kidney cells with NO synthase cDNA elicits NADPH diaphorase staining. The ratio of NO synthase to NADPH diaphorase staining in the transfected cells is the same as in neurons, indicating that NO synthase fully accounts for observed NADPH staining. The identity of neuronal NO synthase and NADPH diaphorase suggests a role for NO in modulating neurotoxicity.

  6. Phospholipase Cγ2 Is Required for Luminal Expansion of the Epididymal Duct during Postnatal Development in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ichise, Hirotake; Ichise, Taeko; Yoshida, Nobuaki

    2016-01-01

    Phospholipase Cγ2 (PLCγ2)-deficient mice exhibit misconnections of blood and lymphatic vessels, and male infertility. However, the cell type responsible for vascular partitioning and the mechanism for male infertility remain unknown. Accordingly, we generated a mouse line that conditionally expresses endogenous Plcg2 in a Cre/loxP recombination-dependent manner, and found that Tie2-Cre- or Pf4-Cre-driven reactivation of Plcg2 rescues PLCγ2-deficient mice from the vascular phenotype. By contrast, male mice rescued from the vascular phenotype exhibited epididymal sperm granulomas. As judged from immunostaining, PLCγ2 was expressed in clear cells in the epididymis. PLCγ2 deficiency did not compromise differentiation of epididymal epithelial cells, including clear cells, and tube formation at postnatal week 2. However, luminal expansion of the epididymal duct was impaired during the prepubertal period, regardless of epithelial cell polarity and tube architecture. These results suggest that PLCγ2-deficient clear cells cause impaired luminal expansion, stenosis of the epididymal duct, attenuation of luminal flow, and subsequent sperm granulomas. Clear cell-mediated luminal expansion is also supported by the observation that PLCγ2-deficient males were rescued from infertility by epididymal epithelium-specific reactivation of Plcg2, although the edematous and hemorrhagic phenotype associated with PLCγ2 deficiency also caused spontaneous epididymal sperm granulomas in aging males. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that PLCγ2 in clear cells plays an essential role in luminal expansion of the epididymis during the prepubertal period in mice, and reveal an unexpected link between PLCγ2, clear cells, and epididymal development. PMID:26950550

  7. Elementary Flux Mode Analysis Revealed Cyclization Pathway as a Powerful Way for NADPH Regeneration of Central Carbon Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Rui, Bin; Yi, Yin; Shen, Tie; Zheng, Meijuan; Zhou, Wenwei; Du, Honglin; Fan, Yadong; Wang, Yongkang; Zhang, Zhengdong; Xu, Shengsheng; Liu, Zhijie; Wen, Han; Xie, Xiaoyao

    2015-01-01

    NADPH regeneration capacity is attracting growing research attention due to its important role in resisting oxidative stress. Besides, NADPH availability has been regarded as a limiting factor in production of industrially valuable compounds. The central carbon metabolism carries the carbon skeleton flux supporting the operation of NADPH-regenerating enzyme and offers flexibility in coping with NADPH demand for varied intracellular environment. To acquire an insightful understanding of its NADPH regeneration capacity, the elementary mode method was employed to compute all elementary flux modes (EFMs) of a network representative of central carbon metabolism. Based on the metabolic flux distributions of these modes, a cluster analysis of EFMs with high NADPH regeneration rate was conducted using the self-organizing map clustering algorithm. The clustering results were used to study the relationship between the flux of total NADPH regeneration and the flux in each NADPH producing enzyme. The results identified several reaction combinations supporting high NADPH regeneration, which are proven to be feasible in cells via thermodynamic analysis and coincident with a great deal of previous experimental report. Meanwhile, the reaction combinations showed some common characteristics: there were one or two decarboxylation oxidation reactions in the combinations that produced NADPH and the combination constitution included certain gluconeogenesis pathways. These findings suggested cyclization pathways as a powerful way for NADPH regeneration capacity of bacterial central carbon metabolism.

  8. Timed conditional null of connexin26 in mice reveals temporary requirements of connexin26 in key cochlear developmental events before the onset of hearing.

    PubMed

    Chang, Qing; Tang, Wenxue; Kim, Yeunjung; Lin, Xi

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in the Gjb2 gene, which encodes a gap junction protein connexin26 (Cx26), are the most prevalent form of hereditary deafness in humans and represent about half of non-syndromic congenital deafness cases in many ethnic populations. Cochlear potassium (K+) recycling in mature cochlea is required for normal hearing. It is thought that gap junctions are essential for K+ recycling and that Gjb2 mutations cause Gjb2-associated deafness by disrupting K+ recycling in mature cochlea. Here we present evidence showing that Gjb2 is required for normal development of the neonatal organ of Corti prior to the onset of the hearing in mice. In the conditional Gjb2 null (cCx26 null) mice, ribbon synapses in inner hair cells remained poorly developed, the afferent type I fibers failed to finish the refinement process to form convergent innervation to individual inner hair cells. The spontaneous depolarizing activities in the supporting cells, which normally diminish in the wild type cochleae after postnatal day 8 (P8), remained strong in the cochlea after P8 in the mutant mice. Furthermore, the deafness phenotype was readily generated only if the Cx26 expression in the organ of Corti was significantly reduced before P6. Similar amount of Cx26 reduction in more mature cochleae had a much weaker effect in damaging the hearing sensitivity. Our findings indicated that Cx26 plays essential roles in the maturation process of the organ of Corti prior to the establishment of high K+ in the endolymph and the onset of hearing. These results suggest that successful treatment of Cx26 deafness requires early intervention before the cochlea fully matures.

  9. Action Potentials are required for nitric oxide dependent LTP in CA1 neurons of adult GluR1 knockout and Wild-type mice

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Keith G.; Hardingham, Neil R.; Fox, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    Neocortical LTP consists of both pre- and postsynaptic components that rely on nitric oxide (NO) and GluR1 respectively. In this study, we found that hippocampal LTP, induced by theta-burst stimulation in mature (> 8 week old) GluR1 knockout mice was almost entirely NO-dependent and involved both the α splice variant of NO synthase-1 (αNOS-1) and the NO synthase-3 (NOS-3) isoforms of NO synthase. Theta-burst induced LTP was also partly NO-dependent in wild-type mice, and made up approximately 50% of the potentiation 2 hours post-tetanus. Theta-burst stimulation reliably produced postsynaptic spikes including a high probability of complex spikes. Inhibition of postsynaptic somatic spikes with intracellular QX314 or local TTX application prevented LTP in the GluR1 knockout mice and also blocked the NO-component of LTP in wild-types. We conclude that theta-burst stimulation is particularly well suited to producing the somatic postsynaptic spikes required for NO-dependent LTP. PMID:19109486

  10. Study on cellular events in postthymectomy autoimmune oophoritis in mice. I. Requirement of Lyt-1 effector cells for oocytes damage after adoptive transfer

    PubMed Central

    1982-01-01

    Neonatal thymectomy during the critical period, 2-4 d after birth, can induce various organ-specific autoimmune diseases including oophoritis in A/J mice. The oophoritis thus induced was passively transferred into neonatal mice by injection of spleen cells obtained from syngeneic donors with the disease. Recipient ovaries were rapidly damaged with remarkable mononuclear cell infiltration and destruction of follicular structures. The phenotype of effector cells responsible for successful adoptive transfer was found to be Thy-1+, Lyt-1+,23-, Ia-, Qa-1-, and was sensitive to antithymocyte serum treatment but resistant to cyclophosphamide treatment or in vitro X-ray irradiation. The compatibility between donor and recipient at the major histocompatibility complex was not required for the effector phase of transfer. The oophoritis induced in BALB/c (nu/+ or +/+) was also shown to be transferred into athymic BALB/c nude mice with resulting ovarian lesion and circulating autoantibodies against oocytes. In this transfer system, the effector cells were also demonstrated to be T cells with the Lyt-1+,23- phenotype. Adoptive transfer experiments in both systems revealed that the destruction of ovaries in postthymectomy autoimmune oophoritis was mediated by Lyt-1 T cells. Whether these T cells can be distinguished from other Lyt-1 cells, such as T helper cells and effector T cells in delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH), is not clear at present, but the results suggest that the effector mechanisms may be closely related to a DTH reaction. PMID:6983557

  11. Dystrophin and utrophin expression require sarcospan: loss of α7 integrin exacerbates a newly discovered muscle phenotype in sarcospan-null mice.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Jamie L; Chou, Eric; Oh, Jennifer; Kwok, Allan; Burkin, Dean J; Crosbie-Watson, Rachelle H

    2012-10-15

    Sarcospan (SSPN) is a core component of the major adhesion complexes in skeletal muscle, the dystrophin- and utrophin (Utr)-glycoprotein complexes (DGC and UGC). We performed a rigorous analysis of SSPN-null mice and discovered that loss of SSPN decreased DGC and UGC abundance, leading to impaired laminin-binding activity and susceptibility to eccentric contraction-induced injury in skeletal muscle. We show that loss of SSPN increased levels of α7β1 integrin. To genetically test whether integrin compensates for the loss of DGC and UGC function in SSPN-nulls, we generated mice lacking both SSPN and α7 integrin (DKO, double knockout). Muscle regeneration, sarcolemma integrity and fibrosis were exacerbated in DKO mice and were remarkably similar to muscle from Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) patients, suggesting that secondary loss of integrin contributes significantly to pathogenesis. Expression of the DGC and UGC, laminin binding and Akt signaling were negatively impacted in DKO muscle, resulting in severely diminished specific force properties. We demonstrate that SSPN is a necessary component of dystrophin and Utr function and that SSPN modulation of integrin signaling is required for extracellular matrix attachment and muscle force development.

  12. Enhanced cognitive activity--over and above social or physical activity--is required to protect Alzheimer's mice against cognitive impairment, reduce Abeta deposition, and increase synaptic immunoreactivity.

    PubMed

    Cracchiolo, Jennifer R; Mori, Takashi; Nazian, Stanley J; Tan, Jun; Potter, Huntington; Arendash, Gary W

    2007-10-01

    Although social, physical, and cognitive activities have each been suggested to reduce the risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD), epidemiologic studies cannot determine which activity or combination of activities is most important. To address this question, mutant APP transgenic AD mice were reared long-term in one of four housing conditions (impoverished, social, social+physical, or complete enrichment) from 1(1/2) through 9 months of age. Thus, a stepwise layering of social, physical, and enhanced cognitive activity was created. Behavioral evaluation in a full battery of sensorimotor, anxiety, and cognitive tasks was carried out during the final 5 weeks of housing. Only AD mice raised in complete enrichment (i.e., enhanced cognitive activity) showed: (1) protection against cognitive impairment, (2) decreased brain beta-amyloid deposition, and (3) increased hippocampal synaptic immunoreactivity. The protection provided by enhanced cognitive activity spanned multiple cognitive domains (working memory, reference learning, and recognition/identification). Cognitive and neurohistologic benefits of complete enrichment occurred without any changes in blood cytokine or corticosterone levels, suggesting that enrichment-dependent mechanisms do not involve changes in the inflammatory response or stress levels, respectively. These results indicate that the enhanced cognitive activity of complete enrichment is required for cognitive and neurologic benefit to AD mice-physical and/or social activity are insufficient. Thus, our data suggest that humans who emphasize a high lifelong level of cognitive activity (over and above social and physical activities) will attain the maximal environmental protection against AD.

  13. Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 activity is required for allogeneic T-cell responses after hematopoietic cell transplantation in mice

    PubMed Central

    Pareek, Tej K.; Eid, Saada; Ganguly, Sudipto; Tyler, Megan; Huang, Alex Y.; Letterio, John J.

    2017-01-01

    Molecular intermediates in T-cell activation pathways are crucial targets for the therapy and prevention of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) following allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT). We recently identified an essential role for cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) in T-cell activation and effector function, but the contribution of Cdk5 activity to the development of GVHD has not been explored. Using an established, preclinical, murine, GVHD model, we reveal that Cdk5 activity is increased in key target organs early after allo-HCT. We then generated chimeric mice (Cdk5+/+C or Cdk5−/−C) using hematopoietic progenitors from either embryonic day 16.5 Cdk5+/+ or Cdk5−/− embryos to enable analyses of the role of Cdk5 in GVHD, as germ line Cdk5 gene deletion is embryonically lethal. The immunophenotype of adult Cdk5−/−C mice is identical to control Cdk5+/+C mice. However, transplantation of donor Cdk5−/−C bone marrow and T cells dramatically reduced the severity of systemic and target organ GVHD. This phenotype is attributed to decreased T-cell migration to secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs), reduced in vivo proliferation within these organs, and fewer cytokine-producing donor T cells during GVHD development. Moreover, these defects in Cdk5−/− T-cell function are associated with altered CCR7 signaling following ligation by CCL19, a receptor:ligand interaction critical for T-cell migration into SLOs. Although Cdk5 activity in donor T cells contributed to graft-versus-tumor effects, pharmacologic inhibition of Cdk5 preserved leukemia-free survival. Collectively, our data implicate Cdk5 in allogeneic T-cell responses after HCT and as an important new target for therapeutic intervention. PMID:28064242

  14. Genome engineering uncovers 54 evolutionarily conserved and testis-enriched genes that are not required for male fertility in mice.

    PubMed

    Miyata, Haruhiko; Castaneda, Julio M; Fujihara, Yoshitaka; Yu, Zhifeng; Archambeault, Denise R; Isotani, Ayako; Kiyozumi, Daiji; Kriseman, Maya L; Mashiko, Daisuke; Matsumura, Takafumi; Matzuk, Ryan M; Mori, Masashi; Noda, Taichi; Oji, Asami; Okabe, Masaru; Prunskaite-Hyyrylainen, Renata; Ramirez-Solis, Ramiro; Satouh, Yuhkoh; Zhang, Qian; Ikawa, Masahito; Matzuk, Martin M

    2016-07-12

    Gene-expression analysis studies from Schultz et al. estimate that more than 2,300 genes in the mouse genome are expressed predominantly in the male germ line. As of their 2003 publication [Schultz N, Hamra FK, Garbers DL (2003) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 100(21):12201-12206], the functions of the majority of these testis-enriched genes during spermatogenesis and fertilization were largely unknown. Since the study by Schultz et al., functional analysis of hundreds of reproductive-tract-enriched genes have been performed, but there remain many testis-enriched genes for which their relevance to reproduction remain unexplored or unreported. Historically, a gene knockout is the "gold standard" to determine whether a gene's function is essential in vivo. Although knockout mice without apparent phenotypes are rarely published, these knockout mouse lines and their phenotypic information need to be shared to prevent redundant experiments. Herein, we used bioinformatic and experimental approaches to uncover mouse testis-enriched genes that are evolutionarily conserved in humans. We then used gene-disruption approaches, including Knockout Mouse Project resources (targeting vectors and mice) and CRISPR/Cas9, to mutate and quickly analyze the fertility of these mutant mice. We discovered that 54 mutant mouse lines were fertile. Thus, despite evolutionary conservation of these genes in vertebrates and in some cases in all eukaryotes, our results indicate that these genes are not individually essential for male mouse fertility. Our phenotypic data are highly relevant in this fiscally tight funding period and postgenomic age when large numbers of genomes are being analyzed for disease association, and will prevent unnecessary expenditures and duplications of effort by others.

  15. A requirement for Nedd9 in luminal progenitor cells prior to mammary tumorigenesis in MMTV-HER2/ErbB2 mice

    PubMed Central

    Little, Joy L.; Serzhanova, Victoria; Izumchenko, Eugene; Egleston, Brian L.; Parise, Erica; Klein-Szanto, Andres J.; Loudon, Grace; Shubina, Maria; Seo, Sachiko; Kurokawa, Mineo; Ochs, Michael F.; Golemis, Erica A.

    2012-01-01

    Overexpression of the NEDD9/HEF1/Cas-L scaffolding protein is frequent, and drives invasion and metastasis in breast, head and neck, colorectal, melanoma, lung, and other types of cancer. We have examined the consequences of genetic ablation of Nedd9 in the MMTV-HER2/ERBB2/neu mouse mammary tumor model. Unexpectedly, we found that only a limited effect on metastasis in MMTV-neu;Nedd9−/− mice compared to MMTV-neu;Nedd9+/+ mice, but instead a dramatic reduction in tumor incidence (18% versus 80%), and a significantly increased latency until tumor appearance. Orthotopic reinjection and tail vein injection of cells arising from tumors, coupled with in vivo analysis, indicated tumors arising in MMTV-neu;Nedd9−/− mice had undergone mutational selection that overcame the initial requirement for Nedd9. To better understand the defects in early tumor growth, we compared mammary progenitor cell pools from MMTV-neu;Nedd9−/− versus MMTV-neu;Nedd9+/+ mice. The MMTV-neu;Nedd9−/− genotype selectively reduced both the number and colony-forming potential of mammary luminal epithelial progenitor cells, while not affecting basal epithelial progenitors. MMTV-neu;Nedd9−/−mammospheres had striking defects in morphology and cell polarity. All of these defects were seen predominantly in the context of the HER2/neu oncogene, and were not associated with randomization of the plane of mitotic division, but rather with depressed expression the cell attachment protein FAK, accompanied by increased sensitivity to small molecule inhibitors of FAK and SRC. Surprisingly, in spite of these significant differences, only minimal changes were observed in the gene expression profile of Nedd9−/− mice, indicating critical Nedd9-dependent differences in cell growth properties were mediated via post-transcriptional regulation of cell signaling. Coupled with emerging data indicating a role for NEDD9 in progenitor cell populations during the morphogenesis of other tissues, these

  16. Opposite-sex attraction in male mice requires testosterone-dependent regulation of adult olfactory bulb neurogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Schellino, Roberta; Trova, Sara; Cimino, Irene; Farinetti, Alice; Jongbloets, Bart C.; Pasterkamp, R. Jeroen; Panzica, Giancarlo; Giacobini, Paolo; De Marchis, Silvia; Peretto, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Opposite-sex attraction in most mammals depends on the fine-tuned integration of pheromonal stimuli with gonadal hormones in the brain circuits underlying sexual behaviour. Neural activity in these circuits is regulated by sensory processing in the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB), the first central station of the vomeronasal system. Recent evidence indicates adult neurogenesis in the AOB is involved in sex behaviour; however, the mechanisms underlying this function are unknown. By using Semaphorin 7A knockout (Sema7A ko) mice, which show a reduced number of gonadotropin-releasing-hormone neurons, small testicles and subfertility, and wild-type males castrated during adulthood, we demonstrate that the level of circulating testosterone regulates the sex-specific control of AOB neurogenesis and the vomeronasal system activation, which influences opposite-sex cue preference/attraction in mice. Overall, these data highlight adult neurogenesis as a hub for the integration of pheromonal and hormonal cues that control sex-specific responses in brain circuits. PMID:27782186

  17. Helicobacter pylori Does Not Require Lewis X or Lewis Y Expression To Colonize C3H/HeJ mice

    PubMed Central

    Takata, Tohru; El-Omar, Emad; Camorlinga, Margarita; Thompson, Stuart A.; Minohara, Yutaka; Ernst, Peter B.; Blaser, Martin J.

    2002-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori strains frequently express Lewis X (Lex) and/or Ley on their cell surfaces as constituents of the O antigens of their lipopolysaccharide molecules. To assess the effect of Lex and Ley expression on the ability of H. pylori to colonize the mouse stomach and to adhere to epithelial cells, isogenic mutants were created in which fucT1 alone or fucT1 and fucT2, which encode the fucosyl transferases necessary for Lex and Ley expression, were deleted. C3H/HeJ mice were experimentally challenged with either wild-type 26695 H. pylori or its isogenic mutants. All strains, whether passaged in the laboratory or recovered after mouse passage, colonized the mice well and without consistent differences. During colonization by the mutants, there was no reversion to wild type. Similarly, adherence to AGS and KatoIII cells was unaffected by the mutations. Together, these findings indicate that Le expression is not necessary for mouse gastric colonization or for H. pylori adherence to epithelial cells. PMID:12011000

  18. The E2 Ubiquitin-conjugating Enzyme UBE2J1 Is Required for Spermiogenesis in Mice*

    PubMed Central

    Koenig, Paul-Albert; Nicholls, Peter K.; Schmidt, Florian I.; Hagiwara, Masatoshi; Maruyama, Takeshi; Frydman, Galit H.; Watson, Nicki; Page, David C.; Ploegh, Hidde L.

    2014-01-01

    ER-resident proteins destined for degradation are dislocated into the cytosol by components of the ER quality control machinery for proteasomal degradation. Dislocation substrates are ubiquitylated in the cytosol by E2 ubiquitin-conjugating/E3 ligase complexes. UBE2J1 is one of the well-characterized E2 enzymes that participate in this process. However, the physiological function of Ube2j1 is poorly defined. We find that Ube2j1−/− mice have reduced viability and fail to thrive early after birth. Male Ube2j1−/− mice are sterile due to a defect in late spermatogenesis. Ultrastructural analysis shows that removal of the cytoplasm is incomplete in Ube2j1−/− elongating spermatids, compromising the release of mature elongate spermatids into the lumen of the seminiferous tubule. Our findings identify an essential function for the ubiquitin-proteasome-system in spermiogenesis and define a novel, non-redundant physiological function for the dislocation step of ER quality control. PMID:25320092

  19. Sustained p16(INK4a) expression is required to prevent IR-induced tumorigenesis in mice.

    PubMed

    Palacio, L; Krishnan, V; Le, N L O; Sharpless, N E; Beauséjour, C M

    2017-03-02

    Exposure of murine and human tissues to ionizing radiation (IR) induces the expression of p16(INK4a), a tumor suppressor gene and senescence/aging biomarker. Increased p16(INK4a) expression is often delayed several weeks post exposure to IR. In this context, it remains unclear if it occurs to suppress aberrant cellular growth of potentially transformed cells or is simply a result of IR-induced loss of tissue homeostasis. To address this question, we used a conditional p16(INK4a) null mouse model and determined the impact of p16(INK4a) inactivation long-term post exposure to IR. We found that, in vitro, bone marrow stromal cells exposed to IR enter DNA replication following p16(INK4a) inactivation. However, these cells did not resume growth; instead, they mostly underwent cell cycle arrest in G2. Similarly, delayed inactivation of p16(INK4a) in mice several weeks post exposure to IR resulted in increased BrdU incorporation and cancer incidence. In fact, we found that the onset of tumorigenesis was similar whether p16(INK4a) was inactivated before or after exposure to IR. Overall, our results suggest that IR-induced p16(INK4a) dependent growth arrest is reversible in mice and that sustained p16(INK4a) expression is necessary to protect against tumorigenesis.

  20. Mitochondrial type II NAD(P)H dehydrogenases in fungal cell death

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, A. Pedro; Videira, Arnaldo

    2015-01-01

    During aerobic respiration, cells produce energy through oxidative phosphorylation, which includes a specialized group of multi-subunit complexes in the inner mitochondrial membrane known as the electron transport chain. However, this canonical pathway is branched into single polypeptide alternative routes in some fungi, plants, protists and bacteria. They confer metabolic plasticity, allowing cells to adapt to different environmental conditions and stresses. Type II NAD(P)H dehydrogenases (also called alternative NAD(P)H dehydrogenases) are non-proton pumping enzymes that bypass complex I. Recent evidence points to the involvement of fungal alternative NAD(P)H dehydrogenases in the process of programmed cell death, in addition to their action as overflow systems upon oxidative stress. Consistent with this, alternative NAD(P)H dehydrogenases are phylogenetically related to cell death - promoting proteins of the apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF)-family. PMID:28357279

  1. NADPH oxidases are critical targets for prevention of ethanol-induced bone loss

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The molecular mechanisms through which chronic alcohol consumption induce bone loss and osteoporosis are largely unknown. Ethanol increases expression and activates NADPH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) oxidase enzymes (Nox) in osteoblasts leading to accumulation of reactive oxygen spe...

  2. Histochemical localization of NADPH-diaphorase in neurons of the pheasant ileum.

    PubMed

    Schmidtová, Katarína; Kocisová, Monika; Sirot'áková, Mária

    2002-01-01

    Localization patterns of NADPH-diaphorase-positive neurons in the pheasant ileum were investigated using an enzyme histochemical method. NADPH-diaphorase activity in the pheasant ileum was demonstrated in neuronal cells bodies and nerve fibres. The NADPH-diaphorase-positive nerve cells showed a polygonal shape and were present solitary or arranged in groups in the submucosal and muscular layers. Nerve fibres penetrated the wall of the ileum at its serosal surface, frequently in the vicinity of ileal arterial branches. They were abundantly present in muscular and submucosal layers of the ileum forming thicker nerves. Some nerve fibres traversed the submucosa into the lamina propria mucosae to form dense nerve plexuses. Fine nerve fibres were found to penetrate into intestinal villi encompassing the crypts underneath the epithelium. We conclude that the pheasant ileum is characterized by abundance of NADPH-diaphorase-positive nerve structures which may play a significant functional role in the small intestine of the pheasant.

  3. Purification and properties of an unusual UDP-glucose dehydrogenase, NADPH-dependent, from Xanthomonas albilineans.

    PubMed

    Blanch, María; Legaz, María-Estrella; Vicente, C

    2008-01-01

    Xanthomonas albilineans produces a UDP-glucose dehydrogenase growing on sucrose. The enzyme oxidizes UDP-glucose to UDP-glucuronic acid by using molecular oxygen and NADPH. Kinetics of enzymatic oxydation of NADPH is linearly dependent on the amount of oxygen supplied. The enzyme has been purified at homogeneity. The value of pI of the purified enzyme is 8.98 and its molecular mass has been estimated as about 14 kDa. The enzyme shows a michaelian kinetics for UDP-glucose concentrations. The value of K(m) for UDP-glucose is 0.87 mM and 0.26 mM for NADPH, although the enzyme has three different sites to interact with NADPH. The enzyme is inhibited by UDP-glucose concentrations higher than 1.3 mM. N-Terminal sequence has been determined as IQPYNH.

  4. [The distribution of NADPH-diaphorase and neuronal no synthase in rat medulla oblongata nuclei].

    PubMed

    Chertok, V M; Kotsuba, A E

    2013-01-01

    The distribution of nitroxide ergic neurons in the medulla oblongata nuclei in Wistar rats (n = 8) was studied histochemically (NADPH-diaphorase) and using immunohistochemistry with an antiserum against neuronal form of nitric oxide synthase (nNOS). NADPH-diaphorase activity was found in large and small neurons of the sensory, autonomic and motor nuclei. The latter were especially rich in the cells demonstrating the activity of the enzyme. Unlike NADPH-diaphorase, nNOS in the corresponding nuclei was always detected in the fewer number of neurons, predominantly of small sizes. The sensory nuclei (nucleus of solitary tract, reticular parvocellular and lateral nuclei, spinal nucleus of the trigeminal nerve) contained 1.5-3 times more nNOS neurons than in motor nuclei. In some nuclei (nucleus ambiguus, hypoglossal nerve nucleus), containing numerous NADPH-diaphorase-positive neurons, immunoreactive cells were particularly rare.

  5. Photoprotective role of NADPH:protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase A

    PubMed Central

    Buhr, Frank; El Bakkouri, Majida; Valdez, Oscar; Pollmann, Stephan; Lebedev, Nikolai; Reinbothe, Steffen; Reinbothe, Christiane

    2008-01-01

    A homology model of NADPH:protochlorophyllide (Pchlide) oxidoreductase A (POR; E.C. 1.3.33.1) of barley is developed and verified by site-directed mutagenesis. PORA is considered a globular protein consisting of nine α-helices and seven β-strands. The model predicts the presence of two functionally distinctive Pchlide binding sites where the pigment is coordinated by cystein residues. The pigment bound to the first, high-affinity Pchlide binding site is used for the formation of the photoactive state of the enzyme. The pigment bound to the second, low-affinity Pchlide binding site is involved in the PORA:PORB interaction, allowing for resonance energy transfer between the neighboring PORs in the complex. In the in vitro reconstituted light-harvesting POR:Pchlide complex (LHPP), light absorbed by PORA-bound Pchlide b is transferred to PORB-bound Pchlide a. That induces the conversion of Pchlide a to chlorophyllide (Chlide) a. This energy transfer eliminates the possibility of Pchlide b photoreduction and prevents that excited triplet states of either Pchlides a or b accumulate and provoke singlet oxygen production. Together, our results provide a photoprotective role of PORA during greening. PMID:18723681

  6. The NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin (acetovanillone) induces oxidative stress

    SciTech Connect

    Riganti, Chiara . E-mail: dario.ghigo@unito.it

    2006-05-01

    Apocynin (acetovanillone) is often used as a specific inhibitor of NADPH oxidase. In N11 glial cells, apocynin induced, in a dose-dependent way, a significant increase of both malonyldialdehyde level (index of lipid peroxidation) and lactate dehydrogenase release (index of a cytotoxic effect). Apocynin evoked also, in a significant way, an increase of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentration and a decrease of the intracellular glutathione/glutathione disulfide ratio, accompanied by augmented efflux of glutathione and glutathione disulfide. Apocynin induced the activation of both pentose phosphate pathway and tricarboxylic acid cycle, which was blocked when the cells were incubated with glutathione together with apocynin. The cell incubation with glutathione prevented also the apocynin-induced increase of malonyldialdehyde generation and lactate dehydrogenase leakage. Apocynin exerted an oxidant effect also in a cell-free system: indeed, in aqueous solution, it evoked a faster oxidation of the thiols glutathione and dithiothreitol, and elicited the generation of reactive oxygen species, mainly superoxide anions. Our results suggest that apocynin per se can induce an oxidative stress and exert a cytotoxic effect in N11 cells and other cell types, and that some effects of apocynin in in vitro and in vivo experimental models should be interpreted with caution.

  7. Functional Heterogeneity of Nadph Oxidases in Atherosclerotic and Aneurysmal Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Kigawa, Yasuyoshi; Lei, Xiao-Feng; Kim-Kaneyama, Joo-ri; Miyazaki, Akira

    2017-01-01

    NADPH oxidases (NOX) are enzymes that catalyze the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Four species of NOX catalytic homologs (NOX1, NOX2, NOX4, and NOX5) are reportedly expressed in vascular tissues. The pro-atherogenic roles of NOX1, NOX2, and their organizer protein p47phox were manifested, and it was noted that the hydrogen peroxide-generating enzyme NOX4 possesses atheroprotective effects. Loss of NOX1 or p47phox appears to ameliorate murine aortic dissection and subsequent aneurysmal diseases; in contrast, the ablation of NOX2 exacerbates the aneurysmal diseases. It is possible that the loss of NOX2 activates inflammatory cascades in macrophages in the lesions. Roles of NOX5 in vascular functions are currently undetermined, owing to the absence of this enzyme in rodents and the limitation of the experimental procedure. Thus, it is possible that the NOX family of enzymes exhibits heterogeneity in the atherosclerotic diseases. In this aspect, subtype-selective NOX inhibitor may be promising when NOX systems serve as a molecular target for atherosclerotic and aneurysmal diseases. PMID:27476665

  8. NADPH oxidase deficiency underlies dysfunction of aged CD8+ Tregs

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Zhenke; Shimojima, Yasuhiro; Shirai, Tsuyoshi; Li, Yinyin; Ju, Jihang; Yang, Zhen; Tian, Lu; Goronzy, Jörg J.

    2016-01-01

    Immune aging results in progressive loss of both protective immunity and T cell–mediated suppression, thereby conferring susceptibility to a combination of immunodeficiency and chronic inflammatory disease. Here, we determined that older individuals fail to generate immunosuppressive CD8+CCR7+ Tregs, a defect that is even more pronounced in the age-related vasculitic syndrome giant cell arteritis. In young, healthy individuals, CD8+CCR7+ Tregs are localized in T cell zones of secondary lymphoid organs, suppress activation and expansion of CD4 T cells by inhibiting the phosphorylation of membrane-proximal signaling molecules, and effectively inhibit proliferative expansion of CD4 T cells in vitro and in vivo. We identified deficiency of NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2) as the molecular underpinning of CD8 Treg failure in the older individuals and in patients with giant cell arteritis. CD8 Tregs suppress by releasing exosomes that carry preassembled NOX2 membrane clusters and are taken up by CD4 T cells. Overexpression of NOX2 in aged CD8 Tregs promptly restored suppressive function. Together, our data support NOX2 as a critical component of the suppressive machinery of CD8 Tregs and suggest that repairing NOX2 deficiency in these cells may protect older individuals from tissue-destructive inflammatory disease, such as large-vessel vasculitis. PMID:27088800

  9. Thioredoxin-1/peroxiredoxin-1 as sensors of oxidative stress mediated by NADPH oxidase activity in atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Madrigal-Matute, Julio; Fernandez-Garcia, Carlos-Ernesto; Blanco-Colio, Luis Miguel; Burillo, Elena; Fortuño, Ana; Martinez-Pinna, Roxana; Llamas-Granda, Patricia; Beloqui, Oscar; Egido, Jesus; Zalba, Guillermo; Martin-Ventura, José Luis

    2015-09-01

    To assess the potential association between TRX-1/PRX-1 and NADPH oxidase (Nox) activity in vivo and in vitro, TRX-1/PRX-1 levels were assessed by ELISA in 84 asymptomatic subjects with known phagocytic NADPH oxidase activity and carotid intima-media thickness (IMT). We found a positive correlation between TRX-1/PRX-1 and NADPH oxidase-dependent superoxide production (r=0.48 and 0.47; p<0.001 for both) and IMT (r=0.31 and 0.36; p<0.01 for both) adjusted by age and sex. Moreover, asymptomatic subjects with plaques have higher PRX-1 and TRX plasma levels (p<0.01 for both). These data were confirmed in a second study in which patients with carotid atherosclerosis showed higher PRX-1 and TRX plasma levels than healthy subjects (p<0.001 for both). In human atherosclerotic plaques, the NADPH oxidase subunit p22phox colocalized with TRX-1/PRX-1 in macrophages (immunohistochemistry). In monocytes and macrophages, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) induced NADPH activation and TRX-1/PRX-1 release to the extracellular medium, with a concomitant decrease in their intracellular levels, which was reversed by the NADPH inhibitor apocynin (Western blot). In loss-of-function experiments, genetic silencing of the NADPH oxidase subunit Nox2 blocked PMA-induced intracellular TRX-1/PRX-1 downregulation in macrophages. Furthermore, the PMA-induced release of TRX-1/PRX-1 involves the modulation of their redox status and exosome-like vesicles. TRX-1/PRX-1 levels are associated with NADPH oxidase-activity in vivo and in vitro. These data could suggest a coordinated antioxidant response to oxidative stress in atherothrombosis.

  10. The NADPH oxidase inhibitor diphenyleneiodonium activates the human TRPA1 nociceptor.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Hiroka; Hatano, Noriyuki; Muraki, Yukiko; Itoh, Yuka; Kimura, Satoko; Hayashi, Hidetoshi; Onozaki, Kikuo; Ohi, Yoshiaki; Haji, Akira; Muraki, Katsuhiko

    2014-08-15

    Transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) is a Ca(2+)-permeable nonselective cation channel expressed in neuronal and nonneuronal cells and plays an important role in acute and inflammatory pain. Here, we show that an NADPH oxidase (NOX) inhibitor, diphenyleneiodonium (DPI), functions as a TRPA1 activator in human embryonic kidney cells expressing human TRPA1 (HEK-TRPA1) and in human fibroblast-like synoviocytes. Application of DPI at 0.03-10 μM induced a Ca(2+) response in HEK-TRPA1 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. The Ca(2+) response was effectively blocked by a selective TRPA1 antagonist, HC-030031 (HC). In contrast, DPI had no effect on HEK cells expressing TRPV1-V4 or TRPM8. Four other NOX inhibitors, apocynin (APO), VAS2870 (VAS), plumbagin, and 2-acetylphenothiazine, also induced a Ca(2+) response in HEK-TRPA1 cells, which was inhibited by pretreatment with HC. In the presence of 5 mM glutathione, the Ca(2+) response to DPI was effectively reduced. Moreover, mutation of cysteine 621 in TRPA1 substantially inhibited the DPI-induced Ca(2+) response, while it did not inhibit the APO- and VAS-induced responses. The channel activity was induced by DPI in excised membrane patches with both outside-out and inside-out configurations. Internal application of neomycin significantly inhibited the DPI-induced inward currents. In inflammatory synoviocytes with TRPA1, DPI evoked a Ca(2+) response that was sensitive to HC. In mice, intraplantar injection of DPI caused a pain-related response which was inhibited by preadministration with HC. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that DPI and other NOX inhibitors activate human TRPA1 without mediating NOX.

  11. Involvement of phospholipase D and NADPH-oxidase in salicylic acid signaling cascade.

    PubMed

    Kalachova, Tetiana; Iakovenko, Oksana; Kretinin, Sergii; Kravets, Volodymyr

    2013-05-01

    Salicylic acid is associated with the primary defense responses to biotic stress and formation of systemic acquired resistance. However, molecular mechanisms of early cell reactions to phytohormone application are currently undisclosed. The present study investigates the participation of phospholipase D and NADPH-oxidase in salicylic acid signal transduction cascade. The activation of lipid signaling enzymes within 15 min of salicylic acid application was shown in Arabidopsis thaliana plants by measuring the phosphatidic acid accumulation. Adding of primary alcohol (1-butanol) to the incubation medium led to phosphatidylbutanol accumulation as a result of phospholipase D (PLD) action in wild-type and NADPH-oxidase RbohD deficient plants. Salicylic acid induced rapid increase in NADPH-oxidase activity in histochemical assay with nitroblue tetrazolium but the reaction was not observed in presence of 1-butanol and NADPH-oxidase inhibitor diphenylene iodide (DPI). The further physiological effect of salicylic acid and inhibitory analysis of the signaling cascade were made in the guard cell model. Stomatal closure induced by salicylic acid was inhibited by 1-butanol and DPI treatment. rbohD transgenic plants showed impaired stomatal reaction upon phytohormone effect, while the reaction to H2O2 did not differ from that of wild-type plants. Thus a key role of NADPH-oxidase D-isoform in the process of stomatal closure in response to salicylic acid has been postulated. It has enabled to predict a cascade implication of PLD and NADPH oxidase to salicylic acid signaling pathway.

  12. NADPH oxidase derived reactive oxygen species are involved in human neutrophil IL-1β secretion but not in inflammasome activation.

    PubMed

    Gabelloni, María Laura; Sabbione, Florencia; Jancic, Carolina; Fuxman Bass, Juan; Keitelman, Irene; Iula, Leonardo; Oleastro, Matías; Geffner, Jorge R; Trevani, Analía S

    2013-12-01

    Neutrophils are essential players in acute inflammatory responses. Upon stimulation, neutrophils activate NADPH oxidase, generating an array of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) is a major proinflammatory cytokine synthesized as a precursor that has to be proteolytically processed to become biologically active. The role of ROS in IL-1β processing is still controversial and has not been previously studied in neutrophils. We report here that IL-1β processing in human neutrophils is dependent on caspase-1 and on the serine proteases elastase and/or proteinase 3. NADPH oxidase deficient neutrophils activated caspase-1 and did not exhibit differences in NALP3 expression, indicating that ROS are neither required for inflammasome activation nor for its priming, as has been reported for macrophages. Strikingly, ROS exerted opposite effects on the processing and secretion of IL-1β; whereas ROS negatively controlled caspase-1 activity, as reported in mononuclear phagocytes, ROS were found to be necessary for the exportation of mature IL-1β out of the cell, a role never previously described. The complex ROS-mediated regulation of neutrophil IL-1β secretion might constitute a physiological mechanism to control IL-1β-dependent inflammatory processes where neutrophils play a crucial role.

  13. Immune-Mediated Nephropathy and Systemic Autoimmunity in Mice Does Not Require Receptor Interacting Protein Kinase 3 (RIPK3)

    PubMed Central

    Corradetti, Chelsea; Jog, Neelakshi R.; Gallucci, Stefania; Madaio, Michael; Balachandran, Siddharth

    2016-01-01

    Immune mediated nephropathy is one of the most serious manifestations of lupus and is characterized by severe inflammation and necrosis that, if untreated, eventually leads to renal failure. Although lupus has a higher incidence in women, both sexes can develop lupus glomerulonephritis; nephritis in men develops earlier and is more severe than in women. It is therefore important to understand the cellular and molecular mechanisms mediating nephritis in each sex. Previous work by our lab found that the absence or pharmacological inhibition of Poly [ADP-ribose] polymerase 1 (PARP-1), an enzyme involved in DNA repair and necrotic cell death, affects only male mice and results in milder nephritis, with less in situ inflammation, and diminished incidence of necrotic lesions, allowing for higher survival rates. A second pathway mediating necrosis involves Receptor-Interacting Serine-Threonine Kinase 3 (RIPK3); in this study we sought to investigate the impact of RIPK3 on the development of lupus and nephritis in both sexes. To this end, we used two inducible murine models of lupus: chronic graft versus host disease (cGvHD) and pristane-induced lupus; and nephrotoxic serum (NTS)-induced nephritis as a model of immune mediated nephropathy. We found that the absence of RIPK3 has neither positive nor negative impact on the disease development or progression of lupus and nephritis in all three models, and in both male and female mice. We conclude that RIPK3 is dispensable for the pathogenesis of lupus and immune mediated nephropathy as to accelerate, worsen or ameliorate the disease. PMID:27669412

  14. Hydrogen sulfide-induced itch requires activation of Cav3.2 T-type calcium channel in mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xue-Long; Tian, Bin; Huang, Ya; Peng, Xiao-Yan; Chen, Li-Hua; Li, Jun-Cheng; Liu, Tong

    2015-01-01

    The contributions of gasotransmitters to itch sensation are largely unknown. In this study, we aimed to investigate the roles of hydrogen sulfide (H2S), a ubiquitous gasotransmitter, in itch signaling. We found that intradermal injection of H2S donors NaHS or Na2S, but not GYY4137 (a slow-releasing H2S donor), dose-dependently induced scratching behavior in a μ-opioid receptor-dependent and histamine-independent manner in mice. Interestingly, NaHS induced itch via unique mechanisms that involved capsaicin-insensitive A-fibers, but not TRPV1-expressing C-fibers that are traditionally considered for mediating itch, revealed by depletion of TRPV1-expressing C-fibers by systemic resiniferatoxin treatment. Moreover, local application of capsaizapine (TRPV1 blocker) or HC-030031 (TRPA1 blocker) had no effects on NaHS-evoked scratching. Strikingly, pharmacological blockade and silencing of Cav3.2 T-type calcium channel by mibefradil, ascorbic acid, zinc chloride or Cav3.2 siRNA dramatically decreased NaHS-evoked scratching. NaHS induced robust alloknesis (touch-evoked itch), which was inhibited by T-type calcium channels blocker mibefradil. Compound 48/80-induced itch was enhanced by an endogenous precursor of H2S (L-cysteine) but attenuated by inhibitors of H2S-producing enzymes cystathionine γ-lyase and cystathionine β-synthase. These results indicated that H2S, as a novel nonhistaminergic itch mediator, may activates Cav3.2 T-type calcium channel, probably located at A-fibers, to induce scratching and alloknesis in mice. PMID:26602811

  15. Oxidation of guaiacol by myeloperoxidase: a two-electron-oxidized guaiacol transient species as a mediator of NADPH oxidation.

    PubMed Central

    Capeillère-Blandin, C

    1998-01-01

    The present study was first aimed at a complete steady-state kinetic analysis of the reaction between guaiacol (2-methoxyphenol) and the myeloperoxidase (MPO)/H2O2 system, including a description of the isolation and purification of MPO from human polymorphonuclear neutrophil cells. Secondly, the overall reaction of the oxidation of NADPH, mediated by the reactive intermediates formed from the oxidation of guaiacol in the MPO/H2O2 system, was analysed kinetically. The presence of guaiacol stimulates the oxidation of NADPH by the MPO/H2O2 system in a concentration-dependent manner. Concomitantly, the accumulation of biphenoquinone (BQ), the final steady-state product of guaiacol oxidation, is lowered, and even inhibited completely, at high concentrations of NADPH. Under these conditions, the stoichiometry of NADPH:H2O2 is 1, and the oxidation rate of NADPH approximates to that of the rate of guaiacol oxidation by MPO. The effects of the presence of superoxide dismutase, catalase and of anaerobic conditions on the overall oxidation of NADPH have also been examined, and the data indicated that superoxide formation did not occur. The final product of NADPH oxidation was shown to be enzymically active NADP+, while guaiacol was generated continuously from the reaction between NADPH and oxidized guaiacol product. In contrast, similar experiments performed on the indirect, tyrosine-mediated oxidation of NADPH by MPO showed that a propagation of the free radical chain was occurring, with generation of both O2(-.) and H2O2. BQ, in itself, was able to spontaneously oxidize NADPH, but neither the rate nor the stoichiometry of the reaction could account for the NADPH-oxidation process involved in the steady-state peroxidation cycle. These results provide evidence that the oxidation of NADPH does not involve a free nucleotide radical intermediate, but that this is probably due to a direct electron-transfer reaction between NADPH and a two-electron-oxidized guaiacol intermediate

  16. Regulation of NADPH Oxidase 5 by Protein Kinase C Isoforms

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Feng; Yu, Yanfang; Haigh, Steven; Johnson, John; Lucas, Rudolf; Stepp, David W.; Fulton, David J. R.

    2014-01-01

    NADPH oxidase5 (Nox5) is a novel Nox isoform which has recently been recognized as having important roles in the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease, acute myocardial infarction, fetal ventricular septal defect and cancer. The activity of Nox5 and production of reactive oxygen species is regulated by intracellular calcium levels and phosphorylation. However, the kinases that phosphorylate Nox5 remain poorly understood. Previous studies have shown that the phosphorylation of Nox5 is PKC dependent, but this contention was based on the use of pharmacological inhibitors and the isoforms of PKC involved remain unknown. Thus, the major goals of this study were to determine whether PKC can directly regulate Nox5 phosphorylation and activity, to identify which isoforms are involved in the process, and to understand the functional significance of this pathway in disease. We found that a relatively specific PKCα inhibitor, Ro-32-0432, dose-dependently inhibited PMA-induced superoxide production from Nox5. PMA-stimulated Nox5 activity was significantly reduced in cells with genetic silencing of PKCα and PKCε, enhanced by loss of PKCδ and the silencing of PKCθ expression was without effect. A constitutively active form of PKCα robustly increased basal and PMA-stimulated Nox5 activity and promoted the phosphorylation of Nox5 on Ser490, Thr494, and Ser498. In contrast, constitutively active PKCε potently inhibited both basal and PMA-dependent Nox5 activity. Co-IP and in vitro kinase assay experiments demonstrated that PKCα directly binds to Nox5 and modifies Nox5 phosphorylation and activity. Exposure of endothelial cells to high glucose significantly increased PKCα activation, and enhanced Nox5 derived superoxide in a manner that was in prevented by a PKCα inhibitor, Go 6976. In summary, our study reveals that PKCα is the primary isoform mediating the activation of Nox5 and this maybe of significance in our understanding of the vascular complications of diabetes

  17. NADPH oxidase 4 is an oncoprotein localized to mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Graham, Kelly A; Kulawiec, Mariola; Owens, Kjerstin M; Li, Xiurong; Desouki, Mohamed Mokhtar; Chandra, Dhyan; Singh, Keshav K

    2010-08-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are known to be involved in many physiological and pathological processes. Initially ROS-producing NADPH oxidase (NOX) proteins were thought to be present in phagocytes. However, recent studies have demonstrated that NOX proteins are expressed in many other cell types and tissues. NOX family members' expression and function seems to vary from tissue to tissue. We determined the expression of the NOX family of proteins (NOX1-5) in normal breast tissue and breast tumors. Our study revealed that normal breast tissues express NOX1, 4 and 5 genes. Similar pattern of expression was revealed in a breast epithelial cell line. We found that NOX4 was overexpressed in the majority of breast cancer cell lines and primary breast tumors. NOX4 was also overexpressed in ovarian tumors. Overexpression of NOX4 in normal breast epithelial cells resulted in cellular senescence, resistance to apoptosis, and tumorigenic transformation. Overexpression of NOX4 in already transformed breast tumor cells also showed increased tumorigenicity. Strong evidence suggests that regulation of these processes occurs through NOX4 generation of ROS in the mitochondria. We demonstrate that the NOX4 protein contains a 73 amino acid long mitochondrial localization signal at the N-terminus that is capable of transporting a passenger protein GFP into the mitochondria. Treatment of NOX4 overexpressing cells with catalase resulted in decreased tumorigenic characteristics. Together, this study provides evidence for an oncogenic function for NOX4 protein localized to mitochondria and suggests that NOX4 is a novel source of ROS produced in the mitochondria. This study also identifies a possible treatment of NOX4-induced breast cancer by antioxidant treatment.

  18. Role of gp91phox-Containing NADPH Oxidase in Mediating the Effect of K Restriction on ROMK Channels and Renal K Excretion

    PubMed Central

    Babilonia, Elisa; Lin, Daohong; Zhang, Yan; Wei, Yuan; Yue, Peng; Wang, Wen-Hui

    2009-01-01

    Previous study has demonstrated that superoxide and the related products are involved in mediating the effect of low K intake on renal K secretion and ROMK channel activity in the cortical collecting duct (CCD). This study investigated the role of gp91phox-containing NADPH oxidase (NOXII) in mediating the effect of low K intake on renal K excretion and ROMK channel activity in gp91(-/-) mice. K depletion increased superoxide levels, phosphorylation of c-Jun, expression of c-Src, and tyrosine phosphorylation of ROMK in renal cortex and outer medulla in wild-type (WT) mice. In contrast, tempol treatment in WT mice abolished whereas deletion of gp91 significantly attenuated the effect of low K intake on superoxide production, c-Jun phosphorylation, c-Src expression, and tyrosine phosphorylation of ROMK. Patch-clamp experiments demonstrated that low K intake decreased mean product of channel number (N) and open probability (P) (NPo) of ROMK channels from 1.1 to 0.4 in the CCD. However, the effect of low K intake on ROMK channel activity was significantly attenuated in the CCD from gp91(-/-) mice and completely abolished by tempol treatment. Immunocytochemical staining also was used to examine the ROMK distribution in WT, gp91(-/-), and WT mice with tempol treatment in response to K restriction. K restriction decreased apical staining of ROMK in WT mice. In contrast, a sharp apical ROMK staining was observed in the tempol-treated WT or gp91(-/-) mice. Metabolic cage study further showed that urinary K loss is significantly higher in gp91(-/-) mice than in WT mice. It is concluded that superoxide anions play a key role in suppressing K secretion during K restriction and that NOXII is involved in mediating the effect of low K intake on renal K secretion and ROMK channel activity. PMID:17538186

  19. Role of gp91phox -containing NADPH oxidase in mediating the effect of K restriction on ROMK channels and renal K excretion.

    PubMed

    Babilonia, Elisa; Lin, Daohong; Zhang, Yan; Wei, Yuan; Yue, Peng; Wang, Wen-Hui

    2007-07-01

    Previous study has demonstrated that superoxide and the related products are involved in mediating the effect of low K intake on renal K secretion and ROMK channel activity in the cortical collecting duct (CCD). This study investigated the role of gp91(phox)-containing NADPH oxidase (NOXII) in mediating the effect of low K intake on renal K excretion and ROMK channel activity in gp91(-/-) mice. K depletion increased superoxide levels, phosphorylation of c-Jun, expression of c-Src, and tyrosine phosphorylation of ROMK in renal cortex and outer medulla in wild-type (WT) mice. In contrast, tempol treatment in WT mice abolished whereas deletion of gp91 significantly attenuated the effect of low K intake on superoxide production, c-Jun phosphorylation, c-Src expression, and tyrosine phosphorylation of ROMK. Patch-clamp experiments demonstrated that low K intake decreased mean product of channel number (N) and open probability (P) (NP(o)) of ROMK channels from 1.1 to 0.4 in the CCD. However, the effect of low K intake on ROMK channel activity was significantly attenuated in the CCD from gp91(-/-) mice and completely abolished by tempol treatment. Immunocytochemical staining also was used to examine the ROMK distribution in WT, gp91(-/-), and WT mice with tempol treatment in response to K restriction. K restriction decreased apical staining of ROMK in WT mice. In contrast, a sharp apical ROMK staining was observed in the tempol-treated WT or gp91(-/-) mice. Metabolic cage study further showed that urinary K loss is significantly higher in gp91(-/-) mice than in WT mice. It is concluded that superoxide anions play a key role in suppressing K secretion during K restriction and that NOXII is involved in mediating the effect of low K intake on renal K secretion and ROMK channel activity.

  20. NAD(P)H regeneration is the key for heterolactic fermentation of hexoses in Oenococcus oeni.

    PubMed

    Maicas, Sergi; Ferrer, Sergi; Pardo, Isabel

    2002-01-01

    Oenococcus oeni (formerly Leuconostoc oenos) can perform malolactic fermentation, converting L-malate to L-lactate and carbon dioxide, in wines. The energy and redox potential required to support the growth of the micro-organism are supplied mainly by the consumption of carbohydrates via the heterolactic pathway. In the first steps of hexose metabolism two molecules of NAD(P)(+) are consumed, which must be regenerated in later reactions. The aim of this work was to test if aerobic growth of O. oeni promotes higher cell yields than anaerobic conditions, as has been shown for other lactic acid bacteria. O. oeni M42 was found to grow poorly under aerobic conditions with glucose as the only carbohydrate in the medium. It was demonstrated that O(2) inactivates the enzymes of the ethanol-forming pathway, one of the two pathways which reoxidizes NAD(P)(+) cofactors in the heterolactic catabolism of glucose. These results suggest that the regeneration of cofactors is the limiting factor for the aerobic consumption of glucose. When external electron acceptors, such as fructose or pyruvate, were added to glucose-containing culture medium the growth of O. oeni was stimulated slightly; fructose was converted to mannitol, oxidizing two molecules of NAD(P)H, and pyruvate was transformed to lactate, enabling the regeneration of NAD(+). The addition of cysteine seemed to suppress the inactivation of the ethanol-forming pathway enzymes by O(2), enabling glucose consumption in aerobic conditions to reach similar rates to those found in anaerobic conditions.

  1. Characterization of an 8-hydroxy-5-deazaflavin:NADPH oxidoreductase from Streptomyces griseus.

    PubMed

    Eker, A P; Hessels, J K; Meerwaldt, R

    1989-01-27

    An 8-hydroxy-5-deazaflavin-dependent oxidoreductase was isolated from the actinomycete Streptomyces griseus and purified 590-fold with 72% overall yield. The enzyme catalyzes electron transfer between 8-hydroxy-5-deazaflavins and NADPH. It seems to be more specific than methanogenic oxidoreductase as it has an absolute requirement for both the 5-deazaflavin structure and the presence of an 8-hydroxy group in the substrate. A molecular weight of 42,000 was found with gel permeation chromatography, while SDS gel electrophoresis indicated the presence of two identical subunits. Maximal enzymatic activity was found at 0.32 M NaCl and pH 5.9 for reduction of 8-hydroxy-5-deazaflavin and pH 7.9 for the reverse reaction. From the kinetic constants it was estimated that the main function of this oxidoreductase is probably to provide cells with reduced 8-hydroxy-5-deazaflavin to be used in specific reduction reactions. These results indicate the occurrence of 8-hydroxy-5-deazaflavin-dependent electron transfer in microorganisms not belonging to the archaebacteria.

  2. Silencing NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase results in reduced acaricide resistance in Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Boisduval)

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Li; Zhang, Jiao; Shen, Guangmao; Xu, Zhifeng; Wei, Peng; Zhang, Yichao; Xu, Qiang; He, Lin

    2015-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s) are involved in metabolic resistance to insecticides and require NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) to transfer electrons when they catalyze oxidation reactions. The carmine spider mite, Tetranychus cinnabarinus is an important pest mite of crop and vegetable plants worldwide, and its resistance to acaricides has quickly developed. However, the role of CPR on the formation of acaricide-resistance in T. cinnabarinus is still unclear. In this study, a full-length cDNA encoding CPR was cloned and characterized from T. cinnabarinus (designated TcCPR). TcCPR expression was detectable in all developmental stages of T. cinnabarinus, but it’s much lower in eggs. TcCPR was up-regulated and more inducible with fenpropathrin treatment in the fenpropathrin-resistant (FeR) strain compared with the susceptible SS strain. Feeding of double-strand RNA was effective in silencing the transcription of TcCPR in T. cinnabarinus, which resulted in decreasing the activity of P450s and increasing the susceptibility to fenpropathrin in the FeR strain but not in the susceptible strain. The current results provide first evidence that the down-regulation of TcCPR contributed to an increase of the susceptibility to fenpropathrin in resistant mites. TcCPR could be considered as a novel target for the development of new pesticides. PMID:26493678

  3. Leonurine (SCM-198) attenuates myocardial fibrotic response via inhibition of NADPH oxidase 4.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin-Hua; Pan, Li-Long; Deng, Hai-Yan; Xiong, Qing-Hui; Wu, Dan; Huang, Guo-Ying; Gong, Qi-Hai; Zhu, Yi-Zhun

    2013-01-01

    In our previous studies, we have reported that leonurine, a plant phenolic alkaloid in Herba leonuri, exerted cardioprotective properties in a number of preclinical experiments. Herein, we investigated the roles and the possible mechanisms of leonurine for reducing fibrotic responses in angiotensin II (Ang II)-stimulated primary neonatal rat cardiac fibroblasts and post-myocardial infarction (MI) rats. In in vitro experiments performed in neonatal rat cardiac fibroblasts, leonurine (10-20 μM) pretreatment attenuated Ang II-induced activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), expression and activity of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2/9, and expression of α-smooth muscle actin and types I and III collagen. A small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown strategy for NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4) revealed that Nox4 was required for Ang II-induced activation of cardiac fibroblasts. In vivo studies using a post-MI model in rats indicated that administration of leonurine inhibited myocardial fibrosis while reducing cardiac Nox4 expression, ROS production, NF-κB activation, and plasma MMP-2 activity. In conclusion, our results provide the first evidence that leonurine could prevent cardiac fibrosis and the activation of cardiac fibroblasts partly through modulation of a Nox4-ROS pathway.

  4. Targeting and Regulation of Reactive Oxygen Species Generation by Nox Family NADPH Oxidases

    PubMed Central

    Morand, Stanislas; Hurt, Darrell; Ueyama, Takehiko

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Nox family NADPH oxidases serve a variety of functions requiring reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, including antimicrobial defense, biosynthetic processes, oxygen sensing, and redox-based cellular signaling. We explored targeting, assembly, and activation of several Nox family oxidases, since ROS production appears to be regulated both spatially and temporally. Nox1 and Nox3 are similar to the phagocytic (Nox2-based) oxidase, functioning as multicomponent superoxide-generating enzymes. Factors regulating their activities include cytosolic activator and organizer proteins and GTP-Rac. Their regulation varies, with the following rank order: Nox2 > Nox1 > Nox3. Determinants of subcellular targeting include: (a) formation of Nox-p22phox heterodimeric complexes allowing plasma membrane translocation, (b) phospholipids-binding specificities of PX domain-containing organizer proteins (p47phox or Nox organizer 1 (Noxo1 and p40phox), and (c) variably splicing of Noxo1 PX domains directing them to nuclear or plasma membranes. Dual oxidases (Duox1 and Duox2) are targeted by different mechanisms. Plasma membrane targeting results in H2O2 release, not superoxide, to support extracellular peroxidases. Human Duox1 and Duox2 have no demonstrable peroxidase activity, despite their extensive homology with heme peroxidases. The dual oxidases were reconstituted by Duox activator 2 (Duoxa2) or two Duoxa1 variants, which dictate maturation, subcellular localization, and the type of ROS generated by forming stable complexes with Duox. Antioxid Redox Signal. 11, 2607–2619. PMID:19438290

  5. V1 and v2b interneurons secure the alternating flexor-extensor motor activity mice require for limbed locomotion.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingming; Lanuza, Guillermo M; Britz, Olivier; Wang, Zhi; Siembab, Valerie C; Zhang, Ying; Velasquez, Tomoko; Alvarez, Francisco J; Frank, Eric; Goulding, Martyn

    2014-04-02

    Reciprocal activation of flexor and extensor muscles constitutes the fundamental mechanism that tetrapod vertebrates use for locomotion and limb-driven reflex behaviors. This aspect of motor coordination is controlled by inhibitory neurons in the spinal cord; however, the identity of the spinal interneurons that serve this function is not known. Here, we show that the production of an alternating flexor-extensor motor rhythm depends on the composite activities of two classes of ventrally located inhibitory neurons, V1 and V2b interneurons (INs). Abrogating V1 and V2b IN-derived neurotransmission in the isolated spinal cord results in a synchronous pattern of L2 flexor-related and L5 extensor-related locomotor activity. Mice lacking V1 and V2b inhibition are unable to articulate their limb joints and display marked deficits in limb-driven reflex movements. Taken together, these findings identify V1- and V2b-derived neurons as the core interneuronal components of the limb central pattern generator (CPG) that coordinate flexor-extensor motor activity.

  6. Muscle PGC-1α is required for long term systemic and local adaptations to a ketogenic diet in mice.

    PubMed

    Schnyder, Svenia; Svensson, Kristoffer; Cardel, Bettina; Handschin, Christoph

    2017-02-21

    Low carbohydrate/high-fat (LCHF) diets are increasingly popular dietary interventions for body weight control and as treatment for different pathological conditions. However, the mechanisms of action are still poorly understood, in particular in long-term administration. Besides liver, brain and heart, skeletal muscle is one of the major organs involved in the regulation of physiological and pathophysiological ketosis. We now assessed the role of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) in skeletal muscle of male wild type control (CTRL) and PGC-1α muscle-specific knockout (PGC-1α mKO) mice upon 12 weeks of LCHF diet feeding. Interestingly, LCHF diet administration increased oxygen consumption in a muscle PGC-1α-dependent manner concomitant with a blunted transcriptional induction of genes involved in fatty acid oxidation and impairment in exercise performance. These data reveal a new role for muscle PGC-1α in regulating the physiological adaptation to long-term LCHF diet administration.

  7. The ferrous iron transporter FtrABCD is required for the virulence of Brucella abortus 2308 in mice.

    PubMed

    Elhassanny, Ahmed E M; Anderson, Eric S; Menscher, Evan A; Roop, R Martin

    2013-06-01

    Iron transport has been linked to the virulence of Brucella strains in both natural and experimental hosts. The genes designated BAB2_0837-0840 in the Brucella abortus 2308 genome sequence are predicted to encode a CupII-type ferrous iron transporter homologous to the FtrABCD transporter recently described in Bordetella. To study the role of the Brucella FtrABCD in iron transport, an isogenic ftrA mutant was constructed from B. abortus 2308. Compared with the parental strain, the B. abortus ftrA mutant displays a decreased capacity to use non-haem iron sources in vitro, a growth defect in a low iron medium that is enhanced at pH 6, and studies employing radiolabelled FeCl3 confirmed that FtrABCD transports ferrous iron. Transcription of the ftrA gene is induced in B. abortus 2308 in response to iron deprivation and exposure to acid pH, and similar to other Brucella iron acquisition genes that have been examined the iron-responsiveness of ftrA is dependent upon the iron response regulator Irr. The B. abortus ftrA mutant exhibits significant attenuation in both cultured murine macrophages and experimentally infected mice, supporting the proposition that ferrous iron is a critical iron source for these bacteria in the mammalian host.

  8. Co-Administration of Lipid Nanoparticles and Sub-Unit Vaccine Antigens Is Required for Increase in Antigen-Specific Immune Responses in Mice.

    PubMed

    Thoryk, Elizabeth A; Swaminathan, Gokul; Meschino, Steven; Cox, Kara S; Gindy, Marian; Casimiro, Danilo R; Bett, Andrew J

    2016-12-06

    A vast body of evidence suggests that nanoparticles function as potent immune-modulatory agents. We have previously shown that Merck proprietary Lipid NanoParticles (LNPs) markedly boost B-cell and T-cell responses to sub-unit vaccine antigens in mice. To further evaluate the specifics of vaccine delivery and dosing regimens in vivo, we performed immunogenicity studies in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice using two model antigens, Hepatitis B Surface Antigen (HBsAg) and Ovalbumin (OVA), respectively. To assess the requirement for co-administration of antigen and LNP for the elicitation of immune responses, we evaluated immune responses after administering antigen and LNP to separate limbs, or administering antigen and LNP to the same limb but separated by 24 h. We also evaluated formulations combining antigen, LNP, and aluminum-based adjuvant amorphous aluminum hydroxylphosphate sulfate (MAA) to look for synergistic adjuvant effects. Analyses of antigen-specific B-cell and T-cell responses from immunized mice revealed that the LNPs and antigens must be co-administered-both at the same time and in the same location-in order to boost antigen-specific immune responses. Mixing of antigen with MAA prior to formulation with LNP did not impact the generation of antigen-specific B-cell responses, but drastically reduced the ability of LNPs to boost antigen-specific T-cell responses. Overall, our data demonstrate that the administration of LNPs and vaccine antigen together enables their immune-stimulatory properties.

  9. Co-Administration of Lipid Nanoparticles and Sub-Unit Vaccine Antigens Is Required for Increase in Antigen-Specific Immune Responses in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Thoryk, Elizabeth A.; Swaminathan, Gokul; Meschino, Steven; Cox, Kara S.; Gindy, Marian; Casimiro, Danilo R.; Bett, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    A vast body of evidence suggests that nanoparticles function as potent immune-modulatory agents. We have previously shown that Merck proprietary Lipid NanoParticles (LNPs) markedly boost B-cell and T-cell responses to sub-unit vaccine antigens in mice. To further evaluate the specifics of vaccine delivery and dosing regimens in vivo, we performed immunogenicity studies in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice using two model antigens, Hepatitis B Surface Antigen (HBsAg) and Ovalbumin (OVA), respectively. To assess the requirement for co-administration of antigen and LNP for the elicitation of immune responses, we evaluated immune responses after administering antigen and LNP to separate limbs, or administering antigen and LNP to the same limb but separated by 24 h. We also evaluated formulations combining antigen, LNP, and aluminum-based adjuvant amorphous aluminum hydroxylphosphate sulfate (MAA) to look for synergistic adjuvant effects. Analyses of antigen-specific B-cell and T-cell responses from immunized mice revealed that the LNPs and antigens must be co-administered—both at the same time and in the same location—in order to boost antigen-specific immune responses. Mixing of antigen with MAA prior to formulation with LNP did not impact the generation of antigen-specific B-cell responses, but drastically reduced the ability of LNPs to boost antigen-specific T-cell responses. Overall, our data demonstrate that the administration of LNPs and vaccine antigen together enables their immune-stimulatory properties. PMID:27929422

  10. Role of mitochondria and NADPH oxidase derived reactive oxygen species in hyperoxaluria induced nephrolithiasis: therapeutic intervention with combinatorial therapy of N-acetyl cysteine and Apocynin.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Minu; Kaur, Tanzeer; Singla, S K

    2016-03-01

    The interactions between the main cellular sources of ROS, such as mitochondria and NADPH oxidase, are known to play an imperative role in the pathogenesis of hyperoxaluria-induced nephrolithiasis. The present study was designed to investigate the protective effect of a combinatorial therapy based on the attenuation of oxidative stress with antioxidant (N-acetyl cysteine), and NADPH oxidase inhibitor (apocynin), that might be required to effectively eliminate hyperoxaluric manifestations. Hyperoxaluria was induced in male Wistar rats by administering 0.4% ethylene glycol with 1% ammonium chloride in drinking water for 9 days. Hyperoxaluria accentuated renal oxidative stress in terms of increased ROS production and lipid peroxidation. Mitochondrial dysfunction, a central deleterious event in renal stone crystallization, was evident by decreased activities of electron transport chain complex I, II and IV, augmented mitochondrial ROS, reduced GSH/GSSG ratio, which resulted in the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening as indicated by increased mitochondrial swelling in hyperoxaluric rats. Furthermore, NADPH oxidase activity was significantly increased, with raised expression of NOX1, NOX2, NOX4, p38MAPK and MnSOD, in the renal tissue of hyperoxaluric rats compared to control. However, combinatorial therapy with N-acetyl cysteine (50mg/kg/day) and apocynin (200mg/kg/day), intraperitoneally, significantly improved renal functions in hyperoxaluric rats and considerably ameliorated mitochondrial dysfunction. NAC with apocynin was also found to be effective in reducing the redundant activity of NADPH oxidase in renal tissue of hyperoxaluric rats. Hence, our investigation provides novel mechanistic insights that combinatorial approaches using targeted modulators of ROS offer therapeutic benefits in hyperoxaluria-induced nephrolithiasis.

  11. Dendritic structure varies as a function of eccentricity in V1: a quantitative study of NADPH diaphorase neurons in the diurnal South American rodent agouti, Dasyprocta prymnolopha.

    PubMed

    da Rocha, E G; Freire, M A M; Bahia, C P; Pereira, A; Sosthenes, M C K; Silveira, L C L; Elston, G N; Picanço-Diniz, C W

    2012-08-02

    The cerebral cortex is often described as a composite of repeated units or columns, integrating the same basic circuit. The 'ice-cube' model of cortical organization, and 'canonical' circuit, born from insights into functional architecture, still require systematic comparative data. Here we probed the anatomy of an individual neuronal type within V1 to determine whether or not its dendritic trees are consistent with the 'ice-cube' model and theories of canonical circuits. In a previous report we studied the morphometric variability of NADPH-diaphorase (NADPH-d) neurons in the rat auditory, visual and somatosensory primary cortical areas. Our results suggested that the nitrergic cortical circuitry of primary sensory areas are differentially specialized, probably reflecting peculiarities of both habit and behavior of the species. In the present report we specifically quantified the dendritic trees of NADPH-d type I neurons as a function of eccentricity within V1. Individual neurons were reconstructed in 3D, and the size, branching and space-filling of their dendritic trees were correlated with their location within the visuotopic map. We found that NADPH-d neurons became progressively smaller and less branched with progression from the central visual representation to the intermediate and peripheral visual representation. This finding suggests that aspects of cortical circuitry may vary across the cortical mantle to a greater extent that envisaged as natural variation among columns in the 'ice-cube' model. The systematic variation in neuronal structure as a function of eccentricity warrants further investigation to probe the general applicability of columnar models of cortical organization and canonical circuits.

  12. NADPH oxidase plays a crucial role in the activation of pancreatic stellate cells.

    PubMed

    Masamune, Atsushi; Watanabe, Takashi; Kikuta, Kazuhiro; Satoh, Kennichi; Shimosegawa, Tooru

    2008-01-01

    Activated pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) play an important role in pancreatic fibrosis and inflammation, where oxidative stress is implicated in the pathogenesis. NADPH oxidase might be a source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the injured pancreas. This study aimed to clarify the expression and regulation of cell functions by NADPH oxidase in PSCs. PSCs were isolated from rat and human pancreas tissues. Expression of NADPH oxidase was assessed by reverse transcription-PCR and immunostaining. Intracellular ROS production was assessed using 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate. The effects of diphenylene iodonium (DPI) and apocynin, inhibitors of NADPH oxidase, on key parameters of PSC activation were evaluated in vitro. In vivo, DPI (at 1 mg.kg body wt(-1).day(-1)) was administered in drinking water to 10-wk-old male Wistar Bonn/Kobori rats for 10 wk and to rats with chronic pancreatitis induced by dibutyltin dichloride (DBTC). PSCs expressed key components of NADPH oxidase (p22(phox), p47(phox), NOX1, gp91(phox)/NOX2, NOX4, and NOX activator 1). PDGF-BB, IL-1beta, and angiotensin II induced ROS production, which was abolished by DPI and apocynin. DPI inhibited PDGF-induced proliferation, IL-1beta-induced chemokine production, and expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin and collagen. DPI inhibited transformation of freshly isolated cells to a myofibroblast-like phenotype. In addition, DPI inhibited the development of pancreatic fibrosis in Wistar Bonn/Kobori rats and in rats with DBTC-induced chronic pancreatitis. In conclusion, PSCs express NADPH oxidase to generate ROS, which mediates key cell functions and activation of PSCs. NADPH oxidase might be a potential target for the treatment of pancreatic fibrosis.

  13. Defective IL-23/IL-17 Axis Protects p47phox−/− Mice from Colon Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Cornelia; Herrero San Juan, Martina; Weigmann, Benno; Bergis, Dominik; Dauber, Katrin; Muders, Michael H.; Baretton, Gustavo B.; Pfeilschifter, Josef Martin; Bonig, Halvard; Brenner, Sebastian; Radeke, Heinfried H.

    2017-01-01

    In the colon, a sophisticated balance between immune reaction and tolerance is absolutely required. Dysfunction may lead to pathologic phenotypes ranging from chronic inflammatory processes to cancer development. Two prominent modulators of colon inflammation are represented by the closely related cytokines interleukin (IL)-12 and IL-23, which initiate adaptive Th1 and Th17 immune responses, respectively. In this study, we investigated the impact of the NADPH oxidase protein p47phox, which negatively regulates IL-12 in dendritic cells, on colon cancer development in a colitis-associated colon cancer model. Initially, we found that IL-12−/− mice developed less severe colitis but are highly susceptible to colon cancer. By contrast, p47phox−/− mice showed lower tumor scores and fewer high grade tumors than wild-type (WT) littermates. Treatment with toll-like receptor 9 ligand CpG2216 significantly enhanced colitis in p47phox−/− mice, whereas tumor growth was simultaneously reduced. In tumor tissue of p47phox−/− mice, the IL-23/IL-17 axis was crucially hampered. IL-23p19 protein expression in tumor tissue correlated with tumor stage. Reconstitution of WT mice with IL-23p19−/− bone marrow protected these mice from colon cancer, whereas transplantation of WT hematopoiesis into IL-23p19−/− mice increased the susceptibility to tumor growth. Our study strengthens the divergent role of IL-12 and IL-23 in colon cancer development. With the characterization of p47phox as a novel modulator of both cytokines our investigation introduces a promising new target for antitumor strategies. PMID:28191009

  14. MHC Class I Expression by Donor Hematopoietic Stem Cells Is Required to Prevent NK Cell Attack in Allogeneic, but Not Syngeneic Recipient Mice.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Yuichi; Li, Hao-Wei; Takahashi, Kazuko; Ishii, Hiroshi; Sykes, Megan; Fujisaki, Joji

    2015-01-01

    NK cells resist engraftment of syngeneic and allogeneic bone marrow (BM) cells lacking major histocompatibility (MHC) class I molecules, suggesting a critical role for donor MHC class I molecules in preventing NK cell attack against donor hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs), and their derivatives. However, using high-resolution in vivo imaging, we demonstrated here that syngeneic MHC class I knockout (KO) donor HSPCs persist with the same survival frequencies as wild-type donor HSPCs. In contrast, syngeneic MHC class I KO differentiated hematopoietic cells and allogeneic MHC class I KO HSPCs were rejected in a manner that was significantly inhibited by NK cell depletion. In vivo time-lapse imaging demonstrated that mice receiving allogeneic MHC class I KO HSPCs showed a significant increase in NK cell motility and proliferation as well as frequencies of NK cell contact with and killing of HSPCs as compared to mice receiving wild-type HSPCs. The data indicate that donor MHC class I molecules are required to prevent NK cell-mediated rejection of syngeneic differentiated cells and allogeneic HSPCs, but not of syngeneic HSPCs.

  15. cis-acting DNA regulatory elements, including the retinoic acid response element, are required for tissue specific laminin B1 promoter/lacZ expression in transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Sharif, K A; Li, C; Gudas, L J

    2001-05-01

    The LAMB1 gene encodes the laminin beta1 subunit of laminin, an extracellular matrix protein. Using several transgenic mouse lines containing various lengths of the LAMB1 promoter driving lacZ reporter gene expression, regions of LAMB1 promoter that contain cis-acting DNA regulatory element(s) have been identified. The 3.9LAMB1betagal transgene is expressed in various tissues during development. LAMB1 transgene expression is observed in a selective set of nephrons of the neonatal and adult kidneys. The cis-acting DNA regulatory elements responsible for LAMB1 transgene expression in ovaries and in juvenile kidneys are present between -'1.4 and -0.7 kb relative to the transcription start site, while those of adult kidneys are located between -2.5 and -1.4 kb. The LAMB1 transgene is also expressed in the epididymis of 1 week old transgenic mice. Mutation of the retinoic acid response element (RARE) in the context of the 3.9LAMB1betagal transgene results in loss of LAMB1 transgene expression in all tissues. Thus, sequences between -2.5 and -0.7 kb plus the RARE are required for appropriate expression of the LAMB1 transgene in mice.

  16. Troponin T3 expression in skeletal and smooth muscle is required for growth and postnatal survival: characterization of Tnnt3(tm2a(KOMP)Wtsi) mice.

    PubMed

    Ju, Yawen; Li, Jie; Xie, Chao; Ritchlin, Christopher T; Xing, Lianping; Hilton, Matthew J; Schwarz, Edward M

    2013-09-01

    The troponin complex, which consists of three regulatory proteins (troponin C, troponin I, and troponin T), is known to regulate muscle contraction in skeletal and cardiac muscle, but its role in smooth muscle remains controversial. Troponin T3 (TnnT3) is a fast skeletal muscle troponin believed to be expressed only in skeletal muscle cells. To determine the in vivo function and tissue-specific expression of Tnnt3, we obtained the heterozygous Tnnt3+/flox/lacZ mice from Knockout Mouse Project (KOMP) Repository. Tnnt3(lacZ/+) mice are smaller than their WT littermates throughout development but do not display any gross phenotypes. Tnnt3(lacZ/lacZ) embryos are smaller than heterozygotes and die shortly after birth. Histology revealed hemorrhagic tissue in Tnnt3(lacZ/lacZ) liver and kidney, which was not present in Tnnt3(lacZ/+) or WT, but no other gross tissue abnormalities. X-gal staining for Tnnt3 promoter-driven lacZ transgene expression revealed positive staining in skeletal muscle and diaphragm and smooth muscle cells located in the aorta, bladder, and bronchus. Collectively, these findings suggest that troponins are expressed in smooth muscle and are required for normal growth and breathing for postnatal survival. Moreover, future studies with this mouse model can explore TnnT3 function in adult muscle function using the conditional-inducible gene deletion approach

  17. MHC Class I Expression by Donor Hematopoietic Stem Cells Is Required to Prevent NK Cell Attack in Allogeneic, but Not Syngeneic Recipient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hirata, Yuichi; Li, Hao-Wei; Takahashi, Kazuko; Ishii, Hiroshi; Sykes, Megan; Fujisaki, Joji

    2015-01-01

    NK cells resist engraftment of syngeneic and allogeneic bone marrow (BM) cells lacking major histocompatibility (MHC) class I molecules, suggesting a critical role for donor MHC class I molecules in preventing NK cell attack against donor hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs), and their derivatives. However, using high-resolution in vivo imaging, we demonstrated here that syngeneic MHC class I knockout (KO) donor HSPCs persist with the same survival frequencies as wild-type donor HSPCs. In contrast, syngeneic MHC class I KO differentiated hematopoietic cells and allogeneic MHC class I KO HSPCs were rejected in a manner that was significantly inhibited by NK cell depletion. In vivo time-lapse imaging demonstrated that mice receiving allogeneic MHC class I KO HSPCs showed a significant increase in NK cell motility and proliferation as well as frequencies of NK cell contact with and killing of HSPCs as compared to mice receiving wild-type HSPCs. The data indicate that donor MHC class I molecules are required to prevent NK cell-mediated rejection of syngeneic differentiated cells and allogeneic HSPCs, but not of syngeneic HSPCs. PMID:26544200

  18. The Calmodulin-Binding Transcription Activator CAMTA1 Is Required for Long-Term Memory Formation in Mice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bas-Orth, Carlos; Tan, Yan-Wei; Oliveira, Ana M. M.; Bengtson, C. Peter; Bading, Hilmar

    2016-01-01

    The formation of long-term memory requires signaling from the synapse to the nucleus to mediate neuronal activity-dependent gene transcription. Synapse-to-nucleus communication is initiated by influx of calcium ions through synaptic NMDA receptors and/or L-type voltage-gated calcium channels and involves the activation of transcription factors by…

  19. Novel PKCη Is Required To Activate Replicative Functions of the Major Nonstructural Protein NS1 of Minute Virus of Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lachmann, Sylvie; Rommeleare, Jean; Nüesch, Jürg P. F.

    2003-01-01

    The multifunctional protein NS1 of minute virus of mice (MVMp) is posttranslationally modified and at least in part regulated by phosphorylation. The atypical lambda isoform of protein kinase C (PKCλ) phosphorylates residues T435 and S473 in vitro and in vivo, leading directly to an activation of NS1 helicase function, but it is insufficient to activate NS1 for rolling circle replication. The present study identifies an additional cellular protein kinase phosphorylating and regulating NS1 activities. We show in vitro that the recombinant novel PKCη phosphorylates NS1 and in consequence is able to activate the viral polypeptide in concert with PKCλ for rolling circle replication. Moreover, this role of PKCη was confirmed in vivo. We thereby created stably transfected A9 mouse fibroblasts, a typical MVMp-permissive host cell line with Flag-tagged constitutively active or inactive PKCη mutants, in order to alter the activity of the NS1 regulating kinase. Indeed, tryptic phosphopeptide analyses of metabolically 32P-labeled NS1 expressed in the presence of a dominant-negative mutant, PKCηDN, showed a lack of distinct NS1 phosphorylation events. This correlates with impaired synthesis of viral DNA replication intermediates, as detected by Southern blotting at the level of the whole cell population and by BrdU incorporation at the single-cell level. Remarkably, MVM infection triggers an accumulation of endogenous PKCη in the nuclear periphery, suggesting that besides being a target for PKCη, parvovirus infections may also affect the regulation of this NS1 regulating kinase. Altogether, our results underline the tight interconnection between PKC-mediated signaling and the parvoviral life cycle. PMID:12829844

  20. The cytohesin guanosine exchange factors (GEFs) are required to promote HGF-mediated renal recovery after acute kidney injury (AKI) in mice.

    PubMed

    Reviriego-Mendoza, Marta M; Santy, Lorraine C

    2015-06-01

    The lack of current treatment and preventable measures for acute kidney injury (AKI) in hospitalized patients results in an increased mortality rate of up to 80% and elevated health costs. Additionally, if not properly repaired, those who survive AKI may develop fibrosis and long-term kidney damage. The molecular aspects of kidney injury and repair are still uncertain. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) promotes recovery of the injured kidney by inducing survival and migration of tubular epithelial cells to repopulate bare tubule areas. HGF-stimulated kidney epithelial cell migration requires the activation of ADP-ribosylation factor 6 (Arf6) and Rac1 via the cytohesin family of Arf-guanine-nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs), in vitro. We used an ischemia and reperfusion injury (IRI) mouse model to analyze the effects of modulating this signaling pathway on kidney recovery. We treated IRI mice with either HGF, the cytohesin inhibitor SecinH3, or a combination of both. As previously reported, HGF treatment promoted rapid improvement of kidney function as evidenced by creatinine (Cre) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels. In contrast, simultaneous treatment with SecinH3 and HGF blocks the ability of HGF to promote kidney recovery. Immunohistochemistry showed that HGF treatment promoted recovery of tubule structure, and had enhanced levels of active, GTP-bound Arf6 and GTP-Rac1. SecinH3 treatment, however, caused a dramatic decrease in GTP-Arf6 and GTP-Rac1 levels when compared to kidney sections from HGF-treated IRI mice. Additionally, SecinH3 counteracted the renal reparative effects of HGF. Our results support the conclusion that cytohesin function is required for HGF-stimulated renal IRI repair.

  1. The mismatched nucleotides in the 5'-terminal hairpin of minute virus of mice are required for efficient viral DNA replication.

    PubMed Central

    Costello, E; Sahli, R; Hirt, B; Beard, P

    1995-01-01

    The 5'-terminal sequence in the DNA of the parvovirus minute virus of mice (MVM) is a palindrome. It can form a hairpin, the stem of which is entirely base-paired except for three consecutive unpaired nucleotides which form a bubble. Since this structure is well conserved among different parvoviruses, we examined its importance for viral replication by generating MVM mutants with alterations in this region. A clone of MVMp DNA which contained the entire 3' end and more than half of the 5' palindrome was made. Although it lacked the sequence information to form a wild-type bubble, this DNA was infectious. On transfection into A9 fibroblasts, it gave rise to a virus (MVMs) which had a bubble in its 5' palindrome. The bubble consisted of four mismatched nucleotides in the same location as the unpaired nucleotides of the wild-type palindrome. Apparently, neighboring plasmid sequences were incorporated into the viral DNA, enabling formation of the mismatch. This observation suggested that a bubble is critical for growth of MVM but that its sequence is not. To find out whether MVM lacking a bubble in the 5' palindrome is viable, we made a second clone in which the plasmid sequences incorporated in MVMs were removed. Transfection of this DNA gave rise to a virus (MVMx) in which the nucleotides unpaired in the wild-type hairpin are now fully base-paired. Although MVMx can be propagated, it is defective in comparison with wild-type MVMp; it exhibited about a 50-fold-lower ratio of plaque-forming units to DNA content. In mixed infections, MVMp consistently outgrew the bubbleless MVMx. The rate of accumulation of DNA replication intermediates was lower for MVMx than for the wild-type virus. Quantitative analysis of the 5' termini of replicative form DNA suggested that the ability of MVMx to convert hairpin 5' termini to extended termini is impaired. In contrast, the virus with the altered bubble, MVMs, behaved like the wild-type MVMp in all the assays. We conclude that MVM

  2. Oscillatory shear stress stimulates endothelial production of O2- from p47phox-dependent NAD(P)H oxidases, leading to monocyte adhesion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwang, Jinah; Saha, Aniket; Boo, Yong Chool; Sorescu, George P.; McNally, J. Scott; Holland, Steven M.; Dikalov, Sergei; Giddens, Don P.; Griendling, Kathy K.; Harrison, David G.; Jo, Hanjoong

    2003-01-01

    Arterial regions exposed to oscillatory shear (OS) in branched arteries are lesion-prone sites of atherosclerosis, whereas those of laminar shear (LS) are relatively well protected. Here, we examined the hypothesis that OS and LS differentially regulate production of O2- from the endothelial NAD(P)H oxidase, which, in turn, is responsible for their opposite effects on a critical atherogenic event, monocyte adhesion. We used aortic endothelial cells obtained from C57BL/6 (MAE-C57) and p47phox-/- (MAE-p47-/-) mice, which lack a component of NAD(P)H oxidase. O2- production was determined by dihydroethidium staining and an electron spin resonance using an electron spin trap methoxycarbonyl-2,2,5,5-tetramethyl-pyrrolidine. Chronic exposure (18 h) to an arterial level of OS (+/- 5 dynes/cm2) increased O2- (2-fold) and monocyte adhesion (3-fold) in MAE-C57 cells, whereas chronic LS (15 dynes/cm2, 18 h) significantly decreased both monocyte adhesion and O2- compared with static conditions. In contrast, neither LS nor OS were able to induce O2- production and monocyte adhesion to MAE-p47-/-. Treating MAE-C57 with a cell-permeable superoxide dismutase compound, polyethylene glycol-superoxide dismutase, also inhibited OS-induced monocyte adhesion. In addition, over-expressing p47phox in MAE-p47-/- restored OS-induced O2- production and monocyte adhesion. These results suggest that chronic exposure of endothelial cells to OS stimulates O2- and/or its derivatives produced from p47phox-dependent NAD(P)H oxidase, which, in turn, leads to monocyte adhesion, an early and critical atherogenic event.

  3. Ascorbate inhibits NADPH oxidase subunit p47phox expression in microvascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Feng; Schuster, David P; Tyml, Karel; Wilson, John X

    2007-01-01

    The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is central to the etiology of endothelial dysfunction in sepsis. Endothelial cells respond to infection by activating NADPH oxidases that are sources of intracellular ROS and potential targets for therapeutic administration of antioxidants. Ascorbate is an antioxidant that accumulates in these cells and improves capillary blood flow, vascular reactivity, arterial blood pressure, and survival in experimental sepsis. Therefore, the present study tested the hypothesis that ascorbate regulates NADPH oxidases in microvascular endothelial cells exposed to septic insult. We observed that incubation with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interferon-gamma (IFNgamma) increased NADPH oxidase activity and expression of the enzyme subunit p47phox in mouse microvascular endothelial cells of skeletal muscle origin. Pretreatment of the cells with ascorbate prevented these increases. Polyethylene glycol-conjugated catalase and selective inhibitors of Jak2 also abrogated induction of p47phox. Exogenous hydrogen peroxide induced p47phox expression that was prevented by pretreatment of the cells with ascorbate. LPS+IFNgamma or hydrogen peroxide activated the Jak2/Stat1/IRF1 pathway and this effect was also inhibited by ascorbate. In conclusion, ascorbate blocks the stimulation by septic insult of redox-sensitive Jak2/Stat1/IRF1 signaling, p47phox expression, and NADPH oxidase activity in microvascular endothelial cells. Because endothelial NADPH oxidases produce ROS that can cause endothelial dysfunction, their inhibition by ascorbate may represent a new strategy for sepsis therapy.

  4. Characterisation of electron currents generated by the human neutrophil NADPH oxidase

    SciTech Connect

    Ahluwalia, Jatinder

    2008-04-11

    Electron transport by the human neutrophil NADPH oxidase is an important microbicidal weapon for phagocytes. The electron current (I{sub e}) generated by the neutrophil NADPH oxidase is poorly characterised due to the lack of appropriate electrophysiological data. In this study, I fully characterise the neutrophil generated I{sub e} when the NADPH oxidase is activated by NADPH and GTP{gamma}S. The neutrophil I{sub e} was markedly voltage-dependent in the entire voltage range in comparison to those electron currents measured after chloride was removed from the external bath solution. The difference in I{sub e} measured in chloride free conditions was not due to a change in the activation kinetics of voltage-gated proton channels. The I{sub e} depolarises the neutrophil plasma membrane at a rate of 2.3 V s{sup -1} and this depolarisation was opposed when voltage-gated proton channels are activated. 3 mM ZnCl{sub 2} depolarised the membrane potential to +97.8 {+-} 2.5 mV (n = 4), and this depolarisation was abolished after NADPH oxidase inhibition.

  5. Effects of NADH kinase on NADPH-dependent biotransformation processes in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Lee, Won-Heong; Kim, Jin-Woo; Park, Eun-Hee; Han, Nam Soo; Kim, Myoung-Dong; Seo, Jin-Ho

    2013-02-01

    Sufficient supply of NADPH is one of the most important factors affecting the productivity of biotransformation processes. In this study, construction of an efficient NADPH-regenerating system was attempted using direct phosphorylation of NADH by NADH kinase (Pos5p) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae for producing guanosine diphosphate (GDP)-L-fucose and ε-caprolactone in recombinant Escherichia coli. Expression of Pos5p in a fed-batch culture of recombinant E. coli producing GDP-L-fucose resulted in a maximum GDP-L-fucose concentration of 291.5 mg/l, which corresponded to a 51 % enhancement compared with the control strain. In a fed-batch Baeyer-Villiger (BV) oxidation of cyclohexanone using recombinant E. coli expressing Pos5p, a maximum ε-caprolactone concentration of 21.6 g/l was obtained, which corresponded to a 96 % enhancement compared with the control strain. Such an increase might be due to the enhanced availability of NADPH in recombinant E. coli expressing Pos5p. These results suggested that efficient regeneration of NADPH was possible by functional expression of Pos5p in recombinant E. coli, which can be applied to other NADPH-dependent biotransformation processes in E. coli.

  6. Dual utilization of NADPH and NADH cofactors enhances xylitol production in engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Jo, Jung-Hyun; Oh, Sun-Young; Lee, Hyeun-Soo; Park, Yong-Cheol; Seo, Jin-Ho

    2015-12-01

    Xylitol, a natural sweetener, can be produced by hydrogenation of xylose in hemicelluloses. In microbial processes, utilization of only NADPH cofactor limited commercialization of xylitol biosynthesis. To overcome this drawback, Saccharomyces cerevisiae D452-2 was engineered to express two types of xylose reductase (XR) with either NADPH-dependence or NADH-preference. Engineered S. cerevisiae DWM expressing both the XRs exhibited higher xylitol productivity than the yeast strain expressing NADPH-dependent XR only (DWW) in both batch and glucose-limited fed-batch cultures. Furthermore, the coexpression of S. cerevisiae ZWF1 and ACS1 genes in the DWM strain increased intracellular concentrations of NADPH and NADH and improved maximum xylitol productivity by 17%, relative to that for the DWM strain. Finally, the optimized fed-batch fermentation of S. cerevisiae DWM-ZWF1-ACS1 resulted in 196.2 g/L xylitol concentration, 4.27 g/L h productivity and almost the theoretical yield. Expression of the two types of XR utilizing both NADPH and NADH is a promising strategy to meet the industrial demands for microbial xylitol production.

  7. NADPH Oxidase as a Therapeutic Target for Oxalate Induced Injury in Kidneys

    PubMed Central

    Peck, Ammon B.; Khan, Saeed R.

    2013-01-01

    A major role of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase family of enzymes is to catalyze the production of superoxides and other reactive oxygen species (ROS). These ROS, in turn, play a key role as messengers in cell signal transduction and cell cycling, but when they are produced in excess they can lead to oxidative stress (OS). Oxidative stress in the kidneys is now considered a major cause of renal injury and inflammation, giving rise to a variety of pathological disorders. In this review, we discuss the putative role of oxalate in producing oxidative stress via the production of reactive oxygen species by isoforms of NADPH oxidases expressed in different cellular locations of the kidneys. Most renal cells produce ROS, and recent data indicate a direct correlation between upregulated gene expressions of NADPH oxidase, ROS, and inflammation. Renal tissue expression of multiple NADPH oxidase isoforms most likely will impact the future use of different antioxidants and NADPH oxidase inhibitors to minimize OS and renal tissue injury in hyperoxaluria-induced kidney stone disease. PMID:23840917

  8. Morphometric analysis of NADPH diaphorase reactive neurons in a rat model of focal excitotoxic striatal injury.

    PubMed

    Freire, Marco Aurelio M; Guimaraes, Joanilson S; Santos, Jose Ronaldo; Simplício, Hougelle; Gomes-Leal, Walace

    2016-12-01

    Excitotoxicity is the major component in neuropathological conditions, related to harmful action of imbalanced concentrations of glutamate and its agonists in the nervous tissue, ultimately resulting in cell death. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of an acute striatal lesion induced by a focal N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) microinjection on the morphometry of NADPH diaphorase-reactive neurons (NADPH-d(+) ), a subset of cells which release nitric oxide (NO) in the brain and are known by its resistance in pathological conditions. Two hundred and forty NADPH-d neurons from NMDA-lesioned striatum and contralateral counterpart were tridimensionally reconstructed at 1, 3 and 7 post-lesion days (PLDs). Cell body and dendritic field areas, length of dendrites by order and fractal dimension were analyzed. There were no significant morphometric differences when NADPH-d(+) neurons from lesioned and control striatal regions were compared among PLDs evaluated. Conversely, a conspicuous pallor in striatal neuropil reactivity was evidenced, especially in latter survival time. In addition, we observed a noticeable inflammatory response induced by NMDA. Our results suggest that NADPH-d(+) neurons were spared from deleterious effects of acute NMDA excitotoxic damage in the striatum, reinforcing the notion that this cell group is selectively resistant to injury in the nervous system.

  9. ROS-inhibitory activity of YopE is required for full virulence of Yersinia in mice

    PubMed Central

    Songsungthong, Warangkhana; Higgins, Mary C.; Rolán, Hortensia G.; Murphy, Julia L.; Mecsas, Joan

    2010-01-01

    Summary YopE, a type III secreted effector of Yersinia, is a GTPase Activating Protein for Rac1 and RhoA whose catalytic activity is critical for virulence. We found that YopE also inhibited reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and inactivated Rac2. How YopE distinguishes among its targets and which specific targets are critical for Yersinia survival in different tissues are unknown. A screen identifying YopE mutants in Yersinia pseudotuberculosis that interact with different Rho GTPases showed that YopE residues at positions 102, 106, 109, and 156 discern among switch I and II regions of Rac1, Rac2, and RhoA. Two mutants, which expressed YopE alleles with different antiphagocytic, ROS-inhibitory, and cell-rounding activities, YptbL109A and YptbESptP, were studied in animal infections. Inhibition of both phagocytosis and ROS production were required for splenic colonization, whereas fewer YopE activities were required for Peyer's patch colonization. This study shows that Y. pseudotuberculosis encounters multiple host defenses in different tissues and uses distinct YopE activities to disable them. PMID:20148901

  10. Persistence of the bacterial pathogen Granulibacter bethesdensis in chronic granulomatous disease monocytes and macrophages lacking a functional NADPH oxidase.

    PubMed

    Chu, Jessica; Song, Helen H; Zarember, Kol A; Mills, Teresa A; Gallin, John I

    2013-09-15

    Granulibacter bethesdensis is a Gram-negative pathogen in patients with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD), a deficiency in the phagocyte NADPH oxidase. Repeated isolation of genetically identical strains from the same patient over years, and prolonged waxing and waning seropositivity in some subjects, raises the possibility of long-term persistence. G. bethesdensis resists killing by serum, CGD polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN), and antimicrobial peptides, indicating resistance to nonoxidative killing mechanisms. Although G. bethesdensis extends the survival of PMN, persistent intracellular bacterial survival might rely on longer-lived macrophages and their precursor monocytes. Therefore, we examined phagocytic killing by primary human monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM). Cells from both normal and CGD subjects internalized G. bethesdensis similarly. G. bethesdensis stimulated superoxide production in normal monocytes, but to a lesser degree than in normal PMN. Normal but not CGD monocytes and MDM killed G. bethesdensis and required in vitro treatment with IFN-γ to maintain this killing effect. Although in vitro IFN-γ did not enhance G. bethesdensis killing in CGD monocytes, it restricted growth in proportion to CGD PMN residual superoxide production, providing a potential method to identify patients responsive to IFN-γ therapy. In IFN-γ-treated CGD MDM, G. bethesdensis persisted for the duration of the study (7 d) without decreasing viability of the host cells. These results indicate that G. bethesdensis is highly resistant to oxygen-independent microbicides of myeloid cells, requires an intact NADPH oxidase for clearance, and can persist long-term in CGD mononuclear phagocytes, most likely relating to the persistence of this microorganism in infected CGD patients.

  11. Persistence of the bacterial pathogen Granulibacter bethesdensis in Chronic Granulomatous Disease monocytes and macrophages lacking a functional NADPH oxidase1

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Jessica; Song, Helen H.; Zarember, Kol A.; Mills, Teresa A.; Gallin, John I.

    2013-01-01

    Granulibacter bethesdensis is a Gram-negative pathogen in patients with Chronic Granulomatous Disease (CGD), a deficiency in the phagocyte NADPH oxidase. Repeated isolation of genetically identical strains from the same patient over years, and prolonged waxing and waning seropositivity in some subjects, raises the possibility of long-term persistence. G. bethesdensis resists killing by serum, CGD polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN), and antimicrobial peptides, indicating resistance to non-oxidative killing mechanisms. While G. bethesdensis extends the survival of PMN, persistent intracellular bacterial survival might rely on longer-lived macrophages and their precursor monocytes. Therefore, we examined phagocytic killing by primary human monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM). Cells from both normal and CGD subjects internalized G. bethesdensis similarly. G. bethesdensis stimulated superoxide production in normal monocytes, but to a lesser degree than in normal PMN. Normal but not CGD monocytes and MDM killed G. bethesdensis and required in vitro treatment with interferon-γ (IFN-γ) to maintain this killing effect. Although in vitro IFN-γ did not enhance G. bethesdensis killing in CGD monocytes, it restricted growth in proportion to CGD PMN residual superoxide production, providing a potential method to identify patients responsive to IFN-γ therapy. In IFN-γ-treated CGD MDM, G. bethesdensis persisted for the duration of the study (7 days) without decreasing viability of the host cells. These results indicate that G. bethesdensis is highly resistant to oxygen-independent microbicides of myeloid cells, requires an intact NADPH oxidase for clearance, and can persist long-term in CGD mononuclear phagocytes, likely relating to the persistence of this microorganism in infected CGD patients. PMID:23956436

  12. Activated barrier crossing dynamics in the non-radiative decay of NADH and NADPH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blacker, Thomas S.; Marsh, Richard J.; Duchen, Michael R.; Bain, Angus J.

    2013-08-01

    In live tissue, alterations in metabolism induce changes in the fluorescence decay of the biological coenzyme NAD(P)H, the mechanism of which is not well understood. In this work, the fluorescence and anisotropy decay dynamics of NADH and NADPH were investigated as a function of viscosity in a range of water-glycerol solutions. The viscosity dependence of the non-radiative decay is well described by Kramers and Kramers-Hubbard models of activated barrier crossing over a wide viscosity range. Our combined lifetime and anisotropy analysis indicates common mechanisms of non-radiative relaxation in the two emitting states (conformations) of both molecules. The low frequencies associated with barrier crossing suggest that non-radiative decay is mediated by small scale motion (e.g. puckering) of the nicotinamide ring. Variations in the fluorescence lifetimes of NADH and NADPH when bound to different enzymes may therefore be attributed to differing levels of conformational restriction upon binding.

  13. Autophagy protein Rubicon mediates phagocytic NADPH oxidase activation in response to microbial infection or TLR stimulation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chul-Su; Lee, Jong-Soo; Rodgers, Mary; Min, Chan-Ki; Lee, June-Yong; Kim, Hee Jin; Lee, Kwang-Hoon; Kim, Chul-Joong; Oh, Byungha; Zandi, Ebrahim; Yue, Zhenyu; Kramnik, Igor; Liang, Chengyu; Jung, Jae U

    2012-03-15

    Phagocytosis and autophagy are two important and related arms of the host's first-line defense against microbial invasion. Rubicon is a RUN domain containing cysteine-rich protein that functions as part of a Beclin-1-Vps34-containing autophagy complex. We report that Rubicon is also an essential, positive regulator of the NADPH oxidase complex. Upon microbial infection or Toll-like-receptor 2 (TLR2) activation, Rubicon interacts with the p22phox subunit of the NADPH oxidase complex, facilitating its phagosomal trafficking to induce a burst of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inflammatory cytokines. Consequently, ectopic expression or depletion of Rubicon profoundly affected ROS, inflammatory cytokine production, and subsequent antimicrobial activity. Rubicon's actions in autophagy and in the NADPH oxidase complex are functionally and genetically separable, indicating that Rubicon functions in two ancient innate immune machineries, autophagy and phagocytosis, depending on the environmental stimulus. Rubicon may thus be pivotal to generating an optimal intracellular immune response against microbial infection.

  14. General approach to reversing ketol-acid reductoisomerase cofactor dependence from NADPH to NADH

    SciTech Connect

    Brinkmann-Chen, Sabine; Flock, Tilman; Cahn, Jackson K. B.; Snow, Christopher D.; Brustad, Eric M.; McIntosh, John A.; Meinhold, Peter; Zhang, Liang; Arnold, Frances H.

    2013-06-17

    To date, efforts to switch the cofactor specificity of oxidoreductases from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) to nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) have been made on a case-by-case basis with varying degrees of success. Here we present a straightforward recipe for altering the cofactor specificity of a class of NADPH-dependent oxidoreductases, the ketol-acid reductoisomerases (KARIs). Combining previous results for an engineered NADH-dependent variant of Escherichia coli KARI with available KARI crystal structures and a comprehensive KARI-sequence alignment, we identified key cofactor specificity determinants and used this information to construct five KARIs with reversed cofactor preference. Additional directed evolution generated two enzymes having NADH-dependent catalytic efficiencies that are greater than the wild-type enzymes with NADPH. As a result, high-resolution structures of a wild-type/variant pair reveal the molecular basis of the cofactor switch.

  15. General approach to reversing ketol-acid reductoisomerase cofactor dependence from NADPH to NADH

    DOE PAGES

    Brinkmann-Chen, Sabine; Flock, Tilman; Cahn, Jackson K. B.; ...

    2013-06-17

    To date, efforts to switch the cofactor specificity of oxidoreductases from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) to nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) have been made on a case-by-case basis with varying degrees of success. Here we present a straightforward recipe for altering the cofactor specificity of a class of NADPH-dependent oxidoreductases, the ketol-acid reductoisomerases (KARIs). Combining previous results for an engineered NADH-dependent variant of Escherichia coli KARI with available KARI crystal structures and a comprehensive KARI-sequence alignment, we identified key cofactor specificity determinants and used this information to construct five KARIs with reversed cofactor preference. Additional directed evolution generated two enzymesmore » having NADH-dependent catalytic efficiencies that are greater than the wild-type enzymes with NADPH. As a result, high-resolution structures of a wild-type/variant pair reveal the molecular basis of the cofactor switch.« less

  16. Structure of Hordeum vulgare NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase 2. Unwinding the reaction mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkensgaard, Kristine G.; Hägglund, Per; Finnie, Christine; Svensson, Birte; Henriksen, Anette

    2009-09-01

    The first crystal structure of a cereal NTR, a protein involved in seed development and germination, has been determined. The structure is in a conformation that excludes NADPH binding and indicates that a domain reorientation facilitated by Trx binding precedes NADPH binding in the reaction mechanism. Thioredoxins (Trxs) are protein disulfide reductases that regulate the intracellular redox environment and are important for seed germination in plants. Trxs are in turn regulated by NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductases (NTRs), which provide reducing equivalents to Trx using NADPH to recycle Trxs to the active form. Here, the first crystal structure of a cereal NTR, HvNTR2 from Hordeum vulgare (barley), is presented, which is also the first structure of a monocot plant NTR. The structure was determined at 2.6 Å resolution and refined to an R{sub cryst} of 19.0% and an R{sub free} of 23.8%. The dimeric protein is structurally similar to the structures of AtNTR-B from Arabidopsis thaliana and other known low-molecular-weight NTRs. However, the relative position of the two NTR cofactor-binding domains, the FAD and the NADPH domains, is not the same. The NADPH domain is rotated by 25° and bent by a 38% closure relative to the FAD domain in comparison with AtNTR-B. The structure may represent an intermediate between the two conformations described previously: the flavin-oxidizing (FO) and the flavin-reducing (FR) conformations. Here, analysis of interdomain contacts as well as phylogenetic studies lead to the proposal of a new reaction scheme in which NTR–Trx interactions mediate the FO to FR transformation.

  17. NADPH oxidases, reactive oxygen species, and hypertension: clinical implications and therapeutic possibilities.

    PubMed

    Paravicini, Tamara M; Touyz, Rhian M

    2008-02-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) influence many physiological processes including host defense, hormone biosynthesis, fertilization, and cellular signaling. Increased ROS production (termed "oxidative stress") has been implicated in various pathologies, including hypertension, atherosclerosis, diabetes, and chronic kidney disease. A major source for vascular and renal ROS is a family of nonphagocytic NAD(P)H oxidases, including the prototypic Nox2 homolog-based NAD(P)H oxidase, as well as other NAD(P)H oxidases, such as Nox1 and Nox4. Other possible sources include mitochondrial electron transport enzymes, xanthine oxidase, cyclooxygenase, lipoxygenase, and uncoupled nitric oxide synthase. NAD(P)H oxidase-derived ROS plays a physiological role in the regulation of endothelial function and vascular tone and a pathophysiological role in endothelial dysfunction, inflammation, hypertrophy, apoptosis, migration, fibrosis, angiogenesis, and rarefaction, important processes underlying cardiovascular and renal remodeling in hypertension and diabetes. These findings have evoked considerable interest because of the possibilities that therapies against nonphagocytic NAD(P)H oxidase to decrease ROS generation and/or strategies to increase nitric oxide (NO) availability and antioxidants may be useful in minimizing vascular injury and renal dysfunction and thereby prevent or regress target organ damage associated with hypertension and diabetes. Here we highlight current developments in the field of reactive oxygen species and cardiovascular disease, focusing specifically on the recently identified novel Nox family of NAD(P)H oxidases in hypertension. We also discuss the potential role of targeting ROS as a therapeutic possibility in the management of hypertension and cardiovascular disease.

  18. [Increasing reductant NADPH content via metabolic engineering of PHB synthesis pathway in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803].

    PubMed

    Xie, Juan; Zhou, Jie; Zhang, Haifeng; Li, Yin

    2011-07-01

    Cyanobacteria have become attractive hosts for renewable chemicals production. The low productivity, however, prevents it from industrial application. Reductant NAD(P)H availability is a chief hurdle for the production of reductive metabolites in microbes. To increase NADPH content in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, PHB synthase encoding gene phaC and phaE in Synechocystis was inactivated by replacing phaC&E genes with chloromycetin resistance cassette via homologous recombination. PCR analysis showed that mutant S.delta phaC&E with complete genome segregation was generated. The comparison between growth curves of S.wt and S.delta phaC&E indicated the knockout of phaC & phaE genes did not affect obviously the cell growth. Gas chromatography analysis showed that the accumulation of PHB in wild type was about 2.3% of the dry cell weight, whereas no PHB was detected in the mutant S.delta phaC&E. The data indicated that inactivation of PHB synthase gene phaC and phaE interrupted the synthesis of PHB. Further comparative study of wild type and mutant demonstrated that NADPH content in S.delta phaC&E was obviously increased. On the third day, the NADPH content in S.delta phaC&E was up to 1.85 fold higher than that in wild type. These results indicated that deleting PHB synthase gene phaC and phaE not only can block the synthesis of PHB, but also can save NADPH to contribute reductant sink in cyanobacteria. Hence, the engineered cyanobacterial strain S.delta phaC&E, in which carbon flux was redirected and NADPH was increased, will be a potential host strain for chemicals production in cyanobacteria.

  19. NADPH-dependent reductive biotransformation with Escherichia coli and its pfkA deletion mutant: influence on global gene expression and role of oxygen supply.

    PubMed

    Siedler, Solvej; Bringer, Stephanie; Polen, Tino; Bott, Michael

    2014-10-01

    An Escherichia coli ΔpfkA mutant lacking the major phosphofructokinase possesses a partially cyclized pentose phosphate pathway leading to an increased NADPH per glucose ratio. This effect decreases the amount of glucose required for NADPH regeneration in reductive biotransformations, such as the conversion of methyl acetoacetate (MAA) to (R)-methyl 3-hydroxybutyrate (MHB) by an alcohol dehydrogenase from Lactobacillus brevis. Here, global transcriptional analyses were performed to study regulatory responses during reductive biotransformation. DNA microarray analysis revealed amongst other things increased expression of soxS, supporting previous results indicating that a high NADPH demand contributes to the activation of SoxR, the transcriptional activator of soxS. Furthermore, several target genes of the ArcAB two-component system showed a lower mRNA level in the reference strain than in the ΔpfkA mutant, pointing to an increased QH2 /Q ratio in the reference strain. This prompted us to analyze yields and productivities of MAA reduction to MHB under different oxygen regimes in a bioreactor. Under anaerobic conditions, the specific MHB production rates of both strains were comparable (7.4 ± 0.2 mmolMHB  h(-1)  gcdw (-1) ) and lower than under conditions of 15% dissolved oxygen, where those of the reference strain (12.8 mmol h(-1)  gcdw (-1) ) and of the ΔpfkA mutant (11.0 mmol h(-1)  gcdw (-1) ) were 73% and 49% higher. While the oxygen transfer rate (OTR) of the reference strain increased after the addition of MAA, presumably due to the oxidation of the acetate accumulated before MAA addition, the OTR of the ΔpfkA strain strongly decreased, indicating a very low respiration rate despite sufficient oxygen supply. The latter effect can likely be attributed to a restricted conversion of NADPH into NADH via the soluble transhydrogenase SthA, as the enzyme is outcompeted in the presence of MAA by the recombinant NADPH-dependent alcohol

  20. Role of NADPH Oxidase in Metabolic Disease-Related Renal Injury: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Su, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome has been linked to an increased risk of chronic kidney disease. The underlying pathogenesis of metabolic disease-related renal injury remains obscure. Accumulating evidence has shown that NADPH oxidase is a major source of intrarenal oxidative stress and is upregulated by metabolic factors leading to overproduction of ROS in podocytes, endothelial cells, and mesangial cells in glomeruli, which is closely associated with the initiation and progression of glomerular diseases. This review focuses on the role of NADPH oxidase-induced oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of metabolic disease-related renal injury. Understanding of the mechanism may help find potential therapeutic strategies. PMID:27597884

  1. Great vessel development requires biallelic expression of Chd7 and Tbx1 in pharyngeal ectoderm in mice

    PubMed Central

    Randall, Victoria; McCue, Karen; Roberts, Catherine; Kyriakopoulou, Vanessa; Beddow, Sarah; Barrett, Angela N.; Vitelli, Francesca; Prescott, Katrina; Shaw-Smith, Charles; Devriendt, Koen; Bosman, Erika; Steffes, Georg; Steel, Karen P.; Simrick, Subreena; Basson, M. Albert; Illingworth, Elizabeth; Scambler, Peter J.

    2009-01-01

    Aortic arch artery patterning defects account for approximately 20% of congenital cardiovascular malformations and are observed frequently in velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS). In the current study, we screened for chromosome rearrangements in patients suspected of VCFS, but who lacked a 22q11 deletion or TBX1 mutation. One individual displayed hemizygous CHD7, which encodes a chromodomain protein. CHD7 haploinsufficiency is the major cause of coloboma, heart defect, atresia choanae, retarded growth and development, genital hypoplasia, and ear anomalies/deafness (CHARGE) syndrome, but this patient lacked the major diagnostic features of coloboma and choanal atresia. Because a subset of CHARGE cases also display 22q11 deletions, we explored the embryological relationship between CHARGE and VCSF using mouse models. The hallmark of Tbx1 haploinsufficiency is hypo/aplasia of the fourth pharyngeal arch artery (PAA) at E10.5. Identical malformations were observed in Chd7 heterozygotes, with resulting aortic arch interruption at later stages. Other than Tbx1, Chd7 is the only gene reported to affect fourth PAA development by haploinsufficiency. Moreover, Tbx1+/–;Chd7+/– double heterozygotes demonstrated a synergistic interaction during fourth PAA, thymus, and ear morphogenesis. We could not rescue PAA morphogenesis by restoring neural crest Chd7 expression. Rather, biallelic expression of Chd7 and Tbx1 in the pharyngeal ectoderm was required for normal PAA development. PMID:19855134

  2. Atoh1-dependent rhombic lip neurons are required for temporal delay between independent respiratory oscillators in embryonic mice

    PubMed Central

    Tupal, Srinivasan; Huang, Wei-Hsiang; Picardo, Maria Cristina D; Ling, Guang-Yi; Del Negro, Christopher A; Zoghbi, Huda Y; Gray, Paul A

    2014-01-01

    All motor behaviors require precise temporal coordination of different muscle groups. Breathing, for example, involves the sequential activation of numerous muscles hypothesized to be driven by a primary respiratory oscillator, the preBötzinger Complex, and at least one other as-yet unidentified rhythmogenic population. We tested the roles of Atoh1-, Phox2b-, and Dbx1-derived neurons (three groups that have known roles in respiration) in the generation and coordination of respiratory output. We found that Dbx1-derived neurons are necessary for all respiratory behaviors, whereas independent but coupled respiratory rhythms persist from at least three different motor pools after eliminating or silencing Phox2b- or Atoh1-expressing hindbrain neurons. Without Atoh1 neurons, however, the motor pools become temporally disorganized and coupling between independent respiratory oscillators decreases. We propose Atoh1 neurons tune the sequential activation of independent oscillators essential for the fine control of different muscles during breathing. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02265.001 PMID:24842997

  3. MDSC and TGFβ Are Required for Facilitation of Tumor Growth in the Lungs of Mice Exposed to Carbon Nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Shvedova, Anna A; Kisin, Elena R; Yanamala, Naveena; Tkach, Alexey V; Gutkin, Dmitriy W; Star, Alexander; Shurin, Galina V; Kagan, Valerian E; Shurin, Michael R

    2015-04-15

    During the last decades, changes have been observed in the frequency of different histologic subtypes of lung cancer, one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality, with a declining proportion of squamous cell carcinomas and an increasing proportion of adenocarcinomas, particularly in developed countries. This suggests the emergence of new etiologic factors and mechanisms, including those defining the lung microenvironment, promoting tumor growth. Assuming that the lung is the main portal of entry for broadly used nanomaterials and their established proinflammatory propensities, we hypothesized that nanomaterials may contribute to changes facilitating tumor growth. Here, we report that an acute exposure to single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) induces recruitment and accumulation of lung-associated myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) and MDSC-derived production of TGFβ, resulting in upregulated tumor burden in the lung. The production of TGFβ by MDSC requires their interaction with both SWCNT and tumor cells. We conclude that pulmonary exposure to SWCNT favors the formation of a niche that supports ingrowth of lung carcinoma in vivo via activation of TGFβ production by SWCNT-attracted and -presensitized MDSC.

  4. Role of Ser-257 in the sliding mechanism of NADP(H) in the reaction catalyzed by the Aspergillus fumigatus flavin-dependent ornithine N5-monooxygenase SidA.

    PubMed

    Shirey, Carolyn; Badieyan, Somayesadat; Sobrado, Pablo

    2013-11-08

    SidA (siderophore A) is a flavin-dependent N-hydroxylating monooxygenase that is essential for virulence in Aspergillus fumigatus. SidA catalyzes the NADPH- and oxygen-dependent formation of N(5)-hydroxyornithine. In this reaction, NADPH reduces the flavin, and the resulting NADP(+) is the last product to be released. The presence of NADP(+) is essential for activity, as it is required for stabilization of the C4a-hydroperoxyflavin, which is the hydroxylating species. As part of our efforts to determine the molecular details of the role of NADP(H) in catalysis, we targeted Ser-257 for site-directed mutagenesis and performed extensive characterization of the S257A enzyme. Using a combination of steady-state and stopped-flow kinetic experiments, substrate analogs, and primary kinetic isotope effects, we show that the interaction between Ser-257 and NADP(H) is essential for stabilization of the C4a-hydroperoxyflavin. Molecular dynamics simulation results suggest that Ser-257 functions as a pivot point, allowing the nicotinamide of NADP(+) to slide into position for stabilization of the C4a-hydroperoxyflavin.

  5. Alanine racemase mutants of Mycobacterium tuberculosis require D-alanine for growth and are defective for survival in macrophages and mice.

    PubMed

    Awasthy, Disha; Bharath, Sowmya; Subbulakshmi, Venkita; Sharma, Umender

    2012-02-01

    Alanine racemase (Alr) is an essential enzyme in most bacteria; however, some species (e.g. Listeria monocytogenes) can utilize d-amino acid transaminase (Dat) to generate d-alanine, which renders Alr non-essential. In addition to the conflicting reports on gene knockout of alr in Mycobacterium smegmatis, a recent study concluded that depletion of Alr does not affect the growth of M. smegmatis. In order to get an unambiguous answer on the essentiality of Alr in Mycobacterium tuberculosis and validate it as a drug target in vitro and in vivo, we have inactivated the alr gene of M. tuberculosis and found that it was not possible to generate an alr knockout in the absence of a complementing gene copy or d-alanine in the growth medium. The growth kinetics of the alr mutant revealed that M. tuberculosis requires very low amounts of d-alanine (5-10 µg ml(-1)) for optimum growth. Survival kinetics of the mutant in the absence of d-alanine indicated that depletion of this amino acid results in rapid loss of viability. The alr mutant was found to be defective for growth in macrophages. Analysis of phenotype in mice suggested that non-availability of d-alanine in mice leads to clearance of bacteria followed by stabilization of bacterial number in lungs and spleen. Additionally, reversal of d-cycloserine inhibition in the presence of d-alanine in M. tuberculosis suggested that Alr is the primary target of d-cycloserine. Thus, Alr of M. tuberculosis is a valid drug target and inhibition of Alr alone should result in loss of viability in vitro and in vivo.

  6. The vitamin D receptor is not required for fetal mineral homeostasis or for the regulation of placental calcium transfer in mice.

    PubMed

    Kovacs, Christopher S; Woodland, Mandy L; Fudge, Neva J; Friel, James K

    2005-07-01

    We utilized a vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene knockout model to study the effects of maternal and fetal absence of VDR on maternal fertility, fetal-placental calcium transfer, and fetal mineral homoeostasis. Vdr null mice were profoundly hypocalcemic, conceived infrequently, and had significantly fewer viable fetuses in utero that were also of lower body weight. Supplementation of a calcium-enriched diet increased the rate of conception in Vdr nulls but did not normalize the number or weight of viable fetuses. Among offspring of heterozygous (Vdr(+/-)) mothers (wild type, Vdr(+/-), and Vdr null fetuses), there was no alteration in serum Ca, P, or Mg, parathyroid hormone, placental (45)Ca transfer, Ca and Mg content of the fetal skeleton, and morphology and gene expression in the fetal growth plates. Vdr null fetuses did have threefold increased 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels accompanied by increased 1alpha-hydroxylase mRNA in kidney but not placenta; a small increase was also noted in placental expression of parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP). Among offspring of Vdr null mothers, Vdr(+/-) and Vdr null fetuses had normal ionized calcium levels and a skeletal ash weight that was appropriate to the lower body weight. Thus our findings indicate that VDR is not required by fetal mice to regulate placental calcium transfer, circulating mineral levels, and skeletal mineralization. Absence of maternal VDR has global effects on fetal growth that were partly dependent on maternal calcium intake, but absence of maternal VDR did not specifically affect fetal mineral homeostasis.

  7. Tobacco Nectaries Express a Novel NADPH Oxidase Implicated in the Defense of Floral Reproductive Tissues against Microorganisms1[OA

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Clay; Healy, Rosanne; O'Tool, Nicole M.; Naqvi, S.M. Saqlan; Ren, Gang; Park, Sanggyu; Beattie, Gwyn A.; Horner, Harry T.; Thornburg, Robert W.

    2007-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide produced from the nectar redox cycle was shown to be a major factor contributing to inhibition of most microbial growth in floral nectar; however, this obstacle can be overcome by the floral pathogen Erwinia amylovora. To identify the source of superoxide that leads to hydrogen peroxide accumulation in nectary tissues, nectaries were stained with nitroblue tetrazolium. Superoxide production was localized near nectary pores and inhibited by diphenylene iodonium but not by cyanide or azide, suggesting that NAD(P)H oxidase is the source of superoxide. Native PAGE assays demonstrated that NADPH (not NADH) was capable of driving the production of superoxide, diphenyleneiodonium chloride was an efficient inhibitor of this activity, but cyanide and azide did not inhibit. These results confirm that the production of superoxide was due to an NADPH oxidase. The nectary enzyme complex was distinct by migration on gels from the leaf enzyme complex. Temporal expression patterns demonstrated that the superoxide production (NADPH oxidase activity) was coordinated with nectar secretion, the expression of Nectarin I (a superoxide dismutase in nectar), and the expression of NOX1, a putative gene for a nectary NADPH oxidase that was cloned from nectaries and identified as an rbohD-like NADPH oxidase. Further, in situ hybridization studies indicated that the NADPH oxidase was expressed in the early stages of flower development although superoxide was generated at later stages (after Stage 10), implicating posttranslational regulation of the NADPH oxidase in the nectary. PMID:17114277

  8. Tobacco nectaries express a novel NADPH oxidase implicated in the defense of floral reproductive tissues against microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Carter, Clay; Healy, Rosanne; O'Tool, Nicole M; Naqvi, S M Saqlan; Ren, Gang; Park, Sanggyu; Beattie, Gwyn A; Horner, Harry T; Thornburg, Robert W

    2007-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide produced from the nectar redox cycle was shown to be a major factor contributing to inhibition of most microbial growth in floral nectar; however, this obstacle can be overcome by the floral pathogen Erwinia amylovora. To identify the source of superoxide that leads to hydrogen peroxide accumulation in nectary tissues, nectaries were stained with nitroblue tetrazolium. Superoxide production was localized near nectary pores and inhibited by diphenylene iodonium but not by cyanide or azide, suggesting that NAD(P)H oxidase is the source of superoxide. Native PAGE assays demonstrated that NADPH (not NADH) was capable of driving the production of superoxide, diphenyleneiodonium chloride was an efficient inhibitor of this activity, but cyanide and azide did not inhibit. These results confirm that the production of superoxide was due to an NADPH oxidase. The nectary enzyme complex was distinct by migration on gels from the leaf enzyme complex. Temporal expression patterns demonstrated that the superoxide production (NADPH oxidase activity) was coordinated with nectar secretion, the expression of Nectarin I (a superoxide dismutase in nectar), and the expression of NOX1, a putative gene for a nectary NADPH oxidase that was cloned from nectaries and identified as an rbohD-like NADPH oxidase. Further, in situ hybridization studies indicated that the NADPH oxidase was expressed in the early stages of flower development although superoxide was generated at later stages (after Stage 10), implicating posttranslational regulation of the NADPH oxidase in the nectary.

  9. Identification of structural determinants of NAD(P)H selectivity and lysine binding in lysine N(6)-monooxygenase.

    PubMed

    Abdelwahab, Heba; Robinson, Reeder; Rodriguez, Pedro; Adly, Camelia; El-Sohaimy, Sohby; Sobrado, Pablo

    2016-09-15

    l-lysine (l-Lys) N(6)-monooxygenase (NbtG), from Nocardia farcinica, is a flavin-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the hydroxylation of l-Lys in the presence of oxygen and NAD(P)H in the biosynthetic pathway of the siderophore nocobactin. NbtG displays only a 3-fold preference for NADPH over NADH, different from well-characterized related enzymes, which are highly selective for NADPH. The structure of NbtG with bound NAD(P)(+) or l-Lys is currently not available. Herein, we present a mutagenesis study targeting M239, R301, and E216. These amino acids are conserved and located in either the NAD(P)H binding domain or the l-Lys binding pocket. M239R resulted in high production of hydrogen peroxide and little hydroxylation with no change in coenzyme selectivity. R301A caused a 300-fold decrease on kcat/Km value with NADPH but no change with NADH. E216Q increased the Km value for l-Lys by 30-fold with very little change on the kcat value or in the binding of NAD(P)H. These results suggest that R301 plays a major role in NADPH selectivity by interacting with the 2'-phosphate of the adenine-ribose moiety of NADPH, while E216 plays a role in l-Lys binding.

  10. NADPH oxidases as electrochemical generators to produce ion fluxes and turgor in fungi, plants and humans

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The NOXs are a family of flavocytochromes whose basic structure has been largely conserved from algae to man. This is a very simple system. NADPH is generally available, in plants it is a direct product of photosynthesis, and oxygen is a largely ubiquitous electron acceptor, and the electron-transporting core of an FAD and two haems is the minimal required to pass electrons across the plasma membrane. These NOXs have been shown to be essential for diverse functions throughout the biological world and, lacking a clear mechanism of action, their effects have generally been attributed to free radical reactions. Investigation into the function of neutrophil leucocytes has demonstrated that electron transport through the prototype NOX2 is accompanied by the generation of a charge across the membrane that provides the driving force propelling protons and other ions across the plasma membrane. The contention is that the primary function of the NOXs is to supply the driving force to transport ions, the nature of which will depend upon the composition and characteristics of the local ion channels, to undertake a host of diverse functions. These include the generation of turgor in fungi and plants for the growth of filaments and invasion by appressoria in the former, and extension of pollen tubes and root hairs, and stomatal closure, in the latter. In neutrophils, they elevate the pH in the phagocytic vacuole coupled to other ion fluxes. In endothelial cells of blood vessels, they could alter luminal volume to regulate blood pressure and tissue perfusion. PMID:27249799

  11. The NADPH oxidase inhibitor imipramine-blue in the treatment of Burkitt lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Klingenberg, Marcel; Becker, Jürgen; Eberth, Sonja; Kube, Dieter; Wilting, Jörg

    2014-04-01

    Burkitt lymphoma is a rare malignancy arising from B cells. Current chemotherapeutic regimens achieve excellent overall survival rates in children, but less impressive rates in adults. There are cases with poor outcome caused by toxic effects of the therapy, tumor lysis syndrome, or metastatic spread of lymphomas to the central nervous system. Modulators of reactive oxygen species are currently discussed as potential drugs for the treatment of cancer. The NADPH oxidase 4 inhibitor imipramine-blue might satisfy the aforementioned requirements, and was studied here. We used MTT assay, crystal violet assay, and thymidine 3H-incorporation assay to analyze the effects of imipramine-blue on Burkitt lymphoma (BL2, BL2B95, BL30B95, BL41B95), neuroblastoma (KELLY, SH-SY5Y, SMS-KAN), cervix carcinoma (HeLa), breast cancer (MDA-MB231), angiosarcoma (AS-M), human embryonic kidney (HEK293WT), and nonmalignant (FLP1) cell lines. The effects of imipramine-blue on BL2B95 cells in vivo were investigated in xenografts on the chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM). We report that imipramine-blue is a potent growth inhibitor for several cancer cell lines in vitro with IC(50) values comparable to those of doxorubicin (0.16-7.7 μmol/L). Tumor size of BL2B95 cells inoculated in the CAM was reduced significantly (P < 0.05) after treatment with 10 μmol/L imipramine-blue. Lymphogenic dissemination of BL2B95 and the formation of blood and lymphatic vessels in experimental tumors were not affected. We show that imipramine-blue can be used to decrease the viability of cancer cell lines in vitro and in vivo. Imipramine-blue reduces the size of experimental Burkitt lymphoma significantly but does not affect the dissemination of BL2B95 cells, angiogenesis, and lymphangiogenesis.

  12. Rotenone Activates Phagocyte NADPH Oxidase through Binding to Its Membrane Subunit gp91phox

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Hui; Zhang, Feng; Chen, Shih-heng; Zhang, Dan; Wilson, Belinda; Hong, Jau-shyong; Gao, Hui-Ming

    2011-01-01

    Rotenone, a widely used pesticide, reproduces Parkinsonism in rodents and associates with increased risk for Parkinson’s disease. We previously reported rotenone increased superoxide production through stimulating microglial phagocyte NADPH oxidase (PHOX). The present study identified a novel mechanism by which rotenone activates PHOX. Ligand-binding assay revealed that rotenone directly bound to membrane gp91phox, the catalytic subunit of PHOX; such binding was inhibited by diphenyleneiodonium, a PHOX inhibitor with a binding site on gp91phox. Functional studies showed both membrane and cytosolic subunits were required for rotenone-induced superoxide production in cell-free systems, intact phagocytes, and COS7 cells transfected with membrane subunits (gp91phox/p22phox) and cytosolic subunits (p67phox and p47phox). Rotenone-elicited extracellular superoxide release in p47phox-deficient macrophages suggested rotenone enabled to activate PHOX through a p47phox-independent mechanism. Increased membrane translocation of p67phox, elevated binding of p67phox to rotenone-treated membrane fractions, and co-immunoprecipitation of p67phox and gp91phox in rotenone-treated wild-type and p47phox-deficient macrophages indicated p67phox played a critical role in rotenone-induced PHOX activation via its direct interaction with gp91phox. Rac1, a Rho-like small GTPase, enhanced p67phox-gp91phox interaction; Rac1 inhibition decreased rotenone-elicited superoxide release. In conclusion, rotenone directly interacted with gp91phox; such an interaction triggered membrane translocation of p67phox, leading to PHOX activation and superoxide production. PMID:22094225

  13. Graviola inhibits hypoxia-induced NADPH oxidase activity in prostate cancer cells reducing their proliferation and clonogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Deep, Gagan; Kumar, Rahul; Jain, Anil K.; Dhar, Deepanshi; Panigrahi, Gati K.; Hussain, Anowar; Agarwal, Chapla; El-Elimat, Tamam; Sica, Vincent P.; Oberlies, Nicholas H.; Agarwal, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is the leading malignancy among men. Importantly, this disease is mostly diagnosed at early stages offering a unique chemoprevention opportunity. Therefore, there is an urgent need to identify and target signaling molecules with higher expression/activity in prostate tumors and play critical role in PCa growth and progression. Here we report that NADPH oxidase (NOX) expression is directly associated with PCa progression in TRAMP mice, suggesting NOX as a potential chemoprevention target in controlling PCa. Accordingly, we assessed whether NOX activity in PCa cells could be inhibited by Graviola pulp extract (GPE) that contains unique acetogenins with strong anti-cancer effects. GPE (1–5 μg/ml) treatment strongly inhibited the hypoxia-induced NOX activity in PCa cells (LNCaP, 22Rv1 and PC3) associated with a decrease in the expression of NOX catalytic and regulatory sub-units (NOX1, NOX2 and p47phox). Furthermore, GPE-mediated NOX inhibition was associated with a strong decrease in nuclear HIF-1α levels as well as reduction in the proliferative and clonogenic potential of PCa cells. More importantly, GPE treatment neither inhibited NOX activity nor showed any cytotoxicity against non-neoplastic prostate epithelial PWR-1E cells. Overall, these results suggest that GPE could be useful in the prevention of PCa progression via inhibiting NOX activity. PMID:26979487

  14. Graviola inhibits hypoxia-induced NADPH oxidase activity in prostate cancer cells reducing their proliferation and clonogenicity.

    PubMed

    Deep, Gagan; Kumar, Rahul; Jain, Anil K; Dhar, Deepanshi; Panigrahi, Gati K; Hussain, Anowar; Agarwal, Chapla; El-Elimat, Tamam; Sica, Vincent P; Oberlies, Nicholas H; Agarwal, Rajesh

    2016-03-16

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is the leading malignancy among men. Importantly, this disease is mostly diagnosed at early stages offering a unique chemoprevention opportunity. Therefore, there is an urgent need to identify and target signaling molecules with higher expression/activity in prostate tumors and play critical role in PCa growth and progression. Here we report that NADPH oxidase (NOX) expression is directly associated with PCa progression in TRAMP mice, suggesting NOX as a potential chemoprevention target in controlling PCa. Accordingly, we assessed whether NOX activity in PCa cells could be inhibited by Graviola pulp extract (GPE) that contains unique acetogenins with strong anti-cancer effects. GPE (1-5 μg/ml) treatment strongly inhibited the hypoxia-induced NOX activity in PCa cells (LNCaP, 22Rv1 and PC3) associated with a decrease in the expression of NOX catalytic and regulatory sub-units (NOX1, NOX2 and p47(phox)). Furthermore, GPE-mediated NOX inhibition was associated with a strong decrease in nuclear HIF-1α levels as well as reduction in the proliferative and clonogenic potential of PCa cells. More importantly, GPE treatment neither inhibited NOX activity nor showed any cytotoxicity against non-neoplastic prostate epithelial PWR-1E cells. Overall, these results suggest that GPE could be useful in the prevention of PCa progression via inhibiting NOX activity.

  15. The involvement of superoxide and iron ions in the NADPH-dependent lipid peroxidation in human placental mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Klimek, J

    1988-01-19

    Incubation of human term placental mitochondria with Fe2+ and a NADPH-generating system initiated high levels of lipid peroxidation, as measured by the production of malondialdehyde. Malondialdehyde formation was accompanied by a corresponding decrease of the unsaturated fatty acid content. This NADPH-dependent lipid peroxidation was strongly inhibited by superoxide dismutase and singlet oxygen scavengers, markedly stimulated by paraquat, but was not affected by hydroxyl radical scavengers. Catalase enhanced the production of malondialdehyde by placental mitochondria. The effects of catalase and hydroxyl radical scavengers suggest that the initiation of NADPH-dependent lipid peroxidation is not dependent upon the hydroxyl radical produced via an iron-catalyzed Fenton reaction. These studies provide evidence that hydrogen peroxide strongly inhibits NADPH-dependent mitochondrial lipid peroxidation. The inhibitory effect of superoxide dismutase and stimulatory effect of paraquat, which was abolished by the addition of superoxide dismutase, suggests that superoxide may promote NADPH-dependent lipid peroxidation in human placental mitochondria.

  16. Cytosolic NADPH metabolism in penicillin-G producing and non-producing chemostat cultures of Penicillium chrysogenum.

    PubMed

    Kleijn, Roelco J; Liu, Feng; van Winden, Wouter A; van Gulik, Walter M; Ras, Cor; Heijnen, Joseph J

    2007-01-01

    This study addresses the relation between NADPH supply and penicillin synthesis, by comparing the flux through the oxidative branch of the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP; the main source of cytosolic NADPH) in penicillin-G producing and non-producing chemostat cultures of Penicillium chrysogenum. The fluxes through the oxidative part of the PPP were determined using the recently introduced gluconate-tracer method. Significantly higher oxidative PPP fluxes were observed in penicillin-G producing chemostat cultures, indicating that penicillin production puts a major burden on the supply of cytosolic NADPH. To our knowledge this is the first time direct experimental proof is presented for the causal relationship between penicillin production and NADPH supply. Additional insight in the metabolism of P. chrysogenum was obtained by comparing the PPP fluxes from the gluconate-tracer experiment to oxidative PPP fluxes derived via metabolic flux analysis, using different assumptions for the stoichiometry of NADPH consumption and production.

  17. Altered heme catabolism by heme oxygenase-1 caused by mutations in human NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase

    SciTech Connect

    Pandey, Amit V.; Flueck, Christa E.; Mullis, Primus E.

    2010-09-24

    Research highlights: {yields} Mutations in POR identified from patients lead to reduced HO-1 activities. {yields} POR mutation Y181D affecting FMN binding results in total loss of HO-1 activity. {yields} POR mutations A287P, C569Y and V608F, lost 50-70% activity. {yields} Mutations in FAD binding domain, R457H, Y459H and V492E lost all HO-1 activity. {yields} POR polymorphisms P228L, R316W, G413S, A503V and G504R have normal activity. -- Abstract: Human heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) carries out heme catabolism supported by electrons supplied from the NADPH through NADPH P450 reductase (POR, CPR). Previously we have shown that mutations in human POR cause a rare form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia. In this study, we have evaluated the effects of mutations in POR on HO-1 activity. We used purified preparations of wild type and mutant human POR and in vitro reconstitution with purified HO-1 to measure heme degradation in a coupled assay using biliverdin reductase. Here we show that mutations in POR found in patients may reduce HO-1 activity, potentially influencing heme catabolism in individuals carrying mutant POR alleles. POR mutants Y181D, A457H, Y459H, V492E and R616X had total loss of HO-1 activity, while POR mutations A287P, C569Y and V608F lost 50-70% activity. The POR variants P228L, R316W and G413S, A503V and G504R identified as polymorphs had close to WT activity. Loss of HO-1 activity may result in increased oxidative neurotoxicity, anemia, growth retardation and iron deposition. Further examination of patients affected with POR deficiency will be required to assess the metabolic effects of reduced HO-1 activity in affected individuals.

  18. A Novel NADPH-dependent flavoprotein reductase from Bacillus megaterium acts as an efficient cytochrome P450 reductase.

    PubMed

    Milhim, Mohammed; Gerber, Adrian; Neunzig, Jens; Hannemann, Frank; Bernhardt, Rita

    2016-08-10

    Cytochromes P450 (P450s) require electron transfer partners to catalyze substrate conversions. With regard to biotechnological approaches, the elucidation of novel electron transfer proteins is of special interest, as they can influence the enzymatic activity and specificity of the P450s. In the current work we present the identification and characterization of a novel soluble NADPH-dependent diflavin reductase from Bacillus megaterium with activity towards a bacterial (CYP106A1) and a microsomal (CYP21A2) P450 and, therefore, we referred to it as B. megaterium cytochrome P450 reductase (BmCPR). Sequence analysis of the protein revealed besides the conserved FMN-, FAD- and NADPH-binding motifs, the presence of negatively charged cluster, which is thought to represent the interaction domain with P450s and/or cytochrome c. BmCPR was expressed and purified to homogeneity in Escherichia coli. The purified BmCPR exhibited a characteristic diflavin reductase spectrum, and showed a cytochrome c reducing activity. Furthermore, in an in vitro reconstituted system, the BmCPR was able to support the hydroxylation of testosterone and progesterone with CYP106A1 and CYP21A2, respectively. Moreover, in view of the biotechnological application, the BmCPR is very promising, as it could be successfully utilized to establish CYP106A1- and CYP21A2-based whole-cell biotransformation systems, which yielded 0.3g/L hydroxy-testosterone products within 8h and 0.16g/L 21-hydroxyprogesterone within 6h, respectively. In conclusion, the BmCPR reported herein owns a great potential for further applications and studies and should be taken into consideration for bacterial and/or microsomal CYP-dependent bioconversions.

  19. Antibody response is required for protection from Theiler's virus-induced encephalitis in C57BL/6 mice in the absence of CD8{sup +} T cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, B.-S.; Palma, Joann P.; Lyman, Michael A.; Dal Canto, Mauro; Kim, Byung S. . E-mail: bskim@northwestern.edu

    2005-09-15

    Intracerebral infection of susceptible mice with Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) induces immune-mediated demyelinating disease and this system serves as a relevant infectious model for human multiple sclerosis. It was previously shown that {beta}{sub 2}M-deficient C57BL/6 mice lacking functional CD8{sup +} T cells display increased viral persistence and enhanced susceptibility to TMEV-induced demyelination, and yet the majority of mice are free of clinical signs. To understand the mechanisms involved in this general resistance of C57BL/6 mice in the absence of CTL responses, mice ({mu}MT) deficient in the B-cell compartment lacking membrane IgM molecules were treated with anti-CD8 antibody and then infected with TMEV. Although little difference in the proliferative responses of peripheral T cells to UV-inactivated TMEV and the resistance to demyelinating disease was observed between virus-infected {mu}MT and control B6 mice, the levels of CD4{sup +} T cells were higher in the CNS of {mu}MT mice. However, after treatment with anti-CD8 antibody, 100% of the mice displayed clinical gray matter disease and prolonged viral persistence in {mu}MT mice, while only 10% of B6 mice showed clinical symptoms and very low viral persistence. Transfusion of sera from TMEV-infected B6 mice into anti-CD8 antibody-treated {mu}MT mice partially restored resistance to virus-induced encephalitis. These results indicate that the early anti-viral antibody response is also important in the protection from TMEV-induced encephalitis particularly in the absence of CD8{sup +} T cells.

  20. Antibody response is required for protection from Theiler's virus-induced encephalitis in C57BL/6 mice in the absence of CD8+ T cells.

    PubMed

    Kang, Bong-Su; Palma, Joann P; Lyman, Michael A; Dal Canto, Mauro; Kim, Byung S

    2005-09-15

    Intracerebral infection of susceptible mice with Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) induces immune-mediated demyelinating disease and this system serves as a relevant infectious model for human multiple sclerosis. It was previously shown that beta2M-deficient C57BL/6 mice lacking functional CD8+ T cells display increased viral persistence and enhanced susceptibility to TMEV-induced demyelination, and yet the majority of mice are free of clinical signs. To understand the mechanisms involved in this general resistance of C57BL/6 mice in the absence of CTL responses, mice (muMT) deficient in the B-cell compartment lacking membrane IgM molecules were treated with anti-CD8 antibody and then infected with TMEV. Although little difference in the proliferative responses of peripheral T cells to UV-inactivated TMEV and the resistance to demyelinating disease was observed between virus-infected muMT and control B6 mice, the levels of CD4(+) T cells were higher in the CNS of muMT mice. However, after treatment with anti-CD8 antibody, 100% of the mice displayed clinical gray matter disease and prolonged viral persistence in muMT mice, while only 10% of B6 mice showed clinical symptoms and very low viral persistence. Transfusion of sera from TMEV-infected B6 mice into anti-CD8 antibody-treated muMT mice partially restored resistance to virus-induced encephalitis. These results indicate that the early anti-viral antibody response is also important in the protection from TMEV-induced encephalitis particularly in the absence of CD8+ T cells.

  1. NADPH- and linoleic acid hydroperoxide-induced lipid peroxidation and destruction of cytochrome P-450 in hepatic microsomes.

    PubMed

    Iba, M M; Mannering, G J

    1987-05-01

    Temporal aspects of the effects of inhibitors on hepatic cytochrome P-450 destruction and lipid peroxidation induced by NADPH and linoleic acid hydroperoxide (LAHP) were compared. In the absence of added Fe2+, NADPH-induced lipid peroxidation in hepatic microsomes exhibited a slow phase followed by a fast phase. The addition of Fe2+ eliminated the slow phase, thus demonstrating that iron is a rate-limiting component in the reaction. EDTA, which complexes iron, and p-chloromercurobenzoate (pCMB), which inhibits NADPH-cytochrome P-450 reductase, inhibited both phases of the reaction. Catalase as well as scavengers of hydroxyl radical, inhibited NADPH-induced lipid peroxidation almost completely. GSH also inhibited the NADPH-dependent reaction but only when added at the beginning of the reaction. In contrast with NADPH-dependent lipid peroxidation, the autocatalytic reaction induced by LAHP was not biphasic, NADPH-dependent or iron-dependent, nor was it inhibited by hydroxyl radical scavengers, catalase or GSH. A synergistic effect on lipid peroxidation was observed when both NADPH and LAHP were added to microsomes. It is concluded that both the fast and slow phases of NADPH-dependent microsomal lipid peroxidation are catalyzed enzymatically and are dependent upon Fe2+, whereas LAHP-dependent lipid peroxidation is autocatalytic. Since the fast phase of enzymatic lipid peroxidation occurred during the fast phase of destruction of cytochrome P-450, it is postulated that iron made available from cytochrome P-450 is sufficient to promote optimal lipid peroxidation. Since catalase and hydroxyl radical scavengers inhibited NADPH-dependent but not LAHP-dependent lipid peroxidation, it is concluded that the hydroxyl radical derived from H2O2 is the initiating active-oxygen species in the enzymatic reaction but not in the autocatalytic reaction.

  2. Estrogen receptor alpha is required for mammary development and the induction of mammary hyperplasia and epigenetic alterations in the aromatase transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Tekmal, Rajeshwar Rao; Liu, Ya-Guang; Nair, Hareesh B; Jones, Jeremy; Perla, Rao P; Lubahn, Dennis B; Korach, Kenneth S; Kirma, Nameer

    2005-05-01

    Aromatase transgenic mice exhibit hyperplastic and dysplastic changes, attesting to the importance of local estrogen in breast carcinogenesis. These mice also show increased levels of the estrogen receptor alpha and beta (ERalpha, ERbeta) suggesting that this receptor may play an important role in the initiation of estrogen-mediated mammary hyperplasia observed in these mice. To address the specific role of ERalpha in the mammary development and in the induction of estrogen-mediated hyperplasia in aromatase transgenic mice, we have generated MMTV-aromatase x ERalpha knockout cross (referred as aromatase/ERKO). Even though ERbeta is expressed in aromatase/ERKO mice, lack of ERalpha leads to impaired mammary growth in these mice. The data suggest that ERalpha plays an important role in the mammary gland development as well as in the induction of mammary hyperplasia in aromatase transgenic mice. Lack of ERalpha expression in the aromatase/ERKO mice resulted in a decrease in the expression of Cyclin D1, PCNA and TGFbeta relative to the aromatase parental strain. The studies involving aromatase/ERKO mice show that lack of ERalpha results in impaired mammary development even in the presence of continuous tissue estrogen, suggesting estrogen/ERalpha-mediated actions are critical for mammary development and carcinogenesis.

  3. Role of the NADPH Oxidases DUOX and NOX4 in Thyroid Oxidative Stress.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Denise P; Dupuy, Corinne

    2013-09-01

    Somatic mutations are present at high levels in the rat thyroid gland, indicating that the thyrocyte is under oxidative stress, a state in which cellular oxidant levels are high. The most important class of free radicals, or reactive metabolites, is reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as superoxide anion (O2 (-)), hydroxyl radical (OH) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The main source of ROS in every cell type seems to be mitochondrial respiration; however, recent data support the idea that NADPH:O(2) oxidoreductase flavoproteins or simply NADPH oxidases (NOX) are enzymes specialized in controlled ROS generation at the subcellular level. Several decades ago, high concentrations of H2O2 were detected at the apical surface of thyrocytes, where thyroid hormone biosynthesis takes place. Only in the last decade has the enzymatic source of H2O2 involved in thyroid hormone biosynthesis been well characterized. The cloning of two thyroid genes encoding NADPH oxidases dual oxidases 1 and 2 (DUOX1 and DUOX2) revealed that DUOX2 mutations lead to hereditary hypothyroidism in humans. Recent reports have also described the presence of NOX4 in the thyroid gland and have suggested a pathophysiological role of this member of the NOX family. In the present review, we describe the participation of NADPH oxidases not only in thyroid physiology but also in gland pathophysiology, particularly the involvement of these enzymes in the regulation of thyroid oxidative stress.

  4. Role of the NADPH Oxidases DUOX and NOX4 in Thyroid Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Denise P.; Dupuy, Corinne

    2013-01-01

    Somatic mutations are present at high levels in the rat thyroid gland, indicating that the thyrocyte is under oxidative stress, a state in which cellular oxidant levels are high. The most important class of free radicals, or reactive metabolites, is reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as superoxide anion (O2-), hydroxyl radical (OH) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The main source of ROS in every cell type seems to be mitochondrial respiration; however, recent data support the idea that NADPH:O(2) oxidoreductase flavoproteins or simply NADPH oxidases (NOX) are enzymes specialized in controlled ROS generation at the subcellular level. Several decades ago, high concentrations of H2O2 were detected at the apical surface of thyrocytes, where thyroid hormone biosynthesis takes place. Only in the last decade has the enzymatic source of H2O2 involved in thyroid hormone biosynthesis been well characterized. The cloning of two thyroid genes encoding NADPH oxidases dual oxidases 1 and 2 (DUOX1 and DUOX2) revealed that DUOX2 mutations lead to hereditary hypothyroidism in humans. Recent reports have also described the presence of NOX4 in the thyroid gland and have suggested a pathophysiological role of this member of the NOX family. In the present review, we describe the participation of NADPH oxidases not only in thyroid physiology but also in gland pathophysiology, particularly the involvement of these enzymes in the regulation of thyroid oxidative stress. PMID:24847449

  5. Protein kinase C-beta contributes to NADPH oxidase activation in neutrophils.

    PubMed Central

    Dekker, L V; Leitges, M; Altschuler, G; Mistry, N; McDermott, A; Roes, J; Segal, A W

    2000-01-01

    We have analysed the involvement of the beta isotype of the protein kinase C (PKC) family in the activation of NADPH oxidase in primary neutrophils. Using immunofluorescence and cell fractionation, PKC-beta is shown to be recruited to the plasma membrane upon stimulation with phorbol ester and to the phagosomal membrane upon phagocytosis of IgG-coated particles (Fcgamma-receptor stimulus). The time course of recruitment is similar to that of NADPH oxidase activation by these stimuli. The PKC-beta specific inhibitor 379196 inhibits the response to PMA as well as to IgG-coated bacteria. Partial inhibition occurs between 10 and 100 nM of inhibitor, the concentration at which PKC-beta, but not other PKC isotypes, is targeted. Neutrophils isolated from a mouse that lacks PKC-beta also showed an inhibition of NADPH oxidase activation by PMA and IgG-coated particles. The level of inhibition is comparable to that achieved with 379196 in human neutrophils. Thus the PKC-beta isotype mediates activation of NADPH oxidase by PMA and by stimulation of Fcgamma receptors in neutrophils. PMID:10727429

  6. Inhibition of NADPH oxidases prevents chronic ethanol-induced bone loss in female rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous in vitro data suggest that ethanol (EtOH) activates NADPH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) oxidase (Nox) in osteoblasts leading to accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). This might be a mechanism underlying inhibition of bone formation and increased bone resorption obse...

  7. NADPH Oxidase-Driven Phagocyte Recruitment Controls Candida albicans Filamentous Growth and Prevents Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Brothers, Kimberly M.; Gratacap, Remi L.; Barker, Sarah E.; Newman, Zachary R.; Norum, Ashley; Wheeler, Robert T.

    2013-01-01

    Candida albicans is a human commensal and clinically important fungal pathogen that grows as both yeast and hyphal forms during human, mouse and zebrafish infection. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by NADPH oxidases play diverse roles in immunity, including their long-appreciated function as microbicidal oxidants. Here we demonstrate a non-traditional mechanistic role of NADPH oxidase in promoting phagocyte chemotaxis and intracellular containment of fungi to limit filamentous growth. We exploit the transparent zebrafish model to show that failed NADPH oxidase-dependent phagocyte recruitment to C. albicans in the first four hours post-infection permits fungi to germinate extracellularly and kill the host. We combine chemical and genetic tools with high-resolution time-lapse microscopy to implicate both phagocyte oxidase and dual-specific oxidase in recruitment, suggesting that both myeloid and non-myeloid cells promote chemotaxis. We show that early non-invasive imaging provides a robust tool for prognosis, strongly connecting effective early immune response with survival. Finally, we demonstrate a new role of a key regulator of the yeast-to-hyphal switching program in phagocyte-mediated containment, suggesting that there are species-specific methods for modulation of NADPH oxidase-independent immune responses. These novel links between ROS-driven chemotaxis and fungal dimorphism expand our view of a key host defense mechanism and have important implications for pathogenesis. PMID:24098114

  8. Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles Increase Superoxide Anion Production by Acting on NADPH Oxidase.

    PubMed

    Masoud, Rawand; Bizouarn, Tania; Trepout, Sylvain; Wien, Frank; Baciou, Laura; Marco, Sergio; Houée Levin, Chantal

    2015-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) anatase nanoparticles (NPs) are metal oxide NPs commercialized for several uses of everyday life. However their toxicity has been poorly investigated. Cellular internalization of NPs has been shown to activate macrophages and neutrophils that contribute to superoxide anion production by the NADPH oxidase complex. Transmission electron micrososcopy images showed that the membrane fractions were close to the NPs while fluorescence indicated an interaction between NPs and cytosolic proteins. Using a cell-free system, we have investigated the influence of TiO2 NPs on the behavior of the NADPH oxidase. In the absence of the classical activator molecules of the enzyme (arachidonic acid) but in the presence of TiO2 NPs, no production of superoxide ions could be detected indicating that TiO2 NPs were unable to activate by themselves the complex. However once the NADPH oxidase was activated (i.e., by arachidonic acid), the rate of superoxide anion production went up to 140% of its value without NPs, this effect being dependent on their concentration. In the presence of TiO2 nanoparticles, the NADPH oxidase produces more superoxide ions, hence induces higher oxidative stress. This hyper-activation and the subsequent increase in ROS production by TiO2 NPs could participate to the oxidative stress development.

  9. A novel role of microglial NADPH oxidase in mediating extra-synaptic function of norepinephrine in regulating brain immune homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Lulu; Chen, Shih-Heng; Chu, Chun-Hsien; Wang, Shi-Jun; Oyarzabal, Esteban; Wilson, Belinda; Sanders, Virginia; Xie, Keqin; Wang, Qingshan; Hong, Jau-Shyong

    2015-06-01

    Although the peripheral anti-inflammatory effect of norepinephrine (NE) is well documented, the mechanism by which this neurotransmitter functions as an anti-inflammatory/neuroprotective agent in the central nervous system (CNS) is unclear. This article aimed to determine the anti-inflammatory/neuroprotective effects and underlying mechanisms of NE in inflammation-based dopaminergic neurotoxicity models. In mice, NE-depleting toxin N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine (DSP-4) was injected at 6 months of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced neuroinflammation. It was found that NE depletion enhanced LPS-induced dopaminergic neuron loss in the substantia nigra. This piece of in vivo data prompted us to conduct a series of studies in an effort to elucidate the mechanism as to how NE affects dopamine neuron survival by using primary midbrain neuron/glia cultures. Results showed that submicromolar concentrations of NE dose-dependently protected dopaminergic neurons from LPS-induced neurotoxicity by inhibiting microglia activation and subsequent release of pro-inflammatory factors. However, NE-elicited neuroprotection was not totally abolished in cultures from β2-adrenergic receptor (β2-AR)-deficient mice, suggesting that novel pathways other than β2-AR are involved. To this end, It was found that submicromolar NE dose-dependently inhibited NADPH oxidase (NOX2)-generated superoxide, which contributes to the anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects of NE. This novel mechanism was indeed adrenergic receptors independent since both (+) and (-) optic isomers of NE displayed the same potency. We further demonstrated that NE inhibited LPS-induced NOX2 activation by blocking the translocation of its cytosolic subunit to plasma membranes. In summary, we revealed a potential physiological role of NE in maintaining brain immune homeostasis and protecting neurons via a novel mechanism.

  10. A novel role of microglial NADPH oxidase in mediating extra-synaptic function of norepinephrine in regulating brain immune homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Lulu; Chen, Shih-Heng; Chu, Chun-Hsien; Wang, Shi-Jun; Oyarzabal, Esteban; Wilson, Belinda; Sanders, Virginia; Xie, Keqin; Wang, Qingshan; Hong, Jau-Shyong

    2015-01-01

    Although the peripheral anti-inflammatory effect of norepinephrine (NE) is well-documented, the mechanism by which this neurotransmitter functions as an anti-inflammatory/neuroprotective agent in the central nervous system is unclear. This study aimed to determine the anti-inflammatory/neuroprotective effects and underlying mechanisms of NE in inflammation-based dopaminergic neurotoxicity models. In mice, NE-depleting toxin N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine (DSP-4) was injected at 6 months of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced neuroinflammation. We found that NE depletion enhanced LPS-induced dopaminergic neuron loss in the substantia nigra. This piece of in vivo data prompted us to conduct a series of studies in an effort to elucidate the mechanism as to how NE affects dopamine neuron survival by using primary midbrain neuron-glia cultures. Results showed that sub-micromolar concentrations of NE dose-dependently protected dopaminergic neurons from LPS-induced neurotoxicity by inhibiting microglia activation and subsequent release of pro-inflammatory factors. However, NE-elicited neuroprotection was not totally abolished in cultures from β2-adrenergic receptor (β2-AR) deficient mice, suggesting that novel pathways other than β2-AR are involved. To this end, we found that sub-micromolar NE dose-dependently inhibited NADPH oxidase (NOX2)-generated superoxide, which contributes to the anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects of NE. This novel mechanism was indeed adrenergic receptors independent since both (+) and (−) optic isomers of NE displayed the same potency. We further demonstrated that NE inhibited LPS-induced NOX2 activation by blocking the translocation of its cytosolic subunit to plasma membranes. In summary, we revealed a potential physiological role of NE in maintaining brain immune homeostasis and protecting neurons via a novel mechanism. PMID:25740080

  11. Inorganic nitrite attenuates NADPH oxidase-derived superoxide generation in activated macrophages via a nitric oxide-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ting; Peleli, Maria; Zollbrecht, Christa; Giulietti, Alessia; Terrando, Niccolo; Lundberg, Jon O; Weitzberg, Eddie; Carlström, Mattias

    2015-06-01

    Oxidative stress contributes to the pathogenesis of many disorders, including diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Immune cells are major sources of superoxide (O2(∙-)) as part of the innate host defense system, but exaggerated and sustained O2(∙-) generation may lead to progressive inflammation and organ injuries. Previous studies have proven organ-protective effects of inorganic nitrite, a precursor of nitric oxide (NO), in conditions manifested by oxidative stress and inflammation. However, the mechanisms are still not clear. This study aimed at investigating the potential role of nitrite in modulating NADPH oxidase (NOX) activity in immune cells. Mice peritoneal macrophages or human monocytes were activated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), with or without coincubation with nitrite. O2(∙-) and peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) formation were detected by lucigenin-based chemiluminescence and fluorescence techniques, respectively. The intracellular NO production was measured by DAF-FM DA fluorescence. NOX isoforms and inducible NO synthase (iNOS) expression were detected by qPCR. LPS increased both O2(∙-) and ONOO(-) production in macrophages, which was significantly reduced by nitrite (10µmol/L). Mechanistically, the effects of nitrite are (1) linked to increased NO generation, (2) similar to that observed with the NO donor DETA-NONOate, and (3) can be abolished by the NO scavenger carboxy-PTIO or by the xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitor febuxostat. Nox2 expression was increased in activated macrophages, but was not influenced by nitrite. However, nitrite attenuated LPS-induced upregulation of iNOS expression. Similar to that observed in mice macrophages, nitrite also reduced O2(∙-) generation in LPS-activated human monocytes. In conclusion, XO-mediated reduction of nitrite attenuates NOX activity in activated macrophages, which may modulate the inflammatory response.

  12. Increasing Anaerobic Acetate Consumption and Ethanol Yields in Saccharomyces cerevisiae with NADPH-Specific Alcohol Dehydrogenase

    PubMed Central

    Henningsen, Brooks M.; Hon, Shuen; Covalla, Sean F.; Sonu, Carolina; Argyros, D. Aaron; Barrett, Trisha F.; Wiswall, Erin; Froehlich, Allan C.

    2015-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae has recently been engineered to use acetate, a primary inhibitor in lignocellulosic hydrolysates, as a cosubstrate during anaerobic ethanolic fermentation. However, the original metabolic pathway devised to convert acetate to ethanol uses NADH-specific acetylating acetaldehyde dehydrogenase and alcohol dehydrogenase and quickly becomes constrained by limited NADH availability, even when glycerol formation is abolished. We present alcohol dehydrogenase as a novel target for anaerobic redox engineering of S. cerevisiae. Introduction of an NADPH-specific alcohol dehydrogenase (NADPH-ADH) not only reduces the NADH demand of the acetate-to-ethanol pathway but also allows the cell to effectively exchange NADPH for NADH during sugar fermentation. Unlike NADH, NADPH can be freely generated under anoxic conditions, via the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway. We show that an industrial bioethanol strain engineered with the original pathway (expressing acetylating acetaldehyde dehydrogenase from Bifidobacterium adolescentis and with deletions of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase genes GPD1 and GPD2) consumed 1.9 g liter−1 acetate during fermentation of 114 g liter−1 glucose. Combined with a decrease in glycerol production from 4.0 to 0.1 g liter−1, this increased the ethanol yield by 4% over that for the wild type. We provide evidence that acetate consumption in this strain is indeed limited by NADH availability. By introducing an NADPH-ADH from Entamoeba histolytica and with overexpression of ACS2 and ZWF1, we increased acetate consumption to 5.3 g liter−1 and raised the ethanol yield to 7% above the wild-type level. PMID:26386051

  13. Multiple mechanisms of NADPH oxidase inhibition by type A and type B Francisella tularensis

    PubMed Central

    McCaffrey, Ramona L.; Schwartz, Justin T.; Lindemann, Stephen R.; Moreland, Jessica G.; Buchan, Blake W.; Jones, Bradley D.; Allen, Lee-Ann H.

    2010-01-01

    Ft is a facultative intracellular pathogen that infects many cell types, including neutrophils. In previous work, we demonstrated that the type B Ft strain LVS disrupts NADPH oxidase activity throughout human neutrophils, but how this is achieved is incompletely defined. Here, we used several type A and type B strains to demonstrate that Ft-mediated NADPH oxidase inhibition is more complex than appreciated previously. We confirm that phagosomes containing Ft opsonized with AS exclude flavocytochrome b558 and extend previous results to show that soluble phox proteins were also affected, as indicated by diminished phosphorylation of p47phox and other PKC substrates. However, a different mechanism accounts for the ability of Ft to inhibit neutrophil activation by formyl peptides, Staphylococcus aureus, OpZ, and phorbol esters. In this case, enzyme targeting and assembly were normal, and impaired superoxide production was characterized by sustained membrane accumulation of dysfunctional NADPH oxidase complexes. A similar post-assembly inhibition mechanism also diminished the ability of anti-Ft IS to confer neutrophil activation and bacterial killing, consistent with the limited role for antibodies in host defense during tularemia. Studies of mutants that we generated in the type A Ft strain Schu S4 demonstrate that the regulatory factor fevR is essential for NADPH oxidase inhibition, whereas iglI and iglJ, candidate secretion system effectors, and the acid phosphatase acpA are not. As Ft uses multiple mechanisms to block neutrophil NADPH oxidase activity, our data strongly suggest that this is a central aspect of virulence. PMID:20610796

  14. Decline in NAD(P)H autofluorescence precedes apoptotic cell death from chemotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toms, Steven A.; Muhammad, Osman; Jackson, Heather; Lin, Wei-Chiang

    2005-11-01

    OBJECTIVE: Optical spectroscopic tools exist that allow open surgical and minimally invasive assays of intrinsic tissue optics. Optical detection of cellular and tissue viability may offer a minimally invasive way to assess tumor responsiveness to chemotherapies. We report on an optical spectroscopic change that precedes apoptotic cell death and appears related to NAD(P)H autofluorescence. METHODS: The cell lines SW 480 and U87-MG were grown in culture and treated with cisplatin 100 μg/ml and tamoxifen 10 μM, respectively. Fluorescence spectroscopy at 355 nm excitation and 460 nm emission were collected. MTS assays were used to determine cell viability. Cell lysates were analyzed for NAD(P)H concentrations by mass spectroscopy. RESULTS: Autoflourescence at 355 nm excitation and 460 nm emission declines markedly despite normalization for cell number and total protein concentration after treatment with tamoxifen or cisplatin. The autofluorescence drop precedes the loss of cell viability as measured by MTS assay. For example, the relative viability of the U87-MG cell treated with tamoxifen at hours 0, 8, 12 and 24 of treatment was 100 +/- 6, 85 +/- 6, 53 +/- 9 and 0 +/- 3. The relative fluorescence at the same time points were 100 +/- 2, 57 +/- 6, 47 +/- 3, and 0 +/- 1. TUNNEL assays confirm that cell death is via apoptosis. The key cellular fluorophore at these wavelengths is NAD(P)H. Mass spectroscopic analysis of cell lysates at these time points reveals a drop in NAD(P)H concentrations that is parallel to the loss of fluorescence signal. CONCLUSIONS: NAD(P)H autofluoresence decline precedes apoptotic cell death. This may allow the design of minimally invasive spectroscopic tools to monitor chemotherapeutic response.

  15. Increasing anaerobic acetate consumption and ethanol yields in Saccharomyces cerevisiae with NADPH-specific alcohol dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Henningsen, Brooks M; Hon, Shuen; Covalla, Sean F; Sonu, Carolina; Argyros, D Aaron; Barrett, Trisha F; Wiswall, Erin; Froehlich, Allan C; Zelle, Rintze M

    2015-12-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae has recently been engineered to use acetate, a primary inhibitor in lignocellulosic hydrolysates, as a cosubstrate during anaerobic ethanolic fermentation. However, the original metabolic pathway devised to convert acetate to ethanol uses NADH-specific acetylating acetaldehyde dehydrogenase and alcohol dehydrogenase and quickly becomes constrained by limited NADH availability, even when glycerol formation is abolished. We present alcohol dehydrogenase as a novel target for anaerobic redox engineering of S. cerevisiae. Introduction of an NADPH-specific alcohol dehydrogenase (NADPH-ADH) not only reduces the NADH demand of the acetate-to-ethanol pathway but also allows the cell to effectively exchange NADPH for NADH during sugar fermentation. Unlike NADH, NADPH can be freely generated under anoxic conditions, via the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway. We show that an industrial bioethanol strain engineered with the original pathway (expressing acetylating acetaldehyde dehydrogenase from Bifidobacterium adolescentis and with deletions of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase genes GPD1 and GPD2) consumed 1.9 g liter(-1) acetate during fermentation of 114 g liter(-1) glucose. Combined with a decrease in glycerol production from 4.0 to 0.1 g liter(-1), this increased the ethanol yield by 4% over that for the wild type. We provide evidence that acetate consumption in this strain is indeed limited by NADH availability. By introducing an NADPH-ADH from Entamoeba histolytica and with overexpression of ACS2 and ZWF1, we increased acetate consumption to 5.3 g liter(-1) and raised the ethanol yield to 7% above the wild-type level.

  16. The neuron-specific interleukin-1 receptor accessory protein is required for homeostatic sleep and sleep responses to influenza viral challenge in mice.

    PubMed

    Davis, Christopher J; Dunbrasky, Danielle; Oonk, Marcella; Taishi, Ping; Opp, Mark R; Krueger, James M

    2015-07-01

    Interleukin-1β (IL1) is involved in sleep regulation and sleep responses induced by influenza virus. The IL1 receptor accessory protein (AcP) and an alternatively spliced isoform of AcP found primarily in neurons, AcPb, form part of the IL1 signaling complex. IL1-induced sleep responses depend on injection time. In rat cortex, both IL1 mRNA and AcPb mRNA peak at Zeitgeber Time (ZT) 0 then decline over the daylight hours. Sleep deprivation enhances cortical IL1 mRNA and AcPb mRNA levels, but not AcP mRNA. We used wild type (WT) and AcPb knockout (KO) mice and performed sleep deprivation between ZT10 and 20 or between ZT22 and 8 based on the time of day expression profiles of AcPb and IL1. We hypothesized that the magnitude of the responses to sleep loss would be strain- and time of day-dependent. In WT mice, NREMS and REMS rebounds occurred regardless of when they were deprived of sleep. In contrast, when AcPbKO mice were sleep deprived from ZT10 to 20 NREMS and REMS rebounds were absent. The AcPbKO mice expressed sleep rebound if sleep loss occurred from ZT22 to 8 although the NREMS responses were not as robust as those that occurred in WT mice. We also challenged mice with intranasal H1N1 influenza virus. WT mice exhibited the expected enhanced sleep responses. In contrast, the AcPbKO mice had less sleep after influenza challenge compared to their own baseline values and compared to WT mice. Body temperature and locomotor activity responses after viral challenge were lower and mortality was higher in AcPbKO than in WT mice. We conclude that neuron-specific AcPb plays a critical role in host defenses and sleep homeostasis.

  17. Induction of reactive oxygen species and the potential role of NADPH oxidase in hyperhydricity of garlic plantlets in vitro.

    PubMed

    Tian, Jie; Cheng, Yaqi; Kong, Xiangyu; Liu, Min; Jiang, Fangling; Wu, Zhen

    2017-01-01

    Hyperhydricity is a physiological disorder associated with oxidative stress. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in plants is initiated by various enzymatic sources, including plasma membrane-localized nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases, cell wall-bound peroxidase (POD), and apoplastic polyamine oxidase (PAO). The origin of the oxidative burst associated with hyperhydricity remains unknown. To investigate the role of NADPH oxidases, POD, and PAO in ROS production and hyperhydricity, exogenous hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and inhibitors of each ROS-producing enzyme were applied to explore the mechanism of oxidative stress induction in garlic plantlets in vitro. A concentration of 1.5 mM H2O2 increased endogenous ROS production and hyperhydricity occurrence and enhanced the activities of NADPH oxidases, POD, and PAO. During the entire treatment period, NADPH oxidase activity increased continuously, whereas POD and PAO activities exhibited a transient increase and subsequently declined. Histochemical and cytochemical visualization demonstrated that specific inhibitors of each enzyme effectively suppressed ROS accumulation. Moreover, superoxide anion generation, H2O2 content, and hyperhydric shoot frequency in H2O2-stressed plantlets decreased significantly. The NADPH oxidase inhibitor was the most effective at suppressing superoxide anion production. The results suggested that NADPH oxidases, POD, and PAO were responsible for endogenous ROS induction. NADPH oxidase activation might play a pivotal role in the oxidative burst in garlic plantlets in vitro during hyperhydricity.

  18. NADPH oxidase activation played a critical role in the oxidative stress process in stable coronary artery disease

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jiefang; Wang, Meihui; Li, Zhengwei; Bi, Xukun; Song, Jiale; Weng, Shaoxiang; Fu, Guosheng

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The study was designed to investigate the oxidative stress levels of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in stable coronary artery disease (CAD) and to explore the underlying mechanisms of NADPH oxidase activation and subsequent EPCs dysfunction. Methods: EPCs were isolated from patients with stable CAD (n=50) and matched healthy volunteers (n=50). NADPH oxidase activation was detected by measuring the expression of each subunit using western blotting and qPCR analyses and the membrane translocation of p47phox using immunofluorescence. The in vivo angiogenesis capacity was evaluated using immunofluorescence by transplanting EPCs into a rat hind limb ischemia model. The PKC inhibitor GÖ-6983 was used to determine the role of PKC in NADPH oxidase activation. Results: Oxidative stress level was increased and the in vivo angiogenesis capacity was impaired in EPCs obtained from CAD subjects with the activation of NADPH oxidase. P47phox membrane translocation increased in CAD group vs controls. These effects were resolved by NADPH oxidase inhibition. Up-regulation of PKCα/β2 was found in EPCs from CAD subjects, PKC inhibition GÖ-6983 could reduce the expression and activity of NADPH oxidation. Conclusions: NADPH oxidase activation via p47phox membrane translocation played a critical role in the initiation and progression of CAD, and the PKCα/β2 signaling pathway might be involved. PMID:28077995

  19. Function of wild-type or mutant Rac2 and Rap1a GTPases in differentiated HL60 cell NADPH oxidase activation.

    PubMed

    Gabig, T G; Crean, C D; Mantel, P L; Rosli, R

    1995-02-01

    Studies of neutrophil nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase activation in a cell-free system showed that the low molecular-weight guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) Rac was required, and that Rap1a may participate in activation of the catalytic complex. Full-length posttranslationally modified Rac2 was active, whereas only the 1-166 truncated form of Rap1a was functional in the cell-free system, and thus, clarification of the function of Rap1a and Rac2 in intact human phagocytes is needed to provide further insight into their roles as signal transducers from plasma membrane receptors. In the present studies, oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis was used to introduce a series of mutations into human rap1a or rac2 in the mammalian expression vector pSR alpha neo. HL60 cells transfected with wild-type or mutated rac2 or rap1a cDNA constructs and control HL60 cells transfected with the pSR alpha neo vector containing no inserted cDNA were selected in G418-containing media, then subclones were isolated. Compared with the parent HL60 cells, each of the stable transfected cell lines differentiated similarly into neutrophil-like cells and expressed comparable levels of NADPH oxidase components p47-phox, p67-phox and gp91-phox. The differentiated vector control cell line produced O2. in response to receptor stimulation at rates that were not significantly different from parent HL60 cells. O2-. production by differentiated cell lines expressing mutated N17 Rap1a or N17 Rac2 dominant-negative proteins was inhibited, whereas O2-. production by the subline overexpressing wild-type Rap1a was increased by fourfold. O2-. production by the differentiated cell line expressing GTPase-defective V12 Rap1a was also significantly inhibited, a finding that is consistent with a requirement for cycling between guanosine diphosphate- and GTP-bound forms of Rap1a for continuous NADPH oxidase activation in intact neutrophils. A model is proposed in which Rac2 mediates

  20. Prenatal Hypoxic-Ischemic Insult Changes the Distribution and Number of NADPH-Diaphorase Cells in the Cerebellum

    PubMed Central

    Savignon, Tiago; Costa, Everton; Tenorio, Frank; Manhães, Alex C.; Barradas, Penha C.

    2012-01-01

    Astrogliosis, oligodendroglial death and motor deficits have been observed in the offspring of female rats that had their uterine arteries clamped at the 18th gestational day. Since nitric oxide has important roles in several inflammatory and developmental events, here we evaluated NADPH-diaphorase (NADPH-d) distribution in the cerebellum of rats submitted to this hypoxia-ischemia (HI) model. At postnatal (P) day 9, Purkinje cells of SHAM and non-manipulated (NM) animals showed NADPH-d+ labeling both in the cell body and dendritic arborization in folia 1 to 8, while HI animals presented a weaker labeling in both cellular structures. NADPH-d+ labeling in the molecular (ML), and in both the external and internal granular layer, was unaffected by HI at this age. At P23, labeling in Purkinje cells was absent in all three groups. Ectopic NADPH-d+ cells in the ML of folia 1 to 4 and folium 10 were present exclusively in HI animals. This labeling pattern was maintained up to P90 in folium 10. In the cerebellar white matter (WM), at P9 and P23, microglial (ED1+) NADPH-d+ cells, were observed in all groups. At P23, only HI animals presented NADPH-d labeling in the cell body and processes of reactive astrocytes (GFAP+). At P9 and P23, the number of NADPH-d+ cells in the WM was higher in HI animals than in SHAM and NM ones. At P45 and at P90 no NADPH-d+ cells were observed in the WM of the three groups. Our results indicate that HI insults lead to long-lasting alterations in nitric oxide synthase expression in the cerebellum. Such alterations in cerebellar differentiation might explain, at least in part, the motor deficits that are commonly observed in this model. PMID:22540005

  1. Sexual dimorphism of vocal control nuclei in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) revealed with Nissl and NADPH-d staining.

    PubMed

    Brauth, Steven E; Liang, Wenru; Amateau, Stuart K; Roberts, Todd F; Robert, Todd F

    2005-03-28

    Nissl staining and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate diaphorase (NADPH-d) histochemistry were used to explore the existence of sexual dimorphism in vocal control nuclei of adult budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus), a parrot species capable of lifelong vocal learning. Behavioral studies indicate that adult males possess larger vocal repertoires than adult females and learn new calls more quickly. The results of the present study show that the volumes of all vocal nuclei, as measured using both Nissl-stained and NADPH-d-stained material, as well as the total numbers of NADPH-d neurons, were 35-110% greater in males. Furthermore, all vocal nuclei exhibit conspicuous NADPH-d staining compared to surrounding fields in both adult males and females. Nevertheless, there were no significant gender differences in either the intensity of neuropil staining or the densities of NADPH-d neurons in vocal nuclei. Moreover NADPH-d neuron somal shapes were similar in males and females. Diameters of NADPH-d neurons in vocal nuclei were 8.5-32% larger in males than in females. Greater size of NADPH-d neuronal somata in males may be a general property of this cell type in budgerigars because a similar gender difference was found in a visual nucleus, the entopallium, which is not directly associated with the vocal control system and does not exhibit sexual dimorphism in total volume or total NADPH-d neuron numbers. Taken together, the results of the present study favor the hypothesis that superior lifelong vocal learning ability in male budgerigars rests largely on larger volumes of vocal control nuclei in males rather than on sexual dimorphism in the internal composition of vocal nuclei.

  2. 12/15-Lipoxygenase Is Required for the Early Onset of High Fat Diet-Induced Adipose Tissue Inflammation and Insulin Resistance in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Sears, Dorothy D.; Miles, Philip D.; Chapman, Justin; Ofrecio, Jachelle M.; Almazan, Felicidad; Thapar, Divya; Miller, Yury I.

    2009-01-01

    Background Recent understanding that insulin resistance is an inflammatory condition necessitates searching for genes that regulate inflammation in insulin sensitive tissues. 12/15-lipoxygenase (12/15LO) regulates the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines and is implicated in the early development of diet-induced atherosclerosis. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that 12/15LO is involved in the onset of high fat diet (HFD)-induced insulin resistance. Methodology/Principal Findings Cells over-expressing 12/15LO secreted two potent chemokines, MCP-1 and osteopontin, implicated in the development of insulin resistance. We assessed adipose tissue inflammation and whole body insulin resistance in wild type (WT) and 12/15LO knockout (KO) mice after 2–4 weeks on HFD. In adipose tissue from WT mice, HFD resulted in recruitment of CD11b+, F4/80+ macrophages and elevated protein levels of the inflammatory markers IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, IFNγ, Cxcl1 and TNFα. Remarkably, adipose tissue from HFD-fed 12/15LO KO mice was not infiltrated by macrophages and did not display any increase in the inflammatory markers compared to adipose tissue from normal chow-fed mice. WT mice developed severe whole body (hepatic and skeletal muscle) insulin resistance after HFD, as measured by hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp. In contrast, 12/15LO KO mice exhibited no HFD-induced change in insulin-stimulated glucose disposal rate or hepatic glucose output during clamp studies. Insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation in muscle tissue from HFD-fed mice was significantly greater in 12/15LO KO mice than in WT mice. Conclusions These results demonstrate that 12/15LO mediates early stages of adipose tissue inflammation and whole body insulin resistance induced by high fat feeding. PMID:19787041

  3. Cytochrome P4501A1 Is Required for Vascular Dysfunction and Hypertension Induced by 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-Dioxin

    PubMed Central

    Kopf, Phillip G.; Scott, Jason A.; Agbor, Larry N.; Boberg, Jason R.; Elased, Khalid M.; Huwe, Janice K.; Walker, Mary K.

    2010-01-01

    National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data show an association between hypertension and exposure to dioxin-like halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (HAHs). Furthermore, chronic exposure of mice to the prototypical HAH, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), induces reactive oxygen species (ROS), endothelial dysfunction, and hypertension. Because TCDD induces cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1) and CYP1A1 can increase ROS, we tested the hypothesis that TCDD-induced endothelial dysfunction and hypertension are mediated by CYP1A1. CYP1A1 wild-type (WT) and knockout (KO) mice were fed one control or TCDD-containing pill (180 ng TCDD/kg, 5 days/week) for 35 days (n = 10–14/genotype/treatment). Blood pressure was monitored by radiotelemetry, and liver TCDD concentration, CYP1A1 induction, ROS, and aortic reactivity were measured at 35 days. TCDD accumulated to similar levels in livers of both genotypes. TCDD induced CYP1A1 in endothelium of aorta and mesentery without detectable expression in the vessel wall. TCDD also induced superoxide anion production, measured by NADPH-dependent lucigenin luminescence, in aorta, heart, and kidney of CYP1A1 WT mice but not KO mice. In contrast, TCDD induced hydrogen peroxide, measured by amplex red assay, to similar levels in aorta of CYP1A1 WT and KO mice but not in heart or kidney. TCDD reduced acetylcholine-dependent vasorelaxation in aortic rings of CYP1A1 WT mice but not in KO mice. Finally, TCDD steadily increased blood pressure after 15 days, which plateaued after 25 days (+20 mmHg) in CYP1A1 WT mice but failed to alter blood pressure in KO mice. These results demonstrate that CYP1A1 is required for TCDD-induced cardiovascular superoxide anion production, endothelial dysfunction, and hypertension. PMID:20634294

  4. Engineering class I cytochrome P450 by gene fusion with NADPH-dependent reductase and S. avermitilis host development for daidzein biotransformation.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kwon-Young; Jung, EunOk; Yun, Hyungdon; Yang, Yung-Hun; Kim, Byung-Gee

    2014-10-01

    Daidzein C6 hydroxylase (6-DH, nfa12130), which is a class I type of cytochrome P450 enzyme, catalyzes a hydroxylation reaction at the C6-position of the daidzein A-ring and requires auxiliary electron transfer proteins. Current utilization of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes is limited by low coupling efficiency, which necessitates extramolecular electron transfers, and low driving forces, which derive electron flows from tightly regulated NADPH redox balances into the heterogeneous CYP catalytic cycle. To overcome such limitations, the heme domain of the 6-DH enzyme was genetically fused with the NADPH-reductase domain of self-sufficient CYP102D1 to enhance electron transfer efficiencies through intramolecular electron transfer and switching cofactor preference from NADH into NADPH. 6-DH-reductase fusion enzyme displayed distinct spectral properties of both flavoprotein and heme proteins and catalyzed daidzein hydroxylation more efficiently with a k cat/K m value of 120.3 ± 11.5 [10(3) M(-1) s(-1)], which was about three times higher than that of the 6-DH-FdxC-FdrA reconstituted system. Moreover, to obtain a higher redox driving force, a Streptomyces avermitilis host system was developed for heterologous expression of fusion 6-DH enzyme and whole cell biotransformation of daidzein. The whole cell reaction using the final recombinant strain, S. avermitilisΔcyp105D7::fusion 6-DH (nfa12130), resulted in 8.3 ± 1.4 % of 6-OHD yield from 25.4 mg/L of daidzein.

  5. Enhanced antibody production in mice to the malaria antigen AMA1 by CPG 7909 requires physical association of CpG and antigen.

    PubMed

    Mullen, Gregory E D; Aebig, Joan A; Dobrescu, Gelu; Rausch, Kelly; Lambert, Lynn; Long, Carole A; Miles, Aaron P; Saul, Allan

    2007-07-20

    CpG oligodeoxynucleotides are potent immunostimulants. In this study, CPG 7909 was formulated with the recombinant Plasmodium falciparum protein AMA1-C1 adsorbed to Alhydrogel (aluminum hydroxide) and used to immunize mice. Mice receiving free CPG 7909 in a separate same site injection to the AMA1-C1/Alhydrogel had the same antibody responses as mice receiving AMA1-C1/Alhydrogel alone. For mice immunized with CPG 7909 bound to the AMA1-C1/Alhydrogel formulation, there was a bell shaped CPG 7909 dose-response curve with the highest antibody response co-incident with the concentration of CPG 7909 that saturated binding to the Alhydrogel. At a higher CPG 7909 dose where 74% was unbound, there was no enhancement of response over AMA1-C1/Alhydrogel alone. Our results suggest that the adjuvant effects of CpGs are optimal when adsorbed to Alhydrogel and highlight the need for careful characterization of the vaccine formulation.

  6. Nox4 NADPH oxidase-derived reactive oxygen species, via endogenous carbon monoxide, promote survival of brain endothelial cells during TNF-α-induced apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Basuroy, Shyamali; Tcheranova, Dilyara; Bhattacharya, Sujoy; Leffler, Charles W.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in promoting cell survival during oxidative stress induced by the inflammatory mediator tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in cerebral microvascular endothelial cells (CMVEC) from newborn piglets. Nox4 is the major isoform of NADPH oxidase responsible for TNF-α-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in CMVEC. We present novel data that Nox4 NADPH oxidase-derived ROS also initiate a cell survival mechanism by increasing production of a gaseous antioxidant mediator carbon monoxide (CO) by constitutive heme oxygenase-2 (HO-2). TNF-α rapidly enhanced endogenous CO production in a superoxide- and NADPH oxidase-dependent manner in CMVEC with innate, but not with small interfering RNA (siRNA)-downregulated Nox4 activity. CORM-A1, a CO-releasing compound, inhibited Nox4-mediated ROS production and enhanced cell survival in TNF-α-challenged CMVEC. The ROS-induced CO-mediated survival mechanism requires functional interactions between the protein kinase B/Akt and extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK)/p38 MAPK signaling pathways activated by TNF-α. In Akt siRNA-transfected CMVEC and in cells with pharmacologically inhibited Akt, Erk1/2, and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activities, CORM-A1 was no longer capable of blocking Nox4 activation and apoptosis caused by TNF-α. Overall, Nox4 NADPH oxidase-derived ROS initiate both death and survival pathways in TNF-α-challenged CMVEC. The ROS-dependent cell survival pathway is mediated by an endogenous antioxidant CO, which inhibits Nox4 activation via a mechanism that includes Akt, ERK1/2, and p38 MAPK signaling pathways. The ability of CO to inhibit TNF-α-induced ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK activities in an Akt-dependent manner appears to be the key element in ROS-dependent survival of endothelial cells during TNF-α-mediated brain inflammatory disease. PMID:21123734

  7. NADPH oxidase activity in allergenic pollen grains of different plant species.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Ling; Takai, Toshiro; Kamijo, Seiji; Gunawan, Hendra; Ogawa, Hideoki; Okumura, Ko

    2009-09-25

    Pollen is an important trigger of allergic diseases. Recent studies have shown that ragweed pollen NAD(P)H oxidase generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) and plays a prominent role in the pathogenesis of allergies in mouse models. Here, we demonstrated that allergenic pollen grains showed NAD(P)H oxidase activity that differed in intensity and localization according to the plant families. The activity occurred at the surface or in the cytoplasm in pollen of grasses, birch, and ragweed; in subpollen particles released from ragweed pollen; and at the inner surface or in the cytoplasm but not on the outer wall, which was sloughed off after the rupture, of pollen of Japanese cedar and Japanese cypress. The activity was mostly concentrated within insoluble fractions, suggesting that it facilitates the exposure of tissues to ROS generated by this enzyme. The extent of exposure to pollen-generated ROS could differ among the plant families.

  8. HIV-1 Nef associates with p22-phox, a component of the NADPH oxidase protein complex.

    PubMed

    Salmen, Siham; Colmenares, Melisa; Peterson, Darrel L; Reyes, Elbert; Rosales, Jose D; Berrueta, Lisbeth

    2010-01-01

    Altered neutrophil function may contribute to the development of AIDS during the course of HIV infection. It has been described that Nef, a regulatory protein from HIV, can modulate superoxide production in other cells, therefore altered superoxide production in neutrophils from HIV infected patients, could be secondary to a direct effect of Nef on components of the NADPH oxidase complex. In this work, we describe that Nef, was capable of increasing superoxide production in human neutrophils. Furthermore, a specific association between Nef and p22-phox, a membrane component of the NADPH oxidase complex, was found. We propose that this association may reflect a capability of Nef to modulate by direct association, the enzymatic complex responsible for one of the most efficient innate defense mechanisms in phagocytes, contributing to the pathogenesis of the disease.

  9. Identification and Characterization of an Inducible NAD(P)H Dehydrogenase from Red Beetroot Mitochondria.

    PubMed Central

    Menz, R. I.; Day, D. A.

    1996-01-01

    Exogenous NADH oxidation of mitochondria isolated from red beetroots (Beta vulgaris L.) increased dramatically upon slicing and aging the tissue. Anion-exchange chromatography of soluble fractions derived by sonication from fresh and aged beetroot mitochondria yielded three NADH dehydrogenase activity peaks. The third peak from aged beetroot mitochondria was separated into two activities by blue-affinity chromatography. One of these (the unbound peak) readily oxidized dihydrolipoamide, whereas the other (the bound peak) did not. The latter was an NAD(P)H dehydrogenase with high quinone and ferricyanide reductase activity and was absent from fresh beet mitochondria. Further affinity chromatography of the NAD(P)H dehydrogenase indicated enrichment of a 58-kD polypeptide on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. We propose that this 58-kD protein is the inducible, external NADH dehydrogenase. PMID:12226415

  10. Identification and Characterization of an Inducible NAD(P)H Dehydrogenase from Red Beetroot Mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Menz, R. I.; Day, D. A.

    1996-10-01

    Exogenous NADH oxidation of mitochondria isolated from red beetroots (Beta vulgaris L.) increased dramatically upon slicing and aging the tissue. Anion-exchange chromatography of soluble fractions derived by sonication from fresh and aged beetroot mitochondria yielded three NADH dehydrogenase activity peaks. The third peak from aged beetroot mitochondria was separated into two activities by blue-affinity chromatography. One of these (the unbound peak) readily oxidized dihydrolipoamide, whereas the other (the bound peak) did not. The latter was an NAD(P)H dehydrogenase with high quinone and ferricyanide reductase activity and was absent from fresh beet mitochondria. Further affinity chromatography of the NAD(P)H dehydrogenase indicated enrichment of a 58-kD polypeptide on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. We propose that this 58-kD protein is the inducible, external NADH dehydrogenase.

  11. Zinc pyrithione salvages reperfusion injury by inhibiting NADPH oxidase activation in cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Kasi, Viswanath; Bodiga, Sreedhar; Kommuguri, Upendra Nadh; Sankuru, Suneetha; Bodiga, Vijaya Lakshmi

    2011-07-01

    Zinc pyrithione (ZPT), has a strong anti-apoptotic effect when administered just before reperfusion. Because oxidative stress has been proposed to contribute to myocardial reperfusion injury, we tested whether ZPT can reduce the production of reactive oxygen species during reoxygenation in cultured neonatal rat cardiac myocytes and evaluated the role of NADPH oxidase in hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) injury. The cells were subjected to 8h of simulated ischemia, followed by either 30 min or 16 h of reoxygenation. ZPT when started just before reoxygenation significantly reduced superoxide generation, LDH release and improved cell survival compared to H/R. Attenuation of the ROS production by ZPT paralleled its capacity to prevent pyknotic nuclei formation. In addition, ZPT reversed the H/R-induced expression of NOX2 and p47(phox) phosphorylation indicating that ZPT directly protects cardiomyocytes from reperfusion injury by a mechanism that attenuates NADPH oxidase mediated intracellular oxidative stress.

  12. [Localization of NADPH diaphorase in central nervous system of the chiton Leptochiton assimilis in normal conditions and during hypoxia].

    PubMed

    Kotsiuba, E P

    2003-01-01

    By light and electron microscope histochemical and cytochemical methods, the localization and activity of NADPH-diaphorase (NADPH-d) were studied in the central nervous system (CNS) of the chiton in control and after hypoxia. After acute hypoxia, the enzymatic activity increased in all regions of CNS. At a chronic hypoxia, the activity of NADPH-d decreased to remain, however, higher than in control. Ultrastructural studies confirmed the availability of structural changes in neurons, and shifts in the activity of NADPH-d in control and in experimental mollusks. The elevated enzymatic activity revealed in this study may be due to the fact that these mollusks have been evolutionary adapted to a periodical oxygen deficiency.

  13. Inhibition of NADPH oxidase activation in endothelial cells by ortho-methoxy-substituted catechols.

    PubMed

    Johnson, David K; Schillinger, Kurt J; Kwait, David M; Hughes, Chambers V; McNamara, Erin J; Ishmael, Fauod; O'Donnell, Robert W; Chang, Ming-Mei; Hogg, Michael G; Dordick, Jonathan S; Santhanam, Lakshmi; Ziegler, Linda M; Holland, James A

    2002-01-01

    NADPH oxidase is a major enzymatic source of oxygen free radicals in stimulated endothelial cells (ECs). The ortho-methoxy-substituted catechol, apocynin (4-hydroxy-3-methoxyacetophenone), isolated from the traditional medicinal plant Picrorhiza kurroa, inhibits the release of superoxide anion (O2*-) by this enzyme. The compound acts by blocking the assembly of a functional NADPH oxidase complex. The underlying chemistry of this inhibitory activity, and its physiological significance to EC proliferation, have been investigated. A critical event is the reaction of ortho-methoxy-substituted catechols with reactive oxygen species (ROS) and peroxidase. Analysis of this reaction reveals that apocynin is converted to a symmetrical dimer through the formation of a 5,5' carbon-carbon bond. Both reduced glutathione and L-cysteine inhibit this dimerization process. Catechols without the ortho-methoxy-substituted group do not undergo this chemical reaction. Superoxide production by an endothelial cell-free system incubated with apocynin was nearly completely inhibited after a lagtime for inhibition of ca. 2 min. Conversely, O2*- production was nearly completely inhibited, without a lagtime, by incubation with the dimeric form of apocynin. The apocynin dimer undergoes a two-electron transfer reaction with standard redox potentials of -0.75 and -1.34 V as determined by cyclic voltammetry. Inhibition of endothelial NADPH oxidase by apocynin caused a dose-dependent inhibition of cell proliferation. These findings identify a metabolite of an ortho-methoxy-substituted catechol, which may be the active compound formed within stimulated ECs that prevents NADPH oxidase complex assembly and activation.

  14. NADPH-dependent Reductases Involved in the Detoxification of Reactive Carbonyls in Plants*

    PubMed Central

    Yamauchi, Yasuo; Hasegawa, Ayaka; Taninaka, Ai; Mizutani, Masaharu; Sugimoto, Yukihiro

    2011-01-01

    Reactive carbonyls, especially α,β-unsaturated carbonyls produced through lipid peroxidation, damage biomolecules such as proteins and nucleotides; elimination of these carbonyls is therefore essential for maintaining cellular homeostasis. In this study, we focused on an NADPH-dependent detoxification of reactive carbonyls in plants and explored the enzyme system involved in this detoxification process. Using acrolein (CH2 = CHCHO) as a model α,β-unsaturated carbonyl, we purified a predominant NADPH-dependent acrolein-reducing enzyme from cucumber leaves, and we identified the enzyme as an alkenal/one oxidoreductase (AOR) catalyzing reduction of an α,β-unsaturated bond. Cloning of cDNA encoding AORs revealed that cucumber contains two distinct AORs, chloroplastic AOR and cytosolic AOR. Homologs of cucumber AORs were found among various plant species, including Arabidopsis, and we confirmed that a homolog of Arabidopsis (At1g23740) also had AOR activity. Phylogenetic analysis showed that these AORs belong to a novel class of AORs. They preferentially reduced α,β-unsaturated ketones rather than α,β-unsaturated aldehydes. Furthermore, we selected candidates of other classes of enzymes involved in NADPH-dependent reduction of carbonyls based on the bioinformatic information, and we found that an aldo-keto reductase (At2g37770) and aldehyde reductases (At1g54870 and At3g04000) were implicated in the reduction of an aldehyde group of saturated aldehydes and methylglyoxal as well as α,β-unsaturated aldehydes in chloroplasts. These results suggest that different classes of NADPH-dependent reductases cooperatively contribute to the detoxification of reactive carbonyls. PMID:21169366

  15. Role of apoptosis-inducing factor, proline dehydrogenase, and NADPH oxidase in apoptosis and oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Natarajan, Sathish Kumar; Becker, Donald F

    2012-01-01

    Flavoproteins catalyze a variety of reactions utilizing flavin mononucleotide or flavin adenine dinucleotide as cofactors. The oxidoreductase properties of flavoenzymes implicate them in redox homeostasis, oxidative stress, and various cellular processes, including programmed cell death. Here we explore three critical flavoproteins involved in apoptosis and redox signaling, ie, apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), proline dehydrogenase, and NADPH oxidase. These proteins have diverse biochemical functions and influence apoptotic signaling by unique mechanisms. The role of AIF in apoptotic signaling is two-fold, with AIF changing intracellular location from the inner mitochondrial membrane space to the nucleus upon exposure of cells to apoptotic stimuli. In the mitochondria, AIF enhances mitochondrial bioenergetics and complex I activity/assembly to help maintain proper cellular redox homeostasis. After translocating to the nucleus, AIF forms a chromatin degrading complex with other proteins, such as cyclophilin A. AIF translocation from the mitochondria to the nucleus is triggered by oxidative stress, implicating AIF as a mitochondrial redox sensor. Proline dehydrogenase is a membrane-associated flavoenzyme in the mitochondrion that catalyzes the rate-limiting step of proline oxidation. Upregulation of proline dehydrogenase by the tumor suppressor, p53, leads to enhanced mitochondrial reactive oxygen species that induce the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. NADPH oxidases are a group of enzymes that generate reactive oxygen species for oxidative stress and signaling purposes. Upon activation, NADPH oxidase 2 generates a burst of superoxide in neutrophils that leads to killing of microbes during phagocytosis. NADPH oxidases also participate in redox signaling that involves hydrogen peroxide-mediated activation of different pathways regulating cell proliferation and cell death. Potential therapeutic strategies for each enzyme are also highlighted. PMID:22593641

  16. Two-photon fluorescence spectroscopy and microscopy of NAD(P)H and flavoprotein.

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Shaohui; Heikal, Ahmed A; Webb, Watt W

    2002-01-01

    Two-photon (2P) ratiometric redox fluorometry and microscopy of pyridine nucleotide (NAD(P)H) and flavoprotein (FP) fluorescence, at 800-nm excitation, has been demonstrated as a function of mitochondrial metabolic states in isolated adult dog cardiomyocytes. We have measured the 2P-excitation spectra of NAD(P)H, flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), and lipoamide dehydrogenase (LipDH) over the wavelength range of 720-1000 nm. The 2P-excitation action cross sections (sigma2P) increase rapidly at wavelengths below 800 nm, and the maximum sigma2P of LipDH is approximately 5 and 12 times larger than those of FAD and NAD(P)H, respectively. Only FAD and LipDH can be efficiently excited at wavelengths above 800 nm with a broad 2P-excitation band around 900 nm. Two autofluorescence spectral regions (i.e., approximately 410-490 nm and approximately 510-650 nm) of isolated cardiomyocytes were imaged using 2P-laser scanning microscopy. At 750-nm excitation, fluorescence of both regions is dominated by NAD(P)H emission, as indicated by fluorescence intensity changes induced by mitochondrial inhibitor NaCN and mitochondria uncoupler carbonyl cyanide p-(trifluoromethoxy) phenyl hydrazone (FCCP). In contrast, 2P-FP fluorescence dominates at 900-nm excitation, which is in agreement with the sigma2P measurements. Finally, 2P-autofluorescence emission spectra of single cardiac cells have been obtained, with results suggesting potential for substantial improvement of the proposed 2P-ratiometric technique. PMID:11964266

  17. Evolution of NADPH Oxidase Inhibitors: Selectivity and Mechanisms for Target Engagement

    PubMed Central

    Altenhöfer, Sebastian; Radermacher, Kim A.; Kleikers, Pamela W.M.; Wingler, Kirstin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Oxidative stress, an excess of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production versus consumption, may be involved in the pathogenesis of different diseases. The only known enzymes solely dedicated to ROS generation are nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases with their catalytic subunits (NOX). After the clinical failure of most antioxidant trials, NOX inhibitors are the most promising therapeutic option for diseases associated with oxidative stress. Recent Advances: Historical NADPH oxidase inhibitors, apocynin and diphenylene iodonium, are un-specific and not isoform selective. Novel NOX inhibitors stemming from rational drug discovery approaches, for example, GKT137831, ML171, and VAS2870, show improved specificity for NADPH oxidases and moderate NOX isoform selectivity. Along with NOX2 docking sequence (NOX2ds)-tat, a peptide-based inhibitor, the use of these novel small molecules in animal models has provided preliminary in vivo evidence for a pathophysiological role of specific NOX isoforms. Critical Issues: Here, we discuss whether novel NOX inhibitors enable reliable validation of NOX isoforms' pathological roles and whether this knowledge supports translation into pharmacological applications. Modern NOX inhibitors have increased the evidence for pathophysiological roles of NADPH oxidases. However, in comparison to knockout mouse models, NOX inhibitors have limited isoform selectivity. Thus, their use does not enable clear statements on the involvement of individual NOX isoforms in a given disease. Future Directions: The development of isoform-selective NOX inhibitors and biologicals will enable reliable validation of specific NOX isoforms in disease models other than the mouse. Finally, GKT137831, the first NOX inhibitor in clinical development, is poised to provide proof of principle for the clinical potential of NOX inhibition. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 23, 406–427. PMID:24383718

  18. Early-life stress-induced anxiety-related behavior in adult mice partially requires forebrain corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 1.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Dong; Labermaier, Christiana; Holsboer, Florian; Wurst, Wolfgang; Deussing, Jan M; Müller, Marianne B; Schmidt, Mathias V

    2012-08-01

    Early-life stress may lead to persistent changes in central corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and the CRH receptor 1 (CRHR1) system that modulates anxiety-related behavior. However, it remains unknown whether CRH-CRHR1 signaling is involved in early-life stress-induced anxiety-related behavior in adult animals. In the present study, we used conditional forebrain CRHR1 knockout (CRHR1-CKO) mice and examined the potential role of forebrain CRHR1 in the anxiogenic effects of early-life stress. As adults, wild-type mice that received unstable maternal care during the first postnatal week showed reduced body weight gain and increased anxiety levels in the open field test, which were prevented in stressed CRHR1-CKO mice. In the light-dark box test, control CRHR1-CKO mice were less anxious, but early-life stress increased anxiety levels in both wild-type and CRHR1-CKO mice. In the elevated plus maze test, early-life stress had only subtle effects on anxiety-related behavior. Moreover, early-life stress did not alter the basal home cage activity and gene expression levels of key hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis regulators in adult wild-type and CRHR1-CKO mice, but enhanced neuroendocrine reactivity to acute immobilization stress in CRHR1-CKO mice. Our findings highlight the importance of forebrain CRHR1 in modulating some of the anxiogenic effects of early-life stress, and suggest that other neural circuits are also involved in the programming effects of early-life stress on anxiety-related behavior.

  19. Transhydrogenase Promotes the Robustness and Evolvability of E. coli Deficient in NADPH Production

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Hsin-Hung; Marx, Christopher J.; Sauer, Uwe

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic networks revolve around few metabolites recognized by diverse enzymes and involved in myriad reactions. Though hub metabolites are considered as stepping stones to facilitate the evolutionary expansion of biochemical pathways, changes in their production or consumption often impair cellular physiology through their system-wide connections. How does metabolism endure perturbations brought immediately by pathway modification and restore hub homeostasis in the long run? To address this question we studied laboratory evolution of pathway-engineered Escherichia coli that underproduces the redox cofactor NADPH on glucose. Literature suggests multiple possibilities to restore NADPH homeostasis. Surprisingly, genetic dissection of isolates from our twelve evolved populations revealed merely two solutions: (1) modulating the expression of membrane-bound transhydrogenase (mTH) in every population; (2) simultaneously consuming glucose with acetate, an unfavored byproduct normally excreted during glucose catabolism, in two subpopulations. Notably, mTH displays broad phylogenetic distribution and has also played a predominant role in laboratory evolution of Methylobacterium extorquens deficient in NADPH production. Convergent evolution of two phylogenetically and metabolically distinct species suggests mTH as a conserved buffering mechanism that promotes the robustness and evolvability of metabolism. Moreover, adaptive diversification via evolving dual substrate consumption highlights the flexibility of physiological systems to exploit ecological opportunities. PMID:25715029

  20. Trimethyltin-Induced Microglial Activation via NADPH Oxidase and MAPKs Pathway in BV-2 Microglial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Da Jung; Kim, Yong Sik

    2015-01-01

    Trimethyltin (TMT) is known as a potent neurotoxicant that causes neuronal cell death and neuroinflammation, particularly in the hippocampus. Microglial activation is one of the prominent pathological features of TMT neurotoxicity. Nevertheless, it remains unclear how microglial activation occurs in TMT intoxication. In this study, we aimed to investigate the signaling pathways in TMT-induced microglial activation using BV-2 murine microglial cells. Our results revealed that TMT generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) and increases the expression of CD11b and nuclear factor-κB- (NF-κB-) mediated nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) α in BV-2 cells. We also observed that NF-κB activation was controlled by p38 and JNK phosphorylation. Moreover, TMT-induced ROS generation occurred via nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase in BV-2 cells. Interestingly, treatment with the NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin significantly suppressed p38 and JNK phosphorylation and NF-κB activation and ultimately the production of proinflammatory mediators upon TMT exposure. These findings indicate that NADPH oxidase-dependent ROS generation activated p38 and JNK mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), which then stimulated NF-κB to release proinflammatory mediators in the TMT-treated BV-2 cells. PMID:26221064

  1. Role of the Rho GTPase Rac in the activation of the phagocyte NADPH oxidase

    PubMed Central

    Pick, Edgar

    2014-01-01

    The superoxide-generating NADPH oxidase of phagocytes consists of the membrane-associated cytochrome b558 (a heterodimer of Nox2 and p22phox) and 4 cytosolic components: p47phox, p67phox, p40phox, and the small GTPase, Rac, in complex with RhoGDI. Superoxide is produced by the NADPH-driven reduction of molecular oxygen, via a redox gradient located in Nox2. Electron flow in Nox2 is initiated by interaction with cytosolic components, which translocate to the membrane, p67phox playing the central role. The participation of Rac is expressed in the following sequence: (1) Translocation of the RacGDP-RhoGDI complex to the membrane; (2) Dissociation of RacGDP from RhoGDI; (3) GDP to GTP exchange on Rac, mediated by a guanine nucleotide exchange factor; (4) Binding of RacGTP to p67phox; (5) Induction of a conformational change in p67phox, promoting interaction with Nox2. The particular involvement of Rac in NADPH oxidase assembly serves as a paradigm for signaling by Rho GTPases, in general. PMID:24598074

  2. Persistent activation of microglia and NADPH drive hippocampal dysfunction in experimental multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Di Filippo, Massimiliano; de Iure, Antonio; Giampà, Carmela; Chiasserini, Davide; Tozzi, Alessandro; Orvietani, Pier Luigi; Ghiglieri, Veronica; Tantucci, Michela; Durante, Valentina; Quiroga-Varela, Ana; Mancini, Andrea; Costa, Cinzia; Sarchielli, Paola; Fusco, Francesca Romana; Calabresi, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive impairment is common in multiple sclerosis (MS). Unfortunately, the synaptic and molecular mechanisms underlying MS-associated cognitive dysfunction are largely unknown. We explored the presence and the underlying mechanism of cognitive and synaptic hippocampal dysfunction during the remission phase of experimental MS. Experiments were performed in a chronic-relapsing experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model of MS, after the resolution of motor deficits. Immunohistochemistry and patch-clamp recordings were performed in the CA1 hippocampal area. The hole-board was utilized as cognitive/behavioural test. In the remission phase of experimental MS, hippocampal microglial cells showed signs of activation, CA1 hippocampal synapses presented an impaired long-term potentiation (LTP) and an alteration of spatial tests became evident. The activation of hippocampal microglia mediated synaptic and cognitive/behavioural alterations during EAE. Specifically, LTP blockade was found to be caused by the reactive oxygen species (ROS)-producing enzyme nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase. We suggest that in the remission phase of experimental MS microglia remains activated, causing synaptic dysfunctions mediated by NADPH oxidase. Inhibition of microglial activation and NADPH oxidase may represent a promising strategy to prevent neuroplasticity impairment associated with active neuro-inflammation, with the aim to improve cognition and counteract MS disease progression. PMID:26887636

  3. Polymorphisms in NADPH oxidase CYBA gene modify the risk of ESRD in patients with chronic glomerulonephritis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hui; Chen, Min; Zhu, Ying; Wang, Bing; Liu, Xiao-ning; Zuo, Zhi; Tang, Feng-Ying

    2016-01-01

    End-stage renal disease (ESRD) was defined as start of renal replacement therapy or death due to kidney disease. However, death due to acute kidney injury was not included. It typically occurs when chronic renal failure progresses to a point where the kidneys are permanently functioning at less than 10% of their capacity. Oxidative stress (OS) plays a crucial role in ESRD. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) is one of the most important enzymes during oxidative stress. Cytochrome b light chain (CYBA), encoded by a polymorphic gene, which is a critical component of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH)/NADPH oxidase system and plays an important role in electron transport and superoxide anion production, is located on chromosome band 16q24 and has six exons spanning almost 7.76 kb of genomic DNA. CYBA gene polymorphisms can influence the activity of NADPH oxidase. To evaluate the association between CYBA gene polymorphisms and ESRD, we genotyped five CYBA polymorphisms using TaqMan allelic discrimination assay on DNA samples from 306 healthy controls and 332 patients with ESRD. Our results suggested that rs1049255 polymorphism of CYBA modified the risk of ESRD (p  =  0.019; OR  =  0.625; 95%CI  =  0.424-0.921). GG genotype and G allele might be a protective factor against the risk of ESRD, especially in patients with chronic glomerulonephritis.

  4. Molecular Insights of p47phox Phosphorylation Dynamics in the Regulation of NADPH Oxidase Activation and Superoxide Production*

    PubMed Central

    Meijles, Daniel N.; Fan, Lampson M.; Howlin, Brendan J.; Li, Jian-Mei

    2014-01-01

    Phagocyte superoxide production by a multicomponent NADPH oxidase is important in host defense against microbial invasion. However inappropriate NADPH oxidase activation causes inflammation. Endothelial cells express NADPH oxidase and endothelial oxidative stress due to prolonged NADPH oxidase activation predisposes many diseases. Discovering the mechanism of NADPH oxidase activation is essential for developing novel treatment of these diseases. The p47phox is a key regulatory subunit of NADPH oxidase; however, due to the lack of full protein structural information, the mechanistic insight of p47phox phosphorylation in NADPH oxidase activation remains incomplete. Based on crystal structures of three functional domains, we generated a computational structural model of the full p47phox protein. Using a combination of in silico phosphorylation, molecular dynamics simulation and protein/protein docking, we discovered that the C-terminal tail of p47phox is critical for stabilizing its autoinhibited structure. Ser-379 phosphorylation disrupts H-bonds that link the C-terminal tail to the autoinhibitory region (AIR) and the tandem Src homology 3 (SH3) domains, allowing the AIR to undergo phosphorylation to expose the SH3 pocket for p22phox binding. These findings were confirmed by site-directed mutagenesis and gene transfection of p47phox−/− coronary microvascular cells. Compared with wild-type p47phox cDNA transfected cells, the single mutation of S379A completely blocked p47phox membrane translocation, binding to p22phox and endothelial O2⨪ production in response to acute stimulation of PKC. p47phox C-terminal tail plays a key role in stabilizing intramolecular interactions at rest. Ser-379 phosphorylation is a molecular switch which initiates p47phox conformational changes and NADPH oxidase-dependent superoxide production by cells. PMID:24970888

  5. Depletion of NADP(H) due to CD38 activation triggers endothelial dysfunction in the postischemic heart

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, Levy A.; Boslett, James; Varadharaj, Saradhadevi; De Pascali, Francesco; Hemann, Craig; Druhan, Lawrence J.; Ambrosio, Giuseppe; El-Mahdy, Mohamed; Zweier, Jay L.

    2015-01-01

    In the postischemic heart, coronary vasodilation is impaired due to loss of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) function. Although the eNOS cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is depleted, its repletion only partially restores eNOS-mediated coronary vasodilation, indicating that other critical factors trigger endothelial dysfunction. Therefore, studies were performed to characterize the unidentified factor(s) that trigger endothelial dysfunction in the postischemic heart. We observed that depletion of the eNOS substrate NADPH occurs in the postischemic heart with near total depletion from the endothelium, triggering impaired eNOS function and limiting BH4 rescue through NADPH-dependent salvage pathways. In isolated rat hearts subjected to 30 min of ischemia and reperfusion (I/R), depletion of the NADP(H) pool occurred and was most marked in the endothelium, with >85% depletion. Repletion of NADPH after I/R increased NOS-dependent coronary flow well above that with BH4 alone. With combined NADPH and BH4 repletion, full restoration of NOS-dependent coronary flow occurred. Profound endothelial NADPH depletion was identified to be due to marked activation of the NAD(P)ase-activity of CD38 and could be prevented by inhibition or specific knockdown of this protein. Depletion of the NADPH precursor, NADP+, coincided with formation of 2’-phospho-ADP ribose, a CD38-derived signaling molecule. Inhibition of CD38 prevented NADP(H) depletion and preserved endothelium-dependent relaxation and NO generation with increased recovery of contractile function and decreased infarction in the postischemic heart. Thus, CD38 activation is an important cause of postischemic endothelial dysfunction and presents a novel therapeutic target for prevention of this dysfunction in unstable coronary syndromes. PMID:26297248

  6. Molecular insights of p47phox phosphorylation dynamics in the regulation of NADPH oxidase activation and superoxide production.

    PubMed

    Meijles, Daniel N; Fan, Lampson M; Howlin, Brendan J; Li, Jian-Mei

    2014-08-15

    Phagocyte superoxide production by a multicomponent NADPH oxidase is important in host defense against microbial invasion. However inappropriate NADPH oxidase activation causes inflammation. Endothelial cells express NADPH oxidase and endothelial oxidative stress due to prolonged NADPH oxidase activation predisposes many diseases. Discovering the mechanism of NADPH oxidase activation is essential for developing novel treatment of these diseases. The p47(phox) is a key regulatory subunit of NADPH oxidase; however, due to the lack of full protein structural information, the mechanistic insight of p47(phox) phosphorylation in NADPH oxidase activation remains incomplete. Based on crystal structures of three functional domains, we generated a computational structural model of the full p47(phox) protein. Using a combination of in silico phosphorylation, molecular dynamics simulation and protein/protein docking, we discovered that the C-terminal tail of p47(phox) is critical for stabilizing its autoinhibited structure. Ser-379 phosphorylation disrupts H-bonds that link the C-terminal tail to the autoinhibitory region (AIR) and the tandem Src homology 3 (SH3) domains, allowing the AIR to undergo phosphorylation to expose the SH3 pocket for p22(phox) binding. These findings were confirmed by site-directed mutagenesis and gene transfection of p47(phox-/-) coronary microvascular cells. Compared with wild-type p47(phox) cDNA transfected cells, the single mutation of S379A completely blocked p47(phox) membrane translocation, binding to p22(phox) and endothelial O2(·-) production in response to acute stimulation of PKC. p47(phox) C-terminal tail plays a key role in stabilizing intramolecular interactions at rest. Ser-379 phosphorylation is a molecular switch which initiates p47(phox) conformational changes and NADPH oxidase-dependent superoxide production by cells.

  7. Sphingosine 1-Phosphate-Induced ICAM-1 Expression via NADPH Oxidase/ROS-Dependent NF-κB Cascade on Human Pulmonary Alveolar Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chih-Chung; Yang, Chien-Chung; Cho, Rou-Ling; Wang, Chen-Yu; Hsiao, Li-Der; Yang, Chuen-Mao

    2016-01-01

    The intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression is frequently correlated with the lung inflammation. In lung injury, sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P, bioactive sphingolipid metabolite), participate gene regulation of adhesion molecule in inflammation progression and aggravate tissue damage. To investigate the transduction mechanisms of the S1P in pulmonary epithelium, we demonstrated that exposure of HPAEpiCs (human pulmonary alveolar epithelial cells) to S1P significantly induces ICAM-1 expression leading to increase monocyte adhesion on the surface of HPAEpiCs. These phenomena were effectively attenuated by pretreatments with series of inhibitors such as Rottlerin (PKCδ), PF431396 (PYK2), diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI), apocynin (NADPH oxidase), Edaravone (ROS), and Bay11-7082 (NF-κB). Consistently, knockdown with siRNA transfection of PKCδ, PYK2, p47phox, and p65 exhibited the same results. Pretreatment with both Gq-coupled receptor antagonist (GPA2A) and Gi/o-coupled receptor antagonist (GPA2) also blocked the upregulation of ICAM-1 protein and mRNA induced by S1P. We observed that S1P induced PYK2 activation via a Gq-coupled receptor/PKCδ-dependent pathway. In addition, S1P induced NADPH oxidase activation and intracellular ROS generation, which were also reduced by Rottlerin or PF431396. We demonstrated that S1P induced NF-κB p65 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation in HPAEpiCs. Activated NF-κB was blocked by Rottlerin, PF431396, APO, DPI, or Edaravone. Besides, the results of monocyte adhesion assay indicated that S1P-induced ICAM-1 expression on HPAEpiCs can enhance the monocyte attachments. In the S1P-treated mice, we found that the levels of ICAM-1 protein and mRNA in the lung fractions, the pulmonary hematoma and leukocyte count in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were enhanced through a PKCδ/PYK2/NADPH oxidase/ROS/NF-κB signaling pathway. We concluded that S1P-accelerated lung damage is due to the ICAM-1 induction associated with

  8. Rescue of motor coordination by Purkinje cell-targeted restoration of Kv3.3 channels in Kcnc3-null mice requires Kcnc1.

    PubMed

    Hurlock, Edward C; Bose, Mitali; Pierce, Ganon; Joho, Rolf H

    2009-12-16

    The role of cerebellar Kv3.1 and Kv3.3 channels in motor coordination was examined with an emphasis on the deep cerebellar nuclei (DCN). Kv3 channel subunits encoded by Kcnc genes are distinguished by rapid activation and deactivation kinetics that support high-frequency, narrow action potential firing. Previously we reported that increased lateral deviation while ambulating and slips while traversing a narrow beam of ataxic Kcnc3-null mice were corrected by restoration of Kv3.3 channels specifically to Purkinje cells, whereas Kcnc3-mutant mice additionally lacking one Kcnc1 allele were partially rescued. Here, we report mice lacking all Kcnc1 and Kcnc3 alleles exhibit no such rescue. For Purkinje cell output to reach the rest of the brain it must be conveyed by neurons of the DCN or vestibular nuclei. As Kcnc1, but not Kcnc3, alleles are lost, mutant mice exhibit increasing gait ataxia accompanied by spike broadening and deceleration in DCN neurons, suggesting the facet of coordination rescued by Purkinje-cell-restricted Kv3.3 restoration in mice lacking just Kcnc3 is hypermetria, while gait ataxia emerges when additionally Kcnc1 alleles are lost. Thus, fast repolarization in Purkinje cells appears important for normal movement velocity, whereas DCN neurons are a prime candidate locus where fast repolarization is necessary for normal gait patterning.

  9. The E3 ligase APC/C-Cdh1 is required for associative fear memory and long-term potentiation in the amygdala of adult mice.

    PubMed

    Pick, Joseph E; Malumbres, Marcos; Klann, Eric

    2012-12-14

    The anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) is an E3 ligase regulated by Cdh1. Beyond its role in controlling cell cycle progression, APC/C-Cdh1 has been detected in neurons and plays a role in long-lasting synaptic plasticity and long-term memory. Herein, we further examined the role of Cdh1 in synaptic plasticity and memory by generating knockout mice where Cdh1 was conditionally eliminated from the forebrain post-developmentally. Although spatial learning and memory in the Morris water maze (MWM) was normal, the Cdh1 conditional knockout (cKO) mice displayed enhanced reversal learning in the MWM and in a water-based Y maze. In addition, we found that the Cdh1 cKO mice had impaired associative fear memory and exhibited impaired long-term potentiation (LTP) in amygdala slices. Finally, we observed increased expression of Shank1 and NR2A expression in amygdalar slices from the Cdh1 cKO mice following the induction of LTP, suggesting a possible molecular mechanism underlying the behavioral and synaptic plasticity impairments displayed in these mice. Our findings are consistent with a role for the APC/C-Cdh1 in fear memory and synaptic plasticity in the amygdala.

  10. Sinomenine, a natural dextrorotatory morphinan analog, is anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective through inhibition of microglial NADPH oxidase

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Li; Xu, Zongli; Zhang, Wei; Wilson, Belinda; Hong, Jau-Shyong; Flood, Patrick M

    2007-01-01

    Background The mechanisms involved in the induction and regulation of inflammation resulting in dopaminergic (DA) neurotoxicity in Parkinson's disease (PD) are complex and incompletely understood. Microglia-mediated inflammation has recently been implicated as a critical mechanism responsible for progressive neurodegeneration. Methods Mesencephalic neuron-glia cultures and reconstituted cultures were used to investigate the molecular mechanisms of sinomenine (SN)-mediated anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects in both the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- and the 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+)-mediated models of PD. Results SN showed equivalent efficacy in protecting against DA neuron death in rat midbrain neuron-glial cultures at both micro- and sub-picomolar concentrations, but no protection was seen at nanomolar concentrations. The neuroprotective effect of SN was attributed to inhibition of microglial activation, since SN significantly decreased tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by microglia. In addition, from the therapeutic point of view, we focused on sub-picomolar concentration of SN for further mechanistic studies. We found that 10-14 M of SN failed to protect DA neurons against MPP+-induced toxicity in the absence of microglia. More importantly, SN failed to show a protective effect in neuron-glia cultures from mice lacking functional NADPH oxidase (PHOX), a key enzyme for extracellular superoxide production in immune cells. Furthermore, we demonstrated that SN reduced LPS-induced extracellular ROS production through the inhibition of the PHOX cytosolic subunit p47phoxtranslocation to the cell membrane. Conclusion Our findings strongly suggest that the protective effects of SN are most likely mediated through the inhibition of microglial PHOX activity. These findings suggest a novel therapy to treat inflammation-mediated neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:17880684

  11. Kaempferol suppresses collagen-induced platelet activation by inhibiting NADPH oxidase and protecting SHP-2 from oxidative inactivation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Su Bin; Jang, Ji Yong; Chae, Yun Hee; Min, Ji Hyun; Baek, Jin Young; Kim, Myunghee; Park, Yunjeong; Hwang, Gwi Seo; Ryu, Jae-Sang; Chang, Tong-Shin

    2015-06-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated upon collagen stimulation act as second messengers to propagate various platelet-activating events. Among the ROS-generating enzymes, NADPH oxidase (NOX) plays a prominent role in platelet activation. Thus, NOX has been suggested as a novel target for anti-platelet drug development. Although kaempferol has been identified as a NOX inhibitor, the influence of kaempferol on the activation of platelets and the underlying mechanism have never been investigated. Here, we studied the effects of kaempferol on NOX activation, ROS-dependent signaling pathways, and functional responses in collagen-stimulated platelets. Superoxide anion generation stimulated by collagen was significantly inhibited by kaempferol in a concentration-dependent manner. More importantly, kaempferol directly bound p47(phox), a major regulatory subunit of NOX, and significantly inhibited collagen-induced phosphorylation of p47(phox) and NOX activation. In accordance with the inhibition of NOX, ROS-dependent inactivation of SH2 domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase-2 (SHP-2) was potently protected by kaempferol. Subsequently, the specific tyrosine phosphorylation of key components (Syk, Vav1, Btk, and PLCγ2) of collagen receptor signaling pathways was suppressed by kaempferol. Kaempferol also attenuated downstream responses, including cytosolic calcium elevation, P-selectin surface exposure, and integrin-αIIbβ3 activation. Ultimately, kaempferol inhibited platelet aggregation and adhesion in response to collagen in vitro and prolonged in vivo thrombotic response in carotid arteries of mice. This study shows that kaempferol impairs collagen-induced platelet activation through inhibition of NOX-derived ROS production and subsequent oxidative inactivation of SHP-2. This effect suggests that kaempferol has therapeutic potential for the prevention and treatment of thrombovascular diseases.

  12. Thyroid Ca2+/NADPH-dependent H2O2 generation is partially inhibited by propylthiouracil and methimazole.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Andrea C Freitas; de Carvalho Cardoso, Luciene; Rosenthal, Doris; de Carvalho, Denise Pires

    2003-06-01

    H2O2 generation is a limiting step in thyroid hormone biosynthesis. Biochemical studies have confirmed that H2O2 is generated by a thyroid Ca2+/NADPH-dependent oxidase. Decreased H2O2 availability may be another mechanism of inhibition of thyroperoxidase activity produced by thioureylene compounds, as propylthiouracil (PTU) and methimazole (MMI) are antioxidant agents. Therefore, we analyzed whether PTU or MMI could scavenge H2O2 or inhibit thyroid NADPH oxidase activity in vitro. Our results show that PTU and thiourea did not significantly scavenge H2O2. However, MMI significantly scavenged H2O2 at high concentrations. Only MMI was able to decrease the amount of H2O2 generated by the glucose-glucose oxidase system. On the other hand, both PTU and MMI were able to partially inhibit thyroid NADPH oxidase activity in vitro. As PTU did not scavenge H2O2 under the conditions used here, we presume that this drug may directly inhibit thyroid NADPH oxidase. Also, at the concentration necessary to inhibit NADPH oxidase activity, MMI did not scavenge H2O2, also suggesting a direct effect of MMI on thyroid NADPH oxidase. In conclusion, this study shows that MMI, but not PTU, is able to scavenge H2O2 in the micromolar range and that both PTU and MMI can impair thyroid H2O2 generation in addition to their potent thyroperoxidase inhibitory effects.

  13. Biphasic Regulation of the NADPH Oxidase by HGF/c-Met Signaling Pathway in Primary Mouse Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Clavijo-Cornejo, Denise; Enriquez-Cortina, Cristina; López-Reyes, Alberto; Domínguez-Pérez, Mayra; Nuño, Natalia; Domínguez-Meraz, Marcela; Bucio, Leticia; Souza, Verónica; Factor, Valentina M.; Thorgeirsson, Snorri S.; Gutiérrez-Ruiz, María Concepción; Gómez-Quiroz, Luis E.

    2013-01-01

    Redox signaling is emerging as an essential mechanism in the regulation of biological activities of the cell. The HGF/c-Met signaling pathway has been implicated as a key regulator of the cellular redox homeostasis and oxidative stress. We previously demonstrated that genetic deletion of c-met in hepatocytes disrupts redox homeostasis by a mechanism involving NADPH oxidase. Here, we were focused to address the mechanism of NADPH oxidase regulation by HGF/c-Met signaling in primary mouse hepatocytes and its relevance. HGF induced a biphasic mechanism of NADPH oxidase regulation. The first phase employed the rapid increase in production of ROS as signaling effectors to activate the Nrf2-mediated protective response resulting in up-regulation of the antioxidant proteins, such as NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase and γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase. The second phase operated under a prolonged HGF exposure, caused a suppression of the NADPH oxidase components, including NOX2, NOX4, p22 and p67, and was able to abrogate the TGFβ-induced ROS production and improve cell viability. In conclusion, HGF/c-Met induces a Nrf2-mediated protective response by a double mechanism driven by NADPH oxidase. PMID:23333744

  14. Aqueous soluble tetrazolium/formazan MTS as an indicator of NADH- and NADPH-dependent dehydrogenase activity.

    PubMed

    Dunigan, D D; Waters, S B; Owen, T C

    1995-10-01

    Recently a new tetrazolium was described for the use of monitoring cell viability in culture. This tetrazolium, commonly referred to as MTS [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)- 5-(3-carboxymethonyphenol)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium, inner salt], has the unusual property that it can be reduced to a water-soluble formazan. beta-Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide/reduced (NADH) and beta-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate/reduced (NADPH) are examples of physiologically important reducing agents. In cell-free studies, MTS was reduce to the soluble formazan in the presence of NADH and NADPH, and reaction were compared to those with dithiothreitol (DTT) or 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME). The efficiency of these reactions was enhanced 1000-fold by the presence of phenazine methosulfate. Selectivity in the electron transfer from NADPH was slightly greater than NADH, and NADPH or NADH was much greater than the thiols DTT or 2-ME. Generation of either NADH or NADPH in solution by malate dehydrogenase or isocitrate dehydrogenase, respectively, was monitored by the MTS reduction reaction. The rate of formazan formation was comparable to the formation of NADH or NADPH. This system represents a useful tool for evaluating reaction kinetics in solutions of NAD- or NADP-dependent dehydrogenase enzymes, and these reactions can be performed in typical biological buffers containing reducing agents without significant interference to the MTS/formazan system.

  15. Purification and characterization of an NADPH-cytochrome P450 (cytochrome c) reductase from spearmint (Mentha spicata) glandular trichomes.

    PubMed

    Ponnamperuma, K; Croteau, R

    1996-05-01

    Solubilized NADPH-cytochrome c (P450) reductase was purified to homogeneity from an extract of spearmint (Mentha spicata) glandular trichomes by dye-ligand interaction chromatography on Matrex-Gel Red A and affinity chromatography on 2', 5'-adenosine diphosphate agarose. SDS-PAGE of the purified enzyme preparation revealed the presence of two similar proteins with masses of 82 kDa (major) and 77 kDa (minor) that crossreacted on immunoblot analysis with polyclonal antibodies directed against NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase from Jerusalem artichoke and from mung bean. Complete immunoinhibition of reductase activity was observed with both types of polyclonal antibodies, while only partial inhibition of activity resulted using a family of monoclonal antibodies directed against the Jerusalem artichoke cytochrome P450 reductase. Inhibition of the spearmint oil gland cytochrome c reductase was also observed with the diphenyliodonium ion. The K(m) values for the cosubstrates NADPH and cytochrome c were 6.2 and 3.7 microM, respectively, and the pH optimum for activity was at 8.5. The NADPH-cytochrome c reductase reconstituted NADPH-dependent (-)-4S-limonene-6-hydroxylase activity in the presence of cytochrome P450, purified from the microsomal fraction of spearmint oil gland cells and dilauroyl phosphatidyl choline. These characteristics establish the identity of the purified enzyme as a NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase.

  16. Gentamicin differentially alters cellular metabolism of cochlear hair cells as revealed by NAD(P)H fluorescence lifetime imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zholudeva, Lyandysha V.; Ward, Kristina G.; Nichols, Michael G.; Smith, Heather Jensen

    2015-05-01

    Aminoglycoside antibiotics are implicated as culprits of hearing loss in more than 120,000 individuals annually. Research has shown that the sensory cells, but not supporting cells, of the cochlea are readily damaged and/or lost after use of such antibiotics. High-frequency outer hair cells (OHCs) show a greater sensitivity to antibiotics than high- and low-frequency inner hair cells (IHCs). We hypothesize that variations in mitochondrial metabolism account for differences in susceptibility. Fluorescence lifetime microscopy was used to quantify changes in NAD(P)H in sensory and supporting cells from explanted murine cochleae exposed to mitochondrial uncouplers, inhibitors, and an ototoxic antibiotic, gentamicin (GM). Changes in metabolic state resulted in a redistribution of NAD(P)H between subcellular fluorescence lifetime pools. Supporting cells had a significantly longer lifetime than sensory cells. Pretreatment with GM increased NAD(P)H intensity in high-frequency sensory cells, as well as the NAD(P)H lifetime within IHCs. GM specifically increased NAD(P)H concentration in high-frequency OHCs, but not in IHCs or pillar cells. Variations in NAD(P)H intensity in response to mitochondrial toxins and GM were greatest in high-frequency OHCs. These results demonstrate that GM rapidly alters mitochondrial metabolism, differentially modulates cell metabolism, and provides evidence that GM-induced changes in metabolism are significant and greatest in high-frequency OHCs.

  17. Physiology-based kinetic modeling of neuronal energy metabolism unravels the molecular basis of NAD(P)H fluorescence transients

    PubMed Central

    Berndt, Nikolaus; Kann, Oliver; Holzhütter, Hermann-Georg

    2015-01-01

    Imaging of the cellular fluorescence of the reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (phosphate) (NAD(P)H) is one of the few metabolic readouts that enable noninvasive and time-resolved monitoring of the functional status of mitochondria in neuronal tissues. Stimulation-induced transient changes in NAD(P)H fluorescence intensity frequently display a biphasic characteristic that is influenced by various molecular processes, e.g., intracellular calcium dynamics, tricarboxylic acid cycle activity, the malate–aspartate shuttle, the glycerol-3-phosphate shuttle, oxygen supply or adenosine triphosphate (ATP) demand. To evaluate the relative impact of these processes, we developed and validated a detailed physiologic mathematical model of the energy metabolism of neuronal cells and used the model to simulate metabolic changes of single cells and tissue slices under different settings of stimulus-induced activity and varying nutritional supply of glucose, pyruvate or lactate. Notably, all experimentally determined NAD(P)H responses could be reproduced with one and the same generic cellular model. Our computations reveal that (1) cells with quite different metabolic status may generate almost identical NAD(P)H responses and (2) cells of the same type may quite differently contribute to aggregate NAD(P)H responses recorded in brain slices, depending on the spatial location within the tissue. Our computational approach reconciles different and sometimes even controversial experimental findings and improves our mechanistic understanding of the metabolic changes underlying live-cell NAD(P)H fluorescence transients. PMID:25899300

  18. Evidence for the involvement of GPR40 and NADPH oxidase in palmitic acid-induced superoxide production and insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Graciano, Maria Fernanda; Valle, Maíra Mello; Curi, Rui; Carpinelli, Angelo Rafael

    2013-01-01

    G protein coupled receptor 40 (GPR40) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase complex have been shown to be involved in the fatty acid amplification of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). The effect of palmitic acid on superoxide production and insulin secretion by INS-1E cells and the possible involvement of GPR40 and NADPH oxidase in these processes were examined in this study. Cells were incubated during 1 h with palmitic acid in low and high glucose concentrations, a GPR40 agonist (GW9508) and inhibitors of NADPH oxidase (diphenyleneiodonium, DPI) and PKC (calphostin C). GW9508 induced superoxide production at 2.8 and 5.6 mM glucose concentrations and stimulated insulin secretion at 16.7 mM glucose concentration involving both PKC and NADPH oxidase activation. Palmitic acid induced superoxide production through NADPH oxidase and GPR40-dependent pathways and the stimulation of insulin secretion in the presence of a high glucose concentration was reduced by knockdown of GPR40 using siRNA. Our results suggest that palmitic acid induces superoxide production and potentiates GSIS through NADPH oxidase and GPR40 pathways in pancreatic ? cells.

  19. Growth arrest of lung carcinoma cells (A549) by polyacrylate-anchored peroxovanadate by activating Rac1-NADPH oxidase signalling axis.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Nirupama; Anwar, Tarique; Islam, Nashreen S; Ramasarma, T; Ramakrishna, Gayatri

    2016-09-01

    Hydrogen peroxide is often required in sublethal, millimolar concentrations to show its oxidant effects on cells in culture as it is easily destroyed by cellular catalase. Previously, we had shown that diperoxovanadate, a physiologically stable peroxovanadium compound, can substitute H2O2 effectively in peroxidation reactions. We report here that peroxovanadate when anchored to polyacrylic acid (PAPV) becomes a highly potent inhibitor of growth of lung carcinoma cells (A549). The early events associated with PAPV treatment included cytoskeletal modifications, increase in GTPase activity of Rac1, accumulation of the reactive oxygen species, and also increase in phosphorylation of H2AX (γH2AX), a marker of DNA damage. These effects persisted even at 24 h after removal of the compound and culminated in increased levels of p53 and p21 together with growth arrest. The PAPV-mediated growth arrest was significantly abrogated in cells pre-treated with the N-acetylcysteine, Rac1 knocked down by siRNA and DPI an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase. In conclusion, our results show that polyacrylate derivative of peroxovanadate efficiently arrests growth of A549 cancerous cells by activating the axis of Rac1-NADPH oxidase leading to oxidative stress and DNA damage.

  20. Nad(P)H vs. Schiff base fluorescence by spectroscopy, imaging, and maximum sensitivity micrographs at the convergence of cellular detoxification, senescence, and transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohen, Elli; Hirschberg, Joseph G.; Kohen, Cahide; Monti, Marco

    1999-05-01

    Two intracellular fluorochromes, NAD(P)H and Schiff Bases, provide monitoring of energy metabolism and photoperoxidations. Fluorochrome spectra and topographic distribution are measured in a microspectrofluorometer, pixel by pixel using a CCD. The mitochondrial arrangement of Saccharomyces cerevisie and metabolic activity at nuclear kidney epithelial sites is revealed. A kind of accelerated photoaging results in the accumulation of Schiff pigment. Schiff base emission is red-shifted, and it may be preceded by photo-oxidation of NAD(P)H. UVA production of oxygen radicals and peroxides may influence detoxification, senescence and/or transformation. Besides lysosomes, mitochondrial energy metabolism and ER and Golgi detoxification are open to study as multi-organelle complexes with fluorescent xenobiotics and probes. Melanocytes vs. melanoma cells in culture will be investigated using a new compact interferometer for Fourier coding of both emission and excitation spectra. Surprisingly, the photographic method, using the highest sensitivity films, may sometimes produce excellent structural detail. However, for kinetic studies, the CCD, or equivalent, is required. There is good potential for applications in diagnostics and prognostics plus the evaluation of new biopharmeceuticals.

  1. Induction of the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) by micromolar iron: liberation of calcium is more important than NAD(P)H oxidation.

    PubMed

    Gáll, Juraj; Skrha, Jan; Buchal, Richard; Sedláčková, Eva; Verébová, Karina; Pláteník, Jan

    2012-09-01

    The mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) plays an important role in cell death. The MPT is triggered by calcium and promoted by oxidative stress, which is often catalyzed by iron. We investigated the induction of the MPT by physiological concentrations of iron. Isolated rat liver mitochondria were initially stabilized with EDTA and bovine serum albumin and energized by succinate or malate/pyruvate. The MPT was induced by 20μM calcium or ferrous chloride. We measured mitochondrial swelling, the inner membrane potential, NAD(P)H oxidation, iron and calcium in the recording medium. Iron effectively triggered the MPT; this effect differed from non-specific oxidative damage and required some residual EDTA in the recording medium. Evidence in the literature suggested two mechanisms of action for the iron: NAD(P)H oxidation due to loading of the mitochondrial antioxidant defense systems and uptake of iron to the mitochondrial matrix via a calcium uniporter. Both of these events occurred in our experiments but were only marginally involved in the MPT induced by iron. The primary mechanism observed in our experiments was the displacement of adventitious/endogenous calcium from the residual EDTA by iron. Although artificially created, this interplay between iron and calcium can well reflect conditions in vivo and could be considered as an important mechanism of iron toxicity in the cells.

  2. Molecular Mechanisms of the Crosstalk Between Mitochondria and NADPH Oxidase Through Reactive Oxygen Species—Studies in White Blood Cells and in Animal Models

    PubMed Central

    Kröller-Schön, Swenja; Steven, Sebastian; Kossmann, Sabine; Scholz, Alexander; Daub, Steffen; Oelze, Matthias; Xia, Ning; Hausding, Michael; Mikhed, Yuliya; Zinßius, Elena; Mader, Michael; Stamm, Paul; Treiber, Nicolai; Scharffetter-Kochanek, Karin; Li, Huige; Schulz, Eberhard; Wenzel, Philip; Münzel, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Oxidative stress is involved in the development of cardiovascular disease. There is a growing body of evidence for a crosstalk between different enzymatic sources of oxidative stress. With the present study, we sought to determine the underlying crosstalk mechanisms, the role of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP), and its link to endothelial dysfunction. Results: NADPH oxidase (Nox) activation (oxidative burst and translocation of cytosolic Nox subunits) was observed in response to mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mtROS) formation in human leukocytes. In vitro, mtROS-induced Nox activation was prevented by inhibitors of the mPTP, protein kinase C, tyrosine kinase cSrc, Nox itself, or an intracellular calcium chelator and was absent in leukocytes with p47phox deficiency (regulates Nox2) or with cyclophilin D deficiency (regulates mPTP). In contrast, the crosstalk in leukocytes was amplified by mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (type 2) (MnSOD+/−) deficiency. In vivo, increases in blood pressure, degree of endothelial dysfunction, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) dysregulation/uncoupling (e.g., eNOS S-glutathionylation) or Nox activity, p47phox phosphorylation in response to angiotensin-II (AT-II) in vivo treatment, or the aging process were more pronounced in MnSOD+/− mice as compared with untreated controls and improved by mPTP inhibition by cyclophilin D deficiency or sanglifehrin A therapy. Innovation: These results provide new mechanistic insights into what extent mtROS trigger Nox activation in phagocytes and cardiovascular tissue, leading to endothelial dysfunction. Conclusions: Our data show that mtROS trigger the activation of phagocytic and cardiovascular NADPH oxidases, which may have fundamental implications for immune cell activation and development of AT-II-induced hypertension. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 247–266. PMID:23845067

  3. TMEM16A Contributes to Endothelial Dysfunction by Facilitating Nox2 NADPH Oxidase-Derived Reactive Oxygen Species Generation in Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ming-Ming; Gao, Min; Guo, Kai-Min; Wang, Mi; Li, Xiang-Yu; Zeng, Xue-Lin; Sun, Lu; Lv, Xiao-Fei; Du, Yan-Hua; Wang, Guan-Lei; Zhou, Jia-Guo; Guan, Yong-Yuan

    2017-05-01

    Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channels play a crucial role in various physiological processes. However, the role of TMEM16A in vascular endothelial dysfunction during hypertension is unclear. In this study, we investigated the specific involvement of TMEM16A in regulating endothelial function and blood pressure and the underlying mechanism. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, coimmunoprecipitation, confocal imaging, patch-clamp recordings, and TMEM16A endothelial-specific transgenic and knockout mice were used. We found that TMEM16A was expressed abundantly and functioned as a Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channel in endothelial cells. Angiotensin II induced endothelial dysfunction with an increase in TMEM16A expression. The knockout of endothelial-specific TMEM16A significantly lowered the blood pressure and ameliorated endothelial dysfunction in angiotensin II-induced hypertension, whereas the overexpression of endothelial-specific TMEM16A resulted in the opposite effects. These results were related to the increased reactive oxygen species production, Nox2-containing NADPH oxidase activation, and Nox2 and p22phox protein expression that were facilitated by TMEM16A on angiotensin II-induced hypertensive challenge. Moreover, TMEM16A directly bound with Nox2 and reduced the degradation of Nox2 through the proteasome-dependent degradation pathway. Therefore, TMEM16A is a positive regulator of endothelial reactive oxygen species generation via Nox2-containing NADPH oxidase, which induces endothelial dysfunction and hypertension. Modification of TMEM16A may be a novel therapeutic strategy for endothelial dysfunction-associated diseases.

  4. Inhibition of NADPH oxidase activation by 4-(2-aminoethyl)-benzenesulfonyl fluoride and related compounds.

    PubMed

    Diatchuk, V; Lotan, O; Koshkin, V; Wikstroem, P; Pick, E

    1997-05-16

    The elicitation of an oxidative burst in phagocytes rests on the assembly of a multicomponental complex (NADPH oxidase) consisting of a membrane-associated flavocytochrome (cytochrome b559), representing the redox element responsible for the NADPH-dependent reduction of oxygen to superoxide (O-2), two cytosolic components (p47(phox), p67(phox)), and the small GTPase Rac (1 or 2). We found that 4-(2-aminoethyl)-benzenesulfonyl fluoride (AEBSF), an irreversible serine protease inhibitor, prevented the elicitation of O-2 production in intact macrophages and the amphiphile-dependent activation of NADPH oxidase in a cell-free system, consisting of solubilized membrane or purified cytochrome b559 combined with total cytosol or a mixture of recombinant p47(phox), p67(phox), and Rac1. AEBSF acted at the activation step and did not interfere with the ensuing electron flow. It did not scavenge oxygen radicals and did not affect assay reagents. Five other serine protease inhibitors (three irreversible and two reversible) were found to lack an inhibitory effect on cell-free activation of NADPH oxidase. A structure-function study of AEBSF analogues demonstrated that the presence of a sulfonyl fluoride group was essential for inhibitory activity and that compounds containing an aminoalkylbenzene moiety were more active than amidinobenzene derivatives. Exposure of the membrane fraction or of purified cytochrome b559, but not of cytosol or recombinant cytosolic components, to AEBSF, in the presence of a critical concentration of the activating amphiphile lithium dodecyl sulfate, resulted in a marked impairment of their ability to support cell-free NADPH oxidase activation upon complementation with untreated cytosol or cytosolic components. Kinetic analysis of the effect of varying the concentration of each of the three cytosolic components on the inhibitory potency of AEBSF indicated that this was inversely related to the concentrations of p47(phox) and, to a lesser degree, p67

  5. Neuronal nitric oxide synthase-rescue of dystrophin/utrophin double knockout mice does not require nNOS localization to the cell membrane.

    PubMed

    Wehling-Henricks, Michelle; Tidball, James G

    2011-01-01

    Survival of dystrophin/utrophin double-knockout (dko) mice was increased by muscle-specific expression of a neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) transgene. Dko mice expressing the transgene (nNOS TG+/dko) experienced delayed onset of mortality and increased life-span. The nNOS TG+/dko mice demonstrated a significant decrease in the concentration of CD163+, M2c macrophages that can express arginase and promote fibrosis. The decrease in M2c macrophages was associated with a significant reduction in fibrosis of heart, diaphragm and hindlimb muscles of nNOS TG+/dko mice. The nNOS transgene had no effect on the concentration of cytolytic, CD68+, M1 macrophages. Accordingly, we did not observe any change in the extent of muscle fiber lysis in the nNOS TG+/dko mice. These findings show that nNOS/NO (nitric oxide)-mediated decreases in M2c macrophages lead to a reduction in the muscle fibrosis that is associated with increased mortality in mice lacking dystrophin and utrophin. Interestingly, the dramatic and beneficial effects of the nNOS transgene were not attributable to localization of nNOS protein at the cell membrane. We did not detect any nNOS protein at the sarcolemma in nNOS TG+/dko muscles. This important observation shows that sarcolemmal localization is not necessary for nNOS to have beneficial effects in dystrophic tissue and the presence of nNOS in the cytosol of dystrophic muscle fibers can ameliorate the pathology and most importantly, significantly increase life-span.

  6. Disruption of the NF-κB/NLRP3 connection by melatonin requires retinoid-related orphan receptor-α and blocks the septic response in mice.

    PubMed

    García, José A; Volt, Huayqui; Venegas, Carmen; Doerrier, Carolina; Escames, Germaine; López, Luis C; Acuña-Castroviejo, Darío

    2015-09-01

    We determined the NF-κB- and NOD-like receptor (NLR)P3-dependent molecular mechanisms involved in sepsis and evaluated the role of retinoid-related orphan receptor (ROR)-α in melatonin's anti-inflammatory actions. Western blot, RT-PCR, ELISA, and spectrophotometric analysis revealed that NF-κB and NLRP3 closely interact, leading to proinflammatory and pro-oxidant status in heart tissue of septic C57BL/6J mice. Moreover, mitochondrial oxygen consumption was reduced by 80% in septic mice. In vivo and in vitro analysis showed that melatonin administration blunts NF-κB transcriptional activity through a sirtuin1-dependent NF-κB deacetylation in septic mice. Melatonin also decreased NF-κB-dependent proinflammatory response and restored redox balance and mitochondrial homeostasis, thus inhibiting the NLRP3 inflammasome. In an important finding, the inhibition of NF-κB by melatonin, but not that of NLRP3, was blunted in RORα (sg/sg) mice, indicating that functional RORα transcription factor is necessary for the initiation of the innate immune response against inflammation. Our results are evidence of the NF-κB/NLRP3 connection during sepsis and identify NLRP3 as a novel molecular target for melatonin. The multiple molecular targets of melatonin in this study explain its potent anti-inflammatory efficacy against systemic innate immune activation and herald a promising therapeutic application for melatonin in the treatment of sepsis.

  7. Neutrophil Emigration in the Skin, Lungs, and Peritoneum: Different Requirements for CD11/CD18 Revealed by CD18-deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Mizgerd, Joseph P.; Kubo, Hiroshi; Kutkoski, Gregory J.; Bhagwan, Sabrina D.; Scharffetter-Kochanek, Karin; Beaudet, Arthur L.; Doerschuk, Claire M.

    1997-01-01

    To determine the role of CD11/CD18 complexes in neutrophil emigration, inflammation was induced in the skin, lungs, or peritoneum of mutant mice deficient in CD18 (CD18−/− mutants). Peripheral blood of CD18−/− mutants contained 11-fold more neutrophils than did blood of wild-type (WT) mice. During irritant dermatitis induced by topical application of croton oil, the number of emigrated neutrophils in histological sections of dermis was 98% less in CD18−/− mutants than in WT mice. During Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumonia, neutrophil emigration in CD18−/− mutants was not reduced. These data are consistent with expectations based on studies using blocking antibodies to inhibit CD11/CD18 complexes, and on observations of humans lacking CD11/CD18 complexes. The number of emigrated neutrophils in lung sections during Escherichia coli pneumonia, or in peritoneal lavage fluid after 4 h of S. pneumoniae peritonitis, was not reduced in CD18−/− mutants, but rather was greater than the WT values (240 ± 30 and 220 ± 30% WT, respectively). Also, there was no inhibition of neutrophil emigration during sterile peritonitis induced by intraperitoneal injection of thioglycollate (90 ± 20% WT). These data contrast with expectations. Whereas CD11/CD18 complexes are essential to the dermal emigration of neutrophils during acute dermatitis, CD18−/− mutant mice demonstrate surprising alternative pathways for neutrophil emigration during pneumonia or peritonitis. PMID:9334375

  8. A Unique Egg Cortical Granule Localization Motif Is Required for Ovastacin Sequestration to Prevent Premature ZP2 Cleavage and Ensure Female Fertility in Mice.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Bo; Zhao, Yangu; Beall, Stephanie; Sadusky, Anna Burkart; Dean, Jurrien

    2017-01-01

    Monospermic fertilization is mediated by the extracellular zona pellucida composed of ZP1, ZP2 and ZP3. Sperm bind to the N-terminus of ZP2 which is cleaved after fertilization by ovastacin (encoded by Astl) exocytosed from egg cortical granules to prevent sperm binding. AstlNull mice lack the post-fertilization block to sperm binding and the ability to rescue this phenotype with AstlmCherry transgenic mice confirms the role of ovastacin in providing a definitive block to polyspermy. During oogenesis, endogenous ovastacin traffics through the endomembrane system prior to storage in peripherally located cortical granules. Deletion mutants of ovastacinmCherry expressed in growing oocytes define a unique 7 amino acid motif near its N-terminus that is necessary and sufficient for cortical granule localization. Deletion of the 7 amino acids by CRISPR/Cas9 at the endogenous locus (AstlΔ) prevents cortical granule localization of ovastacin. The misdirected enzyme is present within the endomembrane system and ZP2 is prematurely cleaved. Sperm bind poorly to the zona pellucida of AstlΔ/Δ mice with partially cleaved ZP2 and female mice are sub-fertile.

  9. A Unique Egg Cortical Granule Localization Motif Is Required for Ovastacin Sequestration to Prevent Premature ZP2 Cleavage and Ensure Female Fertility in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Bo; Zhao, Yangu; Beall, Stephanie; Sadusky, Anna Burkart

    2017-01-01

    Monospermic fertilization is mediated by the extracellular zona pellucida composed of ZP1, ZP2 and ZP3. Sperm bind to the N-terminus of ZP2 which is cleaved after fertilization by ovastacin (encoded by Astl) exocytosed from egg cortical granules to prevent sperm binding. AstlNull mice lack the post-fertilization block to sperm binding and the ability to rescue this phenotype with AstlmCherry transgenic mice confirms the role of ovastacin in providing a definitive block to polyspermy. During oogenesis, endogenous ovastacin traffics through the endomembrane system prior to storage in peripherally located cortical granules. Deletion mutants of ovastacinmCherry expressed in growing oocytes define a unique 7 amino acid motif near its N-terminus that is necessary and sufficient for cortical granule localization. Deletion of the 7 amino acids by CRISPR/Cas9 at the endogenous locus (AstlΔ) prevents cortical granule localization of ovastacin. The misdirected enzyme is present within the endomembrane system and ZP2 is prematurely cleaved. Sperm bind poorly to the zona pellucida of AstlΔ/Δ mice with partially cleaved ZP2 and female mice are sub-fertile. PMID:28114310

  10. Use of mice tolerant to lipopolysaccharide to demonstrate requirement of cooperation between macrophages and lymphocytes to generate lipopolysaccharide-induced colony-stimulating factor in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Z; Hertogs, C F; Pluznik, D H

    1983-01-01

    Injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) into mice was followed by a rapid elevation of colony-stimulating factor (CSF) in the serum. A second, challenging injection of LPS given 3 to 4 days later failed to induce elevated levels of CSF in the serum. Such mice tolerant to LPS were used as an experimental tool to identify the CSF-producing cells which respond to LPS. We observed that generation of LPS-induced CSF in mice tolerant to LPS could be restored by an intraperitoneal injection of spleen cells 24 h before the challenging injection of LPS. Depletion of the adherent cells from the spleen cells reduced the ability of the splenic lymphocytes to restore the capacity of the mice tolerant to LPS to generate serum CSF. Reconstitution of the splenic lymphocytes with 5% thioglycolate-elicited peritoneal macrophages, however, reestablished the restorative capacity of these cells, whereas almost no restoration was observed after direct injection of elicited peritoneal macrophages. These data suggest that the spleen cells are active in generating CSF, provided that macrophages are present and can interact with the splenic lymphocytes to generate LPS-induced CSF in the serum. PMID:6602767

  11. Cell-line selectivity improves the predictive power of pharmacogenomic analyses and helps identify NADPH as biomarker for ferroptosis sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Shimada, Kenichi; Hayano, Miki; Pagano, Nen; Stockwell, Brent

    2016-01-01

    Precision medicine in oncology requires not only identification of cancer-associated mutations, but also effective drugs for each cancer genotype, which is still a largely unsolved problem. One approach for the latter challenge has been large-scale testing of small molecules in genetically characterized cell lines. We hypothesized that compounds with high cell-line-selective lethality exhibited consistent results across such pharmacogenomic studies. We analyzed the compound sensitivity data of 6,259 lethal compounds from the NCI-60 project. 2,565 cell-line-selective lethal compounds were identified and grouped into 18 clusters based on their GI50 profiles across the 60 cell lines, which were shown to represent distinct mechanisms of action. Further transcriptome analysis revealed a biomarker, NADPH abundance, for predicting sensitivity to ferroptosis-inducing compounds, which we experimentally validated. In summary, incorporating cell-line selectivity filters improves the predictive power of pharmacogenomic analyses and enables discovery of biomarkers that predict the sensitivity of cells to specific cell death inducers. PMID:26853626

  12. WRKY Transcription Factors Phosphorylated by MAPK Regulate a Plant Immune NADPH Oxidase in Nicotiana benthamiana[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Adachi, Hiroaki; Nakano, Takaaki; Miyagawa, Noriko; Ishihama, Nobuaki; Yoshioka, Miki; Katou, Yuri; Yaeno, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Pathogen attack sequentially confers pattern-triggered immunity (PTI) and effector-triggered immunity (ETI) after sensing of pathogen patterns and effectors by plant immune receptors, respectively. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play pivotal roles in PTI and ETI as signaling molecules. Nicotiana benthamiana RBOHB, an NADPH oxidase, is responsible for both the transient PTI ROS burst and the robust ETI ROS burst. Here, we show that RBOHB transactivation mediated by MAPK contributes to R3a/AVR3a-triggered ETI (AVR3a-ETI) ROS burst. RBOHB is markedly induced during the ETI and INF1-triggered PTI (INF1-PTI), but not flg22-tiggered PTI (flg22-PTI). We found that the RBOHB promoter contains a functional W-box in the R3a/AVR3a and INF1 signal-responsive cis-element. Ectopic expression of four phospho-mimicking mutants of WRKY transcription factors, which are MAPK substrates, induced RBOHB, and yeast one-hybrid analysis indicated that these mutants bind to the cis-element. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays indicated direct binding of the WRKY to the cis-element in plants. Silencing of multiple WRKY genes compromised the upregulation of RBOHB, resulting in impairment of AVR3a-ETI and INF1-PTI ROS bursts, but not the flg22-PTI ROS burst. These results suggest that the MAPK-WRKY pathway is required for AVR3a-ETI and INF1-PTI ROS bursts by activation of RBOHB. PMID:26373453

  13. Cell-Line Selectivity Improves the Predictive Power of Pharmacogenomic Analyses and Helps Identify NADPH as Biomarker for Ferroptosis Sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Kenichi; Hayano, Miki; Pagano, Nen C; Stockwell, Brent R

    2016-02-18

    Precision medicine in oncology requires not only identification of cancer-associated mutations but also effective drugs for each cancer genotype, which is still a largely unsolved problem. One approach for the latter challenge has been large-scale testing of small molecules in genetically characterized cell lines. We hypothesized that compounds with high cell-line-selective lethality exhibited consistent results across such pharmacogenomic studies. We analyzed the compound sensitivity data of 6,259 lethal compounds from the NCI-60 project. A total of 2,565 cell-line-selective lethal compounds were identified and grouped into 18 clusters based on their median growth inhibitory GI50 profiles across the 60 cell lines, which were shown to represent distinct mechanisms of action. Further transcriptome analysis revealed a biomarker, NADPH abundance, for predicting sensitivity to ferroptosis-inducing compounds, which we experimentally validated. In summary, incorporating cell-line-selectivity filters improves the predictive power of pharmacogenomic analyses and enables discovery of biomarkers that predict the sensitivity of cells to specific cell death inducers.

  14. Dynamic flux balancing elucidates NAD(P)H production as limiting response to furfural inhibition in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Pornkamol, Unrean; Franzen, Carl J

    2015-08-01

    Achieving efficient and economical lignocellulose-based bioprocess requires a robust organism tolerant to furfural, a major inhibitory compound present in lignocellulosic hydrolysate. The aim of this study was to develop a model that could generate quantitative descriptions of cell metabolism for elucidating the cell's adaptive response to furfural. Such a modelling tool could provide strategies for the design of more robust cells. A dynamic flux balance (dFBA) model of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was created by coupling a kinetic fermentation model with a previously published genome-scale stoichiometric model. The dFBA model was used for studying intracellular and extracellular flux responses to furfural perturbations under steady state and dynamic conditions. The predicted effects of furfural on dynamic flux profiles agreed well with previously published experimental results. The model showed that the yeast cell adjusts its metabolism in response to furfural challenge by increasing fluxes through the pentose phosphate pathway, TCA cycle, and proline and serine biosynthesis in order to meet the high demand of NAD(P)H cofactors. The model described here can be used to aid in systematic optimization of the yeast, as well as of the fermentation process, for efficient lignocellulosic ethanol production.

  15. Effects of various compounds on lipid peroxidation mediated by detergent-solubilized rat liver NADPH-cytochrome C reductase.

    PubMed

    Kamataki, T; Sugita, O; Naminohira, S; Kitagawa, H

    1978-12-01

    A reconstituted lipid peroxidation system containing NADPH-cytochrome c reductase isolated from detergent-solubilized rat liver microsomes was used to determine the effects of several compounds, including drugs, on the lipid peroxidation activity. EDTA and ferrous ion were essential requirements for reconstitution of the activity. The addition of 1,10-phenanthroline to the system containing both EDTA and ferrous ion further enhanced the activity. Pyrocatecol, thymol, p-aminophenol, imipramine, p-chloromercuribenzoate (PCMB) and alpha-tocopherol exhibited strong inhibition, aniline, N-monomethylaniline, aminopyrine, benzphetamine, SKF 525-A and NADP exhibited moderate inhibition, and phenol, benzoic acid, acetanilide and nicotinamide exhibited less or no inhibition at the concentrations lower than 1000 micron M. Metal ions such as Hg+, Hg2+, Co2+, Cu2+, Mn2+ and U6+ inhibited lipid peroxidation strongly. In addition, Cd2+, St2+ and Ca2+ exhibited less potent to moderate inhibition, and Ba2+ and Mg2+ were without effects on the activity. Among sulfhydryl compounds tested, dithiothreitol inhibited lipid peroxidation to a greater extent than did the other three compounds, glutathione, cysteine and mercaptoethanol.

  16. Bone Marrow from Blotchy Mice Is Dispensable to Regulate Blood Copper and Aortic Pathologies but Required for Inflammatory Mediator Production in LDLR-Deficient Mice during Chronic Angiotensin II Infusion

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Devon; Liang, Yuanyuan; Chen, Cang; Li, Senlin; Patel, Om; Qin, Zhenyu

    2015-01-01

    Background The blotchy mouse caused by mutations of ATP7A develops low blood copper and aortic aneurysm and rupture. Although the aortic pathologies are believed primarily due to congenital copper deficiencies in connective tissue, perinatal copper supplementation does not produce significant therapeutic effects, hinting additional mechanisms in the symptom development, such as an independent effect of the ATP7A mutations during adulthood. Methods We investigated if bone marrow from blotchy mice contributes to these symptoms. For these experiments, bone marrow from blotchy mice (blotchy marrow group) and healthy littermate controls (control marrow group) was used to reconstitute recipient mice (irradiated male low-density lipoprotein receptor −/− mice), which were then infused with angiotensin II (1,000 ng/kg/min) for 4 weeks. Results By using Manne–Whitney Utest, our results showed that there was no significant difference in the copper concentrations in plasma and hematopoietic cells between these 2 groups. And plasma level of triglycerides was significantly reduced in blotchy marrow group compared with that in control marrow group (P<0.05), whereas there were no significant differences in cholesterol and phospholipids between these 2 groups. Furthermore, a bead-based multiplex immunoassay showed that macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1β, monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1, MCP-3, MCP-5, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP)-1, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A production was significantly reduced in the plasma of blotchy marrow group compared with that in control marrow group (P<0.05). More important, although angiotensin II infusion increased maximal external aortic diameters in thoracic and abdominal segments, there was no significant difference in the aortic diameters between these 2 groups. Furthermore, aortic ruptures, including transmural breaks of the elastic laminae in the abdominal segment and lethal rupture in the

  17. Catalytic properties of the resolved flavoprotein and cytochrome B components of the NADPH dependent O2- . generating oxidase from human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Gabig, T G; Lefker, B A

    1984-01-30

    The resolved flavoprotein and cytochrome b559 components of the NADPH dependent O2- . generating oxidase from human neutrophils were the subject of further study. The resolved flavoprotein, depleted of cytochrome b559, was reduced by NADPH under anaerobic conditions and reoxidized by oxygen. NADPH dependent O2- . generation by the resolved flavoprotein fraction was not detectable, however it was competent in the transfer of electrons from NADPH to artificial electron acceptors. The resolved cytochrome b559, depleted of flavoprotein, demonstrated no measureable NADPH dependent O2- . generating activity and was not reduced by NADPH under anaerobic conditions. The dithionite reduced form of the resolved cytochrome b559 was rapidly oxidized by oxygen, as was the cytochrome b559 in the intact oxidase.

  18. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase Plays a Vital Role in Regulation of Rice Seed Vigor via Altering NADPH Oxidase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jian; Zhou, Jun; Xing, Da

    2012-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) has been reported to be important in normal plant growth and stress responses. In this study, it was verified that PI3K played a vital role in rice seed germination through regulating NADPH oxidase activity. Suppression of PI3K activity by inhibitors wortmannin or LY294002 could abate the reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, which resulted in disturbance to the seed germination. And then, the signal cascades that PI3K promoted the ROS liberation was also evaluated. Diphenylene iodonium (DPI), an NADPH oxidase inhibitor, suppressed most of ROS generation in rice seed germination, which suggested that NADPH oxidase was the main source of ROS in this process. Pharmacological experiment and RT-PCR demonstrated that PI3K promoted the expression of Os rboh9. Moreover, functional analysis by native PAGE and the measurement of the 2, 3-bis-(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazo-lium-5- carboxanilide (XTT) formazan concentration both showed that PI3K promoted the activity of NADPH oxidase. Furthermore, the western blot analysis of OsRac-1 demonstrated that the translocation of Rac-1 from cytoplasm to plasma membrane, which was known as a key factor in the assembly of NADPH oxidase, was suppressed by treatment with PI3K inhibitors, resulting in the decreased activity of NADPH oxidase. Taken together, these data favored the novel conclusion that PI3K regulated NADPH oxidase activity through modulating the recruitment of Rac-1 to plasma membrane and accelerated the process of rice seed germination. PMID:22448275

  19. Myeloperoxidase amplified high glucose-induced endothelial dysfunction in vasculature: Role of NADPH oxidase and hypochlorous acid.

    PubMed

    Tian, Rong; Ding, Yun; Peng, Yi-Yuan; Lu, Naihao

    2017-03-11

    Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as superoxide and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), have emerged as important molecules in the pathogenesis of diabetic endothelial dysfunction. Additionally, neutrophils-derived myeloperoxidase (MPO) and MPO-catalyzed hypochlorous acid (HOCl) play important roles in the vascular injury. However, it is unknown whether MPO can use vascular-derived ROS to induce diabetic endothelial dysfunction. In the present study, we demonstrated that NADPH oxidase was the main source of ROS formation in high glucose-cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), and played a critical role in high glucose-induced endothelial dysfunction such as cell apoptosis, loss of cell viability and reduction of nitric oxide (NO). However, the addition of MPO could amplify the high glucose-induced endothelial dysfunction which was inhibited by the presence of apocynin (NADPH oxidase inhibitor), catalase (H2O2 scavenger), or methionine (HOCl scavenger), demonstrating the contribution of NADPH oxidase-H2O2-MPO-HOCl pathway in the MPO/high glucose-induced vascular injury. In high glucose-incubated rat aortas, MPO also exacerbated the NADPH oxidase-induced impairment of endothelium-dependent relaxation. Consistent with these in vitro data, in diabetic rat aortas, both MPO expresion and NADPH oxidase activity were increased while the endothelial function was simultaneously impaired. The results suggested that vascular-bound MPO could amplify high glucose-induced vascular injury in diabetes. MPO-NADPH oxidase-HOCl may represent an important pathogenic pathway in diabetic vascular diseases.

  20. Comparative analysis of NADPH-diaphorase positive neurons in the rat, rabbit and pheasant thoracic spinal cord. A histochemical study.

    PubMed

    Kluchová, D; Rybárová, S; Miklosová, M; Lovásová, K; Schmidtová, K; Dorko, F

    2001-01-01

    The distribution of NADPH-diaphorase (NADPH-d) activity was investigated and compared in the rat, rabbit and pheasant thoracic spinal cord. The investigation of all spinal cord regions (laminae) in three experimental species revealed marked differences in the distribution of NADPH-d activity. Cross sectional analysis of the spinal cord of the rat, rabbit and pheasant confirmed differences in the shape of the gray matter in all examined species. More detailed investigation of Rexed's laminas showed similar distribution of NADPH-d activity in the spinal cord of the rat and rabbit, which were different when compared with the spinal cord of the pheasant. Ventral horn of the rat and rabbit showed no labelling whereas in pheasant this area possessed a number of scattered, intensively stained neurons. In the location of autonomic preganglionic neurons, differences were found as well. In the rat there was seen a number of densely packed, clearly dark blue coloured neurons. Similarly, these neurons were present in the rabbit spinal cord but they were less numerous. No staining was found in this region of pheasant. Pericentral area (lamina X) and intermediate zone (laminaVII) revealed the presence of NADPH-d positive neurons in all examined species although they differed in number and shape of their bodies. The dorsal horn showed the presence of NADPH-d staining in all three animals but its distribution was different in medio-lateral direction. It can be suggested that observed differencies in the presence and distribution of NADPH-d activity across the examined species may reflect different fylogenetic development.

  1. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase plays a vital role in regulation of rice seed vigor via altering NADPH oxidase activity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jian; Zhou, Jun; Xing, Da

    2012-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) has been reported to be important in normal plant growth and stress responses. In this study, it was verified that PI3K played a vital role in rice seed germination through regulating NADPH oxidase activity. Suppression of PI3K activity by inhibitors wortmannin or LY294002 could abate the reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, which resulted in disturbance to the seed germination. And then, the signal cascades that PI3K promoted the ROS liberation was also evaluated. Diphenylene iodonium (DPI), an NADPH oxidase inhibitor, suppressed most of ROS generation in rice seed germination, which suggested that NADPH oxidase was the main source of ROS in this process. Pharmacological experiment and RT-PCR demonstrated that PI3K promoted the expression of Os rboh9. Moreover, functional analysis by native PAGE and the measurement of the 2, 3-bis-(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazo-lium-5- carboxanilide (XTT) formazan concentration both showed that PI3K promoted the activity of NADPH oxidase. Furthermore, the western blot analysis of OsRac-1 demonstrated that the translocation of Rac-1 from cytoplasm to plasma membrane, which was known as a key factor in the assembly of NADPH oxidase, was suppressed by treatment with PI3K inhibitors, resulting in the decreased activity of NADPH oxidase. Taken together, these data favored the novel conclusion that PI3K regulated NADPH oxidase activity through modulating the recruitment of Rac-1 to plasma membrane and accelerated the process of rice seed germination.

  2. PtdIns(3)P-DEPENDENT AND INDEPENDENT FUNCTIONS OF p40PHOX IN ACTIVATION OF THE NEUTROPHIL NADPH OXIDASE

    PubMed Central

    Bissonnette, Sarah A.; Glazier, Christina M.; Stewart, Mary Q.; Brown, Glenn E.; Ellson, Chris D.; Yaffe, Michael B.

    2009-01-01

    In response to bacterial infection, the neutrophil NADPH oxidase assembles on phagolysosomes to catalyze the transfer of electrons from NADPH to oxygen, forming superoxide and downstream reactive oxygen species (ROS). The active oxidase is composed of a membrane-bound cytochrome together with three cytosolic phox proteins, p40phox, p47phox and p67phox, and the small GTPase Rac2, and is regulated through a process involving Protein Kinase Cs, MAP kinases, and PI 3-kinases. The role of p40phox remains less well defined than those of p47phox and p67phox. We investigated the biological role of p40phox in differentiated PLB-985 neutrophils, and show that depletion of endogenous p40phox using lentiviral shRNA reduces ROS production and impairs bacterial killing under conditions where p67phox levels remain constant. Biochemical studies using a cytosol-reconstituted permeabilized human neutrophil cores system that recapitulates intracellular oxidase activation revealed that depletion of p40phox reduces both the maximal rate and total amount of ROS produced without altering the KM of the oxidase for NADPH. Using a series of mutants, p47PX-p40phox chimeras, and deletion constructs, we found that the p40phox PX domain has PtdIns(3)P-dependent and independent functions. Translocation of p67phox requires the PX domain but not 3-phosphoinositide binding. Activation of the oxidase by p40phox, however, requires both PtdIns(3)P binding and an SH3 domain competent to bind to poly-Pro ligands. Mutations that disrupt the closed auto-inhibited form of full-length p40phox can increase oxidase activity ∼2.5-fold above that of wild-type p40phox, but maintain the requirement for PX and SH3 domain function. We present a model where p40phox translocates p67phox to the region of the cytochrome and subsequently switches the oxidase to an activated state dependent upon PtdIns(3)P and SH3 domain engagement. PMID:18029359

  3. Nicotine-induced enhancement of synaptic plasticity at CA3-CA1 synapses requires GABAergic interneurons in adult anti-NGF mice.

    PubMed

    Rosato-Siri, Marcelo; Cattaneo, Antonino; Cherubini, Enrico

    2006-10-15

    The hippocampus, a key structure for learning and memory processes, receives an important cholinergic innervation and is densely packed with a variety of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) localized on principal cells and interneurons. Activation of these receptors by nicotine or endogenously released acetylcholine enhances activity-dependent synaptic plasticity processes. Deficits in the cholinergic system produce impairment of cognitive functions that are particularly relevant during senescence and in age-related neurodegenerative pathologies. In particular, Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by a selective loss of cholinergic neurons in the basal forebrain and nAChRs in particular regions controlling memory processes such as the cortex and the hippocampus. Field excitatory postsynaptic potentials were recorded in order to examine whether nicotine was able to regulate induction of long-term potentiation at CA3-CA1 synapses in hippocampal slices from adult anti-NGF transgenic mice (AD 11), a comprehensive animal model of AD, in which cholinergic deficits due to nerve growth factor depletion are accompanied by progressive Alzheimer-like neurodegeneration. Both AD 11 and wild-type (WT) mice exhibited short- and long-lasting synaptic plasticity processes that were boosted by nicotine. The effects of nicotine on WT and AD 11 mice were mediated by both alpha7- and beta2-containing nAChRs. In the presence of GABA(A) receptor antagonists, nicotine failed to boost synaptic plasticity in AD 11 but not in WT mice, indicating that in anti-NGF transgenic mice GABAergic interneurons are able to compensate for the deficit in cholinergic modulation of glutamatergic transmission. This compensation may occur at different levels and may involve the reorganization of the GABAergic circuit. However, patch-clamp whole-cell recordings from principal cells failed to reveal any change in spontaneous release of GABA following pressure application of nicotine to nearby

  4. Rhinovirus-Induced Barrier Dysfunction in Polarized Airway Epithelial Cells Is Mediated by NADPH Oxidase 1▿

    PubMed Central

    Comstock, Adam T.; Ganesan, Shyamala; Chattoraj, Asamanja; Faris, Andrea N.; Margolis, Benjamin L.; Hershenson, Marc B.; Sajjan, Umadevi S.

    2011-01-01

    Previously, we showed that rhinovirus (RV), which is responsible for the majority of common colds, disrupts airway epithelial barrier function, as evidenced by reduced transepithelial resistance (RT), dissociation of zona occludins 1 (ZO-1) from the tight junction complex, and bacterial transmigration across polarized cells. We also showed that RV replication is required for barrier function disruption. However, the underlying biochemical mechanisms are not known. In the present study, we found that a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) mimetic, poly(I:C), induced tight junction breakdown and facilitated bacterial transmigration across polarized airway epithelial cells, similar to the case with RV. We also found that RV and poly(I:C) each stimulated Rac1 activation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and Rac1-dependent NADPH oxidase 1 (NOX1) activity. Inhibitors of Rac1 (NSC23766), NOX (diphenylene iodonium), and NOX1 (small interfering RNA [siRNA]) each blocked the disruptive effects of RV and poly(I:C) on RT, as well as the dissociation of ZO-1 and occludin from the tight junction complex. Finally, we found that Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) is not required for either poly(I:C)- or RV-induced reductions in RT. Based on these results, we concluded that Rac1-dependent NOX1 activity is required for RV- or poly(I:C)-induced ROS generation, which in turn disrupts the barrier function of polarized airway epithelia. Furthermore, these data suggest that dsRNA generated during RV replication is sufficient to disrupt barrier function. PMID:21507984

  5. Methylglyoxal-induced modification of arginine residues decreases the activity of NADPH-generating enzymes.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Philip E; Sheahan, Pamela J; Pattison, David I; Davies, Michael J

    2013-08-01

    Inadequate control of plasma and cellular glucose and ketone levels in diabetes is associated with increased generation of reactive aldehydes, including methylglyoxal (MGO). These aldehydes react with protein side chains to form advanced glycation end-products (AGEs). Arg residues are particularly susceptible to MGO glycation and are essential for binding NADP(+) in several enzymes that generate NADPH, a coenzyme for many critical metabolic and antioxidant enzymes. In most animal cells, NADPH is produced predominantly by glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) in the oxidative phase of the pentose phosphate pathway and, to a lesser extent, by isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) and malic enzyme (ME). In this study, the activities of isolated G6PD, IDH, and ME were inhibited by MGO (0-2.5mM, 2-3h, 37°C), in a dose- and time-dependent manner, with G6PD and IDH more sensitive to modification than ME. Significant inhibition of these two enzymes occurred with MGO levels ≥500μM. Incubation with radiolabeled MGO (0-500µM, 0-3h, 37°C) demonstrated dose- and time-dependent adduction to G6PD and IDH. HPLC analysis provided evidence for AGE formation and particularly the hydroimidazolones MG-H1 and MG-H2 from Arg residues, with corresponding loss of parent Arg residues. Peptide mass mapping studies confirmed hydroimidazolone formation on multiple peptides in G6PD and IDH, including those critical for NADP(+) binding, and substrate binding, in the case of IDH. These results suggest that modification of NADPH-producing enzymes by reactive aldehydes may result in alterations to the cellular redox environment, potentially predisposing cells to further damage by oxidants and reactive aldehydes.

  6. Purification, Characterization, and Submitochondrial Localization of a 58-Kilodalton NAD(P)H Dehydrogenase.

    PubMed Central

    Luethy, M. H.; Thelen, J. J.; Knudten, A. F.; Elthon, T. E.

    1995-01-01

    An NADH dehydrogenase activity from red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) root mitochondria was purified to a 58-kD protein doublet. An immunologically related dehydrogenase was partially purified from maize (Zea mays L. B73) mitochondria to a 58-kD protein doublet, a 45-kD protein, and a few other less prevalent proteins. Polyclonal antibodies prepared against the 58-kD protein of red beet roots were found to immunoprecipitate the NAD(P)H dehydrogenase activity. The antibodies cross-reacted to similar proteins in mitochondria from a number of plant species but not to rat liver mitochondrial proteins. The polyclonal antibodies were used in conjunction with maize mitochondrial fractionation to show that the 58-kD protein was likely part of a protein complex loosely associated with the membrane fraction. A membrane-impermeable protein cross-linking agent was used to further show that the majority of the 58-kD protein was located on the outer surface of the inner mitochondrial membrane or in the intermembrane space. Analysis of the cross-linked 58-kD NAD(P)H dehydrogenase indicated that specific proteins of 64, 48, and 45 kD were cross-linked to the 58-kD protein doublet. The NAD(P)H dehydrogenase activity was not affected by ethyleneglycol-bis([beta]-aminoethyl ether)-N,N[prime] -tetraacetic acid or CaCl2, was stimulated somewhat (21%) by flavin mononucleotide, was inhibited by p-chloromercuribenzoic acid (49%) and mersalyl (40%), and was inhibited by a bud scale extract of Platanus occidentalis L. containing platanetin (61%). PMID:12228370

  7. Organochlorine Pesticide-Mediated Induction of NADPH Oxidase and Nitric-Oxide Synthase in Endothelial Cell

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Rishila; Siddharth, Manushi; Singh, Neeru; Kare, Pawan Kumar; Banerjee, Basu Dev; Wadhwa, Neelam

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Organochlorine Pesticides (OCPs) are detected ubiquitously in human and have been shown to be associated with Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) and atherosclerosis. Aim To find out the effect of organochlorine pesticides in endothelial cell with regard to oxidative stress and associated expression of enzymes producing superoxide and Nitric Oxide (NO). Materials and Methods Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVEC) were cultured and treated with four OCPs which were found in human blood at a concentration of 0.1μM. The cells were tested for Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) generation, NO production and mRNA expression of NAPDH oxidase (p47phox) and endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase (eNOS). ROS generation was measured by using 2’, 7’-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (H2DCFDA) method. NO was analysed by Bioxytech nitric oxide assay kit method and mRNA of NADPH oxidase and eNOS was quantified by real time PCR. Data were expressed as the mean±SEM. Comparison between the groups were made by student’s t-test (2-tailed) or one-way ANOVA with Tukey’s post-hoc analysis depending on number of groups. For all statistical tests, p< 0.05 was considered to be significant. Results All the four pesticides generated ROS accompanied by enhanced expression of NADPH oxidase. Maximum effect was observed with β-endosulfan. Level of NO was found to be decreased significantly in endothelial cells treated with these pesticides accompanied by enhanced expression of eNOS. The antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) reduced ROS generation and enhanced NO formation. Pesticide-mediated ROS generation possibly reacts with NO forming peroxinitrite and thereby reducing the bioavailability of NO although eNOS expression is increased. Conclusion OCPs induce endothelial dysfunction through increased ROS generation via NADPH oxidase expression and reduced bioavailability of nitric oxide. PMID:28273962

  8. Antimalarial NADPH-Consuming Redox-Cyclers As Superior Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency Copycats

    PubMed Central

    Bielitza, Max; Belorgey, Didier; Ehrhardt, Katharina; Johann, Laure; Lanfranchi, Don Antoine; Gallo, Valentina; Schwarzer, Evelin; Mohring, Franziska; Jortzik, Esther; Williams, David L.; Becker, Katja; Arese, Paolo; Elhabiri, Mourad

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Early phagocytosis of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD)-deficient erythrocytes parasitized by Plasmodium falciparum were shown to protect G6PD-deficient populations from severe malaria. Here, we investigated the mechanism of a novel antimalarial series, namely 3-[substituted-benzyl]-menadiones, to understand whether these NADPH-consuming redox-cyclers, which induce oxidative stress, mimic the natural protection of G6PD deficiency. Results: We demonstrated that the key benzoylmenadione metabolite of the lead compound acts as an efficient redox-cycler in NADPH-dependent methaemoglobin reduction, leading to the continuous formation of reactive oxygen species, ferrylhaemoglobin, and subsequent haemichrome precipitation. Structure–activity relationships evidenced that both drug metabolites and haemoglobin catabolites contribute to potentiate drug effects and inhibit parasite development. Disruption of redox homeostasis by the lead benzylmenadione was specifically induced in Plasmodium falciparum parasitized erythrocytes and not in non-infected cells, and was visualized via changes in the glutathione redox potential of living parasite cytosols. Furthermore, the redox-cycler shows additive and synergistic effects in combination with compounds affecting the NADPH flux in vivo. Innovation: The lead benzylmenadione 1c is the first example of a novel redox-active agent that mimics the behavior of a falciparum parasite developing inside a G6PD-deficient red blood cell (RBC) giving rise to malaria protection, and it exerts specific additive effects that are inhibitory to parasite development, without harm for non-infected G6PD-sufficient or -deficient RBCs. Conclusion: This strategy offers an innovative perspective for the development of future antimalarial drugs for G6PD-sufficient and -deficient populations. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 22, 1337–1351. PMID:25714942

  9. Partial Purification and Characterization of Three NAD(P)H Dehydrogenases from Beta vulgaris Mitochondria 1

    PubMed Central

    Luethy, Michael H.; Hayes, Marianne K.; Elthon, Thomas E.

    1991-01-01

    Mitochondria isolated from the taproot of beet (Beta vulgaris) were used in an effort to identify and partially purify the proteins constituting the exogenous NADH dehydrogenase. Three NAD(P)H dehydrogenases are released from these mitochondria by sonication, and these enzymes were partially purified using fast protein liquid chromatography. One of the enzymes, designated peak I, is capable of oxidizing NADPH and the β form of NADH. The other two activities, peaks II and III, oxidize only β-NADH. All three peaks are insensitive to divalent cation chelators and a complex I inhibitor, rotenone. The major component to peak I is a polypeptide with an apparent molecular mass of approximately 42 kilodaltons. Peak I activity was insensitive to platanetin, a specific inhibitor of the exogenous dehydrogenase, and insensitive to added Ca2+ or Mg2+. Peak I displayed a broad pH activity profile with an optimum between 7.5 and 8.0 for both NADPH and NADH. Purified peak II gave a single polypeptide of about 32 kilodaltons, had a pH optimum between 7.0 and 7.5, and was slightly stimulated by Ca2+ and Mg2+. As with peak I, platanetin had no effect on peak II activity. Peak III was not purified completely, but contained two major polypeptides with apparent molecular masses of 55 and 40 kilodaltons. This enzyme was not affected by Ca2+ and Mg2+, but was inhibited by platanetin. The peak III enzyme had a rather sharp pH optimum of approximately 6.5 to 6.6. The above data indicate that peak III activity is likely the exogenous NADH dehydrogenase. ImagesFigure 2Figure 3 PMID:16668549

  10. fMLP-Induced IL-8 Release Is Dependent on NADPH Oxidase in Human Neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    Hidalgo, María A.; Carretta, María D.; Teuber, Stefanie E.; Zárate, Cristian; Cárcamo, Leonardo; Concha, Ilona I.; Burgos, Rafael A.

    2015-01-01

    N-Formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP) and platelet-activating factor (PAF) induce similar intracellular signalling profiles; but only fMLP induces interleukin-8 (IL-8) release and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate reduced (NADPH) oxidase activity in neutrophils. Because the role of ROS on IL-8 release in neutrophils is until now controversial, we assessed if NADPH oxidase is involved in the IL-8 secretions and PI3K/Akt, MAPK