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Sample records for mice skin exposed

  1. Skin cancer development in mice exposed chronically to immunosuppressive agents.

    PubMed

    Daynes, R A; Harris, C C; Connor, R J; Eichwald, E J

    1979-04-01

    Inbred female C3Hf/HeN, murine mammary tumor virus-negative mice exposed to either UV light or benzo[a]pyrene (BP), were subjected to four different chronic immunosuppressive regimens to determine their effect on skin cancer development. The immunosuppressive agents were cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, cortisone, and heterologous antilymphocyte globulin. Because of an unexpectedly high morbidity and mortality of mice exposed to chronic immunosuppressive measures, the dosages were kept at a level that permitted them to survive but did not prolong allogeneic skin graft survival and lower antibody titers, nor did this level diminish proliferative responses of lymphocytes to mitogens or allogeneic lymphocytes. Nevertheless, the latency periods (time interval between beginning of medication and appearance of skin tumors) of tumors in mice exposed to immunosuppressant measures were significantly shortened in several groups of mice exposed to UV and subjected to cyclophosphamide, cortisone, or antilymphocyte globulin and mice exposed to BP and subjected to cortisone acetate. In 3 groups, spindle cell tumors (fibrosarcomas) shifted to squamous cell carcinomas. A suppressed immune function would not be regarded as the mechanism for the observed responses because immunosuppression was not detected in the experimental mice.

  2. Genetic Analysis of Mice Skin Exposed by Hyper-Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Rika; Terada, Masahiro; Seki, Masaya; Higashibata, Akira; Majima, Hideyuki J.; Ohira, Yoshinobu; Mukai, Chiaki; Ishioka, Noriaki

    2013-02-01

    In the space environment, physiological alterations, such as low bone density, muscle weakness and decreased immunity, are caused by microgravity and cosmic radiation. On the other hand, it is known that the leg muscles are hypertrophy by 2G-gravity. An understanding of the effects on human body from microgravity to hyper-gravity is very important. Recently, the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) has started a project to detect the changes on gene expression and mineral metabolism caused by microgravity by analyzing the hair of astronauts who stay in the international Space Station (ISS) for a long time. From these results of human hair’s research, the genetic effects of human hair roots by microgravity will become clear. However, it is unclear how the gene expression of hair roots was effected by hypergravity. Therefore, in this experiment, we analyzed the effect on mice skin contained hair roots by comparing microgravity or hypergravity exposed mice. The purpose of this experiment is to evaluate the genetic effects on mice skin by microgravity or 2G-gravity. The samples were taken from mice exposed to space flight (FL) or hypergravity environment (2G) for 3-months, respectively. The extracted and amplified RNA from these mice skin was used to DNA microarray analysis. in this experiment, we analyzed the effect of gravity by using mice skin contained hair roots, which exposed space (FL) and hyper-gravity (2G) for 3 months and each control. By DNA microarray analysis, we found the common 98 genes changed in both FL and 2G. Among these 98 genes, the functions and pathways were identified by Gene Ontology (GO) analysis and Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (IPA) software. Next, we focused the one of the identified pathways and compared the effects on each molecules in this pathways by the different environments, such as FL and 2G. As the results, we could detect some interesting molecules, which might be depended on the gravity levels. In addition, to investigate

  3. Involvement of MIF in basement membrane damage in chronically UVB-exposed skin in mice.

    PubMed

    Yoshihisa, Yoko; Norisugi, Osamu; Matsunaga, Kenji; Nishihira, Jun; Shimizu, Tadamichi

    2014-01-01

    Solar ultraviolet (UV) B radiation is known to induce matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) that degrade collagen in the basement membrane. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a pluripotent cytokine that plays an essential role in the pathophysiology of skin inflammation induced by UV irradiation. This study examined the effects of MIF on basement membrane damage following chronic UVB irradiation in mice. The back skin of MIF transgenic (Tg) and wild-type (WT) mice was exposed to UVB three times a week for 10 weeks. There was a decrease in intact protein levels of type IV collagen and increased basement membrane damage in the exposed skin of the MIF Tg mice compared to that observed in the WT mice. Moreover, the skin of the MIF Tg mice exhibited higher MIF, MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression and protein levels than those observed in the WT mice. We also found that chronic UVB exposure in MIF Tg mice resulted in higher levels of neutrophil infiltration in the dermis compared with that observed in the WT mice. In vitro experiments revealed that MIF induced increases in the MMPs expression, including that of MMP-9 in keratinocytes and MMP-2 in fibroblasts. Cultured neutrophils also secreted MMP-9 stimulated by MIF. Therefore, MIF-mediated basement membrane damage occurs primarily through MMPs activation and neutrophil influx in murine skin following chronic UVB irradiation.

  4. Involvement of MIF in Basement Membrane Damage in Chronically UVB-Exposed Skin in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yoshihisa, Yoko; Norisugi, Osamu; Matsunaga, Kenji; Nishihira, Jun; Shimizu, Tadamichi

    2014-01-01

    Solar ultraviolet (UV) B radiation is known to induce matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) that degrade collagen in the basement membrane. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a pluripotent cytokine that plays an essential role in the pathophysiology of skin inflammation induced by UV irradiation. This study examined the effects of MIF on basement membrane damage following chronic UVB irradiation in mice. The back skin of MIF transgenic (Tg) and wild-type (WT) mice was exposed to UVB three times a week for 10 weeks. There was a decrease in intact protein levels of type IV collagen and increased basement membrane damage in the exposed skin of the MIF Tg mice compared to that observed in the WT mice. Moreover, the skin of the MIF Tg mice exhibited higher MIF, MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression and protein levels than those observed in the WT mice. We also found that chronic UVB exposure in MIF Tg mice resulted in higher levels of neutrophil infiltration in the dermis compared with that observed in the WT mice. In vitro experiments revealed that MIF induced increases in the MMPs expression, including that of MMP-9 in keratinocytes and MMP-2 in fibroblasts. Cultured neutrophils also secreted MMP-9 stimulated by MIF. Therefore, MIF-mediated basement membrane damage occurs primarily through MMPs activation and neutrophil influx in murine skin following chronic UVB irradiation. PMID:24586879

  5. Association of Diet With Skin Histological Features in UV-B-Exposed Mice.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, Tapan K; Hsia, Yvonne; Weeks, David M; Dixon, Tatiana K; Lepe, Jessica; Thomas, J Regan

    2017-09-01

    Long-term exposure to solar radiation produces deleterious photoaging of the skin. It is not known if diet can influence skin photoaging. To study the influence of a calorie-restricted diet and an obesity diet in mice exposed to long-term UV-B irradiation to assess if there is an association between diet and histopathological response to UV-B irradiation. In this animal model study in an academic setting, the dorsal skin of SKH1 hairless mice receiving normal, calorie-restricted, and obesity diets was exposed to UV-B irradiation 3 times a week for 10 weeks and were compared with corresponding controls. The mice were placed in the following groups, with 8 animals in each group: (1) intact control (C) with regular diet and no UV-B exposure, (2) intact control with UV-B exposure (CR), (3) calorie-restricted diet (CrC), (4) calorie-restricted diet with UV-B exposure (CrR), (5) obesity diet (OC), and (6) obesity diet with UV-B exposure (OR). The experiment was conducted during October through December 2013. Tissue processing and histological analysis were completed in 2016. Histomorphometric analysis was performed on paraffin-embedded skin sections stained by histological and immunohistochemical methods for estimation of epidermal thickness, epidermal proliferating cell nuclear antigen index, collagen I, elastic fibers, fibroblasts, mast cells, dermal cellularity, and adipose layer ratio. Changes in wrinkles were noted. Hairless female mice (age range, 6-8 weeks) were obtained. With a normal diet, changes from UV-B irradiation occurred in epidermal thickness, epidermal proliferating cell nuclear antigen index, collagen I, elastic fibers, fibroblasts, and mast cells, which were modestly influenced by an obesity diet. Calorie restriction influenced the skin in nonirradiated control animals, with higher values for most variables. After UV-B exposure in animals with calorie restriction, epidermal thickness was increased, but other variables were unaffected. Animals

  6. Grape skin extract reduced pulmonary oxidative response in mice exposed to cigarette smoke.

    PubMed

    Pires, Karla Maria Pereira; Valença, Samuel Santos; Resende, Ângela Castro; Porto, Luís Cristóvão S; Queiroz, Emerson Ferreira; Moreira, Daniele Dal Col; de Moura, Roberto Soares

    2011-08-01

    Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis and progression of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and cigarette smoke (CS) is known to be one of the major sources of oxidants in the lungs. We postulated that acute administration of GSE (grape skin extract) would either reduce or protect the ALI (acute lung inflammation) produced by CS via NO release. We adopted a nutritional approach by investigating the inflammatory cells, metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) activity, and oxidative stress markers (superoxide dismutase - SOD; catalase - CAT; glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities and malondialdehyde - MDA - levels) that play a role in the development of acute lung inflammation (ALI). Therefore, we tested an orally active antioxidant produced from grape skin manipulation (grape skin extract - GSE), in mice exposed to CS from 6 cigarettes a day for 5 days. In addition, we used a separate group treated with NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (an NO inhibitor) to confirm nitric oxide (NO) involvement in GSE effects. We showed for the first time that administration of GSE inhibited ALI and oxidative damage induced by CS. This is associated with decreased MMP-9 activity, decreased number of inflammatory cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and reduced levels of lipid peroxidation. Our results indicate that beneficial effects of GSE are NO-dependent. The study indicates that alteration of the oxidant-antioxidant balance is important in the pathogenesis of CS-induced ALI and suggests lung protective effects of GSE treatment in the mouse.

  7. Enhanced oxidative stress in the skin of vitamin E deficient mice exposed to semisynthetic metal working fluids.

    PubMed

    Shvedova, Anna A; Kisin, Elena; Murray, Ashley; Smith, Charlotte; Castranova, Vincent; Kommineni, Choudari

    2002-07-01

    Metal working fluids (MWFs) are widely used in industry for metal cutting, drilling, shaping, lubricating, and milling. Many occupational health concerns have arisen for workers exposed to MWFs. It has been reported earlier that occupational exposure to MWFs causes allergic and irritant contact dermatitis. Previously, we have shown that dermal exposure of female and male B6C3F1 mice to 5% MWFs for 3 months resulted in accumulation of mast cells and elevation of histamine in the skin. Topical exposure to MWFs also resulted in elevated oxidative stress in the liver of both sexes and the testes in males. The goal of this study was to evaluate whether preexisting oxidative stress in the skin exacerbated mast cell influx after MWFs treatment. Oxidative stress in the skin of B6C3F1 mice was generated by dietary vitamin E deprivation. Mice were given vitamin E deficient (5-10 i.v./kg of vitamin E) or basal (50 i.v./kg of vitamin E) diets for 34 weeks. Topical treatment with MWFs (100 microl, 30%) started after 18 weeks of alimentary vitamin E deprivation. Histology of the skin after 16 weeks of exposure to MWFs revealed a 53% increase in mast cell accumulation in vitamin E deficient diets compared to mice given a vitamin E sufficient diet. Total antioxidant reserve in skin of vitamin E deprived mice treated with MWFs was decreased by 66% as compared to those mice given a vitamin E sufficient diet. GSH and protein thiols in the dermis of vitamin E deprived mice exposed to MWFs were also decreased 39 and 42%, respectively, as compared to mice given basal diet. This study clearly delineates the role of oxidative stress in enhancing mast cell accumulation caused by topical exposure to MWFs.

  8. Far-infrared suppresses skin photoaging in ultraviolet B-exposed fibroblasts and hairless mice

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Hui-Wen; Chen, Cheng-Hsien; Chen, Yi-Jie; Hsu, Yung-Ho

    2017-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) induces skin photoaging, which is characterized by thickening, wrinkling, pigmentation, and dryness. Collagen, which is one of the main building blocks of human skin, is regulated by collagen synthesis and collagen breakdown. Autophagy was found to block the epidermal hyperproliferative response to UVB and may play a crucial role in preventing skin photoaging. In the present study, we investigated whether far-infrared (FIR) therapy can inhibit skin photoaging via UVB irradiation in NIH 3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblasts and SKH-1 hairless mice. We found that FIR treatment significantly increased procollagen type I through the induction of the TGF-β/Smad axis. Furthermore, UVB significantly enhanced the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) and MMP-9. FIR inhibited UVB-induced MMP-1 and MMP-9. Treatment with FIR reversed UVB-decreased type I collagen. In addition, FIR induced autophagy by inhibiting the Akt/mTOR signaling pathway. In UVB-induced skin photoaging in a hairless mouse model, FIR treatment resulted in decreased skin thickness in UVB irradiated mice and inhibited the degradation of collagen fibers. Moreover, FIR can increase procollagen type I via the inhibition of MMP-9 and induction of TGF-β in skin tissues. Therefore, our study provides evidence for the beneficial effects of FIR exposure in a model of skin photoaging. PMID:28301572

  9. Sun exposed skin disease.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Percy

    2011-01-01

    A wide variety of dermatoses may arise in exposed areas and are at the same time induced or exacerbated by irradiation from the sun. The spectrum may range from acute sunburn to chronic effects of sun damage, including elastosis and ultraviolet-induced skin cancer. Inflammatory ultraviolet-induced dermatoses have a confusing nomenclature and classification that often leads to difficulties in the differential diagnosis. Modern nosology differentiates primary from secondary photodermatoses. Primary photodermatoses are believed to be mainly irradiation-induced and immunologically mediated. If the pathophysiology is not clearly defined, they are also called idiopathic. In cases of a known photosensitizer, local and systemic phototoxic or photoallergic reactions can be differentiated. Secondary photodermatoses have an established pathophysiology; for example, an enzyme defect such as occurs in the porphyrias or xeroderma pigmentosum, which leads to the abnormal sun sensitivity. Finally, preexisting dermatoses may be exacerbated by irradiation from the sun, as in systemic lupus erythematosus or Darier disease. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. DOES RESPONSE EVALUATION OF GENE EXPRESSION PROFILES IN THE SKIN OF K6/ODC MICE EXPOSED TO SODIUM ARSENITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract - Chronic drinking water exposure to inorganic arsenic and its metabolites increases tumor frequency in the skin of K6/ODC transgenic mice. To identify potential biomarkers and modes of action for this skin tumorigenicity, gene expression profiles were characterized fro...

  11. DOES RESPONSE EVALUATION OF GENE EXPRESSION PROFILES IN THE SKIN OF K6/ODC MICE EXPOSED TO SODIUM ARSENITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract - Chronic drinking water exposure to inorganic arsenic and its metabolites increases tumor frequency in the skin of K6/ODC transgenic mice. To identify potential biomarkers and modes of action for this skin tumorigenicity, gene expression profiles were characterized fro...

  12. Dose response evaluation of gene expression profiles in the skin of K6/ODC mice exposed to sodium arsenite

    SciTech Connect

    Ahlborn, Gene J.; Nelson, Gail M.; Ward, William O.; Knapp, Geremy; Allen, James W.; Ouyang Ming; Roop, Barbara C.; Chen Yan; O'Brien, Thomas; Kitchin, Kirk T.; Delker, Don A.

    2008-03-15

    Chronic drinking water exposure to inorganic arsenic and its metabolites increases tumor frequency in the skin of K6/ODC transgenic mice. To identify potential biomarkers and modes of action for this skin tumorigenicity, we characterized gene expression profiles from analysis of K6/ODC mice administered 0, 0.05, 0.25, 1.0 and 10 ppm sodium arsenite in their drinking water for 4 weeks. Following exposure, total RNA was isolated from mouse skin and processed to biotin-labeled cRNA for microarray analyses. Skin gene expression was analyzed with Affymetrix Mouse Genome 430A 2.0 GeneChips (registered) , and pathway analysis was conducted with DAVID (NIH), Ingenuity (registered) Systems and MetaCore's GeneGo. Differential expression of several key genes was verified through qPCR. Only the highest dose (10 ppm) resulted in significantly altered KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) pathways, including MAPK, regulation of actin cytoskeleton, Wnt, Jak-Stat, Tight junction, Toll-like, phosphatidylinositol and insulin signaling pathways. Approximately 20 genes exhibited a dose response, including several genes known to be associated with carcinogenesis or tumor progression including cyclin D1, CLIC4, Ephrin A1, STAT3 and DNA methyltransferase 3a. Although transcription changes in all identified genes have not previously been linked to arsenic carcinogenesis, their association with carcinogenesis in other systems suggests that these genes may play a role in the early stages of arsenic-induced skin carcinogenesis and can be considered potential biomarkers.

  13. Metabolomic analysis of sun exposed skin.

    PubMed

    Randhawa, Manpreet; Southall, Michael; Samaras, Samantha Tucker

    2013-08-01

    It is very well known that exposure of skin to sun chronically accelerates the mechanism of aging as well as making it more susceptible toward skin cancer. This aspect of aging has been studied very well through genomics and proteomics tools. In this study we have used a metabolomic approach for the first time to determine the differences in the metabolome from full thickness skin biopsies from sun exposed and sun protected sites. We have primarily investigated the energy metabolism and the oxidative pathway in sun exposed skin. Biochemical pathway analysis revealed that energy metabolism in photoexposed skin is predominantly anaerobic. The study also validated the increased oxidative stress in skin.

  14. Inflammatory and chloracne-like skin lesions in B6C3F1 mice exposed to 3,3′,4,4′-tetrachloroazobenzene for 2 years

    PubMed Central

    Ramot, Yuval; Nyska, Abraham; Lieuallen, Warren; Maly, Alex; Flake, Gordon; Kissling, Grace E.; Brix, Amy; Malarkey, David E.; Hooth, Michelle J.

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to dioxin and dioxin-like compounds (DLCs) has been connected to the induction of chloracne in humans and animals. 3,3′,4,4′-Tetrachloroazobenzene (TCAB) is an environmental contaminant that induces chloracne in humans. TCAB has been studied only to a limited extent in laboratory animals. While performing a 2-year gavage study in B6C3F1 mice to evaluate the toxic and carcinogenic effects of TCAB, we also explored potential chloracnegenic properties. Groups of 50 male and 50 female B6C3F1 mice were exposed by gavage to TCAB at dose levels of 0, 3, 10 and 30 mg/kg for 5 days a week for 2 years. The animals developed treatment-related gross inflammatory skin lesions, which were characterized histologically by inflammation, fibrosis, hyperplasia, and ulcers. Additionally, many of the animals developed follicular dilatation and sebaceous-gland atrophy, consistent with chloracne-like lesions. This current 2-year study supports recently published papers showing susceptibility to chloracne in mouse strains other than hairless mice. The chloracne-like lesions were not clinically evident; therefore, our study highlights the need for careful examination of the skin in order to identify subtle lesions consistent with chloracne-like changes in rodents exposed to dioxin and DLCs. Since previous short term studies did not demonstrate any skin lesions, we suggest that reliable assessment of all safety issues involving dioxin and DLCs requires evaluation following chronic exposure. Such studies in animal models will help to elucidate the mechanisms of dioxin-related health hazards. PMID:19737593

  15. Induction of alopecia in mice exposed to cigarette smoke.

    PubMed

    D'Agostini, F; Balansky, R; Pesce, C; Fiallo, P; Lubet, R A; Kelloff, G J; De Flora, S

    2000-04-03

    Besides being responsible for a high proportion of those chronic degenerative diseases that are the leading causes of death in the population, tobacco smoking has been associated with skin diseases. Smoke genotoxicants are metabolized in hair follicle cells, where they form DNA adducts and cause DNA damage. The suspicion was raised that, in humans, a link may exist between smoking and both premature grey hair and hair loss. In order to check this hypothesis, we carried out a study in C57BL/6 mice exposed whole-body to a mixture of sidestream and mainstream cigarette smoke. After 3 months exposure, most mice developed areas of alopecia and grey hair, while no such lesions occurred either in sham-exposed mice or in smoke-exposed mice receiving the chemopreventive agent N-acetylcysteine with drinking water. Cell apoptosis occurred massively in the hair bulbs at the edge of alopecia areas. Smoke-exposed mice had extensive atrophy of the epidermis, reduced thickness of the subcutaneous tissue, and scarcity of hair follicles. On the whole, exposure to smoke genotoxic components appears to alter the hair cycle with a dystrophic anagen pattern. Although this mechanism is different from that of genotoxic cytostatic drugs, N-acetylcysteine appears to exert protective effects in both conditions.

  16. Remarkable induction of UV-signature mutations at the 3'-cytosine of dipyrimidine sites except at 5'-TCG-3' in the UVB-exposed skin epidermis of xeroderma pigmentosum variant model mice.

    PubMed

    Ikehata, Hironobu; Chang, Yumin; Yokoi, Masayuki; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Hanaoka, Fumio

    2014-10-01

    The human POLH gene is responsible for the variant form of xeroderma pigmentosum (XP-V), a genetic disease highly susceptible to cancer on sun-exposed skin areas, and encodes DNA polymerase η (polη), which is specialized for translesion DNA synthesis (TLS) of UV-induced DNA photolesions. We constructed polη-deficient mice transgenic with lacZ mutational reporter genes to study the effect of Polh null mutation (Polh(-/-)) on mutagenesis in the skin after UVB irradiation. UVB induced lacZ mutations with remarkably higher frequency in the Polh(-/-) epidermis and dermis than in the wild-type (Polh(+/+)) and heterozygote. DNA sequences of a hundred lacZ mutants isolated from the epidermis of four UVB-exposed Polh(-/-) mice were determined and compared with mutant sequences from irradiated Polh(+)(/)(+) mice. The spectra of the mutations in the two genotypes were both highly UV-specific and dominated by C→T transitions at dipyrimidines, namely UV-signature mutations. However, sequence preferences of the occurrence of UV-signature mutations were quite different between the two genotypes: the mutations occurred at a higher frequency preferentially at the 5'-TCG-3' sequence context than at the other dipyrimidine contexts in the Polh(+/+) epidermis, whereas the mutations were induced remarkably and exclusively at the 3'-cytosine of almost all dipyrimidine contexts with no preference for 5'-TCG-3' in the Polh(-/-) epidermis. In addition, in Polh(-/-) mice, a small but remarkable fraction of G→T transversions was also observed exclusively at the 3'-cytosine of dipyrimidine sites, strongly suggesting that these transversions resulted not from oxidative damage but from UV photolesions. These results would reflect the characteristics of the error-prone TLS functioning in the bypass of UV photolesions in the absence of polη, which would be mediated by mechanisms based on the two-step model of TLS. On the other hand, the deamination model would explain well the mutation

  17. Photodynamic therapy improves the ultraviolet-irradiated hairless mice skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorge, Ana Elisa S.; Hamblin, Michael R.; Parizotto, Nivaldo A.; Kurachi, Cristina; Bagnato, Vanderlei S.

    2014-03-01

    Chronic exposure to ultraviolet (UV) sunlight causes premature skin aging. In light of this fact, photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an emerging modality for treating cancer and other skin conditions, however its response on photoaged skin has not been fully illustrated by means of histopathology. For this reason, the aim of this study was analyze whether PDT can play a role on a mouse model of photoaging. Hence, SKH-1 hairless mice were randomly allocated in two groups, UV and UV/PDT. The mice were daily exposed to an UV light source (280-400 nm: peak at 350 nm) for 8 weeks followed by a single PDT session using 20% 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) topically. After the proper photosensitizer accumulation within the tissue, a non-coherent red (635 nm) light was performed and, after 14 days, skin samples were excised and processed for light microscopy, and their sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin (HE) and Masson's Trichrome. As a result, we observed a substantial epidermal thickening and an improvement in dermal collagen density by deposition of new collagen fibers on UV/PDT group. These findings strongly indicate epidermal and dermal restoration, and consequently skin restoration. In conclusion, this study provides suitable evidences that PDT improves the UV-irradiated hairless mice skin, supporting this technique as an efficient treatment for photoaged skin.

  18. Skin friction measurement with partially exposed polymer dispersed liquid crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parmar, D. S.; Holmes, H. K.

    1993-01-01

    Partially exposed polymer dispersed liquid crystal thin film (10-25 microns) deposited on a flat glass substrate has been used for the first time to measure skin friction. Utilizing the shear-stress-induced director reorientation in the partially exposed liquid-crystal droplets, optical transmission under crossed polarization has been measured as a function of the air flow differential pressure. Direct measurement of the skin friction with a skin friction drag balance, under the same aerodynamic conditions, lets us correlate the skin friction with optical transmission. This provides a unique technique for the direct measurement of skin friction from the transmitted light intensity. The results are in excellent agreement with the model suggested in this paper.

  19. Mitochondrial DNA deletion percentage in sun exposed and non sun exposed skin.

    PubMed

    Powers, Julia M; Murphy, Gillian; Ralph, Nikki; O'Gorman, Susan M; Murphy, James E J

    2016-12-01

    The percentages of mitochondrial genomes carrying the mtDNA(3895) and the mtDNA(4977) (common) deletion were quantified in sun exposed and non sun exposed skin biopsies, for five cohorts of patients varying either in sun exposure profile, age or skin cancer status. Non-melanoma skin cancer diagnoses are rising in Ireland and worldwide [12] but most risk prediction is based on subjective visual estimations of sun exposure history. A quantitative objective test for pre-neoplastic markers may result in better adherence to sun protective behaviours. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is known to be subject to the loss of a significant proportion of specific sections of genetic code due to exposure to ultraviolet light in sunlight. Although one such deletion has been deemed more sensitive, another, called the mtDNA(4977) or common deletion, has proved to be a more useful indicator of possible risk in this study. Quantitative molecular analysis was carried out to determine the percentage of genomes carrying the deletion using non sun exposed and sun exposed skin biopsies in cohorts of patients with high or low sun exposure profiles and two high exposure groups undergoing treatment for NMSC. Results indicate that mtDNA deletions correlate to sun exposure; in groups with high sun exposure habits a significant increase in deletion number in exposed over non sun exposed skin occurred. An increase in deletion percentage was also seen in older cohorts compared to the younger group. The mtDNA(3895) deletion was detected in small amounts in exposed skin of many patients, the mtDNA(4977) common deletion, although present to some extent in non sun exposed skin, is suggested to be the more reliable and easily detected marker. In all cohorts except the younger group with relatively lower sun exposure, the mtDNA(4977) deletion was more frequent in sun exposed skin samples compared to non-sun exposed skin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Heat delays skin wound healing in mice.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos-Silva, Marco Aurélio; Trajano, Eduardo Tavares Lima; Schanuel, Fernanda Seabra; Monte-Alto-Costa, Andréa

    2017-02-01

    In vivo studies have shown that the combination of infrared radiation (IR) and visible light (VIS) is responsible for the activation of metaloproteinases, causing matrix degradation and damage to healthy skin. However, the role of heat originating from the VIS spectrum on wound healing remains poorly understood. Our objective was to investigate the macroscopic, microscopic and biochemical effects of heat induced by visible light on cutaneous wound healing in mice. Male mice were anesthetized, subjected to a cutaneous excisional wound and divided into two groups ( n = 10/group) exposed to 23℃ or 43℃ in a thermal chamber for 30 min every other day, for 13 days. On day 14, the animals were sacrificed, and their lesions were processed for histochemistry, immunohistochemistry and protein expression analysis. The wound area was 42% greater 11 days ( p < 0.01) and 29% greater 14 days ( p < 0.001) after wounding in the 43℃ group than in the 23℃ group. The 43℃ group presented a lower (17%) percentage of reepithelialized wounds ( p < 0.001) 14 days after wounding. The length of the epidermal gap was greater in the 43℃ group ( p < 0.01). The volume density of myofibroblasts and the number of F4/80-positive macrophages was greater in the 43℃ group ( p < 0.05). The 43℃ group showed increased protein expression of type III collagen ( p < 0.001), decreased protein expression of type I collagen ( p < 0.05), increased MMP-1 expression ( p < 0.05), and decreased MMP-2 activity ( p < 0.001). The protein expression of fibrillin-1 ( p < 0.001), MMP-12 ( p < 0.05), TGF-β 1/2/3 ( p < 0.01) and ERK activation ( p < 0.05) was increased in the 43℃ group. Our results suggest that heat delays the stages of wound healing in mice.

  1. Temporal and spatial features of the formation of DNA adducts in sulfur mustard-exposed skin

    SciTech Connect

    Batal, Mohamed; Boudry, Isabelle; Mouret, Stéphane; Wartelle, Julien; Emorine, Sandy; Bertoni, Marine; Bérard, Izabel; and others

    2013-12-15

    Sulfur mustard (SM) is a chemical warfare agent that targets skin where it induces large blisters. DNA alkylation is a critical step to explain SM-induced cutaneous symptoms. We determined the kinetics of formation of main SM–DNA adducts and compare it with the development of the SM-induced pathogenesis in skin. SKH-1 mice were exposed to 2, 6 and 60 mg/kg of SM and treated skin was biopsied between 6 h and 21 days. Formation of SM DNA adducts was dose-dependent with a maximum immediately after exposure. However, adducts were persistent and still detectable 21 days post-exposure. The time-dependent formation of DNA adducts was also found to be correlated with the appearance of apoptotic cells. This temporal correlation suggests that these two early events are responsible for the severity of the damage to the skin. Besides, SM–DNA adducts were also detected in areas located next to contaminated zone, thus suggesting that SM diffuses in skin. Altogether, this work provides for the first time a clear picture of SM-induced genotoxicity using DNA adducts as a marker. - Highlights: • Sulfur mustard adducts are formed in DNA after skin exposure. • DNA damage formation is an early event in the pathological process of skin burn. • The amount of SM–DNA adducts is maximal at the earliest time point investigated. • Adducts are still detected 3 weeks after exposure. • Sulfur mustard diffuses in skin especially when large doses are applied.

  2. Safety and Efficacy of Transplantation with Allogeneic Skin Tumors to Treat Chemically-Induced Skin Tumors in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhiwei; Sun, Hua; Zhang, Jianhua; Ge, Chunlei; Dong, Suwei; Li, Zhen; Li, Ruilei; Chen, Xiaodan; Li, Mei; Chen, Yun; Zou, Yingying; Qian, Zhongyi; Yang, Lei; Yang, Jinyan; Zhu, Zhitao; Liu, Zhimin; Song, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Background Transplantation with allogeneic cells has become a promising modality for cancer therapy, which can induce graft-versus-tumor (GVT) effect. This study was aimed at assessing the safety, efficacy, and tissue type GVT (tGVT) response of transplantation with allogeneic skin tumors to treat chemically-induced skin tumors in mice. Material/Methods FVB/N and ICR mice were exposed topically to chemicals to induce skin tumors. Healthy ICR mice were transplanted with allogeneic skin tumors from FVB/N mice to test the safety. The tumor-bearing ICR mice were transplanted with, or without, allogeneic skin tumors to test the efficacy. The body weights (BW), body condition scores (BCS), tumor volumes in situ, metastasis tumors, overall survival, and serum cytokines were measured longitudinally. Results Transplantation with no more than 0.03 g allogeneic skin tumors from FVB/N mice to healthy ICR mice was safe. After transplantation with allogeneic skin tumors to treat tumor-bearing mice, it inhibited the growth of tumors slightly at early stage, accompanied by fewer metastatic tumors at 24 days after transplantation (21.05% vs. 47.37%), while there were no statistically significant differences in the values of BW, BCS, tumor volumes in situ, metastasis tumors, and overall survival between the transplanted and non-transplanted groups. The levels of serum interleukin (IL)-2 were significantly reduced in the controls (P<0.05), but not in the recipients, which may be associated with the tGVT response. Conclusions Our results suggest that transplantation with allogeneic skin tumors is a safe treatment in mice, which can induce short-term tGVT response mediated by IL-2. PMID:27587310

  3. Photoeffects of near ultraviolet light upon a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposed to mouse skin microsomes

    SciTech Connect

    Peirano, W.B.

    1991-01-01

    Near ultraviolet (UV) light has been reported to both enhance and inhibit the tumor incidence in mice dermally exposed to benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) mixtures. Near UV light interacts with PAHs producing a variety of oxygenated products such as phenols, endoperoxides and quinones. However, little is known about BaP products formed from near UV irradiation of BaP-exposed mouse skin. Therefore, [sup 14]C-BaP was incubated with 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC) induced C[sub 3]H/HeJ and DBA/2J mouse skin microsomes with or without a 365 nm light source. The results indicated that the concurrent 365 nm light irradiation of induced mouse skin microsomes and BaP greatly enhanced the total conversion of BaP to its products, approximately 3-fold for the C[sub 3]H/HeJ and approximately 7-fold for the DBA/2J mouse microsomes, compared to the induced mouse skin microsomes and BaP alone. HPLC analyses of organic extracts indicated a more than additive enhancement of the formation of most of the individual cochromatographed BaP metabolites due to the combined interaction of 365 nm light with BaP and skin microsomes. Similar interactions were observed using benz(a)anthracene (BaA) in this system. These data show that near UV light alters the metabolic profile of PAHs produced by mouse skin microsomes.

  4. Skin disorders in ship's engineers exposed to oils and solvents.

    PubMed

    Svendsen, K; Hilt, B

    1997-04-01

    Ship's engineers are exposed to mineral oil and solvents in their work. This study was intended to investigate if the ship's engineers had an increased prevalence of skin disorders and whether any such increased risk could be linked to exposure to mineral oils and solvents. A self-administered questionnaire was sent to 700 male seamen from 3 Norwegian ferry countries. Of the 492 respondents, 169 were currently working as ship's engineers and 295 had never worked as ship's engineers. The outcomes eczema, acne, dry skin, and dermatitis and hand dermatitis were defined from the questionnaire. Prevalences of these skin disorders were compared between the groups. Logistic regression was used to elucidate explanatory variables further. When comparing current ship's engineers with those who had never worked as ship's engineers, the crude prevalence ratios were 1.7 (95% CI 1.1-2.7) for dry skin, 1.7 (95% CI 1.1-2.5) for any dermatitis, 1.3 (95% CI 0.66-2.67) for acne and 1.2 (CI 0.61-2.27) for eczema. The risk of these symptoms increased for the engineers in the regression analysis, after controlling for age, self-reported use of Stoddard solvent, and the use of fuel oil as hand cleansing agent. The increased prevalence of skin disorders found among ship's engineers in this investigation may be explained by direct contact with mineral oils and solvents.

  5. Assessing the photoaging process at sun exposed and non-exposed skin using fluorescence lifetime spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito Nogueira, Marcelo; Kurachi, Cristina

    2016-03-01

    Photoaging is the skin premature aging due to exposure to ultraviolet light, which damage the collagen, elastin and can induce alterations on the skin cells DNA, and, then, it may evolve to precancerous lesions, which are widely investigated by fluorescence spectroscopy and lifetime. The fluorescence spectra and fluorescence lifetime analysis has been presented as a technique of great potential for biological tissue characterization at optical diagnostics. The main targeted fluorophores are NADH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) and FAD (flavin adenine dinucleotide), which have free and bound states, each one with different average lifetimes. The average lifetimes for free and bound NADH and FAD change according to tissue metabolic alterations and may contribute to a non-invasive clinical investigation of injuries such as skin lesions. These lesions and the possible areas where they may develop can be interrogated using fluorescence lifetime spectroscopy taking into account the variability of skin phototypes and the changes related to melanin, collagen and elastin, endogenous fluorophores which have emissions that spectrally overlap to the NADH and FAD emission. The objective of this study is to assess the variation on fluorescence lifetimes of normal skin at sun exposed and non-exposed areas and associate this variation to the photoaging process.

  6. Genetic and Proteomics Analyses of Space Flown Mice Skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terada, Masahiro; Takahashi, Rika; Yamada, Shin; Masaya, Seki; Higashibata, Akira; Majima, Hideyuki J.; Ohira, Yoshinobu; Mukai, Chiaki; Ishioka, Noriaki

    2013-02-01

    Many astronauts stay in the International Space Station (ISS) for a long period of time. Therefore, the development of astronaut health care technologies is very important. Especially, an understanding of the effects of the space environment, such as microgravity and radiation, on protein, gene, and mineral metabolism is important for developing countermeasures against the adverse effects experienced by astronauts who are in space for long periods of time. Since December 2009, the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) has initiated a human research study to investigate the effects of long-term space flight on gene expression and mineral metabolism by analyzing hair samples from ISS crew members who have been in space (experiment nicknamed “HAIR”). As animal control experiments, we could have an opportunity to analyze rodents samples by participating the tissue sharing program of space-flown mice organized by Italian Space Agency (AGI) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). It will reasonably complement human hair experiment because we able to conduct more detailed skin analysis which is enable in human experiment. The purpose of this flown-mice experiment is to study the effects of long-term exposure to space environment. In this experiment, we analyzed mice skin contained hair roots. The samples were taken from space-flown (3-month and 2-week) and 3-month hindlimb suspensioned and 3-month 2G exposed mice, and ground-control mice. For the skin contained hair roots, the extracted and amplified RNA was used to DNA microarray analysis, and was further analyzed with expression on the interesting genes by real time Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) method. And the extracted protein was used to Mass Spectrometer analysis. Data analysis on the specimen are in progress.

  7. Evaluation of selenium in biological sample of arsenic exposed female skin lesions and skin cancer patients with related to non-exposed skin cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Kolachi, Nida F; Kazi, Tasneem G; Wadhwa, Sham K; Afridi, Hassan I; Baig, Jameel A; Khan, Sumaira; Shah, Faheem

    2011-08-01

    The antagonistic effects between selenium (Se) and arsenic (As) suggest that low Se status plays an important role in arsenism development. The objective of present study was to assess Se contents in biological samples of As exposed females have skin lesions and cancer with related to non-exposed skin cancer patients. The biological samples (blood and scalp hair) of As exposed group comprises, female skin cancer (ESC) patients admitted in cancer hospitals have skin lesions (ESL) and exposed referents have not both diseases (ER), belongs to As exposed area of Pakistan. For comparative purposes, age matched female skin cancerous patient (RP) and non-cancerous females (NER) belong to non-exposed areas were also selected. The As and Se in acid digests of biological samples were pre-concentrated by complexing with chelating agent (ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate), and resulted complexes were extracted into non-ionic extractant (Triton X-114), prior to analysis by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. The enhancement factor of about 25 was obtained by pre-concentrating 10 mL of sample solutions. The accuracy of the optimized procedure was evaluated by using certified reference material (BCR 397) with certified values for Se and As and standard addition method at three concentration levels in real samples. No significant differences was observed (p>0.05) when comparing the values obtained by the proposed method, added and certified values of both elements. The biological samples of ESC patients had 2-3 folds higher As and lower Se levels as compared to RP (p<0.001). Understudied exposed referents have high level of As and lower Se contents as compared to referents subjects of non-exposed area (p<0.01). The higher concentration of As and lower levels of Se in biological samples of cancerous patients are consisted with reported studies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Neural Tube Defects In Mice Exposed To Tap Water

    PubMed Central

    Mallela, Murali K; Werre, Stephen R; Hrubec, Terry C

    2010-01-01

    In May of 2006 we suddenly began to observe neural tube defects (NTDs) in embryos of untreated control mice. We hypothesized the mice were being exposed unknowingly to a teratogenic agent and investigated the cause. Our results suggested that NTDs were not resulting from bedding material, feed, strain or source of the mice. Additionally, mice were negative for routine and comprehensive screens of pathogens. To further test whether the NTDs resulted from infectious or genetic cause localized to our facility, we obtained three strains of timed pregnant mice from commercial suppliers located in 4 different states. All strains and sources of mice arrived in our laboratory with NTDs, implying that commercially available mice were possibly exposed to a teratogen prior to purchase. Our investigation eventually concluded that exposure to tap water was causing the NTDs. The incidence of NTDs was greatest in purchased mice provided tap water and lowest in purchased mice provided distilled deionized water (DDI). Providing mice DDI water for two generations (F2-DDI) eliminated the NTDs. When F2-DDI mice were provided tap water from three different urban areas prior to breeding, their offspring again developed NTDs. Increased length of exposure to tap water significantly increased the incidence of NTDs. These results indicate that a contaminant in municipal tap water is likely causing NTDs in mice. The unknown teratogen appears to have a wide geographic distribution but has not yet been identified. Water analysis is currently underway to identify candidate contaminants that might be responsible for the malformations. PMID:20549630

  9. Curcumin Stimulates the Antioxidant Mechanisms in Mouse Skin Exposed to Fractionated γ-Irradiation.

    PubMed

    Jagetia, Ganesh Chandra; Rajanikant, Golgod Krishnamurthy

    2015-01-13

    Fractionated irradiation is one of the important radiotherapy regimens to treat different types of neoplasia. Despite of the immense therapeutic gains accrued by delivering fractionated irradiation to tumors, the radiation burden on skin increases significantly. Low doses of irradiation to skin adversely affect its molecular and metabolic status. The use of antioxidant/s may help to alleviate the radiation-induced changes in the skin and allow delivering a higher dose of radiation to attain better therapeutic gains. Curcumin is an antioxidant and a free radical scavenging dietary supplement, commonly used as a flavoring agent in curries. Therefore, the effect of 100 mg/kg body weight curcumin was studied on the antioxidant status of mice skin exposed to a total dose of 10, 20 and 40 Gy γ-radiation below the rib cage delivered as a single fraction of 2 Gy per day for 5, 10 or 20 days. Skin biopsies from both the curcumin treated or untreated irradiated groups were collected for the biochemical estimations at various post-irradiation times. The irradiation of animals caused a dose dependent decline in the glutathione concentration, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase activities and increased the lipid peroxidation in the irradiated skin. Curcumin treatment before irradiation resulted in a significant rise in the glutathione concentration and activities of both the glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase enzymes in mouse skin, whereas lipid peroxidation declined significantly. The present study indicates that curcumin treatment increased the antioxidant status of mouse exposed to different doses of fractionated γ-radiation.

  10. [Intervention of nicotinamide on skin melanin genesis after UVA exposed].

    PubMed

    Patam, Muhammad; Jin, Xi-peng; Zhang, Yu-bin; Pan, Jian-ying; Shen, Guang-zu

    2007-08-01

    To investigate the interference effect of nicotinamide on UVA-induced melanin genesis and melanin transport in human skin melanocyte. The optimum UVA dose expected to cause cell proliferation: 0.2 J/cm(2), nicotinamide was added immediately after the 0.2 J/cm(2) UVA exposure and the melanin content, cell cycles, cell apoptosis and mRNA express level were measured respectively. Melanin content in melanocytes was increased significantly after exposed to 0.2 J/cm(2) UVA. Melanin content in melanocytes was decreased after treatment with 10.0 mmol/ml nicotinamide following UVA exposure, but the cell cycles and the cell apoptosis rate were not significantly altered. mRNA express levels of TYR, TRP-1 were modulated by nicotinamide. Nicotinamide has more effect on decreasing melanin genesis after UVA exposure, nicotinamide also plays a role in modulating the mRNA express of TYR, TRP-1 gene. It is possible to consider nicotinamide as an efficient and safe sun screen to provide a certain level of protection for UVA exposed skin.

  11. Red tattoos, ultraviolet radiation and skin cancer in mice.

    PubMed

    Lerche, Catharina M; Heerfordt, Ida M; Serup, Jørgen; Poulsen, Thomas; Wulf, Hans Christian

    2017-05-13

    Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) induces skin cancer. The combination of UVR and red tattoos may be associated with increased risk of skin cancer due to potential carcinogens in tattoo inks. This combination has not been studied previously. Immunocompetent C3.Cg/TifBomTac hairless mice (n=99) were tattooed on their back with a popular red tattoo ink. This often used ink is banned for use on humans because of high content of the potential carcinogen 2-anisidine. Half of the mice were irradiated with three standard erythema doses UVR thrice weekly. Time to induction of first, second and third squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) was measured. All UV-irradiated mice developed SCCs. The time to the onset of the first and second tumor was identical in the red-tattooed group compared with the control group (182 vs 186 days and 196 vs 203 days, P=ns). Statistically, the third tumor appeared slightly faster in the red-tattooed group than in the controls (214 vs 224 days, P=.043). For the second and third tumor, the growth rate was faster in the red-tattooed group compared with the control (31 vs 49 days, P=.009 and 30 vs 38 days, P=.036). In conclusion, no spontaneous cancers were observed in skin tattooed with a red ink containing 2-anisidine. However, red tattoos exposed to UVR showed faster tumor onset regarding the third tumor, and faster growth rate of the second and third tumor indicating red ink acts as a cocarcinogen with UVR. The cocarcinogenic effect was weak and may not be clinically relevant. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Whole DNA methylome profiling in mice exposed to secondhand smoke

    PubMed Central

    Tommasi, Stella; Zheng, Albert; Yoon, Jae-In; Li, Arthur Xuejun; Wu, Xiwei; Besaratinia, Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    Aberration of DNA methylation is a prime epigenetic mechanism of carcinogenesis. Aberrant DNA methylation occurs frequently in lung cancer, with exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) being an established risk factor. The causal role of SHS in the genesis of lung cancer, however, remains elusive. To investigate whether SHS can cause aberrant DNA methylation in vivo, we have constructed the whole DNA methylome in mice exposed to SHS for a duration of 4 mo, both after the termination of exposure and at ensuing intervals post-exposure (up to 10 mo). Our genome-wide and gene-specific profiling of DNA methylation in the lung of SHS-exposed mice revealed that all groups of SHS-exposed mice and controls share a similar pattern of DNA methylation. Furthermore, the methylation status of major repetitive DNA elements, including long-interspersed nuclear elements (LINE L1), intracisternal A particle long-terminal repeat retrotransposons (IAP-LTR), and short-interspersed nuclear elements (SINE B1), in the lung of all groups of SHS-exposed mice and controls remains comparable. The absence of locus-specific gain of DNA methylation and global loss of DNA methylation in the lung of SHS-exposed mice within a timeframe that precedes neoplastic-lesion formation underscore the challenges of lung cancer biomarker development. Identifying the initiating events that cause aberrant DNA methylation in lung carcinogenesis may help improve future strategies for prevention, early detection and treatment of this highly lethal disease. PMID:23051858

  13. Temporal changes in respiratory dynamics in mice exposed to phosgene.

    PubMed

    Sciuto, Alfred M; Lee, Robyn B; Forster, Jeffry S; Cascio, Matthew B; Clapp, Diana L; Moran, Ted S

    2002-05-01

    One hallmark of phosgene inhalation toxicity is the latent formation of life-threatening, noncardiogenic pulmonary edema. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of phosgene inhalation on respiratory dynamics over 12 h. CD-1 male mice, 25-30 g, were exposed to 32 mg/m(3) (8 ppm) phosgene for 20 min (640 mg min/m(3)) followed by a 5-min air washout. A similar group of mice was exposed to room air for 25 min. After exposure, conscious mice were placed unrestrained in a whole-body plethysmograph to determine breathing frequency (f), inspiration (Ti) and expiration (Te) times, tidal volume (TV), minute ventilation (MV), end inspiratory pause (EIP), end expiratory (EEP) pause, peak inspiratory flows (PIF), peak expiratory flows (PEF), and a measure of bronchoconstriction (Penh). All parameters were evaluated every 15 min for 12 h. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) protein concentration and lung wet/dry weight ratios (W/D) were also determined at 1, 4, 8, and 12 h. A treatment x time repeated-measures two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed significant differences between air and phosgene for EEP, EIP, PEF, PIF, TV, and MV, p < or =.05, across 12 h. Phosgene-exposed mice had a significantly longer mean Ti, p < or =.05, compared with air-exposed mice over time. Mice exposed to phosgene showed marked increases (approximately double) in Penh across all time points, beginning at 5 h, when compared with air-exposed mice, p < or =.05. BALF protein, an indicator of air/blood barrier integrity, and W/D were significantly higher, 10- to 12-fold, in phosgene-exposed than in air-exposed mice 4-12 h after exposure, p

  14. Pathology of aging female SENCAR mice used as controls in skin two-stage carcinogenesis studies

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, J.M.; Quander, R.; Devor, D.; Wenk, M.L.; Spangler, E.F.

    1986-09-01

    The pathology of 60 aged female SENCAR mice used as acetone controls in skin painting studies was studied. Fifty percent of the mice survived past 96 weeks of age. The major contributing causes of death identified in 42 mice were glomerulonephritis (8 mice), histiocytic sarcoma (7 mice), and other tumors (8 mice). Glomerulonephritis was found in the majority of mice and was associated with thymic hyperplasia, focal vasculitis, and lymphoid hyperplasia. Necropsy of 58 mice surviving past 50 weeks of age revealed that 41 had an average of 1.36 tumors per mouse. The most common tumors including histiocytic sarcoma (13 mice), pulmonary adenoma or adenocarcinoma (11 mice), mammary tumors (11 mice), follicular center cell lymphoma (4 mice), and hepatocellular adenoma (4 mice). The 13 histiocytic sarcomas appeared to arise in the uterus and metastasized to liver (9 mice), lung (4 mice), kidney (3 mice), and other tissues. Lung tumors were of the solid and papillary types, and tumor cells frequently contained surfactant apoprotein (SAP) but did not contain Clara cell antigens, suggesting their origin from alveolar Type II cells. A variety of nonneoplastic lesions, similar to those observed in other mouse strains, were seen in other tissues of these mice. Amyloid-like material was seen only in nasal turbinates and thyroid gland. In a group of 28 mice exposed to 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) for up to 88 weeks, as a control for other treatment groups, 7 (25%) had papillomas and 5 (17.8%) had squamous cell carcinomas of the skin at necropsy, although many other induced papillomas regressed during the study.

  15. Proteomic Profiling of Bladders from Mice Exposed with Sodium Arsenite

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arsenic, an environmental contaminant, has been linked with cancer of the bladder in humans. To study the mode of action of arsenic, female CH3 mice were exposed to 85 ppm sodium arsenite in their drinking water for 30 days. Following the exposure a comparative proteomic analysis...

  16. Proteomic Profiling of Bladders from Mice Exposed with Sodium Arsenite

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arsenic, an environmental contaminant, has been linked with cancer of the bladder in humans. To study the mode of action of arsenic, female CH3 mice were exposed to 85 ppm sodium arsenite in their drinking water for 30 days. Following the exposure a comparative proteomic analysis...

  17. Dietary chromium and nickel enhance UV-carcinogenesis in skin of hairless mice

    SciTech Connect

    Uddin, Ahmed N.; Burns, Fredric J.; Rossman, Toby G.; Chen, Haobin; Kluz, Thomas; Costa, Max . E-mail: costam01@nyu.edu

    2007-06-15

    The skin cancer enhancing effect of chromium (in male mice) and nickel in UVR-irradiated female Skh1 mice was investigated. The dietary vitamin E and selenomethionine were tested for prevention of chromium-enhanced skin carcinogenesis. The mice were exposed to UVR (1.0 kJ/m{sup 2} 3x weekly) for 26 weeks either alone, or combined with 2.5 or 5.0 ppm potassium chromate, or with 20, 100 or 500 ppm nickel chloride in drinking water. Vitamin E or selenomethionine was added to the lab chow for 29 weeks beginning 3 weeks before the start of UVR exposure. Both chromium and nickel significantly increased the UVR-induced skin cancer yield in mice. In male Skh1 mice, UVR alone induced 1.9 {+-} 0.4 cancers/mouse, and 2.5 or 5.0 ppm potassium chromate added to drinking water increased the yields to 5.9 {+-} 0.8 and 8.6 {+-} 0.9 cancers/mouse, respectively. In female Skh1 mice, UVR alone induced 1.7 {+-} 0.4 cancers/mouse, and the addition of 20, 100 or 500 ppm nickel chloride increased the yields to 2.8 {+-} 0.9, 5.6 {+-} 0.7 and 4.2 {+-} 1.0 cancers/mouse, respectively. Neither vitamin E nor selenomethionine reduced the cancer yield enhancement by chromium. These results confirm that chromium and nickel, while not good skin carcinogens per se, are enhancers of UVR-induced skin cancers in Skh1 mice. Data also suggest that the enhancement of UVR-induced skin cancers by chromate may not be oxidatively mediated since the antioxidant vitamin E as well as selenomethionine, found to prevent arsenite-enhanced skin carcinogenesis, failed to suppress enhancement by chromate.

  18. T-cell homeostasis in mice exposed to airborne xenobiotics

    PubMed Central

    Drela, Nadzieja; Bień, Justyna; Kozłowska, Ewa

    2005-01-01

    Many effects of environmental toxic agents contribute to the deregulation of immune system homeostasis. Here we demonstrate that the effect of airborne suspended matter (ASM) on the generation of mouse T cells is reversible. This reversal can be achieved by an active process that returns the T cells to homeostasis and does not result from the simple effect of ASM deprivation. An accelerated development of thymocytes and increased influx of T-cell progenitors to the thymus in mice exposed to environmental xenobiotics has been postulated. This hypothesis has been confirmed by parallel increases in the percentages of single-positive and triple-negative thymocytes. Enhanced expression of thymocyte surface markers related to positive selection has also been observed. The pathway of T-cell progenitor development is favoured in the bone marrow of mice exposed to ASM. PMID:15804284

  19. Influences of p53 deficiency on the apoptotic response, DNA damage removal and mutagenesis in UVB-exposed mouse skin.

    PubMed

    Ikehata, Hironobu; Okuyama, Ryuhei; Ogawa, Eisaku; Nakamura, Shingo; Usami, Atsuko; Mori, Toshio; Tanaka, Kiyoji; Aiba, Setsuya; Ono, Tetsuya

    2010-07-01

    p53 suppresses the genomic instability provoked by genotoxic agents. Ultraviolet (UV) B induces skin cancers by producing DNA damage and mutations in the skin genome, whereas the skin tissue responds to the UVB insult with cell cycle arrest and apoptosis as well as damage exclusion by DNA repair. To address the p53 contribution to these skin responses in vivo, we analyzed the time course of DNA damage removal, apoptosis induction and hyperplasia in the skin after UVB irradiation in p53-knockout mice. We also examined UVB-induced mutations in the skin. We found that p53 deficiency does not abolish the UVB-induced apoptotic response in the epidermis but delays the process and the following hyperplasia 12-24 h. Regardless of the p53 genotype, 1 kJ/m(2) UVB induced a total replacement of the epidermal layer by destroying the damaged epidermis by apoptosis and rebuilding a new one through hyperplasia. We failed to detect a clear defect in removal of UVB-induced DNA photolesions from the genome of the p53-deficient skin except for a delay in the epidermis, which seemed to result from the delay in the apoptotic response. However, we found that p53 deficiency enhanced UVB-induced mutagenesis. Furthermore, in a genetic study using Xpa-knockout mice, we showed that the enhanced mutagenic response depends on the activity of nucleotide excision repair (NER), which was also supported by the mutation spectrum observed in the UVB-exposed p53-knockout mice. These results indicate that p53 protects the skin genome from the UVB genotoxicity by facilitating NER, whereas its contribution to the UVB-induced apoptosis is limited.

  20. Lymphoidal involution and delayed homograft rejection in hypoxia-exposed mice.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kmetz, J. M.; Anthony, A.

    1972-01-01

    Investigation of the relationship between histologic and cytochemical response patterns of the thymus, spleen, and lymph nodes of mice exposed to moderate hypoxia (380 mm Hg), and study, by histologic analysis, of the effect of hypoxia exposure on the skin homograft reaction used as an index of immunologic potential. The results obtained include the finding that functional changes in lymphatic organs occur during early weeks of hypoxia acclimation and that these changes probably reduce the ability of an animal to react to an immunological challenge.

  1. The parathyroid hormone regulates skin tumour susceptibility in mice.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Kazuhiro; Saito, Megumi; Yoshizawa, Yasuhiro; Munakata, Haruka; Isogai, Eriko; Miura, Ikuo; Wakana, Shigeharu; Yamaguchi, Midori; Shitara, Hiroshi; Taya, Choji; Karaplis, Andrew C; Kominami, Ryo; Wakabayashi, Yuichi

    2017-09-11

    Using a forward genetics approach to map loci in a mouse skin cancer model, we previously identified a genetic locus, Skin tumour modifier of MSM 1 (Stmm1) on chromosome 7, conferring strong tumour resistance. Sub-congenic mapping localized Parathyroid hormone (Pth) in Stmm1b. Here, we report that serum intact-PTH (iPTH) and a genetic polymorphism in Pth are important for skin tumour resistance. We identified higher iPTH levels in sera from cancer-resistant MSM/Ms mice compared with susceptible FVB/NJ mice. Therefore, we performed skin carcinogenesis experiments with MSM-BAC transgenic mice (Pth (MSM)-Tg) and Pth knockout heterozygous mice (Pth (+/-)). As a result, the higher amounts of iPTH in sera conferred stronger resistance to skin tumours. Furthermore, we found that the coding SNP (rs51104087, Val28Met) localizes in the mouse Pro-PTH encoding region, which is linked to processing efficacy and increased PTH secretion. Finally, we report that PTH increases intracellular calcium in keratinocytes and promotes their terminal differentiation. Taken together, our data suggest that Pth is one of the genes responsible for Stmm1, and serum iPTH could serve as a prevention marker of skin cancer and a target for new therapies.

  2. mPGES-1 null mice are resistant to bleomycin-induced skin fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Microsomal prostaglandin E2 synthase-1 (mPGES-1) is an inducible enzyme that acts downstream of cyclooxygenase (COX) to specifically catalyze the conversion of prostaglandin (PG) H2 to PGE2. mPGES-1 plays a key role in inflammation, pain and arthritis; however, the role of mPGES-1 in fibrogenesis is largely unknown. Herein, we examine the role of mPGES-1 in a mouse model of skin scleroderma using mice deficient in mPGES-1. Methods Wild type (WT) and mPGES-1 null mice were subjected to the bleomycin model of cutaneous skin scleroderma. mPGES-1 expressions in scleroderma fibroblasts and in fibroblasts derived from bleomycin-exposed mice were assessed by Western blot analysis. Degree of fibrosis, dermal thickness, inflammation, collagen content and the number of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA)-positive cells were determined by histological analyses. The quantity of the collagen-specific amino acid hydroxyproline was also measured. Results Compared to normal skin fibroblasts, mPGES-1 protein expression was elevated in systemic sclerosis (SSc) fibroblasts and in bleomycin-exposed mice. Compared to WT mice, mPGES-1-null mice were resistant to bleomycin-induced inflammation, cutaneous thickening, collagen production and myofibroblast formation. Conclusions mPGES-1 expression is required for bleomycin-induced skin fibrogenesis. Inhibition of mPGES-1 may be a viable method to alleviate the development of cutaneous sclerosis and is a potential therapeutic target to control the onset of fibrogenesis. PMID:21266028

  3. Embryo- and fetotoxicity of chromium in pregestationally exposed mice

    SciTech Connect

    Junaid, M.; Murthy, R.C.; Saxena, D.K.

    1996-10-01

    Chromium, an essential element in the human body required for proper carbohydrate, protein, and fat metabolism, is reported to impair gestational development of offspring of workers chronically exposed to this metal in the work place. Workers in chromium based industries can be exposed to concentrations two orders of magnitude higher than the general population. Among the general population, residents living near chromate production sites may be exposed to high levels of chromium (VI) in air or to elevated levels (40 - 50,000 ppm) of chromium in effluents. Shmitova reported afterbirth and puerperal hemorrhages in women industrially exposed to this metal and observed high chromium levels in blood and urine of pregnant women and in fetal and cord blood. Chromium readily passes the placental barrier and reaches the growing fetus. Exposure of mice to chromium during various gestational periods resulted in embryo and fetotoxic effects. This study looks at the role of body chromium accumulated pregestationally on embryo and fetal development and its subsequent transfer to feto-placental sites. 25 refs., 3 tabs.

  4. The protective effect of amifostine on ultraviolet B-exposed xeroderma pigmentosum mice

    PubMed Central

    Henry, SL; Christiansen, D; Kazmier, FR; Besch-Williford, CL; Concannon, MJ

    2010-01-01

    Background: Amifostine is a pharmaceutical agent that is used clinically to counteract the side-effects of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. It acts as a free radical scavenger that protects against harmful DNA cross-linking. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of amifostine on the development of skin cancer in xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) mice exposed to ultraviolet B radiation (UVB). Methods: Twenty-five XP mice were equally divided into five groups. Group 1 (control) received no amifostine and no UVB exposure. Group 2 also received no amifostine, but was exposed to UVB at a dose of 200 mJ/cm2 every other day. The remaining groups were subjected to the same irradiation, but were given amifostine at a dose of 50 mg/kg (group 3), 100 mg/kg (group 4), or 200 mg/kg (group 5) immediately prior to each exposure. Results: No tumours were seen in the control group. The animals in group 2 (no amifostine) developed squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) at 3.5–4.5 months (mean 3.9 months). Groups 3 and 4 (low- and medium-dose amifostine) developed SCC at 4.0–7.0 months (mean 5.3 months), representing a statistically significant delay in tumour presentation (p = 0.04). An even greater delay was seen in group 5 (high-dose amifostine), which developed SCC at 7.0–9.0 months (mean 8.5 months, p < 0.001 versus groups 3 and 4). Ocular keratitis developed in all animals except the unexposed controls and the high-dose treatment group. Conclusion: Treatment with amifostine significantly delays the onset of skin cancer and prevents ocular keratitis in UVB-exposed XP mice. PMID:22276030

  5. Influence of trans fat on skin damage in first-generation rats exposed to UV radiation.

    PubMed

    Barcelos, Raquel Cristine S; Vey, Luciana T; Segat, Hecson Jesser; Benvegnú, Dalila M; Trevizol, Fabíola; Roversi, Karine; Roversi, Katiane; Dias, Verônica T; Dolci, Geisa S; Kuhn, Fábio T; Piccolo, Jaqueline; CristinaVeit, Juliana; Emanuelli, Tatiana; Bürger, Marilise E

    2015-01-01

    The influence of trans fatty acids (TFA) on lipid profile, oxidative damage and mitochondrial function in the skin of rats exposed to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) was assessed. The first-generation offspring of female Wistar rats supplemented from pregnancy with either soybean oil (C-SO, rich in n-6 FA; control group) or hydrogenated vegetable fat (HVF, rich in TFA) were continued with the same supplements until adulthood, when half of each group was exposed to UVR for 12 weeks. The HVF group showed higher TFA cutaneous incorporation, increased protein carbonyl (PC) levels, decreased functionality of mitochondrial enzymes and antioxidant defenses of the skin. After UVR, the HVF group showed increased skin thickness and reactive species (RS) generation, with decreased skin antioxidant defenses. RS generation was positively correlated with skin thickness, wrinkles and PC levels. Once incorporated to skin, TFA make it more susceptible to developing UVR-induced disorders.

  6. Sunless skin tanning with dihydroxyacetone delays broad-spectrum ultraviolet photocarcinogenesis in hairless mice.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Anita B; Na, Renhua; Wulf, Hans Christian

    2003-12-09

    Sunless tanning with dihydroxyacetone (DHA) is not considered to be a sunscreen although it does absorb parts of the ultraviolet (UV) spectrum. We investigated the protection with topical application of DHA against solar UV-induced skin carcinogenesis in lightly pigmented hairless hr/hr C3H/Tif mice. Broad-spectrum UV radiation, simulating the UV part of the solar spectrum was obtained from one Philips TL12 and five Bellarium-S SA-1-12 tubes. Three groups of mice were UV-exposed four times a week to a dose-equivalent of four times the standard erythema dose (SED), without or with application of 5 or 20% DHA only twice a week. Similarly, three groups of mice were treated with DHA and irradiated with a high UV dose (8 SED), simulating a skin burn. Two groups (controls) were not irradiated, but either left untreated or treated with 20% DHA alone. The UV-induced skin pigmentation by melanogenesis could easily be distinguished from DHA-induced browning and was measured by a non-invasive, semi-quantitative method. Application of 20% DHA reduced by 63% the pigmentation produced by 4 SED, however, only by 28% the pigmentation produced by 8 SED. Furthermore, topical application of 20% DHA significantly delayed the time to appearance of the first tumor >or=1mm (P=0.0012) and the time to appearance of the third tumor (P=2 x 10(-6)) in mice irradiated with 4 SED. However, 20% DHA did not delay tumor development in mice irradiated with 8 SED. Application of 5% DHA did not influence pigmentation or photocarcinogenesis. In conclusion, this is the first study to show that the superficial skin coloring generated by frequent topical application of DHA in high concentrations may delay skin cancer development in hairless mice irradiated with moderate UV doses.

  7. Effects of bathing on skin exposed to Cobalt-60 teletherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Bohannan, P.A.

    1982-01-01

    The problem of this study was to determine the effects of bathing or not bathing on the degree of skin reaction occurring in patients receiving Cobalt-60 radiation therapy to the chest, back, or head and neck. A quasi experimental study was done using a 2 x 7 repeated measures design. Sixty-seven subjects receiving Cobalt-60 radiation therapy at the Moncrief Radiation Center in Fort Worth, Texas, were randomly assigned to an experimental group who did not bathe during therapy and a control group who did bathe with water during therapy. Observations were made after each 1000 rads of therapy and two weeks after the final treatment. Erythema and pigmentation measurements were taken using the Photovolt 670 and rates were assigned using the Baker-Leith Rating Scale. Findings from the study suggest that bathing the portal of entry with water during the treatment period does not influence the degree of skin response that occurs from Cobalt-60 teletherapy.

  8. Neurobehavioral changes in mice exposed to fast neutrons in utero.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Yuka; Ohmachi, Yasushi; Takai, Nobuhiko; Hiraoka, Takeshi; Ogiu, Toshiaki; Nishikawa, Tetsu; Nishimura, Yoshikazu; Shimada, Yoshiya

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have revealed that radiation causes brain development abnormalities in atomic bomb survivors exposed in utero. Rat and mouse studies have also shown that prenatal exposure to low-linear energy transfer radiation induces developmental brain anomalies. Because the effects of prenatal irradiation on adult behavior patterns remain largely unknown, the present study investigated the effects of neutron exposure in utero on postnatal behavior patterns in mice. [C57BL/6J × C3H/He] hybrid (B6C3F1) mice were exposed to cyclotron-derived fast neutrons with peak energy of 10 MeV (0.02-0.2 Gy) or Cs-137 gamma-rays (0.2-1.5 Gy) on embryonic day 13.5. At 5.5-8 months of age, the neurobehavior of male offspring was examined by Rota-rod treadmill and locomotor activity. The accumulation of radio-labeled drug at muscarinic acetylcholine and serotonin receptors in mice from control and neutron-irradiated groups was determined by the tracer method. Locomotor activity during the dark period increased in the 0.02 Gy neutron-irradiated group. Furthermore, at 5.5 months of age, tracer binding in vivo to the muscarinic acetylcholine increased and to the serotonin receptors decreased in the 0.02 Gy neutron-irradiated group. In conclusion, the present study reveals that a certain "low-dose window" may exist for radiation-induced changes in neurobehavior and binding to neurotransmitter receptors, because there was correlation in neurobehavior and binding to neurotransmitter receptors in the 0.02 Gy neutron-irradiated group though there was not correlation in the neutron-irradiated groups more than 0.05 Gy.

  9. Contribution of the Hair Follicular Pathway to Total Skin Permeation of Topically Applied and Exposed Chemicals.

    PubMed

    Mohd, Fadli; Todo, Hiroaki; Yoshimoto, Masato; Yusuf, Eddy; Sugibayashi, Kenji

    2016-11-15

    Generally, the blood and skin concentration profiles and steady-state skin concentration of topically applied or exposed chemicals can be calculated from the in vitro skin permeation profile. However, these calculation methods are particularly applicable to chemicals for which the main pathway is via the stratum corneum. If the contribution of hair follicles to the total skin permeation of chemicals can be obtained in detail, their blood and skin concentrations can be more precisely predicted. In the present study, the contribution of the hair follicle pathway to the skin permeation of topically applied or exposed chemicals was calculated from the difference between their permeability coefficients through skin with and without hair follicle plugging, using an in vitro skin permeation experiment. The obtained results reveal that the contribution of the hair follicle pathway can be predicted by using the chemicals' lipophilicity. For hydrophilic chemicals (logarithm of n-octanol/water partition coefficient (log Ko/w) < 0), a greater reduction of permeation due to hair follicle plugging was observed than for lipophilic chemicals (log Ko/w ≥ 0). In addition, the ratio of this reduction was decreased with an increase in log Ko/w. This consideration of the hair follicle pathway would be helpful to investigate the efficacy and safety of chemicals after topical application or exposure to them because skin permeation and disposition should vary among skins in different body sites due to differences in the density of hair follicles.

  10. Contribution of the Hair Follicular Pathway to Total Skin Permeation of Topically Applied and Exposed Chemicals

    PubMed Central

    Mohd, Fadli; Todo, Hiroaki; Yoshimoto, Masato; Yusuf, Eddy; Sugibayashi, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    Generally, the blood and skin concentration profiles and steady-state skin concentration of topically applied or exposed chemicals can be calculated from the in vitro skin permeation profile. However, these calculation methods are particularly applicable to chemicals for which the main pathway is via the stratum corneum. If the contribution of hair follicles to the total skin permeation of chemicals can be obtained in detail, their blood and skin concentrations can be more precisely predicted. In the present study, the contribution of the hair follicle pathway to the skin permeation of topically applied or exposed chemicals was calculated from the difference between their permeability coefficients through skin with and without hair follicle plugging, using an in vitro skin permeation experiment. The obtained results reveal that the contribution of the hair follicle pathway can be predicted by using the chemicals’ lipophilicity. For hydrophilic chemicals (logarithm of n-octanol/water partition coefficient (log Ko/w) < 0), a greater reduction of permeation due to hair follicle plugging was observed than for lipophilic chemicals (log Ko/w ≥ 0). In addition, the ratio of this reduction was decreased with an increase in log Ko/w. This consideration of the hair follicle pathway would be helpful to investigate the efficacy and safety of chemicals after topical application or exposure to them because skin permeation and disposition should vary among skins in different body sites due to differences in the density of hair follicles. PMID:27854289

  11. Metabolic Signature of Sun Exposed Skin Suggests Catabolic Pathway Overweighs Anabolic Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Randhawa, Manpreet; Sangar, Vineet; Tucker-Samaras, Samantha; Southall, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Skin chronically exposed to sun results in phenotypic changes referred as photoaging. This aspect of aging has been studied extensively through genomic and proteomic tools. Metabolites, the end product are generated as a result of biochemical reactions are often studied as a culmination of complex interplay of gene and protein expression. In this study, we focused exclusively on the metabolome to study effects from sun-exposed and sun-protected skin sites from 25 human subjects. We generated a highly accurate metabolomic signature for the skin that is exposed to sun. Biochemical pathway analysis from this data set showed that sun-exposed skin resides under high oxidative stress and the chains of reactions to produce these metabolites are inclined toward catabolism rather than anabolism. These catabolic activities persuade the skin cells to generate metabolites through the salvage pathway instead of de novo synthesis pathways. Metabolomic profile suggests catabolic pathways and reactive oxygen species operate in a feed forward fashion to alter the biology of sun exposed skin. PMID:24603693

  12. Effects of repeated applications of two semi-permanent hair dyes to the skin of A and DBAf mice.

    PubMed Central

    Searle, C. E.; Jones, E. L.

    1977-01-01

    Two proprietary semi-permanent hair dyes were tested for carcinogenicity in A and DBAf mice by repeated topical applications in aqueous acetone. Mice of both strains developed lymphoid tumours but experimental differences were marked only in DBAf mice. A number of tumours of the ovary and uterus, and some skin papillomas near the penis, occured in dye-treated but not in control DBAf mice. As many hair-dye constituents are known mutagens, adequate carcinogenicity testing of these substances, and epidemiological study of exposed human populations, are needed for evaluating possible health hazard from hair dyeing. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:588414

  13. [Frequency dependence of heating of human skin exposed to millimeter waves].

    PubMed

    Alekseev, S I; Ziskin, M S; Fesenko, E E

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we studied experimentally the frequency dependence of heating of human skin exposed to millimeter waves. Theoretical modeling of obtained data was performed using the hybrid bio-heat equation. It was found that the skin heating and SAR increased with increasing the exposure frequency. The frequency dependence of heating was entirely resulted from that of reflection from the skin. Unlike temperature, the frequency dependence of the SAR was due to the increased absorption of millimeter wave energy within the thin surface layer of the skin.

  14. Metformin Inhibits Skin Tumor Promotion in Overweight and Obese Mice

    PubMed Central

    Checkley, L. Allyson; Rho, Okkyung; Angel, Joe M.; Cho, Jiyoon; Blando, Jorge; Beltran, Linda; Hursting, Stephen D.; DiGiovanni, John

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, the ability of metformin to inhibit skin tumor promotion by 12-O- tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) was analyzed in mice maintained on either an overweight control diet or an obesity inducing diet. Rapamycin was included for comparison, and a combination of metformin and rapamycin was also evaluated. Metformin (given in the drinking water) and rapamycin (given topically) inhibited development of both papillomas and squamous cell carcinomas in overweight and obese mice in a dose-dependent manner. A low dose combination of these two compounds displayed an additive inhibitory effect on tumor development. Metformin treatment also reduced the size of papillomas. Interestingly, all treatments appeared to be at least as effective for inhibiting tumor formation in obese mice and both metformin and rapamycin were more effective at reducing tumor size in obese mice compared to overweight control mice. The effect of metformin on skin tumor development was associated with a significant reduction in TPA-induced epidermal hyperproliferation. Furthermore, treatment with metformin led to activation of epidermal AMPK and attenuated signaling through mTORC1 and p70S6K. Combinations of metformin and rapamycin were more effective at blocking epidermal mTORC1 signaling induced by TPA consistent with the greater inhibitory effect on skin tumor promotion. Collectively, the current data demonstrate that metformin given in the drinking water effectively inhibited skin tumor promotion in both overweight and obese mice and that the mechanism involves activation of epidermal AMPK and attenuated signaling downstream of mTORC1. PMID:24196830

  15. Melatonin protects uterus and oviduct exposed to nicotine in mice

    PubMed Central

    Saadat, Seyedeh Nazanin Seyed; Jahromi, Sina Khajeh; Homafar, Mohammad Amin; Haghiri, Mostafa

    2014-01-01

    Smoking is associated with higher infertility risk. The aim of this study was to evaluate protective effects of melatonin on the uterus and oviduct in mice exposed to nicotine. Adult female mice (n=32) were divided into four groups. Group A: control animals received normal saline, Group B: injected with nicotine 40µg/kg, Group C: injected with melatonin 10 µg, Group D: injected with nicotine 40µg/kg and melatonin 10 µg. All animals were treated over 15 days intraperitoneally. On the 16th day, animals in the estrus phase were dissected and their uterus and oviducts were removed. Immunohistochemistry was recruited for studying apoptosis and for detection of estrogen receptor (ER) alpha in luminal epithelium of the uterus and oviduct. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used for serum estradiol level determination. Nicotine in group B decreased estradiol level and ERalpha numbers both in the uterus and oviduct (p<0.05). Co-administration of melatonin-nicotine in Group D ameliorated the histology of the uterus and oviduct, increased ERalpha numbers and reduced apoptosis in the uterus and oviduct compared with the nicotine Group B (p<0.05). This study indicates that nicotine impairs the histology of the uterus and oviduct and co-administration of melatonin-nicotine ameliorates these findings, partly through alteration in ERalpha numbers and reduction of apoptosis. PMID:26038675

  16. Enhanced erythropoiesis in mice exposed to low environmental temperature.

    PubMed

    Maekawa, Shun; Iemura, Hitomi; Kato, Takashi

    2013-03-01

    Hematopoietic responses to environmental factors are not fully characterized. Polycythemia has been reported during exposure to low temperatures in ectothermic animals. The relationship between the causes of polycythemia and erythropoiesis during low temperature exposure is not fully understood. In this study, we exposed C57BL/6 mice to 5°C and monitored the blood cell counts and erythropoiesis. The hematocrit level increased from 45.6 to 52.2% after 14 days. Likewise, the hemoglobin concentration, initially 15.1 g dl(-1), rose to 16.0 g dl(-1). The reticulocyte production index significantly increased from 4 to 8% after 7 days. We examined the anatomy and cell composition of the spleens of the mice. On day 5, the spleens were ∼6 mg g(-1) of body mass, which was twofold greater than the spleens on day 0. Flow cytometry showed fourfold more proerythroblasts on day 5, compared with day 0. Additionally, the number of late-stage mature erythroblasts increased on day 14. Erythropoietin mRNA levels increased in the kidneys, and hypoxia-inducible genes were enhanced in the kidney. Our findings indicated that low ambient temperature is a novel erythropoietic stress, which induces polycythemia by enhanced erythropoiesis.

  17. Skin shedding and tissue regeneration in African spiny mice (Acomys).

    PubMed

    Seifert, Ashley W; Kiama, Stephen G; Seifert, Megan G; Goheen, Jacob R; Palmer, Todd M; Maden, Malcolm

    2012-09-27

    Evolutionary modification has produced a spectrum of animal defence traits to escape predation, including the ability to autotomize body parts to elude capture. After autotomy, the missing part is either replaced through regeneration (for example, in urodeles, lizards, arthropods and crustaceans) or permanently lost (such as in mammals). Although most autotomy involves the loss of appendages (legs, chelipeds, antennae or tails, for example), skin autotomy can occur in certain taxa of scincid and gekkonid lizards. Here we report the first demonstration of skin autotomy in Mammalia (African spiny mice, Acomys). Mechanical testing showed a propensity for skin to tear under very low tension and the absence of a fracture plane. After skin loss, rapid wound contraction was followed by hair follicle regeneration in dorsal skin wounds. Notably, we found that regenerative capacity in Acomys was extended to ear holes, where the mice exhibited complete regeneration of hair follicles, sebaceous glands, dermis and cartilage. Salamanders capable of limb regeneration form a blastema (a mass of lineage-restricted progenitor cells) after limb loss, and our findings suggest that ear tissue regeneration in Acomys may proceed through the assembly of a similar structure. This study underscores the importance of investigating regenerative phenomena outside of conventional model organisms, and suggests that mammals may retain a higher capacity for regeneration than was previously believed. As re-emergent interest in regenerative medicine seeks to isolate molecular pathways controlling tissue regeneration in mammals, Acomys may prove useful in identifying mechanisms to promote regeneration in lieu of fibrosis and scarring.

  18. Electrophoresis pattern of serum from mice exposed to different concentrations of sulfur dioxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, J.

    1977-01-01

    Three day old mice were continuously exposed to sulphur dioxide concentrations at 0ppm, 0.05ppm, 0.15ppm and 1ppm for eight weeks. At the end of the experiment, blood samples were collected and centrifuged for electrophoresis studies of the serum in 5 percent acrylamide gel. The length of bands of different serum proteins from the SO2 exposed mice was at a variance as compared with the length of bands from the control exposed mice and alpha-1 band seems to be missing from the serum of SO2 exposed mice.

  19. Measurement of oedema in irritant-exposed skin by a dielectric technique.

    PubMed

    Miettinen, M; Mönkkönen, J; Lahtinen, M-R; Nuutinen, J; Lahtinen, T

    2006-11-01

    Easily applicable water-specific instruments measuring local oedema in skin are not available. The aim of this study is to demonstrate quantitative assessment of skin oedema with the dielectric technique by measuring increase of skin water content related to sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS)-induced irritant contact dermatitis. Irritant skin reaction and resulting oedema were induced by an irritant patch test on volar forearms in 12 healthy volunteers with the application of 1% SLS for 6 h. After occlusion the volunteers were divided into two groups: the patch test site of group I (six volunteers) received no treatment other than a base cream for the skin reaction, while for group II (six volunteers) a strong corticosteroid (clobetasol propionate) was applied on the irritant skin. During a follow-up of 72 h, erythema was scored visually, and irritant-induced oedema was measured with a novel water-specific instrument MoistureMeter-D. In the untreated irritant skin, a maximum increase of 45% in skin water content was found at 10 h postocclusion and water content was still elevated at 72 h. With these persons, the degree of oedema agreed well with the ultrasound-measured skin thickness (P=0.053). In the corticosteroid-treated skin, an increase of 8% in water content was measured during 72 h but there was no correlation between oedema and skin thickness. There was no correlation between erythema and oedema in untreated or corticosteroid-treated skin. The new instrument can easily be applied for noninvasive quantitative evaluation of local oedema and fluid retention in irritant-exposed skin.

  20. Decontamination of skin exposed to nanocarriers using an absorbent textile material and PEG-12 dimethicone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lademann, J.; Richter, H.; Baier, G.; Landfester, K.; Frazier, L.; Gefeller, H.; Wunderlich, U.; Gross, I.; Rühl, E.; Knorr, F.

    2014-11-01

    The removal of noxious particulate contaminants such as pollutants derived from particle-to-gas conversions from exposed skin is essential to avoid the permeation of potentially harmful substances into deeper skin layers via the stratum corneum or the skin appendages and their dispersion throughout the circulatory system. This study is aimed at evaluating the efficacy of using the silicone glycol polymer PEG-12 dimethicone and an absorbent textile material to remove fluorescing hydroxyethyl starch nanocapsules implemented as model contaminants from exposed porcine ear skin. Using laser scanning microscopy, it could be shown that while the application and subsequent removal of the absorbent textile material alone did not result in sufficient decontamination, the combined application with PEG-12 dimethicone almost completely eliminated the nanocapsules from the surface of the skin. By acting as a wetting agent, PEG-12 dimethicone enabled the transfer of the nanocapsules into a liquid phase which was taken up by the absorbent textile material. Only traces of fluorescence remained detectable in several skin furrows and follicular orifices, suggesting that the repeated implementation of the procedure may be necessary to achieve total skin surface decontamination.

  1. High-fat diet exacerbates inflammation and cell survival signals in the skin of ultraviolet B-irradiated C57BL/6 mice

    SciTech Connect

    Meeran, Syed M.; Singh, Tripti; Nagy, Tim R.; Katiyar, Santosh K.

    2009-12-15

    Inflammation induced by chronic exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation has been implicated in various skin diseases. We formulated the hypothesis that a high-fat diet may influence the UV-induced inflammatory responses in the skin. C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet or control diet and exposed to UVB radiation (120 mJ/cm{sup 2}) three times/week for 10 weeks. The mice were then sacrificed and skin and plasma samples collected for analysis of biomarkers of inflammatory responses using immunohistochemistry, western blotting, ELISA and real-time PCR. We found that the levels of inflammatory biomarkers were increased in the UVB-exposed skin of the mice fed the high-fat diet than the UVB-exposed skin of the mice fed the control diet. The levels of inflammatory biomarkers of early responses to UVB exposure (e.g., myeloperoxidase, cyclooxygenase-2, prostaglandin-E{sub 2}), proinflammatory cytokines (i.e., tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1beta, interleukin-6), and proliferating cell nuclear antigen and cell survival signals (phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase and p-Akt-Ser{sup 473}) were higher in high-fat-diet-fed mouse skin than control-diet-fed mouse skin. The plasma levels of insulin growth factor-1 were greater in the UVB-irradiated mice fed the high-fat diet than the UVB-irradiated mice fed the control diet, whereas the levels of plasma adiponectin were significantly lower. This pronounced exacerbation of the UVB-induced inflammatory responses in the skin of mice fed a high-fat diet suggests that high-fat diet may increase susceptibility to inflammation-associated skin diseases, including the risk of skin cancer.

  2. Vigna angularis water extracts protect against ultraviolet b-exposed skin aging in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Eunson; Park, Sang-Yong; Lee, Hyun Ji; Sun, Zheng-wang; Lee, Tae Youp; Song, Hyun Geun; Shin, Heon-Sub; Yi, Tae Hoo

    2014-12-01

    Exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation induces various pathological changes, such as thickened skin and wrinkle formation. In particular, UVB irradiation increases matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 production and collagen degradation, leading to premature aging, termed photoaging. The azuki bean (Vigna angularis; VA) has been widely used as a food product as well as a traditional medicine. However, its activity needs additional study to confirm its functional application in foods and cosmetics for protecting skin. In this study, hot-water extract from VA (VAE) and its active component, rutin, were investigated to determine their antiphotoaging effects. VAE was found to have antioxidant activity. In UVB-exposed normal human dermal fibroblasts cells with VAE and rutin treatments, MMP-1 production was significantly suppressed (90% and 47%, respectively). The effects of both topical and oral administration of VAE were tested in UVB-irradiated hairless mice. VAE suppressed wrinkle formation and skin thickness by promoting elastin, procollagen type I, and TGF-β1 expression (118%, 156%, and 136%, respectively) and by diminishing MMP-1 production. These results suggest that VAE may be effective for preventing skin photoaging accelerated by UVB radiation.

  3. Effect of a 308-nm excimer laser on atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice.

    PubMed

    Oh, Chang Taek; Kwon, Tae-Rin; Seok, Joon; Choi, Eun Ja; Kim, Soon Re; Jang, Yu-Jin; Mun, Seog Kyun; Kim, Chan Woong; Lee, Sungeun; Lee, Jongmin; Kim, Myeung Nam; Choi, Sun Young; Kim, Beom Joon

    2016-08-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common inflammatory skin disease that can affect all age groups. It has a relapsing course, which dramatically affects the quality of life of patients. A 308-nm excimer laser has been reported to be a safe and effective treatment for inflammatory skin diseases, although the range of potential application has not been fully explored. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic effects of a 308-nm laser on AD-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice. Dermatophagoides farinae-exposed NC/Nga mice with a clinical score of 12 were treated with either a 308-nm excimer laser or narrowband-UVB (NB-UVB). The effects of the 308-nm excimer laser were evaluated by dermatitis scores, skin histology, skin barrier function, and immunological parameters, including IgE and Th2-mediated cytokines. The 308-nm excimer laser significantly reduced the severity of skin lesions and decreased the total serum levels of IgE and Th2-mediated cytokines. The excimer laser also significantly reduced the inflammatory cellular infiltrate into AD-induced skin lesions. Moreover, treatment with the 308-nm excimer laser led to recovery of skin barrier function in AD-induced skin lesions. The 308-nm excimer laser can be considered a valid and safe therapeutic option for the treatment of localized AD. Lasers Surg. Med. 48:629-637, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Squaraine PDT induces oxidative stress in skin tumor of swiss albino mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibin, T. R.; Gayathri, Devi D.; Ramaiah, D.; Abraham, Annie

    2010-02-01

    Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) using a sensitizing drug is recognized as a promising medical technique for cancer treatment. It is a two step process that requires the administration of a photosensitizer followed by light exposure to treat a disease. Following light exposure the photosensitizer is excited to a higher energy state which generates free radicals and singlet oxygen. The present study was carried out to assess the oxidative damage induced by bis (3, 5-diiodo-2, 4, 6- trihydroxyphenyl) squaraine in skin tumor tissues of mice with/ without light treatment. Skin tumor was induced using 7, 12-Dimethyl Benz(a)anthracene and croton oil. The tumor bearing mice were given an intraperitoneal injection with the squaraine dye. After 24h, the tumor area of a few animals injected with the dye, were exposed to visible light from a 1000 W halogen lamp and others kept away from light. All the mice were sacrificed one week after the PDT treatment and the oxidative profile was analyzed (TBARS, SOD, catalase, GSH, GPx and GR) in tumor/ skin tissues. The dye induces oxidative stress in the tumor site only on illumination and the oxidative status of the tumor tissue was found to be unaltered in the absence of light. The results of the study clearly shows that the tumor destruction mediated by PDT using bis (3, 5-diiodo-2, 4, 6-trihydroxyphenyl) squaraine as a photosensitizer is due to the generation of reactive oxygen species, produced by the light induced changes in the dye.

  5. Acerola (Malpighia emarginata DC.) Juice Intake Suppresses UVB-Induced Skin Pigmentation in SMP30/GNL Knockout Hairless Mice

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Yasunori; Uchida, Eriko; Aoki, Hitoshi; Hanamura, Takayuki; Nagamine, Kenichi; Kato, Hisanori; Koizumi, Takeshi

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aims Acerola (Malpighia emarginata DC.) is a fruit that is known to contain high amounts of ascorbic acid (AA) and various phytochemicals. We have previously reported that AA deficiency leads to ultraviolet B (UVB)-induced skin pigmentation in senescence marker protein 30 (SMP30)/gluconolactonase (GNL) knockout (KO) hairless mice. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of acerola juice (AJ) intake on the skin of UVB-irradiated SMP30/GNL KO mice. Research design/Principal findings Five-week old hairless mice were given drinking water containing physiologically sufficient AA (1.5 g/L) [AA (+)], no AA [AA (-)] or 1.67% acerola juice [AJ]. All mice were exposed to UVB irradiation for 6 weeks. UVB irradiation was performed three times per week. The dorsal skin color and stratum corneum water content were measured every weekly, and finally, the AA contents of the skin was determined. The skin AA and stratum corneum water content was similar between the AA (+) and AJ groups. The L* value of the AA (+) group was significantly decreased by UVB irradiation, whereas AJ intake suppressed the decrease in the L* value throughout the experiment. Moreover, in the AJ group, there was a significant decrease in the expression level of dopachrome tautomerase, an enzyme that is involved in melanin biosynthesis. Conclusion These results indicate that AJ intake is effective in suppressing UVB-induced skin pigmentation by inhibiting melanogenesis-related genes. PMID:28114343

  6. Acerola (Malpighia emarginata DC.) Juice Intake Suppresses UVB-Induced Skin Pigmentation in SMP30/GNL Knockout Hairless Mice.

    PubMed

    Sato, Yasunori; Uchida, Eriko; Aoki, Hitoshi; Hanamura, Takayuki; Nagamine, Kenichi; Kato, Hisanori; Koizumi, Takeshi; Ishigami, Akihito

    2017-01-01

    Acerola (Malpighia emarginata DC.) is a fruit that is known to contain high amounts of ascorbic acid (AA) and various phytochemicals. We have previously reported that AA deficiency leads to ultraviolet B (UVB)-induced skin pigmentation in senescence marker protein 30 (SMP30)/gluconolactonase (GNL) knockout (KO) hairless mice. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of acerola juice (AJ) intake on the skin of UVB-irradiated SMP30/GNL KO mice. Five-week old hairless mice were given drinking water containing physiologically sufficient AA (1.5 g/L) [AA (+)], no AA [AA (-)] or 1.67% acerola juice [AJ]. All mice were exposed to UVB irradiation for 6 weeks. UVB irradiation was performed three times per week. The dorsal skin color and stratum corneum water content were measured every weekly, and finally, the AA contents of the skin was determined. The skin AA and stratum corneum water content was similar between the AA (+) and AJ groups. The L* value of the AA (+) group was significantly decreased by UVB irradiation, whereas AJ intake suppressed the decrease in the L* value throughout the experiment. Moreover, in the AJ group, there was a significant decrease in the expression level of dopachrome tautomerase, an enzyme that is involved in melanin biosynthesis. These results indicate that AJ intake is effective in suppressing UVB-induced skin pigmentation by inhibiting melanogenesis-related genes.

  7. Immunological studies on mice exposed subacutely to methyl isocyanate

    SciTech Connect

    Tucker, A.N.; Bucher, J.R.; Germolec, D.R.; Silver, M.T.; Vore, S.J.; Luster, M.I.

    1987-06-01

    The immunotoxicity of methyl isocyanate (MIC) was evaluated in female B6C3F1 mice exposed via inhalation to 0, 1, or 3 ppm for 6 hr per day on 4 consecutive days. The antibody response to sheep erythrocytes and natural killer cell activity were found to be unaffected by MIC exposure. Although lymphoproliferative responses to mitogens were moderately suppressed by MIC, the differences were not statistically significant. The response of splenic lymphocytes to allogeneic leukocytes in a mixed leukocyte response (MLR) was suppressed in a dose-related fashion and was significantly different from the control response at the 3 ppm level. This effect was thought to be secondary and a result of general toxicity rather than a direct effect of MIC on the immune system. Furthermore, resistance to the infectious agents Listeria monocytogenes, mouse malaria parasite, and influenza virus, or to transplantable tumor cells was not compromised by MIC exposure. Thus, the immune system does not appear to be a primary target for MIC toxicity.

  8. Skin shedding and tissue regeneration in African spiny mice (Acomys)

    PubMed Central

    Seifert, Ashley W.; Kiama, Stephen G.; Seifert, Megan G.; Goheen, Jacob R.; Palmer, Todd M.; Maden, Malcolm

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Evolutionary modification has produced a spectrum of animal defense traits to escape predation, including the ability to autotomize body parts to elude capture1,2. Following autotomy, the missing part is either replaced through regeneration (e.g. urodeles, lizards, arthropods, crustaceans) or is permanently lost (mammals). While most autotomy involves the loss of appendages (e.g. leg, cheliped, antennae, tail), skin autotomy can occur in certain taxa of scincid and gekkonid lizards3. Here we report the first demonstration of skin autotomy in Mammalia (African spiny mice, Acomys). Mechanical testing revealed a propensity for skin to tear under very low tension and the absence of a fracture plane. Following skin loss, rapid wound contraction was followed by hair follicle regeneration in dorsal skin wounds. Surprisingly, we found regenerative capacity in Acomys extended to ear holes where they exhibited complete regeneration of hair follicles, sebaceous glands, dermis, and cartilage. Salamanders capable of limb regeneration form a blastema (a mass of lineage-restricted progenitor cells4) following limb loss, and our findings suggest that ear tissue regeneration in Acomys may proceed through assembly of a similar structure. This study underscores the importance of investigating regenerative phenomena outside of traditional model organisms and suggests that mammals may retain a higher capacity for regeneration than previously believed. As re-emergent interest in regenerative medicine seeks to isolate molecular pathways controlling tissue regeneration in mammals, Acomys may prove useful in identifying mechanisms to promote regeneration in lieu of fibrosis and scarring. PMID:23018966

  9. Eosinophil-dependent skin innervation and itching following contact toxicant exposure in mice

    PubMed Central

    Lee, James J.; Protheroe, Cheryl A.; Luo, Huijun; Ochkur, Sergei I.; Scott, Gregory D.; Zellner, Katie R.; Raish, Randall J.; Dahl, Mark V.; Vega, Miriam L.; Conley, Olivia; Condjella, Rachel M.; Kloeber, Jake A.; Neely, Joseph L.; Patel, Yash S.; Maizer, Patty; Mazzolini, Andrew; Fryer, Allison D.; Jacoby, Noah W.; Jacoby, David B.; Lee, Nancy A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Contact toxicant reactions are accompanied by localized skin inflammation and concomitant increases in site-specific itch responses. The role(s) of eosinophils in these reactions is poorly understood. However, previous studies have suggested that localized eosinophil-nerve interactions at sites of inflammation significantly alter tissue innervation. Objective To define a potential mechanistic link between eosinophils and neurosensory responses in the skin leading to itching. Methods BALB/cJ mice were exposed to different contact toxicants, identifying trimellitic anhydride (TMA) for further study on the basis of inducing a robust eosinophilia accompanied by degranulation. Subsequent studies using TMA were performed with wild type vs. eosinophil-deficient PHIL mice, assessing edematous responses, remodeling events such as sensory nerve innervation of the skin, and induced pathophysiological responses (i.e., itching). Results Exposure to TMA, but not dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB), resulted in a robust eosinophil skin infiltrate accompanied by significant levels of degranulation. Follow-up studies using TMA with wild type vs. eosinophil-deficient PHIL mice showed that the induced edematous responses and histopathology were, in part, causatively linked with the presence of eosinophils. Significantly, these data also demonstrated that eosinophil-mediated events correlated with a significant increase in substance P content of the cutaneous nerves and an accompanying increase in itching, both of which were abolished in the absence of eosinophils. Conclusions Eosinophil-mediated events following TMA contact toxicant reactions increase skin sensory nerve substance P and, in turn, increase itching responses. Thus, eosinophil-nerve interactions provide a potential mechanistic link between eosinophil-mediated events and neurosensory responses following exposure to some contact toxicants. PMID:25129680

  10. GENE EXPRESSION PROFILING OF HYPERKERATOTIC SKIN FROM INNER MONGOLIANS CHRONICALLY EXPOSED TO ARSENIC

    EPA Science Inventory

    Millions of people worldwide have been chronically exposed to arsenic levels in drinking water that greatly exceed the current World Health Organization¿s recommended limit of 10 µg/ml. The skin is a major target of arsenic toxicity, and some of the first clinical signs of chroni...

  11. GENE EXPRESSION PROFILING OF HYPERKERATOTIC SKIN FROM INNER MONGOLIANS CHRONICALLY EXPOSED TO ARSENIC

    EPA Science Inventory

    Millions of people worldwide have been chronically exposed to arsenic levels in drinking water that greatly exceed the current World Health Organization¿s recommended limit of 10 µg/ml. The skin is a major target of arsenic toxicity, and some of the first clinical signs of chroni...

  12. Thrombospondin-2 overexpression in the skin of transgenic mice reduces the susceptibility to chemically-induced multistep skin carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Kunstfeld, Rainer; Hawighorst, Thomas; Streit, Michael; Hong, Young-Kwon; Nguyen, Lynh; Brown, Lawrence F.; Detmar, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Background We have previously reported stromal upregulation of the endogenous angiogenesis inhibitor thrombospondin-2 (TSP-2) during multistep carcinogenesis, and we found accelerated and enhanced skin angiogenesis and carcinogenesis in TSP-2 deficient mice. Goals To investigate whether enhanced levels of TSP-2 might protect from skin cancer development. Methods We established transgenic mice with targeted overexpression of TSP-2 in the skin and subjected hemizygous TSP-2 transgenic mice and their wild-type littermates to a chemical skin carcinogenesis regimen. Results TSP-2 transgenic mice showed a significantly delayed onset of tumor formation compared to wild-type mice, whereas the ratio of malignant conversion to squamous cell carcinomas was comparable in both genotypes. Computer-assisted morphometric analysis of blood vessels revealed pronounced tumor angiogenesis already in the early stages of carcinogenesis in wild type mice. TSP-2 overexpression significantly reduced tumor blood vessel density in transgenic mice but had no overt effect on LYVE-1 positive lymphatic vessels. The percentage of desmin surrounded, mature tumor-associated blood vessels and the degree of epithelial differentiation remained unaffected. The antiangiogenic effect of transgenic TSP-2 was accompanied by a significantly increased number of apoptotic tumor cells in transgenic mice. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that enhanced levels of TSP-2 in the skin result in reduced susceptibility to chemically-induced skin carcinogenesis and identify TSP-2 as a new target for the prevention of skin cancer. PMID:24507936

  13. Enhanced UV-induced skin carcinogenesis in transgenic mice overexpressing proprotein convertases.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jian; Bassi, Daniel E; Zhang, Jirong; Li, Tianyu; Cai, Kathy Q; Testa, Courtney Lyons; Nicolas, Emmanuelle; Klein-Szanto, Andres J

    2013-02-01

    The proprotein convertases (PCs) furin and PACE4 process numerous substrates involved in tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis. We have previously shown that PCs increase the susceptibility to chemical skin carcinogenesis. Because of the human relevancy of UV radiation in the etiopathogenesis of human skin cancer, we investigated whether or not transgenic mice overexpressing either furin alone or both furin and PACE4 show increased susceptibility to UV carcinogenesis. After backcrossing our previously described furin and PACE4 transgenic lines, targeted to the epidermis, into a SKH-1 background, we exposed both single and double transgenic mice to UV radiation for 34 weeks. The results showed an increase in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) multiplicity of approximately 70% in the single furin transgenic mouse line SF47 (P < .002) and a 30% increase in the other single transgenic line SF49 when compared to wild-type (WT) SKH-1 mice. Interestingly, there was also an increase in the percentage of high histologic grade SCCs in the transgenic lines compared to the WT mice, i.e., WT = 9%, SF47 = 15%, and SF49 = 26% (P < .02). Targeting both furin and PACE4 to the epidermis in double transgenic mice did not have an additive effect on tumor incidence/multiplicity but did enhance the tumor histopathologic grade, i.e., a significant increase in higher grade SCCs was seen in the bigenic mouse line SPF47 (P < .02). Thus, we observed an increased susceptibility to UV in single furin transgenic mice that was not substantially enhanced in the double furin/PACE4 transgenic mice.

  14. Vitamin D, UV, and skin cancer in the elderly: to expose or not to expose?

    PubMed

    Glossmann, Hartmut

    2011-01-01

    There is mounting concern about vitamin D insufficiency, especially in the ageing population. Increases in indoor lifestyle, obesity, car travel, clothing habits, the use of photo-protective makeup, and campaigns driven by dermatologists, governments, and the cosmetic industry to avoid or protect against the sun as much as possible are contributing to this trend. In a recent article in Gerontology, Barysch et al. [1] recommend that the ageing population avoid any 'intentional' UV radiation as well as 'minimize sun exposure' based on known dangers of developing skin cancer. They warn that 'studies with vitamin D supplements reported increased risks of prostate and esophagus cancer as well as atopy in childhood' and concluded that 'adequate levels of vitamin D are essential for the elderly', but do not suggest which level is optimal. I will argue that the ageing population should keep their serum 25-(OH)-vitamin D(3) (25-(OH)-D) levels in the 75-100 nmol/l range. An oral cholecalciferol intake of ∼2,000 IU/day is recommended as a supplement throughout the year for those who cannot enjoy the sun in summer or only during 'vitamin D winter' for the others. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Skin irritation and histopathologic alterations in rats exposed to lightstick contents, UV radiation and seawater.

    PubMed

    Ivar do Sul, Juliana A; Rodrigues, Obirajara; Santos, Isaac R; Fillmann, Gilberto; Matthiensen, Alexandre

    2009-10-01

    Lightsticks are fishing gadgets that provide fluorescent lighting when two organic solutions are mixed. In NE Brazil, low-income coastal residents ignore their conventional use and collect lightsticks stranded on beaches. The lightstick solution is then used for various purposes, including direct human skin exposure. We assessed the reactions and possible cell damages on the skin of Wistar rats. Animals were exposed to lightstick contents, UV radiation and/or seawater. Lightstick exposure led to erythemas, oedemas and vesicles. Histopathologic alterations included proliferation of the epidermis and inflammatory infiltrates. In spite of the short time of experimentation (4 days), the rats exposed to the lightstick content alone and together with UV radiation and/or seawater provided evidence of irritation/alteration reactions that may evolve into skin cancer. Our results demonstrated a few of the potential problems associated with lightstick dumping into the ocean and highlight the need for further investigations about this new type of marine pollutant.

  16. Effects of cosmetic formulations containing hydroxyacids on sun-exposed skin: current applications and future developments.

    PubMed

    Kornhauser, Andrija; Coelho, Sergio G; Hearing, Vincent J

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes recent data on the effects of various skin formulations containing hydroxyacids (HAs) and related products on sun-exposed skin. The most frequently used classes of these products, such as α- and β-hydroxyacids, polyhydroxy acids, and bionic acids, are reviewed, and their application in cosmetic formulations is described. Special emphasis is devoted to the safety evaluation of these formulations, particularly on the effects of their prolonged use on sun-exposed skin. We also discuss the important contribution of cosmetic vehicles in these types of studies. Data on the effects of HAs on melanogenesis and tanning are also included. Up-to-date methods and techniques used in those explorations, as well as selected future developments in the cosmetic area, are presented.

  17. Effects of Cosmetic Formulations Containing Hydroxyacids on Sun-Exposed Skin: Current Applications and Future Developments

    PubMed Central

    Kornhauser, Andrija; Coelho, Sergio G.; Hearing, Vincent J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes recent data on the effects of various skin formulations containing hydroxyacids (HAs) and related products on sun-exposed skin. The most frequently used classes of these products, such as α- and β-hydroxyacids, polyhydroxy acids, and bionic acids, are reviewed, and their application in cosmetic formulations is described. Special emphasis is devoted to the safety evaluation of these formulations, particularly on the effects of their prolonged use on sun-exposed skin. We also discuss the important contribution of cosmetic vehicles in these types of studies. Data on the effects of HAs on melanogenesis and tanning are also included. Up-to-date methods and techniques used in those explorations, as well as selected future developments in the cosmetic area, are presented. PMID:22675344

  18. Detection of haptenated proteins in organotypic human skin explant cultures exposed to dapsone.

    PubMed

    Roychowdhury, Sanjoy; Cram, Albert E; Aly, Al; Svensson, Craig K

    2007-09-01

    Bioactivation of parent drug to reactive metabolite(s) followed by protein haptenation has been suggested to be a critical step in the elicitation of cutaneous drug reactions. Although liver is believed to be the primary organ of drug bioactivation quantitatively, other organs including skin may also metabolize drugs. Cultured human epidermal keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts have been shown to be capable of bioactivating sulfonamides and sulfones, giving rise to haptenated proteins. It is, however, unclear whether metabolic events in these isolated cells reflect bioactivation in vivo. Hence, split-thickness human skin explants were exposed to dapsone (DDS) or its arylhydroxylamine metabolite (dapsone hydroxylamine, D-NOH) and probed for protein haptenation. DDS and D-NOH were applied either epicutaneously or mixed in the medium (to mimic its entry into skin from the systemic circulation). DDS-protein adducts were readily detected in skin explants exposed to either DDS or D-NOH. Adducts were detected mainly in the upper epidermal region in response to epicutaneous application, whereas adducts were formed all over the explants when DDS/D-NOH were mixed in the culture medium. In addition, adducts were visible in HLA-DR+ cells, indicating their presence in the dendritic cell population in the skin. Our results demonstrate the ability of intact human skin to bioactivate DDS leading to protein haptenation.

  19. Exopolysaccharides Isolated from Milk Fermented with Lactic Acid Bacteria Prevent Ultraviolet-Induced Skin Damage in Hairless Mice

    PubMed Central

    Morifuji, Masashi; Kitade, Masami; Fukasawa, Tomoyuki; Yamaji, Taketo; Ichihashi, Masamitsu

    2017-01-01

    Background: We studied the mechanism by which fermented milk ameliorates UV-B-induced skin damage and determined the active components in milk fermented with lactic acid bacteria by evaluating erythema formation, dryness, epidermal proliferation, DNA damage and cytokine mRNA levels in hairless mice exposed to acute UV-B irradiation. Methods: Nine week-old hairless mice were given fermented milk (1.3 g/kg BW/day) or exopolysaccharide (EPS) concentrate (70 mg/kg BW/day) orally for ten days. Seven days after fermented milk or EPS administration began, the dorsal skin of the mice was exposed to a single dose of UV-B (20 mJ/cm2). Results: Ingestion of either fermented milk or EPS significantly attenuated UV-B-induced erythema formation, dryness and epidermal proliferation in mouse skin. Both fermented milk and EPS were associated with a significant decrease in cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers and upregulated mRNA levels of xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group A (XPA), which is involved in DNA repair. Furthermore, administration of either fermented milk or EPS significantly suppressed increases in the ratio of interleukin (IL)-10/IL-12a and IL-10/interferon-gamma mRNA levels. Conclusion: Together, these results indicate that EPS isolated from milk fermented with lactic acid bacteria enhanced DNA repair mechanisms and modulated skin immunity to protect skin against UV damage. PMID:28098755

  20. Exopolysaccharides Isolated from Milk Fermented with Lactic Acid Bacteria Prevent Ultraviolet-Induced Skin Damage in Hairless Mice.

    PubMed

    Morifuji, Masashi; Kitade, Masami; Fukasawa, Tomoyuki; Yamaji, Taketo; Ichihashi, Masamitsu

    2017-01-13

    We studied the mechanism by which fermented milk ameliorates UV-B-induced skin damage and determined the active components in milk fermented with lactic acid bacteria by evaluating erythema formation, dryness, epidermal proliferation, DNA damage and cytokine mRNA levels in hairless mice exposed to acute UV-B irradiation. Nine week-old hairless mice were given fermented milk (1.3 g/kg BW/day) or exopolysaccharide (EPS) concentrate (70 mg/kg BW/day) orally for ten days. Seven days after fermented milk or EPS administration began, the dorsal skin of the mice was exposed to a single dose of UV-B (20 mJ/cm²). Ingestion of either fermented milk or EPS significantly attenuated UV-B-induced erythema formation, dryness and epidermal proliferation in mouse skin. Both fermented milk and EPS were associated with a significant decrease in cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers and upregulated mRNA levels of xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group A (XPA), which is involved in DNA repair. Furthermore, administration of either fermented milk or EPS significantly suppressed increases in the ratio of interleukin (IL)-10/IL-12a and IL-10/interferon-gamma mRNA levels. Together, these results indicate that EPS isolated from milk fermented with lactic acid bacteria enhanced DNA repair mechanisms and modulated skin immunity to protect skin against UV damage.

  1. Changes in delayed hypersensitivity reaction in mice exposed to O/sub 3/

    SciTech Connect

    Fujimaki, H.; Shiraishi, F.; Ashikawa, T.; Murakami, M.

    1987-06-01

    BALB/c mice were continuously exposed to 0.8 ppm O/sub 3/ for 1, 3, 7, and 14 days. Ozone exposure suppressed the delayed hypersensitivity (DH) reaction to sheep red blood cells (SRBC). The maximum effect was seen after 7 days of exposure. To estimate the suppression of the DH reaction by O/sub 3/ exposure, the numbers of lymphocytes in thymus and blood of exposed mice were compared with those of control mice. A decrease in the numbers of lymphocytes in both thymus and blood was observed in O/sub 3/-exposed mice. The percentage of T and B lymphocytes in blood of exposed mice was the same as that in blood of control mice. These results suggest that 0.8 ppm O/sub 3/ exposure affects the T lymphocytes required for DH reactions.

  2. The preventive effect of linalool on acute and chronic UVB-mediated skin carcinogenesis in Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Gunaseelan, Srithar; Balupillai, Agilan; Govindasamy, Kanimozhi; Muthusamy, Ganesan; Ramasamy, Karthikeyan; Shanmugam, Mohana; Prasad, N Rajendra

    2016-07-06

    In this study, we evaluated the role of linalool in acute ultraviolet-B (UVB; 280-320 nm) radiation-induced inflammation and chronic UVB-mediated photocarcinogenesis in mouse skin. Acute UVB-irradiation (180 mJ cm(-2)) causes hyperplasia, edema formation, lipid peroxidation, antioxidant depletion, and overexpression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) in mouse skin. Topical or intraperitoneal (i.p.) treatment of linalool prevented acute UVB-induced hyperplasia, edema formation, lipid peroxidation, and antioxidant depletion in mouse skin. Further, linalool treatment prevented UVB-induced overexpression of COX-2 and ODC in mouse skin. In the chronic study, mice were subjected to UVB-exposure thrice weekly for 30 weeks. Chronic UVB-exposure induced tumor incidence and expression of proliferative markers such as NF-κB, TNF-α, IL-6, COX-2, VEGF, TGF-β1, Bcl-2 and mutated p53 in mouse skin. Treatment with linalool before each UVB-exposure significantly prevented the expression of these proliferative markers and subsequently decreased the tumor incidence in mice skin. Histopathological studies confirmed the development of dysplasia and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in the chronic UVB-exposed mouse skin; and this was prevented by both topical and i.p. linalool treatment. Therefore, linalool may be considered as a photochemopreventive agent against UVB radiation induced skin carcinogenesis.

  3. Fibroblast-mediated contraction in actinically exposed and actinically protected aging skin

    SciTech Connect

    Marks, M.W.; Morykwas, M.J.; Wheatley, M.J. )

    1990-08-01

    The changes in skin morphology over time are a consequence of both chronologic aging and the accumulation of environmental exposure. Through observation, we know that actinic radiation intensifies the apparent aging of skin. We have investigated the effects of aging and actinic radiation on the ability of fibroblasts to contract collagen-fibroblast lattices. Preauricular and postauricular skin samples were obtained from eight patients aged 49 to 74 undergoing rhytidectomy. The samples were kept separate, and the fibroblasts were grown in culture. Lattices constructed with preauricular fibroblasts consistently contracted more than lattices containing postauricular fibroblasts. The difference in amount of contraction in 7 days between sites was greatest for the younger patients and decreased linearly as donor age increased (r = -0.96). This difference may be due to preauricular fibroblasts losing their ability to contract a lattice as aging skin is exposed to more actinic radiation.

  4. Sex differences in skin carotenoid deposition and acute UVB-induced skin damage in SKH-1 hairless mice after consumption of tangerine tomatoes

    PubMed Central

    Kopec, Rachel E.; Schick, Jonathan; Tober, Kathleen L.; Riedl, Ken M.; Francis, David M.; Young, Gregory S.; Schwartz, Steven J.; Oberyszyn, Tatiana M.

    2015-01-01

    Scope UVB exposure, a major factor in the development of skin cancer, has differential sex effects. Tomato product consumption reduces the intensity of UVB-induced erythema in humans, but the mechanisms are unknown. Methods and results Four week old SKH-1 hairless mice (40 females, 40 males) were divided into two feeding groups (control or with 10% tangerine tomatoes naturally rich in UV-absorbing phytoene and phytofluene) and two UV exposure groups (with or without UV). After 10 weeks of feeding, the UV group was exposed to a single UV dose and sacrificed 48 hours later. Blood and dorsal skin samples were taken for carotenoid analysis. Dorsal skin was harvested to assess sex and UV effects on carotenoid deposition, inflammation (skinfold thickness, myeloperoxidase levels) and DNA damage (cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers, p53). Females had significantly higher levels of both skin and blood carotenoids relative to males. UV exposure significantly reduced skin carotenoid levels in females but not males. Tomato consumption attenuated acute UV-induced increases in CPD in both sexes, and reduced myeloperoxidase activity and % p53 positive epidermal cells in males. Conclusion Tangerine tomatoes mediate acute UV-induced skin damage in SKH-1 mice via reduced DNA damage in both sexes, and through reduced inflammation in males. PMID:26394800

  5. Sex differences in skin carotenoid deposition and acute UVB-induced skin damage in SKH-1 hairless mice after consumption of tangerine tomatoes.

    PubMed

    Kopec, Rachel E; Schick, Jonathan; Tober, Kathleen L; Riedl, Ken M; Francis, David M; Young, Gregory S; Schwartz, Steven J; Oberyszyn, Tatiana M

    2015-12-01

    UVB exposure, a major factor in the development of skin cancer, has differential sex effects. Tomato product consumption reduces the intensity of UVB-induced erythema in humans, but the mechanisms are unknown. Four-week-old SKH-1 hairless mice (40 females, 40 males) were divided into two feeding groups (control or with 10% tangerine tomatoes naturally rich in UV-absorbing phytoene and phytofluene) and two UV exposure groups (with or without UV). After 10 weeks of feeding, the UV group was exposed to a single UV dose and sacrificed 48 h later. Blood and dorsal skin samples were taken for carotenoid analysis. Dorsal skin was harvested to assess sex and UV effects on carotenoid deposition, inflammation (skinfold thickness, myeloperoxidase levels), and DNA damage (cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers, p53). Females had significantly higher levels of both skin and blood carotenoids relative to males. UV exposure significantly reduced skin carotenoid levels in females but not males. Tomato consumption attenuated acute UV-induced increases in CPD in both sexes, and reduced myeloperoxidase activity and percent p53 positive epidermal cells in males. Tangerine tomatoes mediate acute UV-induced skin damage in SKH-1 mice via reduced DNA damage in both sexes, and through reduced inflammation in males. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Dominant lethal mutation test in male mice exposed to 900MHz radiofrequency fields.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Shunxing; Zhang, Jie; Liu, Chun; He, Qina; Vijayalaxmi; Prihoda, Thomas J; Tong, Jian; Cao, Yi

    2015-10-01

    Adult male ICR mice were exposed to continuous wave 900MHz radiofrequency fields (RF) at 1.6mW/cm(2) power intensity (whole body average specific absorption rate of 0.731W/kg) for 4 hour/day for 15 days. At the end of exposure, each mouse was caged with 3 mature virgin female mice for mating. After 7 days, each male mouse was transferred to a fresh cage and mated with a second batch of 3 females. This process was repeated for a total of 4 consecutive weeks. Sham exposed male mice and those subjected to an acute 2Gy γ-irradiation (GR) were handled similarly and used as un-exposed and positive controls, respectively. All females were sacrificed on the 18th day of gestation and presumptive mating and, the contents in their uteri were examined. The overall observations during the 4 weeks of mating indicated that the un-exposed female mice mated to RF-exposed male mice showed no significant differences in the percentage of pregnancies, total implants, live implants and dead implants when compared with those mated with sham-exposed mice. In contrast, female mice mated with GR-exposed males showed a consistent pattern of significant differences in the above indices in each and all 4 weeks of mating. Thus, the data indicated an absence of mutagenic potential of RF exposure in the germ cells of male mice.

  7. Endocrine disrupting potential and reproductive dysfunction in male mice exposed to deltamethrin.

    PubMed

    Ben Slima, A; Chtourou, Y; Barkallah, M; Fetoui, H; Boudawara, T; Gdoura, R

    2017-03-01

    Pesticide exposure may affect semen quality and male fertility in humans. The aim of the present work was to elucidate the adverse effects of deltamethrin (Delta), a synthetic pyrethroid, on exposed male mice and their offspring. Adult male Albino/Swiss mice received deltamethrin (5 mg/kg) daily for 35 days and mated with untreated females to produce offspring. Classical measurements of ejaculate and sperm quality and testicular histopathological changes were assessed. Deltamethrin treatment affects sperm quality and quantity in the ejaculated semen of mice that had also markedly impaired libido as measured by indices of mating and fertility and number of pregnant females housed with male mice exposed to this pesticide. Exposure mice to deltamethrin significantly decreased their testosterone and inhibin B levels and affected reproductive performance. Testes of exposed mice showed marked histopathological alterations as compared to the control group. The mice exposed to 5 mg/kg body weight/day of deltamethrin showed severe alterations of the seminiferous tubules, sloughing of the germ cells, the vacuolization of germ cell cytoplasm, and the disruption of spermatogenic cells compared to the control group. Altered pregnancy outcomes were directly attributed to damage of sperm of male mice exposed to deltamethrin compared to the control group. We concluded that exposure to deltamethrin affected the reproductive system of male mice explored by altered total sperm density, motility, and morphology in mice spermatozoa.

  8. Effects of combined phytochemicals on skin tumorigenesis in SENCAR mice

    PubMed Central

    KOWALCZYK, MAGDALENA C.; JUNCO, JACOB J.; KOWALCZYK, PIOTR; TOLSTYKH, OLGA; HANAUSEK, MARGARET; SLAGA, THOMAS J.; WALASZEK, ZBIGNIEW

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to determine the effect of the combined action of phytochemicals on the early stages of skin tumorigenesis, i.e. initiation and promotion. We tested calcium D-glucarate (CG) given in the diet, while resveratrol (RES) and ursolic acid (UA) were applied topically. The 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-initiated, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-promoted multistage skin carcinogenesis model in SENCAR mice was used. Mice received one topical dose of DMBA, then after one month, two weekly doses of TPA for 14 weeks until sacrifice. RES or UA were applied 20 min prior to DMBA or TPA treatment and 2% dietary CG was given from 2 weeks prior to 2 weeks after the DMBA dose or continually beginning 2 weeks prior to the first dose of TPA. UA applied alone and in combination with CG during the promotion stage was the only inhibitor of tumor multiplicity and tumor incidence. A number of combinations reduced epidermal proliferation, but only UA and the combination UA+CG applied during promotion significantly reduced epidermal hyperplasia. DMBA/TPA application resulted in significant increases in c-jun and p50, which were reversed by a number of different treatments. DMBA/TPA treatment also strongly increased mRNA levels of inflammation markers COX-2 and IL-6. All anti-promotion treatments caused a marked decrease in COX-2 and IL-6 expression compared to the DMBA/TPA control. These results show that UA is a potent inhibitor of skin tumor promotion and inflammatory signaling and it may be useful in the prevention of skin cancer and other epithelial cancers in humans. PMID:23835587

  9. Effects of combined phytochemicals on skin tumorigenesis in SENCAR mice.

    PubMed

    Kowalczyk, Magdalena C; Junco, Jacob J; Kowalczyk, Piotr; Tolstykh, Olga; Hanausek, Margaret; Slaga, Thomas J; Walaszek, Zbigniew

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of our study was to determine the effect of the combined action of phytochemicals on the early stages of skin tumorigenesis, i.e. initiation and promotion. We tested calcium D-glucarate (CG) given in the diet, while resveratrol (RES) and ursolic acid (UA) were applied topically. The 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-initiated, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-promoted multistage skin carcinogenesis model in SENCAR mice was used. Mice received one topical dose of DMBA, then after one month, two weekly doses of TPA for 14 weeks until sacrifice. RES or UA were applied 20 min prior to DMBA or TPA treatment and 2% dietary CG was given from 2 weeks prior to 2 weeks after the DMBA dose or continually beginning 2 weeks prior to the first dose of TPA. UA applied alone and in combination with CG during the promotion stage was the only inhibitor of tumor multiplicity and tumor incidence. A number of combinations reduced epidermal proliferation, but only UA and the combination UA+CG applied during promotion significantly reduced epidermal hyperplasia. DMBA/TPA application resulted in significant increases in c-jun and p50, which were reversed by a number of different treatments. DMBA/TPA treatment also strongly increased mRNA levels of inflammation markers COX-2 and IL-6. All anti-promotion treatments caused a marked decrease in COX-2 and IL-6 expression compared to the DMBA/TPA control. These results show that UA is a potent inhibitor of skin tumor promotion and inflammatory signaling and it may be useful in the prevention of skin cancer and other epithelial cancers in humans.

  10. Sunlight suppressing rejection of 280- to 320-nm UV-radiation-induced skin tumors in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Morison, W.L.; Kelley, S.P.

    1985-02-01

    Repeated exposure of female C3H/HeNCR- mice to sunlight prevented the normal immunologic rejection of a UV-induced tumor. This systemic immunologic alteration was transferred to syngeneic lethally X-irradiated animals with lymphoid cells from mice exposed to sunlight. The lymphoid cells also were able to suppress the capacity of lymphoid cells from normal animals to reject a UV-induced tumor. The 295- to 320-nm wave band appeared to be responsible for this immunosuppressive effect of sunlight because suppression was prevented by filtration of the radiation through Mylar and by application of a sunscreen containing para-aminobenzoic acid. These observations may have importance in understanding the pathogenesis of sunlight-induced skin cancer in humans.

  11. Bioactive grape proanthocyanidins enhance immune reactivity in UV-irradiated skin through functional activation of dendritic cells in mice

    PubMed Central

    Vaid, Mudit; Singh, Tripti; Prasad, Ram; Elmets, Craig A.; Xu, Hui; Katiyar, Santosh K.

    2013-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation-induced immunosuppression has been implicated in skin carcinogenesis. Grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPs) have anti-skin carcinogenic effects in mice and GSPs-fed mice exhibit a reduction in UV-induced suppression of allergic contact hypersensitivity (CHS), a prototypic T cell-mediated response. Here, we report that dietary GSPs did not inhibit UVB-induced suppression of CHS in xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group A (XPA)-deficient mice, which lack nucleotide excision repair mechanisms. GSPs enhanced repair of UVB-induced DNA damage (cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers) in wild-type, but not XPA-deficient, dendritic cells (DCs). Co-culture of CD4+ T cells with DCs from UVB-irradiated wild-type mice resulted in suppression of T-cell proliferation and secretion of Th-1 type cytokines that was ameliorated when the DCs were obtained from GSPs-fed mice; whereas, DCs obtained from GSPs-fed XPA-KO mice failed to restore T-cell proliferation. In adoptive transfer experiments, donor DCs were positively selected from the draining lymph nodes of UVB-exposed donor mice that were sensitized to 2,4, dinitrofluorobenzene were transferred into naïve recipient mice and the CHS response assessed. Naïve recipients that received DCs from UVB-exposed wild-type donors that had been fed GSPs exhibited a full CHS response, whereas no significant CHS was observed in mice that received DCs from XPA-KO mice fed GSPs. These results suggest that GSPs prevent UVB-induced immunosuppression through DNA repair-dependent functional activation of dendritic cells in mice. PMID:23321928

  12. Bioactive grape proanthocyanidins enhance immune reactivity in UV-irradiated skin through functional activation of dendritic cells in mice.

    PubMed

    Vaid, Mudit; Singh, Tripti; Prasad, Ram; Elmets, Craig A; Xu, Hui; Katiyar, Santosh K

    2013-03-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation-induced immunosuppression has been implicated in skin carcinogenesis. Grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPs) have anti-skin carcinogenic effects in mice and GSPs-fed mice exhibit a reduction in UV-induced suppression of allergic contact hypersensitivity (CHS), a prototypic T-cell-mediated response. Here, we report that dietary GSPs did not inhibit UVB-induced suppression of CHS in xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group A (XPA)-deficient mice, which lack nucleotide excision repair mechanisms. GSPs enhanced repair of UVB-induced DNA damage (cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers) in wild-type, but not XPA-deficient, dendritic cells (DC). Co-culture of CD4(+) T cells with DCs from UVB-irradiated wild-type mice resulted in suppression of T-cell proliferation and secretion of T-helper (TH) 1-type cytokines that was ameliorated when the DCs were obtained from GSP-fed mice, whereas DCs obtained from GSP-fed XPA-KO mice failed to restore T-cell proliferation. In adoptive transfer experiments, donor DCs were positively selected from the draining lymph nodes of UVB-exposed donor mice that were sensitized to 2,4,-dinitrofluorobenzene were transferred into naïve recipient mice and the CHS response assessed. Naïve recipients that received DCs from UVB-exposed wild-type donors that had been fed GSPs exhibited a full CHS response, whereas no significant CHS was observed in mice that received DCs from XPA-KO mice fed GSPs. These results suggest that GSPs prevent UVB-induced immunosuppression through DNA repair-dependent functional activation of dendritic cells in mice. Cancer Prev Res; 6(3); 242-52. ©2013 AACR. ©2013 AACR.

  13. Intake of high-fat diet stimulates the risk of ultraviolet radiation-induced skin tumors and malignant progression of papillomas to carcinoma in SKH-1 hairless mice

    SciTech Connect

    Vaid, Mudit; Singh, Tripti; Prasad, Ram; Katiyar, Santosh K.

    2014-01-01

    Previously, we showed that administration of a high-fat diet (HF-diet) to C57BL/6 mice exacerbates their response to short-term UVB radiation-induced inflammation in the skin. To explore the effects of an HF-diet on UVB-induced tumorigenesis, we have used the SKH-1 hairless mouse model in which the mice are exposed to UVB radiation (180 mJ/cm{sup 2}) three times a week for 24 weeks. The development of UVB-induced skin tumors was rapid and the tumor multiplicity and tumor size were significantly higher (P < 0.01–0.005) in the mice fed an HF-diet than the mice fed a control-diet (C-diet). Moreover, the malignant progression of UVB-induced papillomas to carcinomas was higher in HF-diet-fed mice. On analysis of tumors and tumor-uninvolved skin samples from the tumor-bearing mice, we found that administration of an HF-diet significantly enhanced the levels of UVB-induced expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), prostaglandin E{sub 2} (P < 0.01), and PGE{sub 2} receptors, and activation of NF-κB in the UVB-exposed skin as well as in tumors. In addition the HF-diet enhanced the expression of proinflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-α (P < 0.01), interleukin (IL)-1β (P < 0.01) and IL-6 (P < 0.05) in the UVB-exposed skin as well as in tumors. Western blot analysis revealed that HF-diet enhanced the levels of epidermal cell proliferation, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and phosphorylation of Akt at Ser{sup 473} in UVB-exposed skin and skin tumors. Collectively, these data demonstrate that the regular consumption of an HF-diet increases the risk of photocarcinogenesis in mice and that this is associated with enhanced expression of inflammatory mediators in the UVB-exposed skin and tumors. - Highlights: • Consumption of high-fat diet increases UVB-induced skin tumor development in mice. • Intake of high-fat diet stimulates progression of UV-induced papilloma to carcinoma. • Intake of high-fat diet enhances inflammation in UV-exposed skin • Regular

  14. Sirolimus Increases T-Cell Abundance in the Sun Exposed Skin of Kidney Transplant Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Michael Thomas; Sambira Nahum, Lauren C.; Isbel, Nicole M.; Carroll, Robert P.; Soyer, Hans Peter; Francis, Ross; Bridge, Jennifer Anne; Hawley, Carmel; Oliver, Kimberly; Staatz, Christine E.; Wells, James William

    2017-01-01

    Background Kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) receiving the mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor sirolimus may display a reduced risk of skin cancer development compared to KTRs receiving calcineurin inhibitors. Despite studies investigating the effects of these 2 drug classes on T cells in patient blood, the effect these drugs may have in patient skin is not yet known. Methods Fifteen patients with chronic kidney disease (not recipients of immunosuppressive drugs), and 30 KTRs (15 receiving a calcineurin inhibitor, and 15 receiving sirolimus) provided matched samples of blood, sun exposed (SE) and non-SE skin. The abundance of total CD8+ and CD4+ T cells, memory CD8+ and CD4+ T cells, and regulatory T (Treg) cells in each sample was then assessed by flow cytometry. Results Sirolimus treatment significantly increased absolute numbers of CD4+ T cells, memory CD8+- and CD4+ T cells, and Treg cells in SE skin versus paired samples of non-SE skin. No differences were found in the absolute number of any T cell subset in the blood. Correlation analysis revealed that the percentage of T cell subsets in the blood does not always accurately reflect the percentage of T-cell subsets in the skin of KTRs. Furthermore, sirolimus significantly disrupts the balance of memory CD4+ T cells in the skin after chronic sun exposure. Conclusions This study demonstrated that immunosuppressive drug class and sun exposure modify the abundance of multiple T-cell subsets in the skin of KTRs. Correlation analysis revealed that the prevalence of Treg cells in KTR blood does not accurately reflect the prevalence of Treg cells in KTR skin. PMID:28706974

  15. Assessment of the effect of narrowband UVB and broadband UVB on mice skin using optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhiming; Guo, Zhouyi; Zhai, Juan; Xiong, Honglian; Zeng, Changchun; Jin, Ying

    2009-08-01

    Ultraviolet B (UVB) has been used in dermatological phototherapy widely. Narrowband UVB (NB-UVB), with a peak at 311nm, is considered more effective than broadband UVB (BB-UVB). However, the safety of NB-UVB is controversial. Optical coherence tomography (OCT), a novel, non-invasive and depth-resolved imaging technology, is a useful tool for detection of the skin structure in vivo. This study assessed the effect of NB-UVB and BB-UVB on the skin using OCT for the first time. In this study, Balb/c mouse model was surveyed by an OCT system with 1310 nm central wavelength. The two UVB sources were applied on mice dorsal skin with equal biological doses. Mice skin were exposed with increasing UVB doses (1MED, 3MEDs and 5MEDs), OCT images of UVB induced skin tissues were obtained 48h later. The experimental results indicated that, the changes of NB-UVB induced skin tissues (increase in stratum corneum, crust formation, increase of penetration depth of the light and erythema/edema response) are similar to that of BB-UVB induced skin tissues at low and moderate UVB doses. However, the skin tissues exposed with 5MEDs NB-UVB suffered from more lesions than BB-UVB induced skin tissues. In conclusion, potential risk should be considered before NB-UVB phototherapy. Optimized treatment times and frequency as well as close clinical monitoring (e.g., using OCT to real-time monitor the lesions) should be taken to reduce the latent risk of NB-UVB phototherapy.

  16. Cutting fluids and their effects on the skin of mice. An experimental study with special reference to carcinogenicity.

    PubMed

    Jepsen, J R; Stoyanov, S; Unger, M; Clausen, J; Christensen, H E

    1977-09-01

    Reports of skin malignancies due to occupational exposure have decreased since the introduction of solvent-refining of mineral oil fraction in the manufacture of oil based cutting fluids. Commercial mineral oil based cutting fluids caused local and general pathological changes after repeated application to the skin of mice in the present study. Forty-eight per cent of the mice exposed to oils showed severe dysplasia or malignancy of the skin on histological examination. The corresponding figure for the control group, where various additives were used was 8 per cent. The frequency of papillomas was also increased in the mice exposed to oils. The systemic lesions included focal necrosis of the liver, associated with amyloid deposition, as well as amyloidosis of the skin, spleen and kidneys. The substances responsible for these apparent carcinogenic properties of the complex mixtures may be polycyclic hydrocarbons; the latter are still present in the commercial products despite solvent refining; on the other hand the carcinogens may be additives to the cutting oils the composition of which is generally a trade secret.

  17. Prolonged treatment of fair-skinned mice with topical forskolin causes persistent tanning and UV protection.

    PubMed

    Spry, Malinda L; Vanover, Jillian C; Scott, Timothy; Abona-Ama, Osama; Wakamatsu, Kazumasa; Ito, Shosuke; D'Orazio, John A

    2009-04-01

    We previously reported that topical application of forskolin to the skin of fair-skinned MC1R-defective mice with epidermal melanocytes resulted in accumulation of eumelanin in the epidermis and was highly protective against UV-mediated cutaneous injury. In this report, we describe the long-term effects of chronic topical forskolin treatment in this animal model. Forskolin-induced eumelanin production persisted through 3 months of daily applications, and forskolin-induced eumelanin remained protective against UV damage as assessed by minimal erythematous dose (MED). No obvious toxic changes were noted in the skin or overall health of animals exposed to prolonged forskolin therapy. Body weights were maintained throughout the course of topical forskolin application. Topical application of forskolin was associated with an increase in the number of melanocytes in the epidermis and thickening of the epidermis due, at least in part, to an accumulation of nucleated keratinocytes. Together, these data suggest in this animal model, short-term topical regular application of forskolin promotes eumelanin induction and that over time, topical forskolin treatment is associated with persistent melanization, epidermal cell accumulation, and skin thickening.

  18. Expression of CD95 (Fas) in sun-exposed human skin and cutaneous carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Filipowicz, Ewa; Adegboyega, P; Sanchez, R L; Gatalica, Zoran

    2002-02-01

    Carcinomas of the skin are by far the most common human malignancies. Continuous exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light facilitates the development of precancerous lesions (actinic keratosis [AK]) that may progress to invasive squamous carcinomas. Apoptosis, triggered by the activation of CD95 (Fas), is one of the most important defense mechanisms against UV light-induced carcinogenesis in experimental models, but the dynamics of CD95 expression in patients with sun-induced lesions are largely unknown. The authors studied the expression of CD95 (Fas) in biopsy samples of normal skin (not exposed to sun) and compared it with chronically sun-exposed skin (as evidenced by solar elastosis), AK, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC), and keratoacanthomas (KA). Normal skin keratinocytes expressed CD95 in cytoplasmic membranes and intercellular bridges in the basal layer. In chronically sun-exposed keratinocytes (solar elastosis, no evidence of dysplasia), CD95 expression was up-regulated and was observed throughout the entire thickness of the epidermis. However, in actinic keratosis there was a complete absence of Fas in approximately two-thirds of the cases (8 of 12). In invasive SCC, CD95 was expressed focally and weakly only at the sites of contact with stromal lymphocytes. Keratoacanthomas consistently expressed CD95 at the interface with the inflammatory cells. No staining was observed in BCC. CD95 (Fas) up-regulation in chronically sun-exposed keratinocytes indicates an important role in the control of sun-induced damage. Further sun exposure results, however, in significant down-regulation of this defense mechanism, proportional to the degree of dysplasia. Copyright 2002 American Cancer Society. DOI 10.1002/cncr.10277

  19. Natural Products Mediated Regulation of Oxidative Stress and DNA Damage in Ultraviolet Exposed Skin Cells.

    PubMed

    Farooqi, Ammad A; Li, Ruei-Nian; Huang, Hurng-Wern; Ismail, Muhammad; Yuan, Shyng-Shiou F; Wang, Hui-Min D; Liu, Jing-Ru; Tang, Jen-Yang; Chang, Hsueh-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Data obtained through high-throughput technologies have gradually revealed that a unique stratified epithelial architecture of human skin along with the antioxidant-response pathways provided vital defensive mechanisms against UV radiation. However, it is noteworthy that skin is a major target for toxic insult by UV radiations that can alter its structure and function. Substantial fraction of information has been added into the existing pool of knowledge related to natural products mediated biological effects in UV exposed skin cells. Accumulating evidence has started to shed light on the potential of these bioactive ingredients as protective natural products in cosmetics against UV photodamage by exerting biological effects mainly through wide ranging intracellular signalling cascades of oxidative stress and modulation of miRNAs. In this review, we have summarized recently emerging scientific evidences addressing underlying mechanisms of UV induced oxidative stress and deregulation of signalling cascades and how natural products can be used tactfully to protect against UV induced harmful effects.

  20. Temperature and burn injury prediction of human skin exposed to microwaves: a model analysis.

    PubMed

    Ozen, Sukru; Helhel, Selcuk; Bilgin, Suleyman

    2011-08-01

    A one-dimensional multi-layer model is presented to characterize skin temperature rises and burn processes resulting from skin exposure to microwaves. Temperature variations and damage function analyses in the skin tissue exposed to microwaves were predicted depending on blood perfusion rate, thermal conductivity, power density, and exposure time. Thermal wave model was applied and the bio-heat transfer equation was solved using the finite difference time domain method. The thermal wave model of bio-heat transfer predicts a lower temperature rise than a model that uses Pennes' equation. When approaching steady state, the solutions overlaps with that obtained using the Pennes' equation. The results obtained may help to analyze the consequences of short-time high-power MW exposures in biological tissues.

  1. Hyperglycemia Induces Skin Barrier Dysfunctions with Impairment of Epidermal Integrity in Non-Wounded Skin of Type 1 Diabetic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Okano, Junko; Kojima, Hideto; Katagi, Miwako; Nakagawa, Takahiko; Nakae, Yuki; Terashima, Tomoya; Kurakane, Takeshi; Kubota, Mamoru; Maegawa, Hiroshi; Udagawa, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes causes skin complications, including xerosis and foot ulcers. Ulcers complicated by infections exacerbate skin conditions, and in severe cases, limb/toe amputations are required to prevent the development of sepsis. Here, we hypothesize that hyperglycemia induces skin barrier dysfunction with alterations of epidermal integrity. The effects of hyperglycemia on the epidermis were examined in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice with/without insulin therapy. The results showed that dye leakages were prominent, and transepidermal water loss after tape stripping was exacerbated in diabetic mice. These data indicate that hyperglycemia impaired skin barrier functions. Additionally, the distribution of the protein associated with the tight junction structure, tight junction protein-1 (ZO-1), was characterized by diffuse and significantly wider expression in the diabetic mice compared to that in the control mice. In turn, epidermal cell number was significantly reduced and basal cells were irregularly aligned with ultrastructural alterations in diabetic mice. In contrast, the number of corneocytes, namely, denucleated and terminally differentiated keratinocytes significantly increased, while their sensitivity to mechanical stress was enhanced in the diabetic mice. We found that cell proliferation was significantly decreased, while apoptotic cells were comparable in the skin of diabetic mice, compared to those in the control mice. In the epidermis, Keratin 5 and keratin 14 expressions were reduced, while keratin 10 and loricrin were ectopically induced in diabetic mice. These data suggest that hyperglycemia altered keratinocyte proliferation/differentiation. Finally, these phenotypes observed in diabetic mice were mitigated by insulin treatment. Reduction in basal cell number and perturbation of the proliferation/differentiation process could be the underlying mechanisms for impaired skin barrier functions in diabetic mice. PMID:27846299

  2. Hyperglycemia Induces Skin Barrier Dysfunctions with Impairment of Epidermal Integrity in Non-Wounded Skin of Type 1 Diabetic Mice.

    PubMed

    Okano, Junko; Kojima, Hideto; Katagi, Miwako; Nakagawa, Takahiko; Nakae, Yuki; Terashima, Tomoya; Kurakane, Takeshi; Kubota, Mamoru; Maegawa, Hiroshi; Udagawa, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes causes skin complications, including xerosis and foot ulcers. Ulcers complicated by infections exacerbate skin conditions, and in severe cases, limb/toe amputations are required to prevent the development of sepsis. Here, we hypothesize that hyperglycemia induces skin barrier dysfunction with alterations of epidermal integrity. The effects of hyperglycemia on the epidermis were examined in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice with/without insulin therapy. The results showed that dye leakages were prominent, and transepidermal water loss after tape stripping was exacerbated in diabetic mice. These data indicate that hyperglycemia impaired skin barrier functions. Additionally, the distribution of the protein associated with the tight junction structure, tight junction protein-1 (ZO-1), was characterized by diffuse and significantly wider expression in the diabetic mice compared to that in the control mice. In turn, epidermal cell number was significantly reduced and basal cells were irregularly aligned with ultrastructural alterations in diabetic mice. In contrast, the number of corneocytes, namely, denucleated and terminally differentiated keratinocytes significantly increased, while their sensitivity to mechanical stress was enhanced in the diabetic mice. We found that cell proliferation was significantly decreased, while apoptotic cells were comparable in the skin of diabetic mice, compared to those in the control mice. In the epidermis, Keratin 5 and keratin 14 expressions were reduced, while keratin 10 and loricrin were ectopically induced in diabetic mice. These data suggest that hyperglycemia altered keratinocyte proliferation/differentiation. Finally, these phenotypes observed in diabetic mice were mitigated by insulin treatment. Reduction in basal cell number and perturbation of the proliferation/differentiation process could be the underlying mechanisms for impaired skin barrier functions in diabetic mice.

  3. CD34 EXPRESSION BY HAIR FOLLICLE STEM CELLS IS REQUIRED FOR SKIN TUMOR DEVELOPMENT IN MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    We used knockout mice to show that a cell surface protein called CD34 is required for skin tumor formation in mice. Wild type mice treated with 7-12-Dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) and a tumor promoter developed papillomas. When we treated CD34 knockout (KO) mice the same way, n...

  4. CD34 EXPRESSION BY HAIR FOLLICLE STEM CELLS IS REQUIRED FOR SKIN TUMOR DEVELOPMENT IN MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    We used knockout mice to show that a cell surface protein called CD34 is required for skin tumor formation in mice. Wild type mice treated with 7-12-Dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) and a tumor promoter developed papillomas. When we treated CD34 knockout (KO) mice the same way, n...

  5. Induction of adaptive response in mice exposed to 900MHz radiofrequency fields: application of micronucleus assay.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Bingcheng; Zong, Chunyan; Zhao, Hua; Ji, Yongxin; Tong, Jian; Cao, Yi

    2013-03-18

    Adult male ICR mice were pre-exposed to non-ionizing radiofrequency fields (RF), 900MHz at 120μW/cm(2) power density for 4h/day for 7 days (adaptation dose, AD) and then subjected to an acute whole body dose of 3Gy γ-radiation (challenge dose, CD). The classical micronucleus (MN) assay was used to determine the extent of genotoxicity in immature erythrocytes in peripheral blood and bone marrow. The data obtained in mice exposed to AD+CD were compared with those exposed to CD alone. The results indicated that in both tissues, the MN indices were similar in un-exposed controls and those exposed to AD alone while a significantly increased MN frequency was observed in mice exposed to CD alone. Exposure of mice to AD+CD resulted in a significant decrease in MN indices compared to those exposed to CD alone. Thus, the data suggested that pre-exposure of mice to non-ionizing RF is capable of 'protecting' the erythrocytes in the blood and bone marrow from genotoxic effects of subsequent γ-radiation. Such protective phenomenon is generally described as 'adaptive response' (AR) and is well documented in human and animal cells which were pre-exposed to very low doses of ionizing radiation. It is interesting to observe AR being induced by non-ionizing RF.

  6. Impaired skin barrier function in mice with colon carcinoma induced by azoxymethane and dextran sodium sulfate.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Satoshi; Hiramoto, Keiichi; Koyama, Mayu; Ooi, Kazuya

    2015-01-01

    We have previously reported that impaired skin barrier function was induced by small intestinal injury in mice. Therefore, we postulated that other intestinal diseases might also influence skin barrier function. In this study, we evaluated the skin barrier function of hairless mice with colon carcinoma that was induced by azoxymethane (AOM) and dextran sodium sulfate (DSS). In mice treated with these drugs, we observed elevated transepidermal water loss and reduced skin hydration levels, compared to those in the control mice. In addition, plasma nitrogen di/trioxide (NO2(-)/NO3(-)) levels were significantly elevated, and expression of type I collagen was significantly reduced in the treated mice, compared to those in control. These results suggest that impaired skin barrier function occurs in mice when colon carcinoma is present.

  7. Genetic Background Modulates Gene Expression Profile Induced by Skin Irradiation in Ptch1 Mice

    SciTech Connect

    Galvan, Antonella; Noci, Sara; Mancuso, Mariateresa; Pazzaglia, Simonetta; Saran, Anna; Dragani, Tommaso A.

    2008-12-01

    Purpose: Ptch1 germ-line mutations in mice predispose to radiation-induced basal cell carcinoma of the skin, with tumor incidence modulated by the genetic background. Here, we examined the possible mechanisms underlying skin response to radiation in F1 progeny of Ptch1{sup neo67/+} mice crossed with either skin tumor-susceptible (Car-S) or -resistant (Car-R) mice and X-irradiated (3 Gy) at 2 days of age or left untreated. Methods and Materials: We conducted a gene expression profile analysis in mRNA samples extracted from the skin of irradiated or control mice, using Affymetrix whole mouse genome expression array. Confirmation of the results was done using real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Results: Analysis of the gene expression profile of normal skin of F1 mice at 4 weeks of age revealed a similar basal profile in the nonirradiated mice, but alterations in levels of 71 transcripts in irradiated Ptch1{sup neo67/+} mice of the Car-R cross and modulation of only eight genes in irradiated Ptch1{sup neo67/+} mice of the Car-S cross. Conclusions: These results indicate that neonatal irradiation causes a persistent change in the gene expression profile of the skin. The tendency of mice genetically resistant to skin tumorigenesis to show a more complex pattern of transcriptional response to radiation than do genetically susceptible mice suggests a role for this response in genetic resistance to basal cell tumorigenesis.

  8. Patterns of Sunscreen Use on the Face and Other Exposed Skin among US Adults

    PubMed Central

    Holman, Dawn M.; Berkowitz, Zahava; Guy, Gery P.; Hawkins, Nikki A.; Saraiya, Mona; Watson, Meg

    2015-01-01

    Background Sunscreen is a common form of sun protection, but little is known about patterns of use. Objective To assess patterns of sunscreen use on the face and other exposed skin among US adults. Methods Using cross-sectional data from the 2013 Summer ConsumerStyles survey (N= 4,033), we calculated descriptive statistics and adjusted risk ratios to identify characteristics associated with regular sunscreen use (always/most of the time when outside on a warm sunny day for 1+ hour). Results Few adults regularly used sunscreen on the face (men: 18.1%, 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 15.8–20.6; women: 42.6%, 95% CI 39.5–46.7), other exposed skin (men: 19.9%, 95% CI 17.5–22.6; women: 34.4%, 95% CI 31.5–37.5), or both the face and other exposed skin (men: 14.3%, 95% CI: 12.3–16.6; women: 29.9%, 95% CI: 27.2–32.8). Regular use was associated with sun-sensitive skin, a household income ≥$60,000, and meeting aerobic activity guidelines (Ps < 0.05). Nearly 40% of users were unsure if their sunscreen provided broad spectrum protection. Limitations Reliance on self-report and lack of information on sunscreen reapplication or other sun-safety practices. Conclusion Sunscreen use is low, especially among certain demographic groups. These findings can inform sun-safety interventions and the interpretation of surveillance data on sunscreen use. PMID:26002066

  9. Patterns of sunscreen use on the face and other exposed skin among US adults.

    PubMed

    Holman, Dawn M; Berkowitz, Zahava; Guy, Gery P; Hawkins, Nikki A; Saraiya, Mona; Watson, Meg

    2015-07-01

    Sunscreen is a common form of sun protection, but little is known about patterns of use. We sought to assess patterns of sunscreen use on the face and other exposed skin among US adults. Using cross-sectional data from the 2013 Summer ConsumerStyles survey (N = 4033), we calculated descriptive statistics and adjusted risk ratios to identify characteristics associated with regular sunscreen use (always/most of the time when outside on a warm sunny day for ≥1 hour). Few adults regularly used sunscreen on the face (men: 18.1%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 15.8-20.6; women: 42.6%, 95% CI 39.5-46.7), other exposed skin (men: 19.9%, 95% CI 17.5-22.6; women: 34.4%, 95% CI 31.5-37.5), or both the face and other exposed skin (men: 14.3%, 95% CI 12.3-16.6; women: 29.9%, 95% CI 27.2-32.8). Regular use was associated with sun-sensitive skin, an annual household income ≥$60,000, and meeting aerobic activity guidelines (Ps < .05). Nearly 40% of users were unsure if their sunscreen provided broad-spectrum protection. Reliance on self-report and lack of information on sunscreen reapplication or other sun-safety practices are limitations. Sunscreen use is low, especially among certain demographic groups. These findings can inform sun-safety interventions and the interpretation of surveillance data on sunscreen use. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Protein oxidative damage and heme oxygenase in sunlight-exposed human skin: roles of MAPK responses to oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Akasaka, Emiko; Takekoshi, Susumu; Horikoshi, Yosuke; Toriumi, Kentarou; Ikoma, Norihiro; Mabuchi, Tomotaka; Tamiya, Shiho; Matsuyama, Takashi; Ozawa, Akira

    2010-12-20

    Oxidative stress derived from ultraviolet (UV) light in sunlight induces different hazardous effects in the skin, including sunburn, photo-aging and DNA mutagenesis. In this study, the protein-bound lipid peroxidation products 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE) and the oxidative DNA damage marker 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8OHdG) were investigated in chronically sun-exposed and sun-protected human skins using immunohistochemistry. The levels of antioxidative enzymes, such as heme oxygenase 1 and 2, Cu/Zn-SOD, Mn-SOD and catalase, were also examined. Oxidative stress is also implicated in the activation of signal transduction pathways, such as mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Therefore, the expression and distribution of phosphorylated p38 MAPK, phosphorylated Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) were observed. Skin specimens were obtained from the surgical margins. Chronically sunlight-exposed skin samples were taken from the ante-auricular (n = 10) and sunlight-protected skin samples were taken from the post-auricular (n = 10). HNE was increased in the chronically sunlight-exposed skin but not in the sunlight-protected skin. The expression of heme oxygenase-2 was markedly increased in the sunlight-exposed skin compared with the sun-protected skin. In contrast, the intensity of immunostaining of Cu/Zn-SOD, Mn-SOD and catalase was not different between the two areas. Phosphorylated p38 MAPK and phosphorylated JNK accumulated in the ante-auricular dermis and epidermis, respectively. These data show that particular anti-oxidative enzymes function as protective factors in chronically sunlight-exposed human skin. Taken together, our results suggest (1) antioxidative effects of heme oxygenase-2 in chronically sunlight-exposed human skin, and that (2) activation of p38 MAPK may be responsible for oxidative stress.

  11. Multi-photon microscopy of tobacco-exposed organotypic skin models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dao, Belinda; Yamazaki, Alissa; Sun, Chung Ho; Wang, Zifu; Pham, Nguyen; Oldham, Michael; Wong, Brian J. F.

    2006-02-01

    Cigarette smoking is the most preventable cause of death in the United States. Researchers have extensively studied smoking in regards to its association with cancer, cardiovascular, and pulmonary disease. In contrast, the impact of cigarette smoking on skin has received much less attention. To provide a better understanding of the effect of cigarette smoking on the human dermal layer, this study used multi-photon microscopy (MPM) to examine collagen in organotypic skin models exposed to cigarette smoke condensate (CSC). Adult and neonatal organotypic tissue-engineered artificial skin models (RAFTs) were constructed and exposed to varying concentrations of CSC. Imaging of the RAFTs was performed using MPM and second-harmonic generation signals (SHG), which allowed for collagen structure to be viewed and analyzed as well as for collagen density to be assessed from derived depth-dependent decay (DDD) values. RAFT contraction as related to exposure concentration was monitored as well. Results indicated a dose dependent between contraction rates and CSC concentration. Collagen structure showed more preservation of its original structure at a greater depth in RAFTs with higher concentrations of CSC. No clear trends could be drawn from analysis of derived DDD values.

  12. Immunization of mice with Trypanosoma rhodesiense exposed to ultraviolet irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Charoenvit, Y.; Campbell, G.H.

    1981-11-01

    Exposure time of Trypanosoma rhodesiense as short as 1 minute to ultraviolet (uv) light prevents the organisms from causing infection. Live trypanosome challenge of mice immunized with uv-irradiated trypanosomes results in sterile immunity. This allows a method for the induction of protective immunity to experimental trypanosomiasis which can be performed in most laboratories using uv germicidal lamps found in sterile hoods.

  13. Relationship between field strength and arousal response in mice exposed to 60-Hz electric fields

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, R.S.; Duffy, P.H.; Sacher, G.A.; Ehret, C.F.

    1983-01-01

    White-footed mice, Peromyscus leucopus, were exposed to 60-Hz electric fields to study the relationship between field strength and three measures of the transient arousal response previously reported to occur with exposures at 100 kV/m. Five groups of 12 mice each were given a series of four 1-h exposures, separated by an hour, with each group exposed at one of the following field strengths: 75, 50, 35, 25, and 10 kV/m; 8 additional mice were sham-exposed with no voltage applied to the field generator. All mice were experimentally naive before the start of the experiment, and all exposures occurred during the inactive (lights-on) phase of the circadian cycle. The first exposure produced immediate increases in arousal measures, but subsequent exposures had no significant effect on any measure. These arousal responses were defined by significant increases of gross motor activity, carbon dioxide production, and oxygen consumption, and were frequently recorded with field strengths of 50 kV/m or higher. Significant arousal responses rarely occurred with exposures at lower field strengths. Responses of mice exposed at 75 and 50 kV/m were similar to previously described transient arousal responses in mice exposed to 100-kV/m electric fields. Less than half of the mice in each of the field strength groups below 50 kV/m showed arousal response based on Z (standard) scores, but the arousals of the mice that did respond were similar to those of mice exposed at higher field strengths. Polynomial regression was used to calculate the field strength producing the greatest increases for each of the arousal measures. The results show that the amplitude of the transient arousal response is related to the strength of the electric field, but different measures of arousal may have different relationships to field strength.

  14. Assessment of the immune responsiveness of mice exposed to a 1. 5-Tesla stationary magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Tenforde, T.S.; Shifrine, M.

    1984-01-01

    Humoral and cell-mediated immune responses were assayed following a 6-day exposure of LAF1/J mice to a 1.50 Tesla (1 T . 10(4) Gauss) stationary magnetic field. In tests of the immune response to sheep erythrocytes, the number of Jerne plaques formed by spleen lymphocytes and the level of serum IgM were not significantly different for the exposed mice in comparison with control animals. Tests for mitogen-induced lymphocyte proliferation also demonstrated no significant differences in the response of spleen lymphocytes from exposed and control groups of mice.

  15. Blackberry extract inhibits UVB-induced oxidative damage and inflammation through MAP kinases and NF-κB signaling pathways in SKH-1 mice skin.

    PubMed

    Divya, Sasidharan Padmaja; Wang, Xin; Pratheeshkumar, Poyil; Son, Young-Ok; Roy, Ram Vinod; Kim, Donghern; Dai, Jin; Hitron, John Andrew; Wang, Lei; Asha, Padmaja; Shi, Xianglin; Zhang, Zhuo

    2015-04-01

    Extensive exposure of solar ultraviolet-B (UVB) radiation to skin induces oxidative stress and inflammation that play a crucial role in the induction of skin cancer. Photochemoprevention with natural products represents a simple but very effective strategy for the management of cutaneous neoplasia. In this study, we investigated whether blackberry extract (BBE) reduces chronic inflammatory responses induced by UVB irradiation in SKH-1 hairless mice skin. Mice were exposed to UVB radiation (100 mJ/cm(2)) on alternate days for 10 weeks, and BBE (10% and 20%) was applied topically a day before UVB exposure. Our results show that BBE suppressed UVB-induced hyperplasia and reduced infiltration of inflammatory cells in the SKH-1 hairless mice skin. BBE treatment reduced glutathione (GSH) depletion, lipid peroxidation (LPO), and myeloperoxidase (MPO) in mouse skin by chronic UVB exposure. BBE significantly decreased the level of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α in UVB-exposed skin. Likewise, UVB-induced inflammatory responses were diminished by BBE as observed by a remarkable reduction in the levels of phosphorylated MAP Kinases, Erk1/2, p38, JNK1/2 and MKK4. Furthermore, BBE also reduced inflammatory mediators such as cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) levels in UVB-exposed skin. Treatment with BBE inhibited UVB-induced nuclear translocation of NF-κB and degradation of IκBα in mouse skin. Immunohistochemistry analysis revealed that topical application of BBE inhibited the expression of 8-oxo-7, 8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG), cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and cyclin D1 in UVB-exposed skin. Collectively, these data indicate that BBE protects from UVB-induced oxidative damage and inflammation by modulating MAP kinase and NF-κB signaling pathways.

  16. Blackberry extract inhibits UVB-induced oxidative damage and inflammation through MAP kinases and NF-κB signalling pathways in SKH-1 mice skin

    PubMed Central

    Son, Young-Ok; Roy, Ram Vinod; Kim, Donghern; Dai, Jin; Hitron, John Andrew; Wang, Lei; Asha, Padmaja; Shi, Xianglin; Zhang, Zhuo

    2015-01-01

    Extensive exposure of solar ultraviolet-B (UVB) radiation to skin induces oxidative stress and inflammation that play a crucial role in the induction of skin cancer. Photochemoprevention with natural products represents a simple but very effective strategy for the management of cutaneous neoplasia. In this study, we investigated whether blackberry extract (BBE) reduces chronic inflammatory responses induced by UVB irradiation in SKH-1 hairless mice skin. Mice were exposed to UVB radiation (100 mJ/cm2) on alternate days for 10 weeks, and BBE (10% and 20%) was applied topically a day before UVB exposure. Our results show that BBE suppressed UVB-induced hyperplasia and reduced infiltration of inflammatory cells in the SKH-1 hairless mice skin. BBE treatment reduced glutathione (GSH) depletion, lipid peroxidation (LPO), and myeloperoxidase (MPO) in mouse skin by chronic UVB exposure. BBE significantly decreased the level of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α in UVB-exposed skin. Likewise, UVB-induced inflammatory responses were diminished by BBE as observed by a remarkable reduction in the levels of phosphorylated MAP Kinases, Erk1/2, p38, JNK1/2 and MKK4. Furthermore, BBE also reduced inflammatory mediators such as cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) levels in UVB-exposed skin. Treatment with BBE inhibited UVB-induced nuclear translocation of NF-κB and degradation of IκBα in mouse skin. Immunohistochemistry analysis revealed that topical application of BBE inhibited the expression of 8-oxo-7, 8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG), cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and cyclin D1 in UVB-exposed skin. Collectively, these data indicates that BBE protects from UVB-induced oxidative damage and inflammation by modulating MAP kinase and NF-κB signaling pathways. PMID:25680589

  17. Collagen cross-linking in sun-exposed and unexposed sites of aged human skin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamauchi, M.; Prisayanh, P.; Haque, Z.; Woodley, D. T.

    1991-01-01

    A recently described nonreducible, acid-heat stable compound, histidinohydroxylysinonorleucine (HHL), is a collagen cross-link isolated from mature skin tissue. Its abundance is related to chronologic aging of skin. The present communication describes the quantity of HHL from aged human skin of the same individuals in sun-exposed (wrist) and unexposed (buttock) sites. Punch biopsies were obtained from these sites from nine people of age 60 or older. HHL contents (moles/mole of collagen) at these sites were for wrist 0.13 +/- 0.07 and for buttock 0.69 +/- 0.17 (mean +/- SD, p less than 0.001). In addition, it was found that acute irradiation of the cross-linked peptides with UVA (up to 250 J/cm2) and UVB (up to 1 J/cm2) had no effect on HHL structure. The same treatment significantly degraded another nonreducible, stable collagen cross-link, pyridinoline. The results suggest that chronic sunlight exposure may be associated with an impediment to normal maturation of human dermal collagen resulting in tenuous amount of HHL. Thus, the process of photoaging in dermal collagen is different from that of chronologic aging in human skin.

  18. Collagen cross-linking in sun-exposed and unexposed sites of aged human skin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamauchi, M.; Prisayanh, P.; Haque, Z.; Woodley, D. T.

    1991-01-01

    A recently described nonreducible, acid-heat stable compound, histidinohydroxylysinonorleucine (HHL), is a collagen cross-link isolated from mature skin tissue. Its abundance is related to chronologic aging of skin. The present communication describes the quantity of HHL from aged human skin of the same individuals in sun-exposed (wrist) and unexposed (buttock) sites. Punch biopsies were obtained from these sites from nine people of age 60 or older. HHL contents (moles/mole of collagen) at these sites were for wrist 0.13 +/- 0.07 and for buttock 0.69 +/- 0.17 (mean +/- SD, p less than 0.001). In addition, it was found that acute irradiation of the cross-linked peptides with UVA (up to 250 J/cm2) and UVB (up to 1 J/cm2) had no effect on HHL structure. The same treatment significantly degraded another nonreducible, stable collagen cross-link, pyridinoline. The results suggest that chronic sunlight exposure may be associated with an impediment to normal maturation of human dermal collagen resulting in tenuous amount of HHL. Thus, the process of photoaging in dermal collagen is different from that of chronologic aging in human skin.

  19. A case of epidermodysplasia verruciformis with squamous cell carcinomas on non-sun-exposed areas of skin.

    PubMed

    Ansarin, Habib; Tajziehchi, Leila; Shaianfar, Nasrin

    2007-04-01

    Epidermodysplasia verruciformis is an inherited disorder, characterized by multiple plane warts, pityriasis versicolor-like lesions, defects of cell-mediated immunity, and tendency to develop skin malignancies, primarily on sun-exposed areas. In this article, we present a case of epidermodysplasia verruciformis with multiple plane warts, pityriasis versicolor-like lesions, and squamous cell carcinomas on non-sun-exposed areas of skin. After acitretin prescription, significant improvement was found in plane warts, but not in pityriasis versicolor-like lesions.

  20. Chronic heat treatment causes skin wrinkle formation and oxidative damage in hairless mice.

    PubMed

    Shin, Mi Hee; Seo, Jo-Eun; Kim, Yeon Kyung; Kim, Kyu Han; Chung, Jin Ho

    2012-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that heat shock could induce expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in skin cells. These results implicated that chronic heat treatment may cause skin wrinkles. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the effects of chronic heat treatment (43 °C, 30 min, 3 times/week, 6 weeks) on wrinkle formation in skin of hairless mice. We found that repetitive heat treatment induced skin wrinkles after a period of 6 weeks in skin of hairless mice. Histologically, heat treatment resulted in increased thickness of the epidermis and dermis. And repetitive heat treatment resulted in significantly increased expression of MMP-13 protein and mRNA, but not MMP-2 and -9, in skin of hairless mice. We also demonstrated that activities of antioxidant enzymes, catalase, and superoxide dismutase (SOD), were reduced by chronic heat treatment. In addition, oxidative damage was increased in skin of mice after chronic exposure to heat shock. Taken together, our results suggested that chronic exposure of the skin to heat can cause skin wrinkling. And, increase of MMP-13, decrease of antioxidant enzymes activity, and consequent oxidative damage by chronic heat treatment may play an important role in development of skin aging in hairless mice. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Adaptive Response in Mice Exposed to 900 MHz Radiofrequency Fields: Primary DNA Damage

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhen; Zhang, Jie; Tong, Jian; Cao, Yi

    2012-01-01

    The phenomenon of adaptive response (AR) in animal and human cells exposed to ionizing radiation is well documented in scientific literature. We have examined whether such AR could be induced in mice exposed to non-ionizing radiofrequency fields (RF) used for wireless communications. Mice were pre-exposed to 900 MHz RF at 120 µW/cm2 power density for 4 hours/day for 1, 3, 5, 7 and 14 days and then subjected to an acute dose of 3 Gy γ-radiation. The primary DNA damage in the form of alkali labile base damage and single strand breaks in the DNA of peripheral blood leukocytes was determined using the alkaline comet assay. The results indicated that the extent of damage in mice which were pre-exposed to RF for 1 day and then subjected to γ-radiation was similar and not significantly different from those exposed to γ-radiation alone. However, mice which were pre-exposed to RF for 3, 5, 7 and 14 days showed progressively decreased damage and was significantly different from those exposed to γ-radiation alone. Thus, the data indicated that RF pre-exposure is capable of inducing AR and suggested that the pre-exposure for more than 4 hours for 1 day is necessary to elicit such AR. PMID:22389679

  2. Increased Myeloid Cell Production and Lung Bacterial Clearance in Mice Exposed to Cigarette Smoke.

    PubMed

    Basilico, Paola; Cremona, Tiziana P; Oevermann, Anna; Piersigilli, Alessandra; Benarafa, Charaf

    2016-03-01

    Pneumonia is a leading cause of hospitalization in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Although most patients with COPD are smokers, the effects of cigarette smoke exposure on clearance of lung bacterial pathogens and on immune and inflammatory responses are incompletely defined. Here, clearance of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and associated immune responses were examined in mice exposed to cigarette smoke or after smoking cessation. Mice exposed to cigarette smoke for 6 weeks or 4 months demonstrated decreased lung bacterial burden compared with air-exposed mice when infected 16 to 24 hours after exposure. When infection was performed after smoke cessation, bacterial clearance kinetics of mice previously exposed to smoke reversed to levels comparable to those of control mice, suggesting that the observed defects were not dependent on adaptive immunological memory to bacterial determinants found in smoke. Comparing cytokine levels and myeloid cell production before infection in mice exposed to cigarette smoke with mice never exposed or after smoke cessation revealed that reduced bacterial burden was most strongly associated with higher levels of IL-1β and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor in the lungs and with increased neutrophil reserve and monocyte turnover in the bone marrow. Using Serpinb1a-deficient mice with reduced neutrophil numbers and treatment with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor showed that increased neutrophil numbers contribute only in part to the effect of smoke on infection. Our findings indicate that cigarette smoke induces a temporary and reversible increase in clearance of lung pathogens, which correlates with local inflammation and increased myeloid cell output from the bone marrow.

  3. Models for skin tumour risks in workers exposed to mineral oils.

    PubMed Central

    Järvholm, B.; Easton, D.

    1990-01-01

    The relationship between skin tumours in man and exposure to polyaromatic hydrocarbons has been studied in lathe operators exposed to cutting oils. Seven cases of scrotal cancer and 13 cases of senile keratosis and keratoacanthoma were observed. The risk varied as the 1.6th power of duration of exposure for cancer on the scrotum and the 2.4th power for tumours on the hand and forearms. These results accord well with experiments on animals. There was some evidence of an increasing trend in risk with increasing age at first exposure. PMID:2257210

  4. Change in ultraviolet (UV) transmission following the application of vaseline to non-irradiated and UVB-exposed split skin.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, K; Kaspar, K; Gambichler, T; Altmeyer, P

    2000-09-01

    Topical preparations such as emollients used in combination with phototherapy can interfere with such treatment. This study was performed to investigate the impact of vaseline on the ultraviolet (UV) transmission of non-irradiated split skin and on split skin previously exposed to UVB radiation. Split-skin specimens were obtained from 20 patients. In each case, one sample was taken from an area of non-irradiated skin, while the second was taken from an area that had been previously exposed to UVB. The transmission was spectrophotometrically measured with split skin placed in specially designed quartz glass cuvettes before and after the application of two different amounts of vaseline (2.5 and 17.5 mg cm-2). Application of vaseline to skin previously exposed to UVB caused significant (P < 0.0001) changes in UV transmission in certain wavelength ranges. In the UVA range, a greater increase in transmission was achieved with 2.5 mg cm-2 vaseline, whereas in the UVB range, a greater increase was achieved with 17.5 mg cm-2 vaseline. The thicker the layer of vaseline applied, the lower was the difference in transmission between non-irradiated split skin and UVB-exposed split skin. Application of the correct amount of vaseline can enhance transmission in either the UVA or UVB range, and would enable dose reduction during a course of phototherapy.

  5. Hesperidin promotes cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer repair in UVB-exposed mice epidermis.

    PubMed

    Jin, S; Zhou, B; Luo, D

    2011-09-01

    To investigate whether topical application of hesperin affords protection to Balb/C mice epidermis from UVB-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs). A DNA damage model of UVB irradiation-induced mice epidermis was established. The immunohistochemical staining and southwestern dot blotting were used for CPDs detection; western blotting was used for P53 detection. Topical application of hesperidin on Balb/C mice skin significantly decreased the amount of epidermal CPDs 24 and 48 h after 180 mJ/cm(2) of UVB irradiation as compared to untreated mice. UVB-induced p53 expression was more pronounced in hesperidin-treated mice epidermis compared to that of untreated mice. Taken together, these results suggest that topical hesperidin application promotes DNA photo-damage repair. Hesperidin is therefore a promising protective substance against UVB radiation.

  6. Dietary Milk Sphingomyelin Prevents Disruption of Skin Barrier Function in Hairless Mice after UV-B Irradiation.

    PubMed

    Oba, Chisato; Morifuji, Masashi; Ichikawa, Satomi; Ito, Kyoko; Kawahata, Keiko; Yamaji, Taketo; Asami, Yukio; Itou, Hiroyuki; Sugawara, Tatsuya

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to ultraviolet-B (UV-B) irradiation causes skin barrier defects. Based on earlier findings that milk phospholipids containing high amounts of sphingomyelin (SM) improved the water content of the stratum corneum (SC) in normal mice, here we investigated the effects of dietary milk SM on skin barrier defects induced by a single dose of UV-B irradiation in hairless mice. Nine week old hairless mice were orally administrated SM (146 mg/kg BW/day) for a total of ten days. After seven days of SM administration, the dorsal skin was exposed to a single dose of UV-B (20 mJ/cm2). Administration of SM significantly suppressed an increase in transepidermal water loss and a decrease in SC water content induced by UV-B irradiation. SM supplementation significantly maintained covalently-bound ω-hydroxy ceramide levels and down-regulated mRNA levels of acute inflammation-associated genes, including thymic stromal lymphopoietin, interleukin-1 beta, and interleukin-6. Furthermore, significantly higher levels of loricrin and transglutaminase-3 mRNA were observed in the SM group. Our study shows for the first time that dietary SM modulates epidermal structures, and can help prevent disruption of skin barrier function after UV-B irradiation.

  7. Differential cellular responses in healthy mice and in mice with established airway inflammation when exposed to hematite nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, Åsa; Bergström, Ulrika; Ågren, Lina; Österlund, Lars; Sandström, Thomas; Bucht, Anders

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the inflammatory and immunological responses in airways and lung-draining lymph nodes (LDLNs), following lung exposure to iron oxide (hematite) nanoparticles (NPs). The responses to the hematite NPs were evaluated in both healthy non-sensitized mice, and in sensitized mice with an established allergic airway disease. The mice were exposed intratracheally to either hematite NPs or to vehicle (PBS) and the cellular responses were evaluated on days 1, 2, and 7, post-exposure. Exposure to hematite NPs increased the numbers of neutrophils, eosinophils, and lymphocytes in the airways of non-sensitized mice on days 1 and 2 post-exposure; at these time points the number of lymphocytes was also elevated in the LDLNs. In contrast, exposing sensitized mice to hematite NPs induced a rapid and unspecific cellular reduction in the alveolar space on day 1 post-exposure; a similar decrease of lymphocytes was also observed in the LDLN. The results indicate that cells in the airways and in the LDLN of individuals with established airway inflammation undergo cell death when exposed to hematite NPs. A possible explanation for this toxic response is the extensive generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the pro-oxidative environment of inflamed airways. This study demonstrates how sensitized and non-sensitized mice respond differently to hematite NP exposure, and it highlights the importance of including individuals with respiratory disorders when evaluating health effects of inhaled nanomaterials. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Isogarcinol Extracted from Garcinia mangostana L. Ameliorates Imiquimod-Induced Psoriasis-like Skin Lesions in Mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shanzao; Han, Kesheng; Li, Hu; Cen, Juren; Yang, Yanfang; Wu, Hezhen; Wei, Qun

    2017-02-01

    Isogarcinol (YDIS), a natural compound extracted from Garcinia mangostana L., has a significant immunosuppressive effect on systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis. This paper reports that it reduced imiquimod-induced psoriasis-like skin lesions in mice. It strongly attenuated the aberrant proliferation and differentiation of keratinocytes. Moreover, the expression of genes involving the interleukin-23 (IL-23)/T-helper 17 (Th17) axis was significantly inhibited in the dorsal skin of the YDIS-treated mice, as was that of the other pro-inflammatory factors TNF-α, IL-2, and even interferon (IFN)-γ. Furthermore, YDIS prevented the abnormal distribution of T cell types and suppressed the differentiation of CD4(+) T cells into Th17 cells in the spleens of mice exposed to imiquimod. Interestingly, it elevated numbers of regulatory T cells (Tregs) in the spleen and boosted IL-10 expression in the skin. In agreement with the above, YDIS increased serum IL-10 and reduced serum IL-17. It also caused less damage to the liver and, especially, kidneys of mice than cyclosporine A (CsA). In vitro, YDIS caused more death of HaCaT keratinocytes than CsA. It also strongly inhibited inflammatory factor expression in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated HaCaT cells. These findings suggest that YDIS is a promising immunosuppressive agent for treating psoriasis.

  9. Curcumin improves liver damage in male mice exposed to nicotine

    PubMed Central

    Salahshoor, Mohammadreza; Mohamadian, Sabah; Kakabaraei, Seyran; Roshankhah, Shiva; Jalili, Cyrus

    2015-01-01

    The color of turmeric (薑黃 jiāng huáng) is because of a substance called curcumin. It has different pharmacological effects, such as antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Nicotine is a major pharmacologically active substance in cigarette smoke. It is mainly metabolized in the liver and causes devastating effects. This study was designed to evaluate the protective role of curcumin against nicotine on the liver in mice. Forty-eight mice were equally divided into eight groups; control (normal saline), nicotine (2.5 mg/kg), curcumin (10, 30, and 60 mg/kg) and curcumin plus nicotine-treated groups. Curcumin, nicotine, and curcumin plus nicotine (once a day) were intraperitoneally injected for 4 weeks. The liver weight and histology, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and serum nitric oxide levels have been studied. The results indicated that nicotine administration significantly decreased liver weight and increased the mean diameter of hepatocyte, central hepatic vein, liver enzymes level, and blood serum nitric oxide level compared with the saline group (p < 0.05). However, curcumin and curcumin plus nicotine administration substantially increased liver weight and decreased the mean diameter of hepatocyte, central hepatic vein, liver enzymes, and nitric oxide levels in all groups compared with the nicotine group (p < 0.05). Curcumin demonstrated its protective effect against nicotine-induced liver toxicity. PMID:27114942

  10. Hematological changes in mice exposed to biting of the bedbug: Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae).

    PubMed

    Abdel-Hamid, Yousrya M; Soliman, Mohamed I

    2010-12-01

    The studies on hematologic changes in humans or animals as a result of bedbug bites are lacking. This study was undertaken to examine changes in the blood picture of mice (Mus musculus) exposed to Cimex lectularius biting. As compared to the check animals, mice exposed to bedbug bites either once or twice within 7 days showed insignificantly higher WBC's (1.6 and 2.8% increase, respectively) and lower HGB content (0.5 and 0.8% decrease, respectively) and significantly higher PLT's (P < 0.01) by 2.2% and 3.0%, respectively. Significantly higher (P < 0.01) RBC's counts in mice bitten once than those of normal animals or those exposed to twice bites (5.3 and 5.9% increase, respectively). Bedbug biting exerts its effects largely upon the differential WBC's. Mice bitten once or twice showed significantly lower number of neutrophils (1.2% & 12.1% decrease, respectively) than those for normal animals. Mice exposed to twice bites showed significantly (P < 0.01) higher numbers of lymphocyte (18.8%), monocyte (13.6%), eosinophil (200.0%) and basophil (500%) than those of normal mice.

  11. Alteration of the serum N-glycome of mice locally exposed to high doses of ionizing radiation.

    PubMed

    Chaze, Thibault; Slomianny, Marie-Christine; Milliat, Fabien; Tarlet, Georges; Lefebvre-Darroman, Tony; Gourmelon, Patrick; Bey, Eric; Benderitter, Marc; Michalski, Jean-Claude; Guipaud, Olivier

    2013-02-01

    Exposure of the skin to ionizing radiation leads to characteristic reactions that will often turn into a pathophysiological process called the cutaneous radiation syndrome. The study of this disorder is crucial to finding diagnostic and prognostic bioindicators of local radiation exposure or radiation effects. It is known that irradiation alters the serum proteome content and potentially post-translationally modifies serum proteins. In this study, we investigated whether localized irradiation of the skin alters the serum glycome. Two-dimensional differential in-gel electrophoresis of serum proteins from a man and from mice exposed to ionizing radiation showed that potential post-translational modification changes occurred following irradiation. Using a large-scale quantitative mass-spectrometry-based glycomic approach, we performed a global analysis of glycan structures of serum proteins from non-irradiated and locally irradiated mice exposed to high doses of γ-rays (20, 40, and 80 Gy). Non-supervised descriptive statistical analyses (principal component analysis) using quantitative glycan structure data allowed us to discriminate between uninjured/slightly injured animals and animals that developed severe lesions. Decisional statistics showed that several glycan families were down-regulated whereas others increased, and that particular structures were statistically significantly changed in the serum of locally irradiated mice. The observed increases in multiantennary N-glycans and in outer branch fucosylation and sialylation were associated with the up-regulation of genes involved in glycosylation in the liver, which is the main producer of serum proteins, and with an increase in the key proinflammatory serum cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, and TNFα, which can regulate the expression of glycosylation genes. Our results suggest for the first time a role of serum protein glycosylation in response to irradiation. These protein-associated glycan structure changes might

  12. Alteration of the Serum N-glycome of Mice Locally Exposed to High Doses of Ionizing Radiation*

    PubMed Central

    Chaze, Thibault; Slomianny, Marie-Christine; Milliat, Fabien; Tarlet, Georges; Lefebvre-Darroman, Tony; Gourmelon, Patrick; Bey, Eric; Benderitter, Marc; Michalski, Jean-Claude; Guipaud, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Exposure of the skin to ionizing radiation leads to characteristic reactions that will often turn into a pathophysiological process called the cutaneous radiation syndrome. The study of this disorder is crucial to finding diagnostic and prognostic bioindicators of local radiation exposure or radiation effects. It is known that irradiation alters the serum proteome content and potentially post-translationally modifies serum proteins. In this study, we investigated whether localized irradiation of the skin alters the serum glycome. Two-dimensional differential in-gel electrophoresis of serum proteins from a man and from mice exposed to ionizing radiation showed that potential post-translational modification changes occurred following irradiation. Using a large-scale quantitative mass-spectrometry-based glycomic approach, we performed a global analysis of glycan structures of serum proteins from non-irradiated and locally irradiated mice exposed to high doses of γ-rays (20, 40, and 80 Gy). Non-supervised descriptive statistical analyses (principal component analysis) using quantitative glycan structure data allowed us to discriminate between uninjured/slightly injured animals and animals that developed severe lesions. Decisional statistics showed that several glycan families were down-regulated whereas others increased, and that particular structures were statistically significantly changed in the serum of locally irradiated mice. The observed increases in multiantennary N-glycans and in outer branch fucosylation and sialylation were associated with the up-regulation of genes involved in glycosylation in the liver, which is the main producer of serum proteins, and with an increase in the key proinflammatory serum cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, and TNFα, which can regulate the expression of glycosylation genes. Our results suggest for the first time a role of serum protein glycosylation in response to irradiation. These protein-associated glycan structure changes might

  13. Regional Heterogeneity in Murine Lung Fibroblasts from Normal Mice or Mice Exposed Once to Cigarette Smoke

    PubMed Central

    Preobrazhenska, Olena; Wright, Joanne L.; Churg, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD) is characterized by matrix deposition in the small airways but matrix loss from the parenchyma, phenomena which must depend on the ability of local fibroblasts to produce matrix after smoke exposure. To investigate this idea, we exposed C57Bl/6 mice once to cigarette smoke or to air (control) and prepared primary cultures of lung fibroblasts by microdissecting large airways (trachea, LAF), medium size airways (major bronchi, MAF) and parenchyma (PF). Control PF showed the lowest rate of wound closure and wound closure was depressed in all lines by a single in vivo smoke exposure. Gene expression of matrix proteins differed considerably among the sites; decorin, which may sequester TGFβ, was markedly higher in PF. PF showed higher intrinsic ratios of pSmad2/Smad2. Smoke caused much greater increases in secreted and matrix deposited collagens 1 and 3 in PF than in LAF or MAF. Expression of Thy-1, a gene that suppresses myofibroblast differentiation, was increased by smoke in PF. We conclude that there is considerable regional heterogeneity in murine lung fibroblasts in terms of matrix production, either basally or after in vivo smoke exposure; that PF have lower ability to repair wounds and higher intrinsic TGFβ signaling; and that a single exposure to smoke produces lasting changes in the pattern of matrix production and wound repair, changes that may be mediated in part by smoke-induced release of TGFβ. However, PF still retain the ability to repair by producing new matrix after a single in vivo smoke exposure. PMID:22761892

  14. Impairment of humoral immune responses in mice exposed to nitrogen dioxide and ozone mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Fujimaki, H.

    1989-04-01

    The relationship between immune defense mechanisms and environmental pollutants remains unknown because of uncertainty about the effects of combined or mixed pollutants. To investigate whether exposure to toxic gas mixtures change the effect of a single gas exposure on immune function, BALB/c mice were continuously exposed to 4.0 ppm nitrogen dioxide (NO/sub 2/), 0.8 ppm ozone (O/sub 3/), or the mixture of NO/sub 2/ plus O/sub 3/ for 3, 7, 14, and 56 days. Organ weights (lung, thymus, and spleen) and antibody responses to sheep red blood cells (SRBC), and to DNP-Ficoll were measured immediately after the exposure. Lung weights in mice exposed to O/sub 3/ or the mixture were increased significantly in all exposure periods. The weights of thymus and spleen in mice exposed for 3, 7, and 14 days to the mixture were decreased. O/sub 3/ exposure for 56 days showed significant decreases of the weights of both organs. Antibody response to SRBC in mice exposed for 3, 7, and 14 days to O/sub 3/ or the mixture was markedly suppressed, but exposure to the mixture for 56 days did not show the suppression of anti-SRBC antibody response. No differences in anti-DNP antibody response between exposed and control mice were observed, except those exposed to O/sub 3/ or the mixture for 14 days. These results suggest that mixed gas exposures variously modify the effects of a single gas exposure on antibody production in mice.

  15. A quantitative study of the facial nerve in mice prenatally exposed to ethanol.

    PubMed

    Komatsu, Suguru; Sasaki, Yasuo; Shiota, Kohei

    2003-03-01

    Pregnant ICR mice were given 20% ethanol intraperitoneally twice on day 13 of gestation and allowed to give birth to offspring. The offspring were killed at 56 days of age and the motor root of their facial nerve was examined histologically and morphometrically. The cross-sectional area of the facial nerve of mice prenatally exposed to ethanol was significantly smaller than that of the control mice. There was no significant difference in the total number of myelinated axons or the mean axonal diameter between control and ethanol-exposed mice, but the mean diameter of myelinated fibers (axon + myelin sheath) and the thickness of myelin sheath were significantly decreased in the treated group. These results suggest that prenatal exposure to ethanol disturbs myelination of the motor root of the facial nerve and may cause permanent neurological effects.

  16. Automated measurement of pulmonary emphysema and small airway remodeling in cigarette smoke-exposed mice.

    PubMed

    Laucho-Contreras, Maria E; Taylor, Katherine L; Mahadeva, Ravi; Boukedes, Steve S; Owen, Caroline A

    2015-01-16

    COPD is projected to be the third most common cause of mortality world-wide by 2020((1)). Animal models of COPD are used to identify molecules that contribute to the disease process and to test the efficacy of novel therapies for COPD. Researchers use a number of models of COPD employing different species including rodents, guinea-pigs, rabbits, and dogs((2)). However, the most widely-used model is that in which mice are exposed to cigarette smoke. Mice are an especially useful species in which to model COPD because their genome can readily be manipulated to generate animals that are either deficient in, or over-express individual proteins. Studies of gene-targeted mice that have been exposed to cigarette smoke have provided valuable information about the contributions of individual molecules to different lung pathologies in COPD((3-5)). Most studies have focused on pathways involved in emphysema development which contributes to the airflow obstruction that is characteristic of COPD. However, small airway fibrosis also contributes significantly to airflow obstruction in human COPD patients((6)), but much less is known about the pathogenesis of this lesion in smoke-exposed animals. To address this knowledge gap, this protocol quantifies both emphysema development and small airway fibrosis in smoke-exposed mice. This protocol exposes mice to CS using a whole-body exposure technique, then measures respiratory mechanics in the mice, inflates the lungs of mice to a standard pressure, and fixes the lungs in formalin. The researcher then stains the lung sections with either Gill's stain to measure the mean alveolar chord length (as a readout of emphysema severity) or Masson's trichrome stain to measure deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins around small airways (as a readout of small airway fibrosis). Studies of the effects of molecular pathways on both of these lung pathologies will lead to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of COPD.

  17. A transient parabiosis skin transplantation model in mice

    PubMed Central

    Duyverman, Annique MMJ; Kohno, Mitsutomo; Duda, Dan G; Jain, Rakesh K; Fukumura, Dai

    2012-01-01

    Parabiosis—conjoined surgery to provide a shared circulation between two mice—has been previously developed to study the hematopoietic system. This protocol describes the use of parabiosis for efficient transplantation of skin from a transgenic to a wild-type mouse. It can be used to study the role of stromal cells in a spontaneous model of distant cancer dissemination (metastasis). We have recently shown that primary tumor-derived stromal cells may facilitate metastasis by providing a provisional stroma at the secondary site. Studying the role of primary tumor–derived stroma cells requires methods for distinguishing and targeting stromal cells originating from the primary tumor versus their counterparts in the metastatic site. Parabiosis may also be used, taking advantage of the shared circulation between the parabiosed mice, to study tumor metastasis from one parabiont to another, or to investigate the role of circulating inflammatory cells or stem cells. Studying the role of stromal cells in metastasis using this model typically takes up to 11 weeks. PMID:22441295

  18. Benefits of oral and topical administration of ROQUETTE Chlorella sp. on skin inflammation and wound healing in mice.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo-Lucas, Sophie; Bisson, Jean-Francois; Duffaud, Anais; Nejdi, Amine; Guerin-Deremaux, Laetitia; Baert, Blandine; Saniez-Degrave, Marie-Helene; Rozan, Pascale

    2014-01-01

    The human body is constantly exposed to the risk of traumatic lesions. Chlorella is a green microalgae enriched with nutrients, vitamins, minerals and chlorophyll. In some communities, Chlorella is a traditional medicinal plant used for the management of inflammation-related diseases. ROQUETTE Chlorella sp. (RCs) was investigated by oral administration (125, 250 and 500 mg/kg) and cutaneous application (2.5, 5.0 and 10.0%) to evaluate its impact in two dermatological disorder models in mice: skin inflammation and wound healing. For skin inflammation, it was administered during 14 days starting one week before the induction of chronic skin inflammation by repeated cutaneous application of 12-Otetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA). For wound healing the microalgae was administered by topical application after scarification of the skin until complete wound healing. Results indicated that oral and topical administrations of the two higher doses of RCs had significant effects on macroscopic score of skin inflammation with an efficient effect on microscopic score with cutaneous application. The microalgae had also efficient effect on healing process and duration of wound healing for both administration routes and particularly at the two highest doses of RCs. These findings suggest that administration of RCs by both oral and topical routes appeared to have beneficial effects on skin lesions.

  19. Autism-relevant social abnormalities in mice exposed perinatally to extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Alsaeed, Ibrahim; Al-Somali, Faisal; Sakhnini, Lama; Aljarallah, Omar S; Hamdan, Rayan M M; Bubishate, Saleh A; Sarfaraz, Ziyab Khan; Kamal, Amer

    2014-10-01

    The incidence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) has been rising, but the causes of ASD remain largely unidentified. Collective data have implicated the increased human exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) in the increasing incidence of ASD. There are established biological effects of extremely low-frequency (ELF) EMF, but the relation to ASD is not investigated enough. In this study we examined the effects of perinatal exposure to ELF EMF on some ASD-relevant behavioral parameters in mice. The EMF was delivered via a Helmholtz coil pair. Male BALB/C mice were used and divided into exposed and control groups (n=8 and n=9, respectively). Tests were used to assess sociability, preference for social novelty, locomotion, anxiety, exploratory behavior, motor coordination, and olfaction. The examined mice were all males and exposed to EMF during the last week of gestation and for 7 days after delivery. The exposed mice demonstrated a lack of normal sociability and preference for social novelty while maintaining normal anxiety-like behavior, locomotion, motor coordination, and olfaction. Exposed mice also demonstrated decreased exploratory activity. We concluded that these results are supportive of the hypothesis of a causal link between exposure to ELF-EMF and ASD; however, replications of the study with further tests are recommended.

  20. Polysaccharide Extracted from Laminaria japonica Delays Intrinsic Skin Aging in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Longyuan; Tan, Jia; Yang, Xiaomei; Tan, Haitao; Xu, Xiaozhen; You, Manhang; Qin, Wu; Huang, Liangzhao; Li, Siqi; Mo, Manqiu; Wei, Huifen; Li, Jing; Tan, Jiyong

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the effect of topically applied Laminaria polysaccharide (LP) on skin aging. We applied ointment containing LP (10, 25, and 50 μg/g) or vitamin E (10 μg/g) to the dorsal skin of aging mice for 12 months and young control mice for 4 weeks. Electron microscopy analysis of skin samples revealed that LP increased dermal thickness and skin collagen content. Tissue inhibitor of metalloprotease- (TIMP-) 1 expression was upregulated while that of matrix metalloproteinase- (MMP-) 1 was downregulated in skin tissue of LP-treated as compared to untreated aging mice. Additionally, phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 was higher in aging skin than in young skin, while LP treatment suppressed phospho-JNK expression. LP application also enhanced the expression of antioxidative enzymes in skin tissue, causing a decrease in malondialdehyde levels and increases in superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase levels relative to those in untreated aging mice. These results indicate that LP inhibits MMP-1 expression by preventing oxidative stress and JNK phosphorylation, thereby delaying skin collagen breakdown during aging. PMID:27143987

  1. Aging-like skin changes in metabolic syndrome model mice are mediated by mineralocorticoid receptor signaling.

    PubMed

    Nagase, Takashi; Akase, Tomoko; Sanada, Hiromi; Minematsu, Takeo; Ibuki, Ai; Huang, Lijuan; Asada, Mayumi; Yoshimura, Kotaro; Nagase, Miki; Shimada, Tsutomu; Aburada, Masaki; Nakagami, Gojiro; Sugama, Junko

    2013-02-01

    Aging is accelerated, at least in part, by pathological condition such as metabolic syndrome (MetS), and various molecular pathways such as oxidative stress are common mediators of aging and MetS. We previously developed the aging-like skin model by single ultraviolet (UV) irradiation on the MetS model mice. Recent studies revealed that mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) signaling plays a pivotal role for various tissue inflammation and damages in MetS. Although previous studies reported that MR is expressed in the skin and that overexpression of MR in the skin resulted in the skin atrophy, the physiological or pathological functions of MR in the skin are not fully elucidated. Here, we show the involvement of MR signaling in the aging-like skin changes in our own model. Elevations of oxidative stress and inflammation markers were observed in the MetS mice, and the UV-evoked aging-like skin damages were attenuated by topical antioxidant. MR expression was higher in the MetS mouse skin, and notably, expression of its effecter gene Sgk1 was significantly upregulated in the aging-like skin in the UV-irradiated MetS mice. Furthermore, topical application of MR antagonist spironolactone suppressed Sgk1 expression, oxidative stress, inflammation, and the aging-like changes in the skin. The 2-week UV onto the non-MetS mice, the more usual photoaging model, resulted in the skin damages mostly equivalent to the MetS mice with single UV, but they were not associated with upregulation of MR signaling. Our studies suggested an unexpected role of MR signaling in the skin aging in MetS status.

  2. Deficient Differentiation of Mast Cells in the Skin of mi/mi Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kasugai, Tsutomu; Oguri, Kayoko; Jippo-Kanemoto, Tomoko; Morimoto, Masahiro; Yamatodani, Atsushi; Yoshida, Keiichi; Ebi, Yoshitaka; Isozaki, Koji; Tei, Hideki; Tsujimura, Tohru; Nomura, Shintaro; Okayama, Minoru; Kitamura, Yukihiko

    1993-01-01

    The staining property of skin mast cells changed from Alcian blue+/berberine sulfate- to Alcian blue +/berberine sulfate+ in the skin of normal (+/+) and Wv/Wv mice. In contrast, this change did not occur in the skin of mi/mi mice. Heparin content and histamine content per a mi/mi skin mast cell were estimated to be 34% and 18% those of a +/+ skin mast cell, respectively. The low heparin content of mi/mi skin mast cells seemed to be consistent with the Alcian blue+/berberine sulfate- staining property. Expression of genes encoding mast cell-specific proteolytic enzymes was examined by Northern blotting and in situ hybridization. Messenger RNA of mast cell carboxypeptidase A was expressed most of all by +/+, WV Wv/W+ and mi/mi skin mast cells, but mRNA of mouse mast cell protease (MMCP)-6 was expressed by approximately a half of +/+ and Wv/Wv skin mast cells and by only 3% of mi/mi skin mast cells. A significant amount of MMCP-2 mRNA was not expressed in the skin of all +/+, Wv/Wv and mi/mi mice. This shows the presence of at least three phenotypes in skin mast cells of mice: berberine sulfate+/MMCP-6+, berberine sulfate+/MMCP-6-, and berberine sulfate-/ MMCP-6-. The in situ hybridization of mRNA of mast cell-specific proteolytic enzymes seemed to be useful to describe abnormalities of mast cell differentiation in the skin of mi/mi mice. ImagesFigure 4Figure 5 PMID:8238251

  3. Increased microRNA 21 expression contributes to arsenic induced skin lesions, skin cancers and respiratory distress in chronically exposed individuals.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Nilanjana; Bandyopadhyay, Apurba K; Dutta, Suman; Das, Jayanta K; Roy Chowdhury, Tarit; Bandyopadhyay, Arun; Giri, Ashok K

    2017-03-01

    More than 26 million people in West Bengal, India, are exposed to arsenic through drinking water, leading to several deleterious endpoints including precancerous and cancerous skin lesions and other non-dermatological health effects. Here, our aim was to identify whether miR21 is associated with such dermatological and non-dermatological health outcomes in chronically exposed humans. A total of 123 subjects from West Bengal were recruited for this study (45 exposed individuals with skin lesions, 38 exposed individuals without skin lesions and 40 unexposed individuals). The miR21 expression patterns in the lymphocytes were studied by quantitative realtime PCR and the effects on downstream targets were validated by Western blotting. Associations between the miR21 expression patterns and non-dermatological health effects were determined from epidemiological survey data. In vitro studies were done with low dose (0.05ppm) of chronic arsenic exposure to HaCaT cells for 15 passages. Interestingly, within the exposed group, the skin lesion individuals showed almost 4.5 fold up-regulation of miR21 compared to the no skin lesion group. The expression of the downstream targets of miR21 (PTEN and PDCD4) varied inversely, while the expression of pAKT and PI3K varied proportionately with its expression levels. Results of in vitro studies showed similar trends. Again miR21 was 2.03 fold up-regulated in the exposed individuals with respiratory diseases compared to the individuals without the same. This study for the first time shows that miR21 plays an important role in contributing to arsenic induced dermatological and non-dermatological health outcomes in an exposed population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The commensal microbiota exacerbate infectious colitis in stressor-exposed mice.

    PubMed

    Galley, Jeffrey D; Parry, Nicola M; Ahmer, Brian M M; Fox, James G; Bailey, Michael T

    2017-02-01

    Exposure to a prolonged restraint stressor disrupts the colonic microbiota community composition, and is associated with an elevated inflammatory response to colonic pathogen challenge. Since the stability of the microbiota has been implicated in the development and modulation of mucosal immune responses, we hypothesized that the disruptive effect of the stressor upon the microbiota composition directly contributed to the stressor-induced exacerbation of pathogen-induced colitis. In order to establish a causative role for stressor-induced changes in the microbiota, conventional mice were exposed to prolonged restraint to change the microbiota. Germfree mice were then colonized by microbiota from either stressor-exposed or non-stressed control mice. One day after colonization, mice were infected with the colonic pathogen, Citrobacter rodentium. At six days post-infection, mice that received microbiota from stressor-exposed animals had significant increases in colonic pathology and pro-inflammatory cytokine (e.g. IL-1β) and chemokine (e.g. CCL2) levels after C. rodentium infection in comparison with mice that received microbiota from non-stressed mice. 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed that microbial communities from stressed mice did not have any detectable Bifidobacterium present, a stark contrast with the microbial communities from non-stressed mice, suggesting that stressor-induced alterations in commensal, immunomodulatory Bifidobacterium levels may predispose to an increased inflammatory response to pathogen challenge. This study demonstrates that the commensal microbiota directly contribute to excessive inflammatory responses to C. rodentium during stressor exposure, and may help to explain why gastrointestinal disorders are worsened during stressful experiences.

  5. Tiotropium Attenuates Virus-Induced Pulmonary Inflammation in Cigarette Smoke–Exposed Mice

    PubMed Central

    Bucher, Hannes; Duechs, Matthias J.; Tilp, Cornelia; Jung, Birgit

    2016-01-01

    Viral infections trigger exacerbations in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and tiotropium, a M3 receptor antagonist, reduces exacerbations in patients by unknown mechanisms. In this report, we investigated whether tiotropium has anti-inflammatory effects in mice exposed to cigarette smoke (CS) and infected with influenza virus A/PR/8/34 (H1N1) or respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and compared these effects with those of steroid fluticasone and PDE4-inhibitor roflumilast. Mice were exposed to CS; infected with H1N1 or RSV; and treated with tiotropium, fluticasone, or roflumilast. The amount of cells and cytokine levels in the airways, lung function, and viral load was determined. NCI-H292 cells were infected with H1N1 or RSV and treated with the drugs. In CS/H1N1-exposed mice, tiotropium reduced neutrophil and macrophage numbers and levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) in the airways and improved lung function. In contrast, fluticasone increased the loss of body weight; failed to reduce neutrophil or macrophage numbers; increased IL-6, KC, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in the lungs; and worsened lung function. Treatment with roflumilast reduced macrophage numbers, IL-6, and KC in the lungs but had no effect on neutrophil numbers or lung function. In CS/RSV-exposed mice, treatment with tiotropium, but not fluticasone or roflumilast, reduced neutrophil numbers and IL-6 and TNF-α levels in the lungs. Viral load of H1N1 and RSV was significantly elevated in CS/virus-exposed mice and NCI-H292 cells after fluticasone treatment, whereas tiotropium and roflumilast had no effect. In conclusion, tiotropium has anti-inflammatory effects on CS/virus-induced inflammation in mice that are superior to the effects of roflumilast and fluticasone. This finding might help to explain the observed reduction of exacerbation rates in COPD patients. PMID:27016458

  6. [Effects of linear alkylbenzenesulfonate on oxidative stress and collagen fiber in skin tissue of mice].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wenhong; Wang, Jinhua; Wang, Kailei; Zhang, Wen

    2015-06-01

    To observe the effect of linear alkylbenzenesulfonate (LAS) on oxidative stress and collagen fiber in skin tissue of mice and to explore the correlation between oxidative stress and collagen metabolism.
 Forty healthy Kunming mice (male) were randomly divided into 4 groups: a control group, a low-, middle- and high-dose group of LAS (LD, MD and HD groups), treated with LAS at 150, 300 and 600 mg/L respectively (n=10 per group). The skin on the back of mice was smeared with distilled water or different dosage of LAS for 60 days. The measured indexes included general condition of mice, HE and Masson staining of skin, the content of hydroxyproline (Hyp) in skin tissue, the activity of super oxidase dismutase (SOD) and the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) in skin tissue and serum, and the activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in serum.
 Compared with the control group, the changes of diet, daily activities and mental state of mice with different dose of LAS were not obvious during the experiment, but the body weight of mice in the experimental groups reduced obviously after 4 weeks of experiment (P<0.01), and their skin tissue was thinner, some of epidermis of skin contained areas with cellular necrosis and abscission. Superficial layer of dermis was infiltrated by inflammatory cells. The collagen fibers were looser and dimmer. At the same time, the content of MDA and the activity of LDH increased remarkably (P<0.01), while the activity of SOD and the content of Hyp decreased obviously (P<0.01).
 LAS can induce oxidative stress in the skin tissue of mice, which can destroy the integrity of skin structure and collagen fiber and reduce the content of collagen fiber. The oxidative damage might be the primary cause for disorders of collagen fiber.
.

  7. Carbocisteine reduces virus-induced pulmonary inflammation in mice exposed to cigarette smoke.

    PubMed

    Yageta, Yuichi; Ishii, Yukio; Morishima, Yuko; Ano, Satoshi; Ohtsuka, Shigeo; Matsuyama, Masashi; Takeuchi, Kaoru; Itoh, Ken; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Hizawa, Nobuyuki

    2014-05-01

    Carbocisteine (S-CMC) inhibits viral infection and prevents acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. We recently demonstrated the protective effects of NF-E2-related factor (Nrf) 2 against influenza virus (FluV)-induced pulmonary inflammation in mice exposed to cigarette smoke (CS). In our current study, we investigated the effects of S-CMC on Nrf2 activation in cultured macrophages, and in mice infected with influenza after exposure to CS. Nuclear translocation of Nrf2 and the expression of Nrf2-targeted antioxidant genes, such as heavy and light subunits of γ glutamyl cysteine synthetase and heme oxigenase-1, were enhanced in a dose-dependent manner after treatment with S-CMC in peritoneal and alveolar macrophages of wild-type mice, but not in those of Nrf2-deficient mice. Nuclear translocation of Nrf2 in macrophages was inhibited by the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor, LY294002. Phosphorylated Akt, Nrf2, and heme oxigenase-1 were induced in the alveolar macrophages of the lungs in wild-type mice after S-CMC administration. The extent of oxidative stress, inflammatory cell infiltration, pulmonary edema, and goblet cell hyperplasia was suppressed by S-CMC administration in the lungs of wild-type mice after exposure to both CS and FluV. Our findings suggest that S-CMC reduces pulmonary inflammation and mucus overproduction in mice exposed to CS after infection with FluV via the activation of Nrf2.

  8. Factors that influence the suppression of pulmonary antibacterial defenses in mice exposed to ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Gilmour, M.I.; Park, P.; Doerfler, D.; Selgrade, M.J.K.

    1993-01-01

    Exposure to ozone (O3) has been shown to increase susceptibility of mice to bacterial infection; however, the underlying mechanism has not been well elucidated. The study investigated the effect of O3 exposure on the ability of mice to combat an infectious challenge of Streptococcus zooepidemicus. Following a 3-h exposure to either air, 0.4 ppm O3, or 0.8 ppm O3, 5- and 9-week-old mice received an aerosol infection of bacteria. Intrapulmonary killing of the bacteria was impaired in the O3-exposed mice. The effect was most severe at the higher dose of O3 in the younger mice, and showed good correlation to subsequent mortality assessed over a 20-day period. Alveolar macrophages (AM) from O3-exposed mice had an impaired ability to phagocytose the bacteria. Additionally, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) levels, which are known to depress AM function, were increased in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of the younger mice following exposure to O3, while pretreatment with indomethacin in the drinking water blunted the increased of PGE2 and reduced O3 enhanced mortality from 53 to 33%. The data show that O3 inhalation can reduce the defensive capability of the murine lung and that this is associated with a reduction in AM phagocytosis. (Copyright (c) 1993 Taylor Francis.)

  9. Olopatadine hydrochloride accelerates the recovery of skin barrier function in mice.

    PubMed

    Amano, T; Takeda, T; Yano, H; Tamura, T

    2007-05-01

    The skin barrier function in patients with atopic dermatitis is disrupted and prolonged topical steroid therapy produces epidermal barrier disturbance. Olopatadine hydrochloride (olopatadine; Allelock; Kyowa Hakko Kogyo Co., Ltd, Shizuoka, Japan) is an antiallergic drug with histamine H(1) receptor antagonistic action. This drug alleviates skin inflammation and decreases the number of scratching episodes in a murine model of chronic contact dermatitis. To investigate the effects of olopatadine and a steroid on the recovery of skin barrier function after barrier disruption in mice. The skin barrier of the ears of mice was disrupted by tape stripping. The recovery of skin barrier function was monitored by measurement of transepidermal water loss (TEWL) after barrier disruption. Epidermal hyperplasia was induced by repeated tape stripping for 7 days. Olopatadine was administered orally once daily from 3 days before the first barrier disruption. Betamethasone 17-valerate (betamethasone) was applied topically once daily from 3 days before barrier disruption. Tape stripping led to a significant increase in TEWL. TEWL decreased with time after tape stripping and the skin barrier function recovered by over 60% within 9 h after tape stripping. The recovery of skin barrier in olopatadine-treated mice was significantly accelerated, compared with that in vehicle-treated mice. In contrast, the skin barrier recovery in mice treated with topical betamethasone was significantly delayed, compared with that in vehicle-treated mice. Combined treatment with olopatadine and betamethasone ameliorated the delay in barrier recovery induced by topical treatment with betamethasone. In addition, olopatadine significantly prevented the increase in epidermal thickness induced by prolonged barrier disruption. These results suggest that systemic administration of olopatadine accelerates the recovery of skin barrier function and ameliorates the adverse effects of topical steroids on skin barrier

  10. Iron and copper accumulation in the brain of coxsackievirus-infected mice exposed to cadmium

    SciTech Connect

    Ilbaeck, N.-G. . E-mail: nils-gunnar.ilback@slv.se; Lindh, U.; Minqin, R.; Friman, G.; Watt, F.

    2006-11-15

    Cadmium (Cd) is a potentially toxic metal widely distributed in the environment and known to cause adverse health effects in humans. During coxsackievirus infection, the concentrations of essential and nonessential trace elements (e.g., iron (Fe), copper (Cu), and Cd) change in different target organs of the infection. Fe and Cu are recognized cofactors in host defence reactions, and Fe is known to be associated with certain pathological conditions of the brain. However, whether nonessential trace elements could influence the balance of essential trace elements in the brain is unknown. In this study the brain Fe, Cu, and Cd contents were measured through inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and their distributions determined by nuclear microscopy in the early phase (day 3) of coxsackievirus B3 (CB3) infection in nonexposed and in Cd-exposed female Balb/c mice. In CB3 infection the brain is a well-known target that has not been studied with regard to trace element balance. The brain concentration of Cu compared with that of noninfected control mice was increased by 9% (P<0.05) in infected mice not exposed to Cd and by 10% (not significant) in infected Cd-exposed mice. A similar response was seen for Fe, which in infected Cd-exposed mice, compared to noninfected control mice, tended to increase by 16%. Cu showed an even tissue distribution, whereas Fe was distributed in focal deposits. Changes in Cd concentration in the brain of infected mice were less consistent but evenly distributed. Further studies are needed to define whether the accumulation and distribution of trace elements in the brain have an impact on brain function.

  11. The growth and development of Schistosoma mansoni in mice exposed to sublethal doses of radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Aitken, R.; Wilson, R.A. )

    1989-12-01

    The maturation of Schistosoma mansoni was studied in mice exposed to various sublethal doses of radiation. Although the treatment of mice with 500 rads of radiation prior to infection did not alter parasite maturation, doses in excess of 500 rads led to a reduction in worm burden. This could not be attributed to a delay in the arrival of parasites in the hepatic portal system. Worms developing in mice treated with 800 rads commenced egg-laying about 1 wk later than worms in intact mice, and the rate of egg deposition appeared to be lower in irradiated hosts. The data demonstrate that exposure of C57BL/6 mice to doses of radiation in excess of 500 rads impairs their ability to carry infections of S. mansoni. The findings do not support the hypothesis that primary worm burdens in the mouse are controlled by a host immune response.

  12. Resident Bacterial Flora in the Skin of C57BL/6 Mice Housed under SPF Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Tavakkol, Zarry; Samuelson, Derrick; deLancey Pulcini, Elinor; Underwood, Robert A; Usui, Marcia L; Costerton, J William; James, Garth A; Olerud, John E

    2010-01-01

    Research in cutaneous biology frequently involves models that use mice housed in SPF conditions. Little information is available concerning the species of bacteria that normally inhabit the skin of these mice. The aim of this study was to characterize the bacterial skin flora of mice housed under SPF conditions. Skin biopsies from C57BL/6 mice under normal and surgically prepped conditions were both cultured and analyzed by using DNA extraction and sequencing. The species isolated most commonly from culture were staphylococci. Coagulase-negative staphylococci were isolated more frequently than was Staphylococcus aureus. Molecular sequencing yielded several additional organisms not found by culture. Overall, culturing of isolates yielded 14 species of bacteria, and molecular sequencing identified another 6 species. Investigators conducting cutaneous research in mouse models should aware of the cutaneous bacterial flora present on these mice. PMID:20858360

  13. Resident bacterial flora in the skin of C57BL/6 mice housed under SPF conditions.

    PubMed

    Tavakkol, Zarry; Samuelson, Derrick; deLancey Pulcini, Elinor; Underwood, Robert A; Usui, Marcia L; Costerton, J William; James, Garth A; Olerud, John E; Fleckman, Philip

    2010-09-01

    Research in cutaneous biology frequently involves models that use mice housed in SPF conditions. Little information is available concerning the species of bacteria that normally inhabit the skin of these mice. The aim of this study was to characterize the bacterial skin flora of mice housed under SPF conditions. Skin biopsies from C57BL/6 mice under normal and surgically prepped conditions were both cultured and analyzed by using DNA extraction and sequencing. The species isolated most commonly from culture were staphylococci. Coagulase-negative staphylococci were isolated more frequently than was Staphylococcus aureus. Molecular sequencing yielded several additional organisms not found by culture. Overall, culturing of isolates yielded 14 species of bacteria, and molecular sequencing identified another 6 species. Investigators conducting cutaneous research in mouse models should aware of the cutaneous bacterial flora present on these mice.

  14. [The intervention of nicotinamide on skin melanocyte's cell proliferation after UVA (365 nm) exposed.].

    PubMed

    Patam, Muhammad; Jin, Xi-peng; Pan, Jian-ying; Shen, Guang-zu; Jin, Tai-Yi

    2005-02-01

    To investigate the interference effect of nicotinamide on UVA-induced cell proliferation in human skin melanocyte. To apply the optimum UVA dose expected to cause cell proliferation: 0.2 cm2, nicotinamide was added after the 0.2 cm2 UVA exposure immediately or 48 h later, then the rate of cell proliferation, calcium concentration and the activities of Na+-K+, Ca2+-ATP enzymes of melanocytes were measured respectively. After treatment with 1.000 mg/ml nicotinamide following UVA exposure, the rate of cell proliferation was decreased significantly 24 hours later. Treatment with 0.125 mg/ml nicotinamide 48 hours after UVA exposure also significantly inhibited the cell proliferation; 1.25 mg/ml nicotinamide increased calcium concentration in cells; 0.250 mg/ml nicotinamide increased the activities of Na+-K+, Ca2+-ATP enzymes in melanocytes (P < 0.05). Nicotinamide has more obvious effect on inhibiting melanocyte's proliferation if added immediately following UVA exposure. Our discovery indicated that nicotinamide may affect the melanocyte through modulating the calcium concentration. It is possible to consider nicotinamide as an efficient and safe sun screen to provide a certain level of protection for UVA exposed skin.

  15. An assessment of transcriptional changes in porcine skin exposed to bromine vapor.

    PubMed

    Rogers, James V; Price, Jennifer A; Wendling, Morgan Q S; Perry, Mark R; Reid, Frances M; Kiser, Robyn C; Graham, John S

    2011-01-01

    Bromine is an industrial chemical that can cause severe cutaneous burns. This study was a preliminary investigation into the effect of cutaneous exposure to bromine vapor using a weanling swine burn model and microarray analysis. Ventral abdominal sites were exposed to a mean calculated bromine vapor concentration of 0.69 g L(-1) for 10 or 20 min. At 48 h postexposure, total RNA from skin samples was isolated, processed, and hybridized to Affymetrix GeneChip Porcine Genome Arrays. Expression analysis revealed that bromine vapor exposure for 10 or 20 min promoted similar transcriptional changes in the number of significantly modulated probe sets. A minimum of 83% of the probe sets was similar for both exposure times. Ingenuity pathways analysis revealed eight common biological functions among the top 10 functions of each experimental group, in which 30 genes were commonly shared among 19 significantly altered signaling pathways. Transcripts encoding heme oxygenase 1, interleukin-1β, interleukin 2 receptor gamma chain, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 were identified as common potential therapeutic targets for Phase II/III clinical trial or FDA-approved drugs. The present study is an initial assessment of the transcriptional responses to cutaneous bromine vapor exposure identifying molecular networks and genes that could serve as targets for developing therapeutics for bromine-induced skin injury.

  16. Expression of DNA repair genes in burned skin exposed to low-level red laser.

    PubMed

    Trajano, Eduardo Tavares Lima; Mencalha, Andre Luiz; Monte-Alto-Costa, Andréa; Pôrto, Luís Cristóvão; de Souza da Fonseca, Adenilson

    2014-11-01

    Although red laser lights lie in the region of non-ionizing radiations in the electromagnetic spectrum, there are doubts whether absorption of these radiations causes lesions in the DNA molecule. Our aim was to investigate the expression of the genes involved with base excision and nucleotide excision repair pathways in skin tissue submitted to burn injury and exposed to low-level red laser. Wistar rats were divided as follows: control group-rats burned and not irradiated, laser group-rats burned and irradiated 1 day after injury for five consecutive days, and later laser group-rats injured and treated 4 days after injury for five consecutive days. Irradiation was performed according to a clinical protocol (20 J/cm(2), 100 mW, continuous wave emission mode). The animals were sacrificed on day 10, and scarred tissue samples were withdrawn for total RNA extraction, complementary DNA (cDNA) synthesis, and evaluation of gene expression by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Low-level red laser exposure (1) reduces the expression of APE1 messenger (mRNA), (2) increases the expression of OGG1 mRNA, (3) reduces the expression of XPC mRNA, and (4) increases the expression of XPA mRNA both in laser and later laser groups. Red laser exposure at therapeutic fluences alters the expression of genes related to base excision and nucleotide excision pathways of DNA repair during wound healing of burned skin.

  17. REPRODUCTIVE AND GENOMIC EFFECTS IN TESTES FROM MICE EXPOSED TO THE WATER DISINFECTANT BYPRODUCT BROMOCHLOROACETIC ACID

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT

    A byproduct of drinking water disinfection, bromochloroacetic acid (BCA), acts as a reproductive toxicant in rats. To determine if BCA produces similar reproductive toxicity in mice, juvenile and adult C57BL/6 males were exposed to 0, 8, 24, 72 or 216 mg/kg of BC...

  18. EARLY GENE EXPRESSION CHANGES IN THE LIVERS OF MICE EXPOSED TO DICHLOROACETIC ACID

    EPA Science Inventory

    EARLY GENE EXPRESSION CHANGES IN THE LIVERS OF MICE EXPOSED TO DICHLOROACETIC ACID

    Dichloroacetic acid (DCA) is a major by-product of water disinfection by chlorination. Several studies have shown that DCA induces liver tumors in rodents when administered in drinking wate...

  19. EARLY GENE EXPRESSION CHANGES IN THE LIVERS OF MICE EXPOSED TO DICHOLORACETC ACID

    EPA Science Inventory

    EARLY GENE EXPRESSION CHANGES IN THE LIVERS OF MICE EXPOSED TO DICHLOROACETIC ACID

    Dichloroacetic acid COCA) is a major by-product ofwater disinfection by cWorination. Several
    studies have shown that DCA induces liver tumors in rodents when administered in drinkmg wate...

  20. EARLY GENE EXPRESSION CHANGES IN THE LIVERS OF MICE EXPOSED TO DICHLOROACETIC ACID

    EPA Science Inventory

    EARLY GENE EXPRESSION CHANGES IN THE LIVERS OF MICE EXPOSED TO DICHLOROACETIC ACID

    Dichloroacetic acid (DCA) is a major by-product of water disinfection by chlorination. Several studies have shown that DCA induces liver tumors in rodents when administered in drinking wate...

  1. REPRODUCTIVE AND GENOMIC EFFECTS IN TESTES FROM MICE EXPOSED TO THE WATER DISINFECTANT BYPRODUCT BROMOCHLOROACETIC ACID

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT

    A byproduct of drinking water disinfection, bromochloroacetic acid (BCA), acts as a reproductive toxicant in rats. To determine if BCA produces similar reproductive toxicity in mice, juvenile and adult C57BL/6 males were exposed to 0, 8, 24, 72 or 216 mg/kg of BC...

  2. EARLY GENE EXPRESSION CHANGES IN THE LIVERS OF MICE EXPOSED TO DICHOLORACETC ACID

    EPA Science Inventory

    EARLY GENE EXPRESSION CHANGES IN THE LIVERS OF MICE EXPOSED TO DICHLOROACETIC ACID

    Dichloroacetic acid COCA) is a major by-product ofwater disinfection by cWorination. Several
    studies have shown that DCA induces liver tumors in rodents when administered in drinkmg wate...

  3. Postexposure aerosolized heparin reduces lung injury in chlorine-exposed mice

    PubMed Central

    Zarogiannis, Sotirios G.; Wagener, Brant M.; Basappa, Susanna; Doran, Stephen; Rodriguez, Cilina A.; Jurkuvenaite, Asta; Pittet, Jean Francois

    2014-01-01

    Chlorine (Cl2) is a highly reactive oxidant gas that, when inhaled, may cause acute lung injury culminating in death from respiratory failure. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that exposure of mice to Cl2 causes intra-alveolar and systemic activation of the coagulation cascade that plays an important role in development of lung injury. C57Bl/6 mice were exposed to Cl2 (400 for 30 min or 600 ppm for 45 min) in environmental chambers and then returned to room air for 1 or 6 h. Native coagulation (NATEM) parameters such as blood clotting time and clot formation time were measured in whole blood by the viscoelastic technique. D-dimers and thrombin-anti-thrombin complexes were measured in both plasma and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) by ELISA. Our results indicate that mice exposed to Cl2 gas had significantly increased clotting time, clot formation time, and D-dimers compared with controls. The thrombin-anti-thrombin complexes were also increased in the BALF of Cl2 exposed animals. To test whether increased coagulation contributed to the development of acute lung injury, mice exposed to Cl2 and returned to room air were treated with aerosolized heparin or vehicle for 20 min. Aerosolized heparin significantly reduced protein levels and the number of inflammatory cells in the BALF at 6 h postexposure. These findings highlight the importance of coagulation abnormities in the development of Cl2-induced lung injury. PMID:25038191

  4. Assessment of locomotion in chlorine exposed mice by computer vision and neural networks.

    PubMed

    Filippidis, Aristotelis S; Zarogiannis, Sotirios G; Randich, Alan; Ness, Timothy J; Matalon, Sadis

    2012-03-01

    Assessment of locomotion following exposure of animals to noxious or painful stimuli can offer significant insights into underlying mechanisms of injury and the effectiveness of various treatments. We developed a novel method to track the movement of mice in two dimensions using computer vision and neural network algorithms. By using this system we demonstrated that mice exposed to chlorine (Cl(2)) gas developed impaired locomotion and increased immobility for up to 9 h postexposure. Postexposure administration of buprenorphine, a common analgesic agent, increased locomotion and decreased immobility times in Cl(2)- but not air-exposed mice, most likely by decreasing Cl(2)-induced pain. This method can be adapted to assess the effectiveness of various therapies following exposure to a variety of chemical and behavioral noxious stimuli.

  5. Impaired resistance to Listeria monocytogenes in mice chronically exposed to cadmium.

    PubMed Central

    Simonet, M; Berche, P; Fauchere, J L; Veron, M

    1984-01-01

    It is shown in this work that resistance to Listeria monocytogenes is greatly impaired in C57BL/6 mice chronically exposed to cadmium (Cd) chloride. Animals received 0.5 mg/kg Cd by an intraperitoneal route three times a week during a 4-week period and were then infected with L. monocytogenes. Susceptibility to this pathogenic bacteria was not due to a defect of the specific immune response, since mice developed normal levels of anti-Listeria T cell-mediated immunity and did not show any impairment of macrophage activation. In fact, bacterial growth in organs was rapid in Cd-exposed mice during the early phase of infection, suggesting an impairment of non-specific defence mechanisms. Experimental data indicate that the susceptibility to L. monocytogenes might be due to a defect of macrophage recruitment in sites of infection during the early phase of the host response. PMID:6332063

  6. Assessment of locomotion in chlorine exposed mice by computer vision and neural networks

    PubMed Central

    Filippidis, Aristotelis S.; Zarogiannis, Sotirios G.; Randich, Alan; Ness, Timothy J.

    2012-01-01

    Assessment of locomotion following exposure of animals to noxious or painful stimuli can offer significant insights into underlying mechanisms of injury and the effectiveness of various treatments. We developed a novel method to track the movement of mice in two dimensions using computer vision and neural network algorithms. By using this system we demonstrated that mice exposed to chlorine (Cl2) gas developed impaired locomotion and increased immobility for up to 9 h postexposure. Postexposure administration of buprenorphine, a common analgesic agent, increased locomotion and decreased immobility times in Cl2- but not air-exposed mice, most likely by decreasing Cl2-induced pain. This method can be adapted to assess the effectiveness of various therapies following exposure to a variety of chemical and behavioral noxious stimuli. PMID:22207722

  7. Investigation of the absorption of hypericin into the skin of hairless mice.

    PubMed

    Kamuhabwa, A R; Geboes, K R; de Witte, P A

    2000-05-01

    The skin absorption of hypericin was evaluated in hairless mice to develop an optimised hypericin topical formulation that could be used in the clinical study of psoriasis. Hypericin (0.01-1.0%) in Beeler basis, polyethylene glycol ointment, carbopol gel, cetomacrogol cream, petrolatum or emulsifying ointment, with and without skin-absorption enhancers (isopropylidene glycerol and diethylene glycol monoethyl ether), was tested in-vivo on hairless mice skin. Using a skin-stripping technique and the intrinsic fluorescence of hypericin under standardised UV365 irradiation, it was demonstrated that the absorption of hypericin very much depended on the vehicle used. The concentrations of hypericin in the skin were then estimated by HPLC analysis. For this purpose, two vehicles were employed, with which hypericin penetrated the skin of hairless mice well (emulsifying ointment with isopropylidene glycerol) or very poorly (polyethylene glycol ointment). In the case of emulsifying ointment with isopropylidene glycerol (0.05% hypericin), a substantial concentration of hypericin (8.6+/-3.2 microg g(-1)) (mean +/- s.d., n = 5) was found in the skin. With polyethylene glycol ointment, however, only a limited hypericin skin concentration (0.38+/-0-34 microg g(-1), n = 5) was achieved. These results show that emulsifying ointment with polyethylene glycol holds promise as an effective topical vehicle for the treatment of skin diseases, such as psoriasis, with hypericin.

  8. Inhibition of retinoic acid-induced skin irritation in calorie-restricted mice.

    PubMed

    Varani, James; Bhagavathula, Narasimharao; Aslam, Muhammad Nadeem; Fay, Kevin; Warner, Roscoe L; Hanosh, Andrew; Barron, Adam G; Miller, Richard A

    2008-01-01

    Mice on a calorie-restricted (CR) diet (total calories restricted to 70% of ad libitum; AL) for periods of time ranging from 3 to 18 months were examined for response to topical treatment with all-trans retinoic acid (RA). Daily application of a 0.1% solution of RA to the shaved skin of UM-HET3 mice on an AL diet produced a severe irritation that was evident by day 4, maximal at day 7-8 and still detectable at day 14. Skin irritation was characterized by redness, dryness, flaking and failure of the hair to grow at the treated site. In CR mice, the same treatment produced little detectable irritation. Animals were sacrificed at the end of the retinoid-treatment period (day 7 or day 14) and skin from these animals was examined histologically. In both AL and CR mice, a similar degree of epidermal hyperplasia was observed. Numerous inflammatory cells (mononuclear cells and granulocytes) were present in the skin of both groups. Occasional S100-positive cells (presumably Langerhans cells) were also observed in the epidermis of skin from both groups. S100-positive cells were also observed in the dermis. When skin from CR and AL mice was incubated in organ culture for 3 days (on day 7 after initiation of RA treatment), similar levels of four different pro-inflammatory cytokines were found in the conditioned medium. Soluble type I collagen levels were also similar. In contrast, the level of matrix metalloproteinase-9 was lower in the conditioned medium of skin from CR mice than in conditioned medium from skin cultures of AL mice. Taken together, these studies suggest that CR may provide a way to mitigate the irritation that normally accompanies RA treatment without compromising the beneficial effects of retinoid use. CR appears to exert a protective effect at the target tissue level rather than by a reduction in pro-inflammatory events, per se.

  9. SENCAR mouse skin tumorigenesis model versus other strains and stocks of mice.

    PubMed Central

    Slaga, T J

    1986-01-01

    The SENCAR mouse stock was selectively bred for eight generations for sensitivity to skin tumor induction by the two-stage tumorigenesis protocol using 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) as the initiator and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) as the promoter. The SENCAR mouse was derived by crossing Charles River CD-1 mice with skin-tumor-sensitive mice (STS). The SENCAR mice are much more sensitive to both DMBA tumor initiation and TPA tumor promotion than CD-1, BALB/c, and DBA/2 mice. An even greater difference in the sensitivity to two-stage skin tumorigenesis is apparent between SENCAR and C57BL/6 mice when using DMBA-TPA treatment. However, the SENCAR and C57BL/6 mice have a similar tumor response to DMBA-benzoyl peroxide treatment, suggesting that TPA is not an effective promoter in C57BL/6 mice. The DBA/2 mice respond in a similar manner to the SENCAR mice when using N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG)-TPA treatment. The SENCAR mouse model provides a good dose-response relationship for many carcinogens used as tumor initiators and for many compounds used as tumor promoter. When compared to other stocks and strains of mice, the SENCAR mouse has one of the largest data bases for carcinogens and promoters. PMID:3096709

  10. SENCAR mouse skin tumorigenesis model versus other strains and stocks of mice

    SciTech Connect

    Slaga, T.J.

    1986-09-01

    The SENCAR mouse stock was selectively bred for eight generations for sensitivity to skin tumor induction by the two-stage tumorigenesis protocol using 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) as the initiator and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) as the promoter. The SENCAR mouse was derived by crossing Charles River CD-1 mice with skin-tumor-sensitive mice (STS). The SENCAR mice are much more sensitive to both DMBA tumor initiation and TPA tumor promotion than CD-1, BALB/c, and DBA/2 mice. An even greater difference in the sensitivity to two-stage skin tumorigenesis is apparent between SENCAR and C57BL/6 mice when using DMBA-TPA treatment. However, the SENCAR and C57BL/6 mice have a similar tumor response to DMBA-benzoyl peroxide treatment, suggesting that TPA is not an effective promoter in C57BL/6 mice. The DBA/2 mice respond in a similar manner to the SENCAR mice when using N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG)-TPA treatment. The SENCAR mouse model provides a good dose-response relationship for many carcinogens used as tumor initiators and for many compounds used as tumor promoter. When compared to other stocks and strains of mice, the SENCAR mouse has one of the largest data bases for carcinogens and promoters.

  11. Phospholipidomic Profile Variation on THP-1 Cells Exposed to Skin or Respiratory Sensitizers and Respiratory Irritant.

    PubMed

    Martins, João D; Maciel, Elisabete A; Silva, Ana; Ferreira, Isabel; Ricardo, Fernando; Domingues, Pedro; Neves, Bruno M; Domingues, Maria Rosário M; Cruz, Maria Teresa

    2016-12-01

    Occupational exposure to low molecular weight reactive chemicals often leads to development of allergic reactions such as allergic contact dermatitis and respiratory allergies. Further insights into the interaction of these chemicals with physiopathological relevant cellular models might provide the foundations for novel non-animal approaches to safety assessment. In this work we used the human THP-1 cell line to determine phospholipidome changes induced by the skin sensitizer 1-fluoro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (DNFB), the respiratory allergen hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI), and the irritant methyl salicylate (MESA). We detected that these chemicals differently induce lipid peroxidation and modulate THP-1 IL-1β, IL-12B, IL-8, CD86, and HMOX1 transcription. Decreased phosphatidylethanolamine content was detected in cells exposed to MESA, while profound alterations in the relative abundance of cardiolipin species were observed in cells exposed to DNFB. All chemicals tested induced a decrease in the relative abundance of plasmanyl phosphatidylcholine species PC (O-16:0e/18:1) and phosphatidylinositol species PI (34:1), while increasing PI (38:4). An increased abundance of oleic acid was observed in the phospholipids of cells exposed to DNFB while a decreased abundance of palmitic acid was detected in cells treated with MESA or DNFB. We conclude that both specific and common alterations at phospholipidome levels are triggered by the different chemicals, while not allowing a complete distinction between them using a Canonical Analysis of Principal Coordinates (CAP). The common effects observed at phospholipids level with all the chemicals tested might be related to unspecific cell cytotoxic mechanisms that nevertheless may contribute to the elicitation of specific immune responses. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 2639-2651, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. The prostaglandin E2 receptor, EP2, regulates survivin expression via an EGFR/STAT3 pathway in UVB-exposed mouse skin.

    PubMed

    Chun, Kyung-Soo; Langenbach, Robert

    2011-06-01

    We previously reported that cycloogenase (COX)-2-generated prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) had anti-apoptotic effects in UVB-exposed mouse skin that involved EP2-mediated signaling (Chun et al., Cancer Res. 2007; 67: 2015). Because survivin is a regulator of cell survival, the possible involvement of COX-2 and EP2 in survivin expression following UVB exposure of mouse skin was investigated. In wild type mice, UVB exposure time-dependently increased the levels of survivin and phosphorylated-signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (p-STAT3), a transcription factor that regulates survivin expression; and COX-2- or EP2-deficiency significantly reduced their induction. Topical application of the COX-2 inhibitor, celecoxib, also reduced UVB-induced survivin levels. To further investigate the roles of PGE2 and EP2 in the regulation of survivin, indomethacin was used to inhibit UVB-induced endogenous PG production. UVB-induced survivin levels were reduced by indomethacin, and PGE2 and the EP2 agonist, butaprost, partially restored survivin levels. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a downstream effector of EP2 and EGFR inhibition (AG1478) significantly reduced UVB activation of STAT3 and survivin levels. UVB-induced epidermal apoptosis in COX-2-/- mice was reduced by butaprost and EGFR inhibition blocked butaprost’s protective effects. Furthermore, butaprost in the absence of UVB exposure time-dependently increased p-EGFR, p-STAT3, and survivin levels in naïve mouse skin, whereas the EP4 agonist, PGE1 alcohol, did not significantly increase p-STAT3 or survivin levels. These data suggest that COX-2-generated PGE2 regulates survivin expression in mouse skin, in part, via an EP2-mediated EGFR/STAT3 pathway. Therefore, targeting the EP2/survivin pathway may provide a strategy for the chemoprevention/chemotherapy of skin cancer.

  13. Gene expression in the lung of p53 mutant mice exposed to cigarette smoke.

    PubMed

    Izzotti, Alberto; Cartiglia, Cristina; Longobardi, Mariagrazia; Bagnasco, Maria; Merello, Andrea; You, Ming; Lubet, Ronald A; De Flora, Silvio

    2004-12-01

    We showed previously that p53 mutations play a role in cigarette smoke-related carcinogenesis not only in humans but also in A/J mice. In fact, (UL53-3 x A/J)F(1) mice, carrying a dominant-negative germ-line p53 mutation, responded to exposure to environmental cigarette smoke more efficiently than their wild-type (wt) littermate controls in terms of molecular alterations, cytogenetic damage, and lung tumor yield. To clarify the mechanisms involved, we analyzed by cDNA array the expression of 1,185 cancer-related genes in the lung of the same mice. Neither environmental cigarette smoke nor the p53 status affected the expression of the p53 gene, but the p53 mutation strikingly increased the basal levels of p53 nuclear protein in the lung. Environmental cigarette smoke increased p53 protein levels in wt mice only. The p53 mutation enhanced the expression of positive cell cycle regulators in sham-exposed mice, which suggests a physiologic protective role of p53. In environmental cigarette smoke-exposed mice, the p53 mutation resulted in a lack of induction of proapoptotic genes and in overexpression of genes involved in cell proliferation, signal transduction, angiogenesis, inflammation, and immune response. Mutant mice and wt mice reacted to environmental cigarette smoke in a similar manner regarding genes involved in metabolism of xenobiotics, multidrug resistance, and protein repair. Irrespective of the p53 status, environmental cigarette smoke poorly affected the expression of oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes, and DNA repair genes. Taken together, these findings may explain the increased susceptibility of p53 mutant mice to smoke-related alterations of intermediate biomarkers and lung carcinogenesis.

  14. Mice exposed to dim light at night exaggerate inflammatory responses to lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Fonken, Laura K; Weil, Zachary M; Nelson, Randy J

    2013-11-01

    The mammalian circadian system regulates many physiological functions including inflammatory responses. Appropriately timed light information is essential for maintaining circadian organization. Over the past ∼120 years, urbanization and the widespread adoption of electric lights have dramatically altered lighting environments. Exposure to light at night (LAN) is pervasive in modern society and disrupts core circadian clock mechanisms. Because microglia are the resident macrophages in the brain and macrophages contain intrinsic circadian clocks, we hypothesized that chronic exposure to LAN would alter microglia cytokine expression and sickness behavior following LPS administration. Exposure to 4 weeks of dim LAN elevated inflammatory responses in mice. Mice exposed to dimly lit, as compared to dark, nights exaggerated changes in body temperature and elevated microglia pro-inflammatory cytokine expression following LPS administration. Furthermore, dLAN mice had a prolonged sickness response following the LPS challenge. Mice exposed to dark or dimly lit nights had comparable sickness behavior directly following the LPS injection; however, dLAN mice showed greater reductions in locomotor activity, increased anorectic behavior, and increased weight loss than mice maintained in dark nights 24h post-LPS injection. Overall, these data suggest that chronic exposure to even very low levels of light pollution may alter inflammatory responses. These results may have important implications for humans and other urban dwelling species that commonly experience nighttime light exposure. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation of the possible copromoting effect of a 60 Hz magnetic field during chemically induced carcinogenesis in skin of SENCAR mice. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    DiGiovanni, J.; Walborg, E.F.; Anderson, L.E.; Sasser, L.B.; Morris, J.E.; Miller, D.L. |

    1997-11-01

    It has been hypothesized that exposure to extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic fields can enhance tumorigenesis through a copromotional mechanism. Equivocal support for this hypothesis was provided by experiments performed by Stuchly et al. using a mouse skin model; i.e. the induction of skin tumors in SENCAR mice exposed to a single subcarcinogenic dose of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) and promotion by repetitive doses of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). The mice were exposed to a 2 mT (60 Hz) magnetic field during the entire promotion phase of the experiment. The Stuchly study, which utilized single weekly doses of TPA, demonstrated a statistically significant increase in skin tumors after 16--18 weeks of promotion; however, by 23 weeks of promotion, the difference was not statistically significant. The study was designed to provide definitive evidence to confirm or refute a copromotional role of ELF magnetic field exposure on DMBA/TPA-induced skin carcinogenesis in SENCAR mice. This study was modeled after the study of Stuchly et al., (1992), including the animal model and exposure conditions. However, three different promoting doses of TPA, within the linear dose response range for induction of skin tumors, were utilized.

  16. Transcriptomic analysis of cultured whale skin cells exposed to hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)].

    PubMed

    Pabuwal, Vagmita; Boswell, Mikki; Pasquali, Amanda; Wise, Sandra S; Kumar, Suresh; Shen, Yingjia; Garcia, Tzintzuni; Lacerte, Carolyne; Wise, John Pierce; Wise, John Pierce; Warren, Wesley; Walter, Ronald B

    2013-06-15

    Hexavalent chromium Cr(VI) is known to produce cytotoxic effects in humans and is a highly toxic environmental contaminant. Interestingly, it has been shown that free ranging sperm whales (Phyester macrocephalus) may have exceedingly high levels of Cr in their skin. Also, it has been demonstrated that skin cells from whales appear more resistant to both cytotoxicity and clastogenicity upon Cr exposure compared to human cells. However, the molecular genetic mechanisms employed in whale skin cells that might lead to Cr tolerance are unknown. In an effort to understand the underlying mechanisms of Cr(VI) tolerance and to illuminate global gene expression patterns modulated by Cr, we exposed whale skin cells in culture to varying levels of Cr(VI) (i.e., 0.0, 0.5, 1.0 and 5.0 μg/cm²) followed by short read (100 bp) next generation RNA sequencing (RNA-seq). RNA-seq reads from all exposures (≈280 million reads) were pooled to generate a de novo reference transcriptome assembly. The resulting whale reference assembly had 11K contigs and an N50 of 2954 bp. Using the reads from each dose (0.0, 0.5, 1.0 and 5.0 μg/cm²) we performed RNA-seq based gene expression analysis that identified 35 up-regulated genes and 19 down-regulated genes. The experimental results suggest that low dose exposure to Cr (1.0 μg/cm²) serves to induce up-regulation of oxidative stress response genes, DNA repair genes and cell cycle regulator genes. However, at higher doses (5.0 μg/cm²) the DNA repair genes appeared down-regulated while other genes that were induced suggest the initiation of cytotoxicity. The set of genes identified that show regulatory modulation at different Cr doses provide specific candidates for further studies aimed at determination of how whales exhibit resistance to Cr toxicity and what role(s) reactive oxygen species (ROS) may play in this process. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Skin ulcers in estuarine fishes: a comparative pathological evaluation of wild and laboratory-exposed fish.

    PubMed

    Vogelbein, W K; Shields, J D; Haas, L W; Reece, K S; Zwerner, D E

    2001-10-01

    The toxic dinoflagellate Pfiesteria piscicida Steidinger & Burkholder has recently been implicated as the etiologic agent of acute mass mortalities and skin ulcers in menhaden, Brevoortia tyrannus, and other fishes from mid-Atlantic U.S. estuaries. However, evidence for this association is largely circumstantial and controversial. We exposed tilapia (Oreochromis spp.) to Pfiesteria shumwayae Glasgow & Burkholder (identification based on scanning electron microscopy and molecular analyses) and compared the resulting pathology to the so-called Pfiesteria-specific lesions occurring in wild menhaden. The tilapia challenged by high concentrations (2,000-12,000 cells/mL) of P. shumwayaeexhibited loss of mucus coat and scales plus mild petecchial hemorrhage, but no deeply penetrating chronic ulcers like those in wild menhaden. Histologically, fish exhibited epidermal erosion with bacterial colonization but minimal associated inflammation. In moribund fish, loss of epidermis was widespread over large portions of the body. Similar erosion occurred in the mucosa lining the oral and branchial cavities. Gills exhibited epithelial lifting, loss of secondary lamellar structure, and infiltration by lymphoid cells. Epithelial lining of the lateral line canal (LLC) and olfactory organs exhibited severe necrosis. Visceral organs, kidney, and neural tissues (brain, spinal cord, ganglia, peripheral nerves) were histologically normal. An unexpected finding was the numerous P. shumwayae cells adhering to damaged skin, skin folds, scale pockets, LLC, and olfactory tissues. In contrast, histologic evaluation of skin ulcers in over 200 wild menhaden from Virginia and Maryland portions of the Chesapeake Bay and the Pamlico Estuary, North Carolina, revealed that all ulcers harbored a deeply invasive, highly pathogenic fungus now known to be Aphanomyces invadans. In menhaden the infection always elicited severe myonecrosis and intense granulomatous myositis. The consistent occurrence of this

  18. Lung inflammation and thrombogenic responses in a time course study of Csb mice exposed to ozone.

    PubMed

    Kooter, Ingeborg M; Frederix, Kim; Spronk, Henri M H; Boere, A John F; Leseman, Daan L A C; van Steeg, Harry; ten Cate, Hugo; Cassee, Flemming R

    2008-08-01

    Ozone is a well-known oxidant air pollutant, inhalation of which can result in oxidative stress, and lead to pulmonary inflammation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the time-course events after a single ozone exposure in transcription-coupled repair defective Csb and wild type mice. Mice were exposed for 3 h to 2 ppm ozone and biological parameters related to oxidative stress and inflammation were examined in the lungs at 0, 4, 9, 24 and 48 h after exposure. In addition the procoagulant and thrombomodulin activities were explored by a combination of assays for tissue factor and thrombin generation. This study revealed a significant biological response to ozone, for both Csb and wild type mice. The onset of inflammation in Csb mice, as indicated by an increase in interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and total cell influx, occurred earlier compared with those seen in wild type mice. On the other hand, Csb mice showed a delayed antioxidant reaction compared with wild type mice. Both genotypes developed a procoagulant reaction characterized by a stably increased tissue factor activity and a progressive increase in thrombin generation after 2 days. These experiments have shown that ozone, a well-known toxic substance from the environment, induces not only inflammation, but also procoagulant reactions in the lungs of mice. These results have implications for understanding the systemic effects induced by oxidant air pollutants. Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Potent carcinogenicity of cigarette smoke in mice exposed early in life.

    PubMed

    Balansky, Roumen; Ganchev, Gancho; Iltcheva, Marietta; Steele, Vernon E; D'Agostini, Francesco; De Flora, Silvio

    2007-10-01

    In spite of the dominant role of cigarette smoke (CS) in cancer epidemiology, all studies performed during the past 60 years have shown that this complex mixture is either negative or weakly tumorigenic in experimental animals. We implemented studies aimed at evaluating whether exposure of mice early in life may enhance susceptibility to CS carcinogenicity. A total of 98 newborn Swiss albino mice were either untreated (controls) or received a subcutaneous injection of benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P] (positive control) or were exposed whole-body to mainstream cigarette smoke (MCS) for 120 days, starting within 12 h after birth. Complete necropsy and histopathological analyses were performed at periodical intervals. In contrast with the lack of lung tumors in controls, MCS-exposed mice developed microscopically detectable tumors, starting only 75 days after birth and reaching an overall incidence of 78.3% after 181-230 days. The mean lung tumor multiplicities were 6.1 and 13.6 tumors per mouse in males and females, respectively, showing a significant intergender difference. Most tumors were microadenomas or adenomas, but 18.4% of the mice additionally had malignant lung cancer. MCS also induced bronchial and alveolar epithelial hyperplasia, and blood vessel proliferation. Furthermore, malignant tumors, some of which may have a metastatic origin, were detected in the urinary tract and liver of MCS-exposed mice. A somewhat different spectrum of tumors was observed in B(a)P-treated mice. In conclusion, MCS is a potent and broad spectrum carcinogen in mice when exposure starts early in life, covering stages of life corresponding to neonatal, childhood and adolescence periods in humans. This animal model will be useful to explore the mechanisms involved in CS-induced carcinogenesis and to investigate the protective effects of dietary agents and chemopreventive drugs.

  20. Hematological parameters' changes in mice subchronically exposed to static magnetic fields of different orientations.

    PubMed

    Djordjevich, Drago M; De Luka, Silvio R; Milovanovich, Ivan D; Janković, Saša; Stefanović, Srdjan; Vesković-Moračanin, Slavica; Cirković, Saša; Ilić, Andjelija Ž; Ristić-Djurović, Jasna L; Trbovich, Alexander M

    2012-07-01

    Static magnetic fields (SMFs) are time independent fields whose intensity can be spatially dependent. This study investigates influence of subchronic continuous exposure to upward and downward directed SMF on hematological parameters and spleen cellularity in mice. The experiment is performed on the Northern hemisphere; consequently, the vertical component of geomagnetic field is directed downward. Male, Swiss-Webster, 6 weeks old mice were exposed to the vertically declining SMF. Mice were divided in three groups and continuously exposed or not exposed for 28 days to the SMF characterized by the averaged field of 16 mT and averaged field gradient of 10 mT/cm. Differently oriented SMF did not alter hemoglobin and hematocrit content among the groups. However, the groups exposed to the upward and downward fields had statistically significant higher levels of serum transferrin compared to the control. Moreover, spleen cellularity in animals in the downward group was significantly higher compared to the upward and control group. In addition, spleen lymphocytes in both of the exposed groups were significantly higher than in the control group. In contrast, spleen granulocytes in the exposed groups were significantly lower than in the control group. Significant decrease was also observed in brain and liver iron content with concomitant increase of iron in serum and spleen in exposed animals. Subchronic continuous exposure to 16 mT SMF caused lymphocyte and granulocyte redistribution between spleen and blood. This distribution is typical for stress induced hematological changes. These results suggest that observed changes were not due to an unspecific stress response, but that they were rather caused by specific adaptation to subchronic SMF exposure.

  1. Flower-deficient mice have reduced susceptibility to skin papilloma formation

    PubMed Central

    Petrova, Evgeniya; López-Gay, Jesús M.; Rhiner, Christa; Moreno, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Skin papillomas arise as a result of clonal expansion of mutant cells. It has been proposed that the expansion of pretumoral cell clones is propelled not only by the increased proliferation capacity of mutant cells, but also by active cell selection. Previous studies in Drosophila describe a clonal selection process mediated by the Flower (Fwe) protein, whereby cells that express certain Fwe isoforms are recognized and forced to undergo apoptosis. It was further shown that knock down of fwe expression in Drosophila can prevent the clonal expansion of dMyc-overexpressing pretumoral cells. Here, we study the function of the single predicted mouse homolog of Drosophila Fwe, referred to as mFwe, by clonal overexpression of mFwe isoforms in Drosophila and by analyzing mFwe knock-out mice. We show that clonal overexpression of certain mFwe isoforms in Drosophila also triggers non-autonomous cell death, suggesting that Fwe function is evolutionarily conserved. Although mFwe-deficient mice display a normal phenotype, they develop a significantly lower number of skin papillomas upon exposure to DMBA/TPA two-stage skin carcinogenesis than do treated wild-type and mFwe heterozygous mice. Furthermore, mFwe expression is higher in papillomas and the papilloma-surrounding skin of treated wild-type mice compared with the skin of untreated wild-type mice. Thus, we propose that skin papilloma cells take advantage of mFwe activity to facilitate their clonal expansion. PMID:22362363

  2. Different radiosensitivities of mast-cell precursors in the bone marrow and skin of mice

    SciTech Connect

    Kitamura, Y.; Yokoyama, M.; Sonoda, T.; Mori, K.J.

    1983-01-01

    Although tissue mast cells are derived from the bone marrow, some descendants of bone marrow-derived precursors retain the ability to proliferate and differentiate into mast cells even after localization in the skin. The purpose of the present study was to determine the D/sub 0/ values for mast-cell precursors in the bone marrow and those localized in the skin. Bone marrow cells were removed from (WB X C57BL/6)F/sub 1/+/+ mice after various doses of irradiation and injected into the skin of the congenic W/W/sup v/ mice which were genetically without mast cells. Radiosensitivity of mast-cell precursors in the bone marrow was evaluated by determining the proportion of the injection sites at which mast cells did not appear. For the assay of the radiosensitivity of mast-cell precursors localized in the skin, pieces of skin were removed from beige C57BL/6 (bg/sup J//bg/sup J/, Chediak-Higashi syndrome) mice after various doses of irradiation and grafted onto the backs of the normal C57BL/6 mice. Radiosensitivity of mast-cell precursors in the skin was evaluated by determining the decrease of beige-type mast cells which possessed giant granules. Mast-cell precursors in the bone marrow were much more radiosenitive than those localized in the skin. D/sup 0/ value was about 100 rad for the former and about 800 rad for the latter.

  3. Different radiosensitivities of mast-cell precursors in the bone marrow and skin of mice

    SciTech Connect

    Kitamura, Y.; Yokoyama, M.; Sonoda, T.; Mori, K.J.

    1983-01-01

    Although tissue mast cells are derived from the bone marrow, some descendants of bone marrow-derived precursors retain the ability to proliferate and differentiate into mast cells even after localization in the skin. The purpose of the present study was to determine the D0 values for mast-cell precursors in the bone marrow and those localized in the skin. Bone marrow cells were removed from (WB X C57BL/6)F1-+/+ mice after various doses of irradiation and injected into the skin of the congenic W/Wv mice which were genetically without mast cells. Radiosensitivity of mast-cell precursors in the bone marrow was evaluated by determining the proportion of the injection sites at which mast cells did not appear. For the assay of the radiosensitivity of mast-cell precursors localized in the skin, pieces of skin were removed from beige C57BL/6 (bgJ/bgJ. Chediak-Higashi syndrome) mice after various doses of irradiation and grafted onto the back of the normal C57BL/6 mice. Radiosensitivity of mast-cell precursors in the skin was evaluated by determining the decrease of beige-type mast cells which possessed giant granules. Mast-cell precursors in the bone marrow were much more radiosensitive than those localized in the skin. D0 value was about 100 rad for the former and about 800 rad for the latter.

  4. Oral Administration of Fermented Soymilk Products Protects the Skin of Hairless Mice against Ultraviolet Damage

    PubMed Central

    Kano, Mitsuyoshi; Kubota, Norihiro; Masuoka, Norie; Hori, Tetsuji; Miyazaki, Kouji; Ishikawa, Fumiyasu

    2016-01-01

    The protective effect of isoflavones on skin damage from ultraviolet (UV) radiation and their bioavailability were investigated in ovariectomized hairless mice fed diets composed of fermented soymilk containing aglycone forms of isoflavones or control soymilk containing glucose-conjugated forms of isoflavones. The erythema intensity of dorsal skin was significantly higher in ovariectomized mice than in sham-operated mice (p < 0.05). The erythema intensity and epidermal thickness of dorsal skin were significantly lower in the fermented soymilk diet group than in the control diet group (each p < 0.05). Levels of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers in dorsal skin were significantly lower in the fermented soymilk diet group than in the control group (p < 0.05). Serum and dorsal skin isoflavone concentrations were significantly higher in the fermented soymilk diet group than in the soymilk diet group (p < 0.05). These results indicate that oral administration of a fermented soymilk diet increases isoflavone concentrations in the blood and skin, effectively scavenging the reactive oxygen species generated by UV irradiation and exerting an estrogen-like activity, with a consequent protective effect on skin photodamage in hairless mice. PMID:27556484

  5. The loss of Tm7sf gene accelerates skin papilloma formation in mice

    PubMed Central

    Bellezza, I.; Gatticchi, L.; Sordo, R. del; Peirce, M. J.; Sidoni, A.; Roberti, R.; Minelli, A.

    2015-01-01

    The 3β-hydroxysterol Δ14-reductase, encoded by the Tm7sf2 gene, is an enzyme involved in cholesterol biosynthesis. Cholesterol and its derivatives control epidermal barrier integrity and are protective against environmental insults. To determine the role of the gene in skin cholesterol homeostasis, we applied 12-o-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) to the skin of Tm7sf2+/+ and Tm7sf2-/- mice. TPA increased skin cholesterol levels by inducing de novo synthesis and up-take only in Tm7sf2+/+ mouse, confirming that the gene maintains cholesterol homeostasis under stress conditions. Cholesterol sulfate, one of the major players in skin permeability, was doubled by TPA treatment in the skin of wild-type animals but this response was lost in Tm7sf2-/- mice. The expression of markers of epidermal differentiation concomitant with farnesoid-X-receptor and p38 MAPK activation were also disrupted in Tm7sf2-/- mice. We then subjected Tm7sf2+/+ and Tm7sf2-/- mice to a classical two-stage skin carcinogenesis protocol. We found that the loss of Tm7sf2 increased incidence and multiplicity of skin papillomas. Interestingly, the null genotype showed reduced expression of nur77, a gene associated with resistance to neoplastic transformation. In conclusion, the loss of Tm7sf2 alters the expression of proteins involved in epidermal differentiation by reducing the levels of cholesterol sulfate. PMID:25804527

  6. Glycerol replacement corrects defective skin hydration, elasticity, and barrier function in aquaporin-3-deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Hara, Mariko; Verkman, A. S.

    2003-01-01

    Mice deficient in the epidermal water/glycerol transporter aquaporin-3 (AQP3) have reduced stratum corneum (SC) hydration and skin elasticity, and impaired barrier recovery after SC removal. SC glycerol content is reduced 3-fold in AQP3 null mice, whereas SC structure, protein/lipid composition, and ion/osmolyte content are not changed. We show here that glycerol replacement corrects each of the defects in AQP3 null mice. SC water content, measured by skin conductance and 3H2O accumulation, was 3-fold lower in AQP3 null vs. wild-type mice, but became similar after topical or systemic administration of glycerol in quantities that normalized SC glycerol content. SC water content was not corrected by glycerol-like osmolytes such as xylitol, erythritol, and propanediol. Orally administered glycerol fully corrected the reduced skin elasticity in AQP3 null mice as measured by the kinetics of skin displacement after suction, and the delayed barrier recovery as measured by transepidermal water loss after tape-stripping. Analysis of [14C]glycerol kinetics indicated reduced blood-to-SC transport of glycerol in AQP3 null mice, resulting in slowed lipid biosynthesis. These data provide functional evidence for a physiological role of glycerol transport by an aquaglyceroporin, and indicate that glycerol is a major determinant of SC water retention, and mechanical and biosynthetic functions. Our findings establish a scientific basis for the >200-yr-old empirical practice of including glycerol in cosmetic and medicinal skin formulations. PMID:12771381

  7. Arginase inhibition in airways from normal and nitric oxide synthase 2-knockout mice exposed to ovalbumin

    SciTech Connect

    Bratt, Jennifer M.; Franzi, Lisa M.; Linderholm, Angela L.; O'Roark, Erin M.; Kenyon, Nicholas J.; Last, Jerold A.

    2010-01-01

    Arginase1 and nitric oxide synthase2 (NOS2) utilize L-arginine as a substrate, with both enzymes expressed at high levels in the asthmatic lung. Inhibition of arginase in ovalbumin-exposed C57BL/6 mice with the transition state inhibitor N{sup o}mega-hydroxy-nor-L-arginine (nor-NOHA) significantly increased total L-arginine content in the airway compartment. We hypothesized that such an increase in L-arginine content would increase the amount of nitric oxide (NO) being produced in the airways and thereby decrease airway hyperreactivity and eosinophilic influx. We further hypothesized that despite arginase inhibition, NOS2 knockout (NOS2-/-) mice would be unable to up-regulate NO production in response to allergen exposure and would demonstrate higher amounts of airway hyperreactivity and eosinophilia under conditions of arginase inhibition than C57BL/6 animals. We found that administration of nor-NOHA significantly decreased airway hyperreactivity and eosinophilic airway inflammation in ovalbumin-exposed C57BL/6 mice, but these parameters were unchanged in ovalbumin-exposed NOS2-/- mice. Arginase1 protein content was increased in mice exposed to ovalbumin, an effect that was reversed upon nor-NOHA treatment in C57BL/6 mice. Arginase1 protein content in the airway compartment directly correlated with the degree of airway hyperreactivity in all treatment groups. NOS2-/- mice had significantly greater arginase1 and arginase2 concentrations compared to their respective C57BL/6 groups, indicating that inhibition of arginase may be dependent upon NOS2 expression. Arginase1 and 2 content were not affected by nor-NOHA administration in the NOS2-/- mice. We conclude that L-arginine metabolism plays an important role in the development of airway hyperreactivity and eosinophilic airway inflammation. Inhibition of arginase early in the allergic inflammatory response decreases the severity of the chronic inflammatory phenotype. These effects appear to be attributable to NOS2

  8. Factors that influence the suppression of pulmonary antibacterial defenses in mice exposed to ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Gilmour, M.I.; Park, P.; Doerfler, D.; Selgrade, M.K. )

    1993-05-01

    Exposure to ozone (O3) has been shown to increase susceptibility of mice to bacterial infection; however, the underlying mechanism has not been well elucidated. This study investigated the effect of O3 exposure on the ability of mice to combat an infectious challenge of Streptococcus zooepidemicus. Following a 3-h exposure to either air, 0.4 ppm O3, or 0.8 ppm O3, 5- and 9-week-old mice received an aerosol infection of bacteria. Intrapulmonary killing of the bacteria was impaired in the O3-exposed mice. The effect was most severe at the higher dose of O3 in the younger mice, and showed good correlation to subsequent mortality assessed over a 20-day period. Alveolar macrophages (AM) from O3-exposed mice had an impaired ability to phagocytose the bacteria. Additionally, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) levels, which are known to depress AM function, were increased in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of the younger mice following exposure to O3, while pretreatment with indomethacin in the drinking water blunted the increased of PGE2 and reduced O3 enhanced mortality from 53 to 33%. The data show that O3 inhalation can reduce the defensive capability of the murine lung and that this is associated with a reduction in AM phagocytosis. The defect is more marked in young mice, suggesting that they may be more susceptible to oxidant exposure. Further studies are required to distinguish between direct toxicity of O3 on the AM and indirect suppression due to modulation of pharmacologic or inflammatory mediators.

  9. Aloe sterol supplementation improves skin elasticity in Japanese men with sunlight-exposed skin: a 12-week double-blind, randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Miyuki; Yamamoto, Yuki; Misawa, Eriko; Nabeshima, Kazumi; Saito, Marie; Yamauchi, Koji; Abe, Fumiaki; Furukawa, Fukumi

    2016-01-01

    Background/objective Recently, it was confirmed that the daily oral intake of plant sterols of Aloe vera gel (Aloe sterol) significantly increases the skin barrier function, moisture, and elasticity in photoprotected skin. This study aimed to investigate whether Aloe sterol intake affected skin conditions following sunlight exposure in Japanese men. Methods We performed a 12-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study to evaluate the effects of oral Aloe sterol supplementation on skin conditions in 48 apparently healthy men (age range: 30–59 years; average: 45 years). The subjects were instructed to expose the measurement position of the arms to the sunlight outdoors every day for 12 weeks. The skin parameters were measured at 0 (baseline), 4, 8, and 12 weeks. Results Depending on the time for the revelation of the sunlight, the b* value and melanin index increased and the skin moisture decreased. After taking an Aloe sterol tablet daily for 12 weeks, the skin elasticity index (R2, R5, and R7) levels were significantly higher than the baseline value. There were no differences between the groups in these skin elasticity values. In the subgroup analysis of subjects aged <46 years, the change in the R5 and R7 was significantly higher in the Aloe group than in the placebo group at 8 weeks (P=0.0412 and P=0.0410, respectively). There was a difference in the quantity of sun exposure between each subject, and an additional clinical study that standardizes the amount of ultraviolet rays is warranted. No Aloe sterol intake-dependent harmful phenomenon was observed during the intake period. Conclusion Aloe sterol ingestion increased skin elasticity in the photodamaged skin of men aged <46 years. PMID:27877061

  10. Selectively reduced glycerol in skin of aquaporin-3-deficient mice may account for impaired skin hydration, elasticity, and barrier recovery.

    PubMed

    Hara, Mariko; Ma, Tonghui; Verkman, A S

    2002-11-29

    Deletion of the epidermal water/glycerol transporter aquaporin-3 (AQP3) in mice reduced superficial skin conductance by approximately 2-fold (Ma, T., Hara, M., Sougrat, R., Verbavatz, J. M., and Verkman, A. S. (2002) J. Biol. Chem. 277, 17147-17153), suggesting defective stratum corneum (SC) hydration. Here, we demonstrate significant impairment of skin hydration, elasticity, barrier recovery, and wound healing in AQP3 null mice in a hairless (SKH1) genetic background and investigate the cause of the functional defects by analysis of SC morphology and composition. Utilizing a novel (3)H(2)O distribution method, SC water content was reduced by approximately 50% in AQP3 null mice. Skin elasticity measured by cutometry was significantly reduced in AQP3 null mice with approximately 50% reductions in elasticity parameters Uf, Ue, and Ur. Although basal skin barrier function was not impaired, AQP3 deletion produced an approximately 2-fold delay in recovery of barrier function as measured by transepidermal water loss after tape stripping. Another biosynthetic skin function, wound healing, was also approximately 2-fold delayed by AQP3 deletion. By electron microscopy AQP3 deletion did not affect the structure of the unperturbed SC. The SC content of ions (Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+)) and small solutes (urea, lactic acid, glucose) was not affected by AQP3 deletion nor was the absolute amount or profile of lipids and free amino acids. However, AQP3 deletion produced significant reductions in glycerol content in SC and epidermis (in nmol/microg protein: 5.5 +/- 0.4 versus 2.3 +/- 0.7 in SC; 0.037 +/- 0.007 versus 0.022 +/- 0.005 in epidermis) but not in dermis or blood. These results establish hydration, mechanical, and biosynthetic defects in skin of AQP3-deficient mice. The selective reduction in epidermal and SC glycerol content in AQP3 null mice may account for these defects, providing the first functional evidence for physiologically important glycerol transport by an

  11. Staphylococcus prevails in the skin microbiota of long-term immunodeficient mice.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Garcerà, Marc; Coscollà, Mireia; Garcia-Etxebarria, Koldo; Martín-Caballero, Juan; González-Candelas, Fernando; Latorre, Amparo; Calafell, Francesc

    2012-08-01

    Host-commensal relationships in the skin are a complex system governed by variables related to the host, the bacteria and the environment. A disruption of this system may lead to new steady states, which, in turn, may lead to disease. We have studied one such disruption by characterizing the skin microbiota in healthy and immunodepressed (ID) mice. A detailed anatomopathological study failed to reveal any difference between the skin of healthy and ID mice. We sequenced the 16S rDNA V1-V2 gene region to saturation in 10 healthy and 10 ID 8 week-old mice, and found than all of the healthy and two of the ID mice had bacterial communities that were similar in composition to that of human skin, although, presumably because of the uniform raising conditions, less interindividual variation was found in mice. However, eight ID mice showed microbiota dominated by Staphylococcus epidermidis. Quantitative PCR amplification of 16S rDNA gene and of the Staphylococcus-specific TstaG region confirmed the previous results and indicated that the quantitative levels of Staphylococcus were similar in both groups while the total number of 16S copies was greater in the healthy mice. Thus, it is possible that, under long-term immunodeficiency, which removes the acquired but not the native immune system, S.epidermidis may inhibit the growth of other bacteria but does not cause a pathogenic state.

  12. Anti-apoptotic role of retinoic acid in the inner ear of noise-exposed mice

    SciTech Connect

    Ahn, Joong Ho; Kang, Hun Hee; Kim, Young-Jin; Chung, Jong Woo . E-mail: jwchung@amc.seoul.kr

    2005-09-23

    Exposure to loud noise can induce temporary or permanent hearing loss, and acoustic trauma is the major cause of hearing impairment in industrial nations. However, the mechanisms underlying the death of hair cells after acoustic trauma remain unclear. In addition to its involvement in cellular stress and apoptosis, the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), a member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase family, is involved in cell survival, transformation, embryonic morphogenesis, and differentiation. JNK is primarily activated by various environmental stresses including noise, and the phenotypic result appears be to cell death. All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) is an active metabolite of vitamin A that regulates a wide range of biological processes, including cell proliferation, differentiation, and morphogenesis. We evaluated the role of ATRA in preserving hearing in mice exposed to noise that can induce permanent hearing loss. Mice fed with ATRA before and during 3 consecutive days of noise exposure had a more preserved hearing threshold than mice fed sesame oil or saline. Histological and TUNEL staining of the cochlea showed significantly enhanced preservation of the organ of Corti, including outer hair cells and relatively low apoptotic nuclei, in mice-fed ATRA than in mice-fed sesame oil or saline. Phospho-JNK immunohistochemistry showed that ATRA inhibited the activation of JNK. These results suggest that ATRA has an anti-apoptotic effect on cochleae exposed to noise.

  13. The Use of Cryopreserved Human Skin Allograft for the Treatment of Wounds With Exposed Muscle, Tendon, and Bone.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Thomas C; Wilson, Jessica A; Crim, Brandon; Lowery, Nicholas J

    2016-04-01

    Wounds with exposed bone or tendon continue to be a challenge for wound care physicians, and there is little research pertaining to the treatment of these particular wounds with allograft skin. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of a biologically active cryopreserved human skin allograft for treating wounds with exposed bone and/or tendon in the lower extremities. Fifteen patients with 15 wounds at a single hospital-based wound care center were included in the study. Eleven wounds had exposed bone, 1 wound had exposed ten- don, and 3 wounds had exposed bone and tendon. Standard treatment principles with adjunctive cadaveric allograft application were performed on all wounds in the study. In this study 14/15 (93.3%) of the wounds healed completely. The mean duration of days until coverage of the bone and/or tendon with granulation tissue was 36.14 (5.16 weeks) (range 5-117 days). Mean duration to complete healing of the wound was 133 days (19 weeks) (range 53-311 days). The mean number of grafts applied was 2. There were no adverse events directly related to the graft. Zero major amputations and 1 minor amputation occurred. This study found biologically active cryopreserved human skin allografts to be safe and effective in treating difficult wounds with exposed bone and/or tendon. To the authors' knowledge, this is the largest study to date focused on the utilization of allograft skin as an adjunct therapy for lower extremity wounds with exposed tendon and/or bone.

  14. Effect of Tocopheryl Acetate on Maternal Cigarette Smoke Exposed Swiss Albino Mice Inbred Fetus

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhary, Janardan; Shamal, SN; Supriya, K; Srivastava, Mona; More, RS

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Cigarette smoking is worldwide problem which can be correlated with teratogenicity. Tocopheryl acetate plays as an antioxidant against the oxidative stress evolved by cigarette smoke exposure during pregnancy. Aim To study the effect of maternal exposure to cigarette smoke and Tocopheryl acetate on fetuses of mice. Materials and Methods Pregnant mice randomly assigned to different groups (Group I (control), Group II (Tocopheryl acetate), Group III(soyabean oil used as vehicle for Tocopheryl acetate), Group IV (Cigarette smoke Exposed), Group V (Cigarette smoke exposed plus Tocopheryl acetate) and Group VI(Cigarette smoke exposed plus soyabean oil) were exposed to cigarette smoke 3 times a day for 20 minutes each time and Tocopheryl acetate with dose of 200mg/kg/day in 0.3ml of soyabean oil as vehicle orally through oral gavage from the 5th day of gestation to 15th day. Results Cigarette smoke exposed mice showed significant fetal weight loss, resorption, placental anomalies, severe growth retardation, venous congestion, haemorrhage, limbs defects and enphalocele. Negligible abnormalities were seen among the control and Tocopheryl acetate group. Cigarette smoke exposed group with Tocopheryl acetate exhibited weight gain among the fetus as well as no gross abnormalities. The oxidative stress was significantly increased by increasing Malondialdehyde (MDA) 293±81.57 μmol/mg (p<0.0001) and decreasing Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) 1.43 ± 0.23mg/ml, (p<0.0001) Reduced Glutathione (GR) 0.017±0.002mg/ml, (p<0.01) and Catalase (CAT) 0.248±0.005mg/ml, (p<0.0001). Tocopheryl acetate induced group significantly maintained the oxidative stress with all p <0.0001. Conclusion It can be concluded that Tocopheryl acetate may have an ameliorating effect on the cigarette smoke during pregnancy on fetus. PMID:27891325

  15. Sirolimus reduces the incidence and progression of UVB-induced skin cancer in SKH mice even with co-administration of cyclosporine A.

    PubMed

    Wulff, Brian C; Kusewitt, Donna F; VanBuskirk, Anne M; Thomas-Ahner, Jennifer M; Duncan, F Jason; Oberyszyn, Tatiana M

    2008-10-01

    Transplant immunosuppressants have been implicated in the increased incidence of non-melanoma skin cancer in transplant recipients, most of whom harbor considerable UVB-induced DNA damage in their skin prior to transplantation. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of two commonly used immunosuppressive drugs, cyclosporine A (CsA) and sirolimus (SRL), on the development and progression of UVB-induced non-melanoma skin cancer. SKH-1 hairless mice were exposed to UVB alone for 15 weeks, and then were treated with CsA, SRL, or CsA+SRL for 9 weeks following cessation of UVB treatment. Compared with vehicle, CsA treatment resulted in enhanced tumor size and progression. In contrast, mice treated with SRL or CsA+SRL had decreased tumor multiplicity, size, and progression compared with vehicle-treated mice. CsA, but not SRL or combined treatment, increased dermal mast cell numbers and TGF-beta1 levels in the skin. These findings demonstrate that specific immunosuppressive agents differentially alter the cutaneous tumor microenvironment, which in turn may contribute to enhanced development of UVB-induced skin cancer in transplant recipients. Furthermore, these results suggest that CsA alone causes enhanced growth and progression of skin cancer, whereas co-administration of SRL with CsA causes the opposite effect. JID JOURNAL CLUB ARTICLE: For questions, answers, and open discussion about this article please go to http://network.nature.com/group/jidclub

  16. Elevated cysteine-rich protein 61 (CCN1) promotes skin aging via upregulation of IL-1β in chronically sun-exposed human skin.

    PubMed

    Qin, Zhaoping; Okubo, Toru; Voorhees, John J; Fisher, Gary J; Quan, Taihao

    2014-02-01

    Chronic exposure of human skin to solar ultraviolet (UV) irradiation causes premature skin aging, which is characterized by reduced type I collagen production and increased fragmentation of the dermal collagenous extracellular matrix. This imbalance of collagen homeostasis is mediated, in part, by elevated expression of the matricellular protein cysteine-rich protein 61 (CCN1), in dermal fibroblasts, the primary collagen producing cell type in human skin. Here, we report that the actions of CCN1 are mediated by induction of interleukin 1β (IL-1β). CCN1 and IL-1β are strikingly induced by acute UV irradiation, and constitutively elevated in sun-exposed prematurely aged human skin. Elevated CCN1 rapidly induces IL-1β, inhibits type I collagen production, and upregulates matrix metalloproteinase-1, which degrades collagen fibrils. Blockade of IL-1β actions by IL-1 receptor antagonist largely prevents the deleterious effects of CCN1 on collagen homeostasis. Furthermore, knockdown of CCN1 significantly reduces induction of IL-1β by UV irradiation, and thereby partially prevents collagen loss. These data demonstrate that elevated CCN1promotes inflammaging and collagen loss via induction of IL-1β and thereby contributes to the pathophysiology of premature aging in chronically sun-exposed human skin.

  17. Commonly Employed African Neonatal Skin Care Products Compromise Epidermal Function in Mice.

    PubMed

    Man, Mao-Qiang; Sun, Richard; Man, George; Lee, Dale; Hill, Zelee; Elias, Peter M

    2016-09-01

    Neonatal mortality is much higher in the developing world than in developed countries. Infections are a major cause of neonatal death, particularly in preterm infants, in whom defective epidermal permeability barrier function facilitates transcutaneous pathogen invasion. The objective was to determine whether neonatal skin care products commonly used in Africa benefit or compromise epidermal functions in murine skin. After twice-daily treatment of 6- to 8-week-old hairless mice with each skin care product for 3 days, epidermal permeability barrier function, skin surface pH, stratum corneum hydration, and barrier recovery were measured using a multiprobe adapter system physiology monitor. For products showing some benefits in these initial tests, the epidermal permeability barrier homeostasis was assessed 1 and 5 hours after a single application to acutely disrupted skin. All of the skin care products compromised basal permeability barrier function and barrier repair kinetics. Moreover, after 3 days of treatment, most of the products also reduced stratum corneum hydration while elevating skin surface pH to abnormal levels. Some neonatal skin care products that are widely used in Africa perturb important epidermal functions, including permeability barrier homeostasis in mice. Should these products have similar effects on newborn human skin, they could cause a defective epidermal permeability barrier, which can increase body fluid loss, impair thermoregulation, and contribute to the high rates of neonatal morbidity and mortality seen in Africa. Accordingly, alternative products that enhance permeability barrier function should be identified, particularly for use in preterm infants. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Blackberry extract inhibits UVB-induced oxidative damage and inflammation through MAP kinases and NF-κB signaling pathways in SKH-1 mice skin

    SciTech Connect

    Divya, Sasidharan Padmaja; Wang, Xin; Pratheeshkumar, Poyil; Son, Young-Ok; Roy, Ram Vinod; Kim, Donghern; Dai, Jin; Hitron, John Andrew; Wang, Lei; Asha, Padmaja; Shi, Xianglin; Zhang, Zhuo

    2015-04-01

    Extensive exposure of solar ultraviolet-B (UVB) radiation to skin induces oxidative stress and inflammation that play a crucial role in the induction of skin cancer. Photochemoprevention with natural products represents a simple but very effective strategy for the management of cutaneous neoplasia. In this study, we investigated whether blackberry extract (BBE) reduces chronic inflammatory responses induced by UVB irradiation in SKH-1 hairless mice skin. Mice were exposed to UVB radiation (100 mJ/cm{sup 2}) on alternate days for 10 weeks, and BBE (10% and 20%) was applied topically a day before UVB exposure. Our results show that BBE suppressed UVB-induced hyperplasia and reduced infiltration of inflammatory cells in the SKH-1 hairless mice skin. BBE treatment reduced glutathione (GSH) depletion, lipid peroxidation (LPO), and myeloperoxidase (MPO) in mouse skin by chronic UVB exposure. BBE significantly decreased the level of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α in UVB-exposed skin. Likewise, UVB-induced inflammatory responses were diminished by BBE as observed by a remarkable reduction in the levels of phosphorylated MAP Kinases, Erk1/2, p38, JNK1/2 and MKK4. Furthermore, BBE also reduced inflammatory mediators such as cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), prostaglandin E{sub 2} (PGE{sub 2}), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) levels in UVB-exposed skin. Treatment with BBE inhibited UVB-induced nuclear translocation of NF-κB and degradation of IκBα in mouse skin. Immunohistochemistry analysis revealed that topical application of BBE inhibited the expression of 8-oxo-7, 8-dihydro-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG), cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and cyclin D1 in UVB-exposed skin. Collectively, these data indicate that BBE protects from UVB-induced oxidative damage and inflammation by modulating MAP kinase and NF-κB signaling pathways. - Highlights: • Blackberry extract inhibits UVB-induced glutathione depletion.

  19. Protective effect of vitamin C in female Swiss mice dermally-exposed to the tannery effluent.

    PubMed

    Rabelo, Letícia Martins; Estrela, Fernanda Neves; E Silva, Bianca Costa; Mendes, Bruna de Oliveira; Vaz, Boniek Gontijo; Rodrigues, Aline Sueli de Lima; Malafaia, Guilherme

    2017-08-01

    Previous studies involving the oral exposure of mice to tannery effluents have found neurotoxic effects. However, studies about the effects the dermal exposure to pollutant have on the cognitive function of females have not been found in the literature. Thus, the aim of the current study is to investigate whether the dermal exposure of female Swiss mice to tannery effluents (2 h/day for 20 days) can cause cognitive impairment, as it was already evidenced in male Swiss mice. Furthermore, based on the administration of vitamin C (before or after the exposure to the xenobiotic), the current study also aims to assess the protective effect of vitamin C in female Swiss mice dermally-exposed to the tannery effluent. Female Swiss mice exposed to the tannery effluent (without vitamin supplementation) have shown lower novel object recognition index during the test session of the novel object recognition task, and they have descended significantly faster from the inhibitory avoidance platform when they were compared to mice belonging to the other groups, therefore evidencing memory deficit. However, the test performance of females receiving vitamin C was similar to that of control animals. Thus, the current study confirms the initial hypothesis that the dermal exposure to the pollutant, even for a short period, causes cognitive deficit in female Swiss mice. The herein presented findings also provide evidence that the mechanisms of action of the tannery effluent in these animals are related to oxidative damages in specific brain regions directed to the formation of short memory to perform aversive and object recognition tasks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Topical cyclosporin induces hair growth in human split skin grafted onto nude mice.

    PubMed

    Gilhar, A; Etzioni, A; Moscona, R

    1991-01-01

    Previously we observed that systemic CyA induces hair growth in an experimental model of human scalp skin graft transplanted onto nude mice. In the present study we investigated the role of topical CyA in the murine transplantation model, using human split-thickness skin grafts (HSTSG). Ten mice grafted with 1-mm-thick skin and another 10 mice grafted with 0.4-mm-thick skin were treated topically with CyA in olive oil. Ten other mice, treated with olive oil only, served as a control group. At the end of the study we observed hair growth only on the grafted skin of the CyA-treated group. Four out of 10 grafts showed hair growth in each of the groups. Quantitative analysis of transverse sections of cylindrical punch biopsy specimens of HSTSG before transplantation revealed anagen follicles, including small ones and telogen/catagen follicles, whereas specimens after skin transplantation showed terminal follicles mostly in the anagen phase. The present study provides further support to previous observations regarding the beneficial effect of CyA on hair growth.

  1. Dicer Cooperates with p53 to Suppress DNA Damage and Skin Carcinogenesis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lyle, Stephen; Hoover, Kathleen; Colpan, Cansu; Zhu, Zhiqing; Matijasevic, Zdenka; Jones, Stephen N.

    2014-01-01

    Dicer is required for the maturation of microRNA, and loss of Dicer and miRNA processing has been found to alter numerous biological events during embryogenesis, including the development of mammalian skin and hair. We have previously examined the role of miRNA biogenesis in mouse embryonic fibroblasts and found that deletion of Dicer induces cell senescence regulated, in part, by the p53 tumor suppressor. Although Dicer and miRNA molecules are thought to have either oncogenic or tumor suppressing roles in various types of cancer, a role for Dicer and miRNAs in skin carcinogenesis has not been established. Here we show that perinatal ablation of Dicer in the skin of mice leads to loss of fur in adult mice, increased epidermal cell proliferation and apoptosis, and the accumulation of widespread DNA damage in epidermal cells. Co-ablation of Dicer and p53 did not alter the timing or extent of fur loss, but greatly reduced survival of Dicer-skin ablated mice, as these mice developed multiple and highly aggressive skin carcinomas. Our results describe a new mouse model for spontaneous basal and squamous cell tumorigenesis. Furthermore, our findings reveal that loss of Dicer in the epidermis induces extensive DNA damage, activation of the DNA damage response and p53-dependent apoptosis, and that Dicer and p53 cooperate to suppress mammalian skin carcinogenesis. PMID:24979267

  2. Habituation of thermal sensations, skin temperatures, and norepinephrine in men exposed to cold air.

    PubMed

    Leppäluoto, J; Korhonen, I; Hassi, J

    2001-04-01

    We studied habituation processes by exposing six healthy men to cold air (2 h in a 10 degrees C room) daily for 11 days. During the repeated cold exposures, the general cold sensations and those of hand and foot became habituated so that they were already significantly less intense after the first exposure and remained habituated to the end of the experiment. The decreases in skin temperatures and increases in systolic blood pressure became habituated after four to six exposures, but their habituations occurred only at a few time points during the 120-min cold exposure and vanished by the end of the exposures. Serum thyroid-stimulating hormone, total thyroxine and triiodothyronine, norepinephrine, epinephrine, cortisol, and total proteins were measured before and after the 120-min cold exposure on days 0, 5, and 10. The increase in norepinephrine response became reduced on days 5 and 10 and that of proteins on day 10, suggesting that the sympathetic nervous system became habituated and hemoconcentration became attenuated. Thus repeated cold-air exposures lead to habituations of cold sensation and norepinephrine response and to attenuation of hemoconcentration, which provide certain benefits to those humans who have to stay and work in cold environments.

  3. Specific Accumulation of Lipid Droplets in Hepatocyte Nuclei of PFOA-exposed BALB/c Mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ling; Wang, Yu; Liang, Yong; Li, Jia; Liu, Yuchen; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Aiqian; Fu, Jianjie; Jiang, Guibin

    2013-07-01

    Lipid droplets (LDs), which are important storage structures for neutral lipids and organelles of diverse functions, participate in various cellular activities. In this study, BALB/c mice, fed a regular or a high-fat diet, were exposed to the synthetic perfluorinated compound, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). PFOA-exposed mice had altered serum lipid and lipoprotein levels, and hydropic degeneration or ballooning degeneration of hepatocytes. Moreover, we report for the first time that LDs accumulate in hepatic nuclei after PFOA exposure. As PFOA resembles fatty acids (FA) in its structure, this chemical may interfere with the transportation and metabolism of FA as well as LDs in the cell. This abnormal localization of LDs in the nucleus may be related to the cause of PFOA toxicity.

  4. TNF-α and temporal changes in sleep architecture in mice exposed to sleep fragmentation.

    PubMed

    Kaushal, Navita; Ramesh, Vijay; Gozal, David

    2012-01-01

    TNF-α plays critical roles in host-defense, sleep-wake regulation, and the pathogenesis of various disorders. Increases in the concentration of circulating TNF-α after either sleep deprivation or sleep fragmentation (SF) appear to underlie excessive daytime sleepiness in patients with sleep apnea (OSA). Following baseline recordings, mice were subjected to 15 days of SF (daily for 12 h/day from 07.00 h to 19.00 h), and sleep parameters were recorded on days1, 7 and 15. Sleep architecture and sleep propensity were assessed in both C57BL/6J and in TNF-α double receptor KO mice (TNFR KO). To further confirm the role of TNF-α, we also assessed the effect of treatment with a TNF- α neutralizing antibody in C57BL/6J mice. SF was not associated with major changes in global sleep architecture in C57BL/6J and TNFR KO mice. TNFR KO mice showed higher baseline SWS delta power. Further, following 15 days of SF, mice injected with TNF-α neutralizing antibody and TNFR KO mice showed increased EEG SWS activity. However, SWS latency, indicative of increased propensity to sleep, was only decreased in C57BL/6J, and was unaffected in TNFR KO mice as well as in C57BL/6J mice exposed to SF but treated with TNF-α neutralizing antibody. Taken together, our findings show that the excessive sleepiness incurred by recurrent arousals during sleep may be due to activation of TNF-alpha-dependent inflammatory pathways, despite the presence of preserved sleep duration and global sleep architecture.

  5. Community Structure and Function of Amphibian Skin Microbes: An Experiment with Bullfrogs Exposed to a Chytrid Fungus.

    PubMed

    Walke, Jenifer B; Becker, Matthew H; Loftus, Stephen C; House, Leanna L; Teotonio, Thais L; Minbiole, Kevin P C; Belden, Lisa K

    2015-01-01

    The vertebrate microbiome contributes to disease resistance, but few experiments have examined the link between microbiome community structure and disease resistance functions. Chytridiomycosis, a major cause of amphibian population declines, is a skin disease caused by the fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). In a factorial experiment, bullfrog skin microbiota was reduced with antibiotics, augmented with an anti-Bd bacterial isolate (Janthinobacterium lividum), or unmanipulated, and individuals were then either exposed or not exposed to Bd. We found that the microbial community structure of individual frogs prior to Bd exposure influenced Bd infection intensity one week following exposure, which, in turn, was negatively correlated with proportional growth during the experiment. Microbial community structure and function differed among unmanipulated, antibiotic-treated, and augmented frogs only when frogs were exposed to Bd. Bd is a selective force on microbial community structure and function, and beneficial states of microbial community structure may serve to limit the impacts of infection.

  6. Community Structure and Function of Amphibian Skin Microbes: An Experiment with Bullfrogs Exposed to a Chytrid Fungus

    PubMed Central

    Walke, Jenifer B.; Becker, Matthew H.; Loftus, Stephen C.; House, Leanna L.; Teotonio, Thais L.; Minbiole, Kevin P. C.; Belden, Lisa K.

    2015-01-01

    The vertebrate microbiome contributes to disease resistance, but few experiments have examined the link between microbiome community structure and disease resistance functions. Chytridiomycosis, a major cause of amphibian population declines, is a skin disease caused by the fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). In a factorial experiment, bullfrog skin microbiota was reduced with antibiotics, augmented with an anti-Bd bacterial isolate (Janthinobacterium lividum), or unmanipulated, and individuals were then either exposed or not exposed to Bd. We found that the microbial community structure of individual frogs prior to Bd exposure influenced Bd infection intensity one week following exposure, which, in turn, was negatively correlated with proportional growth during the experiment. Microbial community structure and function differed among unmanipulated, antibiotic-treated, and augmented frogs only when frogs were exposed to Bd. Bd is a selective force on microbial community structure and function, and beneficial states of microbial community structure may serve to limit the impacts of infection. PMID:26445500

  7. Temporal variations of skin pigmentation in C57BL/6 mice affect optical bioluminescence quantitation.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Allison; Calabro, Katherine; Galarneau, Jean-Rene; Bigio, Irving J; Krucker, Thomas

    2011-12-01

    Depilation-induced skin pigmentation in C57Bl/6 mice is a known occurrence, and presents a unique problem for quantitative optical imaging of small animals, especially for bioluminescence. The work reported here quantitatively investigated the optical attenuation of bioluminescent light due to melanin pigmentation in the skin of transgenic C57Bl/6 mice, modified such that luciferase expression is under the transcription control of a physiologically and pharmacologically inducible gene. Both in vivo and ex vivo experiments were performed to track bioluminescence signal attenuation through different stages of the mouse hair growth cycle. Simultaneous reflectance measurements were collected in vivo to estimate melanin levels. Biological variability of skin pigmentation was found to dramatically affect collected bioluminescent signal emerging through the skin of the mice. When compared to signal through skin with no pigmentation, the signal through highly pigmented skin was attenuated an average of 90%. Positive correlation was found between reflectance measurements and bioluminescence signal loss. A correction scheme is proposed based on this correlation, but signal variation due to non-melanin scattering and absorption sources introduce significant errors. Advanced spectral reflectance analysis will be necessary to develop a more reliable correction method in the future. Skin pigmentation is a significant variable in bioluminescent imaging, and should be considered in experimental design and implementation for longitudinal studies, and especially when sensitivity to small signal changes, or differences among animals, is required.

  8. A POSSIBLE SOURCE OF SECONDARY INVADING STAPHYLOCOCCI IN SALMONELLA INFECTED MICE EXPOSED TO ACUTE COLD

    DTIC Science & Technology

    within a few days, yet the incidence of tissue invasion was unaltered. The coagulase negative strains normally present in feces and in tissues persisted...In a effort to determine the origin of the staphylococci known to invade the deep tissues (liver, spleen, kidneys, lungs and heart) of mice exposed...when fecal suspensions were inoculated into selective media. Substitution of 0. 01 N hydrochloric acid for drinking water eliminated staphylococci

  9. Susceptibility to pulmonary hypertension in inbred strains of mice exposed to cigarette smoke.

    PubMed

    Nadziejko, Christine; Fang, Kaije; Bravo, Antonio; Gordon, Terry

    2007-05-01

    Cor pulmonale is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with emphysema, but it is not known whether alveolar destruction is directly involved in the disease pathogenesis. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between susceptibility to smoking-induced cor pulmonale and alveolar destruction in eight inbred strains of mice: 129XI/SvJ, A/J, A/HeJ, BALB/cJ, C3H/HeJ, C57BL/6J, DBA/2J, and SWR/J. The mice were exposed to filtered air or mainstream cigarette smoke at a concentration of 250 mg/m(3) for 5.5 h/day, 5 days/wk for 5 mo, housed for 4 more months, and killed. The ratio of the weight of the right ventricle/left ventricle plus septum [RV/(LV + S)] was used to assess right ventricular hypertrophy. Alveolar mean linear intercept was used to quantify severity of alveolar destruction. Morphometric determination of blood vessel muscularization was done on sections from four mouse strains. Smoke exposure resulted in significant increases in RV/(LV + S) in the A/J and A/HeJ strains compared with air-exposed controls. The magnitude of the smoking-induced increase in RV/(LV + S) decreased as a function of the genetic distance of the other strains from the A/J and A/HeJ strains. Pulmonary vascular muscularization was significantly increased in smoke-exposed A/J and BALB/cJ mice but not in C3H/HeJ and C57BL/6 mice. Also, mouse strain susceptibility to smoking-induced pulmonary vascular muscularization did not correlate with changes in mean linear intercept. The data from this study suggest that alveolar destruction by itself is not sufficient to cause smoking-induced cor pulmonale in inbred mice.

  10. Mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to alveolar developmental arrest in hyperoxia-exposed mice.

    PubMed

    Ratner, Veniamin; Starkov, Anatoly; Matsiukevich, Dzmitry; Polin, Richard A; Ten, Vadim S

    2009-05-01

    This study investigated whether mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to alveolar developmental arrest in a mouse model of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). To induce BPD, 3-day-old mice were exposed to 75% O2. Mice were studied at two time points of hyperoxia (72 h or 2 wk) and after 3 weeks of recovery in room air (RA). A separate cohort of mice was exposed to pyridaben, a complex-I (C-I) inhibitor, for 72 hours or 2 weeks. Alveolarization was quantified by radial alveolar count and mean linear intercept methods. Pulmonary mitochondrial function was defined by respiration rates, ATP-production rate, and C-I activity. At 72 hours, hyperoxic mice demonstrated significant inhibition of C-I activity, reduced respiration and ATP production rates, and significantly decreased radial alveolar count compared with controls. Exposure to pyridaben for 72 hours, as expected, caused significant inhibition of C-I and ADP-phosphorylating respiration. Similar to hyperoxic littermates, these pyridaben-exposed mice exhibited significantly delayed alveolarization compared with controls. At 2 weeks of exposure to hyperoxia or pyridaben, mitochondrial respiration was inhibited and associated with alveolar developmental arrest. However, after 3 weeks of recovery from hyperoxia or 2 weeks after 72 hours of exposure to pyridaben alveolarization significantly improved. In addition, there was marked normalization of C-I and mitochondrial respiration. The degree of hyperoxia-induced pulmonary simplification and recovery strongly (r(2) = 0.76) correlated with C-I activity in lung mitochondria. Thus, the arrest of alveolar development induced by either hyperoxia or direct inhibition of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation indicates that bioenergetic failure to maintain normal alveolar development is one of the fundamental mechanisms responsible for BPD.

  11. Lack of fear response in mice (Mus musculus) exposed to human urine odor.

    PubMed

    Rivard, Germain F; Moser, Emily G; D'Ambrose, Steven P; Lin, David M

    2014-03-01

    A goal of the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals is to improve animal welfare by minimizing sources of fear, anxiety, and stress. As a result, it includes recommendations on overcrowding, frequency of cage changes, enrichment, and group housing. However, human odorants are a potential but unexplored source of fear, anxiety, and stress. Although mice have been maintained for decades for animal research, whether mice perceive humans as predators is unknown. If so, this would necessitate changes in animal care and use procedures to minimize this source of chronic fear, anxiety, and stress. Odorants from predator urine are well known to elicit strong fear responses in mice, leading to modification of animal behavior and elevated levels of stress. To begin asking whether human odors influence mouse behavior, we tested the effect of human urine odor on fear response in mice. We assessed mouse behavior by using a modified shuttle cage to record various parameters of mouse exposure to odorants. We found that mice displayed fear responses to 2,4,5-trimethylthiazoline, a synthetic analog of red fox feces, but no fear response to DMSO, the diluent for 2,4,5-trimethylthiazoline. In contrast, mice exposed to human urine samples showed no significant fear response.

  12. Lack of Fear Response in Mice (Mus musculus) Exposed to Human Urine Odor

    PubMed Central

    Rivard, Germain F; Moser, Emily G; D'Ambrose, Steven P; Lin, David M

    2014-01-01

    A goal of the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals is to improve animal welfare by minimizing sources of fear, anxiety, and stress. As a result, it includes recommendations on overcrowding, frequency of cage changes, enrichment, and group housing. However, human odorants are a potential but unexplored source of fear, anxiety, and stress. Although mice have been maintained for decades for animal research, whether mice perceive humans as predators is unknown. If so, this would necessitate changes in animal care and use procedures to minimize this source of chronic fear, anxiety, and stress. Odorants from predator urine are well known to elicit strong fear responses in mice, leading to modification of animal behavior and elevated levels of stress. To begin asking whether human odors influence mouse behavior, we tested the effect of human urine odor on fear response in mice. We assessed mouse behavior by using a modified shuttle cage to record various parameters of mouse exposure to odorants. We found that mice displayed fear responses to 2,4,5-trimethylthiazoline, a synthetic analog of red fox feces, but no fear response to DMSO, the diluent for 2,4,5-trimethylthiazoline. In contrast, mice exposed to human urine samples showed no significant fear response. PMID:24602539

  13. Behavioral studies with mice exposed to DC and 60-Hz magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, H.P.; Mizumori, S.J.Y.; Allen, H.; Rosenzweig, M.R.; Bennett, E.L.; Tenforde, T.S.

    1984-01-01

    Behavioral measures were evaluated in adult CD-1 and LAF-1 mice continuously exposed for 72 h to a 1.5-Tesla (1 T = 10/sup 4/ Gauss) homogeneous DC magnetic field, and in LAF-1 mice continuously exposed for 72 h to a sinusoidal 60-Hz, 1.65-mT (rms) homogeneous AC field. Three types of behavioral tests were employed: (1) memory of an electroshock-motivated passive avoidance task was assessed in animals that had been trained immediately prior to the field exposure. The strength of memory was varied either by altering the strength of the electric footshock during training, or by administering a cerebral protein synthesis inhibitor, anisomycin, at the time of training. (2) General locomotor activity was measured using a quadrant-crossing test immediately after termination of the magnetic field exposure. (3) Sensitivity of the experimental subjects to the seizure-inducing neuropharmacological agent, pentylenetetrazole, was assessed immediately after the field exposure on the basis of three criteria: (a) the percentage of subjects exhibiting a generalized seizure, (b) the mean time to seizure, and (c) the mean seizure level. The results of these studies revealed no behavior alterations in exposed mice relative to controls in any of the experimental tests with the 1.5-T DC field or the 60-Hz, 1.65-mT (rms) AC field. 57 references, 6 figures, 1 table.

  14. Global Gene Expression Profiling of Hyperkeratotic Skin Lesions from Inner Mongolians Chronically Exposed to Arsenic

    EPA Science Inventory

    The skin is an organ that is highly sensitive to chronic arsenic exposure. Skin lesions such as hyperkeratoses (HKs), which are characterized by hyperproliferation and aberrations in terminal epidermal differentiation, are common early manifestations of arsenicosis in humans. H...

  15. Global Gene Expression Profiling of Hyperkeratotic Skin Lesions from Inner Mongolians Chronically Exposed to Arsenic

    EPA Science Inventory

    The skin is an organ that is highly sensitive to chronic arsenic exposure. Skin lesions such as hyperkeratoses (HKs), which are characterized by hyperproliferation and aberrations in terminal epidermal differentiation, are common early manifestations of arsenicosis in humans. H...

  16. Cutaneous Human Papillomaviruses Found in Sun-Exposed Skin: Beta-papillomavirus Species 2 Predominates in Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Forslund, Ola; Iftner, Thomas; Andersson, Kristin; Lindelöf, Bernt; Hradil, Eva; Nordin, Peter; Stenquist, Bo; Kirnbauer, Reinhard; Dillner, Joakim; de Villiers, Ethel-Michele

    2013-01-01

    Background A spectrum of cutaneous human papillomaviruses (HPVs) is detectable in nonmelanoma skin cancers, as well as in healthy skin, but the significance that the presence of these types of HPV DNA has for the pathogenesis of skin cancer remains unclear. Methods We studied 349 nonimmunosuppressed patients with skin lesions (82 with squamous cell carcinomas, 126 with basal cell carcinomas, 49 with actinic keratoses, and 92 with benign lesions). After superficial skin had been removed by tape, paired biopsy samples—from the lesion and from healthy skin from the same patient—were tested for HPV DNA. Risk factors for HPV DNA were analyzed in multivariate models. Results Overall, 12% of healthy skin samples were positive for HPV DNA, compared with 26% of benign lesions, 22% of actinic keratoses, 18% of basal cell carcinomas, and 26% of squamous cell carcinomas. HPV DNA was associated with sites extensively exposed to the sun, both for the lesions (odds ratio [OR], 4.45 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 2.44–8.11]) and for the healthy skin samples (OR, 3.65 [95% CI 1.79–7.44]). HPV types of Beta-papillomavirus species 2 predominate in squamous cell carcinomas (OR, 4.40 [95% CI, 1.92–10.06]), whereas HPV types of Beta-papillomavirus species 1 are primarily found in benign lesions (OR, 3.47 [95% CI, 1.72–6.99]). Conclusions Cutaneous HPV types are primarily detected at sites extensively exposed to the sun. HPV types of Beta-papillomavirus species 2, but not of species 1, are associated with squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:17703418

  17. Circulating microRNA signatures in mice exposed to lipoteichoic acid

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Previously, we had identified a specific whole blood–derived microRNAs (miRNAs) signature in mice following in vivo injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) originated from Gram-negative bacteria. This study was designed to profile the circulating miRNAs expression in mice exposed to lipoteichoic acid (LTA) which is a major component of the wall of Gram-positive bacteria. Results C57BL/6 mice received intraperitoneal injections of 100 μg of LTA originated from Bacillus subtilis, Streptococcus faecalis, and Staphylococcus aureus were killed 6 h and the whole blood samples were obtained for miRNA expression analysis using a miRNA array (Phalanx miRNA OneArray® 1.0). Up-regulated expression of miRNA targets in the whole blood, serum and white blood cells (WBCs) of C57BL/6 and Tlr2−/− mice upon LTA treatment in 10, 100, or 1000 ug concentrations was quantified at indicated time (2, 6, 24, and 72 h) using real-time RT-PCR and compared with that in the serum of C57BL/6 mice injected with 100 ug of LPS. A significant increase of 4 miRNAs (miR-451, miR-668, miR-1902, and miR-1904) was observed in the whole blood and the serum in a dose- and time-dependent fashion following LTA injection. Induction of miRNA occurred in the serum after 2 h and persisted for at least 6 h. No increased expression of these 4 miRNAs was found in the WBCs. Higher but not significant expression level of these 4 miRNAs were observed following LTA treatment in the serum of Tlr2−/−against that of C57BL6 mice. In contrast, LPS exposure induced moderate expression of miR-451 but not of the other 3 miRNA targets. Conclusions We identified a specific circulating miRNA signature in mice exposed to LTA. That expression profile is different from those of mice exposed to LPS. Those circulating miRNAs induced by LTA or LPS treatment may serve as promising biomarkers for the differentiation between exposures to Gram-positive or Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:23286671

  18. Oral intake of beet extract provides protection against skin barrier impairment in hairless mice.

    PubMed

    Kawano, Ken-Ichi; Umemura, Kazuo

    2013-05-01

    The epidermis acts as a functional barrier against the external environment. Disturbances in the function of this barrier cause water loss and increase the chances of penetration by various irritable stimuli, leading to skin diseases such as dry skin, atopic dermatitis, and psoriasis. Ceramides are a critical natural element of the protective epidermal barrier. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the oral intake of beet (Beta vulgaris) extract, a natural product rich in glucosylceramide (GlcCer), may prevent disturbance in skin barrier function. When HR-1 hairless mice were fed a special diet (HR-AD), transepidermal water loss (TEWL) from the dorsal skin increased, with a compensatory increase in water intake after 5 weeks. Mice fed with HR-AD had dry skin with erythema and showed increased scratching behaviour. Histological examinations revealed a remarkable increase in the thickness of the skin at 8 weeks. Supplemental addition of beet extract, which contained GlcCer at a final concentration of 0.1%, significantly prevented an increase TEWL, water intake, cumulative scratching time, and epidermal thickness at 8 weeks. These results indicate that oral intake of beet extract shows potential for preventing skin diseases associated with impaired skin barrier function.

  19. Aortic smooth muscle cell alterations in mice systemically exposed to arsenic.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shih-Chieh; Huang, Shin-Yin; Lin, Wen-Ting; Yang, Rei-Cheng; Yu, Hsin-Su

    2016-05-01

    Previous epidemiological studies showed that chronic arsenic exposure is related to increased cardiovascular disease incidence. The detailed biochemical mechanisms by which arsenic exerts its effects remain unknown. Vascular disease progression is characterized by smooth muscle cell (SMC) phenotypic switching, vessel wall reorganization, and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) production. The objective of this study was to examine early biochemical and structural changes in the aortas of ICR mice systemically exposed to arsenic. Animals were fed sodium arsenite (20 mg/kg) via gavage 5 days/week or Milli-Q water only (control) for 8 weeks. Aortic proteins were subjected to two-dimensional (2-D) differential gel electrophoresis and proteomic studies. Two 2-D gel protein spots were identified as the same protein, smooth muscle (SM)22α, using proteomics. SM22α and Rho kinase 2 gene and protein expression were significantly decreased in the aortic tissue of arsenic-exposed mice compared with that of control mice. No atherosclerotic lesion formation or tissue injury was detected in the aortic wall of either the arsenic-fed or the control group. However, the percent (%) SMC area of the aortic wall was significantly decreased in arsenic-fed mice compared with that in control mice. Additionally, the expression levels of PDGF-BB and early growth response-1 (Egr-1) were significantly higher in the arsenic group than that in the control group. These findings reveal biochemical alterations of SM22α, PDGF, and Egr-1 in conjunction with decreased SMC area in the aortic wall of arsenic-fed mice. Arsenic may initiate aortic SMC alterations that subsequently lead to vascular dysfunction.

  20. Dietary Garcinia cambogia does not modify skin properties of mice with or without excessive sucrose intake.

    PubMed

    Oikawa, Daichi; Hirakawa, Hachidai; Hayamizu, Kohsuke; Nakamura, Yoshinori; Shiba, Nobuya; Nakanishi, Tomonori; Iwamoto, Hisao; Tachibana, Tetsuya; Furuse, Mitsuhiro

    2005-04-01

    The influence of 3.3% Garcinia cambogia extract on the properties of mouse skin with or without 10% sucrose water loading was investigated. Mice (7-week-old) were given free access to a control diet or a diet containing Garcinia cambogia extract. They were also given water alone or both water and sucrose water. Their skin was compared by both biochemical and histological methods. The collagen and triacylglycerol contents were not significantly different among the four groups. Similarly, electron microscopy revealed no differences in the thickness of the dermis layer or the subcutaneous tissue layer. Mice given the diet containing Garcinia cambogia tended to have a reduced total number of adipocytes, but not significantly. These results suggest that Garcinia cambogia supplementation for at least 4 weeks does not induce a negative effect on skin properties in mice irrespective of excessive sucrose intake. (c) 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Establishment of a superficial skin infection model in mice by using Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes.

    PubMed

    Kugelberg, Elisabeth; Norström, Tobias; Petersen, Thomas K; Duvold, Tore; Andersson, Dan I; Hughes, Diarmaid

    2005-08-01

    A new animal model for the purpose of studying superficial infections is presented. In this model an infection is established by disruption of the skin barrier by partial removal of the epidermal layer by tape stripping and subsequent application of the pathogens Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes. The infection and the infection route are purely topical, in contrast to those used in previously described animal models in mice, such as the skin suture-wound model, where the infection is introduced into the deeper layers of the skin. Thus, the present model is considered more biologically relevant for the study of superficial skin infections in mice and humans. Established topical antibiotic treatments are shown to be effective. The procedures involved in the model are simple, a feature that increases throughput and reproducibility. This new model should be applicable to the evaluation of novel antimicrobial treatments of superficial infections caused by S. aureus and S. pyogenes.

  2. Teratogenic, biochemical, and histological studies with mice prenatally exposed to 2. 45-GHz microwave radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Nawrot, P.S.; McRee, D.I.; Galvin, M.J.

    1985-04-01

    Pregnant CD-1 mice were exposed to 2.45-GHz continuous wave microwave radiation at an incident power density of 30 mW/Cm/sup 2/. The local specific absorption rate near the uterine area (deep colonic location), as determined from time-temperature profiles measured with a Vitek thermistor probe, was 40.2 mW/G. Groups of mice were exposed 8 hr per day through Days 1-6 or 6-15 of pregnancy. Other groups of animals were exposed to an elevated ambient temperature of 31/sup 0/C which increased the colonic temperature 2.3/sup 0/C, the same as that produced by the microwaves. For the two conditions, temperature exposed and sham exposed, two groups of animals were used. One group was handled in the same manner as the microwave-irradiated group and the other group was not handled so as to evaluate the effects of stressing the animals by handling. On Day 18 of gestation the dams of all experimental groups were sacrificed and their reproductive status was determined. The fetuses were examined for visceral and skeletal alterations. Brain cholinesterase activity and histology were evaluated in the groups exposed on Days 6-15. The results show that microwave radiation increases embryo lethality at the early stages of gestation. Fetal toxicity and teratogenicity were not significantly increased by exposure to microwaves on either Days 1-6 or 6-15 of gestation. Cholinesterase activity and histology of the brain of 18-day-old fetuses were not adversely affected.

  3. Ignition of Fuel Vapors Beneath Titanium Aircraft Skins Exposed to Lightning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosvic, T. C.; Helgeson, N. L.; Gerstein, M.

    1971-01-01

    Hot-spot and puncture ignition of fuel vapors by simulated lightning discharges was studied experimentally. The influences of skin coating, skin structure, discharge polarity, skin thickness, discharge current level, and current duration were measured and interpreted. Ignition thresholds are reported for titanium alloy constructed as sheets, sheets coated with sealants, and sandwich skins. Results indicated that the ignition threshold charge transfer for coated sheets, honeycomb, and truss skins is respectively about 200%, 400%, 800% that of bare alloy sheet of .102 cm (.040 in.)-thickness. It was found that hot-spot ignition can occur well after termination of the arc, and that sandwich materials allow ignition only if punctured.

  4. Oral chemoprevention of skin cancer in mice by benzophenone sunscreens dioxybenzone and octabenzone in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Rao, G Subba; Tokuda, Harukuni; Ichiishi, Eiichiro; Takasaki, Midori; Iida, Akira; Suzuki, Nobutaka; Konoshima, Takao; Kapadia, Govind J

    2013-06-01

    Sunscreen compounds with added benefit of skin cancer prevention have both public and commercial interests. Our earlier study using the Epstein-Barr virus early antigen in vitro assay reported on skin cancer chemoprevention potential of benzophenone sunscreens. We now report the in vivo antitumor activity of two of the benzophenone sunscreens which tested positively in the in vitro assay, octabenzone (UV-1) and dioxybenzone (UV-2), in the two-stage mouse skin carcinogenesis model using (±)-(E)-4-methyl-2-[-(E)-hydroxyamino]-5-nitro-6-methoxy-3-hexanamide (NOR-1) as inducer and 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA) as promoter. Pathogen-free, female hairless mice of HOS:HR-1 strain, 15 animals per control and test groups, were used. Skin tumors were induced by a single dose of NOR-1 (390 nmol in 100 μl of acetone). One week later, TPA (1.7 nmol in 100 μl of acetone) was applied to skin twice weekly for 20 weeks as tumor a promoter. The test compounds UV-I or UV-2 were administered at 0.0025% to mice through drinking water ad libitum, starting one week prior to and stopping one week after tumor initiation. All animals were examined weekly for the development of skin papillomas. In both UV-1- and UV-2-treated mice, a two-week delay in tumor appearance, and significant inhibition (p<0.001) of tumor incidence (50% and 60%, respectively) and tumor burden (papilloma inhibition/mouse, 50% and 70%, respectively) were observed when compared to the positive control group. UV-2 (dihydroxy derivative) was a more potent inhibitor of skin tumor than UV-1 (monohydroxy derivative), which followed their antioxidant activity ranking. The results affirm the skin cancer chemoprevention potential of orally-ingested benzophenone sunscreens in mice and warrant studies in humans to validate synergistic protection achievable by complementation of oral and topical sunscreen usage.

  5. Accumulation of mercury in ovaries of mice after the application of skin-lightening creams.

    PubMed

    Al-Saleh, Iman; Shinwari, Neptune; Al-Amodi, Mona

    2009-10-01

    Skin-lightening creams are being increasingly used by women in particular, worldwide in an attempt to whiten their skin. Men and older people use these creams to remove age spots or other pigmentation disorders. Several studies have reported the presence of high mercury levels in skin-lightening cream. Women, especially pregnant and nursing mothers, who use these creams are at risk of mercury toxicity because long-term exposure can cause permanent neurological damage, nephrological disorders, fertility problems, and birth defects. Early exposure usually has no clinical symptoms. Mercury levels were measured in a total of 49 ovary tissue samples. The mean mercury contents in the ovaries of non-treated mice (11.70 +/- 13.38 ng/g) were compared to mice treated with Rose skin-lightening cream samples (2,471.92 +/- 1,336.31 ng/g) and those treated with Fair & Lovely skin-lightening creams (58.47 +/- 39.51 ng/g). The mercury content in the ovary tissues increased with number of cream applications and were highest in the ovaries of mice treated twice a day with Fair & Lovely (87.79 +/- 26.20 ng/g) and once a day with Rose (3,515.61 +/- 1,099.78 ng/g). Our data indicate that dermal exposure to mercury can result in a significant accumulation in the ovaries of mice following the application of skin-lightening cream. This may cause alterations in reproductive behavior and contribute to infertility or ovarian failure. Of course, these results need to be confirmed by further research. Imported or locally made skin-lightening creams are widely available in Saudi market. It would be ideal to ban the sale of these creams but unfortunately, advertisements in the mass media presenting celebrities and beauty specialists make these products more popular. Alternatively, public health authorities should encourage more reliance on prescribed creams for the treatment of skin pigmentation problems.

  6. Increased vulnerability to self-administer cocaine in mice prenatally exposed to cocaine.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Beatriz A; Mead, Andy N; Kosofsky, Barry E

    2002-09-01

    At least 40,000 infants born each year in the U.S. are estimated to have been exposed to crack cocaine and, therefore, may be at risk for increased vulnerability to cocaine addiction. The present study tested the hypothesis that prenatal exposure to cocaine significantly increased subsequent cocaine-taking behavior in mice. Swiss Webster male mice that had been exposed to cocaine in utero were tested at 5 months of age in the cocaine self-administration paradigm. They were the offspring of dams that received one of the following treatments during gestation days 8-17: cocaine (40 mg/kg or 20 mg/kg per day; COC40 and COC20 mice, respectively), saline with access to food ad libitum (SAL mice), or saline with access to food restricted to that of the COC40 dams (i.e., pair-fed; SPF40 mice). Mice were initially trained to lever press for a condensed-milk solution, were implanted with an indwelling intravenous (i.v.) catheter and, subsequently, allowed to self-administer cocaine (0.25, 0.5, 1.0, or 2.0 mg/kg per injection) under a fixed ratio (FR) 1 schedule of reinforcement. Latency for acquisition of food-reinforced responding appeared to be independent of prenatal treatment, as was acquisition of cocaine self-administration, which was found to be dose dependent. Both COC40 and SAL mice reached cocaine self-administration criteria at 1.0 mg/kg or 2.0 mg/kg per injection doses, while neither group did so at lower doses. It was also observed that, at each of the doses tested, a higher number of COC40 mice reached criteria for acquisition. A logistic regression analysis confirmed that the likelihood for acquiring cocaine self-administration was positively correlated to prenatal exposure to cocaine and the dose of cocaine tested. These data provide evidence, for the first time, that prenatal exposure to higher doses of cocaine increase the probability of acquiring cocaine self-administration at moderate doses during adulthood and modulate vulnerability to cocaine

  7. Beneficial effects of dried pomegranate juice concentrated powder on ultraviolet B-induced skin photoaging in hairless mice

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Su-Jin; Choi, Beom-Rak; Kim, Seung-Hee; Yi, Hae-Yeon; Park, Hye-Rim; Song, Chang-Hyun; Ku, Sae-Kwang; Lee, Young-Joon

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated the anti-aging effects of pomegranate juice concentrated powder (PCP) in hairless mice following 15 weeks of UVB irradiation (three times a week; 0.18 J/cm2). Skin moisturizing effects were evaluated through skin water, collagen type I and hyaluronan contents, as well as collagen type I and hyaluronan synthesis-related transcript levels. Wrinkle formation and edema scores (skin weights) were also assessed, along with skin matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1, MMP-9 and MMP-13 transcript levels. To determine the anti-inflammatory effects of PCP, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-10 contents were observed. Caspase-3 and cleaved poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) were used as an apoptotic index in epidermal keratinocytes. To determine the anti-oxidative effects of PCP, nitrotyrosine and 4-hydroxynonenal immunoreactive cells were detected and glutathione (GSH) content, malondialdehyde levels, superoxide anion production, Nox2, and GSH reductase mRNA expression were all measured. The results indicated that skin wrinkles induced by photoaging were significantly reduced by PCP, whereas skin water contents, collagen type I and hyaluronan contents all increased. Furthermore, IL-1β levels in the PCP-treated groups were lower than those in the UVB-exposed control group. UVB-induced GSH depletion was also inhibited by PCP. Taken together, the results of the current study suggest that PCP has favorable protective effects against UVB-induced photoaging through anti-apoptotic effects, MMP activity inhibition and ECM (COL1 and hyaluronan) synthesis-related moisturizing, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects. PMID:28810554

  8. Mild Staphylococcus aureus Skin Infection Improves the Course of Subsequent Endogenous S. aureus Bacteremia in Mice.

    PubMed

    van den Berg, Sanne; de Vogel, Corné P; van Belkum, Alex; Bakker-Woudenberg, Irma A J M

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus carriers with S. aureus bacteremia may have a reduced mortality risk compared to non-carriers. A role for the immune system is suggested. Here, we study in mice the effect of mild S. aureus skin infection prior to endogenous or exogenous S. aureus bacteremia, and evaluate protection in relation to anti-staphylococcal antibody levels. Skin infections once or twice by a clinical S. aureus isolate (isolate P) or S. aureus strain 8325-4 were induced in mice free of S. aureus and anti-staphylococcal antibodies. Five weeks later, immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels in blood against 25 S. aureus antigens were determined, and LD50 or LD100 bacteremia caused by S. aureus isolate P was induced. S. aureus skin infections led to elevated levels of anti-staphylococcal IgG in blood. One skin infection improved the course of subsequent severe endogenous bacteremia only. A second skin infection further improved animal survival rate, which was associated with increased pre-bacteremia IgG levels against Efb, IsaA, LukD, LukE, Nuc, PrsA and WTA. In conclusion, S. aureus isolate P skin infection in mice reduces the severity of subsequent endogenous S. aureus bacteremia only. Although cellular immune effects cannot be rules out, anti-staphylococcal IgG against specified antigens may contribute to this effect.

  9. Mild Staphylococcus aureus Skin Infection Improves the Course of Subsequent Endogenous S. aureus Bacteremia in Mice

    PubMed Central

    van den Berg, Sanne; de Vogel, Corné P.; van Belkum, Alex; Bakker-Woudenberg, Irma A. J. M.

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus carriers with S. aureus bacteremia may have a reduced mortality risk compared to non-carriers. A role for the immune system is suggested. Here, we study in mice the effect of mild S. aureus skin infection prior to endogenous or exogenous S. aureus bacteremia, and evaluate protection in relation to anti-staphylococcal antibody levels. Skin infections once or twice by a clinical S. aureus isolate (isolate P) or S. aureus strain 8325-4 were induced in mice free of S. aureus and anti-staphylococcal antibodies. Five weeks later, immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels in blood against 25 S. aureus antigens were determined, and LD50 or LD100 bacteremia caused by S. aureus isolate P was induced. S. aureus skin infections led to elevated levels of anti-staphylococcal IgG in blood. One skin infection improved the course of subsequent severe endogenous bacteremia only. A second skin infection further improved animal survival rate, which was associated with increased pre-bacteremia IgG levels against Efb, IsaA, LukD, LukE, Nuc, PrsA and WTA. In conclusion, S. aureus isolate P skin infection in mice reduces the severity of subsequent endogenous S. aureus bacteremia only. Although cellular immune effects cannot be rules out, anti-staphylococcal IgG against specified antigens may contribute to this effect. PMID:26060995

  10. Chemopreventive effects of pomegranate seed oil on skin tumor development in CD1 mice.

    PubMed

    Hora, Justin J; Maydew, Emily R; Lansky, Ephraim P; Dwivedi, Chandradhar

    2003-01-01

    Pomegranate seed oil was investigated for possible skin cancer chemopreventive efficacy in mice. In the main experiment, two groups consisting each of 30, 4-5-week-old, female CD(1) mice were used. Both groups had skin cancer initiated with an initial topical exposure of 7,12-dimethylbenzanthracene and with biweekly promotion using 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA). The experimental group was pretreated with 5% pomegranate seed oil prior to each TPA application. Tumor incidence, the number of mice containing at least one tumor, was 100% and 93%, and multiplicity, the average number of tumors per mouse, was 20.8 and 16.3 per mouse after 20 weeks of promotion in the control and pomegranate seed oil-treated groups, respectively (P <.05). In a second experiment, two groups each consisting of three CD(1) mice were used to assess the effect of pomegranate seed oil on TPA-stimulated ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity, an important event in skin cancer promotion. Each group received a single topical application of TPA, with the experimental group receiving a topical treatment 1 h prior with 5% pomegranate seed oil. The mice were killed 5 h later, and ODC activity was assessed by radiometric method. The experimental group showed a 17% reduction in ODC activity. Pomegranate seed oil (5%) significantly decreased (P <.05) tumor incidence, multiplicity, and TPA-induced ODC activity. Overall, the results highlight the potential of pomegranate seed oil as a safe and effective chemopreventive agent against skin cancer.

  11. Neurobehavioral phenotype of C57BL/6J mice prenatally and neonatally exposed to cigarette smoke.

    PubMed

    Amos-Kroohs, Robyn M; Williams, Michael T; Braun, Amanda A; Graham, Devon L; Webb, Cynthia L; Birtles, Todd S; Greene, Robert M; Vorhees, Charles V; Pisano, M Michele

    2013-01-01

    Although maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy is a well-documented risk factor for a variety of adverse pregnancy outcomes, how prenatal cigarette smoke exposure affects postnatal neurobehavioral/cognitive development remains poorly defined. In order to investigate the cause of an altered behavioral phenotype, mice developmentally exposed to a paradigm of 'active' maternal cigarette smoke is needed. Accordingly, cigarette smoke exposed (CSE) and air-exposed C57BL/6J mice were treated for 6h per day in paired inhalation chambers throughout gestation and lactation and were tested for neurobehavioral effects while controlling for litter effects. CSE mice exhibited less than normal anxiety in the elevated zero maze, transient hypoactivity during a 1h locomotor activity test, had longer latencies on the last day of cued Morris water maze testing, impaired hidden platform learning in the Morris water maze during acquisition, reversal, and shift trials, and impaired retention for platform location on probe trials after reversal but not after acquisition or shift. CSE mice also showed a sexually dimorphic response in central zone locomotion to a methamphetamine challenge (males under-responded and females over-responded), and showed reduced anxiety in the light-dark test by spending more time on the light side. No differences on tests of marble burying, acoustic startle response with prepulse inhibition, Cincinnati water maze, matching-to-sample Morris water maze, conditioned fear, forced swim, or MK-801-induced locomotor activation were found. Collectively, the data indicate that developmental cigarette smoke exposure induces subnormal anxiety in a novel environment, impairs spatial learning and reference memory while sparing other behaviors (route-based learning, fear conditioning, and forced swim immobility). The findings add support to mounting evidence that developmental cigarette smoke exposure has long-term adverse effects on brain function. Copyright © 2013

  12. Neurobehavioral phenotype of C57BL/6J mice prenatally and neonatally exposed to cigarette smoke

    PubMed Central

    Amos-Kroohs, Robyn M.; Williams, Michael T.; Braun, Amanda A.; Graham, Devon L; Webb, Cynthia L.; Birtles, Todd S.; Greene, Robert M.; Vorhees, Charles V.; Pisano, M. Michele

    2013-01-01

    Although maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy is a well-documented risk factor for a variety of adverse pregnancy outcomes, how prenatal cigarette smoke exposure affects postnatal neurobehavioral/cognitive development remains poorly defined. In order to investigate the cause of an altered behavioral phenotype, mice developmentally exposed to a paradigm of ‘active’ maternal cigarette smoke is needed. Accordingly, cigarette smoke exposed (CSE) and air-exposed C57BL/6J mice were treated for 6 h per day in paired inhalation chambers throughout gestation and lactation and were tested for neurobehavioral effects while controlling for litter effects. CSE mice exhibited less than normal anxiety in the elevated zero maze, transient hypoactivity during a 1 h locomotor activity test, had longer latencies on the last day of cued Morris water maze testing, impaired hidden platform learning in the Morris water maze during acquisition, reversal, and shift trials, and impaired retention for platform location on probe trials after reversal but not after acquisition or shift. CSE mice also showed a sexually dimorphic response in central zone locomotion to a methamphetamine challenge (males under-responded and females over-responded), and showed reduced anxiety in the light-dark test by spending more time on the light side. No differences on tests of marble burying, acoustic startle response with prepulse inhibition, Cincinnati water maze, matching-to-sample Morris water maze, conditioned fear, forced swim, or MK-801-induced locomotor activation were found. Collectively, the data indicate that developmental cigarette smoke exposure induces subnormal anxiety in a novel environment, impairs spatial learning and reference memory while sparing other behaviors (route-based learning, fear conditioning, and forced swim immobility). The findings add support to mounting evidence that developmental cigarette smoke exposure has long-term adverse effects on brain function. PMID

  13. Inbred mice strain shows neurobehavioral changes when exposed to tannery effluent.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Joyce Moreira; da Silva, Wellington Alves Mizael; de Oliveira Mendes, Bruna; Guimarães, Abraão Tiago Batista; de Lima Rodrigues, Aline Sueli; Montalvão, Mateus Flores; da Costa Estrela, Dieferson; da Silva, Anderson Rodrigo; Malafaia, Guilherme

    2017-01-01

    The bovine leather processing (tanning industries) stands as a generating activity of potentially toxic waste. The emission of untreated effluents into the environment may cause serious harm to human and environmental health. Nevertheless, few studies have investigated the possible effects of intake of these effluents in experimental mammalian models. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the neurobehavioral effects of chronic intake of different tannery effluent concentrations diluted with water (0.1, 1, and 5%) in male C57BL/6J mice. After 120 days of exposure, the animals were subjected to different behavioral tests, predictive of anxiety (elevated plus maze (EPM), open-field (OF), and neophobia test), depression (forced swim), and memory deficits (object recognition test). From the EPM test, it was observed that the mice exposed to 0.1, 1, and 5% of tannery effluents showed higher anxiety scores compared to the animals in the control group. However, the results of this study revealed no differences among the experimental groups in the proportion (percentage) of locomotion in the central quarters/total locomotion calculated (by OF), considered an indirect measure for anxiety. At neophobia test, all the animals exposed to chronic intake of tannery effluents showed higher latency time to start eating, which corresponds to an anxiogenic behavior. Regarding the forced swim test, it was observed that the animals exposed to tannery effluents had longer time in immobility behavior, suggesting a predictive behavior to depression. Finally, the object recognition test showed that the treatments did not cause damage to the animals' memory. The recognition rate of the new object did not differ among the experimental groups. Thus, it is concluded that male C57BL/6J mice (inbred strain) exposed to tannery effluents have predictive neurobehavioral changes of anxiety and depression, without memory deficit.

  14. [Apoptosis of pulmonary epithelial cells and endothelial cells in mice exposed to phosgene].

    PubMed

    Li, Wen-li; Hai, Chun-xu; Yang, Chen; Li, Bo; Liu, Rui; Zhang, Xiao-di

    2005-08-01

    To study apoptosis of pulmonary epithelial cells and endothelial cells in mice with pulmonary edema induced by phosgene exposure. Thirty-two mice were divided into normal group and phosgene group with 16 mice in each group. The mice in phosgene group were exposed to phosgene (11.9 mg/L) for 5 min and those in the control group to air. Four hours after exposure, alveolar type II cells were isolated and cultured to observe their apoptosis by electron microscope and flow cytometry. The lung tissues were also taken for DNA gel electrophoresis and TUNEL assay. Apoptotic bodies were observed in alveolar type II cells under electron microscope in phosgene group, which had higher cell apoptosis rate than the control group [(40.26+/-7.74)% vs (1.58+/-1.01)%, P<0.001] as determined by flow cytometry. Ladder-like DNA fragmentation pattern was observed in DNA gel electrophoresis in phosgene group with apoptosis of the pulmonary epithelial and endothelial cells observed by TUNEL. Phosgene can induce pulmonary epithelial and endothelial cell apoptosis in mice, suggesting that the mechanism of phosgene-induced pulmonary edema involves apoptosis of the lung cells.

  15. Radioprotective activity of betalains from red beets in mice exposed to gamma irradiation.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiaoling; Wang, Yuping; Zhang, Zesheng

    2009-08-01

    We investigated the radioprotective activity of betalains from red beets in mice irradiated by a (60)Co gamma (gamma) ray (6.0 Gy, at a dose of 1.5 Gy min(-1)). Mice were randomly divided into five groups, namely the control group and four experimental groups which were given one of four concentrations of betalains from red beets (0, 5, 20 and 80 mg/kg, equivalent to betanin) for 30 days. The four experimental groups of mice were then exposed to the (60)Co gamma-rays and were given betalains from red beets for a further 3 days. The number of white blood cells, karyota of the femur and the number of micronuclei in polychromatophilic erythrocytes of bone marrow in mice were determined. The activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, malondialdehyde, spleen index and thymus index were also determined. The results indicate that the administration of betalains from red beets is radioprotective in mice irradiated by (60)Co in vivo. The underlying mechanism remains unclear but appears to be mediated by the antioxidant activity of the betalains from red beets and modulation of the immune system.

  16. Neuroprotective effects of sildenafil against oxidative stress and memory dysfunction in mice exposed to noise stress.

    PubMed

    Sikandaner, Hu Erxidan; Park, So Young; Kim, Min Jung; Park, Shi Nae; Yang, Dong Won

    2017-02-15

    Noise exposure has been well characterized as an environmental stressor, and is known to have auditory and non-auditory effects. Phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) inhibitors affect memory and hippocampus plasticity through various signaling cascades which are regulated by cGMP. In this study, we investigated the effects of sildenafil on memory deficiency, neuroprotection and oxidative stress in mice caused by chronic noise exposure. Mice were exposed to noise for 4h every day up to 14days at 110dB SPL of noise level. Sildenafil (15mg/kg) was orally administered 30min before noise exposure for 14days. Behavioral assessments were performed using novel object recognition (NOR) test and radial arm maze (RAM) test. Higher levels of memory dysfunction and oxidative stress were observed in noise alone-induced mice compared to control group. Interestingly, sildenafil administration increased memory performance, decreased oxidative stress, and increased neuroprotection in the hippocampus region of noise alone-induced mice likely through affecting memory related pathways such as cGMP/PKG/CREB and p25/CDK5, and induction of free radical scavengers such as SOD1, SOD2, SOD3, Prdx5, and catalase in the brain of stressed mice.

  17. Skin Diseases in Laboratory Mice: Approaches to Drug Target Identification and Efficacy Screening

    PubMed Central

    Sundberg, John P.; Silva, Kathleen A.; King, Lloyd E.; Pratt, C. Herbert

    2017-01-01

    A large variety of mouse models for human skin, hair, and nail diseases are readily available from investigators and vendors worldwide. Mouse skin is a simple organ to observe lesions and their response to therapy, but identifying and monitoring the progress of treatments of mouse skin diseases can still be challenging. This chapter provides an overview on how to use the laboratory mouse as a preclinical tool to evaluate efficacy of new compounds or test potential new uses for compounds approved for use for treating an unrelated disease. Basic approaches to handling mice, applying compounds, and quantifying effects of the treatment are presented. PMID:27150092

  18. Fetal loss in mice exposed to magnetic fields during early pregnancy

    SciTech Connect

    Svedenstaal, B.M.; Johanson, K.J.

    1995-12-01

    The effects of low-frequency magnetic fields (MFs) on early pregnancy were studied in CBA/S mice. The magnetic field was a 20 kHz, 15 {micro}T sawtooth. Pregnant females were divided into four groups, two control groups and two exposed groups. One group was exposed to MFs continuously from day 1 postconception (pc) until day 5.5 pc, and the other group was exposed continuously until day 7 pc. All animals were sacrificed on day 19 pc, the day before partus, and their uterine contents were analyzed. No significant increase in the resorption (early fetal death) rate was found in the exposed animals compared to the sham controls. In the group exposed during days 1.0--5.5 pc, the body weight and length of the living fetuses were significantly decreased. Except on day 3 pc (progesterone) and day 13 pc (calcium) in the treated groups, there were no significant differences in progesterone and calcium levels in peripheral blood. Implantation occurred on the same day in MF-treated and control animals.

  19. Exacerbation of allergic inflammation in mice exposed to diesel exhaust particles prior to viral infection

    PubMed Central

    Jaspers, Ilona; Sheridan, Patricia A; Zhang, Wenli; Brighton, Luisa E; Chason, Kelly D; Hua, Xiaoyang; Tilley, Stephen L

    2009-01-01

    Background Viral infections and exposure to oxidant air pollutants are two of the most important inducers of asthma exacerbation. Our previous studies have demonstrated that exposure to diesel exhaust increases the susceptibility to influenza virus infections both in epithelial cells in vitro and in mice in vivo. Therefore, we examined whether in the setting of allergic asthma, exposure to oxidant air pollutants enhances the susceptibility to respiratory virus infections, which in turn leads to increased virus-induced exacerbation of asthma. Ovalbumin-sensitized (OVA) male C57BL/6 mice were instilled with diesel exhaust particles (DEP) or saline and 24 hours later infected with influenza A/PR/8. Animals were sacrificed 24 hours post-infection and analyzed for markers of lung injury, allergic inflammation, and pro-inflammatory cytokine production. Results Exposure to DEP or infection with influenza alone had no significant effects on markers of injury or allergic inflammation. However, OVA-sensitized mice that were exposed to DEP and subsequently infected with influenza showed increased levels of eosinophils in lung lavage and tissue. In addition Th2-type cytokines, such as IL-4 and IL-13, and markers of eosinophil chemotaxis, such as CCL11 and CCR3, were increased in OVA-sensitized mice exposed to DEP prior to infection with influenza. These mice also showed increased levels of IL-1α, but not IL-10, RANTES, and MCP-1 in lung homogenates. Conclusion These data suggest that in the setting of allergic asthma, exposure to diesel exhaust could enhance virus-induced exacerbation of allergic inflammation. PMID:19682371

  20. Maintenance of the normal flora of human skin grafts transplanted to mice.

    PubMed

    Kearney, J N; Gowland, G; Holland, K T; Cunliffe, W J

    1982-10-01

    Full-thickness human cadaver skin was maintained on the dorso-lateral thoracic region of hairless mice whose immune rejection mechanism was suppressed using anti-mouse-thymocyte globulin. The bacterial profile of the pregrafted skin did not differ significantly from the normal human microflora. In contrast, the murine skin exhibited quantitative and qualitative differences from the human flora, in particular by the complete absence of Propionibacterium acnes, the dominant bacterium on sebum-rich areas of human skin. The normal microbial profile of the human grafts was maintained throughout the experimental period despite the novel environmental milieu. There was little contamination of the grafts from the normal murine flora. It was concluded that the grafted human skin would provide a realistic model for studying the ecology of human cutaneous micro-organisms.

  1. TSLP produced by keratinocytes promotes allergen sensitization through skin and thereby triggers atopic march in mice.

    PubMed

    Leyva-Castillo, Juan Manuel; Hener, Pierre; Jiang, Hua; Li, Mei

    2013-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis often precedes the development of asthma, a phenomenon known as "atopic march". An important role of allergen sensitization developed through barrier-defective skin has been recognized in the onset of atopic march; however, the underlying mechanism remains poorly understood. In this study, we use an experimental atopic march mouse model, in which the sensitization to allergen is achieved through barrier-impaired skin, followed by allergen challenge in the airway. By using thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP)(iep-/-) mice in which the cytokine TSLP is selectively and inducibly ablated in epidermal keratinocytes, we demonstrate that keratinocytic TSLP, the expression of which is induced by skin barrier impairment, is essential for generating skin allergic inflammation and allergen-induced T helper type 2 response, for developing sensitization to allergen, and for triggering a subsequent allergic asthma. Furthermore, using TSLP(over) mice in which overexpression of keratinocytic TSLP is induced by skin topical application of MC903 (a vitamin D3 analog) in a dose-dependent manner, we show that keratinocytic TSLP levels are correlated with skin sensitization strength and asthma severity. Taken together, our study uncovers a crucial role of keratinocytic TSLP in the "atopic march" by promoting allergen sensitization occurring in barrier-impaired skin, which ultimately leads to allergic asthma.

  2. Circadian Gene Clock Regulates Psoriasis-Like Skin Inflammation in Mice.

    PubMed

    Ando, Noriko; Nakamura, Yuki; Aoki, Rui; Ishimaru, Kayoko; Ogawa, Hideoki; Okumura, Ko; Shibata, Shigenobu; Shimada, Shinji; Nakao, Atsuhito

    2015-12-01

    There are several reports suggesting that the pathophysiology of psoriasis may be associated with aberrant circadian rhythms. However, the mechanistic link between psoriasis and the circadian time-keeping system, "the circadian clock," remains unclear. This study determined whether the core circadian gene, Clock, had a regulatory role in the development of psoriasis. For this purpose, we compared the development of psoriasis-like skin inflammation induced by the Toll-like receptor 7 ligand imiquimod (IMQ) between wild-type mice and mice with a loss-of-function mutation of Clock. We also compared the development of IMQ-induced dermatitis between wild-type mice and mice with a loss-of-function mutation of Period2 (Per2), another key circadian gene that inhibits CLOCK activity. We found that Clock mutation ameliorated IMQ-induced dermatitis, whereas the Per2 mutation exaggerated IMQ-induced dermatitis, when compared with wild-type mice associated with decreased or increased IL-23 receptor (IL-23R) expression in γ/δ+ T cells, respectively. In addition, CLOCK directly bound to the promoter of IL-23R in γ/δ+ T cells, and IL-23R expression in the mouse skin was under circadian control. These findings suggest that Clock is a novel regulator of psoriasis-like skin inflammation in mice via direct modulation of IL-23R expression in γ/δ+ T cells, establishing a mechanistic link between psoriasis and the circadian clock.

  3. Protective influence of hyaluronic acid on focal adhesion kinase activity in human skin fibroblasts exposed to ethanol.

    PubMed

    Donejko, Magdalena; Rysiak, Edyta; Galicka, Elżbieta; Terlikowski, Robert; Głażewska, Edyta Katarzyna; Przylipiak, Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of ethanol and hyaluronic acid (HA) on cell survival and apoptosis in cultured human skin fibroblasts. Regarding the mechanism of ethanol action on human skin fibroblasts, we investigated cell viability and apoptosis, expression of focal adhesion kinase (FAK), and the influence of HA on those processes. Studies were conducted in confluent human skin fibroblast cultures that were treated with 25 mM, 50 mM, and 100 mM ethanol or with ethanol and 500 µg/mL HA. Cell viability was examined using methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay and NC-300 Nucleo-Counter. Imaging of the cells using a fluorescence microscope Pathway 855 was performed to measure FAK expression. Depending on the dosage, ethanol decreased cell viability and activated the process of apoptosis in human skin fibroblasts. HA prevented the negative influence of ethanol on cell viability and prevented apoptosis. The analysis of fluorescence imaging using BD Pathway 855 High-Content Bioimager showed the inhibition of FAK migration to the cell nucleus, depending on the increasing concentration of ethanol. This study proves that downregulation of signaling pathway of FAK is involved in ethanol-induced apoptosis in human skin fibroblasts. The work also indicates a protective influence of HA on FAK activity in human skin fibroblasts exposed to ethanol.

  4. Protective influence of hyaluronic acid on focal adhesion kinase activity in human skin fibroblasts exposed to ethanol

    PubMed Central

    Donejko, Magdalena; Rysiak, Edyta; Galicka, Elżbieta; Terlikowski, Robert; Głażewska, Edyta Katarzyna; Przylipiak, Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of ethanol and hyaluronic acid (HA) on cell survival and apoptosis in cultured human skin fibroblasts. Regarding the mechanism of ethanol action on human skin fibroblasts, we investigated cell viability and apoptosis, expression of focal adhesion kinase (FAK), and the influence of HA on those processes. Materials and methods Studies were conducted in confluent human skin fibroblast cultures that were treated with 25 mM, 50 mM, and 100 mM ethanol or with ethanol and 500 µg/mL HA. Cell viability was examined using methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay and NC-300 Nucleo-Counter. Imaging of the cells using a fluorescence microscope Pathway 855 was performed to measure FAK expression. Results Depending on the dosage, ethanol decreased cell viability and activated the process of apoptosis in human skin fibroblasts. HA prevented the negative influence of ethanol on cell viability and prevented apoptosis. The analysis of fluorescence imaging using BD Pathway 855 High-Content Bioimager showed the inhibition of FAK migration to the cell nucleus, depending on the increasing concentration of ethanol. Conclusion This study proves that downregulation of signaling pathway of FAK is involved in ethanol-induced apoptosis in human skin fibroblasts. The work also indicates a protective influence of HA on FAK activity in human skin fibroblasts exposed to ethanol. PMID:28293103

  5. Improvement of skin wound healing in diabetic mice by kinin B2 receptor blockade.

    PubMed

    Desposito, Dorinne; Chollet, Catherine; Taveau, Christopher; Descamps, Vincent; Alhenc-Gelas, François; Roussel, Ronan; Bouby, Nadine; Waeckel, Ludovic

    2016-01-01

    Impaired skin wound healing is a major medical problem in diabetic subjects. Kinins exert a number of vascular and other actions limiting organ damage in ischaemia or diabetes, but their role in skin injury is unknown. We investigated, through pharmacological manipulation of bradykinin B1 and B2 receptors (B1R and B2R respectively), the role of kinins in wound healing in non-diabetic and diabetic mice. Using two mouse models of diabetes (streptozotocin-induced and db/db mice) and non-diabetic mice, we assessed the effect of kinin receptor activation or inhibition by subtype-selective pharmacological agonists (B1R and B2R) and antagonist (B2R) on healing of experimental skin wounds. We also studied effects of agonists and antagonist on keratinocytes and fibroblasts in vitro. Levels of Bdkrb1 (encoding B1R) and Bdkrb2 (encoding B2R) mRNAs increased 1-2-fold in healthy and wounded diabetic skin compared with in non-diabetic skin. Diabetes delayed wound healing. The B1R agonist had no effect on wound healing. In contrast, the B2R agonist impaired wound repair in both non-diabetic and diabetic mice, inducing skin disorganization and epidermis thickening. In vitro, B2R activation unbalanced fibroblast/keratinocyte proliferation and increased keratinocyte migration. These effects were abolished by co-administration of B2R antagonist. Interestingly, in the two mouse models of diabetes, the B2R antagonist administered alone normalized wound healing. This effect was associated with the induction of Ccl2 (encoding monocyte chemoattractant protein 1)/Tnf (encoding tumour necrosis factor α) mRNAs. Thus stimulation of kinin B2 receptor impairs skin wound healing in mice. B2R activation occurs in the diabetic skin and delays wound healing. B2R blockade improves skin wound healing in diabetic mice and is a potential therapeutic approach to diabetic ulcers. © 2016 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  6. Guggulsterone modulates MAPK and NF-κB pathways and inhibits skin tumorigenesis in SENCAR mice

    PubMed Central

    Sarfaraz, Sami; Siddiqui, Imtiaz A.; Syed, Deeba N.; Afaq, Farrukh; Mukhtar, Hasan

    2008-01-01

    Guggulsterone (GUG), a resin of the Commiphora mukul tree, has been used in ayurvedic medicine for centuries to treat a variety of ailments. Recent studies have suggested that GUG may also possess anticancer effects. In the present study, we show that GUG possesses antitumor-promoting effects in SENCAR mouse skin tumorigenesis model. We first determined the effect of topical application of GUG to mice against 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced conventional markers and other novel markers of skin tumor promotion. We found that topical application of GUG (1.6 μmol per mouse) 30 min prior to TPA (3.2 nmol per mouse) application onto the skin of mice afforded significant inhibition against TPA-mediated increase in skin edema and hyperplasia. Topical application of GUG was also found to result in substantial inhibition against TPA-induced epidermal (i) ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity; (ii) ODC, cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase protein expressions; (iii) phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2, c-jun N-terminal kinases and p38; (iv) activation of NF-κB/p65 and IKKα/β and (v) phosphorylation and degradation of IκBα. We next assessed the effect of topically applied GUG on TPA-induced skin tumor promotion in 7,12-dimethyl benz[a]anthracene-initiated mice. Compared with non-GUG-pretreated mice, animals pretreated with GUG showed significantly reduced tumor incidence, lower tumor body burden and a significant delay in the latency period for tumor appearance from 5 to 11 weeks. These results provide the first evidence that GUG possesses anti-skin tumor-promoting effects in SENCAR mice and inhibits conventional as well as novel biomarkers of tumor promotion. In summary, GUG could be useful for delaying tumor growth in humans. PMID:18684729

  7. Macrophage peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ deficiency delays skin wound healing through impairing apoptotic cell clearance in mice

    PubMed Central

    Chen, H; Shi, R; Luo, B; Yang, X; Qiu, L; Xiong, J; Jiang, M; Liu, Y; Zhang, Z; Wu, Y

    2015-01-01

    Skin wound macrophages are key regulators of skin repair and their dysfunction causes chronic, non-healing skin wounds. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) regulates pleiotropic functions of macrophages, but its contribution in skin wound healing is poorly defined. We observed that macrophage PPARγ expression was upregulated during skin wound healing. Furthermore, macrophage PPARγ deficiency (PPARγ-knock out (KO)) mice exhibited impaired skin wound healing with reduced collagen deposition, angiogenesis and granulation formation. The tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) expression in wounds of PPARγ-KO mice was significantly increased and local restoration of TNF-α reversed the healing deficit in PPARγ-KO mice. Wound macrophages produced higher levels of TNF-α in PPARγ-KO mice compared with control. In vitro, the higher production of TNF-α by PPARγ-KO macrophages was associated with impaired apoptotic cell clearance. Correspondingly, increased apoptotic cell accumulation was found in skin wound of PPARγ-KO mice. Mechanically, peritoneal and skin wound macrophages expressed lower levels of various phagocytosis-related molecules. In addition, PPARγ agonist accelerated wound healing and reduced local TNF-α expression and wound apoptotic cells accumulation in wild type but not PPARγ-KO mice. Therefore, PPARγ has a pivotal role in controlling wound macrophage clearance of apoptotic cells to ensure efficient skin wound healing, suggesting a potential new therapeutic target for skin wound healing. PMID:25590807

  8. Positive photocontact responses are not elicited to sunscreen ingredients exposed to UVA prior to application onto the skin.

    PubMed

    Wahie, Shyamal; Lloyd, James J; Farr, Peter M

    2007-10-01

    Photocontact allergic reactions to sunscreen chemicals are investigated by photopatch testing. It has generally been assumed that for photocontact allergy to be shown, the putative pro-allergen must be in the skin at the time of ultraviolet A (UVA) exposure. However, this assumption has not, to our knowledge, been tested. The objective of this study was to determine whether positive photocontact responses can still be elicited when sunscreen chemicals are exposed to UVA prior to application onto the skin. 3 patients known to have positive photocontact reactions to a total of 6 sunscreen chemicals were studied. For conventional photopatch testing, patch test strips were applied onto the back and removed 1 D later, and the area was irradiated with UVA (5 J/cm(2)). For pre-irradiated testing, patches were exposed to the same dose of UVA immediately before application onto the back and then removed 1 D later. Skin responses were visually assessed by a blinded investigator 1 and 2 D after patch test removal. The same photocontact responses of the same magnitude, as previously documented for each patient, were seen at each of the conventional UVA-exposed patch test sites. However, in no patient was a positive response elicited at any of the sites where pre-irradiated patches had been applied. This study shows that positive photocontact responses to sunscreen chemicals do not occur when the putative pro-allergen is irradiated prior to application onto the skin. This suggests that for a photoallergic reaction to occur, the sunscreen chemical needs to be within the skin when activated by UVA.

  9. Environmental enrichment attenuates behavioral abnormalities in valproic acid-exposed autism model mice.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Hara, Yuta; Ago, Yukio; Takano, Erika; Hasebe, Shigeru; Nakazawa, Takanobu; Hashimoto, Hitoshi; Matsuda, Toshio; Takuma, Kazuhiro

    2017-08-30

    We recently demonstrated that prenatal exposure to valproic acid (VPA) at embryonic day 12.5 causes autism spectrum disorder (ASD)-like phenotypes such as hypolocomotion, anxiety-like behavior, social deficits and cognitive impairment in mice and that it decreases dendritic spine density in the hippocampal CA1 region. Previous studies show that some abnormal behaviors are improved by environmental enrichment in ASD rodent models, but it is not known whether environmental enrichment improves cognitive impairment. In the present study, we examined the effects of early environmental enrichment on behavioral abnormalities and neuromorphological changes in prenatal VPA-treated mice. We also examined the role of dendritic spine formation and synaptic protein expression in the hippocampus. Mice were housed for 4 weeks from 4 weeks of age under either a standard or enriched environment. Enriched housing was found to increase hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA levels in both control and VPA-exposed mice. Furthermore, in VPA-treated mice, the environmental enrichment improved anxiety-like behavior, social deficits and cognitive impairment, but not hypolocomotion. Prenatal VPA treatment caused loss of dendritic spines in the hippocampal CA1 region and decreases in mRNA levels of postsynaptic density protein-95 and SH3 and multiple ankyrin repeat domains 2 in the hippocampus. These hippocampal changes were improved by the enriched housing. These findings suggest that the environmental enrichment improved most ASD-like behaviors including cognitive impairment in the VPA-treated mice by enhancing dendritic spine function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Differential cytokine expression in skin graft healing in inducible nitric oxide synthase knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Most, D; Efron, D T; Shi, H P; Tantry, U S; Barbul, A

    2001-10-01

    Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and its product, nitric oxide, have been shown to play important roles in wound biology. The present study was performed to investigate the role of iNOS in modulating the cytokine cascade during the complex process of skin graft wound healing.Fifteen iNOS-knockout mice and 15 wild-type C57BL/6J mice were subjected to autogenous 1-cm2 intrascapular full-thickness skin grafts. Three animals in each group were killed on postoperative days 3, 5, 7, 10, and 14. Specimens were then analyzed using nonisotopic in situ hybridization versus mRNA of tumor growth factor-beta1, vascular endothelial growth factor, iNOS, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and basic fibroblast growth factor, as well as positive and negative control probes. Positive cells in both grafts and wound beds were counted using a Leica microgrid. Scar thickness was measured with a Leica micrometer. Data were analyzed using the unpaired Student's t test. Expression of iNOS was 2- to 4-fold higher in knockout mice than in wild-type mice on postoperative days 5, 7, and 14. Expression of eNOS was 2- to 2.5-fold higher in knockout mice than in wild-type mice on postoperative days 5 and 7. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha expression was 2- to 7-fold higher in knockout mice than in wild-type mice on all postoperative days. In contrast, expression levels of angiogenic/fibrogenic cytokines (vascular endothelial growth factor, basis fibroblast growth factor, and tumor growth factor-beta1) were 2.5- to 4-fold higher in wild-type mice than in knockout mice. Scars were 1.5- to 2.5-fold thicker in knockout mice than in wild-type mice at all time points. All of the above results represent statistically significant differences (p < 0.05). Significantly different patterns of cytokine expression were seen in knockout and wild-type mice. Although the scar layer was thicker in knockout mice, it showed much greater infiltration with inflammatory cells. These

  11. Alteration of Skin Wound Healing in Keratinocyte-Specific Mediator Complex Subunit 1 Null Mice

    PubMed Central

    Inui, Shigeki; Reddy, Janardan K.; Itami, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    MED1 (Mediator complex subunit 1) is a co-activator of various transcription factors that function in multiple transcriptional pathways. We have already established keratinocyte-specific MED1 null mice (Med1epi−/−) that develop epidermal hyperplasia. Herein, to investigate the function(s) of MED1 in skin wound healing, full-thickness skin wounds were generated in Med1epi−/− and age-matched wild-type mice and the healing process was analyzed. Macroscopic wound closure and the re-epithelialization rate were accelerated in 8-week-old Med1epi−/− mice compared with age-matched wild-type mice. Increased lengths of migrating epithelial tongues and numbers of Ki67-positive cells at the wounded epidermis were observed in 8-week-old Med1epi−/− mice, whereas wound contraction and the area of α-SMA-positive myofibroblasts in the granulation tissue were unaffected. Migration was enhanced in Med1epi−/− keratinocytes compared with wild-type keratinocytes in vitro. Immunoblotting revealed that the expression of follistatin was significantly decreased in Med1epi−/− keratinocytes. Moreover, the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway was enhanced before and after treatment of Med1epi−/− keratinocytes with activin A in vitro. Cell-cycle analysis showed an increased ratio of S phase cells after activin A treatment of Med1epi−/− keratinocytes compared with wild-type keratinocytes. These findings indicate that the activin-follistatin system is involved in this acceleration of skin wound healing in 8-week-old Med1epi−/− mice. On the other hand, skin wound healing in 6-month-old Med1epi−/− mice was significantly delayed with decreased numbers of Ki67-positive cells at the wounded epidermis as well as BrdU-positive label retaining cells in hair follicles compared with age-matched wild-type mice. These results agree with our previous observation that hair follicle bulge stem cells are reduced in older Med1epi−/− mice, indicating a decreased

  12. Protective effect of mango (Mangifera indica L.) against UVB-induced skin aging in hairless mice.

    PubMed

    Song, Jae Hyoung; Bae, Eun Young; Choi, Goya; Hyun, Jin Won; Lee, Mi Young; Lee, Hye Won; Chae, Sungwook

    2013-04-01

    Mangifera indica L. (Anacardiaceae) is a medicinal plant whose extracts have been described as an antioxidant with anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activities. Skin aging is a consequence of chronic sun exposure to the sun and therefore ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Naturally occurring antioxidants are known to reduce skin aging. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the protective role of mango extract against UVB-induced skin aging in hairless mice. HR-1 hairless male mice (6 weeks old) were divided into three groups: control (n = 5), UVB-treated vehicle (n = 5), and UVB-treated mango extract (n = 5) groups. UVB-irradiated mice from the mango extract group were orally administered 0.1 ml of water containing 100 mg of mango extract/kg body weight per day. The inhibitory activity of mango extract on wrinkle formation was determined by the analysis of the skin replica, epidermal thickness based on histological examination, and damage to collagen fiber. The mean length of wrinkles in UVB-treated vehicle group significantly improved after the oral administration of mango extract, which significantly inhibited the increase in epidermal thickness and epidermal hypertrophy (P < 0.05). Furthermore, a marked increase in collagen bundles was observed in the UVB-treated group after the administration of mango extract by Masson's trichrome staining. These results indicate that mango extract showed anti-photoaging activity in UVB-irradiated hairless mice. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  13. Intraperitoneally administered biliverdin protects against UVB-induced skin photo-damage in hairless mice.

    PubMed

    Bai, Bingxue; Liu, Yingdi; You, Yan; Li, Yuzhen; Ma, Liangjuan

    2015-03-01

    Oxidative stress is shown to be responsible for ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation-induced skin cancer and premature aging. Biliverdin (BVD), a product of heme oxygenase-1, has strong anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. In the present study, we investigated the effects of BVD on UVB-induced skin photo-damage in hairless mice. Mice were divided into three groups: control group, UVB group (only UVB irradiation) and BVD+UVB group (mice were intraperitoneally injected with BVD before each UVB irradiation). Intraperitoneal BVD injection resulted in a significant photoprotective effect by reducing morphological and histopathological changes to the skin. BVD also exhibited a significant antioxidant effect by increasing the superoxide dismutase (SOD) level and decreasing the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) level compared with the control group. In addition, BVD activated biliverdin reductase (BVR) expression and inhibited the UVB-induced increase of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation (p-p38MAPK), MMP (matrix metalloproteinase)-1 and MMP-3 expression (p<0.05). It also significantly decreased the interleukin (IL)-6 level compared with the UVB group (p<0.05). In conclusion, these data suggest that the intraperitoneally administered BVD can prevent UVB irradiation-induced skin photo-damage in hairless mice and that this is likely mediated by its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory mechanisms and cell signal regulatory action.

  14. Abnormalities in itch sensation and skin barrier function in atopic NC/Tnd mice.

    PubMed

    Amagai, Yosuke; Matsuda, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Akane

    2013-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by dryness and itchy skin. Genetic factors as well as other factors, including abnormality in skin barrier function, hypersensitivity of itch sensory nerves, and dysfunction of the immune system, strongly affect the onset and exacerbation of AD. Recently, it has become clear that itch sensation is closely related to pain sensation. By using NC/Tnd mice, a unique spontaneous animal model for human AD, we found abnormalities in sensitivity against external stimuli as compared to two standard strains, BALB/c and B6 mice. Particularly, in conventional NC/Tnd mice with AD, stimulation against transient receptor potential (TRP) V1 reduced the scratching behavior, suggesting the possibility of a TRPV1 modulator in the treatment of atopic itch. The review outlines observations regarding itch sensation and skin barrier function in NC/Tnd mice by using a novel itch quantification system for the laboratory animals, which may bring great progress in the future study of itch.

  15. Localization of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in the lungs of silica-exposed mice.

    PubMed Central

    Nario, R C; Hubbard, A K

    1997-01-01

    Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) is expressed on a variety of cells including endothelial cells, alveolar epithelial cells, and alveolar macrophages. Endothelial/epithelial cell ICAM-1 participates in the migration of leukocytes out of the blood in response to pulmonary inflammation, whereas alveolar macrophage ICAM-1 may represent cell activation. Our previous studies have shown that there is increased expression of ICAM-1 in lung tissue during acute inflammation following intratracheal injection with silica particles (2 mg/mouse). This increased expression was shown to play a role, in part, in the migration of neutrophils from the circulation into the tissue parenchyma. The aim of the current work is to localize expression of ICAM-1 during acute inflammation in lungs of mice exposed to either silica or the nuisance dust, titanium dioxide. In silica-exposed mice, a significant increase in ICAM-1 was detected on day-1 and localized by immunohistochemistry to aggregates of pulmonary macrophages and to type II epithelial cells. Areas of the lung with increased ICAM-1 expression also showed increased tumor necrosis factor alpha expression. Immunocytochemical staining of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells demonstrated increased ICAM-1 expression associated with alveolar macrophages 3, 5, and 7 days following silica exposure. Finally, soluble ICAM-1 levels in the BAL fluid were significantly increased in mice exposed to silica on the same days. Titanium dioxide exposure elicited a minimal increase in expression of ICAM-1 in the lungs. These data demonstrate that exposure to the toxic particle silica specifically increases ICAM-1 expression localized to pulmonary macrophages and type II epithelial cells. Images Figure 2. B Figure 2. A Figure 2. D Figure 2. C Figure 3. A Figure 3. B Figure 5. B Figure 5. A Figure 5. C PMID:9400721

  16. Small Molecule Metabolite Biomarker Candidates in Urine from Mice Exposed to Formaldehyde

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Juan; Sun, Rongli; Chen, Yue; Tan, Kehong; Wei, Haiyan; Yin, Lihong; Pu, Yuepu

    2014-01-01

    Formaldehyde (FA) is a ubiquitous compound used in a wide variety of industries, and is also a major indoor pollutant emitted from building materials, furniture, etc. Because FA is rapidly metabolized and endogenous to many materials, specific biomarkers for exposure have not been identified. In this study, we identified small metabolite biomarkers in urine that might be related FA exposure. Mice were allowed to inhale FA (0, 4, 8 mg/m3) 6 h per day for 7 consecutive days, and urine samples were collected on the 7th day of exposure. Liquid chromatography coupled with time of flight-mass spectrometry and principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to determine alterations of endogenous metabolites in urine. Additionally, immune toxicity studies were conducted to ensure that any resultant toxic effects could be attributed to inhalation of FA. The results showed a significant decrease in the relative rates of T lymphocyte production in the spleen and thymus of mice exposed to FA. Additionally, decreased superoxide dismutase activity and increased reactive oxygen species levels were found in the isolated spleen cells of exposed mice. A total of 12 small molecules were found to be altered in the urine, and PCA analysis showed that urine from the control and FA exposed groups could be distinguished from each other based on the altered molecules. Hippuric acid and cinnamoylglycine were identified in urine using exact mass and fragment ions. Our results suggest that the pattern of metabolites found in urine is significantly changed following FA inhalation, and hippuric acid and cinnamoylglycine might represent potential biomarker candidates for FA exposure. PMID:25233128

  17. Small molecule metabolite biomarker candidates in urine from mice exposed to formaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Juan; Sun, Rongli; Chen, Yue; Tan, Kehong; Wei, Haiyan; Yin, Lihong; Pu, Yuepu

    2014-09-17

    Formaldehyde (FA) is a ubiquitous compound used in a wide variety of industries, and is also a major indoor pollutant emitted from building materials, furniture, etc. Because FA is rapidly metabolized and endogenous to many materials, specific biomarkers for exposure have not been identified. In this study, we identified small metabolite biomarkers in urine that might be related FA exposure. Mice were allowed to inhale FA (0, 4, 8 mg/m3) 6 h per day for 7 consecutive days, and urine samples were collected on the 7th day of exposure. Liquid chromatography coupled with time of flight-mass spectrometry and principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to determine alterations of endogenous metabolites in urine. Additionally, immune toxicity studies were conducted to ensure that any resultant toxic effects could be attributed to inhalation of FA. The results showed a significant decrease in the relative rates of T lymphocyte production in the spleen and thymus of mice exposed to FA. Additionally, decreased superoxide dismutase activity and increased reactive oxygen species levels were found in the isolated spleen cells of exposed mice. A total of 12 small molecules were found to be altered in the urine, and PCA analysis showed that urine from the control and FA exposed groups could be distinguished from each other based on the altered molecules. Hippuric acid and cinnamoylglycine were identified in urine using exact mass and fragment ions. Our results suggest that the pattern of metabolites found in urine is significantly changed following FA inhalation, and hippuric acid and cinnamoylglycine might represent potential biomarker candidates for FA exposure.

  18. Inhalation of progesterone inhibits chronic airway inflammation of mice exposed to ozone.

    PubMed

    Fei, Xia; Bao, Wuping; Zhang, Pengyu; Zhang, Xue; Zhang, Guoqing; Zhang, Yingying; Zhou, Xin; Zhang, Min

    2017-05-01

    Chronic ozone exposure leads to a model of mice with lung inflammation, emphysema and oxidative stress. Progesterone plays an important role in attenuating the neuroinflammation. We assume that progesterone will reduce the chronic airway inflammation exposed to ozone and evaluate whether combination of progesterone with glucocorticoids results in synergistic effects. C57/BL6 mice were exposed to ozone (2.5ppm, 3h) 12 times over 6 weeks, and were administered with progesterone (0.03 or 0.3mg/L; inhaled) alone or combined with budesonide (BUD) (0.2g/L) after each exposure until the tenth week. Mice were studied 24h after final exposure, cells and inflammatory mediators were assessed in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and lungs used for evaluation of glucocorticoids receptors (GR), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation and nuclear transcription factor κB (NF-κB) activation. Exposure to ozone resulted in a marked lung neutrophilia. Moreover, in ozone-exposed group, the levels of oxidative stress-related interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-17A, activated NF-κB and p38MAPK, airway inflammatory cells infiltration density, mean linear intercept (Lm) were greatly increased, FEV25 and glucocorticoids receptors (GR) were markedly decreased. Comparable to BUD, progesterone treatment dose-dependently led to a significant reduction of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-17A, activated NF-κB and p38MAPK, and an increase of FEV25 and GR. Progesterone combined with BUD resulted in dramatic changes, compared to monotherapy of BUD or progesterone. Therefore, these results demonstrate that chronic ozone exposure has profound airway inflammatory effects counteracted by progesterone and progesterone acts synergistically with glucocorticoids in attenuating the airway inflammation dose-dependently. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Demodex musculi in the Skin of Transgenic Mice.

    PubMed

    Hill, Lori R.; Kille, Pam S.; Weiss, Dale A.; Craig, Thomas M.; Coghlan, Lezlee G.

    1999-11-01

    Although infestations by a number of Demodex mite species have been described in mice, the occurrence of Demodex musculi infestation was last reported by Hirst in 1917. This communication describes the occurrence of D. musculi infestation in two lines of transgenic mice and their F1-hybrid offspring. We first found the Demodex mite in mouse hair samples collected during efficacy screenings in an ongoing ectoparasite treatment trial for the fur mite Radfordia affinis. An investigation was undertaken to determine the extent of the Demodex infestation within the facility and the original source of the parasite. D. musculi was found in three of the four mouse genotypes present in the index room and in one of these genotypes in two other rooms. The mite was not found in sentinel mice, other strains, or stocks within the facility. The mites were more easily recovered from the immunodeficient B6,CBA-TgN(CD3E)26Cpt transgenic (Tg) and the hybrid double-Tg (B6,CBA-TgN(CD3E)26Cpt x B6,SENCARB-TgN(pk5prad1)7111Sprd)F1 mice than from the B6,SENCARB-TgN(pk5prad1)7111Sprd Tg mouse, which is believed to be immunocompetent despite its thymic abnormalities. Histopathologic examination showed D. musculi superficially in hair follicles but not in the preputial or clitoral gland or in serial sections of the head, eyelids, or ears, the locations favored by other mouse demodicids. Physical and microscopic examination revealed no dermatitis. The immune deficiency in the B6,CBA-TgN(CD3E)26Cpt mouse probably provided the permissive host conditions that contributed to the proliferation and subsequent detection of the Demodex. Preliminary transmission experiments conducted with other immunologic mutant mice and our sentinel strain demonstrated variation in mite transfer and in either detection or maintenance of infestation when na ve mice were housed with those carrying D. musculi. The original source of D. musculi was not conclusively identified, but this parasite appears to be of low

  20. Adult Behavior in Male Mice Exposed to E-Cigarette Nicotine Vapors during Late Prenatal and Early Postnatal Life.

    PubMed

    Smith, Dani; Aherrera, Angela; Lopez, Armando; Neptune, Enid; Winickoff, Jonathan P; Klein, Jonathan D; Chen, Gang; Lazarus, Philip; Collaco, Joseph M; McGrath-Morrow, Sharon A

    2015-01-01

    Timed-pregnant C57BL/6J mice were exposed to 2.4% nicotine in propylene glycol (PG) or 0% nicotine /PG once a day from gestational day 15 until delivery. After delivery, offspring and mothers were exposed to E-cigarette vapors for an additional 14 days from postnatal day 2 through 16. Following their last exposure serum cotinine levels were measured in female juvenile mice. Male mice underwent behavioral testing at 14 weeks of age to assess sensorimotor, affective, and cognitive functional domains. Adult male mice exposed to 2.4% nicotine/PG E-cigarette vapors had significantly more head dips in the zero maze test and higher levels of rearing activity in the open field test compared to 0% nicotine/PG exposed mice and untreated controls. In the water maze test after reversal training, the 2.4% nicotine/PG mice spent more than 25% of time in the new location whereas the other groups did not. Adult male mice exhibited increased levels of activity in the zero maze and open field tests when exposed to E-cigarette vapor containing nicotine during late prenatal and early postnatal life. These findings indicate that nicotine exposure from E-cigarettes may cause persistent behavioral changes when exposure occurs during a period of rapid brain growth.

  1. Altered host resistance to Listeria monocytogenes in mice exposed to 1-chloroacetophenone (CN) vapours

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, P.; Kumar, P.; Zachariah, K.; Rai, G.P.; Vijayraghavan, R. )

    1992-06-01

    Short term repeated exposure of 1-chloroacetophenone (CN) vapours at a concentration of 0.153 mg per litre for 15 minutes daily on 10 consecutive days in Swiss albino male mice resulted in increased mortality to Listeria monocytogenes. Significantly elevated bacterial growth was observed in the spleen and liver of the CN exposed animals. The increased bacterial count in these organs was evident within 4-6 days post challenge as compared to vehicle exposed infected and unexposed infected animals. Increased susceptibility to infection has been considered to be the function of immune alteration due to cumulative short term effects of CN vapour inhalation. This may be attributed to immunotoxic effects of CN on T-cells mediated macrophage functions.

  2. Acute exposure to solar simulated ultraviolet radiation affects oxidative stress-related biomarkers in skin, liver and blood of hairless mice.

    PubMed

    Svobodová, Alena Rajnochová; Galandáková, Adéla; Sianská, Jarmila; Doležal, Dalibor; Ulrichová, Jitka; Vostálová, Jitka

    2011-01-01

    The ultraviolet (UV) region of solar radiation is a critical factor in the initiation and development of a number of skin diseases. However, it is not only skin which is directly exposed to solar light that is affected by UV radiation, through low molecular weight mediators, generated upon irradiation, "non-skin" tissues can also be affected. The aim of this study was to examine in detail, the acute effects of UVA and UVB wavebands on hairless mice. Female SKH-1 hairless mice were exposed to a single dose of UVB (200, 800 mJ/cm(2)) or UVA (10, 20 J/cm(2)) using a solar simulator. The effects on haematological parameters, activity and/or expression of antioxidant enzymes, level of glutathione (GSH), markers of oxidative damage (lipid peroxidation and carbonylated proteins) were analysed in erythrocytes, plasma, liver and whole skin homogenates. No macroscopic changes were observed either 4 or 24 h after UVA/UVB exposure. The blood count showed a significant increase in leukocyte number and reduction of platelets 4 h following UVA and UVB irradiation, which disappeared 24 h after irradiation except for the higher UVA dose. Changes in oxidative stress-related parameters, particularly activity of catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and level of GSH and lipid peroxidation products, were found in skin, erythrocytes and liver. The expression of several enzymes (CAT, SOD, glutathione transferase (GST), nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (phosphate) quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1) and hem oxygenase-1 (HO-1)) in skin was affected following UVA and UVB radiation. Increase in carbonylated proteins was found in plasma and skin samples.

  3. Statins do not alter the incidence of mesothelioma in asbestos exposed mice or humans.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Cleo; Alfonso, Helman; Woo, Samantha; Walsh, Amy; Olsen, Nola; Musk, Arthur W; Robinson, Bruce W S; Nowak, Anna K; Lake, Richard A

    2014-01-01

    Mesothelioma is principally caused by asbestos and may be preventable because there is a long latent period between exposure and disease development. The most at-risk are a relatively well-defined population who were exposed as a consequence of their occupations. Although preventative agents investigated so far have not been promising, discovery of such an agent would have a significant benefit world-wide on healthcare costs and personal suffering. Statins are widely used for management of hypercholesterolemia and cardiovascular risk; they can induce apoptosis in mesothelioma cells and epidemiological data has linked their use to a lower incidence of cancer. We hypothesised that statins would inhibit the development of asbestos-induced mesothelioma in mice and humans. An autochthonous murine model of asbestos-induced mesothelioma was used to test this by providing atorvastatin daily in the feed at 100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg. Continuous administration of atorvastatin did not alter the rate of disease development nor increase the length of time that mice survived. Latency to first symptoms of disease and disease progression were also unaffected. In a parallel study, the relationship between the use of statins and development of mesothelioma was investigated in asbestos-exposed humans. In a cohort of 1,738 asbestos exposed people living or working at a crocidolite mine site in Wittenoom, Western Australia, individuals who reported use of statins did not have a lower incidence of mesothelioma (HR = 1.01; 95% CI = 0.44-2.29, p = 0.99). Some individuals reported use of both statins and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or COX-2 inhibitors, and these people also did not have an altered risk of mesothelioma development (HR = 1.01; 95% CI = 0.61-1.67, p = 0.97). We conclude that statins do not moderate the rate of development of mesothelioma in either a mouse model or a human cohort exposed to asbestos.

  4. Arginase I and II in Lungs of Ovalbumin-Sensitized Mice Exposed to Ovalbumin: Sources and consequences

    PubMed Central

    Kenyon, Nicholas J.; Bratt, Jennifer M.; Linderholm, Angela L.; Last, Michael S.; Last, Jerold A.

    2008-01-01

    Arginase gene expression in the lung has been linked to asthma both in clinical studies of human patients and in the well-studied mouse model of ovalbumin-induced airway inflammation. Arginase is thought to regulate NO levels in the lung by its ability to divert arginine, the substrate for nitric oxide synthases that produce citrulline and NO, into an alternative metabolic pathway producing ornithine and urea. In the present study arginase I and arginase II concentrations were measured in isolated microdissected airway preparations from sensitized Balb/c mice exposed to ovalbumin aerosol. We found that arginase II was constitutively expressed in the airways of normal mice, whereas arginase I was undetectable in normal airways, while its expression was increased in airways of mice exposed to ovalbumin. The expression of arginase I strongly correlated with the presence of lung inflammation, as quantified by differential cell counts in lung lavage, suggesting that most, or all, of the arginase I in lungs of mice exposed to ovalbumin is present in the inflammatory cells rather than in the airway epithelium. There was also a significant correlation between increased expression of arginase I in the isolated airways and decreased lung compliance. On the other hand, while we found arginase II expression to also be significantly increased in airways from mice exposed to ovalbumin as compared with normal airways, the relative increase was much less than that observed for arginase I, suggesting that there was a smaller contribution of inflammatory cells to the arginase II content of the airways in mice exposed to ovalbumin. There was no apparent correlation between the content of arginase in isolated airways and exhaled NO concentration in the expired air from mice exposed to ovalbumin. However, there was a correlation between exhaled NO concentration from mice exposed to ovalbumin and the lymphocyte content of the lung lavage. The concentration of arginine found in isolated

  5. Arginases I and II in lungs of ovalbumin-sensitized mice exposed to ovalbumin: Sources and consequences

    SciTech Connect

    Kenyon, Nicholas J.; Bratt, Jennifer M.; Linderholm, Angela L.; Last, Michael S.; Last, Jerold A.

    2008-08-01

    Arginase gene expression in the lung has been linked to asthma both in clinical studies of human patients and in the well-studied mouse model of ovalbumin-induced airway inflammation. Arginase is thought to regulate NO levels in the lung by its ability to divert arginine, the substrate for nitric oxide synthases that produce citrulline and NO, into an alternative metabolic pathway producing ornithine and urea. In the present study arginase I and arginase II concentrations were measured in isolated microdissected airway preparations from sensitized Balb/c mice exposed to ovalbumin aerosol. We found that arginase II was constitutively expressed in the airways of normal mice, whereas arginase I was undetectable in normal airways, while its expression was increased in airways of mice exposed to ovalbumin. The expression of arginase I strongly correlated with the presence of lung inflammation, as quantified by differential cell counts in lung lavage, suggesting that most, or all, of the arginase I in lungs of mice exposed to ovalbumin is present in the inflammatory cells rather than in the airway epithelium. There was also a significant correlation between increased expression of arginase I in the isolated airways and decreased lung compliance. On the other hand, while we found arginase II expression to also be significantly increased in airways from mice exposed to ovalbumin as compared with normal airways, the relative increase was much less than that observed for arginase I, suggesting that there was a smaller contribution of inflammatory cells to the arginase II content of the airways in mice exposed to ovalbumin. There was no apparent correlation between the content of arginase in isolated airways and exhaled NO concentration in the expired air from mice exposed to ovalbumin. However, there was a correlation between exhaled NO concentration from mice exposed to ovalbumin and the lymphocyte content of the lung lavage. The concentration of arginine found in isolated

  6. Skin-specific deletion of stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 alters skin lipid composition and protects mice from high fat diet-induced obesity.

    PubMed

    Sampath, Harini; Flowers, Matthew T; Liu, Xueqing; Paton, Chad M; Sullivan, Ruth; Chu, Kiki; Zhao, Minghui; Ntambi, James M

    2009-07-24

    Stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1) catalyzes the synthesis of monounsaturated fatty acids and is an important regulator of whole body energy homeostasis. Severe cutaneous changes in mice globally deficient in SCD1 also indicate a role for SCD1 in maintaining skin lipids. We have generated mice with a skin-specific deletion of SCD1 (SKO) and report here that SKO mice display marked sebaceous gland hypoplasia and depletion of sebaceous lipids. In addition, SKO mice have significantly increased energy expenditure and are protected from high fat diet-induced obesity, thereby recapitulating the hypermetabolic phenotype of global SCD1 deficiency. Genes of fat oxidation, lipolysis, and thermogenesis, including uncoupling proteins and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma co-activator-1alpha, are up-regulated in peripheral tissues of SKO mice. However, unlike mice globally deficient in SCD1, SKO mice have an intact hepatic lipogenic response to acute high carbohydrate feeding. Despite increased basal thermogenesis, SKO mice display severe cold intolerance because of rapid depletion of fuel substrates, including hepatic glycogen, to maintain core body temperature. These data collectively indicate that SKO mice have increased cold perception because of loss of insulating factors in the skin. This results in up-regulation of thermogenic processes for temperature maintenance at the expense of fuel economy, illustrating cross-talk between the skin and peripheral tissues in maintaining energy homeostasis.

  7. Long-term Maintenance of Sterility After Skin Transplantation in Germ-free Mice

    PubMed Central

    Theriault, Betty; Wang, Ying; Chen, Luqiu; Vest, Alan; Bartman, Caroline; Alegre, Maria-Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Background There is considerable interest in investigating the role of the microbiota in various diseases, including transplant rejection. Germ-free (GF) and gnotobiotic mice are powerful models for this line of investigation, but performing surgery within the confines of a sterile housing isolator is exceptionally challenging. Development of rigorous protocols to be able to remove axenic mice from their sterile isolator for surgical intervention in a class II biological safety cabinet (BSC) without compromising sterility would give many investigators access to this model and broaden possible studies. However, it is assumed that GF animals will most often become colonized with environmental microbiota on leaving the isolator. In this study, we tested whether applying sterile techniques for animal transport out of the isolator and skin transplantation in a class II BSC could maintain animal sterility. Methods Quantitative polymerase chain reaction of the bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA gene, and cultures in various aerobic and anaerobic conditions were used to probe for bacterial contamination before and after transplantation. Results Of 28 surgeries performed, only 3 mice acquired bacterial contamination coincident with a transient shutdown of the ventilation system in the BSC. Conclusions Our results indicate that skin transplantation can be successfully performed in GF mice using sterile conditions for transport and surgery in a class II BSC, but requires continuous positive airflow. Our approach paves the way to investigating the role of the microbiota in modulating immune responses to skin allografts as a first model of solid organ transplantation in GF mice. PMID:26609546

  8. Apocynin and ebselen reduce influenza A virus-induced lung inflammation in cigarette smoke-exposed mice

    PubMed Central

    Oostwoud, L. C.; Gunasinghe, P.; Seow, H. J.; Ye, J. M.; Selemidis, S.; Bozinovski, S.; Vlahos, R.

    2016-01-01

    Influenza A virus (IAV) infections are a common cause of acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD). Oxidative stress is increased in COPD, IAV-induced lung inflammation and AECOPD. Therefore, we investigated whether targeting oxidative stress with the Nox2 oxidase inhibitors and ROS scavengers, apocynin and ebselen could ameliorate lung inflammation in a mouse model of AECOPD. Male BALB/c mice were exposed to cigarette smoke (CS) generated from 9 cigarettes per day for 4 days. On day 5, mice were infected with 1 × 104.5 PFUs of the IAV Mem71 (H3N1). BALF inflammation, viral titers, superoxide production and whole lung cytokine, chemokine and protease mRNA expression were assessed 3 and 7 days post infection. IAV infection resulted in a greater increase in BALF inflammation in mice that had been exposed to CS compared to non-smoking mice. This increase in BALF inflammation in CS-exposed mice caused by IAV infection was associated with elevated gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and proteases, compared to CS alone mice. Apocynin and ebselen significantly reduced the exacerbated BALF inflammation and pro-inflammatory cytokine, chemokine and protease expression caused by IAV infection in CS mice. Targeting oxidative stress using apocynin and ebselen reduces IAV-induced lung inflammation in CS-exposed mice and may be therapeutically exploited to alleviate AECOPD. PMID:26877172

  9. Ultra-pure soft water ameliorates atopic skin disease by preventing metallic soap deposition in NC/Tnd mice and reduces skin dryness in humans.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Akane; Matsuda, Akira; Jung, Kyungsook; Jang, Hyosun; Ahn, Ginnae; Ishizaka, Saori; Amagai, Yosuke; Oida, Kumiko; Arkwright, Peter D; Matsuda, Hiroshi

    2015-09-01

    Mineral ions in tap water react with fatty acids in soap, leading to the formation of insoluble precipitate (metallic soap) on skin during washing. We hypothesised that metallic soap might negatively alter skin conditions. Application of metallic soap onto the skin of NC/Tnd mice with allergic dermatitis further induced inflammation with elevation of plasma immunoglobulin E and proinflammatory cytokine expression. Pruritus and dryness were ameliorated when the back of mice was washed with soap in Ca2+- and Mg2+-free ultra-pure soft water (UPSW). Washing in UPSW, but not tap water, also protected the skin of healthy volunteers from the soap deposition. Furthermore, 4 weeks of showering with UPSW reduced dryness and pruritus of human subjects with dry skin. Washing with UPSW may be therapeutically beneficial in patients with skin troubles.

  10. p38delta Mitogen-activated protein kinase is essential for skin tumor development in mice.

    PubMed

    Schindler, Eva M; Hindes, Anna; Gribben, Erin L; Burns, Carole J; Yin, Yan; Lin, Meei-Hua; Owen, Robert J; Longmore, Gregory D; Kissling, Grace E; Arthur, J Simon C; Efimova, Tatiana

    2009-06-01

    Activating Ras mutations occur in a large portion of human tumors. Yet, the signaling pathways involved in Ras-induced tumor formation remain incompletely understood. The mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways are among the best studied Ras effector pathways. The p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase isoforms are important regulators of key biological processes including cell proliferation, differentiation, survival, inflammation, senescence, and tumorigenesis. However, the specific in vivo contribution of individual p38 isoforms to skin tumor development has not been elucidated. Recent studies have shown that p38delta, a p38 family member, functions as an important regulator of epidermal keratinocyte differentiation and survival. In the present study, we have assessed the effect of p38delta deficiency on skin tumor development in vivo by subjecting p38delta knockout mice to a two-stage 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene/12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate chemical skin carcinogenesis protocol. We report that mice lacking p38delta gene exhibited a marked resistance to development of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene/12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-induced skin papillomas, with increased latency and greatly reduced incidence, multiplicity, and size of tumors compared with wild-type mice. Our data suggest that the underlying mechanism for reduced susceptibility to skin carcinogenesis in p38delta-null mice involves a defect in proliferative response associated with aberrant signaling through the two major transformation-promoting pathways: extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2-activator protein 1 and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3. These findings strongly suggest an in vivo role for p38delta in promoting cell proliferation and tumor development in epidermis and may have therapeutic implication for skin cancer.

  11. Metabolic and redox barriers in the skin exposed to drugs and xenobiotics.

    PubMed

    Korkina, Liudmila

    2016-01-01

    Growing exposure of human skin to environmental and occupational hazards, to numerous skin care/beauty products, and to topical drugs led to a biomedical concern regarding sustainability of cutaneous chemical defence that is essential for protection against intoxication. Since skin is the largest extra-hepatic drug/xenobiotic metabolising organ where redox-dependent metabolic pathways prevail, in this review, publications on metabolic processes leading to redox imbalance (oxidative stress) and its autocrine/endocrine impact to cutaneous drug/xenobiotic metabolism were scrutinised. Chemical and photo-chemical skin barriers contain metabolic and redox compartments: their protective and homeostatic functions. The review will examine the striking similarity of adaptive responses to exogenous chemical/photo-chemical stressors and endogenous toxins in cutaneous metabolic and redox system; the role(s) of xenobiotics/drugs and phase II enzymes in the endogenous antioxidant defence and maintenance of redox balance; redox regulation of interactions between metabolic and inflammatory responses in skin cells; skin diseases sharing metabolic and redox problems (contact dermatitis, lupus erythematosus, and vitiligo) Due to exceptional the redox dependence of cutaneous metabolic pathways and interaction of redox active metabolites/exogenous antioxidants with drug/xenobiotic metabolism, metabolic tests of topical xenobiotics/drugs should be combined with appropriate redox analyses and performed on 3D human skin models.

  12. Scrapie infection can be established readily through skin scarification in immunocompetent but not immunodeficient mice.

    PubMed

    Taylor, D M; McConnell, I; Fraser, H

    1996-07-01

    Scarification of the skin is a possible route of entry for scrapie infectivity in sheep, and for Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease agent in humans within the context of occupational exposure to infected brain in the autopsy room or laboratory. The effectiveness of skin scarification routes as portals of entry for infectivity had not previously been tested experimentally but this study has shown that these are efficient routes for establishing infection in mice using the 139A and ME7 strains of scrapie agent. Scarification had much the same efficiency as inoculation by the intraperitoneal, intravenous or perivenous routes but was not effective in immunocompromised (SCID) mice. It was concluded that replication of infectivity within the lymphoreticular system, which is precluded in SCID mice, is a necessary prerequisite for the development of infection in the central nervous system following inoculation via scarification.

  13. Relationship between concentration and exposed area on absorption and excretion of T-2 mycotoxin through rabbit skin

    SciTech Connect

    Wannemacher, R.W. Jr.; Bunner, D.L.; Dinterman, R.E.

    1986-03-01

    T-2 mycotoxin is a severe skin irritant that can be lethal via the dermal route. A non-occlusive barrier model was developed to study the effects of concentration and size of the exposed area on the absorption rate of toxin in rabbit skin. The skin was shaved and, twenty-four hours later, varying concentrations of both (/sup 4/H)-labeled and unlabeled T0 toxin in DMSO were painted on the surface. A barrier, consisting of a mesh-jacketed, half-inch foam pad with a hole in the center, was applied to the skin. In order to assess absorption, lethality and excretion were used as endpoints, and dosage, area, and concentration (..mu.. g/cm/sup 2/) were varied. At doses of 5, 10, and 15 mg/kg of T-2 toxin in DMSO applied to a 200 cm/sup 2/ area, lethality was 0 of 2, 6 of 11, and 6 of 6 rabbits, respectively. This suggests a direct dose-response relationship. However, at a dose of 10 mg/kg applied in a 100 cm/sup 2/ area, there were no deaths in 4 rabbits. This indicates a lower rate of absorption at this higher concentration. The percentage of (/sup 3/H)-toxin excreted was higher at lower doses of T-2 toxin and reduced at higher concentrations. The authors conclude that area, dose, and concentration of applied toxin can influence the amount of T-2 toxin that is absorbed through the skin.

  14. Altered prostanoid signaling contributes to increased skin tumorigenesis in Tpl2 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    DeCicco-Skinner, Kathleen L; Nolan, Sabrina J; Deshpande, Monika M; Trovato, Erika L; Dempsey, Taylor A; Wiest, Jonathan S

    2013-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma is the second most common form of skin cancer with the incidence expected to double over the next 20 years. Inflammation is believed to be a critical component in skin cancer progression. Therefore, understanding genes involved in the regulation of inflammatory pathways is vital to the design of targeted therapies. Numerous studies show cyclooxygenases (COXs) play an essential role in inflammation-associated cancers. Tpl2 (MAP3K8) is a protein kinase in the MAP Kinase signal transduction cascade. Previous research using a two-stage skin carcinogenesis model revealed that Tpl2(-/-) mice have significantly higher tumor incidence and inflammatory response than wild-type (WT) controls. The current study investigates whether cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and COX-2- regulated prostaglandins and prostaglandin receptors drive the highly tumorigenic state of Tpl2(-/-) mice by investigating the relationship between Tpl2 and COX-2. Keratinocytes from newborn WT or Tpl2(-/-) mice were treated with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) for various times over 24 hours. Western analysis revealed significant differences in COX-2 and COX-2 dependent prostanoids and prostanoid receptors. Additionally, in vivo experiments confirmed that COX-2 and COX-2 downstream factors were elevated in TPA-treated Tpl2(-/-) skin, as well as in papillomas from Tpl2(-/-) mice. Use of the selective COX-2 inhibitor Celecoxib showed the increased tumorigenesis in the Tpl2(-/-) mice to primarily be mediated through COX-2. These experiments illustrate COX-2 induction in the absence of Tpl2 may be responsible for the increased tumorigenesis found in Tpl2(-/-) mice. Defining the relationship between Tpl2 and COX-2 may lead to new ways to downregulate COX-2 through the modulation of Tpl2.

  15. Modulation of neurological related allergic reaction in mice exposed to low-level toluene

    SciTech Connect

    Tin-Tin-Win-Shwe; Yamamoto, Shoji; Nakajima, Daisuke; Furuyama, Akiko; Fukushima, Atsushi; Ahmed, Sohel; Goto, Sumio; Fujimaki, Hidekazu . E-mail: fujimaki@nies.go.jp

    2007-07-01

    The contributing role of indoor air pollution to the development of allergic disease has become increasingly evident in public health problems. It has been reported that extensive communication exists between neurons and immune cells, and neurotrophins are molecules potentially responsible for regulating and controlling this neuroimmune crosstalk. The adverse effects of volatile organic compounds which are main indoor pollutants on induction or augmentation of neuroimmune interaction have not been fully characterized yet. To investigate the effects of low-level toluene inhalation on the airway inflammatory responses, male C3H mice were exposed to filtered air (control), 9 ppm, and 90 ppm toluene for 30 min by nose-only inhalation on Days 0, 1, 2, 7, 14, 21, and 28. Some groups of mice were injected with ovalbumin intraperitoneally before starting exposure schedule and these mice were then challenged with aerosolized ovalbumin as booster dose. For analysis of airway inflammation, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid were collected to determine inflammatory cell influx and lung tissue and blood samples were collected to determine cytokine and neurotrophin mRNA and protein expressions and plasma antibody titers using real-time RT-PCR and ELISA methods respectively. Exposure of the ovalbumin-immunized mice to low-level toluene resulted in (1) increased inflammatory cells infiltration in BAL fluid; (2) increased IL-5 mRNA, decreased nerve growth factor receptor tropomyosin-related kinase A and brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNAs in lung; and (3) increased IgE and IgG{sub 1} antibodies and nerve growth factor content in the plasma. These findings suggest that low-level toluene exposure aggravates the airway inflammatory responses in ovalbumin-immunized mice by modulating neuroimmune crosstalk.

  16. Streptococcus pneumoniae Colonization Is Required To Alter the Nasal Microbiota in Cigarette Smoke-Exposed Mice.

    PubMed

    Shen, Pamela; Whelan, Fiona J; Schenck, L Patrick; McGrath, Joshua J C; Vanderstocken, Gilles; Bowdish, Dawn M E; Surette, Michael G; Stämpfli, Martin R

    2017-10-01

    Smokers have nasal microbiota dysbiosis, with an increased frequency of colonizing bacterial pathogens. It is possible that cigarette smoke increases pathogen acquisition by perturbing the microbiota and decreasing colonization resistance. However, it is difficult to disentangle microbiota dysbiosis due to cigarette smoke exposure from microbiota changes caused by increased pathogen acquisition in human smokers. Using an experimental mouse model, we investigated the impact of cigarette smoke on the nasal microbiota in the absence and presence of nasal pneumococcal colonization. We observed that cigarette smoke exposure alone did not alter the nasal microbiota composition. The microbiota composition was also unchanged at 12 h following low-dose nasal pneumococcal inoculation, suggesting that the ability of the microbiota to resist initial nasal pneumococcal acquisition was not impaired in smoke-exposed mice. However, nasal microbiota dysbiosis occurred as a consequence of established high-dose nasal pneumococcal colonization at day 3 in smoke-exposed mice. Similar to clinical reports on human smokers, an enrichment of potentially pathogenic bacterial genera such as Fusobacterium, Gemella, and Neisseria was observed. Our findings suggest that cigarette smoke exposure predisposes to pneumococcal colonization independent of changes to the nasal microbiota and that microbiota dysbiosis observed in smokers may occur as a consequence of established pathogen colonization. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  17. Abnormal in vitro development of ovarian follicles explanted from mice exposed to tetrachlorvinphos.

    PubMed

    Nayudu, P L; Kiesel, P S; Nowshari, M A; Hodges, J K

    1994-01-01

    A system of mouse ovarian follicle culture in which follicles can be grown from a preantral stage of development through antral formation has been developed and modified recently by Nayudu and colleagues. Follicles have been shown to grow in this culture system at a relatively constant rate and show responsiveness to LH at the end of the culture by ovulation of mature oocytes. Reported here are the distinctly different in vitro growth patterns of follicles explanted from 22- to 24-day-old mice during a period when the colony was being treated for skin parasites with tetrachlorvinphos (TCVP) (Rabond). There is to date no information on the effects of this compound on the mammalian female reproductive system. For follicles from the TCVP treated group, the duration of growth as intact follicles was markedly reduced in comparison to mice of the same strain and source not treated with TCVP. In the treated group, premature termination of follicular growth was also associated with the spontaneous expulsion of oocytes with immature nuclei and without cumulus cells. For those follicles from treated mice that did remain in culture until the day luteinizing hormone was given, the ovulatory response was poor and the maturation response of the oocytes was low in comparison with the follicles from untreated mice. The effect of the treatment on the follicles was further characterized by obvious differences in the patterns of growth. Follicles in the untreated group grew in a linear pattern at around 25 microns/day; a single phase, fast pattern for the whole culture period.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Experimental study on repairing of nude mice skin defects with composite skin consisting of xenogeneic dermis and epidermal stem cells and hair follicle dermal papilla cells.

    PubMed

    Qi, Shao-Hai; Liu, Po; Xie, Ju-Lin; Shu, Bin; Xu, Ying-Bin; Ke, Chang-Neng; Liu, Xu-Sheng; Li, Tian-Zeng

    2008-05-01

    To investigate the influence of hair follicle dermal papilla cells (DPCs) on biological features of composite skin. In the test group, xenogeneic acellular dermal matrix was employed as the frame, DPCs were seeded on the subcutaneous side, and epithelial stem cells onto the dermal papilla side of the dermal frame so as to construct a composite skin. In the control group, there was no DPC in the frame. The two kinds of composite skin were employed to cover skin defects on the back of the nude mice. Wound healing was observed 4 weeks after grafting and area was analyzed and contraction rate was calculated. The tissue samples in the grafted area were harvested for HE staining and the state of the composite skin was observed. The stress-strain curve of the sampled skin was measured, so as to calculate the maximal breaking power of the sample. The data were collected and statistically analyzed. HE staining indicated that the epithelial depth was increased (more than 10 layers of cells) in test group, with only 6-7 layers in control group. The skin contraction rate in test group on the 4th week after skin grafting (3.94+/-0.013)% was much lower than that in control group (29.07+/-0.018)% (P<0.05). It was indicated by biomechanical test that the stress-strain curve of the composite skin in the test group was closer to that of normal nude mice skin in comparison to that in control group. The maximal breaking force of the composite skin in test group was (1.835+/-0.035)N (Newton), while that in control group was (1.075+/-0.065)N (P<0.01). Reconstruction of epidermis in composite skin was promoted by dermal DPCs seeded in the dermal matrix frame. As a result, there was less skin contraction in the composite skin with DPCs, so that the biological characteristics of the skin were improved.

  19. Arginase enzymes in isolated airways from normal and nitric oxide synthase 2-knockout mice exposed to ovalbumin

    SciTech Connect

    Bratt, Jennifer M.; Franzi, Lisa M.; Linderholm, Angela L.; Last, Michael S.; Kenyon, Nicholas J. Last, Jerold A.

    2009-02-01

    Arginase has been suggested to compete with nitric oxide synthase (NOS) for their common substrate, L-arginine. To study the mechanisms underlying this interaction, we compared arginase expression in isolated airways and the consequences of inhibiting arginase activity in vivo with NO production, lung inflammation, and lung function in both C57BL/6 and NOS2 knockout mice undergoing ovalbumin-induced airway inflammation, a mouse model of asthma. Arginases I and II were measured by western blot in isolated airways from sensitized C57BL/6 mice exposed to ovalbumin aerosol. Physiological and biochemical responses - inflammation, lung compliance, airway hyperreactivity, exhaled NO concentration, arginine concentration - were compared with the responses of NOS2 knockout mice. NOS2 knockout mice had increased total cells in lung lavage, decreased lung compliance, and increased airway hyperreactivity. Both arginase I and arginase II were constitutively expressed in the airways of normal C57BL/6 mice. Arginase I was up-regulated approximately 8-fold in the airways of C57BL/6 mice exposed to ovalbumin. Expression of both arginase isoforms were significantly upregulated in NOS2 knockout mice exposed to ovalbumin, with about 40- and 4-fold increases in arginases I and II, respectively. Arginine concentration in isolated airways was not significantly different in any of the groups studied. Inhibition of arginase by systemic treatment of C57BL/6 mice with a competitive inhibitor, N{omega}-hydroxy-nor-L-arginine (nor-NOHA), significantly decreased the lung inflammatory response to ovalbumin in these animals. We conclude that NOS2 knockout mice are more sensitive to ovalbumin-induced airway inflammation and its sequelae than are C57BL/6 mice, as determined by increased total cells in lung lavage, decreased lung compliance, and increased airway hyperreactivity, and that these findings are strongly correlated with increased expression of both arginase isoforms in the airways of the

  20. Increased Susceptibility of Humanized NSG Mice to Panton-Valentine Leukocidin and Staphylococcus aureus Skin Infection

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Ching Wen; Kolar, Stacey L.; Müller, Sabrina; Rodriguez, Maria D.; Rezai-Zadeh, Kavon; Fan, Xuemo; Beenhouwer, David O.; Town, Terrence; Liu, George Y.

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a leading cause of skin and soft-tissue infections worldwide. Mice are the most commonly used animals for modeling human staphylococcal infections. However a supra-physiologic S. aureus inoculum is required to establish gross murine skin pathology. Moreover, many staphylococcal factors, including Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) elaborated by community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA), exhibit selective human tropism and cannot be adequately studied in mice. To overcome these deficiencies, we investigated S. aureus infection in non-obese diabetic (NOD)/severe combined immune deficiency (SCID)/IL2rγnull (NSG) mice engrafted with human CD34+ umbilical cord blood cells. These “humanized” NSG mice require one to two log lower inoculum to induce consistent skin lesions compared with control mice, and exhibit larger cutaneous lesions upon infection with PVL+ versus isogenic PVL- S. aureus. Neutrophils appear important for PVL pathology as adoptive transfer of human neutrophils alone to NSG mice was sufficient to induce dermonecrosis following challenge with PVL+ S. aureus but not PVL- S. aureus. PMX53, a human C5aR inhibitor, blocked PVL-induced cellular cytotoxicity in vitro and reduced the size difference of lesions induced by the PVL+ and PVL- S. aureus, but PMX53 also reduced recruitment of neutrophils and exacerbated the infection. Overall, our findings establish humanized mice as an important translational tool for the study of S. aureus infection and provide strong evidence that PVL is a human virulence factor. PMID:26618545

  1. Naringenin Inhibits UVB Irradiation-Induced Inflammation and Oxidative Stress in the Skin of Hairless Mice.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Renata M; Pinho-Ribeiro, Felipe A; Steffen, Vinicius S; Caviglione, Carla V; Vignoli, Josiane A; Barbosa, Décio S; Baracat, Marcela M; Georgetti, Sandra R; Verri, Waldiceu A; Casagrande, Rubia

    2015-07-24

    Ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation may cause inflammation- and oxidative-stress-dependent skin cancer and premature aging. Naringenin (1) has been reported to have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, but its effects and mechanisms on UVB irradiation-induced inflammation and oxidative stress are still not known. Thus, the present study aimed to investigate the potential of naringenin to mitigate UVB irradiation-induced inflammation and oxidative damage in the skin of hairless mice. Skin edema, myeloperoxidase (neutrophil marker) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) activity, and cytokine production were measured after UVB irradiation. Oxidative stress was evaluated by 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical (ABTS) scavenging ability, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), reduced glutathione levels, catalase activity, lipid peroxidation products, superoxide anion production, and gp91phox (NADPH oxidase subunit) mRNA expression by quantitative PCR. The intraperitoneal treatment with naringenin reduced skin inflammation by inhibiting skin edema, neutrophil recruitment, MMP-9 activity, and pro-inflammatory (TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-12, IL-13, IL-17, IL-22, and IL-23) and anti-inflammatory (TGF-β and IL-10) cytokines. Naringenin also inhibited oxidative stress by reducing superoxide anion production and the mRNA expression of gp91phox. Therefore, naringenin inhibits UVB irradiation-induced skin damage and may be a promising therapeutic approach to control skin disease.

  2. Scratching of their skin by NC/Nga mice leads to development of dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Yuki; Arai, Iwao; Nakanishi, Yutaka; Sakurai, Takanobu; Nakamura, Atsushi; Nakaike, Shiro

    2004-12-31

    Effects of scratching behavior on dermatitis, transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and serum IgE concentrations were examined in NC/Nga (NC) mice with toenails (WIT) and without toenails (WOT). The first study was a preventive treatment done to cut off hind toenails before dermatitis induction and the second study was a therapeutic treatment by cutting off hind toenails of NC mice with severe dermatitis. In the preventive study, scratching behavior significantly increased in both WIT and WOT after dermatitis induction. Skin severity score, TEWL, number of mast cells and serum IgE concentration statistically increased in WIT but not in WOT after dermatitis induction. Histological changes coincided with the skin severity score in WIT, while no changes were observed in WOT. In the therapeutic study, skin severity score in WOT but not in WIT statistically decreased after cutting off the hind toenails. TEWL and numbers of mast cells in WOT were statistically lower compared with findings in WIT. Thus scratching up the skin with toenails seemed to be the most important factor leading to dermatitis in NC mice.

  3. Herb extracts and collagen hydrolysate improve skin damage resulting from ultraviolet-induced aging in hairless mice.

    PubMed

    Jimbo, Nozomi; Kawada, Chinatsu; Nomura, Yoshihiro

    2015-01-01

    We examined the effect of the daily ingestion of herb extract from Eucommia ulmoides leaves and Korean ginseng on skin damage induced by repeated UV irradiation of hairless mice. The herb extract was orally administered to mice at a dose of 1000 mg/kg/day. The hydration of mice dorsal skin decreased significantly with repeated UV irradiation, but did not decrease when the herb extract was administered for seven weeks. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL) increased with UV irradiation, but decreased with the administration of dietary herb extract. These effects were more pronounced when combined with the administration of collagen hydrolysate. Geniposidic acid from E. ulmoides leaves and ginsenoside Rg1 from Korean ginseng reduced TEWL and increased the skin moisture content of UV-damaged skin on hairless mice, respectively. We concluded that this dietary herb extract reduced the skin damage caused by UV-induced aging, with geniposidic acid and ginsenoside Rg1 detected in the blood.

  4. Risk assessment of laboratory rats and mice chronically exposed to formaldehyde vapors

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, K.G.

    1985-09-01

    Experimental data from the Chemical Industry Institute of Toxicology (CIIT) are used to estimate the risk of squamous cell carcinoma of the nasal cavity in Fischer 344 (F344) rats over a range of ambient air concentrations of formaldehyde that includes current exposure guidelines for the workplace and home. These values are presented as a best estimate envelope obtained from five mathematical dose-response formulations. The response of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats dosed at 15 ppm in a separate study at New York University is consistent with the predicted lifetime response for F344 rats at a slightly lower concentration (13-14 ppm). A dose-related mortality effect beyond what is attributable to the occurrenece of nasal carcinomas is found in F344 rats at all CIIT exposure levels (2,6, and 155 ppm). There is no evidence of a mortality effect in B6C3F1 mice of the CIIT study, and data for SD rats of the NYU experiment are inconclusive. In the CIIT study, rats exposed to 15 ppm exhibited a high incidence of nasal cavity squamous cell carcinomas and polypoid adenomas. Polypoid adenomas were also observed with increased incidences at 2 ppm and 6 ppm. Statistical comparisons with matched controls, and the low historical rate of spontaneous occurrence both suggest that polypoid adenomas may be a risk to F344 rats at exposure levels below the current Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) standard of 3 ppm. Squamous cell carcinomas were observed in two mice exposed to 15 ppm. This finding may be biologically significant since this tumor is rare and has not been previously reported in 4932 untreated B6C3F1 mice from recent National Toxicology Program (NTP) feeding studies.

  5. Alteration of cytokine profiles in mice exposed to chronic low-dose ionizing radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, Suk Chul; Lee, Kyung-Mi; Kang, Yu Mi; Kim, Kwanghee; Kim, Cha Soon; Yang, Kwang Hee; Jin, Young-Woo; Kim, Chong Soon; Kim, Hee Sun

    2010-07-09

    While a high-dose of ionizing radiation is generally harmful and causes damage to living organisms, a low-dose of radiation has been shown to be beneficial in a variety of animal models. To understand the basis for the effect of low-dose radiation in vivo, we examined the cellular and immunological changes evoked in mice exposed to low-dose radiation at very low (0.7 mGy/h) and low (3.95 mGy/h) dose rate for the total dose of 0.2 and 2 Gy, respectively. Mice exposed to low-dose radiation, either at very low- or low-dose rate, demonstrated normal range of body weight and complete blood counts. Likewise, the number and percentage of peripheral lymphocyte populations, CD4{sup +} T, CD8{sup +} T, B, or NK cells, stayed unchanged following irradiation. Nonetheless, the sera from these mice exhibited elevated levels of IL-3, IL-4, leptin, MCP-1, MCP-5, MIP-1{alpha}, thrombopoietin, and VEGF along with slight reduction of IL-12p70, IL-13, IL-17, and IFN-{gamma}. This pattern of cytokine release suggests the stimulation of innate immunity facilitating myeloid differentiation and activation while suppressing pro-inflammatory responses and promoting differentiation of naive T cells into T-helper 2, not T-helper 1, types. Collectively, our data highlight the subtle changes of cytokine milieu by chronic low-dose {gamma}-radiation, which may be associated with the functional benefits observed in various experimental models.

  6. Impaired lipid and glucose homeostasis in hexabromocyclododecane-exposed mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Yanagisawa, Rie; Koike, Eiko; Win-Shwe, Tin-Tin; Yamamoto, Megumi; Takano, Hirohisa

    2014-03-01

    Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) is an additive flame retardant used in the textile industry and in polystyrene foam manufacturing. Because of its lipophilicity and persistency, HBCD accumulates in adipose tissue and thus has the potential of causing metabolic disorders through disruption of lipid and glucose homeostasis. However, the association between HBCD and obesity remains unclear. We investigated whether exposure to HBCD contributes to initiation and progression of obesity and related metabolic dysfunction in mice fed a normal diet (ND) or a high-fat diet (HFD). Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a HFD (62.2 kcal% fat) or a ND and treated orally with HBCD (0, 1.75, 35, or 700 μg/kg body weight) weekly from 6 to 20 weeks of age. We examined body weight, liver weight, blood biochemistry, histopathological changes, and gene expression profiles in the liver and adipose tissue. In HFD-fed mice, body and liver weight were markedly increased in mice treated with the high (700 μg/kg) and medium (35 μg/kg) doses of HBCD compared with vehicle. This effect was more prominent in the high-dose group. These increases were paralleled by increases in random blood glucose and insulin levels and enhancement of microvesicular steatosis and macrophage accumulation in adipose tissue. HBCD-treated HFD-fed mice also had increased mRNA levels of Pparg (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ) in the liver and decreased mRNA levels of Glut4 (glucose transporter 4) in adipose tissue compared with vehicle-treated HFD-fed mice. Our findings suggest that HBCD may contribute to enhancement of diet-induced body weight gain and metabolic dysfunction through disruption of lipid and glucose homeostasis, resulting in accelerated progression of obesity. Yanagisawa R, Koike E, Win-Shwe TT, Yamamoto M, Takano H. 2014. Impaired lipid and glucose homeostasis in hexabromocyclododecane-exposed mice fed a high-fat diet. Environ Health Perspect 122:277-283; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307421.

  7. Impaired Lipid and Glucose Homeostasis in Hexabromocyclododecane-Exposed Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet

    PubMed Central

    Koike, Eiko; Win-Shwe, Tin-Tin; Yamamoto, Megumi; Takano, Hirohisa

    2014-01-01

    Background: Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) is an additive flame retardant used in the textile industry and in polystyrene foam manufacturing. Because of its lipophilicity and persistency, HBCD accumulates in adipose tissue and thus has the potential of causing metabolic disorders through disruption of lipid and glucose homeostasis. However, the association between HBCD and obesity remains unclear. Objectives: We investigated whether exposure to HBCD contributes to initiation and progression of obesity and related metabolic dysfunction in mice fed a normal diet (ND) or a high-fat diet (HFD). Methods: Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a HFD (62.2 kcal% fat) or a ND and treated orally with HBCD (0, 1.75, 35, or 700 μg/kg body weight) weekly from 6 to 20 weeks of age. We examined body weight, liver weight, blood biochemistry, histopathological changes, and gene expression profiles in the liver and adipose tissue. Results: In HFD-fed mice, body and liver weight were markedly increased in mice treated with the high (700 μg/kg) and medium (35 μg/kg) doses of HBCD compared with vehicle. This effect was more prominent in the high-dose group. These increases were paralleled by increases in random blood glucose and insulin levels and enhancement of microvesicular steatosis and macrophage accumulation in adipose tissue. HBCD-treated HFD-fed mice also had increased mRNA levels of Pparg (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ) in the liver and decreased mRNA levels of Glut4 (glucose transporter 4) in adipose tissue compared with vehicle-treated HFD-fed mice. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that HBCD may contribute to enhancement of diet-induced body weight gain and metabolic dysfunction through disruption of lipid and glucose homeostasis, resulting in accelerated progression of obesity. Citation: Yanagisawa R, Koike E, Win-Shwe TT, Yamamoto M, Takano H. 2014. Impaired lipid and glucose homeostasis in hexabromocyclododecane-exposed mice fed a high-fat diet. Environ Health

  8. Ammonia transport across the skin of adult rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) exposed to high environmental ammonia (HEA).

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Alex M; Brauner, Colin J; Wood, Chris M

    2014-01-01

    Recent molecular evidence points towards a capacity for ammonia transport across the skin of adult rainbow trout. A series of in vivo and in vitro experiments were conducted to understand the role of cutaneous ammonia excretion (J amm) under control conditions and after 12-h pre-exposure to high environmental ammonia (HEA; 2 mmol/l NH4HCO3). Divided chamber experiments with bladder-catheterized, rectally ligated fish under light anesthesia were performed to separate cutaneous J amm from branchial, renal, and intestinal J amm. Under control conditions, cutaneous J amm accounted for 4.5 % of total J amm in vivo. In fish pre-exposed to HEA, plasma total ammonia concentration increased 20-fold to approximately 1,000 μmol/l, branchial J amm increased 1.5- to 2.7-fold, and urinary J amm increased about 7-fold. Urinary J amm still accounted for less than 2 % of total J amm. Cutaneous J amm increased 4-fold yet amounted to only 5.7 % of total J amm in these fish. Genes (Rhcg1, Rhcg2, Rhbg, NHE-2, v-type H(+)-ATPase) known to be involved in ammonia excretion at the gills of trout were all expressed at the mRNA level in the skin, but their expression did not increase with HEA pre-exposure. In vitro analyses using [(14)C] methylamine (MA), an ammonia analog which is transported by Rh proteins, demonstrated that MA permeability in isolated skin sections was higher in HEA pre-exposed fish than in control fish. The addition of basolateral ammonia (1,000 μmol/l) to this system abolished this increase in permeability, suggesting ammonia competition with MA for Rh-mediated transport across the skin of HEA pre-exposed trout; this did not occur in skin sections from control trout. Moreover, in vitro J amm by the skin of fish which had been pre-exposed to HEA was also higher than in control fish in the absence of basolateral ammonia, pointing towards a possible cutaneous ammonia loading in response to HEA. In vitro MA permeability was reduced upon the addition of amiloride (10

  9. [Distribution of arsenic species and its DNA damage in subchronic arsenite-exposed mice].

    PubMed

    Li, Hanjun; Lin, Jing; Li, Yufeng; Yan, Jinting; Li, Bai; Zhang, Wei; Dong, Zeqin; Chen, Chunying

    2013-09-01

    To study the arsenic distribution, speciation, its effects on the balance of other elements and the DNA damage by subchronic arsenite exposure in mice. The 8-week-old C57BL/6N mice were matched by weight and divided into control group and supplementation group, which were given 0 or 10 microg/ml of sodium arsenite in the drinking water, and continuous exposed for 6 months. Arsenic was found in various tissues and organs. The highest ones were in the kidney, lung and liver, reached (563.9 +/- 222.5), (458.6 +/- 191.0) and (279.8 +/- 81.2) ng/g, respectively while the lowest in the blood and brain, reached (82.2 +/- 26.7) ng/ml and (101.8 +/- 30.1) ng/g, respectively. Arsenic exists mainly in the form of dimethylarsinous acid (DMA). Compared to the control group, there was a significant difference (P < 0.05) between arsenic and chromium, copper, zinc, selenium, lead in some organs of arsenic exposed group, but not cadmium. Furthermore, the 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) level of the exposed group was (149.1 +/- 1.0) ng/ml, which was significantly higher than the control group of (76.4 +/- 27.9) ng/ml. Arsenic accumulated in various tissues and organs mainly in the form of DMA, which affected the balance of chromium, copper, zinc, selenium and lead in the body, and led to DNA damage after subchronic exposure.

  10. Regional and splenic lymphocyte proliferative responses of mice exposed to normal or irradiated Schistosoma mansoni cercariae

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, F.A.; Wilson, E.M.

    1982-05-01

    Developing larvae of Schistosoma mansoni migrate through various tissues en route to the liver and mesenteric veins of their definitive host. Regional (lymph node) and systemic (spleen) blastogenic responses to cercarial, adult and egg antigens were measured in CBA/J mice at various times after exposure to normal or irradiated S. mansoni cercariae. Among the separate lymph node groups studied were those draining the tail, thoracic region, intestines, head and neck, and the pelvis. Blastogenic responses were assayed by a micromethod requiring 10(5) cells in 20 microliter volumes per culture. Up to 5 weeks post-cercarial exposure the pattern of responses in lymphoid tissues of infected mice coincided with the migratory route of the parasites. Following oviposition, cellular reactivity was pronounced in all lymph node groups. The reactivity of mice exposed to irradiated cercariae followed a pattern suggestive of a sustained antigenic stimulus only in the nodes draining the tail and lungs. Splenic (systemic) reactivity was roughly comparable between the two exposure groups. These data show the independence and vast differences in the host regional responses following normal or irradiated cercarial exposure.

  11. Pretreatment with Pyridoxamine Mitigates Isolevuglandin-associated Retinal Effects in Mice Exposed to Bright Light*

    PubMed Central

    Charvet, Casey D.; Saadane, Aicha; Wang, Meiyao; Salomon, Robert G.; Brunengraber, Henri; Turko, Illarion V.; Pikuleva, Irina A.

    2013-01-01

    The benefits of antioxidant therapy for treating age-related macular degeneration, a devastating retinal disease, are limited. Perhaps species other than reactive oxygen intermediates should be considered as therapeutic targets. These could be lipid peroxidation products, including isolevuglandins (isoLGs), prototypical and extraordinarily reactive γ-ketoaldehydes that avidly bind to proteins, phospholipids, and DNA and modulate the properties of these biomolecules. We found isoLG adducts in aged human retina but not in the retina of mice kept under dim lighting. Hence, to test whether scavenging of isoLGs could complement or supplant antioxidant therapy, we exposed mice to bright light and found that this insult leads to retinal isoLG-adduct formation. We then pretreated mice with pyridoxamine, a B6 vitamer and efficient scavenger of γ-ketoaldehydes, and found that the levels of retinal isoLG adducts are decreased, and morphological changes in photoreceptor mitochondria are not as pronounced as in untreated animals. Our study demonstrates that preventing the damage to biomolecules by lipid peroxidation products, a novel concept in vision research, is a viable strategy to combat oxidative stress in the retina. PMID:23970548

  12. Enhanced platelet reactivity and thrombosis in Apoe-/- mice exposed to cigarette smoke is attenuated by P2Y12 antagonism.

    PubMed

    Dong, Anping; Caicedo, Jessica; Han, Sung Gu; Mueller, Paul; Saha, Sibu; Smyth, Susan S; Gairola, C Gary

    2010-10-01

    Smoking increases the risk of acute arterial thrombosis, including myocardial infarction, likely due to multi-factorial effects on the vasculature. Heightened platelet reactivity may be among the adverse effects of smoke exposure. To examine the effects of smoke exposure on platelet function in an atherosclerotic environment, Apoe-deficient female mice, maintained on a Western diet, were exposed (4 hrs/d, 5 d/wk) to sidestream cigarette smoke in a whole-body exposure chamber for 12 weeks. A separate group of wild type C57BL/6J mice were also exposed to smoke in an identical fashion. In comparison to control Apoe-/- mice exposed to filtered ambient air, smoke-exposed Apoe-/- mice displayed a 1.8±0.3 fold enhanced ADP-induced fibrinogen binding ex vivo (P<0.001) and had a shorter time to thrombotic occlusion following ferric chloride injury of the carotid artery (median time to thrombosis of 8 vs. 13 min; P=0.015). Administration of the direct-acting P2Y12 antagonist cangrelor blunted ex vivo fibrinogen binding and attenuated thrombosis (median time 20 min) in Apoe-/- mice exposed to sidestream smoke. The effects of smoke exposure required a proatherosclerotic background, as wild-type C57Bl/6J mice exposed to smoke displayed similar fibrinogen binding and thrombotic occlusion times as did control mice. Our results demonstrate that exposure to smoke heightens platelet reactivity and thrombosis in Apoe-/- mice and implicate signaling through platelet P2Y12 receptor as a mediator of the adverse consequence of smoke exposure. These results may partially explain the recent observations that smokers derive greater clinical benefit from the P2Y12 antagonist clopidogrel than do non-smokers. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Optical properties of mice skin for optical therapy relevant wavelengths: influence of gender and pigmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabino, C. P.; Deana, A. M.; Silva, D. F. T.; França, C. M.; Yoshimura, T. M.; Ribeiro, M. S.

    2015-03-01

    Red and near-infrared light have been widely employed in optical therapies. Skin is the most common optical barrier in non-invasive techniques and in many cases it is the target tissue itself. Consequently, to optimize the outcomes brought by lightbased therapies, the optical properties of skin tissue must be very well elucidated. In the present study, we evaluated the dorsal skin optical properties of albino (BALB/c) and pigmented (C57BL/6) mice using the Kubelka-Munk photon transport model. We evaluated samples from male and female young mice of both strains. Analysis was performed for wavelengths at 630, 660, 780, 810 and 905 nm due to their prevalent use in optical therapies, such as low-level light (or laser) and photodynamic therapies. Spectrophotometric measurements of diffuse transmittance and reflectance were performed using a single integrating sphere coupled to a proper spectrophotometer. Statistic analysis was made by two-way ANOVA, with Tukey as post-test and Levenne and Shapiro-Wilks as pre-tests. Statistical significance was considered when p<0.05. Our results show only a slight transmittance increment (<10 %) as wavelengths are increased from 630 to 905 nm, and no statistical significance was observed. Albino male mice present reduced transmittance levels for all wavelengths. The organization and abundance of skin composing tissues significantly influence its scattering optical properties although absorption remains constant. We conclude that factors such as subcutaneous adiposity and connective tissue structure can have statistically significant influence on mice skin optical properties and these factors have relevant variations among different gender and strains.

  14. Thread Embedding Acupuncture Inhibits Ultraviolet B Irradiation-Induced Skin Photoaging in Hairless Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yoon-Jung; Kim, Ha-Neui; Shin, Mi-Sook; Choi, Byung-Tae

    2015-01-01

    Thread embedding acupuncture (TEA) is an acupuncture treatment applied to many diseases in Korean medical clinics because of its therapeutic effects by continuous stimulation to tissues. It has recently been used to enhance facial skin appearance and antiaging, but data from evidence-based medicine are limited. To investigate whether TEA therapy can inhibit skin photoaging by ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation, we performed analyses for histology, histopathology, in situ zymography and western blot analysis in HR-1 hairless mice. TEA treatment resulted in decreased wrinkle formation and skin thickness (Epidermis; P = 0.001 versus UV) in UVB irradiated mice and also inhibited degradation of collagen fibers (P = 0.010 versus normal) by inhibiting proteolytic activity of gelatinase matrix-metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9). Western blot data showed that activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) induced by UVB (P = 0.002 versus normal group) was significantly inhibited by TEA treatment (P = 0.005 versus UV) with subsequent alleviation of MMP-9 activation (P = 0.048 versus UV). These results suggest that TEA treatment can have anti-photoaging effects on UVB-induced skin damage by maintenance of collagen density through regulation of expression of MMP-9 and related JNK signaling. Therefore, TEA therapy may have potential roles as an alternative treatment for protection against skin damage from aging. PMID:26185518

  15. Improvement of epidermal barrier properties in cultured skin substitutes after grafting onto athymic mice.

    PubMed

    Barai, Namrata D; Supp, Andrew P; Kasting, Gerald B; Visscher, Marty O; Boyce, Steven T

    2007-01-01

    Barrier function in cultured skin substitutes (CSS) prepared from human cell sources was measured by noninvasive (surface hydration, transepidermal water loss) and invasive methods (water permeation, niacinamide flux) before and after grafting onto athymic mice. In vitro measurements were made on days 7 and 14. Although three of the four measures of barrier function improved markedly from day 7 to 14, the values obtained were still far from those obtained with native human skin controls. Additional CSS were grafted onto athymic mice on day 14, and skin was harvested 2 and 6 weeks after grafting. Grafting brought about a substantial decrease in all measurements by 2 weeks and almost complete normalization of barrier function after 6 weeks. The most sensitive measure of this recovery was niacinamide permeability, which decreased from (280 +/- 40) x 10(-4) cm/h in vitro to (17 +/- 30) x 10(-4) cm/h 2 weeks after grafting and (5 +/- 2) x 10(-4) cm/h 6 weeks after grafting, versus control values of (2 +/- 2) x 10(-4) cm/h in human cadaver skin and (0.6 +/- 0.4) x 10(-4) cm/h in human epidermal membrane prepared from freshly excised breast skin. These results demonstrate the reformation of epidermal barrier function after transplantation and provide insights for the development of a functional epidermal barrier in CSS in vitro.

  16. Automatic layer segmentation of H&E microscopic images of mice skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussein, Saif; Selway, Joanne; Jassim, Sabah; Al-Assam, Hisham

    2016-05-01

    Mammalian skin is a complex organ composed of a variety of cells and tissue types. The automatic detection and quantification of changes in skin structures has a wide range of applications for biological research. To accurately segment and quantify nuclei, sebaceous gland, hair follicles, and other skin structures, there is a need for a reliable segmentation of different skin layers. This paper presents an efficient segmentation algorithm to segment the three main layers of mice skin, namely epidermis, dermis, and subcutaneous layers. It also segments the epidermis layer into two sub layers, basal and cornified layers. The proposed algorithm uses adaptive colour deconvolution technique on H&E stain images to separate different tissue structures, inter-modes and Otsu thresholding techniques were effectively combined to segment the layers. It then uses a set of morphological and logical operations on each layer to removing unwanted objects. A dataset of 7000 H&E microscopic images of mutant and wild type mice were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the algorithm. Experimental results examined by domain experts have confirmed the viability of the proposed algorithms.

  17. Resveratrol Derivative-Rich Melinjo Seed Extract Attenuates Skin Atrophy in Sod1-Deficient Mice.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Kenji; Shibuya, Shuichi; Ozawa, Yusuke; Izuo, Naotaka; Shimizu, Takahiko

    2015-01-01

    The oxidative damages induced by a redox imbalance cause age-related changes in cells and tissues. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzymes play a pivotal role in the antioxidant system and they also catalyze superoxide radicals. Since the loss of cytoplasmic SOD (SOD1) resulted in aging-like phenotypes in several types of murine tissue, SOD1 is essential for the maintenance of tissue homeostasis. Melinjo (Gnetum gnemon Linn) seed extract (MSE) contains trans-resveratrol (RSV) and resveratrol derivatives, including gnetin C, gnemonoside A, and gnemonoside D. MSE intake also exerts no adverse events in human study. In the present studies, we investigated protective effects of MSE on age-related skin pathologies in mice. Orally MSE and RSV treatment reversed the skin thinning associated with increased oxidative damage in the Sod1 (-/-) mice. Furthermore, MSE and RSV normalized gene expression of Col1a1 and p53 and upregulated gene expression of Sirt1 in skin tissues. In vitro experiments revealed that RSV significantly promoted the viability of Sod1 (-/-) fibroblasts. These finding demonstrated that RSV in MSE stably suppressed an intrinsic superoxide generation in vivo and in vitro leading to protecting skin damages. RSV derivative-rich MSE may be a powerful food of treatment for age-related skin diseases caused by oxidative damages.

  18. Sun-Exposed Skin Color Is Associated with Changes in Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D in Racially/Ethnically Diverse Children.

    PubMed

    Sawicki, Caleigh M; Van Rompay, Maria I; Au, Lauren E; Gordon, Catherine M; Sacheck, Jennifer M

    2016-04-01

    UVB light from the sun increases serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration, but this relation may depend on skin pigmentation among different racial/ethnic groups. We used quantitative measures of exposed (facultative) and unexposed (constitutive) skin color to examine relations between serum 25(OH)D concentration, tanning, race/ethnicity, and constitutive skin color over the summer, following winter vitamin D supplementation. The subjects (n= 426, mean age 11.7 ± 1.4 y, 51% female) were racially/ethnically diverse schoolchildren (57% non-white/Caucasian) enrolled in a 6-mo vitamin D supplementation trial (October-December to April-June). In this secondary analysis, measures of serum 25(OH)D concentration and skin color, with the use of reflectance colorimetry, were taken over a 6-mo period after supplementation, from pre-summer (April-June) to post-summer (September-December). Multiple linear regression was used to evaluate longitudinal relations. Following supplementation, mean serum 25(OH)D concentration was 29.3 ± 9.5 ng/mL but fell to 25.6 ± 7.9 ng/mL (P< 0.0001) by the end of summer. The decrease in white/Caucasian children was less than in black/African American children (P< 0.01) and tended to be less than in Hispanic/Latino, Asian, and multiracial/other children (P= 0.19-0.50) despite similar changes in sun-exposed skin color among all groups. Tanning was significantly associated with post-summer serum 25(OH)D concentration (β = -0.15,P< 0.0001), as was race/ethnicity (P= 0.0002), but the later association disappeared after adjusting for constitutive skin color. Tanning significantly contributed to serum 25(OH)D concentration over the summer, independent of race/ethnicity, but was not sufficient to maintain serum 25(OH)D concentration attained with supplementation. Much of the variation in serum 25(OH)D concentration between racial/ethnic groups may be explained by skin color. This trial was registered atclinicaltrials.govasNCT01537809. © 2016

  19. Thermal inactivation of Salmonella Enteritidis on chicken skin previously exposed to acidified Sodium chlorite or tri-sodium phosphate.

    PubMed

    Karuppasamy, K; Yadav, Ajit S; Saxena, Gaurav K

    2015-12-01

    Thermal inactivation of normal and starved cells of Salmonella Enteritidis on chicken skin previously exposed to different concentrations of acidified sodium chlorite (ASC) or tri-sodium phosphate (TSP) was investigated. Inoculated skin was pretreated with different concentration of ASC or TSP, packaged in bags, and then immersed in a circulating water bath at 60 to 68 °C. The recovery medium was Hektoen enteric agar. D-values, determined by linear regression, for normal cells on chicken skin, were 2.79, 1.17 and 0.53 min whereas D-values for starved cells were 4.15, 1.83 and 0.66 at 60, 64 and 68 °C, respectively. z-values for normal cells were 3.54 and for starved cells were 2.29. Pretreatment of Salmonella Enteritidis cells with 0 to 200 ppm of ASC or 0 to 1.0 % TSP resulted in lower D-values at all temperatures. Sensory results indicated no significance differences for control and treatments. Thus, results of this study indicated that pretreatment of chicken skin with ASC or TSP increased sensitivity of Salmonella Enteritidis to heat without affecting organoleptic quality of chicken meat.

  20. Effect of the reduction of skin contamination on the internal dose of creosote workers exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Van Rooij, J G; Van Lieshout, E M; Bodelier-Bade, M M; Jongeneelen, F J

    1993-06-01

    Ten creosote-exposed workers of a wood impregnation plant participated in this study, which took place in two consecutive weeks on a Monday, after a weekend off. On one of the two days each worker wore Tyvek coveralls underneath his normal workclothes. Dermal contamination measurements (pyrene on exposure pads) and biological monitoring (urinary 1-OH-pyrene) were performed to measure the reduction of both the skin contamination and the internal dose. The total pyrene skin contamination of workers not wearing coveralls ranged between 47 and 1510 micrograms.d-1 (0.2-7.5 mumol.d-1). On the average, the coveralls reduced the pyrene contamination on the workers' skin by about 35 (SD 63)%. The excreted amount of 1-OH-pyrene in urine decreased significantly from 6.6 to 3.2 micrograms (30.2 to 14.7 nmol). Multiple regression analysis showed that skin contamination by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is the main determinant of the internal exposure dose of creosote workers.

  1. Decreased fertility in mice exposed to environmental air pollution in the city of Sao Paulo.

    PubMed

    Mohallem, Soraya Vecci; de Araújo Lobo, Débora Jã; Pesquero, Célia Regina; Assunção, João Vicente; de Andre, Paulo Afonso; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Dolhnikoff, Marisa

    2005-06-01

    It has largely been shown that air pollution can affect human health. Effects on human fertility have been shown mainly in males by a decrease in semen quality. Few studies have focused on the environmental effects on female fertility. The aim of the present study was to analyze the effects of air pollution in the city of Sao Paulo on mouse female fertility. Four groups of female Balb/c mice were placed in two chambers 10 days (newborn) or 10 weeks (adults) after birth. Mice were maintained in the chambers 24 h a day, 7 days a week, for 4 months. The first chamber received air that had passed through an air filter (clean chamber) and the second received ambient air (polluted chamber). We measured PM10 and NO2 inside both chambers. Mice belonging to the adult groups were bred to male mice after living for 3 months inside the chambers. The newborn groups mated after reaching reproductive age (12 weeks). After 19 days of pregnancy the numbers of live-born pups, reabsorptions, fetal deaths, corpora lutea, and implantation failures were determined. PM10 and NO2 concentrations in the clean chamber were 50% and 77.5% lower than in the polluted chamber, respectively. Differences in fertility parameters between groups were observed only in animals exposed to air pollution at an early age (10 days after birth). We observed a higher number of live-born pups per animal in the clean chamber than per animal from the polluted chamber (median=6.0 and 4.0, respectively; P=0.037). There was a higher incidence of implantation failures in the polluted group than in the clean group (median=3.5 and 2.0, respectively; P=0.048). There were no significant differences in the other reproductive parameters between groups. These results support the concept that female reproductive health represents a target of air pollutants.

  2. CD34 Expression by Hair Follicle Stem Cells Is Required for Skin Tumor Development in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Trempus, Carol S.; Morris, Rebecca J.; Ehinger, Matthew; Elmore, Amy; Bortner, Carl D.; Ito, Mayumi; Cotsarelis, George; Nijhof, Joanne G.W.; Peckham, John; Flagler, Norris; Kissling, Grace; Humble, Margaret M.; King, Leon C.; Adams, Linda D.; Desai, Dhimant; Amin, Shantu; Tennant, Raymond W.

    2007-01-01

    The cell surface marker CD34 marks mouse hair follicle bulge cells, which have attributes of stem cells, including quiescence and multipotency. Using a CD34 knockout (KO) mouse, we tested the hypothesis that CD34 may participate in tumor development in mice because hair follicle stem cells are thought to be a major target of carcinogens in the two-stage model of mouse skin carcinogenesis. Following initiation with 200 nmol 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA), mice were promoted with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) for 20 weeks. Under these conditions, CD34KO mice failed to develop papillomas. Increasing the initiating dose of DMBA to 400 nmol resulted in tumor development in the CD34KO mice, albeit with an increased latency and lower tumor yield compared with the wild-type (WT) strain. DNA adduct analysis of keratinocytes from DMBA-initiated CD34KO mice revealed that DMBA was metabolically activated into carcinogenic diol epoxides at both 200 and 400 nmol. Chronic exposure to TPA revealed that CD34KO skin developed and sustained epidermal hyperplasia. However, CD34KO hair follicles typically remained in telogen rather than transitioning into anagen growth, confirmed by retention of bromodeoxyuridine-labeled bulge stem cells within the hair follicle. Unique localization of the hair follicle progenitor cell marker MTS24 was found in interfollicular basal cells in TPA-treated WT mice, whereas staining remained restricted to the hair follicles of CD34KO mice, suggesting that progenitor cells migrate into epidermis differently between strains. These data show that CD34 is required for TPA-induced hair follicle stem cell activation and tumor formation in mice. PMID:17483328

  3. Effect of intestinal microflora on the survival time of mice exposed to lethal whole-body. gamma. irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Onoue, M.; Uchida, K.; Yokokura, T.; Takahashi, T.; Mutai, M.

    1981-11-01

    The effect of intestinal microflora on the survival time of mice exposed to 2-kR whole-body ..gamma.. irradiation was studied using germfree, monoassociated, and conventionalized ICR mice. The germfree mice were monoassociated with 1 of 11 bacterial strains, which were isolated from the fresh feces of conventional mice, 2 weeks prior to irradiation. All mice died within 3 weeks after irradiation. Monoassociation with Fusobacterium sp., Streptococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, or Pseudomonas sp. significantly reduced the mean survival time compared to that of germfree mice. In contrast, monoassociation with Clostridium sp., Bifidobacterium pseudolongum, or Lactobacillus acidophilus significantly prolonged the mean survival time compared to that of germfree mice. This suggests that the latter organisms may perform some activity to protect the mice from radiation injury. In this histopathological autopsy examination, the main lesions were hypocellularity in hematopoietic organs and hemorrhage in various organs. Neither karyorrhexis nor desquamation of intestinal mucosal cells was observed in any mice. From these observations, it is suggested that the death of these mice was related to hematopoietic damage. Bacterial invasion into various organs was observed in conventionalized and Pseudomonas-, E. coli-, or S. faecalis-monoassociated mice but not in Clostridium-, B. pseudolongum-, L. acidophilus-, or Fusobacterium-monoassociated mice.

  4. UV-specific p53 and PTCH mutations in sporadic basal cell carcinoma of sun-exposed skin.

    PubMed

    Ratner, D; Peacocke, M; Zhang, H; Ping, X L; Tsou, H C

    2001-02-01

    UVB irradiation is known to produce DNA damage at mutation hotspots in the p53 tumor suppressor gene, leading to the development of skin cancers. Mutations in the PTCH tumor suppressor gene, which is known to be responsible for the development of nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome, have also been identified in sporadic basal cell carcinomas (BCCs). We describe the case of an 80-year-old welder in whom 3 novel p53 mutations, as well as UV-specific PTCH mutations, were detected in two BCC samples from sun-exposed skin. The simultaneous presence of UV-specific p53 and PTCH mutations in the same BCC sample has not previously been reported.

  5. Dose-response on the chemopreventive effects of sarcophine-diol on UVB-induced skin tumor development in SKH-1 hairless mice.

    PubMed

    Guillermo, Ruth F; Zhang, Xiaoying; Kaushik, Radhey S; Zeman, David; Ahmed, Safwat A; Khalifa, Sherief; Fahmy, Hesham; Dwivedi, Chandradhar

    2012-09-01

    Sarcophine-diol (SD) is a lactone ring-opened analogue of sarcophine. It has shown chemopreventive effects on chemically-induced skin tumor development in female CD-1 mice, as well as in a UVB-induced skin tumor development model in hairless SKH-1 mice at a dose of 30 μg SD applied topically and 180 mJ/cm(2) UVB. The objective of this study was to determine the dose-response on the chemopreventive effects of SD on SKH-1 hairless mice when exposed to a UVB radiation dose of 30 mJ/cm(2). This UVB dose better represents chronic human skin exposure to sunlight leading to skin cancer than previous studies applying much higher UVB doses. Carcinogenesis was initiated and promoted by UVB radiation. Female hairless SKH-1 mice were divided into five groups. The control group was topically treated with 200 μL of acetone (vehicle), and the SD treatment groups were topically treated with SD (30 μg, 45 μg, and 60 μg dissolved in 200 μL of acetone) 1 h before UVB radiation (30 mJ/cm(2)). The last group of animals received 60 μg SD/200 μL acetone without UVB exposure. These treatments were continued for 27 weeks. Tumor multiplicity and tumor volumes were recorded on a weekly basis for 27 weeks. Weight gain and any signs of toxicity were also closely monitored. Histological characteristics and the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) were evaluated in the mice skin collected at the end of the experiment. The dose-response study proved a modest increase in chemopreventive effects with the increase in SD dose. SD reduced the number of cells positively stained with PCNA proliferation marker in mice skin. The study also showed that SD application without UVB exposure has no effect on the structure of skin. The results from this study suggest that broader range doses of SD are necessary to improve the chemopreventive effects.

  6. Transplantation of skin grafts and organs infected with Toxoplasma gondii as a source of toxoplasmosis in immunocompromised mice.

    PubMed

    Belal, Usama Salah; Norose, Kazumi; Mohamed, Rabie Mohamed; Naoi, Koji; Yano, Akihiko

    2011-01-01

    The possibility of Toxoplasma gondii infection resulting from transplantation of a skin graft and various organs has been investigated. The parasite was detected in very low numbers in all organs examined in wild-type (WT) BALB/c (B/c) mice that received skin grafts from infected interferon gamma knockout (GKO) B/c mice both with and without sulfamethoxazole treatment; all recipient mice survived. In contrast, transplantation of skin grafts from untreated infected WT B/c mice to naïve GKO B/c mice led to the death of all recipients within 20 days post-transplantation; T. gondii was found to be disseminated in all organs examined. Similar results were obtained after transplantation of skin from untreated and treated GKO B/c mice to naïve GKO B/c mice, whereas the recipient GKO B/c mice died within 10 days after intraperitoneal transplantation of lung, heart, brain or small intestine from infected untreated GKO B/c mice. These results indicate that skin grafts as well as various organs infected with T. gondii can be sources of infection in immunocompromised hosts. Toxoplasmosis should therefore be taken into consideration during organ transplantation to immunocompromised hosts.

  7. Surgical Methods for Full-Thickness Skin Grafts to Induce Alopecia Areata in C3H/HeJ Mice

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Kathleen A; Sundberg, John P

    2013-01-01

    Alopecia areata is a cell-mediated autoimmune disease of humans and many domestic and laboratory animal species. C3H/HeJ inbred mice spontaneously develop alopecia areata at a low frequency (approximately 20% by 12 mo of age). Transferring full-thickness skin grafts from affected, older mice to young mice of the same strain reliably reproduces alopecia areata, thus enabling investigators to study disease pathogenesis or intervention with a variety of therapeutic approaches. We here describe in detail how to perform full-thickness skin grafts and the follow-up procedures necessary to consistently generate mice with alopecia areata. These engrafted mice can be used to study the pathogenesis of cell-mediated autoimmune disease and for drug-efficacy trials. This standard protocol can be used for many other purposes when studying abnormal skin phenotypes in laboratory mice. PMID:24210015

  8. Contractile properties of skinned muscle fibres from young and adult normal and dystrophic (mdx) mice.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, D A; Head, S I; Lynch, G S; Stephenson, D G

    1993-01-01

    1. Single muscle fibres were enzymatically isolated from the soleus and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles of genetically dystrophic mdx and normal (C57BL/10) mice aged 3-6 or 17-23 weeks. 2. Fibres of both muscles were chemically skinned with the non-ionic detergent Triton X-100 (2% v/v). Ca(2+)- and Sr(2+)-activated contractile responses were recorded and comparisons were made between several contractile parameters of various fibre types of normal and dystrophic mice of similar age. 3. There were no significant differences in the following contractile parameters of skinned fibres of normal and mdx mice of the same age: sensitivity to activating Ca2+ (pCa50) or Sr2+ (pSr50) and differential sensitivity to the activating ions (pCa50-pSr50). However the maximum isometric tension (Po) and the frequency of myofibrillar force oscillations in EDL fast-twitch fibres of young mdx mice were significantly lower than those of soleus fast-twitch fibres of the same animals, or fast-twitch fibres (EDL or soleus) of normal mice. 4. Age-related differences were apparent in some contractile parameters of both normal and mdx mice. In particular the steepness of force-pCa and force-pSr curves increased with age in normal mice, yet decreased with age in fibres of mdx mice. 5. A fluorescent probe, ethidium bromide, which interchelates with DNA, was used with laser-scanning confocal microscopy to determine the distribution of myonuclei in fibres. Fibres isolated from either muscle type of normal animals displayed a characteristic peripheral spiral of myonuclei. Fibres from muscles of mdx mice displayed three major patterns of nuclear distribution; the normal peripheral spiral, long central strands of nuclei, and a mixture of these two patterns. 6. The contractile characteristics of mdx fibres were not markedly influenced by the nuclear distribution pattern in that there were no discernible differences in the major contractile parameters (the Hill coefficients nCa and nSr, which

  9. Mutations in the TP53 gene in human malignant melanomas derived from sun-exposed skin and unexposed mucosal membranes.

    PubMed

    Ragnarsson-Olding, B K; Karsberg, S; Platz, A; Ringborg, U K

    2002-10-01

    Mutations in the p53 tumour suppressor gene ( ) have been linked to several types of cancer. We therefore investigated whether such mutations occur in malignant melanomas and, if so, whether they are linked to ultraviolet (sun) light exposure. For the first time, mutations in mucosal membranes and adjacent tissues shielded from sunlight were compared with those in cutaneous melanomas from sun-exposed skin. Archival tissues were obtained from 35 patients with a primary melanoma taken from unexposed mucosal areas and from 34 patients with a primary melanoma located in chronically sun-exposed head and neck skin. was characterized by means of polymerase chain reaction amplification and single-strand conformation polymorphism assay followed by nucleotide sequencing. The results showed that 17.6% of the primary cutaneous and 28.6% of the primary mucosal melanomas had point mutations in. Among the cutaneous melanomas, one showed three mutations in exon 7, and one had two mutations in exon 5; the mutation was in the same allele in both cases. One mucosal melanoma had two mutations in exon 7, both in the same allele, and another had two mutations, one in exon 7 and one in intron 6, both in the same allele. C<--T mutations at dipyrimidine sites, considered fingerprints for ultraviolet light-induced mutations, were about equally distributed among patients with melanomas from chronically sun-exposed areas (six out of nine; 67%) and those with melanomas from unexposed mucosal areas and adjacent skin (eight out of 14; 57%). Our data, demonstrating the presence of such mutations even in melanomas from mucosal membranes, clearly suggest that factors other than, or additional to, ultraviolet radiation are operational in the induction of mutations in melanomas.

  10. Metabolomics in Lung Inflammation: A High Resolution 1H NMR Study of Mice Exposed to Silica Dust

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jian Zhi; Rommereim, Donald N.; Minard, Kevin R.; Woodstock, Angie; Harrer, Bruce J.; Wind, Robert A.; Phipps, Richard P.; Sime, Patricia J.

    2010-01-01

    Here we report the first 1H NMR metabolomics studies on excised lungs and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from mice exposed to crystalline silica. High resolution 1H NMR metabolic profiling on intact excised lungs was performed using slow magic angle sample spinning (slow-MAS) 1H PASS (phase altered spinning sidebands) at a sample spinning rate of 80 Hz. Metabolic profiling on BALF was completed using fast magic angle spinning at 2kHz. Major findings are that the relative concentrations of choline, phosphocholine (PC) and glycerophosphocholine(GPC) were statistically significantly increased in silica-exposed mice compared to sham controls, indicating an altered membrane choline phospholipids metabolism (MCPM). The relative concentrations of glycogen/glucose, lactate and creatine were also statistically significantly increased in mice exposed to silica dust, suggesting that cellular energy pathways were affected by silica dust. Elevated levels of glycine, lysine, glutamate, proline and 4-hydroxyproline were also increased in exposed mice, suggesting the activation of a collagen pathway. Furthermore, metabolic profiles in mice exposed to silica dust were found to be spatially heterogeneous, in consistent with regional inflammation revealed by in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). PMID:20020862

  11. [Effect of phosgene on apoptosis of alveolar type II cells and vascular endothelial growth factor in exposed mice].

    PubMed

    Li, Wen-li; Hai, Chun-xu; Qin, Xu-jun; Liang, Xin; Chen, Hong-li

    2004-06-01

    To study the apoptosis of alveolar type II cells, alterations of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), VEGF receptor (Flt1) in serum and lung and expression of VEGF mRNA in lung in pulmonary edema mice induced by phosgene. Twenty-six BALB/C mice were randomly divided into 2 groups: control group, exposed group (13 mice in each group). Mice of exposed group were intoxicated by inhalation of phosgene 11.9 mg/L for 5 minutes. Mice of control group were treated as the same way by inhalation of air. Isolation of mice alveolus type II cells 4 h after intoxication was carried out to observe their apoptosis under electron microscope. Contents of VEGF and Flt1 in lung and serum by ELISA, and expression of VEGF mRNA were determined. Alveolar type II cells were identified by tannic acid staining and electron microscopy. After exposed to 11.9 mg/L of phosgene for 5 minutes, the apoptotic body in alveolus type II cells was found in exposed group. The contents of VEGF in serum and lung and Flt1 in lung of exposed mice [(134.07 +/- 120.26), (477.76 +/- 98.06), (1,2818.48 +/- 2,304.15) pg/ml] were significantly lower than those of control group [(445.57 +/- 173.30), (1,026.87 +/- 474.56), (21,976.51 +/- 7,421.01) pg/ml, P < 0.05] but the content of Flt1 in serum [(2,369.56 +/- 381.70) pg/ml] was higher than that in control group [(1,898.00 +/- 453.69) pg/ml, P < 0.05]. The expression of VEGF mRNA in pulmonary edema mice was decreased. Phosgene can induce apoptosis of alveolar type II cells, and decrease in the content of VEGF and Flt1, and expression of VEGF mRNA in lung.

  12. Biomedical Analyses of Mice Body Hair Exposed to Long-term Space Flight as a Compliment of Human Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukai, Chiaki

    Introduction: To understand the effect of space environment characterized by microgravity and radiation on protein and mineral metabolisms is important for developing the countermeasures to the adverse effects happening on the astronauts who stay long-term in space. Thus JAXA has started a human research to study the effects of long-term exposure in space flight on gene expression and mineral metabolism by analyzing astronaut's hair grown in space since December 2009 (Experiment nicknamed "HAIR"). Ten human subjects who are the crew of the International Space Station (ISS) will be expected to complete this experiment. Thanks to the tissue sharing program of space-flown mice which is presented and organized by AGI(Italian Space Agency), we can also have an opportunity to analyze rodents samples which will greatly compliment human hair experiment by enable us to conduct more detailed analysis with the expansion of skin analysis which is not include in human experiment. The purpose of this flown-mice experiment is to study the effects of long-term exposure to space environment such as microgravity and space radiation on mineral and protein metabolism, the biological responses to the stress levels, and the initial process of skin carcinogenesis by analyzing hair shaft, its root cells, and skin. Approach and Method In this experiment, we analyzed hair shaft, hair root and skin. Hair samples with skin were taken from 3-month space-flown mice and ground-control mice in the AGI's tissue sharing program in 2009. The sample numbers of space-flown mice and control-mice were three and six, respectively. And they were at the Mice Drawer System (MDS) in ISS and in the laboratory of Geneva University. For the hair shaft, the mineral balance is investi-gated by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX). For hair root, the extracted RNA undergoes DNA microarray analysis, and will be further examined particular interests of gene-expression by real time Reverse Transcription

  13. Statins Do Not Alter the Incidence of Mesothelioma in Asbestos Exposed Mice or Humans

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Cleo; Alfonso, Helman; Woo, Samantha; Walsh, Amy; Olsen, Nola; Musk, Arthur W.; Robinson, Bruce W. S.; Nowak, Anna K.; Lake, Richard A.

    2014-01-01

    Mesothelioma is principally caused by asbestos and may be preventable because there is a long latent period between exposure and disease development. The most at-risk are a relatively well-defined population who were exposed as a consequence of their occupations. Although preventative agents investigated so far have not been promising, discovery of such an agent would have a significant benefit world-wide on healthcare costs and personal suffering. Statins are widely used for management of hypercholesterolemia and cardiovascular risk; they can induce apoptosis in mesothelioma cells and epidemiological data has linked their use to a lower incidence of cancer. We hypothesised that statins would inhibit the development of asbestos-induced mesothelioma in mice and humans. An autochthonous murine model of asbestos-induced mesothelioma was used to test this by providing atorvastatin daily in the feed at 100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg. Continuous administration of atorvastatin did not alter the rate of disease development nor increase the length of time that mice survived. Latency to first symptoms of disease and disease progression were also unaffected. In a parallel study, the relationship between the use of statins and development of mesothelioma was investigated in asbestos-exposed humans. In a cohort of 1,738 asbestos exposed people living or working at a crocidolite mine site in Wittenoom, Western Australia, individuals who reported use of statins did not have a lower incidence of mesothelioma (HR = 1.01; 95% CI = 0.44–2.29, p = 0.99). Some individuals reported use of both statins and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or COX-2 inhibitors, and these people also did not have an altered risk of mesothelioma development (HR = 1.01; 95% CI = 0.61–1.67, p = 0.97). We conclude that statins do not moderate the rate of development of mesothelioma in either a mouse model or a human cohort exposed to asbestos. PMID:25093718

  14. Coriander alleviates 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene-induced contact dermatitis-like skin lesions in mice.

    PubMed

    Park, Gunhyuk; Kim, Hyo Geun; Lim, Soonmin; Lee, Wonil; Sim, Yeomoon; Oh, Myung Sook

    2014-08-01

    Contact dermatitis (CD) is a pattern of inflammatory responses in the skin that occurs through contact with external factors. The clinical picture is a polymorphic pattern of skin inflammation characterized by a wide range of clinical features, including itching, redness, scaling, and erythema. Coriandrum sativum L. (CS), commonly known as coriander, is a member of the Apiaceae family and is cultivated throughout the world for its nutritional and culinary values. Linoleic acid and linolenic acid in CS have various pharmacological activities. However, no study of the inhibitory effects of CS on CD has been reported. In this study, we demonstrated the protective effect of CS against 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene-induced CD-like skin lesions. CS, at doses of 0.5-1%, applied to the dorsal skin inhibited the development of CD-like skin lesions. Moreover, the Th2-mediated inflammatory cytokines, immunoglobulin E, tumor necrosis factor-α, interferon-γ, interleukin (IL)-1, IL-4, and IL-13, were significantly reduced. In addition, CS increased the levels of total glutathione and heme oxygenase-1 protein. Thus, CS can inhibit the development of CD-like skin lesions in mice by regulating immune mediators and may be an effective alternative therapy for contact diseases.

  15. Coriander Alleviates 2,4-Dinitrochlorobenzene-Induced Contact Dermatitis-Like Skin Lesions in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Park, Gunhyuk; Kim, Hyo Geun; Lim, Soonmin; Lee, Wonil; Sim, Yeomoon

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Contact dermatitis (CD) is a pattern of inflammatory responses in the skin that occurs through contact with external factors. The clinical picture is a polymorphic pattern of skin inflammation characterized by a wide range of clinical features, including itching, redness, scaling, and erythema. Coriandrum sativum L. (CS), commonly known as coriander, is a member of the Apiaceae family and is cultivated throughout the world for its nutritional and culinary values. Linoleic acid and linolenic acid in CS have various pharmacological activities. However, no study of the inhibitory effects of CS on CD has been reported. In this study, we demonstrated the protective effect of CS against 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene-induced CD-like skin lesions. CS, at doses of 0.5–1%, applied to the dorsal skin inhibited the development of CD-like skin lesions. Moreover, the Th2-mediated inflammatory cytokines, immunoglobulin E, tumor necrosis factor-α, interferon-γ, interleukin (IL)-1, IL-4, and IL-13, were significantly reduced. In addition, CS increased the levels of total glutathione and heme oxygenase-1 protein. Thus, CS can inhibit the development of CD-like skin lesions in mice by regulating immune mediators and may be an effective alternative therapy for contact diseases. PMID:24963872

  16. Elevated levels of plasma Big endothelin-1 and its relation to hypertension and skin lesions in individuals exposed to arsenic

    SciTech Connect

    Hossain, Ekhtear; Islam, Khairul; Yeasmin, Fouzia; Karim, Md. Rezaul; Rahman, Mashiur; Agarwal, Smita; Hossain, Shakhawoat; Aziz, Abdul; Al Mamun, Abdullah; Sheikh, Afzal; Haque, Abedul; Hossain, M. Tofazzal; Hossain, Mostaque; Haris, Parvez I.; Ikemura, Noriaki; Inoue, Kiyoshi; Miyataka, Hideki; Himeno, Seiichiro; Hossain, Khaled

    2012-03-01

    Chronic arsenic (As) exposure affects the endothelial system causing several diseases. Big endothelin-1 (Big ET-1), the biological precursor of endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a more accurate indicator of the degree of activation of the endothelial system. Effect of As exposure on the plasma Big ET-1 levels and its physiological implications have not yet been documented. We evaluated plasma Big ET-1 levels and their relation to hypertension and skin lesions in As exposed individuals in Bangladesh. A total of 304 study subjects from the As-endemic and non-endemic areas in Bangladesh were recruited for this study. As concentrations in water, hair and nails were measured by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The plasma Big ET-1 levels were measured using a one-step sandwich enzyme immunoassay kit. Significant increase in Big ET-1 levels were observed with the increasing concentrations of As in drinking water, hair and nails. Further, before and after adjusting with different covariates, plasma Big ET-1 levels were found to be significantly associated with the water, hair and nail As concentrations of the study subjects. Big ET-1 levels were also higher in the higher exposure groups compared to the lowest (reference) group. Interestingly, we observed that Big ET-1 levels were significantly higher in the hypertensive and skin lesion groups compared to the normotensive and without skin lesion counterpart, respectively of the study subjects in As-endemic areas. Thus, this study demonstrated a novel dose–response relationship between As exposure and plasma Big ET-1 levels indicating the possible involvement of plasma Big ET-1 levels in As-induced hypertension and skin lesions. -- Highlights: ► Plasma Big ET-1 is an indicator of endothelial damage. ► Plasma Big ET-1 level increases dose-dependently in arsenic exposed individuals. ► Study subjects in arsenic-endemic areas with hypertension have elevated Big ET-1 levels. ► Study subjects with arsenic

  17. Metabolic changes and DNA hypomethylation in cerebellum are associated with behavioral alterations in mice exposed to trichloroethylene postnatally

    PubMed Central

    Blossom, Sarah J.; Cooney, Craig A.; Melnyk, Stepan B.; Rau, Jenny L.; Swearingen, Christopher J.; Wessinger, William D.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that low-level postnatal and early life exposure to the environmental contaminant, trichloroethylene (TCE), in the drinking water of MRL+/+ mice altered glutathione redox homeostasis and increased biomarkers of oxidative stress indicating a more oxidized state. Plasma metabolites along the interrelated transmethylation pathway were also altered indicating impaired methylation capacity. Here we extend these findings to further characterize the impact of TCE exposure in mice exposed to water only or two doses of TCE in the drinking water (0, 2, and 28 mg/kg/day) postnatally from birth until 6 weeks of age on redox homeostasis and biomarkers of oxidative stress in the cerebellum. In addition, pathway intermediates involved in methyl metabolism and global DNA methylation patterns were examined in cerebellar tissue. Because the cerebellum is functionally important for coordinating motor activity, including exploratory and social approach behaviors, these parameters were evaluated in the present study. Mice exposed to 28 mg/kg/day TCE exhibited increased locomotor activity over time as compared with control mice. In the novel object exploration test, these mice were more likely to enter the zone with the novel object as compared to control mice Similar results were obtained in a second test when an unfamiliar mouse was introduced into the testing arena. The results show for the first time that postnatal exposure to TCE causes key metabolic changes in the cerebellum that may contribute to global DNA methylation deficits and behavioral alterations in TCE-exposed mice. PMID:23566951

  18. Palladium and platinum nanoparticles attenuate aging-like skin atrophy via antioxidant activity in mice.

    PubMed

    Shibuya, Shuichi; Ozawa, Yusuke; Watanabe, Kenji; Izuo, Naotaka; Toda, Toshihiko; Yokote, Koutaro; Shimizu, Takahiko

    2014-01-01

    Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase (Sod1) loss causes a redox imbalance as it leads to excess superoxide generation, which results in the appearance of various aging-related phenotypes, including skin atrophy. Noble metal nanoparticles, such as palladium (Pd) and platinum (Pt) nanoparticles, are considered to function as antioxidants due to their strong catalytic activity. In Japan, a mixture of Pd and Pt nanoparticles called PAPLAL has been used to treat chronic diseases over the past 60 years. In the present study, we investigated the protective effects of PAPLAL against aging-related skin pathologies in mice. Transdermal PAPLAL treatment reversed skin thinning associated with increased lipid peroxidation in Sod1-/- mice. Furthermore, PAPLAL normalized the gene expression levels of Col1a1, Mmp2, Has2, Tnf-α, Il-6, and p53 in the skin of the Sod1-/- mice. Pt nanoparticles exhibited marked SOD and catalase activity, while Pd nanoparticles only displayed weak SOD and catalase activity in vitro. Although the SOD and catalase activity of the Pt nanoparticles significantly declined after they had been oxidized in air, a mixture of Pd and Pt nanoparticles continued to exhibit SOD and catalase activity after oxidation. Importantly, a mixture of Pd and Pt nanoparticles with a molar ratio of 3 or 4 to 1 continued to exhibit SOD and catalase activity after oxidation, indicating that Pd nanoparticles prevent the oxidative deterioration of Pt nanoparticles. These findings indicate that PAPLAL stably suppresses intrinsic superoxide generation both in vivo and in vitro via SOD and catalase activity. PAPLAL is a potentially powerful tool for the treatment of aging-related skin diseases caused by oxidative damage.

  19. Palladium and Platinum Nanoparticles Attenuate Aging-Like Skin Atrophy via Antioxidant Activity in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Shibuya, Shuichi; Ozawa, Yusuke; Watanabe, Kenji; Izuo, Naotaka; Toda, Toshihiko; Yokote, Koutaro; Shimizu, Takahiko

    2014-01-01

    Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase (Sod1) loss causes a redox imbalance as it leads to excess superoxide generation, which results in the appearance of various aging-related phenotypes, including skin atrophy. Noble metal nanoparticles, such as palladium (Pd) and platinum (Pt) nanoparticles, are considered to function as antioxidants due to their strong catalytic activity. In Japan, a mixture of Pd and Pt nanoparticles called PAPLAL has been used to treat chronic diseases over the past 60 years. In the present study, we investigated the protective effects of PAPLAL against aging-related skin pathologies in mice. Transdermal PAPLAL treatment reversed skin thinning associated with increased lipid peroxidation in Sod1−/− mice. Furthermore, PAPLAL normalized the gene expression levels of Col1a1, Mmp2, Has2, Tnf-α, Il-6, and p53 in the skin of the Sod1−/− mice. Pt nanoparticles exhibited marked SOD and catalase activity, while Pd nanoparticles only displayed weak SOD and catalase activity in vitro. Although the SOD and catalase activity of the Pt nanoparticles significantly declined after they had been oxidized in air, a mixture of Pd and Pt nanoparticles continued to exhibit SOD and catalase activity after oxidation. Importantly, a mixture of Pd and Pt nanoparticles with a molar ratio of 3 or 4 to 1 continued to exhibit SOD and catalase activity after oxidation, indicating that Pd nanoparticles prevent the oxidative deterioration of Pt nanoparticles. These findings indicate that PAPLAL stably suppresses intrinsic superoxide generation both in vivo and in vitro via SOD and catalase activity. PAPLAL is a potentially powerful tool for the treatment of aging-related skin diseases caused by oxidative damage. PMID:25333617

  20. Plasmodium berghei infection ameliorates atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice.

    PubMed

    Kishi, C; Amano, H; Suzue, K; Ishikawa, O

    2014-10-01

    Atopic diseases are more prevalent in industrialized countries than in developing countries. In addition, significant differences in the prevalence of allergic diseases are observed between rural and urban areas within the same country. This difference in prevalence has been attributed to what is called the 'hygiene hypothesis'. Although parasitic infections are known to protect against allergic reactions, the mechanism is still unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate whether or not malarial infections can inhibit atopic dermatitis (AD)-like skin lesions in a mouse model of AD. We used NC/Nga mice which are a model for AD. The NC/Nga mice were intraperitoneally infected with 1 × 10(5) Plasmoduim berghei (Pb) XAT-infected erythrocytes. Malarial infections ameliorated AD-like skin lesions in the NC/Nga mice. This improvement was blocked by the administration of anti-asialo GM1 antibodies, which are anti-natural killer (NK) cells. Additionally, adoptive transfer of NK cells markedly improved AD-like skin lesions in conventional NC/Nga mice; these suggest that the novel protective mechanism associated with malaria parasitic infections is at least, in part, dependent on NK cells. We have experimentally demonstrated for the first time that malarial infections ameliorated AD-like skin lesions in a mouse model of AD. Our study could explain in part the mechanism of the 'hygiene hypothesis', which states that parasitic infections can inhibit the development of allergic diseases. © 2014 The Authors. Allergy Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Low frequency of positive skin tests in asthmatic patients infected with Schistosoma mansoni exposed to high levels of mite allergens.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, Manoel; Almeida, Maria C; Figueiredo, Joanemile P; Atta, Ajax M; Mendes, Carlos M C; Araújo, Maria I; Taketomi, Ernesto A; Terra, Silvia A; Silva, Deise A O; Carvalho, Edgar M

    2004-04-01

    Helminthic infections and allergic diseases are highly prevalent in many parts of the world. Although skin reactivity to indoor allergens is decreased in subjects from helminthic endemic areas, the degree of exposure to mite allergens has not yet been investigated in these areas. This study evaluated the association between exposure to dust mites and skin reactivity to mite allergens in subjects with a history of wheezing in the last 12 months selected from a rural endemic area for schistosomiasis (group I, n = 21), and two non-Schistosoma mansoni endemic locale, a rural area (group II, n = 21) and a urban slum area (group III, n = 21). All subjects were evaluated by skin prick tests with mite allergens, and for total and specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) against dust mites, antibodies for S. mansoni, and for intestinal parasites. Dust samples from each subjects' home were quantified for mite allergen and species of the mite identification. Except for S. mansoni infection which was more prevalent in group I than in groups II and III (p < 0.0001), the prevalence of intestinal parasites, and total and specific IgE levels were similar for all groups. Despite the levels of mite allergens and specifically to Der p 1 detected in dust samples of subjects home from all three areas, the frequency of positive skin reactivity to mite antigens was significantly lower (19.0%) in subjects from group I relative to group II (76.2%) and group III (57.1%; p < 0.001). This result suggests that S. mansoni infection could modulate the immediate hypersensitivity skin response to mite allergens in highly exposed subjects.

  2. Mycotoxin binders potential on histological of ovary mice exposed by zearalenone

    PubMed Central

    Samik, Abdul; Safitri, Erma

    2017-01-01

    Aim: This study was conducted to examine the potential of mycotoxin binder in ceasing zearalenone (ZEN) effect on mice reproduction. ZEN mycotoxin can induce reactive oxygen species that may cause damage and cell death. ZEN is estrogenic so that it may affect the reproductive organs failure. Materials and Methods: Mycotoxin binder administration to female mice exposed to ZEN was aimed to count the number of primary follicles, secondary follicles, tertiary follicles, de Graaf’s follicles, and the corpus luteum (CL). Negative control group (C) was not exposed to ZEN and without the administration of mycotoxin binders, while positive control group (C+) was exposed to 0.1 mg/mouse/day ZEN and without the provision of mycotoxin binders. Treatment groups (T1, T2, T3) were exposed to 0.1 mg/mouse/day ZEN and mycotoxin binders 0.5; 1; 2 mg/BW/day. Results: ZEN and mycotoxin binders administration was conducted for 10 days. The number of primary follicles, secondary, tertiary, de Graaf’s follicles and CL in negative control (C−) was 14.2±1.36, 11.2±0.28, 6.5±0.53, 7.5±0.74, and 2.3±0.35. The number in positive control (C+) group was as follows 7.1±0.12, 3.7±1.17, 3.8±1.21, 1.5±0.62, and 2.3±0.34. Results in treatment 1 (T1) were as follows 6.2±0.16, 5.2±0.16, 3.6±0.16, 2.6±0.19, and 2.6±0.10; in treatment 2 (T2) 7.8±0.28, 5.8±0.53, 3.7±0.26, 2.7±0.26, and 2.5±0.10; and in treatment 3 (T3) 8.4±0.34, 8.4±0.34, 4.6±0.34, 4.5±1.01, and 3.4±0.23. Conclusion: The number of follicles and CL more in line with increasing doses of mycotoxin binders. Required more than 2 mg/mouse/day mycotoxin binders to inhibit the effects of ZEN so that its can maintain the number of primary follicle, secondary follicle, tertiary follicle, the de Graaf’s follicle, and the number of CL in the ovary of ZEN-exposed female mice (Mus musculus). PMID:28435200

  3. Black tattoos protect against UVR-induced skin cancer in mice.

    PubMed

    Lerche, Catharina M; Sepehri, Mitra; Serup, Jørgen; Poulsen, Thomas; Wulf, Hans Christian

    2015-09-01

    Black tattoos may involve risk of cancer owing to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons including benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) in inks. Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) induces skin cancer. The combination of UVR and black tattoo may therefore potentially be very problematic, but has not been previously studied. Immunocompetent C3.Cg/TifBomTac mice (n = 99) were tattooed on the back with Starbrite Tribal Black(™) . This ink has a high content of the carcinogen BaP. Half of the mice were irradiated with three standard erythema doses UVR thrice weekly. Time to induction of first, second and third squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) was measured. Controls were 'tattooed' without ink. All irradiated mice developed SCCs while no malignant tumours were found in the nonirradiated group. In the tattooed and irradiated group, the development of the first, second and third SCC was significantly delayed in comparison with the irradiated controls without black tattoos (212, 232, 247 days vs. 163, 183, 191 days, P < 0.001). In UVR-irradiated black tattoos, remarkably, the development of UVR-induced skin cancer was delayed by the tattoos. Skin reflectance measurement indicated that the protective effect of black pigment in the dermis might be attributed to UVR absorption by black pigment below the epidermis and thereby reduction of backscattered radiation. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Mechanisms of improved wound healing in Murphy Roths Large (MRL) mice after skin transplantation.

    PubMed

    Tolba, René H; Schildberg, Frank A; Decker, Dorothee; Abdullah, Zeinab; Büttner, Reinhard; Minor, Thomas; von Ruecker, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Scars arise in the late phase of wound healing and are characterized by fibroplasia. Previous controversial studies have discussed the regenerative wound healing capacity of Murphy Roths Large (MRL) mice. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms of improved wound healing in a skin transplantation model. Skin grafts from MRL and haplotypically identical B10.BR mice were cross-transplanted. At day 10, B10.BR and MRL grafts on B10.BR recipients deposited collagen and showed severe apoptosis. Grafts of MRL recipients were not affected by such alterations and showed an enhanced healing progress. They were characterized by higher partial pressure of tissue oxygen, increased microcirculation, exceptionally intense neovascularization, and a blunted inflammatory response. This phenotype was accompanied by increased vascular endothelial growth factor expression, augmented by enhanced signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) phosphorylation. These effects were combined with a decreased STAT1 expression and phosphorylation. STAT1 pattern variation was associated with decreased Smad7 levels. Furthermore, MRL recipients showed improved stem cell recruitment to the wound area. The basic accelerated wound healing mechanism in MRL mice found in this skin transplantation model is improved engraftment; this is based on enhanced neovascularization and reduced inflammation. These effects are most likely due to higher vascular endothelial growth factor levels and changes in the STAT/Smad signal pathway, which may enhance transforming growth factor-β signaling, reducing proinflammatory responses.

  5. Sister chromatid exchange analysis in lung and peripheral blood lymphocytes of mice exposed to methyl isocyanate by inhalation

    SciTech Connect

    Kligerman, A.D.; Campbell, J.A.; Erexson, G.L.; Allen, J.W.; Shelby, M.D.

    1987-01-01

    Mice were exposed to 1, 3, or 6 ppm methyl isocyanate (MIC) for 6 hr/day for four consecutive days. Lung cells and peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) were removed and cultured for analysis of sister chromatid exchange (SCE) and cell cycle kinetics. MIC caused a small but significant increase in SCE frequency of cultured lung cells from mice exposed to 1, 3, or 6 ppm MIC. MIC did not significantly increase SCE levels in PBLs of mice exposed to concentrations as high as 6 ppm. In cultured PBLs, MIC had a stimulatory effect on cell cycling rates as measured by the replicative index, and it caused a significant reduction in mononuclear leucocyte counts and the mitotic indices.

  6. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for rats and mice orally exposed to chromium.

    PubMed

    Kirman, C R; Hays, S M; Aylward, L L; Suh, M; Harris, M A; Thompson, C M; Haws, L C; Proctor, D M

    2012-10-25

    A multi-compartment physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model was developed to describe the behavior of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) in rats and mice following long-term oral exposure. Model compartments were included for GI lumen, oral mucosa, forestomach/stomach, small intestinal mucosa (duodenum, jejunum, ileum), blood, liver, kidney, bone, and a combined compartment for remaining tissues. Data from ex vivo Cr(VI) reduction studies were used to characterize reduction of Cr(VI) in fed rodent stomach fluid as a second-order, pH-dependent process. For model development, tissue time-course data for total chromium were collected from rats and mice exposed to Cr(VI) in drinking water for 90 days at six concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 180 mg Cr(VI)/L. These data were used to supplement the tissue time-course data collected in other studies with oral administration of Cr(III) and Cr(VI), including that from recent NTP chronic bioassays. Clear species differences were identified for chromium delivery to the target tissue (small intestines), with higher concentrations achieved in mice than in rats, consistent with small intestinal tumor formation, which was observed upon chronic exposures in mice but not in rats. Erythrocyte:plasma chromium ratios suggest that Cr(VI) entered portal circulation at drinking water concentrations equal to and greater than 60 mg/L in rodents. Species differences are described for distribution of chromium to the liver and kidney, with liver:kidney ratios higher in mice than in rats. Overall, the PBPK model provides a good description of chromium toxicokinetics, with model predictions for tissue chromium within a factor of 3 for greater than 80% of measurements evaluated. The tissue data and PBPK model predictions indicate a concentration gradient in the small intestines (duodenum > jejunum > ileum), which will be useful for assessing the tumor response gradient observed in mouse small intestines in terms of target tissue dose. The rodent PBPK

  7. Aqueous Extract of Clerodendranthus spicatus Exerts Protective Effect on UV-Induced Photoaged Mice Skin

    PubMed Central

    Li, Cai-lan

    2016-01-01

    Clerodendranthus spicatus (Thunb.) C.Y.Wu (CS) is commonly used to treat kidney diseases in traditional Chinese medicine for its prominent anti-inflammatory effect and nourishing function to kidneys. In this study, aqueous extract of CS was assessed for its protective effect on UV-induced skin damage of mice. The chemical compositions of CS aqueous extract were determined by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS, in which 10 components were identified. During the experimental period, CS (0.9, 1.8, and 3.6 g/mL) was externally applied to shaved dorsal skins of mice prior to UV irradiation, daily for ten weeks. The results presented that CS (3.6 g/mL) apparently improved photodamaged skin appearance such as erythema, edema, and coarseness. The abnormal epidermal thickening was significantly reduced, and the dermal structures became more complete. The underlying protective mechanisms were associated with improving antioxidant enzymes activities including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), downregulating inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, COX-2, and PGE2) expressions, recovering collagen density, and reducing matrix metalloproteinases productions. Sun protection factor of CS (3.6 g/mL) was 16.21 ± 0.03. Our findings for the first time demonstrated that CS had therapeutic effect on the photoaged skin. The results indicated that CS is a potential agent for photoprotective cosmetics. PMID:27847530

  8. Middle age has a significant impact on gene expression during skin wound healing in male mice.

    PubMed

    Yanai, Hagai; Lumenta, David Benjamin; Vierlinger, Klemens; Hofner, Manuela; Kitzinger, Hugo-Benito; Kamolz, Lars-Peter; Nöhammer, Christa; Chilosi, Marco; Fraifeld, Vadim E

    2016-08-01

    The vast majority of research on the impact of age on skin wound healing (WH) compares old animals to young ones. The middle age is often ignored in biogerontological research despite the fact that many functions that decline in an age-dependent manner have starting points in mid-life. With this in mind, we examined gene expression patterns during skin WH in late middle-aged versus young adult male mice, using the head and back punch models. The rationale behind this study was that the impact of age would first be detectable at the transcriptional level. We pinpointed several pathways which were over-activated in the middle-aged mice, both in the intact skin and during WH. Among them were various metabolic, immune-inflammatory and growth-promoting pathways. These transcriptional changes were much more pronounced in the head than in the back. In summary, the middle age has a significant impact on gene expression in intact and healing skin. It seems that the head punch model is more sensitive to the effect of age than the back model, and we suggest that it should be more widely applied in aging research on wound healing.

  9. Ferulic acid inhibits neuro-inflammation in mice exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ya-Min; Shen, Ji-Duo; Xu, Li-Ping; Li, Han-Bing; Li, Yu-Cheng; Yi, Li-Tao

    2017-04-01

    Ferulic acid is a hydroxycinnamic acid that widely presents in plant cell wall components. It has been demonstrated that ferulic acid can attenuate depressive-like behaviors in both forced swimming test and tail suspension test. Considering that depression is an inflammatory related mental disease, our present study was aimed to investigate the role of ferulic acid in the regulation of microglia activation, pro-inflammatory cytokines, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and nucleotide binding and oligomerization domain-like receptor family pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome in mice exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS). Our results firstly showed that decreased sucrose preference and increased immobility time were completely reversed by administration with ferulic acid and fluoxetine for four weeks. Then, we found that CUMS significantly caused interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) up-regulation, microglia, NF-κB signaling and NLRP3 inflammasome activation in the prefrontal cortex. On the contrary, these activated inflammatory response induced by CUMS were reversed by ferulic acid and fluoxetine as well, suggesting that anti-inflammatory related mechanism was involved in the antidepressant-like effects of ferulic acid in stressed mice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Changes in Serum Adiponectin in Mice Chronically Exposed to Inorganic Arsenic in Drinking Water.

    PubMed

    Song, Xuanbo; Li, Ying; Liu, Junqiu; Ji, Xiaohong; Zhao, Lijun; Wei, Yudan

    2017-02-11

    Cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus are prominent features of glucose and lipid metabolism disorders. Adiponectin is a key adipokine that is largely involved in glucose and lipid metabolism processes. A growing body of evidence suggests that chronic exposure to inorganic arsenic is associated with cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus. We hypothesized that arsenic exposure may increase the risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus by affecting the level of adiponectin. In this study, we examined serum adiponectin levels, as well as serum levels of metabolic measures (including fasting blood glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, triglyceride, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol) in C57BL/6 mice exposed to inorganic arsenic in drinking water (5 and 50 ppm NaAsO2) for 18 weeks. Body mass and adiposity were monitored throughout the study. We found no significant changes in serum insulin and glucose levels in mice treated with arsenic for 18 weeks. However, arsenic exposure decreased serum levels of adiponectin, triglyceride, and HDL-cholesterol. Further, an inverse relationship was observed between urinary concentrations of total arsenic and serum levels of adiponectin. This study suggests that arsenic exposure could disturb the metabolism of lipids and increase the risk of cardiovascular disease by reducing the level of adiponectin.

  11. Memory and depressive effect on male and female Swiss mice exposed to tannery effluent.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Abraão Tiago Batista; de Oliveira Ferreira, Raíssa; de Lima Rodrigues, Aline Sueli; Malafaia, Guilherme

    2017-03-10

    Although tannery industries generate substantial profits to the countries they are located in, they work with one of the most environmentally harmful human activities. Tannery effluents (TE) are highly toxic; thus, their improper release into water bodies may cause severe problems to individuals depending on this water. Therefore, the aim of the current study is to assess the effects of oral exposure to TE on the anxiety-, memory deficit- and depression-predictive behaviors in male and female Swiss adult mice. The following experimental groups were set in order to do so, control, positive control (reference drugs) and effluent. The animals in the effluent group were treated with 5% TE diluted in potable water for 15 consecutive days. The neurobehavioral tests started on the 12th experimental day. The results found through the elevated plus-maze test (for anxiety prediction) showed no anxiogenic or anxiolytic effects on animals exposed to TE. On the other hand, animals treated with TE showed short- and long-term memory deficit in the object recognition test, as well as depression-predictive behavior in the forced swimming test. These results may concern the high concentration of heavy metals and neurotoxic organic compounds in the TE. Therefore, the oral exposure to TE, even for a short period-of-time, has effects on the central nervous system (CNS) that lead to neurobehavioral changes. Thus, the current study broadens the knowledge on this research field by demonstrating the neurotoxicity of xenobiotics to male and female Swiss mice.

  12. DNA damage in bone marrow and blood cells of mice exposed to municipal sludge leachates.

    PubMed

    Tewari, Anamika; Dhawan, Alok; Gupta, Shrawan Kumar

    2006-05-01

    Leachates of municipal solid waste from unsecured disposal sites contaminate sources of potable water and affect human health. In the present study, we have used the Comet assay to evaluate the DNA damage in mice exposed to municipal sludge leachates. Ten percent leachates were prepared from municipal sludge obtained from two different disposal drains. Male Swiss albino mice were treated daily with 0.1-0.4 ml of the leachates by oral gavage for 15 days, and the DNA damage was evaluated in bone marrow and blood using Olive tail moment, % tail DNA, and tail length as measures of DNA damage. Physicochemical and metal analysis of the leachates detected the presence of cadmium, chromium, copper, nickel, lead, and zinc, as well as elevated concentrations of sulfate and nitrate. Both of the leachates produced significant dose-responsive increases in DNA damage in both mouse tissues. There were no significant differences in the responses for any of the Comet endpoints between tissues (for the same leachate sample) or between leachate samples (for the same tissue). The results of this study indicate that municipal waste leachates produce DNA damage in vivo.

  13. Prophylactic efficacy of Coriandrum sativum (Coriander) on testis of lead-exposed mice.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Veena; Kansal, Leena; Sharma, Arti

    2010-09-01

    Lead poisoning is a worldwide health problem, and its treatment is under investigation. The aim of this study was to access the efficacy of Coriandrum sativum (coriander) in reducing lead-induced changes in mice testis. Animal exposed to lead nitrate showed significant decrease in testicular SOD, CAT, GSH, total protein, and tissue lead level. This was accompanied by simultaneous increase in the activities of LPO, AST, ALT, ACP, ALP, and cholesterol level. Serum testosterone level and sperm density were suppressed in lead-treated group compared with the control. These influences of lead were prevented by concurrent daily administration of C. sativum extracts to some extent. Treating albino mice with lead-induced various histological changes in the testis and treatment with coriander led to an improvement in the histological testis picture. The results thus led us to conclude that administration of C. sativum significantly protects against lead-induced oxidative stress. Further work need to be done to isolate and purify the active principle involved in the antioxidant activity of this plant.

  14. Transmission probabilities of mouse parvovirus 1 to sentinel mice chronically exposed to serial dilutions of contaminated bedding.

    PubMed

    Besselsen, David G; Myers, Erin L; Franklin, Craig L; Korte, Scott W; Wagner, April M; Henderson, Kenneth S; Weigler, Benjamin J

    2008-04-01

    Intermittent serodetection of mouse parvovirus (MPV) infections in animal facilities occurs frequently when soiled bedding sentinel mouse monitoring systems are used. We evaluated induction of seroconversion in naïve single-caged weanling ICR mice (n = 10 per group) maintained on 5-fold serially diluted contaminated bedding obtained from SCID mice persistently shedding MPV1e. Soiled bedding from the infected SCID mice was collected, diluted, and redistributed weekly to cages housing ICR mice to represent chronic exposure to MPV at varying prevalence in a research colony. Sera was collected every other week for 12 wk and evaluated for reactivity to MPV nonstructural and capsid antigens by multiplex fluorescent immunoassay. Mice were euthanized after seroconversion, and DNA extracted from lymph node and spleen was evaluated by quantitative PCR. Cumulative incidence of MPV infection for each of the 7 soiled bedding dilution groups (range, 1:5 to 1:78125 [v/v]) was 100%, 100%, 90%, 20%, 70%, 60%, and 20%, respectively. Most seropositive mice (78%) converted within the first 2 to 3 wk of soiled bedding exposure, correlating to viral exposure when mice were 4 to 7 wk of age. Viral DNA was detected in lymphoid tissues collected from all mice that were seropositive to VP2 capsid antigen, whereas viral DNA was not detected in lymphoid tissue of seronegative mice. These data indicate seroconversion occurs consistently in young mice exposed to high doses of virus equivalent to fecal MPV loads observed in acutely infected mice, whereas seroconversion is inconsistent in mice chronically exposed to lower doses of virus.

  15. DNA damage in human skin fibroblasts exposed to UVA light used in clinical PUVA treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Bredberg, A.

    1981-06-01

    Human skin fibroblasts were irradiated with a clinically used UVA light source. The doses (1.1 and 3 J/cm2) were similar to those reaching the dermis during clinical PUVA treatment of psoriasis. DNA strand breaks, as determined by alkaline elution, were formed in a dose-dependent way and disappeared within 1 hr of postincubation at 37 degrees C. These findings have clinical implications since UVA-induced DNA damage may be accompanied by mutagenic and tumor promoting effects.

  16. Up-regulation of the chemokine CCL21 in the skin of subjects exposed to irritants

    PubMed Central

    Eberhard, Yanina; Ortiz, Susana; Ruiz Lascano, Alejandro; Kuznitzky, Raquel; Serra, Horacio Marcelo

    2004-01-01

    Background Expression of murine CCL21 by dermal lymphatic endothelial cells (LEC) has been demonstrated to be one of the most important steps in Langerhans cell emigration from skin. Previously, our group and others have found that this chemokine is up-regulated in different human inflammatory skin diseases mediated by diverse specific immune responses. This study was carried out to investigate the involvement of CCL21 in human skin after challenge with irritant agents responsible for inducing Irritant Contact Dermatitis (ICD). Results Eleven normal individuals were challenged with different chemical or physical irritants. Two patients with Allergic Contact Dermatitis (ACD) were also challenged with the relevant antigen in order to have a positive control for CCL21 expression. Macroscopic as well as microscopic responses were evaluated. We observed typical ICD responses with mostly mononuclear cells in perivascular areas, but a predominance of polymorphonuclear cells away from the inflamed blood vessels and in the epidermis at 24 hours. Immunohistochemical studies showed up-regulation of CCL21 by lymphatic endothelial cells in all the biopsies taken from ICD and ACD lesions compared to normal skin. Kinetic study at 10, 48, 96 and 168 hours after contact with a classical irritant (sodium lauryl sulphate) showed that the expression of CCL21 was increased in lymphatic vessels at 10 hours, peaked at 48 hours, and then gradually declined. There was a strong correlation between CCL21 expression and the macroscopic response (r = 0.69; p = 0.0008), but not between CCL21 and the number of infiltrating cells in the lesions. Conclusions These results provide new evidence for the role of CCL21 in inflammatory processes. Since the up-regulation of this chemokine was observed in ICD and ACD, it is tempting to speculate that this mechanism operates independently of the type of dermal insult, facilitating the emigration of CCR7+ cells. PMID:15109401

  17. A Comprehensive Metabolomic Investigation in Urine of Mice Exposed to Strontium-90

    PubMed Central

    Goudarzi, Maryam; Weber, Waylon M.; Mak, Tytus D.; Chung, Juijung; Doyle-Eisele, Melanie; Melo, Dunstana R.; Strawn, Steven J.; Brenner, David J.; Guilmette, Raymond A.; Fornace, Albert J.

    2017-01-01

    Internal emitters such as Strontium-90 (90Sr) pose a substantial health risk during and immediately after a nuclear disaster or detonation of an improvised device. The environmental persistency and potency of 90Sr calls for urgent development of high-throughput tests to establish levels of exposure and to help triage potentially exposed individuals who were in the immediate area of the disaster. In response to these concerns, our team focused on developing a robust metabolomic profile for 90Sr exposure in urine using a mouse model. The sensitivity of modern time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOFMS) combined with the separation power of ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) was used to determine perturbations in the urinary metabolome of mice exposed to 90Sr. The recently developed statistical suite, MetaboLyzer, was used to explore the mass spectrometry data. The results indicated a significant change in the urinary abundances of metabolites pertaining to butanoate metabolism, vitamin B metabolism, glutamate and fatty acid oxidation. All of these pathways are either directly or indirectly connected to the central energy production pathway, the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. To our knowledge, this is the first in vivo metabolomics to evaluate the effects of exposure to 90Sr using the easily accessible biofluid, urine. PMID:26010713

  18. Frontal Cortex Transcriptome Analysis of Mice Exposed to Electronic Cigarettes During Early Life Stages

    PubMed Central

    Lauterstein, Dana E.; Tijerina, Pamella B.; Corbett, Kevin; Akgol Oksuz, Betul; Shen, Steven S.; Gordon, Terry; Klein, Catherine B.; Zelikoff, Judith T.

    2016-01-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), battery-powered devices containing nicotine, glycerin, propylene glycol, flavorings, and other substances, are increasing in popularity. They pose a potential threat to the developing brain, as nicotine is a known neurotoxicant. We hypothesized that exposure to e-cigarettes during early life stages induce changes in central nervous system (CNS) transcriptome associated with adverse neurobiological outcomes and long-term disease states. To test the hypothesis, pregnant C57BL/6 mice were exposed daily (via whole body inhalation) throughout gestation (3 h/day; 5 days/week) to aerosols produced from e-cigarettes either with nicotine (13–16 mg/mL) or without nicotine; following birth, pups and dams were exposed together to e-cigarette aerosols throughout lactation beginning at postnatal day (PND) 4–6 and using the same exposure conditions employed during gestational exposure. Following exposure, frontal cortex recovered from ~one-month-old male and female offspring were excised and analyzed for gene expression by RNA Sequencing (RNA-Seq). Comparisons between the treatment groups revealed that e-cigarette constituents other than nicotine might be partly responsible for the observed biological effects. Transcriptome alterations in both offspring sexes and treatment groups were all significantly associated with downstream adverse neurobiological outcomes. Results from this study demonstrate that e-cigarette exposure during early life alters CNS development potentially leading to chronic neuropathology. PMID:27077873

  19. The transgenerational inheritance of autism-like phenotypes in mice exposed to valproic acid during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Chang Soon; Gonzales, Edson Luck; Kim, Ki Chan; Yang, Sung Min; Kim, Ji-Woon; Mabunga, Darine Froy; Cheong, Jae Hoon; Han, Seol-Heui; Bahn, Geon Ho; Shin, Chan Young

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a heterogeneously pervasive developmental disorder in which various genetic and environmental factors are believed to underlie its development. Recently, epigenetics has been suggested as a novel concept for ASD aetiology with a proposition that epigenetic marks can be transgenerationally inherited. Based on this assumption of epigenetics, we investigated the transgenerational inheritance of ASD-like behaviours and their related synaptic changes in the VPA animal model of ASD. The first generation (F1) VPA-exposed offspring exhibited autistic-like impaired sociability and increased marble burying. They also showed increased seizure susceptibility, hyperactivity and decreased anxiety. We mated the VPA-exposed F1 male offspring with naïve females to produce the second generation (F2), and then similarly mated the F2 to deliver the third generation (F3). Remarkably, the autism-like behavioural phenotypes found in F1 persisted to the F2 and F3. Additionally, the frontal cortices of F1 and F3 showed some imbalanced expressions of excitatory/inhibitory synaptic markers, suggesting a transgenerational epigenetic inheritance. These results open the idea that E/I imbalance and ASD-like behavioural changes induced by environmental insults in mice can be epigenetically transmitted, at least, to the third generation. This study could help explain the unprecedented increase in ASD prevalence. PMID:27819277

  20. A Comprehensive Metabolomic Investigation in Urine of Mice Exposed to Strontium-90.

    PubMed

    Goudarzi, Maryam; Weber, Waylon M; Mak, Tytus D; Chung, Juijung; Doyle-Eisele, Melanie; Melo, Dunstana R; Strawn, Steven J; Brenner, David J; Guilmette, Raymond A; Fornace, Albert J

    2015-06-01

    Internal emitters such as Strontium-90 ((90)Sr) pose a substantial health risk during and immediately after a nuclear disaster or detonation of an improvised device. The environmental persistency and potency of (90)Sr calls for urgent development of high-throughput tests to establish levels of exposure and to help triage potentially exposed individuals who were in the immediate area of the disaster. In response to these concerns, our team focused on developing a robust metabolomic profile for (90)Sr exposure in urine using a mouse model. The sensitivity of modern time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOFMS) combined with the separation power of ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) was used to determine perturbations in the urinary metabolome of mice exposed to (90)Sr. The recently developed statistical suite, MetaboLyzer, was used to explore the mass spectrometry data. The results indicated a significant change in the urinary abundances of metabolites pertaining to butanoate metabolism, vitamin B metabolism, glutamate and fatty acid oxidation. All of these pathways are either directly or indirectly connected to the central energy production pathway, the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. To our knowledge, this is the first in vivo metabolomics to evaluate the effects of exposure to (90)Sr using the easily accessible biofluid, urine.

  1. Frontal Cortex Transcriptome Analysis of Mice Exposed to Electronic Cigarettes During Early Life Stages.

    PubMed

    Lauterstein, Dana E; Tijerina, Pamella B; Corbett, Kevin; Akgol Oksuz, Betul; Shen, Steven S; Gordon, Terry; Klein, Catherine B; Zelikoff, Judith T

    2016-04-12

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), battery-powered devices containing nicotine, glycerin, propylene glycol, flavorings, and other substances, are increasing in popularity. They pose a potential threat to the developing brain, as nicotine is a known neurotoxicant. We hypothesized that exposure to e-cigarettes during early life stages induce changes in central nervous system (CNS) transcriptome associated with adverse neurobiological outcomes and long-term disease states. To test the hypothesis, pregnant C57BL/6 mice were exposed daily (via whole body inhalation) throughout gestation (3 h/day; 5 days/week) to aerosols produced from e-cigarettes either with nicotine (13-16 mg/mL) or without nicotine; following birth, pups and dams were exposed together to e-cigarette aerosols throughout lactation beginning at postnatal day (PND) 4-6 and using the same exposure conditions employed during gestational exposure. Following exposure, frontal cortex recovered from ~one-month-old male and female offspring were excised and analyzed for gene expression by RNA Sequencing (RNA-Seq). Comparisons between the treatment groups revealed that e-cigarette constituents other than nicotine might be partly responsible for the observed biological effects. Transcriptome alterations in both offspring sexes and treatment groups were all significantly associated with downstream adverse neurobiological outcomes. Results from this study demonstrate that e-cigarette exposure during early life alters CNS development potentially leading to chronic neuropathology.

  2. Ultrastructural alterations in liver of mice exposed chronically and transgenerationally to aqueous extract of betel nut: Implications in betel nut-induced carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Yashmin; Sharan, Rajeshwar N

    2010-05-01

    The aqueous extract of betel nut (AEBN) induces the formation of preneoplastic nodules in the liver of Swiss Albino mice and leads to increased predisposition to cancer when administered transgenerationally. The aim of this investigation was to elucidate the alterations in ultrastructure of subcellular organelles in the liver nodules using transmission electron microscopy and to determine whether these alterations have implications in AEBN-induced carcinogenesis. Male and female Swiss Albino mice were exposed to AEBN chronically and transgenerationally at a dose of 2 mg/mL in drinking water for 24 weeks. Extensive polymorphism was noted in nuclear shape and heterochromatin organization. Heterochromatin aggregation and marginalization were observed in the nuclei of chronically exposed mice, whereas transgenerationally exposed mice exhibited dispersion or loss of heterochromatin. The nuclear envelope was disrupted, and the nucleoli were enlarged in chronically exposed mice, whereas in transgenerationally exposed mice the nucleoli were reduced in size or totally absent. The cisternae of the rough endoplasmic reticulum were dilated and disrupted, and a large number of autophagic vesicles were observed in both chronically and transgenerationally exposed mice. Atypical mitochondria that underwent extensive cristolysis and progressively declined in size and number from the chronically exposed mice to the different generations of transgenerationally exposed mice were also observed. Thus, exposure to AEBN resulted in severe loss of ultrastructural integrity of cells in the liver nodules, and the progressive loss of mitochondrial function appeared to play a significant role in increasing the predisposition to cancer of mice exposed transgenerationally to AEBN.

  3. DNA damage in cultured human skin fibroblasts exposed to excimer laser radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Rimoldi, D.; Miller, A.C.; Freeman, S.E.; Samid, D. )

    1991-06-01

    Ultraviolet excimer lasers are being considered for use in a variety of refractive and therapeutic procedures, the long-term biologic consequences of which are unknown. The effect of sublethal doses of 193-nm laser radiation on cellular DNA was examined in cultured human skin fibroblasts. In contrast to 248 nm, treatments with the 193-nm laser radiation below 70 J/m2 did not cause significant pyrimidine dimer formation in the skin cells. This was indicated by the lack of excision repair activities (unscheduled DNA synthesis assay), and further demonstrated by direct analysis of pyrimidine dimers in DNA from irradiated cells. However, a low level of unscheduled DNA synthesis could be detected following irradiation at 193 nm with 70 J/m2. Both the 193-nm and 248-nm radiation were able to induce chromosomal aberrations, as indicated by a micronucleus assay. A dose-dependent increase in micronuclei frequency was observed 48 and 72 h after laser irradiation. These results indicate that exposure of actively replicating human skin fibroblasts to sublethal doses of either 193- or 248-nm laser radiation can result in genotoxicity.

  4. Time course of pulmonary burden in mice exposed to residual oil fly ash

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Giovanna Marcella Cavalcante; Nagato, Lilian Katiê da Silva; Fagundes, Sheila da Silva; dos Santos, Flávia Brandão; Calheiros, Andrea Surrage; Malm, Olaf; Bozza, Patricia Torres; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário N.; Faffe, Débora Souza; Rocco, Patricia Rieken Macedo; Zin, Walter Araujo

    2014-01-01

    Residual oil fly ash (ROFA) is a common pollutant in areas where oil is burned. This particulate matter (PM) with a broad distribution of particle diameters can be inhaled by human beings and putatively damage their respiratory system. Although some studies deal with cultured cells, animals, and even epidemiological issues, so far a comprehensive analysis of respiratory outcomes as a function of the time elapsed after exposure to a low dose of ROFA is wanted. Thus, we aimed to investigate the time course of mechanical, histological, and inflammatory lung changes, as well as neutrophils in the blood, in mice exposed to ROFA until 5 days after exposure. BALB/c mice (25 ± 5 g) were randomly divided into 7 groups and intranasally instilled with either 10 μL of sterile saline solution (0.9% NaCl, CTRL) or ROFA (0.2 μg in 10 μL of saline solution). Pulmonary mechanics, histology (normal and collapsed alveoli, mononuclear and polymorphonuclear cells, and ultrastructure), neutrophils (in blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid) were determined at 6 h in CTRL and at 6, 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 h after ROFA exposure. ROFA contained metal elements, especially iron, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and organochlorines. Lung resistive pressure augmented early (6 h) in the course of lung injury and other mechanical, histological and inflammatory parameters increased at 24 h, returning to control values at 120 h. Blood neutrophilia was present only at 24 and 48 h after exposure. Swelling of endothelial cells with adherent neutrophils was detected after ROFA instillation. No neutrophils were present in the lavage fluid. In conclusion, the exposure to ROFA, even in low doses, induced early changes in pulmonary mechanics, lung histology and accumulation of neutrophils in blood of mice that lasted for 4 days and disappeared spontaneously. PMID:25309454

  5. Cardiovascular Changes in Atherosclerotic ApoE-Deficient Mice Exposed to Co60 (γ) Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Kumarathasan, Prem; Vincent, Renaud; Blais, Erica; Saravanamuthu, Anu; Gupta, Pallavi; Wyatt, Heather; Mitchel, Ronald; Hannan, Mohammed; Trivedi, Akilesh; Whitman, Stewart

    2013-01-01

    Background There is evidence for a role of ionizing radiation in cardiovascular diseases. The goal of this work was to identify changes in oxidative and nitrative stress pathways and the status of the endothelinergic system during progression of atherosclerosis in ApoE-deficient mice after single and repeated exposure to ionizing radiation. Methods and Results B6.129P2-ApoE tmlUnc mice on a low-fat diet were acutely exposed (whole body) to Co60 (γ) (single dose 0, 0.5, and 2 Gy) at a dose rate of 36.32 cGy/min, or repeatedly (cumulative dose 0 and 2 Gy) at a dose-rate of 0.1 cGy/min for 5 d/wk, over a period of 4 weeks. Biological endpoints were investigated after 3–6 months of recovery post-radiation. The nitrative stress marker 3-nitrotyrosine and the vasoregulator peptides endothelin-1 and endothelin-3 in plasma were increased (p<0.05) in a dose-dependent manner 3–6 months after acute or chronic exposure to radiation. The oxidative stress marker 8-isoprostane was not affected by radiation, while plasma 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine and L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine decreased (p<0.05) after treatment. At 2Gy radiation dose, serum cholesterol was increased (p = 0.008) relative to controls. Percent lesion area increased (p = 0.005) with age of animal, but not with radiation treatment. Conclusions Our observations are consistent with persistent nitrative stress and activation of the endothelinergic system in ApoE−/− mice after low-level ionizing radiation exposures. These mechanisms are known factors in the progression of atherosclerosis and other cardiovascular diseases. PMID:23840332

  6. Innate Lymphoid Cells Mediate Pulmonary Eosinophilic Inflammation, Airway Mucous Cell Metaplasia, and Type 2 Immunity in Mice Exposed to Ozone.

    PubMed

    Kumagai, Kazuyoshi; Lewandowski, Ryan P; Jackson-Humbles, Daven N; Buglak, Nicholas; Li, Ning; White, Kaylin; Van Dyken, Steven J; Wagner, James G; Harkema, Jack R

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to elevated levels of ambient ozone in photochemical smog is associated with eosinophilic airway inflammation and nonatopic asthma in children. In the present study, we determined the role of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) in the pathogenesis of ozone-induced nonatopic asthma by using lymphoid cell-sufficient C57BL/6 mice, ILC-sufficient Rag2(-/-) mice (devoid of T and B cells), and ILC-deficient Rag2(-/-)Il2rg(-/-) mice (depleted of all lymphoid cells including ILCs). Mice were exposed to 0 or 0.8 parts per million ozone for 1 day or 9 consecutive weekdays (4 hr/day). A single exposure to ozone caused neutrophilic inflammation, airway epithelial injury, and reparative DNA synthesis in all strains of mice, irrespective of the presence or absence of ILCs. In contrast, 9-day exposures induced eosinophilic inflammation and mucous cell metaplasia only in the lungs of ILC-sufficient mice. Repeated ozone exposures also elicited increased messenger RNA expression of transcripts associated with type 2 immunity and airway mucus production in ILC-sufficient mice. ILC-deficient mice repeatedly exposed to ozone had no pulmonary pathology or increased gene expression related to type 2 immunity. These results suggest a new paradigm for the biologic mechanisms underlying the development of a phenotype of childhood nonatopic asthma that has been linked to ambient ozone exposures.

  7. Sex- and Tissue-Specific Methylome Changes in Brains of Mice Perinatally Exposed to Lead

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Martín, Francisco Javier; Lindquist, Diana M.; Landero-Figueroa, Julio; Zhang, Xiang; Chen, Jing; Cecil, Kim M.; Medvedovic, Mario; Puga, Alvaro

    2014-01-01

    Changes in DNA methylation and subsequent changes in gene expression regulation are the hallmarks of age- and tissue-dependent epigenetic drift and plasticity resulting from the combinatorial integration of genetic determinants and environmental cues. To determine whether perinatal lead exposure caused persistent DNA methylation changes in target tissues, we exposed mouse dams to 0, 3 or 30 ppm of lead acetate in drinking water for a period extending from 2 months prior to mating, through gestation, until weaning of pups at postnatal day-21, and analyzed whole-genome DNA methylation in brain cortex and hippocampus of 2-month old exposed and unexposed progeny. Lead exposure resulted in hypermethylation of three differentially methylated regions in the hippocampus of females, but not males. These regions mapped to Rn4.5s, Sfi1, and Rn45s loci in mouse chromosomes 2, 11 and 17, respectively. At a conservative fdr<0.001, 1,623 additional CpG sites were differentially methylated in female hippocampus, corresponding to 117 unique genes. Sixty of these genes were tested for mRNA expression and showed a trend towards negative correlation between mRNA expression and methylation in exposed females but not males. No statistically significant methylome changes were detected in male hippocampus or in cortex of either sex. We conclude that exposure to lead during embryonic life, a time when the organism is most sensitive to environmental cues, appears to have a sex- and tissue-specific effect on DNA methylation that may produce pathological or physiological deviations from the epigenetic plasticity operative in unexposed mice. PMID:25530354

  8. Skin Surface Topography and Texture Analysis of Sun-Exposed Body Sites in View of Sunscreen Application.

    PubMed

    Korn, Verena; Surber, Christian; Imanidis, Georgios

    2016-01-01

    To determine the roughness of the surface of human skin at highly sun-exposed anatomical sites in a wide age range in order to derive consequences for sunscreen application. The forehead, cheek, nose, shoulder, and dorsal hand of 4 age groups (0-9, 20-39, 40-59, and >60 years) were investigated by replica formation, and areal topography was determined by confocal chromatic imaging. The arithmetic mean height as a roughness parameter and the void volume of the surface profile were calculated. Age and site had a significant effect on roughness. Both the dorsal hand and nose exhibited the greatest roughness over the age of 40, and the forehead of the youngest age group exhibited the smallest roughness. Differentiation between sites progressed with age, whereas roughness increased significantly with age for the dorsal hand and nose but not for the other sites. The void volume was smaller than the volume corresponding to the typically recommended amount of sunscreen application except for the cases of largest roughness. Different site-age combinations show significant variation of skin surface roughness. The application of sunscreen may in some instances need to be adjusted to take into account the increased roughness of highly sun-exposed anatomical sites. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Metabolic changes and DNA hypomethylation in cerebellum are associated with behavioral alterations in mice exposed to trichloroethylene postnatally

    SciTech Connect

    Blossom, Sarah J.; Cooney, Craig A.; Melnyk, Stepan B.; Rau, Jenny L.; Swearingen, Christopher J.; Wessinger, William D.

    2013-06-15

    Previous studies demonstrated that low-level postnatal and early life exposure to the environmental contaminant, trichloroethylene (TCE), in the drinking water of MRL +/+ mice altered glutathione redox homeostasis and increased biomarkers of oxidative stress indicating a more oxidized state. Plasma metabolites along the interrelated transmethylation pathway were also altered indicating impaired methylation capacity. Here we extend these findings to further characterize the impact of TCE exposure in mice exposed to water only or two doses of TCE in the drinking water (0, 2, and 28 mg/kg/day) postnatally from birth until 6 weeks of age on redox homeostasis and biomarkers of oxidative stress in the cerebellum. In addition, pathway intermediates involved in methyl metabolism and global DNA methylation patterns were examined in cerebellar tissue. Because the cerebellum is functionally important for coordinating motor activity, including exploratory and social approach behaviors, these parameters were evaluated in the present study. Mice exposed to 28 mg/kg/day TCE exhibited increased locomotor activity over time as compared with control mice. In the novel object exploration test, these mice were more likely to enter the zone with the novel object as compared to control mice. Similar results were obtained in a second test when an unfamiliar mouse was introduced into the testing arena. The results show for the first time that postnatal exposure to TCE causes key metabolic changes in the cerebellum that may contribute to global DNA methylation deficits and behavioral alterations in TCE-exposed mice. - Highlights: • We exposed male mice to low-level trichloroethylene from postnatal days 1 through 42. • This exposure altered redox potential and increased oxidative stress in cerebellum. • This exposure altered metabolites important in cellular methylation in cerebellum. • This exposure promoted DNA hypomethylation in cerebellum. • This exposure enhanced locomotor

  10. Skin fragility and impaired desmosomal adhesion in mice lacking all keratins.

    PubMed

    Bär, Janina; Kumar, Vinod; Roth, Wera; Schwarz, Nicole; Richter, Miriam; Leube, Rudolf E; Magin, Thomas M

    2014-04-01

    Keratins perform major structural and regulatory functions in epithelia. Owing to redundancy, their respective contribution to epidermal integrity, adhesion, and cell junction formation has not been addressed in full. Unexpectedly, the constitutive deletion of type II keratins in mice was embryonic lethal ∼ E9.5 without extensive tissue damage. This prompted us to analyze keratin functions in skin where keratins are best characterized. Here, we compare the mosaic and complete deletion of all type II keratins in mouse skin, with distinct consequences on epidermal integrity, adhesion, and organismal survival. Mosaic knockout (KO) mice survived ∼ 12 days while global KO mice died perinatally because of extensive epidermal damage. Coinciding with absence of keratins, epidermal fragility, inflammation, increased epidermal thickness, and increased proliferation were noted in both strains of mice, accompanied by significantly smaller desmosomes. Decreased desmosome size was due to accumulation of desmosomal proteins in the cytoplasm, causing intercellular adhesion defects resulting in intercellular splits. Mixing different ratios of wild-type and KO keratinocytes revealed that ∼ 60% of keratin-expressing cells were sufficient to maintain epithelial sheets under stress. Our data reveal a major contribution of keratins to the maintenance of desmosomal adhesion and epidermal integrity with relevance for the treatment of epidermolysis bullosa simplex and other keratinopathies.

  11. Generation of tension by skinned fibers and intact skeletal muscles from desmin-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Wieneke, S; Stehle, R; Li, Z; Jockusch, H

    2000-11-19

    We have investigated the physiological role of desmin in skeletal muscle by measuring isometric tension generated in skinned fibres and intact skeletal muscles from desmin knock-out (DES-KO) mice. About 80% of skinned single extensor digitorum longus (EDL) fibres from adult DES-KO mice generated tensions close to that of wild-type (WT) controls. Weights and maximum tensions of intact EDL but not of soleus (SOL) muscles were lowered in DES-KO mice. Repeated contractions with stretch did not affect subsequent isometric tension in EDL muscles of DES-KO mice. Tension during high frequency fatigue (HFF) declined faster and this deficiency was compensated in DES-KO EDL muscles by 5 mM caffeine which had no influence on HFF in WT EDL. Furthermore, caffeine evoked twitch potentiation was higher in DES-KO than in WT muscles. We conclude that desmin is not essential for acute tensile strength but rather for optimal activation of intact myofibres during E-C coupling. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  12. Diet-Induced Obesity and Reduced Skin Cancer Susceptibility in Matrix Metalloproteinase 19-Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Pendás, Alberto M.; Folgueras, Alicia R.; Llano, Elena; Caterina, John; Frerard, Françoise; Rodríguez, Francisco; Astudillo, Aurora; Noël, Agnès; Birkedal-Hansen, Henning; López-Otín, Carlos

    2004-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase 19 (MMP-19) is a member of the MMP family of endopeptidases that, in contrast to most MMPs, is widely expressed in human tissues under normal quiescent conditions. MMP-19 has been found to be associated with ovulation and angiogenic processes and is deregulated in diverse pathological conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis and cancer. To gain further insights into the in vivo functions of this protease, we have generated mutant mice deficient in Mmp19. These mice are viable and fertile and do not display any obvious abnormalities. However, Mmp19-null mice develop a diet-induced obesity due to adipocyte hypertrophy and exhibit decreased susceptibility to skin tumors induced by chemical carcinogens. Based on these results, we suggest that this enzyme plays an in vivo role in some of the tissue remodeling events associated with adipogenesis, as well as in pathological processes such as tumor progression. PMID:15169894

  13. Acemannan-containing wound dressing gel reduces radiation-induced skin reactions in C3H mice

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, D.B.; Travis, E.L.

    1995-07-15

    To determine (a) whether a wound dressing gel that contains acemannan extracted from aloe leaves affects the severity of radiation-induced acute skin reactions in C3H mice; (b) if so, whether other commercially available gels such as a personal lubricating jelly and a healing ointment have similar effects; and (c) when the wound dressing gel should be applied for maximum effect. Male C3H mice received graded single doses of gamma radiation ranging from 30 to 47.5 Gy to the right leg. In most experiments, the gel was applied daily beginning immediately after irradiation. Dose-response curves were obtained by plotting the percentage of mice that reached or exceeded a given peak skin reaction as a function of dose. Curves were fitted by logit analysis and ED{sub 50} values, and 95% confidence limits were obtained. The average peak skin reactions of the wound dressing gel-treated mice were lower than those of the untreated mice at all radiation doses tested. The ED{sub 50} values for skin reactions of 2.0-2.75 were approximately 7 Gy higher in the wound dressing gel-treated mice. The average peak skin reactions and the ED{sub 50} values for mice treated with personal lubricating jelly or healing ointment were similar to irradiated control values. Reduction in the percentage of mice with skin reactions of 2.5 or more was greatest in the groups that received wound dressing gel for at least 2 weeks beginning immediately after irradiation. There was no effect if gel was applied only before irradiation or beginning 1 week after irradiation. Wound dressing gel, but not personal lubricating jelly or healing ointment, reduces acute radiation-induced skin reactions in C3H mice if applied daily for at least 2 weeks beginning immediately after irradiation. 31 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Attenuation coefficient of the light in skin of BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, C. R.; Camargo, C. F. M.; Aureliano, D. P.; De Pretto, L. R.; Freitas, A. Z.; Ribeiro, M. S.

    2015-06-01

    Optical properties of the biological tissue play an important role to a correct use of optical techniques for therapy and diagnosis. The mice skin presents morphological differences due to characteristics such as gender, body mass and age. Murine models are frequently used in pre-clinical trials in optical therapy and diagnosis. Therefore, the assessment of the skin tissue in animal models is needed for a proper understanding of how light interacts with skin. Noninvasive techniques such as optical coherence tomography (OCT) have been used to obtain optical information of the tissue, as the attenuation coefficient, with the advantage of obtaining sectional images in real time. In this study, eight female BALB/c albino mice (twenty-four weeks old) and eight male C57BL/6 black mice (eight weeks old) were used to measure the attenuation coefficient of the light in the skin, utilizing the OCT technique, aiming to check for influence of the aging process. Two moments were assessed twenty-two weeks apart from each other. Our data show that the aging process significantly affects the light attenuation coefficient in mice skin. Twenty-two weeks after, statistical significant differences were observed between groups within a same strain. We conclude that light attenuation coefficient of mice skin may be influenced by factors such as disorganization of the dermis. Morphological aspects of skin should be taken into account in studies that involve optical strategies in murine models.

  15. Chronic liver injury in mice promotes impairment of skin barrier function via tumor necrosis factor-alpha.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Satoshi; Hiramoto, Keiichi; Koyama, Mayu; Ooi, Kazuya

    2016-09-01

    Alcohol is frequently used to induce chronic liver injury in laboratory animals. Alcohol causes oxidative stress in the liver and increases the expression of inflammatory mediators that cause hepatocellular damage. However, during chronic liver injury, it is unclear if/how these liver-derived factors affect distal tissues, such as the skin. The purpose of this study was to evaluate skin barrier function during chronic liver injury. Hairless mice were administered 5% or 10% ethanol for 8 weeks, and damages to the liver and skin were assessed using histological and protein-analysis methods, as well as by detecting inflammatory mediators in the plasma. After alcohol administration, the plasma concentration of the aspartate and alanine aminotransferases increased, while albumin levels decreased. In mice with alcohol-induced liver injury, transepidermal water loss was significantly increased, and skin hydration decreased concurrent with ceramide and type I collagen degradation. The plasma concentrations of [Formula: see text]/[Formula: see text] and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) were significantly increased in mice with induced liver injury. TNF receptor (TNFR) 2 expression was upregulated in the skin of alcohol-administered mice, while TNFR1 levels remained constant. Interestingly, the impairment of skin barrier function in mice administered with 10% ethanol was ameliorated by administering an anti-TNF-α antibody. We propose a novel mechanism whereby plasma TNF-α, via TNFR2 alone or with TNFR1, plays an important role in skin barrier function during chronic liver disease in these mouse models.

  16. Lack of involvement of 6-hydroxymethylation in benzo[a]pyrene skin tumor initiation in mice.

    PubMed

    Slaga, T J; Bracken, W M; Viaje, A; Berry, D L; Fischer, S M; Miller, D R

    1978-08-01

    The skin tumor-initiating activities of benzo[a]pyrene (BP), 6-hydroxymethylbenzo[a]pyrene (6-OH-CH2-BP), and 6-methylbenzo[a]pyrene (6-CH3-BP), as well as the effects of 7,8-benzoflavone (7,8-BF), quercetin, and 1-benzylimidazole on their activity, were determined in outbred female CD-1 mice by use of a two stage system of tumorigenesis. The skin tumor-initiating activity of 6-OH-CH2-BP and 6-CH3-BP was 12.5 and 20%, respectively, of the activity of BP, 7,8-BF had little effect on the skin tumor-initiating activity of 6-OH-CH2-BP and 6-CH3-BP. However, a dose-dependent inhibition of BP tumorigenesis by 7,8-BF was noted. Quercetin and 1-benzylimidazole also inhibited BP skin tumor-initiating activity. These findings indicated that direct hydroxymethylation of BP is not an important pathway in the activation of BP in mouse skin tumor initiation.

  17. Multiple Methods for Assessing the Dose to Skin Exposed to Radioactive Contamination.

    PubMed

    Dubeau, J; Heinmiller, B E; Corrigan, M

    2017-04-28

    There is the possibility for a worker at a nuclear installation, such as a nuclear power reactor, a fuel production facility or a medical facility, to come in contact with radioactive contaminants. When such an event occurs, the first order of business is to care for the worker by promptly initiating a decontamination process. Usually, the radiation protection personnel performs a G-M pancake probe measurement of the contamination in situ and collects part or all of the radioactive contamination for further laboratory analysis. The health physicist on duty must then perform, using the available information, a skin dose assessment that will go into the worker's permanent dose record. The contamination situations are often complex and the dose assessment can be laborious. This article compares five dose assessment methods that involve analysis, new technologies and new software. The five methods are applied to 13 actual contamination incidents consisting of direct skin contact, contamination on clothing and contamination on clothing in the presence of an air gap between the clothing and the skin. This work shows that, for the cases studied, the methods provided dose estimates that were usually within 12% (1σ) of each other, for those cases where absolute activity information for every radionuclide was available. One method, which relies simply on a G-M pancake probe measurement, appeared to be particularly useful in situations where a contamination sample could not be recovered for laboratory analysis. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Expression of homeotic genes Hoxa3, Hoxb3, Hoxd3 and Hoxc4 is decreased in the lungs but not in the hearts of adriamycin-exposed mice.

    PubMed

    Calonge, W M; Martinez, L; Lacadena, J; Fernandez-Dumont, V; Matesanz, R; Tovar, J A

    2007-05-01

    Exposure of rat and mouse embryos to adriamycin (doxorubicin chlorhydrate) induces esophageal atresia (EA) and VACTERL association. Sonic hedgehog (Shh) and Gli2/Gli3 pathways are involved in these conditions and knockout mice for homeotic Hox genes Hoxa3, Hoxb3, Hoxc3, Hoxc4 and Hoxa5 show phenotypes with some of the associated VACTERL features. This study aims at evaluating the possible influence of Hoxa3, Hoxb3, Hoxd3 and Hoxc4 as upstream regulators of this complex signalling. Pregnant mice were exposed either to 4 mg/kg of adriamycin (EA group) or vehicle (controls) on embryonic days 7.5 and 8.5. Embryos were recovered at four endpoints (E12.5-E15.5) and randomly assigned for immunohistochemical or molecular biology studies. Lungs and hearts were separately harvested and processed for Hoxa3, Hoxb3, Hoxd3 and Hoxc4 quantitative RT-PCR measurements. Antibodies for Hoxa3, Hoxb3 and Hoxd3 proteins were used for immunohistochemical studies. RT-PCR studies showed a drastic and statistically significant decrease of the four genes in the lungs of EA mice when compared to controls, with a slight recovery from E15.5. Hearts of both groups showed a similar expression of all the genes throughout gestation. Control embryos expressed the hox3 paralogous genes in heart, skin, foregut derivatives and their surrounding mesoderm through E12.5-E15.5 whereas adriamycin-exposed embryos showed a severe decrease in expression of these three proteins in the same tissues but not in the heart. Adriamycin drastically reduced the expression of Hoxa3, Hoxb3, Hoxd3 and Hoxc4 in mice embryonic lungs. Their expression in the heart did not seem to be influenced by adriamycin in this experimental setting.

  19. Epidermal CYLD inactivation sensitizes mice to the development of sebaceous and basaloid skin tumors

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Yingai Jane; Wang, Sally; Cho, Joshua; Selim, M. Angelica; Wright, Tim; Mosialos, George; Zhang, Jennifer Y.

    2016-01-01

    The deubiquitinase-encoding gene Cyld displays a dominant genetic linkage to a wide spectrum of skin-appendage tumors, which could be collectively designated as CYLD mutant–syndrome (CYLDm-syndrome). Despite recent advances, little is understood about the molecular mechanisms responsible for this painful and difficult-to-treat skin disease. Here, we generated a conditional mouse model with epidermis-targeted expression of a catalytically deficient CYLDm through K14-Cre–mediated deletion of exon 9 (hereafter refer to CyldEΔ9/Δ9). CyldEΔ9/Δ9 mice were born alive but developed hair and sebaceous gland abnormalities and dental defects at 100% and 60% penetrance, respectively. Upon topical challenge with DMBA/TPA, these animals primarily developed sebaceous and basaloid tumors resembling human CYLDm-syndrome as opposed to papilloma, which is most commonly induced in WT mice by this treatment. Molecular analysis revealed that TRAF6-K63-Ubiquitination (K63-Ub), c-Myc-K63-Ub, and phospho-c–Myc (S62) were markedly elevated in CyldEΔ9/Δ9 skin. Topical treatment with a pharmacological c-Myc inhibitor induced sebaceous and basal cell apoptosis in CyldEΔ9/Δ9 skin. Consistently, c-Myc activation was readily detected in human cylindroma and sebaceous adenoma. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that CyldEΔ9/Δ9 mice represent a disease-relevant animal model and identify TRAF6 and c-Myc as potential therapeutic targets for CYLDm-syndrome. PMID:27478875

  20. Intradermal injection of human adipose-derived stem cells accelerates skin wound healing in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Jonathan; Boucher, Fabien; Lequeux, Charlotte; Josset-Lamaugarny, Audrey; Rouyer, Ondine; Ardisson, Orianne; Rutschi, Héléna; Sigaudo-Roussel, Dominique; Damour, Odile; Mojallal, Ali

    2015-12-08

    The use of stem cells from adipose tissue or adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) in regenerative medicine could be an interesting alternative to bone marrow stem cells because they are easily accessible and available in large quantities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential effect of ASCs on the healing of 12 mm diameter-excisional wounds (around 110 mm(2)) in nude mice. Thirty nude mice underwent surgery to create one 12-mm excisional wound per mouse (spontaneous healing, n = 6; Cytocare® 532, n = 12; ASCs, n = 12). The Galiano wound model was chosen to avoid shrinkage and thus slow the spontaneous healing (SH) of mouse skin, making it closer to the physiology of human skin healing. Transparent dressings were used to enable daily healing time measurements to be taken. Immunohistochemistry, histological and blood perfusion analysis were carried out on the healed skin. The in vivo results showed the effectiveness of using ASCs on reducing the time needed for complete healing to 21.2 days for SH, 17.4 days for vehicle alone (Cytocare® 532) and 14.6 days with the addition of ASCs (p < 0.001). Moreover, cutaneous perfusion of the healed wound was significantly improved in ASC-treated mice compared to SH group, as shown by laser Doppler flowmetry and the quantitation of blood vessels using immunohistochemistry of αsmooth muscle actin. The tolerance and efficacy of cryopreserved ASCs to accelerate the complete closure of the wound by increasing the maturation of the skin and its blood perfusion, shows their therapeutic benefit in the wound healing context.

  1. Evaluation of wound-healing formulation against sulphur mustard-induced skin injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Lomash, V; Jadhav, S E; Ahmed, F; Vijayaraghavan, R; Pant, S C

    2012-06-01

    Sulphur mustard (SM) is a bifunctional alkylating agent that causes cutaneous blisters in human and animals. Remedies to SM-induced dermatotoxicity are still in experimental stage. Due to inevitable requirement of a wound-healing formulation against SM-induced skin lesions, efficacy of formulations including povidone iodine, Aloe vera gel, betaine or framycetin sulphate was evaluated in present study. SM was applied percutaneously (5 mg/kg) once on back region of Swiss albino mice; and after 24 hours, DRDE/WH-02 (Defence Research and Development Establishment/ Wound Healant- 02, containing polyvinylpyrrolidone [PVP], A. vera gel and betaine), Ovadine, Soframycin or A. vera gel were applied topically, daily for 3 or 7 days in different groups. Skin sections were subjected to histopathology, histomorphologic grading, tissue leukocytosis, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labelling (TUNEL) assay and immunohistochemistry of inflammatory-reparative biomarkers. DRDE/WH-02 treated mice received highest score on the basis of histomorphologic scale and lowest number of TUNEL-positive cells compared to other groups. DRDE/WH-02 showed better wound healing as evidenced by widespread re-epithelialization, homogenous fibroplasias well supported by the expression of transforming growth factor-α, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and fibroblast growth factor. Upregulation of interleukin 6 in DRDE/WH-02-treated mice skin resulted in increased tissue leukocytosis and an early removal of tissue debris that initiated reparative process at faster rate compared to other groups. In conclusion, DRDE/WH-02 provided better healing effect and can be recommended as an effective wound healant against SM-induced skin injury.

  2. Protective Effect of Inositol Hexaphosphate Against UVB Damage in HaCaT Cells and Skin Carcinogenesis in SKH1 Hairless Mice

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Kendra A; Kolappaswamy, Krishnan; DeTolla, Louis J; Vucenik, Ivana

    2011-01-01

    UVB radiation damages keratinocytes, potentially inducing chronic skin damage, cutaneous malignancy, and suppression of the immune system. Naturally occurring agents have been considered for prevention and treatment of various kinds of cancer, including skin cancer. Inositol hexaphosphate (IP6), an antioxidant, is a naturally occurring polyphosphorylated carbohydrate that has shown a strong anticancer activity in several experimental models. We assessed the protective effects of IP6 against UVB irradiation-induced injury and photocarcinogenesis by using HaCaT cells (human immortalized keratinocytes) and SKH1 hairless mice. We found that IP6 counteracts the harmful effects of UVB irradiation and increases the viability and survival of UVB-exposed cells. Treatment with IP6 after UVB irradiation (30 mJ/cm2) arrested cells in the G1 and G2M phases while decreasing the S phase of the cell cycle. Treatment with IP6 also decreased UVB-induced apoptosis and caspase 3 activation. Topical application of IP6 followed by exposure to UVB irradiation in SKH1 hairless mice decreased tumor incidence and multiplicity as compared with control mice. Our results suggest that IP6 protects HaCaT cells from UVB-induced apoptosis and mice from UVB-induced tumors. PMID:21819680

  3. Protective effect of inositol hexaphosphate against UVB damage in HaCaT cells and skin carcinogenesis in SKH1 hairless mice.

    PubMed

    Williams, Kendra A; Kolappaswamy, Krishnan; Detolla, Louis J; Vucenik, Ivana

    2011-02-01

    UVB radiation damages keratinocytes, potentially inducing chronic skin damage, cutaneous malignancy, and suppression of the immune system. Naturally occurring agents have been considered for prevention and treatment of various kinds of cancer, including skin cancer. Inositol hexaphosphate (IP6), an antioxidant, is a naturally occurring polyphosphorylated carbohydrate that has shown a strong anticancer activity in several experimental models. We assessed the protective effects of IP6 against UVB irradiationinduced injury and photocarcinogenesis by using HaCaT cells (human immortalized keratinocytes) and SKH1 hairless mice. We found that IP6 counteracts the harmful effects of UVB irradiation and increases the viability and survival of UVB-exposed cells. Treatment with IP6 after UVB irradiation (30 mJ/cm(2)) arrested cells in the G(1) and G(2) M phases while decreasing the S phase of the cell cycle. Treatment with IP6 also decreased UVB-induced apoptosis and caspase 3 activation. Topical application of IP6 followed by exposure to UVB irradiation in SKH1 hairless mice decreased tumor incidence and multiplicity as compared with control mice. Our results suggest that IP6 protects HaCaT cells from UVB-induced apoptosis and mice from UVB-induced tumors.

  4. Accretion of biopsy specimens of vaginal adenosis from patients exposed in utero to diethylstilbestrol, when transplanted to athymic nude mice.

    PubMed

    Pienkowski, M M; Mann, L C; Rosloniec, E F; Welsch, C W

    1979-03-01

    Vaginal adenosis biopsy specimens from 10 patients exposed in utero to diethylstilbestrol were transplanted for 30 days into athymic (nude) mice. Almost all grafts were recovered, and they had morphologic features closely resembling those of the original biopsy specimens, i.e., cystic, complex, and simple occult glands covered mainly with an endocervical type of epithelium showing extensive squamous metaplasia. Autoradiographic analysis of these grafts after pulse administration of [3H]thymidine into the mice revealed extensive labeling of epithelial cells. These results imply that female athymic (nude) mice are compatible hosts for accretion of the human adenosis.

  5. The temporal profile of cytokines in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in mice exposed to the industrial gas phosgene.

    PubMed

    Sciuto, Alfred M; Clapp, Diana L; Hess, Zoe A; Moran, Ted S

    2003-06-01

    Diagnosis of an exposure to airborne toxicants can be problematic. Phosgene is used widely in industry for the production of many synthetic products, such as polyfoam rubber, plastics, and dyes. Although nearly 100% of the gas is consumed during processing, there is the potential problem of accidental or even intentional exposure to this irritant/choking agent. Exposure to phosgene has been known to cause latent life-threatening pulmonary edema. A major problem is that there is a clinical latency phase from 3 to 24 h in people before irreversible acute lung injury occurs. Assessment of markers of acute lung injury after a suspected exposure would be useful in developing rational treatment strategies. These experiments were designed to assess bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) for the presence of the early markers of exposure to phosgene in mice from 1 to 72 h after exposure. Separate groups of 40 CD-1 male mice (Crl:CD-1(ICR)BR) weighing 29 +/- 1 g were exposed whole-body to either air or a concentration x time (c x t) amount of 32 mg/m(3) (8 ppm) phosgene for 20 min (640 mg x min/m(3)). BALF from air- or phosgene-exposed mice was taken at 1, 4, 8, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h postexposure. After euthanasia, the trachea was excised, and 800 micro l saline was instilled into the lungs and washed 5x. BALF was assessed for interleukin (IL)-4, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha, IL-1alpha, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-2, and IL-10. At 4 h postexposure, IL-6 was 15-fold higher for phosgene-exposed mice than for the time-matched air-exposed control group. At 8 and 12 h, IL-6, IL-1beta, MIP-2, and IL-10 were significantly higher in phosgene-exposed mice than in time-matched air-exposed controls, p < or = 0.05 to p < or = 0.001, whereas TNF alpha reached peak significance from 24 to 72 h. IL-4 was significantly lower in the phosgene-exposed mice than in the air-exposed mice from 4 to 8 h after exposure. These data show that BALF is an important tool in assessing pro

  6. Synergistic effects of combined phytochemicals and skin cancer prevention in SENCAR mice.

    PubMed

    Kowalczyk, Magdalena C; Kowalczyk, Piotr; Tolstykh, Olga; Hanausek, Margaret; Walaszek, Zbigniew; Slaga, Thomas J

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of our study was to determine the inhibitory effect of combined phytochemicals on chemically induced murine skin tumorigenesis. Our hypothesis was that concurrent topical and dietary treatment with selected compounds would lead to more efficient prevention of skin cancer. We tested ellagic acid and calcium D-glucarate as components of diets, while resveratrol was applied topically; grape seed extract was applied topically or in the diet. The 4-week inflammatory-hyperplasia assay based on the 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced skin carcinogenesis model in SENCAR mice was used. We have found that all the selected combinations caused a marked decrease of epidermal thickness compared with the DMBA-treated group and also with groups treated with a single compound and DMBA. All combinations of resveratrol with other compounds showed a synergistic effect on hyperplasia and Ha-ras mutations. Skin tissue of mice receiving the combinations showed decreased cell proliferation and Bcl2 expression; decreased p21, a regulator of cell cycle; and decreased marker of inflammation cyclooxygenase-2. All the selected combinations diminished the DMBA-induced mRNA expression of the CYP1B1 level, and also caused a marked decrease of proto-oncogenes c-jun and c-fos, components of transcription factor activator protein. In conclusion, all combinations showed either additive or synergistic effects and their joint actions allowed for decreasing the doses of the compounds. Especially, resveratrol combinations with ellagic acid, grape seed extract, and other phytochemicals are very potent inhibitors of skin tumorgenesis, based on the suppression of epidermal hyperplasia as well as on the modulation of intermediate biomarkers of cell proliferation, cell survival, inflammation, oncogene mutation, and apoptosis.

  7. B cells play key roles in th2-type airway immune responses in mice exposed to natural airborne allergens.

    PubMed

    Drake, Li Yin; Iijima, Koji; Hara, Kenichiro; Kobayashi, Takao; Kephart, Gail M; Kita, Hirohito

    2015-01-01

    Humans are frequently exposed to various airborne allergens. In addition to producing antibodies, B cells participate in immune responses via various mechanisms. The roles of B cells in allergic airway inflammation and asthma have been controversial. We examined the functional importance of B cells in a mouse model of asthma, in which mice were exposed repeatedly to common airborne allergens. Naïve wild-type BALB/c mice or B cell-deficient JH-/- mice were exposed intranasally to a cocktail of allergen extracts, including Alternaria, Aspergillus, and house dust mite, every other day for two weeks. Ovalbumin was included in the cocktail to monitor the T cell immune response. Airway inflammation, lung pathology, and airway reactivity were analyzed. The airway exposure of naïve wild type mice to airborne allergens induced robust eosinophilic airway inflammation, increased the levels of Th2 cytokines and chemokines in the lung, and increased the reactivity to inhaled methacholine. These pathological changes and immune responses were attenuated in B cell-deficient JH-/- mice. The allergen-induced expansion of CD4+ T cells was impaired in the lungs and draining lymph nodes of JH-/- mice. Furthermore, lymphocytes from JH-/- mice failed to produce Th2 cytokines in response to ovalbumin re-stimulation in vitro. Our results suggest that B cells are required for the optimal development of Th2-type immune responses and airway inflammation when exposed to common airborne allergens. The therapeutic targeting of B cells may be beneficial to treat asthma in certain patients.

  8. Dissociation of spontaneous seizures and brainstem seizure thresholds in mice exposed to eight flurothyl-induced generalized seizures

    PubMed Central

    Kadiyala, Sridhar B.; Ferland, Russell J.

    2017-01-01

    Summary Objective C57BL/6J mice exposed to eight flurothyl-induced generalized clonic seizures exhibit a change in seizure phenotype following a 28-day incubation period and subsequent flurothyl rechallenge. Mice now develop a complex seizure semiology originating in the forebrain and propagating into the brainstem seizure network (a forebrain→brainstem seizure). In contrast, this phenotype change does not occur in seizure-sensitive DBA/2J mice. The underlying mechanism(s) was the focus of these studies. Methods DBA2/J mice were exposed to eight flurothyl-induced seizures (1/day) followed by 24-hour video-electroencephalographic recordings for 28-days. Forebrain and brainstem seizure thresholds were determined in C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice following one or eight flurothyl-induced seizures, or after eight flurothyl-induced seizures, a 28-day incubation period, and final flurothyl rechallenge. Results Similar to C57BL/6J mice, DBA2/J mice expressed spontaneous seizures. However, unlike C57BL/6J mice, DBA2/J mice continued to have spontaneous seizures without remission. Because DBA2/J mice do not express forebrain→brainstem seizures following flurothyl rechallenge after a 28-day incubation period, this indicated that spontaneous seizures were not sufficient for the evolution of forebrain→brainstem seizures. Therefore, we determined whether brainstem seizure thresholds were changing during this repeated-flurothyl model and whether this could account for the expression of forebrain→brainstem seizures. Brainstem seizure thresholds were not different between C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice on day one or on the last induction seizure trial (day eight). However, brainstem seizure thresholds did differ significantly on flurothyl rechallenge (day 28) with DBA/2J mice showing no lowering of their brainstem seizure thresholds. Significance These results demonstrated that DBA/2J mice exposed to the repeated-flurothyl model develop spontaneous seizures without evidence of seizure

  9. Dissociation of spontaneous seizures and brainstem seizure thresholds in mice exposed to eight flurothyl-induced generalized seizures.

    PubMed

    Kadiyala, Sridhar B; Ferland, Russell J

    2017-03-01

    C57BL/6J mice exposed to eight flurothyl-induced generalized clonic seizures exhibit a change in seizure phenotype following a 28-day incubation period and subsequent flurothyl rechallenge. Mice now develop a complex seizure semiology originating in the forebrain and propagating into the brainstem seizure network (a forebrain→brainstem seizure). In contrast, this phenotype change does not occur in seizure-sensitive DBA/2J mice. The underlying mechanism(s) was the focus of these studies. DBA2/J mice were exposed to eight flurothyl-induced seizures (1/day) followed by 24-hour video-electroencephalographic recordings for 28-days. Forebrain and brainstem seizure thresholds were determined in C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice following one or eight flurothyl-induced seizures, or after eight flurothyl-induced seizures, a 28-day incubation period, and final flurothyl rechallenge. Similar to C57BL/6J mice, DBA2/J mice expressed spontaneous seizures. However, unlike C57BL/6J mice, DBA2/J mice continued to have spontaneous seizures without remission. Because DBA2/J mice do not express forebrain→brainstem seizures following flurothyl rechallenge after a 28-day incubation period, this indicated that spontaneous seizures were not sufficient for the evolution of forebrain→brainstem seizures. Therefore, we determined whether brainstem seizure thresholds were changing during this repeated-flurothyl model and whether this could account for the expression of forebrain→brainstem seizures. Brainstem seizure thresholds were not different between C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice on day one or on the last induction seizure trial (day eight). However, brainstem seizure thresholds did differ significantly on flurothyl rechallenge (day 28) with DBA/2J mice showing no lowering of their brainstem seizure thresholds. These results demonstrated that DBA/2J mice exposed to the repeated-flurothyl model develop spontaneous seizures without evidence of seizure remission and provide a new model of

  10. Molecular mechanisms mediating a deficit in recall of fear extinction in adult mice exposed to cocaine in utero.

    PubMed

    Kabir, Zeeba D; Katzman, Aaron C; Kosofsky, Barry E

    2013-01-01

    Prenatal cocaine exposure has been shown to alter cognitive processes of exposed individuals, presumed to be a result of long-lasting molecular alterations in the brain. In adult prenatal cocaine exposed (PCOC) mice we have identified a deficit in recall of fear extinction, a behavior that is dependent on the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and the hippocampus. While we observed no change in the constitutive expression of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) protein and mRNA in the mPFC and hippocampus of adult PCOC mice, we observed blunted BDNF signaling in the mPFC of adult PCOC mice after fear extinction compared to the control animals. Specifically, during the consolidation phase of the extinction memory, we observed a decrease in BDNF protein and it's phospho-TrkB receptor expression. Interestingly, at this same time point there was a significant increase in total Bdnf mRNA levels in the mPFC of PCOC mice as compared with controls. In the Bdnf gene, we identified decreased constitutive binding of the transcription factors, MeCP2 and P-CREB at the promoters of Bdnf exons I and IV in the mPFC of PCOC mice, that unlike control mice remained unchanged when measured during the behavior. Finally, bilateral infusion of recombinant BDNF protein into the infralimbic subdivision of the mPFC during the consolidation phase of the extinction memory rescued the behavioral deficit in PCOC mice. In conclusion, these findings extend our knowledge of the neurobiologic impact of prenatal cocaine exposure on the mPFC of mice, which may lead to improved clinical recognition and treatment of exposed individuals.

  11. Topical Application of Eupatilin Ameliorates Atopic Dermatitis-Like Skin Lesions in NC/Nga Mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji Hyun; Lee, Ye Jin; Lee, Jun Young; Park, Young Min

    2017-02-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is an inflammatory skin disorder with severe pruritus. Despite advancements in medicine, therapeutic treatments for AD are still limited. Eupatilin (5,7-dihydroxy-30,40,6-trimethoxyflavone) is one of the lipophilic flavonoids from Artemisia umbelliformis Lam. and Artemisia genipi Weber. Although it has been reported to act a role in improving inflammation, its action on AD is uncertain. In this study, we examined the role of eupatilin on AD-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice. 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene was repeatedly applied to the ear of NC/Nga mice to produce AD-like skin lesions. Eupatilin (1%, once a day for 5 consecutive days/week) was applied topically for four weeks for the evaluation of its therapeutic effects. 1% eupatilin cream significantly reduced the clinical severity score of AD-like lesions, compared to the vehicle (p<0.005). A histopathological analysis revealed that 1% eupatilin cream significantly decreased the mast cell infiltration as well as inflammatory cell infiltration, compared to the vehicle (p<0.005). We showed that 1% eupatilin cream significantly reduced the expression of thymic stromal lymphopoietin, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-4, and interleukin-19, but not interferon-γ, compared to the vehicle (p<0.005). Considering the therapeutic reaction of eupatilin on AD-like lesions as in this study, the substance has a promising to be an adjuvant topical agent for the control of AD.

  12. RasGRP1 Transgenic Mice Develop Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinomas in Response to Skin Wounding

    PubMed Central

    Diez, Federico R.; Garrido, Ann A.; Sharma, Amrish; Luke, Courtney T.; Stone, James C.; Dower, Nancy A.; Cline, J. Mark; Lorenzo, Patricia S.

    2009-01-01

    Models of epidermal carcinogenesis have demonstrated that Ras is a critical molecule involved in tumor initiation and progression. Previously, we have shown that RasGRP1 increases the susceptibility of mice to skin tumorigenesis when overexpressed in the epidermis by a transgenic approach, related to its ability to activate Ras. Moreover, RasGRP1 transgenic mice develop spontaneous papillomas and cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas, some of which appear to originate in sites of injury, suggesting that RasGRP1 may be responding to signals generated during the wound-healing process. In this study, we examined the response of the RasGRP1 transgenic animals to full-thickness incision wounding of the skin, and demonstrated that they respond by developing tumors along the wounded site. The tumors did not present mutations in the H-ras gene, but Rasgrp1 transgene dosage correlated with tumor susceptibility and size. Analysis of serum cytokines showed increased levels of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in transgenic animals after wounding. Furthermore, in vitro experiments with primary keratinocytes showed that granulocyte colony-stimulating factor stimulated Ras activation, although RasGRP1 was dispensable for this effect. Since granulocyte colony-stimulating factor has been recently associated with proliferation of skin cancer cells, our results may help in the elucidation of pathways that activate Ras in the epidermis during tumorigenesis in the absence of oncogenic ras mutations. PMID:19497993

  13. Topical Application of Eupatilin Ameliorates Atopic Dermatitis-Like Skin Lesions in NC/Nga Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji Hyun; Lee, Ye Jin; Lee, Jun Young

    2017-01-01

    Background Atopic dermatitis (AD) is an inflammatory skin disorder with severe pruritus. Despite advancements in medicine, therapeutic treatments for AD are still limited. Eupatilin (5,7-dihydroxy-30,40,6-trimethoxyflavone) is one of the lipophilic flavonoids from Artemisia umbelliformis Lam. and Artemisia genipi Weber. Objective Although it has been reported to act a role in improving inflammation, its action on AD is uncertain. In this study, we examined the role of eupatilin on AD-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice. Methods 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene was repeatedly applied to the ear of NC/Nga mice to produce AD-like skin lesions. Eupatilin (1%, once a day for 5 consecutive days/week) was applied topically for four weeks for the evaluation of its therapeutic effects. Results 1% eupatilin cream significantly reduced the clinical severity score of AD-like lesions, compared to the vehicle (p<0.005). A histopathological analysis revealed that 1% eupatilin cream significantly decreased the mast cell infiltration as well as inflammatory cell infiltration, compared to the vehicle (p<0.005). We showed that 1% eupatilin cream significantly reduced the expression of thymic stromal lymphopoietin, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-4, and interleukin-19, but not interferon-γ, compared to the vehicle (p<0.005). Conclusion Considering the therapeutic reaction of eupatilin on AD-like lesions as in this study, the substance has a promising to be an adjuvant topical agent for the control of AD. PMID:28223748

  14. Menthol Attenuates Respiratory Irritation and Elevates Blood Cotinine in Cigarette Smoke Exposed Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Michael A.; Smith, Gregory J.; Cichocki, Joseph A.; Fan, Lu; Liu, Yi-Shiuan; Caceres, Ana I.; Jordt, Sven Eric; Morris, John B.

    2015-01-01

    Addition of menthol to cigarettes may be associated with increased initiation of smoking. The potential mechanisms underlying this association are not known. Menthol, likely due to its effects on cold-sensing peripheral sensory neurons, is known to inhibit the sensation of irritation elicited by respiratory irritants. However, it remains unclear whether menthol modulates cigarette smoke irritancy and nicotine absorption during initial exposures to cigarettes, thereby facilitating smoking initiation. Using plethysmography in a C57Bl/6J mouse model, we examined the effects of L-menthol, the menthol isomer added to cigarettes, on the respiratory sensory irritation response to primary smoke irritants (acrolein and cyclohexanone) and smoke of Kentucky reference 2R4 cigarettes. We also studied L-menthol’s effect on blood levels of the nicotine metabolite, cotinine, immediately after exposure to cigarette smoke. L-menthol suppressed the irritation response to acrolein with an apparent IC₅₀ of 4 ppm. Suppression was observed even at acrolein levels well above those necessary to produce a maximal response. Cigarette smoke, at exposure levels of 10 mg/m³ or higher, caused an immediate and marked sensory irritation response in mice. This response was significantly suppressed by L-menthol even at smoke concentrations as high as 300 mg/m³. Counterirritation by L-menthol was abolished by treatment with a selective inhibitor of Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin 8 (TRPM8), the neuronal cold/menthol receptor. Inclusion of menthol in the cigarette smoke resulted in roughly a 1.5-fold increase in plasma cotinine levels over those observed in mice exposed to smoke without added menthol. These findings document that, L-menthol, through TRPM8, is a strong suppressor of respiratory irritation responses, even during highly noxious exposures to cigarette smoke or smoke irritants, and increases blood cotinine. Therefore, L-menthol, as a cigarette additive, may promote smoking

  15. Brain deposition and neurotoxicity of manganese in adult mice exposed via the drinking water

    PubMed Central

    Saritha, Krishna; Celia, Dodd A.; Shahryar, Hekmatyar K.; Nikolay, Filipov M.

    2013-01-01

    Natural leaching processes and/or anthropogenic contamination can result in ground water concentrations of the essential metal manganese (Mn) that far exceed the current regulatory standards. Neurological consequences of Mn drinking water (DW) overexposure to experimental animals, i.e. mice, including its brain deposition/distribution and behavioral effects are understudied. Adult male C57BL/6 mice were exposed to Mn via the DW for 8 weeks. After 5 weeks of Mn exposure, magnetic resonance imaging revealed significant Mn deposition in all examined brain regions; the degree of Mn deposition did not increase further a week later. Behaviorally, early hyperactivity and more time spent in the center of the arenas in an open field test, decreased forelimb grip strength and less time swimming in a forced swim test were observed after 6 weeks of Mn DW exposure. Eight-week Mn DW exposure did not alter striatal dopamine, its metabolites, or the expression of key dopamine homeostatic proteins, but it significantly increased striatal 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (a serotonin metabolite) level, without affecting the levels of serotonin itself. Increased expression (mRNA) of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, an astrocyte activation marker), heme oxygenase-1 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (oxidative and nitrosative stress markers, respectively) were observed 8 weeks post Mn DW exposure in the substantia nigra. Besides mRNA increases, GFAP protein expression was increased in the substantia nigra pars reticulata. In summary, the neurobehavioral deficits, characterized by locomotor and emotional perturbations, and nigral glial activation associated with significant brain Mn deposition are among the early signs of Mn neurotoxicity caused by DW overexposure. PMID:23832297

  16. Sub-chronically exposing mice to a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon increases lipid accumulation in their livers.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yuanxiang; Miao, Wenyu; Lin, Xiaojian; Wu, Tao; Shen, Hangjie; Chen, Shan; Li, Yanhong; Pan, Qiaoqiao; Fu, Zhengwei

    2014-09-01

    The potential for exposing humans and wildlife to environmental polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has increased. Risk assessments describing how PAHs disturb lipid metabolism and induce hepatotoxicity have only received limited attention. In the present study, seven-week-old male ICR mice received intraperitoneal injections of 0, 0.01, 0.1 or 1mg/kg body weight 3-methylcholanthrene (3MC) per week for 10 weeks. A high-fat diet was provided during the exposure. Histopathological lipid accumulation and lipid metabolism-related genes were measured. We observed that sub-chronic 3MC exposure significantly increased lipid droplet and triacylglycerol (TG) levels in the livers. A low dose of 3MC activated the aryl hydrocarbon receptor, which negatively regulated lipid synthesis in the livers. The primary genes including acetyl-CoA carboxylase (Acc), fatty acid synthase (Fas) and stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (Scd1) decreased significantly when compared with those in the control group, indicating that de novo fatty acid synthesis in the hepatocytes was significantly inhibited by the sub-chronic 3MC exposure. However, the free fatty acid (FFA) synthesis in the adipose tissue was greatly enhanced by up-regulating the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP1C) and target genes including Acc, Fas and Scd1. The synthesized FFA was released into the blood and then transported into the liver by the up-regulation of Fat and Fatp2, which resulted in the gradual accumulation of lipids in the liver. In conclusion, histological examinations and molecular level analyses highlighted the development of lipid accumulation and confirmed that 3MC significantly impaired lipid metabolism in mice.

  17. Brain deposition and neurotoxicity of manganese in adult mice exposed via the drinking water.

    PubMed

    Krishna, Saritha; Dodd, Celia A; Hekmatyar, Shahryar K; Filipov, Nikolay M

    2014-01-01

    Natural leaching processes and/or anthropogenic contamination can result in ground water concentrations of the essential metal manganese (Mn) that far exceed the current regulatory standards. Neurological consequences of Mn drinking water (DW) overexposure to experimental animals, i.e., mice, including its brain deposition/distribution and behavioral effects are understudied. Adult male C57BL/6 mice were exposed to Mn via the DW for 8 weeks. After 5 weeks of Mn exposure, magnetic resonance imaging revealed significant Mn deposition in all examined brain regions; the degree of Mn deposition did not increase further a week later. Behaviorally, early hyperactivity and more time spent in the center of the arenas in an open field test, decreased forelimb grip strength and less time swimming in a forced swim test were observed after 6 weeks of Mn DW exposure. Eight-week Mn DW exposure did not alter striatal dopamine, its metabolites, or the expression of key dopamine homeostatic proteins, but it significantly increased striatal 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (a serotonin metabolite) levels, without affecting the levels of serotonin itself. Increased expression (mRNA) of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, an astrocyte activation marker), heme oxygenase-1 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (oxidative and nitrosative stress markers, respectively) were observed 8 weeks post-Mn DW exposure in the substantia nigra. Besides mRNA increases, GFAP protein expression was increased in the substantia nigra pars reticulata. In summary, the neurobehavioral deficits, characterized by locomotor and emotional perturbations, and nigral glial activation associated with significant brain Mn deposition are among the early signs of Mn neurotoxicity caused by DW overexposure.

  18. DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF METHANOL: PATHOGENESIS IN CD-1 AND C57BL/6J MICE EXPOSED IN WHOLE EMBRYO CULTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND: Methanol causes axial skeleton and craniofacial defects in both CD-1 and C57BL/6J mice during gastrulation, but C57BL/6J embryos are more severely affected. We evaluated methanol-induced pathogenesis in CD-1 and C57BL/6J embryos exposed during gastrulation in whole em...

  19. DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF METHANOL: PATHOGENESIS IN CD-1 AND C57BL/6J MICE EXPOSED IN WHOLE EMBRYO CULTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND: Methanol causes axial skeleton and craniofacial defects in both CD-1 and C57BL/6J mice during gastrulation, but C57BL/6J embryos are more severely affected. We evaluated methanol-induced pathogenesis in CD-1 and C57BL/6J embryos exposed during gastrulation in whole em...

  20. Reciprocal Translocation in Somatic and Germ Cells of Mice Chronically Exposed by Inhalation to Ethylene Oxide: Implication for Risk Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Groups of male B6C3F1 mice were exposed by inhalation to 0, 25, 50, 100 or 200 ppm EO for up to 48 weeks (6 hours/day, 5 days/week). Animals were sacrificed at 6, 12, 24, and 48 weeks after the startt of the exposure for analyses of reciprocal translocations in peripheral blood ...

  1. Cause of death and neoplasia in mice continuously exposed to very low dose rates of gamma rays.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, I B; Tanaka, S; Ichinohe, K; Matsushita, S; Matsumoto, T; Otsu, H; Oghiso, Y; Sato, F

    2007-04-01

    Four thousand 8-week-old SPF B6C3F1 mice (2000 of each sex) were divided into four groups, one nonirradiated (control) and three irradiated. The irradiated groups were exposed to (137)Cs gamma rays at dose rates of 21, 1.1 and 0.05 mGy day(-1) for approximately 400 days with total doses equivalent to 8000, 400 and 20 mGy, respectively. All mice were kept until natural death, and pathological examination was performed to determine the cause of death. Neoplasms accounted for >86.7% of all deaths. Compared to the nonirradiated controls, the frequency of myeloid leukemia in males, soft tissue neoplasms and malignant granulosa cell tumors in females, and hemangiosarcoma in both sexes exposed to 21 mGy day(-1) were significantly increased. The number of multiple primary neoplasms per mouse was significantly increased in mice irradiated at 21 mGy day(-1). Significant increases in body weights were observed from 32 to 60 weeks of age in males and females exposed to 1.1 mGy day(-1) and 21 mGy day(-1), respectively. Our results suggest that life shortening (Tanaka et al., Radiat. Res. 160, 376-379, 2003) in mice continuously exposed to low-dose-rate gamma rays is due to early death from a variety of neoplasms and not from increased incidence of specific neoplasms.

  2. Linalool prevents oxidative stress activated protein kinases in single UVB-exposed human skin cells.

    PubMed

    Gunaseelan, Srithar; Balupillai, Agilan; Govindasamy, Kanimozhi; Ramasamy, Karthikeyan; Muthusamy, Ganesan; Shanmugam, Mohana; Thangaiyan, Radhiga; Robert, Beaulah Mary; Prasad Nagarajan, Rajendra; Ponniresan, Veeramani Kandan; Rathinaraj, Pierson

    2017-01-01

    Ultraviolet-B radiation (285-320 nm) elicits a number of cellular signaling elements. We investigated the preventive effect of linalool, a natural monoterpene, against UVB-induced oxidative imbalance, activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) signaling in HDFa cells. We observed that linalool treatment (30 μM) prevented acute UVB-irradiation (20 mJ/cm2) mediated loss of activities of antioxidant enzymes in HDFa cells. The comet assay results illustrate that linalool significantly prevents UVB-mediated 8-deoxy guanosine formation (oxidative DNA damage) rather than UVB-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine (CPD) formation. This might be due to its ability to prevent UVB-induced ROS formation and to restore the oxidative imbalance of cells. This has been reflected in UVB-induced overexpression of MAPK and NF-κB signaling. We observed that linalool inhibited UVB-induced phosphorylation of ERK1, JNK and p38 proteins of MAPK family. Linalool inhibited UVB-induced activation of NF-κB/p65 by activating IκBa. We further observed that UVB-induced expression of TNF-α, IL6, IL-10, MMP-2 and MMP-9 was modulated by linalool treatment in HDFa cells. Thus, linalool protects the human skin cells from the oxidative damages of UVB radiation and modulates MAPK and NF-κB signaling in HDFa cells. The present findings substantiate that linalool may act as a photoprotective agent against UVB-induced skin damages.

  3. Maternal docosahexaenoic acid supplementation decreases lung inflammation in hyperoxia-exposed newborn mice.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Lynette K; Valentine, Christina J; Pennell, Michael; Velten, Markus; Britt, Rodney D; Dingess, Kelly; Zhao, Xuilan; Welty, Stephen E; Tipple, Trent E

    2011-02-01

    DHA is a long-chain fatty acid that has potent antiinflammatory properties. Whereas maternal DHA dietary supplementation has been shown to improve cognitive development in infants fed DHA-supplemented milk, the antiinflammatory effects of maternal DHA supplementation on the developing fetus and neonate have not been extensively explored. Pregnant C3H/HeN dams were fed purified control or DHA-supplemented diets (~0.25% of total fat) at embryonic d 16 and consumed these diets throughout the study. At birth, the nursing mouse pups were placed in room air (RA; 21% O(2)) or >95% O(2) (hyperoxia) for up to 7 d. These studies tested the hypothesis that maternal DHA supplementation would decrease inflammation and improve alveolarization in the lungs of newborn mouse pups exposed to hyperoxia. Survival, inflammatory responses, and lung growth were compared among control diet/RA, DHA/RA, control/O(2), and DHA/O(2) pups. There were fewer neutrophils and macrophages in lung tissues from pups nursed by DHA-supplemented dams than in those nursed by dams fed the control diet at 7 d of hyperoxia exposure (P < 0.015). Although differences due to hyperoxia exposure were observed, maternal diet did not affect keratinocyte-derived chemokine, macrophage inflammatory protein-2, IL-1β, or TNFα mRNA levels in pup tissues. Hyperoxia also induced NF-κB activity, but maternal diet did not affect NF-κB or PPARγ activities. In mice, DHA supplementation decreases leukocyte infiltration in the offspring exposed to hyperoxia, suggesting a potential role for DHA supplementation as a therapy to reduce inflammation in preterm infants.

  4. Strain-Dependent Differences in Susceptibility to Lung Cancer in Inbred Mice Exposed to Mainstream Cigarette Smoke

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Terry; Bosland, Maarten

    2009-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly clear that genetic susceptibility is an important host factor determining the effects of exposure to a number of airborne particles and gases. Although numerous studies have identified a genetic component for spontaneous pulmonary tumor development and for chemically-induced lung cancer (e.g., urethane) in mice, a systematic examination of murine interstrain differences in response to cigarette smoke inhalation has not been conducted. We addressed this research gap by examining the strain distribution pattern of lung cancer in 9 inbred strains of mice exposed to 258 mg/m3 mainstream cigarette smoke for 5 months followed by 4 months of rest. Lung tumors were enumerated on fixed-lungs visualized at low magnification and on serial step sections examined microscopically. With the low magnification examination, we observed statistically significant increases in the number of lung tumors in cigarette smoke-exposed A/J and the genetically-related A/HeJ mice (p < 0.05). While fewer tumors were identified by the microscopic enumeration method, it confirmed that significant increases in lung tumors occurred only in A/J and A/HeJ mice exposed to cigarette smoke (p<0.05). Thus, as predicted by epidemiologic studies and animal experiments using chemically-induced lung cancer models, these findings suggest that genetic host factors play a significant role in the pulmonary tumorigenic response of mice to mainstream cigarette smoke. PMID:19118942

  5. Long-term sex selective hormonal and behavior alterations in mice exposed to low doses of chlorpyrifos in utero.

    PubMed

    Haviland, Julia A; Butz, Daniel E; Porter, Warren P

    2010-01-01

    Chlorpyrifos, O,O-diethyl-O-(3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridyl) phosphorothioate, is an organophosphate insecticide known to be present in human urine. In utero exposure to chlorpyrifos may cause long-term hormonal and behavior alterations. In this study mice were exposed to 0, 1 or 5mg/kg chlorpyrifos on gestational days 17-20. In utero exposed mice were then tested in a novel foraging behavior maze and assayed for thyroid hormones. Free Thyroxine Index increased significantly in females, but not males. Learning latency and reduced learning ability was evident during training sessions 5-9 in female mice exposed to 1 or 5mg/kg chlorpyrifos. No learning deficiencies were observed in male mice. No differences were seen in behavior when using a standard radial arm maze during the nine training sessions. These data suggest that mice are susceptible to neuro-endocrine reprogramming by chlorpyrifos, and demonstrate the efficacy of the novel foraging maze as an efficient behavior assay tool.

  6. Micronuclei in peripheral blood and bone marrow cells of mice exposed to 42 GHz electromagnetic millimeter waves.

    PubMed

    Vijayalaxmi; Logani, Mahendra K; Bhanushali, Ashok; Ziskin, Marvin C; Prihoda, Thomas J

    2004-03-01

    The genotoxic potential of 42.2 +/- 0.2 GHz electromagnetic millimeter-wave radiation was investigated in adult male BALB/c mice. The radiation was applied to the nasal region of the mice for 30 min/day for 3 consecutive days. The incident power density used was 31.5 +/- 5.0 mW/cm2. The peak specific absorption rate was calculated as 622 +/- 100 W/kg. Groups of mice that were injected with cyclophosphamide (15 mg/kg body weight), a drug used in the treatment of human malignancies, were also included to determine if millimeter-wave radiation exposure had any influence on drug-induced genotoxicity. Concurrent sham-exposed and untreated mice were used as controls. The extent of genotoxicity was assessed from the incidence of micronuclei in polychromatic erythrocytes of peripheral blood and bone marrow cells collected 24 h after treatment. The results indicated that the incidence of micronuclei in 2000 polychromatic erythrocytes was not significantly different among untreated, millimeter wave-exposed, and sham-exposed mice. The group mean incidences were 6.0 +/- 1.6, 5.1 +/- 1.5 and 5.1 +/- 1.3 in peripheral blood and 9.1 +/- 1.1, 9.3 +/- 1.6 and 9.1 +/- 1.6 in bone marrow cells, respectively. Mice that were injected with cyclophosphamide exhibited significantly increased numbers of micronuclei, 14.6 +/- 2.7 in peripheral blood and 21.3 +/- 3.9 in bone marrow cells (P< 0.0001). The drug-induced micronuclei were not significantly different in millimeter wave-exposed and sham-exposed mice; the mean incidences were 14.3 +/- 2.8 and 15.4 +/- 3.0 in peripheral blood and 23.5 +/- 2.3 and 22.1 +/- 2.5 in bone marrow cells, respectively. Thus there was no evidence for the induction of genotoxicity in the peripheral blood and bone marrow cells of mice exposed to electromagnetic millimeter-wave radiation. Also, millimeter-wave radiation exposure did not influence cyclophosphamide-induced micronuclei in either type of cells.

  7. Reduced oxazolone-induced skin inflammation in MAPKAP kinase 2 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Funding, Anne T; Johansen, Claus; Gaestel, Matthias; Bibby, Bo M; Lilleholt, Louise L; Kragballe, Knud; Iversen, Lars

    2009-04-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) AP kinase 2 (MK2) is a serine/threonine kinase that is phosphorylated and activated by p38 MAPK. MK2 regulates the expression of various proinflammatory cytokines including TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6, and IL-8. Recently, MK2 was demonstrated to be activated in lesional psoriatic epidermis. This study investigates for the first time the role of MK2 in skin inflammation using the model of oxazolone-induced acute allergic contact dermatitis in mice. We show that oxazolone treatment leads to increased expression and sustained activation of both p38 MAPK and MK2. The inflammatory response was determined by ear thickness, myeloperoxidase activity, and histology after oxazolone challenge. Pretreatment with the p38 MAPK inhibitor SB202190 and genetic ablation of MK2 inhibit this inflammatory response. In particular, IL-1beta and, to a smaller but significant extent, also TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma expression were decreased in MK2 knockout mice compared with wild-type mice. These results indicate that MK2 is a potential target for the treatment of inflammatory skin diseases.

  8. Protective Effect of Porcine Cerebral Hydrolysate Peptides on Learning and Memory Deficits and Oxidative Stress in Lead-Exposed Mice.

    PubMed

    Zou, Ye; Feng, Weiwei; Wang, Wei; Chen, Yao; Zhou, Zhaoxiang; Li, Qian; Zhao, Ting; Mao, Guanghua; Wu, Xiangyang; Yang, Liuqing

    2015-12-01

    In this study, lead acetate solution and porcine cerebral hydrolysate peptides (PCHPs) were administered to developing mice. Porcine cerebral protein pretreated by ultrasound was hydrolyzed with alcalase, and 11 peptide fragments were obtained by Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) analysis of PCHPs. Our data showed that PCHPs significantly decreased Pb2+-induced spontaneous locomotor activity, latencies to reach the platform, and the time in target quadrant. It also decreased the accumulation of lead in the blood and brain of Pb2+-exposed developing mice. Co-administration of PCHPs and dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) did not only reduce the accumulation of lead in blood but also increased the absorption of zinc and iron in Pb2+-exposed mice. Administration of PCHPs individually significantly enhanced hematopoietic parameters compared with the Pb2+-exposed group. PCHPs significantly reduced the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA) but increased glutathione (GSH) content and anti-oxidant enzymes and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activities in Pb2+-exposed brain. Our findings suggest that PCHPs have the ability to protect against Pb2+-exposed learning and memory deficits and oxidative damage.

  9. Increased Bacterial Load and Expression of Antimicrobial Peptides in Skin of Barrier-Deficient Mice with Reduced Cancer Susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Natsuga, Ken; Cipolat, Sara; Watt, Fiona M.

    2016-01-01

    Mice lacking three epidermal barrier proteins—envoplakin, periplakin, and involucrin (EPI-/- mice)—have a defective cornified layer, reduced epidermal γδ T cells, and increased dermal CD4+ T cells. They are also resistant to developing skin tumors. The tumor-protective mechanism involves signaling between Rae-1 expressing keratinocytes and the natural killer group 2D receptor on immune cells, which also plays a role in host defenses against infection. Given the emerging link between bacteria and cancer, we investigated whether EPI-/- mice have an altered skin microbiota. The bacterial phyla were similar in wild-type and EPI-/- skin. However, bacteria were threefold more abundant in EPI-/- skin and penetrated deeper into the epidermis. The major epithelial defense mechanism against bacteria is production of antimicrobial proteins (AMPs). EPI-/- skin exhibited enhanced expression of antimicrobial peptides. However, reducing the bacterial load by antibiotic treatment or breeding mice under specific pathogen-free conditions did not reduce AMP expression or alleviate the abnormalities in T-cell populations. We conclude that the atopic characteristics of EPI-/- skin are a consequence of the defective barrier rather than a response to the increased bacterial load. It is therefore unlikely that the increase in skin microbiota contributes directly to the observed cancer resistance. PMID:26763429

  10. Increased Bacterial Load and Expression of Antimicrobial Peptides in Skin of Barrier-Deficient Mice with Reduced Cancer Susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Natsuga, Ken; Cipolat, Sara; Watt, Fiona M

    2016-01-01

    Mice lacking three epidermal barrier proteins-envoplakin, periplakin, and involucrin (EPI-/- mice)-have a defective cornified layer, reduced epidermal γδ T cells, and increased dermal CD4(+) T cells. They are also resistant to developing skin tumors. The tumor-protective mechanism involves signaling between Rae-1 expressing keratinocytes and the natural killer group 2D receptor on immune cells, which also plays a role in host defenses against infection. Given the emerging link between bacteria and cancer, we investigated whether EPI-/- mice have an altered skin microbiota. The bacterial phyla were similar in wild-type and EPI-/- skin. However, bacteria were threefold more abundant in EPI-/- skin and penetrated deeper into the epidermis. The major epithelial defense mechanism against bacteria is production of antimicrobial proteins (AMPs). EPI-/- skin exhibited enhanced expression of antimicrobial peptides. However, reducing the bacterial load by antibiotic treatment or breeding mice under specific pathogen-free conditions did not reduce AMP expression or alleviate the abnormalities in T-cell populations. We conclude that the atopic characteristics of EPI-/- skin are a consequence of the defective barrier rather than a response to the increased bacterial load. It is therefore unlikely that the increase in skin microbiota contributes directly to the observed cancer resistance. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A novel mechanism for improvement of dry skin by dietary milk phospholipids: Effect on epidermal covalently bound ceramides and skin inflammation in hairless mice.

    PubMed

    Morifuji, Masashi; Oba, Chisato; Ichikawa, Satomi; Ito, Kyoko; Kawahata, Keiko; Asami, Yukio; Ikegami, Shuji; Itoh, Hiroyuki; Sugawara, Tatsuya

    2015-06-01

    Dietary milk phospholipids (MPLs) increase hydration of the stratum corneum and reduced transepidermal water loss (TEWL) in hairless mice fed a standard diet. However, the mechanism by which MPLs improve skin barrier functions has yet to be established. This study was designed to examine the mechanism by which MPLs may affect covalently bound ceramides and markers of skin inflammation and improve the skin barrier defect in hairless mice fed a magnesium-deficient (HR-AD) diet. Four-week-old female hairless mice were randomized into four groups (n=10/group), and fed a standard (control) diet, the HR-AD diet, the HR-AD diet supplemented with either 7.0 g/kg MPLs (low [L]-MPL) or 41.0 g/kg MPLs (high [H]-MPL). Dietary MPLs improved the dry skin condition of hairless mice fed the HR-AD diet. MPLs significantly increased the percentage of covalently bound ω-hydroxy ceramides in the epidermis, and significantly decreased both thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC) mRNA and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) mRNA levels in skin, compared with the HR-AD diet. Furthermore, the MPL diets significantly decreased serum concentrations of immunoglobulin-E, TARC, TSLP, and soluble P-selectin versus the HR-AD diet. Our study showed for the first time that dietary MPLs may modulate epidermal covalently bound ceramides associated with formation of lamellar structures and suppress skin inflammation, resulting in improved skin barrier function. Copyright © 2015 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of Porcine Placenta Extract Ingestion on Ultraviolet B-induced Skin Damage in Hairless Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Ki-Bae; Park, Yooheon; Kim, Jae Hwan; Kim, Jin Man; Suh, Hyung Joo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the potential benefits of an oral supplement containing porcine placenta extract (PPE) on skin parameters related to cutaneous physiology and aging. PPEs were administered orally to hairless mice for 12 wk. The effects of oral PPE administration on skin water-holding capacity and Transepidermal Water Loss (TEWL) were similar to those of oral collagen (HYCPU2) administered as a positive control. Magnified photographs and replica images showed a reduction in UVB-induced wrinkle formation after collagen and PPE treatments. PPE treatments ameliorated the thicker skin surface that results from UVB exposure, based on a histological examination of skin tissue. The groups that were orally administered PPE (0.05%, OL; 0.1%, OH group) showed significantly reduced Matrix Metaloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) mRNA expression levels compared with the UVB control (Con), by 33.5% and 35.2%, respectively. The mRNA expression of another collagen-degrading protein, MMP-9, was also significantly lower in the groups that received oral administration of PPE (especially in the OH group) than in the control group. Additionally, oral administration of PPE significantly upregulated tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) and -2 mRNA expression levels compared with expression levels in the control group (p<0.05). This indicates that orally administered PPE activated the expression of Timp-1 and -2, inhibitors of MMP, which is responsible for collagen degradation in skin. Taken together, we propose that long-term oral administration of PPE might have a beneficial effect with respect to skin photo-aging. PMID:26761856

  13. Androgens Attenuate Vitamin D Production Induced by UVB Irradiation of the Skin of Male Mice by an Enzymatic Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Xue, Yingben; Ying, Lee; Horst, Ronald L; Watson, Gordon; Goltzman, David

    2015-12-01

    Cutaneous exposure to UVB irradiation is an important source of vitamin D. Here, we examined sex-specific differences in cutaneous vitamin D production in mice. Both male and female mice on a vitamin D-deficient diet manifested vitamin D deficiency, with mineral abnormalities, secondary hyperparathyroidism, and osteomalacia. UVB irradiation significantly increased vitamin D levels in the skin of female mice and normalized serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 levels, as well as mineral and skeletal abnormalities. However, in male mice, the vitamin D response to UVB was attenuated and mineral and skeletal abnormalities were not normalized. The vitamin D precursor, 7-dehydrocholesterol (7DHC), was significantly lower in the skin of male than female mice. This reduction was due to local androgen action in the skin as demonstrated by castration studies and skin-specific androgen receptor deletion in male mice, both of which reversed the male phenotype. Local androgen regulation in the skin of the CYP11A1 gene, which encodes a crucial enzyme that metabolizes cholesterol, 7DHC, and vitamin D, appeared to contribute to the gender differences in UVB-induced vitamin D production and to its reversal of vitamin D deficiency. Sex-specific, enzymatically regulated differences in cutaneous production of vitamin D may therefore be of importance to ensure vitamin D sufficiency.

  14. Scarless skin wound healing in FOXN1 deficient (nude) mice is associated with distinctive matrix metalloproteinase expression.

    PubMed

    Gawronska-Kozak, Barbara

    2011-05-01

    Similar to mammalian fetuses FOXN1 deficient (nude) mice are able to restore the structure and integrity of injured skin in a scarless healing process by mechanisms independent of the genetic background. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are required for regular skin wound healing and the distinctive pattern of their expression has been implicated to promote scarless healing. In this study, we analyzed the temporal and spatial expression patterns of these molecules during the incisional skin wounds in adult nude mice. Macroscopic and histological analyses of skin wounds revealed an accelerated wound healing process, minimal granulation tissue formation and markedly diminished scarring in nude mice. Quantitative RT-PCR (Mmp-2, -3, -8, -9, -10, -12, -13, -14 and Timp-1, -2, -3), Western blots (MMP-13) and gelatin zymography (MMP-9) revealed that MMP-9 and MMP-13 showed a unique, bimodal pattern of up-regulation during the early and late phases of wound healing in nude mice. Immunohistochemically MMP-9 and MMP-13 were generally detected in epidermis during the early phase and in dermis during the late (remodeling) phase. Consistent with these in vivo observations, dermal fibroblasts cultured from nude mice expressed higher levels of types I and III collagen, MMP-9 and MMP-13 mRNA levels and higher MMP enzyme activity than wild type controls. Collectively, these finding suggest that the bimodal pattern of MMP-9 and MMP-13 expression during skin repair process in nude mice could be a major component of their ability for scarless healing.

  15. SCARLESS SKIN WOUND HEALING IN FOXN1 DEFICIENT (NUDE) MICE IS ASSOCIATED WITH DISTINCTIVE MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASE EXPRESSION

    PubMed Central

    Gawronska-Kozak, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Similar to mammalian fetuses FOXN1 deficient (nude) mice are able to restore the structure and integrity of injured skin in a scarless healing process by mechanisms independent of the genetic background. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are required for regular skin wound healing and the distinctive pattern of their expression has been implicated to promote scarless healing. In this study, we analyzed the temporal and spatial expression patterns of these molecules during the incisional skin wounds in adult nude mice. Macroscopic and histological analyses of skin wounds revealed an accelerated wound healing process, minimal granulation tissue formation and markedly diminished scarring in nude mice. Quantitative RT-PCR (Mmp-2,-3,-8,-9,-10,-12,-13,-14 and Timp-1, -2, -3), Western blots (MMP-13) and gelatin zymography (MMP-9) revealed that MMP-9 and MMP-13 showed a unique, bimodal pattern of up-regulation during the early and late phases of wound healing in nude mice. Immunohistochemically MMP-9 and MMP-13 were generally detected in epidermis during the early phase and in dermis during the late (remodeling) phase. Consistent with these in vivo observations, dermal fibroblasts cultured from nude mice expressed higher levels of type I and III collagen, MMP-9 and MMP-13 mRNA levels and higher MMP enzyme activity than wild type controls. Collectively, these finding suggest that the bimodal pattern of MMP-9 and MMP-13 expression during skin repair process in nude mice could be a major component of their ability for scarless healing. PMID:21539913

  16. Neurobehavioural defects in adult mice neonatally exposed to nicotine: changes in nicotine-induced behaviour and maze learning performance.

    PubMed

    Ankarberg, E; Fredriksson, A; Eriksson, P

    2001-09-14

    Neonatal exposure to low doses of nicotine has been shown to disturb the development of low-affinity nicotinic binding sites in the cerebral cortex and to elicit a deviant behavioural response to nicotine in adult mice. In this study, 10-day-old male NMRI mice were exposed to one of three different doses of nicotine (3.3, 33, or 66 microg nicotine-base/kg body wt.) s.c. twice daily on 5 consecutive days to study dose-response effects of nicotine on adult spontaneous and nicotine-induced motor behaviour. The nicotine-induced behaviour test revealed a hypoactive response to nicotine in 4-month-old mice neonatally exposed to 33 or 66 microg nicotine-base, whereas the response to nicotine in control animals and mice exposed to 3.3 microg nicotine-base was an increased activity. Learning and memory functions were also investigated in adult animals neonatally exposed to 66 microg nicotine-base/kg body wt. in the same manner, in the Morris water maze and in the Radial arm maze. In the swim maze and the Radial arm maze tests, no significant differences were observed between nicotine-treated and control animals at the age of 4 months. At 7 months, however, a significant difference in performance was evident, indicating a time-response/time-dependent effect. Furthermore, it was shown that in mice exposed neonatally to a nicotine dose known to inhibit the development of the nicotinic low affinity-binding site (LA), the response to nicotine could not cause any increase in spontaneous motor activity as seen in controls.

  17. Enhanced human papillomavirus type 8 oncogene expression levels are crucial for skin tumorigenesis in transgenic mice

    SciTech Connect

    Hufbauer, M.; Lazic, D.; Akguel, B.; Brandsma, J.L.; Pfister, H.; Weissenborn, S.J.

    2010-08-01

    Human papillomavirus 8 (HPV8) is involved in skin cancer development in epidermodysplasia verruciformis patients. Transgenic mice expressing HPV8 early genes (HPV8-CER) developed papillomas, dysplasias and squamous cell carcinomas. UVA/B-irradiation and mechanical wounding of HPV8-CER mouse skin led to prompt papilloma induction in about 3 weeks. The aim of this study was to analyze the kinetics and level of transgene expression in response to skin irritations. Transgene expression was already enhanced 1 to 2 days after UVA/B-irradiation or tape-stripping and maintained during papilloma development. The enhanced transgene expression could be assigned to UVB and not to UVA. Papilloma development was thus always paralleled by an increased transgene expression irrespective of the type of skin irritation. A knock-down of E6 mRNA by tattooing HPV8-E6-specific siRNA led to a delay and a lower incidence of papilloma development. This indicates that the early increase of viral oncogene expression is crucial for induction of papillomatosis.

  18. Inhibition of skin inflammation in mice by diclofenac in vesicular carriers: liposomes, ethosomes and PEVs.

    PubMed

    Caddeo, Carla; Sales, Octavio Diez; Valenti, Donatella; Saurí, Amparo Ruiz; Fadda, Anna Maria; Manconi, Maria

    2013-02-25

    Diclofenac-loaded phospholipid vesicles, namely conventional liposomes, ethosomes and PEVs (penetration enhancer-containing vesicles) were developed and their efficacy in TPA (phorbol ester) induced skin inflammation was examined. Vesicles were made from a cheap and unpurified mixture of phospholipids and diclofenac sodium; Transcutol P and propylene glycol were added to obtain PEVs, and ethanol to produce ethosomes. The structure and lamellar organization of the vesicle bilayer were investigated by transmission electron microscopy and small and wide angle X-ray scattering, as well as the main physico-chemical features. The formulations, along with a diclofenac solution and commercial Voltaren Emulgel, were tested in a comparative trial for anti-inflammatory efficacy on TPA-treated mice dorsal skin. Vesicles were around 100 nm, negatively charged, able to encapsulate diclofenac in good yields, and disclosed different lamellarity, as a function of the formulation composition. Vesicular formulations promoted drug accumulation and reduced the permeation. Administration of vesicular diclofenac on TPA-inflamed skin resulted in marked attenuation of oedema and leucocyte infiltration, especially using PEVs. Histology confirmed the effectiveness of vesicles, since they provided an amelioration of the tissual damage induced by TPA. The proposed approach based on vesicular nanocarriers may hold promising therapeutic value for treating a variety of inflammatory skin disorders. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The Effect of Oliveria Decumbens and Pelargonium Graveolens on Healing of Infected Skin Wounds in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Mahboubi, Mohaddese; Feizabadi, Mohammad Mehdi; Khamechian, Tahereh; Kazempour, Nastaran; Razavi Zadeh, Mohsen; Sasani, Farhang; Bekhradi, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most causative organisms in the skin wound infections. Development of resistant S. aureus to current treatments in individuals with low immunity is a global concern. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of herbal formulation against skin wound infection. METHODS The efficacy of herbal formulation containing Oliveria decumbens and Pelargonium graveolens essential oils was evaluated in comparison to mupirocin against Methicillin Resistant S. aureus (MRSA) related skin wound infection in mice animal model. RESULTS The herbal cream and mupirocin decreased the log CFU by 2.5±0.26 and 2.46±0.32, respectively, while the log CFU of S. aureus from wound skin were 5.9±0.26 and 5.65±0.23 for placebo and control groups, respectively. Moreover, the histological examinations showed that this cream improved the wound healing and increased the collagen deposition and wound contraction. CONCLUSION This natural new formulation with O. decumbens and P. graveolens essential oils could be recommended as a new candidate for wound healing. PMID:27853689

  20. Tannic acid mitigates the DMBA/croton oil-induced skin cancer progression in mice.

    PubMed

    Majed, Ferial; Rashid, Summya; Khan, Abdul Quaiyoom; Nafees, Sana; Ali, Nemat; Ali, Rashid; Khan, Rehan; Hasan, Syed Kazim; Mehdi, Syed Jafar; Sultana, Sarwat

    2015-01-01

    Skin cancer is the most common malignancy in the world and also one of the major causes of death worldwide. The toxic environmental pollutant 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) is a skin-specific carcinogen. Tannic acid (TA) is reported to be effective against various types of chemical-induced toxicities and carcinogenesis as well. In the present study, we have evaluated the therapeutic potential of tannic acid in DMBA + croton oil-induced skin cancer in Swiss albino mice. Protective effect of TA against skin cancer was evaluated in terms of antioxidant enzymes activities, lipid peroxidation, histopathological changes and expression of inflammation and early tumour markers. DMBA + croton oil causes depletion of antioxidant enzymes (p < 0.001) and elevation of early inflammatory and tumour promotional events. TA prevents the DMBA + croton oil-induced toxicity through a protective mechanism that involves the reduction of oxidative stress as well as COX-2, i-NOS, PCNA protein expression and level of proinflammatory cytokine such as IL-6 release at a very significant level (p < 0.001). It could be concluded from our results that TA attenuates DMBA + croton oil-induced tumour promotional potential possibly by inhibiting oxidative and inflammatory responses and acts as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative agent.

  1. Caffeine ameliorates radiation-induced skin reactions in mice but does not influence tumour radiation response.

    PubMed

    Hebbar, S A; Mitra, A K; George, K C; Verma, N C

    2002-03-01

    Intramuscular administration of caffeine at a dose of 80 mg kg(-1) body weight to the gastrocnemius muscles of Swiss mice 5 min prior to local irradiation (35 Gy) of the leg delayed the progression of radiation-induced skin reactions in such animals. While 90% epilation with reddening of the skin was noted in animals treated with radiation alone, animals pretreated with caffeine suffered only partial hair loss with slight reddening of the skin on the 16th and 20th days post-irradiation. Beyond the 28th day, damage scores in irradiated feet for both the groups were similar (score 3) and remained unchanged until the 32nd day and then decreased and disappeared completely in both treatment groups by the 40th day after irradiation. In addition, the effect of caffeine on the radiation response of a mouse fibrosarcoma was investigated. Results showed that intratumoral administration of caffeine at a dose of 80 mg kg(-1) body weight 5 min prior to local exposure of tumours to 10 Gy of 60Co gamma-rays did not influence the response of tumours to radiation. The present study thus showed that although caffeine ameliorated radiation-induced skin reactions in the mouse leg, it did not affect the tumour radiation response, indicating its potential application in cancer radiotherapy.

  2. Immunomodulatory Activities of the Benzoxathiole Derivative BOT-4-One Ameliorate Pathogenic Skin Inflammation in Mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun Gyu; Cho, Nam-Chul; Jeong, Ae Jin; Li, Yu-Chen; Rhie, Sung-Ja; Choi, Jung Sook; Lee, Kwang-Ho; Kim, Youngsoo; Kim, Yong-Nyun; Kim, Myoung-Hwan; Pae, Ae Nim; Ye, Sang-Kyu; Kim, Byung-Hak

    2015-09-30

    T cell-mediated immune responses play an important role in body protection. However, aberrantly activated immune responses are responsible for inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. The regulation of pathological immune responses may be a potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of these diseases. Despite multiple pharmacological properties of benzoxathiole derivatives have been defined, the molecular mechanisms underlying these properties remain to be clarified. Here, we demonstrated the benzoxathiole derivative 2-cyclohexylimino-6-methyl-6,7-dihydro-5H-benzo[1,3]oxathiol-4-one (BOT-4-one) regulated immune responses and ameliorated experimentally induced inflammatory skin diseases both in vitro and in vivo. BOT-4-one inhibited the differentiation of CD4(+) T-cell subsets by regulating the expression and production of T cell lineage-specific master transcription factors and cytokines and activating the signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) proteins. In addition, BOT-4-one inhibited T-cell receptor (TCR)-mediated Akt and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) signaling. Topical application of BOT-4-one ameliorated experimentally induced inflammatory skin diseases in mice models such as TNCB-induced contact and atopic dermatitis and IL-23-induced psoriasis-like skin inflammation. Our study demonstrated that BOT-4-one ameliorates inflammatory skin diseases by suppressing the pathogenic CD4(+) T cell differentiation and the overall immune responses.Journal of Investigative Dermatology accepted article preview online, 30 September 2015. doi:10.1038/jid.2015.384.

  3. Immunomodulatory Activities of the Benzoxathiole Derivative BOT-4-One Ameliorate Pathogenic Skin Inflammation in Mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun Gyu; Cho, Nam-Chul; Jeong, Ae Jin; Li, Yu-Chen; Rhie, Sung-Ja; Choi, Jung Sook; Lee, Kwang-Ho; Kim, Youngsoo; Kim, Yong-Nyun; Kim, Myoung-Hwan; Pae, Ae Nim; Ye, Sang-Kyu; Kim, Byung-Hak

    2016-01-01

    T-cell-mediated immune responses play an important role in body protection. However, aberrantly activated immune responses are responsible for inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. The regulation of pathologic immune responses may be a potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of these diseases. Despite that multiple pharmacologic properties of benzoxathiole derivatives have been defined, the molecular mechanisms underlying these properties remain to be clarified. Here, we demonstrated the benzoxathiole derivative 2-cyclohexylimino-6-methyl-6,7-dihydro-5H-benzo[1,3]oxathiol-4-one (BOT-4-one) regulated immune responses and ameliorated experimentally induced inflammatory skin diseases both in vitro and in vivo. BOT-4-one inhibited the differentiation of CD4(+) T-cell subsets by regulating the expression and production of T-cell lineage-specific master transcription factors and cytokines and activating the signal transducer and activator of transcription proteins. In addition, BOT-4-one inhibited TCR-mediated Akt and NF-κB signaling. Topical application of BOT-4-one ameliorated experimentally induced inflammatory skin diseases in mice models such as 2,4,6-trinitrochlorobenzene-induced contact and atopic dermatitis and IL-23-induced psoriasis-like skin inflammation. Our study demonstrated that BOT-4-one ameliorates inflammatory skin diseases by suppressing the pathogenic CD4(+) T cell differentiation and overall immune responses.

  4. A β-lactone-based antivirulence drug ameliorates Staphylococcus aureus skin infections in mice.

    PubMed

    Weinandy, Franziska; Lorenz-Baath, Katrin; Korotkov, Vadim S; Böttcher, Thomas; Sethi, Shneh; Chakraborty, Trinad; Sieber, Stephan A

    2014-04-01

    Skin infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus are a major clinical concern, especially if they are caused by multi-resistant strains. In these cases, a spread into deeper soft tissues or the bloodstream results in life-threatening conditions that are difficult to treat by conventional antibiotics. Previous in vitro experiments with a small β-lactone-based molecule demonstrated that antibiotic-sensitive and -resistant S. aureus strains are effectively disarmed in their virulence and corresponding pathogenicity. In this work, in vivo mouse studies show that this methodology is effective for the treatment of skin abscesses in mice. A single dose of the β-lactone significantly decreased abscess size even when applied 6 h post-infection. Although the molecule requires pharmacological optimization (improved stability, for example), this study emphasizes the potential value of antivirulence therapies. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Chemopreventive effects of cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum L.) on chemically induced skin carcinogenesis in Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Qiblawi, Samir; Al-Hazimi, Awdah; Al-Mogbel, Mohammed; Hossain, Ashfaque; Bagchi, Debasis

    2012-06-01

    The chemopreventive potential of cardamom was evaluated on 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-initiated and croton oil-promoted mouse skin papillomagenesis. A significant reduction in the values of tumor incidence, tumor burden, and tumor yield and the cumulative number of papillomas was observed in mice treated orally with 0.5 mg of cardamom powder in suspension continuously at pre-, peri-, and post-initiational stages of papillomagenesis compared with the control group. The average weight and diameter of tumors recorded were also comparatively lower in the cardamom-treated mouse group. Treatment of cardamom suspension by oral gavage for 15 days resulted in a significant decrease in the lipid peroxidation level of the liver (P < .01). In addition, the reduced glutathione level was significantly elevated in comparison with the control group (P < .05) following cardamom suspension treatment. Taken together, these findings indicate the potential of cardamom as a chemopreventive agent against two-stage skin cancer.

  6. Cardiovascular protection by ezetimibe and influence on oxidative stress in mice exposed to intermittent hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Kato, Ryuji; Nishioka, Satoshi; Nomura, Atsuo; Ijiri, Yoshio; Miyamura, Masatoshi; Ukimura, Akira; Okada, Yoshikatsu; Kitaura, Yasushi; Hayashi, Tetsuya

    2015-10-15

    Ezetimibe is as an inhibitor of NPC1L1 protein, which has a key role in cholesterol absorption. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of ezetimibe on the plasma lipid profile, atherosclerotic lesions, and cardiomyocyte ultrastructure in an animal model of atherosclerosis with intermittent hypoxia. Apolipoprotein E-knockout mice received a high-fat diet for 30 days. Then animals were exposed to intermittent hypoxia for 10 days or were maintained under normoxic conditions. In the ezetimibe group, ezetimibe (5 mg/kg/day) was added to the diet. Under normoxic conditions, the total cholesterol level was significantly lower in the ezetimibe group (63.6±6.6 mg/dl) than in the control group (116.3±16.9 mg/dl, P<0.001). Intermittent hypoxia accelerated atherosclerosis associated with increased superoxide production, which also caused degeneration of cardiomyocytes, mitochondrial abnormalities, and interstitial fibrosis. Compared with the control group, the ezetimibe group showed significantly less advanced atherosclerotic lesions and lower superoxide production in the thoracic aorta, as well as reduced oxidative stress, preservation of cardiomyocyte ultrastructure, and reduced interstitial fibrosis in the left ventricular myocardium. In conclusion, ezetimibe not only reduces total cholesterol, but also prevents the development of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular events due to intermittent hypoxia at least partly through suppression of oxidative stress.

  7. Homogeneous static magnetic field of different orientation induces biological changes in subacutely exposed mice.

    PubMed

    Milovanovich, Ivan D; Ćirković, Saša; De Luka, Silvio R; Djordjevich, Drago M; Ilić, Andjelija Ž; Popović, Tamara; Arsić, Aleksandra; Obradović, Danilo D; Oprić, Dejan; Ristić-Djurović, Jasna L; Trbovich, Alexander M

    2016-01-01

    It has been shown that static magnetic field (SMF) of moderate intensity produces considerable impact on biological systems. SMF can be homogeneous or inhomogeneous. In many studies, inhomogeneous SMF was employed. Aware that inhomogeneous SMF could result in experimental variability, we investigated the influence of a vertical homogeneous SMF of different orientation. Male Swiss-Webster 9- to 10-week-old mice were subacutely exposed to upward- and downward-oriented SMF of 128 mT generated by a cyclotron for 1 h/day during a 5-day period. We found that SMF affected various organs and that these effects were, to some degree, dependent on SMF orientation. Both upward- and downward-oriented SMF caused a reduction in the amount of total white blood cells (WBC) and lymphocytes in serum, a decrease of granulocytes in the spleen, kidney inflammation, and an increase in the amount of high-density lipoprotein (HDL). In addition, upward-oriented SMF caused brain edema and increased spleen cellularity. In contrast, downward-oriented SMF induced liver inflammation and a decrease in the amount of serum granulocytes. These effects might represent a specific redistribution of pro-inflammatory cells in blood and among various organs. It appears that homogeneous SMF of 128 mT affected specific organs in the body, rather than simultaneously and equally influencing the entire body system.

  8. Hepatic Transcriptome Responses in Mice (Mus musculus) Exposed to the Nafion Membrane and Its Combustion Products

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Mingbao; Qu, Ruijuan; Habteselassie, Mussie; Wu, Jun; Yang, Shaogui; Sun, Ping; Huang, Qingguo; Wang, Zunyao

    2015-01-01

    Nafion 117 membrane (N117), an important polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM), has been widely used for numerous chemical technologies. Despite its increasing production and use, the toxicity data for N117 and its combustion products remain lacking. Toxicity studies are necessary to avoid problems related to waste disposal in landfills and incineration that may arise. In this study, we investigated the histopathological alterations, oxidative stress biomarker responses, and transcriptome profiles in the liver of male mice exposed to N117 and its combustion products for 24 days. An ion-chromatography system and liquid chromatography system coupled to a hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry were used to analyze the chemical compositions of these combustion products. The transcriptomics analysis identified several significantly altered molecular pathways, including the metabolism of xenobiotics, carbohydrates and lipids; signal transduction; cellular processes; immune system; and signaling molecules and interaction. These studies provide preliminary data for the potential toxicity of N117 and its combustion products on living organisms and may fill the information gaps in the toxicity databases for the currently used PEMs. PMID:26057616

  9. Induction of apoptosis by calcium D-glucarate in 7,12-dimethyl benz [a] anthracene-exposed mouse skin.

    PubMed

    Singh, Jaya; Gupta, Krishna P

    2007-01-01

    Calcium glucarate (Cag), a naturally occurring nontoxic compound, suppresses the DMBA-induced tumor development in mouse skin. In the process of understanding the mechanisms of tumor suppression by Cag, we investigated the effect of topical application of Cag on selective and critical events of apoptotic pathway in DMBA-exposed mouse epidermis. Varied doses of DMBA or Cag were used for the study. DMBA had an inhibitory effect on proteases in general and on caspases in particular. Cag tried to reverse the inhibitory effect of DMBA on 3, 8, or 9 caspase in a dose-dependent manner. Cag inhibited activity of Poly ADP-ribose polymerase enzyme, a substrate of caspses, after DMBA exposure. As indicated by western blotting, Cag treatment also inhibited PARP expression induced by DMBA at the level of protein. Cag induced the DMBA-inhibited Ca++/Mg++-dependent endonuclease, an enzyme responsible for the DNA fragmentation during apoptosis. DMBA induced the expression of mutant-p53 and Bcl-2. This induced expression of proteins was reversed when Cag was given along with DMBA. Cag showed a dose-dependent inhibition of DMBA-induced mutant-p53 expression. Similarly Bcl-2 overexpression by DMBA was also inhibited by topical treatment of Cag when given along with DMBA. Inhibition of mutant-p53 and Bcl-2 expression by Cag in DMBA-exposed mouse skin might contribute to the apoptogenic effect possibly exerted by Cag while suppressing the tumor development. The study indicates that Cag induces apoptosis in mouse epidermis, a possible mechanism for tumor suppression, and thus could be considered a promising anticancer agent.

  10. Inhibitory effects of voluntary running wheel exercise on UVB-induced skin carcinogenesis in SKH-1 mice.

    PubMed

    Michna, Laura; Wagner, George C; Lou, You-Rong; Xie, Jian-Guo; Peng, Qing-Yun; Lin, Yong; Carlson, Kirsten; Shih, Weichung Joe; Conney, Allan H; Lu, Yao-Ping

    2006-10-01

    Earlier studies showed that oral administration of green tea or caffeine to SKH-1 mice inhibited ultraviolet B light (UVB)-induced skin carcinogenesis, decreased dermal fat thickness and increased locomotor activity. In the present study, the effects of voluntary running wheel exercise on thickness of dermal fat as well as on UVB-induced tumorigenesis in SKH-1 mice were studied in UVB-initiated high-risk and UVB-induced complete carcinogenesis models. In the high-risk model, animals were exposed to UVB (30 mJ/cm(2)) 3 times/week for 16 weeks. For 14 weeks subsequent to UVB exposure, half of the animals had access to running wheels in their cages whereas the other half did not. In the complete carcinogenesis model, animals were exposed to UVB (30 mJ/cm(2)) 2 times/week for 33 weeks. From the beginning, half of the animals had access to running wheels whereas the other half did not. At the conclusion of each study, body weights were not different between groups, although animals with running wheels consumed significantly more food and water than animals without running wheels. In addition, animals with running wheels had decreases in parametrial fat pad weight and thickness of the dermal fat layer. In both UVB-initiated high-risk and complete carcinogenesis models, voluntary running wheel exercise delayed the appearance of tumors, decreased the number of tumors per mouse and decreased tumor volume per mouse. Histopathology studies revealed that running wheel exercise decreased the number of non-malignant tumors (primarily keratoacanthomas) by 34% and total tumors per mouse by 32% in both models, and running wheel exercise decreased the formation of squamous cell carcinomas in the UVB-induced complete carcinogenesis model by 27%. In addition, the size of keratoacanthomas and squamous cell carcinomas were decreased substantially in both models. The effects described here indicate that voluntary running wheel exercise inhibits UVB-induced skin tumorigenesis and may also

  11. Microscopic examination of skin in native and nonnative fish from Lake Tahoe exposed to ultraviolet radiation and fluoranthene.

    PubMed

    Gevertz, Amanda K; Oris, James T

    2014-02-01

    The presence of nonnative species in Lake Tahoe (CA/NV), USA has been an ongoing concern for many decades, and the management of these species calls for an understanding of their ability to cope with the Lake's stressors and for an understanding of their potential to out-compete and reduce the populations of native species. Decreasing levels of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) due to eutrophication and increasing levels of phototoxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) due to recreational activities may combine to affect the relative ability of native versus nonnative fish species to survive in the lake. Following a series of toxicity tests which exposed larvae of the native Lahontan redside minnow (Richardsonius egregius) and the nonnative warm-water bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus) to UVR and FLU, the occurrence of skin damage and/or physiologic defense mechanisms were studied using multiple microscopic techniques. The native minnow appeared to exhibit fewer instances of skin damage and increased instances of cellular coping mechanisms. This study supports the results of previous work conducted by the authors, who determined that the native redside minnow is the more tolerant of the two species, and that setting and adhering to a water quality standard for UVR transparency may aid in preventing the spread of the less tolerant nonnative bluegill and similar warm-water species.

  12. Bee venom acupuncture alleviates trimellitic anhydride-induced atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions in mice.

    PubMed

    Sur, Bongjun; Lee, Bombi; Yeom, Mijung; Hong, Ju-Hee; Kwon, Sunoh; Kim, Seung-Tae; Lee, Hyang Sook; Park, Hi-Joon; Lee, Hyejung; Hahm, Dae-Hyun

    2016-01-29

    Bee venom acupuncture (BVA), a novel type of acupuncture therapy in which purified bee venom is injected into the specific acupuncture point on the diseased part of the body, is used primarily for relieving pain and other musculoskeletal symptoms. In the present study, therapeutic potential of BVA to improve atopic dermatitis, a representative allergic dysfunction, was evaluated in the mouse model of trimellitic anhydride (TMA)-induced skin impairment. Mice were treated with 5% TMA on the dorsal flank for sensitization and subsequently treated with 2% TMA on the dorsum of both ears for an additional 12 days after a 3-day interval. From the 7(th) day of 2% TMA treatment, bilateral subcutaneous injection of BV (BV, 0.3 mg/kg) was performed daily at BL40 acupuncture points (located behind the knee) 1 h before 2% TMA treatment for 5 days. BVA treatment markedly inhibited the expression levels of both T helper cell type 1 (Th1) and Th2 cytokines in ear skin and lymph nodes of TMA-treated mice. Clinical features of AD-like symptoms such as ear skin symptom severity and thickness, inflammation, and lymph node weight were significantly alleviated by BV treatment. BV treatment also inhibited the proliferation and infiltration of T cells, the production of Th1 and Th2 cytokines, and the synthesis of interleukin (IL)-4 and immunoglobulin E (IgE)-typical allergic Th2 responses in blood. The inhibitory effect of BVA was more pronounced at BL40 acupoint than non-acupuncture point located at the base of the tail. These results indicate that BV injection at specific acupuncture points effectively alleviates AD-like skin lesions by inhibiting inflammatory and allergic responses in a TMA-induced contact hypersensitivity mouse model.

  13. Active immunization with an octa-valent Staphylococcus aureus antigen mixture in models of S. aureus bacteremia and skin infection in mice.

    PubMed

    van den Berg, Sanne; Koedijk, Dennis G A M; Back, Jaap Willem; Neef, Jolanda; Dreisbach, Annette; van Dijl, Jan Maarten; Bakker-Woudenberg, Irma A J M; Buist, Girbe

    2015-01-01

    Proteomic studies with different Staphylococcus aureus isolates have shown that the cell surface-exposed and secreted proteins IsaA, LytM, Nuc, the propeptide of Atl (pro-Atl) and four phenol-soluble modulins α (PSMα) are invariantly produced by this pathogen. Therefore the present study was aimed at investigating whether these proteins can be used for active immunization against S. aureus infection in mouse models of bacteremia and skin infection. To this end, recombinant His-tagged fusions of IsaA, LytM, Nuc and pro-Atl were isolated from Lactococcus lactis or Escherichia coli, while the PSMα1-4 peptides were chemically synthesized. Importantly, patients colonized by S. aureus showed significant immunoglobulin G (IgG) responses against all eight antigens. BALB/cBYJ mice were immunized subcutaneously with a mixture of the antigens at day one (5 μg each), and boosted twice (25 μg of each antigen) with 28 days interval. This resulted in high IgG responses against all antigens although the response against pro-Atl was around one log lower compared to the other antigens. Compared to placebo-immunized mice, immunization with the octa-valent antigen mixture did not reduce the S. aureus isolate P load in blood, lungs, spleen, liver, and kidneys in a bacteremia model in which the animals were challenged for 14 days with a primary load of 3 × 10(5) CFU. Discomfort scores and animal survival rates over 14 days did not differ between immunized mice and placebo-immunized mice upon bacteremia with S. aureus USA300 (6 × 10(5) CFU). In addition, this immunization did not reduce the S. aureus isolate P load in mice with skin infection. These results show that the target antigens are immunogenic in both humans and mice, but in the used animal models do not result in protection against S. aureus infection.

  14. Active Immunization with an Octa-Valent Staphylococcus aureus Antigen Mixture in Models of S. aureus Bacteremia and Skin Infection in Mice

    PubMed Central

    van den Berg, Sanne; Koedijk, Dennis G. A. M.; Back, Jaap Willem; Neef, Jolanda; Dreisbach, Annette; van Dijl, Jan Maarten; Bakker-Woudenberg, Irma A. J. M.; Buist, Girbe

    2015-01-01

    Proteomic studies with different Staphylococcus aureus isolates have shown that the cell surface-exposed and secreted proteins IsaA, LytM, Nuc, the propeptide of Atl (pro-Atl) and four phenol-soluble modulins α (PSMα) are invariantly produced by this pathogen. Therefore the present study was aimed at investigating whether these proteins can be used for active immunization against S. aureus infection in mouse models of bacteremia and skin infection. To this end, recombinant His-tagged fusions of IsaA, LytM, Nuc and pro-Atl were isolated from Lactococcus lactis or Escherichia coli, while the PSMα1-4 peptides were chemically synthesized. Importantly, patients colonized by S. aureus showed significant immunoglobulin G (IgG) responses against all eight antigens. BALB/cBYJ mice were immunized subcutaneously with a mixture of the antigens at day one (5 μg each), and boosted twice (25 μg of each antigen) with 28 days interval. This resulted in high IgG responses against all antigens although the response against pro-Atl was around one log lower compared to the other antigens. Compared to placebo-immunized mice, immunization with the octa-valent antigen mixture did not reduce the S. aureus isolate P load in blood, lungs, spleen, liver, and kidneys in a bacteremia model in which the animals were challenged for 14 days with a primary load of 3 × 105 CFU. Discomfort scores and animal survival rates over 14 days did not differ between immunized mice and placebo-immunized mice upon bacteremia with S. aureus USA300 (6 × 105 CFU). In addition, this immunization did not reduce the S. aureus isolate P load in mice with skin infection. These results show that the target antigens are immunogenic in both humans and mice, but in the used animal models do not result in protection against S. aureus infection. PMID:25710376

  15. Staphylococcus aureus colonization of teat skin as affected by postmilking teat treatment when exposed to cold and windy conditions.

    PubMed

    Fox, L K; Norell, R J

    1994-08-01

    Study 1 was conducted to determine whether postmilking teat treatment with ointment before exposure to cold and wind resulted in better skin health than standard teat treatment. Teat treatments tested were 1% I2 and 10% glycerin, ointment with 1% chloroxylenol, ointment with .3% 8-hydroxyquinoline sulfate, and no treatment (control). Teats were treated 7 d prior to chapping. A broth culture of Staphylococcus aureus was applied once to teats after chapping was established. Treatments were applied after milking and before sample collection for 11 d following S. aureus application. Milk samples were collected aseptically, teat skin swabbing solutions were collected, and teat condition was scored. Cows were exposed to ambient winter conditions, and a wind velocity of 152.4 m/min was applied to the mammary gland surface for 15 min immediately postmilking. Ointment and control teats had significantly better skin condition than teats treated with I2 solution. Colonization of S. aureus was greatest on ointment treated teats. Study 2 was conducted to determine whether teat condition of cows receiving postmilking I2 solution treatments would be improved if teats were blotted dry before exposure to wind and cold ambient conditions. Two mammary quarters of each cow received I2 solution treatment of study 1, but teats were blotted dry prior to exit from the milking parlor. No treatment was applied to the other teats. Teat condition scores were similar between treatments, but S. aureus colonization was significantly greater on control teats. Results indicate a possible disadvantage to treating teats with ointments after milking, as evidenced by increased S. aureus colonization.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Immuno- and gene expression analysis of EGFR and Nestin during mice skin development.

    PubMed

    Falodah, Fawaz Adnan; Al-Karim, Saleh

    2016-06-01

    Skin stem cell populations reside in the adult hair follicle, sebaceous gland, dermis and epidermis. However, the origin of most of the stem cell populations found in the adult epidermis is still unknown. Far more unknown is the embryonic origin of other stem cells that populate the other layers of this tissue. The main objectives of the present study were to identify the precise anatomical localization of stem cells in mice during skin developing; and to determine the expression levels by using immuno- and gene expression analysis. In this comparative cross sectional study, six ages been chosen and divided into: embryonic days (E12.5, E14.5 and E19.5) and litter days (L7, L14 and L19). Skin were removed from the back side and processed to assess both immuno- and gene-expression of EGFR and Nestin surface antigen markers. Data of the different studied age groups was compared using the SPSS software. EGFR was mainly expressed in the outer root sheath (ORS), in basal and, to a lesser extent, in suprabasal keratinocytes and tend to lie where the dermis comes closest to the skin surface, while Nestin expressed throughout the dermis in the early embryo, but it is subsequently restricted to the follicular connective tissue sheaths later in development and to hair follicles after birth. Immunoexpression analysis showed a strong EGFR expression in all group ages except E12.5 which recorded as moderate, while Nestin showed strong expression level for all embryonic stages, while in the litters it was moderate. The qRT-PCR results were consistent with those of the immunohistochemical study. The Pearson correlation analyze present a correlation between the cases of study with age (p≤0.01), which indicated to the effect of age to mice development. EGFR and Nestin showed to have vital role during mice development, and considered to be suitable markers for the study of skin stem cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Carcinogenesis of Nitrated Toluenes and Benzenes Skin and Lung Tumor Assays in Mice

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-05-01

    SLAGA ET AL. NAY 85 ORNL -TOX-82-1 UNCLASSIFIED DOE-IRG-40-i~i6-79 F/G 6/29 N LmhmhhII -4I LI 1. .6 I1.8 111jj 12511 .4 I1 . MICROCOPY RESOLUTION TEST...November 1979--March 1983 SKIN AND LUNG TUMOR ASSAYS IN MICE 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER - ORNL TOX 82-i 7. AUTI4OR(a) S. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER...mouse Ure than UNCLASSIFIED SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGErIYIon Data Ento.e) QI AD ORNL /TM-9645 P CARCINOGENESIS OF NITRATED TOLUENES AND

  18. Ethyl cellulose nanocarriers and nanocrystals differentially deliver dexamethasone into intact, tape-stripped or sodium lauryl sulfate-exposed ex vivo human skin - assessment by intradermal microdialysis and extraction from the different skin layers.

    PubMed

    Döge, Nadine; Hönzke, Stefan; Schumacher, Fabian; Balzus, Benjamin; Colombo, Miriam; Hadam, Sabrina; Rancan, Fiorenza; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike; Schäfer-Korting, Monika; Schindler, Anke; Rühl, Eckart; Skov, Per Stahl; Church, Martin K; Hedtrich, Sarah; Kleuser, Burkhard; Bodmeier, Roland; Vogt, Annika

    2016-11-28

    Understanding penetration not only in intact, but also in lesional skin with impaired skin barrier function is important, in order to explore the surplus value of nanoparticle-based drug delivery for anti-inflammatory dermatotherapy. Herein, short-term ex vivo cultures of (i) intact human skin, (ii) skin pretreated with tape-strippings and (iii) skin pre-exposed to sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) were used to assess the penetration of dexamethasone (Dex). Intradermal microdialysis was utilized for up to 24h after drug application as commercial cream, nanocrystals or ethyl cellulose nanocarriers applied at the therapeutic concentration of 0.05%, respectively. In addition, Dex was assessed in culture media and extracts from stratum corneum, epidermis and dermis after 24h, and the results were compared to those in heat-separated split skin from studies in Franz diffusion cells. Providing fast drug release, nanocrystals significantly accelerated the penetration of Dex. In contrast to the application of cream and ethyl cellulose nanocarriers, Dex was already detectable in eluates after 6h when applying nanocrystals on intact skin. Disruption of the skin barrier further accelerated and enhanced the penetration. Encapsulation in ethyl cellulose nanocarriers delayed Dex penetration. Interestingly, for all formulations highly increased concentrations in the dialysate were observed in tape-stripped skin, whereas the extent of enhancement was less in SLS-exposed skin. The results were confirmed in tissue extracts and were in line with the predictions made by in vitro release studies and ex vivo Franz diffusion cell experiments. The use of 45kDa probes further enabled the collection of inflammatory cytokines. However, the estimation of glucocorticoid efficacy by Interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 analysis was limited due to the trauma induced by the probe insertion. Ex vivo intradermal microdialysis combined with culture media analysis provides an effective, skin-sparing method for

  19. Transcriptome Analysis of Skin from SMP30/GNL Knockout Mice Reveals the Effect of Ascorbic Acid Deficiency on Skin and Hair.

    PubMed

    Wakame, Koji; Komatsu, Ken-Ichi; Nakata, Akifumi; Sato, Keisuke; Takaguri, Akira; Masutomi, Hirofumi; Nagashima, Takayuki; Uchiyama, Hironobu

    2017-01-01

    Senescence marker protein-30/gluconolactonase knockout mice (SMP-30/GNL-KO) are a very useful model for clarifying the involvement of vitamin C (VC) in aging-related diseases. In this study, the effects of VC deficiency on skin and hair growth were investigated using SMP-30/GNL-KO mice by RNA sequencing. SMP-30/GNL-KO mice were given water containing 1.5 g/l VC until up to 8 weeks after birth to maintain a VC concentration in their organs and plasma equivalent to that in wild-type mice. The mice were then divided into two groups: a VC(+) group, where VC was administered, and a VC(-) group, where VC was not administered. Skin samples were collected at 4 and 8 weeks after the treatment. RNA was extracted from each skin sample, followed by cDNA synthesis and RNA-seq. In addition, hair growth was compared between the VC(-) and VC(+) groups after shaving. Skin samples were collected from the shaved area for histological examination by hematoxylin & eosin (HE) staining. RNA-seq revealed that there were 1,736 (FDR<0.001) differentially expressed genes in the VC(-) and VC(+) groups. From the functional analysis of the differentially expressed genes in the VC(-) and VC(+) groups, predicted functionalities including cell death and cytotoxicity increased in the VC(+) group. Furthermore, it was predicted that the difference in hair growth between the VC(-) and VC(+) groups was caused by the expression of genes including keratin-related genes and the Sonic hedgehog gene. It was confirmed that hair growth was significantly promoted; hair growth from hair papilla cells was also confirmed by HE staining of the shaved backs of SMP-30/GNL-KO mice in the VC(+) group. RNA-seq of the skin from VC-deficient mice showed the effects of VC deficiency on the expression of genes involved in cell growth and the hair cycle. Visual inspection suggested that changes in the expression of the genes are involved in delaying hair growth in the VC(-