Science.gov

Sample records for micro milling operations

  1. Analyzing the performance of diamond-coated micro end mills.

    SciTech Connect

    Torres, C. D.; Heaney, P. J.; Sumant, A. V.; Hamilton, M. A.; Carpick, R. W.; Pfefferkorn, F. E.; Univ. of Wisconsin at Madison; Univ. of Pennsylvania

    2009-06-01

    A method is presented to improve the tool life and cutting performance of 300 {micro}m diameter tungsten carbide (WC) micro end mills by applying thin (<300 nm) fine-grained diamond (FGD) and nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) coatings using the hot-filament chemical vapor deposition (HF-CVD) process. The performance of the diamond-coated tools has been evaluated by comparing their performance in dry slot milling of 6061-T6 aluminum against uncoated WC micro end mills. Tool wear, coating integrity, and chip morphology were characterized using SEM and white light interferometry. The initial test results show a dramatic improvement in the tool integrity (i.e., corners not breaking off), a lower wear rate, no observable adhesion of aluminum to the diamond-coated tool, and a significant reduction in the cutting forces (>50%). Reduction of the cutting forces is attributed to the low friction and adhesion of the diamond coating. However, approximately 80% of the tools coated with the larger FGD coatings failed during testing due to delamination. Additional machining benefits were attained for the NCD films, which was obtained by using a higher nucleation density seeding process for diamond growth. This process allowed for thinner, smaller grained diamond coatings to be deposited on the micro end mills, and enabled continued operation of the tool even after the integrity of the diamond coating had been compromised. As opposed to the FGD-coated end mills, only 40% of the NCD-tools experienced delamination issues.

  2. A hybrid analytical model for the transverse vibration response of a micro-end mill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustapha, K. B.; Zhong, Z. W.

    2013-01-01

    As a result of its detrimental effect on tool life and product quality, vibration analyses are crucial if the full potential of micro-milling operation is to be attained. In this paper, a hybrid analytical model (HAM) developed for estimating the transverse response of a micro-end mill is presented. The HAM is a combination of discrete and distributed structural elements. The discrete elements account for the stiffness and damping coefficients of the machining system, while the distributed elements idealize the geometrical representation of the micro-end mill with a novel model of the micro-flute. A number of slot micro-end milling operations, carefully designed with the Taguchi method of design of experiments, are carried out to examine the accuracy of the HAM. The comparison of the response profile from the experiment and the developed model shows reasonably close similarity. The influence of the helix angle is found to be far greater on the response of the micro-end mill than the other geometric variables. By making use of the root mean square of the response, it is further observed that the representation of the micro-flute of the micro-end mill with a less accurate model deteriorates the prediction of the HAM.

  3. Advanced image analysis verifies geometry performance of micro-milling systems.

    PubMed

    Daemi, Bita; Ekberg, Peter; Mattsson, Lars

    2017-04-01

    Accurate dimensional measurement of micro-milled items is a challenge and machine specifications do not include operational parameters in the workshop. Therefore, a verification test that shows the machine's overall geometrical performance over its working area would help machine users in the assessment and adjustment of their equipment. In this study, we present an optical technique capable of finding micro-milled features at submicron uncertainty over working areas >10  cm2. The technique relies on an ultra-precision measurement microscope combined with advanced image analysis to get the center of gravity of milled cross-shaped features at subpixel levels. Special algorithms had to be developed to handle the disturbing influence of burr and milling marks. The results show repeatability, reproducibility, and axis straightness for three micro-milling facilities and also discovered an unknown 2 μm amplitude undulation in one of them.

  4. Fabrication of micro-lens array on convex surface by meaning of micro-milling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Peng; Du, Yunlong; Wang, Bo; Shan, Debin

    2014-08-01

    In order to develop the application of the micro-milling technology, and to fabricate ultra-precision optical surface with complex microstructure, in this paper, the primary experimental research on micro-milling complex microstructure array is carried out. A complex microstructure array surface with vary parameters is designed, and the mathematic model of the surface is set up and simulated. For the fabrication of the designed microstructure array surface, a micro three-axis ultra-precision milling machine tool is developed, aerostatic guideway drove directly by linear motor is adopted in order to guarantee the enough stiffness of the machine, and novel numerical control strategy with linear encoders of 5nm resolution used as the feedback of the control system is employed to ensure the extremely high motion control accuracy. With the help of CAD/CAM technology, convex micro lens array on convex spherical surface with different scales on material of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and pure copper is fabricated using micro tungsten carbide ball end milling tool based on the ultra-precision micro-milling machine. Excellent nanometer-level micro-movement performance of the axis is proved by motion control experiment. The fabrication is nearly as the same as the design, the characteristic scale of the microstructure is less than 200μm and the accuracy is better than 1μm. It prove that ultra-precision micro-milling technology based on micro ultra-precision machine tool is a suitable and optional method for micro manufacture of microstructure array surface on different kinds of materials, and with the development of micro milling cutter, ultraprecision micro-milling complex microstructure surface will be achieved in future.

  5. Operating System For Numerically Controlled Milling Machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, R. B.

    1992-01-01

    OPMILL program is operating system for Kearney and Trecker milling machine providing fast easy way to program manufacture of machine parts with IBM-compatible personal computer. Gives machinist "equation plotter" feature, which plots equations that define movements and converts equations to milling-machine-controlling program moving cutter along defined path. System includes tool-manager software handling up to 25 tools and automatically adjusts to account for each tool. Developed on IBM PS/2 computer running DOS 3.3 with 1 MB of random-access memory.

  6. 18. OPERATOR'S SIDE OF 48' MILL STAND SHOWING DIALS, VERTICAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. OPERATOR'S SIDE OF 48' MILL STAND SHOWING DIALS, VERTICAL ROLL SCREWDOWN, AND VIEW THROUGH HOUSING TO PINION STAND. Martin Stupich, Photographer, 1989. - U.S. Steel Homestead Works, 48" Plate Mill, Along Monongahela River, Homestead, Allegheny County, PA

  7. Micro Slot Generation by μ-ED Milling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dave, H. K.; Mayanak, M. K.; Rajpurohit, S. R.; Mathai, V. J.

    2016-08-01

    Micro electro discharge machining is one of the most widely used advanced micro machining technique owing to its capability to fabricate micro features on any electrically conductive materials irrespective of its material properties. Despite its wide acceptability, the process is always adversely affected by issues like wear that occurred on the tool electrode, which results into generation of inaccurate features. Micro ED milling, a process variant in which the tool electrode simultaneously rotated and scanned during machining, is reported to have high process efficiency for generation of 3D complicated shapes and features with relatively less electrode wear intensity. In the present study an attempt has been made to study the effect of two process parameters viz. capacitance and scanning speed of tool electrode on end wear that occurs on the tool electrode and overcut of micro slots generated by micro ED milling. The experiment has been conducted on Al 1100 alloy with tungsten electrode having diameter of 300 μm. Results suggest that wear on the tool electrode and overcut of the micro features generated are highly influenced by the level of the capacitance employed during machining. For the parameter usage employed for present study however, no significant effect of variation of scanning speed has been observed on both responses.

  8. Fabrication of Biochips with Micro Fluidic Channels by Micro End-milling and Powder Blasting.

    PubMed

    Yun, Dae Jin; Seo, Tae Il; Park, Dong Sam

    2008-02-22

    For microfabrications of biochips with micro fluidic channels, a large number of microfabrication techniques based on silicon or glass-based Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) technologies were proposed in the last decade. In recent years, for low cost and mass production, polymer-based microfabrication techniques by microinjection molding and micro hot embossing have been proposed. These techniques, which require a proper photoresist, mask, UV light exposure, developing, and electroplating as a preprocess, are considered to have some problems. In this study, we propose a new microfabrication technology which consists of micro end-milling and powder blasting. This technique could be directly applied to fabricate the metal mold without any preprocesses. The metal mold with micro-channels is machined by micro end-milling, and then, burrs generated in the end-milling process are removed by powder blasting. From the experimental results, micro end-milling combined with powder blasting could be applied effectively for fabrication of the injection mold of biochips with micro fluidic channels.

  9. Recent Developments with Degree Mills: Accreditation Mills and Counterfeit Diploma and Transcript Operations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ezell, Allen

    2009-01-01

    This article updates developments regarding Diploma Mills, Accreditation Mills, and Counterfeit Diploma & Transcript operations. It will cover identification & prosecution, to new entities now appearing in these growth industries with annual revenues over one billion dollars. This article will address federal and state laws, a new Federal…

  10. Diamond micro-milling of lithium niobate for sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, Dehong; Jie Choong, Zi; Shi, Yilun; Hedley, John; Zhao, Yan

    2016-09-01

    Lithium niobate (LiNbO3) is a crystalline material which is widely applied in surface acoustic wave, microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), and optical devices, owing to its superior physical, optical, and electronic properties. Due to its low toughness and chemical inactivity, LiNbO3 is considered to be a hard-to-machine material and has been traditionally left as as an inert substrate upon which other micro structures are deposited. However, in order to make use of its superior material properties and increase efficiency, the fabrication of microstructures directly on LiNbO3 is in high demand. This paper presents an experimental investigation on the micro machinability of LiNbO3 via micro milling with the aim of obtaining optimal process parameters. Machining of micro slots was performed on Z-cut LiNbO3 wafers using single crystal diamond tools. Surface and edge quality, cutting forces, and the crystallographic effect were examined and characterized. Ductile mode machining of LiNbO3 was found to be feasible at a low feed rate and small depth of cut. A strong crystallographic effect on the machined surface quality was also observed. Finally, some LiNbO3 micro components applicable to sensing applications were fabricated.

  11. Design and development of a micro polycrystalline diamond ball end mill for micro/nano freeform machining of hard and brittle materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, X.; Wang, Z. G.; Nakamoto, K.; Yamazaki, K.

    2009-11-01

    Micro end mills play a key role in micro/nano milling applications for intricate three-dimensional die/molds or sensors for micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS). In order to achieve higher machining accuracy and longer tool life, micro end mills are usually made of ultra-hard materials such as polycrystalline diamond (PCD) or cubic boron nitride (CBN). One of the best choices for their fabrication is the wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM) method. There are two basic categories of micro end mills, namely the ball end mill for 3D freeform surface machining and straight/round edge end mills for non-freeform surface machining. This paper focuses on the design and development of the micro ball end mill for hard and brittle materials. Firstly, the available typical ball end mill is analyzed. Secondly, a micro ball end mill with uniform axial rake and clearance angles is designed and analyzed by the finite element method (FEM). The designed micro ball end mill only needs simultaneously three linear and one index rotational WEDM axes instead of simultaneously five WEDM axes for traditional ball end mills. Then, micro PCD ball end mills are fabricated and the radius variation follows in ±2.0 µm, which is more accurate than commercially available ones. Finally, the 3D freeform geometry milling on tungsten carbide (WC) and silicon wafer successfully demonstrated the possibility of micro-mechanical freeform machining by the developed micro ball end mill.

  12. Finite Element Method Based Modeling for Prediction of Cutting Forces in Micro-end Milling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratap, Tej; Patra, Karali

    2017-02-01

    Micro-end milling is one of the widely used processes for producing micro features/components in micro-fluidic systems, biomedical applications, aerospace applications, electronics and many more fields. However in these applications, the forces generated in the micro-end milling process can cause tool vibration, process instability and even cause tool breakage if not minimized. Therefore, an accurate prediction of cutting forces in micro-end milling is essential. In this work, a finite element method based model is developed using ABAQUS/Explicit 6.12 software for prediction of cutting forces in micro-end milling with due consideration of tool edge radius effect, thermo-mechanical properties and failure parameters of the workpiece material including friction behaviour at tool-chip interface. Experiments have been performed for manufacturing of microchannels on copper plate using 500 µm diameter tungsten carbide micro-end mill and cutting forces are acquired through a dynamometer. Predicted cutting forces in feed and cross feed directions are compared with experimental results and are found to be in good agreements. Results also show that FEM based simulations can be applied to analyze size effects of specific cutting forces in micro-end milling process.

  13. Finite Element Method Based Modeling for Prediction of Cutting Forces in Micro-end Milling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratap, Tej; Patra, Karali

    2016-04-01

    Micro-end milling is one of the widely used processes for producing micro features/components in micro-fluidic systems, biomedical applications, aerospace applications, electronics and many more fields. However in these applications, the forces generated in the micro-end milling process can cause tool vibration, process instability and even cause tool breakage if not minimized. Therefore, an accurate prediction of cutting forces in micro-end milling is essential. In this work, a finite element method based model is developed using ABAQUS/Explicit 6.12 software for prediction of cutting forces in micro-end milling with due consideration of tool edge radius effect, thermo-mechanical properties and failure parameters of the workpiece material including friction behaviour at tool-chip interface. Experiments have been performed for manufacturing of microchannels on copper plate using 500 µm diameter tungsten carbide micro-end mill and cutting forces are acquired through a dynamometer. Predicted cutting forces in feed and cross feed directions are compared with experimental results and are found to be in good agreements. Results also show that FEM based simulations can be applied to analyze size effects of specific cutting forces in micro-end milling process.

  14. Milling Machine Operator: Instructor's Guide for an Adult Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Secondary Curriculum Development.

    The instructor's guide is for a course expected to help meet the need for trained operators in metalworking. Students successfully completing the course will be qualified for an entry-level job as a milling machine operator. The course is suitable for use in adult education programs of school districts, or in manpower development and training…

  15. BRASS MILL #72 SLITTER, OPERATED BY JOSEPH WAGNER, FORMERLY AN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BRASS MILL #72 SLITTER, OPERATED BY JOSEPH WAGNER, FORMERLY AN EMPLOYEE OF REPUBLIC STEEL IN BUFFALO. BRASS STRIP FROM THE SLITTE IS USED ON THE BUFFALO PLANT'S CONTINUOUS SEAMLESS TUBE LINE. - American Brass Foundry, 70 Sayre Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  16. Laser beam micro-milling of nickel alloy: dimensional variations and RSM optimization of laser parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Naveed; Alahmari, Abdulrahman M.; Darwish, Saied; Naveed, Madiha

    2016-12-01

    Micro-channels are considered as the integral part of several engineering devices such as micro-channel heat exchangers, micro-coolers, micro-pulsating heat pipes and micro-channels used in gas turbine blades for aerospace applications. In such applications, a fluid flow is required to pass through certain micro-passages such as micro-grooves and micro-channels. The fluid flow characteristics (flow rate, turbulence, pressure drop and fluid dynamics) are mainly established based on the size and accuracy of micro-passages. Variations (oversizing and undersizing) in micro-passage's geometry directly affect the fluid flow characteristics. In this study, the micro-channels of several sizes are fabricated in well-known aerospace nickel alloy (Inconel 718) through laser beam micro-milling. The variations in geometrical characteristics of different-sized micro-channels are studied under the influences of different parameters of Nd:YAG laser. In order to have a minimum variation in the machined geometries of each size of micro-channel, the multi-objective optimization of laser parameters has been carried out utilizing the response surface methodology approach. The objective was set to achieve the targeted top widths and depths of micro-channels with minimum degree of taperness associated with the micro-channel's sidewalls. The optimized sets of laser parameters proposed for each size of micro-channel can be used to fabricate the micro-channels in Inconel 718 with minimum amount of geometrical variations.

  17. 40 CFR 63.747 - Standards: Chemical milling maskant application operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standards: Chemical milling maskant... Standards: Chemical milling maskant application operations. (a) Each owner or operator of a new or existing chemical milling maskant operation subject to this subpart shall comply with the requirements specified...

  18. Knife mill operating factors effect on switchgrass particle size distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Bitra, V.S.P.; Womac, A.R.; Yang, Y.T.; Igathinathane, C.; Miu, P.I; Chevanan, Nehru; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine

    2009-06-01

    Biomass particle size impacts handling, storage, conversion, and dust control systems. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) particle size distributions created by a knife mill were determined for integral classifying screen sizes from 12.7 to 50.8 mm, operating speeds from 250 to 500 rpm, and mass input rates from 2 to 11 kg/min. Particle distributions were classified with standardized sieves for forage analysis that included horizontal sieving motion with machined-aluminum sieves of thickness proportional to sieve opening dimensions. Then, a wide range of analytical descriptors were examined to mathematically represent the range of particle sizes in the distributions. Correlation coefficient of geometric mean length with knife mill screen size, feed rate, and speed were 0.872, 0.349, and 0.037, respectively. Hence, knife mill screen size largely determined particle size of switchgrass chop. Feed rate had an unexpected influence on particle size, though to a lesser degree than screen size. The Rosin Rammler function fit the chopped switchgrass size distribution data with an R2 > 0.982. Mass relative span was greater than 1, which indicated a wide distribution of particle sizes. Uniformity coefficient was more than 4.0, which indicated a large assortment of particles and also represented a well-graded particle size distribution. Knife mill chopping of switchgrass produced strongly fine skewed mesokurtic particles with 12.7 25.4 mm screens and fine skewed mesokurtic particles with 50.8 mm screen. Results of this extensive analysis of particle sizes can be applied to selection of knife mill operating parameters to produce a particular size of switchgrass chop, and will serve as a guide for relations among the various analytic descriptors of biomass particle distributions.

  19. Knife mill operating factors effect on switchgrass particle size distributions.

    PubMed

    Bitra, Venkata S P; Womac, Alvin R; Yang, Yuechuan T; Igathinathane, C; Miu, Petre I; Chevanan, Nehru; Sokhansanj, Shahab

    2009-11-01

    Biomass particle size impacts handling, storage, conversion, and dust control systems. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) particle size distributions created by a knife mill were determined for integral classifying screen sizes from 12.7 to 50.8 mm, operating speeds from 250 to 500 rpm, and mass input rates from 2 to 11 kg/min. Particle distributions were classified with standardized sieves for forage analysis that included horizontal sieving motion with machined-aluminum sieves of thickness proportional to sieve opening dimensions. Then, a wide range of analytical descriptors were examined to mathematically represent the range of particle sizes in the distributions. Correlation coefficient of geometric mean length with knife mill screen size, feed rate, and speed were 0.872, 0.349, and 0.037, respectively. Hence, knife mill screen size largely determined particle size of switchgrass chop. Feed rate had an unexpected influence on particle size, though to a lesser degree than screen size. The Rosin-Rammler function fit the chopped switchgrass size distribution data with an R(2)>0.982. Mass relative span was greater than 1, which indicated a wide distribution of particle sizes. Uniformity coefficient was more than 4.0, which indicated a large assortment of particles and also represented a well-graded particle size distribution. Knife mill chopping of switchgrass produced 'strongly fine skewed mesokurtic' particles with 12.7-25.4 mm screens and 'fine skewed mesokurtic' particles with 50.8 mm screen. Results of this extensive analysis of particle sizes can be applied to selection of knife mill operating parameters to produce a particular size of switchgrass chop, and will serve as a guide for relations among the various analytic descriptors of biomass particle distributions.

  20. Counterbalance of cutting force for advanced milling operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Nan-Chyuan; Shih, Li-Wen; Lee, Rong-Mao

    2010-05-01

    The goal of this work is to concurrently counterbalance the dynamic cutting force and regulate the spindle position deviation under various milling conditions by integrating active magnetic bearing (AMB) technique, fuzzy logic algorithm and an adaptive self-tuning feedback loop. Since the dynamics of milling system is highly determined by a few operation conditions, such as speed of spindle, cut depth and feedrate, therefore the dynamic model for cutting process is more appropriate to be constructed by experiments, instead of using theoretical approach. The experimental data, either for idle or cutting, are utilized to establish the database of milling dynamics so that the system parameters can be on-line estimated by employing the proposed fuzzy logic algorithm as the cutting mission is engaged. Based on the estimated milling system model and preset operation conditions, i.e., spindle speed, cut depth and feedrate, the current cutting force can be numerically estimated. Once the current cutting force can be real-time estimated, the corresponding compensation force can be exerted by the equipped AMB to counterbalance the cutting force, in addition to the spindle position regulation by feedback of spindle position. On the other hand, for the magnetic force is nonlinear with respect to the applied electric current and air gap, the characteristics of the employed AMB is investigated also by experiments and a nonlinear mathematic model, in terms of air gap between spindle and electromagnetic pole and coil current, is developed. At the end, the experimental simulations on realistic milling are presented to verify the efficacy of the fuzzy controller for spindle position regulation and the capability of the dynamic cutting force counterbalance.

  1. Dynamic Characteristics in The Cutting Operations with Small Diameter End Mills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumura, Takashi; Miyahara, Yasuaki; Ono, Takenori

    The dynamic response in the cutting operations with the small diameter tools is measured to simulate the cutting process in micro-scale milling. The inclined ball end mills are excited with measuring the exciting force on the vibration generator. Then, the compliance of the tool-spindle system is measured with changing the excitation frequency. The modal parameters are estimated with changing the cutter axis inclination and the overhang of the tool. A vibration model is presented to show that the vibration is subjected in the radial direction of the small diameter tool. A dynamic cutting process is simulated to show the effect of the spindle speed on the tool displacement based on the estimated modal parameters.

  2. An Investigation of Machining Characteristics in Micro-scale Milling Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ku, Min-Su; Kang, Ik-Soo; Kim, Jeong-Suk

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, an analytical solution of micro-scale milling process is presented in order to suggest available machining conditions. The size effect should be considered to determine cutting characteristics in micro-scale cutting. The feed per tooth is the most dominant cutting parameter related to the size effect in micro-scale milling process. In order to determine the feed per tooth at which chips can be formed, the finite element method is used. The finite element method is employed by utilizing the Johnson-Cook (JC) model as a constitutive model of work material flow stress. Machining experiments are performed to validate the simulation results by using a micro-machining stage. The validation is conducted by observing cutting force signals from a cutting tool and the conditions of the machined surface of the workpiece.

  3. An Investigation of Machining Characteristics in Micro-scale Milling Process

    SciTech Connect

    Ku, Min-Su; Kang, Ik-Soo; Kim, Jeong-Suk

    2011-01-17

    In this paper, an analytical solution of micro-scale milling process is presented in order to suggest available machining conditions. The size effect should be considered to determine cutting characteristics in micro-scale cutting. The feed per tooth is the most dominant cutting parameter related to the size effect in micro-scale milling process. In order to determine the feed per tooth at which chips can be formed, the finite element method is used. The finite element method is employed by utilizing the Johnson-Cook (JC) model as a constitutive model of work material flow stress. Machining experiments are performed to validate the simulation results by using a micro-machining stage. The validation is conducted by observing cutting force signals from a cutting tool and the conditions of the machined surface of the workpiece.

  4. Study on residual stresses in ultrasonic torsional vibration assisted micro-milling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Zesheng; Hu, Haijun; Sun, Yazhou; Sun, Qing

    2010-10-01

    It is well known that machining induced residual stresses can seriously affect the dimensional accuracy, corrosion and wear resistance, etc., and further influence the longevity and reliability of Micro-Optical Components (MOC). In Ultrasonic Torsional Vibration Assisted Micro-milling (UTVAM), cutting parameters, vibration parameters, mill cutter parameters, the status of wear length of tool flank are the main factors which affect residual stresses. A 2D model of UTVAM was established with FE analysis software ABAQUS. Johnson-Cook's flow stress model and shear failure principle are used as the workpiece material model and failure principle, while friction between tool and workpiece uses modified Coulomb's law whose sliding friction area is combined with sticking friction. By means of FEA, the influence rules of cutting parameters, vibration parameters, mill cutter parameters, the status of wear length of tool flank on residual stresses are obtained, which provides a basis for choosing optimal process parameters and improving the longevity and reliability of MOC.

  5. From MEMS to macro-world: a micro-milling machined wideband vibration piezoelectric energy harvester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iannacci, J.; Sordo, G.

    2015-05-01

    In this work, we discuss a novel mechanical resonator design for the realization of vibration Energy Harvester (EH) capable to deliver power levels in the mW range. The device overcomes the typical constraint of frequency narrowband operability of standard cantilevered EHs, by exploiting a circular-shaped resonator with an increased number of mechanical Degrees Of Freedom (DOFs), leading to several resonant modes in the range of vibrations of interest (i.e. multi-modal wideband EH). The device, named Four-Leaf Clover (FLC), is simulated in Ansys Worbench™, showing a significant number of resonant modes up to vibrations of around 2 kHz (modal eigenfrequencies analysis), and exhibiting levels of converted power up to a few mW at resonance (harmonic coupled-field analysis). The sole FLC mechanical structure is realized by micro-milling an Aluminum foil, while a cantilevered test structure also including PolyVinyliDene Fluoride (PVDF) film sheet is assembled in order to collect first experimental feedback on generated power levels. The first lab based tests show peak-to-peak voltages of several Volts when the cantilever is stimulated with a mechanical pulse. Further developments of this work will comprise the assembly of an FLC demonstrator with PVDF pads, and its experimental testing in order to validate the simulated results.

  6. Mathematical modelling to predict the roughness average in micro milling process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burlacu, C.; Iordan, O.

    2016-08-01

    Surface roughness plays a very important role in micro milling process and in any machining process, because indicates the state of the machined surface. Many surface roughness parameters that can be used to analyse a surface, but the most common surface roughness parameter used is the average roughness (Ra). This paper presents the experimental results obtained at micro milling of the C45W steel and the ways to determine the Ra parameter with respect to the working conditions. The chemical characteristics of the material were determined from a spectral analysis, chemical composition was measured at one point and two points, graphical and tabular. A profilometer Surtronic 3+ was used to examine the surface roughness profiles; the effect of independent parameters can be investigated and can get a proper relationship between the Ra parameter and the process variables. The mathematical model were developed, using multiple regression method with four independent variables D, v, ap, fz; the analysis was done using statistical software SPSS. The ANOVA analysis of variance and the F- test was used to justify the accuracy of the mathematical model. The multiple regression method was used to determine the correlation between a criterion variable and the predictor variables. The prediction model can be used for micro milling process optimization.

  7. Milling Machine Operator. Coordinator's Guide. Individualized Study Guide. General Metal Trades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, James W.

    This guide provides information to enable coordinators to direct learning activities for students using an individualized study guide on operating a milling machine. The study material is designed for students enrolled in cooperative part-time training and employed, or desiring to be employed, as milling machine operators. Contents include a…

  8. Improvement on ball-milling composite process of metal matrix micro-nanometer powder using nanosuspension as the precursor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hongyu; Zhou, Jianzhong; Li, Xiangfeng; Shen, Qing; Cheng, Man

    2014-12-01

    The wet ball-milling preparation of metal matrix micro-nanometer powder using nanosuspension as the precursor can well solve the agglomeration of nanoscale component, but the micro-nanometer powder prepared by the method can hardly meet the requirement of powder feeding in laser cladding process and its composite effect is still not desirable enough. Aiming at the problem, the ball-milling composite process of metal matrix micro-nanometer powder using nanosuspension as the precursor was analyzed. It has been found that the morphological diversity of original micron powder is the main influencing factor of the deliverability and the composite effect of micro-nanometer powder. In addition, the deposition of the compounding powder in the bottom of ball-milling tank also has some negative influences on the composite effect. Accordingly, two improving measures namely the micron powder pretreatment with Ball Mill Reshaping + Screening and the additional stirring during ball-milling process are proposed and experimented. Results show that the micron powder pretreatment could significantly improve the composite effect and the deliverability of micro-nanometer powder, and the additional stirring could further improve the composite effect of micro-nanometer powder.

  9. Resurgence, operator product expansion, and remarks on renormalons in supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory

    SciTech Connect

    Shifman, M.

    2015-03-15

    We discuss similarities and differences between the resurgence program in quantum mechanics and the operator product expansion in strongly coupled Yang-Mills theories. In N = 1 super-Yang-Mills theories, renormalons are peculiar and are not quite similar to renormalons in QCD.

  10. OPMILL - MICRO COMPUTER PROGRAMMING ENVIRONMENT FOR CNC MILLING MACHINES THREE AXIS EQUATION PLOTTING CAPABILITIES

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, R. B.

    1994-01-01

    OPMILL is a computer operating system for a Kearney and Trecker milling machine that provides a fast and easy way to program machine part manufacture with an IBM compatible PC. The program gives the machinist an "equation plotter" feature which plots any set of equations that define axis moves (up to three axes simultaneously) and converts those equations to a machine milling program that will move a cutter along a defined path. Other supported functions include: drill with peck, bolt circle, tap, mill arc, quarter circle, circle, circle 2 pass, frame, frame 2 pass, rotary frame, pocket, loop and repeat, and copy blocks. The system includes a tool manager that can handle up to 25 tools and automatically adjusts tool length for each tool. It will display all tool information and stop the milling machine at the appropriate time. Information for the program is entered via a series of menus and compiled to the Kearney and Trecker format. The program can then be loaded into the milling machine, the tool path graphically displayed, and tool change information or the program in Kearney and Trecker format viewed. The program has a complete file handling utility that allows the user to load the program into memory from the hard disk, save the program to the disk with comments, view directories, merge a program on the disk with one in memory, save a portion of a program in memory, and change directories. OPMILL was developed on an IBM PS/2 running DOS 3.3 with 1 MB of RAM. OPMILL was written for an IBM PC or compatible 8088 or 80286 machine connected via an RS-232 port to a Kearney and Trecker Data Mill 700/C Control milling machine. It requires a "D:" drive (fixed-disk or virtual), a browse or text display utility, and an EGA or better display. Users wishing to modify and recompile the source code will also need Turbo BASIC, Turbo C, and Crescent Software's QuickPak for Turbo BASIC. IBM PC and IBM PS/2 are registered trademarks of International Business Machines. Turbo

  11. Georgia Pacific: Crossett Mill Identifies Heat Recovery Projects and Operational Improvements

    SciTech Connect

    2003-10-01

    An assessment team conducted a mill-wide energy survey at Georgia-Pacific's Crossett, Arkansas mill to update a previous pinch analysis. Three heat recovery projects were identified that could reduce annual costs by $4.8 million and reduce natural gas use by 1,845,000 x 106 Btu. The overall payback period for the heat recovery projects would be less than 1 year. Furthermore, by implementing operational improvements, the mill could save $4.8 million more annually and 1,500,000 x 106 Btu in natural gas.

  12. High density pixel array and laser micro-milling method for fabricating array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiener-Avnear, Eliezer (Inventor); McFall, James Earl (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A pixel array device is fabricated by a laser micro-milling method under strict process control conditions. The device has an array of pixels bonded together with an adhesive filling the grooves between adjacent pixels. The array is fabricated by moving a substrate relative to a laser beam of predetermined intensity at a controlled, constant velocity along a predetermined path defining a set of grooves between adjacent pixels so that a predetermined laser flux per unit area is applied to the material, and repeating the movement for a plurality of passes of the laser beam until the grooves are ablated to a desired depth. The substrate is of an ultrasonic transducer material in one example for fabrication of a 2D ultrasonic phase array transducer. A substrate of phosphor material is used to fabricate an X-ray focal plane array detector.

  13. 77 FR 75917 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; New Haven Harbor, Quinnipiac and Mill Rivers, CT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-26

    ... the final rule was delayed due to the construction of the I-95 Pearl Harbor Memorial Bridge across the... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 RIN 1625-AA09 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; New Haven Harbor... Operation Regulation; New Haven Harbor, Quinnipiac and Mill Rivers, CT,'' in the Federal Register (75...

  14. Operational performance of the photovoltaic-powered grain mill and water pump at Tangaye, Upper Volta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martz, J. E.; Ratajczak, A. F.; Delombard, R.

    1982-01-01

    The first two years of operation of a stand alone photovoltaic (PV) power system for the village of Tangaye, Upper Volta in West Africa are described. The purpose of the experiment was to demonstrate that PV systems could provide reliable electrical power for multiple use applications in remote areas where local technical expertise is limited. The 1.8 kW (peak) power system supplies 120-V (d.c.) electrical power to operate a grain mill, a water pump, and mill building lights for the village. The system was initially sized to pump a part of the village water requirements from an existing improved well, and to meet a portion of the village grain grinding requirements. The data, observations, experiences, and conclusions developed during the first two years of operation are discussed. Reports of tests of the mills used in the project are included.

  15. Pebble treatment and use at Cleveland-Cliffs` autogenous milling operations

    SciTech Connect

    Greenwood, B.R.; McIvor, R.E.

    1996-12-31

    Subsidiaries of Cleveland-Cliffs Inc. operate seven iron mining operations worldwide. Of these seven operations, four North American facilities employ autogenous milling. Two of these autogenous milling circuits are in northern Michigan, the Tilden and Empire Mines, one is in northern Minnesota, Hibbing Taconite, and the fourth is the Wabush Mine in Labrador. The original autogenous milling circuit developed by Cleveland-Cliffs was at the Empire Mine. Extensive laboratory, pilot plant and full-scale testing was conducted prior to commissioning this first iron ore autogenous circuit in 1963. Since the original circuits were installed at the four mines, modifications have been made based on pilot plant and full-scale plant tests that have resulted in significant improvements in primary mill throughputs. The following is a discussion of the autogenous milling circuits at Empire, Tilden and Hibtac and the changes to the circuits related to pebble treatment and use that have been and are scheduled to be made to increase feed rates and/or improve efficiency.

  16. Machine Shop Operations--2. Milling Machine, Heat Treatment of Metals, and Grinders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Currao, Joseph; Usarzewicz, Louis

    This manual was prepared for the student who plans to enter the machine shop field. The 20 selected jobs provide the student with knowledge and step-by-step procedures for the operation of milling machines. The text is organized so that each job has an objective, tools needed, step-by-step instructions, a progress quiz, and space for reference,…

  17. Shaper and Milling Machine Operation, Machine Shop Work 2: 9555.04.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    The course outline has been prepared to assist the student in learning the basic skills and safety for shaper and milling operations. The course presents the various types of machines, work holding devices, cutting tools and feeds and speeds, and instruction designed to enable the student to obtain the manipulative skills and related knowledge…

  18. Improvement of the tool life of a micro-end mill using nano-sized SiC/Ni electroplating method.

    PubMed

    Park, Shinyoung; Kim, Kwang-Su; Roh, Ji Young; Jang, Gyu-Beom; Ahn, Sung-Hoon; Lee, Caroline Sunyong

    2012-04-01

    High mechanical properties of a tungsten carbide micro-end-mill tool was achieved by extending its tool life by electroplating nano-sized SiC particles (< 100 nm) that had a hardness similar to diamond in a nickel-based material. The co-electroplating method on the surface of the micro-end-mill tool was applied using SiC particles and Ni particles. Organic additives (saccharin and ammonium chloride) were added in a Watts bath to improve the nickel matrix density in the electroplating bath and to smooth the surface of the co-electroplating. The morphology of the coated nano-sized SiC particles and the composition were measured using Scanning Electron Microscope and Energy Dispersive Spectrometer. As the Ni/SiC co-electroplating layer was applied, the hardness and friction coefficient improved by 50%. Nano-sized SiC particles with 7 wt% were deposited on the surface of the micro-end mill while the Ni matrix was smoothed by adding organic additives. The tool life of the Ni/SiC co-electroplating coating on the micro-end mill was at least 25% longer than that of the existing micro-end mills without Ni/SiC co-electroplating. Thus, nano-sized SiC/Ni coating by electroplating significantly improves the mechanical properties of tungsten carbide micro-end mills.

  19. Determination of Specific Forces and Tool Deflections in Micro-milling of Ti-6Al-4V alloy using Finite Element Simulations and Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Farina, Simone; Ceretti, Elisabetta; Thepsonti, Thanongsak; Oezel, Tugrul

    2011-05-04

    Titanium alloys offer superb properties in strength, corrosion resistance and biocompatibility and are commonly utilized in medical devices and implants. Micro-end milling process is a direct and rapid fabrication method for manufacturing medical devices and implants in titanium alloys. Process performance and quality depend upon an understanding of the relationship between cutting parameters and forces and resultant tool deflections to avoid tool breakage. For this purpose, FE simulations of chip formation during micro-end milling of Ti-6Al-4V alloy with an ultra-fine grain solid carbide two-flute micro-end mill are investigated using DEFORM software.At first, specific forces in tangential and radial directions of cutting during micro-end milling for varying feed advance and rotational speeds have been determined using designed FE simulations for chip formation process. Later, these forces are applied to the micro-end mill geometry along the axial depth of cut in 3D analysis of ABAQUS. Consequently, 3D distributions for tool deflections and von Misses stress are determined. These analyses will yield in establishing integrated multi-physics process models for high performance micro-end milling and a leap-forward to process improvements.

  20. Theoretical and experimental research on error analysis and optimization of tool path in fabricating aspheric compound eyes by precision micro milling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Mingjun; Xiao, Yong; Tian, Wenlan; Wu, Chunya; Chu, Xin

    2014-05-01

    Structure design and fabricating methods of three-dimensional (3D) artificial spherical compound eyes have been researched by many scholars. Micro-nano optical manufacturing is mostly used to process 3D artificial compound eyes. However, spherical optical compound eyes are less at optical performance than the eyes of insects, and it is difficult to further improve the imaging quality of compound eyes by means of micro-nano optical manufacturing. In this research, nonhomogeneous aspheric compound eyes (ACEs) are designed and fabricated. The nonhomogeneous aspheric structure is applied to calibrate the spherical aberration. Micro milling with advantages in processing three-dimensional micro structures is adopted to manufacture ACEs. In order to obtain ACEs with high imaging quality, the tool paths are optimized by analyzing the influence factors consisting of interpolation allowable error, scallop height and tool path pattern. In the experiments, two kinds of ACEs are manufactured by micro-milling with different too path patterns and cutting parameter on the miniature precision five-axis milling machine tool. The experimental results indicate that the ACEs of high surface quality can be achieved by circularly milling small micro-lens individually with changeable cutting depth. A prototype of the aspheric compound eye (ACE) with surface roughness ( R a) below 0.12 μm is obtained with good imaging performance. This research ameliorates the imaging quality of 3D artificial compound eyes, and the proposed method of micro-milling can improve surface processing quality of compound eyes.

  1. Characterization of long-lived radioactive dust in uranium mill operations

    SciTech Connect

    Bigu, J.; DuPort, P. )

    1992-09-01

    The characteristics of long-lived radioactive dust clouds generated in several mechanical and physiochemical operations in a uranium mill have been investigated. The study consisted of the determination of dust size distribution and of the size distribution of radionuclides associated with particulate matter in the size range less than 0.1 to 26 microns. Experiments were conducted by using two different types of cascade impactors operating at different sampling flow rates. Radionuclide identification was done by using alpha-spectrometry. Long- and short-lived radionuclides were identified in dust samples. The characteristics of the dust clouds depended on the mill operation, such as crushing (vibrating grizzly, jaw crusher, cone crusher); screening; ore transportation; grinding; acid leaching; counter-current decantation; yellow cake precipitation and drying; and yellow cake packaging. In addition, other dust and radioactivity measurements have been carried out.

  2. Wear mechanisms of milling inserts: Dry and wet cutting

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, J.; Tung, S.C.; Barber, G.C.

    1998-07-01

    There is less literature on wear of milling tools than on wear of turning tools because milling is one of the most complicated machining operations. The intermittent milling action creates mechanical and thermal surges that distinguish milling from single-point machining. A systematic tool life study for face milling inserts was conducted with and without coolant. Workpieces made of 4140 steel were cut by C5 grade carbide inserts under various cutting conditions. The comparison between dry and wet cutting shows that caution should be taken when applying a coolant for milling operations. Special tests should be carried out in evaluating potential coolant candidates. It is not always true that coolant enhances tool life for milling. Wear mechanisms are presented by means of war maps. Identified wear mechanisms are: micro-attrition, micro-abrasion, mechanical fatigue, thermal fatigue, thermal pitting, and edge chipping.

  3. Gravity flow operated small electricity generator retrofit kit to flour mill industry.

    PubMed

    Shekara, Prithivi; Kumar V, Pavan; Hosamane, Gangadharappa Gundabhakthara

    2013-10-01

    Flour milling is a grinding process to produce flour from wheat through comprehensive stages of grinding and separation. The primary energy is required to provide power used in grinding of wheat. In wheat milling, tempering is the process of adding water to wheat before milling to toughen the bran and mellow the endosperm. Gravity flow of the wheat is utilized to rotate the dampener wheel with cups to add water. Low cost gravity flow operated small electricity generator retrofit kit for dampener was designed and developed to justify low cost energy production without expensive solutions. Results of statistical analysis indicated that there was significant difference in mean values for voltage, rpm and flow rate at the 95% probability level. The resulted maximum mechanical power and measured electrical power were 5.1 W and 4.9 W respectively at wheat flow rate of 1.6 Kg/s and dampener wheel rotational velocity of 4.4 rad/s.

  4. Countermeasure against chatter in end milling operations using multiple dynamic absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, Yutaka; Takahara, Hiroki; Kondo, Eiji

    2013-03-01

    The present study investigates the effect of multiple dynamic absorbers on chatter generated in the end milling operations by performing stability analysis and a cutting test. The dynamic absorbers proposed in the present paper are attached to a collet chuck in order to suppress tool chatter caused by the bending vibration of the tool and spindle system. The dynamic milling model is considered to have two orthogonal degrees of freedom. The dynamic absorbers, which have identical mass, damping ratio, and natural frequency, are assumed to have a single degree of freedom that rotates with a tool and spindle system. In the present paper, stability analyses are performed by means of complex eigenvalue analysis for each angular immersion of the cutting edge in order to investigate the effect of the dynamic absorbers on the stability of the dynamic milling model. The optimal natural frequency and damping ratio of the dynamic absorbers to maximize the chatter-free axial depth of cut are shown to vary with spindle speed. Furthermore, the effect of the dynamic absorbers on chatter is validated by a cutting test, and the experimental results are confirmed to agree qualitatively with the analytical results.

  5. Georgia-Pacific: Crossett Mill Identifies Heat Recovery Projects and Operational Improvements that May Save $9.6 Million Annually

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2003-11-01

    An assessment team conducted a mill-wide energy survey at Georgia-Pacific's Crossett, Arkansas mill to update a previous pinch analysis. Three heat recovery projects were identified that could reduce annual costs by $4.8 million and reduce natural gas use by 1,845,000 x 106 Btu. The overall payback period for the heat recovery projects would be less than 1 year. Furthermore, by implementing operational improvements, the mill could save $4.8 million more annually and 1,500,000 x 106 Btu in natural gas.

  6. Experimental Design and Data collection of a finishing end milling operation of AISI 1045 steel

    PubMed Central

    Dias Lopes, Luiz Gustavo; de Brito, Tarcísio Gonçalves; de Paiva, Anderson Paulo; Peruchi, Rogério Santana; Balestrassi, Pedro Paulo

    2016-01-01

    In this Data in Brief paper, a central composite experimental design was planned to collect the surface roughness of an end milling operation of AISI 1045 steel. The surface roughness values are supposed to suffer some kind of variation due to the action of several factors. The main objective here was to present a multivariate experimental design and data collection including control factors, noise factors, and two correlated responses, capable of achieving a reduced surface roughness with minimal variance. Lopes et al. (2016) [1], for example, explores the influence of noise factors on the process performance. PMID:26909374

  7. Applications of Optical Image Processing Technique for Steel Mill Non-contacting Conveyance System Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Cheng-Tsung; Yang, Yung-Yi; Lin, Sheng-Yang

    This paper is aimed to present the design and feasibility investigations of adopting the available on-site optical inspection system, which is commonly used for steel plate dimension measurement, to supply on-line dynamic gap measurements of a non-contacting conveyance structure in a steel mill. Adequate software and hardware implementations based on digital image processing techniques have been adapted to the entire system formulations and estimations. Results show that the system can supply accurate and rapid gap measurements and thus can fulfill the design and operational objectives.

  8. Simultaneous measurement of temperature and refractive index using focused ion beam milled Fabry-Perot cavities in optical fiber micro-tips.

    PubMed

    André, Ricardo M; Warren-Smith, Stephen C; Becker, Martin; Dellith, Jan; Rothhardt, Manfred; Zibaii, M I; Latifi, H; Marques, Manuel B; Bartelt, Hartmut; Frazão, Orlando

    2016-06-27

    Optical fiber micro-tips are promising devices for sensing applications in small volume and difficult to access locations, such as biological and biomedical settings. The tapered fiber tips are prepared by dynamic chemical etching, reducing the size from 125 μm to just a few μm. Focused ion beam milling is then used to create cavity structures on the tapered fiber tips. Two different Fabry-Perot micro-cavities have been prepared and characterized: a solid silica cavity created by milling two thin slots and a gap cavity. A third multi-cavity structure is fabricated by combining the concepts of solid silica cavity and gap cavity. This micro-tip structure is analyzed using a fast Fourier transform method to demultiplex the signals of each cavity. Simultaneous measurement of temperature and external refractive index is then demonstrated, presenting sensitivities of - 15.8 pm/K and -1316 nm/RIU, respectively.

  9. Digital microfluidic operations on micro-electrode dot array architecture.

    PubMed

    Wang, G; Teng, D; Fan, S-K

    2011-12-01

    As digital microfluidics-based biochips find more applications, their complexity is expected to increase significantly owing to the trend of multiple and concurrent assays on the chip. There is a pressing need to deliver a top-down design methodology that the biochip designer can leverage the same level of computer-aided design support as the semi-conductor industry now does. Moreover, as microelectronics fabrication technology is scaling up and integrated device performance is improving, it is expected that these microfluidic biochips will be integrated with microelectronic components in next-generation system-on-chip designs. This study presents the analysis and experiments of digital microfluidic operations on a novel electrowetting-on-dielectric-based 'micro-electrode dot array architecture' that fosters a development path for hierarchical top-down design approach for digital microfluidics. The proposed architecture allows dynamic configurations and activations of identical basic microfluidic unit called 'micro-electrode cells' to design microfluidic components, layouts, routing, microfluidic operations and applications of the biochip hierarchically. Fundamental microfluidic operations have been successfully performed by the architecture. In addition, this novel architecture demonstrates a number of advantages and flexibilities over the conventional digital microfluidics in performing advanced microfluidic operations.

  10. Isolated Operation at Hachinohe Micro-Grid Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takano, Tomihiro; Kojima, Yasuhiro; Temma, Koji; Simomura, Masaru

    To meet the global warming, renewable energy sources like wind, solar and biomass generations are dramatically increasing. Cogeneration systems are also ever-growing to save consumers' energy costs among factories, buildings and homes where lots of thermal loads are expected. According to these dispersed generators growth, their negative impacts to commercial power systems quality become non-negligible, because their unstable output causes network voltage and frequency fluctuation. Micro-grid technology comes to the front to solve the problem and many demonstrative field tests are now going all over the world. This paper presents the control paradigm and its application to Hachinohe micro-gird project, especially focusing on the power quality at isolated operation on which strict condition is imposed.

  11. The MITy micro-rover: Sensing, control, and operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malafeew, Eric; Kaliardos, William

    1994-01-01

    The sensory, control, and operation systems of the 'MITy' Mars micro-rover are discussed. It is shown that the customized sun tracker and laser rangefinder provide internal, autonomous dead reckoning and hazard detection in unstructured environments. The micro-rover consists of three articulated platforms with sensing, processing and payload subsystems connected by a dual spring suspension system. A reactive obstacle avoidance routine makes intelligent use of robot-centered laser information to maneuver through cluttered environments. The hazard sensors include a rangefinder, inclinometers, proximity sensors and collision sensors. A 486/66 laptop computer runs the graphical user interface and programming environment. A graphical window displays robot telemetry in real time and a small TV/VCR is used for real time supervisory control. Guidance, navigation, and control routines work in conjunction with the mapping and obstacle avoidance functions to provide heading and speed commands that maneuver the robot around obstacles and towards the target.

  12. Investigation of the effects of cadmium by micro analytical methods on Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. roots.

    PubMed

    Colak, G; Baykul, M C; Gürler, R; Catak, E; Caner, N

    2014-09-01

    The interactions between cadmium stress and plant nutritional elements have been investigated on complete plant or at the level of organs. This study was undertaken to contribute to the exploration of the physiological basis of cadmium phytotoxicity. We examined the changes in the nutritional element compositions of the root epidermal cells of the seedlings of Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. at the initial growth stages that is known as the most sensitive stage to the stress. Effects of cadmium stress on the seedlings of Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. were examined by EDX (Energy Dispersive X-Ray Microanalysis) assay performed with using low vacuum (∼ 24 Pascal) Scanning Electron Microscopy. In the analysis performed at the level of root epidermal cells, some of the macro- and micronutrient contents of the cells (carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sulfur, iron, copper, and zinc levels) were found to change when the applying toxic concentrations of cadmium. There was no change in the manganese and sodium content of the epidermal cells. It was concluded that the changes in nutritional element composition of the cells can be considered as an effective parameter in explaining the physiological mechanisms of cadmium-induced growth inhibition.

  13. Impacts of operating conditions on reverse osmosis performance of pretreated olive mill wastewater.

    PubMed

    Ochando-Pulido, J M; Rodriguez-Vives, S; Hodaifa, G; Martinez-Ferez, A

    2012-10-01

    Management of the effluent from the olive oil industry is of capital importance nowadays, especially in the Mediterranean countries. Most of the scarce existing studies concerning olive mill wastewater (OMW) treatment by means of membrane processes not only do fix their aims simply on achieving irrigation standards, but lack suitable pretreatments against deleterious fouling issues. With the target of achieving the parametric requirements for public waterways discharge or even for reuse in the production process, a bench-scale study was undertaken to evaluate the feasibility of a thin-film composite reverse osmosis (RO) membrane (polyamide/polysulfone) for the purification of OMW. Previously, OMW was pretreated by means of chemical oxidation based on Fenton's reagent, flocculation-sedimentation and biosorption through olive stones. Impacts of the main operating parameters on permeate flux and pollutants rejection of the RO process, as well as fouling on the membrane surface, were examined for removing the significant ionic concentration and remaining organic matter load of the pretreated OMW. Combining operating parameters adequately in a semibatch operating regime ensured high and sustainable permeate flux, yielding over 99.4% and 98.5% removal efficiencies for the chemical oxygen demand and ionic content respectively, as well as complete rejection of phenols, iron and suspended solids.

  14. Impacts of operating conditions on nanofiltration of secondary-treated two-phase olive mill wastewater.

    PubMed

    Ochando Pulido, Javier Miguel; Martínez Férez, Antonio

    2015-09-15

    In the present paper, a thin-film composite polymeric nanofiltration (NF) membrane is examined for the tertiary treatment of secondary-treated two-phase olive mill wastewater, in substitution of the reverse osmosis membrane used in previous work by the Authors. Overcoming the deleterious fouling phenomena persistently encountered in membrane processes managing wastewater streams was indeed pursued. Setting the adequate parameters of the operating variables - that is, operating at ambient temperature upon a net pressure equal to 13 bar (Pc), tangential crossflow in the order of 2.55 m s(-1) to attain enough turbulence over the membrane, and above the point of zero charge (pH > 5.8) of the membrane - ensured high steady-state permeate productivity (59.6 L h(-1) m(-2)), also economically sustainable in time owed to minimization of the fouling-build up rate (0.91 h(-1)). Moreover, these conditions also provided high feed recovery (90%) and significant rejection efficiencies for the electroconductivity (58.1%) and organic matter (76.1%). This led to a purified permeate stream exiting the NF membrane operation exhibiting average EC and COD values equal to 1.4 mS cm(-1) and 45 mg L(-1). This permits complying with the water quality parameters established by different regulations for discharge public waterways and irrigation purposes.

  15. 40 CFR 63.747 - Standards: Chemical milling maskant application operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... such a manner that minimizes spills. (c) Uncontrolled maskants—organic HAP and VOC content levels. Each... paragraph (c) of this section for those chemical milling maskants that are uncontrolled (no control device...) and (c)(2) of this section for each chemical milling maskant that is uncontrolled. (1) Organic...

  16. Design Considerations for the Construction and Operation of Flour Milling Facilities. Part II: Process Design Considerations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flour milling facilities have been the cornerstone of agricultural processing for centuries. Like most agri-industrial production facilities, flour milling facilities have a number of unique design requirements. Design information, to date, has been limited. In an effort to summarize state of the ...

  17. 29 CFR 570.54 - Logging occupations and occupations in the operation of any sawmill, lath mill, shingle mill, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of green lumber and in connection with which no office or repair or maintenance shop is ordinarily... business shall mean the actual physical location of the establishment employing the youth, including the buildings and surrounding land necessary to the business operations of that establishment. Operate or...

  18. Biomass torrefaction mill

    DOEpatents

    Sprouse, Kenneth M.

    2016-05-17

    A biomass torrefaction system includes a mill which receives a raw biomass feedstock and operates at temperatures above 400 F (204 C) to generate a dusty flue gas which contains a milled biomass product.

  19. Global Environmental Micro Sensors Test Operations in the Natural Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Mark L.; Buza, Matthew; Manobianco, John; Merceret, Francis J.

    2007-01-01

    ENSCO, Inc. is developing an innovative atmospheric observing system known as Global Environmental Micro Sensors (GEMS). The GEMS concept features an integrated system of miniaturized in situ, airborne probes measuring temperature, relative humidity, pressure, and vector wind velocity. In order for the probes to remain airborne for long periods of time, their design is based on a helium-filled super-pressure balloon. The GEMS probes are neutrally buoyant and carried passively by the wind at predetermined levels. Each probe contains onboard satellite communication, power generation, processing, and geolocation capabilities. ENSCO has partnered with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Kennedy Space Center (KSC) for a project called GEMS Test Operations in the Natural Environment (GEMSTONE) that will culminate with limited prototype flights of the system in spring 2007. By leveraging current advances in micro and nanotechnology, the probe mass, size, cost, and complexity can be reduced substantially so that large numbers of probes could be deployed routinely to support ground, launch, and landing operations at KSC and other locations. A full-scale system will improve the data density for the local initialization of high-resolution numerical weather prediction systems by at least an order of magnitude and provide a significantly expanded in situ data base to evaluate launch commit criteria and flight rules. When applied to launch or landing sites, this capability will reduce both weather hazards and weather-related scrubs, thus enhancing both safety and cost-avoidance for vehicles processed by the Shuttle, Launch Services Program, and Constellation Directorates. The GEMSTONE project will conclude with a field experiment in which 10 to 15 probes are released over KSC in east central Florida. The probes will be neutrally buoyant at different altitudes from 500 to 3000 meters and will report their position, speed, heading, temperature, humidity, and

  20. SMART FUEL CELL OPERATED RESIDENTIAL MICRO-GRID COMMUNITY

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Mohammad S. Alam University of South Alabama ECE Department, EEB 75 Mobile, AL 36688-0002 Phone: 251-460-6117 Fax: 251-460-6028

    2005-04-13

    To build on the work of year one by expanding the smart control algorithm developed to a micro-grid of ten houses; to perform a cost analysis; to evaluate alternate energy sources; to study system reliability; to develop the energy management algorithm, and to perform micro-grid software and hardware simulations.

  1. Comparison of TLC and Different Micro TLC Techniques in Analysis of Tropane Alkaloids and Their Derivatives Mixture from Datura Inoxia Mill. Extract.

    PubMed

    Malinowska, Irena; Studziński, Marek; Niezabitowska, Karolina; Gadzikowska, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Planar chromatography is a very useful tool for analysis of wide range of different mixtures. Thanks to its possibility for rapid separation of large number of samples simultaneously, low solvent consumption and ability to analyse rough material allow to receive precise and reliable results in short time and low cost. Miniaturization of planar techniques brings a lot of advantages, such as shortening distance and time of chromatogram development, and further lowering of solvent consumption. Besides, it often allows to improve separation parameters and raise efficiency of chromatographic system. In this paper, ability of analysis of tropane alkaloids mixture from Datura Inoxia Mill. extract using conventional TLC technique with five micro TLC techniques (short distance TLC, HPTLC, UTLC, OPLC and ETLC) in maximally closed chromatographic conditions was compared in order to present abilities of micro TLC techniques in plant material analysis.

  2. Optimize Operating Conditions on Fine Particle Grinding Process with Vertically Stirred Media Mill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yang; Rowson, Neil; Ingram, Andy

    2016-11-01

    Stirred media mill recently is commonly utilized among mining process due to its high stressing intensity and efficiency. However, the relationship between size reduction and flow pattern within the mixing pot is still not fully understand. Thus, this work investigates fine particle grinding process within vertically stirred media mills by altering stirrer geometry, tip speed and solids loading. Positron Emitting Particle Tracking (PEPT) technology is utilized to plot routine of particles velocity map. By tacking trajectory of a single particle movement within the mixing vessel, the overall flow pattern is possible to be plotted. Ground calcium carbonate, a main product of Imerys, is chosen as feeding material (feed size D80 30um) mixed with water to form high viscous suspension. To obtain fine size product (normally D80 approximately 2um), large amount of energy is drawn by grinding mill to break particles through impact, shear attrition or compression or a combination of them. The results indicate higher energy efficient is obtained with more dilute suspension. The optimized stirrer proves more energy-saving performance by altering the slurry circulate. Imerys Minerals Limited.

  3. Real-time pressure monitoring for dynamic control during paper mill operation using fiber optic pressure sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fielder, Robert S.; Boyd, Clark; Palmer, Matthew; Eriksen, Oddbjørn

    2006-03-01

    Fiber optic pressure sensors were integrated into the grinding plates of an operational paper pulp mill for real-time monitoring of the pulp grinding process. On-line system monitoring will allow smart, active control of the grinding plates thereby improving the quality and consistency of the pulp produced. Sensors were constructed and calibrated for use in the harsh environment of an operating paper pulp grinder. The sensors were 1.65mm in diameter including titanium housing, and were installed directly into the grooves of the grinding plates. The sensing elements were flush-mounted with the wall and exposed to the wood pulp slurry. Nine sensors were calibrated up to 1000psi. During operation, pressure was sampled at 1.0MHz, and pressure spikes up to 175psi were observed. Pressure pulses measured are due to the relative motion between the grooves and channels on two pulp grinding plates. The consistency, size distribution, and quality of paper pulp exiting from the grinder are directly related to the distance between the channels on the two rotating elements. The pressure pulses produced are also proportional to the distance between channels. Therefore, by monitoring pressure fluctuations, grinding elements can be dynamically controlled thereby producing a "smart mill."

  4. The Effect of an Optimized Wet Milling Technology on the Crystallinity, Morphology and Dissolution Properties of Micro- and Nanonized Meloxicam.

    PubMed

    Bartos, Csilla; Szabó-Révész, Piroska; Bartos, Csaba; Katona, Gábor; Jójárt-Laczkovich, Orsolya; Ambrus, Rita

    2016-04-21

    This article reports on the effects of a new combined wet milling technique on the physicochemical properties of meloxicam (MEL). The influence of milling time on the particle size, the crystallinity, the morphology and the dissolution rate of MEL has been studied in the presence and absence of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as a stabilizer agent. Micronized MEL particles were produced in aqueous medium which did not contain additive after milling for 10 min. For nanonization an additive and longer milling time were required. After particle size determination the structural and morphological characterization of the wet milled, dried products containing MEL were studied. X-ray powder diffractometry (XRPD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) examinations revealed the change in the crystallinity of MEL. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images showed that aggregates of nanosized MEL particles were formed, regardless of the presence of PVA. The nanonized MEL crystals (D50 = 126 nm) exhibited a regular shape and a smooth surface. The increased specific surface area resulted in a high dissolution rate and concentration of free MEL. According to the results, the produced samples could be applied as a basic material (micronized MEL) and intermediate product (micronized and nanonized MEL with PVA) for the design of dosage forms.

  5. Operational performance of the photovoltaic-powered grain mill and water pump at Tangaye, Burkina Faso (formerly Upper Volta)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martz, J. E.; Roberts, A. F.

    1985-01-01

    A photovoltaic (PV) system powering a grain mill and water pump was installed in the remote African village of Tangaye, Burkina Faso (formerly Upper Volta) under the sponsorship of the U.S. Agency for International Development (AID) and by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Lewis Research Center (LeRC) in early 1979. The presence reports covers the second two years of operation from April 1981 through June 1983. During this time, the grain mill and water pump were operational 96 and 88 percent of the time respectively, and the PV system generated sufficient electricity to enable the grinding of about 111 metric tons of finely ground flow and the pumping of over 5000 cm sq of water from the 10 m deep well. The report includes a description of the current configuration of the system, a review of system performance, a discussion of the socioeconomic impact of the system on the villagers and a summary of results and conclusions covering the entire four-year period.

  6. Analysis of long-time operation of micro-cogeneration unit with fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patsch, Marek; Čaja, Alexander

    2015-05-01

    Micro-cogeneration is cogeneration with small performance, with maximal electric power up to 50 kWe. On the present, there are available small micro-cogeneration units with small electric performance, about 1 kWe, which are usable also in single family houses or flats. These micro-cogeneration units operate on principle of conventional combustion engine, Stirling engine, steam engine or fuel cell. Micro-cogeneration units with fuel cells are new progressive developing type of units for single family houses. Fuel cell is electrochemical device which by oxidation-reduction reaction turn directly chemical energy of fuel to electric power, secondary products are pure water and thermal energy. The aim of paper is measuring and evaluation of operation parameters of micro-cogeneration unit with fuel cell which uses natural gas as a fuel.

  7. 2. INTERIOR VIEW OF MILL, SHOWING THE TWOHIGH HANDOPERATED MILLS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. INTERIOR VIEW OF MILL, SHOWING THE TWO-HIGH HAND-OPERATED MILLS (ON THE LEFT HAND SIDE), PRIOR TO THEIR OPERATION; THIS PHOTO WAS TAKEN FROM THE OVERHEAD CRANE - American Brass Company, Kenosha Works, Hot Roll Mill, Kenosha, Kenosha County, WI

  8. Role of tool marks inside spherical mitigation pit fabricated by micro-milling on repairing quality of damaged KH2PO4 crystal

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ming-Jun; Cheng, Jian; Yuan, Xiao-Dong; Liao, Wei; Wang, Hai-Jun; Wang, Jing-He; Xiao, Yong; Li, Ming-Quan

    2015-01-01

    Repairing initial slight damage site into stable structures by engineering techniques is the leading strategy to mitigate the damage growth on large-size components used in laser-driven fusion facilities. For KH2PO4 crystals, serving as frequency converter and optoelectronic switch-Pockels cell, micro-milling has been proven the most promising method to fabricate these stable structures. However, tool marks inside repairing pit would be unavoidably introduced due to the wearing of milling cutter in actual repairing process. Here we quantitatively investigate the effect of tool marks on repairing quality of damaged crystal components by simulating its induced light intensification and testing the laser-induced damage threshold. We found that due to the formation of focusing hot spots and interference ripples, the light intensity is strongly enhanced with the presence of tool marks, especially for those on rear surfaces. Besides, the negative effect of tool marks is mark density dependent and multiple tool marks would aggravate the light intensification. Laser damage tests verified the role of tool marks as weak points, reducing the repairing quality. This work offers new criterion to comprehensively evaluate the quality of repaired optical surfaces to alleviate the bottleneck issue of low laser damage threshold for optical components in laser-driven fusion facilities. PMID:26399624

  9. Role of tool marks inside spherical mitigation pit fabricated by micro-milling on repairing quality of damaged KH2PO4 crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ming-Jun; Cheng, Jian; Yuan, Xiao-Dong; Liao, Wei; Wang, Hai-Jun; Wang, Jing-He; Xiao, Yong; Li, Ming-Quan

    2015-09-01

    Repairing initial slight damage site into stable structures by engineering techniques is the leading strategy to mitigate the damage growth on large-size components used in laser-driven fusion facilities. For KH2PO4 crystals, serving as frequency converter and optoelectronic switch-Pockels cell, micro-milling has been proven the most promising method to fabricate these stable structures. However, tool marks inside repairing pit would be unavoidably introduced due to the wearing of milling cutter in actual repairing process. Here we quantitatively investigate the effect of tool marks on repairing quality of damaged crystal components by simulating its induced light intensification and testing the laser-induced damage threshold. We found that due to the formation of focusing hot spots and interference ripples, the light intensity is strongly enhanced with the presence of tool marks, especially for those on rear surfaces. Besides, the negative effect of tool marks is mark density dependent and multiple tool marks would aggravate the light intensification. Laser damage tests verified the role of tool marks as weak points, reducing the repairing quality. This work offers new criterion to comprehensively evaluate the quality of repaired optical surfaces to alleviate the bottleneck issue of low laser damage threshold for optical components in laser-driven fusion facilities.

  10. Role of tool marks inside spherical mitigation pit fabricated by micro-milling on repairing quality of damaged KH2PO4 crystal.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ming-Jun; Cheng, Jian; Yuan, Xiao-Dong; Liao, Wei; Wang, Hai-Jun; Wang, Jing-He; Xiao, Yong; Li, Ming-Quan

    2015-09-24

    Repairing initial slight damage site into stable structures by engineering techniques is the leading strategy to mitigate the damage growth on large-size components used in laser-driven fusion facilities. For KH2PO4 crystals, serving as frequency converter and optoelectronic switch-Pockels cell, micro-milling has been proven the most promising method to fabricate these stable structures. However, tool marks inside repairing pit would be unavoidably introduced due to the wearing of milling cutter in actual repairing process. Here we quantitatively investigate the effect of tool marks on repairing quality of damaged crystal components by simulating its induced light intensification and testing the laser-induced damage threshold. We found that due to the formation of focusing hot spots and interference ripples, the light intensity is strongly enhanced with the presence of tool marks, especially for those on rear surfaces. Besides, the negative effect of tool marks is mark density dependent and multiple tool marks would aggravate the light intensification. Laser damage tests verified the role of tool marks as weak points, reducing the repairing quality. This work offers new criterion to comprehensively evaluate the quality of repaired optical surfaces to alleviate the bottleneck issue of low laser damage threshold for optical components in laser-driven fusion facilities.

  11. Tradewinds Veneer Mill, Ookala, Hawaii; Petition to Object to Title V Operating Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the Title V air operating permit regulations. This document is part of the Title V Petition Database available at www2.epa.gov/title-v-operating-permits/title-v-petition-database.

  12. Tradewinds Veneer Mill, Ookala, Hawaii; Petiton to Object to Title V Operating Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the Title V air operating permit regulations. This document is part of the Title V Petition Database available at www2.epa.gov/title-v-operating-permits/title-v-petition-database.

  13. Tool Condition Monitoring and Remaining Useful Life Prognostic Based on a Wireless Sensor in Dry Milling Operations

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Cunji; Yao, Xifan; Zhang, Jianming; Jin, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Tool breakage causes losses of surface polishing and dimensional accuracy for machined part, or possible damage to a workpiece or machine. Tool Condition Monitoring (TCM) is considerably vital in the manufacturing industry. In this paper, an indirect TCM approach is introduced with a wireless triaxial accelerometer. The vibrations in the three vertical directions (x, y and z) are acquired during milling operations, and the raw signals are de-noised by wavelet analysis. These features of de-noised signals are extracted in the time, frequency and time–frequency domains. The key features are selected based on Pearson’s Correlation Coefficient (PCC). The Neuro-Fuzzy Network (NFN) is adopted to predict the tool wear and Remaining Useful Life (RUL). In comparison with Back Propagation Neural Network (BPNN) and Radial Basis Function Network (RBFN), the results show that the NFN has the best performance in the prediction of tool wear and RUL. PMID:27258277

  14. Tool Condition Monitoring and Remaining Useful Life Prognostic Based on a Wireless Sensor in Dry Milling Operations.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cunji; Yao, Xifan; Zhang, Jianming; Jin, Hong

    2016-05-31

    Tool breakage causes losses of surface polishing and dimensional accuracy for machined part, or possible damage to a workpiece or machine. Tool Condition Monitoring (TCM) is considerably vital in the manufacturing industry. In this paper, an indirect TCM approach is introduced with a wireless triaxial accelerometer. The vibrations in the three vertical directions (x, y and z) are acquired during milling operations, and the raw signals are de-noised by wavelet analysis. These features of de-noised signals are extracted in the time, frequency and time-frequency domains. The key features are selected based on Pearson's Correlation Coefficient (PCC). The Neuro-Fuzzy Network (NFN) is adopted to predict the tool wear and Remaining Useful Life (RUL). In comparison with Back Propagation Neural Network (BPNN) and Radial Basis Function Network (RBFN), the results show that the NFN has the best performance in the prediction of tool wear and RUL.

  15. Ozonation and ultrafiltration for the treatment of olive mill wastewaters: effect of key operating conditions and integration schemes.

    PubMed

    Martins, Rui C; Ferreira, Ana M; Gando-Ferreira, Licínio M; Quinta-Ferreira, Rosa M

    2015-10-01

    With the objective of reaching suitable techniques for olive mill wastewater treatment, ozonation and ultrafiltration were studied individually and combined. A continuous reactor was run for the treatment of a phenolic mixture mimicking an actual olive mill wastewater (OMW) by ozonation. The effect of the main operating parameters was analysed (pH, liquid flow rate and ozone inlet concentration). The increase of pH and ozone dose improved ozonation efficiency. As expected, the highest residence time led to higher steady-state degradation (35 % of chemical oxygen demand (COD) abatement). Even if the rise on ozone inlet gas concentration was able to remove COD in a higher extent, it should be taken into consideration that with the lowest oxidant load (15 g O3/m(3)), the maximum steady-state biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5)/COD ratio was reached which would reduce the process costs. These operating conditions (pH 9, 1 mL/min of liquid flow rate and 15 g O3/m(3)) were applied to an actual OMW leading to 80 % of phenolic content abatement and 12 % of COD removal at the steady state. Regarding ultrafiltration, it was concluded that the best total phenolic content (TPh) and COD abatement results (55 and 15 %) are attained for pH 9 and using a transmembrane pressure drop of 1 bar. Among the integration schemes that were tested, ultrafiltration followed by ozonation was able to reach 93 and 20 % of TPh and COD depletion, respectively. Moreover, this sequence led to an effluent with a BOD5/COD ratio of about 0.55 which means that it likely can be posteriorly refined in a municipal wastewater treatment plant.

  16. An Empirical Study on Operator Interface Design for Handheld Devices to Control Micro Aerial Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-01

    An Empirical Study on Operator Interface Design for Handheld Devices to Control Micro Aerial Vehicles Ming Hou...Report DRDC Toronto TR 2010-075 October 2010 An Empirical Study on Operator Interface Design for Handheld Devices to...drives the need for a small and light controller which will not hinder a soldier carrying it. This requirement brings an issue of designing an

  17. Renormalization of composite operators in Yang-Mills theories using a general covariant gauge

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, J.C.; Scalise, R.J. )

    1994-09-15

    Essential to QCD applications of the operator product expansion, etc., is a knowledge of those operators that mix with gauge-invariant operators. A standard theorem asserts that the renormalization matrix is triangular: Gauge-invariant operators have alien'' gauge-variant operators among their counterterms, but, with a suitably chosen basis, the necessary alien operators have only themselves as counterterms. Moreover, the alien operators are supposed to vanish in physical matrix elements. A recent calculation by Hamberg and van Neerven apparently contradicts these results. By explicit calculations with the energy-momentum tensor, we show that the problems arise because of subtle infrared singularities that appear when gluonic matrix elements are taken on shell at zero momentum transfer.

  18. An In-Process Surface Roughness Recognition System in End Milling Operations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Lieh-Dai; Chen, Joseph C.

    2004-01-01

    To develop an in-process quality control system, a sensor technique and a decision-making algorithm need to be applied during machining operations. Several sensor techniques have been used in the in-process prediction of quality characteristics in machining operations. For example, an accelerometer sensor can be used to monitor the vibration of…

  19. Influence of the floating potential on micro-hollow cathode operation

    SciTech Connect

    Levko, D.; Bliokh, Y. P.; Krasik, Ya. E.

    2015-06-15

    The influence of a keeper electrode with a floating potential on the operation of a micro-hollow cathode is studied using the two-dimensional particle-in-cell Monte Carlo collisions model. The floating potential is determined self-consistently, taking into account the electron and ion charges collected by the keeper and the potential induced by the plasma non-compensated space charge. It is shown that the parameters of the micro-hollow cathode operation vary significantly, according to whether the keeper potential is floating or has a specified constant value.

  20. Operation of a dilution refrigerator in a micro mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edelman, V. S.

    2003-05-01

    It is shown that a dilution refrigerator in which 3He circulates due to condensation of He evaporating in the still on a cold wall at T=0.4- 0.5 K and condensate drains down to the mixing chamber can operate at 3He circulation rate down to 1 μmol/ s. On the base of this result we designed and tested experimental dilution refrigerator with sorption pumping of 3He bath and 1 K pot which can be inserted in a helium transport Dewar with a 24 mm hole in the neck.

  1. Online Optimization Method for Operation of Generators in a Micro Grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Yasuhiro; Miyamoto, Hideki; Matsuki, Junya; Iizuka, Toshio; Azuma, Hitoshi

    Recently a lot of studies and developments about distributed generator such as photovoltaic generation system, wind turbine generation system and fuel cell have been performed under the background of the global environment issues and deregulation of the electricity market, and the technique of these distributed generators have progressed. Especially, micro grid which consists of several distributed generators, loads and storage battery is expected as one of the new operation system of distributed generator. However, since precipitous load fluctuation occurs in micro grid for the reason of its smaller capacity compared with conventional power system, high-accuracy load forecasting and control scheme to balance of supply and demand are needed. Namely, it is necessary to improve the precision of operation in micro grid by observing load fluctuation and correcting start-stop schedule and output of generators online. But it is not easy to determine the operation schedule of each generator in short time, because the problem to determine start-up, shut-down and output of each generator in micro grid is a mixed integer programming problem. In this paper, the authors propose an online optimization method for the optimal operation schedule of generators in micro grid. The proposed method is based on enumeration method and particle swarm optimization (PSO). In the proposed method, after picking up all unit commitment patterns of each generators satisfied with minimum up time and minimum down time constraint by using enumeration method, optimal schedule and output of generators are determined under the other operational constraints by using PSO. Numerical simulation is carried out for a micro grid model with five generators and photovoltaic generation system in order to examine the validity of the proposed method.

  2. State of Vermont Petition to Object to Title V Operating Permit for International Paper Ticonderoga Mill

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the Title V air operating permit regulations. This document is part of the Title V Petition Database available at www2.epa.gov/title-v-operating-permits/title-v-petition-database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  3. Petition to Object to Cargill's Vegetable Oil Mill and Refinery, Gainesville, Georgia, Title V operating permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the Title V air operating permit regulations. This document is part of the Title V Petition Database available at www2.epa.gov/title-v-operating-permits/title-v-petition-database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  4. Design Considerations for the Construction and Operation of Flour Milling Facilities. Part I: Planning, Structural, and Life Safety Considerations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flour milling facilities have been the cornerstone of agricultural processing for centuries. Like most agri-industrial production facilities, flour milling facilities have a number of unique design requirements. Design information, to date, has been limited. In an effort to summarize state of the ...

  5. 78 FR 13479 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; New Haven Harbor, Quinnipiac and Mill Rivers, CT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-28

    ... holidays. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: If you have questions on this rule, call or email Ms. Judy Leung... Operations, telephone 202-366-9826. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: A. Regulatory History and Information On... October 26, 2009. There were no adverse impacts to navigation reported during the test period. As a...

  6. A Multiple-Regression Model for Monitoring Tool Wear with a Dynamometer in Milling Operations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Jacob C.; Chen, Joseph C.

    2004-01-01

    A major goal of the manufacturing industry is increasing product quality. The quality of a product is strongly associated with the condition of the cutting tool that produced it. Catching poor tool conditions early in the production will help reduce defects. However, with current CNC technology, manufacturers still rely mainly on the operator's…

  7. [Design of an anesthesia and micro-environment information management system in mobile operating room].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xianwen; Liu, Zhiguo; Zhang, Wenchang; Wu, Qingfu; Tan, Shulin

    2013-08-01

    We have designed a mobile operating room information management system. The system is composed of a client and a server. A client, consisting of a PC, medical equipments, PLC and sensors, provides the acquisition and processing of anesthesia and micro-environment data. A server is a powerful computer that stores the data of the system. The client gathers the medical device data by using the C/S mode, and analyzes the obtained HL7 messages through the class library call. The client collects the micro-environment information with PLC, and finishes the data reading with the OPC technology. Experiment results showed that the designed system could manage the patient anesthesia and micro-environment information well, and improve the efficiency of the doctors' works and the digital level of the mobile operating room.

  8. Towards the Exact Dilatation Operator of {N} = 4 Super Yang-Mills Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryzhov, Anton V.

    I present a summary of hep-th/0404215, which suggested a novel way of organizing the dilatation operator D of planar {N} = 4 SYM in the SU(2) sector. Instead of the usual perturbative expansion in powers of λ, we split D into parts D(n) according to the number n of independent pairwise interactions between spins at different sites. The BMN limit fixes D(1) completely, and it has regular expansions at both small and large values of λ. Anomalous dimensions of "long" operators in the two-scalar sector then generically scale as √λ at large λ, i.e. in the same way as energies of semiclassical states in the dual AdS5 ×S5 string theory.

  9. Study on the steady operating state of a micro-pulse electron gun

    SciTech Connect

    Kui, Zhou; Xing, Luo; Xiangyang, Lu; Shengwen, Quan; Jifei, Zhao; Ziqin, Yang

    2014-09-15

    Micro-pulse electron gun (MPG) employs the basic concept of multipacting to produce high-current and short-pulse electron beams from a radio-frequency (RF) cavity. The concept of MPG has been proposed for more than two decades. However, the unstable operating state of MPG vastly obstructs its practical applications. This paper presents a study on the steady operating state of a micro-pulse electron gun with theory and experiments. The requirements for the steady operating state are proposed through the analysis of the interaction between the RF cavity and the beam load. Accordingly, a MPG cavity with the frequency of 2856 MHz has been designed, constructed, and tested. Some primary experiments have been finished. Both the unstable and stable operating states of the MPG have been observed. The stable output beam current has been detected at about 3.8 mA. Further experimental study is under way now.

  10. Mortality of workers in two Minnesota taconite mining and milling operations.

    PubMed

    Cooper, W C; Wong, O; Graebner, R

    1988-06-01

    Mortality during the years 1947 to 1983 was studied in 3,444 men employed for at least 3 months in Minnesota taconite mining operations during the years 1947 to 1958. During 86,307 person-years of observation, there were 801 deaths for a standardized mortality ratio (SMR) of 88 (US white male rates) or 98 (Minnesota rates). The 41 deaths from respiratory cancer were fewer than expected, the SMR being 61 (P less than or equal to .01) (US rates) and 85 (Minnesota rates). There were 25 respiratory cancers 20 or more years after first taconite employment, for an SMR of 57 (P less than or equal to .01) (US rates). SMRs for colon cancer, kidney cancer, and lymphopoietic cancer were elevated, but below the level of statistical significance. There was one death from pleural mesothelioma, 11 years after first taconite employment, in a man with long prior employment as a locomotive operator. The pattern of deaths did not suggest asbestos-related disease in taconite miners and millers.

  11. Spinning superstrings at two loops: Strong-coupling corrections to dimensions of large-twist super Yang-Mills operators

    SciTech Connect

    Roiban, R.; Tseytlin, A. A.

    2008-03-15

    We consider folded (S,J) spinning strings in AdS{sub 5}xS{sup 5} (with one spin component in AdS{sub 5} and a one in S{sup 5}) corresponding to the Tr(D{sup S}{phi}{sup J}) operators in the sl(2) sector of the N=4 super Yang-Mills theory in the special scaling limit in which both the string mass {approx}{radical}({lambda})lnS and J are sent to infinity with their ratio fixed. Expanding in the parameter l=(J/{radical}({lambda})lnS) we compute the 2-loop string sigma-model correction to the string energy and show that it agrees with the expression proposed by Alday and Maldacena [J. High Energy Phys. 11 (2007) 019]. We suggest that a resummation of the logarithmic l{sup 2}ln{sup n}l terms is necessary in order to establish an interpolation to the weakly coupled gauge-theory results. In the process, we set up a general framework for the calculation of higher loop corrections to the energy of multispin string configurations. In particular, we find that in addition to the direct 2-loop term in the string energy there is a contribution from lower loop order due to a finite 'renormalization' of the relation between the parameters of the classical solution and the fixed spins, i.e., the charges of the SO(2,4)xSO(6) symmetry.

  12. Foeniculum vulgare Mill. increases cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration and inhibits store-operated Ca(2+) entry in vascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Han, A Young; Lee, Hui Su; Seol, Geun Hee

    2016-12-01

    This study assessed the effects of essential oil of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (fennel oil) and of trans-anethole, the main component of fennel oil, on extracellular Ca(2+)-induced store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) into vascular endothelial (EA) cells and their mechanisms of action. Components of fennel oil were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]c) in EA cells was determined using Fura-2 fluorescence. In the presence of extracellular Ca(2+), fennel oil significantly increased [Ca(2+)]c in EA cells; this increase was significantly inhibited by the Ca(2+) channel blockers La(3+) and nifedipine. In contrast, fennel oil induced [Ca(2+)]c was significantly lower in Ca(2+)-free solution, suggesting that fennel oil increases [Ca(2+)]c mainly by enhancing Ca(2+) influx into EA cells. [Ca(2+)]c mobilization by trans-anethole was similar to that of fennel oil. Moreover, SOCE was suppressed by fennel oil and trans-anethole. SOCE was also attenuated by lanthanum (La(3+)), a non-selective cation channel (NSC) blocker; 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borane (2-APB), an inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3) receptor inhibitor and SOCE blocker; and U73122, an inhibitor of phospholipase C (PLC). Further, SOCE was more strongly inhibited by La(3+) plus fennel oil or trans-anethole than by La(3+) alone. These findings suggest that fennel oil and trans-anethole significantly inhibit SOCE-induced [Ca(2+)]c increase in vascular endothelial cells and that these reactions may be mediated by NSC, IP3-dependent Ca(2+) mobilization, and PLC activation.

  13. Simultaneous Hydrogen and Methane Production Through Multi-Phase Anaerobic Digestion of Paperboard Mill Wastewater Under Different Operating Conditions.

    PubMed

    Farghaly, Ahmed; Tawfik, Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    Multi-phase anaerobic reactor for H2 and CH4 production from paperboard mill wastewater was studied. The reactor was operated at hydraulic retention times (HRTs) of 12, 18, 24, and 36 h, and organic loading rates (OLRs) of 2.2, 1.5, 1.1, and 0.75 kg chemical oxygen demand (COD)/m(3) day, respectively. HRT of 12 h and OLR of 2.2 kg COD/m(3) day provided maximum hydrogen yield of 42.76 ± 14.5 ml/g CODremoved and volumetric substrate uptake rate (-rS) of 16.51 ± 4.43 mg COD/L h. This corresponded to the highest soluble COD/total COD (SCOD/TCOD) ratio of 56.25 ± 3.3 % and the maximum volatile fatty acid (VFA) yield (YVFA) of 0.21 ± 0.03 g VFA/g COD, confirming that H2 was mainly produced through SCOD conversion. The highest methane yield (18.78 ± 3.8 ml/g CODremoved) and -rS of 21.74 ± 1.34 mgCOD/L h were achieved at an HRT of 36 h and OLR of 0.75 kg COD/m(3) day. The maximum hydrogen production rate (HPR) and methane production rate (MPR) were achieved at carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratio of 47.9 and 14.3, respectively. This implies the important effect of C/N ratio on the distinction between the dominant microorganism bioactivities responsible for H2 and CH4 production.

  14. A microRNA-initiated DNAzyme motor operating in living cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Hanyong; Li, Xing-Fang; Zhang, Hongquan; Le, X. Chris

    2017-03-01

    Synthetic DNA motors have great potential to mimic natural protein motors in cells but the operation of synthetic DNA motors in living cells remains challenging and has not been demonstrated. Here we report a DNAzyme motor that operates in living cells in response to a specific intracellular target. The whole motor system is constructed on a 20 nm gold nanoparticle (AuNP) decorated with hundreds of substrate strands serving as DNA tracks and dozens of DNAzyme molecules each silenced by a locking strand. Intracellular interaction of a target molecule with the motor system initiates the autonomous walking of the motor on the AuNP. An example DNAzyme motor responsive to a specific microRNA enables amplified detection of the specific microRNA in individual cancer cells. Activated by specific intracellular targets, these self-powered DNAzyme motors will have diverse applications in the control and modulation of biological functions.

  15. A microRNA-initiated DNAzyme motor operating in living cells

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Hanyong; Li, Xing-Fang; Zhang, Hongquan; Le, X. Chris

    2017-01-01

    Synthetic DNA motors have great potential to mimic natural protein motors in cells but the operation of synthetic DNA motors in living cells remains challenging and has not been demonstrated. Here we report a DNAzyme motor that operates in living cells in response to a specific intracellular target. The whole motor system is constructed on a 20 nm gold nanoparticle (AuNP) decorated with hundreds of substrate strands serving as DNA tracks and dozens of DNAzyme molecules each silenced by a locking strand. Intracellular interaction of a target molecule with the motor system initiates the autonomous walking of the motor on the AuNP. An example DNAzyme motor responsive to a specific microRNA enables amplified detection of the specific microRNA in individual cancer cells. Activated by specific intracellular targets, these self-powered DNAzyme motors will have diverse applications in the control and modulation of biological functions. PMID:28262725

  16. micROS: a morphable, intelligent and collective robot operating system.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xuejun; Dai, Huadong; Yi, Xiaodong; Wang, Yanzhen; Yang, Shaowu; Zhang, Bo; Wang, Zhiyuan; Zhou, Yun; Peng, Xuefeng

    2016-01-01

    Robots are developing in much the same way that personal computers did 40 years ago, and robot operating system is the critical basis. Current robot software is mainly designed for individual robots. We present in this paper the design of micROS, a morphable, intelligent and collective robot operating system for future collective and collaborative robots. We first present the architecture of micROS, including the distributed architecture for collective robot system as a whole and the layered architecture for every single node. We then present the design of autonomous behavior management based on the observe-orient-decide-act cognitive behavior model and the design of collective intelligence including collective perception, collective cognition, collective game and collective dynamics. We also give the design of morphable resource management, which first categorizes robot resources into physical, information, cognitive and social domains, and then achieve morphability based on self-adaptive software technology. We finally deploy micROS on NuBot football robots and achieve significant improvement in real-time performance.

  17. Parametric system identification of resonant micro/nanosystems operating in a nonlinear response regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabater, A. B.; Rhoads, J. F.

    2017-02-01

    The parametric system identification of macroscale resonators operating in a nonlinear response regime can be a challenging research problem, but at the micro- and nanoscales, experimental constraints add additional complexities. For example, due to the small and noisy signals micro/nanoresonators produce, a lock-in amplifier is commonly used to characterize the amplitude and phase responses of the systems. While the lock-in enables detection, it also prohibits the use of established time-domain, multi-harmonic, and frequency-domain methods, which rely upon time-domain measurements. As such, the only methods that can be used for parametric system identification are those based on fitting experimental data to an approximate solution, typically derived via perturbation methods and/or Galerkin methods, of a reduced-order model. Thus, one could view the parametric system identification of micro/nanosystems operating in a nonlinear response regime as the amalgamation of four coupled sub-problems: nonparametric system identification, or proper experimental design and data acquisition; the generation of physically consistent reduced-order models; the calculation of accurate approximate responses; and the application of nonlinear least-squares parameter estimation. This work is focused on the theoretical foundations that underpin each of these sub-problems, as the methods used to address one sub-problem can strongly influence the results of another. To provide context, an electromagnetically transduced microresonator is used as an example. This example provides a concrete reference for the presented findings and conclusions.

  18. Designing reversible arithmetic, logic circuit to implement micro-operation in quantum computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalita, Gunajit; Saikia, Navajit

    2016-10-01

    The futuristic computing is desired to be more power full with low-power consumption. That is why quantum computing has been a key area of research for quite some time and is getting more and more attention. Quantum logic being reversible, a significant amount of contributions has been reported on reversible logic in recent times. Reversible circuits are essential parts of quantum computers, and hence their designs are of great importance. In this paper, designs of reversible circuits are proposed using a recently proposed reversible gate for arithmetic and logic operations to implement various micro-operations (simple add and subtract, add with carry, subtract with borrow, transfer, incrementing, decrementing etc., and logic operations like XOR, XNOR, complementing etc.) in a reversible computer like quantum computer. The two new reversible designs proposed here for half adder and full adders are also used in the presented reversible circuits to implement various microoperations. The quantum costs of these designs are comparable. Many of the implemented micro-operations are not seen in previous literatures. The performances of the proposed circuits are compared with existing designs wherever available.

  19. 43 CFR 3596.1 - Milling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Milling. 3596.1 Section 3596.1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT... OPERATIONS Waste From Mining or Milling § 3596.1 Milling. The operator/lessee shall conduct...

  20. 43 CFR 3596.1 - Milling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... OPERATIONS Waste From Mining or Milling § 3596.1 Milling. The operator/lessee shall conduct milling... the reduction, concentration or separation of mineral substances by mechanical or chemical processes... and waste generated shall be in accordance with the approved practices....

  1. 43 CFR 3596.1 - Milling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... OPERATIONS Waste From Mining or Milling § 3596.1 Milling. The operator/lessee shall conduct milling... the reduction, concentration or separation of mineral substances by mechanical or chemical processes... and waste generated shall be in accordance with the approved practices....

  2. 43 CFR 3596.1 - Milling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... OPERATIONS Waste From Mining or Milling § 3596.1 Milling. The operator/lessee shall conduct milling... the reduction, concentration or separation of mineral substances by mechanical or chemical processes... and waste generated shall be in accordance with the approved practices....

  3. Ion Milling of Sapphire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, Don A.; Herren, Kenneth A.

    2004-01-01

    The ion milling of sapphire is a complicated operation due to several characteristics of the material itself. It is a relatively hard transparent nonconductive crystalline material that does not transfer heat nearly as well as metals that have been successfully ion milled in the past. This investigation involved designing an experimental arrangement, using existing ion milling equipment, as the precursor to figuring the surface of sapphire and other insulating optical materials. The experimental arrangement employs a laser probe beam to constantly monitor the stresses being induced in the material, as it is being ion milled. The goal is to determine if the technique proposed would indeed indicate the stress being induced in the material so that these stresses can be managed to prevent failure of the optic.

  4. Micro-Hole and Strip Plate (MHSP) operation in CF4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natal da Luz, H.; Mir, J. A.; Veloso, J. F. C. A.; dos Santos, J. M. F.; Rhodes, N. J.; Schooneveld, E. M.

    2007-09-01

    The Micro-Hole and Strip Plate (MHSP) is a hybrid electron multiplier which combines the working principles of a Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) and a Micro-Strip Gas Counter (MSGC). The compact double stage electron multiplication processes found in the MHSP enables the realisation of higher gas gain than the lone GEM operation. Thermal neutron detection using gas detectors involves the use of He3 gas with another suitable stopping gas, operated at elevated pressure to confine the products of the neutron- He3 reaction. It is, however, well known that the gain of GEMs drops too sharply with increasing chamber pressure. We have pursued experimental work using the MHSP to infer the upper limits of thermal neutron position resolution. The stopping gas used during the present studies was Tetrafluoromethane (CF4) chosen due to its low X-ray and γ-ray efficiency, requiring only 2.6 bar to yield a position resolution of 1 mm. In the present studies, systematic measurements were taken to establish the gain versus CF4 pressure characteristics of the MHSP, in the 1 to 2.65 bar range. These studies demonstrated that it was possible to sustain gains above 104 and 300 with pressures of 1 and 2.65 bar, respectively. The advantage of having two multiplication stages in the MHSP separated by only few tens of microns, results in a less pronounced gain reduction with pressure, presenting higher gains than single or multiple GEMs. The energy resolution at 1 bar was 29% FWHM for the 5.9 keV Mn Kα line from a Fe55 source, which is a typical value for micro-patterned gas detectors operating in CF4.

  5. The CYGNSS ground segment; innovative mission operations concepts to support a micro-satellite constellation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, D.; Vincent, M.; Rose, R.; Ruf, C.

    Hurricane track forecasts have improved in accuracy by ~50% since 1990, while in that same period there has been essentially no improvement in the accuracy of intensity prediction. One of the main problems in addressing intensity occurs because the rapidly evolving stages of the tropical cyclone (TC) life cycle are poorly sampled in time by conventional polar-orbiting, wide-swath surface wind imagers. NASA's most recently awarded Earth science mission, the NASA EV-2 Cyclone Global Navigation Satellite System (CYGNSS) has been designed to address this deficiency by using a constellation of micro-satellite-class Observatories designed to provide improved sampling of the TC during its life cycle. Managing a constellation of Observatories has classically resulted in an increased load on the ground operations team as they work to create and maintain schedules and command loads for multiple Observatories. Using modern tools and technologies at the Mission Operations Center (MOC) in conjunction with key components implemented in the flight system and an innovative strategy for pass execution coordinated with the ground network operator, the CYGNSS mission reduces the burden of constellation operations to a level commensurate with the low-cost mission concept. This paper focuses on the concept of operations for the CYGNSS constellation as planned for implementation at the CYGNSS MOC in conjunction with the selected ground network operator.

  6. The influence of selected design and operating parameters on the dynamics of the steam micro-turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Żywica, Grzegorz; Kiciński, Jan

    2015-10-01

    The topic of the article is the analysis of the influence of selected design parameters and operating conditions on the radial steam micro-turbine, which was adapted to operate with low-boiling agent in the Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC). In the following parts of this article the results of the thermal load analysis, the residual unbalance and the stiffness of bearing supports are discussed. Advanced computational methods and numerical models have been used. Computational analysis showed that the steam micro-turbine is characterized by very good dynamic properties and is resistant to extreme operating conditions. The prototype of micro-turbine has passed a series of test calculations. It has been found that it can be subjected to experimental research in the micro combined heat and power system.

  7. Automatic detection of micro-aneurysms in retinal images based on curvelet transform and morphological operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammad Alipour, Shirin Hajeb; Rabbani, Hossein

    2013-09-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the major complications of diabetes that changes the blood vessels of the retina and distorts patient vision that finally in high stages can lead to blindness. Micro-aneurysms (MAs) are one of the first pathologies associated with DR. The number and the location of MAs are very important in grading of DR. Early diagnosis of micro-aneurysms (MAs) can reduce the incidence of blindness. As MAs are tiny area of blood protruding from vessels in the retina and their size is about 25 to 100 microns, automatic detection of these tiny lesions is still challenging. MAs occurring in the macula can lead to visual loss. Also the position of a lesion such as MAs relative to the macula is a useful feature for analysis and classification of different stages of DR. Because MAs are more distinguishable in fundus fluorescin angiography (FFA) compared to color fundus images, we introduce a new method based on curvelet transform and morphological operations for MAs detection in FFA images. As vessels and MAs are the bright parts of FFA image, firstly extracted vessels by curvelet transform are removed from image. Then morphological operations are applied on resulted image for detecting MAs.

  8. Pitt Mill Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Oder, R.R.; Borzone, L.A.

    1990-05-01

    Results of a technical and economic evaluation of application of the Pitt Mill to fine coal grinding are presented. The Pitt Mill is a vertically oriented, batch operated, intermediate energy density (0. 025 kW/lb media), stirred ball mill. The mill grinds coal from coarse sizes (typically 3/16 inch or 4 mesh topsize) to the 10 micron to 20 micron mean particle diameter size range in a single step using a shallow grinding bed containing inexpensive, readily available, course grinding media. Size reduction is efficient because of rapid product circulation through the grinding bed caused by action of a novel circulation screw mounted on the agitator shaft. When a dispersant is employed, the grinding can be carried out to 50% to 60% solids concentration. Use of coarse grinding media offers the possibility of enhanced mineral liberation because size reduction is achieved more by impact shattering than by attrition. The batch method offers the possibility of very close control over product particle size distribution without overproduction of fines. A two- phase program was carried out. In the first phase, Grinding Studies, tests were run to determine a suitable configuration of the Pitt Mill. Machine design parameters which were studied included screw configuration, media type, agitator RPM, time, media size, and slurry chamber aspect ratio. During the last part of this phase of the program, tests were carried out to compare the results of grinding Pocahontas seam, Pittsburgh {number sign}8, and East Kentucky Mingo County coals by the Pitt Mill and by a two-stage grinding process employing a Netzsch John mill to feed a high energy density (0.05 kW/Lb media) disc mill. 22 refs., 25 tabs.

  9. Operational performance of the photovoltaic-powered grain mill and water pump at Tangaye, Burkina Faso (formerly Upper Volta). Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Martz, J.E.; Roberts, A.F.

    1985-03-01

    A photovoltaic (PV) system powering a grain mill and water pump was installed in the remote African village of Tangaye, Burkina Faso (formerly Upper Volta) under the sponsorship of the U.S. Agency for International Development (AID) and by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Lewis Research Center (LeRC) in early 1979. The presence reports covers the second two years of operation from April 1981 through June 1983. During this time, the grain mill and water pump were operational 96 and 88 percent of the time respectively, and the PV system generated sufficient electricity to enable the grinding of about 111 metric tons of finely ground flow and the pumping of over 5000 cm sq of water from the 10 m deep well. The report includes a description of the current configuration of the system, a review of system performance, a discussion of the socioeconomic impact of the system on the villagers and a summary of results and conclusions covering the entire four-year period.

  10. Predictive Surface Roughness Model for End Milling of Machinable Glass Ceramic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohan Reddy, M.; Gorin, Alexander; Abou-El-Hossein, K. A.

    2011-02-01

    Advanced ceramics of Machinable glass ceramic is attractive material to produce high accuracy miniaturized components for many applications in various industries such as aerospace, electronics, biomedical, automotive and environmental communications due to their wear resistance, high hardness, high compressive strength, good corrosion resistance and excellent high temperature properties. Many research works have been conducted in the last few years to investigate the performance of different machining operations when processing various advanced ceramics. Micro end-milling is one of the machining methods to meet the demand of micro parts. Selecting proper machining parameters are important to obtain good surface finish during machining of Machinable glass ceramic. Therefore, this paper describes the development of predictive model for the surface roughness of Machinable glass ceramic in terms of speed, feed rate by using micro end-milling operation.

  11. Gas fluidized-bed stirred media mill

    DOEpatents

    Sadler, III, Leon Y.

    1997-01-01

    A gas fluidized-bed stirred media mill is provided for comminuting solid ticles. The mill includes a housing enclosing a porous fluidizing gas diffuser plate, a baffled rotor and stator, a hollow drive shaft with lateral vents, and baffled gas exhaust exit ports. In operation, fluidizing gas is forced through the mill, fluidizing the raw material and milling media. The rotating rotor, stator and milling media comminute the raw material to be ground. Small entrained particles may be carried from the mill by the gas through the exit ports when the particles reach a very fine size.

  12. Machine Shop. Module 6: Milling. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walden, Charles H.

    This document consists of materials for a 12-unit course on the following topics: (1) introduction to milling; (2) structure and accessories; (3) safety and maintenance; (4) cutting-tool variables; (5) basic set-up activities; (6) squaring a workpiece; (7) hole-making operations; (8) form milling; (9) machining keyways; (10) milling angular…

  13. Operation modes of a hydro-generator as a part of the inverter micro hydropower plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukutin, B. V.; Shandarova, E. B.; Matukhin, D. L.; Makarova, A. F.; Fuks, I. L.

    2016-04-01

    The paper dwells on the selection problem of power equipment for a stand-alone inverter micro hydropower plant, in particular a hydro-generator, and evaluation of its operation modes. Numerical experiments included the modes calculation of hydroelectric units of the same type with various nominal power, supplied to the consumer according to the unchanged electric load curve. The studies developed requirements for a hydro-turbine and a synchronous generator in terms of a speed range and installed capacity, depending on the load curve. The possibility of using general industrial hydroelectric units with nominal power equal to half-maximum capacity of a typical daily load curve in rural areas was shown.

  14. Advanced Transport Operating System (ATOPS) color displays software description: MicroVAX system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slominski, Christopher J.; Plyler, Valerie E.; Dickson, Richard W.

    1992-01-01

    This document describes the software created for the Display MicroVAX computer used for the Advanced Transport Operating Systems (ATOPS) project on the Transport Systems Research Vehicle (TSRV). The software delivery of February 27, 1991, known as the 'baseline display system', is the one described in this document. Throughout this publication, module descriptions are presented in a standardized format which contains module purpose, calling sequence, detailed description, and global references. The global references section includes subroutines, functions, and common variables referenced by a particular module. The system described supports the Research Flight Deck (RFD) of the TSRV. The RFD contains eight Cathode Ray Tubes (CRTs) which depict a Primary Flight Display, Navigation Display, System Warning Display, Takeoff Performance Monitoring System Display, and Engine Display.

  15. Augmentation of biodegradability of olive mill wastewater by electrochemical pre-treatment: effect on phytotoxicity and operating cost.

    PubMed

    Hanafi, F; Belaoufi, A; Mountadar, M; Assobhei, O

    2011-06-15

    In order to exploit the fertilizer value of olive oil mill wastewaters (OMW), a novel method has been developed for its treatment. OMW effluents were pre-treated first by electrocoagulation using aluminum electrode and then by a biological process using a selected strain of Aspergillus niger van Tieghem. The effect of treatments was assessed through COD removal, reduction of total phenols, and decrease of phytotoxicity using durum wheat (Triticum durum) seeds. This sequential treatment scheme was capable of reducing concentration of organics, phenolics and phytotoxicity. The goal of this investigation was achieved, the phytotoxicity was completely removed and the germination index was 106% of OMW after sequential treatment. It can be concluded that the sequential process of OMW treatment might serve for the production of a fertilizer which is able to improve the growth of plants. These results are encouraging in the context of developing a low-budget technology for the effective management of OMW.

  16. Optimization of Machining Parameters of Milling Operation by Application of Semi-synthetic oil based Nano cutting Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giri Prasad, M. J.; Abhishek Raaj, A. S.; Rishi Kumar, R.; Gladson, Frank; M, Gautham

    2016-09-01

    The present study is concerned with resolving the problems pertaining to the conventional cutting fluids. Two samples of nano cutting fluids were prepared by dispersing 0.01 vol% of MWCNTs and a mixture of 0.01 vol% of MWCNTs and 0.01 vol% of nano ZnO in the soluble oil. The thermophysical properties such as the kinematic viscosity, density, flash point and the tribological properties of the prepared nano cutting fluid samples were experimentally investigated and were compared with those of plain soluble oil. In addition to this, a milling process was carried by varying the process parameters and by application of different samples of cutting fluids and an attempt was made to determine optimal cutting condition using the Taguchi optimization technique.

  17. Brookside Mills, Knox County, TN

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Brookside Mills, located in Knox County, TN, was a textile mill that was founded in 1885 and at its peak employed over 1,000 people. Its former uses included fabric weaving, dying, and sewing operations. It was at some point a department store, and during a portion of its history, coal was used as an energy source. Weaving operations continued in some form at the Brookside factory until 1969. In 1996 the buildings were demolished.

  18. Copper-based micro-channel cooler reliably operated using solutions of distilled-water and ethanol as a coolant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chin, A. K.; Nelson, A.; Chin, R. H.; Bertaska, R.; Jacob, J. H.

    2015-03-01

    Copper-based micro-channel coolers (Cu-MCC) are the lowest thermal-resistance heat-sinks for high-power laserdiode (LD) bars. Presently, the resistivity, pH and oxygen content of the de-ionized water coolant, must be actively controlled to minimize cooler failure by corrosion and electro-corrosion. Additionally, the water must be constantly exposed to ultraviolet radiation to limit the growth of micro-organisms that may clog the micro-channels. In this study, we report the reliable, care-free operation of LD-bars attached to Cu-MCCs, using a solution of distilledwater and ethanol as the coolant. This coolant meets the storage requirements of Mil-Std 810G, e.g. exposure to a storage temperature as low as -51°C and no growth of micro-organisms during passive storage.

  19. Planetary micro-rover operations on Mars using a Bayesian framework for inference and control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Post, Mark A.; Li, Junquan; Quine, Brendan M.

    2016-03-01

    With the recent progress toward the application of commercially-available hardware to small-scale space missions, it is now becoming feasible for groups of small, efficient robots based on low-power embedded hardware to perform simple tasks on other planets in the place of large-scale, heavy and expensive robots. In this paper, we describe design and programming of the Beaver micro-rover developed for Northern Light, a Canadian initiative to send a small lander and rover to Mars to study the Martian surface and subsurface. For a small, hardware-limited rover to handle an uncertain and mostly unknown environment without constant management by human operators, we use a Bayesian network of discrete random variables as an abstraction of expert knowledge about the rover and its environment, and inference operations for control. A framework for efficient construction and inference into a Bayesian network using only the C language and fixed-point mathematics on embedded hardware has been developed for the Beaver to make intelligent decisions with minimal sensor data. We study the performance of the Beaver as it probabilistically maps a simple outdoor environment with sensor models that include uncertainty. Results indicate that the Beaver and other small and simple robotic platforms can make use of a Bayesian network to make intelligent decisions in uncertain planetary environments.

  20. ONLINE SAG MILL PULSE MEASUREMENT AND OPTIMIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Raj Rajamani; Jose Delgadillo; Vishal Duriseti

    2006-06-24

    The grinding efficiency of semi autogenous milling or ball milling depends on the tumbling motion of the total charge within the mill. Utilization of this tumbling motion for efficient breakage of particles depends on the conditions inside the mill. However, any kind of monitoring device to measure the conditions inside the mill shell during operation is virtually impossible due to the severe environment presented by the tumbling charge. An instrumented grinding ball, which is capable of surviving a few hours and transmitting the impacts it experiences, is proposed here. The spectrum of impacts collected over 100 revolutions of the mills presents the signature of the grinding environment inside mill. This signature could be effectively used to optimize the milling performance by investigating this signature's relation to mill product size, mill throughput, make-up ball size, mill speed, liner profile and ball addition rates. At the same time, it can also be used to design balls and liner systems that can survive longer in the mill. The technological advances made in electronics and communication makes this leap in instrumentation certainly viable. Hence, the instrumented grinding ball offers the ability to qualitatively observe and optimize the milling environment.

  1. Characterization of operating parameters of an in vivo micro CT system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghani, Muhammad U.; Ren, Liqiang; Yang, Kai; Chen, Wei R.; Wu, Xizeng; Liu, Hong

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the operating parameters of an in-vivo micro CT system. In-plane spatial resolution, noise, geometric accuracy, CT number uniformity and linearity, and phase effects were evaluated using various phantoms. The system employs a flat panel detector with a 127 μm pixel pitch, and a micro focus x-ray tube with a focal spot size ranging from 5-30 μm. The system accommodates three magnification sets of 1.72, 2.54 and 5.10. The in-plane cutoff frequencies (10% MTF) ranged from 2.31 lp/mm (60 mm FOV, M=1.72, 2×2 binning) to 13 lp/mm (10 mm FOV, M=5.10, 1×1 binning). The results were qualitatively validated by a resolution bar pattern phantom and the smallest visible lines were in 30-40 μm range. Noise power spectrum (NPS) curves revealed that the noise peaks exponentially increased as the geometric magnification (M) increased. True in-plane pixel spacing and slice thickness were within 2% of the system's specifications. The CT numbers in cone beam modality are greatly affected by scattering and thus they do not remain the same in the three magnifications. A high linear relationship (R2 > 0.999) was found between the measured CT numbers and Hydroxyapatite (HA) loadings of the rods of a water filled mouse phantom. Projection images of a laser cut acrylic edge acquired at a small focal spot size of 5 μm with 1.5 fps revealed that noticeable phase effects occur at M=5.10 in the form of overshooting at the boundary of air and acrylic. In order to make the CT numbers consistent across all the scan settings, scatter correction methods may be a valuable improvement for this system.

  2. Using Micro-Synchrophasor Data for Advanced Distribution Grid Planning and Operations Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, Emma; Kiliccote, Sila; McParland, Charles; Roberts, Ciaran

    2014-07-01

    This report reviews the potential for distribution-grid phase-angle data that will be available from new micro-synchrophasors (µPMUs) to be utilized in existing distribution-grid planning and operations analysis. This data could augment the current diagnostic capabilities of grid analysis software, used in both planning and operations for applications such as fault location, and provide data for more accurate modeling of the distribution system. µPMUs are new distribution-grid sensors that will advance measurement and diagnostic capabilities and provide improved visibility of the distribution grid, enabling analysis of the grid’s increasingly complex loads that include features such as large volumes of distributed generation. Large volumes of DG leads to concerns on continued reliable operation of the grid, due to changing power flow characteristics and active generation, with its own protection and control capabilities. Using µPMU data on change in voltage phase angle between two points in conjunction with new and existing distribution-grid planning and operational tools is expected to enable model validation, state estimation, fault location, and renewable resource/load characterization. Our findings include: data measurement is outstripping the processing capabilities of planning and operational tools; not every tool can visualize a voltage phase-angle measurement to the degree of accuracy measured by advanced sensors, and the degree of accuracy in measurement required for the distribution grid is not defined; solving methods cannot handle the high volumes of data generated by modern sensors, so new models and solving methods (such as graph trace analysis) are needed; standardization of sensor-data communications platforms in planning and applications tools would allow integration of different vendors’ sensors and advanced measurement devices. In addition, data from advanced sources such as µPMUs could be used to validate models to improve

  3. Novel aspects of wet milling for the production of microsuspensions and nanosuspensions of poorly water-soluble drugs.

    PubMed

    Bhakay, Anagha; Merwade, Maneesh; Bilgili, Ecevit; Dave, Rajesh N

    2011-08-01

    Micronization and nanoparticle production of poorly water-soluble drugs was investigated using single wet milling equipment operating in the attritor and stirred media modes. The drug particles in the median size range of 0.2?2??m were prepared by changing the milling mode and operating conditions of a Micros mill with a purpose of elucidating the dynamics of the wet milling process. It was determined that particle breakage due to mechanical stresses and aggregation due to insufficient stabilization are two competing mechanisms which together control the wet milling dynamics of the poorly water-soluble drugs. The study in the attritor mode using four different classes of stabilizers with six drugs indicated that steric stabilization worked better than electrostatic stabilization for the drugs studied. In addition, the existence of different minimum polymer concentrations for the stabilization of microsuspensions and nanosuspensions was indicated. The major role of a non-ionic polymer during the production of fine particles is its stabilization action through steric effects, and no experimental evidence was found to support the so-called Rehbinder effect. Periodic addition of the polymer as opposed to the addition of the polymer at the start of milling process was introduced as a novel processing method. This novel method of polymer addition provided effective stabilization and breakage of drug particles leading to a narrower and finer particle size distribution. Alternatively, it may allow shorter processing time and lower overall power consumption of the milling process for a desired particle size.

  4. Operational processing and cloud boundary detection from micro pulse lidar data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, James R.; Hlavka, Dennis L.; Spinhirne, James D.; Scott, V. Stanley., III; Turner, David D.

    1998-01-01

    Micro Pulse Lidar (MPL) was developed at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) as the result of research on space-borne lidar techniques. It was designed to provide continuous, unattended observations of all significant atmospheric cloud and aerosol structure with a rugged, compact system design and the benefit of eye safety (Spinhirne 1993). The significant eye safety feature is achieved by using low pulse energies and high pulse repetition rates compared to standard lidar systems. MPL systems use a diode pumped 10 microj, 2500 Hz doubled Nd:YLF laser. In addition, a solid state Geiger mode avalanche photo diode (GAPD) photon counting detector is used allowing for quantum efficiencies approaching 70%. Other design features have previously been noted by Spinhirne (1995). Though a commercially available instrument, with nearly 20 systems operating around the world, the most extensive MPL work has come from those operated by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) (Stokes and Schwartz 1994) program. The diverse ability of the instrument relating to the measurement of basic cloud macrophysical structure and both cloud and aerosol radiative properties well suits the ARM research philosophy. MPL data can be used to yield many parameters including cloud boundary heights to the limit of signal attenuation, cloud scattering cross sections and optical thicknesses, planetary boundary layer heights and aerosol scattering profiles, including those into the stratosphere in nighttime cases (Hlavka et al 1996). System vertical resolution ranges from 30 m to 300 m (i.e. high and low resolution respectively) depending on system design. The lidar research group at GSFC plays an advisory role in the operation, calibration and maintenance of NASA and ARM owned MPL systems. Over the past three years, processing software and system correction techniques have been developed in anticipation of the increasing population of systems amongst the community. Datasets produced by three ARM

  5. Analysis of Frequency Response and Scale-Factor of Tuning Fork Micro-Gyroscope Operating at Atmospheric Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Xukai; Li, Hongsheng; Ni, Yunfang; Sang, Pengcheng

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a study of the frequency response and the scale-factor of a tuning fork micro-gyroscope operating at atmospheric pressure in the presence of an interference sense mode by utilizing the approximate transfer function. The optimal demodulation phase (ODP), which is always ignored in vacuum packaged micro-gyroscopes but quite important in gyroscopes operating at atmospheric pressure, is obtained through the transfer function of the sense mode, including the primary mode and the interference mode. The approximate transfer function of the micro-gyroscope is deduced in consideration of the interference mode and the ODP. Then, the equation describing the scale-factor of the gyroscope is also obtained. The impacts of the interference mode and Q-factor on the frequency response and the scale-factor of the gyroscope are analyzed through numerical simulations. The relationship between the scale-factor and the demodulation phase is also illustrated and gives an effective way to find out the ODP in practice. The simulation results predicted by the transfer functions are in close agreement with the results of the experiments. The analyses and simulations can provide constructive guidance on bandwidth and sensitivity designs of the micro-gyroscopes operating at atmospheric pressure. PMID:25621614

  6. Analysis of frequency response and scale-factor of tuning fork micro-gyroscope operating at atmospheric pressure.

    PubMed

    Ding, Xukai; Li, Hongsheng; Ni, Yunfang; Sang, Pengcheng

    2015-01-22

    This paper presents a study of the frequency response and the scale-factor of a tuning fork micro-gyroscope operating at atmospheric pressure in the presence of an interference sense mode by utilizing the approximate transfer function. The optimal demodulation phase (ODP), which is always ignored in vacuum packaged micro-gyroscopes but quite important in gyroscopes operating at atmospheric pressure, is obtained through the transfer function of the sense mode, including the primary mode and the interference mode. The approximate transfer function of the micro-gyroscope is deduced in consideration of the interference mode and the ODP. Then, the equation describing the scale-factor of the gyroscope is also obtained. The impacts of the interference mode and Q-factor on the frequency response and the scale-factor of the gyroscope are analyzed through numerical simulations. The relationship between the scale-factor and the demodulation phase is also illustrated and gives an effective way to find out the ODP in practice. The simulation results predicted by the transfer functions are in close agreement with the results of the experiments. The analyses and simulations can provide constructive guidance on bandwidth and sensitivity designs of the micro-gyroscopes operating at atmospheric pressure.

  7. Machining Challenges: Macro to Micro Cutting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shunmugam, M. S.

    2016-04-01

    Metal cutting is an important machining operation in the manufacture of almost all engineering components. Cutting technology has undergone several changes with the development of machine tools and cutting tools to meet challenges posed by newer materials, complex shapes, product miniaturization and competitive environments. In this paper, challenges in macro and micro cutting are brought out. Conventional and micro end-milling are included as illustrative examples and details are presented along with discussion. Lengthy equations are avoided to the extent possible, as the emphasis is on the basic concepts.

  8. Chalk Line Mill, Anniston, AL

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Chalk Line Mill property was the site of a textile mill which operated from 1887 until 1994. Demolition activities in 2004 removed most of the structures on-site, but also left large, unsightly piles of debris scattered across this 14-acre property. The City applied for and received a $200,000 Brownfields cleanup grant in 2007 to address contamination on the property and the Appalachian Regional Commission provided an additional $150,000 in funding.

  9. Order Responding to Request for EPA to Object to the Operating Permit for Fort James Camas Mill in Camas, WA

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the Title V air operating permit regulations. This document is part of the Title V Petition Database available at www2.epa.gov/title-v-operating-permits/title-v-petition-database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  10. Petition for Administrator to Object to Fort James Camas Mill Title V Operating Permit From Carl D. Larkins

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the Title V air operating permit regulations. This document is part of the Title V Petition Database available at www2.epa.gov/title-v-operating-permits/title-v-petition-database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  11. 2003 Petition to Object to Cargill's Vegetable Oil Mill and Refinery, Gainesville, Georgia, Title V operating permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the Title V air operating permit regulations. This document is part of the Title V Petition Database available at www2.epa.gov/title-v-operating-permits/title-v-petition-database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  12. Micro-cogeneration units based on Stirling engine for heating and their real operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čierny, Jaroslav; Patsch, Marek

    2014-08-01

    This article was deal with micro-cogeneration units based on Stirling engine. We watched problematic of real working Stirling engine. The article also contain hookup of unit constructed at University of Zilina.

  13. The effects of lifter configurations and mill speeds on the mill power draw and performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usman, Husni; Taylor, Patrick; Spiller, D. Erik

    2017-01-01

    Grinding mills used in the mining industries are the most energy-intensive operation and require a large number of wear resistant materials as well. The 1-m mill was used to investigate the effects of three lifter configurations, namely Hi (High), Rail and Hi-Lo (High-Low), and mill speeds on the mill performance. The MillTraj software was also utilized to simulate the outermost charge trajectories of the mill. At the given operating conditions, the power draw of Hi lifter was slightly lower than that of the Rail and the Hi-Lo and thus, the Hi lifter showed improvement in the mill efficiency. The product size distributions of the different lifters are very close and the size distribution of Hi-Lo lifter is slightly finer than those of the other lifters. At 74% critical speed, the size distributions of the Rail and Hi-Lo lifters were finer than at 70% critical speed, while that of Hi lifter otherwise occurs. At 80% critical speed, the size distributions of the lifters were coarser than at 74% critical speed. In this case, the outer charge trajectories of each lifter could go down on the mill shell rather than on the toe of the mill charge, resulting in ineffective grinding. Increasing face angles and/or mill charge would allow the mill to be operated at higher speeds.

  14. [Investigation on the electron density of a micro-plasma jet operated at atmospheric pressure].

    PubMed

    Li, Xue-chen; Zhao, Na; Liu, Wei-yuan; Liu, Zhi-qiang

    2010-07-01

    In the present paper, a micro-hollow cathode discharge setup was used to generate micro-plasma jet in flowing mixture of Ar and N2 at atmospheric pressure. The characteristics of the micro-plasma jet were investigated by means of optical method and electrical one. It has been found that breakdown occurs in the gas between the two electrodes when the input power of electric source is increased to a certain value. Plasma appears along the gas flow direction when the mixed gas flows from the aperture of the micro-hollow cathode, and the length of plasma reaches 4 mm. The discharge current is quasi-continuous, and the duration of discharge pulse is about 0.1 micros. Electron density was studied by using Einstein equation and Stark broadening of spectral lines from the emission spectrum respectively. It was found that the results of electron density calculated by the two methods are consistent with the order of 10(15) x cm(-3). It was also found that the electron density is almost independent of power. A qualitative explanation to the phenomenon is given based on the gas discharge theory.

  15. Online SAG Mill Pluse Measurement and Optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Raj Rajamani; Jose Delgadillo; Vishal Duriseti

    2007-06-30

    The grinding efficiency of semi autogenous milling or ball milling depends on the tumbling motion of the total charge within the mill. Utilization of this tumbling motion for efficient breakage of particles depends on the conditions inside the mill. However, any kind of monitoring device to measure the conditions inside the mill shell during operation is virtually impossible due to the severe environment presented by the tumbling charge. An instrumented grinding ball, which is capable of surviving a few hours and transmitting the impacts it experiences, is proposed here. The spectrum of impacts collected over 100 revolutions of the mills presents the signature of the grinding environment inside mill. This signature could be effectively used to optimize the milling performance by investigating this signature's relation to mill product size, mill throughput, make-up ball size, mill speed, liner profile and ball addition rates. At the same time, it can also be used to design balls and liner systems that can survive longer in the mill. The technological advances made in electronics and communication makes this leap in instrumentation certainly viable. Hence, the instrumented grinding ball offers the ability to qualitatively observe and optimize the milling environment. An instrumented load cell package that can measure the force of impacts inside the grinding chamber of a mill is developed here. The signal from the instrumented load cell package is interpreted in terms of a histogram termed as an impact spectrum which is a plot of the number of impacts at a specific energy level against the energy. It reflects on the average force regime of the mill. The instrumented load cell package was calibrated against the ultra fast load cell which has been unanimously accepted as a standard to measure single breakage events. The load cell package was successfully used to produce impact spectra in an 8.5 inch lab scale mill. The mill speed and the ball size were varied to study

  16. Micro Hopping Robots for Rescue Operation: Many Tiny Robots with a Single Sensor and Launcher System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-25

    victims within collapsed buildings . The approach is to use many small robots that search downward (using gravity, rather than a power source) as the best...unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 1. Introduction <Background> Collapsed buildings due to earthquake or...developed to detect survivors under collapsed buildings . This small robot includes micro eccentric motors for generating lift and thrust forces, and IR

  17. 40 CFR 61.142 - Standard for asbestos mills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for asbestos mills. 61.142... (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Asbestos § 61.142 Standard for asbestos mills. (a) Each owner or operator of an asbestos mill shall...

  18. 40 CFR 61.142 - Standard for asbestos mills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for asbestos mills. 61.142... (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Asbestos § 61.142 Standard for asbestos mills. (a) Each owner or operator of an asbestos mill shall...

  19. 40 CFR 61.142 - Standard for asbestos mills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for asbestos mills. 61.142... (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Asbestos § 61.142 Standard for asbestos mills. (a) Each owner or operator of an asbestos mill shall...

  20. 40 CFR 61.142 - Standard for asbestos mills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for asbestos mills. 61.142... (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Asbestos § 61.142 Standard for asbestos mills. (a) Each owner or operator of an asbestos mill shall...

  1. 40 CFR 61.142 - Standard for asbestos mills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for asbestos mills. 61.142... (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Asbestos § 61.142 Standard for asbestos mills. (a) Each owner or operator of an asbestos mill shall...

  2. Low-cost boring mill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hibdon, R. A.

    1979-01-01

    Portable unit and special fixture serve as boring mill. Machine, fabricated primarily from scrap metal, was designed and set up in about 12 working days. It has reduced setup and boring time by 66 percent as compared with existing boring miles, thereby making latter available for other jobs. Unit can be operated by one man.

  3. Removal of organic micro-pollutants from solid waste landfill leachate in membrane bioreactor operated without excess sludge discharge.

    PubMed

    Boonyaroj, V; Chiemchaisri, C; Chiemchaisri, W; Yamamoto, K

    2012-01-01

    Two-stage membrane bioreactor (MBR) system was applied to the treatment of landfill leachate from a solid waste disposal site in Thailand. The first stage anoxic reactor was equipped with an inclined tube module for sludge separation. It was followed by an aerobic stage with a hollow fiber membrane module for solid liquid separation. Mixed liquor sludge from the aerobic reactor was re-circulated back to anoxic reactor in order to maintain constant mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) concentration in the aerobic reactor. The removal of micro-pollutants from landfill leachate along the treatment period of 300 days was monitored. The results indicated that two-stage MBRs could remove biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and NH(4)(+) by 97, 87 and 91% at steady operating condition. Meanwhile organic micro-pollutant removals were 50-76%. The removal efficiencies varied according to the hydrophobic characteristic of compounds but they were improved during long-term MBR operation without sludge discharge.

  4. Performance Characteristics of a Micro Air Grinder Operated by a Two-Stages Axial-Type Turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Soo-Yong; Choi, Sang-Kyu

    Performance characteristics are experimentally studied with various nozzles, stators and rotors on a partially admitted small axial-type turbine, which could be applied to a driver of micro air grinders. When air tools adopt axial-type turbines as a driver, they could operate without friction and abrasion because the turbine rotor does not make contact with the casing. In order to maintain these merits on a small axial-type turbine without reducing power, performance characteristics are examined through measuring the specific output power with eight different stators and three different rotors and nozzles. The tested turbine consists of two-stages and its mean radius of flow passage is 9.2mm. The experimental results show that the output power improvement on the first stage is significant comparing with that on the second stage because partially admitted flow is fully diffused in the second stage. Meanwhile, the output power is increased to 16-22% by changing the nozzle blade angle from 60° to 70° because the first stage performance is directly affected by the flow spouted from the nozzle. These results indicate that blade angles greatly influence the performance of a micro turbine operating in partial admission. When an appropriate stator and rotor that are designed in accordance with the flow spouted from the nozzle are installed in the rotating part, the output power is increased up to 38% depending on the blade angle.

  5. New approach and practical modelling of bead milling process for the manufacturing of nanocrystalline suspensions.

    PubMed

    Nakach, Mostafa; Authelin, Jean-René; Agut, Christophe

    2017-03-13

    Stirred media milling is the main technology for producing colloidal nano-crystalline suspensions. A number of studies have been reported on the effect of different operating parameters for lab, pilot, and industrial scales. However, typical milling tool box that can be used to support candidate from selection up to phase III clinical supplies can involve different mill configurations. This paper describes a parametric study and milling kinetic modelling of the different mills. The impact of active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) type and process parameters on milling kinetics was determined. The milling kinetics were modeled using an empirical model which allows for predicting and simulation of milling kinetics of stirred annular and pin mills. The proposed model was found to accurately fit milling kinetics whatever the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) considered, technology employed and the process parameters used for milling. Moreover, the model was found to be able to ensure the process transfer from one mill to another.

  6. Uranium Mill and ISL Facility Database

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    An Excel database on NRC and Agreement State licensed mills providing status, locational/operational/restoration data, maps, and environmental reports including groundwater and air monitoring information. Developed for support of proposed regulatory revisions supporting UMTRCA and CAA-NESHAPs.

  7. Mill profiler machines soft materials accurately

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rauschl, J. A.

    1966-01-01

    Mill profiler machines bevels, slots, and grooves in soft materials, such as styrofoam phenolic-filled cores, to any desired thickness. A single operator can accurately control cutting depths in contour or straight line work.

  8. 12. TROJAN MILL, INTERIOR SHOWING PRIMARY MILL No. 1 (MONADNOCK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. TROJAN MILL, INTERIOR SHOWING PRIMARY MILL No. 1 (MONADNOCK CHILEAN) FROM EAST, c. 1912. ELEVATOR No. 1 ADJACENT TO MILL. CREDIT WR. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  9. 29. Detail view north showing amperage and voltage meters, operator's ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. Detail view north showing amperage and voltage meters, operator's room, west operator's house. - Yellow Mill Bridge, Spanning Yellow Mill Channel at Stratford Avenue, Bridgeport, Fairfield County, CT

  10. Comprehensive characterization and understanding of micro-fuel cells operating at high methanol concentrations.

    PubMed

    Gago, Aldo S; Esquivel, Juan-Pablo; Sabaté, Neus; Santander, Joaquín; Alonso-Vante, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    We report on the analysis of the performance of each electrode of an air-breathing passive micro-direct methanol fuel cell (µDMFC) during polarization, stabilization and discharge, with CH3OH (2-20 M). A reference electrode with a microcapillary was used for separately measuring the anode the cathode potential. Information about the open circuit potential (OCP), the voltage and the mass transport related phenomena are available. Using 2 M CH3OH, the anode showed mass transport problems. With 4 and 6 M CH3OH both electrodes experience this situation, whereas with 10 and 20 M CH3OH the issue is attributed to the cathode. The stabilization and fuel consumption time depends mainly on the cathode performance, which is very sensitive to fuel crossover. The exposure to 20 M CH3OH produced a loss in performance of more than 75% of the highest power density (16.3 mW·cm(-2)).

  11. Optimum Operation Condition on Distributed Power Supply System with Micro Gas Turbine/Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Hiroshi; Yamada, Miki; Usui, Hiromoto; Komoda, Yoshiyuki

    In order to find the optimum operation condition of a distributed power supply system of 30kW class micro gas turbine (MGT) and solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) hybrid system with the combination of line electric power and supplied gas, a system analysis has been performed. In this study, an absorption chiller and a boiler were mounted to utilize the exhausted heat from the MGT/SOFC system. The time variation of energy consumption in 24 hours for house and market models was taken into consideration for the calculation of the energy saving ratio of the present system. The operation ratio defined with the ratio of power supply of MGT/SOFC system to the power required at the peak load was changed as a parameter. From the comparison with the system using line power and gas, it is found that the present system shows high energy saving ratio around 0.4 of the operation ratio, but the energy saving ratio severely decreases in the range of high operation ratio. In this study, it is revealed that the thermal storage system effectively improves the energy saving ratio especially for the house model in winter season.

  12. Learning Activity Packets for Milling Machines. Unit II--Horizontal Milling Machines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Board of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This learning activity packet (LAP) outlines the study activities and performance tasks covered in a related curriculum guide on milling machines. The course of study in this LAP is intended to help students learn to set up and operate a horizontal mill. Tasks addressed in the LAP include mounting style "A" or "B" arbors and adjusting arbor…

  13. Learning Activity Packets for Milling Machines. Unit III--Vertical Milling Machines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Board of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This learning activity packet (LAP) outlines the study activities and performance tasks covered in a related curriculum guide on milling machines. The course of study in this LAP is intended to help students learn to set up and operate a vertical mill. Tasks addressed in the LAP include mounting and removing cutters and cutter holders for vertical…

  14. The ChemCam Remote Micro-Imager at Gale crater: Review of the first year of operations on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Mouélic, S.; Gasnault, O.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Bridges, N. T.; Langevin, Y.; Mangold, N.; Maurice, S.; Wiens, R. C.; Pinet, P.; Newsom, H. E.; Deen, R. G.; Bell, J. F.; Johnson, J. R.; Rapin, W.; Barraclough, B.; Blaney, D. L.; Deflores, L.; Maki, J.; Malin, M. C.; Pérez, R.; Saccoccio, M.

    2015-03-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory rover, "Curiosity" landed near the base of a 5 km-high mound of layered material in Gale crater. Mounted on the rover mast, the ChemCam instrument is designed to remotely determine the composition of soils and rocks located a few meters from the rover, using a Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectrometer (LIBS) coupled to a Remote Micro-Imager (RMI). We provide an overview of the diverse imaging investigations that were carried out by ChemCam's RMI during the first year of operation on Mars. 1182 individual panchromatic RMI images were acquired from Sol 10 to Sol 360 to document the ChemCam LIBS measurements and to characterize soils, rocks and rover hardware. We show several types of derived imaging products, including mosaics of images taken before and after laser shots, difference images to enhance the most subtle laser pits, merges with color Mastcam-100 images, micro-topography using the Z-stack technique, and time lapse movies. The very high spatial resolution of RMI is able to resolve rock textures at sub-mm scales, which provides clues regarding the origin (igneous versus sedimentary) of rocks, and to reveal information about their diagenetic and weathering evolution. In addition to its scientific value over the range accessible by LIBS (1-7 m), we also show that RMI can also serve as a powerful long distance reconnaissance tool to characterize the landscape at distances up to several kilometers from the rover.

  15. Comprehensive characterization and understanding of micro-fuel cells operating at high methanol concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Gago, Aldo S; Esquivel, Juan-Pablo; Sabaté, Neus; Santander, Joaquín

    2015-01-01

    Summary We report on the analysis of the performance of each electrode of an air-breathing passive micro-direct methanol fuel cell (µDMFC) during polarization, stabilization and discharge, with CH3OH (2–20 M). A reference electrode with a microcapillary was used for separately measuring the anode the cathode potential. Information about the open circuit potential (OCP), the voltage and the mass transport related phenomena are available. Using 2 M CH3OH, the anode showed mass transport problems. With 4 and 6 M CH3OH both electrodes experience this situation, whereas with 10 and 20 M CH3OH the issue is attributed to the cathode. The stabilization and fuel consumption time depends mainly on the cathode performance, which is very sensitive to fuel crossover. The exposure to 20 M CH3OH produced a loss in performance of more than 75% of the highest power density (16.3 mW·cm−2). PMID:26665070

  16. 75 FR 71463 - Woodland Mills Corporation Mill Spring, NC; Notice of Revised Determination on Reconsideration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-23

    ... Employment and Training Administration Woodland Mills Corporation Mill Spring, NC; Notice of Revised... of Woodland Mills Corporation, Mill Spring, North Carolina, to apply for Trade Adjustment Assistance... yarn produced by Woodland Mills Corporation, Mill Spring, North Carolina Woodland Mills...

  17. Structural characterization of mechanically milled ZnO: influence of zirconia milling media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vojisavljević, K.; Šćepanović, M.; Srećković, T.; Grujić-Brojčin, M.; Branković, Z.; Branković, G.

    2008-11-01

    Zinc oxide nanoparticles were obtained by milling in a planetary ball mill with a zirconia milling assembly for up to 5 h in air. The samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy methods. The deviation of the lattice parameters from single crystal values was related to defect creation and increase of strain inside the hexagonal lattice of milled ZnO nanoparticles. The observed redshift and peak broadening of the major first-order Raman modes were ascribed to the formation of intrinsic defects by mechanical milling combined with the effects of phonon confinement in nanosized powders. To investigate the type of intrinsic defects and impurities introduced during milling, it was necessary to analyze both milled and thermally treated ZnO. After thermal treatment, the intensity of the Raman spectra increased and the peak positions reverted to values similar to those in unmilled ZnO powder, pointing to defect annihilation. XRD patterns of sintered samples confirmed the existence of zirconia impurities and the Rietveld analysis revealed a small amount of zirconium introduced in the ZnO crystal lattice on the Zn sites or interstitial sites. The large influence of those impurities on the micro-Raman spectra of thermally treated samples was observed in this study.

  18. In-SITU, Time-resolved Raman Spectro-micro-topography of an Operating Lithium Ion Battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luo, Yu; Cai, Wen-Bin; Xing, Xue-Kun; Scherson, Daniel A.

    2003-01-01

    A Raman microscope has been coupled to a computer-controlled, two-dimensional linear translator attached to a custom-designed, sealed optical chamber to allow in situ acquisition of space-, and time-resolved spectra of an operating thin graphite/LiCoO2 Li-ion battery. This unique arrangement made it possible to collect continuously series of Raman spectra from a sharply defined edge of the battery exposing the anode (A), separator (S), and cathode (C), during charge and discharge, while the device was moved back and forth under the fixed focused laser beam along an axis normal to the layered A/S/C plane. Clear spectral evidence was obtained for changes in the amount of Li(+) within particles of graphite in the anode, and, to a lesser extent, of LiCoO2 in the cathode, during battery discharge both as a function of position and time. Analysis of time-resolved Raman spectro-micro-topography (SMT) measurements of the type described in this work are expected to open new prospects for assessing the validity of theoretical models aimed at simulating the flow of Li(+) within Li-ion batteries under operating conditions.

  19. Micro rotary machine and methods for using same

    DOEpatents

    Stalford, Harold L [Norman, OK

    2012-04-17

    A micro rotary machine may include a micro actuator and a micro shaft coupled to the micro actuator. The micro shaft comprises a horizontal shaft and is operable to be rotated by the micro actuator. A micro tool is coupled to the micro shaft and is operable to perform work in response to motion of the micro shaft.

  20. Micro rotary machine and methods for using same

    DOEpatents

    Stalford, Harold

    2015-01-13

    A micro rotary machine may include a micro actuator and a micro shaft coupled to the micro actuator. The micro shaft comprises a horizontal shaft and is operable to be rotated by the micro actuator. A micro tool is coupled to the micro shaft and is operable to perform work in response to motion of the micro shaft.

  1. 31. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill: oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill: one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: View down at the mill from top of the mill's circular masonry enclosure. Mill animals circling above the mill, on top of the enclosure, dragged booms radiating from the drive shaft to power the mill. The drive-shaft is no longer in its upright positon but is lying next to the mill in the foreground. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  2. VIEW OF HANDOPERATED ROLLING MILLS ROLLING STANDS FROM LEFT TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF HAND-OPERATED ROLLING MILLS ROLLING STANDS FROM LEFT TO RIGHT: THREE HIGH; THREE HIGH; THREE HIGH; THREE HIGH (OPERATED AS A TWO-HIGH); TWO HIGH TWO HIGH MANUFACTURED BY BLAW-KNOX THREE HIGH MANUFACTURED BY LEWIS FOUNDRY AND MACHINE CO. - Cambria Iron Company, Gautier Works, 12" Mill, Clinton Street & Little Conemaugh River, Johnstown, Cambria County, PA

  3. 70. PRIMARY MILL AND CLASSIFIER No. 2 FROM NORTHWEST. MILL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    70. PRIMARY MILL AND CLASSIFIER No. 2 FROM NORTHWEST. MILL DISCHARGED INTO LAUNDER WHICH PIERCED THE SIDE OF THE CLASSIFIER PAN. WOOD LAUNDER WITHIN CLASSIFIER VISIBLE (FILLED WITH DEBRIS). HORIZONTAL WOOD PLANKING BEHIND MILL IS FEED BOX. MILL SOLUTION PIPING RUNS ALONG BASE OF WEST SIDE OF CLASSIFIER. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  4. Method of fabricating a micro machine

    DOEpatents

    Stalford, Harold L

    2014-11-11

    A micro machine may be in or less than the micrometer domain. The micro machine may include a micro actuator and a micro shaft coupled to the micro actuator. The micro shaft is operable to be driven by the micro actuator. A tool is coupled to the micro shaft and is operable to perform work in response to at least motion of the micro shaft.

  5. Revitalizing America's Mills: A Report on Brownfields Mill Projects

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This report focuses on mills -- former textile, wood, paper, iron, and steel mills. The report describes the challenges and opportunities of mill sites with case studies highlighting some of the most creative solutions from across the country.

  6. Micro opioid receptor A118G polymorphism and post-operative pain: opioids' effects on heterozygous patients.

    PubMed

    De Capraris, A; Cinnella, G; Marolla, A; Salatto, P; Da Lima, S; Vetuschi, P; Consoletti, L; Gesualdo, L; Dambrosio, M

    2011-01-01

    The single-nucleotide-polymorphism (SNP) 118A>G in the micro-1 opioid receptor gene (OPRM1) is associated with a decrease in the analgesic effects of opioids. The aim of this study is to assess whether 118A >G polymorphism could influence the analgesic response to opioid-based postoperative pain (POP) therapy. The study consisted of two parts: section alpha, observational, included 199 subjects undergoing scheduled surgical procedures with pain management standardized on surgery invasiveness and on expected level of postoperative pain; section beta, randomized, included 41 women undergoing scheduled caesarean delivery with continuous intra-operative epidural anesthesia and post-operative analgesia (CEA). In both sections, POP was measured over 48 h (T6h-T24h-T48h) by the visual analogue scale (VAS). In section beta we also tested the responsiveness of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) expressed by cortisol levels. In section alpha, with cluster analysis, subjects were analyzed according to their genotype: a group (no. 1) of 34 patients reporting VAS score >3 at every time lapse was identified and included only A118G carriers, while wild-type (A118A - absence of 118A>G polymorphism) patients were unevenly distributed between those with cluster no. 2 (VAS score <3 at every study steps) and those with cluster no. 3 (VAS score progressively reducing from T6h). In section beta, A118G carriers receiving epidural sufentanil had the lowest VAS scores at T24h; also in these patients, cortisol levels remained more stable, with a mild decrease at T6h. This study shows that the OPRM1 118A>G polymorphism affects postoperative pain response in heterozygous patients: they have a different postoperative pain response than patients with wild-type genes, which may affect the efficacy of the analgesic therapy.

  7. Towards intra-operative diagnosis of tumours during breast conserving surgery by selective-sampling Raman micro-spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Kenny; Zaabar, Fazliyana; Rakha, Emad; Ellis, Ian; Koloydenko, Alexey; Notingher, Ioan

    2014-10-01

    Breast-conserving surgery (BCS) is increasingly employed for the treatment of early stage breast cancer. One of the key challenges in BCS is to ensure complete removal of the tumour while conserving as much healthy tissue as possible. In this study we have investigated the potential of Raman micro-spectroscopy (RMS) for automated intra-operative evaluation of tumour excision. First, a multivariate classification model based on Raman spectra of normal and malignant breast tissue samples was built and achieved diagnosis of mammary ductal carcinoma (DC) with 95.6% sensitivity and 96.2% specificity (5-fold cross-validation). The tumour regions were discriminated from the healthy tissue structures based on increased concentration of nucleic acids and reduced concentration of collagen and fat. The multivariate classification model was then applied to sections from fresh tissue of new patients to produce diagnosis images for DC. The diagnosis images obtained by raster scanning RMS were in agreement with the conventional histopathology diagnosis but were limited to long data acquisition times (typically 10 000 spectra mm-2, which is equivalent to ~5 h mm-2). Selective-sampling based on integrated auto-fluorescence imaging and Raman spectroscopy was used to reduce the number of Raman spectra to ~20 spectra mm-2, which is equivalent to an acquisition time of ~15 min for 5 × 5 mm2 tissue samples. This study suggests that selective-sampling Raman microscopy has the potential to provide a rapid and objective intra-operative method to detect mammary carcinoma in tissue and assess resection margins.

  8. Bay Mills' Bold Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedman, Eric

    2011-01-01

    It's a long, long way from Bay Mills Community College, near the shores of frigid Lake Superior, to Detroit. But distance, time and demographics aside, the school and the city are united by Bay Mills' status as the nation's only tribally controlled college that authorizes quasi-public schools, known officially as public school academies. And it's…

  9. Compound taper milling machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, N. R.

    1969-01-01

    Simple, inexpensive milling machine tapers panels from a common apex to a uniform height at panel edge regardless of the panel perimeter configuration. The machine consists of an adjustable angled beam upon which the milling tool moves back and forth above a rotatable table upon which the workpiece is held.

  10. Relationship between Rice Sample Milling Conditions and Milling Quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of milling conditions on milling quality of medium grain rough rice M202. Using a McGill No. 3 mill, the conditions studied were milling weight and duration, and polishing weight and duration. This research examined the relationships among the...

  11. 13. TROJAN MILL, INTERIOR SHOWING PRIMARY MILL No. 1 (ALLIS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. TROJAN MILL, INTERIOR SHOWING PRIMARY MILL No. 1 (ALLIS CHALMERS BALL MILL) FROM EAST, c. 1919. ELECTRIC MOTOR AND DRIVE SHAFT CLEARLY VISIBLE. CREDIT WR. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  12. 32. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill, oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill, one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: End of mill into which cane was fed between top and bottom roll. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  13. 102. VIEW OF PILOT MILL INTERIOR, MILLING LEVEL FROM WEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    102. VIEW OF PILOT MILL INTERIOR, MILLING LEVEL FROM WEST. BALL MILL FOUNDATION IN FOREGROUND, SLOPED CLASSIFIER BED AND CALCINE BIN ADJACENT, WITH CRUSHER IN BACKGROUND. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  14. 9. Monadnock Mills complex from the south. Mill No. 1 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Monadnock Mills complex from the south. Mill No. 1 is in the center, with the Wheel and Pump House and Mill No. 2 to the left, and the Clothroom Building/Bleach House to the right. - Monadnock Mills, 15 Water Street, Claremont, Sullivan County, NH

  15. 33 CFR 117.225 - Yellow Mill Channel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Yellow Mill Channel. 117.225 Section 117.225 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Connecticut § 117.225 Yellow Mill Channel....

  16. 33 CFR 117.225 - Yellow Mill Channel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Yellow Mill Channel. 117.225 Section 117.225 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Connecticut § 117.225 Yellow Mill Channel....

  17. Energy Conservation in the Food Industry : Terminal Flour Mill.

    SciTech Connect

    United Industries Corporation.

    1985-03-01

    This report presents the results of an energy study that was conducted at Terminal Flour Mill in Portland, Oregon. Terminal Flour Mill is one of five food industry (SIC 20) plants that are being studied. Energy conservation measures (ECM's) are divided into two groups; operation and maintenance (O and M) measures, and equipment modification measures.

  18. View looking east in the main pipe mill building at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View looking east in the main pipe mill building at the operators pulpit of the east-west reelers, no. 2 seamless line. - U.S. Steel National Tube Works, Main Pipe Mill Building, Along Monongahela River, McKeesport, Allegheny County, PA

  19. 30. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill: oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill: one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1885-1870. View: Masonry-lined passage-way leading to the mill at the center of its circular masonry enclosure. The passageway permitted cane to be carried to the mill and cane trash (bagasse) to be carried away. Bridges over the passageways, no longer in place, permitted the mill animals to circle and power the mill from above. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  20. 33. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill, oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill, one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: From above the mill showing the three 15' x 22' horizontal rolls, mill frame or cheeks, portland cement foundation, and lower part of vertical drive shaft lying next mill in foreground. The loose metal piece resting on top of the mill frame matched the indented portion of the upper frame to form a bracket and bearing for the drive shaft when it was in its proper upright position. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  1. Milling damage on Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymer using TiAlN coated End mills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konneh, Mohamed; Izman, Sudin; Rahman Kassim, Abdullah Abdul

    2015-07-01

    This paper reports on the damage caused by milling Carbon Fibre Reinforced Composite (CFRP) with 2-flute 4 mm-diameter solid carbide end mills, coated with titanium aluminium nitride. The machining parameters considered in work are, rotation speed, feed rate and depth of cut. Experiments were designed based on Box-Behnken design and the experiments conducted on a Mikrotool DT-110 CNC micro machine. A laser tachometer was used to ascertain a rotational speed for conducting any machining trial. Optical microscopy examination reveals minimum delamination value of 4.05 mm at the spindle speed of 25,000 rpm, depth of cut of 50μm and feed rate of 3 mm/min and the maximum delamination value of 5.04 mm at the spindle speed of 35000 rpm, depth of cut of 150μm and feed rate of 9 mm/min A mathematical model relating the milling parameters and delamination has been established.

  2. 1. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill: oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill: one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: Historical view, 1934, from T.T. Waterman collection, Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association. Large rectangular piece lying in front of the mill is the top of the mill frame appearing in its proper place in 1928 views. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  3. 13. VIEW OF THE MILL LOOKING SOUTHWEST SHOWING THE MILL, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. VIEW OF THE MILL LOOKING SOUTHWEST SHOWING THE MILL, TRESTLES, A WAREHOUSE AT THE RIGHT SIDE TO THE PHOTOGRAPH. NOTE THE PIPE IN THE LOWER CENTER FOREGROUND. THIS IS A RUIN OF THE TAILING LINE THAT RAN FROM THE MILL TO THE CYANIDE PLANT ABOUT 1800 FEET NORTH OF THE MILL. DETERIORATED PIECES OF THE WOOD TRESTLE THAT CARRIED THE PIPE ARE SCATTERED AROUND THE PIPE. - Standard Gold Mill, East of Bodie Creek, Northeast of Bodie, Bodie, Mono County, CA

  4. Determination on Whether Specialty Minerals Inc. Must be Included in the Simpson Paper Company Shasta Mill Application for a Title V Operating Permit as a Support Facility.

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the Title V air operating permit regulations. This document is part of the Title V Policy and Guidance Database available at www2.epa.gov/title-v-operating-permits/title-v-operating-permit-policy-and-guidance-document-index. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  5. The implementation of HPGR mills in existing grinding circuits

    SciTech Connect

    Patzelt, N.; Knecht, J.; Longhurst, D.

    1996-12-31

    High pressure grinding mills have been successfully introduced in the industry. They offer the possibilities for capacity increase of existing plants and reduction of operating costs. The plants in operation are running in different applications and modes of operation. They can be installed in a combination with SAG and ball mills or in a stand-alone mode. In combination with other grinding mills, it has to be investigated how the HPGR can be installed to reach the full efficiency. This paper describes the possibilities of implementing high pressure grinding rolls and shows by case studies the potential of savings which could be reached.

  6. IN VITRO SCREENING OF ENVIRONMENT SAMPLES FOR ESTROGENIC AND ANDROGENIC ACTIVITY: CONCENTRATED ANIMAL FEEDLOT OPERATION, PULP MILL AND TREATED SEWAGE EFFLUENTS, GLOBAL WATER RESEARCH COALITION, AND COMBUSTION BYPRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fish living in ecosystems contaminated with human or domestic animal effluents have been shown to display reproductive alterations. Recent research with effluent from cattle feeding operations in the US, for example, have associated morphological alterations in fish collected fro...

  7. Towards a Test of the Equivalence Principle With a Two-species Atom Interferometer Operating in Micro Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geiger, Remi; Menoret, Vincent; Cheinet, Patrick; Bouyer, Philippe; Stern, Guillaume; Landragin, Arnaud; Zahzam, Nassim; Bresson, Alexandre

    Our work aims at developing an atom accelerometer using two different species (87 Rb and 39 K) and operating in a plane which carries out parabolic flights. The physical process underlying the operation of our instrument is a matter waves interferometer [1,2] using bosonic atoms which are laser cooled down to temperatures of the order of the micro Kelvin. In the quest for testing the weak equivalence principle with these two atomic species as test masses, we have proposed an analysis to estimate their differential acceleration [3]. In particular, we have shown that we could reject a significant part of the acceleration noise in the plane. Since the two atoms move with respect to the same reference frame (a mirror), they share a common source of acceleration noise. Its impact can be reduced thanks to an appropriate choice of the scale factors of each interferometer. Therefore, we intend to measure the relative differential acceleration of the two species in free fall with the 0g-plane with a short term stability comparable to the state of the art. Experimentally, we have demonstrated our ability to perform sensitive interferometric measure-ments during the weightlessness phases on board of the A300-0g Airbus of CNES [4]. Recently, we have investigated the sensitivity of the 87 Rb-interferometer to inertial effects such as accel-erations, when our setup operates in this plane [5]. Such measurements rely on a correlation between the atomic interferences signal and classical accelerometers fixed on the mirror refer-encing the motion of the atoms. We will use this method to further reject an important amount of the acceleration noise in the reference frame. Meanwhile, we have developed original lasers sources for cooling and manipulating 87 Rb and 39 K atoms. The full laser design of our experiment is based on telecom technologies and fiber optics which results in a robust, compact and transportable setup [6]. These technical efforts have been realized in the context of

  8. Limitations of single kernel near-infrared hyperspectral imaging of soft wheat for milling quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soft wheat milling quality assessment typically begins in the later stages of wheat breeding programs and continues after cultivar release in commercial milling and processing operations. Performed as a combination of physical tests such as pilot scale milling for endosperm extraction efficiency and...

  9. Preoperative evaluation of micro-organisms in non-operated cleft in soft palate: impact on use of antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Roode, G J; Bütow, K-W; Naidoo, S

    2017-02-01

    To identify the pathogenic micro-organisms that had colonised preoperatively in clefts in the soft palate and oro-nasopharynx, we retrospectively studied the preoperative microbiological profiles of 200 infants who had had primary repair of all types of cleft in the soft palate. Data from a private practice that specialises in the repair of facial clefts were extracted randomly from patients' files. We analysed the results of the culture of preoperative swabs taken from clefts in the soft palate and oro-nasopharynx, and the resistance profile of organisms towards various antibiotics. A total of 23 different pathogenic micro-organisms were isolated from 115 (57%) of the sample. Klebsiella pneumoniae most commonly colonised clefts in the lip, alveolus, and palate. This was considerably higher than in other groups. The second most common micro-organism was Staphylococcus aureus, which was found most often in patients with isolated clefts in the hard palate. Those with complete cleft lip and palate presented with more pathogenic micro-organisms in preoperative cultures than those with other types of cleft. We need to find a way to control pathogenic micro-organisms in the oral and oro-nasopharyngeal region preoperatively to limit postoperative complications.

  10. Fabrication of micro DOE using micro tools shaped with focused ion beam.

    PubMed

    Xu, Z W; Fang, F Z; Zhang, S J; Zhang, X D; Hu, X T; Fu, Y Q; Li, L

    2010-04-12

    A novel method is proposed to fabricate micro Diffractive Optical Elements (DOE) using micro cutting tools shaped with focused ion beam (FIB) milling. Micro tools with nanometric cutting edges and complicated shapes are fabricated by controlling the tool facet's orientation relative to the FIB. The tool edge radius of less than 30 nm is achieved for the nano removal of the work materials. Semi-circular micro tools and DOE-shaped micro tools are developed to fabricate micro-DOE and sinusoidal modulation templates. Experiments show that the proposed method can be a high efficient way in fabricating micro-DOE with nanoscale surface finishes.

  11. Petition to Object to the EVRAZ Rocky Mountain Steel Mill in Pueblo, Colorado, Combined Title V Operating Permit and PSD Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the Title V air operating permit regulations. This document is part of the Title V Petition Database available at www2.epa.gov/title-v-operating-permits/title-v-petition-database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  12. Order Responding to the Sept. 23, 2000 Petition Requesting that the Administrator Object to Doe Run Company Buick Mine and Mill's Operating Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the Title V air operating permit regulations. This document is part of the Title V Petition Database available at www2.epa.gov/title-v-operating-permits/title-v-petition-database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  13. Ensuring slagging-free operation of a boiler equipped with hammer mills in firing brown coal with low-melting ash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkhipov, A. M.; Dorogoi, G. A.

    2011-04-01

    The possibility of ensuring slagging-free operation of heating surfaces in firing Pereyaslov brown coal is considered taking the PK-38 boiler at the Krasnoyarsk GRES-2 district power station as an example. Retrofitting of burners and nozzles and setting up of a recirculation-vortex flame are recommended.

  14. 34. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill, oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill, one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: Side view of mill. Vertical drive shaft lying on ground in foreground. When drive-shaft was in upright position its bevel gear was meshed with the bevel gear of the top roll, transmitting the animals'circular motion around the drive shaft to the horizontal rolls. The foundation is of portland cement. The heavy timber mill bed, between the mill and the portland cement foundation has rolled away. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  15. Validation of the Hot Strip Mill Model

    SciTech Connect

    Richard Shulkosky; David Rosberg; Jerrud Chapman

    2005-03-30

    The Hot Strip Mill Model (HSMM) is an off-line, PC based software originally developed by the University of British Columbia (UBC) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) under the AISI/DOE Advanced Process Control Program. The HSMM was developed to predict the temperatures, deformations, microstructure evolution and mechanical properties of steel strip or plate rolled in a hot mill. INTEG process group inc. undertook the current task of enhancing and validating the technology. With the support of 5 North American steel producers, INTEG process group tested and validated the model using actual operating data from the steel plants and enhanced the model to improve prediction results.

  16. Prototyping of Dental Structures Using Laser Milling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreev, A. O.; Kosenko, M. S.; Petrovskiy, V. N.; Mironov, V. D.

    2016-02-01

    The results of experimental studies of the effect of an ytterbium fiber laser radiation parameters on processing efficiency and quality of ZrO2 ceramics widely used in stomatology are presented. Laser operating conditions with optimum characteristics for obtaining high quality final surfaces and rapid material removal of dental structures are determined. The ability of forming thin-walled ceramic structures by laser milling technology (a minimum wall thickness of 50 μm) is demonstrated. The examples of three-dimensional dental structures created in computer 3D-models of human teeth using laser milling are shown.

  17. 16. William E. Barrett, Photographer, August 1975. CENTER MILL (RIGHTHANDED) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. William E. Barrett, Photographer, August 1975. CENTER MILL (RIGHT-HANDED) WITH CARRIAGE TRACKS AND BANDSAW HOUSING INTACT. LOG CLAMPS ON THIS CARRIAGE WERE PNEUMATICALLY OPERATED. - Meadow River Lumber Company, Highway 60, Rainelle, Greenbrier County, WV

  18. Lightning prevention systems for paper mills

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, R.B. Jr. )

    1989-05-01

    Paper mills are increasingly relying on sensitive electronic equipment to control their operations. However, the sensitivity of these devices has made mills vulnerable to the effects of lightning strokes. An interruption in the power supply or the destruction of delicate microcircuits can have devastating effects on mill productivity. The authors discuss how lightning strokes can be prevented by a Dissipation Array system (DAS). During the past 17 years, the concept has been applied to a host of applications in regions with a high incidence of lightning activity. With nearly 700 systems now installed, more than 4000 system-years of history have been accumulated. Areas as large as 1 km{sup 2} and towers as high as 2000 ft have been protected and completely isolated from lightning strokes. There have been very few failures, and in every case, the cause of the failure was determined and corrected.

  19. Operation of a high-T C SQUID gradiometer with a two-stage MEMS-based Joule-Thomson micro-cooler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalabukhov, Alexey; de Hoon, Erik-Jan; Kuit, Kristiaan; Lerou, Pieter-Paul P. P. M.; Chukharkin, Maxim; Schneiderman, Justin F.; Sepehri, Sobhan; Sanz-Velasco, Anke; Jesorka, Aldo; Winkler, Dag

    2016-09-01

    Practical applications of high-T C superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) require cheap, simple in operation, and cryogen-free cooling. Mechanical cryo-coolers are generally not suitable for operation with SQUIDs due to their inherent magnetic and vibrational noise. In this work, we utilized a commercial Joule-Thomson microfluidic two-stage cooling system with base temperature of 75 K. We achieved successful operation of a bicrystal high-T C SQUID gradiometer in shielded magnetic environment. The micro-cooler head contains neither moving nor magnetic parts, and thus does not affect magnetic flux noise of the SQUID even at low frequencies. Our results demonstrate that such a microfluidic cooling system is a promising technology for cooling of high-T C SQUIDs in practical applications such as magnetic bioassays.

  20. Methods and systems for micro transmissions

    SciTech Connect

    Stalford, Harold L

    2014-12-23

    Methods and systems for micro transmissions for a micro machine may comprise an input shaft assembly coupled to a micro actuator, an output shaft assembly coupled to a micro shaft, and one or more power conversion elements operable to convert a first type of movement from the micro actuator into a second, disparate type of movement for the micro shaft.

  1. 12. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill: oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill: one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: Historical view, 1934, T.T. Waterman Collection, Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association, Oahu, Hawaii. Masonry-lined passageway leading to the mill at the center of its circular masonry enclosure. The passageway permitted cane to be carried to the mill and cane trash (bagasse) to be carried away after milling. Bridges over the passageways, not in place, permitted the mill animals to circle and power the mill from above. View shows area prior to substantial overgrowth existing in 1978 views of the area. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  2. Results of in-flight operation of scientific payload on micro-satellite “Kolibri-2000”

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimov, Stanislav I.; Afanasyev, Yuri V.; Eismont, Natan A.; Grachev, Egor A.; Grigoryan, Oleg R.; Grushin, Valery A.; Lysakov, Dmitri S.; Nozdrachev, Mikhail N.

    2005-01-01

    The realization of Russian-Australian scientific—educational micro-satellite "Kolibri-2000" (weight of 20.5 kg, http://www.kolibri2000.ru 20 March, 2002), delivered into an orbit by "Progress M1-7", was the first item in the Program of Scientific—Educational Micro-Satellite (PSEMS' 2002-2007, http://iki.cosmos.ru/kollibri/mission1_e.htm) and designate the starting point of a series at perspective scientific—educational micro-satellites (SEMS, http://www.energia.ru/english/energia/sci-education/microsat/microsat-02.html). In the "Kolibri-2000" project, several schools equipped by School Center of Reception of the Information (SCRI), participated, including Russian schools (Obninsk http://ftschool.obninsk.org) and two Australian schools in Sydney, Knox Grammar School ( www.knox.nsw.edu.au) and Ravenswood School for Girls ( www.ravenswood.nsw.edu.au). The results of the "Kolibri-2000" first measurements on the orbit near the International Space Station will be submitted in this paper which include the ionosphere reaction during the April 2002 events, and address as understanding of the coupling and feedback in the Sun-Earth interaction.

  3. 68. VIEW OF MILLING FLOOR FROM SOUTHEAST. SECONDARY MILL AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    68. VIEW OF MILLING FLOOR FROM SOUTHEAST. SECONDARY MILL AND CLASSIFIER AT MIDDLE LEFT. PRIMARY MILL SURGE TANK AND LAUNDERS AT MIDDLE BOTTOM. STAIR TO TROJAN CLASSIFIER LEVEL BEHIND CRANE BENT, UPPER RIGHT. PAIRED PIPES FROM PRIMARY PULP PUMPS TO PRIMARY THICKENERS RISE VERTICALLY AT MIDDLE RIGHT AND RUN HORIZONTALLY ACROSS TOP OF VIEW. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  4. 168. VIEW OF MILLING FLOOR FROM SOUTHEAST. SECONDARY MILL AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    168. VIEW OF MILLING FLOOR FROM SOUTHEAST. SECONDARY MILL AND CLASSIFIER AT MIDDLE LEFT. PRIMARY MILL SURGE TANK AND LAUNDERS AT MIDDLE BOTTOM. STAIR TO TROJAN CLASSIFIER LEVEL BEHIND CRANE BENT, UPPER RIGHT. PAIRED PIPES FROM PRIMARY PULP PUMPS TO PRIMARY THICKENERS RISE VERTICALLY AT MIDDLE RIGHT AND RUN HORIZONTALLY ACROSS TOP OF VIEW - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  5. 7 CFR 868.306 - Milling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... FOR CERTAIN AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES United States Standards for Milled Rice Principles Governing Application of Standards § 868.306 Milling requirements. The degree of milling for milled rice; i.e., “hard... interpretive line samples for such rice....

  6. 7 CFR 868.306 - Milling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... FOR CERTAIN AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES United States Standards for Milled Rice Principles Governing Application of Standards § 868.306 Milling requirements. The degree of milling for milled rice; i.e., “hard... interpretive line samples for such rice....

  7. 7 CFR 868.306 - Milling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... FOR CERTAIN AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES United States Standards for Milled Rice Principles Governing Application of Standards § 868.306 Milling requirements. The degree of milling for milled rice; i.e., “hard... interpretive line samples for such rice....

  8. 7 CFR 868.306 - Milling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... FOR CERTAIN AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES United States Standards for Milled Rice Principles Governing Application of Standards § 868.306 Milling requirements. The degree of milling for milled rice; i.e., “hard... interpretive line samples for such rice....

  9. 7 CFR 868.306 - Milling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... FOR CERTAIN AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES United States Standards for Milled Rice Principles Governing Application of Standards § 868.306 Milling requirements. The degree of milling for milled rice; i.e., “hard... interpretive line samples for such rice....

  10. 71. VIEW OF MILL FLOOR FROM WEST. SECONDARY MILL IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    71. VIEW OF MILL FLOOR FROM WEST. SECONDARY MILL IN LOWER CENTER; BARREN SOLUTION TANK AT MIDDLE RIGHT. PAIRED PIPES AT TOP OF VIEW RUN FROM PRIMARY PULP PUMPS ON LEFT TO PRIMARY THICKENERS ON RIGHT. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  11. 2. AERIAL VIEW SHOWING WASTE WEIR AT MILL RIVER. MILL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. AERIAL VIEW SHOWING WASTE WEIR AT MILL RIVER. MILL RIVER CULVERT (HAER NY-112) IS VISIBLE IN UPPER RIGHT HAND CORNER. - Old Croton Aqueduct, Mill River Waste Weir, U.S. Route 9 at Sleepy Hollow Cemetery, Tarrytown, Westchester County, NY

  12. Micro-hybrid electric vehicle application of valve-regulated lead-acid batteries in absorbent glass mat technology: Testing a partial-state-of-charge operation strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaeck, S.; Stoermer, A. O.; Hockgeiger, E.

    The BMW Group has launched two micro-hybrid functions in high volume models in order to contribute to reduction of fuel consumption in modern passenger cars. Both the brake energy regeneration (BER) and the auto-start-stop function (ASSF) are based on the conventional 14 V vehicle electrical system and current series components with only little modifications. An intelligent control algorithm of the alternator enables recuperative charging in braking and coasting phases, known as BER. By switching off the internal combustion engine at a vehicle standstill the idling fuel consumption is effectively reduced by ASSF. By reason of economy and package a lead-acid battery is used as electrochemical energy storage device. The BMW Group assembles valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries in absorbent glass mat (AGM) technology in the micro-hybrid electrical power system since special challenges arise for the batteries. By field data analysis a lower average state-of-charge (SOC) due to partial state-of-charge (PSOC) operation and a higher cycling rate due to BER and ASSF are confirmed in this article. Similar to a design of experiment (DOE) like method we present a long-term lab investigation. Two types of 90 Ah VRLA AGM batteries are operated with a test bench profile that simulates the micro-hybrid vehicle electrical system under varying conditions. The main attention of this lab testing is focused on capacity loss and charge acceptance over cycle life. These effects are put into context with periodically refresh charging the batteries in order to prevent accelerated battery aging due to hard sulfation. We demonstrate the positive effect of refresh chargings concerning preservation of battery charge acceptance. Furthermore, we observe moderate capacity loss over 90 full cycles both at 25 °C and at 3 °C battery temperature.

  13. CO2 laser milling of hard tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, Martin; Ivanenko, Mikhail; Harbecke, Daniela; Klasing, Manfred; Steigerwald, Hendrik; Hering, Peter

    2007-02-01

    Drilling of bone and tooth tissue belongs to recurrent medical procedures (screw- and pin-bores, bores for implant inserting, trepanation etc.). Small round bores can be in general quickly produced with mechanical drills. Problems arise however by angled drilling, by the necessity to fulfill the drilling without damaging of sensitive soft tissue beneath the bone, or by the attempt to mill precisely noncircular small cavities. We present investigations on laser hard tissue "milling", which can be advantageous for solving these problems. The "milling" is done with a CO2 laser (10.6 μm) with pulse duration of 50 - 100 μs, combined with a PC-controlled galvanic beam scanner and with a fine water-spray, which helps to avoid thermal side-effects. The damaging of underlying soft tissue can be prevented through control of the optical or acoustical ablation signal. The ablation of hard tissue is accompanied with a strong glowing, which is absent during the laser beam action on soft tissue. The acoustic signals from the diverse tissue types exhibit distinct differences in the spectral composition. Also computer image analysis could be a useful tool to control the operation. Laser "milling" of noncircular cavities with 1 - 4 mm width and about 10 mm depth is particularly interesting for dental implantology. In ex-vivo investigations we found conditions for fast laser "milling" of the cavities without thermal damage and with minimal tapering. It included exploration of different filling patterns (concentric rings, crosshatch, parallel lines and their combinations), definition of maximal pulse duration, repetition rate and laser power, optimal position of the spray. The optimized results give evidences for the applicability of the CO2 laser for biologically tolerable "milling" of deep cavities in the hard tissue.

  14. Indiana Corn Dry Mill

    SciTech Connect

    2006-09-01

    The goal of this project is to perform engineering, project design, and permitting for the creation and commercial demonstration of a corn dry mill biorefinery that will produce fuel-grade ethanol, distillers dry grain for animal feed, and carbon dioxide for industrial use.

  15. 2. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761899. Threeroll sugar mill, oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1899. Three-roll sugar mill, one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: Top roll and one bottom roll, mill housing or cheeks, and spur pinion gears. The broken projection on the mill beside the bottom roll indicates the location of the cane tray. The cane juice crushed from the cane flowed into the juice tray below the bottom rolls. It then flowed into a wooden gutter and through a short tunnel in the mill's masonry enclosure and on to the boiling house for further processing. The opening at the base of the masency wall (In the photograph) is where the gutter ran from the mill to the boiling house. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  16. Enzymatic corn wet milling: engineering process and cost model

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez, Edna C; Johnston, David B; McAloon, Andrew J; Singh, Vijay

    2009-01-01

    Background Enzymatic corn wet milling (E-milling) is a process derived from conventional wet milling for the recovery and purification of starch and co-products using proteases to eliminate the need for sulfites and decrease the steeping time. In 2006, the total starch production in USA by conventional wet milling equaled 23 billion kilograms, including modified starches and starches used for sweeteners and ethanol production [1]. Process engineering and cost models for an E-milling process have been developed for a processing plant with a capacity of 2.54 million kg of corn per day (100,000 bu/day). These models are based on the previously published models for a traditional wet milling plant with the same capacity. The E-milling process includes grain cleaning, pretreatment, enzymatic treatment, germ separation and recovery, fiber separation and recovery, gluten separation and recovery and starch separation. Information for the development of the conventional models was obtained from a variety of technical sources including commercial wet milling companies, industry experts and equipment suppliers. Additional information for the present models was obtained from our own experience with the development of the E-milling process and trials in the laboratory and at the pilot plant scale. The models were developed using process and cost simulation software (SuperPro Designer®) and include processing information such as composition and flow rates of the various process streams, descriptions of the various unit operations and detailed breakdowns of the operating and capital cost of the facility. Results Based on the information from the model, we can estimate the cost of production per kilogram of starch using the input prices for corn, enzyme and other wet milling co-products. The work presented here describes the E-milling process and compares the process, the operation and costs with the conventional process. Conclusion The E-milling process was found to be cost

  17. Effect of milling temperature and post-milling cooling procedures on rice milling quality appraisals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this research was to study the effects of different milling conditions and post-milling handling procedures on appraised milling quality of rough rice. Samples of medium grain rough rice (M202) with moisture content (MC) of 11.5±0.2% were used for this study. To create different mil...

  18. Fluid design key to completing world record milling job

    SciTech Connect

    Milazzo, K. ); Pittman, J.; Digby, K.

    1994-12-01

    A xanthan gum/bentonite formulated fluid system optimized milling operations in a Mobil well of Alabama. Because of the fluid's increased carrying capacity, the rig's mud system required redesign to handle the large milling fragments. Several fluid systems have been used with varying degrees of success in earlier casing milling jobs. Although annular and surface cuttings removal is critical, it is usually under emphasized, resulting in stuck tools, pack-offs, bird nesting and other problems. However, proper rheological/viscoelastic parameters plus a well designed cuttings removal system can ensure an efficient casing mill job such as the highly successful operation completed in Mobil Exploration and Production's MO823 A-2 gas well offshore Alabama. An inspection revealed several leaking 7 5/8-in. connections in the 22,580-ft well. To restore well bore integrity and return the well to production, a repair procedure was initiated to mill up 3,500 ft of this 58.3-lb, L-80 casing (from surface inside 10 3/4-in., 65.7-lb, C-90). The 7 5/8-in. casing was to be milled using a piranha type pilot mill below a 7 5/8 x 7-in. crossover. The tie-back was planned via an overshot or by screwing in with a PBR (packer bore receptacle) assembly.

  19. Evaluation of End Mill Coatings

    SciTech Connect

    L. J. Lazarus; R. L. Hester,

    2005-08-01

    Milling tests were run on families of High Speed Steel (HSS) end mills to determine their lives while machining 304 Stainless Steel. The end mills tested were made from M7, M42 and T15-CPM High Speed Steels. The end mills were also evaluated with no coatings as well as with Titanium Nitride (TiN) and Titanium Carbo-Nitride (TiCN) coatings to determine which combination of HSS and coating provided the highest increase in end mill life while increasing the cost of the tool the least. We found end mill made from M42 gave us the largest increase in tool life with the least increase in cost. The results of this study will be used by Cutting Tool Engineering in determining which end mill descriptions will be dropped from our tool catalog.

  20. Milling dynamics. I - Attritor dynamics: Results of a cinematographic study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rydin, R. W.; Maurice, D.; Courtney, T. H.

    1993-01-01

    The motions of grinding media and powder in an attritor canister were studied by means of filming the agitated charge and frame-by-frame scrutiny of the footage. In conjunction with auxiliary experiments, this permitted semiquantitative analysis of the milling action. In particular, the mill can be divided into several regions characterized by different balances between direct impacts and rolling/sliding of the grinding media. Simple calculations suggest that impacts are more capable of effecting mechanical alloying (MA) than are rolling or sliding events in an attritor. Powder circulation within an operating mill was also investigated. Based on the results and the accompanying analysis, concepts for improved attritor design are presented.

  1. A plesiotherapy technique for the post-operative treatment of skin cancer using Ir192 microSelectron.

    PubMed

    Abatzoglou, Ioannis; Tsoutsou, Pelagia; Koukourakis, Michael I

    2008-10-29

    We describe a technique of postoperative irradiation of skin cancer using plesiotherapy with Ir192 high dose rate microSelectron afterloading system (Nucletron, Veenendaal, Netherlands). The clinically defined area is drawn on the skin and the flexible 'skin applicator' is then orientated so that the drawn skin area is encompassed within the catheter defined surface. Using a thin pewter wire, the skin drawn area is copied on the air-adjacent surface of the applicator. Ex vivo CT simulation follows. The data are then transferred to the radiotherapy planning computer and the catheters are virtually reconstructed. The isodose curve chosen to prescribe the dose is 3 mm to 5 mm away from the skin surface. Three fractions of 8Gy are scheduled, 1 week apart, delivering a radiobiological equivalent of 48Gy of standard radiotherapy within 2 weeks. Our preliminary experience shows excellent early skin tolerance. The study is ongoing to assess efficacy and late effects.

  2. Surface acquisition through virtual milling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merriam, Marshal L.

    1993-01-01

    Surface acquisition deals with the reconstruction of three dimensional objects from a set of data points. The most straightforward techniques require human intervention, a time consuming proposition. It is desirable to develop a fully automated alternative. Such a method is proposed in this paper. It makes use of surface measurements obtained from a 3-D laser digitizer - an instrument which provides the (x,y,z) coordinates of surface data points from various viewpoints. These points are assembled into several partial surfaces using a visibility constraint and a 2-D triangulation technique. Reconstruction of the final object requires merging these partial surfaces. This is accomplished through a procedure that emulates milling, a standard machining operation. From a geometrical standpoint the problem reduces to constructing the intersection of two or more non-convex polyhedra.

  3. Operations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Jesse L. M.; Norton, Anderson; Boyce, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has documented schemes and operations that undergird students' understanding of fractions. This prior research was based, in large part, on small-group teaching experiments. However, written assessments are needed in order for teachers and researchers to assess students' ways of operating on a whole-class scale. In this study,…

  4. Maryland mill will recycle wastepaper, reclaim water

    SciTech Connect

    Schaefer, L.A. )

    1995-02-01

    A $200 million paper mill being built in Hagerstown, Md., is expected to produce 150,000 bone-dry short tons per year of de-inked, market-grade pulp for writing and printing paper. The 1st Urban Fibers facility, the largest capital project in Hagerstown's history, is slated for completion in the spring. Landegger Recycled Fiber Corp. will operate and maintain the 200,000-square-foot recycling mill and 60,000-square-foot water reclamation plant. The wastepaper recycling mill plans to minimize waste and pollution by: reclaiming 635 tons per day of 100 percent post-consumer mixed office waste from the solid waste stream; saving more than 16 million cubic feet of landfill area per year; conserving the fiber equivalent of 6,700 trees per day; using no chlorine; saving about 2,000 gallons of water and 4,000 kilowatt hours of electricity per ton of throughput, compared to virgin fiber mills; reusing treated wastewater, reducing effluent discharge by 65 percent; and discharging effluent that will have zero impact on the receiving stream.

  5. On the bistable zone of milling processes.

    PubMed

    Dombovari, Zoltan; Stepan, Gabor

    2015-09-28

    A modal-based model of milling machine tools subjected to time-periodic nonlinear cutting forces is introduced. The model describes the phenomenon of bistability for certain cutting parameters. In engineering, these parameter domains are referred to as unsafe zones, where steady-state milling may switch to chatter for certain perturbations. In mathematical terms, these are the parameter domains where the periodic solution of the corresponding nonlinear, time-periodic delay differential equation is linearly stable, but its domain of attraction is limited due to the existence of an unstable quasi-periodic solution emerging from a secondary Hopf bifurcation. A semi-numerical method is presented to identify the borders of these bistable zones by tracking the motion of the milling tool edges as they might leave the surface of the workpiece during the cutting operation. This requires the tracking of unstable quasi-periodic solutions and the checking of their grazing to a time-periodic switching surface in the infinite-dimensional phase space. As the parameters of the linear structural behaviour of the tool/machine tool system can be obtained by means of standard modal testing, the developed numerical algorithm provides efficient support for the design of milling processes with quick estimates of those parameter domains where chatter can still appear in spite of setting the parameters into linearly stable domains.

  6. On the bistable zone of milling processes

    PubMed Central

    Dombovari, Zoltan; Stepan, Gabor

    2015-01-01

    A modal-based model of milling machine tools subjected to time-periodic nonlinear cutting forces is introduced. The model describes the phenomenon of bistability for certain cutting parameters. In engineering, these parameter domains are referred to as unsafe zones, where steady-state milling may switch to chatter for certain perturbations. In mathematical terms, these are the parameter domains where the periodic solution of the corresponding nonlinear, time-periodic delay differential equation is linearly stable, but its domain of attraction is limited due to the existence of an unstable quasi-periodic solution emerging from a secondary Hopf bifurcation. A semi-numerical method is presented to identify the borders of these bistable zones by tracking the motion of the milling tool edges as they might leave the surface of the workpiece during the cutting operation. This requires the tracking of unstable quasi-periodic solutions and the checking of their grazing to a time-periodic switching surface in the infinite-dimensional phase space. As the parameters of the linear structural behaviour of the tool/machine tool system can be obtained by means of standard modal testing, the developed numerical algorithm provides efficient support for the design of milling processes with quick estimates of those parameter domains where chatter can still appear in spite of setting the parameters into linearly stable domains. PMID:26303918

  7. Homogeneity of ball milled ceramic powders: Effect of jar shape and milling conditions.

    PubMed

    Broseghini, M; D'Incau, M; Gelisio, L; Pugno, N M; Scardi, P

    2017-02-01

    This paper contains data and supporting information of and complementary to the research article entitled "Effect of jar shape on high-energy planetary ball milling efficiency: simulations and experiments" (Broseghini et al.,) [1]. Calcium fluoride (CaF2) was ground using two jars of different shape (cylindrical and half-moon) installed on a planetary ball-mill, exploring different operating conditions (jar-to-plate angular velocity ratio and milling time). Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) images and X-Ray Powder Diffraction data (XRPD) were collected to assess the effect of milling conditions on the end-product crystallite size. Due to the inhomogeneity of the end product, the Whole Powder Pattern Model (WPPM, (Scardi, 2008) [2]) analysis of XRPD data required the hypothesis of a bimodal distribution of sizes - respectively ground (fine fraction) and less-to-not ground (coarse fraction) - confirmed by SEM images and suggested by the previous literature (Abdellatief et al., 2013) [3,4]. Predominance of fine fraction clearly indicates optimal milling conditions.

  8. Vibration in textile mills.

    PubMed

    Sorainen, E

    1988-12-01

    The vibration in nine halls of the six weaving mills was measured in 1978-80. The measurements were taken at regular intervals in the working area of the weavers, which was the wooden support attached to the machine or the floor of the textile mill. The accelerometer was mounted with screws onto the working area, and all vibration samples were analyzed immediately, in situ. The vibration of the floor was tangent to or exceeded slightly the "reduced comfort boundary" specified in International Standard ISO 2631/1 (1985) only in the areas where the floor was not against the ground. The greatest amount of vibration occurred on the supports which had been attached to the machines. On these supports the vibration in places exceeded the "fatigue-decreased proficiency boundary."

  9. Mills, Bernard Yarnton (1920-)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Australian engineer and astronomer, born near Sydney, and worked with the Australian CSIR Division of Radiophysics. He measured the position of Cygnus A and identified a faint nebulosity as its origin, confirmed by a more accurate position by F. G. Smith and 200 in photographs by W BAADE and R MINKOWSKI showing Cygnus A as a peculiar galaxy. Mills built a cross-type radio interferometer at the...

  10. Fabrication and clinical application of easy-to-operate pre-cured CPC/rhBMP-2 micro-scaffolds for bone regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Dan; Zhang, Jing; Bai, Feng; Cao, Xuehua; Fan, Cunyi; Yuan, Yuan; Wang, Jinwu; Zhang, Jian; Liu, Changsheng

    2016-01-01

    Bone tissue engineering scaffolds loading growth factors have been considered as the most perspective among all bone substitutes, yet little progress of its clinical translation has been made. The concept of “micro-scaffolds” was proposed in this study to provide a trajectory to the clinical translation of porous scaffolds. Combining CPC and rhBMP-2, a pre-cured CPC/rhBMP-2 micro-scaffold has been successfully developed and further applied as an easy-to-operate filler for bone regeneration in a pilot clinical study. The results demonstrated superior overall performances of CPC/rhBMP-2 microffolds to traditional therapies, with not only shortened repairing time and improved repairing qualities, but also the potential in treating fractures that are most challenging for current therapies. This pilot clinical study of CPC/rhBMP-2 microffolds further promoted the clinical translation of porous scaffolds for bone regeneration, and provided new insights for future development of artificial bone substitutes. PMID:27186266

  11. Ion Milling of Sapphire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, Don A.

    2002-01-01

    The ion figuring system at the Marshall Space Flight Center has been successfully used for at least three previous investigations into the ion milling of metals. The research was directed toward improving the surface quality of X-ray directing optics. These studies were performed on surfaces that were already hand polished to an excellent surface quality and were intended to remove the residual unwanted figure left by those techniques. The ion milling was typically carried out on test surfaces or mandrels that were several centimeters in width and length. The good thermal conductivity of the metal samples allowed the ion beam to be directed onto the sample for an indefinite period of time. This is not true of sapphire or most electrical insulators and problems have arisen in recent attempts to ion mill thin samples of sapphire. The failure and fracture of the material was likely due to thermal stresses and the relatively low thermal conductivity of sapphire (compared to most metals), These assumed stresses actually provided the key as to how they might be monitored. A thermal gradient in the sapphire sample will induce an effective index of refraction change and because of the shape constraint and the crystal structure and simple thermal expansion, this index change will be nonuniform across the sample. In all but simple cubic crystal structures, this leads to a spatially nonuniform optical retardance induced on any polarized optical beam traversing the sample, and it is this retardance that can be monitored using standard polarimetric procedures.

  12. The Tool Life of Ball Nose end Mill Depending on the Different Types of Ramping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vopát, Tomáš; Peterka, Jozef; Kováč, Martin

    2014-12-01

    The article deals with the cutting tool wear measurement process and tool life of ball nose end mill depending on upward ramping and downward ramping. The aim was to determine and compare the wear (tool life) of ball nose end mill for different types of copy milling operations, as well as to specify particular steps of the measurement process. In addition, we examined and observed cutter contact areas of ball nose end mill with machined material. For tool life test, DMG DMU 85 monoBLOCK 5-axis CNC milling machine was used. In the experiment, cutting speed, feed rate, axial depth of cut and radial depth of cut were not changed. The cutting tool wear was measured on Zoller Genius 3s universal measuring machine. The results show different tool life of ball nose end mills depending on the copy milling strategy.

  13. 7 CFR 868.310 - Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled Rice. (See also Â... Milled Rice Principles Governing Application of Standards § 868.310 Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled...

  14. 7 CFR 868.310 - Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled Rice. (See also Â... Milled Rice Principles Governing Application of Standards § 868.310 Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled...

  15. 7 CFR 868.310 - Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled Rice. (See also Â... Milled Rice Principles Governing Application of Standards § 868.310 Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled...

  16. 7 CFR 868.310 - Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled Rice. (See also Â... Milled Rice Principles Governing Application of Standards § 868.310 Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled...

  17. 7 CFR 868.310 - Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled Rice. (See also Â... Milled Rice Principles Governing Application of Standards § 868.310 Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled...

  18. Fabrication of micro-optical devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, W. W.; Marley, J.; Gal, George; Purdy, Don

    1993-01-01

    We have fabricated a variety of micro-optic components including Fresnel and non-Frensel lenses, off-axis and dispersive lenses with binary stepped contours, and analog contours. Process details for all lens designs fabricated are given including multistep photolithography for binary fabrication and grayscale mask photolithography for analog fabrication. Reactive ion etching and ion beam milling are described for the binary fabrication process, while ion beam milling was used for the analog fabrication process. Examples of micro-optic components fabricated in both Si and CdTe substrates are given.

  19. Cubic Yb3+-activated Y6MoO12 micro-powder - optical material operating in NIR region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bieza, M.; Guzik, M.; Tomaszewicz, E.; Guyot, Y.; Boulon, G.

    2017-01-01

    We present Yb3+-doped Y6MoO12 solid solutions as a very promising NIR emitting phosphor with some hope to obtain them in the nearest future in the form of transparent ceramics due to their cubic structure. The samples are crystallizing in the cubic system with the space group Fm-3m. To perform a full structural and spectroscopic analysis on the well crystallized samples they were obtained in the uniform micro-crystal forms. The ternary Y6MoO12 and Yb3+-doped Y6MoO12 solid solutions containing a large concentration range of activator (0.1, 1, 3, 5, 10, 20 mol%) have been prepared by a high-temperature solid-state reaction method using the Yb2O3/Y2O3/MoO3 mixtures annealed in the air in the temperature range of 550-1550 °C for 6 h. As-obtained samples were systematically characterized by the X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV-Vis-NIR reflectance. Furthermore, to check the thermal stability of these molybdates the thermogravimetric analysis have been performed. Finally, the luminescent properties of Yb3+ ions activated Y6MoO12 microcrystals were investigated by using the high resolution absorption and emission techniques including the site selective spectroscopy at room and low temperatures. Basing on the absorption and emission spectra the Yb3+ electronic energy levels diagram has been proposed for the main site. The concentration quenching mechanism of Yb3+ ion in this host lattice was also discussed. Obtained results have demonstrated that Yb3+-doped Y6MoO12 microcrystals exhibited good luminescent properties and possess many advantages compared to other compounds based on molybdates and might have potential applications in the laser technology.

  20. Characterization of surface soils at a former uranium mill.

    PubMed

    Johnson, J A; Meyer, H R; Vidyasagar, M

    2006-02-01

    Dawn Mining Company operated a uranium mill in Stevens County, Washington, from 1957 to 1982, to process ore from the Midnite Mine, and from 1992 through 2000, to extract uranium from mine water treatment sludge. The mill was permanently shut down in 2001 when the Dawn Mining Company radioactive materials license was amended to allow direct disposal of water treatment sludge to a tailings disposal area at the mill. The mill building was demolished in 2003. Site soil characterization took place in 2004. Soil cleanup is ongoing. Contaminated soils on the site were characterized using a GPS-based gamma scanning system. A correlation between shielded gamma exposure rate and concentration of Ra in surface soils was developed. Subsurface soils were sampled using backhoe trenches. This system proved efficient and accurate in guiding development of the remedial action planning for the site and subsequent soil cleanup.

  1. Liner shape and power consumption in rotary mills

    SciTech Connect

    Valderrama, W.; Grandela, P.; Magne, L.

    1995-12-31

    The effect of liner shape on power consumption was studied in a small laboratory mill under various operating conditions. It was found that the angle subtended between the lifter front face and the face in contact with the mill case has the most significant influence. The increasing height of lifter reduced power consumption, whereas the lifter spacing did not show any influence. The effect of height is less relevant at lower front angles. Highest power consumption is achieved with a 450 front angle. A comparison of cylinders and balls under identical conditions gives higher power consumption for ball charges. The data does suggest that, for maximum power draw, slip in the outer layers of the charge and the early recirculation of energy to the mill case should be avoided. Both factors prevent an efficient energy transfer to the mill charge.

  2. 252. Mabry Mill. View of the mill and the NPS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    252. Mabry Mill. View of the mill and the NPS dredged reflecting pond which illustrates how the parkway has manipulated the landscape to make it more picturesque. Looking north-northwest from interpretative trail. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  3. 1. 'Saltbox' mill worker house located in Dixie Mill village ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. 'Saltbox' mill worker house located in Dixie Mill village area of LaGrange at 613 Arthur St. The saltbox house form is unusual in the LaGrange area and perhaps indicates the influence of Northern investors. - 613 Arthur Street (House), 613 Arthur Street, La Grange, Troup County, GA

  4. 9. VIEW OF MILLING AND LATHE MACHINES, MILLING AND LATHE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW OF MILLING AND LATHE MACHINES, MILLING AND LATHE MACHINES WERE USED TO FORM COMPONENTS INTO THEIR FINAL SHAPE. IN THE FOUNDRY, ENRICHED URANIUM WAS CAST INTO SPHERICAL SHAPES OR INGOT FROM WHICH WEAPONS COMPONENTS WERE FABRICATED. (4/4/66) - Rocky Flats Plant, General Manufacturing, Support, Records-Central Computing, Southern portion of Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  5. Surface integrity evolution and fatigue evaluation after milling mode, shot-peening and polishing mode for TB6 titanium alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Changfeng; Wu, Daoxia; Ma, Lufei; Tan, Liang; Zhou, Zheng; Zhang, Jiyin

    2016-11-01

    Surface integrity is closely related to the service life of parts and components. Effects of four kinds of integration processes on surface integrity and fatigue life are studied. These four integration processes are M (milling), MP (milling and polishing), MPS (milling, polishing and shot-peening), and MPSP (milling, polishing, shot-peening and polishing). When roughness, micro-hardness, residual stress, micro-structure and fatigue were considered after the four integration processes, research results show that MPSP process can obtain the best surface topography and roughness, micro-hardness, and residual stress field distribution; MPSP process has the longest fatigue life, and the fatigue life of MPSP process is about 68 times of M process, 56 times of MP process, and 48 times of MPS process; The fatigue fracture of the specimen after MPSP process is flat, and the depth of the crack initiation site for MPSP specimen is approximately 150 μm below the surface.

  6. 35. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill, oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill, one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: Bevel gear at lower end of vertical drive shaft in foreground turned bevel gear of top roll when the vertical drive shaft was in place in the brass-bearing socket in the middle ground of the photograph. The bolts above the top roll and at the side of the two bottom rolls adjusted the pressure and position of the rolls' brass bearings. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  7. IMPROVING ENERGY EFFICIENCY VIA OPTIMIZED CHARGE MOTION AND SLURRY FLOW IN PLANT SCALE SAG MILLS

    SciTech Connect

    Raj K. Rajamani; Sanjeeva Latchireddi; Sravan K. Prathy; Trilokyanath Patra

    2005-12-01

    The U.S. mining industry operates approximately 80 semi-autogenesis grinding mills (SAG) throughout the United States. Depending on the mill size the SAG mills draws between 2 MW and 17 MW. The product from the SAG mill is further reduced in size using pebble crushers and ball mills. Hence, typical gold or copper ore requires between 2.0 and 7.5 kWh per ton of energy to reduce the particle size. Considering a typical mining operation processes 10,000 to 100,000 tons per day the energy expenditure in grinding is 50 percent of the cost of production of the metal. A research team from the University of Utah is working to make inroads into saving energy in these SAG mills. In 2003, Industries of the Future Program of the Department of Energy tasked the University of Utah team to build a partnership between the University and the mining industry for the specific purpose of reducing energy consumption in SAG mills. A partnership was formed with Cortez Gold Mines, Kennecott Utah Copper Corporation, Process Engineering Resources Inc. and others. In the current project, Cortez Gold Mines played a key role in facilitating the 26-ft SAG mill at Cortez as a test mill for this study. According to plant personnel, there were a number of unscheduled shut downs to repair broken liners and the mill throughput fluctuated depending on ore type. The University team had two softwares, Millsoft and FlowMod to tackle the problem. Millsoft is capable of simulating the motion of charge in the mill. FlowMod calculates the slurry flow through the grate and pulp lifters. Based on this data the two models were fine-tuned to fit the Cortez SAG will. In the summer of 2004 a new design of shell lifters were presented to Cortez and in September 2004 these lifters were installed in the SAG mill. By December 2004 Cortez Mines realized that the SAG mill is drawing approximately 236-kW less power than before while maintaining the same level of production. In the first month there was extreme cycling

  8. Performance Characterization of a Novel Plasma Thruster to Provide a Revolutionary Operationally Responsive Space Capability with Micro- and Nano-Satellites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-24

    RESPONSIVE SPACE CAPABILITY WITH MICRO - AND NANO -SATELLITES THESIS Presented to the Faculty Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics Graduate...CAPABILITY WITH MICRO - AND NANO -SATELLITES I. Introduction The extraordinary cost associated with placing space vehicles into orbit (~12,000...Capability with Micro - and Nano -Satellites 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) de La Harpe

  9. 40 CFR 61.149 - Standard for waste disposal for asbestos mills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... asbestos mills. 61.149 Section 61.149 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Standard for Asbestos § 61.149 Standard for waste disposal for asbestos mills. Each owner or operator of any source covered under the provisions of § 61.142 shall: (a) Deposit all asbestos-containing...

  10. 40 CFR 61.149 - Standard for waste disposal for asbestos mills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... asbestos mills. 61.149 Section 61.149 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Standard for Asbestos § 61.149 Standard for waste disposal for asbestos mills. Each owner or operator of any source covered under the provisions of § 61.142 shall: (a) Deposit all asbestos-containing...

  11. 40 CFR 61.149 - Standard for waste disposal for asbestos mills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... asbestos mills. 61.149 Section 61.149 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Standard for Asbestos § 61.149 Standard for waste disposal for asbestos mills. Each owner or operator of any source covered under the provisions of § 61.142 shall: (a) Deposit all asbestos-containing...

  12. 40 CFR 61.149 - Standard for waste disposal for asbestos mills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... asbestos mills. 61.149 Section 61.149 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Standard for Asbestos § 61.149 Standard for waste disposal for asbestos mills. Each owner or operator of any source covered under the provisions of § 61.142 shall: (a) Deposit all asbestos-containing...

  13. 40 CFR 61.149 - Standard for waste disposal for asbestos mills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... asbestos mills. 61.149 Section 61.149 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Standard for Asbestos § 61.149 Standard for waste disposal for asbestos mills. Each owner or operator of any source covered under the provisions of § 61.142 shall: (a) Deposit all asbestos-containing...

  14. Fast method for obtaining scale dimensions on tape-controlled milling machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, L. J.

    1968-01-01

    Calculator obtains the Rail and Z Scale dimensions on the tape-controlled Sundstrand milling machine. It provides computer with depth information required to process numerical control programs which, in turn, provide the tapes for operation of N/C milling machines.

  15. Remediation of oil-contaminated sand by coal agglomeration using ball milling.

    PubMed

    Shin, Yu-Jen; Shen, Yun-Hwei

    2011-10-01

    The mechanical shear force provided by a less energy intensive device (usually operating at 20-200 rpm), a ball mill, was used toperform coal agglomeration and its effects on remediation of a model fuel oil-contaminated sand were evaluated. Important process parameters such as the amount of coal added, milling time, milling speed and the size of milling elements are discussed. The results suggested that highly hydrophobic oil-coal agglomerates, formed by adding suitable amounts of coal into the oil-contaminated sand, could be mechanically liberated from cleaned sand during ball milling and recovered as a surface coating on the steel balls. Over 90% removal of oil from oil-contaminated sand was achieved with 6 wt% of coal addition and an optimum ball milling time of 20 min and speed of 200 rpm. This novel process has considerable potential for cleaning oil-contaminated sands.

  16. Optimal Design and Operation for a No-Moving-Parts-Valve (NMPV) Micro-Pump with a Diffuser Width of 500 μm

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chin-Tsan; Leu, Tzong-Shyng; Sun, Jia-Ming

    2009-01-01

    A no-moving-parts-valve (NMPV) with a diffuser width of D = 500 microns was investigated in this study by numerical simulations at Reynolds numbers, ReD, ranging from 20 to 75, and expansion valve angles ranging from 30° < θ1 < 57° and 110° < θ2 < 120°. The Dp,i value, 1.02 < Dp,i < 1.14, is larger within the proposed range of the expansion valve angles. A flow channel structure with a depth of 500 micron is manufactured using yellow light lithography in this study. From prior analyses and experiments, it is found that piezoelectric films work better at a buzz driving frequency of f < 30Hz and the best operating frequency is at a driving frequency of f = 10Hz because it produces the largest net flow. In addition, the expansion angles θ1 = 30° and θ2 = 120° are the best expansion angles because they produce the largest net flow. These related results are very helpful for the actual design of no-moving-parts-valve micro-pump. PMID:22412332

  17. HEATER'S HELPER OPERATING PUSHER. HOT BILLETS ON CONVEYOR MOVE TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    HEATER'S HELPER OPERATING PUSHER. HOT BILLETS ON CONVEYOR MOVE TO OPENING AT THE HEAD OF THE 12" MILL. PUSHER (ELECTRICALLY OPERATED) MOVES BILLETS INTO READY POSITION FOR 12" MILL. - Cambria Iron Company, Gautier Works, 12" Mill, Clinton Street & Little Conemaugh River, Johnstown, Cambria County, PA

  18. Picosecond laser fabrication of micro cutting tool geometries on polycrystalline diamond composites using a high-numerical aperture micro scanning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eberle, Gregory; Dold, Claus; Wegener, Konrad

    2015-03-01

    The generation of microsized components found in LEDs, watches, molds as well as other types of micromechanics and microelectronics require a corresponding micro cutting tool in order to be manufactured, typically by milling or turning. Micro cutting tools are made of cemented tungsten carbide and are conventionally fabricated either by electrical discharge machining (EDM) or by grinding. An alternative method is proposed through a laser-based solution operating in the picosecond pulse duration whereby the beam is deflected using a modified galvanometer-driven micro scanning system exhibiting a high numerical aperture. A micro cutting tool material which cannot be easily processed using conventional methods is investigated, which is a fine grain polycrystalline diamond composite (PCD). The generation of various micro cutting tool relevant geometries, such as chip breakers and cutting edges, are demonstrated. The generated geometries are subsequently evaluated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and quality is measured in terms of surface roughness and cutting edge sharpness. Additionally, two processing strategies in which the laser beam processes tangentially and orthogonally are compared in terms of quality.

  19. Determining energy costs for milling solid matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guangbin, Yu., Dr.; Kuznetsova, M. M.; Marakhovskii, M. B.; Aleksina, A. A.

    2015-05-01

    The article provides findings of analytical research into the process of milling friable matter in a ball mill. We have received an expression to determine energy cost of milling with the account of the method of milling and the characteristics of the material to be ground.

  20. Direct measures of mechanical energy for knife mill size reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Bitra, V.S.P.; Womac, A.R.; Igathinathane, C.; Miu, P.I; Yang, Y.T.; Smith, D.R.; Chevanan, Nehru; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine

    2009-08-01

    Lengthy straw/stalk of biomass may not be directly fed into grinders such as hammer mills and disc refiners. Hence, biomass needs to be preprocessed using coarse grinders like a knife mill to allow for efficient feeding in refiner mills without bridging and choking. Size reduction mechanical energy was directly measured for switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), wheat straw (Triticum aestivum L.), and corn stover (Zea mays L.) in an instrumented knife mill. Direct power inputs were determined for different knife mill screen openings from 12.7 to 50.8 mm, rotor speeds between 250 and 500 rpm, and mass feed rates from 1 to 11 kg/min. Overall accuracy of power measurement was calculated to be 0.003 kW. Total specific energy (kWh/Mg) was defined as size reduction energy to operate mill with biomass. Effective specific energy was defined as the energy that can be assumed to reach the biomass. The difference is parasitic or no-load energy of mill. Total specific energy for switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover chopping increased with knife mill speed, whereas, effective specific energy decreased marginally for switchgrass and increased for wheat straw and corn stover. Total and effective specific energy decreased with an increase in screen size for all the crops studied. Total specific energy decreased with increase in mass feed rate, but effective specific energy increased for switchgrass and wheat straw, and decreased for corn stover at increased feed rate. For knife mill screen size of 25.4 mm and optimum speed of 250 rpm, optimum feed rates were 7.6, 5.8, and 4.5 kg/min for switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover, respectively, and the corresponding total specific energies were 7.57, 10.53, and 8.87 kWh/Mg and effective specific energies were 1.27, 1.50, and 0.24 kWh/Mg for switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover, respectively. Energy utilization ratios were calculated as 16.8%, 14.3%, and 2.8% for switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover, respectively. These

  1. Ultra-precision diamond milling of aspheric microlens array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chun-Chieh; Huang, Chien-Yao; Cheng, Yuan-Chieh; Hsu, Wei-Yao

    2013-06-01

    The applications of AMLA (aspheric micro lens array) have been frequently required in opto-electro industries, such as optical communication, contact image sensor (CIS) module of scanner, wafer level optics, etc. In addition to the typical requirements of aspheric lens, for instance form accuracy and surface roughness, the pitch error of each micro lens has been highly required. Three ultra-precision freeform machining methods have been widely applied for the manufacturing of AMLA, namely fast tool servo, slow tool servo and diamond milling. UPDM (Ultra-precision diamond milling) have the advantage with no tool interference problem in comparison with tool servo machining techniques. In this paper, the tool setting error compensation method and the tool path of UPDM has been developed for the fabrication of a 5 by 5 AMLA model. The form accuracy and surface roughness of each lenses of the AMLA was less than 0.2μm and 5nm, respectively. And the pitch error of each micro lens was less than 2μm in 25 micro lenses.

  2. Path integral regularization of pure Yang-Mills theory

    SciTech Connect

    Jacquot, J. L.

    2009-07-15

    In enlarging the field content of pure Yang-Mills theory to a cutoff dependent matrix valued complex scalar field, we construct a vectorial operator, which is by definition invariant with respect to the gauge transformation of the Yang-Mills field and with respect to a Stueckelberg type gauge transformation of the scalar field. This invariant operator converges to the original Yang-Mills field as the cutoff goes to infinity. With the help of cutoff functions, we construct with this invariant a regularized action for the pure Yang-Mills theory. In order to be able to define both the gauge and scalar fields kinetic terms, other invariant terms are added to the action. Since the scalar fields flat measure is invariant under the Stueckelberg type gauge transformation, we obtain a regularized gauge-invariant path integral for pure Yang-Mills theory that is mathematically well defined. Moreover, the regularized Ward-Takahashi identities describing the dynamics of the gauge fields are exactly the same as the formal Ward-Takahashi identities of the unregularized theory.

  3. Byssinosis among jute mill workers.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, Bhaskar P; Saiyed, Habibullah N; Mukherjee, Ashit K

    2003-07-01

    Although byssinosis in jute mill workers remains controversial, studies in a few jute mills in West-Bengal, India, revealed typical byssinotic syndrome associated with acute changes in FEV1 on the first working day after rest. The present study on 148 jute mill workers is reported to confirm the occurrence of byssinosis in jute mill workers. Work related respiratory symptoms; acute and chronic pulmonary function changes among exposed workers were studied on the basis of standard questionnaire and spirometric method along with dust level, particle mass size distributions and gram-negative bacterial endotoxins. The pulmonary function test (PFT) changes were defined as per the recommendation of World Health Organization and of Bouhys et al. Total dust in jute mill air were monitored by high volume sampling, technique (Staplex, USA), Andersen cascade impactor was used for particle size distribution and personal exposure level was determined by personal sampler (Casella, London). Endotoxin in airborne jute dust was analysed by Lymulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL) "Gel Clot" technique. Batching is the dustiest process in the mill. Size distribution showed that about 70-80% dust in diameter of < 10 microm, 40-50%, < 5 microm and 10-20%, < 2 microm. Mean endotoxin levels found in hatching, spinning and weaving, and beaming were 2.319 microg/m3, 0.956 microg/ m3, 0.041 microg/m3 respectively and are comparable to the values obtained up to date in Indian cotton mills. Respiratory morbidity study reported typical byssinotic symptoms along with acute post shift FEV1 changes (31.8%) and chronic changes in FEV1 (43.2%) among exposed workers. The group with higher exposure showed significantly lower FVC, FEV1, PEFR and FEF25-75% values. The study confirmed the findings of the earlier studies and clearly indicated that the Indian jute mill workers are also suffering from byssinosis as observed in cotton, flask and hemp workers.

  4. 40 CFR 61.151 - Standard for inactive waste disposal sites for asbestos mills and manufacturing and fabricating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... sites for asbestos mills and manufacturing and fabricating operations. 61.151 Section 61.151 Protection... STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Asbestos § 61.151 Standard for inactive waste disposal sites for asbestos mills and manufacturing and fabricating operations. Each...

  5. 40 CFR 61.151 - Standard for inactive waste disposal sites for asbestos mills and manufacturing and fabricating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... sites for asbestos mills and manufacturing and fabricating operations. 61.151 Section 61.151 Protection... STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Asbestos § 61.151 Standard for inactive waste disposal sites for asbestos mills and manufacturing and fabricating operations. Each...

  6. 40 CFR 61.151 - Standard for inactive waste disposal sites for asbestos mills and manufacturing and fabricating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... sites for asbestos mills and manufacturing and fabricating operations. 61.151 Section 61.151 Protection... STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Asbestos § 61.151 Standard for inactive waste disposal sites for asbestos mills and manufacturing and fabricating operations. Each...

  7. 40 CFR 61.151 - Standard for inactive waste disposal sites for asbestos mills and manufacturing and fabricating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... sites for asbestos mills and manufacturing and fabricating operations. 61.151 Section 61.151 Protection... STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Asbestos § 61.151 Standard for inactive waste disposal sites for asbestos mills and manufacturing and fabricating operations. Each...

  8. 40 CFR 61.151 - Standard for inactive waste disposal sites for asbestos mills and manufacturing and fabricating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... sites for asbestos mills and manufacturing and fabricating operations. 61.151 Section 61.151 Protection... STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Asbestos § 61.151 Standard for inactive waste disposal sites for asbestos mills and manufacturing and fabricating operations. Each...

  9. 7. VIEW TO EAST, MILL WAREHOUSE, DRYERS, GRINDING/ROD MILL, AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW TO EAST, MILL WAREHOUSE, DRYERS, GRINDING/ROD MILL, AND MECHANIC SHED. - Vanadium Corporation of America (VCA) Naturita Mill, 3 miles Northwest of Naturita, between Highway 141 & San Miguel River, Naturita, Montrose County, CO

  10. 8. VIEW OF THE MILL (FEATURE B27) AND MILL TAILINGS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW OF THE MILL (FEATURE B-27) AND MILL TAILINGS, FACING EAST. PHOTO TAKEN FROM TOP OF THE TAILINGS. - Nevada Lucky Tiger Mill & Mine, East slope of Buckskin Mountain, Paradise Valley, Humboldt County, NV

  11. 16. VIEW OF A ROLLING MILL THAT WAS USED TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. VIEW OF A ROLLING MILL THAT WAS USED TO CREATE A METAL SHEET (SHOWN). (4/16/57) - Rocky Flats Plant, Uranium Rolling & Forming Operations, Southeast section of plant, southeast quadrant of intersection of Central Avenue & Eighth Street, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  12. 5. VIEW OF BERYLLIUM PROCESSING AREA, ROLLING MILL. BERYLLIUM FORMING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW OF BERYLLIUM PROCESSING AREA, ROLLING MILL. BERYLLIUM FORMING BEGAN IN SIDE A OF THE BUILDING IN 1962. (11/5/73) - Rocky Flats Plant, Uranium Rolling & Forming Operations, Southeast section of plant, southeast quadrant of intersection of Central Avenue & Eighth Street, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  13. Ergonomic considerations for a systemic approach: the millenium maize mills project in northern Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Couvinhas, Ana; Ferrara, Patricia; Coelho, Denis; Jorge, Sinezia; Walter, Jake

    2012-01-01

    Malnutrition is a major problem for rural areas of Sub-Saharan Africa. Technology such as the maize mill, which alleviates the burden of pounding grain, also introduces opportunities and new challenges for improved nutrition. While there have been many technical studies of grain mills, and maize mills are in operation in hundreds of locations throughout Sub-Saharan Africa, the maize mill has not been studied from a socio-technical system perspective. This paper reports on the first phase of a study grounded on the hypothesis that mills can improve nutrition by exploiting their function as a social gathering point and providing both instruction and enjoyable healthful products. The objective was to identify those products that could be made available that customers at the mill would be willing to buy. Following observation of food availability, preparation, and consumption preferences within daily work routines, sample products were prepared and presented for cooking and consumption, along with some discussion at a district center mill owned by a local woman. The responses of customers and the mill owner were positive. Strategies for local manufacture and distribution of these products for sale and roles of the mill owner and the mothers are questions for future study.

  14. SUBAQUEOUS DISPOSAL OF MILL TAILINGS

    SciTech Connect

    Neeraj K. Mendiratta; Roe-Hoan Yoon; Paul Richardson

    1999-09-03

    A study of mill tailings and sulfide minerals was carried out in order to understand their behavior under subaqueous conditions. A series of electrochemical experiments, namely, cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and galvanic coupling tests were carried out in artificial seawater and in pH 6.8 buffer solutions with chloride and ferric salts. Two mill tailings samples, one from the Kensington Mine, Alaska, and the other from the Holden Mine, Washington, were studied along with pyrite, galena, chalcopyrite and copper-activated sphalerite. SEM analysis of mill tailings revealed absence of sulfide minerals from the Kensington Mine mill tailings, whereas the Holden Mine mill tailings contained approximately 8% pyrite and 1% sphalerite. In order to conduct electrochemical tests, carbon matrix composite (CMC) electrodes of mill tailings, pyrite and galena were prepared and their feasibility was established by conducting a series of cyclic voltammetry tests. The cyclic voltammetry experiments carried out in artificial seawater and pH 6.8 buffer with chloride salts showed that chloride ions play an important role in the redox processes of sulfide minerals. For pyrite and galena, peaks were observed for the formation of chloride complexes, whereas pitting behavior was observed for the CMC electrodes of the Kensington Mine mill tailings. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy conducted in artificial seawater provided with the Nyquist plots of pyrite and galena. The Nyquist plots of pyrite and galena exhibited an inert range of potential indicating a slower rate of leaching of sulfide minerals in marine environments. The galvanic coupling experiments were carried out to study the oxidation of sulfide minerals in the absence of oxygen. It was shown that in the absence of oxygen, ferric (Fe3+) ions might oxidize the sulfide minerals, thereby releasing undesirable oxidation products in the marine environment. The source of Fe{sup 3{minus}} ions may be

  15. Microfluidic device based on a micro-hydrocyclone for particle-liquid separation.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, P; Bagdi, P; Sen, A K

    2011-12-07

    This paper presents theoretical analysis, design, simulation, fabrication and test of a microfluidic device ('Micro-hydrocyclone') for separation of micron and submicron size solid particles from liquid in a particle liquid mixture. A theoretical analysis of the micro-hydrocyclone is performed to understand the physics and develop suitable design models. The structure of the proposed device is designed based on the Bradley model, as it offers lower cut-size thus making it suitable for microfluidics applications. The operational parameters are derived from the dimensional group model. The particle separation process inside the micro-hydrocyclone is simulated by solving fluid flows using Navier-Stokes equations and particle dynamics using a Lagrangian approach in a Eulerian fluid. The influence of inlet velocity and density on separation efficiency is investigated. The device is fabricated with SU-8 photoresist on a PMMA substrate using a combination of photolithography and micro-milling. Experiments are performed to demonstrate particle-liquid separation using polystyrene microbeads suspended in PBS as the feed sample. The influence of inlet velocity and particle size on particle separation efficiency is measured and compared with that obtained from simulations and a good match was found. The proposed device can be easily integrated with micro-environments thus it is suitable for lab-on-chip and microsystems development. The device may have applications in chemical analysis, materials research, point-of-care, blood sample preparation and other biomedical applications.

  16. Design and Operation of A Setup with A Camera and Adjustable Mirror to Inspect the Sense-Wire Planes of the Time Projection Chamber Inside the MicroBooNE Cryostat

    SciTech Connect

    Carls, Benjamin; Horton-Smith, Glenn; James, Catherine C.; Kubinski, Robert M.; Pordes, Stephen; Schukraft, Anne; Strauss, Thomas

    2015-08-26

    Detectors in particle physics, particularly when including cryogenic components, are often enclosed in vessels that do not provide any physical or visual access to the detectors themselves after installation. However, it can be desirable for experiments to visually investigate the inside of the vessel. The MicroBooNE cryostat hosts a TPC with sense-wire planes, which had to be inspected for damage such as breakage or sagging. This inspection was performed after the transportation of the vessel with the enclosed detector to its final location, but before filling with liquid argon. Our paper describes an approach to view the inside of the MicroBooNE cryostat with a setup of a camera and a mirror through one of its cryogenic service nozzles. The paper also describes the camera and mirror chosen for the operation, the illumination, and the mechanical structure of the setup. It explains how the system was operated and demonstrates its performance.

  17. A prediction-correction scheme for microchannel milling using femtosecond laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jianxiong; Zhou, Xiaolong; Lin, Shuwen; Tu, Yiliu

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, a prediction-correction scheme is proposed to online measure and regulate the milling depth of microchannel using an indicator of laser triggered plasma. Firstly, a prediction model, with respect to the laser fluence and feedrate, is established with several calibration tests using the least square fitting method. It is utilized to change the focal position of objective to track the depth evolution of newly generated surface. Meanwhile, a scanning path for every milling layer with an offset in Z-axis at the beginning and the end of the trajectory, is developed to drive the plasma brightness periodically changing. Then, the milling depth could be obtained when the brightness reaches to the maximum value. By doing so, an online measurement method is presented to estimate the milling depth using the trend of plasma brightness. Furthermore, a correction model is developed to iteratively adjust the feedrate with the online estimated depth. Therefore, the microchannel milling process could be monitored and controlled in a closed-loop manner, in order to accurately regulate the milling depth. Finally, an online measurement and closed-loop microchannel milling is carried out on the self-developed micro-machining center. The effectiveness and correctness of the proposed method are verified by comparing the estimated depth with the actually measured results.

  18. Study of the Utah uranium milling industry. Volume I. A policy analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Turley, R.E.

    1981-01-01

    Volume I is an analysis of the major problems raised by milling operators - primarily the issue of whether the federal government or the state should be responsible for the perpetual surveillance, monitoring, and maintenance of uranium tailings. (DMC)

  19. 20. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Boiling House Interior, 1878. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Boiling House Interior, 1878. View: Remains of south wall. The molasses storage pits are below the floor in the foreground. The remaining piece of floor indicates the form of the entire floor. The sorghum pan and boiling range flue slope from left to right (east to west) and permitted batches of cane juice to flow through the boiling pan by gravity. The beams, joists, truss work are built of northwest pine. The sides and floor boards are built of redwood. The boiling range flue is built of fire-brick, masonry, and portland cement. The corrugated roof appears to be a later addition, not contemporary with mill operation. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  20. Einstein-Yang-Mills from pure Yang-Mills amplitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nandan, Dhritiman; Plefka, Jan; Schlotterer, Oliver; Wen, Congkao

    2016-10-01

    We present new relations for scattering amplitudes of color ordered gluons and gravitons in Einstein-Yang-Mills theory. Tree-level amplitudes of arbitrary multiplicities and polarizations involving up to three gravitons and up to two color traces are reduced to partial amplitudes of pure Yang-Mills theory. In fact, the double-trace identities apply to Einstein-Yang-Mills extended by a dilaton and a B-field. Our results generalize recent work of Stieberger and Taylor for the single graviton case with a single color trace. As the derivation is made in the dimension-agnostic Cachazo-He-Yuan formalism, our results are valid for external bosons in any number of spacetime dimensions. Moreover, they generalize to the superamplitudes in theories with 16 supercharges.

  1. Pneumatic Micro Dispenser Chip for Portable Micro Analysis Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasegawa, Tadahiro; Tsuji, Toshiyuki; Ikuta, Koji

    The prototype of the pneumatic micro dispenser chip for portable micro analysis devices was developed successfully. This micro dispenser succeeded to divide liquid into 1µL without any dead volume by decompressing and the compressing air in only one micro pump. The dispensing operation is achieved by the original micro liquid detecting method and four hat-shaped check valves. The detecting method utilized the refraction of the infrared rays LED. Not only passage of the fluid into the channel but also its existence can be detected as TTL level signal. The hat-shaped silicone rubber valve which functions itself as a unidirectional passive valve was proposed. The check valve with low opening pressure (3kPa) and high inverse pressure (over 300kPa) was developed successfully. This micro dispenser chip is useful for portable micro analysis devices.

  2. Comparison of Marginal Gap and Microleakage in Copy-Milled and Cad-Milled Zirconia Copings Bonded Using Light Cure and Chemical Cure Resin Bonding Systems.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Manoj; Rajalakshmi, S; Krishna Prasad, D

    2014-12-01

    This in vitro study assessed the marginal gap and marginal microleakage in zirconia copings fabricated using two computer aided techniques- CAD milling and Copy milling and cemented to respective tooth preparations using two resin bonding systems, light cure and self-cure resin bonding systems. 32 extracted premolars were prepared to receive zirconia copings fabricated using CAD/CAM and Copy milling techniques. Once the copings were fabricated, the samples were evaluated for marginal fit prior to cementation through microscopic observation. Evaluation of marginal gap was done again after cementation, in order to incorporate the influence of the resin bonding system on the marginal microgap. The specimens were evaluated under the stereomicroscope for micro-leakage using commercial software. A comparative statistical analysis was done following data collection using Mann-Whitney U test, Wilcoxon test and chi-square test. The data collected regarding marginal gap was well within 120 µ, which is in accordance with previous studies. However, Copy milled specimens showed statistically lesser marginal gap when compared to CAD milled specimens. While comparing microleakage, it was observed that the microleakage in Copy milled specimens bonded with light cure resin bonded cement was statistically lesser than that of specimens cemented with chemical cure resin cement.(P = 0.003). This in vitro study concluded that Copy milling technique fabricated zirconia restorations with lesser marginal gap and microleakage score in comparison to CAD milled samples. Light cure resin bonding system also proved to be more effective option compared to self cure resin bonding systems. However, the limitations of this study should be taken into concern and further research should be aimed at a larger sample size to validate the results.

  3. 72. SECONDARY MILL AND CLASSIFIER FROM NORTHWEST. WOOD FEED BOX ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    72. SECONDARY MILL AND CLASSIFIER FROM NORTHWEST. WOOD FEED BOX BEHIND MILL, BARREN SOLUTION TANK BEHIND TRAVELING CRANE TRUSS AND ABOVE MILL. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  4. Elevation, west portal. Sign on portal reads Watson Mill Bridge, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Elevation, west portal. Sign on portal reads Watson Mill Bridge, est. 1885. - Watson Mill Bridge, Spanning South Fork Broad River, Watson Mill Road, Watson Mill Bridge State Park, Comer, Madison County, GA

  5. 4. VIEW OF THE ROAD TO THE MILL, FACING SOUTH. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW OF THE ROAD TO THE MILL, FACING SOUTH. THE MILL (FEATURE B-27) IS SHOWN IN THE BACKGROUND. - Nevada Lucky Tiger Mill & Mine, Mill, East slope of Buckskin Mountain, Paradise Valley, Humboldt County, NV

  6. Uranium mill tailings and radon

    SciTech Connect

    Hanchey, L A

    1981-01-01

    The major health hazard from uranium mill tailings is presumed to be respiratory cancer resulting from the inhalation of radon daughter products. A review of studies on inhalation of radon and its daughters indicates that the hazard from the tailings is extremely small. If the assumptions used in the studies are correct, one or two people per year in the US may develop cancer as a result of radon exhaled from all the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program sites. The remedial action should reduce the hazard from the tailings by a factor of about 100.

  7. Uranium mill tailings and radon

    SciTech Connect

    Hanchey, L A

    1981-04-01

    The major health hazard from uranium mill tailings is presumed to be respiratory cancer resulting from the inhalation of radon daughter products. A review of studies on inhalation of radon and its daughters indicates that the hazard from the tailings is extremely small. If the assumptions used in the studies are correct, one or two people per year in the United States may develop cancer as a result of radon exhaled from all the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action program sites. The remedial action should reduce the hazard from the tailings by a factor of about 100.

  8. Uranium Mines and Mills Location Database

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Uranium Mines and Mills location database identifies and shows the location of active and inactive uranium mines and mills, as well as mines which principally produced other minerals, but were known to have uranium in the ore.

  9. 1. VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST AT MAIN ELEVATION OF STARK MILL, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST AT MAIN ELEVATION OF STARK MILL, A REINFORCED CONCRETE MILL BUILT BY NEW ENGLAND SOUTHERN MILLS IN 1923-24. THE MILL WAS DESIGNED BY LOCKWOOD GREENE ENGINEERS, AND CONTAINED 35,000 SPINDLES FOR MAKING TIRE FABRICS. PART OF THE WEAVING WOULD TAKE PLACE AT HOGANSVILLE MILL (BUILT c. 1900), ANOTHER NEW ENGLAND SOUTHERN MILL NEARBY, UNTIL THE DEMOLITION OF THAT MILL IN THE 1970s. - Stark Mill, 117 Corinth Road, Hogansville, Troup County, GA

  10. Management of nonprocess elements in low-effluent bleached kraft pulp mills

    SciTech Connect

    Bryant, P.S.

    1995-12-31

    Increasing environmental regulation for the discharge of chlorinated organics in bleach plant effluents has required most manufacturers in the pulp and paper industry to reduce the charge of elemental chlorine in the bleaching of kraft pulp. The best long term solution for reducing effluent pollutants from bleached kraft pulp mills is to move towards low-effluent (closed-cycle) bleaching. Closure of operating bleach plants would dramatically reduce both the volume and the pollutant concentration of pulp mill effluents. However, closing the mill creates many operational problems including a concentration build-up of nonprocess elements (NPE`s) in process streams. NPE`s usually enter the pulp process as trace constituents of wood. Recent studies have lead to a fundamental understanding of how NPE`s partition between the solid cellulose phase and the liquid aqueous phase in pulp mill process streams. This knowledge will help in the design, operation and optimization of future low-effluent bleach plants.

  11. Factors contributing to milling quality differences in MY3, a 'RiceCAP' project milling population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A unique California long grain milling population is being phenotyped for milling and fissuring characteristics within the RiceCAP project. Low milling parent of this population has difference in grain shape, degree of chalkiness, and amylose content, as compared to the high milling parent. Contri...

  12. Systematic evaluation of satellite remote sensing for identifying uranium mines and mills.

    SciTech Connect

    Blair, Dianna Sue; Stork, Christopher Lyle; Smartt, Heidi Anne; Smith, Jody Lynn

    2006-01-01

    In this report, we systematically evaluate the ability of current-generation, satellite-based spectroscopic sensors to distinguish uranium mines and mills from other mineral mining and milling operations. We perform this systematic evaluation by (1) outlining the remote, spectroscopic signal generation process, (2) documenting the capabilities of current commercial satellite systems, (3) systematically comparing the uranium mining and milling process to other mineral mining and milling operations, and (4) identifying the most promising observables associated with uranium mining and milling that can be identified using satellite remote sensing. The Ranger uranium mine and mill in Australia serves as a case study where we apply and test the techniques developed in this systematic analysis. Based on literature research of mineral mining and milling practices, we develop a decision tree which utilizes the information contained in one or more observables to determine whether uranium is possibly being mined and/or milled at a given site. Promising observables associated with uranium mining and milling at the Ranger site included in the decision tree are uranium ore, sulfur, the uranium pregnant leach liquor, ammonia, and uranyl compounds and sulfate ion disposed of in the tailings pond. Based on the size, concentration, and spectral characteristics of these promising observables, we then determine whether these observables can be identified using current commercial satellite systems, namely Hyperion, ASTER, and Quickbird. We conclude that the only promising observables at Ranger that can be uniquely identified using a current commercial satellite system (notably Hyperion) are magnesium chlorite in the open pit mine and the sulfur stockpile. Based on the identified magnesium chlorite and sulfur observables, the decision tree narrows the possible mineral candidates at Ranger to uranium, copper, zinc, manganese, vanadium, the rare earths, and phosphorus, all of which are

  13. A Flush-Rivet Milling Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gottlieb, Robert

    1942-01-01

    The investigation of machine-countersunk flush rivets for aircraft described in reference 1 revealed the necessity of having the height of the rivet heads greater than the depth of the countersunk holes if tightly riveted joints were to be obtained. If ordinary roundhead rivets were inserted from the opposite side of the joint and the countersunk heads formed in the driving of the rivets filled the countersunk holes completely, still tighter joints were obtained. In either case the rivets protruded above the skin surface after driving, and the protruding portion of the rivet heads had to be removed in order to obtain flush rivets. A number of requests have been received for a description of the tool used to mill off the protruding portion of the rivet heads. This report contains assembly and detail drawings of the latest flush-rivet milling tool used at the NACA Structures Research Laboratory. Figure 6 shows the tool in operation. This tool is quite satisfactory for 1/8-inch rivets, but a more powerful motor is recommended for use with larger rivets.

  14. Methods for assessing background levels of radiation and radioactive materials in the environment around uranium mills

    SciTech Connect

    Wogman, N.A.; Silker, W.B.; Glissmeyer, J.A.; Endres, G.W.R.

    1980-04-01

    Techniques and costs for determining background levels and mill contributions to the environment are assessed. Three specific programs are identified for the determination of natural background and mill contributions to that background. Since the most significant radiological impact to man within 10 km of mill tailings occurs through airborne /sup 222/Rn and its daughters, their measurement is emphasized in the suggested procedures. The next major radiological impact from the mills occurs through airborne movement of particulates from the mill and its tailings piles. Thus, the more sophisticated measurement technologies presented include measurements of airborne radionuclide particulates, as well as methods to measure the dose from /sup 222/Rn and its daughters. The most expensive methods for assessing background levels of radioactive materials around uranium mills allow a determination of uranium, thorium, and radium in water, soil, and vegetation, as well as air. The methodologies are organized by their increasing capital and operating costs. The more expensive techniques provide a better evaluation of the mill contribution to the environment. There is no single universal technique that is applicable to all mills.

  15. Fluid mechanics of slurry flow through the grinding media in ball mills

    SciTech Connect

    Songfack, P.K.; Rajamani, R.K.

    1995-12-31

    The slurry transport within the ball mill greatly influences the mill holdup, residence time, breakage rate, and hence the power draw and the particle size distribution of the mill product. However, residence-time distribution and holdup in industrial mills could not be predicted a priori. Indeed, it is impossible to determine the slurry loading in continuously operating mills by direct measurement, especially in industrial mills. In this paper, the slurry transport problem is solved using the principles of fluid mechanics. First, the motion of the ball charge and its expansion are predicted by a technique called discrete element method. Then the slurry flow through the porous ball charge is tackled with a fluid-flow technique called the marker and cell method. This may be the only numerical technique capable of tracking the slurry free surface as it fluctuates with the motion of the ball charge. The result is a prediction of the slurry profile in both the radial and axial directions. Hence, it leads to the detailed description of slurry mass and ball charge within the mill. The model predictions are verified with pilot-scale experimental work. This novel approach based on the physics of fluid flow is devoid of any empiricism. It is shown that the holdup of industrial mills at a given feed percent solids can be predicted successfully.

  16. A field operational test on valve-regulated lead-acid absorbent-glass-mat batteries in micro-hybrid electric vehicles. Part II. Results based on multiple regression analysis and tear-down analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaeck, S.; Karspeck, T.; Ott, C.; Weirather-Koestner, D.; Stoermer, A. O.

    2011-03-01

    In the first part of this work [1] a field operational test (FOT) on micro-HEVs (hybrid electric vehicles) and conventional vehicles was introduced. Valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries in absorbent glass mat (AGM) technology and flooded batteries were applied. The FOT data were analyzed by kernel density estimation. In this publication multiple regression analysis is applied to the same data. Square regression models without interdependencies are used. Hereby, capacity loss serves as dependent parameter and several battery-related and vehicle-related parameters as independent variables. Battery temperature is found to be the most critical parameter. It is proven that flooded batteries operated in the conventional power system (CPS) degrade faster than VRLA-AGM batteries in the micro-hybrid power system (MHPS). A smaller number of FOT batteries were applied in a vehicle-assigned test design where the test battery is repeatedly mounted in a unique test vehicle. Thus, vehicle category and specific driving profiles can be taken into account in multiple regression. Both parameters have only secondary influence on battery degradation, instead, extended vehicle rest time linked to low mileage performance is more serious. A tear-down analysis was accomplished for selected VRLA-AGM batteries operated in the MHPS. Clear indications are found that pSoC-operation with periodically fully charging the battery (refresh charging) does not result in sulphation of the negative electrode. Instead, the batteries show corrosion of the positive grids and weak adhesion of the positive active mass.

  17. Extracting lignins from mill wastes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphrey, M. F.

    1977-01-01

    Addition of quaternary ammonium compound and activated charcoal to pulp and mill wastes precipitates lignins in sludge mixture. Methanol dissolves lignins for separation from resulting slurry. Mineral acid reprecipitates lignins in filtered solution. Quaternary ammonium compound, activated charcoal, as well as water may be recovered and recycled from this process.

  18. J. S. Mill on Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Alan

    2011-01-01

    Mill may be said either to have written rather little on education or to have written a very great deal. He himself distinguished between a "narrow" and a "wider" sense of education, the former limited to what happens in formal educational settings, the latter embracing all the influences that make us who and what we are. He wrote rather little on…

  19. MicroSAINT Models of the Close-In Weapon System (CIWS): Sensitivity Studies and Conformal Mapping of Performance Data (CISWENS). Subtitle: Exploring the Utility MicroSAINT Models: CIWS Loading Operation Models Under Normal and MOPP IV Conditions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-05-31

    04 8 %/ This report is a work prepared for the United States Government by Battelle. In no event shall either the United States Government or Battelle...ecleiees hascdla3 trot iet-as~te 0 04 are samwael% Sedatsw shield folds". it Tee* dej START: loeotatr plies* Stiod en Ceipe Mists M e: pent., rose.a...327.23 3 283.71 257.61 4 233.71 233.71 5 233.71 226.81 Table 2.3-2 Micro SAINT Model Results. -II Total Completion Time ( unit =seconds) 5th Percentile

  20. Environmental impact assessment of a mixed tropical hardwood integrated pulp and paper mill--A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Mohamed, M. ); Landner, L. )

    1993-11-01

    An overview of the environmental impact assessment (EIA) for a mixed tropical hardwood integrated pulp and paper mill in Sabah, Malaysia, is presented. The EIA before the mill construction included, among other things, a detailed baseline study and also environmental impact predictions based on certain mill design and pollution abatement measures. Subsequent to mill construction (during the operational stage), data were gathered to determine the quality of the ambient air as well as the effluent and the receiving bay water quality. These post-construction monitoring results were then compared with the earlier impact predictions, and showed, in general, a good correspondence.

  1. Laser milling of martensitic stainless steels using spiral trajectories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romoli, L.; Tantussi, F.; Fuso, F.

    2017-04-01

    A laser beam with sub-picosecond pulse duration was driven in spiral trajectories to perform micro-milling of martensitic stainless steel. The geometry of the machined micro-grooves channels was investigated by a specifically conceived Scanning Probe Microscopy instrument and linked to laser parameters by using an experimental approach combining the beam energy distribution profile and the absorption phenomena in the material. Preliminary analysis shows that, despite the numerous parameters involved in the process, layer removal obtained by spiral trajectories, varying the radial overlap, allows for a controllable depth of cut combined to a flattening effect of surface roughness. Combining the developed machining strategy to a feed motion of the work stage, could represent a method to obtain three-dimensional structures with a resolution of few microns, with an areal roughness Sa below 100 nm.

  2. Metal powder reactions in ball milling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arias, A.

    1976-01-01

    On milling chromium powder in three metal chlorides and either chromium or nickel powders in ten organic liquids representative of nine different functional groups, the powders always reacted with the liquids and became contaminated with elements from them. The milled powders had specific surface areas ranging from 0.14 to 37 sq m/g, and the total contamination with elements from the milling liquid ranged from 0.01 to 56 wt%. In most milling runs, compounds resulting from substitution, addition, or elimination reactions formed in or from the milling liquid, and in most runs with organic liquids H2, CH4, and CO2 were generated.

  3. Modeling the milling tool wear by using an evolutionary SVM-based model from milling runs experimental data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieto, Paulino José García; García-Gonzalo, Esperanza; Vilán, José Antonio Vilán; Robleda, Abraham Segade

    2015-12-01

    The main aim of this research work is to build a new practical hybrid regression model to predict the milling tool wear in a regular cut as well as entry cut and exit cut of a milling tool. The model was based on Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) in combination with support vector machines (SVMs). This optimization mechanism involved kernel parameter setting in the SVM training procedure, which significantly influences the regression accuracy. Bearing this in mind, a PSO-SVM-based model, which is based on the statistical learning theory, was successfully used here to predict the milling tool flank wear (output variable) as a function of the following input variables: the time duration of experiment, depth of cut, feed, type of material, etc. To accomplish the objective of this study, the experimental dataset represents experiments from runs on a milling machine under various operating conditions. In this way, data sampled by three different types of sensors (acoustic emission sensor, vibration sensor and current sensor) were acquired at several positions. A second aim is to determine the factors with the greatest bearing on the milling tool flank wear with a view to proposing milling machine's improvements. Firstly, this hybrid PSO-SVM-based regression model captures the main perception of statistical learning theory in order to obtain a good prediction of the dependence among the flank wear (output variable) and input variables (time, depth of cut, feed, etc.). Indeed, regression with optimal hyperparameters was performed and a determination coefficient of 0.95 was obtained. The agreement of this model with experimental data confirmed its good performance. Secondly, the main advantages of this PSO-SVM-based model are its capacity to produce a simple, easy-to-interpret model, its ability to estimate the contributions of the input variables, and its computational efficiency. Finally, the main conclusions of this study are exposed.

  4. Study of the Utah uranium-milling industry. Volume I. A policy analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Turley, R.E.

    1980-05-01

    This is the first volume of a two volume study of the Utah Uranium Milling Industry. The study was precipitated by a 1977 report issued by the Western Interstate Nuclear Board entitled Policy Recommendations on Financing Stabilization. Perpetual Surveillance and Maintenance of Uranium Mill Tailings. Volume I of this study is a policy analysis or technology assessment of the uranium milling industry in the state of Utah; specifically, the study addresses issues that deal with the perpetual surveillance, monitoring, and maintenance of uranium tailings piles at the end of uranium milling operations, i.e., following shutdown and decommissioning. Volume II of this report serves somewhat as an appendix. It represents a full description of the uranium industry in the state of Utah, including its history and statements regarding its future. The topics covered in volume I are as follows: today's uranium industry in Utah; management of the industry's characteristic nuclear radiation; uranium mill licensing and regulation; state licensing and regulation of uranium mills; forecast of future milling operations; policy needs relative to perpetual surveillance, monitoring, and maintenance of tailings; policy needs relative to perpetual oversight; economic aspects; state revenue from uranium; and summary with conclusions and recommendations. Appendices, figures and tables are also presented.

  5. Mechanically Milled Irregular Zinc Nanoparticles for Printable Bioresorbable Electronics.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Bikram K; Yu, Xiaowei; Shou, Wan; Pan, Heng; Huang, Xian

    2017-02-20

    Bioresorbable electronics is predominantly realized by complex and time-consuming anhydrous fabrication processes. New technology explores printable methods using inks containing micro- or nano-bioresorbable particles (e.g., Zn and Mg). However, these particles have seldom been obtained in the context of bioresorbable electronics using cheap, reliable, and effective approaches with limited study on properties essential to printable electronics. Here, irregular nanocrystalline Zn with controllable sizes and optimized electrical performance is obtained through ball milling approach using polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as a process control agent to stabilize Zn particles and prevent cold welding. Time and PVP dependence of the ball milled particles are studied with systematic characterizations of morphology and composition of the nanoparticles. The results reveal crystallized Zn nanoparticles with a size of ≈34.834 ± 1.76 nm and low surface oxidation. The resulting Zn nanoparticles can be readily printed onto bioresorbable substrates and sintered at room temperature using a photonic sintering approach, leading to a high conductivity of 44 643 S m(-1) for printable zinc nanoparticles. The techniques to obtain Zn nanoparticles through ball milling and processing them through photonic sintering may potentially lead to a mass fabrication method for bioresorbable electronics and promote its applications in healthcare, environmental protection, and consumer electronics.

  6. Micro Machining of Injection Mold Inserts for Fluidic Channel of Polymeric Biochips

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Woo-Chul; Heo, Young-Moo; Yoon, Gil-Sang; Shin, Kwang-Ho; Chang, Sung-Ho; Kim, Gun-Hee; Cho, Myeong-Woo

    2007-01-01

    Recently, the polymeric micro-fluidic biochip, often called LOC (lab-on-a-chip), has been focused as a cheap, rapid and simplified method to replace the existing biochemical laboratory works. It becomes possible to form miniaturized lab functionalities on a chip with the development of MEMS technologies. The micro-fluidic chips contain many micro-channels for the flow of sample and reagents, mixing, and detection tasks. Typical substrate materials for the chip are glass and polymers. Typical techniques for microfluidic chip fabrication are utilizing various micro pattern forming methods, such as wet-etching, micro-contact printing, and hot-embossing, micro injection molding, LIGA, and micro powder blasting processes, etc. In this study, to establish the basis of the micro pattern fabrication and mass production of polymeric micro-fluidic chips using injection molding process, micro machining method was applied to form micro-channels on the LOC molds. In the research, a series of machining experiments using micro end-mills were performed to determine optimum machining conditions to improve surface roughness and shape accuracy of designed simplified micro-channels. Obtained conditions were used to machine required mold inserts for micro-channels using micro end-mills. Test injection processes using machined molds and COC polymer were performed, and then the results were investigated.

  7. Catalytic pyrolysis of olive mill wastewater sludge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdellaoui, Hamza

    From 2008 to 2013, an average of 2,821.4 kilotons/year of olive oil were produced around the world. The waste product of the olive mill industry consists of solid residue (pomace) and wastewater (OMW). Annually, around 30 million m3 of OMW are produced in the Mediterranean area, 700,000 m3 year?1 in Tunisia alone. OMW is an aqueous effluent characterized by an offensive smell and high organic matter content, including high molecular weight phenolic compounds and long-chain fatty acids. These compounds are highly toxic to micro-organisms and plants, which makes the OMW a serious threat to the environment if not managed properly. The OMW is disposed of in open air evaporation ponds. After evaporation of most of the water, OMWS is left in the bottom of the ponds. In this thesis, the effort has been made to evaluate the catalytic pyrolysis process as a technology to valorize the OMWS. The first section of this research showed that 41.12 wt. % of the OMWS is mostly lipids, which are a good source of energy. The second section proved that catalytic pyrolysis of the OMWS over red mud and HZSM-5 can produce green diesel, and 450 °C is the optimal reaction temperature to maximize the organic yields. The last section revealed that the HSF was behind the good fuel-like properties of the OMWS catalytic oils, whereas the SR hindered the bio-oil yields and quality.

  8. Band structure in Yang-Mills theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachas, Constantin; Tomaras, Theodore

    2016-05-01

    We show how Yang-Mills theory on S3 × ℝ can exhibit a spectrum with continuous bands if coupled either to a topological 3-form gauge field, or to a dynamical axion with heavy Peccei-Quinn scale. The basic mechanism consists in associating winding histories to a bosonic zero mode whose role is to convert a circle in configuration space into a helix. The zero mode is, respectively, the holonomy of the 3-form field or the axion momentum. In these models different θ sectors coexist and are only mixed by (non-local) volume operators. Our analysis sheds light on, and extends Seiberg's proposal for modifying the topological sums in quantum field theories. It refutes a recent claim that B + L violation at LHC is unsuppressed.

  9. Wet Oxidation: A Promising Option for the Treatment of Pulp and Paper Mill Wastewater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garg, A.

    2012-05-01

    Wet oxidation (WO) is used to degrade persistent organic or inorganic impurities present in industrial wastewater. The process utilizes severe oxidation conditions (i.e., high temperature and pressures) to achieve the efficient degradation of pollutants. To obtain high degradation at lower operation conditions, catalytic WO process is being suggested. The wastewater generated from a pulp and paper mill contains several recalcitrant compounds like lignin, hemi-cellulose, phenols, sulfides etc. Therefore, pulp and paper mill effluent have low biodegradability and are not amenable for conventional biological process. With the implementation of stringent regulations, pulp and paper mill operators need a cleaner disposal route for the wastewater. In this mini-review, the results obtained from the recently published studies on WO treatment for pulp and paper mill effluent are compiled and presented. Finally, the recommendations for the future work are also given.

  10. On milling of thin-wall conical and tubular workpieces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Mu-Ping; Tsai, Nan-Chyuan; Yeh, Cheng-Wei

    2016-05-01

    Thin-wall tubular-geometry workpieces have been widely applied in aircraft and medical industries. However, due to the special geometry of this kind of workpieces and induced poor machinability, the desired accuracy of machining tends to be greatly degraded, no matter what type of metal-cutting task such as milling, drilling or turning is undertaken. Though numerous research reports are available that the tool path can be planned on the basis of preset surface profile before actual milling operation is performed, it is still difficult to predict the real-time surface profile errors for peripheral milling of thin-wall tubular workpieces. Instead of relying on tool path planning, this research is focused on how to real-time formulate the appropriate applied cutting torque via feedback of spindle motor current. On the other hand, a few suitable cutting conditions which are able to prevent potential break/crack of thin-wall workpieces and enhance productivity but almost retain the same cutting quality is proposed in this research. To achieve this goal, estimated surface profile error on machined parts due to deflections caused by both tool and workpiece is studied at first. Traditionally, by adjusting cutting parameters such as feed rate or cut depth, the deflection of tool or workpiece can be expected not to exceed the specified limit. Instead, an effective feedback control loop is proposed by this work for applying real-time appropriate applied cutting torque to prevent potential break/crack of the thin-wall conical workpieces. The torque estimation approach by spindle motor current feedback and the corresponding fuzzy logic controller are employed. Compared with constant cutting torque during milling operation in tradition manner, it is observed that the time consumption of milling cycle by aid of the aforesaid fuzzy logic controller is greatly shortened while the resulted cutting accuracy upon finish of workpiece can be almost retained.

  11. Micro Navigator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blaes, B. R.; Kia, T.; Chau, S. N.

    2001-01-01

    Miniature high-performance low-mass space avionics systems are desired for planned future outer planetary exploration missions (i.e. Europa Orbiter/Lander, Pluto-Kuiper Express). The spacecraft fuel and mass requirements enabling orbit insertion is the driving requirement. The Micro Navigator is an integrated autonomous Guidance, Navigation & Control (GN&C)micro-system that would provide the critical avionics function for navigation, pointing, and precision landing. The Micro Navigator hardware and software allow fusion of data from multiple sensors to provide a single integrated vehicle state vector necessary for six degrees of freedom GN&C. The benefits of this MicroNavigator include: 1) The Micro Navigator employs MEMS devices that promise orders of magnitude reductions in mass power and volume of inertial sensors (accelerometers and gyroscopes), celestial sensing devices (startracker, sun sensor), and computing element; 2) The highly integrated nature of the unit will reduce the cost of flight missions. a) The advanced miniaturization technologies employed by the Micro Navigator lend themselves to mass production, and therefore will reduce production cost of spacecraft. b) The integral approach simplifies interface issues associated with discrete components and reduces cost associated with integration and test of multiple components; and 3) The integration of sensors and processing elements into a single unit will allow the Micro Navigator to encapsulate attitude information and determination functions into a single object. This is particularly beneficial for object-oriented software architectures that are used in advanced spacecraft. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  12. Endotoxins in baled cottons and airborne dusts in textile mills in the People's Republic of China.

    PubMed Central

    Olenchock, S A; Christiani, D C; Mull, J C; Ye, T T; Lu, P L

    1983-01-01

    Bulk cotton samples and airborne vertical elutriated cotton dusts were obtained from textile mills in Shanghai, People's Republic of China. Analysis of endotoxin contents revealed that baled cottons which were grown in different countries varied in endotoxin contamination. The two textile mills, which operated at similar overall airborne dust levels, differed markedly in the levels of airborne endotoxins. The data suggest that the biological activity or "toxicity" of airborne cotton dusts may not be correlated directly with gravimetric dust levels. PMID:6639029

  13. Quark confinement due to non-Abelian magnetic monopoles in SU(3) Yang-Mills theory

    SciTech Connect

    Kondo, Kei-Ichi; Shibata, Akihiro; Shinohara, Toru; Kato, Seikou

    2012-10-23

    We present recent results on quark confinement: in SU(3) Yang-Mills theory, confinement of fundamental quarks is obtained due to the dual Meissner effect originated from non-Abelian magnetic monopoles defined in a gauge-invariant way, which is distinct from the well-known Abelian projection scenario. This is achieved by using a non-Abelian Stokes theorem for the Wilson loop operator and a new reformulation of the Yang-Mills theory.

  14. 2. South facade of the Monadnock Mills complex looking east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. South facade of the Monadnock Mills complex looking east down Water Street. Mill No. 2 is in the center of the photo, Mill No. 1 is to the right. The tower in Mill No. 1 retains its original design. The tower in Mill No. 2 was altered when an elevator was installed. The shed monitor in Mill No. 2 was constructed in 1879. - Monadnock Mills, 15 Water Street, Claremont, Sullivan County, NH

  15. Status of Pulse Milling Processes and Technologies: A Review.

    PubMed

    Vishwakarma, Rajesh Kumar; Shivhare, Uma Shanker; Gupta, Ram Kishore; Yadav, Deep Narayan; Jaiswal, Arvind; Prasad, Priyanka

    2017-01-26

    Pulses are essential component of the human diet in the underdeveloped and the developing countries. Pulse milling mainly focuses on complete removal of the hull with minimum generation of powder, broken, and in certain cases dehulled split formation. Physical and mechanical properties of different pulses are described and their role in dehulling is discussed in this review. The review discusses nature of gums that binds hull and cotyledons together and their effect on milling characteristics. Pitting operation is performed for all pulses prior to the pretreatment for better dehulling. Various pretreatment processes (soaking, edible oils, chemicals, enzymes, hydrothermal) developed to loosen the bond are examined for their dehulling efficacy from commercial application viewpoint. Dependence of dehulling characteristics of different pulses on size, shape, variety, grain hardness, and moisture content are discussed. Most of the machines developed for pulses dehulling in India are abrasion based emery-cylinder concave system. The studies done for optimization of different pretreatment process conditions are also reviewed. The losses taking place in the form of broken and powder during pulse milling are described. Methods for performance evaluation of pulse dehulling system are reviewed and expressions are suggested for proper evaluation. This review gives complete overview of the processes and technological status of pulse milling in present context.

  16. Bioplastic production using wood mill effluents as feedstock.

    PubMed

    Ben, M; Mato, T; Lopez, A; Vila, M; Kennes, C; Veiga, M C

    2011-01-01

    Fibreboard production is one of the most important industrial activities in Galicia (Spain). Great amounts of wastewater are generated, with properties depending on the type of wood, treatment process, final product and water reusing, among others. These effluents are characterized by a high chemical oxygen demand, low pH and nutrients limitation. Although anaerobic digestion is one of the most suitable processes for the treatment, lately bioplastics production (mainly polyhydroxyalkanoates) from wastewaters with mixed cultures is being evaluated. Substrate requirements for these processes consist of high organic matter content and low nutrient concentration. Therefore, wood mill effluents could be a suitable feedstock. In this work, the possibility of producing bioplastics from to wood mill effluents is evaluated. First, wood mill effluent was converted to volatile fatty acids in an acidogenic reactor operated at two different hydraulic retention times of 1 and 1.5 d. The acidification percentage obtained was 37% and 42%, respectively. Then, aerobic batch assays were performed using fermented wood mill effluents obtained at different hydraulic retention times. Assays were developed using different cultures as inoculums. The maximum storage yield of 0.57 Cmmol/Cmmol was obtained when when the culture was enriched on a synthetic media.

  17. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. [UMTRA project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-09-01

    The mission of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project is explicitly stated and directed in the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978, hereinafter referred to as the Act.'' Title I of the Act authorizes the Department of Energy (DOE) to undertake remedial action at designated inactive uranium processing sites (Attachment 1 and 2) and associated vicinity properties containing uranium mill tailings and other residual radioactive materials derived from the processing site. The purpose of the remedial actions is to stabilize and control such uranium mill tailings and other residual radioactive materials in a safe and environmentally sound manner to minimize radiation health hazards to the public. The principal health hazards and environmental concerns are: the inhalation of air particulates contaminated as a result of the emanation of radon from the tailings piles and the subsequent decay of radon daughters; and the contamination of surface and groundwaters with radionuclides or other chemically toxic materials. This UMTRA Project Plan identifies the mission and objectives of the project, outlines the technical and managerial approach for achieving them, and summarizes the performance, cost, and schedule baselines which have been established to guide operational activity. Estimated cost increases by 15 percent, or if the schedule slips by six months. 4 refs.

  18. Energy efficiency improvement of electric drive of cold pilgering mill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sychev, D. A.; Savosteenko, N. V.; Gryzlov, A. A.

    2017-02-01

    Different ways to improve the energy efficiency of electric drives of cold pilgering mill are considered. Mathematical modeling methods represent studies according to which it is possible to evaluate quantitatively the energy savings. For example, cold pilgering mill 450 shows the mean square of the armature current of the main drive motor related to critical frequency of the speed loop. The possibility of energy saving by previous field weakening of the motor before the operating cycle of rolling is considered. The optimal energy saving points of supply and termination of the pulse are determined by the field weakening. The correlation of the parameters of the dynamic units and the change of the electric drive work schedule provides the greatest loss reduction in the main drive of the cold pilgering mill stand based on the conditions. Activities aimed at improving energy efficiency of electric drives of mills of this group are reviewed, which reduces the electric energy consumption for the cycle rolling by 20-25 %.

  19. Respirable crystalline silica exposures during asphalt pavement milling at eleven highway construction sites.

    PubMed

    Hammond, Duane R; Shulman, Stanley A; Echt, Alan S

    2016-07-01

    Asphalt pavement milling machines use a rotating cutter drum to remove the deteriorated road surface for recycling. The removal of the road surface has the potential to release respirable crystalline silica, to which workers can be exposed. This article describes an evaluation of respirable crystalline silica exposures to the operator and ground worker from two different half-lane and larger asphalt pavement milling machines that had ventilation dust controls and water-sprays designed and installed by the manufacturers. Manufacturer A completed milling for 11 days at 4 highway construction sites in Wisconsin, and Manufacturer B completed milling for 10 days at 7 highway construction sites in Indiana. To evaluate the dust controls, full-shift personal breathing zone air samples were collected from an operator and ground worker during the course of normal employee work activities of asphalt pavement milling at 11 different sites. Forty-two personal breathing zone air samples were collected over 21 days (sampling on an operator and ground worker each day). All samples were below 50 µg/m(3) for respirable crystalline silica, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health recommended exposure limit. The geometric mean personal breathing zone air sample was 6.2 µg/m(3) for the operator and 6.1 µg/m(3) for the ground worker for the Manufacturer A milling machine. The geometric mean personal breathing zone air sample was 4.2 µg/m(3) for the operator and 9.0 µg/m(3) for the ground worker for the Manufacturer B milling machine. In addition, upper 95% confidence limits for the mean exposure for each occupation were well below 50 µg/m(3) for both studies. The silica content in the bulk asphalt material being milled ranged from 7-23% silica for roads milled by Manufacturer A and from 5-12% silica for roads milled by Manufacturer B. The results indicate that engineering controls consisting of ventilation controls in combination with water-sprays are

  20. Rolling Mill Hill, Nashville, TN

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Rolling Mill Hill was the home to Nashville General Hospital from 1890 to the 1990s and encompassed several buildings and structures. These existing buildings of historical significance were re-used in the form of apartments. The original Trolley Barns on the site are now artists’ lofts and are home to several companies and non-profit offices. Nance Place, which entails additional buildings built on-site, is a Tax Credit Workforce Housing Development and is Platinum LEED certified.

  1. Anaerobic digestion of pulp and paper mill wastewater and sludge.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Torsten; Edwards, Elizabeth A

    2014-11-15

    Pulp and paper mills generate large amounts of waste organic matter that may be converted to renewable energy in form of methane. The anaerobic treatment of mill wastewater is widely accepted however, usually only applied to few selected streams. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal rates in full-scale reactors range between 30 and 90%, and methane yields are 0.30-0.40 m(3) kg(-1) COD removed. Highest COD removal rates are achieved with condensate streams from chemical pulping (75-90%) and paper mill effluents (60-80%). Numerous laboratory and pilot-scale studies have shown that, contrary to common perception, most other mill effluents are also to some extent anaerobically treatable. Even for difficult-to-digest streams such as bleaching effluents COD removal rates range between 15 and 90%, depending on the extent of dilution prior to anaerobic treatment, and the applied experimental setting. Co-digestion of different streams containing diverse substrate can level out and diminish toxicity, and may lead to a more robust microbial community. Furthermore, the microbial population has the ability to become acclimated and adapted to adverse conditions. Stress situations such as toxic shock loads or temporary organic overloading may be tolerated by an adapted community, whereas they could lead to process disturbance with an un-adapted community. Therefore, anaerobic treatment of wastewater containing elevated levels of inhibitors or toxicants should be initiated by an acclimation/adaptation period that can last between a few weeks and several months. In order to gain more insight into the underlying processes of microbial acclimation/adaptation and co-digestion, future research should focus on the relationship between wastewater composition, reactor operation and microbial community dynamics. The potential for engineering and managing the microbial resource is still largely untapped. Unlike in wastewater treatment, anaerobic digestion of mill biosludge (waste activated

  2. Micro-Organ Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonda, Steven R.; Leslie, Julia; Chang, Robert C.; Starly, Binil; Sun, Wei; Culbertson, Christopher; Holtorf, Heidi

    2009-01-01

    Micro-organ devices (MODs) are being developed to satisfy an emerging need for small, lightweight, reproducible, biological-experimentati on apparatuses that are amenable to automated operation and that imp ose minimal demands for resources (principally, power and fluids). I n simplest terms, a MOD is a microfluidic device containing a variety of microstructures and assemblies of cells, all designed to mimic a complex in vivo microenvironment by replicating one or more in vivo micro-organ structures, the architectures and composition of the extr acellular matrices in the organs of interest, and the in vivo fluid flows. In addition to microscopic flow channels, a MOD contains one or more micro-organ wells containing cells residing in microscopic e xtracellular matrices and/or scaffolds, the shapes and compositions o f which enable replication of the corresponding in vivo cell assembl ies and flows.

  3. Rapid and conservative ablation and modification of enamel, dentin, and alveolar bone using a high repetition rate transverse excited atmospheric pressure CO2 laser operating at lambda=9.3 micro.

    PubMed

    Fan, Kenneth; Bell, Paul; Fried, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    Transverse excited atmospheric pressure (TEA) CO(2) lasers tuned to the strong mineral absorption of hydroxyapatite near lambda=9 microm are well suited for the efficient ablation of dental hard tissues if the laser pulse is stretched to greater than 5 to 10 micros to avoid plasma shielding phenomena. Such CO(2) lasers are capable of operating at high repetition rates for the rapid removal of dental hard tissues. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that stretched lambda=9.3-microA CO(2) laser pulses can produce lateral incisions in enamel, dentin, and alveolar bone for dental restorations and implants at repetition rates as high as 400 Hz without peripheral thermal damage. The single pulse ablation rates through enamel, dentin, and bone were determined for incident fluence ranging from (1 to 160 J/m(2)) for laser pulses from 5 to 18 mus in duration. Lateral incisions were produced in hard tissue samples using a computer-controlled scanning stage and water spray, and the crater morphology and chemical composition were measured using optical microscopy and high-resolution synchrotron radiation infrared spectromicroscopy. The residual energy remaining in tooth samples was measured to be 30 to 40% for enamel and 20 to 30% for dentin without water cooling, under optimum irradiation intensities, significantly lower than for longer CO(2) laser pulses. The transmission through 2-m length 300-, 500-, 750-, and 1000-microm silica hollow waveguides was measured and 80% transmission was achieved with 40 mJ per pulse. These results suggest that high repetition rate TEA CO(2) laser systems operating at lambda=9.3 microm with pulse durations of 10 to 20 micros are well suited for dental applications.

  4. Design and Operation of A Setup with A Camera and Adjustable Mirror to Inspect the Sense-Wire Planes of the Time Projection Chamber Inside the MicroBooNE Cryostat

    DOE PAGES

    Carls, Benjamin; Horton-Smith, Glenn; James, Catherine C.; ...

    2015-08-26

    Detectors in particle physics, particularly when including cryogenic components, are often enclosed in vessels that do not provide any physical or visual access to the detectors themselves after installation. However, it can be desirable for experiments to visually investigate the inside of the vessel. The MicroBooNE cryostat hosts a TPC with sense-wire planes, which had to be inspected for damage such as breakage or sagging. This inspection was performed after the transportation of the vessel with the enclosed detector to its final location, but before filling with liquid argon. Our paper describes an approach to view the inside of themore » MicroBooNE cryostat with a setup of a camera and a mirror through one of its cryogenic service nozzles. The paper also describes the camera and mirror chosen for the operation, the illumination, and the mechanical structure of the setup. It explains how the system was operated and demonstrates its performance.« less

  5. Mill Designed Bio bleaching Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Institute of Paper Science Technology

    2004-01-30

    generation of laccase has a broad spectrum of operating parameters. Nonetheless, the development of future genetically engineered laccases with enhanced temperature, pH and redox potentials will dramatically improve the overall process. A second challenge for LMS bleaching technologies is the need to develop effective, catalytic mediators. From the literature we already know this is feasible since ABTS and some inorganic mediators are catalytic. Unfortunately, the mediators that exhibit catalytic properties do not exhibit significant delignification properties and this is a challenge for future research studies. Potential short-term mill application of laccase has been recently reported by Felby132 and Chandra133 as they have demonstrated that the physical properties of linerboard can be improved when exposed to laccase without a chemical mediator. In addition, xxx has shown that the addition of laccase to the whitewater of the paper machine has several benefits for the removal of colloidal materials. Finally, this research program has presented important features on the delignification chemistry of LMS{sub NHA} and LMS{sub VA} that, in the opinion of the author, are momentous contributions to the overall LMS chemistry/biochemistry knowledge base which will continue to have future benefits.

  6. 1. VIEW FROM ROOF OF MILL LOOKING SOUTHWEST AT STARK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW FROM ROOF OF MILL LOOKING SOUTHWEST AT STARK MILL HOUSING ON CORINTH ROAD. THESE FRONT GABLE BUNGALOWS WERE BUILT AS OVERSEERS HOUSES FOR NEW ENGLAND SOUTHERN MILLS IN HOGANSVILLE IN 1923-1924. THE MILL ENGINEERS FOR STARK MILL, LOCKWOOD GREENE COMPANY, ALSO BUILT THE NEW WORKER HOUSING. - 110 Corinth Road (House), 110 Corinth Road, Hogansville, Troup County, GA

  7. 3. Interior of the attic of Mill No. 1, looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Interior of the attic of Mill No. 1, looking west. Unlike Mill No. 2 or the Sugar River Grist Mill, there were no iron tension members in this roof truss design. The structural framing members and the roof sheathing have been encased in finish millwork. - Monadnock Mills, Mill No. 1, 13-17 Water Street, Claremont, Sullivan County, NH

  8. 10. View of the Monadnock Mills complex showing (left to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. View of the Monadnock Mills complex showing (left to right) Mill No. 3 (1892), the Weave Shed (1876), and Mill No. 2 (1853). The Office Building is visible in the foreground, with Mill No. 5 to its left. - Monadnock Mills, 15 Water Street, Claremont, Sullivan County, NH

  9. 75 FR 49524 - Woodland Mills Corporation, Mill Spring, NC; Notice of Affirmative Determination Regarding...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Woodland Mills Corporation, Mill Spring, NC; Notice of Affirmative Determination Regarding Application for Reconsideration By application dated July 22, 2010,...

  10. 29 CFR 788.11 - “Transporting [such] products to the mill, processing plant, railroad, or other transportation...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... performed as part of the exempt transportation will be considered a step in the exempt transportation (Woods... site of the woods operations for transportation to the mill, processing plant, or railroad is not...

  11. Improving Energy Efficiency Via Optimized Charge Motion and Slurry Flow in Plant Scale Sag Mills

    SciTech Connect

    Raj K. Rajamani; Jose Angel Delgadillo

    2006-07-21

    A research team from the University of Utah is working to make inroads into saving energy in these SAG mills. In 2003, Industries of the Future Program of the Department of Energy tasked the University of Utah team to build a partnership between the University and the mining industry for the specific purpose of reducing energy consumption in SAG mills. A partnership was formed with Cortez Gold Mines, Kennecott Utah Copper Corporation, Process Engineering Resources Inc. and Outokumpu Technology. In the current project, Cortez Gold Mines played a key role in facilitating the 26-ft SAG mill at Cortez as a test mill for this study. According to plant personnel, there were a number of unscheduled shut downs to repair broken liners and the mill throughput fluctuated depending on ore type. The University team had two softwares, Millsoft and FlowMod to tackle the problem. Millsoft is capable of simulating the motion of charge in the mill. FlowMod calculates the slurry flow through the grate and pulp lifters. Based on this data the two models were fine-tuned to fit the Cortez SAG will. In the summer of 2004 a new design of shell lifters were presented to Cortez and in September 2004 these lifters were installed in the SAG mill. By December 2004 Cortez Mines realized that the SAG mill is drawing approximately 236-kW less power than before while maintaining the same level of production. In the first month there was extreme cycling and operators had to learn more. Now the power consumption is 0.3-1.3 kWh/ton lower than before. The actual SAG mill power draw is 230-370 kW lower. Mill runs 1 rpm lesser in speed on the average. The recirculation to the cone crusher is reduced by 1-10%, which means more efficient grinding of critical size material is taking place in the mill. All of the savings have resulted in reduction of operating cost be about $0.023-$0.048/ ton. After completing the shell lifter design, the pulp lifter design was taken up. Through a series of mill surveys and

  12. Development of a novel ultra cryo-milling technique for a poorly water-soluble drug using dry ice beads and liquid nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Shohei; Niwa, Toshiyuki; Nakanishi, Yasuo; Danjo, Kazumi

    2012-04-15

    A novel ultra cryo-milling micronization technique has been established using dry ice beads and liquid nitrogen (LN2). Drug particles were co-suspended with dry ice beads in LN2 and ground by stirring. Dry ice beads were prepared by storing dry ice pellets in LN2. A poorly water-soluble drug, phenytoin, was micronized more efficiently using either dry ice beads or zirconia beads compared to jet milling. Dry ice beads retained their granular shape without pulverizing and sublimating in LN2 as the milling operation progressed. Longer milling times produced smaller-sized phenytoin particles. The agitation speed for milling was optimized. Analysis of the glass transition temperature revealed that phenytoin particles co-ground with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) by dry ice milling were crystalline, whereas a planetary ball-milled mixtures process with zirconia beads contained the amorphous form. The dissolution rate of phenytoin milled with PVP using dry ice beads or zirconia beads was significantly improved compared to jet-milled phenytoin or the physical mixture. Dry ice beads together with LN2 were spontaneously sublimated at ambient condition after milling. Thus, the yield was significantly improved by dry ice beads compared to zirconia beads since the loss arisen from adhering to the surface of dry ice beads could be completely avoided, resulting in about 85-90% of recovery. In addition, compounds milled using dry ice beads are free from abraded contaminating material originating from the beads and internal vessel wall.

  13. Development of a Novel Milling System Using Supercritical Carbon Dioxide for Improvement of Dissolution Characteristics of Water-Poorly Soluble Drugs.

    PubMed

    Fern, Jennifer Chia Wee; Nakamura, Hideya; Watano, Satoru

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a novel milling system using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) for the improvement of dissolution characteristics of water-poorly soluble drugs. SC-CO2 possesses high potential in the application of nanotechnology, due to the attractive properties of SC-CO2 fluid such as cheap, inert and non-polluting. In addition, SC-CO2 has density comparable to a liquid, viscosity similar to a gas, and high diffusion capacity. Most of all, carbon dioxide exists as gas in room temperature and pressure, which enables the removal of fluid instantaneously. In this study, a novel method of milling using SC-CO2 was proposed to produce fine-drug particles. SC-CO2 milling was conducted and its performance was compared with the ones by various milling methods such as jet milling, dry milling and wet milling. A comparison on the effect of each milling medium on its milling performance, drug size distribution, and particle morphology was conducted. Operating variables of the SC-CO2 milling system were also investigated to clarify the factors affecting the milling properties and to improve drug release characteristics of water-poorly soluble drugs.

  14. Energy use pattern in rice milling industries-a critical appraisal.

    PubMed

    Goyal, S K; Jogdand, S V; Agrawal, A K

    2014-11-01

    Rice milling industry is one of the most energy consuming industries. Like capital, labour and material, energy is one of the production factors which used to produce final product. In economical term, energy is demand-derived goods and can be regarded as intermediate good whose demand depends on the demand of final product. This paper deals with various types of energy pattern used in rice milling industries viz., thermal energy, mechanical energy, electrical energy and human energy. The important utilities in a rice mill are water, air, steam, electricity and labour. In a rice mill some of the operations are done manually namely, cleaning, sun drying, feeding paddy to the bucket elevators, weighing and packaging, etc. So the man-hours are also included in energy accounting. Water is used for soaking and steam generation. Electricity is the main energy source for these rice mills and is imported form the state electricity board grids. Electricity is used to run motors, pumps, blowers, conveyors, fans, lights, etc. The variations in the consumption rate of energy through the use of utilities during processing must also accounted for final cost of the finished product. The paddy milling consumes significant quantity of fuels and electricity. The major energy consuming equipments in the rice milling units are; boilers and steam distribution, blowers, pumps, conveyers, elevators, motors, transmission systems, weighing, etc. Though, wide variety of technologies has been evolved for efficient use of energy for various equipments of rice mills, so far, only a few have improved their energy efficiency levels. Most of the rice mills use old and locally available technologies and are also completely dependent on locally available technical personnel.

  15. 76 FR 70170 - Proposed Alternative Soils Standards for the Uravan, Colorado Uranium Mill

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-10

    ... Uravan site began operations in 1912 as a radium mill and later expanded operations to include extraction... of radium-226 in soil, found in the Colorado Rules and Regulations Pertaining to Radiation Control, 6... exceeded by more than 5 pCi/g (picocuries per gram) of radium-226 averaged over the first 15...

  16. Yang-Mills instanton sheaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Sheng-Hong; Lee, Jen-Chi; Tsai, I.-Hsun

    2017-02-01

    The SL(2 , C) Yang-Mills instanton solutions constructed recently by the biquaternion method were shown to satisfy the complex version of the ADHM equations and the monad construction. Moreover, we discover that, in addition to the holomorphic vector bundles on CP3 similar to the case of SU(2) ADHM construction, the SL(2 , C) instanton solutions can be used to explicitly construct instanton sheaves on CP3. Presumably, the existence of these instanton sheaves is related to the singularities of the SL(2 , C) instantons on S4 which do not exist for SU(2) instantons.

  17. Partial Southwest Elevation Mill #5 West (Part 3), Partial ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Partial Southwest Elevation - Mill #5 West (Part 3), Partial Southwest Elevation - Mill #5 West (with Section of Courtyard) (Parts 1 & 2) - Boott Cotton Mills, John Street at Merrimack River, Lowell, Middlesex County, MA

  18. Partial Northeast Elevation Mill #5 East & #5 West ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Partial Northeast Elevation - Mill #5 East & #5 West (Part 4), Typical Floor - Partial Plan Mill #5 East & #5 West (Part 4) - Boott Cotton Mills, John Street at Merrimack River, Lowell, Middlesex County, MA

  19. 1. Mill exterior, high grade chute partially restored on the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Mill exterior, high grade chute partially restored on the outside of mill building center of picture. Looking northeast from below bridge. - Kennecott Copper Corporation, Concentration Mill, On Copper River & Northwestern Railroad, Kennicott, Valdez-Cordova Census Area, AK

  20. 5. DETAIL OF ROD MILL BASE AND CONVEYOR BELT SUPPORT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. DETAIL OF ROD MILL BASE AND CONVEYOR BELT SUPPORT, EAST VIEW. - Vanadium Corporation of America (VCA) Naturita Mill, Grinding Rod Mill, 3 miles Northwest of Naturita, between Highway 141 & San Miguel River, Naturita, Montrose County, CO

  1. 6. VIEW TO WEST, SAMPLING BUILDING, MECHANIC SHED, MILL WAREHOUSE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW TO WEST, SAMPLING BUILDING, MECHANIC SHED, MILL WAREHOUSE, DRYERS, AND GRINDING/ROD MILL. - Vanadium Corporation of America (VCA) Naturita Mill, 3 miles Northwest of Naturita, between Highway 141 & San Miguel River, Naturita, Montrose County, CO

  2. VIEW FROM SOUTHEAST CORNER OF THE CRUSHING MILL LOOKING TOWARD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW FROM SOUTHEAST CORNER OF THE CRUSHING MILL LOOKING TOWARD THE EAST WALL OF THE CRYSTALLIZER WING. FENESTRA WINDOWS IN CRUSHING MILL WALL. VIEW FROM THE NORTHEAST - Kekaha Sugar Company, Sugar Mill Building, 8315 Kekaha Road, Kekaha, Kauai County, HI

  3. CLOSE UP VIEW OF MILL FROM KEKAHA ROAD, WITH UNLOADER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CLOSE UP VIEW OF MILL FROM KEKAHA ROAD, WITH UNLOADER AND CRUSHING MILL WING IN THE FOREGROUND. VIEW FROM THE NORTHEAST - Kekaha Sugar Company, Sugar Mill Building, 8315 Kekaha Road, Kekaha, Kauai County, HI

  4. VIEW OF MILL FROM KEKAHA ROAD, WITH SUGAR BIN, CANE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF MILL FROM KEKAHA ROAD, WITH SUGAR BIN, CANE CLEANING PLANT AND CRUSHING MILL TO THE FORE. VIEW FROM THE EAST - Kekaha Sugar Company, Sugar Mill Building, 8315 Kekaha Road, Kekaha, Kauai County, HI

  5. 21. Credit WS. Ground floor, Midget Marvel milling machine, a ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Credit WS. Ground floor, Midget Marvel milling machine, a 25 barrel day machine by the Anglo American Mill Co. (Owensboro, KY), without covers, exposing rollers and sifters. - Bunker Hill Mill, County Route 26, Bunker Hill, Berkeley County, WV

  6. INTERIOR OF SECOND FLOOR BRIDGE BETWEEN PLANING MILL AND CAR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR OF SECOND FLOOR BRIDGE BETWEEN PLANING MILL AND CAR MACHINE SHOP, LOOKING SOUTH TOWARD PLANING MILL. - Southern Pacific, Sacramento Shops, Planing Mill, 111 I Street, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  7. 2. VIEW NORTHEAST, SOUTH FRONT OF DAYVILLE MILLS COMPLEX LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW NORTHEAST, SOUTH FRONT OF DAYVILLE MILLS COMPLEX LOOKING ACROSS ROUTE 101, MAIN MILL BUILDING - Dayville Mills Hydroelectric Facility, North side of Route 101, .5 mile west of Route 395, Killingly Center, Windham County, CT

  8. 1. NORTHWEST VIEW OF SOUTH AND EAST SIDES, WITH MILL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. NORTHWEST VIEW OF SOUTH AND EAST SIDES, WITH MILL BUILDING IN BACKGROUND - Juniata Mill Complex, Mill Camp Shed, 22.5 miles Southwest of Hawthorne, between Aurora Crater & Aurora Peak, Hawthorne, Mineral County, NV

  9. 2. DISTANT VIEW OF THE SITE LOOKING TOWARDS MILL VALLEY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. DISTANT VIEW OF THE SITE LOOKING TOWARDS MILL VALLEY AND SAN FRANCISCO IN THE DISTANCE, LOOKING WEST. - Mill Valley Air Force Station, East Ridgecrest Boulevard, Mount Tamalpais, Mill Valley, Marin County, CA

  10. 11. STOVE NUT USED IN THE MILL WHEN THE BRAKE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. STOVE NUT USED IN THE MILL WHEN THE BRAKE WHEEL DROVE ONE PAIR OF MILLSTONES DIRECTLY; FOUND ON THE FIRST FLOOR OF THE WINDMILL AT WATERMILL - Windmill at Water Mill, Montauk Highway & Halsey Lane, Water Mill, Suffolk County, NY

  11. Sandia's activities in uranium mill tailings remedial action

    SciTech Connect

    Neuhauser, S.

    1980-01-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 requires that remedial action be taken at over 20 inactive uranium mill tailings sites in the United States. Standards promulgated by the EPA under this act are to be the operative standards for this activity. Proposed standards must still undergo internal review, public comment, and receive Nuclear Regulatory Commission concurrence before being finalized. Briefly reviewed, the standards deal separately with new disposal sites (Part A) and cleanup of soil and contaminated structures at existing locations (Part B). In several cases, the present sites are felt to be too close to human habitations or to be otherwise unacceptably located. These tailings will probably be relocated. New disposal sites for relocated tailings must satisfy certain standards. The salient features of these standards are summarized.

  12. Micro-Discharge Micro-Thruster

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    Approved for public release, distribution unlimited 1 American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Micro -discharge Micro -thruster John...This paper summarizes the experiments and analysis of the micro -discharge micro - thruster developed jointly by Ewing Technology Associates and the...University of Washington. The key experimental result has been the demonstration of a sustained discharge in a very simple micro -discharge type of

  13. 48 CFR 18.201 - Contingency operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... operation. (a) Contingency operation is defined in 2.101. (b) Micro-purchase threshold. The threshold... use of the SF 44 is at or below the micro-purchase threshold. Agencies may, however, establish...

  14. 48 CFR 18.201 - Contingency operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... operation. (a) Contingency operation is defined in 2.101. (b) Micro-purchase threshold. The threshold... use of the SF 44 is at or below the micro-purchase threshold. Agencies may, however, establish...

  15. 48 CFR 18.201 - Contingency operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... operation. (a) Contingency operation is defined in 2.101. (b) Micro-purchase threshold. The threshold... use of the SF 44 is at or below the micro-purchase threshold. Agencies may, however, establish...

  16. Establishment of permit limits for mill effluent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crain, Bradford R.; Woods, Mike

    1995-03-01

    Various governmental regulatory agencies are responsible for establishing regulations on the discharge of chlorinated organic compounds from pulp and paper mills. The procedures for setting permit limits are the basic topic of this article. Different methods of determining permit limits are set forth and discussed in a number of references, including documents of the Environmental Protection Agency. This paper discusses in detail the application of one particular methodology—the lognormal model approach. In this paper we utilize a real data set and include the necessary calculations required to set up permit limits. The basic tenets of the permit process are such that if limits are set too low, operators who are in full regulatory compliance will still be frequently cited, and if limits are set too high, operators who are not in compliance will seldom if ever be cited. Thus there is a great need for these effluent limits to be determined with great care, both to protect the environment receiving the wastewater and the industry producing the wastewater.

  17. Ammonium Sulfate Evaporites Associated With Uranium Mill Tailings Disposal Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendlandt, R. F.; Harrison, W. J.

    2006-12-01

    The waste products of uranium mill operations are complex and dependent on the ore mineralogy, milling process (e.g., low pH vs. high pH), and operational status of the mill among other things. The White Mesa Mill, Utah, was visited during both quiescent (July 2004) and operational phases (August 2005) to collect liquid and solid samples from the active evaporation and storage ponds environments (Cells 1 and 3). Cell 4, which was unused and being excavated at the times of both samplings, yielded solids accumulated through the history of that cell's use. Raffinate samples are concentrated Na-Mg-Al-Fe-SO4-NO3(-NH4) brines characterized by extreme enrichments in REE and transition elements. Ionic strengths, calculated using the Pitzer activity coefficient model varied from 25M (pH = 1 at 25°C) in Cell 1 and 12M (pH = 2.7) in Cell 3 during July 2004, to 5M (pH = 1.5) in Cell 1 and 1.2M (pH = 2.9) in Cell 3 during August 2005. At the first sampling, the dominant anion was sulfate in Cell 1 and nitrate in Cell 3. At the time of the second sampling, both cells were dominated by sulfate. During July 2004, there was significant evaporative drawdown in the ponds, resulting in 3 variably colored zones (~7m) of mineralogically complex evaporites at the cell margins. During August 2005, the operational nature of the mill and the addition of fresh water had produced high water levels in Cells 1 and 3. Evaporation crusts were recognized around the margins of the cells but they were <2m in extent. XRD analyses document the presence of boussingaultite, (NH4)2Mg(SO4)2.6H2O, which was actively precipitating from Cell 1 during 2004, tschermigite, (NH4)Al(SO4)2.12H2O, gypsum, and polymorphs of Na2SO4 including thenardite. ESEM imaging and EDS analyses of crusts reveal complex parageneses involving the above-mentioned phases and NH4-bearing metavoltine, K2Na6Fe^{+2}Fe6^{+3}(SO4)12O2.18H2O, among others. Ksp calculations and field relations are consistent with a precipitation sequence

  18. 1. PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF KEX PLANT, FORMER CALLAWAY MILLS UNITY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF KEX PLANT, FORMER CALLAWAY MILLS UNITY COTTON MILL (A. FRANCIS WALKER, 1900-01) FROM DUNSON STREET. UNITY COTTON MILL WAS THE FIRST OF SEVERAL TEXTILE MILLS BUILT BY THE CALLAWAY MILLS GROUP IN SOUTHWEST LAGRANGE DURING THE EARLY TWENTIETH CENTURY. NOTE REMAINING PORTION OF ORIGINAL WATER TANK TOWER IN MIDDLE OF PHOTOGRAPH. - Unity Cotton Mill, 815 Leeman Street, La Grange, Troup County, GA

  19. Exposure to inhalable flour dust in Canadian flour mills.

    PubMed

    Karpinski, Eva A

    2003-12-01

    In 1999, the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH(R)) proposed a Threshold Limit Value (TLV(R)) of 0.5 mg/m(3) for flour dust with a sensitization notation. The Labour Program of the Department of Human Resources Development Canada (HRDC), following notice of the intention to set a TLV, conducted a study of the levels of exposure to flour dust in flour mills across Canada to verify existing conditions, as well as to decide whether to adopt the proposed TLV or reference some other value. As part of the study, a relationship between flour dust concentrations obtained by using Institute of Occupational Medicine (IOM) samplers and closed-face 37-mm cassettes was examined and the literature on the health effects of exposure to flour dust was reviewed. A total of 104 millers, packers, sweepers, bakery mix operators, and others (mixed tasks) from 14 flour mills were sampled over an 8-hour work shift using IOM samplers. The results indicate that 101 employees (97.1%) were exposed to levels exceeding 0.5 mg/m(3), 66 employees (67.3%) to levels exceeding 5 mg/m(3), and 44 employees (42.3%) to levels exceeding 10 mg/m(3). For comparison purposes, flour dust measurements were also taken in a highly automated flour mill using state-of-the-art technology. The results suggest that even with the most up-to-date technology and proper cleaning operations in place, the flour milling industry may not be able to reduce the flour dust levels to below the TLV of 0.5 mg/m(3). According to the measurements of inhalable and total dust concentrations, the IOM sampler appears to be a more efficient collector of inhalable airborne particles up to 100 microm than the closed-face 37-mm cassette.

  20. Improving Energy Efficiency Via Optimized Charge Motion and Slurry Flow in Plant Scale Sag Mills

    SciTech Connect

    Raj K. Rajamani

    2006-07-21

    A research team from the University of Utah is working to make inroads into saving energy in these SAG mills. In 2003, Industries of the Future Program of the Department of Energy tasked the University of Utah team to build a partnership between the University and the mining industry for the specific purpose of reducing energy consumption in SAG mills. A partnership was formed with Cortez Gold Mines, Outokumpu Technology, Kennecott Utah Copper Corporation, and Process Engineering Resources Inc. At Cortez Gold Operations the shell and pulp lifters of the semiautogenous grinding mill was redesigned. The redesigned shell lifter has been in operation for over three years and the redesigned pulp lifter has been in operation for over nine months now. This report summarizes the dramatic reductions in energy consumption. Even though the energy reductions are very large, it is safe to say that a 20% minimum reduction would be achieved in any future installations of this technology.

  1. Mine-to-Mill Optimization of Aggregate Production

    SciTech Connect

    Greg Adel; Toni Kojovic; Darren Thornton

    2006-06-01

    Mine-to-Mill optimization is a total systems approach to the reduction of energy and cost in mining and mineral processing operations. Developed at the Julius Krutschnitt Mineral Research Centre (JKMRC) in Queensland, Australia, the Mine-to-Mill approach attempts to minimize energy consumption through the optimization of all steps in the size reduction process. The approach involves sampling and modeling of blasting and processing, followed by computer simulation to optimize the operation and develop alternatives. The most promising alternatives are implemented, and sampling is conducted to quantify energy savings. In the current project, the primary objective is to adapt the JKMRC Mine-to-Mill technology to the aggregates industry. The second phase of this project is being carried out at the Pittsboro Quarry located south of Chapel Hill, North Carolina. This quarry is owned by 3M Corporation and operated by Luck Stone. Based on lessons learned from the first phase work, long-term monitoring ({approx} three months) of all quarry operations is being carried out to minimize the impact of geological changes during the mining process. To date, the blasting and processing operations have been audited and modeled, the long-term monitoring of current Luck Stone practice has been completed, and a modified blasting approach has been implemented based on the results of simulations using JKSimBlast and JKSimPlant. The modified blasting approach is expected to increase the primary throughput by 15% and the secondary throughput by approximately 6%, with an overall specific energy reduction of around 1%. Long-term monitoring is currently underway to evaluate the impact the modified blasting approach. This report summarizes the current status of work at the Pittsboro Quarry.

  2. Yang Mills Chern Simons supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lü, H.; Pope, C. N.; Sezgin, E.

    2004-06-01

    N = (1, 0) supergravity in six dimensions admits AdS3 × S3 as a vacuum solution. We extend our recent results presented in Lü et al (2002 Preprint hep-th/0212323), by obtaining the complete N = 4 Yang Mills Chern Simons supergravity in D = 3, up to quartic fermion terms, by S3 group manifold reduction of the six-dimensional theory. The SU(2) gauge fields have Yang Mills kinetic terms as well as topological Chern Simons mass terms. There is in addition a triplet of matter vectors. After diagonalization, these fields describe two triplets of topologically-massive vector fields of opposite helicities. The model also contains six scalars, described by a GL(3, R)/SO(3) sigma model. It provides the first example of a three-dimensional gauged supergravity that can be obtained by a consistent reduction of string theory or M-theory and that admits AdS3 as a vacuum solution. There are unusual features in the reduction from six-dimensional supergravity, owing to the self-duality condition on the 3-form field. The structure of the full equations of motion in N = (1, 0) supergravity in D = 6 is also elucidated, and the role of the self-dual field strength as torsion is exhibited.

  3. Vertical boring mill capacity is increased

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, R. J.

    1968-01-01

    Commercially available vertical boring mill with a nominal capacity to 27 feet in diameter of workpiece has been modified in-shop to handle work up to 36 feet in diameter. Capacity was increased by adding extension saddles to the mill support columns on each side.

  4. Numerical robust stability estimation in milling process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaoming; Zhu, Limin; Ding, Han; Xiong, Youlun

    2012-09-01

    The conventional prediction of milling stability has been extensively studied based on the assumptions that the milling process dynamics is time invariant. However, nominal cutting parameters cannot guarantee the stability of milling process at the shop floor level since there exists many uncertain factors in a practical manufacturing environment. This paper proposes a novel numerical method to estimate the upper and lower bounds of Lobe diagram, which is used to predict the milling stability in a robust way by taking into account the uncertain parameters of milling system. Time finite element method, a milling stability theory is adopted as the conventional deterministic model. The uncertain dynamics parameters are dealt with by the non-probabilistic model in which the parameters with uncertainties are assumed to be bounded and there is no need for probabilistic distribution densities functions. By doing so, interval instead of deterministic stability Lobe is obtained, which guarantees the stability of milling process in an uncertain milling environment. In the simulations, the upper and lower bounds of Lobe diagram obtained by the changes of modal parameters of spindle-tool system and cutting coefficients are given, respectively. The simulation results show that the proposed method is effective and can obtain satisfying bounds of Lobe diagrams. The proposed method is helpful for researchers at shop floor to making decision on machining parameters selection.

  5. 43 CFR 3832.30 - Mill sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mill sites. 3832.30 Section 3832.30 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LOCATING MINING CLAIMS OR SITES Mill Sites § 3832.30...

  6. 1. ELEVATION OF BUILDING 223, LOOKING EASTNORTHEAST. Mill Valley ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. ELEVATION OF BUILDING 223, LOOKING EAST-NORTHEAST. - Mill Valley Air Force Station, Civil Engineering Administration Office, East Ridgecrest Boulevard, Mount Tamalpais, Mill Valley, Marin County, CA

  7. The MillSOT-A Spiral Orbit Tribometer on a Milling Machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pepper, Stephen V.

    2014-01-01

    A spiral orbit tribometer (SOT) intended to characterize friction and wear phenomena has been constructed on a milling machine. The instrument, essentially a retainerless thrust bearing with one ball and flat races, is exceedingly simple and inexpensive to construct. The capabilities of the tribometer to measure both the coefficient of friction and contact electrical resistance are demonstrated with clean specimens as well as with well known lubricants such as molybdenum disulphide and Krytox oil. Operation in a purged environment of inert gas is also demonstrated. The results with these lubricants are quite close to what is obtained by other methods. Suggestions for extending the capabilities of the tribometer are given. This arrangement may find use in university mechanical engineering laboratories to introduce and study rolling contact motion as well as for research in contact mechanics and tribology.

  8. Amorphization of sugar hydrates upon milling.

    PubMed

    Willart, J F; Dujardin, N; Dudognon, E; Danède, F; Descamps, M

    2010-07-19

    The possibility to amorphize anhydrous crystalline sugars, like lactose, trehalose and glucose, by mechanical milling was previously reported. We test here the possibility to amorphize the corresponding crystalline hydrates: lactose monohydrate, trehalose dihydrate and glucose monohydrate using fully identical milling procedures. The results show that only the first hydrate amorphizes while the other two remain structurally invariant. These different behaviours are attributed to the plasticizing effect of the structural water molecules which can decrease the glass transition temperature below the milling temperature. The results reveal clearly the fundamental role of the glass transition in the solid-state amorphization process induced by milling, and they also explain why crystalline hydrates are systematically more difficult to amorphize by milling than their anhydrous counterpart. The investigations have been performed by differential scanning calorimetry and powder X-ray diffraction.

  9. Integrated coaxial-hollow micro dielectric-barrier-discharges for a large-area plasma source operating at around atmospheric pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, Osamu; Kishimoto, Yutaka; Tachibana, Kunihide

    2005-02-01

    An integrated structure of coaxial-hollow micro dielectric-barrier-discharges has been developed by stacking two metal meshes covered with insulating material. The test panel has an effective area of 50 mm diameter in which hundreds of hollow structures are assembled with a unit hollow area of 0.2 × 1.7 mm2. He or N2 was used as the discharge gas in the pressure range from 20 to 100 kPa and the firing voltage was less than 2 kV, even at the maximum pressure. The intensity of each microdischarge was observed to be uniform over the whole area throughout the pressure range, and its time evolution during one discharge pulse was analysed through two-dimensional microscopic observation with a gated CCD camera. In a gas flow regime through the coaxial hollow structures, several significant changes of the discharge properties were observed, such as impurity reduction, decrease in discharge voltage and cooling of the neutral gas. The fundamental plasma parameters were measured using a single probe in the downstream region of microdischarges using an auxiliary flat electrode set apart from the mesh electrode plane. The occurrence of an extended glow with a length of some millimetres was observed in He but not in N2. The electron density derived by the probe data in He at 100 kPa was ~3 × 1011 cm-3, suggesting a value of more than 1012 cm-3 in the active microdischarge region.

  10. Preliminary survey report. Karastan Rug Mill, Fieldcrest Mills, Inc. , Eden, North Carolina, July 14, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Mortimer, V.D.

    1982-01-19

    A visit was made to the Karastan Rug Mill, Eden, North Carolina to evaluate control methods taken to protect workers from hazards associated with the use of adhesives. Adhesives were mixed in a small room just beyond the rollup area of the backsizing operation. In the backsizing operation, the carpet feed and roller/coating operations were followed by a drying oven, a cool-down unit, and the roll-up or doffing area. Two workers per shift were required on the backsizing line. The coating of the underside of the carpet with a latex adhesive binds the carpet fibers to the backing and stiffens the carpet. A styrene/butadiene (SBR) latex containing ammonia as an emulsion stabilizer was used as the base. Exhaust ventilation was used for the oven. Ammonia was the only contaminant noticeable in the workplace environment. At the edge of the coated carpet as it was entering the oven a level of 25 parts per million (ppm) ammonia was detected. A level of 30 ppm was detected alongside the coating rollers. A canopy hood was operated in the compounding room to draw away dust released when adding powdered chemicals to the reactor. An exhaust fan was mounted on the wall opposite the doorway of the latex storage building. If the carpet industry is included in the in-depth study phase, this site would be a prime candidate for a detailed survey.

  11. In-situ deposition of silica layers during the operation of a micro-gas turbine and their effect on the oxidation of superalloy blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Min Tae; Kim, Doo Soo; Oh, Won Young

    2010-02-01

    Silica-based oxide layers were deposited in-situ on turbine blades made from Inconel 713 during the operation of a 13 kgf-class gas turbine, and their effect on the ex-situ oxidation behavior of the blades at 1050 °C was examined. The two turbines were driven by burning liquid petroleum gas (LPG), one turbine at a rotation speed of 35,000 rpm for 4 h (TB04), and the other at 42,000 rpm for 8 h (TB08). For deposition, tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) was sprayed into the fuel line immediately ahead of the combustion chamber. The TEOS-to-LPG ratio for TB04 and TB08 was maintained at 5.4 wt. % and 2.3 wt. %, respectively. Directly after operation, the turbine blades were coated with silica layers to a thickness of ˜10 μm, independent of the operating conditions. These oxide layers on the blades provided excellent protection against oxidation during both operation and the ex-situ isothermal oxidation test.

  12. 76 FR 28968 - MeadWestvaco; Notice of Authorization for Continued Project Operation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-19

    ... On April 14, 2006 MeadWestvaco, licensee for the Willow Mill Hydroelectric Project, filed an... thereunder. The Willow Mill Hydroelectric Project is on the Housatonic River in Berkshire County... hereby given that MeadWestvaco is authorized to continue operation of the Willow Mill...

  13. Design of Water-Drip Cooling Facilities for Heat Treatment of Mill Rollers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yudin, Yu. V.; Maisuradze, M. V.; Anufriev, N. P.

    2013-07-01

    Water-drip cooling devices based on centrifugal jet atomizers are studied experimentally. Their main operating characteristics such as the irrigation density, the uniformity of the distribution of irrigation over the cooled surface, the dependence of the heat transfer factor on the surface temperature, etc. are determined. The effect of the design and production parameters of the quenching facilities on their operating characteristics and mode of cooling of large steel articles is considered for mill rollers as an example. The results of the tests are used to design cooling facilities and heat treatment processes for mill rollers with the use of water-drip quenching.

  14. Liquid-liquid extraction of uranium(VI) with Aliquat® 336 from HCl media in microfluidic devices: Combination of micro-unit operations and online ICP-MS determination.

    PubMed

    Hellé, Gwendolyne; Mariet, Clarisse; Cote, Gérard

    2015-07-01

    The analysis of radionuclides is carried out according to operating protocols which include a series of chemical operations such as separation/purification steps and therefore is usually time-consuming, complex and difficult to put in place in a hostile environment (gloves box). In the present work, the liquid-liquid extraction of uranium in HCl media by Aliquat® 336 was performed in microsystem to demonstrate the potential of miniaturization in radiochemistry compared to classical protocols (decrease in volumes, analysis time, radiations received and feasibility of automation). Through the investigation of the influence of different parameters (flow rates, length of the microchannel, specific interfacial area), it was shown that the same performances of liquid-liquid extraction can be obtained in microsystem and in batch. Then, the coupling of different micro-unit operations for continuous process was performed to highlight the advantages of the miniaturized analytical techniques. The online ICP-MS determination of uranium(VI) was successfully coupled with the stripping of the latter from pre-loaded organic phases in microsystem, which constitutes a proof of concept and a first step towards a global analytical process with continuous flow.

  15. Micro-Scale Thermoacoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Offner, Avshalom; Ramon, Guy Z.

    2016-11-01

    Thermoacoustic phenomena - conversion of heat to acoustic oscillations - may be harnessed for construction of reliable, practically maintenance-free engines and heat pumps. Specifically, miniaturization of thermoacoustic devices holds great promise for cooling of micro-electronic components. However, as devices size is pushed down to micro-meter scale it is expected that non-negligible slip effects will exist at the solid-fluid interface. Accordingly, new theoretical models for thermoacoustic engines and heat pumps were derived, accounting for a slip boundary condition. These models are essential for the design process of micro-scale thermoacoustic devices that will operate under ultrasonic frequencies. Stability curves for engines - representing the onset of self-sustained oscillations - were calculated with both no-slip and slip boundary conditions, revealing improvement in the performance of engines with slip at the resonance frequency range applicable for micro-scale devices. Maximum achievable temperature differences curves for thermoacoustic heat pumps were calculated, revealing the negative effect of slip on the ability to pump heat up a temperature gradient. The authors acknowledge the support from the Nancy and Stephen Grand Technion Energy Program (GTEP).

  16. A micro-coupling for micro mechanical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wei; Zhou, Zhixiong; Zhang, Bi; Xiao, Yunya

    2016-05-01

    The error motions of micro mechanical systems, such as micro-spindles, increase with the increasing of the rotational speed, which not only decreases the rotational accuracy, but also promotes instability and limits the maximum operational speed. One effective way to deal with it is to use micro-flexible couplings between the drive and driven shafts so as to reduce error motions of the driven shaft. But the conventional couplings, such as diaphragm couplings, elastomeric couplings, bellows couplings, and grooved couplings, etc, cannot be directly used because of their large and complicated structures. This study presents a novel micro-coupling that consists of a flexible coupling and a shape memory alloy (SMA)-based clamp for micro mechanical systems. It is monolithic and can be directly machined from a shaft. The study performs design optimization and provides manufacturing considerations, including thermo-mechanical training of the SMA ring for the desired Two-Way-Shape-Memory effect (TWSMe). A prototype micro-coupling and a prototype micro-spindle using the proposed coupling are fabricated and tested. The testing results show that the prototype micro-coupling can bear a torque of above 5 N • mm and an axial force of 8.5 N and be fitted with an SMA ring for clamping action at room temperature (15 °C) and unclamping action below-5 °C. At the same time, the prototype micro-coupling can work at a rotational speed of above 200 kr/min with the application to a high-speed precision micro-spindle. Moreover, the radial runout error of the artifact, as a substitute for the micro-tool, is less than 3 μm while that of turbine shaft is above 7 μm. It can be concluded that the micro-coupling successfully accommodates misalignment errors of the prototype micro-spindle. This research proposes a micro-coupling which is featured with an SMA ring, and it is designed to clamp two shafts, and has smooth transmission, simple assembly, compact structure, zero-maintenance and

  17. Modelling Of Residual Stresses Induced By High Speed Milling Process

    SciTech Connect

    Desmaison, Olivier; Mocellin, Katia; Jardin, Nicolas

    2011-05-04

    Maintenance processes used in heavy industries often include high speed milling operations. The reliability of the post-process material state has to be studied. Numerical simulation appears to be a very interesting way to supply an efficient residual stresses (RS) distribution prediction.Because the adiabatic shear band and the serrated chip shaping are features of the austenitic stainless steel high speed machining, a 2D high speed orthogonal cutting model is briefly presented. This finite element model, developed on Forge registered software, is based on data taken from Outeiro and al.'s paper [1]. A new behaviour law fully coupling Johnson-Cook's constitutive law and Latham and Cockcroft's damage model is detailed in this paper. It ensures results that fit those found in literature.Then, the numerical tools used on the 2D model are integrated to a 3D high speed milling model. Residual stresses distribution is analysed, on the surface and into the depth of the material. Various revolutions and passes of the two teeth hemispheric mill on the workpiece are simulated. Thus the sensitivity of the residual stresses generation to the cutting conditions can be discussed. In order to validate the 3D model, a comparison of the cutting forces measured by EDF R and D to those given by numerical simulations is achieved.

  18. Modelling Of Residual Stresses Induced By High Speed Milling Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desmaison, Olivier; Mocellin, Katia; Jardin, Nicolas

    2011-05-01

    Maintenance processes used in heavy industries often include high speed milling operations. The reliability of the post-process material state has to be studied. Numerical simulation appears to be a very interesting way to supply an efficient residual stresses (RS) distribution prediction. Because the adiabatic shear band and the serrated chip shaping are features of the austenitic stainless steel high speed machining, a 2D high speed orthogonal cutting model is briefly presented. This finite element model, developed on Forge® software, is based on data taken from Outeiro & al.'s paper [1]. A new behaviour law fully coupling Johnson-Cook's constitutive law and Latham and Cockcroft's damage model is detailed in this paper. It ensures results that fit those found in literature. Then, the numerical tools used on the 2D model are integrated to a 3D high speed milling model. Residual stresses distribution is analysed, on the surface and into the depth of the material. Various revolutions and passes of the two teeth hemispheric mill on the workpiece are simulated. Thus the sensitivity of the residual stresses generation to the cutting conditions can be discussed. In order to validate the 3D model, a comparison of the cutting forces measured by EDF R&D to those given by numerical simulations is achieved.

  19. FLINT MILL ROADLESS AREA, TENNESSEE.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Griffitts, Wallace R.; Jones, Jay G.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral-resource survey was made on the Flint Mill Roadless Area in northeastern Tennessee. Studies of known manganese deposits, most of which are small and mined out, evaluation of iron prospects, and the results of a geochemical survey for other metals in stream sediments indicate there is probable resource potential for the occurrence of small iron-manganese resources in the roadless area. Nonmetallic minerals such as clay, carbonate rock, and other industrial raw material are found in the area but, similar commodites are found outside the area. The remote possibility of deep oil or gas in the southern Appalachians, of which the roadless area is a part, cannot be evaluated with existing data. Further geophysical study and possibly drilling would be necessary to evaluate the resource potential for gas and oil in the roadless area.

  20. 40 CFR 63.1348 - Standards for affected sources other than kilns; in-line kiln/raw mills; clinker coolers; new and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... than kilns; in-line kiln/raw mills; clinker coolers; new and reconstructed raw material dryers; and raw... Industry Emission Standards and Operating Limits § 63.1348 Standards for affected sources other than kilns; in-line kiln/raw mills; clinker coolers; new and reconstructed raw material dryers; and raw...

  1. Now You Can Micro-Computerize Your Personnel System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Short, Larry E.

    1979-01-01

    Pinpoints problems associated with personnel operations' inclusion in large complex information systems: personnel information system redesign requirements, potential confidentiality loss, reduced information accessibility, awkward data format requirements, and psychological problems. Discusses single chip micro-processor and micro-computer…

  2. An Attachable Electromagnetic Energy Harvester Driven Wireless Sensing System Demonstrating Milling-Processes and Cutter-Wear/Breakage-Condition Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Chung, Tien-Kan; Yeh, Po-Chen; Lee, Hao; Lin, Cheng-Mao; Tseng, Chia-Yung; Lo, Wen-Tuan; Wang, Chieh-Min; Wang, Wen-Chin; Tu, Chi-Jen; Tasi, Pei-Yuan; Chang, Jui-Wen

    2016-02-23

    An attachable electromagnetic-energy-harvester driven wireless vibration-sensing system for monitoring milling-processes and cutter-wear/breakage-conditions is demonstrated. The system includes an electromagnetic energy harvester, three single-axis Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) accelerometers, a wireless chip module, and corresponding circuits. The harvester consisting of magnets with a coil uses electromagnetic induction to harness mechanical energy produced by the rotating spindle in milling processes and consequently convert the harnessed energy to electrical output. The electrical output is rectified by the rectification circuit to power the accelerometers and wireless chip module. The harvester, circuits, accelerometer, and wireless chip are integrated as an energy-harvester driven wireless vibration-sensing system. Therefore, this completes a self-powered wireless vibration sensing system. For system testing, a numerical-controlled machining tool with various milling processes is used. According to the test results, the system is fully self-powered and able to successfully sense vibration in the milling processes. Furthermore, by analyzing the vibration signals (i.e., through analyzing the electrical outputs of the accelerometers), criteria are successfully established for the system for real-time accurate simulations of the milling-processes and cutter-conditions (such as cutter-wear conditions and cutter-breaking occurrence). Due to these results, our approach can be applied to most milling and other machining machines in factories to realize more smart machining technologies.

  3. An Attachable Electromagnetic Energy Harvester Driven Wireless Sensing System Demonstrating Milling-Processes and Cutter-Wear/Breakage-Condition Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Tien-Kan; Yeh, Po-Chen; Lee, Hao; Lin, Cheng-Mao; Tseng, Chia-Yung; Lo, Wen-Tuan; Wang, Chieh-Min; Wang, Wen-Chin; Tu, Chi-Jen; Tasi, Pei-Yuan; Chang, Jui-Wen

    2016-01-01

    An attachable electromagnetic-energy-harvester driven wireless vibration-sensing system for monitoring milling-processes and cutter-wear/breakage-conditions is demonstrated. The system includes an electromagnetic energy harvester, three single-axis Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) accelerometers, a wireless chip module, and corresponding circuits. The harvester consisting of magnets with a coil uses electromagnetic induction to harness mechanical energy produced by the rotating spindle in milling processes and consequently convert the harnessed energy to electrical output. The electrical output is rectified by the rectification circuit to power the accelerometers and wireless chip module. The harvester, circuits, accelerometer, and wireless chip are integrated as an energy-harvester driven wireless vibration-sensing system. Therefore, this completes a self-powered wireless vibration sensing system. For system testing, a numerical-controlled machining tool with various milling processes is used. According to the test results, the system is fully self-powered and able to successfully sense vibration in the milling processes. Furthermore, by analyzing the vibration signals (i.e., through analyzing the electrical outputs of the accelerometers), criteria are successfully established for the system for real-time accurate simulations of the milling-processes and cutter-conditions (such as cutter-wear conditions and cutter-breaking occurrence). Due to these results, our approach can be applied to most milling and other machining machines in factories to realize more smart machining technologies. PMID:26907297

  4. Mechanical and Microstructure Study of Nickel-Based ODS Alloys Processed by Mechano-Chemical Bonding and Ball Milling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amare, Belachew N.

    Due to the need to increase the efficiency of modern power plants, land-based gas turbines are designed to operate at high temperature creating harsh environments for structural materials. The elevated turbine inlet temperature directly affects the materials at the hottest sections, which includes combustion chamber, blades, and vanes. Therefore, the hottest sections should satisfy a number of material requirements such as high creep strength, ductility at low temperature, high temperature oxidation and corrosion resistance. Such requirements are nowadays satisfied by implementing superalloys coated by high temperature thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems to protect from high operating temperature required to obtain an increased efficiency. Oxide dispersive strengthened (ODS) alloys are being considered due to their high temperature creep strength, good oxidation and corrosion resistance for high temperature applications in advanced power plants. These alloys operating at high temperature are subjected to different loading systems such as thermal, mechanical, and thermo-mechanical combined loads at operation. Thus, it is critical to study the high temperature mechanical and microstructure properties of such alloys for their structural integrity. The primary objective of this research work is to investigate the mechanical and microstructure properties of nickel-based ODS alloys produced by combined mechano-chemical bonding (MCB) and ball milling subjected to high temperature oxidation, which are expected to be applied for high temperature turbine coating with micro-channel cooling system. Stiffness response and microstructure evaluation of such alloy systems was studied along with their oxidation mechanism and structural integrity through thermal cyclic exposure. Another objective is to analyze the heat transfer of ODS alloy coatings with micro-channel cooling system using finite element analysis (FEA) to determine their feasibility as a stand-alone structural

  5. Biomechanical pulping: A mill-scale evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Akhtar, M.; Scott, G.M.; Swaney, R.E.; Shipley, D.F.

    1999-07-01

    Mechanical pulping process is electrical energy intensive and results in low paper strength. Biomechanical pulping, defined as the fungal treatment of lignocellulosic materials prior to mechanical pulping, has shown at least 30% savings in electrical energy consumption, and significant improvements in paper strength properties compared to the control at a laboratory scale. In an effort to scale-up biomechanical pulping to an industrial level, fifty tons of spruce wood chips were inoculated with the best biopulping fungus in a continuous operation and stored in the form of an outdoor chip pile for two weeks. The pile was ventilated with conditioned air to maintain the optimum growth temperature and moisture throughout the pile. The control and fungus-treated chips were refined through a thermomechanical pulp mill (TMP) producing lightweight coated paper. The fungal pretreatment saved 33% electrical energy and improved paper strength properties significantly compared to the control. Since biofibers were stronger than the conventional TMP fibers, the authors were able to reduce the amount of bleached softwood kraft pulp by at least 5% in the final product. Fungal pretreatment reduced brightness, but brightness was restored to the level of bleached control with 60% more hydrogen peroxide. The economics of biomechanical pulping look attractive.

  6. Study of the Utah uranium-milling industry. Volume II. Utah energy resources: uranium

    SciTech Connect

    Millar, R.D.; Neilson, L.T.; Turley, R.E.

    1980-07-01

    This report is a general overview of the uranium mining and milling industry and its history and present status with particular reference to Utah. This volume serves two purposes: (1) it serves as a companion volume to Volume I, which is a policy analysis; and (2) it serves as one of a set of energy resource assessment studies previously performed by the authors. The following topics are covered: development of the uranium industry on the Colorado Plateau with emphasis on Utah; geology of uranium; uranium reserves; uranium exploration in Utah; uranium ore production and mining operation in Utah; uranium milling operations in Utah; utilization of uranium; uranium mill tailings; and future outlook. Appendices on pricing of uranium and incentives for production since World War II are also presented.

  7. 28. Photocopy of Crown Roller Mill illustration; originally published in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. Photocopy of Crown Roller Mill illustration; originally published in The Crown Roller Mill, Northwestern Miller 9 (May 21, 1880): 321; SHOWING WEST SIDE, LOOKING EAST - Crown Roller Mill, 105 Fifth Avenue, South, West Side Milling District, Minneapolis, Hennepin County, MN

  8. 7 CFR 868.206 - Milling yield determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Milling yield determination. 868.206 Section 868.206... Application of Standards § 868.206 Milling yield determination. Milling yield shall be determined by the use... that is approved by the Administrator as giving equivalent results. Note: Milling yield shall not...

  9. 1. VIEW NORTHWEST, SOUTH FRONT OF DAYVILLE MILLS COMPLEX LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW NORTHWEST, SOUTH FRONT OF DAYVILLE MILLS COMPLEX LOOKING ACROSS ROUTE 101, MILL OFFICES IN FOREGROUND, SMOKESTACK OVER BOILER ROOM AND MAINTENANCE SHOP, MAIN MILL BUILDING WITH TOWER - Dayville Mills Hydroelectric Facility, North side of Route 101, .5 mile west of Route 395, Killingly Center, Windham County, CT

  10. 7 CFR 868.206 - Milling yield determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Milling yield determination. 868.206 Section 868.206... Application of Standards § 868.206 Milling yield determination. Milling yield shall be determined by the use... that is approved by the Administrator as giving equivalent results. Note: Milling yield shall not...

  11. 2. VIEW LOOKING EAST AT THE MILL BUILDING AND THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW LOOKING EAST AT THE MILL BUILDING AND THE ANCILLARY BUILDINGS ASSOCIATED WITH THE MILLING PROCESS. TAILINGS ARE IN THE FOREGROUND, THE MILL IS IN THE CENTER MID-GROUND AND THE MINE TAILINGS ARE IN THE BACKGROUND LEFT OF THE IMAGE. - Standard Gold Mill, East of Bodie Creek, Northeast of Bodie, Bodie, Mono County, CA

  12. 7 CFR 868.206 - Milling yield determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Milling yield determination. 868.206 Section 868.206... Application of Standards § 868.206 Milling yield determination. Milling yield shall be determined by the use... that is approved by the Administrator as giving equivalent results. Note: Milling yield shall not...

  13. 7 CFR 868.206 - Milling yield determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Milling yield determination. 868.206 Section 868.206... Application of Standards § 868.206 Milling yield determination. Milling yield shall be determined by the use... that is approved by the Administrator as giving equivalent results. Note: Milling yield shall not...

  14. 7 CFR 868.206 - Milling yield determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Milling yield determination. 868.206 Section 868.206... Application of Standards § 868.206 Milling yield determination. Milling yield shall be determined by the use... that is approved by the Administrator as giving equivalent results. Note: Milling yield shall not...

  15. 10. TROJAN MILL, EXTERIOR FROM EAST, c. 191928. ADDITION TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. TROJAN MILL, EXTERIOR FROM EAST, c. 1919-28. ADDITION TO THE EAST END OF MILLING FLOOR VISIBLE WITH TRAM ENTRY DOOR. ALSO SEEN ARE THE ADDITIONS FOR MILL SOLUTION TANKS AND THE EAST SIDE OF SAMPLING ROOMS. CREDIT JW. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  16. Using residual lipid to assess rice degree of milling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Color is often used to measure the degree of milling of rice. Milled rice color is determined by the adhering, pigmented bran. Bran and germ are successively removed during milling and those tissues contain large quantities of lipid, therefore, surface lipid content may be used to assess milling qua...

  17. EAST ELEVATION, LTV STEEL (FORMERLY REPUBLIC STEEL), 8" BAR MILL, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EAST ELEVATION, LTV STEEL (FORMERLY REPUBLIC STEEL), 8" BAR MILL, BUFFALO PLANT. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST FROM ROLL SHOP. 8" BAR MILL DESIGNED AND BUILT BY DONNER STEEL CO. (PREDECESSOR OF REPUBLIC), 1919-1920. FOR DESCRIPTION OF ORIGINAL MILL SEE "IRON AGE", 116\\4 (23 JULY 1925): 201-204. - LTV Steel, 8-inch Bar Mill, Buffalo Plant, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  18. 3. GENERAL VIEW OF REMAINS OF 40" BLOOMING MILL; THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. GENERAL VIEW OF REMAINS OF 40" BLOOMING MILL; THE ENGINE ROOM CONTAINING THE MESTA-CORLISS STEAM ENGINE, IS LOCATED AT THE FAR END OF THE MILL AS SEEN TO THE FAR RIGHT (THE BUILDING WITH THE SHED ROOF). - Republic Iron & Steel Company, Youngstown Works, Blooming Mill & Blooming Mill Engines, North of Poland Avenue, Youngstown, Mahoning County, OH

  19. Milling by product Utilization Research at USDA-ARS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the State of California, waste material from olive milling (“alperujo” for 2-phase milling and “pomace” for 3-phase milling) is increasing as the domestic olive oil industry grows. Current best practices, including land application and conversion to animal feed, for disposing of olive milling wa...

  20. Ex situ oxidation of IN713 turbine blades in situ deposited with silica layers during operation of a micro-gas turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Min Tae; Kim, Doo Soo

    2011-06-01

    The long-term stability of silica layers deposited in situ on the IN713 turbine blades was investigated by surveying an ex situ thermally cycled oxidation test in air at 1050 °C. Two types of in situ coatings were prepared by burning tetraethylorthosilicate with fuel during a 100-min operation of a 13 kgf-class gas turbine. The degradation of the blades upon the oxidation test was evaluated by monitoring the weight change and by analyzing the microscopic evolution of surface oxides. One coating, characterized by a uniform and relatively thick porous coating on the pressure side, was chipped off in the early stages of the test. The other coating was ˜4 μm thick at the region near the root, but was too thin (and transparent) at the other parts of the blade to be rendered as protective one. However, this coating was found to be more stable towards chipping than the other coating during the oxidation test. The stability of the coatings was examined in terms of the interaction between the deposited layer and the underlying thermally grown oxide or substrate during the operation of the gas turbine.

  1. Through tubing window milling -- A cost effective method of casing exit

    SciTech Connect

    Blizzard, B.; Carter, T.; Roberts, J.

    1996-12-31

    Through tubing operations currently provide oilfield operators with an attractive method for significantly enhancing production at a relatively low cost. This paper will present a newly developed and innovative system for initiating a production casing sidetrack below the production tubing. The system uses coiled tubing technology and blends the special techniques of both drilling and window milling operations using coiled tubing. Development details emphasized will be the overall system design, performance criteria and equipment evaluation.

  2. 4. DETAIL VIEW SOUTH OF SOUTHMOST HEADGATE OPERATING MECHANISM (LOWER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. DETAIL VIEW SOUTH OF SOUTH-MOST HEADGATE OPERATING MECHANISM (LOWER CENTER); DRAINGATE OPERATING MECHANISM AT UPPER CENTER - Willimantic Linen Company, Mill No. 2, South Main Street opposite Durham Street, North bank Willimantic River, Windham, Windham County, CT

  3. Preliminary assessment of off-season fuels for electricity generation at Indian sugar mills

    SciTech Connect

    Perlack, R.D.; Ranney, J.W.

    1995-11-07

    This report on off-season fuels is part of a preliminary feasibility assessment to retrofit Indian sugar mills to cogenerate heat and power with sales of excess electricity to the local grid. To justify the high capital costs of retrofitting existing facilities, sugar mill operators must attempt to maximize the amount of power they sell to the local grid. This fact means that sugar mills must operate and sell power well-beyond the milling season, which typically lasts about 200 days. The purpose of this report is to assess and determine whether low cost and reliable sources of off-season fuels can be secured for two sugar mills (Simbhaoli and Daurala) within their respective sugar growing districts, located in western Uttar Pradesh. Off-season fuels under consideration include excess bagasse that is stored for off-season use, agricultural field residues (e.g., wheat straw), forest residues (e.g., bark and small limbs), and dedicated energy crops (short-rotation woody crops and herbaceous energy crops). Results of the pre-feasibility indicate that bagasse and some agricultural residues are available in sufficient quantity and may be available at reasonable cost.

  4. A field operational test on valve-regulated lead-acid absorbent-glass-mat batteries in micro-hybrid electric vehicles. Part I. Results based on kernel density estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaeck, S.; Karspeck, T.; Ott, C.; Weckler, M.; Stoermer, A. O.

    2011-03-01

    In March 2007 the BMW Group has launched the micro-hybrid functions brake energy regeneration (BER) and automatic start and stop function (ASSF). Valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries in absorbent glass mat (AGM) technology are applied in vehicles with micro-hybrid power system (MHPS). In both part I and part II of this publication vehicles with MHPS and AGM batteries are subject to a field operational test (FOT). Test vehicles with conventional power system (CPS) and flooded batteries were used as a reference. In the FOT sample batteries were mounted several times and electrically tested in the laboratory intermediately. Vehicle- and battery-related diagnosis data were read out for each test run and were matched with laboratory data in a data base. The FOT data were analyzed by the use of two-dimensional, nonparametric kernel estimation for clear data presentation. The data show that capacity loss in the MHPS is comparable to the CPS. However, the influence of mileage performance, which cannot be separated, suggests that battery stress is enhanced in the MHPS although a battery refresh function is applied. Anyway, the FOT demonstrates the unsuitability of flooded batteries for the MHPS because of high early capacity loss due to acid stratification and because of vanishing cranking performance due to increasing internal resistance. Furthermore, the lack of dynamic charge acceptance for high energy regeneration efficiency is illustrated. Under the presented FOT conditions charge acceptance of lead-acid (LA) batteries decreases to less than one third for about half of the sample batteries compared to new battery condition. In part II of this publication FOT data are presented by multiple regression analysis (Schaeck et al., submitted for publication [1]).

  5. 7 CFR 868.205 - Milling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... FOR CERTAIN AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES United States Standards for Rough Rice Principles Governing... rough rice, the degree of milling shall be equal to, or better than, that of the interpretive line sample for “well-milled” rice....

  6. 7 CFR 868.205 - Milling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... FOR CERTAIN AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES United States Standards for Rough Rice Principles Governing... rough rice, the degree of milling shall be equal to, or better than, that of the interpretive line sample for “well-milled” rice....

  7. 7 CFR 868.205 - Milling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... FOR CERTAIN AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES United States Standards for Rough Rice Principles Governing... rough rice, the degree of milling shall be equal to, or better than, that of the interpretive line sample for “well-milled” rice....

  8. 7 CFR 868.205 - Milling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... FOR CERTAIN AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES United States Standards for Rough Rice Principles Governing... rough rice, the degree of milling shall be equal to, or better than, that of the interpretive line sample for “well-milled” rice....

  9. 7 CFR 868.205 - Milling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... FOR CERTAIN AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES United States Standards for Rough Rice Principles Governing... rough rice, the degree of milling shall be equal to, or better than, that of the interpretive line sample for “well-milled” rice....

  10. 77 FR 14837 - Bioassay at Uranium Mills

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-13

    ... Development Branch, Division of Engineering, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. BILLING CODE 7590-01-P ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Bioassay at Uranium Mills AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Draft regulatory...

  11. Hypergolic Ionic Liquids to Mill, Suspend and Ignite Boron Nanoparticles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    by milling micron-sized B with a ligand to create ligand-protected B nanoparticles. For example, oleic acid was utilized as a ligand to create...Boron (2 g) was added to the ball milling apparatus and dry milled, followed by additional milling with either no ligand, a combination of oleic acid ...milled in the oleic acid /olelyl amine surfactant mixture led to a complex flame behavior reproducibly exhibiting two flames which lengthened the

  12. Control of deviations and prediction of surface roughness from micro machining of THz waveguides using acoustic emission signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, James M.; Diaz, Fernanda; Geerling, Edgar; Clasing, Matias; Ponce, Vicente; Taylor, Chris; Turner, Sam; Michael, Ernest A.; Patricio Mena, F.; Bronfman, Leonardo

    2017-02-01

    By using acoustic emission (AE) it is possible to control deviations and surface quality during micro milling operations. The method of micro milling is used to manufacture a submillimetre waveguide where micro machining is employed to achieve the required superior finish and geometrical tolerances. Submillimetre waveguide technology is used in deep space signal retrieval where highest detection efficiencies are needed and therefore every possible signal loss in the receiver has to be avoided and stringent tolerances achieved. With a sub-standard surface finish the signals travelling along the waveguides dissipate away faster than with perfect surfaces where the residual roughness becomes comparable with the electromagnetic skin depth. Therefore, the higher the radio frequency the more critical this becomes. The method of time-frequency analysis (STFT) is used to transfer raw AE into more meaningful salient signal features (SF). This information was then correlated against the measured geometrical deviations and, the onset of catastrophic tool wear. Such deviations can be offset from different AE signals (different deviations from subsequent tests) and feedback for a final spring cut ensuring the geometrical accuracies are met. Geometrical differences can impact on the required transfer of AE signals (change in cut off frequencies and diminished SNR at the interface) and therefore errors have to be minimised to within 1 μm. Rules based on both Classification and Regression Trees (CART) and Neural Networks (NN) were used to implement a simulation displaying how such a control regime could be used as a real time controller, be it corrective measures (via spring cuts) over several initial machining passes or, with a micron cut introducing a level plain measure for allowing setup corrective measures (similar to a spirit level).

  13. The Yang-Mills Mass Gap Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yablon, Jay R.

    2014-03-01

    The Yang-Mills Mass Gap problem is solved by deriving SU(3)C Chromodynamics as a corollary theory from Yang-Mills gauge theory. The mass gap is filled from finite non-zero eigenvalues of a configuration space inverse perturbation tensor containing vacuum excitations. This results from carefully developing six equivalent views of Yang-Mills gauge theory as having: 1) non-commuting (non-Abelian) gauge fields; 2) gauge fields with non-linear self-interactions; 3) a ``steroidal'' minimal coupling; 4) perturbations; 5) curvature in the gauge space of connections; and 6) gauge fields related to source currents through an infinite recursive nesting. Based on combining classical Yang-Mills electric and magnetic source field equations into a single equation, confinement results from showing how magnetic monopoles of Yang-Mills gauge theory exhibit color confinement and meson flow and have all the color symmetries of baryons, from which we conclude that they are one and the same as baryons. Chiral symmetry breaking results from the recursive behavior of these monopoles coupled with viewing Dirac's gamma matrices as Hamiltonian quaternions extended into spacetime. Finally, with aid from the ``steroidal'' view, the recursive view of Yang-Mills enables polynomial gauge field terms in the Yang-Mills action to be stripped out and replaced by polynomial source current terms prior to path integration. This enables an exact analytical calculation of a non-linear path integral using a closed recursive kernel and yields a non-linear quantum amplitude also with a closed recursive kernel, thus proving the existence of a non-trivial relativistic quantum Yang-Mills field theory on R4 for any simple gauge group G.

  14. Simulation of the plain milling process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolaev, A. Yu

    2017-02-01

    The article considers the dynamics of the plain milling process. The model takes into account the time-lag effect due to the algorithm of new surface formation during material cutting-off. A reduced model based on the results of a modal analysis of the milling cutter is applied to describe the dynamics of the tool. The results of the work are presented in the comparison of the microprofiles obtained as a result of processing and simulation of surfaces.

  15. Effect of Milling Time on the Blocking Temperature of Nanoparticles of Magnetocaloric Gd5Si4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadimani, Ravi; Gupta, Shalbh; Harstad, Shane; Pecharsky, Vitalij; Jiles, David; David C Jiles Team; Vitalij Pecharsky Collaboration

    Extensive research has been done on giant magnetocaloric material Gd5(SixGe1-x)4 to improve adiabatic temperature/isothermal entropy change. However, there have been only a few reports on fabrication of nanostructure/nanoparticles that can be used to tune various properties by changing the length scale. Recently we have reported fabrication of room temperature ferromagnetic nanoparticles of Gd5Si4 using high energy ball milling. These nanoparticles have potential applications in biomedical engineering such as better T2 MRI contrast agents and in hypothermia. Here we report the effect of milling time on the blocking temperature, micro-structure, crystal structure, and magnetic properties of these nanoparticles. Magnetization vs. temperature at an applied field of 100 Oe is measured for all the ball milled samples. Bulk Gd5Si4 has a transition temperature of ~340 K. There are two phase transitions observed in the nanoparticles, one near 300 K corresponding to the Gd5Si4 phase and another between 75-150 K corresponding to Gd5Si3. Zero Field Cooling (ZFC) and Field Cooling (FC) were measured. The blocking temperatures for the nanoparticles increase with decrease in milling time.

  16. The Microbiology of Olive Mill Wastes

    PubMed Central

    Ntougias, Spyridon; Bourtzis, Kostas

    2013-01-01

    Olive mill wastes (OMWs) are high-strength organic effluents, which upon disposal can degrade soil and water quality, negatively affecting aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. The main purpose of this review paper is to provide an up-to-date knowledge concerning the microbial communities identified over the past 20 years in olive mill wastes using both culture-dependent and independent approaches. A database survey of 16S rRNA gene sequences (585 records in total) obtained from olive mill waste environments revealed the dominance of members of Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria. Independent studies confirmed that OMW microbial communities' structure is cultivar dependant. On the other hand, the detection of fecal bacteria and other potential human pathogens in OMWs is of major concern and deserves further examination. Despite the fact that the degradation and detoxification of the olive mill wastes have been mostly investigated through the application of known bacterial and fungal species originated from other environmental sources, the biotechnological potential of indigenous microbiota should be further exploited in respect to olive mill waste bioremediation and inactivation of plant and human pathogens. The implementation of omic and metagenomic approaches will further elucidate disposal issues of olive mill wastes. PMID:24199199

  17. Computer Programmed Milling Machine Operations. High-Technology Training Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, Dennis

    This learning module for a high school metals and manufacturing course is designed to introduce the concept of computer-assisted machining (CAM). Through it, students learn how to set up and put data into the controller to machine a part. They also become familiar with computer-aided manufacturing and learn the advantages of computer numerical…

  18. Discrete element method as an approach to model the wheat milling process

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is a well-known phenomenon that break-release, particle size, and size distribution of wheat milling are functions of machine operational parameters and grain properties. Due to the non-uniformity of characteristics and properties of wheat kernels, the kernel physical and mechanical properties af...

  19. Cusp Anomalous Dimension in Maximally Supersymmetric Yang-Mills Theory at Strong Coupling

    SciTech Connect

    Basso, B.; Korchemsky, G. P.; Kotanski, J.

    2008-03-07

    We construct an analytical solution to the integral equation which is believed to describe logarithmic growth of the anomalous dimensions of high-spin operators in planar N=4 super Yang-Mills theory and use it to determine the strong coupling expansion of the cusp anomalous dimension.

  20. The Pigna Paper Mill and the Exercise Books of the "New Italy" (1870-1960)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ascenzi, Anna

    2008-01-01

    For the very first time this in-depth paper studies the archives of the historic Paolo Pigna Paper Mill in Alzano Lombardo (Bergamo, Italy), which played a leading role in Italian history and culture: so much so that it ended up with fusing its own image to the very market where it operated, that is, the Italian schools. After being taken over by…

  1. The effect of cryogenic grinding and hammer milling on the flavour quality of ground pepper (Piper nigrum L.).

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong; Zeng, Fankui; Wang, Qinghuang; Ou, Shiyi; Tan, Lehe; Gu, Fenglin

    2013-12-15

    In this study, we compared the effects of cryogenic grinding and hammer milling on the flavour attributes of black, white, and green pepper. The flavour attributes were analysed using headspace solid-phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS), sensory evaluation and electronic nose (e-nose) analysis. Cryogenic grinding resulted in minimal damage to the colour, flavour, and sensory attributes of the spices. Cryogenic grinding was also better than hammer milling at preserving the main potent aroma constituents, but the concentrations of the main aroma constituents were dramatically reduced after storing the samples at 4 °C for 6 months. Pattern matching performed by the e-nose further supported our sensory and instrumental findings. Overall, cryogenic grinding was superior to hammer milling for preserving the sensory properties and flavour attributes of pepper without significantly affecting its quality. However, we found that the flavour quality of ground pepper was reduced during storage.

  2. Some Aspects on the Mechanical Analysis of Micro-Shutters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fettig, Rainer K.; Kuhn, Jonathan L.; Moseley, S. Harvey; Kutyrev, Alexander S.; Orloff, Jon; Lu, Shude

    1999-01-01

    An array of individually addressable micro-shutters is being designed for spectroscopic applications. Details of the design are presented in a companion paper. The mechanical design of a single shutter element has been completed. This design consists of a shutter blade suspended on a torsion beam manufactured out of single crystal silicon membranes. During operation the shutter blade will be rotated by 90 degrees out of the array plane. Thus, the stability and durability of the beams are crucial for the reliability of the devices. Structures were fabricated using focused ion beam milling in a FEI 620 dual beam machine, and subsequent testing was completed using the same platform. This allowed for short turn around times. We performed torsion and bending experiments to determine key characteristics of the membrane material. Results of measurements on prototype shutters were compared with the predictions of the numerical models. The data from these focused studies were used in conjunction with experiments and numerical models of shutter prototypes to optimize the design. In this work, we present the results of the material studies, and assess the mechanical performance of the resulting design.

  3. Laser micro-machining of waveguide devices for sub-mm and far IR interferometry and detector arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drou't d'Aubigny, Christian Y.; Walker, Christopher K.; Golish, Dathon; Swain, Mark R.; Dumont, Philip J.; Lawson, Peter R.

    2003-02-01

    Laser induced, micro-chemical etching is a promising new technology that can be used to fabricate three dimensional structures many millimeters across with micrometer accuracy. Laser micromachining possesses a significant edge over more conventional techniques. It does not require the use of masks and is not confined to crystal planes. A non-contact process, it eliminates tool wear and vibration problems associated with classical milling machines. At the University of Arizona we have constructed the first such laser micromaching system optimized for the fabrication of THz and far IR waveguide and quasi-optical components. Our system can machine many millimeters across down to a few microns accuracy in a short time, with a remarkable surface finish. This paper presents the design, operation and performance of our system, and its applications to waveguide devices for sub millimeter and far IR interferometry.

  4. Strongly coupled large N spectrum of two matrices coupled via a Yang-Mills interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, Martin N. H.; Rodrigues, Joao P.

    2008-09-15

    We consider the large N spectrum of the quantum mechanical Hamiltonian of two Hermitian matrices coupled via a Yang-Mills interaction. In a framework where one of the matrices is treated exactly and the other is treated as a creation operator impurity, the difference equation associated with the Yang-Mills interaction is derived and solved exactly for two impurities. In this case, the full string tension corrected spectrum depends on two momenta. For a specific value of one of these momenta, the spectrum has the same structure as that of giant magnon bound states. States with general number of impurities are also discussed.

  5. Coal grinding by roller grinding mills for pulverized coal injection in blast furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    Kasseck, K.; Salewski, G.

    1995-10-01

    Roller grinding mills are increasingly being used for producing the pulverized coal required for injection into blast furnaces, an accepted technology worldwide for lowering coke consumption in blast furnaces. Coal is currently being injected into blast furnaces at the rate of 80 to 200 kg/tonne of hot metal which results in a coke savings of 72 to 180 kg/tonne of hot metal. The pulverized coal for coal injection is produced in coal grinding and drying plants currently having a capacity from 15 to 240 tonnes/hr. The grinding plant with Loesche roller grinding mills at the Ilva steelworks, Taranto, Italy, that is described, illustrates design concepts and operation.

  6. Selective enrichment of a methanol-utilizing consortium using pulp & paper mill waste streams

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory R. Mockos; William A. Smith; Frank J. Loge; David N. Thompson

    2007-04-01

    Efficient utilization of carbon inputs is critical to the economic viability of the current forest products sector. Input carbon losses occur in various locations within a pulp mill, including losses as volatile organics and wastewater . Opportunities exist to capture this carbon in the form of value-added products such as biodegradable polymers. Waste activated sludge from a pulp mill wastewater facility was enriched for 80 days for a methanol-utilizing consortium with the goal of using this consortium to produce biopolymers from methanol-rich pulp mill waste streams. Five enrichment conditions were utilized: three high-methanol streams from the kraft mill foul condensate system, one methanol-amended stream from the mill wastewater plant, and one methanol-only enrichment. Enrichment reactors were operated aerobically in sequencing batch mode at neutral pH and 25°C with a hydraulic residence time and a solids retention time of four days. Non-enriched waste activated sludge did not consume methanol or reduce chemical oxygen demand. With enrichment, however, the chemical oxygen demand reduction over 24 hour feed/decant cycles ranged from 79 to 89 %, and methanol concentrations dropped below method detection limits. Neither the non-enriched waste activated sludge nor any of the enrichment cultures accumulated polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) under conditions of nitrogen sufficiency. Similarly, the non-enriched waste activated sludge did not accumulate PHAs under nitrogen limited conditions. By contrast, enriched cultures accumulated PHAs to nearly 14% on a dry weight basis under nitrogen limited conditions. This indicates that selectively-enriched pulp mill waste activated sludge can serve as an inoculum for PHA production from methanol-rich pulp mill effluents.

  7. Selective Enrichment of a Methanol-Utilizing Consortium Using Pulp and Paper Mill Waste Streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mockos, Gregory R.; Smith, William A.; Loge, Frank J.; Thompson, David N.

    Efficient utilization of carbon inputs is critical to the economic viability of the current forest products sector. Input carbon losses occur in various locations within a pulp mill, including losses as volatile organics and wastewater. Opportunities exist to capture this carbon in the form of value-added products such as biodegradable polymers. Wasteactivated sludge from a pulp mill wastewater facility was enriched for 80 days for a methanol-utilizing consortium with the goal of using this consortium to produce biopolymers from methanol-rich pulp mill waste streams. Five enrichment conditions were utilized: three high-methanol streams from the kraft mill foul condensate system, one methanol-amended stream from the mill wastewater plant, and one methanol-only enrichment. Enrichment reactors were operated aerobically in sequencing batch mode at neutral pH and 25°C with a hydraulic residence time and a solids retention time of 4 days. Non-enriched waste activated sludge did not consume methanol or reduce chemical oxygen demand. With enrichment, however, the chemical oxygen demand reduction over 24-h feed/ decant cycles ranged from 79 to 89%, and methanol concentrations dropped below method detection limits. Neither the non-enriched waste-activated sludge nor any of the enrichment cultures accumulated polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) under conditions of nitrogen sufficiency. Similarly, the non-enriched waste activated sludge did not accumulate PHAs under nitrogen-limited conditions. By contrast, enriched cultures accumulated PHAs to nearly 14% on a dry weight basis under nitrogen-limited conditions. This indicates that selectively enriched pulp mill waste activated sludge can serve as an inoculum for PHA production from methanol-rich pulp mill effluents.

  8. Learning Activity Packets for Milling Machines. Unit I--Introduction to Milling Machines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Board of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This learning activity packet (LAP) outlines the study activities and performance tasks covered in a related curriculum guide on milling machines. The course of study in this LAP is intended to help students learn to identify parts and attachments of vertical and horizontal milling machines, identify work-holding devices, state safety rules, and…

  9. Influence of rice sample preparation and milling procedures on milling quality appraisals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of sample preparation and milling procedure on milling quality appraisals of rough rice. Samples of freshly harvested medium-grain rice (M202) with different initial moisture contents (MCs) ranging from 20.2% to 25.1% (w.b.) were used for...

  10. The research on tool wear of high speed milling titanium alloy TC4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Hongliang; Wang, Zhichao; Ren, Huanhuan; Yuan, Haoteng

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, carbide cutting tools with physical vapor deposition (PVD) coating was used to high speed milling α+β phase TC4 titanium alloy. The PVD tool was used to study the process of milling TC4 titanium alloy tool wear patterns and wear mechanisms. The results showed that the PVD coating surface wear was small after cutter blade. The cutting life was long, it was suitable for processing of titanium alloy TC4, the wear of rake face was mainly adhesion wear and oxidation wear, the flank face was mainly boundary wear. That was because the adhesion wear of the rake face and the boundary wear of the flank face had a weakening effect on the cutting edge , which made the micro crack blade of the main cutting edge.

  11. MicroED data collection and processing

    SciTech Connect

    Hattne, Johan; Reyes, Francis E.; Nannenga, Brent L.; Shi, Dan; Cruz, M. Jason de la; Leslie, Andrew G. W.; Gonen, Tamir

    2015-07-01

    The collection and processing of MicroED data are presented. MicroED, a method at the intersection of X-ray crystallography and electron cryo-microscopy, has rapidly progressed by exploiting advances in both fields and has already been successfully employed to determine the atomic structures of several proteins from sub-micron-sized, three-dimensional crystals. A major limiting factor in X-ray crystallography is the requirement for large and well ordered crystals. By permitting electron diffraction patterns to be collected from much smaller crystals, or even single well ordered domains of large crystals composed of several small mosaic blocks, MicroED has the potential to overcome the limiting size requirement and enable structural studies on difficult-to-crystallize samples. This communication details the steps for sample preparation, data collection and reduction necessary to obtain refined, high-resolution, three-dimensional models by MicroED, and presents some of its unique challenges.

  12. Cleanup of inactive Uranium Mill Tailings Sites in the Navajo Nation

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, B.

    1994-12-31

    The U.S. Congress passed the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) in 1978 to address potential and significant radiation health hazards to the public from active and inactive mill operations. Title I to the UMTRCA identified sites to be designated for remedial action. These include four uranium mill tailings remedial action (UMTRA) sites in the Navajo Nation. These sites are located in Shiprock, New Mexico; Tuba City, Arizona; Cane Valley, Arizona; and Halchita, Utah. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) was directed to select and execute a plan of remedial action that provides long-term stabilization and control of radioactive materials and satisfies the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency standards and other applicable laws and regulations.

  13. Influencing Factors and Workpiece's Microstructure in Laser-Assisted Milling of Titanium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiedenmann, R.; Liebl, S.; Zaeh, M. F.

    Today's lightweight components have to withstand increasing mechanical and thermal loads. Therefore, advanced materials substitute conventional materials like steel or aluminum alloys. Using these high-performance materials the associated costs become prohibitively high. This paper presents the newest fundamental investigations on the hybrid process 'laser-assisted milling' which is an innovative technique to process such materials. The focus is on the validation of a numerical database for a CAD/CAM process control unit which is calculated by using simulation. Prior to that, the influencing factors on a laser-assisted milling process are systematically investigated using Design of Experiments (DoE) to identify the main influencing parameters coming from the laser and the milling operation.

  14. Gauge-covariant decomposition and magnetic monopole for G (2 ) Yang-Mills field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsudo, Ryutaro; Kondo, Kei-Ichi

    2016-08-01

    We provide a gauge-covariant decomposition of the Yang-Mills field with the exceptional gauge group G (2 ), which extends the field decomposition proposed by Cho, Duan-Ge, and Faddeev-Niemi for the S U (N ) Yang-Mills field. As an application of the decomposition, we derive a new expression of the non-Abelian Stokes theorem for the Wilson loop operator in an arbitrary representation of G (2 ). The resulting new form is used to define gauge-invariant magnetic monopoles in the G (2 ) Yang-Mills theory. Moreover, we obtain the quantization condition to be satisfied by the resulting magnetic charge. The method given in this paper is general enough to be applicable to any semisimple Lie group other than S U (N ) and G (2 ).

  15. Uranium mining and milling work force characteristics in the western US

    SciTech Connect

    Rapp, D.A.

    1980-12-01

    This report presents the results of a survey of the socioeconomic characteristics associated with 11 uranium mine and mill operations in 5 Western States. Comparisons are made with the socioeconomic characteristics of construction and operating crews for coal mines and utility plants in eight Western States. Worker productivity also is compared with that in similar types of coal and uranium mining operations. We found that there existed no significant differences between the socioeconomic characteristics of construction and operating crews and the secondary employment impacts associated with uranium mines and mills when compared with those associated with coal mines and utility plants requiring similar skills at comparable locations. In addition, our survey includes a comparison of several characteristics associated with the households of basic and nonbasic work forces and concludes that significant changes have occurred in the last 5 yr. Accordingly, we recommend additional monitoring and updating of data used in several economic forecasting models to avoid unwarranted delays in achieving national energy goals.

  16. Olive mill wastewater treatment in single-chamber air-cathode microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Bermek, Hakan; Catal, Tunc; Akan, S Süha; Ulutaş, Mehmet Sefa; Kumru, Mert; Özgüven, Mine; Liu, Hong; Özçelik, Beraat; Akarsubaşı, Alper Tunga

    2014-04-01

    Olive mill wastewaters create significant environmental issues in olive-processing countries. One of the most hazardous groups of pollutants in these wastewaters is phenolic compounds. Here, olive mill wastewater was used as substrate and treated in single-chamber air-cathode microbial fuel cells. Olive mill wastewater yielded a maximum voltage of 381 mV on an external resistance of 1 kΩ. Notable decreases in the contents of 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, tyrosol, gallic acid and p-coumaric acid were detected. Chemical oxygen demand removal rates were 65 % while removal of total phenolics by the process was lower (49 %). Microbial community analysis during the olive mill wastewater treating MFC has shown that both exoelectrogenic and phenol-degrading microorganisms have been enriched during the operation. Brevundimonas-, Sphingomonas- and Novosphingobium-related phylotypes were enriched on the anode biofilm, while Alphaproteobacteria and Bacteriodetes dominated the cathode biofilm. As one of the novel studies, it has been demonstrated that recalcitrant olive mill wastewaters could be treated and utilized for power generation in microbial fuel cells.

  17. Milling Process FEM Simulation for Identification of Material Parameters Directly from Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurel, A.; Fontaine, M.; Thibaud, S.; Michel, G.; Gelin, J. C.

    2007-05-01

    An identification procedure for the determination of material parameters that are used for the FEM simulation of milling processes is proposed. This procedure is based on the coupling of a numerical identification procedure and FEM simulations of milling operations. The experimental data result directly from measurements performed during milling experiments. A special device has been instrumented and calibrated to perform force and torque measurements, directly during machining experiments in using a piezoelectric dynamometer and a high frequency charge amplifier. The forces and torques are stored and low pass filtered if necessary, and these data provide the main basis for the identification procedure which is based on coupling 3D FEM simulations of milling and optimization/identification algorithms. The identification approach is mainly based on the Surfaces Response Method in the material parameters space, coupled to a sensitivity analysis. A Moving Least Square Approximation method is used to accelerate the identification process. The material behaviour is described from Johnson-Cook law. A fracture model is also added to consider chip formation and separation. The FEM simulations of milling are performed using explicit ALE based FEM code. The inverse identification method is here applied on a 304L stainless steel and the first results are presented.

  18. Milling Process FEM Simulation for Identification of Material Parameters Directly from Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Maurel, A.; Fontaine, M.; Thibaud, S.; Michel, G.; Gelin, J. C.

    2007-05-17

    An identification procedure for the determination of material parameters that are used for the FEM simulation of milling processes is proposed. This procedure is based on the coupling of a numerical identification procedure and FEM simulations of milling operations. The experimental data result directly from measurements performed during milling experiments. A special device has been instrumented and calibrated to perform force and torque measurements, directly during machining experiments in using a piezoelectric dynamometer and a high frequency charge amplifier. The forces and torques are stored and low pass filtered if necessary, and these data provide the main basis for the identification procedure which is based on coupling 3D FEM simulations of milling and optimization/identification algorithms. The identification approach is mainly based on the Surfaces Response Method in the material parameters space, coupled to a sensitivity analysis. A Moving Least Square Approximation method is used to accelerate the identification process. The material behaviour is described from Johnson-Cook law. A fracture model is also added to consider chip formation and separation. The FEM simulations of milling are performed using explicit ALE based FEM code. The inverse identification method is here applied on a 304L stainless steel and the first results are presented.

  19. Perspectives on the amorphisation/milling relationship in pharmaceutical materials.

    PubMed

    Descamps, M; Willart, J F

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents an overview of recent advances in understanding the role of the amorphous state in the physical and chemical transformations of pharmaceutical materials induced by mechanical milling. The following points are addressed: (1) Is milling really able to amorphise crystals?, (2) Conditions for obtaining an amorphisation, (3) Milling of hydrates, (4) Producing amorphous state without changing the chemical nature, (5) Milling induced crystal to crystal transformations: mediation by an amorphous state, (6) Nature of the amorphous state obtained by milling, (7) Milling of amorphous compounds: accelerated aging or rejuvenation, (8) Specific recrystallisation behaviour, and (9) Toward a rationalisation and conceptual framework.

  20. RAW COPPER SLABS USED IN CASTING OPERATIONS AT BUFFALO PLANT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    RAW COPPER SLABS USED IN CASTING OPERATIONS AT BUFFALO PLANT OF AMERICAN BRASS COMPANY. MATERIALS STORAGE FOR THE CAST SHOP NOW OCCUPIES A PORTION OF THE ORIGINAL BRASS MILL BUILT BY THE BUFFALO COPPER AND BRASS ROLLING MILL IN 1906-07 AND EXPANDED IN 1911. - American Brass Foundry, 70 Sayre Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  1. Enhancing profitability of dry mill ethanol plants: process modeling and economics of conversion of degermed defibered corn to ethanol.

    PubMed

    Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Ponnampalam, Elankovan; McCalla, Darold; Stowers, Mark

    2005-01-01

    An Aspen Plus modeling platform was developed to evaluate the performance of the conversion process of degermed defibered corn (DDC) to ethanol in 15- and 40-million gallons per year (MGPY) dry mill ethanol plants. Upstream corn milling equipment in conventional dry mill ethanol plants was replaced with germ and fiber separation equipment. DDC with higher starch content was fed to the existing saccharification and fermentation units, resulting in higher ethanol productivity than with regular corn. The results of the DDC models were compared with those of conventional dry mill ethanol process models. A simple financial analysis that included capital and operating costs, revenues, earnings, and return on investment was created to evaluate each model comparatively. Case studies were performed on 15- and 40-MGPY base case models with two DDC process designs and DDC with a mechanical oil extraction process.

  2. Milling Stability Analysis Based on Chebyshev Segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    HUANG, Jianwei; LI, He; HAN, Ping; Wen, Bangchun

    2016-09-01

    Chebyshev segmentation method was used to discretize the time period contained in delay differential equation, then the Newton second-order difference quotient method was used to calculate the cutter motion vector at each time endpoint, and the Floquet theory was used to determine the stability of the milling system after getting the transfer matrix of milling system. Using the above methods, a two degree of freedom milling system stability issues were investigated, and system stability lobe diagrams were got. The results showed that the proposed methods have the following advantages. Firstly, with the same calculation accuracy, the points needed to represent the time period are less by the Chebyshev Segmentation than those of the average segmentation, and the computational efficiency of the Chebyshev Segmentation is higher. Secondly, if the time period is divided into the same parts, the stability lobe diagrams got by Chebyshev segmentation method are more accurate than those of the average segmentation.

  3. Yang-Mills for Historians and Philosophers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crease, R. P.

    The phrase "Yang-Mills" can be used (1) to refer to the specific theory proposed by Yang and Mills in 1954; or (2) as shorthand for any non-Abelian gauge theory. The 1954 version, physically speaking, had a famous show-stopping defect in the form of what might be called the "Pauli snag," or the requirement that, in the Lagrangian for non-Abelian gauge theory the mass term for the gauge field has to be zero. How, then, was it possible for (1) to turn into (2)? What unfolding sequence of events made this transition possible, and what does this evolution say about the nature of theories in physics? The transition between (1) and (2) illustrates what historians and philosophers a century from now might still find instructive and stimulating about the development of Yang-Mills theory.

  4. Transportation of the MOAB Uranium Mill Tailings to White Mesa Mill by Slurry Pipeline

    SciTech Connect

    Hochstein, R. F.; Warner, R.; Wetz, T. V.

    2003-02-26

    The Moab uranium mill tailings pile, located at the former Atlas Minerals Corporation site approximately three miles north of Moab, Utah, is now under the control of the US Department of Energy (''DOE''). The location of the tailings pile adjacent to the Colorado River, and the ongoing contamination of groundwater and seepage of pollutants into the river, have lead to the investigation, as part of the final site remediation program, of alternatives to relocate the tailings to a qualified permanent disposal site. This paper will describe the approach being taken by the team formed between International Uranium (USA) Corporation (''IUC'') and Washington Group International (''WGINT'') to develop an innovative technical proposal to relocate the Moab tailings to IUC's White Mesa Mill south of Blanding, Utah. The proposed approach for relocating the tailings involves using a slurry pipeline to transport the tailings to the White Mesa Mill. The White Mesa Mill is a fully licensed, active uranium mill site that is uniquely suited for permanent disposal of the Moab tailings. The tailings slurry would be dewatered at the White Mesa Mill, the slurry water would be recycled to the Moab site for reuse in slurry makeup, and the ''dry'' tailings would be permanently disposed of in an approved below grade cell at the mill site.

  5. Dependence of milling time on electrochemical properties of nano Si electrodes prepared by ball-milling.

    PubMed

    Cho, G B; Choi, S Y; Noh, J P; Jeon, Y M; Jung, K T; Nam, T H

    2011-07-01

    Morphology, crystallinity and electrochemical properties of Si powders fabricated by a mechanical milling process with milling time of 6-40 h were investigated by means of FESEM, XRD, Raman, TEM and cell test. Average size of Si powders was reduced to sub-micrometer scale after 10 h-milling and 40 nm-Si powders could be obtained at 48 h-milling. With increasing milling time, Si powders mostly changes from crystalline Si to amorphous one and the content of amorphous Si was increased. TEM result showed that a negligiable amount of crystalline Si remained even after 48 h-milling. Si electrode with 48 h-milled Si powders exhibited the best electrochemical properties in terms of capacity, efficiency and cycle performance: initial capacity of 3025 mAh g(-1), coulrombic efficiency of 79.4% and the capacity retention of 1000 mAh g(-1) (at 130 cycles). The good electrochemical properties of nano- and amorphous-Si are due to the high resistance against volume change and good reversibility of Li ion.

  6. Survey of receiving-water environmental impacts associated with discharges from pulp mills; 1: Mill characteristics, receiving-water chemical profiles and lab toxicity tests

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, R.D. . Dept. of Environmental Biology); Carey, J.H. . Rivers Research Branch); Solomon, K.R. ); Smith, I.R. . Water Resources Branch); Servos, M.R.; Munkittrick, K.R. . Great Lakes Lab. for Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences)

    1994-07-01

    This survey examined the relationship between environmental responses at pulp mill sites and the pulping process, effluent treatment, and bleaching technology used by pulp mills. This manuscript is the first in a series of four; it reviews the location and operating characteristics of mills included in the survey and provides background information on water chemistry that is relevant to the other components of the survey. In addition, lab 7-d toxicity tests of receiving water were conducted using fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) and the cladoceran Ceriodaphnia dubia with water samples collected upstream and downstream of effluent discharges at 11 Canadian pulp and paper mills; these samples were collected at the same time as fish surveys were conducted. Survival of fathead minnow larvae was significantly reduced at four of the 11 downstream sites. Ceriodaphnia reproduction was significantly higher at six of the 11 downstream sites and significantly lower at two downstream sites. There were no significant effects on fathead minnow larva growth or adult Ceriodaphnia survival at any of the examined downstream sites. Negative effects in the toxicity tests were generally associated with the low dilution discharge of primary treated effluent with a previous history of acute toxicity. Fathead minnow and Ceriodaphnia tests were generally correlated with historical data on benthic macroinvertebrate community responses. Neither toxicity test predicted the physiological changes in wild fish that are presented in accompanying papers.

  7. N=2 super Yang-Mills action as a Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin term, topological Yang-Mills action, and instantons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ülker, K.

    2003-10-01

    By constructing a nilpotent extended Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST) operator s¯ that involves the N=2 global supersymmetry transformations of one chirality, we show that the standard N=2 off-shell super Yang-Mills action can be represented as an exact BRST term s¯Ψ, if the gauge fermion Ψ is allowed to depend on the inverse powers of supersymmetry (SUSY) ghosts. By using this nonanalytical structure of the gauge fermion (via inverse powers of supersymmetry ghosts), we give field redefinitions in terms of composite fields of SUSY ghosts and N=2 fields and we show that Witten’s topological Yang-Mills (TYM) theory can be obtained from the ordinary Euclidean N=2 super Yang-Mills (SYM) theory directly by using such field redefinitions. In other words, TYM theory is obtained as a change of variables (without twisting). As a consequence it is found that physical and topological interpretations of N=2 SYM theory are intertwined together due to the requirement of analyticity of global SUSY ghosts. Moreover, after an instanton-inspired truncation of the model is used, we show that the given field redefinitions yield the Baulieu-Singer formulation of topological Yang-Mills theory.

  8. Gauged supersymmetries in Yang-Mills theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tissier, Matthieu; Wschebor, Nicolás

    2009-03-01

    In this paper we show that Yang-Mills theory in the Curci-Ferrari-Delbourgo-Jarvis gauge admits some up to now unknown local linear Ward identities. These identities imply some nonrenormalization theorems with practical simplifications for perturbation theory. We show, in particular, that all renormalization factors can be extracted from two-point functions. The Ward identities are shown to be related to supergauge transformations in the superfield formalism for Yang-Mills theory. The case of nonzero Curci-Ferrari mass is also addressed.

  9. Gauged supersymmetries in Yang-Mills theory

    SciTech Connect

    Tissier, Matthieu; Wschebor, Nicolas

    2009-03-15

    In this paper we show that Yang-Mills theory in the Curci-Ferrari-Delbourgo-Jarvis gauge admits some up to now unknown local linear Ward identities. These identities imply some nonrenormalization theorems with practical simplifications for perturbation theory. We show, in particular, that all renormalization factors can be extracted from two-point functions. The Ward identities are shown to be related to supergauge transformations in the superfield formalism for Yang-Mills theory. The case of nonzero Curci-Ferrari mass is also addressed.

  10. Investigation of the milling capabilities of the F10 Fine Grind mill using Box-Behnken designs.

    PubMed

    Tan, Bernice Mei Jin; Tay, Justin Yong Soon; Wong, Poh Mun; Chan, Lai Wah; Heng, Paul Wan Sia

    2015-01-01

    Size reduction or milling of the active is often the first processing step in the design of a dosage form. The ability of a mill to convert coarse crystals into the target size and size distribution efficiently is highly desirable as the quality of the final pharmaceutical product after processing is often still dependent on the dimensional attributes of its component constituents. The F10 Fine Grind mill is a mechanical impact mill designed to produce unimodal mid-size particles by utilizing a single-pass two-stage size reduction process for fine grinding of raw materials needed in secondary processing. Box-Behnken designs were used to investigate the effects of various mill variables (impeller, blower and feeder speeds and screen aperture size) on the milling of coarse crystals. Response variables included the particle size parameters (D10, D50 and D90), span and milling rate. Milled particles in the size range of 5-200 μm, with D50 ranging from 15 to 60 μm, were produced. The impeller and feeder speeds were the most critical factors influencing the particle size and milling rate, respectively. Size distributions of milled particles were better described by their goodness-of-fit to a log-normal distribution (i.e. unimodality) rather than span. Milled particles with symmetrical unimodal distributions were obtained when the screen aperture size was close to the median diameter of coarse particles employed. The capacity for high throughput milling of particles to a mid-size range, which is intermediate between conventional mechanical impact mills and air jet mills, was demonstrated in the F10 mill. Prediction models from the Box-Behnken designs will aid in providing a better guide to the milling process and milled product characteristics.

  11. Superiority of wet-milled over dry-milled superfine powdered activated carbon for adsorptive 2-methylisoborneol removal.

    PubMed

    Pan, Long; Matsui, Yoshihiko; Matsushita, Taku; Shirasaki, Nobutaka

    2016-10-01

    Superfine powdered activated carbon (SPAC), which is produced from conventionally sized powdered activated carbon (PAC) by wet milling in a bead mill, has attracted attention for its high adsorptive removal ability in both research and practice. In this study, the performance of dry-milled SPAC was investigated. 2-Methylisoborneol (MIB), an earthy-musty compound commonly targeted by water treatment systems, was used as the target adsorbate. Dry-milled SPAC exhibited lower adsorptive removal of MIB than wet-milled SPAC, even when both SPACs were produced from the same PAC and were composed of particles of the same size. One reason for the lower removal of MIB by the dry-milled SPAC was a higher degree of aggregation in the dry-milled SPAC after production; as a result the apparent particle size of dry-milled SPAC was larger than that of wet-milled SPAC. The dry-milled SPAC was also more negatively charged than the wet-milled SPAC, and, owing to its higher repulsion, it was more amenable to dispersion by ultrasonication. However, even after the dry-milled SPAC was ultrasonicated so that its apparent particle size was similar to or less than that of the wet-milled SPAC, the dry-milled SPAC was still inferior in adsorptive removal to the wet-milled SPAC. Therefore, another reason for the lower adsorptive removal of dry-milled SPAC was its lower equilibrium adsorption capacity due to the oxidation during the milling. The adsorption kinetics by SPACs with different degrees of particle aggregation were successfully simulated by a pore diffusion model and a fractal aggregation model.

  12. Uranium Mines and Mills | RadTown USA | US EPA

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2017-03-27

    Uranium is used as nuclear fuel for electric power generation. U.S. mining industries can obtain uranium in two ways: mining or milling. Mining waste and mill tailings can contaminate water, soil and air if not disposed of properly.

  13. 16. INTERIOR VIEW, BASEMENT, LOOKING NORTHWEST AT 'SMUT MILL' CLEANER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. INTERIOR VIEW, BASEMENT, LOOKING NORTHWEST AT 'SMUT MILL'- CLEANER FOR BUCKWHEAT, AND GRAIN CHUTES. GRAIN ELEVATOR TURN-AROUND AT BASE. - Schech's Mill, Beaver Creek State Park, La Crescent, Houston County, MN

  14. 72. PHOTOCOPY OF DRAWING, CONCENTRATING MILL, GENERAL SECTION OF ENTIRE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    72. PHOTOCOPY OF DRAWING, CONCENTRATING MILL, GENERAL SECTION OF ENTIRE MILL, CONSTRUCTION 1911-1912 - Kennecott Copper Corporation, On Copper River & Northwestern Railroad, Kennicott, Valdez-Cordova Census Area, AK

  15. 70. PHOTOCOPY OF DRAWING, CONCENTRATING MILL, GENERAL SECTION OF ENTIRE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    70. PHOTOCOPY OF DRAWING, CONCENTRATING MILL, GENERAL SECTION OF ENTIRE MILL, CONSTRUCTION 1911-1912 - Kennecott Copper Corporation, On Copper River & Northwestern Railroad, Kennicott, Valdez-Cordova Census Area, AK

  16. 71. PHOTOCOPY OF DRAWING, CONCENTRATING MILL, GENERAL SECTION OF ENTIRE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    71. PHOTOCOPY OF DRAWING, CONCENTRATING MILL, GENERAL SECTION OF ENTIRE MILL, CONSTRUCTION 1911-1912 - Kennecott Copper Corporation, On Copper River & Northwestern Railroad, Kennicott, Valdez-Cordova Census Area, AK

  17. 3. SOUTH ELEVATION OF SELMA COTTON MILL, NOW PHILLIES CIGAR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. SOUTH ELEVATION OF SELMA COTTON MILL, NOW PHILLIES CIGAR COMPANY. ONE OF THE ORIGINAL FIRE PROTECTION RESERVOIRS IS IN THE FOREGROUND. - Selma Cotton Mill, 218 Morgan Avenue, Selma, Dallas County, AL

  18. 2. View looking northeast at Dixie Cotton Mill warehouses. Note ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. View looking northeast at Dixie Cotton Mill warehouses. Note firestops between sections of the building to prevent fire from spreading. - Dixie Cotton Mill, Warehouses, 710 Greenville Street, La Grange, Troup County, GA

  19. View northwest, Brandywine Creek with Walkers Mill on right, Brecks ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View northwest, Brandywine Creek with Walkers Mill on right, Brecks Mill on left, and the Charles I. Du Pont House in center background - Charles I. Du Pont House, 162 Main Street, Wilmington, New Castle County, DE

  20. 2. Skewed view of E elevation of sugar mill looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Skewed view of E elevation of sugar mill looking NW. - Hacienda Azurarera Santa Elena, Sugar Mill Ruins, 1.44 miles North of PR Route 2 Bridge Over Rio De La Plata, Toa Baja, Toa Baja Municipio, PR

  1. VIEW WESTLEFTNO 1 WIRE MILL BUILDING 4 (1871) RIGHTNO 3 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW WEST-LEFT-NO 1 WIRE MILL BUILDING 4 (1871) RIGHT-NO 3 WIRE MILL BUILDING 9 (1876) - John A. Roebling's Sons Company & American Steel & Wire Company, South Broad, Clark, Elmer, Mott & Hudson Streets, Trenton, Mercer County, NJ

  2. 3. HISTORIC PHOTOGRAPH, WIRE MILL ROAD BRIDGE UNDER CONSTRUCTION, CA. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. HISTORIC PHOTOGRAPH, WIRE MILL ROAD BRIDGE UNDER CONSTRUCTION, CA. 1935. COLLECTION CONNECTICUT DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION. - Merritt Parkway, Wire Mill Road Bridge, Spanning Merritt Parkway, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

  3. VIEW NORTHEASTLEFTBUILDING 9 NO 3 WIRE MILL (1876) RIGHTBUILDING 4 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW NORTHEAST-LEFT-BUILDING 9 NO 3 WIRE MILL (1876) RIGHT-BUILDING 4 NO 1 WIRE MILL (1871) - John A. Roebling's Sons Company & American Steel & Wire Company, South Broad, Clark, Elmer, Mott & Hudson Streets, Trenton, Mercer County, NJ

  4. 3. COPY OF A PHOTOGRAPH OF THE CATARACT MILLS, NEWBURGH, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. COPY OF A PHOTOGRAPH OF THE CATARACT MILLS, NEWBURGH, OHIO. Date unknown. Photographer: Berni Rich, Score Photographers, September 1986 - Alexander's Grist Mill, Lock 37 on Ohio & Erie Canal, South of Cleveland, Valley View, Cuyahoga County, OH

  5. 1. VIEW NORTH OF PARADISE MILL FOUNDATION AND TAILINGS (FEATURE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW NORTH OF PARADISE MILL FOUNDATION AND TAILINGS (FEATURE P-7). PHOTO TAKEN FROM MERCURY RETORT. (OCTOBER, 1995) - McCormick Group Mine, Paradise Mill, East slope of Buckskin Mountain, Paradise Valley, Humboldt County, NV

  6. 98. VIEW OF PUMPS FROM NORTH. MILL SOLUTION PUMP No. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    98. VIEW OF PUMPS FROM NORTH. MILL SOLUTION PUMP No. 2 IN FOREGROUND, ABANDONED BARREN SOLUTION PUMP BEYOND. AGITATOR No. 1 IN BACKGROUND. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  7. 97. VIEW OF MILL SOLUTION PUMP No. 2 FROM SOUTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    97. VIEW OF MILL SOLUTION PUMP No. 2 FROM SOUTHEAST. SUMPS ARE UNDER FLOOR, BEYOND. STAIR LEADS TO AGITATOR/GOLD TANK ACCESS PLATFORM. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  8. 12. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy of Pemberton Mill Insurance ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy of Pemberton Mill Insurance Survey No. 942, n.d., original drawing in collection of Factory Mutual Insurance Co., Norwood, Massachusetts - Pemberton Mill, Union Street vicinity, Lawrence, Essex County, MA

  9. 30. 48' MILL STEAM ENGINE CRANKSHAFT, BALANCE WHEEL, AND REVERSING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. 48' MILL STEAM ENGINE CRANKSHAFT, BALANCE WHEEL, AND REVERSING MECHANISM. Martin Stupich, Photographer, 1989. - U.S. Steel Homestead Works, 48" Plate Mill, Along Monongahela River, Homestead, Allegheny County, PA

  10. Novel method for producing amorphous cellulose only by milling.

    PubMed

    Shimura, Ryoichiro; Nishioka, Akihiro; Kano, Ichiro; Koda, Tomonori; Nishio, Taichi

    2014-02-15

    The present study investigated a novel method for producing amorphous cellulose by milling without adding water. A new type of milling machine was developed (called a shear and cooling milling machine (SCMM)), which was capable of applying mechanical shear and cooling during the milling process. The SCMM consisted of a pair of mortars attached to a servomotor and a ring cooler. Wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) analysis was used to determine the cellulose crystallinity in samples produced using the SCMM at different milling temperatures. The results of WAXD for cellulose powder milled at lower temperatures exhibited no diffraction peaks. This experimental result demonstrates that the SCMM produces amorphous cellulose easily by cooled milling without the addition of water. The milling conditions, such as the applied shear and cooling, can be used to control the crystallinity of cellulose.

  11. 9. PHOTOCOPY OF 'VIEW OF ELLICOTT'S MILLS STATION,' FROM THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. PHOTOCOPY OF 'VIEW OF ELLICOTT'S MILLS STATION,' FROM THE BOOK OF GREAT RAILWAY CELEBRATIONS OF 1857, PART I - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Ellicott's Mills Station, South Side of State Route 144, Ellicott City, Howard County, MD

  12. VIEW OF ONESTAMP MILL WITH RANCH HOUSE AT REAR (See ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF ONE-STAMP MILL WITH RANCH HOUSE AT REAR (See HABS No. CA-2347, DESERT QUEEN RANCH, for further documentation) - Desert Queen Ranch, One Stamp Gold Mill, Twentynine Palms, San Bernardino County, CA

  13. 20. VIEW WEST OF TUNNEL FROM BASEMENT OF GRANITEVILLE MILL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. VIEW WEST OF TUNNEL FROM BASEMENT OF GRANITEVILLE MILL TO OUTBUILDINGS. TUNNEL IS USED TO CONDUCT WATER AND OTHER UTILITY PIPES. - Graniteville Mill, Marshall Street, Graniteville, Aiken County, SC

  14. 253. Mabry Mill. The varying roof lines and siding gives ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    253. Mabry Mill. The varying roof lines and siding gives the mill an interesting texture, increasing its photogenic value. Looking north. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  15. 17. ENGINE SIDE OF 48' MILL STAND SHOWING POWER CONNECTIONS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. ENGINE SIDE OF 48' MILL STAND SHOWING POWER CONNECTIONS TO PINION STAND AND VERTICAL ROLL SCREWDOWN MECHANISM. Martin Stupich, Photographer, 1989. - U.S. Steel Homestead Works, 48" Plate Mill, Along Monongahela River, Homestead, Allegheny County, PA

  16. 42. PHOTOCOPY OF DOCUMENT ENTITLED 'SURVEY OF INDIANA COTTON MILLS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. PHOTOCOPY OF DOCUMENT ENTITLED 'SURVEY OF INDIANA COTTON MILLS, On Which Insurance Is To Be Predicated' FROM THE OFFICE OF CHARLES GERBER, GERBER OIL COMPANY, CANNELTON, IND. - Cannelton Cotton Mill, Front & Fourth Streets, Cannelton, Perry County, IN

  17. PLANING MILL, FIRST FLOOR INTERIOR, LOOKING SOUTH. THE LARGE DEVICE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PLANING MILL, FIRST FLOOR INTERIOR, LOOKING SOUTH. THE LARGE DEVICE IS A WHEEL BORING MACHINE USED DURING THE TIME THIS AREA WAS A WHEEL SHOP. - Southern Pacific, Sacramento Shops, Planing Mill, 111 I Street, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  18. 12. Credit WS. Basement of Mill, showing wooden flywheels to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Credit WS. Basement of Mill, showing wooden flywheels to water wheel and Fairbanks. Morse 20 hp, 350 rpm diesel engine, patented April 20, 1920. - Bunker Hill Mill, County Route 26, Bunker Hill, Berkeley County, WV

  19. 1. LOOKING WEST ON LEHIGH CANAL, GRAPHITE MILL IN FOREGROUND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. LOOKING WEST ON LEHIGH CANAL, GRAPHITE MILL IN FOREGROUND - Pettinos Brothers Graphite Manufacturing Mill, On Sand Island, south side of Lehigh Canal, west of Hill-to-Hill Bridge, Bethlehem, Northampton County, PA

  20. 9. TROJAN MILL, EXTERIOR FROM NORTHWEST, c. 191828. WINTER SNOW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. TROJAN MILL, EXTERIOR FROM NORTHWEST, c. 1918-28. WINTER SNOW SHOWS LINE OF CRUDE ORE BIN STAIR. CREDIT JW. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  1. 69. VIEW FROM ABOVE OF PRIMARY MILL AND CLASSIFIER No. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    69. VIEW FROM ABOVE OF PRIMARY MILL AND CLASSIFIER No. 2. PRIMARY CLASSIFIER No. 1 AT RIGHT EDGE OF VIEW. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  2. 29. VIEW OF MILL FROM WEST. SHOWS SECONDARY THICKENER No. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. VIEW OF MILL FROM WEST. SHOWS SECONDARY THICKENER No. 7 TANK FLOOR FRAMING AND CENTRAL MECHANISM AT CENTER. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  3. OVERALL VIEW OF THE MILL WITH SUGAR BIN LEFT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERALL VIEW OF THE MILL WITH SUGAR BIN LEFT OF CENTER, CLEANING PLANT TO RIGHT, SEED TREATMENT PLANT TO LEFT. VIEW FROM THE EAST - Kekaha Sugar Company, Sugar Mill Building, 8315 Kekaha Road, Kekaha, Kauai County, HI

  4. 4. View of castiron sugar kettle with mill ruins in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. View of cast-iron sugar kettle with mill ruins in background, looking S. - Laurel Valley Sugar Plantation, Sugar Mill, 2 miles South of Thibodaux on State Route 308, Thibodaux, Lafourche Parish, LA

  5. 1. Distant view of mill ruins with boom crane for ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Distant view of mill ruins with boom crane for unloading sugar cane in foreground, looking W. - Laurel Valley Sugar Plantation, Sugar Mill, 2 miles South of Thibodaux on State Route 308, Thibodaux, Lafourche Parish, LA

  6. SUGAR BIN WITH EAST WALL OF CRUSHING MILL TO ITS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SUGAR BIN WITH EAST WALL OF CRUSHING MILL TO ITS RIGHT. CONVEYOR FROM BOILING HOUSE ABOVE. VIEW FROM THE NORTHEAST - Kekaha Sugar Company, Sugar Mill Building, 8315 Kekaha Road, Kekaha, Kauai County, HI

  7. 21. DIAGONAL VIEW OF THE 48' MILL STEAM ENGINE. SPARE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. DIAGONAL VIEW OF THE 48' MILL STEAM ENGINE. SPARE VERTICAL ROLLS ARE VISIBLE TO THE LEFT AND RIGHT OF THE ENGINE. - U.S. Steel Homestead Works, 48" Plate Mill, Along Monongahela River, Homestead, Allegheny County, PA

  8. 10. Side view of cane mill looking NW with steam ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Side view of cane mill looking NW with steam engine in background. - Hacienda Azucarera La Esperanza, Steam Engine & Mill, 2.65 Mi. N of PR Rt. 2 Bridge over Manati River, Manati, Manati Municipio, PR

  9. 32. 48' MILL STEAM ENGINE ADMISSION BOX (?), STEAM VALVE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. 48' MILL STEAM ENGINE ADMISSION BOX (?), STEAM VALVE, AND REVERSING MECHANISM LIFTING CYLINDER. - U.S. Steel Homestead Works, 48" Plate Mill, Along Monongahela River, Homestead, Allegheny County, PA

  10. 1. VIEW OF THE ROAD NORTH OF THE MILL. WATER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW OF THE ROAD NORTH OF THE MILL. WATER TANKS (FEATURE B-2) IN THE BACKGROUND. - Nevada Lucky Tiger Mill & Mine, Water Tanks, East slope of Buckskin Mountain, Paradise Valley, Humboldt County, NV

  11. 2. VIEW OF OFFICE OF THE NEVADA LUCKY TIGER MILL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW OF OFFICE OF THE NEVADA LUCKY TIGER MILL AND MINE COMPLEX, (FEATURE B-I), FACING NORTH. - Nevada Lucky Tiger Mill & Mine, Office, East slope of Buckskin Mountain, Paradise Valley, Humboldt County, NV

  12. 3. HISTORIC ROADWAY 2 WITH MILL REMNANTS TO THE RIGHT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. HISTORIC ROADWAY 2 WITH MILL REMNANTS TO THE RIGHT OF TREE. CAMERA POINTED WEST-SOUTHWEST. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Historic Roadway No. 2, West flank Florida Mountain, East of Rich Gulch Mine & Mill, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

  13. 2. HISTORIC ROADWAY 2 WITH OLD MILL LOOKING DOWN JACOBS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. HISTORIC ROADWAY 2 WITH OLD MILL LOOKING DOWN JACOBS CREEK. CAMERA POINTED WEST. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Historic Roadway No. 2, West flank Florida Mountain, East of Rich Gulch Mine & Mill, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

  14. Old Riverdale Cotton Mill office building on left. The old ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Old Riverdale Cotton Mill office building on left. The old office building has also been used as a starch mixing house. Note entrance to new office building on right - Riverdale Cotton Mill, Office Building, Old, Valley, Chambers County, AL

  15. PERSPECTIVE VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST AT CYANAMIDE (LN) COOLING SHED, MILL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PERSPECTIVE VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST AT CYANAMIDE (L-N) COOLING SHED, MILL BUILDING AND CONVEYOR BRIDGE. NOTE CORNERSTONE ON THE MILL BUILDING. - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

  16. 19. View looking N at mill wall ruins with open ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. View looking N at mill wall ruins with open end of purging house in background. - Hacienda Azucarera La Esperanza, Mill (Ruins), 2.65 miles North of PR Route 2 Bridge Over Manati River, Manati, Manati Municipio, PR

  17. 18. View of archeological excavations along base of mill wall ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. View of archeological excavations along base of mill wall showing unidentified pits. - Hacienda Azucarera La Esperanza, Mill (Ruins), 2.65 miles North of PR Route 2 Bridge Over Manati River, Manati, Manati Municipio, PR

  18. 16. View of cane mill sitting under open shed showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. View of cane mill sitting under open shed showing discharge and top rolls. - Hacienda Azucarera La Esperanza, Steam Engine & Mill, 2.65 Mi. N of PR Rt. 2 Bridge over Manati River, Manati, Manati Municipio, PR

  19. 25. View of chimney with mill wall ruins in background ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. View of chimney with mill wall ruins in background looking S. - Hacienda Azucarera La Esperanza, Mill (Ruins), 2.65 miles North of PR Route 2 Bridge Over Manati River, Manati, Manati Municipio, PR

  20. 2. VIEW SOUTHSOUTHWEST OF NORTH AND EAST SIDES, WITH MILL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW SOUTH-SOUTHWEST OF NORTH AND EAST SIDES, WITH MILL BUILDING IN BACKGROUND - Juniata Mill Complex, Warehouse, 22.5 miles Southwest of Hawthorne, between Aurora Crater & Aurora Peak, Hawthorne, Mineral County, NV