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Sample records for microbial induced corrosion

  1. Assessing Marine Microbial Induced Corrosion at Santa Catalina Island, California

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez, Gustavo A.; Hoffman, Colleen L.; Lee, Michael D.; Lesniewski, Ryan A.; Barco, Roman A.; Garber, Arkadiy; Toner, Brandy M.; Wheat, Charles G.; Edwards, Katrina J.; Orcutt, Beth N.

    2016-01-01

    High iron and eutrophic conditions are reported as environmental factors leading to accelerated low-water corrosion, an enhanced form of near-shore microbial induced corrosion. To explore this hypothesis, we deployed flow-through colonization systems in laboratory-based aquarium tanks under a continuous flow of surface seawater from Santa Catalina Island, CA, USA, for periods of 2 and 6 months. Substrates consisted of mild steel – a major constituent of maritime infrastructure – and the naturally occurring iron sulfide mineral pyrite. Four conditions were tested: free-venting “high-flux” conditions; a “stagnant” condition; an “active” flow-through condition with seawater slowly pumped over the substrates; and an “enrichment” condition where the slow pumping of seawater was supplemented with nutrient rich medium. Electron microscopy analyses of the 2-month high flux incubations document coating of substrates with “twisted stalks,” resembling iron oxyhydroxide bioprecipitates made by marine neutrophilic Fe-oxidizing bacteria (FeOB). Six-month incubations exhibit increased biofilm and substrate corrosion in the active flow and nutrient enriched conditions relative to the stagnant condition. A scarcity of twisted stalks was observed for all 6 month slow-flow conditions compared to the high-flux condition, which may be attributable to oxygen concentrations in the slow-flux conditions being prohibitively low for sustained growth of stalk-producing bacteria. All substrates developed microbial communities reflective of the original seawater input, as based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Deltaproteobacteria sequences increased in relative abundance in the active flow and nutrient enrichment conditions, whereas Gammaproteobacteria sequences were relatively more abundant in the stagnant condition. These results indicate that (i) high-flux incubations with higher oxygen availability favor the development of biofilms with twisted stalks resembling those of

  2. High-Resolution Microbial Community Succession of Microbially Induced Concrete Corrosion in Working Sanitary Manholes

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Alison L.; Robertson, Charles E.; Harris, J. Kirk; Frank, Daniel N.; Kotter, Cassandra V.; Stevens, Mark J.; Pace, Norman R.; Hernandez, Mark T.

    2015-01-01

    Microbially-induced concrete corrosion in headspaces threatens wastewater infrastructure worldwide. Models for predicting corrosion rates in sewer pipe networks rely largely on information from culture-based investigations. In this study, the succession of microbes associated with corroding concrete was characterized over a one-year monitoring campaign using rRNA sequence-based phylogenetic methods. New concrete specimens were exposed in two highly corrosive manholes (high concentrations of hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide gas) on the Colorado Front Range for up to a year. Community succession on corroding surfaces was assessed using Illumina MiSeq sequencing of 16S bacterial rRNA amplicons and Sanger sequencing of 16S universal rRNA clones. Microbial communities associated with corrosion fronts presented distinct succession patterns which converged to markedly low α-diversity levels (< 10 taxa) in conjunction with decreasing pH. The microbial community succession pattern observed in this study agreed with culture-based models that implicate acidophilic sulfur-oxidizer Acidithiobacillus spp. in advanced communities, with two notable exceptions. Early communities exposed to alkaline surface pH presented relatively high α-diversity, including heterotrophic, nitrogen-fixing, and sulfur-oxidizing genera, and one community exposed to neutral surface pH presented a diverse transition community comprised of less than 20% sulfur-oxidizers. PMID:25748024

  3. High-resolution microbial community succession of microbially induced concrete corrosion in working sanitary manholes.

    PubMed

    Ling, Alison L; Robertson, Charles E; Harris, J Kirk; Frank, Daniel N; Kotter, Cassandra V; Stevens, Mark J; Pace, Norman R; Hernandez, Mark T

    2015-01-01

    Microbially-induced concrete corrosion in headspaces threatens wastewater infrastructure worldwide. Models for predicting corrosion rates in sewer pipe networks rely largely on information from culture-based investigations. In this study, the succession of microbes associated with corroding concrete was characterized over a one-year monitoring campaign using rRNA sequence-based phylogenetic methods. New concrete specimens were exposed in two highly corrosive manholes (high concentrations of hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide gas) on the Colorado Front Range for up to a year. Community succession on corroding surfaces was assessed using Illumina MiSeq sequencing of 16S bacterial rRNA amplicons and Sanger sequencing of 16S universal rRNA clones. Microbial communities associated with corrosion fronts presented distinct succession patterns which converged to markedly low α-diversity levels (< 10 taxa) in conjunction with decreasing pH. The microbial community succession pattern observed in this study agreed with culture-based models that implicate acidophilic sulfur-oxidizer Acidithiobacillus spp. in advanced communities, with two notable exceptions. Early communities exposed to alkaline surface pH presented relatively high α-diversity, including heterotrophic, nitrogen-fixing, and sulfur-oxidizing genera, and one community exposed to neutral surface pH presented a diverse transition community comprised of less than 20% sulfur-oxidizers.

  4. Copper Tube Pitting in Santa Fe Municipal Water Caused by Microbial Induced Corrosion

    PubMed Central

    Burleigh, Thomas D.; Gierke, Casey G.; Fredj, Narjes; Boston, Penelope J.

    2014-01-01

    Many copper water lines for municipal drinking water in Santa Fe, New Mexico USA, have developed pinhole leaks. The pitting matches the description of Type I pitting of copper, which has historically been attributed to water chemistry and to contaminants on the copper tubing surface. However, more recent studies attribute copper pitting to microbial induced corrosion (MIC). In order to test for microbes, the copper tubing was fixed in hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS), then the tops of the corrosion mounds were broken open, and the interior of the corrosion pits were examined with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The analysis found that microbes resembling actinobacteria were deep inside the pits and wedged between the crystallographic planes of the corroded copper grains. The presence of actinobacteria confirms the possibility that the cause of this pitting corrosion was MIC. This observation provides better understanding and new methods for preventing the pitting of copper tubing in municipal water. PMID:28788679

  5. Copper Tube Pitting in Santa Fe Municipal Water Caused by Microbial Induced Corrosion.

    PubMed

    Burleigh, Thomas D; Gierke, Casey G; Fredj, Narjes; Boston, Penelope J

    2014-06-05

    Many copper water lines for municipal drinking water in Santa Fe, New Mexico USA, have developed pinhole leaks. The pitting matches the description of Type I pitting of copper, which has historically been attributed to water chemistry and to contaminants on the copper tubing surface. However, more recent studies attribute copper pitting to microbial induced corrosion (MIC). In order to test for microbes, the copper tubing was fixed in hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS), then the tops of the corrosion mounds were broken open, and the interior of the corrosion pits were examined with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The analysis found that microbes resembling actinobacteria were deep inside the pits and wedged between the crystallographic planes of the corroded copper grains. The presence of actinobacteria confirms the possibility that the cause of this pitting corrosion was MIC. This observation provides better understanding and new methods for preventing the pitting of copper tubing in municipal water.

  6. Advances in concrete materials for sewer systems affected by microbial induced concrete corrosion: A review.

    PubMed

    Grengg, Cyrill; Mittermayr, Florian; Ukrainczyk, Neven; Koraimann, Günther; Kienesberger, Sabine; Dietzel, Martin

    2018-05-01

    Microbial induced concrete corrosion (MICC) is recognized as one of the main degradation mechanisms of subsurface infrastructure worldwide, raising the demand for sustainable construction materials in corrosive environments. This review aims to summarize the key research progress acquired during the last decade regarding the understanding of MICC reaction mechanisms and the development of durable materials from an interdisciplinary perspective. Special focus was laid on aspects governing concrete - micoorganisms interaction since being the central process steering biogenic acid corrosion. The insufficient knowledge regarding the latter is proposed as a central reason for insufficient progress in tailored material development for aggressive wastewater systems. To date no cement-based material exists, suitable to withstand the aggressive conditions related to MICC over its entire service life. Research is in particular needed on the impact of physiochemical material parameters on microbial community structure, growth characteristics and limitations within individual concrete speciation. Herein an interdisciplinary approach is presented by combining results from material sciences, microbiology, mineralogy and hydrochemistry to stimulate the development of novel and sustainable materials and mitigation strategies for MICC. For instance, the application of antibacteriostatic agents is introduced as an effective instrument to limit microbial growth on concrete surfaces in aggressive sewer environments. Additionally, geopolymer concretes are introduced as highly resistent in acid environments, thus representing a possible green alternative to conventional cement-based construction materials. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Superiority of Graphene over Polymer Coatings for Prevention of Microbially Induced Corrosion

    PubMed Central

    Krishnamurthy, Ajay; Gadhamshetty, Venkataramana; Mukherjee, Rahul; Natarajan, Bharath; Eksik, Osman; Ali Shojaee, S.; Lucca, Don A.; Ren, Wencai; Cheng, Hui-Ming; Koratkar, Nikhil

    2015-01-01

    Prevention of microbially induced corrosion (MIC) is of great significance in many environmental applications. Here, we report the use of an ultra-thin, graphene skin (Gr) as a superior anti-MIC coating over two commercial polymeric coatings, Parylene-C (PA) and Polyurethane (PU). We find that Nickel (Ni) dissolution in a corrosion cell with Gr-coated Ni is an order of magnitude lower than that of PA and PU coated electrodes. Electrochemical analysis reveals that the Gr coating offers ~10 and ~100 fold improvement in MIC resistance over PU and PA coatings respectively. This finding is remarkable considering that the Gr coating (1–2 nm) is ~25 and ~4000 times thinner than the PA (40–50 nm), and PU coatings (20–80 μm), respectively. Conventional polymer coatings are either non-conformal when deposited or degrade under the action of microbial processes, while the electro-chemically inert graphene coating is both resistant to microbial attack and is extremely conformal and defect-free. Finally, we provide a brief discussion regarding the effectiveness of as-grown vs. transferred graphene films for anti-MIC applications. While the as-grown graphene films are devoid of major defects, wet transfer of graphene is shown to introduce large scale defects that make it less suitable for the current application. PMID:26350049

  8. Superiority of Graphene over Polymer Coatings for Prevention of Microbially Induced Corrosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnamurthy, Ajay; Gadhamshetty, Venkataramana; Mukherjee, Rahul; Natarajan, Bharath; Eksik, Osman; Ali Shojaee, S.; Lucca, Don A.; Ren, Wencai; Cheng, Hui-Ming; Koratkar, Nikhil

    2015-09-01

    Prevention of microbially induced corrosion (MIC) is of great significance in many environmental applications. Here, we report the use of an ultra-thin, graphene skin (Gr) as a superior anti-MIC coating over two commercial polymeric coatings, Parylene-C (PA) and Polyurethane (PU). We find that Nickel (Ni) dissolution in a corrosion cell with Gr-coated Ni is an order of magnitude lower than that of PA and PU coated electrodes. Electrochemical analysis reveals that the Gr coating offers ~10 and ~100 fold improvement in MIC resistance over PU and PA coatings respectively. This finding is remarkable considering that the Gr coating (1-2 nm) is ~25 and ~4000 times thinner than the PA (40-50 nm), and PU coatings (20-80 μm), respectively. Conventional polymer coatings are either non-conformal when deposited or degrade under the action of microbial processes, while the electro-chemically inert graphene coating is both resistant to microbial attack and is extremely conformal and defect-free. Finally, we provide a brief discussion regarding the effectiveness of as-grown vs. transferred graphene films for anti-MIC applications. While the as-grown graphene films are devoid of major defects, wet transfer of graphene is shown to introduce large scale defects that make it less suitable for the current application.

  9. Mathematical modeling of microbially induced crown corrosion in wastewater collection systems and laboratory investigation and modeling of sulfuric acid corrosion of concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahani, Fereidoun

    In the model for microbially induced crown corrosion, the diffusion of sulfide inside the concrete pores, its biological conversion to sulfuric acid, and the corrosion of calcium carbonate aggregates are represented. The corrosion front is modeled as a moving boundary. The location of the interface between the corrosion layer and the concrete is determined as part of the solution to the model equations. This model consisted of a system of one dimensional reaction-diffusion equations coupled to an equation describing the movement of the corrosion front. The equations were solved numerically using finite element Galerkin approximation. The concentration profiles of sulfide in the air and the liquid phases, the pH as a function of concrete depth, and the position of the corrosion front. A new equation for the corrosion rate was also derived. A more specific model for the degradation of a concrete specimen exposed to a sulfuric acid solution was also studied. In this model, diffusion of hydrogen ions and their reaction with alkaline components of concrete were expressed using Fick's Law of diffusion. The model equations described the moving boundary, the dissolution rate of alkaline components in the concrete, volume increase of sulfuric acid solution over the concrete specimen, and the boundary conditions on the surface of the concrete. An apparatus was designed and experiments were performed to measure pH changes on the surface of concrete. The data were used to calculate the dissolution rate of the concrete and, with the model, to determine the diffusion rate of sulfuric acid in the corrosion layer and corrosion layer thickness. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) was used to study the corrosion rate of iron pins embedded in the concrete sample. The open circuit potential (OCP) determined the onset of corrosion on the surface of the pins. Visual observation of the corrosion layer thickness was in good agreement with the simulation results.

  10. Selected durability studies of geopolymer concrete with respect to carbonation, elevated temperature, and microbial induced corrosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badar, Mohammad Sufian

    This thesis reports a comprehensive study related to the experimental evaluation of carbonation in reinforced geopolymer concrete, the evaluation of geopolymer concretes at elevated temperature, and the resistance of geopolymer concrete to microbial induced corrosion (MIC). Carbonation: Reinforced concretes, made of geopolymer, prepared from two class F fly ashes and one class C fly ash, were subjected to accelerated carbonation treatment for a period of 450 days. Electrochemical, microstructure and pore structure examinations were performed to evaluate the effect of corrosion caused due to carbonation. GPC specimens prepared from class F fly ash exhibited lower corrosion rates by a factor of 21, and higher pH values (pH>12) when compared with concrete specimens prepared from class C Fly ash (GPCMN). Microstructure and pore characterization of GPC prepared using class F fly ash revealed lower porosity by a factor of 2.5 as compared with thier counterparts made using GPC-MN. The superior performace of GPC prepared with the class F fly ash could be attributed to the dense pore structure and formation of the protective layer of calcium and sodium alumino silicate hydrates (C/N-A-S-H) geopolymeric gels around the steel reinforcement. Elevated Temperature: Geopolymers are an emerging class of cementitious binders which possess a potential for high temperature resistance that could possibly be utilized in applications such as nozzles, aspirators and refractory linings. This study reports on the results of an investigation into the performance of a fly ash based geopolymer binder in high temperature environments. Geopolymer concrete (GPC) was prepared using eleven types of fly ashes obtained from four countries. High content alumina and silica sand was used in the mix for preparing GPC. GPC was subjected to thermal shock tests following ASTM C 1100-88. The GPC samples prepared with tabular alumina were kept at 1093° C and immediately quenched in water. GPC specimens

  11. Wastewater-Enhanced Microbial Corrosion of Concrete Sewers.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Guangming; Zhou, Mi; Chiu, Tsz Ho; Sun, Xiaoyan; Keller, Jurg; Bond, Philip L

    2016-08-02

    Microbial corrosion of concrete in sewers is known to be caused by hydrogen sulfide, although the role of wastewater in regulating the corrosion processes is poorly understood. Flooding and splashing of wastewater in sewers periodically inoculates the concrete surface in sewer pipes. No study has systematically investigated the impacts of wastewater inoculation on the corrosion of concrete in sewers. This study investigated the development of the microbial community, sulfide uptake activity, and the change of the concrete properties for coupons subjected to periodic wastewater inoculation. The concrete coupons were exposed to different levels of hydrogen sulfide under well-controlled conditions in laboratory-scale corrosion chambers simulating real sewers. It was evident that the periodic inoculation induced higher corrosion losses of the concrete in comparison to noninoculated coupons. Instantaneous measurements such as surface pH did not reflect the cumulative corrosion losses caused by long-term microbial activity. Analysis of the long-term profiles of the sulfide uptake rate using a Gompertz model supported the enhanced corrosion activity and greater corrosion loss. The enhanced corrosion rate was due to the higher sulfide uptake rates induced by wastewater inoculation, although the increasing trend of sulfide uptake rates was slower with wastewater. Increased diversity in the corrosion-layer microbial communities was detected when the corrosion rates were higher. This coincided with the environmental conditions of increased levels of gaseous H2S and the concrete type.

  12. A Review of Microbially Induced Corrosion (MIC) of Steel and a Preliminary Investigation to Determine Its Occurrence in Naval Vessels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-05-01

    nutrients for the SRB; (c) aerobic bacteria present in the biofilm utilise available oxygen so that ininer layers of the biofilm remain anaerobic , and...metals in anoxic conditions by von Wolkogen Kuhr and van der Vlugt (1934) who recognised the role of the anaerobic sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB). They...proposed to occur during anaerobic corrosion of iron and steels and corrosion mechanisms that result in products containing iron phosphate, vivianite, (Fe

  13. Modeling of microbial induced corrosion on metallic pipelines resulting from biomethane and the integrity impact of biomethane on non-metallic pipelines.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2012-09-01

    The objective of this project is to understand key elements related to promoting the successful delivery of : biomethane into natural gas pipeline networks. This project focuses on two key areas of concern: : 1. The effect of microbial induced corros...

  14. Effects of microbial redox cycling of iron on cast iron pipe corrosion in drinking water distribution systems.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haibo; Hu, Chun; Zhang, Lili; Li, Xiaoxiao; Zhang, Yu; Yang, Min

    2014-11-15

    Bacterial characteristics in corrosion products and their effect on the formation of dense corrosion scales on cast iron coupons were studied in drinking water, with sterile water acting as a reference. The corrosion process and corrosion scales were characterized by electrochemical and physico-chemical measurements. The results indicated that the corrosion was more rapidly inhibited and iron release was lower due to formation of more dense protective corrosion scales in drinking water than in sterile water. The microbial community and denitrifying functional genes were analyzed by pyrosequencing and quantitative polymerase chain reactions (qPCR), respectively. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that the bacteria in corrosion products played an important role in the corrosion process in drinking water. Nitrate-reducing bacteria (NRB) Acidovorax and Hydrogenophaga enhanced iron corrosion before 6 days. After 20 days, the dominant bacteria became NRB Dechloromonas (40.08%) with the protective corrosion layer formation. The Dechloromonas exhibited the stronger corrosion inhibition by inducing the redox cycling of iron, to enhance the precipitation of iron oxides and formation of Fe3O4. Subsequently, other minor bacteria appeared in the corrosion scales, including iron-respiring bacteria and Rhizobium which captured iron by the produced siderophores, having a weaker corrosion-inhibition effect. Therefore, the microbially-driven redox cycling of iron with associated microbial capture of iron caused more compact corrosion scales formation and lower iron release. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Using biological and physico-chemical test methods to assess the role of concrete mixture design in resistance to microbially induced corrosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    House, Mitchell Wayne

    Concrete is the most widely used material for construction of wastewater collection, storage, and treatment infrastructure. The chemical and physical characteristics of hydrated portland cement make it susceptible to degradation under highly acidic conditions. As a result, some concrete wastewater infrastructure may be susceptible to a multi-stage degradation process known as microbially induced corrosion, or MIC. MIC begins with the production of aqueous hydrogen sulfide (H2S(aq)) by anaerobic sulfate reducing bacteria present below the waterline. H2S(aq) partitions to the gas phase where it is oxidized to sulfuric acid by the aerobic sulfur oxidizing bacteria Thiobacillus that resides on concrete surfaces above the waterline. Sulfuric acid then attacks the cement paste portion of the concrete matrix through decalcification of calcium hydroxide and calcium silica hydrate coupled with the formation of expansive corrosion products. The attack proceeds inward resulting in reduced service life and potential failure of the concrete structure. There are several challenges associated with assessing a concrete's susceptibility to MIC. First, no standard laboratory tests exist to assess concrete resistance to MIC. Straightforward reproduction of MIC in the laboratory is complicated by the use of microorganisms and hydrogen sulfide gas. Physico-chemical tests simulating MIC by immersing concrete specimens in sulfuric acid offer a convenient alternative, but do not accurately capture the damage mechanisms associated with biological corrosion. Comparison of results between research studies is difficult due to discrepancies that can arise in experimental methods even if current ASTM standards are followed. This thesis presents two experimental methods to evaluate concrete resistance to MIC: one biological and one physico-chemical. Efforts are made to address the critical aspects of each testing method currently absent in the literature. The first method presented is a new test

  16. Microbial Iron Respiration Can Protect Steel from Corrosion

    PubMed Central

    Dubiel, M.; Hsu, C. H.; Chien, C. C.; Mansfeld, F.; Newman, D. K.

    2002-01-01

    Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MC) of steel has been attributed to the activity of biofilms that include anaerobic microorganisms such as iron-respiring bacteria, yet the mechanisms by which these organisms influence corrosion have been unclear. To study this process, we generated mutants of the iron-respiring bacterium Shewanella oneidensis strain MR-1 that were defective in biofilm formation and/or iron reduction. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was used to determine changes in the corrosion rate and corrosion potential as a function of time for these mutants in comparison to the wild type. Counter to prevailing theories of MC, our results indicate that biofilms comprising iron-respiring bacteria may reduce rather than accelerate the corrosion rate of steel. Corrosion inhibition appears to be due to reduction of ferric ions to ferrous ions and increased consumption of oxygen, both of which are direct consequences of microbial respiration. PMID:11872499

  17. Research progress of microbial corrosion of reinforced concrete structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shengli; Li, Dawang; Jiang, Nan; Wang, Dongwei

    2011-04-01

    Microbial corrosion of reinforce concrete structure is a new branch of learning. This branch deals with civil engineering , environment engineering, biology, chemistry, materials science and so on and is a interdisciplinary area. Research progress of the causes, research methods and contents of microbial corrosion of reinforced concrete structure is described. The research in the field is just beginning and concerted effort is needed to go further into the mechanism of reinforce concrete structure and assess the security and natural life of reinforce concrete structure under the special condition and put forward the protective methods.

  18. Corrosion Product Film-Induced Stress Facilitates Stress Corrosion Cracking

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wenwen; Zhang, Zhiliang; Ren, Xuechong; Guan, Yongjun; Su, Yanjing

    2015-01-01

    Finite element analyses were conducted to clarify the role of corrosion product films (CPFs) in stress corrosion cracking (SCC). Flat and U-shaped edge-notched specimens were investigated in terms of the CPF-induced stress in the metallic substrate and the stress in the CPF. For a U-shaped edge-notched specimen, the stress field in front of the notch tip is affected by the Young’s modulus of the CPF and the CPF thickness and notch geometry. The CPF-induced tensile stress in the metallic substrate is superimposed on the applied load to increase the crack tip strain and facilitate localized plasticity deformation. In addition, the stress in the CPF surface contributes to the rupture of the CPFs. The results provide physical insights into the role of CPFs in SCC. PMID:26066367

  19. Graphene coatings for protection against microbiologically induced corrosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnamurthy, Ajay

    Microbiologically induced corrosion (MIC) is a special form of electrochemical corrosion where micro-organisms affect the local environmental conditions at the metal-electrolyte interface by forming a stable biofilm. The biofilm introduces localized concentration cells, which accelerate the electrochemical corrosion rates. MIC has been found to affect many industrial systems such as sewage waste water pipes, heat exchangers, ships, underwater pipes etc. It has been traditionally eradicated by physical, biochemical and surface protection methods. The cleaning methods and the biocidal deliveries are required periodically and don't provide a permanent solution to the problem. Further, the use of biocides has been harshly criticized by environmentalists due to safety concerns associated with their usage. Surface based coatings have their own drawback of rapid degradation under harsh microbial environments. This has led to the exploration of thin, robust, inert, conformal passivation coatings for the protection of metallic surfaces from microbiologically induced corrosion. Graphene is a 2D arrangement of carbon atoms in a hexagonal honeycomb lattice. The carbon atoms are bonded to one another by sp2 hybridization and each layer of the carbon ring arrangement spans to a thickness of less than a nm. Due to its unique 2D arrangement of carbon atoms, graphene exhibits interesting in-plane and out of plane properties that have led to it being considered as the material for the future. Its excellent thermal, mechanical, electrical and optical properties are being explored in great depth to understand and realize potential applications in various technological realms. Early studies have shown the ability of bulk and monolayer graphene to protect metallic surfaces from air oxidation and solution based galvanic corrosion processes for short periods. However, the role of graphene in resisting MIC is yet to be determined, particularly over the long time spans characteristic of

  20. Effect of Host Media on Microbial Influenced Corrosion due to Desulfotomaculum nigrificans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lata, Suman; Sharma, Chhaya; Singh, Ajay K.

    2013-04-01

    This article reports about the tests carried to investigate microbial-induced corrosion on stainless steels due to sulfate-reducing bacteria sp. Desulfotomaculum nigrificans in different host media. Stainless steel 304L, 316L, and 2205 were selected for the test. Modified Baar's media (BM), sodium chloride solution, and artificial sea water (SW) were used as test solutions in anaerobic conditions. Electrochemical polarization and immersion test were performed to estimate the extent of corrosion rate and pitting on stainless steels. SEM/EDS were used to study the details inside/outside pits formed on the corroded samples. Biofilm formed on corroded coupons was analyzed for its components by UV/Visible spectroscopy. Corrosion attack on the test samples was observed maximum in case of exposure to SW followed by NaCl solution, both having sulfide and chloride whereas stainless steel exposed to BM, having sulfide, showed minimum attack. Tendency of extracellular polymeric substances to bind metal ions is observed to be responsible for governing the extent of corrosion attack.

  1. The role of acetogens in microbially influenced corrosion of steel

    PubMed Central

    Mand, Jaspreet; Park, Hyung Soo; Jack, Thomas R.; Voordouw, Gerrit

    2014-01-01

    Microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) of iron (Fe0) by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) has been studied extensively. Through a mechanism, that is still poorly understood, electrons or hydrogen (H2) molecules are removed from the metal surface and used as electron donor for sulfate reduction. The resulting ferrous ions precipitate in part with the sulfide produced, forming characteristic black iron sulfide. Hydrogenotrophic methanogens can also contribute to MIC. Incubation of pipeline water samples, containing bicarbonate and some sulfate, in serum bottles with steel coupons and a headspace of 10% (vol/vol) CO2 and 90% N2, indicated formation of acetate and methane. Incubation of these samples in serum bottles, containing medium with coupons and bicarbonate but no sulfate, also indicated that formation of acetate preceded the formation of methane. Microbial community analyses of these enrichments indicated the presence of Acetobacterium, as well as of hydrogenotrophic and acetotrophic methanogens. The formation of acetate by homoacetogens, such as Acetobacterium woodii from H2 (or Fe0) and CO2, is potentially important, because acetate is a required carbon source for many SRB growing with H2 and sulfate. A consortium of the SRB Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough and A. woodii was able to grow in defined medium with H2, CO2, and sulfate, because A. woodii provides the acetate, needed by D. vulgaris under these conditions. Likewise, general corrosion rates of metal coupons incubated with D. vulgaris in the presence of acetate or in the presence of A. woodii were higher than in the absence of acetate or A. woodii, respectively. An extended MIC model capturing these results is presented. PMID:24917861

  2. Microbially Influenced Corrosion of 304 Stainless Steel and Titanium by P. variotii and A. niger in Humid Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Dawei; Zhou, Feichi; Xiao, Kui; Cui, Tianyu; Qian, Hongchong; Li, Xiaogang

    2015-07-01

    Microbially induced corrosion (MIC) poses significant threats to reliability and safety of engineering materials and structures. While most MIC studies focus on prokaryotic bacteria such as sulfate-reducing bacteria, the influence of fungi on corrosion behaviors of metals has not been adequately reported. In this study, 304 stainless steel and titanium were exposed to two very common fungi, Paecilomyces variotii, Aspergillus niger and their mixtures under highly humid atmosphere. The initial corrosion behaviors within 28 days were studied via scanning Kelvin probe, which showed marked surface ennoblement and increasingly heterogeneous potential distribution upon prolonged fungus exposure. Using stereomicroscopy, fungus growth as well as corrosion morphology of 304 stainless steel and titanium were also evaluated after a long-term exposure for 60 days. The presence of fungi decreased the corrosion resistance for both 304 stainless steel and titanium. Titanium showed higher resistance to fungus growth and the induced corrosion. Exposure to the mixed strains resulted in the highest fungus growth rate but the mildest corrosion, possibly due to the decreased oxygen level by increased fungal activities.

  3. Metagenomic Analysis Indicates Epsilonproteobacteria as a Potential Cause of Microbial Corrosion in Pipelines Injected with Bisulfite

    PubMed Central

    An, Dongshan; Dong, Xiaoli; An, Annie; Park, Hyung S.; Strous, Marc; Voordouw, Gerrit

    2016-01-01

    Sodium bisulfite (SBS) is used as an oxygen scavenger to decrease corrosion in pipelines transporting brackish subsurface water used in the production of bitumen by steam-assisted gravity drainage. Sequencing 16S rRNA gene amplicons has indicated that SBS addition increased the fraction of the sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) Desulfomicrobium, as well as of Desulfocapsa, which can also grow by disproportionating sulfite into sulfide, sulfur, and sulfate. SRB use cathodic H2, formed by reduction of aqueous protons at the iron surface, or use low potential electrons from iron and aqueous protons directly for sulfate reduction. In order to reveal the effects of SBS treatment in more detail, metagenomic analysis was performed with pipe-associated solids (PAS) scraped from a pipe section upstream (PAS-616P) and downstream (PAS-821TP) of the SBS injection point. A major SBS-induced change in microbial community composition and in affiliated hynL genes for the large subunit of [NiFe] hydrogenase was the appearance of sulfur-metabolizing Epsilonproteobacteria of the genera Sulfuricurvum and Sulfurovum. These are chemolithotrophs, which oxidize sulfide or sulfur with O2 or reduce sulfur with H2. Because O2 was absent, this class likely catalyzed reduction of sulfur (S0) originating from the metabolism of bisulfite with cathodic H2 (or low potential electrons and aqueous protons) originating from the corrosion of steel (Fe0). Overall this accelerates reaction of of S0 and Fe0 to form FeS, making this class a potentially powerful contributor to microbial corrosion. The PAS-821TP metagenome also had increased fractions of Deltaproteobacteria including the SRB Desulfomicrobium and Desulfocapsa. Altogether, SBS increased the fraction of hydrogen-utilizing Delta- and Epsilonproteobacteria in brackish-water-transporting pipelines, potentially stimulating anaerobic pipeline corrosion if dosed in excess of the intended oxygen scavenger function. PMID:26858705

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF AN ENVIRONMENTALLY BENIGN MICROBIAL INHIBITOR TO CONTROL INTERNAL PIPELINE CORROSION

    SciTech Connect

    Bill W. Bogan; Brigid M. Lamb; John J. Kilbane II

    2004-10-30

    The overall program objective is to develop and evaluate environmentally benign agents or products that are effective in the prevention, inhibition, and mitigation of microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) in the internal surfaces of metallic natural gas pipelines. The goal is to develop one or more environmentally benign (a.k.a. ''green'') products that can be applied to maintain the structure and dependability of the natural gas infrastructure. Previous testing indicated that the growth, and the metal corrosion caused by pure cultures of sulfate reducing bacteria were inhibited by hexane extracts of some pepper plants. This quarter tests were performed to determine ifmore » chemical compounds other than pepper extracts could inhibit the growth of corrosion-associated microbes and to determine if pepper extracts and other compounds can inhibit corrosion when mature biofilms are present. Several chemical compounds were shown to be capable of inhibiting the growth of corrosion-associated microorganisms, and all of these compounds limited the amount of corrosion caused by mature biofilms to a similar extent. It is difficult to control corrosion caused by mature biofilms, but any compound that disrupts the metabolism of any of the major microbial groups present in corrosion-associated biofilms shows promise in limiting the amount/rate of corrosion.« less

  5. Fabrication of Slippery Lubricant-Infused Porous Surface for Inhibition of Microbially Influenced Corrosion.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng; Zhang, Dun; Lu, Zhou; Sun, Shimei

    2016-01-20

    Microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) accelerates the failure of metal in a marine environment. In this research, slippery lubricant-infused porous surface (SLIPS) was designed on aluminum, and its great potential for inhibiting MIC induced by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) was demonstrated in a simulated marine environment. The inhibition mechanism of SLIPS to MIC was proposed based on its effective roles in the suppression of SRB settlement and isolation effect to corrosive metabolites. The liquid-like property is demonstrated to be the major contributor to the suppression effect of SLIPS to SRB settlement. The effects of environmental factors (static and dynamic conditions) and lubricant type to SRB settlement over SLIPS were also investigated. It was indicated that the as-fabricated SLIPS can inhibit the SRB settlement in both static and dynamic marine conditions, and lubricant type presents a negligible effect on the SRB settlement. These results will provide a series of foundational data for the future practical application of SLIPS in the marine environment, and also a lubricant selecting instruction to construct SLIPS for MIC control.

  6. Electrochemical noise measurements of sustained microbially influenced pitting corrosion in a laboratory flow loop system

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Y.; Frank, J.R.; St. Martin, E.J.

    Because of the chaotic nature of the corrosion process and the complexity of the electrochemical noise signals that are generated, there is no generally accepted method of measuring and interpreting these signals that allows the consistent detection and identification of sustained localized pitting (SLP) as compared to general corrosion. The authors have reexamined electrochemical noise analysis (ENA) of localized corrosion using different hardware, signal collection, and signal processing designs than those used in conventional ENA techniques. The new data acquisition system was designed to identify and monitor the progress of SLP by analyzing the power spectral density (PSD) of themore » trend of the corrosion current noise level (CNL) and potential noise level (PNL). Each CNL and PNL data point was calculated from the root-mean-square value of the ac components of current and potential fluctuation signals, which were measured simultaneously during a short time period. The PSD analysis results consistently demonstrated that the trends of PNL and CNL contain information that can be used to differentiate between SLP and general corrosion mechanisms. The degree of linear slope in the low-frequency portion of the PSD analysis was correlated with the SLP process. Laboratory metal coupons as well as commercial corrosion probes were tested to ensure the reproducibility and consistency of the results. The on-line monitoring capability of this new ENA method was evaluated in a bench-scale flow-loop system, which simulated microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) activity. The conditions in the test flow-loop system were controlled by the addition of microbes and different substrates to favor accelerated corrosion. The ENA results demonstrated that this in-situ corrosion monitoring system could effectively identify SLP corrosion associated with MIC, compared to a more uniform general corrosion mechanism. A reduction in SLP activity could be clearly detected by the ENA

  7. Electrochemical noise measurements of sustained microbially influenced pitting corrosion in a laboratory flow loop system.

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Y. J.

    Because of the chaotic nature of the corrosion process and the complexity of the electrochemical noise signals that are generated, there is no generally accepted method of measuring and interpreting these signals that allows the consistent detection and identification of sustained localized pitting (SLP) as compared to general corrosion. We have reexamined electrochemical noise analysis (ENA) of localized corrosion using different hardware, signal collection, and signal processing designs than those used in conventional ENA techniques. The new data acquisition system was designed to identify and monitor the progress of SLP by analyzing the power spectral density (PSD) of the trendmore » of the corrosion current noise level (CNL) and potential noise level (PNL). Each CNL and PNL data point was calculated from the root-mean- square value of the ac components of current and potential fluctuation signals, which were measured simultaneously during a short time period. The PSD analysis results consistently demonstrated that the trends of PNL and CNL contain information that can be used to differentiate between SLP and general corrosion mechanisms. The degree of linear slope in the low-frequency portion of the PSD analysis was correlated with the SLP process. Laboratory metal coupons as well as commercial corrosion probes were tested to ensure the reproducibility and consistency of the results. The on-line monitoring capability of this new ENA method was evaluated in a bench-scale flow-loop system, which simulated microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) activity. The conditions in the test flow-loop system were controlled by the addition of microbes and different substrates to favor accelerated corrosion. The ENA results demonstrated that this in-situ corrosion monitoring system could effectively identify SLP corrosion associated with MIC, compared to a more uniform general corrosion mechanism. A reduction in SLP activity could be clearly detected by the ENA monitoring

  8. Microbial fouling and corrosion of carbon steel in deep anoxic alkaline groundwater.

    PubMed

    Rajala, Pauliina; Bomberg, Malin; Vepsäläinen, Mikko; Carpén, Leena

    2017-02-01

    Understanding the corrosion of carbon steel materials of low and intermediate level radioactive waste under repository conditions is crucial to ensure the safe storage of radioactive contaminated materials. The waste will be in contact with the concrete of repository silos and storage containers, and eventually with groundwater. In this study, the corrosion of carbon steel under repository conditions as well as the microbial community forming biofilm on the carbon steel samples, consisting of bacteria, archaea, and fungi, was studied over a period of three years in a groundwater environment with and without inserted concrete. The number of biofilm forming bacteria and archaea was 1,000-fold lower, with corrosion rates 620-times lower in the presence of concrete compared to the natural groundwater environment. However, localized corrosion was detected in the concrete-groundwater environment indicating the presence of local microenvironments where the conditions for pitting corrosion were favorable.

  9. Effects of Ag and Cu ions on the microbial corrosion of 316L stainless steel in the presence of Desulfovibrio sp.

    PubMed

    Unsal, Tuba; Ilhan-Sungur, Esra; Arkan, Simge; Cansever, Nurhan

    2016-08-01

    The utilization of Ag and Cu ions to prevent both microbial corrosion and biofilm formation has recently increased. The emphasis of this study lies on the effects of Ag and Cu ions on the microbial corrosion of 316L stainless steel (SS) induced by Desulfovibrio sp. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization were used to analyze the corrosion behavior. The biofilm formation, corrosion products and Ag and Cu ions on the surfaces were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS) and elemental mapping. Through circuit modeling, EIS results were used to interpret the physicoelectric interactions between the electrode, biofilm and culture interfaces. EIS results indicated that the metabolic activity of Desulfovibrio sp. accelerated the corrosion rate of SS in both conditions with and without ions. However, due to the retardation in the growth of Desulfovibrio sp. in the presence of Ag and Cu ions, significant decrease in corrosion rate was observed in the culture with the ions. In addition, SEM and EIS analyses revealed that the presence of the ions leads to the formation on the SS of a biofilm with different structure and morphology. Elemental analysis with EDS detected mainly sulfide- and phosphorous-based corrosion products on the surfaces. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Multi-technique approach to assess the effects of microbial biofilms involved in copper plumbing corrosion.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Ignacio T; Alsina, Marco A; Pavissich, Juan P; Jeria, Gustavo A; Pastén, Pablo A; Walczak, Magdalena; Pizarro, Gonzalo E

    2014-06-01

    Microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) is recognized as an unusual and severe type of corrosion that causes costly failures around the world. A microbial biofilm could enhance the copper release from copper plumbing into the water by forming a reactive interface. The biofilm increases the corrosion rate, the mobility of labile copper from its matrix and the detachment of particles enriched with copper under variable shear stress due to flow conditions. MIC is currently considered as a series of interdependent processes occurring at the metal-liquid interface. The presence of a biofilm results in the following effects: (a) the formation of localized microenvironments with distinct pH, dissolved oxygen concentrations, and redox conditions; (b) sorption and desorption of labile copper bonded to organic compounds under changing water chemistry conditions; (c) change in morphology by deposition of solid corrosion by-products; (d) diffusive transport of reactive chemical species from or towards the metal surface; and (e) detachment of scale particles under flow conditions. Using a multi-technique approach that combines pipe and coupon experiments this paper reviews the effects of microbial biofilms on the corrosion of copper plumbing systems, and proposes an integrated conceptual model for this phenomenon supported by new experimental data. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Microbially induced and microbially catalysed precipitation: two different carbonate factories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meister, Patrick

    2016-04-01

    The landmark paper by Schlager (2003) has revealed three types of benthic carbonate production referred to as "carbonate factories", operative at different locations at different times in Earth history. The tropical or T-factory comprises the classical platforms and fringing reefs and is dominated by carbonate precipitation by autotrophic calcifying metazoans ("biotically controlled" precipitation). The cool or C-factory is also biotically controlled but via heterotrophic, calcifying metazoans in cold and deep waters at the continental margins. A further type is the mud-mound or M-factory, where carbonate precipitation is supported by microorganisms but not controlled by a specific enzymatic pathway ("biotically induced" precipitation). How exactly the microbes influence precipitation is still poorly understood. Based on recent experimental and field studies, the microbial influence on modern mud mound and microbialite growth includes two fundamentally different processes: (1) Metabolic activity of microbes may increase the saturation state with respect to a particular mineral phase, thereby indirectly driving the precipitation of the mineral phase: microbially induced precipitation. (2) In a situation, where a solution is already supersaturated but precipitation of the mineral is inhibited by a kinetic barrier, microbes may act as a catalyser, i.e. they lower the kinetic barrier: microbially catalysed precipitation. Such a catalytic effect can occur e.g. via secreted polymeric substances or specific chemical groups on the cell surface, at which the minerals nucleate or which facilitate mechanistically the bonding of new ions to the mineral surface. Based on these latest developments in microbialite formation, I propose to extend the scheme of benthic carbonate factories of Schlager et al. (2003) by introducing an additional branch distinguishing microbially induced from microbially catalysed precipitation. Although both mechanisms could be operative in a M

  12. Molecular analysis of microbial diversity in corrosion samples from energy transmission towers.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Valéria M; Lopes-Oliveira, Patrícia F; Passarini, Michel R Z; Menezes, Claudia B A; Oliveira, Walter R C; Rocha, Adriano J; Sette, Lara D

    2011-04-01

    Microbial diversity in corrosion samples from energy transmission towers was investigated using molecular methods. Ribosomal DNA fragments were used to assemble gene libraries. Sequence analysis indicated 10 bacterial genera within the phyla Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes. In the two libraries generated from corroded screw-derived samples, the genus Acinetobacter was the most abundant. Acinetobacter and Clostridium spp. dominated, with similar percentages, in the libraries derived from corrosion scrapings. Fungal clones were affiliated with 14 genera belonging to the phyla Ascomycota and Basidiomycota; of these, Capnobotryella and Fellomyces were the most abundant fungi observed. Several of the microorganisms had not previously been associated with biofilms and corrosion, reinforcing the need to use molecular techniques to achieve a more comprehensive assessment of microbial diversity in environmental samples.

  13. EVELOPMENT OF AN ENVIRONMENTALLY BENIGN MICROBIAL INHIBITOR TO CONTROL INTERNAL PIPELINE CORROSION

    SciTech Connect

    Bill W. Bogan; Wendy R. Sullivan; Kristine M. H. Cruz

    2004-04-30

    The overall program objective is to develop and evaluate environmentally benign agents or products that are effective in the prevention, inhibition, and mitigation of microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) in the internal surfaces of metallic natural gas pipelines. The goal is to develop one or more environmentally benign (a.k.a. ''green'') products that can be applied to maintain the structure and dependability of the natural gas infrastructure. Previous testing of pepper extracts resulted in preliminary data indicating that some pepper extracts inhibit the growth of some corrosion-associated microorganisms. This quarter additional tests were performed to more specifically investigate the ability of threemore » pepper extracts to inhibit the growth, and to influence the metal corrosion caused by two microbial species: Desulfovibrio vulgaris, and Comomonas denitrificans. All three pepper extracts rapidly killed Desulfovibrio vulgaris, but did not appear to inhibit Comomonas denitrificans. While corrosion rates were at control levels in experiments with Desulfovibrio vulgaris that received pepper extract, corrosion rates were increased in the presence of Comomonas denitrificans plus pepper extract. Further testing with a wider range of pure bacterial cultures, and more importantly, with mixed bacterial cultures should be performed to determine the potential effectiveness of pepper extracts to inhibit MIC.« less

  14. Effect of crack openings on carbonation-induced corrosion

    SciTech Connect

    Ghantous, Rita Maria, E-mail: rita-maria.ghantous@yncrea.fr; LMDC, Université de Toulouse, INSA, UPS, Toulouse; Poyet, Stéphane

    Reinforced concrete is widely used in the construction of buildings, historical monuments, infrastructures and nuclear power plants. For a variety of reasons, many concrete structures are subject to unavoidable cracks that accelerate the diffusion of atmospheric carbon dioxide to the steel/concrete interface. Carbonation at the interface induces steel corrosion that could cause the development of new cracks in the structure, a determining factor for its durability. The aim of this article is to study the effect of existing cracks on the development of carbonation-induced corrosion. The results indicate that, after the initiation phase, the corrosion kinetics decreases with time andmore » the free corrosion potential increases independently of the crack opening. In addition, the corroded zone matches the carbonated one. The interpretation of these results allows the authors to conclude that, during the corrosion process, corrosion products seal the crack and act as a barrier to oxygen and water diffusion. Consequently, the influence of crack opening on corrosion development is masked and the corrosion development is limited.« less

  15. Microbially influenced corrosion communities associated with fuel-grade ethanol environments.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Charles H D; Jain, Luke A; Mishra, Brajendra; Olson, David L; Spear, John R

    2015-08-01

    Microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) is a costly problem that impacts hydrocarbon production and processing equipment, water distribution systems, ships, railcars, and other types of metallic infrastructure. In particular, MIC is known to cause considerable damage to hydrocarbon fuel infrastructure including production, transportation, and storage systems, often times with catastrophic environmental contamination results. As the production and use of alternative fuels such as fuel-grade ethanol (FGE) increase, it is important to consider MIC of engineered materials exposed to these "newer fuels" as they enter existing infrastructure. Reports of suspected MIC in systems handling FGE and water prompted an investigation of the microbial diversity associated with these environments. Small subunit ribosomal RNA gene pyrosequencing surveys indicate that acetic-acid-producing bacteria (Acetobacter spp. and Gluconacetobacter spp.) are prevalent in environments exposed to FGE and water. Other microbes previously implicated in corrosion, such as sulfate-reducing bacteria and methanogens, were also identified. In addition, acetic-acid-producing microbes and sulfate-reducing microbes were cultivated from sampled environments containing FGE and water. Results indicate that complex microbial communities form in these FGE environments and could cause significant MIC-related damage that may be difficult to control. How to better manage these microbial communities will be a defining aspect of improving mitigation of global infrastructure corrosion.

  16. DEVELOPMENT OF AN ENVIRONMENTALLY BENIGN MICROBIAL INHIBITOR TO CONTROL INTERNAL PIPELINE CORROSION

    SciTech Connect

    Bill W. Bogan; Brigid M. Lamb; Gemma Husmillo

    The overall program objective is to develop and evaluate environmentally benign agents or products that are effective in the prevention, inhibition, and mitigation of microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) in the internal surfaces of metallic natural gas pipelines. The goal is to develop one or more environmentally benign (a.k.a. ''green'') products that can be applied to maintain the structure and dependability of the natural gas infrastructure. Various chemicals that inhibit the growth and/or the metabolism of corrosion-associated microbes such as sulfate reducing bacteria, denitrifying bacteria, and methanogenic bacteria were evaluated to determine their ability to inhibit corrosion in experiments utilizing puremore » and mixed bacterial cultures, and planktonic cultures as well as mature biofilms. Planktonic cultures are easier to inhibit than mature biofilms but several compounds were shown to be effective in decreasing the amount of metal corrosion. Of the compounds tested hexane extracts of Capsicum pepper plants and molybdate were the most effective inhibitors of sulfate reducing bacteria, bismuth nitrate was the most effective inhibitor of nitrate reducing bacteria, and 4-((pyridine-2-yl)methylamino)benzoic acid (PMBA) was the most effective inhibitor of methanogenic bacteria. All of these compounds were demonstrated to minimize corrosion due to MIC, at least in some circumstances. The results obtained in this project are consistent with the hypothesis that any compound that disrupts the metabolism of any of the major microbial groups present in corrosion-associated biofilms shows promise in limiting the amount/rate of corrosion. This approach of controlling MIC by controlling the metabolism of biofilms is more environmentally benign than the current approach involving the use of potent biocides, and warrants further investigation.« less

  17. The Many Faces of Graphene as Protection Barrier. Performance under Microbial Corrosion and Ni Allergy Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Gentil, Dana; del Campo, Valeria; Henrique Rodrigues da Cunha, Thiago; Henríquez, Ricardo; Garín, Carolina; Ramírez, Cristian; Flores, Marcos; Seeger, Michael

    2017-01-01

    In this work we present a study on the performance of CVD (chemical vapor deposition) graphene coatings grown and transferred on Ni as protection barriers under two scenarios that lead to unwanted metal ion release, microbial corrosion and allergy test conditions. These phenomena have a strong impact in different fields considering nickel (or its alloys) is one of the most widely used metals in industrial and consumer products. Microbial corrosion costs represent fractions of national gross product in different developed countries, whereas Ni allergy is one of the most prevalent allergic conditions in the western world, affecting around 10% of the population. We found that grown graphene coatings act as a protective membrane in biological environments that decreases microbial corrosion of Ni and reduces release of Ni2+ ions (source of Ni allergic contact hypersensitivity) when in contact with sweat. This performance seems not to be connected to the strong orbital hybridization that Ni and graphene interface present, indicating electron transfer might not be playing a main role in the robust response of this nanostructured system. The observed protection from biological environment can be understood in terms of graphene impermeability to transfer Ni2+ ions, which is enhanced for few layers of graphene grown on Ni. We expect our work will provide a new route for application of graphene as a protection coating for metals in biological environments, where current strategies have shown short-term efficiency and have raised health concerns. PMID:29292763

  18. The Many Faces of Graphene as Protection Barrier. Performance under Microbial Corrosion and Ni Allergy Conditions.

    PubMed

    Parra, Carolina; Montero-Silva, Francisco; Gentil, Dana; Del Campo, Valeria; Henrique Rodrigues da Cunha, Thiago; Henríquez, Ricardo; Häberle, Patricio; Garín, Carolina; Ramírez, Cristian; Fuentes, Raúl; Flores, Marcos; Seeger, Michael

    2017-12-08

    In this work we present a study on the performance of CVD (chemical vapor deposition) graphene coatings grown and transferred on Ni as protection barriers under two scenarios that lead to unwanted metal ion release, microbial corrosion and allergy test conditions. These phenomena have a strong impact in different fields considering nickel (or its alloys) is one of the most widely used metals in industrial and consumer products. Microbial corrosion costs represent fractions of national gross product in different developed countries, whereas Ni allergy is one of the most prevalent allergic conditions in the western world, affecting around 10% of the population. We found that grown graphene coatings act as a protective membrane in biological environments that decreases microbial corrosion of Ni and reduces release of Ni 2+ ions (source of Ni allergic contact hypersensitivity) when in contact with sweat. This performance seems not to be connected to the strong orbital hybridization that Ni and graphene interface present, indicating electron transfer might not be playing a main role in the robust response of this nanostructured system. The observed protection from biological environment can be understood in terms of graphene impermeability to transfer Ni 2+ ions, which is enhanced for few layers of graphene grown on Ni. We expect our work will provide a new route for application of graphene as a protection coating for metals in biological environments, where current strategies have shown short-term efficiency and have raised health concerns.

  19. Study on Corrosion-induced Crack Initiation and Propagation of Sustaining Loaded RCbeams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, X. P.; Li, Y.; Yuan, C. B.; Yang, Z.; Chen, Y.

    2018-05-01

    For 13 pieces of reinforced concrete beams with HRB500 steel bars under long-term sustained loads, at time of corrosion-induced initial crack of concrete, and corrosion-induced crack widths of 0.3mm and 1mm, corrosion of steel bars and time-varying behavior of corrosion-induced crack width were studied by the ECWD (Electro-osmosis - constant Current – Wet and Dry cycles) accelerated corrosion method. The results show that when cover thickness was between 30 and 50mm,corrosion rates of steel bars were between 0.8% and 1.7% at time of corrosion-induced crack, and decreased with increasing concrete cover thickness; when corrosion-induced crack width was 0.3mm, the corrosion rate decreased with increasing steel bar diameter, and increased with increasing cover thickness; its corrosion rate varied between 0.98% and 4.54%; when corrosion-induced crack width reached 1mm, corrosion rate of steel bars was between 4% and 4.5%; when corrosion rate of steel bars was within 5%, the maximum and average corrosion-induced crack and corrosion rate of steel bars had a good linear relationship. The calculation model predicting the maximum and average width of corrosion-induced crack is given in this paper.

  20. Corrosion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slabaugh, W. H.

    1974-01-01

    Presents some materials for use in demonstration and experimentation of corrosion processes, including corrosion stimulation and inhibition. Indicates that basic concepts of electrochemistry, crystal structure, and kinetics can be extended to practical chemistry through corrosion explanation. (CC)

  1. Investigating inhibition of microbes inducing microbiologically-influenced-corrosion by Tectona grandis based Fe-nanoparticle material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okeniyi, Joshua Olusegun; Omotosho, Olugbenga Adeshola; Inyang, Michael Anietie; Okeniyi, Elizabeth Toyin; Nwaokorie, Ikechi Thaddeus; Adidi, Emmanuel Amanogho; Owoeye, Taiwo Felicia; Nwakudu, Kelechukwu Chinedu; Akinlabu, Deborah Kehinde; Gabriel, Olanrewaju Oyewale; Taiwo, Olugbenga Samson; Awotoye, Olufisayo Adebola

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, inhibition of microbes inducing microbiologically-influenced-corrosion (MIC) of metals by Tectona grandis based Fe (iron) Nanoparticle material was investigated. For this, extract was obtained from the leaf of Tectona grandis and this was employed as precursor for synthesizing the Fe-nanoparticle material. From this, the synthesized plant extract based nanoparticle material was characterized using scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM+EDS) instrument. The developed Fe bio-nanoparticle material was then employed for sensitivity and/or resistance study application against different strains of microbes that are known to induce microbiologically-influenced-corrosion, in metallic materials, and for this, microbial growth inhibition effect was compared with that from a commercial antibiotic employed as control. Results showed that the Tectona grandis based Fe-nanoparticle exhibited good inhibition effects on the growth of many of the MIC inducing microbes investigated. Sensitivity measures of zone of inhibition against the growth of MIC inducing microbial strains either outperformed or compares well with that obtained from the commercial antibiotic control, in the study. These results indicate positive prospect on the suitability of Fe bio-nanoparticle for corrosion inhibition applications for the protection of metals against microbiological corrosion influencing environment.

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF AN ENVIRONMENTALLY BENIGN MICROBIAL INHIBITOR TO CONTROL INTERNAL PIPELINE CORROSION

    SciTech Connect

    Kristine L. Lowe; Bill W. Bogan; Wendy R. Sullivan

    2004-07-30

    The overall program objective is to develop and evaluate environmentally benign agents or products that are effective in the prevention, inhibition, and mitigation of microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) in the internal surfaces of metallic natural gas pipelines. The goal is to develop one or more environmentally benign (a.k.a. ''green'') products that can be applied to maintain the structure and dependability of the natural gas infrastructure. Previous testing indicated that the growth, and the metal corrosion caused by pure cultures of sulfate reducing bacteria were inhibited by hexane extracts of some pepper plants. This quarter tests were performed with mixed bacterialmore » cultures obtained from natural gas pipelines. Treatment with the pepper extracts affected the growth and metabolic activity of the microbial consortia. Specifically, the growth and metabolism of sulfate reducing bacteria was inhibited. The demonstration that pepper extracts can inhibit the growth and metabolism of sulfate reducing bacteria in mixed cultures is a significant observation validating a key hypothesis of the project. Future tests to determine the effects of pepper extracts on mature/established biofilms will be performed next.« less

  3. Radiation induced corrosion of copper for spent nuclear fuel storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Björkbacka, Åsa; Hosseinpour, Saman; Johnson, Magnus; Leygraf, Christofer; Jonsson, Mats

    2013-11-01

    The long term safety of repositories for radioactive waste is one of the main concerns for countries utilizing nuclear power. The integrity of engineered and natural barriers in such repositories must be carefully evaluated in order to minimize the release of radionuclides to the biosphere. One of the most developed concepts of long term storage of spent nuclear fuel is the Swedish KBS-3 method. According to this method, the spent fuel will be sealed inside copper canisters surrounded by bentonite clay and placed 500 m down in stable bedrock. Despite the importance of the process of radiation induced corrosion of copper, relatively few studies have been reported. In this work the effect of the total gamma dose on radiation induced corrosion of copper in anoxic pure water has been studied experimentally. Copper samples submerged in water were exposed to a series of total doses using three different dose rates. Unirradiated samples were used as reference samples throughout. The copper surfaces were examined qualitatively using IRAS and XPS and quantitatively using cathodic reduction. The concentration of copper in solution after irradiation was measured using ICP-AES. The influence of aqueous radiation chemistry on the corrosion process was evaluated based on numerical simulations. The experiments show that the dissolution as well as the oxide layer thickness increase upon radiation. Interestingly, the evaluation using numerical simulations indicates that aqueous radiation chemistry is not the only process driving the corrosion of copper in these systems.

  4. Microbially induced flotation and flocculation of pyrite and sphalerite.

    PubMed

    Patra, Partha; Natarajan, K A

    2004-07-15

    Cells of Paenibacillus polymyxa and their metabolite products were successfully utilized to achieve selective separation of sphalerite from pyrite, through microbially induced flocculation and flotation. Adsorption studies and electrokinetic investigations were carried out to understand the changes in the surface chemistry of bacterial cells and the minerals after mutual interaction. Possible mechanisms in microbially induced flotation and flocculation are outlined.

  5. A novel and simple treatment for control of sulfide induced sewer concrete corrosion using free nitrous acid.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaoyan; Jiang, Guangming; Bond, Philip L; Keller, Jurg; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2015-03-01

    Improved technologies are currently required for mitigating microbially induced concrete corrosion caused by the oxidation of sulfide to sulfuric acid in sewer systems. This study presents a novel strategy for reducing H2S oxidation on concrete surfaces that accommodate an active corrosion biofilm. The strategy aims to reduce biological oxidation of sulfide through treating the corrosion biofilm with free nitrous acid (FNA, i.e. HNO2). Two concrete coupons with active corrosion activity and surface pH of 3.8 ± 0.3 and 2.7 ± 0.2 were sprayed with nitrite. For both coupons, the H2S uptake rates were reduced by 84%-92% 15 days after the nitrite spray. No obvious recovery of the H2S uptake rate was observed during the entire experimental period (up to 12 months after the spray), indicating the long-term effectiveness of the FNA treatment in controlling the activity of the corrosion-causing biofilms. Live/Dead staining tests on the microorganisms on the concrete coupon surfaces demonstrated that viable bacterial cells decreased by > 80% 39 h after the nitrite spray, suggesting that biofilm cells were killed by the treatment. Examination of a corrosion layer within a suspended solution, containing the corrosion-causing biofilms, indicated that biological activity (ATP level and ratio of viable bacterial cells) was severely decreased by the treatment, confirming the bactericidal effect of FNA on the microorganisms in the biofilms. While field trials are still required to verify its effectiveness, it has been demonstrated here that the FNA spray is potentially a very cheap and effective strategy to reduce sewer corrosion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Microbial Methane Production Associated with Carbon Steel Corrosion in a Nigerian Oil Field

    PubMed Central

    Mand, Jaspreet; Park, Hyung S.; Okoro, Chuma; Lomans, Bart P.; Smith, Seun; Chiejina, Leo; Voordouw, Gerrit

    2016-01-01

    Microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) in oil field pipeline systems can be attributed to many different types of hydrogenotrophic microorganisms including sulfate reducers, methanogens and acetogens. Samples from a low temperature oil reservoir in Nigeria were analyzed using DNA pyrotag sequencing. The microbial community compositions of these samples revealed an abundance of anaerobic methanogenic archaea. Activity of methanogens was demonstrated by incubating samples anaerobically in a basal salts medium, in the presence of carbon steel and carbon dioxide. Methane formation was measured in all enrichments and correlated with metal weight loss. Methanogens were prominently represented in pipeline solids samples, scraped from the inside of a pipeline, comprising over 85% of all pyrosequencing reads. Methane production was only witnessed when carbon steel beads were added to these pipeline solids samples, indicating that no methane was formed as a result of degradation of the oil organics present in these samples. These results were compared to those obtained for samples taken from a low temperature oil field in Canada, which had been incubated with oil, either in the presence or in the absence of carbon steel. Again, methanogens present in these samples catalyzed methane production only when carbon steel was present. Moreover, acetate production was also found in these enrichments only in the presence of carbon steel. From these studies it appears that carbon steel, not oil organics, was the predominant electron donor for acetate production and methane formation in these low temperature oil fields, indicating that the methanogens and acetogens found may contribute significantly to MIC. PMID:26793176

  7. Flow-induced corrosion behavior of absorbable magnesium-based stents.

    PubMed

    Wang, Juan; Giridharan, Venkataraman; Shanov, Vesselin; Xu, Zhigang; Collins, Boyce; White, Leon; Jang, Yongseok; Sankar, Jagannathan; Huang, Nan; Yun, Yeoheung

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this work was to study corrosion behavior of magnesium (Mg) alloys (MgZnCa plates and AZ31 stents) under varied fluid flow conditions representative of the vascular environment. Experiments revealed that fluid hydrodynamics, fluid flow velocity and shear stress play essential roles in the corrosion behavior of absorbable magnesium-based stent devices. Flow-induced shear stress (FISS) accelerates the overall corrosion (including localized, uniform, pitting and erosion corrosions) due to the increased mass transfer and mechanical force. FISS increased the average uniform corrosion rate, the localized corrosion coverage ratios and depths and the removal rate of corrosion products inside the corrosion pits. For MgZnCa plates, an increase of FISS results in an increased pitting factor but saturates at an FISS of ∼0.15Pa. For AZ31 stents, the volume loss ratio (31%) at 0.056Pa was nearly twice that (17%) at 0Pa before and after corrosion. Flow direction has a significant impact on corrosion behavior as more severe pitting and erosion corrosion was observed on the back ends of the MgZnCa plates, and the corrosion product layer facing the flow direction peeled off from the AZ31 stent struts. This study demonstrates that flow-induced corrosion needs be understood so that Mg-based stents in vascular environments can be effectively designed. Copyright © 2014 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Corrosion products of carbonation induced corrosion in existing reinforced concrete facades

    SciTech Connect

    Köliö, Arto; Honkanen, Mari; Lahdensivu, Jukka

    Active corrosion in reinforced concrete structures is controlled by environmental conditions and material properties. These factors determine the corrosion rate and type of corrosion products which govern the total achieved service life. The type and critical amount of corrosion products were studied by electron microscopy and X-ray diffractometry on concrete and reinforcement samples from existing concrete facades on visually damaged locations. The corrosion products in outdoor environment exposed concrete facades are mostly hydroxides (Feroxyhite, Goethite and Lepidocrocite) with a volume ratio to Fe of approximately 3. The results can be used to calibrate calculation of the critical corrosion penetration ofmore » concrete facade panels.« less

  9. [Effect of various anions on the rate of microbe-induced corrosion].

    PubMed

    Piliashenko-Novokhatnyĭ, A I; Asaulenko, L G

    2002-01-01

    Experimental corroboration of correctness of theoretical thermodynamic calculations of e.m.f. of corrosion reactions induced by soil microorganisms is obtained in the work. A hypothesis is put forward on possible mechanism for stimulation of microbe-induced corrosion by chloride ions. The results obtained permit revealing the reasons of low efficiency conditions of cathode protection in cases of active involvement of soil microorganisms into corrosion processes which are used for maintenance of underground constructions.

  10. Microbial-Influenced Corrosion of Corten Steel Compared with Carbon Steel and Stainless Steel in Oily Wastewater by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansouri, Hamidreza; Alavi, Seyed Abolhasan; Fotovat, Meysam

    2015-07-01

    The microbial corrosion behavior of three important steels (carbon steel, stainless steel, and Corten steel) was investigated in semi petroleum medium. This work was done in modified nutrient broth (2 g nutrient broth in 1 L oily wastewater) in the presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and mixed culture (as a biotic media) and an abiotic medium for 2 weeks. The behavior of corrosion was analyzed by spectrophotometric and electrochemical methods and at the end was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. The results show that the degree of corrosion of Corten steel in mixed culture, unlike carbon steel and stainless steel, is less than P. aeruginosa inoculated medium because some bacteria affect Corten steel less than other steels. According to the experiments, carbon steel had less resistance than Corten steel and stainless steel. Furthermore, biofilm inhibits separated particles of those steels to spread to the medium; in other words, particles get trapped between biofilm and steel.

  11. Microbially induced separation of quartz from calcite using Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Padukone, S Usha; Natarajan, K A

    2011-11-01

    Cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and their metabolites were successfully utilized to achieve selective separation of quartz and calcite through microbially induced flotation and flocculation. S. cerevisiae was adapted to calcite and quartz minerals. Adsorption studies and electrokinetic investigations were carried out to understand the changes in the surface chemistry of yeast cells and the minerals after mutual interaction. Possible mechanisms in microbially induced flotation and flocculation are outlined. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF AN ENVIRONMENTALLY BENIGN MICROBIAL INHIBITOR TO CONTROL INTERNAL PIPELINE CORROSION

    SciTech Connect

    J. Robert Paterek; Gemma Husmillo

    The overall program objective is to develop and evaluate environmental benign agents or products that are effective in the prevention, inhibition, and mitigation of microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) in the internal surfaces of metallic natural gas pipelines. The goal is one or more environmental benign, a.k.a. ''green'' products that can be applied to maintain the structure and dependability of the natural gas infrastructure. Capsicum sp. extracts and pure compounds were screened for their antimicrobial activity against MIC causing bacteria. Studies on the ability of these compounds to dissociate biofilm from the substratum were conducted using microtiter plate assays. Tests usingmore » laboratory scale pipeline simulators continued. Preliminary results showed that the natural extracts possess strong antimicrobial activity being comparable to or even better than the pure compounds tested against strains of sulfate reducers. Their minimum inhibitory concentrations had been determined. It was also found that they possess bactericidal properties at minimal concentrations. Biofilm dissociation activity as assessed by microtiter plate assays demonstrated varying degrees of differences between the treated and untreated group with the superior performance of the extracts over pure compounds. Such is an indication of the possible benefits that could be obtained from these natural products. Confirmatory experiments are underway.« less

  13. Internal Corrosion and Deposition Control

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter reviews the current knowledge of the science of corrosion control and control of scaling in drinking water systems. Topics covered include: types of corrosion; physical, microbial and chemical factors influencing corrosion; corrosion of specific materials; direct ...

  14. Responses of Microbial Community Composition to Temperature Gradient and Carbon Steel Corrosion in Production Water of Petroleum Reservoir.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Xiao; Yang, Tao; Mbadinga, Serge M; Liu, Jin-Feng; Yang, Shi-Zhong; Gu, Ji-Dong; Mu, Bo-Zhong

    2017-01-01

    Oil reservoir production systems are usually associated with a temperature gradient and oil production facilities frequently suffer from pipeline corrosion failures. Both bacteria and archaea potentially contribute to biocorrosion of the oil production equipment. Here the response of microbial populations from the petroleum reservoir to temperature gradient and corrosion of carbon steel coupons were investigated under laboratory condition. Carbon steel coupons were exposed to production water from a depth of 1809 m of Jiangsu petroleum reservoir (China) and incubated for periods of 160 and 300 days. The incubation temperatures were set at 37, 55, and 65°C to monitoring mesophilic, thermophilic and hyperthermophilic microorganisms associated with anaerobic carbon steel corrosion. The results showed that corrosion rate at 55°C (0.162 ± 0.013 mm year -1 ) and 37°C (0.138 ± 0.008 mm year -1 ) were higher than that at 65°C (0.105 ± 0.007 mm year -1 ), and a dense biofilm was observed on the surface of coupons under all biotic incubations. The microbial community analysis suggests a high frequency of bacterial taxa associated with families Porphyromonadaceae, Enterobacteriaceae, and Spirochaetaceae at all three temperatures. While the majority of known sulfate-reducing bacteria, in particular Desulfotignum , Desulfobulbus and Desulfovibrio spp., were predominantly observed at 37°C; Desulfotomaculum spp., Thermotoga spp. and Thermanaeromonas spp. as well as archaeal members closely related to Thermococcus and Archaeoglobus spp. were substantially enriched at 65°C. Hydrogenotrophic methanogens of the family Methanobacteriaceae were dominant at both 37 and 55°C; acetoclastic Methanosaeta spp. and methyltrophic Methanolobus spp. were enriched at 37°C. These observations show that temperature changes significantly alter the microbial community structure in production fluids and also affected the biocorrosion of carbon steel under anaerobic conditions.

  15. Responses of Microbial Community Composition to Temperature Gradient and Carbon Steel Corrosion in Production Water of Petroleum Reservoir

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiao-Xiao; Yang, Tao; Mbadinga, Serge M.; Liu, Jin-Feng; Yang, Shi-Zhong; Gu, Ji-Dong; Mu, Bo-Zhong

    2017-01-01

    Oil reservoir production systems are usually associated with a temperature gradient and oil production facilities frequently suffer from pipeline corrosion failures. Both bacteria and archaea potentially contribute to biocorrosion of the oil production equipment. Here the response of microbial populations from the petroleum reservoir to temperature gradient and corrosion of carbon steel coupons were investigated under laboratory condition. Carbon steel coupons were exposed to production water from a depth of 1809 m of Jiangsu petroleum reservoir (China) and incubated for periods of 160 and 300 days. The incubation temperatures were set at 37, 55, and 65°C to monitoring mesophilic, thermophilic and hyperthermophilic microorganisms associated with anaerobic carbon steel corrosion. The results showed that corrosion rate at 55°C (0.162 ± 0.013 mm year-1) and 37°C (0.138 ± 0.008 mm year-1) were higher than that at 65°C (0.105 ± 0.007 mm year-1), and a dense biofilm was observed on the surface of coupons under all biotic incubations. The microbial community analysis suggests a high frequency of bacterial taxa associated with families Porphyromonadaceae, Enterobacteriaceae, and Spirochaetaceae at all three temperatures. While the majority of known sulfate-reducing bacteria, in particular Desulfotignum, Desulfobulbus and Desulfovibrio spp., were predominantly observed at 37°C; Desulfotomaculum spp., Thermotoga spp. and Thermanaeromonas spp. as well as archaeal members closely related to Thermococcus and Archaeoglobus spp. were substantially enriched at 65°C. Hydrogenotrophic methanogens of the family Methanobacteriaceae were dominant at both 37 and 55°C; acetoclastic Methanosaeta spp. and methyltrophic Methanolobus spp. were enriched at 37°C. These observations show that temperature changes significantly alter the microbial community structure in production fluids and also affected the biocorrosion of carbon steel under anaerobic conditions. PMID:29259586

  16. Prediction of reinforcement corrosion using corrosion induced cracks width in corroded reinforced concrete beams

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, Inamullah; François, Raoul; Castel, Arnaud

    2014-02-15

    This paper studies the evolution of reinforcement corrosion in comparison to corrosion crack width in a highly corroded reinforced concrete beam. Cracking and corrosion maps of the beam were drawn and steel reinforcement was recovered from the beam to observe the corrosion pattern and to measure the loss of mass of steel reinforcement. Maximum steel cross-section loss of the main reinforcement and average steel cross-section loss between stirrups were plotted against the crack width. The experimental results were compared with existing models proposed by Rodriguez et al., Vidal et al. and Zhang et al. Time prediction models for a givenmore » opening threshold are also compared to experimental results. Steel cross-section loss for stirrups was also measured and was plotted against the crack width. It was observed that steel cross-section loss in the stirrups had no relationship with the crack width of longitudinal corrosion cracks. -- Highlights: •Relationship between crack and corrosion of reinforcement was investigated. •Corrosion results of natural process and then corresponds to in-situ conditions. •Comparison with time predicting model is provided. •Prediction of load-bearing capacity from crack pattern was studied.« less

  17. Flow-induced corrosion of absorbable magnesium alloy: In-situ and real-time electrochemical study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Juan; Jang, Yongseok; Wan, Guojiang; Giridharan, Venkataraman; Song, Guang-Ling; Xu, Zhigang; Koo, Youngmi; Qi, Pengkai; Sankar, Jagannathan; Huang, Nan; Yun, Yeoheung

    2016-03-01

    An in-situ and real-time electrochemical study in a vascular bioreactor was designed to analyze corrosion mechanism of magnesium alloy (MgZnCa) under mimetic hydrodynamic conditions. Effect of hydrodynamics on corrosion kinetics, types, rates and products was analyzed. Flow-induced shear stress (FISS) accelerated mass and electron transfer, leading to an increase in uniform and localized corrosions. FISS increased the thickness of uniform corrosion layer, but filiform corrosion decreased this layer resistance at high FISS conditions. FISS also increased the removal rate of localized corrosion products. Impedance-estimated and linear polarization-measured polarization resistances provided a consistent correlation to corrosion rate calculated by computed tomography.

  18. Online monitoring of corrosion behavior in molten metal using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Qiang; Pan, Congyuan; Li, Chaoyang; Fei, Teng; Ding, Xiaokang; Du, Xuewei; Wang, Qiuping

    2018-04-01

    The corrosion behavior of structure materials in direct contact with molten metals is widespread in metallurgical industry. The corrosion of casting equipment by molten metals is detrimental to the production process, and the corroded materials can also contaminate the metals being produced. Conventional methods for studying the corrosion behavior by molten metal are offline. This work explored the application of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for online monitoring of the corrosion behavior of molten metal. The compositional changes of molten aluminum in crucibles made of 304 stainless steel were obtained online at 1000 °C. Several offline techniques were combined to determine the corrosion mechanism, which was highly consistent with previous studies. Results proved that LIBS was an efficient method to study the corrosion mechanism of solid materials in molten metal.

  19. An evaluation of microbial growth and corrosion of 316L SS in glycol/seawater mixtures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jason S.; Ray, Richard I.; Lowe, Kristine L.; Jones-Meehan, Joanne; Little, Brenda J.

    2003-01-01

    Glycol/seawater mixtures containing > 50% glycol inhibit corrosion of 316L stainless steel and do not support bacterial growth. The results indicate bacteria are able to use low concentrations of glycol (10%) as a growth medium, but bacterial growth decreased with increasing glycol concentration. Pitting potential, determined by anodic polarization, was used to evaluate susceptibility of 316L SS to corrosion in seawater-contaminated glycol. Mixture containing a minimum concentration of 50% propylene glycol-based coolant inhibited pitting corrosion. A slightly higher minimum concentration (55%) was needed for corrosion protection in ethylene glycol mixtures.

  20. Use of Homogeneously-Sized Carbon Steel Ball Bearings to Study Microbially-Influenced Corrosion in Oil Field Samples

    PubMed Central

    Voordouw, Gerrit; Menon, Priyesh; Pinnock, Tijan; Sharma, Mohita; Shen, Yin; Venturelli, Amanda; Voordouw, Johanna; Sexton, Aoife

    2016-01-01

    Microbially-influenced corrosion (MIC) contributes to the general corrosion rate (CR), which is typically measured with carbon steel coupons. Here we explore the use of carbon steel ball bearings, referred to as beads (55.0 ± 0.3 mg; Ø = 0.238 cm), for determining CRs. CRs for samples from an oil field in Oceania incubated with beads were determined by the weight loss method, using acid treatment to remove corrosion products. The release of ferrous and ferric iron was also measured and CRs based on weight loss and iron determination were in good agreement. Average CRs were 0.022 mm/yr for eight produced waters with high numbers (105/ml) of acid-producing bacteria (APB), but no sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). Average CRs were 0.009 mm/yr for five central processing facility (CPF) waters, which had no APB or SRB due to weekly biocide treatment and 0.036 mm/yr for 2 CPF tank bottom sludges, which had high numbers of APB (106/ml) and SRB (108/ml). Hence, corrosion monitoring with carbon steel beads indicated that biocide treatment of CPF waters decreased the CR, except where biocide did not penetrate. The CR for incubations with 20 ml of a produced water decreased from 0.061 to 0.007 mm/yr when increasing the number of beads from 1 to 40. CRs determined with beads were higher than those with coupons, possibly also due to a higher weight of iron per unit volume used in incubations with coupons. Use of 1 ml syringe columns, containing carbon steel beads, and injected with 10 ml/day of SRB-containing medium for 256 days gave a CR of 0.11 mm/yr under flow conditions. The standard deviation of the distribution of residual bead weights, a measure for the unevenness of the corrosion, increased with increasing CR. The most heavily corroded beads showed significant pitting. Hence the use of uniformly sized carbon steel beads offers new opportunities for screening and monitoring of corrosion including determination of the distribution of corrosion rates, which allows

  1. Microbial Community Structure of an Alluvial Aquifer Treated to Encourage Microbial Induced Calcite Precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohan, J.; Saneiyan, S.; Lee, J.; Ntarlagiannis, D.; Burns, S.; Colwell, F. S.

    2017-12-01

    An oligotrophic aquifer in the Colorado River floodplain (Rifle, CO) was treated with molasses and urea to encourage microbial induced calcite precipitation (MICP). This would stabilize the soil mass by reducing porosity and strengthening the mineral fabric. Over the course of a 15-day treatment period, microbial biomass was collected from monitoring well groundwater for DNA extraction and sequencing. Bromide, a conservative tracer, was co-injected and subsequently detected in downgradient wells, confirming effective nutrient delivery. Conductivity increased during the injection regime and an overall decrease in pH was observed. Groundwater chemistry showed a marked increase in ammonia, suggesting urea hydrolysis - a process catalyzed by the enzyme urease - the primary enzyme implicated in MICP. Additionally, soluble iron was detected, suggesting a general increase in microbial activity; possibly as iron-reducing bacteria changed insoluble ferric oxide to soluble ferrous hydroxide in the anoxic aquifer. DNA sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene confirmed the presence of iron reducing bacteria, including Shewanella and Desulfuromonadales. Generally, a decrease in microbial community diversity was observed when pre-injection community taxa were compared with post-injection community taxa. Phyla indicative of anoxic aquifers were represented in accordance with previous literature at the Rifle site. Linear discriminant analysis showed significant differences in representative phyla over the course of the injection series. Geophysical monitoring of the site further suggested changes that could be due to MICP. Induced polarization increased the phase shift in the primary treated area, in agreement with laboratory experiments. Cross-hole seismic testing confirmed that the shear wave velocities increased in the treated soil mass, implying the soil matrix became more stable. Future investigations will help elucidate the viability and efficacy of MICP treatment in changing

  2. Molecular Survey of Microbial Communities Involved in Concrete Corrosion in Wastewater Collection Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    This information is relevant to the development of condition assessment tools associated with the aging water infrastructure research program Corrosion of wastewater collection infrastructure, especially concrete sewers, is a significant cause of deterioration and premature failu...

  3. AC-Induced Bias Potential Effect on Corrosion of Steels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-05

    induction, variable conduction Experimental Setup Super- martensitic stainless steel composition Analysis: C Mn Si Cr Ni Mo Cu N Typical 13 Cr ɘ.01 0.6... stainless steel used in pipelines. •Low carbon (ɘ.01): allows the formation of a “soft” martensite that is more resistant than standard martensitic ...Proposed AC Corrosion Models  AC Simulated Corrosion testing  Stainless steel pipe and coating  Cathodic protection  Experimental Setup  Preliminary

  4. Mechanism of acetaldehyde-induced deactivation of microbial lipases

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Microbial lipases represent the most important class of biocatalysts used for a wealth of applications in organic synthesis. An often applied reaction is the lipase-catalyzed transesterification of vinyl esters and alcohols resulting in the formation of acetaldehyde which is known to deactivate microbial lipases, presumably by structural changes caused by initial Schiff-base formation at solvent accessible lysine residues. Previous studies showed that several lipases were sensitive toward acetaldehyde deactivation whereas others were insensitive; however, a general explanation of the acetaldehyde-induced inactivation mechanism is missing. Results Based on five microbial lipases from Candida rugosa, Rhizopus oryzae, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Bacillus subtilis we demonstrate that the protonation state of lysine ε-amino groups is decisive for their sensitivity toward acetaldehyde. Analysis of the diverse modification products of Bacillus subtilis lipases in the presence of acetaldehyde revealed several stable products such as α,β-unsaturated polyenals, which result from base and/or amino acid catalyzed aldol condensation of acetaldehyde. Our studies indicate that these products induce the formation of stable Michael-adducts at solvent-accessible amino acids and thus lead to enzyme deactivation. Further, our results indicate Schiff-base formation with acetaldehyde to be involved in crosslinking of lipase molecules. Conclusions Differences in stability observed with various commercially available microbial lipases most probably result from different purification procedures carried out by the respective manufacturers. We observed that the pH of the buffer used prior to lyophilization of the enzyme sample is of utmost importance. The mechanism of acetaldehyde-induced deactivation of microbial lipases involves the generation of α,β-unsaturated polyenals from acetaldehyde which subsequently form stable Michael-adducts with the enzymes. Lyophilization of

  5. Lead-induced stress corrosion cracking of Alloy 600 and 690 in high temperature water

    SciTech Connect

    Sakai, T.; Senjuh, T.; Aoki, K.

    1992-12-31

    Lead is one of the potential contributing impurities to the degradation of PWR steam generator tubing. Recent laboratory testing has shown that lead is a corrosive material for Alloy 600 steam generator tubing. However, it is still unknown how lead influences the corrosion of steam generator tubing, including the effect of lead concentration, solution pH, stress level and material characteristics. In this study, two kinds of experiments were performed. One was to investigate the thin film characteristic and selectively dissolved base metal elements of Alloy 600MA in high temperature solutions of different lead concentrations and pH. The other investigated themore » dependency of degradation of Alloy 600MA and Alloy 690TT on lead concentration and stress level in mild acidic environment, at 340{degrees}C for 2500 hrs. It was firstly demonstrated that lead-enhanced selective dissolution of nickel from alloy base metal, as a result of electrochemical reaction between lead and nickel, might cause the initiation and propagation of corrosion. Secondly, we showed that Alloy 690TT, generally very corrosion resistant material, also suffered from Pb-induced corrosion. The difference of the lead-induced stress corrosion morphology of Alloy 600MA and Alloy 690TT was also clarified.« less

  6. γ-radiation induced corrosion of copper in bentonite-water systems under anaerobic conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karin Norrfors, K.; Björkbacka, Åsa; Kessler, Amanda; Wold, Susanna; Jonsson, Mats

    2018-03-01

    In this work we have experimentally studied the impact of bentonite clay on the process of radiation-induced copper corrosion in anoxic water. The motivation for this is to further develop our understanding of radiation-driven processes occurring in deep geological repositories for spent nuclear fuel where copper canisters containing the spent nuclear fuel will be embedded in compacted bentonite. Experiments on radiation-induced corrosion in the presence and absence of bentonite were performed along with experiments elucidating the impact irradiation on the Cu2+ adsorption capacity of bentonite. The experiments presented in this work show that the presence of bentonite clay has no or very little effect on the magnitude of radiation-induced corrosion of copper in anoxic aqueous systems. The absence of a protective effect similar to that observed for radiation-induced dissolution of UO2 is attributed to differences in the corrosion mechanism. This provides further support for the previously proposed mechanism where the hydroxyl radical is the key radiolytic oxidant responsible for the corrosion of copper. The radiation effect on the bentonite sorption capacity of Cu2+ (reduced capacity) is in line with what has previously been reported for other cations. The reduced cation sorption capacity is partly attributed to a loss of Al-OH sites upon irradiation.

  7. Role of molybdenum in the Na sub 2SO sub 4 induced corrosion of superalloys at high temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Misra, A. K.

    1986-01-01

    Sodium sulfate induced corrosion of a molybdenum containing nickel-base superalloy, Udimet 700, was studied in laboratory furnace tests and in a high velocity (Mach 0.3) burner rig. The effect of SO2 content in the atmosphere on the corrosion behavior in the laboratory furnace tests was determined. Catastrophic corrosion occurs only when the melt contains MoO3 in addition to Na2SO4 and Na2MoO4. The conditions under which catastrophic corrosion occurs are identified and a mechanism is described to explain the catastrophic corrosion.

  8. Flow-induced corrosion of absorbable magnesium alloy: In-situ and real-time electrochemical study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Juan; Jang, Yongseok; Wan, Guojiang; Giridharan, Venkataraman; Song, Guang-Ling; Xu, Zhigang; Koo, Youngmi; Qi, Pengkai; Sankar, Jagannathan; Huang, Nan; Yun, Yeoheung

    2016-01-01

    An in-situ and real-time electrochemical study in a vascular bioreactor was designed to analyze corrosion mechanism of magnesium alloy (MgZnCa) under mimetic hydrodynamic conditions. Effect of hydrodynamics on corrosion kinetics, types, rates and products was analyzed. Flow-induced shear stress (FISS) accelerated mass and electron transfer, leading to an increase in uniform and localized corrosions. FISS increased the thickness of uniform corrosion layer, but filiform corrosion decreased this layer resistance at high FISS conditions. FISS also increased the removal rate of localized corrosion products. Impedance-estimated and linear polarization-measured polarization resistances provided a consistent correlation to corrosion rate calculated by computed tomography. PMID:28626241

  9. Inhibition of microbial concrete corrosion by Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans with functionalised zeolite-A coating.

    PubMed

    Haile, Tesfaalem; Nakhla, George

    2009-01-01

    The inhibition of the corrosive action of Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans on concrete specimens coated by functionalised zeolite-A containing 14% zinc and 5% silver by weight was studied. Uncoated concrete specimens, epoxy-coated concrete specimens (EP), and functionalised zeolite-A coated concrete specimens with epoxy to zeolite weight ratios of 3:1 (Z1), 2:2 (Z2) and 1:3 (Z3) were studied. Specimens were characterised by x-ray powder diffraction and field emission scanning electron microscopy for the identification of corrosion products and morphological changes. Biomass growth at the conclusion of the 32-day experiments was 4, 179 and 193 mg volatile suspended solids g(-1) sulphur for the uncoated, EP and Z1 specimens, whereas that of Z2 and Z3 were negligible. In the uncoated, EP and Z1 specimens, sulphate production rates were 0.83, 9.1 and 8.8 mM SO(4)(2-) day(-1) and the specific growth rates, mu, were 0.14, 0.57 and 0.47 day(-1), respectively. The corresponding values for Z2 and Z3 were negligible due to their bacterial inhibition characteristics.

  10. C3H7NO2S effect on concrete steel-rebar corrosion in 0.5 M H2SO4 simulating industrial/microbial environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okeniyi, Joshua Olusegun; Nwadialo, Christopher Chukwuweike; Olu-Steven, Folusho Emmanuel; Ebinne, Samaru Smart; Coker, Taiwo Ebenezer; Okeniyi, Elizabeth Toyin; Ogbiye, Adebanji Samuel; Durotoye, Taiwo Omowunmi; Badmus, Emmanuel Omotunde Oluwasogo

    2017-02-01

    This paper investigates C3H7NO2S (Cysteine) effect on the inhibition of reinforcing steel corrosion in concrete immersed in 0.5 M H2SO4, for simulating industrial/microbial environment. Different C3H7NO2S concentrations were admixed, in duplicates, in steel-reinforced concrete samples that were partially immersed in the acidic sulphate environment. Electrochemical monitoring techniques of open circuit potential, as per ASTM C876-91 R99, and corrosion rate, by linear polarization resistance, were then employed for studying anticorrosion effect in steel-reinforced concrete samples by the organic hydrocarbon admixture. Analyses of electrochemical test-data followed ASTM G16-95 R04 prescriptions including probability distribution modeling with significant testing by Kolmogorov-Smirnov and student's t-tests statistics. Results established that all datasets of corrosion potential distributed like the Normal, the Gumbel and the Weibull distributions but that only the Weibull model described all the corrosion rate datasets in the study, as per the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test-statistics. Results of the student's t-test showed that differences of corrosion test-data between duplicated samples with the same C3H7NO2S concentrations were not statistically significant. These results indicated that 0.06878 M C3H7NO2S exhibited optimal inhibition efficiency η = 90.52±1.29% on reinforcing steel corrosion in the concrete samples immersed in 0.5 M H2SO4, simulating industrial/microbial service-environment.

  11. Alkali activated slag mortars provide high resistance to chloride-induced corrosion of steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Criado, Maria; Provis, John L.

    2018-06-01

    The pore solutions of alkali-activated slag cements and Portland-based cements are very different in terms of their chemical and redox characteristics, particularly due to the high alkalinity and high sulfide content of alkali-activated slag cement. Therefore, differences in corrosion mechanisms of steel elements embedded in these cements could be expected, with important implications for the durability of reinforced concrete elements. This study assesses the corrosion behaviour of steel embedded in alkali-activated blast furnace slag (BFS) mortars exposed to alkaline solution, alkaline chloride-rich solution, water, and standard laboratory conditions, using electrochemical techniques. White Portland cement (WPC) mortars and blended cement mortars (white Portland cement and blast furnace slag) were also tested for comparative purposes. The steel elements embedded in immersed alkali-activated slag mortars presented very negative redox potentials and high apparent corrosion current values; the presence of sulfide reduced the redox potential, and the oxidation of the reduced sulfur-containing species within the cement itself gave an electrochemical signal that classical electrochemical tests for reinforced concrete durability would interpret as being due to steel corrosion processes. However, the actual observed resistance to chloride-induced corrosion was very high, as measured by extraction and characterisation of the steel at the end of a 9-month exposure period, whereas the steel embedded in white Portland cement mortars was significantly damaged under the same conditions.

  12. Machining-induced surface transformations of magnesium alloys to enhance corrosion resistance in human-like environment

    SciTech Connect

    Bruschi, Stefania; Bertolini, Rachele; Ghiotti, Andrea

    We report that magnesium alloys are becoming increasingly attractive for producing temporary prosthetic devices thanks to their bioresorbable characteristics in human body. However, their poor corrosion resistance to body fluids seriously limits their applicability. In this work, machining-induced surface transformations are explored as means to enhance corrosion resistance of AZ31 magnesium alloy. Surface characteristics including topography, residual stresses, wettability, microstructures and depth of transformed layer, were analysed and correlated to in-vitro corrosion resistance. Results showed that cryogenic machining at low feed provided the most promising corrosion reduction. Finally, thorough physical characterizations gave fundamental insights into possible drivers for this enhancedmore » resistance.« less

  13. Machining-induced surface transformations of magnesium alloys to enhance corrosion resistance in human-like environment

    DOE PAGES

    Bruschi, Stefania; Bertolini, Rachele; Ghiotti, Andrea; ...

    2018-04-22

    We report that magnesium alloys are becoming increasingly attractive for producing temporary prosthetic devices thanks to their bioresorbable characteristics in human body. However, their poor corrosion resistance to body fluids seriously limits their applicability. In this work, machining-induced surface transformations are explored as means to enhance corrosion resistance of AZ31 magnesium alloy. Surface characteristics including topography, residual stresses, wettability, microstructures and depth of transformed layer, were analysed and correlated to in-vitro corrosion resistance. Results showed that cryogenic machining at low feed provided the most promising corrosion reduction. Finally, thorough physical characterizations gave fundamental insights into possible drivers for this enhancedmore » resistance.« less

  14. Redox gradients in distribution systems influence water quality, corrosion, and microbial ecology.

    PubMed

    Masters, Sheldon; Wang, Hong; Pruden, Amy; Edwards, Marc A

    2015-01-01

    Simulated distribution systems (SDSs) defined the interplay between disinfectant type (free chlorine and chloramines), water age (1-10.2 days), and pipe material (PVC, iron and cement surfaces) on water chemistry, redox zones and infrastructure degradation. Redox gradients developed as a function of water age and pipe material affected the quality of water consumers would receive. Free chlorine was most stable in the presence of PVC while chloramine was most stable in the presence of cement. At a 3.6 day water age the residual in the chlorinated PVC SDS was more than 3.5 times higher than in the chlorinated iron or cement systems. In contrast, the residual in the chloraminated cement SDS was more than 10 times greater than in the chloraminated iron or PVC systems. Near the point of entry to the SDSs where disinfectant residuals were present, free chlorine tended to cause as much as 4 times more iron corrosion when compared to chloramines. Facultative denitrifying bacteria were ubiquitous, and caused complete loss of nitrogen at distal points in systems with iron, and these bacteria co-occurred with very severe pitting attack (1.6-1.9 mm/year) at high water age.

  15. Microbial network of the carbonate precipitation process induced by microbial consortia and the potential application to crack healing in concrete.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiaguang; Zhou, Aijuan; Liu, Yuanzhen; Zhao, Bowei; Luan, Yunbo; Wang, Sufang; Yue, Xiuping; Li, Zhu

    2017-11-06

    Current studies have employed various pure-cultures for improving concrete durability based on microbially induced carbonate precipitation (MICP). However, there have been very few reports concerned with microbial consortia, which could perform more complex tasks and be more robust in their resistance to environmental fluctuations. In this study, we constructed three microbial consortia that are capable of MICP under aerobic (AE), anaerobic (AN) and facultative anaerobic (FA) conditions. The results showed that AE consortia showed more positive effects on inorganic carbon conversion than AN and FA consortia. Pyrosequencing analysis showed that clear distinctions appeared in the community structure between different microbial consortia systems. Further investigation on microbial community networks revealed that the species in the three microbial consortia built thorough energetic and metabolic interaction networks regarding MICP, nitrate-reduction, bacterial endospores and fermentation communities. Crack-healing experiments showed that the selected cracks of the three consortia-based concrete specimens were almost completely healed in 28 days, which was consistent with the studies using pure cultures. Although the economic advantage might not be clear yet, this study highlights the potential implementation of microbial consortia on crack healing in concrete.

  16. Diversity and Composition of Sulfate-Reducing Microbial Communities Based on Genomic DNA and RNA Transcription in Production Water of High Temperature and Corrosive Oil Reservoir

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiao-Xiao; Liu, Jin-Feng; Zhou, Lei; Mbadinga, Serge M.; Yang, Shi-Zhong; Gu, Ji-Dong; Mu, Bo-Zhong

    2017-01-01

    Deep subsurface petroleum reservoir ecosystems harbor a high diversity of microorganisms, and microbial influenced corrosion is a major problem for the petroleum industry. Here, we used high-throughput sequencing to explore the microbial communities based on genomic 16S rDNA and metabolically active 16S rRNA analyses of production water samples with different extents of corrosion from a high-temperature oil reservoir. Results showed that Desulfotignum and Roseovarius were the most abundant genera in both genomic and active bacterial communities of all the samples. Both genomic and active archaeal communities were mainly composed of Archaeoglobus and Methanolobus. Within both bacteria and archaea, the active and genomic communities were compositionally distinct from one another across the different oil wells (bacteria p = 0.002; archaea p = 0.01). In addition, the sulfate-reducing microorganisms (SRMs) were specifically assessed by Sanger sequencing of functional genes aprA and dsrA encoding the enzymes adenosine-5′-phosphosulfate reductase and dissimilatory sulfite reductase, respectively. Functional gene analysis indicated that potentially active Archaeoglobus, Desulfotignum, Desulfovibrio, and Thermodesulforhabdus were frequently detected, with Archaeoglobus as the most abundant and active sulfate-reducing group. Canonical correspondence analysis revealed that the SRM communities in petroleum reservoir system were closely related to pH of the production water and sulfate concentration. This study highlights the importance of distinguishing the metabolically active microorganisms from the genomic community and extends our knowledge on the active SRM communities in corrosive petroleum reservoirs. PMID:28638372

  17. Predicting concrete corrosion of sewers using artificial neural network.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Guangming; Keller, Jurg; Bond, Philip L; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2016-04-01

    Corrosion is often a major failure mechanism for concrete sewers and under such circumstances the sewer service life is largely determined by the progression of microbially induced concrete corrosion. The modelling of sewer processes has become possible due to the improved understanding of in-sewer transformation. Recent systematic studies about the correlation between the corrosion processes and sewer environment factors should be utilized to improve the prediction capability of service life by sewer models. This paper presents an artificial neural network (ANN)-based approach for modelling the concrete corrosion processes in sewers. The approach included predicting the time for the corrosion to initiate and then predicting the corrosion rate after the initiation period. The ANN model was trained and validated with long-term (4.5 years) corrosion data obtained in laboratory corrosion chambers, and further verified with field measurements in real sewers across Australia. The trained model estimated the corrosion initiation time and corrosion rates very close to those measured in Australian sewers. The ANN model performed better than a multiple regression model also developed on the same dataset. Additionally, the ANN model can serve as a prediction framework for sewer service life, which can be progressively improved and expanded by including corrosion rates measured in different sewer conditions. Furthermore, the proposed methodology holds promise to facilitate the construction of analytical models associated with corrosion processes of concrete sewers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Biofouling and microbial corrosion problem in the thermo-fluid heat exchanger and cooling water system of a nuclear test reactor.

    PubMed

    Rao, T S; Kora, Aruna Jyothi; Chandramohan, P; Panigrahi, B S; Narasimhan, S V

    2009-10-01

    This article discusses aspects of biofouling and corrosion in the thermo-fluid heat exchanger (TFHX) and in the cooling water system of a nuclear test reactor. During inspection, it was observed that >90% of the TFHX tube bundle was clogged with thick fouling deposits. Both X-ray diffraction and Mossbauer analyses of the fouling deposit demonstrated iron corrosion products. The exterior of the tubercle showed the presence of a calcium and magnesium carbonate mixture along with iron oxides. Raman spectroscopy analysis confirmed the presence of calcium carbonate scale in the calcite phase. The interior of the tubercle contained significant iron sulphide, magnetite and iron-oxy-hydroxide. A microbiological assay showed a considerable population of iron oxidizing bacteria and sulphate reducing bacteria (10(5) to 10(6) cfu g(-1) of deposit). As the temperature of the TFHX is in the range of 45-50 degrees C, the microbiota isolated/assayed from the fouling deposit are designated as thermo-tolerant bacteria. The mean corrosion rate of the CS coupons exposed online was approximately 2.0 mpy and the microbial counts of various corrosion causing bacteria were in the range 10(3) to 10(5) cfu ml(-1) in the cooling water and 10(6) to 10(8) cfu ml(-1) in the biofilm.

  19. An investigation of microbial diversity in crude oil & seawater injection systems and microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) of linepipe steels under different exposure conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AlAbbas, Faisal Mohammed

    During oil and gas operations, pipeline networks are subjected to different corrosion deterioration mechanisms that result from the interaction between the fluid process and the linepipe steel. Among these mechanisms is microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) that results from accelerated deterioration caused by different indigenous microorganisms that naturally reside in the hydrocarbon and associated seawater injection systems. The focus of this research is to obtain comprehensive understanding of MIC. This work has explored the most essential elements (identifications, implications and mitigations) required to fully understand MIC. Advanced molecular-based techniques, including sequencing of 16S rRNA genes via 454 pyrosequencing methodologies, were deployed to provide in-depth understanding of the microbial diversity associated with crude oil and seawater injection systems and their relevant impact on MIC. Key microbes including sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) and iron reducing bacteria (IRB) were cultivated from sour oil well field samples. The microbes' phylotypes were identified in the laboratory to gain more thorough understanding of how they impact microbial corrosion. Electrochemical and advanced surface analytical techniques were used for corrosion evaluations of linepipe carbon steels (API 5L X52 and X80) under different exposure conditions. On the identification front, 454 pyrosequencing of both 16S rRNA genes indicated that the microbial communities in the corrosion products obtained from the sour oil pipeline, sweet crude pipeline and seawater pipeline were dominated by bacteria, though archaeal sequences (predominately Methanobacteriaceae and Methanomicrobiaceae) were also identified in the sweet and sour crude oil samples, respectively. The dominant bacterial phylotypes in the sour crude sample included members of the Thermoanaerobacterales, Synergistales, and Syntrophobacterales. In the sweet crude sample, the dominant phylotypes included

  20. Early-life family structure and microbially induced cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Blaser, Martin J; Nomura, Abraham; Lee, James; Stemmerman, Grant N; Perez-Perez, Guillermo I

    2007-01-01

    Cancer may follow exposure to an environmental agent after many decades. The bacterium Helicobacter pylori, known to be acquired early in life, increases risk for gastric adenocarcinoma, but other factors are also important. In this study, we considered whether early-life family structure affects the risk of later developing gastric cancer among H. pylori+ men. We examined a long-term cohort of Japanese-American men followed for 28 y, and performed a nested case-control study among those carrying H. pylori or the subset carrying the most virulent cagA+ H. pylori strains to address whether family structure predicted cancer development. We found that among the men who were H. pylori+ and/or cagA+ (it is possible to be cagA+ and H. pylori- if the H. pylori test is falsely negative), belonging to a large sibship or higher birth order was associated with a significantly increased risk of developing gastric adenocarcinoma late in life. For those with cagA+ strains, the risk of developing gastric cancer was more than twice as high (odds ratio 2.2; 95% confidence interval 1.2-4.0) among those in a sibship of seven or more individuals than in a sibship of between one and three persons. These results provide evidence that early-life social environment plays a significant role in risk of microbially induced malignancies expressing five to eight decades later, and these findings lead to new models to explain these interactions.

  1. Effect of the Type of Surface Treatment and Cement on the Chloride Induced Corrosion of Galvanized Reinforcements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tittarelli, Francesca; Mobili, Alessandra; Vicerè, Anna Maria; Roventi, Gabriella; Bellezze, Tiziano

    2017-10-01

    The effect of a new passivation treatment, obtained by immersion of the galvanized reinforcements in a trivalent chromium salts based solution, on the chlorides induced corrosion has been investigated. To investigate also the effect of cement alkalinity on corrosion behaviour of reinforcements, concretes manufactured with three different European cements were compared. The obtained results show that the alternative treatment based on hexavalent chromium-free baths forms effective protection layers on the galvanized rebar surfaces. The higher corrosion rates of zinc coating in concrete manufactured with Portland cement compared to those recorded for bars in concrete manufactured with pozzolanic cement depends strongly on the higher chloride content at the steel concrete interface.

  2. Inflammatory cell-induced corrosion in total knee arthroplasty: A retrieval study.

    PubMed

    Cerquiglini, Arianna; Henckel, Johann; Hothi, Harry S; Di Laura, Anna; Skinner, John A; Hart, Alister J

    2018-01-01

    Metal release in patients with joint replacements is associated with local tissue reactions, pain, and ultimately revision of implants. One of the causes of this metal loss is speculated to be due to a mechanism of inflammatory cell-induced corrosion (ICIC). In this knee retrieval study, we aimed to: (1) identify the extent and location of ICI corrosion patterns on our femoral and tibial components and (2) correlate our findings with implant and clinical information. We investigated 28 femoral and 9 tibial components made of polished CoCr for presence of ICIC, using macroscopic and microscopic screening and statistical analyses to identify any significant correlations between our results and clinical information. We found that 71% of femoral and 100% of tibial components showed evidence of ICIC and significantly more was present on non-contacting regions (p < 0.0001). We found a significant correlation between the presence of ICIC and instability (p = 0.0113) and a significant difference between poster stabilized and cruciate retaining designs in the amount of ICIC on internal edges (p = 0.0375). This corrosion pattern was prevalent in our series of knee retrievals and may help explain some of the mechanisms of material loss that may occur in vivo. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 106B: 460-467, 2018. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Lead induced stress corrosion cracking of Alloy 690 in high temperature water

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, K.K.; Lim, J.K.; Moriya, Shinichi

    1995-12-31

    Recent investigations of cracked steam generator tubes at nuclear power plants concluded that lead significantly contributed to cracking the Alloy 600 materials. In order to investigate the stress corrosion cracking (SCC) behavior of Alloy 690, slow strain rate tests (SSRT) and anodic polarization measurements were performed. The SSRTs were conducted in a lead-chloride solution (PbCl{sub 2}) and in a chloride but lead free solution (NaCl) at pH of 3 and 4.5 at 288 C. The anodic polarization measurements were carried out at 30 C using the same solutions as in SSRT. The SSRT results showed that Alloy 690 was susceptiblemore » to SCC in both solutions. In the lead chloride solution, cracking had slight dependence on lead concentration and pH. Cracking tend to increase with a higher lead concentration and a lower pH and was mainly intergranular and was to be a few tens to hundreds micrometers in length. In the chloride only solution, cracking was similar to the lead induced SCC. The results of anodic polarization measurement and electron probe micro analysis (EPMA) helped to understand lead induced SCC. Lead was a stronger active corrosive element but had a minor affect on cracking susceptibility of the alloy. While, chloride was quite different from lead effect to SCC. A possible mechanism of lead induced SCC of Alloy 690 was also discussed based on the test results.« less

  4. Direct in vivo inflammatory cell-induced corrosion of CoCrMo alloy orthopedic implant surfaces.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Jeremy L; Sivan, Shiril; Liu, Yangping; Kocagöz, Sevi B; Arnholt, Christina M; Kurtz, Steven M

    2015-01-01

    Cobalt-chromium-molybdenum (CoCrMo) alloy, used for over five decades in orthopedic implants, may corrode and release wear debris into the body during use. These degradation products may stimulate immune and inflammatory responses in vivo. We report here on evidence of direct inflammatory cell-induced corrosion of human implanted and retrieved CoCrMo implant surfaces. Corrosion morphology on CoCrMo implant surfaces, in unique and characteristic patterns, and the presence of cellular remnants and biological materials intimately entwined with the corrosion indicates direct cellular attack under the cell membrane region of adhered and/or migrating inflammatory cells. Evidence supports a Fenton-like reaction mechanism driving corrosion in which reactive oxygen species are the major driver of corrosion. Using in vitro tests, large increases in corrosion susceptibility of CoCrMo were seen (40-100 fold) when immersed in phosphate buffered saline solutions modified with hydrogen peroxide and hydrochloric acid to represent the chemistry under inflammatory cells. This discovery raises significant new questions about the clinical consequences of such corrosion interactions, the role of patient inflammatory reactions, and the detailed mechanisms at play. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Direct In Vivo Inflammatory Cell-Induced Corrosion of CoCrMo Alloy Orthopedic Implant Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Jeremy L.; Sivan, Shiril; Liu, Yangping; Kocagöz, Sevi; Arnholt, Christina; Kurtz, Steven M.

    2014-01-01

    Cobalt-chromium-molybdenum alloy, used for over four decades in orthopedic implants, may corrode and release wear debris into the body during use. These degradation products may stimulate immune and inflammatory responses in vivo. We report here on evidence of direct inflammatory cell-induced corrosion of human implanted and retrieved CoCrMo implant surfaces. Corrosion morphology on CoCrMo implant surfaces, in unique and characteristic patterns, and the presence of cellular remnants and biological materials intimately entwined with the corrosion indicates direct cellular attack under the cell membrane region of adhered and/or migrating inflammatory cells. Evidence supports a Fenton-like reaction mechanism driving corrosion in which reactive oxygen species are the major driver of corrosion. Using in vitro tests, large increases in corrosion susceptibility of CoCrMo were seen (40 to 100 fold) when immersed in phosphate buffered saline solutions modified with hydrogen peroxide and HCl to represent the chemistry under inflammatory cells. This discovery raises significant new questions about the clinical consequences of such corrosion interactions, the role of patient inflammatory reactions, and the detailed mechanisms at play. PMID:24619511

  6. Chloride-induced corrosion mechanism and rate of enamel- and epoxy-coated deformed steel bars embedded in mortar

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Fujian; Chen, Genda; Brow, Richard K.

    The chloride-induced corrosion mechanisms of uncoated, pure enamel (PE)-coated, mixed enamel (ME)-coated, double enamel (DE)-coated, and fusion bonded epoxy (FBE)-coated deformed steel bars embedded in mortar cylinders are investigated in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution and compared through electrochemical tests and visual inspection. Corrosion initiated after 29 or 61 days of tests in all uncoated and enamel-coated steel bars, and after 244 days of tests in some FBE-coated steel bars. In active stage, DE- and FBE-coated steel bars are subjected to the highest and lowest corrosion rates, respectively. The uncoated and ME-coated steel bars revealed relatively uniform corrosion while the PE-,more » DE-, and FBE-coated steel bars experienced pitting corrosion around damaged coating areas. Due to the combined effect of ion diffusion and capillary suction, wet–dry cyclic immersion caused more severe corrosion than continuous immersion. Both exposure conditions affected the corrosion rate more significantly than the water–cement ratio in mortar design.« less

  7. Corrosion of copper in oxygen-deficient groundwater with and without deep bedrock micro-organisms: Characterisation of microbial communities and surface processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huttunen-Saarivirta, E.; Rajala, P.; Bomberg, M.; Carpén, L.

    2017-02-01

    Copper specimens were exposed to oxygen-deficient artificial groundwater in the presence and absence of micro-organisms enriched from the deep bedrock of the planned nuclear waste repository site at Olkiluoto island on the western coast of Finland. During the exposure periods of 4 and 10 months, the copper specimens were subjected to electrochemical measurements. The biofilm developed on the specimens and the water used in the exposures were subjected to microbiological analyses. Changes in the water chemistry were also determined and surfaces of the copper specimens were characterized with respect to the morphology and composition of the formed corrosion products. The results showed that under biotic conditions, redox of the water and open circuit potential (OCP) of the copper specimens were generally negative and resulted in the build-up of a copper sulphide, Cu2S, layer due to the activity of sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) that were included in the system. In the 4-month test, the electrochemical behaviour of the specimens changed during the exposure and alphaproteobactria Rhizobiales were the dominant bacterial group in the biofilm where the highest corrosion rate was observed. In the 10-month test, however, deltaproteobacteria SRB flourished and the initial electrochemical behaviour and the low corrosion rate of the copper were retained until the end of the test period. Under abiotic conditions, the positive water redox potential and specimen OCP correlated with the formation of copper oxide, Cu2O. Furthermore, in the absence of SRB, Cu2O provided slightly inferior protection against corrosion compared to that by Cu2S in the presence of SRB. The obtained results show that the presence of microorganisms may enhance the passivity of copper. In addition, the identification of key microbial species, such as SRB thriving on copper for long time periods, is important for successful prediction of the behaviour of copper.

  8. Elastomer-induced crevice corrosion and stress corrosion cracking of stainless steel heat exchanger plates in sour amine service

    SciTech Connect

    Hay, M.G.; Baron, J.J.; Moffat, T.A.

    1996-08-01

    Types S31600 and S31254 stainless steel heat exchanger plates have suffered crevice corrosion and stress corrosion cracking under gaskets in rich amine service in a sour gas plant. The gasket material, ethylene-propylene-diene monomer (EPDM), has been used successfully for many years at other sour gas plants. Laboratory testing has duplicated the corrosion observed and shown that the mechanism is synergistic sulfide-halide attack. The use of a bromine plus chlorine-activated curing system for the EPDM rubber gaskets provided the necessary halides. Laboratory testing identified some nickel-based superalloys which were resistant to this corrosion and also demonstrated that essentially halogen-free, peroxide-cured EPDMmore » gaskets do not cause attack of S31600 or S31254. The heat exchanger packs were replaced with S31600 plates and peroxide-cured EPDM gaskets having a specified total halogen concentration of 200 ppm maximum. Field operating experience has been excellent.« less

  9. Biofilm-induced bioclogging produces sharp interfaces in hyporheic flow, redox conditions, and microbial community structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caruso, Alice; Boano, Fulvio; Ridolfi, Luca; Chopp, David L.; Packman, Aaron

    2017-05-01

    Riverbed sediments host important biogeochemical processes that play a key role in nutrient dynamics. Sedimentary nutrient transformations are mediated by bacteria in the form of attached biofilms. The influence of microbial metabolic activity on the hydrochemical conditions within the hyporheic zone is poorly understood. We present a hydrobiogeochemical model to assess how the growth of heterotrophic and autotrophic biomass affects the transport and transformation of dissolved nitrogen compounds in bed form-induced hyporheic zones. Coupling between hyporheic exchange, nitrogen metabolism, and biomass growth leads to an equilibrium between permeability reduction and microbial metabolism that yields shallow hyporheic flows in a region with low permeability and high rates of microbial metabolism near the stream-sediment interface. The results show that the bioclogging caused by microbial growth can constrain rates and patterns of hyporheic fluxes and microbial transformation rate in many streams.

  10. Measurement of fuel corrosion products using planar laser-induced fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wantuck, Paul J.; Sappey, Andrew D.; Butt, Darryl P.

    1993-01-01

    Characterizing the corrosion behavior of nuclear fuel material in a high-temperature hydrogen environment is critical for ascertaining the operational performance of proposed nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) concepts. In this paper, we describe an experimental study undertaken to develop and test non-intrusive, laser-based diagnostics for ultimately measuring the distribution of key gas-phase corrosion products expected to evolve during the exposure of NTP fuel to hydrogen. A laser ablation technique is used to produce high temperature, vapor plumes from uranium-free zirconium carbide (ZrC) and niobium carbide (NbC) forms for probing by various optical diagnostics including planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF). We discuss the laser ablation technique, results of plume emission measurements, and we describe both the actual and proposed planar LIF schemes for imaging constituents of the ablated ZrC and NbC plumes. Envisioned testing of the laser technique in rf-heated, high temperature gas streams is also discussed.

  11. The effect of NaCl/g/ on the Na2SO4-induced hot corrosion of NiAl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smeggil, J. G.; Bornstein, N. S.; Decrescente, M. A.

    1977-01-01

    Studies have been performed to examine the effect of NaCl vapor on the Na2SO4-induced hot corrosion of the alumina former NiAl. In the incubation period associated with such hot corrosion, NaCl(g) has been shown to be effective in removing aluminum from below the protective alumina scale and redepositing it as Al2O3 whiskers on the surface of the Na2SO4-coated sample. Similar effects seen in simple oxidation are associated with isothermal rupturing of the protective alumina scale.

  12. Microbial metabolic networks in a complex electrogenic biofilm recovered from a stimulus-induced metatranscriptomics approach

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, Shun’ichi; Suzuki, Shino; Tenney, Aaron; Norden-Krichmar, Trina M.; Nealson, Kenneth H.; Bretschger, Orianna

    2015-01-01

    Microorganisms almost always exist as mixed communities in nature. While the significance of microbial community activities is well appreciated, a thorough understanding about how microbial communities respond to environmental perturbations has not yet been achieved. Here we have used a combination of metagenomic, genome binning, and stimulus-induced metatranscriptomic approaches to estimate the metabolic network and stimuli-induced metabolic switches existing in a complex microbial biofilm that was producing electrical current via extracellular electron transfer (EET) to a solid electrode surface. Two stimuli were employed: to increase EET and to stop EET. An analysis of cell activity marker genes after stimuli exposure revealed that only two strains within eleven binned genomes had strong transcriptional responses to increased EET rates, with one responding positively and the other responding negatively. Potential metabolic switches between eleven dominant members were mainly observed for acetate, hydrogen, and ethanol metabolisms. These results have enabled the estimation of a multi-species metabolic network and the associated short-term responses to EET stimuli that induce changes to metabolic flow and cooperative or competitive microbial interactions. This systematic meta-omics approach represents a next step towards understanding complex microbial roles within a community and how community members respond to specific environmental stimuli. PMID:26443302

  13. Colonization-Induced Host-Gut Microbial Metabolic Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Claus, Sandrine P.; Ellero, Sandrine L.; Berger, Bernard; Krause, Lutz; Bruttin, Anne; Molina, Jérôme; Paris, Alain; Want, Elizabeth J.; de Waziers, Isabelle; Cloarec, Olivier; Richards, Selena E.; Wang, Yulan; Dumas, Marc-Emmanuel; Ross, Alastair; Rezzi, Serge; Kochhar, Sunil; Van Bladeren, Peter; Lindon, John C.; Holmes, Elaine; Nicholson, Jeremy K.

    2011-01-01

    The gut microbiota enhances the host’s metabolic capacity for processing nutrients and drugs and modulate the activities of multiple pathways in a variety of organ systems. We have probed the systemic metabolic adaptation to gut colonization for 20 days following exposure of axenic mice (n = 35) to a typical environmental microbial background using high-resolution 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to analyze urine, plasma, liver, kidney, and colon (5 time points) metabolic profiles. Acquisition of the gut microbiota was associated with rapid increase in body weight (4%) over the first 5 days of colonization with parallel changes in multiple pathways in all compartments analyzed. The colonization process stimulated glycogenesis in the liver prior to triggering increases in hepatic triglyceride synthesis. These changes were associated with modifications of hepatic Cyp8b1 expression and the subsequent alteration of bile acid metabolites, including taurocholate and tauromuricholate, which are essential regulators of lipid absorption. Expression and activity of major drug-metabolizing enzymes (Cyp3a11 and Cyp2c29) were also significantly stimulated. Remarkably, statistical modeling of the interactions between hepatic metabolic profiles and microbial composition analyzed by 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing revealed strong associations of the Coriobacteriaceae family with both the hepatic triglyceride, glucose, and glycogen levels and the metabolism of xenobiotics. These data demonstrate the importance of microbial activity in metabolic phenotype development, indicating that microbiota manipulation is a useful tool for beneficially modulating xenobiotic metabolism and pharmacokinetics in personalized health care. PMID:21363910

  14. KCl-Induced High-Temperature Corrosion Behavior of HVAF-Sprayed Ni-Based Coatings in Ambient Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jafari, Reza; Sadeghimeresht, Esmaeil; Farahani, Taghi Shahrabi; Huhtakangas, Matti; Markocsan, Nicolaie; Joshi, Shrikant

    2018-02-01

    KCl-induced high-temperature corrosion behavior of four HVAF-sprayed Ni-based coatings (Ni21Cr, Ni5Al, Ni21Cr7Al1Y and Ni21Cr9Mo) under KCl deposit has been investigated in ambient air at 600 °C up to 168 h. The coatings were deposited onto 16Mo3 steel—a widely used boiler tube material. Uncoated substrate, 304L and Sanicro 25 were used as reference materials in the test environment. SEM/EDS and XRD techniques were utilized to characterize the as-sprayed and exposed samples. The results showed that the small addition of KCl significantly accelerated degradation to the coatings. All coatings provided better corrosion resistance compared to the reference materials. The alumina-forming Ni5Al coating under KCl deposit was capable of forming a more protective oxide scale compared to the chromia-forming coatings as penetration of Cl through diffusion paths was hindered. Both active corrosion and chromate formation mechanisms were found to be responsible for the corrosion damages. The corrosion resistance of the coatings based on the microstructure analysis and kinetics had the following ranking (from the best to worst): Ni5Al > Ni21Cr > Ni21Cr7Al1Y > Ni21Cr9Mo.

  15. Corrosion of Iron by Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria: New Views of an Old Problem

    PubMed Central

    Garrelfs, Julia

    2014-01-01

    About a century ago, researchers first recognized a connection between the activity of environmental microorganisms and cases of anaerobic iron corrosion. Since then, such microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) has gained prominence and its technical and economic implications are now widely recognized. Under anoxic conditions (e.g., in oil and gas pipelines), sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are commonly considered the main culprits of MIC. This perception largely stems from three recurrent observations. First, anoxic sulfate-rich environments (e.g., anoxic seawater) are particularly corrosive. Second, SRB and their characteristic corrosion product iron sulfide are ubiquitously associated with anaerobic corrosion damage, and third, no other physiological group produces comparably severe corrosion damage in laboratory-grown pure cultures. However, there remain many open questions as to the underlying mechanisms and their relative contributions to corrosion. On the one hand, SRB damage iron constructions indirectly through a corrosive chemical agent, hydrogen sulfide, formed by the organisms as a dissimilatory product from sulfate reduction with organic compounds or hydrogen (“chemical microbially influenced corrosion”; CMIC). On the other hand, certain SRB can also attack iron via withdrawal of electrons (“electrical microbially influenced corrosion”; EMIC), viz., directly by metabolic coupling. Corrosion of iron by SRB is typically associated with the formation of iron sulfides (FeS) which, paradoxically, may reduce corrosion in some cases while they increase it in others. This brief review traces the historical twists in the perception of SRB-induced corrosion, considering the presently most plausible explanations as well as possible early misconceptions in the understanding of severe corrosion in anoxic, sulfate-rich environments. PMID:24317078

  16. Gut Microbial Diversity in Rat Model Induced by Rhubarb

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Ying; Wu, Chunfu; Yang, Jingyu; Li, Xiaobo

    2014-01-01

    Rhubarb is often used to establish chronic diarrhea and spleen (Pi)-deficiency syndrome animal models in China. In this study, we utilized the enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-polymerase chain reaction (ERIC-PCR) method to detect changes in bacterial diversity in feces and the bowel mucosa associated with this model. Total microbial genomic DNA from the small bowel (duodenum, jejunum, and ileum), large bowel (proximal colon, distal colon, and rectum), cecum, and feces of normal and rhubarb-exposed rats were used as templates for the ERIC-PCR analysis. We found that the fecal microbial composition did not correspond to the bowel bacteria mix. More bacterial diversity was observed in the ileum of rhubarb-exposed rats (P<0.05). Furthermore, a 380 bp product was found to be increased in rhubarb-exposed rats both in faces and the bowel mucosa. The product was cloned and sequenced and showed high similarity with regions of the Bacteroides genome. AS a result of discriminant analysis with the SPSS software, the Canonical Discriminant Function Formulae for model rats was established. PMID:25048267

  17. Iron Corrosion Induced by Nonhydrogenotrophic Nitrate-Reducing Prolixibacter sp. Strain MIC1-1

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Kimio; Wakai, Satoshi; Tsurumaru, Hirohito; Ohkuma, Moriya; Harayama, Shigeaki

    2014-01-01

    Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) of metallic materials imposes a heavy economic burden. The mechanism of MIC of metallic iron (Fe0) under anaerobic conditions is usually explained as the consumption of cathodic hydrogen by hydrogenotrophic microorganisms that accelerates anodic Fe0 oxidation. In this study, we describe Fe0 corrosion induced by a nonhydrogenotrophic nitrate-reducing bacterium called MIC1-1, which was isolated from a crude-oil sample collected at an oil well in Akita, Japan. This strain requires specific electron donor-acceptor combinations and an organic carbon source to grow. For example, the strain grew anaerobically on nitrate as a sole electron acceptor with pyruvate as a carbon source and Fe0 as the sole electron donor. In addition, ferrous ion and l-cysteine served as electron donors, whereas molecular hydrogen did not. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain MIC1-1 was a member of the genus Prolixibacter in the order Bacteroidales. Thus, Prolixibacter sp. strain MIC1-1 is the first Fe0-corroding representative belonging to the phylum Bacteroidetes. Under anaerobic conditions, Prolixibacter sp. MIC1-1 corroded Fe0 concomitantly with nitrate reduction, and the amount of iron dissolved by the strain was six times higher than that in an aseptic control. Scanning electron microscopy analyses revealed that microscopic crystals of FePO4 developed on the surface of the Fe0 foils, and a layer of FeCO3 covered the FePO4 crystals. We propose that cells of Prolixibacter sp. MIC1-1 accept electrons directly from Fe0 to reduce nitrate. PMID:25548048

  18. Bacillus sp. Acting as Dual Role for Corrosion Induction and Corrosion Inhibition with Carbon Steel (CS)

    PubMed Central

    Karn, Santosh K.; Fang, Guan; Duan, Jizhou

    2017-01-01

    Present work investigated the role of five different bacteria species as a corrosion inducer as well as corrosion inhibitor with carbon steel (CS). We observed the ability of different bacteria species on the metal surface attachment, biofilm formation, and determined Peroxidase, Catalase enzyme activity in the detached biofilm from the CS surface. We found that each strain has diverse conduct for surface attachment like DS1 3.3, DS2 2.5, DS3 4.3, DS4 4.0, and DS5 4.71 log cfu/cm2 and for biofilm 8.3 log cfu/cm2. The enzyme Peroxidase, Catalase was found in huge concentration inside the biofilm Peroxidase was maximum for DS4 36.0 U/ml and least for DS3 19.54 U/ml. Whereas, Catalase was highest for DS4, DS5 70.14 U/ml and least 57.2 U/ml for DS2. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was conducted to examine the biofilm and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were utilized to observe corrosion in the presence of bacteria. The electrochemical results confirmed that DS1, DS3, DS4, and DS5 strains have statistically significant MIC-factors (Microbially Influenced Corrosion) of 5.46, 8.51, 2.36, and 1.04, while DS2 protective effect factor of 0.89. Weight reduction results with carbon steel likewise supports that corrosion was initiated by DS1 and DS3, while DS2 and DS5 have no any impact though with DS4 we watched less weight reduction however assumed no role in the corrosion. We established the relation of Peroxidase enzyme activity of the isolates. DS1, DS3 and having Peroxidase in the range 22.18, 19.54 U/ml which induce the corrosion whereas DS2 and DS5 having 28.57 and 27.0 U/ml has no any effect and DS4 36 U/ml has inhibitory effect, increasing concentration inhibiting the corrosion. For Catalase DS1, DS3 have 67.28, 61.57 U/ml which induce corrosion while DS2 and DS5 57.71 and 59.14 U/ml also has no effect whereas DS4 70.14 U/ml can inhibit corrosion. Results clearly express that in a specific range both enzymes can induce the corrosion. Our goals are to

  19. Microbially-induced Carbonate Precipitation for Immobilization of Toxic Metals.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Deepika; Qian, Xin-Yi; Pan, Xiangliang; Achal, Varenyam; Li, Qianwei; Gadd, Geoffrey Michael

    2016-01-01

    Rapid urbanization and industrialization resulting from growing populations contribute to environmental pollution by toxic metals and radionuclides which pose a threat to the environment and to human health. To combat this threat, it is important to develop remediation technologies based on natural processes that are sustainable. In recent years, a biomineralization process involving ureolytic microorganisms that leads to calcium carbonate precipitation has been found to be effective in immobilizing toxic metal pollutants. The advantage of using ureolytic organisms for bioremediating metal pollution in soil is their ability to immobilize toxic metals efficiently by precipitation or coprecipitation, independent of metal valence state and toxicity and the redox potential. This review summarizes current understanding of the ability of ureolytic microorganisms for carbonate biomineralization and applications of this process for toxic metal bioremediation. Microbial metal carbonate precipitation may also be relevant to detoxification of contaminated process streams and effluents as well as the production of novel carbonate biominerals and biorecovery of metals and radionuclides that form insoluble carbonates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Aqueous sodium chloride induced intergranular corrosion of Al-Li-Cu alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pizzo, P. P.; Daeschner, D. L.

    1986-01-01

    Two methods have been explored to assess the susceptibility of Al-Li-Cu alloys to intergranular corrosion in aqueous sodium chloride solution. They are: (1) constant extension rate testing with and without alternate-immersion preexposure and (2) metallographic examination after exposure to a NaCl-H2O2 corrosive solution per Mil-H-6088F. Intergranular corrosion was found to occur in both powder and ingot metallurgy alloys of similar composition, using both methods. Underaging rendered the alloys most susceptible. The results correlate to stress-corrosion data generated in conventional time-to-failure and crack growth-rate tests. Alternate-immersion preexposure may be a reliable means to assess stress corrosion susceptibility of Al-Li-Cu alloys.

  1. Surfactant-assisted hollowing of Cu nanoparticles involving halide-induced corrosion-oxidation processes.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chih-Chia; Hwu, Jih Ru; Su, Wu-Chou; Shieh, Dar-Bin; Tzeng, Yonhua; Yeh, Chen-Sheng

    2006-05-03

    We have demonstrated a simple fabrication of hollow nanoparticles by halide-induced corrosion oxidation with the aid of surfactants. Cuprous oxide Cu2O nanoshells can be generated by simply mixing Cu nanoparticles with alkyltrimethylammonium halides at 55 degrees C for 16 min. The hollowing mechanism proposed is that absorption of surfactants onto the Cu surface facilitates the formation of the void interior through an oxidative etching process. Upon extending the reaction up to 4 h, fragmentation, oxidation, and self-assembly were observed and the CuO ellipsoidal structures were formed. The headgroup lengths of the surfactants influenced the degree of CuO ellipsoidal formation, whereby longer surfactants favored the generation of ellipsoids. Optical absorption measured by UV-visible spectroscopy was used to monitor both oxidation courses of Cu-->Cu2O and Cu2O-->CuO and to determine the band-gap energies as 2.4 eV for Cu2O nanoshells and 1.89 eV for CuO ellipsoids. For the contact-angle measurements, the wettability changed from hydrophilicity (18 degrees) to hydrophobicity (140 degrees) as the Cu2O nanoshells shifted to CuO ellipsoids.

  2. Light-induced aggregation of microbial exopolymeric substances.

    PubMed

    Sun, Luni; Xu, Chen; Zhang, Saijin; Lin, Peng; Schwehr, Kathleen A; Quigg, Antonietta; Chiu, Meng-Hsuen; Chin, Wei-Chun; Santschi, Peter H

    2017-08-01

    Sunlight can inhibit or disrupt the aggregation process of marine colloids via cleavage of high molecular weight compounds into smaller, less stable fragments. In contrast, some biomolecules, such as proteins excreted from bacteria can form aggregates via cross-linking due to photo-oxidation. To examine whether light-induced aggregation can occur in the marine environment, we conducted irradiation experiments on a well-characterized protein-containing exopolymeric substance (EPS) from the marine bacterium Sagitulla stellata. Our results show that after 1 h sunlight irradiation, the turbidity level of soluble EPS was 60% higher than in the dark control. Flow cytometry also confirmed that more particles of larger sized were formed by sunlight. In addition, we determined a higher mass of aggregates collected on filter in the irradiated samples. This suggests light can induce aggregation of this bacterial EPS. Reactive oxygen species hydroxyl radical and peroxide played critical roles in the photo-oxidation process, and salts assisted the aggregation process. The observation that Sagitulla stellata EPS with relatively high protein content promoted aggregation, was in contrast to the case where no significant differences were found in the aggregation of a non-protein containing phytoplankton EPS between the dark and light conditions. This, together with the evidence that protein-to-carbohydrate ratio of aggregates formed under light condition is significantly higher than that formed under dark condition suggest that proteins are likely the important component for aggregate formation. Light-induced aggregation provides new insights into polymer assembly, marine snow formation, and the fate/transport of organic carbon and nitrogen in the ocean. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Microbial functional diversity covaries with permafrost thaw-induced environmental heterogeneity in tundra soil.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Mengting M; Zhang, Jin; Xue, Kai; Wu, Liyou; Deng, Ye; Deng, Jie; Hale, Lauren; Zhou, Xishu; He, Zhili; Yang, Yunfeng; Van Nostrand, Joy D; Schuur, Edward A G; Konstantinidis, Konstantinos T; Penton, Christopher R; Cole, James R; Tiedje, James M; Luo, Yiqi; Zhou, Jizhong

    2018-01-01

    Permafrost soil in high latitude tundra is one of the largest terrestrial carbon (C) stocks and is highly sensitive to climate warming. Understanding microbial responses to warming-induced environmental changes is critical to evaluating their influences on soil biogeochemical cycles. In this study, a functional gene array (i.e., geochip 4.2) was used to analyze the functional capacities of soil microbial communities collected from a naturally degrading permafrost region in Central Alaska. Varied thaw history was reported to be the main driver of soil and plant differences across a gradient of minimally, moderately, and extensively thawed sites. Compared with the minimally thawed site, the number of detected functional gene probes across the 15-65 cm depth profile at the moderately and extensively thawed sites decreased by 25% and 5%, while the community functional gene β-diversity increased by 34% and 45%, respectively, revealing decreased functional gene richness but increased community heterogeneity along the thaw progression. Particularly, the moderately thawed site contained microbial communities with the highest abundances of many genes involved in prokaryotic C degradation, ammonification, and nitrification processes, but lower abundances of fungal C decomposition and anaerobic-related genes. Significant correlations were observed between functional gene abundance and vascular plant primary productivity, suggesting that plant growth and species composition could be co-evolving traits together with microbial community composition. Altogether, this study reveals the complex responses of microbial functional potentials to thaw-related soil and plant changes and provides information on potential microbially mediated biogeochemical cycles in tundra ecosystems. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Influence of incubation temperature on biofilm formation and corrosion of carbon steel by Serratia marcescens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harimawan, Ardiyan; Devianto, Hary; Kurniawan, Ignatius Chandra; Utomo, Josephine Christine

    2017-01-01

    Microbial induced corrosion (MIC) or biocorrosion is one type of corrosion, directly or indirectly influenced by microbial activities, by forming biofilm and adhering on the metal surface. When forming biofilm, the microorganisms can produce extracellular products which influence the cathodic and anodic reactions on metal surfaces. This will result in electrochemical changes in the interface between the biofilm and the metal surface, leading to corrosion and deterioration of the metal. MIC might be caused by various types of microorganism which leads to different corrosion mechanism and reaction kinetics. Furthermore, this process will also be influenced by various environmental conditions, such as pH and temperature. This research is aimed to determine the effect of incubation temperature on corrosion of carbon steel caused by Serratia marcescens in a mixture solution of synthetic seawater with Luria Bertani medium with a ratio of 4:1. The incubation was performed for 19 days with incubation temperature of 30, 37, and 50°C. The analyses of biofilm were conducted by total plate count (TPC), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Biofilm was found to be evenly growth on the surface and increasing with increasing incubation temperature. It consists of functional group of alcohol, alkane, amine, nitro, sulfate, carboxylic acid, and polysulfide. The analyses of the corrosion were conducted by gravimetric and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Higher incubation temperature was found to increase the corrosion rate. However, the corrosion products were not detected by XRD analysis.

  5. A light-induced shortcut in the planktonic microbial loop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ptacnik, Robert; Gomes, Ana; Royer, Sarah-Jeanne; Berger, Stella A.; Calbet, Albert; Nejstgaard, Jens C.; Gasol, Josep M.; Isari, Stamatina; Moorthi, Stefanie D.; Ptacnikova, Radka; Striebel, Maren; Sazhin, Andrey F.; Tsagaraki, Tatiana M.; Zervoudaki, Soultana; Altoja, Kristi; Dimitriou, Panagiotis D.; Laas, Peeter; Gazihan, Ayse; Martínez, Rodrigo A.; Schabhüttl, Stefanie; Santi, Ioulia; Sousoni, Despoina; Pitta, Paraskevi

    2016-07-01

    Mixotrophs combine photosynthesis with phagotrophy to cover their demands in energy and essential nutrients. This gives them a competitive advantage under oligotropihc conditions, where nutrients and bacteria concentrations are low. As the advantage for the mixotroph depends on light, the competition between mixo- and heterotrophic bacterivores should be regulated by light. To test this hypothesis, we incubated natural plankton from the ultra-oligotrophic Eastern Mediterranean in a set of mesocosms maintained at 4 light levels spanning a 10-fold light gradient. Picoplankton (heterotrophic bacteria (HB), pico-sized cyanobacteria, and small-sized flagellates) showed the fastest and most marked response to light, with pronounced predator-prey cycles, in the high-light treatments. Albeit cell specific activity of heterotrophic bacteria was constant across the light gradient, bacterial abundances exhibited an inverse relationship with light. This pattern was explained by light-induced top-down control of HB by bacterivorous phototrophic eukaryotes (PE), which was evidenced by a significant inverse relationship between HB net growth rate and PE abundances. Our results show that light mediates the impact of mixotrophic bacterivores. As mixo- and heterotrophs differ in the way they remineralize nutrients, these results have far-reaching implications for how nutrient cycling is affected by light.

  6. Effect of Carbide Dissolution on Chlorine Induced High Temperature Corrosion of HVOF and HVAF Sprayed Cr3C2-NiCrMoNb Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fantozzi, D.; Matikainen, V.; Uusitalo, M.; Koivuluoto, H.; Vuoristo, P.

    2018-01-01

    Highly corrosion- and wear-resistant thermally sprayed chromium carbide (Cr3C2)-based cermet coatings are nowadays a potential highly durable solution to allow traditional fluidized bed combustors (FBC) to be operated with ecological waste and biomass fuels. However, the heat input of thermal spray causes carbide dissolution in the metal binder. This results in the formation of carbon saturated metastable phases, which can affect the behavior of the materials during exposure. This study analyses the effect of carbide dissolution in the metal matrix of Cr3C2-50NiCrMoNb coatings and its effect on chlorine-induced high-temperature corrosion. Four coatings were thermally sprayed with HVAF and HVOF techniques in order to obtain microstructures with increasing amount of carbide dissolution in the metal matrix. The coatings were heat-treated in an inert argon atmosphere to induce secondary carbide precipitation. As-sprayed and heat-treated self-standing coatings were covered with KCl, and their corrosion resistance was investigated with thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and ordinary high-temperature corrosion test at 550 °C for 4 and 72 h, respectively. High carbon dissolution in the metal matrix appeared to be detrimental against chlorine-induced high-temperature corrosion. The microstructural changes induced by the heat treatment hindered the corrosion onset in the coatings.

  7. Ecological feedback in quorum-sensing microbial populations can induce heterogeneous production of autoinducers

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Matthias; Knebel, Johannes; Lechner, Matthias; Pickl, Peter; Frey, Erwin

    2017-01-01

    Autoinducers are small signaling molecules that mediate intercellular communication in microbial populations and trigger coordinated gene expression via ‘quorum sensing’. Elucidating the mechanisms that control autoinducer production is, thus, pertinent to understanding collective microbial behavior, such as virulence and bioluminescence. Recent experiments have shown a heterogeneous promoter activity of autoinducer synthase genes, suggesting that some of the isogenic cells in a population might produce autoinducers, whereas others might not. However, the mechanism underlying this phenotypic heterogeneity in quorum-sensing microbial populations has remained elusive. In our theoretical model, cells synthesize and secrete autoinducers into the environment, up-regulate their production in this self-shaped environment, and non-producers replicate faster than producers. We show that the coupling between ecological and population dynamics through quorum sensing can induce phenotypic heterogeneity in microbial populations, suggesting an alternative mechanism to stochastic gene expression in bistable gene regulatory circuits. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.25773.001 PMID:28741470

  8. Formation of Kinneyia via shear-induced instabilities in microbial mats.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Katherine; Herminghaus, Stephan; Porada, Hubertus; Goehring, Lucas

    2013-01-01

    Kinneyia are a class of microbially mediated sedimentary fossils. Characterized by clearly defined ripple structures, Kinneyia are generally found in areas that were formally littoral habitats and covered by microbial mats. To date, there has been no conclusive explanation of the processes involved in the formation of these fossils. Microbial mats behave like viscoelastic fluids. We propose that the key mechanism involved in the formation of Kinneyia is a Kelvin-Helmholtz-type instability induced in a viscoelastic film under flowing water. A ripple corrugation is spontaneously induced in the film and grows in amplitude over time. Theoretical predictions show that the ripple instability has a wavelength proportional to the thickness of the film. Experiments carried out using viscoelastic films confirm this prediction. The ripple pattern that forms has a wavelength roughly three times the thickness of the film. This behaviour is independent of the viscosity of the film and the flow conditions. Laboratory-analogue Kinneyia were formed via the sedimentation of glass beads, which preferentially deposit in the troughs of the ripples. Well-ordered patterns form, with both honeycomb-like and parallel ridges being observed, depending on the flow speed. These patterns correspond well with those found in Kinneyia, with similar morphologies, wavelengths and amplitudes being observed.

  9. Formation of Kinneyia via shear-induced instabilities in microbial mats.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Katherine; Herminghaus, Stephan; Porada, Hubertus; Goehring, Lucas

    2013-12-13

    Kinneyia are a class of microbially mediated sedimentary fossils. Characterized by clearly defined ripple structures, Kinneyia are generally found in areas that were formally littoral habitats and covered by microbial mats. To date, there has been no conclusive explanation of the processes involved in the formation of these fossils. Microbial mats behave like viscoelastic fluids. We propose that the key mechanism involved in the formation of Kinneyia is a Kelvin-Helmholtz-type instability induced in a viscoelastic film under flowing water. A ripple corrugation is spontaneously induced in the film and grows in amplitude over time. Theoretical predictions show that the ripple instability has a wavelength proportional to the thickness of the film. Experiments carried out using viscoelastic films confirm this prediction. The ripple pattern that forms has a wavelength roughly three times the thickness of the film. This behaviour is independent of the viscosity of the film and the flow conditions. Laboratory-analogue Kinneyia were formed via the sedimentation of glass beads, which preferentially deposit in the troughs of the ripples. Well-ordered patterns form, with both honeycomb-like and parallel ridges being observed, depending on the flow speed. These patterns correspond well with those found in Kinneyia, with similar morphologies, wavelengths and amplitudes being observed.

  10. Leaf Treatments with a Protein-Based Resistance Inducer Partially Modify Phyllosphere Microbial Communities of Grapevine

    PubMed Central

    Cappelletti, Martina; Perazzolli, Michele; Antonielli, Livio; Nesler, Andrea; Torboli, Esmeralda; Bianchedi, Pier L.; Pindo, Massimo; Puopolo, Gerardo; Pertot, Ilaria

    2016-01-01

    Protein derivatives and carbohydrates can stimulate plant growth, increase stress tolerance, and activate plant defense mechanisms. However, these molecules can also act as a nutritional substrate for microbial communities living on the plant phyllosphere and possibly affect their biocontrol activity against pathogens. We investigated the mechanisms of action of a protein derivative (nutrient broth, NB) against grapevine downy mildew, specifically focusing on the effects of foliar treatments on plant defense stimulation and on the composition and biocontrol features of the phyllosphere microbial populations. NB reduced downy mildew symptoms and induced the expression of defense-related genes in greenhouse- and in vitro-grown plants, indicating the activation of grapevine resistance mechanisms. Furthermore, NB increased the number of culturable phyllosphere bacteria and altered the composition of bacterial and fungal populations on leaves of greenhouse-grown plants. Although, NB-induced changes on microbial populations were affected by the structure of indigenous communities originally residing on grapevine leaves, degrees of disease reduction and defense gene modulation were consistent among the experiments. Thus, modifications in the structure of phyllosphere populations caused by NB application could partially contribute to downy mildew control by competition for space or other biocontrol strategies. Particularly, changes in the abundance of phyllosphere microorganisms may provide a contribution to resistance induction, partially affecting the hormone-mediated signaling pathways involved. Modifying phyllosphere populations by increasing natural biocontrol agents with the application of selected nutritional factors can open new opportunities in terms of sustainable plant protection strategies. PMID:27486468

  11. Characteristics of lead induced stress corrosion cracking of alloy 690 in high temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, K.K.; Lim, J.K.; Watanabe, Yutaka

    1996-10-01

    Slow strain rate tests (SSRT) were conducted on alloy 690 in various lead chloride solutions and metal lead added to 100 ppm chloride solution at 288 C. The corrosion potential (rest potential) for the alloy was measured with SSRT tests. The cracking was observed by metallographic examination and electron probe micro analyzer. Also, the corrosion behavior of the alloy was evaluated by anodic polarized measurement at 30 C. Resulting from the tests, cracking was characterized by cracking behavior, crack length and crack growth rate, and lead effects on cracking. The cracking was mainly intergranular in mode, approximately from 60 ummore » to 450 um in crack length, and approximately 10{sup {minus}6} to 10{sup {minus}7} mmS-1 in crack velocity. The cracking was evaluated through the variation the corrosion potential in potential-time and lead behavior during SSRTs. The lead effect in corrosion was evaluated through active to passive transition behavior in anodic polarized curves. The corrosion reactions in the cracking region were confirmed by electron probe microanalysis. Alloy 690 is used for steam generation tubes in pressurized water reactors.« less

  12. Seasonal induced changes in spinach rhizosphere microbial community structure with varying salinity and drought.

    PubMed

    Mark Ibekwe, A; Ors, Selda; Ferreira, Jorge F S; Liu, Xuan; Suarez, Donald L

    2017-02-01

    Salinity is a common problem under irrigated agriculture, especially in low rainfall and high evaporative demand areas of southwestern United States and other semi-arid regions around the world. However, studies on salinity effects on soil microbial communities are relatively few while the effects of irrigation-induced salinity on soil chemical and physical properties and plant growth are well documented. In this study, we examined the effects of salinity, temperature, and temporal variability on soil and rhizosphere microbial communities in sand tanks irrigated with prepared solutions designed to simulate saline wastewater. Three sets of experiments with spinach (Spinacia oleracea L., cv. Racoon) were conducted under saline water during different time periods (early winter, late spring, and early summer). Bacterial 16S V4 rDNA region was amplified utilizing fusion primers designed against the surrounding conserved regions using MiSeq® Illumina sequencing platform. Across the two sample types, bacteria were relatively dominant among three phyla-the Proteobacteria, Cyanobacteria, and Bacteroidetes-accounted for 77.1% of taxa detected in the rhizosphere, while Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria accounted for 55.1% of taxa detected in soil. The results were analyzed using UniFrac coupled with principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) to compare diversity, abundance, community structure, and specific bacterial groups in soil and rhizosphere samples. Permutational analysis of variance (PERMANOVA) analysis showed that soil temperature (P=0.001), rhizosphere temperature (P=0.001), rhizosphere salinity (P=0.032), and evapotranspiration (P=0.002) significantly affected beta diversity of soil and rhizosphere microbial communities. Furthermore, salinity had marginal effects (P=0.078) on soil beta diversity. However, temporal variability differentially affected rhizosphere microbial communities irrigated with saline wastewater. Therefore, microbial communities in

  13. Inactivation of conserved genes induces microbial aversion, drug detoxification, and innate immunity in C.elegans

    PubMed Central

    Melo, Justine A.; Ruvkun, Gary

    2012-01-01

    Summary The nematode C. elegans consumes benign bacteria such as E. coli and is repelled by pathogens and toxins. Here we show that RNAi and toxin-mediated disruption of core cellular activities, including translation, respiration, and protein turnover, stimulates behavioral avoidance of attractive E. coli. RNAi of such essential processes also induces expression of detoxification and innate immune response genes in the absence of toxins or pathogens. Disruption of core processes in non-neuronal tissues can stimulate aversion behavior, revealing a neuroendocrine axis of control. Microbial avoidance requires serotonergic and Jnk kinase signaling. We propose that surveillance pathways oversee critical cellular activities to detect pathogens, many of which deploy toxins and virulence factors to disrupt these same host pathways. Variation in cellular surveillance and endocrine pathways controlling behavior, detoxification and immunity selected by past toxin or microbial interactions could underlie aberrant responses to foods, medicines, and microbes. PMID:22500807

  14. Corrosive-induced gastric outlet obstruction without oesphageal involvement: a case report.

    PubMed

    Ali, N; Eni, U E

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to report an unusual case of isolated gastric outlet obstruction following corrosive ingestion. A case report of a 28-year old female seen by the authors. The literature on gastric outlet obstruction following ingestion of corrosives is reviewed briefly. Features of worsening gastric outlet obstruction were found in this 28-year old female five months after ingestion of hydrochloric acid. There was an antecedent history of depressive illness. The upper gastrointestinal barium contrast radiographs showed a normal oesophagus and proximal stomach. The distal stomach was however scarred, contracted with severe antropyloric stenosis. She underwent nutritional rehabilitation with high protein diet and made an uneventful recovery after a gastrojejunostomy. This case suggests a relative resistance of the oesophagus to corrosive acids as reported in the literature. The stomach, however, is more susceptible to acids causing burns with subsequent cicatrisation around the antrum and pylorus.

  15. Sodium sulfate-induced corrosion of pure nickel and superalloy Udimet 700 in a high velocity burner rig at 900 C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Misra, A. K.

    1987-01-01

    Sodium sulfate-induced corrosion of pure nickel and a commercial nickel-base superalloy, Udimet 700 (U-700), were studied at 900 C in a Mach 0.3 burner rig with different Na levels in the combustor. The corrosion rate of Ni was independent of the Na level in the combustor and considerably lower than that measured in laboratory salt spray tests. The lower rates are associated with the deposition of only a small amount of Na2SO4 on the surface of the NiO scale. Corrosion of U-700 was observed to occur in two stages. During the first stage, the corrosion proceeds by reaction of Cr2O3 scale with the Na2SO4 and evaporation of the Na2CrO4 reaction product from the surface of the corroding sample. Cr depletion in the alloy occurs and small sulfide particles are formed in the Cr depletion zone. Extensive sulfidation occurs during the second state of corrosion, and a thick scale forms. The relationship between the corrosion rate of U-700 and the Na level in the combustor gives a good correlation in the range of 0.3 to 1.5 ppm by weight Na. Very low levels of Na in the combustor cause accelerated oxidation of U-700 without producing the typical hot corrosion morphology.

  16. The dual role of microbes in corrosion

    PubMed Central

    Kip, Nardy; van Veen, Johannes A

    2015-01-01

    Corrosion is the result of a series of chemical, physical and (micro) biological processes leading to the deterioration of materials such as steel and stone. It is a world-wide problem with great societal and economic consequences. Current corrosion control strategies based on chemically produced products are under increasing pressure of stringent environmental regulations. Furthermore, they are rather inefficient. Therefore, there is an urgent need for environmentally friendly and sustainable corrosion control strategies. The mechanisms of microbially influenced corrosion and microbially influenced corrosion inhibition are not completely understood, because they cannot be linked to a single biochemical reaction or specific microbial species or groups. Corrosion is influenced by the complex processes of different microorganisms performing different electrochemical reactions and secreting proteins and metabolites that can have secondary effects. Information on the identity and role of microbial communities that are related to corrosion and corrosion inhibition in different materials and in different environments is scarce. As some microorganisms are able to both cause and inhibit corrosion, we pay particular interest to their potential role as corrosion-controlling agents. We show interesting interfaces in which scientists from different disciplines such as microbiology, engineering and art conservation can collaborate to find solutions to the problems caused by corrosion. PMID:25259571

  17. The dual role of microbes in corrosion.

    PubMed

    Kip, Nardy; van Veen, Johannes A

    2015-03-01

    Corrosion is the result of a series of chemical, physical and (micro) biological processes leading to the deterioration of materials such as steel and stone. It is a world-wide problem with great societal and economic consequences. Current corrosion control strategies based on chemically produced products are under increasing pressure of stringent environmental regulations. Furthermore, they are rather inefficient. Therefore, there is an urgent need for environmentally friendly and sustainable corrosion control strategies. The mechanisms of microbially influenced corrosion and microbially influenced corrosion inhibition are not completely understood, because they cannot be linked to a single biochemical reaction or specific microbial species or groups. Corrosion is influenced by the complex processes of different microorganisms performing different electrochemical reactions and secreting proteins and metabolites that can have secondary effects. Information on the identity and role of microbial communities that are related to corrosion and corrosion inhibition in different materials and in different environments is scarce. As some microorganisms are able to both cause and inhibit corrosion, we pay particular interest to their potential role as corrosion-controlling agents. We show interesting interfaces in which scientists from different disciplines such as microbiology, engineering and art conservation can collaborate to find solutions to the problems caused by corrosion.

  18. Electrical potentials between stent-grafts made from different metals induce negligible corrosion.

    PubMed

    Kazimierczak, A; Podraza, W; Lenart, S; Wiernicki, I; Gutowski, P

    2013-10-01

    Evaluation of the risk of galvanic corrosion in various stent-grafts in current practice, when devices with unmatched alloy compositions are deployed together. Five nitinol (NT) and two steel (SS) stent-grafts produced by different companies were used in different combinations to create 21 samples (NT:NT, n = 10; NT:SS, n = 10; SS:SS, n = 1). Electric potential was measured between the metal couplings after immersion in 0.9% NaCl at a temperature of 37 °C. Subsequently, the same samples were incubated for 24 months in 0.9% NaCl at 37-39 °C under hermetic conditions and examined under a scanning electron microscope in order to search for any evidence of corrosion. Electric potentials between different metals alloys were found (means: NT:SS, 181 μV; NT:NT, 101 μV; SS:SS, 160 μV). The mean electrical potential between stainless steel and nitinol samples was significantly higher than between NT:NT couplings (p < .001). During the final scanning electron microscope examination, only one spot of pitting corrosion (>10 μm) on a nitinol surface was found (associated with previous mechanical damage) in an NT:SS sample after 24 months of incubation in vitro and no sign of mechanical failure of the wires was found. Direct contact between the stainless steel and the nitinol alloys does indeed create electrical potential but with a minimal risk of galvanic corrosion. No evidence was found for significant galvanic corrosion when two endovascular implants (stent-grafts) made from different metal composition were used in the same procedure. Copyright © 2013 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Monitoring microbial growth and activity using spectral induced polarization and low-field nuclear magnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chi; Keating, Kristina; Revil, Andre

    2015-04-01

    Microbes and microbial activities in the Earth's subsurface play a significant role in shaping subsurface environments and are involved in environmental applications such as remediation of contaminants in groundwater and oil fields biodegradation. Stimulated microbial growth in such applications could cause wide variety of changes of physical/chemical properties in the subsurface. It is critical to monitor and determine the fate and transportation of microorganisms in the subsurface during such applications. Recent geophysical studies demonstrate the potential of two innovative techniques, spectral induced polarization (SIP) and low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), for monitoring microbial growth and activities in porous media. The SIP measures complex dielectric properties of porous media at low frequencies of exciting electric field, and NMR studies the porous structure of geologic media and characterizes fluids subsurface. In this laboratory study, we examined both SIP and NMR responses from bacterial growth suspension as well as suspension mixed with silica sands. We focus on the direct contribution of microbes to the SIP and NMR signals in the absence of biofilm formation or biomineralization. We used Zymomonas mobilis and Shewanella oneidensis (MR-1) for SIP and NMR measurements, respectively. The SIP measurements were collected over the frequency range of 0.1 - 1 kHz on Z. mobilis growth suspension and suspension saturated sands at different cell densities. SIP data show two distinct peaks in imaginary conductivity spectra, and both imaginary and real conductivities increased as microbial density increased. NMR data were collected using both CPMG pulse sequence and D-T2 mapping to determine the T2-distribution and diffusion properties on S. oneidensis suspension, pellets (live and dead), and suspension mixed with silica sands. NMR data show a decrease in the T2-distribution in S. oneidensis suspension saturated sands as microbial density increase. A

  20. Microbial Mechanisms Underlying Acidity-induced Reduction in Soil Respiration Under Nitrogen Fertilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, S.; Li, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Terrestrial ecosystems are receiving increasing amounts of reactive nitrogen (N) due to anthropogenic activities, which largely changes soil respiration and its feedback to climate change. N enrichment can not only increase N availability but also induce soil acidification, both may affect soil microbial activity and root growth with a consequent impact on soil respiration. However, it remains unclear whether elevated N availability or soil acidity has greater impact on soil respiration (Rs). We conducted a manipulative experiment to simulate N enrichment (10 g m-2 yr-1 NH4NO3) and soil acidity (0.552 mol H+ m-2 yr-1 sulfuric acid) and studied their effects on Rs and its components in a temperate forest. Our results showed that soil pH was reduced by 0.2 under N addition or acid addition treatment. Acid addition significantly decreased autotrophic respiration (Ra) and heterotrophic respiration (Rh) by 21.5% and 22.7% in 2014, 34.8% and 21.9% in 2015, respectively, resulting in a reduction of Rs by 22.2% in 2014 and 26.1% in 2015. Nitrogen enrichment reduced Ra, Rh, Rs by 21.9%, 16.2%, 18.6% in 2014 and 22.1%, 5.9%, 11.7% in 2015, respectively. The reductions of Rs and its components were attributable to decrease of fine root biomass, microbial biomass, and cellulose degrading enzymes. N addition did not change microbial community but acid addition increased both fungal and arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi PLFAs, and N plus acid addition significantly enhanced fungal to bacterial ratio. All the hydrolase enzymes were reduced more by soil acidity (43-50%) than nitrogen addition (30-39%). Structural equation model showed that soil acidity played more important role than N availability in reducing soil respiration mainly by changing microbial extracellular enzymes. We therefore suggest that N deposition induced indirect effect of soil acidification on microbial properties is critical and should be taken into account to better understand and predict ecosystem C cycling in

  1. Construction of PAH-degrading mixed microbial consortia by induced selection in soil.

    PubMed

    Zafra, German; Absalón, Ángel E; Anducho-Reyes, Miguel Ángel; Fernandez, Francisco J; Cortés-Espinosa, Diana V

    2017-04-01

    Bioremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)-contaminated soils through the biostimulation and bioaugmentation processes can be a strategy for the clean-up of oil spills and environmental accidents. In this work, an induced microbial selection method using PAH-polluted soils was successfully used to construct two microbial consortia exhibiting high degradation levels of low and high molecular weight PAHs. Six fungal and seven bacterial native strains were used to construct mixed consortia with the ability to tolerate high amounts of phenanthrene (Phe), pyrene (Pyr) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) and utilize these compounds as a sole carbon source. In addition, we used two engineered PAH-degrading fungal strains producing heterologous ligninolytic enzymes. After a previous selection using microbial antagonism tests, the selection was performed in microcosm systems and monitored using PCR-DGGE, CO 2 evolution and PAH quantitation. The resulting consortia (i.e., C1 and C2) were able to degrade up to 92% of Phe, 64% of Pyr and 65% of BaP out of 1000 mg kg -1 of a mixture of Phe, Pyr and BaP (1:1:1) after a two-week incubation. The results indicate that constructed microbial consortia have high potential for soil bioremediation by bioaugmentation and biostimulation and may be effective for the treatment of sites polluted with PAHs due to their elevated tolerance to aromatic compounds, their capacity to utilize them as energy source. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Development of an Improved Crack Propagation Model for Corrosion-Induced Cover Cracking in RC Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilyati, S.; Nizam, Z. M.; Zurisman, M. A. A.; Azhar, A. T. S.

    2017-06-01

    During the last two decades, reinforced concrete (RC) has been extensively used in most of the world as one of the common construction material due to its advantages and durability. However, RC structures exposed to marine environments are subjected to chloride attack. Chlorides from seawater penetrate into RC structures are not only causing severe corrosion problems but also affect the durability and serviceability of such structures. This paper investigates the influence of transverse reinforcement and spacing of reinforcing bars on concrete cover cracking of two-way RC slab specimens using accelerated corrosion tests. The experimental program involved the testing of four RC slab specimens and was generally designed to observe the crack width and the time of crack to propagate. An improved model for predicting the timing of crack propagation based on the experimental data was then developed.

  3. Spectral induced polarization and electrodic potential monitoring of microbially mediated iron sulfide transformations

    SciTech Connect

    Hubbard, Susan; Personna, Y.R.; Ntarlagiannis, D.

    2008-02-15

    Stimulated sulfate-reduction is a bioremediation technique utilized for the sequestration of heavy metals in the subsurface.We performed laboratory column experiments to investigate the geoelectrical response of iron sulfide transformations by Desulfo vibriovulgaris. Two geoelectrical methods, (1) spectral induced polarization (SIP), and (2) electrodic potential measurements, were investigated. Aqueous geochemistry (sulfate, lactate, sulfide, and acetate), observations of precipitates (identified from electron microscopy as iron sulfide), and electrodic potentials on bisulfide ion (HS) sensitive silver-silver chloride (Ag-AgCl) electrodes (630 mV) were diagnostic of induced transitions between an aerobic iron sulfide forming conditions and aerobic conditions promoting iron sulfide dissolution. The SIP datamore » showed 10m rad anomalies during iron sulfide mineralization accompanying microbial activity under an anaerobic transition. These anomalies disappeared during iron sulfide dissolution under the subsequent aerobic transition. SIP model parameters based on a Cole-Cole relaxation model of the polarization at the mineral-fluid interface were converted to (1) estimated biomineral surface area to pore volume (Sp), and (2) an equivalent polarizable sphere diameter (d) controlling the relaxation time. The temporal variation in these model parameters is consistent with filling and emptying of pores by iron sulfide biofilms, as the system transitions between anaerobic (pore filling) and aerobic (pore emptying) conditions. The results suggest that combined SIP and electrodic potential measurements might be used to monitor spatiotemporal variability in microbial iron sulfide transformations in the field.« less

  4. Behavior of tritium permeation induced by water corrosion of alpha iron around room temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Otsuka, T.; Hashizume, K.

    2015-03-15

    Tritium (T) permeation leakage to surroundings is a great safety concern in fission and fusion reactor systems. T permeation potentially occurs from T contaminated water through cooling tubes or storage tank made of metals which dissolve some T evolved by water corrosion. In order to understand behaviors of hydrogen uptake and permeation in pure α-iron (αFe) during water corrosion around room temperature, hydrogen permeation experiments for an αFe membrane have been conducted by means of tritium tracer techniques. The present study suggests that hydrogen produced by water corrosion of αFe is trapped in product oxide layers to delay hydrogen uptakemore » in αFe for a moment. However, the oxide layers do not work as a sufficient barrier for hydrogen uptake. Some of hydrogen dissolved in αFe normally diffuses and permeates through the bulk in the early stage of permeation. In a later stage, hydrogen permeation could be apparently stopped by the disappearance of concentration difference of tritium. Hydrogen partial pressure at the water/αFe interface could be ranged from 0.7 to 9.5 kPa around room temperature.« less

  5. Tantalum Nitride-Decorated Titanium with Enhanced Resistance to Microbiologically Induced Corrosion and Mechanical Property for Dental Application

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yongliang; Wang, Lixin; Bai, Yanjie; Zhao, Qiang; Xiong, Xiaoling; Cheng, Yan; Tang, Zhihui; Deng, Yi; Wei, Shicheng

    2015-01-01

    Microbiologically induced corrosion (MIC) of metallic devices/implants in the oral region is one major cause of implant failure and metal allergy in patients. Therefore, it is crucial to develop practical approaches which can effectively prevent MIC for broad clinical applications of these materials. In the present work, tantalum nitride (TaN)-decorated titanium with promoted bio-corrosion and mechanical property was firstly developed via depositing TaN layer onto pure Ti using magnetron sputtering. The microstructure and chemical constituent of TaN coatings were characterized, and were found to consist of a hard fcc-TaN outer layer. Besides, the addition of TaN coatings greatly increased the hardness and modulus of pristine Ti from 2.54 ± 0.20 to 29.88 ± 2.59 GPa, and from 107.19 ± 6.98 to 295.46 ± 19.36 GPa, respectively. Potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy studies indicated that TaN coating exhibited higher MIC resistance in comparison to bare Ti and TiN-coated coating in two bacteria-containing artificial saliva solutions. Moreover, the biofilm experiment showed that the TaN-decorated Ti sample possessed good antibacterial performance. The SEM and XPS results after biofilm removal demonstrated that TaN film remained its integrity and stability, while TiN layer detached from Ti surface in the bio-corrosion tests, demonstrating the anti-MIC behavior and the strong binding property of TaN coating to Ti substrate. Considering all these results, TaN-decorated Ti material exhibits the optimal comprehensive performance and holds great potential as implant material for dental applications. PMID:26107177

  6. Tantalum Nitride-Decorated Titanium with Enhanced Resistance to Microbiologically Induced Corrosion and Mechanical Property for Dental Application.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yifei; Zheng, Yunfei; Li, Yongliang; Wang, Lixin; Bai, Yanjie; Zhao, Qiang; Xiong, Xiaoling; Cheng, Yan; Tang, Zhihui; Deng, Yi; Wei, Shicheng

    2015-01-01

    Microbiologically induced corrosion (MIC) of metallic devices/implants in the oral region is one major cause of implant failure and metal allergy in patients. Therefore, it is crucial to develop practical approaches which can effectively prevent MIC for broad clinical applications of these materials. In the present work, tantalum nitride (TaN)-decorated titanium with promoted bio-corrosion and mechanical property was firstly developed via depositing TaN layer onto pure Ti using magnetron sputtering. The microstructure and chemical constituent of TaN coatings were characterized, and were found to consist of a hard fcc-TaN outer layer. Besides, the addition of TaN coatings greatly increased the hardness and modulus of pristine Ti from 2.54 ± 0.20 to 29.88 ± 2.59 GPa, and from 107.19 ± 6.98 to 295.46 ± 19.36 GPa, respectively. Potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy studies indicated that TaN coating exhibited higher MIC resistance in comparison to bare Ti and TiN-coated coating in two bacteria-containing artificial saliva solutions. Moreover, the biofilm experiment showed that the TaN-decorated Ti sample possessed good antibacterial performance. The SEM and XPS results after biofilm removal demonstrated that TaN film remained its integrity and stability, while TiN layer detached from Ti surface in the bio-corrosion tests, demonstrating the anti-MIC behavior and the strong binding property of TaN coating to Ti substrate. Considering all these results, TaN-decorated Ti material exhibits the optimal comprehensive performance and holds great potential as implant material for dental applications.

  7. Combining hydrogen evolution and corrosion data - A case study on the economic viability of selected metal cathodes in microbial electrolysis cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Robert Keith; Schmidt, Ulrike Christiane; Harnisch, Falk; Schröder, Uwe

    2017-07-01

    In this study, hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) catalytic and corrosion data is determined for selected metal cathode materials. The HER data was gathered using cyclic voltammetry (CV) in electrolytes with several pH values and varying current densities. Of the tested materials, the stainless steel alloy EN 1.4401/AISI 316 generally had the lowest HER overpotentials at the pH values 0.25, 7 and 9. At the higher pH values of 11 and 14 a custom NiMoFe alloy with a m/m% composition of 60-30-10 showed the lowest overpotentials. After each CV experiment, the electrolyte solution was analyzed to determine the corrosion of the metal cathodes. Results of corrosion measurements showed that the stainless steels EN 1.4401 had the lowest corrosion losses on average across all tested pH values. Combining HER and corrosion data revealed that: In the pH 9 electrolyte solution, EN 1.4401 was not always the best catalyst in terms of its overpotential, but it incurs the least material costs due to its lack of corrosion, this balance thereby making it the "best choice" under the given conditions. The combination of HER and corrosion data provides a more effective framework for discussing economic viability than either data set alone.

  8. Diverse microbially induced sedimentary structures from 1 Ga lakes of the Diabaig Formation, Torridon Group, northwest Scotland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callow, Richard H. T.; Battison, Leila; Brasier, Martin D.

    2011-08-01

    The siliciclastic lacustrine rocks of the ~ 1000 Ma Diabaig Formation, northwest Scotland, contain a remarkable diversity of macroscopic structures on bedding planes that can be compared with various kinds of microbially induced sedimentary structures (MISS). Field sedimentological investigations, combined with laboratory analysis of bedding planes and petrographic study of thin sections have allowed us to characterise a range of depositional environments and document the spectrum of biological structures. MISS are reported from frequently subaerial environments, through commonly submerged facies, and down to permanently sub-wavebase settings. Palaeoenvironmental conditions (water depth, exposure, hydrodynamic energy) control the distribution of MISS within these facies. This demonstrates that mat-forming microbial communities were arguably well adapted to low light levels or periodic exposure. Some MISS from the Diabaig Formation are typical of Precambrian microbial mats, including reticulate fabrics and 'old elephant skin' textures. In addition to these, a number of new and unusual fabrics of putative microbial origin are described, including linear arrays of ridges and grooves (cf. 'Arumberia') and discoidal structures that are comparable with younger Ediacaran fossils such as Beltanelliformis. These observations indicate that benthic microbial ecosystems were thriving in freshwater lake systems ~ 1000 Ma, and indicate how microbially induced sedimentary structures may be applied as facies indicators for Proterozoic lacustrine environments. The discovery of structures closely resembling Ediacaran fossils (cf. Beltanelliformis) also serves to highlight the difficulty of interpreting simple discoidal bedding plane structures as metazoan fossils.

  9. Structure, apatite inducing ability, and corrosion behavior of chitosan/halloysite nanotube coatings prepared by electrophoretic deposition on titanium substrate.

    PubMed

    Molaei, A; Amadeh, A; Yari, M; Reza Afshar, M

    2016-02-01

    In this study chitosan/halloysite nanotube composite (CS/HNT) coatings were deposited by electrophoretic deposition (EPD) on titanium substrate. Using HNT particles were investigated as new substituents for carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in chitosan matrix coatings. The ability of chitosan as a stabilizing, charging, and blending agent for HNT particles was exploited. Furthermore, the effects of pH, electrophoretic bath, and sonicating duration were studied on the deposition of suspensions containing HNT particles. Microstructure properties of coatings showed uniform distribution of HNT particles in chitosan matrix to form smooth nanocomposite coatings. The zeta potential results revealed that at pH around 3 there is an isoelectric point for HNT and it would have cathodic and anionic states at pH values less and more than 3, respectively. Therefore, CS/HNT composite deposits were produced in the pH range of 2.5 to 3. The apatite inducing ability of chitosan-HNT composite coating assigned that HNT particles were biocompatible because they formed carbonated hydroxyapatite particles on CS/HNT coating in corrected simulated body fluid (C-SBF). Finally, electrochemical corrosion characterizations determined that corrosion resistance in CS/HNT coating has been improved compared to bare titanium substrate. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Antimicrobial Effects of Free Nitrous Acid on Desulfovibrio vulgaris: Implications for Sulfide-Induced Corrosion of Concrete

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Shu-Hong; Ho, Jun Yuan; Fan, Lu; Richardson, David J.; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Hydrogen sulfide produced by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in sewers causes odor problems and asset deterioration due to the sulfide-induced concrete corrosion. Free nitrous acid (FNA) was recently demonstrated as a promising antimicrobial agent to alleviate hydrogen sulfide production in sewers. However, details of the antimicrobial mechanisms of FNA are largely unknown. Here, we report the multiple-targeted antimicrobial effects of FNA on the SRB Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough by determining the growth, physiological, and gene expression responses to FNA exposure. The activities of growth, respiration, and ATP generation were inhibited when exposed to FNA. These changes were reflected in the transcript levels detected during exposure. The removal of FNA was evident by nitrite reduction that likely involved nitrite reductase and the poorly characterized hybrid cluster protein, and the genes coding for these proteins were highly expressed. During FNA exposure, lowered ribosome activity and protein production were detected. Additionally, conditions within the cells were more oxidizing, and there was evidence of oxidative stress. Based on an interpretation of the measured responses, we present a model depicting the antimicrobial effects of FNA on D. vulgaris. These findings provide new insight for understanding the responses of D. vulgaris to FNA and will provide a foundation for optimal application of this antimicrobial agent for improved control of sewer corrosion and odor management. IMPORTANCE Hydrogen sulfide produced by SRB in sewers causes odor problems and results in serious deterioration of sewer assets that requires very costly and demanding rehabilitation. Currently, there is successful application of the antimicrobial agent free nitrous acid (FNA), the protonated form of nitrite, for the control of sulfide levels in sewers (G. Jiang et al., Water Res 47:4331–4339, 2013, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2013.05.024). However, the

  11. Effect of Concentration and Temperature of Ethanol in Fuel Blends on Microbial and Stress Corrosion Cracking of High-Strength Steel

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2012-02-01

    Localized environments in fuel grade ethanol (FGE) transportation systems, where conditions are suitable for growth, may allow for microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) of steel components. Interstate pipeline transportation of ethanol fuels i...

  12. Formation of Microbial Streamers by Flow-Induced Shear and Their Hydrodynamic Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, J.; Olsen, K. A.; Nguyen, T.; Tice, M. M.; 2012; 2013, G. C.

    2014-12-01

    Microbial streamers are productive elements of surface-attached microbial communities that paradoxically seem to roughen mats under rapid, high shear flows, potentially exposing the mat to greater risk of erosion. They are common features found in modern hot-spring outflow channels, yet their formation mechanisms and effects on mat erosion are poorly understood. We test a hypothesis that streamers are produced by shear-induced viscoelastic deformation, and that streamers grow to heal detached turbulent boundary layers. Laboratory flume experiments were conducted using Particle Image/Tracking Velocimetry (PIV/PTV) to gain quantitative insights into the behavior of flows around small projections constructed from 3D-printed plastics or hydrated EPS gels, as well as artificial streamers. The combined use of fabricated hard and viscoelastic shapes, tracer particles, sheet lasers and high speed cameras allowed visualization of flows and quantitative measurements. Results show that primary and secondary flows (backflow behind projections) combine to produce deformations that drive the elongation of the top and ultimately initiate streamer formation. With insufficient secondary flows, streamers are not able to rise up from the basal mat. This implies that a combination of sufficient topographic relief and flow strength is required for streamers to form. In addition, flow measurements indicate that the presence of artificial streamers made the surface hydraulically smoother, and in effect reducing bed shear at the base. These results suggest a novel set of feedbacks that could reduce net mat erosion in energetic flows, and could help guide the evaluation of biosignatures in sedimentary rocks deposited in the presence of microbial mats.

  13. Gut microbial degradation of organophosphate insecticides-induces glucose intolerance via gluconeogenesis.

    PubMed

    Velmurugan, Ganesan; Ramprasath, Tharmarajan; Swaminathan, Krishnan; Mithieux, Gilles; Rajendhran, Jeyaprakash; Dhivakar, Mani; Parthasarathy, Ayothi; Babu, D D Venkatesh; Thumburaj, Leishman John; Freddy, Allen J; Dinakaran, Vasudevan; Puhari, Shanavas Syed Mohamed; Rekha, Balakrishnan; Christy, Yacob Jenifer; Anusha, Sivakumar; Divya, Ganesan; Suganya, Kannan; Meganathan, Boominathan; Kalyanaraman, Narayanan; Vasudevan, Varadaraj; Kamaraj, Raju; Karthik, Maruthan; Jeyakumar, Balakrishnan; Abhishek, Albert; Paul, Eldho; Pushpanathan, Muthuirulan; Rajmohan, Rajamani Koushick; Velayutham, Kumaravel; Lyon, Alexander R; Ramasamy, Subbiah

    2017-01-24

    Organophosphates are the most frequently and largely applied insecticide in the world due to their biodegradable nature. Gut microbes were shown to degrade organophosphates and cause intestinal dysfunction. The diabetogenic nature of organophosphates was recently reported but the underlying molecular mechanism is unclear. We aimed to understand the role of gut microbiota in organophosphate-induced hyperglycemia and to unravel the molecular mechanism behind this process. Here we demonstrate a high prevalence of diabetes among people directly exposed to organophosphates in rural India (n = 3080). Correlation and linear regression analysis reveal a strong association between plasma organophosphate residues and HbA1c but no association with acetylcholine esterase was noticed. Chronic treatment of mice with organophosphate for 180 days confirms the induction of glucose intolerance with no significant change in acetylcholine esterase. Further fecal transplantation and culture transplantation experiments confirm the involvement of gut microbiota in organophosphate-induced glucose intolerance. Intestinal metatranscriptomic and host metabolomic analyses reveal that gut microbial organophosphate degradation produces short chain fatty acids like acetic acid, which induces gluconeogenesis and thereby accounts for glucose intolerance. Plasma organophosphate residues are positively correlated with fecal esterase activity and acetate level of human diabetes. Collectively, our results implicate gluconeogenesis as the key mechanism behind organophosphate-induced hyperglycemia, mediated by the organophosphate-degrading potential of gut microbiota. This study reveals the gut microbiome-mediated diabetogenic nature of organophosphates and hence that the usage of these insecticides should be reconsidered.

  14. Microbial Influenced Corrosion (MIC) Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-23

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  15. Linking Spectral Induced Polarization (SIP) and Subsurface Microbial Processes: Results from Sand Column Incubation Experiments.

    PubMed

    Mellage, Adrian; Smeaton, Christina M; Furman, Alex; Atekwana, Estella A; Rezanezhad, Fereidoun; Van Cappellen, Philippe

    2018-02-20

    Geophysical techniques, such as spectral induced polarization (SIP), offer potentially powerful approaches for in situ monitoring of subsurface biogeochemistry. The successful implementation of these techniques as monitoring tools for reactive transport phenomena, however, requires the deconvolution of multiple contributions to measured signals. Here, we present SIP spectra and complementary biogeochemical data obtained in saturated columns packed with alternating layers of ferrihydrite-coated and pure quartz sand, and inoculated with Shewanella oneidensis supplemented with lactate and nitrate. A biomass-explicit diffusion-reaction model is fitted to the experimental biogeochemical data. Overall, the results highlight that (1) the temporal response of the measured imaginary conductivity peaks parallels the microbial growth and decay dynamics in the columns, and (2) SIP is sensitive to changes in microbial abundance and cell surface charging properties, even at relatively low cell densities (<10 8 cells mL -1 ). Relaxation times (τ) derived using the Cole-Cole model vary with the dominant electron accepting process, nitrate or ferric iron reduction. The observed range of τ values, 0.012-0.107 s, yields effective polarization diameters in the range 1-3 μm, that is, 2 orders of magnitude smaller than the smallest quartz grains in the columns, suggesting that polarization of the bacterial cells controls the observed chargeability and relaxation dynamics in the experiments.

  16. Microbially induced iron precipitation associated with a neutrophilic spring at Borra Caves, Vishakhapatnam, India.

    PubMed

    Baskar, Sushmitha; Baskar, Ramanathan; Thorseth, Ingunn H; Ovreås, Lise; Pedersen, Rolf B

    2012-04-01

    The present investigation uncovers various pieces of evidence for the possible biologically induced mineralization in iron mats associated with a pH-neutral spring in the Borra caves, Vishakhapatnam, India. Electron microscopy [scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM)] demonstrated large numbers of (i) hollow tubes (diameter ∼1 μm) resembling sheaths of the iron-oxidizing bacteria Leptothrix, (ii) thin (diameter <1 μm) solid fibers of uncertain origin, (iii) nanoscale subspherical to irregularly shaped particles encrusting tubes and fibers, and (iv) aggregates of broken and partially disintegrated sheaths, fibers, and particles embedded in extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) occasionally including microbial cells. X-ray microanalyses by energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) revealed that the mat accumulated largely Fe but also smaller amounts of Si and traces of P and Ca. Particles rich in Si and Al (possibly kaolinite) and Ca (carbonate) were also observed. High-resolution TEM/EDS of unstained ultrathin sections suggests that microbial sheaths were highly mineralized by amorphous to cryptocrystalline Fe-rich phases and less frequently by other fine-grained and fibrous authigenic claylike minerals. Total number of microorganisms in the iron mats was 5.8×10(5) cells, g sed(-1) (wet weight). Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene diversity revealed microorganisms assigned to eight different phyla [Proteobacteria (62%), Chloroflexi (8%), Bacteroidetes (7%), Planctomycetes (1%), Actinobacteria (5%), Acidobacteria (6%), Nitrospira (1%), Firmicutes (5%)]. Within the Proteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria was the predominant class, which accounted for 28% of the sequences. Within this class some obvious similarities between the obtained sequences and sequences from other cave systems could be seen, especially sequences affiliated with Leptothrix, Siderooxidans, Crenothrix, Comamonadaceae, Dechloromonas, and many uncultured

  17. Mathematical quantification of the induced stress resistance of microbial populations during non-isothermal stresses.

    PubMed

    Garre, Alberto; Huertas, Juan Pablo; González-Tejedor, Gerardo A; Fernández, Pablo S; Egea, Jose A; Palop, Alfredo; Esnoz, Arturo

    2018-02-02

    This contribution presents a mathematical model to describe non-isothermal microbial inactivation processes taking into account the acclimation of the microbial cell to thermal stress. The model extends the log-linear inactivation model including a variable and model parameters quantifying the induced thermal resistance. The model has been tested on cells of Escherichia coli against two families of non-isothermal profiles with different constant heating rates. One of the families was composed of monophasic profiles, consisting of a non-isothermal heating stage from 35 to 70°C; the other family was composed of biphasic profiles, consisting of a non-isothermal heating stage followed by a holding period at constant temperature of 57.5°C. Lower heating rates resulted in a higher thermal resistance of the bacterial population. This was reflected in a higher D-value. The parameter estimation was performed in two steps. Firstly, the D and z-values were estimated from the isothermal experiments. Next, the parameters describing the acclimation were estimated using one of the biphasic profiles. This set of parameters was able to describe the remaining experimental data. Finally, a methodology for the construction of diagrams illustrating the magnitude of the induced thermal resistance is presented. The methodology has been illustrated by building it for a biphasic temperature profile with a linear heating phase and a holding phase. This diagram provides a visualization of how the shape of the temperature profile (heating rate and holding temperature) affects the acclimation of the cell to the thermal stress. This diagram can be used for the design of inactivation treatments by industry taking into account the acclimation of the cell to the thermal stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Corrosion-induced microstructural developments in 316 stainless steel during exposure to molten Li 2BeF 4(FLiBe) salt

    DOE PAGES

    Zheng, Guiqiu; He, Lingfeng; Carpenter, David; ...

    2016-10-12

    The microstructural evaluation and characterization of 316 stainless steel samples that were tested in molten Li 2BeF 4 (FLiBe) salt were investigated in this study for evaluating its performance in high-temperature molten fluoride salts. Recently, 316 stainless steel and FLiBe salt are being actively considered as the main structural alloy and primary coolant of fluoride salt-cooled high-temperature reactor (FHR), a leading nuclear reactor concept for the next generation nuclear plants (NGNP). In support of the materials development for the FHR, high-temperature corrosion tests of 316 stainless steel in molten FLiBe salt at 700°C have been conducted in both bare graphitemore » crucibles and 316 stainless steel-lined crucibles in an inert atmosphere for up to 3000 hours. The microstructure of the tested samples was comprehensively characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in conjunction with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) with EDS. In addition to the noticeable intergranular corrosion attack on surface, the corrosion in terms of the Cr depletion along high angle grain boundaries (15-180º) extended to 22µm in depth after 3000-hour exposure to molten FLiBe salt in graphite crucible. The coherent Σ3 grain boundary appeared high resistance to the Cr depletion. The substantial Cr depletion from the near-to-surface layer induced phase transformation from γ-martensite to α-ferrite phase (FeNi x) during corrosion at 700ºC. Furthermore, the presence of graphite in the molten salt doubled the corrosion attack depth and led to the formation of round Mo2C, hexagonal Cr 7C 3 and needle-like Al 4C 3 phase within the alloy as deep as 50 µm after 3000-hour corrosion testing. Based on the microstructural analysis, the corrosion mechanisms of 316 stainless steel in molten FLiBe salt in different corrosion crucibles were illuminated through schematic

  19. Corrosion-induced microstructural developments in 316 stainless steel during exposure to molten Li 2BeF 4(FLiBe) salt

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Guiqiu; He, Lingfeng; Carpenter, David

    The microstructural evaluation and characterization of 316 stainless steel samples that were tested in molten Li 2BeF 4 (FLiBe) salt were investigated in this study for evaluating its performance in high-temperature molten fluoride salts. Recently, 316 stainless steel and FLiBe salt are being actively considered as the main structural alloy and primary coolant of fluoride salt-cooled high-temperature reactor (FHR), a leading nuclear reactor concept for the next generation nuclear plants (NGNP). In support of the materials development for the FHR, high-temperature corrosion tests of 316 stainless steel in molten FLiBe salt at 700°C have been conducted in both bare graphitemore » crucibles and 316 stainless steel-lined crucibles in an inert atmosphere for up to 3000 hours. The microstructure of the tested samples was comprehensively characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in conjunction with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) with EDS. In addition to the noticeable intergranular corrosion attack on surface, the corrosion in terms of the Cr depletion along high angle grain boundaries (15-180º) extended to 22µm in depth after 3000-hour exposure to molten FLiBe salt in graphite crucible. The coherent Σ3 grain boundary appeared high resistance to the Cr depletion. The substantial Cr depletion from the near-to-surface layer induced phase transformation from γ-martensite to α-ferrite phase (FeNi x) during corrosion at 700ºC. Furthermore, the presence of graphite in the molten salt doubled the corrosion attack depth and led to the formation of round Mo2C, hexagonal Cr 7C 3 and needle-like Al 4C 3 phase within the alloy as deep as 50 µm after 3000-hour corrosion testing. Based on the microstructural analysis, the corrosion mechanisms of 316 stainless steel in molten FLiBe salt in different corrosion crucibles were illuminated through schematic

  20. Compositional depth profiles of the type 316 stainless steel undergone the corrosion in liquid lithium using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ying; Ke, Chuan; Liu, Xiang; Gou, Fujun; Duan, Xuru; Zhao, Yong

    2017-12-01

    Liquid metal lithium cause severe corrosion on the surface of metal structure material that used in the blanket and first wall of fusion device. Fast and accurate compositional depth profile measurement for the boundary layer of the corroded specimen will reveal the clues for the understanding and evaluation of the liquid lithium corrosion process as well as the involved corrosion mechanism. In this work, the feasibility of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for the compositional depth profile analysis of type 316 stainless steel which was corroded by liquid lithium in certain conditions was demonstrated. High sensitivity of LIBS was revealed especially for the corrosion medium Li in addition to the matrix elements of Fe, Cr, Ni and Mn by the spectral analysis of the plasma emission. Compositional depth profile analysis for the concerned elements which related to corrosion was carried out on the surface of the corroded specimen. Based on the verified local thermodynamic equilibrium shot-by-shot along the depth profile, the matrix effect was evaluated as negligible by the extracted physical parameter of the plasmas generated by each laser pulse in the longitudinal depth profile. In addition, the emission line intensity ratios were introduced to further reduce the impact on the emission line intensity variations arise from the strong inhomogeneities on the corroded surface. Compositional depth profiles for the matrix elements of Fe, Cr, Ni, Mn and the corrosion medium Li were constructed with their measured relative emission line intensities. The distribution and correlations of the concerned elements in depth profile may indicate the clues to the complicated process of composition diffusion and mass transfer. The results obtained demonstrate the potentiality of LIBS as an effective technique to perform spectrochemical measurement in the research fields of liquid metal lithium corrosion.

  1. Prediction of Failure Due to Thermal Aging, Corrosion and Environmental Fracture in Amorphous and Titanium Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, J C

    2003-04-15

    DARPA is exploring a number of advanced materials for military applications, including amorphous metals and titanium-based alloys. Equipment made from these materials can undergo degradation due to thermal aging, uniform corrosion, pitting, crevice corrosion, denting, stress corrosion cracking, corrosion fatigue, hydrogen induced cracking and microbial influenced corrosion. Amorphous alloys have exceptional resistance to corrosion, due in part to the absence of grain boundaries, but can undergo crystallization and other phase instabilities during heating and welding. Titanium alloys are extremely corrosion resistant due to the formation of a tenacious passive film of titanium oxide, but is prone to hydrogen absorption inmore » crevices, and hydrogen induced cracking after hydrogen absorption. Accurate predictions of equipment reliability, necessary for strategic planning, requires integrated models that account for all relevant modes of attack, and that can make probabilistic predictions. Once developed, model parameters must be determined experimentally, and the validity of models must be established through careful laboratory and field tests. Such validation testing requires state-of-the-art surface analytical techniques, as well as electrochemical and fracture mechanics tests. The interaction between those processes that perturb the local environment on a surface and those that alter metallurgical condition must be integrated in predictive models. The material and environment come together to drive various modes of corrosive attack (Figure 1). Models must be supported through comprehensive materials testing capabilities. Such capabilities are available at LLNL and include: the Long Term Corrosion Test Facility (LTCTF) where large numbers of standard samples can be exposed to realistic test media at several temperature levels; a reverse DC machine that can be used to monitor the propagation of stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in situ; and banks of potentiostats

  2. A Comparative Study of Cyclic Oxidation and Sulfates-Induced Hot Corrosion Behavior of Arc-Sprayed Ni-Cr-Ti Coatings at Moderate Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Wenmin; Wu, Yuping; Zhang, Jianfeng; Hong, Sheng; Chen, Liyan; Qin, Yujiao

    2015-06-01

    The cyclic oxidation and sulfates-induced hot corrosion behaviors of a Ni-43Cr-0.3Ti arc-sprayed coating at 550-750 °C were characterized and compared in this study. In general, all the oxidation and hot corrosion kinetic curves of the coating followed a parabolic law, i.e., the weight of the specimens showed a rapid growth initially and then reached the gradual state. However, the initial stage of the hot corrosion process was approximately two times longer than that of the oxidation process, indicating a longer preparation time required for the formation of a protective scale in the former process. At 650 °C, the parabolic rate constant for the hot corrosion was 7.2 × 10-12 g2/(cm4·s), approximately 1.7 times higher than that for the oxidation at the same temperature. The lower parabolic rate constant for the oxidation was mainly attributed to the formation of a protective oxide scale on the surface of corroded specimens, which was composed of a mixture of NiO, Cr2O3, and NiCr2O4. However, as the liquid molten salts emerged during the hot corrosion, these protective oxides would be dissolved and the coating was corrupted acceleratedly.

  3. Maximum: Recent Implementation and Application to the Study of Corrosion-Induced Microstructures in Thin Films of Aluminum-Copper Metallization.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Shoudeng

    We describe the recent implementation of a synchrotron radiation based scanning soft X-ray photoemission microscope - MAXIMUM, and discuss its application to the investigation of corrosion-induced microstructures in Al-Cu-Si thin films. The microscope employs a Mo/Si multilayer-coated Schwarzschild objective to focus 95eV X-rays from an undulator beamline. The photoelectrons are energy-analyzed by a CMA, and the sample is rastered to produce an image. We have achieved 980A spatial and 250meV energy resolution. Recent addition of a sample preparation and transfer system to the microscope enables us to perform surface and materials studies under UHV conditions. Since the spatial resolution of the microscope is determined by the spot size of the focused X-rays, any electrostatic potential from surface charging will not affect the image quality. This allowed the study of highly insulating films with the use of an electron flood gun to compensate for spectral shifts. We have employed MAXIMUM to investigate corrosion -induced surface microstructures in the Al-Cu-Si thin films commonly utilized in VLSI metallization. Spectromicroscopy was performed to characterize the chemical species and their distribution on the film surface after corrosion under 85% relative humidity at 85^circ C. The experimental images demonstrated that Cu -rich precipitates were formed near the surface region beneath the oxide layer upon annealing. We also observed a correlation between the precipitates and the increased corrosion in the alloy film: the localized corrosion occurs only at those sites where precipitation has taken place. This implies that the surface oxide layer is modified by the underlying Cu-rich phase such that it loses protection against moisture. After pitting, the Cu-rich phase acts as a cathode to facilitate corrosion of the surrounding Cu-deficient Al matrix via galvanic action. The corrosion -induced microstructures show characteristic circular features in the micrographs of

  4. Review on stress corrosion and corrosion fatigue failure of centrifugal compressor impeller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jiao; Chen, Songying; Qu, Yanpeng; Li, Jianfeng

    2015-03-01

    Corrosion failure, especially stress corrosion cracking and corrosion fatigue, is the main cause of centrifugal compressor impeller failure. And it is concealed and destructive. This paper summarizes the main theories of stress corrosion cracking and corrosion fatigue and its latest developments, and it also points out that existing stress corrosion cracking theories can be reduced to the anodic dissolution (AD), the hydrogen-induced cracking (HIC), and the combined AD and HIC mechanisms. The corrosion behavior and the mechanism of corrosion fatigue in the crack propagation stage are similar to stress corrosion cracking. The effects of stress ratio, loading frequency, and corrosive medium on the corrosion fatigue crack propagation rate are analyzed and summarized. The corrosion behavior and the mechanism of stress corrosion cracking and corrosion fatigue in corrosive environments, which contain sulfide, chlorides, and carbonate, are analyzed. The working environments of the centrifugal compressor impeller show the behavior and the mechanism of stress corrosion cracking and corrosion fatigue in different corrosive environments. The current research methods for centrifugal compressor impeller corrosion failure are analyzed. Physical analysis, numerical simulation, and the fluid-structure interaction method play an increasingly important role in the research on impeller deformation and stress distribution caused by the joint action of aerodynamic load and centrifugal load.

  5. Mechanisms of pollution induced community tolerance in a soil microbial community exposed to Cu.

    PubMed

    Wakelin, Steven; Gerard, Emily; Black, Amanda; Hamonts, Kelly; Condron, Leo; Yuan, Tong; van Nostrand, Joy; Zhou, Jizhong; O'Callaghan, Maureen

    2014-07-01

    Pollution induced community tolerance (PICT) to Cu(2+), and co-tolerance to nanoparticulate Cu, ionic silver (Ag(+)), and vancomycin were measured in field soils treated with Cu(2+) 15 years previously. EC50 values were determined using substrate induced respiration and correlations made against soil physicochemical properties, microbial community structure, physiological status (qCO2; metabolic quotient), and abundances of genes associated with metal and antibiotic resistance. Previous level of exposure to copper was directly (P < 0.05) associated with tolerance to addition of new Cu(2+), and also of nanoparticle Cu. However, Cu-exposed communities had no co-tolerance to Ag(+) and had increased susceptibly to vancomycin. Increased tolerance to both Cu correlated (P < 0.05) with increased metabolic quotient, potentially indicating that the community directed more energy towards cellular maintenance rather than biomass production. Neither bacterial or fungal community composition nor changes in the abundance of genes involved with metal resistance were related to PICT or co-tolerance mechanisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Dietary and Microbial Oxazoles Induce Intestinal Inflammation by Modulating Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Responses.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Shankar S; Gensollen, Thomas; Gandhi, Amit; Oh, Sungwhan F; Neves, Joana F; Collin, Frederic; Lavin, Richard; Serra, Carme; Glickman, Jonathan; de Silva, Punyanganie S A; Sartor, R Balfour; Besra, Gurdyal; Hauser, Russell; Maxwell, Anthony; Llebaria, Amadeu; Blumberg, Richard S

    2018-05-17

    Genome-wide association studies have identified risk loci associated with the development of inflammatory bowel disease, while epidemiological studies have emphasized that pathogenesis likely involves host interactions with environmental elements whose source and structure need to be defined. Here, we identify a class of compounds derived from dietary, microbial, and industrial sources that are characterized by the presence of a five-membered oxazole ring and induce CD1d-dependent intestinal inflammation. We observe that minimal oxazole structures modulate natural killer T cell-dependent inflammation by regulating lipid antigen presentation by CD1d on intestinal epithelial cells (IECs). CD1d-restricted production of interleukin 10 by IECs is limited through activity of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) pathway in response to oxazole induction of tryptophan metabolites. As such, the depletion of the AhR in the intestinal epithelium abrogates oxazole-induced inflammation. In summary, we identify environmentally derived oxazoles as triggers of CD1d-dependent intestinal inflammatory responses that occur via activation of the AhR in the intestinal epithelium. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Construction of two ureolytic model organisms for the study of microbially induced calcium carbonate precipitation.

    PubMed

    Connolly, James; Kaufman, Megan; Rothman, Adam; Gupta, Rashmi; Redden, George; Schuster, Martin; Colwell, Frederick; Gerlach, Robin

    2013-09-01

    Two bacterial strains, Pseudomonas aeruginosa MJK1 and Escherichia coli MJK2, were constructed that both express green fluorescent protein (GFP) and carry out ureolysis. These two novel model organisms are useful for studying bacterial carbonate mineral precipitation processes and specifically ureolysis-driven microbially induced calcium carbonate precipitation (MICP). The strains were constructed by adding plasmid-borne urease genes (ureABC, ureD and ureFG) to the strains P. aeruginosa AH298 and E. coli AF504gfp, both of which already carried unstable GFP derivatives. The ureolytic activities of the two new strains were compared to the common, non-GFP expressing, model organism Sporosarcina pasteurii in planktonic culture under standard laboratory growth conditions. It was found that the engineered strains exhibited a lower ureolysis rate per cell but were able to grow faster and to a higher population density under the conditions of this study. Both engineered strains were successfully grown as biofilms in capillary flow cell reactors and ureolysis-induced calcium carbonate mineral precipitation was observed microscopically. The undisturbed spatiotemporal distribution of biomass and calcium carbonate minerals were successfully resolved in 3D using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Observations of this nature were not possible previously because no obligate urease producer that expresses GFP had been available. Future observations using these organisms will allow researchers to further improve engineered application of MICP as well as study natural mineralization processes in model systems. © 2013.

  8. Variation in antibiotic-induced microbial recolonization impacts on the host metabolic phenotypes of rats.

    PubMed

    Swann, Jonathan R; Tuohy, Kieran M; Lindfors, Peter; Brown, Duncan T; Gibson, Glenn R; Wilson, Ian D; Sidaway, James; Nicholson, Jeremy K; Holmes, Elaine

    2011-08-05

    The interaction between the gut microbiota and their mammalian host is known to have far-reaching consequences with respect to metabolism and health. We investigated the effects of eight days of oral antibiotic exposure (penicillin and streptomycin sulfate) on gut microbial composition and host metabolic phenotype in male Han-Wistar rats (n = 6) compared to matched controls. Early recolonization was assessed in a third group exposed to antibiotics for four days followed by four days recovery (n = 6). Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis of the intestinal contents collected at eight days showed a significant reduction in all bacterial groups measured (control, 10(10.7) cells/g feces; antibiotic-treated, 10(8.4)). Bacterial suppression reduced the excretion of mammalian-microbial urinary cometabolites including hippurate, phenylpropionic acid, phenylacetylglycine and indoxyl-sulfate whereas taurine, glycine, citrate, 2-oxoglutarate, and fumarate excretion was elevated. While total bacterial counts remained notably lower in the recolonized animals (10(9.1) cells/g faeces) compared to the controls, two cage-dependent subgroups emerged with Lactobacillus/Enterococcus probe counts dominant in one subgroup. This dichotomous profile manifested in the metabolic phenotypes with subgroup differences in tricarboxylic acid cycle metabolites and indoxyl-sulfate excretion. Fecal short chain fatty acids were diminished in all treated animals. Antibiotic treatment induced a profound effect on the microbiome structure, which was reflected in the metabotype. Moreover, the recolonization process was sensitive to the microenvironment, which may impact on understanding downstream consequences of antibiotic consumption in human populations.

  9. Large-Scale Experiments in Microbially Induced Calcite Precipitation (MICP): Reactive Transport Model Development and Prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nassar, Mohamed K.; Gurung, Deviyani; Bastani, Mehrdad; Ginn, Timothy R.; Shafei, Babak; Gomez, Michael G.; Graddy, Charles M. R.; Nelson, Doug C.; DeJong, Jason T.

    2018-01-01

    Design of in situ microbially induced calcite precipitation (MICP) strategies relies on a predictive capability. To date much of the mathematical modeling of MICP has focused on small-scale experiments and/or one-dimensional flow in porous media, and successful parameterizations of models in these settings may not pertain to larger scales or to nonuniform, transient flows. Our objective in this article is to report on modeling to test our ability to predict behavior of MICP under controlled conditions in a meter-scale tank experiment with transient nonuniform transport in a natural soil, using independently determined parameters. Flow in the tank was controlled by three wells, via a complex cycle of injection/withdrawals followed by no-flow intervals. Different injection solution recipes were used in sequence for transport characterization, biostimulation, cementation, and groundwater rinse phases of the 17 day experiment. Reaction kinetics were calibrated using separate column experiments designed with a similar sequence of phases. This allowed for a parsimonious modeling approach with zero fitting parameters for the tank experiment. These experiments and data were simulated using PHT3-D, involving transient nonuniform flow, alternating low and high Damköhler reactive transport, and combined equilibrium and kinetically controlled biogeochemical reactions. The assumption that microbes mediating the reaction were exclusively sessile, and with constant activity, in conjunction with the foregoing treatment of the reaction network, provided for efficient and accurate modeling of the entire process leading to nonuniform calcite precipitation. This analysis suggests that under the biostimulation conditions applied here the assumption of steady state sessile biocatalyst suffices to describe the microbially mediated calcite precipitation.

  10. Corrosion Fatigue

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-10-01

    particularly under conditions of cathodic polarization. Sul- fate ion , while less damaging under free corrosion conditions, is equally aggressive at...Editing and Reproduction Ltd Harford 11ouse, 7-9 Charlotte St, London, WIP 1HD I I - PREFACE Failure by fatigue and degradation by corrosion continue to...of halide ions . In the unstressed state, this degrada- tion may be manifested by localized corrosion such as pitting, crevice corrosion or ex

  11. Trophic interactions induce spatial self-organization of microbial consortia on rough surfaces.

    PubMed

    Wang, Gang; Or, Dani

    2014-10-24

    The spatial context of microbial interactions common in natural systems is largely absent in traditional pure culture-based microbiology. The understanding of how interdependent microbial communities assemble and coexist in limited spatial domains remains sketchy. A mechanistic model of cell-level interactions among multispecies microbial populations grown on hydrated rough surfaces facilitated systematic evaluation of how trophic dependencies shape spatial self-organization of microbial consortia in complex diffusion fields. The emerging patterns were persistent irrespective of initial conditions and resilient to spatial and temporal perturbations. Surprisingly, the hydration conditions conducive for self-assembly are extremely narrow and last only while microbial cells remain motile within thin aqueous films. The resulting self-organized microbial consortia patterns could represent optimal ecological templates for the architecture that underlie sessile microbial colonies on natural surfaces. Understanding microbial spatial self-organization offers new insights into mechanisms that sustain small-scale soil microbial diversity; and may guide the engineering of functional artificial microbial consortia.

  12. Modeling environmental risk factors of autism in mice induces IBD-related gut microbial dysbiosis and hyperserotonemia.

    PubMed

    Lim, Joon Seo; Lim, Mi Young; Choi, Yongbin; Ko, GwangPyo

    2017-04-20

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a range of neurodevelopmental conditions that are sharply increasing in prevalence worldwide. Intriguingly, ASD is often accompanied by an array of systemic aberrations including (1) increased serotonin, (2) various modes of gastrointestinal disorders, and (3) inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), albeit the underlying cause for such comorbidities remains uncertain. Also, accumulating number of studies report that the gut microbial composition is significantly altered in children with ASD or patients with IBD. Surprisingly, when we analyzed the gut microbiota of poly I:C and VPA-induced mouse models of ASD, we found a distinct pattern of microbial dysbiosis that highly recapitulated those reported in clinical cases of ASD and IBD. Moreover, we report that such microbial dysbiosis led to notable perturbations in microbial metabolic pathways that are known to negatively affect the host, especially with regards to the pathogenesis of ASD and IBD. Lastly, we found that serum level of serotonin is significantly increased in both poly I:C and VPA mice, and that it correlates with increases of a bacterial genus and a metabolic pathway that are implicated in stimulation of host serotonin production. Our results using animal model identify prenatal environmental risk factors of autism as possible causative agents of IBD-related gut microbial dysbiosis in ASD, and suggest a multifaceted role of gut microbiota in the systemic pathogenesis of ASD and hyperserotonemia.

  13. Development of chloride-induced corrosion in pre-cracked RC beams under sustained loading: Effect of load-induced cracks, concrete cover, and exposure conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Linwen; Université de Sherbrooke, Quebec; François, Raoul, E-mail: raoul.francois@insa-toulouse.fr

    2015-01-15

    This paper deals with corrosion initiation and propagation in pre-cracked reinforced concrete beams under sustained loading during exposure to a chloride environment. Specimen beams that were cast in 2010 were compared to specimens cast in 1984. The only differences between the two sets of beams were the casting direction in relation to tensile reinforcement and the exposure conditions in the salt-fog chamber. The cracking maps, corrosion maps, chloride profiles, and cross-sectional loss of one group of two beams cast in 2010 were studied and their calculated corrosion rates were compared to that of beams cast in 1984 in order tomore » investigate the factors influencing the natural corrosion process. Experimental results show that, after rapid initiation of corrosion at the crack tip, the corrosion process practically halted and the time elapsing before corrosion resumed depended on the exposure conditions and cover depth.« less

  14. Chloride-induced corrosion of steel in cracked concrete – Part I: Experimental studies under accelerated and natural marine environments

    SciTech Connect

    Otieno, M., E-mail: Mike.Otieno@wits.ac.za; Beushausen, H.; Alexander, M.

    Parallel corrosion experiments were carried out for 2¼ years by exposing one half of 210 beam specimens (120 × 130 × 375 mm long) to accelerated laboratory corrosion (cyclic wetting and drying) while the other half underwent natural corrosion in a marine tidal zone. Experimental variables were crack width w{sub cr} (0, incipient crack, 0.4, 0.7 mm), cover c (20, 40 mm), binder type (PC, PC/GGBS, PC/FA) and w/b ratio (0.40, 0.55). Results show that corrosion rate (i{sub corr}) was affected by the experimental variables in the following manner: i{sub corr} increased with increase in crack width, and decreased withmore » increase in concrete quality and cover depth. The results also show that the corrosion performance of concretes in the field under natural corrosion cannot be inferred from its performance in the laboratory under accelerated corrosion. Other factors such as corrosion process should be taken into account.« less

  15. Microbiologically influenced corrosion: looking to the future.

    PubMed

    Videla, Héctor A; Herrera, Liz K

    2005-09-01

    This review discusses the state-of-the-art of research into biocorrosion and the biofouling of metals and alloys of industrial usage. The key concepts needed to understand the main effects of microorganisms on metal decay, and current trends in monitoring and control strategies to mitigate the deleterious effects of biocorrosion and biofouling are also described. Several relevant cases of biocorrosion studied by our research group are provided as examples: (i) biocorrosion of aluminum and its alloys by fungal contaminants of jet fuels; (ii) sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB)-induced corrosion of steel; (iii) biocorrosion and biofouling interactions in the marine environment; (iv) monitoring strategies for assessing biocorrosion in industrial water systems; (v) microbial inhibition of corrosion; (vi) use and limitations of electrochemical techniques for evaluating biocorrosion effects. Future prospects in the field are described with respect to the potential of innovative techniques in microscopy (environmental scanning electron microscopy, confocal scanning laser microscopy, atomic force microscopy), new spectroscopic techniques for the study of corrosion products and biofilms (energy dispersion X-ray analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, electron microprobe analysis) and electrochemistry (electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, electrochemical noise analysis).

  16. Biological induced corrosion of materials II: New test methods and experiences from mir station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klintworth, R.; Reher, H. J.; Viktorov, A. N.; Bohle, D.

    1999-09-01

    During previous long-term manned missions, more than 100 species of microorganisms have been identified on surfaces of materials (bacteria and fungi). Among them were potentially pathogenic ones (saprophytes) which are capable of active growth on artificial substrates, as well as technophilic bacteria and fungi causing damages (destruction and degradation) to various materials (metals and polymers), resulting in failures and disruptions in the functioning of equipment and hardware. Aboard a space vehicle some microclimatic parameters are optimal for microorganism growth: the atmospheric fluid condensate with its specific composition, chemical and/or antropogenic contaminants (human metobolic products, etc.) all are stimulating factors for the development of bacteria and mould fungi on materials of the interior and equipment of an orbital station during its operational phase(s). Especially Russian long-term missions (SALJUT, MIR) have demonstrated that uncontrolled interactions of microorganisms with materials will ultimately lead to the appearence of technological and medical risks, significantly influencing safety and reliability characteristics of individual as well as whole systems and/ or subsystems. For a first conclusion, it could be summarized, that countermeasures and anti-strategies focussing on Microbial Contamination Management (MCM) for the International Space Station (ISS, next long-term manned mission) at least require a new materials test approach. Our respective concept includes a combined age-ing/biocorrosion test sequence. It is represented here, as well as current status of MCM program, e.g. continuous monitoring (microbiological analyses), long-term disinfection, frequent cleaning methods, mathematical modeling of ISS, etc.

  17. Bio-grout based on microbially induced sand solidification by means of asparaginase activity

    PubMed Central

    Li, Mengmeng; Fu, Qing-Long; Zhang, Qiuzhuo; Achal, Varenyam; Kawasaki, Satoru

    2015-01-01

    Bio-grout, a new ground improvement method, has been recently developed to improve the mechanical properties, decrease the permeability of porous materials, reinforce or repair cementitious materials and modify the properties of soil or sand. Bio-grout production depends on microbially induced calcite precipitation (MICP), which is driven mainly by an enzyme, urease. However, urease-based MICP process produces excessive ammonia, in addition to secondary pollution generated by urea that is used as substrate in it. In the present study, we reported asparaginase-based MICP process for sand bio-grout development using Bacillus megaterium, and results were also compared with urease-based bio-grouts. The asparaginase activity led to significantly less ammonia production compared to urease without compromising with desired properties of a novel grout. The UCS of bio-grout was obtained at 980 kPa, while the permeability was decreased substantially. The mineralogical composition of precipitated substance was identified as calcite using XRD and the crystal morphology was observed under SEM. The mass percentage of calcite in bio-grout was calculated by thermogravimetric analysis and XCT verified calcite precipitation in it. The results confirmed that biocalcification by means of bacterial asparaginase is a potential solution for geotechnical problems. The asparaginase-based MICP process could be of wider acceptance in future. PMID:26525435

  18. Low Doses of Imatinib Induce Myelopoiesis and Enhance Host Anti-microbial Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Swimm, Alyson; Giver, Cynthia R.; Harris, Wayne A. C.; Laval, Julie; Napier, Brooke A.; Patel, Gopi; Crump, Ryan; Peng, Zhenghong; Bornmann, William; Pulendran, Bali; Buller, R. Mark; Weiss, David S.; Tirouvanziam, Rabindra; Waller, Edmund K.; Kalman, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Imatinib mesylate (Gleevec) inhibits Abl1, c-Kit, and related protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) and serves as a therapeutic for chronic myelogenous leukemia and gastrointestinal stromal tumors. Imatinib also has efficacy against various pathogens, including pathogenic mycobacteria, where it decreases bacterial load in mice, albeit at doses below those used for treating cancer. We report that imatinib at such low doses unexpectedly induces differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells and progenitors in the bone marrow, augments myelopoiesis but not lymphopoiesis, and increases numbers of myeloid cells in blood and spleen. Whereas progenitor differentiation relies on partial inhibition of c-Kit by imatinib, lineage commitment depends upon inhibition of other PTKs. Thus, imatinib mimics “emergency hematopoiesis,” a physiological innate immune response to infection. Increasing neutrophil numbers by adoptive transfer sufficed to reduce mycobacterial load, and imatinib reduced bacterial load of Franciscella spp., which do not utilize imatinib-sensitive PTKs for pathogenesis. Thus, potentiation of the immune response by imatinib at low doses may facilitate clearance of diverse microbial pathogens. PMID:25822986

  19. Low doses of imatinib induce myelopoiesis and enhance host anti-microbial immunity.

    PubMed

    Napier, Ruth J; Norris, Brian A; Swimm, Alyson; Giver, Cynthia R; Harris, Wayne A C; Laval, Julie; Napier, Brooke A; Patel, Gopi; Crump, Ryan; Peng, Zhenghong; Bornmann, William; Pulendran, Bali; Buller, R Mark; Weiss, David S; Tirouvanziam, Rabindra; Waller, Edmund K; Kalman, Daniel

    2015-03-01

    Imatinib mesylate (Gleevec) inhibits Abl1, c-Kit, and related protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) and serves as a therapeutic for chronic myelogenous leukemia and gastrointestinal stromal tumors. Imatinib also has efficacy against various pathogens, including pathogenic mycobacteria, where it decreases bacterial load in mice, albeit at doses below those used for treating cancer. We report that imatinib at such low doses unexpectedly induces differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells and progenitors in the bone marrow, augments myelopoiesis but not lymphopoiesis, and increases numbers of myeloid cells in blood and spleen. Whereas progenitor differentiation relies on partial inhibition of c-Kit by imatinib, lineage commitment depends upon inhibition of other PTKs. Thus, imatinib mimics "emergency hematopoiesis," a physiological innate immune response to infection. Increasing neutrophil numbers by adoptive transfer sufficed to reduce mycobacterial load, and imatinib reduced bacterial load of Franciscella spp., which do not utilize imatinib-sensitive PTKs for pathogenesis. Thus, potentiation of the immune response by imatinib at low doses may facilitate clearance of diverse microbial pathogens.

  20. Biotic and abiotic effects on CO2 sequestration during microbially-induced calcium carbonate precipitation.

    PubMed

    Okyay, Tugba Onal; Rodrigues, Debora F

    2015-03-01

    In this study, CO2 sequestration was investigated through the microbially-induced calcium carbonate precipitation (MICP) process with isolates obtained from a cave called 'Cave Without A Name' (Boerne, TX, USA) and the Pamukkale travertines (Denizli, Turkey). The majority of the bacterial isolates obtained from these habitats belonged to the genera Sporosarcina, Brevundimonas, Sphingobacterium and Acinetobacter. The isolates were investigated for their capability to precipitate calcium carbonate and sequester CO2. Biotic and abiotic effects of CO2 sequestration during MICP were also investigated. In the biotic effect, we observed that the rate and concentration of CO2 sequestered was dependent on the species or strains. The main abiotic factors affecting CO2 sequestration during MICP were the pH and medium components. The increase in pH led to enhanced CO2 sequestration by the growth medium. The growth medium components, on the other hand, were shown to affect both the urease activity and CO2 sequestration. Through the Plackett-Burman experimental design, the most important growth medium component involved in CO2 sequestration was determined to be urea. The optimized medium composition by the Plackett-Burman design for each isolate led to a statistically significant increase, of up to 148.9%, in CO2 uptake through calcification mechanisms. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Microbially induced separation of quartz from hematite using sulfate reducing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Prakasan, M R Sabari; Natarajan, K A

    2010-07-01

    Cells and metabolic products of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans were successfully used to separate quartz from hematite through environmentally benign microbially induced flotation. Bacterial metabolic products such as extracellular proteins and polysaccharides were isolated from both unadapted and mineral-adapted bacterial metabolite and their basic characteristics were studied in order to get insight into the changes brought about on bioreagents during adaptation. Interaction between bacterial cells and metabolites with minerals like hematite and quartz brought about significant surface-chemical changes on both the minerals. Quartz was rendered more hydrophobic, while hematite became more hydrophilic after biotreatment. The predominance of bacterial polysaccharides on interacted hematite and of proteins on quartz was responsible for the above surface-chemical changes, as attested through adsorption studies. Surface-chemical changes were also observed on bacterial cells after adaptation to the above minerals. Selective separation of quartz from hematite was achieved through interaction with quartz-adapted bacterial cells and metabolite. Mineral-specific proteins secreted by quartz-adapted cells were responsible for conferment of hydrophobicity on quartz resulting in enhanced separation from hematite through flotation. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Changes in Microbial Plankton Assemblages Induced by Mesoscale Oceanographic Features in the Northern Gulf of Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Alicia K.; McInnes, Allison S.; Rooker, Jay R.; Quigg, Antonietta

    2015-01-01

    Mesoscale circulation generated by the Loop Current in the Northern Gulf of Mexico (NGOM) delivers growth-limiting nutrients to the microbial plankton of the euphotic zone. Consequences of physicochemically driven community shifts on higher order consumers and subsequent impacts on the biological carbon pump remain poorly understood. This study evaluates microbial plankton <10 μm abundance and community structure across both cyclonic and anti-cyclonic circulation features in the NGOM using flow cytometry (SYBR Green I and autofluorescence parameters). Non-parametric multivariate hierarchical cluster analyses indicated that significant spatial variability in community structure exists such that stations that clustered together were defined as having a specific ‘microbial signature’ (i.e. statistically homogeneous community structure profiles based on relative abundance of microbial groups). Salinity and a combination of sea surface height anomaly and sea surface temperature were determined by distance based linear modeling to be abiotic predictor variables significantly correlated to changes in microbial signatures. Correlations between increased microbial abundance and availability of nitrogen suggest nitrogen-limitation of microbial plankton in this open ocean area. Regions of combined coastal water entrainment and mesoscale convergence corresponded to increased heterotrophic prokaryote abundance relative to autotrophic plankton. The results provide an initial assessment of how mesoscale circulation potentially influences microbial plankton abundance and community structure in the NGOM. PMID:26375709

  3. Microbial-Induced Heterogeneity in the Acoustic Properties of Porous Media

    EPA Science Inventory

    Acoustic wave data were acquired over a two-dimensional region of a microbial-stimulated sand column and an unstimulated sand column to assess the spatiotemporal changes in a porous medium caused by microbial growth and biofilm formation. The acoustic signals from the unstimulate...

  4. Changes in Microbial Plankton Assemblages Induced by Mesoscale Oceanographic Features in the Northern Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Williams, Alicia K; McInnes, Allison S; Rooker, Jay R; Quigg, Antonietta

    2015-01-01

    Mesoscale circulation generated by the Loop Current in the Northern Gulf of Mexico (NGOM) delivers growth-limiting nutrients to the microbial plankton of the euphotic zone. Consequences of physicochemically driven community shifts on higher order consumers and subsequent impacts on the biological carbon pump remain poorly understood. This study evaluates microbial plankton <10 μm abundance and community structure across both cyclonic and anti-cyclonic circulation features in the NGOM using flow cytometry (SYBR Green I and autofluorescence parameters). Non-parametric multivariate hierarchical cluster analyses indicated that significant spatial variability in community structure exists such that stations that clustered together were defined as having a specific 'microbial signature' (i.e. statistically homogeneous community structure profiles based on relative abundance of microbial groups). Salinity and a combination of sea surface height anomaly and sea surface temperature were determined by distance based linear modeling to be abiotic predictor variables significantly correlated to changes in microbial signatures. Correlations between increased microbial abundance and availability of nitrogen suggest nitrogen-limitation of microbial plankton in this open ocean area. Regions of combined coastal water entrainment and mesoscale convergence corresponded to increased heterotrophic prokaryote abundance relative to autotrophic plankton. The results provide an initial assessment of how mesoscale circulation potentially influences microbial plankton abundance and community structure in the NGOM.

  5. Laser shock peening without coating induced residual stress distribution, wettability characteristics and enhanced pitting corrosion resistance of austenitic stainless steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabhakaran, S.; Kulkarni, Aniket; Vasanth, G.; Kalainathan, S.; Shukla, Pratik; Vasudevan, Vijay K.

    2018-01-01

    Low energy laser shock peening without coating (LSPwC) was conducted on AISI 304 austenitic stainless steel specimens with varying pulse densities or overlapping. Highest magnitude of compressive residual stress (CRS) was achieved for an optimized pulse density of 2500 pulses/cm2 (75% overlapping). The 2-D and 3-D topographical analysis were indicative of the fact that controlled roughening of the surface was achieved after the LSPwC process. After the LSPwC process, the hydrophilic unpeened surface was converted into the hydrophobic surface, thus decreasing the wettability characteristics of the surface. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) results reveal that there is a beginning of the martensite transformation and the rise in the intensity value of the peaks after LSPwC indicates the presence of compressive residual stresses induced in the specimen. The optical microscope and high-resolution transmission electron microscope results provided evidence of grain refinement and deformation induced refinement features such as multidirectional mechanical twinning, dislocations lines, micro shear cells and stacking faults in the near and sub-surface areas. The average hardness value of the LSPwC specimens was found to be increased by 28% more than the untreated specimen. The potentiodynamic polarization revealed that there was a considerable amount of increase in the pitting corrosion resistance after the LSPwC process, thus, supporting to extend the fatigue life of the specimen. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopic (EIS) analysis depicts that the LSPwC process supports the formation of the strong passivation layer in 3.5% NaCl solution.

  6. Laser diagnostics for NTP fuel corrosion studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wantuck, Paul J.; Butt, D. P.; Sappey, A. D.

    1993-01-01

    Viewgraphs and explanations on laser diagnostics for nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) fuel corrosion studies are presented. Topics covered include: NTP fuels; U-Zr-C system corrosion products; planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF); utilization of PLIF for corrosion product characterization of nuclear thermal rocket fuel elements under test; ZrC emission spectrum; and PLIF imaging of ZrC plume.

  7. Corrosion protection

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Donald W.; Wagh, Arun S.

    2003-05-27

    There has been invented a chemically bonded phosphate corrosion protection material and process for application of the corrosion protection material for corrosion prevention. A slurry of iron oxide and phosphoric acid is used to contact a warm surface of iron, steel or other metal to be treated. In the presence of ferrous ions from the iron, steel or other metal, the slurry reacts to form iron phosphates which form grains chemically bonded onto the surface of the steel.

  8. Investigation of the resistance of several new metallic reinforcing bars to chloride-induced corrosion in concrete.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2003-01-01

    The Virginia Department of Transportation recently initiated a search for metallic reinforcing bars that are not only more durable and corrosion resistant than the epoxy-coated bars currently used, but also economical. In the last few years, several ...

  9. Management and control of microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) in the oil and gas industry-Overview and a North Sea case study.

    PubMed

    Skovhus, Torben Lund; Eckert, Richard B; Rodrigues, Edgar

    2017-08-20

    Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) is the terminology applied where the actions of microorganisms influence the corrosion process. In literature, terms such as microbial corrosion, biocorrosion, microbially influenced/induced corrosion, and biodegradation are often applied. MIC research in the oil and gas industry has seen a revolution over the past decade, with the introduction of molecular microbiological methods: (MMM) as well as new industry standards and procedures of sampling biofilm and corrosion products from the process system. This review aims to capture the most important trends the oil and gas industry has seen regarding MIC research over the past decade. The paper starts out with an overview of where in the process stream MIC occurs - from the oil reservoir to the consumer. Both biotic and abiotic corrosion mechanisms are explained in the context of managing MIC using a structured corrosion management (CM) approach. The corrosion management approach employs the elements of a management system to ensure that essential corrosion control activities are carried out in an effective, sustainable, well-planned and properly executed manner. The 3-phase corrosion management approach covering of both biotic and abiotic internal corrosion mechanisms consists of 1) corrosion assessment, 2) corrosion mitigation and 3) corrosion monitoring. Each of the three phases are described in detail with links to recent field cases, methods, industry standards and sampling protocols. In order to manage the corrosion threat, operators commonly use models to support decision making. The models use qualitative, semi-quantitative or quantitative measures to help assess the rate of degradation caused by MIC. The paper reviews four existing models for MIC Threat Assessment and describe a new model that links the threat of MIC in the oil processing system located on an offshore platform with a Risk Based Inspection (RBI) approach. A recent field case highlights and explains

  10. Corrosion and stress corrosion cracking in supercritical water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Was, G. S.; Ampornrat, P.; Gupta, G.; Teysseyre, S.; West, E. A.; Allen, T. R.; Sridharan, K.; Tan, L.; Chen, Y.; Ren, X.; Pister, C.

    2007-09-01

    Supercritical water (SCW) has attracted increasing attention since SCW boiler power plants were implemented to increase the efficiency of fossil-based power plants. The SCW reactor (SCWR) design has been selected as one of the Generation IV reactor concepts because of its higher thermal efficiency and plant simplification as compared to current light water reactors (LWRs). Reactor operating conditions call for a core coolant temperature between 280 °C and 620 °C at a pressure of 25 MPa and maximum expected neutron damage levels to any replaceable or permanent core component of 15 dpa (thermal reactor design) and 100 dpa (fast reactor design). Irradiation-induced changes in microstructure (swelling, radiation-induced segregation (RIS), hardening, phase stability) and mechanical properties (strength, thermal and irradiation-induced creep, fatigue) are also major concerns. Throughout the core, corrosion, stress corrosion cracking, and the effect of irradiation on these degradation modes are critical issues. This paper reviews the current understanding of the response of candidate materials for SCWR systems, focusing on the corrosion and stress corrosion cracking response, and highlights the design trade-offs associated with certain alloy systems. Ferritic-martensitic steels generally have the best resistance to stress corrosion cracking, but suffer from the worst oxidation. Austenitic stainless steels and Ni-base alloys have better oxidation resistance but are more susceptible to stress corrosion cracking. The promise of grain boundary engineering and surface modification in addressing corrosion and stress corrosion cracking performance is discussed.

  11. Micro-scale experimental study of Microbial-Induced Carbonate Precipitation (MICP) by using microfluidic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Soga, K.; DeJong, J. T.; Kabla, A.

    2017-12-01

    Microbial-induced carbonate precipitation (MICP), one of the bio-mineralization processes, is an innovative subsurface improvement technique for enhancing the strength and stiffness of soils, and controlling their hydraulic conductivity. These macro-scale engineering properties of MICP treated soils controlled by micro-scale factors of the precipitated carbonate, such as its content, amount and distribution in the soil matrix. The precipitation process itself is affected by bacteria amount, reaction kinetics, porous medium geometry and flow distribution in the soils. Accordingly, to better understand the MICP process at the pore scale a new experimental technique that can observe the entire process of MICP at the pore-scale was developed. In this study, a 2-D transparent microfluidic chip made of Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) representing the soil matrix was designed and fabricated. A staged-injection MICP treatment procedure was simulated inside the microfluidic chip while continuously monitored using microscopic techniques. The staged-injection MICP treatment procedure started with the injection of bacteria suspension, followed with the bacteria setting for attachment, and then ended with the multiple injections of cementation liquid. The main MICP processes visualized during this procedure included the bacteria transport and attachment during the bacteria injection, the bacteria attachment and growth during the bacteria settling, the bacteria detachment during the cementation liquid injection, the cementation development during the cementation liquid injection, and the cementation development after the completion of cementation liquid injection. It is suggested that the visualization of the main MICP processes using the microfluidic technique can improve understating of the fundamental mechanisms of MICP and consequently help improve the treatment technique for in situ implementation of MICP.

  12. Corrosion-induced microstructural developments in 316 stainless steel during exposure to molten Li2BeF4(FLiBe) salt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Guiqiu; He, Lingfeng; Carpenter, David; Sridharan, Kumar

    2016-12-01

    The microstructural developments in the near-surface regions of AISI 316 stainless steel during exposure to molten Li2BeF4 (FLiBe) salt have been investigated with the goal of using this material for the construction of the fluoride salt-cooled high-temperature reactor (FHR), a leading nuclear reactor concept for the next generation nuclear plants (NGNP). Tests were conducted in molten FLiBe salt (melting point: 459 °C) at 700 °C in graphite crucibles and 316 stainless steel crucibles for exposure duration of up to 3000 h. Corrosion-induced microstructural changes in the near-surface regions of the samples were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in conjunction with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) with EDS capabilities. Intergranular corrosion attack in the near-surface regions was observed with associated Cr depletion along the grain boundaries. High-angle grain boundaries (15-180°) were particularly prone to intergranular attack and Cr depletion. The depth of attack extended to the depths of 22 μm after 3000-h exposure for the samples tested in graphite crucible, while similar exposure in 316 stainless steel crucible led to the attack depths of only about 11 μm. Testing in graphite crucibles led to the formation of nanometer-scale Mo2C, Cr7C3 and Al4C3 particle phases in the near-surface regions of the material. The copious depletion of Cr in the near-surface regions induced a γ-martensite to α-ferrite phase (FeNix) transformation. Based on the microstructural analysis, a thermal diffusion controlled corrosion model was developed and experimentally validated for predicting long-term corrosion attack depth.

  13. Soil microbial species loss affects plant biomass and survival of an introduced bacterial strain, but not inducible plant defences.

    PubMed

    Kurm, Viola; van der Putten, Wim H; Pineda, Ana; Hol, W H Gera

    2018-02-12

    Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) strains can influence plant-insect interactions. However, little is known about the effect of changes in the soil bacterial community in general and especially the loss of rare soil microbes on these interactions. Here, the influence of rare soil microbe reduction on induced systemic resistance (ISR) in a wild ecotype of Arabidopsis thaliana against the aphid Myzus persicae was investigated. To create a gradient of microbial abundances, soil was inoculated with a serial dilution of a microbial community and responses of Arabidopsis plants that originated from the same site as the soil microbes were tested. Plant biomass, transcription of genes involved in plant defences, and insect performance were measured. In addition, the effects of the PGPR strain Pseudomonas fluorescens SS101 on plant and insect performance were tested under the influence of the various soil dilution treatments. Plant biomass showed a hump-shaped relationship with soil microbial community dilution, independent of aphid or Pseudomonas treatments. Both aphid infestation and inoculation with Pseudomonas reduced plant biomass, and led to downregulation of PR1 (salicylic acid-responsive gene) and CYP79B3 (involved in synthesis of glucosinolates). Aphid performance and gene transcription were unaffected by soil dilution. Neither the loss of rare microbial species, as caused by soil dilution, nor Pseudomonas affect the resistance of A. thaliana against M. persicae. However, both Pseudomonas survival and plant biomass respond to rare species loss. Thus, loss of rare soil microbial species can have a significant impact on both above- and below-ground organisms. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. A review on the kinetics of microbially induced calcium carbonate precipitation by urea hydrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Paassen, L. A.

    2017-12-01

    In this study the kinetics of calcium carbonate precipitation induced by the ureolytic bacteria are reviewed based on experiments and mathematical modelling. The study shows how urea hydrolysis rate depends on the amount of bacteria and the conditions during growth, storage, hydrolysis and precipitation. The dynamics of Microbially Induced Carbonate Precipitation has been monitored in non-seeded liquid batch experiments. Results show that particulary for a fast hydrolysis of urea (>1 M-urea day-1) in a highly concentrated equimolar solution with calcium chloride (>0.25 M) the solubility product of CaCO3 is exceeded within a short period (less than 30 minutes), the supersaturation remains high for an exended period, resulting in prolonged periods of nucleation and crystal growth and extended growth of metastable precursor mineral phases. The pH, being a result of the speciation, quickly rises until critical supersaturation is reached and precipitation is initiated. Then pH drops (sometimes showing oscillating behaviour) to about neutral where it stays until all substrates are depleted. Higher hydrolysis rates lead to higher supersaturation and pH and relatively many small crystals, whereas higher concentrations of urea and calcium chloride mainly lead to lower pH values. The conversion can be reasonably monitored by electrical conductivity and reasonably predicted, using a simplified model based on a single reaction as long as the urea hydrolysis rate is known. Complex geochemical models, which include chemical speciciation through acid-base equilibria and kinetic equations to describe mineral precipitation, do not show significant difference from the simplified model regarding the bulk chemistry and the total amount of precipitates. However, experiments show that ureolytic MICP can result in a highly variable crystal morphologies with large variation in the affected hydraulic properties when applied in a porous medium. In order to calculate the number, size and

  15. Corrosion Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-01

    April 2010 8-10 June 2010 3-5 August 2010 5 Corrosion Assistance Team ( CAT ) Visits Classroom Briefing • General Corrosion Theory • Preventive Maintenance...MD DC CAT Visit 2009 CAT Visit 2008 CAT Visit 2007 CAT Visit 2006 CAT Visit 2005 CAT Visits (calendar year) ME HI Germany ROK Honduras Egypt Japan DE 8

  16. Corrosion Engineering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Charles V.

    A description is provided for a Corrosion and Corrosion Control course offered in the Continuing Engineering Education Program at the General Motors Institute (GMI). GMI is a small cooperative engineering school of approximately 2,000 students who alternate between six-week periods of academic study and six weeks of related work experience in…

  17. Effect of Mg/Ca ratios on microbially induced carbonate precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balci, Nurgul; Demirel, Cansu; Seref Sonmez, M.; Kurt, M. Ali

    2016-04-01

    Influence of Mg/Ca ratios on microbially induced carbonate mineralogy were investigated by series of experiments carried out under various environmental conditions (Mg/Ca ratio, temperature and salinity). Halophilic bacterial cultures used for biomineralization experiments were isolated from hypersaline Lake Acıgöl (Denizli, SW Turkey), displaying extreme water chemistry with an average pH around 8.6 (Balci eta l.,2015). Enriched bacterial culture used in the experiments consisted of Halomonas saccharevitans strain AJ275, Halomonas alimentaria strain L7B; Idiomarina sp. TBZ29, 98% Idiomarina seosensis strain CL-SP19. Biomineralization experiments were set up using above enriched culture with Mg/Ca ratios of 0.05, 1, 4 and 15 and salinity of 8% and 15% experiments at 30oC and 10oC. Additionally, long-term biomineralization experiments were set up to last for a year, for Mg/Ca=4 and Mg/Ca=15 experiments at 30oC. For each experimental condition abiotic experiments were also conducted. Solution chemistry throughout incubation was monitored for Na, K, Mg, Ca, bicarbonate, carbonate, ammonium and phosphate for a month. At the end of the experiments, precipitates were collected and morphology and mineralogy of the biominerals were investigated and results were evaluated using the software DIFFRAC.SUITE EVA. Overall the preliminary results showed chemical precipitation of calcite, halite, hydromagnesite and sylvite. Results obtained from biological experiments indicate that, low Mg/Ca ratios (0.05 and 1) favor chlorapatite precipitation, whereas higher Mg/Ca ratios favor struvite precipitation. Biomineralization of dolomite, huntite and magnesite is favorable at high Mg/Ca ratios (4 and 15), in the presence of halophilic bacteria. Moreover, results indicate that supersaturation with respect to Mg (Mg/Ca=15) combined with NaCl (15%) inhibits biomineralization and forms chemical precipitates. 15% salinity is shown to favor chemical precipitation of mineral phases more than

  18. Response of microbial growth to orthophosphate and organic carbon influx in copper and plastic based plumbing water systems.

    PubMed

    Park, Se-Keun; Kim, Yeong-Kwan; Choi, Sung-Chan

    2008-07-01

    Consequences of orthophosphate addition for corrosion control in water distribution pipes with respect to microbial growth were investigated using batch and dynamic tests. Batch tests showed that the release of copper in either low or high organic carbon content water was decreased by 69% and 56% with addition 206 microg PO(4)-P, respectively. Dosing of orthophosphate against corrosion did not increase microbial growth potential in the water and in the biofilm in both corroded and uncorroded systems receiving tap water with a low content of organic carbon and of biodegradable organic fraction. However, in tap water having a high concentration of organic carbon from acetate addition, orthophosphate addition promoted the growth of bacteria, allowed more bacteria to assemble on corroded and uncorroded surfaces, and increased the consumption of organic carbon. Orthophosphate consumption did not exceed 1% of the amount of easily biodegradable organic carbon required for microbial growth, and the orthophosphate demand for corrosion control greatly exceeded the nutritional requirement of microbial growth. The results of the dynamic tests demonstrated that there was a significant effect of interaction between biodegradable organic carbon and orthophosphate on biofilm growth, whereby the effect of orthophosphate flux on microbial growth was dependent on the levels of biodegradable organic carbon. Controlling an easily biodegradable organic carbon would be therefore necessary to minimize the microbial growth potential induced by orthophosphate-based anticorrosion treatment.

  19. Corrosion sensor

    DOEpatents

    Glass, R.S.; Clarke, W.L. Jr.; Ciarlo, D.R.

    1994-04-26

    A corrosion sensor array is described incorporating individual elements for measuring various elements and ions, such as chloride, sulfide, copper, hydrogen (pH), etc. and elements for evaluating the instantaneous corrosion properties of structural materials. The exact combination and number of elements measured or monitored would depend upon the environmental conditions and materials used which are subject to corrosive effects. Such a corrosion monitoring system embedded in or mounted on a structure exposed to the environment would serve as an early warning system for the onset of severe corrosion problems for the structure, thus providing a safety factor as well as economic factors. The sensor array is accessed to an electronics/computational system, which provides a means for data collection and analysis. 7 figures.

  20. Corrosion sensor

    DOEpatents

    Glass, Robert S.; Clarke, Jr., Willis L.; Ciarlo, Dino R.

    1994-01-01

    A corrosion sensor array incorporating individual elements for measuring various elements and ions, such as chloride, sulfide, copper, hydrogen (pH), etc. and elements for evaluating the instantaneous corrosion properties of structural materials. The exact combination and number of elements measured or monitored would depend upon the environmental conditions and materials used which are subject to corrosive effects. Such a corrosion monitoring system embedded in or mounted on a structure exposed to the environment would serve as an early warning system for the onset of severe corrosion problems for the structure, thus providing a safety factor as well as economic factors. The sensor array is accessed to an electronics/computational system, which provides a means for data collection and analysis.

  1. Microbiologically induced deterioration of concrete - A Review

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Shiping; Jiang, Zhenglong; Liu, Hao; Zhou, Dongsheng; Sanchez-Silva, Mauricio

    2013-01-01

    Microbiologically induced deterioration (MID) causes corrosion of concrete by producing acids (including organic and inorganic acids) that degrade concrete components and thus compromise the integrity of sewer pipelines and other structures, creating significant problems worldwide. Understanding of the fundamental corrosion process and the causal agents will help us develop an appropriate strategy to minimize the costs in repairs. This review presents how microorganisms induce the deterioration of concrete, including the organisms involved and their colonization and succession on concrete, the microbial deterioration mechanism, the approaches of studying MID and safeguards against concrete biodeterioration. In addition, the uninvestigated research area of MID is also proposed. PMID:24688488

  2. Characterization of biofilm and corrosion of cast iron pipes in drinking water distribution system with UV/Cl2 disinfection.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ying; Wang, Haibo; Li, Xiaoxiao; Hu, Chun; Yang, Min; Qu, Jiuhui

    2014-09-01

    The effect of UV/Cl2 disinfection on the biofilm and corrosion of cast iron pipes in drinking water distribution system were studied using annular reactors (ARs). Passivation occurred more rapidly in the AR with UV/Cl2 than in the one with Cl2 alone, decreasing iron release for higher corrosivity of water. Based on functional gene, pyrosequencing assays and principal component analysis, UV disinfection not only reduced the required initial chlorine dose, but also enhanced denitrifying functional bacteria advantage in the biofilm of corrosion scales. The nitrate-reducing bacteria (NRB) Dechloromonas exhibited the greatest corrosion inhibition by inducing the redox cycling of iron to enhance the precipitation of iron oxides and formation of Fe3O4 in the AR with UV/Cl2, while the rhizobia Bradyrhizobium and Rhizobium, and the NRB Sphingomonas, Brucella producing siderophores had weaker corrosion-inhibition effect by capturing iron in the AR with Cl2. These results indicated that the microbial redox cycling of iron was possibly responsible for higher corrosion inhibition and lower effect of water Larson-Skold Index (LI) changes on corrosion. This finding could be applied toward the control of water quality in drinking water distribution systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Rumen microbial and fermentation characteristics are affected differently by bacterial probiotic supplementation during induced lactic and subacute acidosis in sheep.

    PubMed

    Lettat, Abderzak; Nozière, Pierre; Silberberg, Mathieu; Morgavi, Diego P; Berger, Claudette; Martin, Cécile

    2012-07-19

    Ruminal disbiosis induced by feeding is the cause of ruminal acidosis, a digestive disorder prevalent in high-producing ruminants. Because probiotic microorganisms can modulate the gastrointestinal microbiota, propionibacteria- and lactobacilli-based probiotics were tested for their effectiveness in preventing different forms of acidosis. Lactic acidosis, butyric and propionic subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) were induced by feed chalenges in three groups of four wethers intraruminally dosed with wheat, corn or beet pulp. In each group, wethers were either not supplemented (C) or supplemented with Propionibacterium P63 alone (P) or combined with L. plantarum (Lp + P) or L. rhamnosus (Lr + P). Compared with C, all the probiotics stimulated lactobacilli proliferation, which reached up to 25% of total bacteria during wheat-induced lactic acidosis. This induced a large increase in lactate concentration, which decreased ruminal pH. During the corn-induced butyric SARA, Lp + P decreased Prevotella spp. proportion with a concomitant decrease in microbial amylase activity and total volatile fatty acids concentration, and an increase in xylanase activity and pH. Relative to the beet pulp-induced propionic SARA, P and Lr + P improved ruminal pH without affecting the microbial or fermentation characteristics. Regardless of acidosis type, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis revealed that probiotic supplementations modified the bacterial community structure. This work showed that the effectiveness of the bacterial probiotics tested depended on the acidosis type. Although these probiotics were ineffective in lactic acidosis because of a deeply disturbed rumen microbiota, some of the probiotics tested may be useful to minimize the occurrence of butyric and propionic SARA in sheep. However, their modes of action need to be further investigated.

  4. Rumen microbial and fermentation characteristics are affected differently by bacterial probiotic supplementation during induced lactic and subacute acidosis in sheep

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Ruminal disbiosis induced by feeding is the cause of ruminal acidosis, a digestive disorder prevalent in high-producing ruminants. Because probiotic microorganisms can modulate the gastrointestinal microbiota, propionibacteria- and lactobacilli-based probiotics were tested for their effectiveness in preventing different forms of acidosis. Results Lactic acidosis, butyric and propionic subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) were induced by feed chalenges in three groups of four wethers intraruminally dosed with wheat, corn or beet pulp. In each group, wethers were either not supplemented (C) or supplemented with Propionibacterium P63 alone (P) or combined with L. plantarum (Lp + P) or L. rhamnosus (Lr + P). Compared with C, all the probiotics stimulated lactobacilli proliferation, which reached up to 25% of total bacteria during wheat-induced lactic acidosis. This induced a large increase in lactate concentration, which decreased ruminal pH. During the corn-induced butyric SARA, Lp + P decreased Prevotella spp. proportion with a concomitant decrease in microbial amylase activity and total volatile fatty acids concentration, and an increase in xylanase activity and pH. Relative to the beet pulp-induced propionic SARA, P and Lr + P improved ruminal pH without affecting the microbial or fermentation characteristics. Regardless of acidosis type, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis revealed that probiotic supplementations modified the bacterial community structure. Conclusion This work showed that the effectiveness of the bacterial probiotics tested depended on the acidosis type. Although these probiotics were ineffective in lactic acidosis because of a deeply disturbed rumen microbiota, some of the probiotics tested may be useful to minimize the occurrence of butyric and propionic SARA in sheep. However, their modes of action need to be further investigated. PMID:22812531

  5. Microbially Induced Carbonate Precipitation: a Novel Grout for Permeability Control in Subsurface Engineering Works

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minto, J. M.; Hingerl, F.; Lunn, R. J.; Benson, S. M.

    2016-12-01

    ContextWe utilise the urea hydrolysing capability of soil bacteria Sporosarcina pasteurii to precipitate CaCO3 in a process termed Microbially Induced Carbonate Precipitation (MICP). MICP injection fluid properties are low particle size and low viscosity giving excellent grout penetrability. The CaCO3 grout has been shown to be effective at reducing permeability in porous and fractured media. MICP has consequently been proposed as an alternative to more traditional cement and chemical grouts, particularly in the fields of radioactive waste disposal and geological sequestration of CO2. This study investigates the role of fluid flow/CaCO3 feedback during precipitation and accelerated dissolution to better understand the longevity of an MICP grout under low pH environmental conditions such as found in a carbon sequestration reservoir. MethodsExperiments were conducted on a single Berea sandstone core in a high pressure core holder to characterise permeability, porosity and multiphase flow behaviour at sequestration reservoir temperature and pressure. Characterisation was carried out before MICP, after MICP, and after accelerated dissolution with hydrochloric acid. At each step the entire core was scanned in a medical x-ray CT scanner to spatially resolve (with a resolution of 0.5x0.5x1mm) the changes in porosity and saturation with CaCO3 precipitation and dissolution. Finally, the dried core was scanned with μ-CT at 30μm (full core) and 10μm (sub-volume) resolutions to investigate structural changes to the Berea at near pore scale. ResultsSix MICP treatment cycles over two days reduced core permeability from 886 mDarcy to 40 mDarcy with a greater reduction in porosity at the inlet. Dissolution with acid restored much of the porosity, but did not restore permeability to the same extent. Preferential flow paths formed during the dissolution step were visible in the first 4mm of the 100mm core, but did not extend further into the core. DiscussionThis study provides

  6. Heavy metal immobilization via microbially induced carbonate precipitation and co-precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauchnor, E. G.; Stoick, E.

    2017-12-01

    Microbially induced CaCO3 precipitation (MICP) has been successfully used in applications such as porous media consolidation and sealing of leakage pathways in the subsurface, and it has the potential to be used for remediation of metal and radionuclide contaminants in surface and groundwater. In this work, MICP is investigated for removal of dissolved heavy metals from contaminated mine discharge water via co-precipitation in CaCO3 or formation of other metal carbonates. The bacterially catalyzed hydrolysis of urea produces inorganic carbon and ammonium and increases pH and the saturation index of carbonate minerals to promote precipitation of CaCO3. Other heavy metal cations can be co-precipitated in CaCO3 as impurities or by replacing Ca2+ in the crystal lattice. We performed laboratory batch experiments of MICP in alkaline mine drainage sampled from an abandoned mine site in Montana and containing a mixture of heavy metals at near neutral pH. Both a model bacterium, Sporosarcina pasteurii, and a ureolytic bacterium isolated from sediments on the mine site were used to promote MICP. Removal of dissolved metals from the aqueous phase was determined via inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and resulting precipitates were analyzed via electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Both S. pasteurii and the native ureolytic isolate demonstrated ureolysis, increased the pH and promoted precipitation of CaCO3 in batch tests. MICP by the native bacterium reduced concentrations of the heavy metals zinc, copper, cadmium, nickel and manganese in the water. S. pasteurii was also able to promote MICP, but with less removal of dissolved metals. Analysis of precipitates revealed calcium carbonate and phosphate minerals were likely present. The native isolate is undergoing identification via 16S DNA sequencing. Ongoing work will evaluate biofilm formation and MICP by the isolate in continuous flow, gravel-filled laboratory columns. This research

  7. Systemic resistance induced in Arabidopsis thaliana by Trichoderma asperellum SKT-1, a microbial pesticide of seedborne diseases of rice.

    PubMed

    Yoshioka, Yohei; Ichikawa, Haruki; Naznin, Hushna Ara; Kogure, Atsushi; Hyakumachi, Mitsuro

    2012-01-01

    Trichoderma asperellum SKT-1 is a microbial pesticide of seedborne diseases of rice. To investigate the mechanisms of disease suppression in SKT-1, the ability to induce systemic resistance by SKT-1, or its cell-free culture filtrate (CF), was tested using Arabidopsis thaliana Col-0 plants. Both SKT-1 and its CF elicit an induced systemic resistance against the bacterial leaf speck pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 in Col-0 plants. Involvement of plant hormones in the induced resistance by SKT-1 and CF was assessed using Arabidopsis genotypes such as the jasmonic acid (JA)-resistant mutant jar1, the ethylene (ET)-resistant mutant etr1, the plant impaired in salicylic acid (SA) signalling transgenic NahG and the mutant npr1 impaired in NPR1 activity. In soil experiments using SKT-1, no significant disease suppression effect was observed in NahG transgenic plants or npr1 mutant plants. Expression levels of SA-inducible genes such as PR-1, PR-2 and PR-5 increased substantially in the leaves of Col-0 plants. Expression levels of JA/ET-induced genes such as PDF1.2a, PR-3, PR-4 and AtVsp1 were also induced, but the levels were not as high as for SA-inducible genes. In a hydroponic experiment using CF from SKT-1, all Arabidopsis genotypes showed an induced systemic resistance by CF and increased expression levels of JA/ET- and SA-inducible genes in leaves of CF-treated plants. The SA signalling pathway is important in inducing systemic resistance to colonisation by SKT-1, and both SA and JA/ET signalling pathways combine in the signalling of induced resistance by CF. These results indicate that the response of A. thaliana is different from that found in root treatments with barley grain inoculum and CF from SKT-1. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Suspected microbial-induced sedimentary structures (MISS) in Furongian (Upper Cambrian; Jiangshanian, Sunwaptan) strata of the Upper Mississippi Valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eoff, Jennifer D.

    2014-01-01

    The Furongian (Upper Cambrian; Jiangshanian and Sunwaptan) Tunnel City Group (Lone Rock Formation and Mazomanie Formation), exposed in Wisconsin and Minnesota, represents a shallow-marine clastic environment during a time of exceptionally high sea level. Lithofacies from shoreface to transitional-offshore settings document deposition in a wave- and storm-dominated sea. Flooding of the cratonic interior was associated with formation of a condensed section and the extensive development of microbial mats. Biolamination, mat fragments, wrinkle structures, and syneresis cracks are preserved in various sandstone facies of the Lone Rock Formation, as is evidence for the cohesive behavior of sand. These microbial-induced sedimentary structures (MISS) provide unique signals of biological–physical processes that physical structures alone cannot mimic. The MISS are associated with a trilobite extinction event in the Steptoean–Sunwaptan boundary interval. This may support recent claims that Phanerozoic microbial mats were opportunistic disaster forms that flourished during periods of faunal turnover. Further investigation of stratigraphic, taphonomic, and other potential biases, however, is needed to fully test this hypothesis.

  9. The chloride induced localised corrosion of aluminium and beryllium: A study by electron and X-ray spectroscopies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallinson, Christopher F.

    Beryllium is an important metal in the nuclear industry for which there are no suitable replacements. It undergoes localised corrosion at the site of heterogeneities in the metal surface. Corrosion pits are associated with a range of second phase particles. To investigate the role of these particles in corrosion, a safe experimental protocol was established using an aluminium alloy as a corrosion material analogue. The 7075-T6 alloy had not previously been investigated using the experimental methodology used in this thesis. This work led to the development of the experimental methodology and safe working practices for handling beryllium. The range and composition of the second phase particles present in S-65 beryllium billet were identified using a combination of SEM, AES, EDX and WDX. Following the identification of a range of particles with various compositions, including the AlFeBe4 precipitate which has been previously associated with corrosion, the location of the particles were marked to enable their repeated study. Attention was focused on the microchemistry in the vicinity of second phase particles, as a function of immersion time in pH 7, 0.1 M NaCl solution. The corrosion process associated with different particles was followed by repeatedly relocating the particles to perform analysis by means of SEM, AES and EDX. The use of traditional chlorinated vapour degreasing solvents on beryllium was investigated and compared to two modern commercially available cleaning solutions designed as drop-in replacements. This work expanded the range of solvents suitable for cleaning beryllium and validated the conclusions from previous thermodynamic modelling. Additionally, a new experimental methodology has been developed which enables the acquisition of chemical state information from the surface of micron scale features. This was applied to sub-micron copper and iron particles, as well as a copper intermetallic.

  10. Use of an Electrochemical Split Cell Technique to Evaluate the Influence of Shewanella oneidensis Activities on Corrosion of Carbon Steel

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Robert Bertram; Sadek, Anwar; Rodriguez, Alvaro; Iannuzzi, Mariano; Giai, Carla; Senko, John M.; Monty, Chelsea N.

    2016-01-01

    Microbially induced corrosion (MIC) is a complex problem that affects various industries. Several techniques have been developed to monitor corrosion and elucidate corrosion mechanisms, including microbiological processes that induce metal deterioration. We used zero resistance ammetry (ZRA) in a split chamber configuration to evaluate the effects of the facultatively anaerobic Fe(III) reducing bacterium Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 on the corrosion of UNS G10180 carbon steel. We show that activities of S. oneidensis inhibit corrosion of steel with which that organism has direct contact. However, when a carbon steel coupon in contact with S. oneidensis was electrically connected to a second coupon that was free of biofilm (in separate chambers of the split chamber assembly), ZRA-based measurements indicated that current moved from the S. oneidensis-containing chamber to the cell-free chamber. This electron transfer enhanced the O2 reduction reaction on the coupon deployed in the cell free chamber, and consequently, enhanced oxidation and corrosion of that electrode. Our results illustrate a novel mechanism for MIC in cases where metal surfaces are heterogeneously covered by biofilms. PMID:26824529

  11. Use of an Electrochemical Split Cell Technique to Evaluate the Influence of Shewanella oneidensis Activities on Corrosion of Carbon Steel.

    PubMed

    Miller, Robert Bertram; Sadek, Anwar; Rodriguez, Alvaro; Iannuzzi, Mariano; Giai, Carla; Senko, John M; Monty, Chelsea N

    2016-01-01

    Microbially induced corrosion (MIC) is a complex problem that affects various industries. Several techniques have been developed to monitor corrosion and elucidate corrosion mechanisms, including microbiological processes that induce metal deterioration. We used zero resistance ammetry (ZRA) in a split chamber configuration to evaluate the effects of the facultatively anaerobic Fe(III) reducing bacterium Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 on the corrosion of UNS G10180 carbon steel. We show that activities of S. oneidensis inhibit corrosion of steel with which that organism has direct contact. However, when a carbon steel coupon in contact with S. oneidensis was electrically connected to a second coupon that was free of biofilm (in separate chambers of the split chamber assembly), ZRA-based measurements indicated that current moved from the S. oneidensis-containing chamber to the cell-free chamber. This electron transfer enhanced the O2 reduction reaction on the coupon deployed in the cell free chamber, and consequently, enhanced oxidation and corrosion of that electrode. Our results illustrate a novel mechanism for MIC in cases where metal surfaces are heterogeneously covered by biofilms.

  12. Rearing Water Treatment Induces Microbial Selection Influencing the Microbiota and Pathogen Associated Transcripts of Cod (Gadus morhua) Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Vestrum, Ragnhild I.; Attramadal, Kari J. K.; Winge, Per; Li, Keshuai; Olsen, Yngvar; Bones, Atle M.; Vadstein, Olav; Bakke, Ingrid

    2018-01-01

    We have previously shown that K-selection and microbial stability in the rearing water increases survival and growth of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) larvae, and that recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) are compatible with this. Here, we have assessed how water treatment influenced the larval microbiota and host responses at the gene expression level. Cod larvae were reared with two different rearing water systems: a RAS and a flow-through system (FTS). The water microbiota was examined using a 16S rDNA PCR/DGGE strategy. RNA extracted from larvae at 8, 13, and 17 days post hatching was used for microbiota and microarray gene expression analysis. Bacterial cDNA was synthesized and used for 16S rRNA amplicon 454 pyrosequencing of larval microbiota. Both water and larval microbiota differed significantly between the systems, and the larval microbiota appeared to become more dissimilar between systems with time. In total 4 phyla were identified for all larvae: Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria. The most profound difference in larval microbiota was a high abundance of Arcobacter (Epsilonproteobacteria) in FTS larvae (34 ± 9% of total reads). Arcobacter includes several species that are known pathogens for humans and animals. Cod larval transcriptome responses were investigated using an oligonucleotide gene expression microarray covering approximately 24,000 genes. Interestingly, FTS larvae transcriptional profiles revealed an overrepresentation of upregulated transcripts associated with responses to pathogens and infections, such as c1ql3-like, pglyrp-2-like and zg16, compared to RAS larvae. In conclusion, distinct water treatment systems induced differences in the larval microbiota. FTS larvae showed up-regulation of transcripts associated with responses to microbial stress. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that RAS promotes K-selection and microbial stability by maintaining a microbial load close to the carrying capacity

  13. Rearing Water Treatment Induces Microbial Selection Influencing the Microbiota and Pathogen Associated Transcripts of Cod (Gadus morhua) Larvae.

    PubMed

    Vestrum, Ragnhild I; Attramadal, Kari J K; Winge, Per; Li, Keshuai; Olsen, Yngvar; Bones, Atle M; Vadstein, Olav; Bakke, Ingrid

    2018-01-01

    We have previously shown that K-selection and microbial stability in the rearing water increases survival and growth of Atlantic cod ( Gadus morhua ) larvae, and that recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) are compatible with this. Here, we have assessed how water treatment influenced the larval microbiota and host responses at the gene expression level. Cod larvae were reared with two different rearing water systems: a RAS and a flow-through system (FTS). The water microbiota was examined using a 16S rDNA PCR/DGGE strategy. RNA extracted from larvae at 8, 13, and 17 days post hatching was used for microbiota and microarray gene expression analysis. Bacterial cDNA was synthesized and used for 16S rRNA amplicon 454 pyrosequencing of larval microbiota. Both water and larval microbiota differed significantly between the systems, and the larval microbiota appeared to become more dissimilar between systems with time. In total 4 phyla were identified for all larvae: Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria. The most profound difference in larval microbiota was a high abundance of Arcobacter (Epsilonproteobacteria) in FTS larvae (34 ± 9% of total reads). Arcobacter includes several species that are known pathogens for humans and animals. Cod larval transcriptome responses were investigated using an oligonucleotide gene expression microarray covering approximately 24,000 genes. Interestingly, FTS larvae transcriptional profiles revealed an overrepresentation of upregulated transcripts associated with responses to pathogens and infections, such as c1ql3-like , pglyrp-2-like and zg16, compared to RAS larvae. In conclusion, distinct water treatment systems induced differences in the larval microbiota. FTS larvae showed up-regulation of transcripts associated with responses to microbial stress. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that RAS promotes K-selection and microbial stability by maintaining a microbial load close to the carrying

  14. Seasonal induced changes in spinach rhizosphere microbial community structure with varying salinity and drought

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Salinity is a common problem under irrigated agriculture, especially in low rainfall and high evaporative demand areas of southwestern United States and other semi-arid regions around the world. However, studies on salinity effects on soil microbial communities are relatively few while the effects o...

  15. CATALASE FROM A FUNGAL MICROBIAL PESTICIDE INDUCES A UNIQUE IGE RESPONSE.

    EPA Science Inventory

    BALB/c mice exposed by involuntary aspiration to Metarhizium anisopliae extract (MACA), a microbial pesticide, have shown responses characteristic of human allergic lung disease/asthma. IgE-binding proteins have been identified in MACA by Western blot analysis, 2-dimensio...

  16. Biofilm-induced changes in microbial quality of irrigation water: Indicator bacteria and antibiotic-resistance

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Irrigation waters are implicated in the transmission of pathogens to fresh produce, and microbial release and retention from biofilms that form on inner surfaces of irrigation lines may impact the quality of delivered water. Biofilms in water distribution systems have been suggested as a reservoir ...

  17. Metallurgical effects on chloride ion corrosion threshold of steel in concrete.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2001-11-30

    The chloride-induced corrosion of reinforcing steel bars (rebar) in concrete seriously limits durability of reinforcing concrete structures. This investigation examines key issues in pitting corrosion and chloride corrosion threshold of rebar in alka...

  18. Fighting Corrosion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Reinforced concrete structures such as bridges, parking decks, and balconies are designed to have a service life of over 50 years. All too often, however, many structures fall short of this goal, requiring expensive repairs and protection work earlier than anticipated. The corrosion of reinforced steel within the concrete infrastructure is a major cause for this premature deterioration. Such corrosion is a particularly dangerous problem for the facilities at NASA s Kennedy Space Center. Located near the Atlantic Ocean in Florida, Kennedy is based in one of the most corrosive-prone areas in the world. In order to protect its launch support structures, highways, pipelines, and other steel-reinforced concrete structures, Kennedy engineers developed the Galvanic Liquid Applied Coating System. The system utilizes an inorganic coating material that slows or stops the corrosion of reinforced steel members inside concrete structures. Early tests determined that the coating meets the criteria of the National Association of Corrosion Engineers for complete protection of steel rebar embedded in concrete. Testing is being continued at the Kennedy's Materials Science Beach Corrosion Test Site.

  19. Effect of some biotic factors on microbially-induced calcite precipitation in cement mortar.

    PubMed

    Al-Salloum, Yousef; Abbas, H; Sheikh, Q I; Hadi, S; Alsayed, Saleh; Almusallam, Tarek

    2017-02-01

    Sporosarcina pasteurii , a common soil bacterium has been tested for microbial treatment of cement mortar. The present study also seeks to investigate the effects of growth medium, bacterial concentration and different buffers concerning the preparation of bacterial suspensions on the compressive strength of cement mortar. Two growth media, six different suspensions and two bacterial concentrations were used in the study. The influence of growth medium on calcification efficiency of S. pasteurii was insignificant. Significant improvement in the compressive as well as the tensile strength of cement mortar was observed. Microbial mineral precipitation visualized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) shows fibrous material that increased the strength of cement mortar. Formation of thin strands of fillers observed through SEM micrographs improves the pore structure, impermeability and thus the compressive as well as the tensile strengths of the cement mortar. The type of substrate and its molarity have a significant influence on the strength of cement mortar.

  20. Overnight stagnation of drinking water in household taps induces microbial growth and changes in community composition.

    PubMed

    Lautenschlager, Karin; Boon, Nico; Wang, Yingying; Egli, Thomas; Hammes, Frederik

    2010-09-01

    Drinking water quality is routinely monitored in the distribution network but not inside households at the point of consumption. Fluctuating temperatures, residence times (stagnation), pipe materials and decreasing pipe diameters can promote bacterial growth in buildings. To test the influence of stagnation in households on the bacterial cell concentrations and composition, water was sampled from 10 separate households after overnight stagnation and after flushing the taps. Cell concentrations, measured by flow cytometry, increased (2-3-fold) in all water samples after stagnation. This increase was also observed in adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP) concentrations (2-18-fold) and heterotrophic plate counts (4-580-fold). An observed increase in cell biovolume and ATP-per-cell concentrations furthermore suggests that the increase in cell concentrations was due to microbial growth. After 5 min flushing of the taps, cell concentrations and water temperature decreased to the level generally found in the drinking water network. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis also showed a change in the microbial composition after stagnation. This study showed that water stagnation in household pipes results in considerable microbial changes. While hygienic risk was not directly assessed, it emphasizes the need for the development of good material validation methods, recommendations and spot tests for in-house water installations. However, a simple mitigation strategy would be a short flushing of taps prior to use. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Microbially Induced Calcite Precipitation (MICP) - A Technology for Managing Flow and Transport in Porous and Fractured Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, A. J.; Hiebert, R.; Kirksey, J.; Lauchnor, E. G.; Rothman, A.; Spangler, L.; Esposito, R.; Gerlach, R.; Cunningham, A. B.

    2014-12-01

    Certain microorganisms e.g., Sporosarcina pasteurii contribute enzymes that catalyze reactions which in the presence of calcium, can create saturation conditions favorable for calcium carbonate precipitation (microbially-induced calcium carbonate precipitation (MICP)). MICP can be used for a number of engineering applications including securing geologic storage of CO2 or other fluids by sealing fractures, improving wellbore integrity, and stabilizing fractured and unstable porous media. MICP treatment has the advantage of the use of small microorganisms, ~2μm, suggesting applicability to treatment of small aperture fractures not accessible to traditional treatments, for example the use of fine cement. The promotion of MICP in the subsurface is a complex reactive transport problem coupling microbial, abiotic (geochemical), geomechanical and hydrodynamic processes. In the laboratory, MICP has been demonstrated to cement together heavily fractured shale and reduce the permeability of fractures in shale and sandstone cores up to five orders of magnitude under both ambient and subsurface relevant pressure conditions (Figure 1). Most recently, a MICP fracture treatment field study was performed at a well at the Southern Company Gorgas Steam Generation Plant (Alabama) (Figure 1). The Fayetteville Sandstone at approximately 1120' below ground surface was hydraulically fractured prior to MICP treatment. After 4 days of injection of 24 calcium pulses and 6 microbial inoculations, injectivity of brine into the formation was significantly reduced. The experiment also resulted in a reduction in pressure decay which is a measure of improved wellbore integrity. These promising results suggest the potential for MICP treatment to seal fractured pathways at the field scale to improve the long-term security of geologically-stored carbon dioxide or prevent leakage of shale gas or hydraulic fracturing fluids into functional overlying aquifers, reducing environmental impacts.

  2. Effect of helminth-induced immunity on infections with microbial pathogens

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Helminth infections are ubiquitous worldwide and can trigger potent immune responses that differ from and potentially antagonize host protective responses to microbial pathogens. In this Review we focus on the three main killers in infectious disease—AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria—and critically assesses whether helminths adversely influence host control of these diseases. We also discuss emerging concepts for how M2 macrophages and helminth-modulated dendritic cells can potentially influence the protective immune response to concurrent infections. Finally, we present evidence advocating for more efforts to determine how and to what extent helminths interfere with the successful control of specific concurrent coinfections. PMID:24145791

  3. The macrophage pattern recognition scavenger receptors SR-A and CD36 protect against microbial induced pregnancy loss

    PubMed Central

    Ebersole, Jeffery L.; de Villiers, Willem J. S.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives and design Microbial products can act via stress-induced signaling cascades to link dysregulated endogenous microbiota to immune activation (e.g., macrophages) and pregnancy loss. Our previous studies demonstrated that mice deficient in the macrophage pattern recognition scavenger receptors, SR-A and CD36, are more susceptible to inflammatory complications including gut leakiness and experimental colitis. We hypothesized that bacterial penetration of the maternal mucosal surfaces and replication in embryonic fluids compromise the fetal status and can result in miscarriage. Materials and methods Eighty pregnant ICR and SR-A/CD36-deficient mice were injected via tail vein or intraperitoneally with commensal bacteria (Streptococcus cricetus and/or Actinobacillus sp.) or sham controls. Dams were monitored daily for physical distress, pain and abortion. Results Dams injected with single dose bacterial inoculum did not develop clinical symptoms. Day old pups injected with bacteria developed internal focal abscesses, lost weight but recovered after 1 week. Dams receiving a second bacterial inoculum delivered dead fetuses. However, SR-A/CD36-deficnet dams demonstrated 100% fetal death via aborted fetuses, and significant up-regulation of the proinflammatory markers (IL-6, serum Amyloid A) 24–74 h after single inoculum. Conclusions These data indicate that macrophage scavenger receptors are required for the fetal protection against microbial attack and support that maternal transfer of innate immunity contributes to this protection. PMID:20711846

  4. Organic amendments to avocado crops induce suppressiveness and influence the composition and activity of soil microbial communities.

    PubMed

    Bonilla, Nuria; Vida, Carmen; Martínez-Alonso, Maira; Landa, Blanca B; Gaju, Nuria; Cazorla, Francisco M; de Vicente, Antonio

    2015-05-15

    One of the main avocado diseases in southern Spain is white root rot caused by the fungus Rosellinia necatrix Prill. The use of organic soil amendments to enhance the suppressiveness of natural soil is an inviting approach that has successfully controlled other soilborne pathogens. This study tested the suppressive capacity of different organic amendments against R. necatrix and analyzed their effects on soil microbial communities and enzymatic activities. Two-year-old avocado trees were grown in soil treated with composted organic amendments and then used for inoculation assays. All of the organic treatments reduced disease development in comparison to unamended control soil, especially yard waste (YW) and almond shells (AS). The YW had a strong effect on microbial communities in bulk soil and produced larger population levels and diversity, higher hydrolytic activity and strong changes in the bacterial community composition of bulk soil, suggesting a mechanism of general suppression. Amendment with AS induced more subtle changes in bacterial community composition and specific enzymatic activities, with the strongest effects observed in the rhizosphere. Even if the effect was not strong, the changes caused by AS in bulk soil microbiota were related to the direct inhibition of R. necatrix by this amendment, most likely being connected to specific populations able to recolonize conducive soil after pasteurization. All of the organic amendments assayed in this study were able to suppress white root rot, although their suppressiveness appears to be mediated differentially. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  5. Radiation-induced impacts on the degradation of 2,4-D and the microbial population in soil microcosms.

    PubMed

    Niedrée, Bastian; Vereecken, Harry; Burauel, Peter

    2013-01-01

    In a soil microcosm experiment, the influence of low-level (137)Cs and (90)Sr contamination on the degradation of (14)C-ring-labeled 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) was studied. Two differently treated soils (one native soil and one soil sterilized and reinoculated with a biotic soil aliquot) were artificially contaminated with various concentrations of (137)Cs and (90)Sr as nitrate salts. The cumulative doses increased up to 4 Gy for 30 days of incubation in soil microcosms. Changes in microbial community structure were observed with help of the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). A radiation-induced impact appeared only in the microcosms treated with 30 times the maximum contamination appearing in the exclusion zone around reactor 4 in Chernobyl. In contrast to the less contaminated soils, the mineralization of 2,4-D was delayed for 4 days before it recovered. Slight shifts in the microbial communities could be traced to radiation effects. However, other parameters had a major impact on mineralization and community structure. Thus the sterilization and reinoculation and, of course, application of the 2,4-D were predominantly reflected in the (14)CO(2) emissions and the DGGE gel patterns. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Organic Amendments to Avocado Crops Induce Suppressiveness and Influence the Composition and Activity of Soil Microbial Communities

    PubMed Central

    Bonilla, Nuria; Vida, Carmen; Martínez-Alonso, Maira; Landa, Blanca B.; Gaju, Nuria; Cazorla, Francisco M.

    2015-01-01

    One of the main avocado diseases in southern Spain is white root rot caused by the fungus Rosellinia necatrix Prill. The use of organic soil amendments to enhance the suppressiveness of natural soil is an inviting approach that has successfully controlled other soilborne pathogens. This study tested the suppressive capacity of different organic amendments against R. necatrix and analyzed their effects on soil microbial communities and enzymatic activities. Two-year-old avocado trees were grown in soil treated with composted organic amendments and then used for inoculation assays. All of the organic treatments reduced disease development in comparison to unamended control soil, especially yard waste (YW) and almond shells (AS). The YW had a strong effect on microbial communities in bulk soil and produced larger population levels and diversity, higher hydrolytic activity and strong changes in the bacterial community composition of bulk soil, suggesting a mechanism of general suppression. Amendment with AS induced more subtle changes in bacterial community composition and specific enzymatic activities, with the strongest effects observed in the rhizosphere. Even if the effect was not strong, the changes caused by AS in bulk soil microbiota were related to the direct inhibition of R. necatrix by this amendment, most likely being connected to specific populations able to recolonize conducive soil after pasteurization. All of the organic amendments assayed in this study were able to suppress white root rot, although their suppressiveness appears to be mediated differentially. PMID:25769825

  7. Systematic evaluation of bias in microbial community profiles induced by whole genome amplification.

    PubMed

    Direito, Susana O L; Zaura, Egija; Little, Miranda; Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Röling, Wilfred F M

    2014-03-01

    Whole genome amplification methods facilitate the detection and characterization of microbial communities in low biomass environments. We examined the extent to which the actual community structure is reliably revealed and factors contributing to bias. One widely used [multiple displacement amplification (MDA)] and one new primer-free method [primase-based whole genome amplification (pWGA)] were compared using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based method as control. Pyrosequencing of an environmental sample and principal component analysis revealed that MDA impacted community profiles more strongly than pWGA and indicated that this related to species GC content, although an influence of DNA integrity could not be excluded. Subsequently, biases by species GC content, DNA integrity and fragment size were separately analysed using defined mixtures of DNA from various species. We found significantly less amplification of species with the highest GC content for MDA-based templates and, to a lesser extent, for pWGA. DNA fragmentation also interfered severely: species with more fragmented DNA were less amplified with MDA and pWGA. pWGA was unable to amplify low molecular weight DNA (< 1.5 kb), whereas MDA was inefficient. We conclude that pWGA is the most promising method for characterization of microbial communities in low-biomass environments and for currently planned astrobiological missions to Mars. © 2013 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Microbial translocation contribute to febrile episodes in adults with chemotherapy-induced neutropenia.

    PubMed

    Wong, Michelle; Barqasho, Babilonia; Ohrmalm, Lars; Tolfvenstam, Thomas; Nowak, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    In this study we sought to determine the contribution of microbial translocation to febrile episodes with no attributable microbiological cause (Fever of Unknown Origin, FUO) in an adult febrile neutropaenic cohort. Endotoxin concentrations were measured with the chromogenic Limulus Amoebocyte Assay and used as a direct measure of bacterial products whilst soluble CD14 (sCD14), measured with ELISA was selected as an indicator of the early host response to endotoxins. Endotoxin concentrations in this cohort were generally elevated but did not differ with the presentation of fever. Further stratification of the febrile episodes based on the microbiological findings revealed significantly (p = 0.0077) elevated endotoxin concentrations in FUO episodes compared with episodes with documented bacterial and viral findings. sCD14 concentrations were however, elevated in febrile episodes (p = 0.0066) and no association was observed between sCD14 concentration and microbiological findings. However, FUO episodes and episodes with Gram-negative bacteraemia were associated with higher median sCD14 concentrations than episodes with Gram-positive bacteraemia (p = 0.030). In conclusion, our findings suggest that in the absence of microbiological findings, microbial translocation could contribute to febrile episodes in an adult neutropaenic cohort. We further observed an association between prophylactic antibiotic use and increased plasma endotoxin concentrations (p = 0.0212).

  9. Microbial Profiling of a Suppressiveness-Induced Agricultural Soil Amended with Composted Almond Shells

    PubMed Central

    Vida, Carmen; Bonilla, Nuria; de Vicente, Antonio; Cazorla, Francisco M.

    2016-01-01

    This study focused on the microbial profile present in an agricultural soil that becomes suppressive after the application of composted almond shells (AS) as organic amendments. For this purpose, we analyzed the functions and composition of the complex communities present in an experimental orchard of 40-year-old avocado trees, many of them historically amended with composted almond shells. The role of microbes in the suppression of Rosellinia necatrix, the causative agent of avocado white root rot, was determined after heat-treatment and complementation experiments with different types of soil. Bacterial and fungal profiles obtained from natural soil samples based on the 16S rRNA gene and ITS sequencing revealed slight differences among the amended (AS) and unamended (CT) soils. When the soil was under the influence of composted almond shells as organic amendments, an increase in Proteobacteria and Ascomycota groups was observed, as well as a reduction in Acidobacteria and Mortierellales. Complementary to these findings, functional analysis by GeoChip 4.6 confirmed these subtle differences, mainly present in the relative abundance of genes involved in the carbon cycle. Interestingly, a group of specific probes included in the “soil benefit” category was present only in AS-amended soils, corresponding to specific microorganisms previously described as potential biocontrol agents, such as Pseudomonas spp., Burkholderia spp., or Actinobacteria. Considering the results of both analyses, we determined that AS-amendments to the soil led to an increase in some orders of Gammaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, and Dothideomycetes, as well as a reduction in the abundance of Xylariales fungi (where R. necatrix is allocated). The combination of microbial action and substrate properties of suppressiveness are discussed. PMID:26834725

  10. Corrosion and corrosion prevention in gas turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mom, A. J. A.; Kolkman, H. J.

    1985-01-01

    The conditions governing the corrosion behavior in gas turbines are surveyed. Factors such as temperature, relative humidity, the presence of sulfur and nitrogen dioxide, and fuel quality are discussed. Electromechanical corrosion at relatively low temperature in compressors; oxidation; and hot corrosion (sulfidation) at high temperature in turbines are considered. Corrosion prevention by washing and rinsing, fueld additives, and corrosion resistant materials and coatings are reviewed.

  11. Bioengineered silver nanoparticles as potent anti-corrosive inhibitor for mild steel in cooling towers.

    PubMed

    Narenkumar, Jayaraman; Parthipan, Punniyakotti; Madhavan, Jagannathan; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Marpu, Sreekar Babu; Suresh, Anil Kumar; Rajasekar, Aruliah

    2018-02-01

    Silver nanoparticle-aided enhancement in the anti-corrosion potential and stability of plant extract as ecologically benign alternative for microbially induced corrosion treatment is demonstrated. Bioengineered silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) surface functionalized with plant extract material (proteinacious) was generated in vitro in a test tube by treating ionic AgNO 3 with the leaf extract of Azadirachta indica that acted as dual reducing as well as stabilizing agent. Purity and crystallinity of the AgNPs, along with physical and surface characterizations, were evaluated by performing transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectra, single-area electron diffractions, zeta potential, and dynamic light scattering measurements. Anti-corrosion studies against mild steel (MS1010) by corrosion-inducive bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis EN2 isolated from cooling towers, were evaluated by performing electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), weight loss analysis, and surface analysis by infrared spectroscopy. Our studies revealed that AgNPs profoundly inhibited the biofilm on MS1010 surface and reduced the corrosion rates with the CR of 0.5 mm/y and an inhibition efficiency of 77% when compared to plant extract alone with a CR of 2.2 mm/y and an inhibition efficiency of 52%. Further surface analysis by infrared spectra revealed that AgNPs formed a protective layer of self-assembled film on the surface of MS1010. Additionally, EIS and surface analysis revealed that the AgNPs have inhibited the bacterial biofilm and reduced the pit on MS1010. This is the first report disclosing the application of bioengineered AgNP formulations as potent anti-corrosive inhibitor upon forming a protective layer over mild steel in cooling water towers. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  12. Microbiological and Corrosivity Characterizations of Biodiesels and Advanced Diesel Fuels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and...including corrosion inhibitors. Requirements for microbial growth are water and nutrients. In addition to carbon , all organisms require nitrogen...microbial mineralization of fuel to generate a water phase for further proliferation. For example, Cladosporium resinae grew in 80 mg water per liter

  13. Early changes in microbial colonization selectively modulate intestinal enzymes, but not inducible heat shock proteins in young adult Swine.

    PubMed

    Arnal, Marie-Edith; Zhang, Jing; Messori, Stefano; Bosi, Paolo; Smidt, Hauke; Lallès, Jean-Paul

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic diseases and obesity are developing worldwide in a context of plethoric intake of high energy diets. The intestine may play a pivotal role due to diet-induced alterations in microbiota composition and increased permeability to bacterial lipopolysaccharide inducing metabolic inflammation. Early programming of metabolic disorders appearing in later life is also suspected, but data on the intestine are lacking. Therefore, we hypothesized that early disturbances in microbial colonization have short- and long-lasting consequences on selected intestinal components including key digestive enzymes and protective inducible heat shock proteins (HSP). The hypothesis was tested in swine offspring born to control mothers (n = 12) or mothers treated with the antibiotic amoxicillin around parturition (n = 11), and slaughtered serially at 14, 28 and 42 days of age to assess short-term effects. To evaluate long-term consequences, young adult offspring from the same litters were offered a normal or a fat-enriched diet for 4 weeks between 140 and 169 days of age and were then slaughtered. Amoxicillin treatment transiently modified both mother and offspring microbiota. This was associated with early but transient reduction in ileal alkaline phosphatase, HSP70 (but not HSP27) and crypt depth, suggesting a milder or delayed intestinal response to bacteria in offspring born to antibiotic-treated mothers. More importantly, we disclosed long-term consequences of this treatment on jejunal alkaline phosphatase (reduced) and jejunal and ileal dipeptidylpeptidase IV (increased and decreased, respectively) of offspring born to antibiotic-treated dams. Significant interactions between early antibiotic treatment and later diet were observed for jejunal alkaline phosphatase and sucrase. By contrast, inducible HSPs were not affected. In conclusion, our data suggest that early changes in bacterial colonization not only modulate intestinal architecture and function transiently, but also

  14. Early Changes in Microbial Colonization Selectively Modulate Intestinal Enzymes, but Not Inducible Heat Shock Proteins in Young Adult Swine

    PubMed Central

    Arnal, Marie-Edith; Zhang, Jing; Messori, Stefano; Bosi, Paolo; Smidt, Hauke; Lallès, Jean-Paul

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic diseases and obesity are developing worldwide in a context of plethoric intake of high energy diets. The intestine may play a pivotal role due to diet-induced alterations in microbiota composition and increased permeability to bacterial lipopolysaccharide inducing metabolic inflammation. Early programming of metabolic disorders appearing in later life is also suspected, but data on the intestine are lacking. Therefore, we hypothesized that early disturbances in microbial colonization have short- and long-lasting consequences on selected intestinal components including key digestive enzymes and protective inducible heat shock proteins (HSP). The hypothesis was tested in swine offspring born to control mothers (n = 12) or mothers treated with the antibiotic amoxicillin around parturition (n = 11), and slaughtered serially at 14, 28 and 42 days of age to assess short-term effects. To evaluate long-term consequences, young adult offspring from the same litters were offered a normal or a fat-enriched diet for 4 weeks between 140 and 169 days of age and were then slaughtered. Amoxicillin treatment transiently modified both mother and offspring microbiota. This was associated with early but transient reduction in ileal alkaline phosphatase, HSP70 (but not HSP27) and crypt depth, suggesting a milder or delayed intestinal response to bacteria in offspring born to antibiotic-treated mothers. More importantly, we disclosed long-term consequences of this treatment on jejunal alkaline phosphatase (reduced) and jejunal and ileal dipeptidylpeptidase IV (increased and decreased, respectively) of offspring born to antibiotic-treated dams. Significant interactions between early antibiotic treatment and later diet were observed for jejunal alkaline phosphatase and sucrase. By contrast, inducible HSPs were not affected. In conclusion, our data suggest that early changes in bacterial colonization not only modulate intestinal architecture and function transiently, but

  15. Microaerobic DO-induced microbial mechanisms responsible for enormous energy saving in upflow microaerobic sludge blanket reactor.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Shaokui; Cui, Cancan; Quan, Ying; Sun, Jian

    2013-07-01

    This study experimentally examined the microaerobic dissolved oxygen (DO)-induced microbial mechanisms that are responsible for enormous energy savings in the upflow microaerobic sludge blanket reactor (UMSB) for domestic wastewater treatment. Phylogenetic and kinetic analyses (as determined by clone library analyses and sludge oxygen affinity analyses) showed that the microaerobic conditions in the UMSB led to the proliferation and dominance of microaerophilic bacteria that have higher oxygen affinities (i.e., lower sludge oxygen half-saturation constant values), which assured efficient COD and NH3-N removals and sludge granulation in the UMSB similar as those achieved in the aerobic control. However, the microaerobic DO level in the UMSB achieved significant short-cut nitrification, a 50-90% reduction in air supply, and an 18-28% reduction in alkali consumption. Furthermore, the disappearance of sludge bulking in the UMSB when it was dominated by "bulking-induced" filamentous bacteria should be attributed to its upflow column-type configuration. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A novel Nrf2 activator from microbial transformation inhibits radiation-induced dermatitis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Nakagami, Yasuhiro; Masuda, Kayoko

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a transcriptional factor that regulates many antioxidants, and we have recently succeeded in obtaining a novel Nrf2 activator, RS9, from microbial transformation. RS9 is categorized as a triterpenoid, and well-known triterpenoids such as RTA 402 (bardoxolone methyl) and RTA 408 have been tested in clinical trials. RTA 408 lotion is currently being tested in patients at risk for radiation dermatitis. This prompted us to study the profiles of RS9 in the skin. All the above triterpenoids increased the level of an Nrf2-targeted gene, NADPH:quinone oxidoreductase-1, in normal human epidermal keratinocytes. Among them, the activity of RS9 was prominent; furthermore, the cellular toxicity was less compared with RTA compounds. BALB/c mice were irradiated with 30 Gy/day on Day 0, and compounds were topically applied on the back once daily from Day 1 to Day 30. Dermatitis scores peaked on Day 18, with a score of 2.6 in vehicle-treated mice, and topical applications of 0.1% RTA 402, RTA 408 and RS9 reduced the scores to 1.8, 2.0 and 1.4, respectively. Moreover, the percentage of animals with scores ≥2 was analyzed, and 0.1% RS9 suppressed the percentage from 100% to 47%. These results imply that RS9 has potential efficacy for treating radiation dermatitis. PMID:27242339

  17. Effect of sea buckthorn protein on the intestinal microbial community in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Huaibo; Shi, Fangfang; Meng, Lina; Wang, Wenjuan

    2018-02-01

    This study investigated the intestinal microbial community distribution of Type 2 diabetic mice and discussed the effects of the sea buckthorn protein on the regulation of gut microbes. Date was collected for 12 cases of normal mice (NC group), 12 cases of Type 2 diabetic mice (DC group), and 12 cases of highly concentrated sea buckthorn seed protein dosed mice (SSPH group). This study analysed fecal samples, measured faecal pH value, and cultivated and determined intestinal bacteria count. This investigation also included the extraction of faecal samples for genomic DNA, PCR amplification of bacterial V3 16S rDNA products by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, DGGE map analysis of intestinal flora, determination of intestinal bacteria richness, Shannon-Wiener index and evenness index, and image similarity cluster analysis with UPGMA clustering. This study analysed and elucidated differences between the normal mice group, diabetic mice group, and sea buckthorn protein supplemented group, and the structures of respective intestinal flora. The mice supplemented with sea buckthorn protein exhibited an obvious drop in body weight and blood glucose levels. The Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus, Bacteroides, and Clostridium coccoides populations recovered. The amplification of the 16S rDNA gene V3 region revealed that the species of intestinal microbes in the treatment group were adjusted to a certain extent. Analysis by ARDRA confirmed that sea buckthorn protein could increase type 2 diabetes in mice intestinal microorganism diversity (H) and simpson (E). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Microbial Risk Assessment of Tidal−Induced Urban Flooding in Can Tho City (Mekong Delta, Vietnam)

    PubMed Central

    Huynh, Thi Thao Nguyen; Van der Steen, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Public health risks from urban flooding are a global concern. Contaminated floodwater may expose residents living in cities as they are in direct contact with the water. However, the recent literature does not provide much information about this issue, especially for developing countries. In this paper, the health risk due to a flood event occurred in Can Tho City (Mekong Delta, Vietnam) on 7 October 2013 was investigated. The Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment method was used in this study. The data showed that the pathogen concentrations were highly variable during the flood event and exceeded water standards for surface water. Per 10,000 people in contact with the floodwater, we found Salmonella caused the highest number of infections to adults and children (137 and 374, respectively), while E. coli caused 4 and 12 cases, per single event, respectively. The results show that further investigations on health risk related to flood issues in Can Tho City are required, especially because of climate change and urbanization. In addition, activities to raise awareness- about floods, e.g., “living with floods”, in the Mekong Delta should also consider health risk issues. PMID:29189715

  19. Microbial Risk Assessment of Tidal-Induced Urban Flooding in Can Tho City (Mekong Delta, Vietnam).

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Hong Quan; Huynh, Thi Thao Nguyen; Pathirana, Assela; Van der Steen, Peter

    2017-11-30

    Public health risks from urban flooding are a global concern. Contaminated floodwater may expose residents living in cities as they are in direct contact with the water. However, the recent literature does not provide much information about this issue, especially for developing countries. In this paper, the health risk due to a flood event occurred in Can Tho City (Mekong Delta, Vietnam) on 7 October 2013 was investigated. The Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment method was used in this study. The data showed that the pathogen concentrations were highly variable during the flood event and exceeded water standards for surface water. Per 10,000 people in contact with the floodwater, we found Salmonella caused the highest number of infections to adults and children (137 and 374, respectively), while E. coli caused 4 and 12 cases, per single event, respectively. The results show that further investigations on health risk related to flood issues in Can Tho City are required, especially because of climate change and urbanization. In addition, activities to raise awareness- about floods, e.g., "living with floods", in the Mekong Delta should also consider health risk issues.

  20. Aircraft Corrosion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-08-01

    protective coating between the plates, the reduction in frictional effects caused by the fluid did cause a significant reduction in fatigue life ... surface treatments for aluminum alloys , there has been a return to anodizing for new weapons systems rather than chromate conversion coatings . Both sulfuric...good alternate coating material in many applications requiring good corrosion resistance and minimal effect on fatigue properties. Only two aluminum

  1. Marine Corrosion.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-04-24

    cor- rosion resistant alloys such as molybdenum -containing stainless steels. For the latter the high degree of aeration in the splashing water...imposed by marine technology, such as elevated temperatures , tensile stresses, cyclic stresses, severe (tight) crevices, galvanic coupling and high ...corrosion in seawater in tight metal-to-non-metal crevices are titanium alloys 4, the high molybdenum nickel base alloys Hastelloy alloy C-276 and

  2. Innate sensing of microbial products promotes wound-induced skin cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hoste, Esther; Arwert, Esther N.; Lal, Rohit; South, Andrew P.; Salas-Alanis, Julio C.; Murrell, Dedee F.; Donati, Giacomo; Watt, Fiona M.

    2015-01-01

    The association between tissue damage, chronic inflammation and cancer is well known. However, the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Here we characterize a mouse model in which constitutive epidermal extracellular-signal-regulated kinase-MAP-kinase signalling results in epidermal inflammation, and skin wounding induces tumours. We show that tumour incidence correlates with wound size and inflammatory infiltrate. Ablation of tumour necrosis factor receptor (TNFR)-1/-2, Myeloid Differentiation primary response gene 88 or Toll-like receptor (TLR)-5, the bacterial flagellin receptor, but not other innate immune sensors, in radiosensitive leukocytes protects against tumour formation. Antibiotic treatment inhibits, whereas injection of flagellin induces, tumours in a TLR-5-dependent manner. TLR-5 is also involved in chemical-induced skin carcinogenesis in wild-type mice. Leukocytic TLR-5 signalling mediates upregulation of the alarmin HMGB1 (High Mobility Group Box 1) in wound-induced papillomas. HMGB1 is elevated in tumours of patients with Recessive Dystrophic Epidermolysis Bullosa, a disease characterized by chronic skin damage. We conclude that in our experimental model the combination of bacteria, chronic inflammation and wounding cooperate to trigger skin cancer. PMID:25575023

  3. Innate sensing of microbial products promotes wound-induced skin cancer.

    PubMed

    Hoste, Esther; Arwert, Esther N; Lal, Rohit; South, Andrew P; Salas-Alanis, Julio C; Murrell, Dedee F; Donati, Giacomo; Watt, Fiona M

    2015-01-09

    The association between tissue damage, chronic inflammation and cancer is well known. However, the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Here we characterize a mouse model in which constitutive epidermal extracellular-signal-regulated kinase-MAP-kinase signalling results in epidermal inflammation, and skin wounding induces tumours. We show that tumour incidence correlates with wound size and inflammatory infiltrate. Ablation of tumour necrosis factor receptor (TNFR)-1/-2, Myeloid Differentiation primary response gene 88 or Toll-like receptor (TLR)-5, the bacterial flagellin receptor, but not other innate immune sensors, in radiosensitive leukocytes protects against tumour formation. Antibiotic treatment inhibits, whereas injection of flagellin induces, tumours in a TLR-5-dependent manner. TLR-5 is also involved in chemical-induced skin carcinogenesis in wild-type mice. Leukocytic TLR-5 signalling mediates upregulation of the alarmin HMGB1 (High Mobility Group Box 1) in wound-induced papillomas. HMGB1 is elevated in tumours of patients with Recessive Dystrophic Epidermolysis Bullosa, a disease characterized by chronic skin damage. We conclude that in our experimental model the combination of bacteria, chronic inflammation and wounding cooperate to trigger skin cancer.

  4. Microbially Induced Sedimentary Structures Recording an Ancient Ecosystem in the ca. 3.48 Billion-Year-Old Dresser Formation, Pilbara, Western Australia

    PubMed Central

    Christian, Daniel; Wacey, David; Hazen, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Microbially induced sedimentary structures (MISS) result from the response of microbial mats to physical sediment dynamics. MISS are cosmopolitan and found in many modern environments, including shelves, tidal flats, lagoons, riverine shores, lakes, interdune areas, and sabkhas. The structures record highly diverse communities of microbial mats and have been reported from numerous intervals in the geological record up to 3.2 billion years (Ga) old. This contribution describes a suite of MISS from some of the oldest well-preserved sedimentary rocks in the geological record, the early Archean (ca. 3.48 Ga) Dresser Formation, Western Australia. Outcrop mapping at the meter to millimeter scale defined five sub-environments characteristic of an ancient coastal sabkha. These sub-environments contain associations of distinct macroscopic and microscopic MISS. Macroscopic MISS include polygonal oscillation cracks and gas domes, erosional remnants and pockets, and mat chips. Microscopic MISS comprise tufts, sinoidal structures, and laminae fabrics; the microscopic laminae are composed of primary carbonaceous matter, pyrite, and hematite, plus trapped and bound grains. Identical suites of MISS occur in equivalent environmental settings through the entire subsequent history of Earth including the present time. This work extends the geological record of MISS by almost 300 million years. Complex mat-forming microbial communities likely existed almost 3.5 billion years ago. Key Words: Archean—Biofilms—Microbial mats—Early Earth—Evolution. Astrobiology 13, 1103–1124. PMID:24205812

  5. Bioremediation of Cd by strain GZ-22 isolated from mine soil based on biosorption and microbially induced carbonate precipitation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yue; Yao, Jun; Yuan, Zhimin; Wang, Tianqi; Zhang, Yiyue; Wang, Fei

    2017-01-01

    Microbially induced carbonate precipitation (MICP) is an emerging and promising bioremediation technology to restore the environment polluted by heavy metals. Carbonate-biomineralization microbe can immobilize heavy metals from mobile species into stable crystals. In the present manuscript, laboratory batch studies were conducted to evaluate the Cd removal ability based on biosorption and MICP, using carbonate-biomineralization microbe GZ-22 isolated from a mine soil. This strain was identified as a Bacillus sp. according to 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis. Results of batch experiments revealed that MICP of the strain GZ-22 showed a greater potential to remove Cd than biomass biosorption under different impact factors such as pH, initial Cd concentration, and contact time. The optimum pH for MICP was 6 (50.34 %), while for biomass biosorption, it was 5 (38.81 %). When the initial concentration of Cd was 10 mg/L, removal efficiency induced by MICP was 53.06 % after 3 h, which was about 11 % greater than the removal efficiency induced by adsorption. The Cd removal efficiency increased as reaction time. The maximum removal efficiency based on MICP can reach 60.72 % at 10 mg/L for 48 h compared with 56.27 % by biosorption. X-ray diffractomer (XRD) revealed that Cd was transformed into CdCO 3 by MICP of GZ-22. The present illustrated that the carbonate-biomineralization microbe GZ-22 can offer an effective and eco-friendly approach to immobilize soluble Cd and that MICP may play an important role in heavy metal bioremediation.

  6. Blue light induced free radicals from riboflavin in degradation of crystal violet by microbial viability evaluation.

    PubMed

    Liang, Ji-Yuan; Yuann, Jeu-Ming P; Hsie, Zong-Jhe; Huang, Shiuh-Tsuen; Chen, Chiing-Chang

    2017-09-01

    Crystal violet (CV) is applied in daily use mainly as a commercial dye and antimicrobial agent. Waste water containing CV may affect aquatic ecosystems. Riboflavin, also known as vitamin B 2 , is non-toxic and an essential vitamin required for the functions of the human body. Riboflavin is photosensitive to UV and visible light in terms of generating reactive oxygen species. This study investigated the potential application of blue light on riboflavin, so as to come up with an effective way of degrading CV during its treatment. Photosensitivity of CV leading to degradation in the presence of riboflavin was investigated by light intensity, exposure time, and irradiation dosage. The degradation of CV during riboflavin photolysis treatment was studied by a UV/vis spectrometry and chromatography. The effects of CV degradation on microbial viability are relevant when considering the influences on the ecosystem. This study proved that riboflavin photochemical treatment with blue light degrades CV dye by ROS formation. The riboflavin photolysis-treated CV solution appeared to be transparent during conformational transformations of the CV that was rearranged by free radical species generated from riboflavin photolysis. After riboflavin photolysis, colony-forming units (CFUs) were determined for each CV solution. CFU preservation was 85.2% for the CV dissolved riboflavin solution treated with blue light irradiation at 2.0mW/cm 2 for 120min. Degradation of CV by riboflavin photochemical procedures can greatly reduce antimicrobial ability and serve as an environmental friendly waste water treatment method. Our results presented here concerning riboflavin photolysis in degradation of CV provide a novel technique, and a simple and safe practice for environmental decontamination processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Microwave-assisted cross-linking of milk proteins induced by microbial transglutaminase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chun-Chi; Hsieh, Jung-Feng

    2016-12-01

    We investigated the combined effects of microbial transglutaminase (MTGase, 7.0 units/mL) and microwave irradiation (MI) on the polymerization of milk proteins at 30 °C for 3 h. The addition of MTGase caused the milk proteins to become polymerized, which resulted in the formation of components with a higher molecular-weight (>130 kDa). SDS-PAGE analysis revealed reductions in the protein content of β-lactoglobulin (β-LG), αS-casein (αS-CN), κ-casein (κ-CN) and β-casein (β-CN) to 50.4 ± 2.9, 33.5 ± 3.0, 4.2 ± 0.5 and 1.2 ± 0.1%, respectively. The use of MTGase in conjunction MI with led to a 3-fold increase in the rate of milk protein polymerization, compared to a sample that contained MTGase but did not undergo MI. Results of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) indicated that κ-CN, β-CN, a fraction of serum albumin (SA), β-LG, α-lactalbumin (α-LA), αs1-casein (αs1-CN), and αs2-casein (αs2-CN) were polymerized in the milk, following incubation with MTGase and MI at 30 °C for 1 h. Based on this result, the combined use of MTGase and MI appears to be a better way to polymerize milk proteins.

  8. Function of Platelet-Induced Epithelial Attachment at Titanium Surfaces Inhibits Microbial Colonization.

    PubMed

    Maeno, M; Lee, C; Kim, D M; Da Silva, J; Nagai, S; Sugawara, S; Nara, Y; Kihara, H; Nagai, M

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the barrier function of platelet-induced epithelial sheets on titanium surfaces. The lack of functional peri-implant epithelial sealing with basal lamina (BL) attachment at the interface of the implant and the adjacent epithelium allows for bacterial invasion, which may lead to peri-implantitis. Although various approaches have been reported to combat bacterial infection by surface modifications to titanium, none of these have been successful in a clinical application. In our previous study, surface modification with protease-activated receptor 4-activating peptide (PAR4-AP), which induced platelet activation and aggregation, was successful in demonstrating epithelial attachment via BL and epithelial sheet formation on the titanium surface. We hypothesized that the platelet-induced epithelial sheet on PAR4-AP-modified titanium surfaces would reduce bacterial attachment, penetration, and invasion. Titanium surface was modified with PAR4-AP and incubated with platelet-rich plasma (PRP). The aggregated platelets released collagen IV, a critical BL component, onto the PAR4-AP-modified titanium surface. Then, human gingival epithelial cells were seeded on the modified titanium surface and formed epithelial sheets. Green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing Escherichia coli was cultured onto PAR4-AP-modified titanium with and without epithelial sheet formation. While Escherichia coli accumulated densely onto the PAR4-AP titanium lacking epithelial sheet, few Escherichia coli were observed on the epithelial sheet on the PAR4-AP surface. No bacterial invasion into the interface of the epithelial sheet and the titanium surface was observed. These in vitro results indicate the efficacy of a platelet-induced epithelial barrier that functions to prevent bacterial attachment, penetration, and invasion on PAR4-AP-modified titanium.

  9. The Mechanism of Anaerobic (Microbial) Corrosion.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-01

    hydrogen sulfide reacts with hypophosphite (as well as phosphate and phosphite ) .to form, in the presence of mild steel, iron phosphide, simulating the...of phosphate and phosphite , but not hypophosphite, were observed to have become yellow in 24 hours. The yellow color disap- peared upon exposure to... product is an amorphous type of iron phosphide which can be !- detected b the formation of phos hine upon its acidification. Phosphine( in M IFO, 1473

  10. Archaebacterial Involvement in Microbial Metal Corrosion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-03-19

    viand /or + I A󈧅-o- - iP’ " ’ I m I I | | A more complete study using a wider range of sizes of organo groups is currently being completed to further...replaced with Dr. Boopathy, who comes from the University of Missouri. Through Dr. Rajogopal’s visit last year to work with the French-Georgia group ( Le

  11. Molecular Mechanisms of Microbially Facilitated Corrosion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-10-23

    fatty acids were recovered by acidification of the sediment residue in 50 ml of IN IICI. After being T I~~|~7 refluxed at 100*C for 3 h and cooled...sedli- Laure an reoic wle ments. Rlecent studies jtidiCate thait the planktonic bacterial ill Lt(!te rba fe ocean may also represent ii iiiiijor...11 Il 1 i13cides ill oil anld g gas well dilling mluds Ismith etl. 1I982 1 1. These ml.Iii(s can lie sand taifiyiecl ith an inials. Thew reef -bil i

  12. Detecting Microbially Induced Calcite Precipitation in a Model Well-Bore Using Downhole Low-Field NMR

    DOE PAGES

    Kirkland, Catherine M.; Zanetti, Sam; Grunewald, Elliot; ...

    2016-12-20

    Microbially induced calcite precipitation (MICP) has been widely researched recently due to its relevance for subsurface engineering applications including sealing leakage pathways and permeability modification. These applications of MICP are inherently difficult to monitor nondestructively in time and space. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) can characterize the pore size distributions, porosity, and permeability of subsurface formations. This investigation used a low-field NMR well-logging probe to monitor MICP in a sand-filled bioreactor, measuring NMR signal amplitude and T 2 relaxation over an 8 day experimental period. Following inoculation with the ureolytic bacteria, Sporosarcina pasteurii, and pulsed injections of urea and calcium substrate,more » the NMR measured water content in the reactor decreased to 76% of its initial value. T 2 relaxation distributions bifurcated from a single mode centered about approximately 650 ms into a fast decaying population ( T 2 less than 10 ms) and a larger population with T 2 greater than 1000 ms. The combination of changes in pore volume and surface minerology accounts for the changes in the T 2 distributions. Destructive sampling confirmed final porosity was approximately 88% of the original value. Here, these results indicate the low-field NMR well-logging probe is sensitive to the physical and chemical changes caused by MICP in a laboratory bioreactor.« less

  13. Detecting Microbially Induced Calcite Precipitation in a Model Well-Bore Using Downhole Low-Field NMR

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkland, Catherine M.; Zanetti, Sam; Grunewald, Elliot

    Microbially induced calcite precipitation (MICP) has been widely researched recently due to its relevance for subsurface engineering applications including sealing leakage pathways and permeability modification. These applications of MICP are inherently difficult to monitor nondestructively in time and space. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) can characterize the pore size distributions, porosity, and permeability of subsurface formations. This investigation used a low-field NMR well-logging probe to monitor MICP in a sand-filled bioreactor, measuring NMR signal amplitude and T 2 relaxation over an 8 day experimental period. Following inoculation with the ureolytic bacteria, Sporosarcina pasteurii, and pulsed injections of urea and calcium substrate,more » the NMR measured water content in the reactor decreased to 76% of its initial value. T 2 relaxation distributions bifurcated from a single mode centered about approximately 650 ms into a fast decaying population ( T 2 less than 10 ms) and a larger population with T 2 greater than 1000 ms. The combination of changes in pore volume and surface minerology accounts for the changes in the T 2 distributions. Destructive sampling confirmed final porosity was approximately 88% of the original value. Here, these results indicate the low-field NMR well-logging probe is sensitive to the physical and chemical changes caused by MICP in a laboratory bioreactor.« less

  14. HIV induces production of IL-18 from intestinal epithelial cells that increases intestinal permeability and microbial translocation

    PubMed Central

    Allam, Ossama; Samarani, Suzanne; Mehraj, Vikram; Jenabian, Mohammad-Ali; Tremblay, Cecile; Routy, Jean-Pierre; Amre, Devendra

    2018-01-01

    Interleukin-18 (IL-18) is a pleiotropic cytokine of the IL-1 family with multiple context dependent functions. We and others have shown that HIV infection is accompanied by increased circulating levels of IL-18 along with decreased levels of its antagonist, Interleukin-18 Binding Protein (IL-18BP). The infection is also accompanied by intestinal inflammation and decreased intestinal integrity as measured by intestinal permeability, regeneration and repair. However, little is known concerning the relation between high level of IL-18 associated with the viral infection and intestinal permeability. Here we demonstrate that HIV treatment increases production of IL-18 and decreases that of IL-18BP production in human intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) lines. IL-18 causes apoptosis of the IEC by activating caspase-1 and caspase-3. It induces epithelial barrier hyperpermeability by decreasing and disrupting both tight and adherens junction proteins, occludin, claudin 2 and beta-catenin. Disorganization of F-actin was also observed in the IEC that were exposed to the cytokine. Moreover IL-18 decreases transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) in Caco-2 and increases permeability in HT29 monolayers. The cells’ treatment with IL-18 causes an increase in the expression of phosphorylated myosin II regulatory light-chain (p-MLC) and myosin light-chain kinase (MLCK), and a decrease in phosphorylated Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription (p-STAT)-5. This increase in p-MLC is suppressed by a Rho-kinase (ROCK)-specific inhibitor. Interestingly, the levels of the cytokine correlate with those of LPS in the circulation in three different categories of HIV infected patients (HAART-naïve and HAART-treated HIV-infected individuals, and Elite controls) as well as in healthy controls. Collectively, these results suggest that the HIV-induced IL-18 plays a role in increased intestinal permeability and microbial translocation observed in HIV-infected individuals. PMID:29601578

  15. Ultrasonic Guided Wave Technology for Non-Invasive Assessment of Corrosion-Induced Damage in Piping for Pollution Prevention in DOD Fuel Storage Facilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-01

    using a mixture of rock salt and tap water. A combination of lacquer and duct tape was used to mask the desired corrosion areas and to prevent excessive...Corrosion Measurements," NDT efT E International, Vol. 37, No.3, 2004, pp. 167-180. Demma, A, P. Cawley, M. Lowe and B. Pavlakovic, "The Effect of

  16. Variation of preserving organic matter bound in interlayer of montmorillonite induced by microbial metabolic process.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yulian; Dong, Faqin; Dai, Qunwei; Li, Gang; Ma, Jie

    2017-07-25

    This paper aimed to investigate the variation of preserving organic matter bound in the interlayer space of montmorillonite (Mt) induced by a microbe metabolic process. We selected Bacillus pumilus as the common soil native bacteria. The alteration of d 001 value, functional group, and C,N organic matter contents caused by bacteria were analyzed by XRD, FTIR, and elementary analyzer, respectively. XRD results showed that the d 001 value of montmorillonite increased with the concentration decreasing and decreased with the culture time increasing after interacting with bacteria indicating the interlayer space of montmorillonite was connected with the organic matter. The findings of long-term interaction by resetting culture conditions implied that the montmorillonite buffered the organic matter when the nutrition was enough and released again when the nutrition was lacking. The results of the elementary analyzer declared the content of organic matter was according to the d 001 value of montmorillonite and N organic matter which played a major impact. FTIR results confirmed that the Si-O stretching vibrations of Mt were affected by the functional group of organic matter. Our results showed that the montmorillonite under the influence of soil bacteria has a strong buffering capacity for preserving organic matter into the interlayer space in a short-term. It might provide critical implications for understanding the evolution process and the preservation of fertilization which was in the over-fertilization or less-fertilization conditions on farmland.

  17. Microbial community induces a plant defense system under growing on the lunar regolith analogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaetz, Irina; Mytrokhyn, Olexander; Lukashov, Dmitry; Mashkovska, Svitlana; Kozyrovska, Natalia; Foing, Bernard H.

    The lunar rock considered as a potential source of chemical elements essential for plant nutrition, however, this substrate is of a low bioavailability. The use of microorganisms for decomposition of silicate rocks and stimulation of plant growth is a key idea in precursory scenario of growing pioneer plants for a lunar base (Kozyrovska et al., 2004; 2006; Zaetz et al., 2006). In model experiments a consortium of well-defined plant-associated bacteria were used for growing of French marigold (Tagetes patula L.) in anorthosite, analogous to a lunar rock. Inoculated plants appeared better seed germination, more fast development and also increased accumulation of K, Mg, Mn, Co, Cu and lowered level of the toxic Zn, Ni, Cr, comparing to control tagetes'. Bacteria regulate metal homeostasis in plants by changing their bioavailability and by stimulating of plant defense mechanisms. Inoculated plants were being accommodated to growth under stress conditions on anorthosite used as a substrate. In contrast, control plants manifested a heavy metal-induced oxidative stress, as quantified by protein carbonyl accumulation. Depending on the plant organ sampled and developmental stage there were increases or loses in the antioxidant enzyme activities (guaiacol peroxidase and glutathione-S-transferase). These changes were most evident in inoculated plants. Production of phenolic compounds, known as antioxidants and heavy metal chelators, is rised in variants of inoculated marigolds. Guaiacol peroxidase plays the main role, finally, in a reducing toxicity of heavy metals in plant leaves, while glutathione-S-transferase and phenolics overcome stress in roots.

  18. Microbially induced selective flotation of sphalerite from galena using mineral-adapted strains of Bacillus megaterium.

    PubMed

    Vasanthakumar, B; Ravishankar, H; Subramanian, S

    2013-12-01

    The selective flotation of sphalerite from a sphalerite-galena mineral mixture has been achieved using cells and extracellular secretions of Bacillus megaterium after adaptation to the chosen minerals. The extracellular secretions obtained after thermolysis of bacterial cells adapted to sphalerite yield the highest flotation recovery of sphalerite with a selectivity index value of 24.5, in comparison to the other cellular and extra-cellular bio-reagents studied. The protein profile for the unadapted and mineral-adapted cells has been found to differ distinctly, attesting to variation in the yield and nature of extra-cellular polymeric substances (EPS). The changes induced in the bacterial cell wall components after adaptation to sphalerite or galena with respect to the contents of phosphate, uronic acid and acetylated sugars of B. megaterium have been quantified. The role of the dissolved metal ions from the minerals as well as that of the constituents of extracellular secretions in modulating the surface charge of the bacterial cells as well as the minerals under study has been confirmed using various enzymatic treatments of the bacterial cells. It has been demonstrated that the induction of additional molecular weight protein fractions as well as the higher amount of extracellular proteins and phosphate secreted after adaptation to sphalerite vis-à-vis galena are contributory factors for the selective separation of sphalerite from galena. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Diclofop-methyl affects microbial rhizosphere community and induces systemic acquired resistance in rice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Si; Li, Xingxing; Lavoie, Michel; Jin, Yujian; Xu, Jiahui; Fu, Zhengwei; Qian, Haifeng

    2017-01-01

    Diclofop-methyl (DM), a widely used herbicide in food crops, may partly contaminate the soil surface of natural ecosystems in agricultural area and exert toxic effects at low dose to nontarget plants. Even though rhizosphere microorganisms strongly interact with root cells, little is known regarding their potential modulating effect on herbicide toxicity in plants. Here we exposed rice seedlings (Xiushui 63) to 100μg/L DM for 2 to 8days and studied the effects of DM on rice rhizosphere microorganisms, rice systemic acquired resistance (SAR) and rice-microorganisms interactions. The results of metagenomic 16S rDNA Illumina tags show that DM increases bacterial biomass and affects their community structure in the rice rhizosphere. After DM treatment, the relative abundance of the bacterium genera Massilia and Anderseniella increased the most relative to the control. In parallel, malate and oxalate exudation by rice roots increased, potentially acting as a carbon source for several rhizosphere bacteria. Transcriptomic analyses suggest that DM induced SAR in rice seedlings through the salicylic acid (but not the jasmonic acid) signal pathway. This response to DM stress conferred resistance to infection by a pathogenic bacterium, but was not influenced by the presence of bacteria in the rhizosphere since SAR transcripts did not change significantly in xenic and axenic plant roots exposed to DM. The present study provides new insights on the response of rice and its associated microorganisms to DM stress. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Microbially induced sedimentary structures recording an ancient ecosystem in the ca. 3.48 billion-year-old Dresser Formation, Pilbara, Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Noffke, Nora; Christian, Daniel; Wacey, David; Hazen, Robert M

    2013-12-01

    Microbially induced sedimentary structures (MISS) result from the response of microbial mats to physical sediment dynamics. MISS are cosmopolitan and found in many modern environments, including shelves, tidal flats, lagoons, riverine shores, lakes, interdune areas, and sabkhas. The structures record highly diverse communities of microbial mats and have been reported from numerous intervals in the geological record up to 3.2 billion years (Ga) old. This contribution describes a suite of MISS from some of the oldest well-preserved sedimentary rocks in the geological record, the early Archean (ca. 3.48 Ga) Dresser Formation, Western Australia. Outcrop mapping at the meter to millimeter scale defined five sub-environments characteristic of an ancient coastal sabkha. These sub-environments contain associations of distinct macroscopic and microscopic MISS. Macroscopic MISS include polygonal oscillation cracks and gas domes, erosional remnants and pockets, and mat chips. Microscopic MISS comprise tufts, sinoidal structures, and laminae fabrics; the microscopic laminae are composed of primary carbonaceous matter, pyrite, and hematite, plus trapped and bound grains. Identical suites of MISS occur in equivalent environmental settings through the entire subsequent history of Earth including the present time. This work extends the geological record of MISS by almost 300 million years. Complex mat-forming microbial communities likely existed almost 3.5 billion years ago.

  1. Accelerated Corrosion Testing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-01

    Treaty Organization, Brussels, 1971), p. 449. 14. D. 0. Sprowls, T. J. Summerson, G. M. Ugianski, S. G. Epstein, and H. L. Craig , Jr., in Stress...National Association of Corrosion Engineers Houston, TX, 1972). 22. H. L. Craig , Jr. (ed.), Stress Corrosion-New Approaches, ASTM-STP- 610 (American...62. M. Hishida and H. Nakada, Corrosion 33 (11) 403 (1977). b3. D. C. Deegan and B. E. Wilde, Corrosion 34 (6), 19 (1978). 64. S. Orman, Corrosion Sci

  2. Performance of Microbial Concrete Developed Using Bacillus Subtilus JC3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, M. V. Seshagiri; Reddy, V. Srinivasa; Sasikala, Ch.

    2017-12-01

    Concrete is vulnerable to deterioration, corrosion, and cracks, and the consequent damage and loss of strength requires immensely expensive remediation and repair. So need for special concrete that they would respond to crack formation with an autonomous self-healing action lead to research and development of microbial concrete. The microbial concrete works on the principle of calcite mineral precipitation by a specific group of alkali-resistant spore-forming bacteria related to the genus Bacillus called Bacillus subtilis JC3, this phenomenon is called biomineralization or Microbiologically Induced Calcite Crystal Precipitation. Bacillus subtilis JC3, a common soil bacterium, has inherent ability to precipitate calcite crystals continuously which enhances the strength and durability performance of concrete enormously. This microbial concrete can be called as a "Self healing Bacterial Concrete" because it can remediate its cracks by itself without any human intervention and would make the concrete more durable and sustainable. This paper discuss the incorporation of microorganism Bacillus subtilis JC3 (developed at JNTU, India) into concrete and presents the results of experimental investigations carried out to study the improved durability and sustainability characteristics of microbial concrete.

  3. Competition between autotrophic and heterotrophic microbial plankton for inorganic nutrients induced by variability in estuarine biophysicochemical conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, A.; Quigg, A.

    2016-02-01

    Competition for inorganic nutrients between autotrophic and heterotrophic fractions of microbial plankton (0.2-20μm) was investigated at two stations in a sub-tropical estuary, Galveston Bay, Texas. Competition potential between these groups is enhanced because individuals are similar in size, reducing variability among their nutrient uptake efficiencies. Further, in estuaries, allochthonous supplements to autochthonous carbon may satisfy heterotrophic requirements, allowing alternative factors to limit abundance. The relative abundance of autotrophs and heterotrophs stained with SYBR Green I and enumerated on a Beckman Coulter Gallios flow cytometer were evaluated monthly during a year-long study. Shifts in the relative in situ abundance were significantly related to temperature, dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN), phosphorous (Pi), and total organic carbon (TOC) concentrations revealing opposing gradients of limitation by different abiotic factors. In corresponding in vitro nutrient enrichment bioassays the relative contribution of autotrophic or heterotrophic microbial plankton to significant enrichment responses varied. Only during macro- (>20μm) phytoplankton blooms do autotrophic microbial plankton respond to nutrient enrichment. Contrastingly, the heterotrophic microbial plankton responded to nutrient enrichment primarily when temperature limitation was alleviated. Therefore, the potential for autotrophic and heterotrophic microbial plankton competition for limiting nutrients is highest when autotrophic microbial plankton are also competing with larger phytoplankton during bloom events. Based on this evidence, we hypothesize that the autotrophic microbial fraction has a competitive advantage over the heterotrophs for inorganic nutrients in Galveston Bay. The observed microbial competition during estuarine phytoplankton blooms may have important consequences on biogeochemical processes including carbon and nutrient cycling.

  4. Microbial Fingerprints of Community Structure Correlate with Changes in Ecosystem Function Induced by Perturbing the Redox Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, A. L.; Ford, R. M.; Vallino, J. J.; Herman, J. S.; Hornberger, G. M.

    2001-12-01

    Restoration of high-quality groundwater has been an elusive engineering goal. Consequently, natural microbially-mediated reactions are increasingly relied upon to degrade organic contaminants, including hydrocarbons and many synthetic compounds. Of concern is how the introduction of an organic chemical contaminant affects the indigenous microbial communities, the geochemistry of the aquifer, and the function of the ecosystem. The presence of functional redundancy in microbial communities suggests that recovery of the community after a disturbance such as a contamination event could easily result in a community that is similar in function to that which existed prior to the contamination, but which is compositionally quite different. To investigate the relationship between community structure and function we observed the response of a diverse microbial community obtained from raw sewage to a dynamic redox environment using an aerobic/anaerobic/aerobic cycle. To evaluate changes in community function CO2, pH, ammonium and nitrate levels were monitored. A phylogenetically-based DNA technique (tRFLP) was used to assess changes in microbial community structure. Principal component analysis of the tRFLP data revealed significant changes in the composition of the microbial community that correlated well with changes in community function. Results from our experiments will be discussed in the context of a metabolic model based the biogeochemistry of the system. The governing philosophy of this thermodynamically constrained metabolic model is that living systems synthesize and allocate cellular machinery in such a way as to "optimally" utilize available resources in the environment. The robustness of this optimization-based approach provides a powerful tool for studying relationships between microbial diversity and ecosystem function.

  5. Corrosion science, corrosion engineering, and advanced technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Latanision, R.M.

    1995-04-01

    Professor R.M. Latanision was the 1994 recipient of the Willis Rodney Whitney Award sponsored by NACE International. The present work is taken from his award lecture at CORROSION/94 held in March 1994 in Baltimore, MD. Latanision discussed the interplay between corrosion science and corrosion engineering in advancing technology. His lecture focused on supercritical water oxidation and other technologies that have been under study in the H.H. Uhlig Corrosion Laboratory and in which the chemical properties of new materials and traditional materials have proven integral to the development of contemporary or advanced engineering systems.

  6. Complementary Microorganisms in Highly Corrosive Biofilms from an Offshore Oil Production Facility.

    PubMed

    Vigneron, Adrien; Alsop, Eric B; Chambers, Brian; Lomans, Bartholomeus P; Head, Ian M; Tsesmetzis, Nicolas

    2016-04-01

    Offshore oil production facilities are frequently victims of internal piping corrosion, potentially leading to human and environmental risks and significant economic losses. Microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) is believed to be an important factor in this major problem for the petroleum industry. However, knowledge of the microbial communities and metabolic processes leading to corrosion is still limited. Therefore, the microbial communities from three anaerobic biofilms recovered from the inside of a steel pipe exhibiting high corrosion rates, iron oxide deposits, and substantial amounts of sulfur, which are characteristic of MIC, were analyzed in detail. Bacterial and archaeal community structures were investigated by automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis, multigenic (16S rRNA and functional genes) high-throughput Illumina MiSeq sequencing, and quantitative PCR analysis. The microbial community analysis indicated that bacteria, particularly Desulfovibrio species, dominated the biofilm microbial communities. However, other bacteria, such as Pelobacter, Pseudomonas, and Geotoga, as well as various methanogenic archaea, previously detected in oil facilities were also detected. The microbial taxa and functional genes identified suggested that the biofilm communities harbored the potential for a number of different but complementary metabolic processes and that MIC in oil facilities likely involves a range of microbial metabolisms such as sulfate, iron, and elemental sulfur reduction. Furthermore, extreme corrosion leading to leakage and exposure of the biofilms to the external environment modify the microbial community structure by promoting the growth of aerobic hydrocarbon-degrading organisms. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  7. Complementary Microorganisms in Highly Corrosive Biofilms from an Offshore Oil Production Facility

    PubMed Central

    Alsop, Eric B.; Chambers, Brian; Lomans, Bartholomeus P.; Head, Ian M.; Tsesmetzis, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Offshore oil production facilities are frequently victims of internal piping corrosion, potentially leading to human and environmental risks and significant economic losses. Microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) is believed to be an important factor in this major problem for the petroleum industry. However, knowledge of the microbial communities and metabolic processes leading to corrosion is still limited. Therefore, the microbial communities from three anaerobic biofilms recovered from the inside of a steel pipe exhibiting high corrosion rates, iron oxide deposits, and substantial amounts of sulfur, which are characteristic of MIC, were analyzed in detail. Bacterial and archaeal community structures were investigated by automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis, multigenic (16S rRNA and functional genes) high-throughput Illumina MiSeq sequencing, and quantitative PCR analysis. The microbial community analysis indicated that bacteria, particularly Desulfovibrio species, dominated the biofilm microbial communities. However, other bacteria, such as Pelobacter, Pseudomonas, and Geotoga, as well as various methanogenic archaea, previously detected in oil facilities were also detected. The microbial taxa and functional genes identified suggested that the biofilm communities harbored the potential for a number of different but complementary metabolic processes and that MIC in oil facilities likely involves a range of microbial metabolisms such as sulfate, iron, and elemental sulfur reduction. Furthermore, extreme corrosion leading to leakage and exposure of the biofilms to the external environment modify the microbial community structure by promoting the growth of aerobic hydrocarbon-degrading organisms. PMID:26896143

  8. Microbial metabolisms in a 2.5-km-deep ecosystem created by hydraulic fracturing in shales

    SciTech Connect

    Daly, Rebecca A.; Borton, Mikayla A.; Wilkins, Michael J.

    Hydraulic fracturing is the industry standard for extracting hydrocarbons from shale formations. Attention has been paid to the economic benefits and environmental impacts of this process, yet the biogeochemical changes induced in the deep subsurface are poorly understood. Recent single-gene investigations revealed that halotolerant microbial communities were enriched after hydraulic fracturing. Here the reconstruction of 31 unique genomes coupled to metabolite data from the Marcellus and Utica shales revealed that methylamine cycling supports methanogenesis in the deep biosphere. Fermentation of injected chemical additives also sustains long-term microbial persistence, while sulfide generation from thiosulfate represents a poorly recognized corrosion mechanism inmore » shales. Extensive links between viruses and microbial hosts demonstrate active viral predation, which may contribute to the release of labile cellular constituents into the extracellular environment. Our analyses show that hydraulic fracturing provides the organismal and chemical inputs for colonization and persistence in the deep terrestrial subsurface.« less

  9. Microbial metabolisms in a 2.5-km-deep ecosystem created by hydraulic fracturing in shales.

    PubMed

    Daly, Rebecca A; Borton, Mikayla A; Wilkins, Michael J; Hoyt, David W; Kountz, Duncan J; Wolfe, Richard A; Welch, Susan A; Marcus, Daniel N; Trexler, Ryan V; MacRae, Jean D; Krzycki, Joseph A; Cole, David R; Mouser, Paula J; Wrighton, Kelly C

    2016-09-05

    Hydraulic fracturing is the industry standard for extracting hydrocarbons from shale formations. Attention has been paid to the economic benefits and environmental impacts of this process, yet the biogeochemical changes induced in the deep subsurface are poorly understood. Recent single-gene investigations revealed that halotolerant microbial communities were enriched after hydraulic fracturing. Here, the reconstruction of 31 unique genomes coupled to metabolite data from the Marcellus and Utica shales revealed that many of the persisting organisms play roles in methylamine cycling, ultimately supporting methanogenesis in the deep biosphere. Fermentation of injected chemical additives also sustains long-term microbial persistence, while thiosulfate reduction could produce sulfide, contributing to reservoir souring and infrastructure corrosion. Extensive links between viruses and microbial hosts demonstrate active viral predation, which may contribute to the release of labile cellular constituents into the extracellular environment. Our analyses show that hydraulic fracturing provides the organismal and chemical inputs for colonization and persistence in the deep terrestrial subsurface.

  10. Isolation of Acetogenic Bacteria That Induce Biocorrosion by Utilizing Metallic Iron as the Sole Electron Donor

    PubMed Central

    Yumoto, Isao; Kamagata, Yoichi

    2014-01-01

    Corrosion of iron occurring under anoxic conditions, which is termed microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) or biocorrosion, is mostly caused by microbial activities. Microbial activity that enhances corrosion via uptake of electrons from metallic iron [Fe(0)] has been regarded as one of the major causative factors. In addition to sulfate-reducing bacteria and methanogenic archaea in marine environments, acetogenic bacteria in freshwater environments have recently been suggested to cause MIC under anoxic conditions. However, no microorganisms that perform acetogenesis-dependent MIC have been isolated or had their MIC-inducing mechanisms characterized. Here, we enriched and isolated acetogenic bacteria that induce iron corrosion by utilizing Fe(0) as the sole electron donor under freshwater, sulfate-free, and anoxic conditions. The enriched communities produced significantly larger amounts of Fe(II) than the abiotic controls and produced acetate coupled with Fe(0) oxidation prior to CH4 production. Microbial community analysis revealed that Sporomusa sp. and Desulfovibrio sp. dominated in the enrichments. Strain GT1, which is closely related to the acetogen Sporomusa sphaeroides, was eventually isolated from the enrichment. Strain GT1 grew acetogenetically with Fe(0) as the sole electron donor and enhanced iron corrosion, which is the first demonstration of MIC mediated by a pure culture of an acetogen. Other well-known acetogenic bacteria, including Sporomusa ovata and Acetobacterium spp., did not grow well on Fe(0). These results indicate that very few species of acetogens have specific mechanisms to efficiently utilize cathodic electrons derived from Fe(0) oxidation and induce iron corrosion. PMID:25304512

  11. Isolation of acetogenic bacteria that induce biocorrosion by utilizing metallic iron as the sole electron donor.

    PubMed

    Kato, Souichiro; Yumoto, Isao; Kamagata, Yoichi

    2015-01-01

    Corrosion of iron occurring under anoxic conditions, which is termed microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) or biocorrosion, is mostly caused by microbial activities. Microbial activity that enhances corrosion via uptake of electrons from metallic iron [Fe(0)] has been regarded as one of the major causative factors. In addition to sulfate-reducing bacteria and methanogenic archaea in marine environments, acetogenic bacteria in freshwater environments have recently been suggested to cause MIC under anoxic conditions. However, no microorganisms that perform acetogenesis-dependent MIC have been isolated or had their MIC-inducing mechanisms characterized. Here, we enriched and isolated acetogenic bacteria that induce iron corrosion by utilizing Fe(0) as the sole electron donor under freshwater, sulfate-free, and anoxic conditions. The enriched communities produced significantly larger amounts of Fe(II) than the abiotic controls and produced acetate coupled with Fe(0) oxidation prior to CH4 production. Microbial community analysis revealed that Sporomusa sp. and Desulfovibrio sp. dominated in the enrichments. Strain GT1, which is closely related to the acetogen Sporomusa sphaeroides, was eventually isolated from the enrichment. Strain GT1 grew acetogenetically with Fe(0) as the sole electron donor and enhanced iron corrosion, which is the first demonstration of MIC mediated by a pure culture of an acetogen. Other well-known acetogenic bacteria, including Sporomusa ovata and Acetobacterium spp., did not grow well on Fe(0). These results indicate that very few species of acetogens have specific mechanisms to efficiently utilize cathodic electrons derived from Fe(0) oxidation and induce iron corrosion. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  12. Corrosion consequences of microfouling in water reclamation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, Tim; Mitchell, Ralph

    1991-01-01

    This paper examines the potential fouling and corrosion problems associated with microbial film formation throughout the water reclamation system (WRS) designed for the Space Station Freedom. It is shown that the use of advanced metal sputtering techiques combined with image analysis and FTIR spectroscopy will present realistic solutions for investigating the formation and function of biofilm on different alloys, the subsequent corrosion, and the efficiency of different treatments. These techniques, used in combination with electrochemical measurements of corrosion, will provide a powerful approach to examinations of materials considered for use in the WRS.

  13. Characterization of sulfur oxidizing bacteria related to biogenic sulfuric acid corrosion in sludge digesters.

    PubMed

    Huber, Bettina; Herzog, Bastian; Drewes, Jörg E; Koch, Konrad; Müller, Elisabeth

    2016-07-18

    Biogenic sulfuric acid (BSA) corrosion damages sewerage and wastewater treatment facilities but is not well investigated in sludge digesters. Sulfur/sulfide oxidizing bacteria (SOB) oxidize sulfur compounds to sulfuric acid, inducing BSA corrosion. To obtain more information on BSA corrosion in sludge digesters, microbial communities from six different, BSA-damaged, digesters were analyzed using culture dependent methods and subsequent polymerase chain reaction denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE). BSA production was determined in laboratory scale systems with mixed and pure cultures, and in-situ with concrete specimens from the digester headspace and sludge zones. The SOB Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans, Thiomonas intermedia, and Thiomonas perometabolis were cultivated and compared to PCR-DGGE results, revealing the presence of additional acidophilic and neutrophilic SOB. Sulfate concentrations of 10-87 mmol/L after 6-21 days of incubation (final pH 1.0-2.0) in mixed cultures, and up to 433 mmol/L after 42 days (final pH <1.0) in pure A. thiooxidans cultures showed huge sulfuric acid production potentials. Additionally, elevated sulfate concentrations in the corroded concrete of the digester headspace in contrast to the concrete of the sludge zone indicated biological sulfur/sulfide oxidation. The presence of SOB and confirmation of their sulfuric acid production under laboratory conditions reveal that these organisms might contribute to BSA corrosion within sludge digesters. Elevated sulfate concentrations on the corroded concrete wall in the digester headspace (compared to the sludge zone) further indicate biological sulfur/sulfide oxidation in-situ. For the first time, SOB presence and activity is directly relatable to BSA corrosion in sludge digesters.

  14. Irradiation-induced sensitization and stress corrosion cracking of Type 304 stainless steel core-internal components

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, H.M.; Ruther, W.E.; Sanecki, J.E.

    1991-08-01

    High- and commercial-purity heats of Type 304 stainless steel, obtained from neutron absorber tubes after irradiation to fluence levels of up to 2 {times} 10{sup 21} n{center dot}cm{sup {minus}2} (E > 1 MeV) in two boiling water reactors, were examined by Auger electron spectroscopy to characterize irradiation-induced grain- boundary segregation and depletion of alloying and impurity elements. Segregation of Si, P, Ni, and an unidentified element or compound that gives rise to an Auger energy peak at 59 eV was observed in the commercial-purity heat. Such segregation was negligible in high-purity material, except for Ni. No evidence of S segregationmore » was observed in either material. Cr depletion was more pronounced in the high-purity material than in the commercial-purity material. These observations suggest a synergism between the significant level of impurities and Cr depletion in the commercial-purity heat. In the absence of such synergism, Cr depletion appears more pronounced in the high-purity heat. Initial results of constant-extension-rate tests conducted on the two heats in air an in simulated BWR water were correlated with the results from analysis by Auger electron spectroscopy. 15 refs., 10 figs.« less

  15. Corrosion protection and steel-concrete bond improvement of prestressing strand.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2012-12-01

    Corrosion can lead to the premature deterioration and failure of transportation structures. In pre-stressed bridge structures corrosion is more severe, : leading to sudden failures when cracking is induced at pitting sites by tensile or compressive s...

  16. Corrosion protection of prestressing strand in transportation structures and strand-concrete bond improvement.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2012-12-01

    Corrosion can lead to the premature deterioration and failure of transportation structures. In pre-stressed bridge structures corrosion is more severe, : leading to sudden failures when cracking is induced at pitting sites by tensile or compressive s...

  17. Corrosion Protection: Concrete Bridges

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1998-09-01

    Premature corrosion of reinforcing steel has caused many concrete bridges in the United States to deteriorate before their design life was attained. Recognizing the burden that reinforcing steel corrosion imposes on natural resources, the Federal Hig...

  18. Duralumin and Its Corrosion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, WM

    1927-01-01

    The types of corrosion and factors of corrosion of duralumin are investigated. Salt water is the most common of the corroding media with which designers have to contend in using duralumin in aircraft and ships.

  19. Corrosion inhibiting organic coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Sasson, E.

    1984-10-16

    A corrosion inhibiting coating comprises a mixture of waxes, petroleum jelly, a hardener and a solvent. In particular, a corrosion inhibiting coating comprises candelilla wax, carnauba wax, microcrystalline waxes, white petrolatum, an oleoresin, lanolin and a solvent.

  20. Giardia duodenalis-induced alterations of commensal bacteria kill Caenorhabditis elegans: a new model to study microbial-microbial interactions in the gut

    PubMed Central

    Gerbaba, Teklu K.; Gupta, Pratyush; Rioux, Kevin; Hansen, Dave

    2015-01-01

    Giardia duodenalis is the most common cause of parasitic diarrhea worldwide and a well-established risk factor for postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome. We hypothesized that Giardia-induced disruptions in host-microbiota interactions may play a role in the pathogenesis of giardiasis and in postgiardiasis disease. Functional changes induced by Giardia in commensal bacteria and the resulting effects on Caenorhabditis elegans were determined. Although Giardia or bacteria alone did not affect worm viability, combining commensal Escherichia coli bacteria with Giardia became lethal to C. elegans. Giardia also induced killing of C. elegans with attenuated Citrobacter rodentium espF and map mutant strains, human microbiota from a healthy donor, and microbiota from inflamed colonic sites of ulcerative colitis patient. In contrast, combinations of Giardia with microbiota from noninflamed sites of the same patient allowed for worm survival. The synergistic lethal effects of Giardia and E. coli required the presence of live bacteria and were associated with the facilitation of bacterial colonization in the C. elegans intestine. Exposure to C. elegans and/or Giardia altered the expression of 172 genes in E. coli. The genes affected by Giardia included hydrogen sulfide biosynthesis (HSB) genes, and deletion of a positive regulator of HSB genes, cysB, was sufficient to kill C. elegans even in the absence of Giardia. Our findings indicate that Giardia induces functional changes in commensal bacteria, possibly making them opportunistic pathogens, and alters host-microbe homeostatic interactions. This report describes the use of a novel in vivo model to assess the toxicity of human microbiota. PMID:25573177

  1. DNA Isolation of Microbial Contaminants in Aviation Turbine Fuel via Traditional Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and Direct PCR. Preliminary Results

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-11-01

    fuel gauge malfunctions, fuel line and filter plugging, and corrosion. As a result, there is considerable interest in identifying microbial growth ...corrosion. As a result, there is considerable interest in identifying microbial growth and finding strategies to mitigate it. Previous research to... Rhodotorula sp. Yes Yes Trichosporium sp. Yes Trichoderma sp. (viride + others) Yes Yes 4 Table 2. Culturability Determined as a Percentage of

  2. Subtle shifts in microbial communities occur alongside the release of carbon induced by drought and rewetting in contrasting peatland ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Potter, Caitlin; Freeman, Chris; Golyshin, Peter N; Ackermann, Gail; Fenner, Nathalie; McDonald, James E; Ehbair, Abdassalam; Jones, Timothy G; Murphy, Loretta M; Creer, Simon

    2017-09-12

    Peat represents a globally significant pool of sequestered carbon. However, peatland carbon stocks are highly threatened by anthropogenic climate change, including drought, which leads to a large release of carbon dioxide. Although the enzymatic mechanisms underlying drought-driven carbon release are well documented, the effect of drought on peatland microbial communities has been little studied. Here, we carried out a replicated and controlled drought manipulation using intact peat 'mesocosm cores' taken from bog and fen habitats, and used a combination of community fingerprinting and sequencing of marker genes to identify community changes associated with drought. Community composition varied with habitat and depth. Moreover, community differences between mesocosm cores were stronger than the effect of the drought treatment, emphasising the importance of replication in microbial marker gene studies. While the effect of drought on the overall composition of prokaryotic and eukaryotic communities was weak, a subset of the microbial community did change in relative abundance, especially in the fen habitat at 5 cm depth. 'Drought-responsive' OTUs were disproportionately drawn from the phyla Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria. Collectively, the data provide insights into the microbial community changes occurring alongside drought-driven carbon release from peatlands, and suggest a number of novel avenues for future research.

  3. Estimation of the chemical-induced eye injury using a Weight-of-Evidence (WoE) battery of 21 artificial neural network (ANN) c-QSAR models (QSAR-21): part II: corrosion potential.

    PubMed

    Verma, Rajeshwar P; Matthews, Edwin J

    2015-03-01

    This is part II of an in silico investigation of chemical-induced eye injury that was conducted at FDA's CFSAN. Serious eye damage caused by chemical (eye corrosion) is assessed using the rabbit Draize test, and this endpoint is an essential part of hazard identification and labeling of industrial and consumer products to ensure occupational and consumer safety. There is an urgent need to develop an alternative to the Draize test because EU's 7th amendment to the Cosmetic Directive (EC, 2003; 76/768/EEC) and recast Regulation now bans animal testing on all cosmetic product ingredients and EU's REACH Program limits animal testing for chemicals in commerce. Although in silico methods have been reported for eye irritation (reversible damage), QSARs specific for eye corrosion (irreversible damage) have not been published. This report describes the development of 21 ANN c-QSAR models (QSAR-21) for assessing eye corrosion potential of chemicals using a large and diverse CFSAN data set of 504 chemicals, ADMET Predictor's three sensitivity analyses and ANNE classification functionalities with 20% test set selection from seven different methods. QSAR-21 models were internally and externally validated and exhibited high predictive performance: average statistics for the training, verification, and external test sets of these models were 96/96/94% sensitivity and 91/91/90% specificity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Interruption of Electrical Conductivity of Titanium Dental Implants Suggests a Path Towards Elimination Of Corrosion.

    PubMed

    Pozhitkov, Alex E; Daubert, Diane; Brochwicz Donimirski, Ashley; Goodgion, Douglas; Vagin, Mikhail Y; Leroux, Brian G; Hunter, Colby M; Flemmig, Thomas F; Noble, Peter A; Bryers, James D

    2015-01-01

    Peri-implantitis is an inflammatory disease that results in the destruction of soft tissue and bone around the implant. Titanium implant corrosion has been attributed to the implant failure and cytotoxic effects to the alveolar bone. We have documented the extent of titanium release into surrounding plaque in patients with and without peri-implantitis. An in vitro model was designed to represent the actual environment of an implant in a patient's mouth. The model uses actual oral microbiota from a volunteer, allows monitoring electrochemical processes generated by biofilms growing on implants and permits control of biocorrosion electrical current. As determined by next generation DNA sequencing, microbial compositions in experiments with the in vitro model were comparable with the compositions found in patients with implants. It was determined that the electrical conductivity of titanium implants was the key factor responsible for the biocorrosion process. The interruption of the biocorrosion current resulted in a 4-5 fold reduction of corrosion. We propose a new design of dental implant that combines titanium in zero oxidation state for osseointegration and strength, interlaid with a nonconductive ceramic. In addition, we propose electrotherapy for manipulation of microbial biofilms and to induce bone healing in peri-implantitis patients.

  5. Interruption of Electrical Conductivity of Titanium Dental Implants Suggests a Path Towards Elimination Of Corrosion

    PubMed Central

    Pozhitkov, Alex E.; Daubert, Diane; Brochwicz Donimirski, Ashley; Goodgion, Douglas; Vagin, Mikhail Y.; Leroux, Brian G.; Hunter, Colby M.; Flemmig, Thomas F.; Noble, Peter A.; Bryers, James D.

    2015-01-01

    Peri-implantitis is an inflammatory disease that results in the destruction of soft tissue and bone around the implant. Titanium implant corrosion has been attributed to the implant failure and cytotoxic effects to the alveolar bone. We have documented the extent of titanium release into surrounding plaque in patients with and without peri-implantitis. An in vitro model was designed to represent the actual environment of an implant in a patient’s mouth. The model uses actual oral microbiota from a volunteer, allows monitoring electrochemical processes generated by biofilms growing on implants and permits control of biocorrosion electrical current. As determined by next generation DNA sequencing, microbial compositions in experiments with the in vitro model were comparable with the compositions found in patients with implants. It was determined that the electrical conductivity of titanium implants was the key factor responsible for the biocorrosion process. The interruption of the biocorrosion current resulted in a 4–5 fold reduction of corrosion. We propose a new design of dental implant that combines titanium in zero oxidation state for osseointegration and strength, interlaid with a nonconductive ceramic. In addition, we propose electrotherapy for manipulation of microbial biofilms and to induce bone healing in peri-implantitis patients. PMID:26461491

  6. Timescale Correlation between Marine Atmospheric Exposure and Accelerated Corrosion Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, Eliza L.; Calle, Luz Marina; Curran, Jerone C.; Kolody, Mark R.

    2011-01-01

    Evaluation of metal-based structures has long relied on atmospheric exposure test sites to determine corrosion resistance in marine environments. Traditional accelerated corrosion testing relies on mimicking the exposure conditions, often incorporating salt spray and ultraviolet (UV) radiation, and exposing the metal to continuous or cyclic conditions of the corrosive environment. Their success for correlation to atmospheric exposure is often a concern when determining the timescale to which the accelerated tests can be related. Accelerated laboratory testing, which often focuses on the electrochemical reactions that occur during corrosion conditions, has yet to be universally accepted as a useful tool in predicting the long term service life of a metal despite its ability to rapidly induce corrosion. Although visual and mass loss methods of evaluating corrosion are the standard and their use is imperative, a method that correlates timescales from atmospheric exposure to accelerated testing would be very valuable. This work uses surface chemistry to interpret the chemical changes occurring on low carbon steel during atmospheric and accelerated corrosion conditions with the objective of finding a correlation between its accelerated and long-term corrosion performance. The current results of correlating data from marine atmospheric exposure conditions at the Kennedy Space Center beachside corrosion test site, alternating seawater spray, and immersion in typical electrochemical laboratory conditions, will be presented. Key words: atmospheric exposure, accelerated corrosion testing, alternating seawater spray, marine, correlation, seawater, carbon steel, long-term corrosion performance prediction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

  7. Corrosion initiation and propagation behavior of corrosion resistant concrete reinforcing materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurley, Michael F.

    The life of a concrete structure exposed to deicing compounds or seawater is often limited by chloride induced corrosion of the steel reinforcement. In this study, the key material attributes that affect the corrosion initiation and propagation periods were studied. These included material composition, surface condition, ageing time, propagation behavior during active corrosion, morphology of attack, and type of corrosion products generated by each rebar material. The threshold chloride concentrations for solid 316LN stainless steel, 316L stainless steel clad over carbon steel, 2101 LDX, MMFX-2, and carbon steel rebar were investigated using electrochemical techniques in saturated calcium hydroxide solutions. Surface preparation, test method, duration of period exposed to a passivating condition prior to introduction of chloride, and presence of cladding defects all affected the threshold chloride concentration obtained. A model was implemented to predict the extension of time until corrosion initiation would be expected. 8 years was the predicted time to corrosion initiation for carbon steel. However, model results confirmed that use of 316LN may increase the time until onset of corrosion to 100 years or more. To assess the potential benefits afforded by new corrosion resistant rebar alloys from a corrosion resistance standpoint the corrosion propagation behavior and other factors that might affect the risk of corrosion-induced concrete cracking must also be considered. Radial pit growth was found to be ohmically controlled but repassivation occurred more readily at high potentials in the case of 316LN and 2101 stainless steels. The discovery of ohmically controlled propagation enabled transformation of propagation rates from simulated concrete pore solution to less conductive concrete by accounting for resistance changes in the surrounding medium. The corrosion propagation behavior as well as the morphology of attack directly affects the propensity for concrete

  8. Corrosion and Deterioration Testing in the Humid Tropic Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-21

    specimens while transporting the retrieved specimens back to the laboratories for detailed analysis . Preferably, each specimen should be wrapped...VEGETATION. Some types of vegetation tend to exude tannins , sugars, and other natural plant products which may support microbial growth and corrosion

  9. Microbial biofilm studies of the Environmental Control and Life Support System water recovery test for Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obenhuber, D. C.; Huff, T. L.; Rodgers, E. B.

    1991-01-01

    Analysis of biofilm accumulation, studies of iodine disinfection of biofilm, and the potential for microbially influenced corrosion in the water recovery test (WRT) are presented. The analysis of WRT components showed the presence of biofilms and organic deposits in selected tubing. Water samples from the WRT contained sulfate-reducing and acid-producing organisms implicated in corrosion processes. Corrosion of an aluminum alloy was accelerated in the presence of these water samples, but stainless steel corrosion rates were not accelerated.

  10. Dietary Prebiotics and Bioactive Milk Fractions Improve NREM Sleep, Enhance REM Sleep Rebound and Attenuate the Stress-Induced Decrease in Diurnal Temperature and Gut Microbial Alpha Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Robert S.; Roller, Rachel; Mika, Agnieszka; Greenwood, Benjamin N.; Knight, Rob; Chichlowski, Maciej; Berg, Brian M.; Fleshner, Monika

    2017-01-01

    Severe, repeated or chronic stress produces negative health outcomes including disruptions of the sleep/wake cycle and gut microbial dysbiosis. Diets rich in prebiotics and glycoproteins impact the gut microbiota and may increase gut microbial species that reduce the impact of stress. This experiment tested the hypothesis that consumption of dietary prebiotics, lactoferrin (Lf) and milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) will reduce the negative physiological impacts of stress. Male F344 rats, postnatal day (PND) 24, received a diet with prebiotics, Lf and MFGM (test) or a calorically matched control diet. Fecal samples were collected on PND 35/70/91 for 16S rRNA sequencing to examine microbial composition and, in a subset of rats; Lactobacillus rhamnosus was measured using selective culture. On PND 59, biotelemetry devices were implanted to record sleep/wake electroencephalographic (EEG). Rats were exposed to an acute stressor (100, 1.5 mA, tail shocks) on PND 87 and recordings continued until PND 94. Test diet, compared to control diet, increased fecal Lactobacillus rhamnosus colony forming units (CFU), facilitated non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep consolidation (PND 71/72) and enhanced rapid eye movement (REM) sleep rebound after stressor exposure (PND 87). Rats fed control diet had stress-induced reductions in alpha diversity and diurnal amplitude of temperature, which were attenuated by the test diet (PND 91). Stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed a significant linear relationship between early-life Deferribacteres (PND 35) and longer NREM sleep episodes (PND 71/72). A diet containing prebiotics, Lf and MFGM enhanced sleep quality, which was related to changes in gut bacteria and modulated the impact of stress on sleep, diurnal rhythms and the gut microbiota. PMID:28119579

  11. SRB seawater corrosion project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozack, M. J.

    1991-01-01

    The corrosion behavior of 2219 aluminum when exposed to seawater was characterized. Controlled corrosion experiments at three different temperatures (30, 60 and 100 C) and two different environments (seawater and 3.5 percent salt solution) were designed to elucidate the initial stages in the corrosion process. It was found that 2219 aluminum is an active catalytic surface for growth of Al2O3, NaCl, and MgO. Formation of Al2O3 is favored at lower temperatures, while MgO is favored at higher temperatures. Visible corrosion products are formed within 30 minutes after seawater exposure. Corrosion characteristics in 3.5 percent salt solution are different than corrosion in seawater. Techniques utilized were: (1) scanning electron microscopy, (2) energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, and (3) Auger electron spectroscopy.

  12. Stress corrosion resistant fasteners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roach, T. A.

    1985-01-01

    A family of high performance aerospace fasteners made from corrosion resistant alloys for use in applications where corrosion and stress-corrosion cracking are of major concern are discussed. The materials discussed are mainly A-286, Inconel 718, MP35N and MP159. Most of the fasteners utilize cold worked and aged materials to achieve the desired properties. The fasteners are unique in that they provide a combination of high strength and immunity to stress corrosion cracking not previously attainable. A discussion of fastener stress corrosion failures is presented including a review of the history and a description of the mechanism. Case histories are presented to illustrate the problems which can arise when material selection is made without proper regard for the environmental conditions. Mechanical properties and chemical compositions are included for the fasteners discussed. Several aspects of the application of high performance corrosion resistant fasteners are discussed including galvanic compatibility and torque-tension relationships.

  13. Evaluating Monitoring Strategies to Detect Precipitation-Induced Microbial Contamination Events in Karstic Springs Used for Drinking Water.

    PubMed

    Besmer, Michael D; Hammes, Frederik; Sigrist, Jürg A; Ort, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    Monitoring of microbial drinking water quality is a key component for ensuring safety and understanding risk, but conventional monitoring strategies are typically based on low sampling frequencies (e.g., quarterly or monthly). This is of concern because many drinking water sources, such as karstic springs are often subject to changes in bacterial concentrations on much shorter time scales (e.g., hours to days), for example after precipitation events. Microbial contamination events are crucial from a risk assessment perspective and should therefore be targeted by monitoring strategies to establish both the frequency of their occurrence and the magnitude of bacterial peak concentrations. In this study we used monitoring data from two specific karstic springs. We assessed the performance of conventional monitoring based on historical records and tested a number of alternative strategies based on a high-resolution data set of bacterial concentrations in spring water collected with online flow cytometry (FCM). We quantified the effect of increasing sampling frequency and found that for the specific case studied, at least bi-weekly sampling would be needed to detect precipitation events with a probability of >90%. We then proposed an optimized monitoring strategy with three targeted samples per event, triggered by precipitation measurements. This approach is more effective and efficient than simply increasing overall sampling frequency. It would enable the water utility to (1) analyze any relevant event and (2) limit median underestimation of peak concentrations to approximately 10%. We conclude with a generalized perspective on sampling optimization and argue that the assessment of short-term dynamics causing microbial peak loads initially requires increased sampling/analysis efforts, but can be optimized subsequently to account for limited resources. This offers water utilities and public health authorities systematic ways to evaluate and optimize their current

  14. Evaluating Monitoring Strategies to Detect Precipitation-Induced Microbial Contamination Events in Karstic Springs Used for Drinking Water

    PubMed Central

    Besmer, Michael D.; Hammes, Frederik; Sigrist, Jürg A.; Ort, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    Monitoring of microbial drinking water quality is a key component for ensuring safety and understanding risk, but conventional monitoring strategies are typically based on low sampling frequencies (e.g., quarterly or monthly). This is of concern because many drinking water sources, such as karstic springs are often subject to changes in bacterial concentrations on much shorter time scales (e.g., hours to days), for example after precipitation events. Microbial contamination events are crucial from a risk assessment perspective and should therefore be targeted by monitoring strategies to establish both the frequency of their occurrence and the magnitude of bacterial peak concentrations. In this study we used monitoring data from two specific karstic springs. We assessed the performance of conventional monitoring based on historical records and tested a number of alternative strategies based on a high-resolution data set of bacterial concentrations in spring water collected with online flow cytometry (FCM). We quantified the effect of increasing sampling frequency and found that for the specific case studied, at least bi-weekly sampling would be needed to detect precipitation events with a probability of >90%. We then proposed an optimized monitoring strategy with three targeted samples per event, triggered by precipitation measurements. This approach is more effective and efficient than simply increasing overall sampling frequency. It would enable the water utility to (1) analyze any relevant event and (2) limit median underestimation of peak concentrations to approximately 10%. We conclude with a generalized perspective on sampling optimization and argue that the assessment of short-term dynamics causing microbial peak loads initially requires increased sampling/analysis efforts, but can be optimized subsequently to account for limited resources. This offers water utilities and public health authorities systematic ways to evaluate and optimize their current

  15. Experimental drought induces short-term changes in soil functionality and microbial community structure after fire in a Mediterranean shrubland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinojosa, M. B.; Parra, A.; Laudicina, V. A.; Moreno, J. M.

    2014-10-01

    Fire is a major ecosystem driver, causing significant changes in soil nutrients and microbial community structure and functionality. Post-fire soil dynamics can vary depending on rainfall patterns, although variations in response to drought are poorly known. This is particularly important in areas with poor soils and limited rainfall, like arid and semiarid ones. Furthermore, climate change projections in many such areas anticipate reduced precipitation and longer drought, together with an increase in fire severity. The effects of experimental drought and fire were studied on soils in a Mediterranean Cistus-Erica shrubland in Central Spain. A replicated (n = 4) field experiment was carried out in which four levels of rainfall pattern were implemented by means of a rain-out shelters and irrigation system. The treatments were: environmental control (natural rainfall), historical control (long-term average rainfall, 2 months drought), moderate drought (25% reduction of historical control, 5 months drought) and severe drought (45% reduction, 7 months drought). After one growing season, the plots were burned with high fire intensity, except a set of unburned plots that served as control. Soils were collected seasonally during one year and variables related to soil nutrient availability and microbial community structure and functionality were studied. Burned soils increased nutrient availability (P, N, K) with respect to unburned ones, but drought reduced such an increase in P, while it further increased N and K. Such changes in available soil nutrients were short-lived. Drought caused a further decrease of enzyme activities, carbon mineralization rate and microbial biomass. Fire decreased the relative abundance of fungi and actinomycetes. However, fire and drought caused a further reduction in fungi, with bacteria becoming relatively more abundant. Arguably, increasing drought and fires due to climate change will likely shift soil recovery after fire.

  16. Toll-like Receptors and B-cell Receptors Synergize to Induce Immunoglobulin Class Switch DNA Recombination: Relevance to Microbial Antibody Responses

    PubMed Central

    Pone, Egest J.; Zan, Hong; Zhang, Jinsong; Al-Qahtani, Ahmed; Xu, Zhenming; Casali, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    Differentiation of naïve B cells, including immunoglobulin (Ig) class switch DNA recombination (CSR), is critical for the immune response and depends on the extensive integration of signals from the B cell receptor (BCR), tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor family members, Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and cytokine receptors. TLRs and BCR synergize to induce CSR in T cell-dependent and T cell-independent antibody responses to microbial pathogens. BCR triggering together with simultaneous endosomal TLR engagement leads to enhanced B cell differentiation and antibody responses. The requirement of both BCR and TLR engagement would ensure appropriate antigen-specific activation in an infection. Co-stimulation of TLRs and BCR likely plays a significant role in anti-microbial antibody responses to contain pathogen loads until the T cell-dependent antibody responses peak. Furthermore, the temporal sequence of different signals is also critical for optimal B cell responses, as exemplified by the activation of B cells by initial TLR engagement, leading to the upregulation of co-stimulatory CD80 and MHC-II receptors, which, in turn, result in more efficient interactions with T cells, thereby enhancing the germinal center (GC) reaction and antibody affinity maturation. Overall, BCR and TLR stimulation and the integration with signals from the pathogen or immune cells and their products, determine the ensuing B cell antibody response. PMID:20370617

  17. Sasa quelpaertensis leaf extract regulates microbial dysbiosis by modulating the composition and diversity of the microbiota in dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis mice.

    PubMed

    Yeom, Yiseul; Kim, Bong-Soo; Kim, Se-Jae; Kim, Yuri

    2016-11-25

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are related to a dysfunction of the mucosal immune system and they result from complex interactions between genetics and environmental factors, including lifestyle, diet, and the gut microbiome. Therefore, the effect of Sasa quelpaertensis leaf extract (SQE) on gut microbiota in a dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis mouse model was investigated with pyrosequencing of fecal samples. Three groups of animals were examined: i) a control group, ii) a group that was received 2.5% DSS in their drinking water for 7 days, followed by 7 days of untreated water, and then another 7 days of 2.5% DSS in their drinking water, and iii) a group that was presupplemented with SQE (300 mg/kg body weight) by gavage for two weeks prior to the same DSS treatment schedule described in ii. SQE supplementation alleviated disease activity scores and shortened colon length compared to the other two groups. In the DSS group, the proportion of Bacteroidetes increased, whereas that the proportion of Firmicutes was decreased compared to the control group. SQE supplementation recovered the proportions of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes back to control levels. Moreover, the diversity of microbiota in the SQE supplementation group higher than that of the DSS group. SQE was found to protect mice from microbial dysbiosis associated with colitis by modulating the microbial composition and diversity of the microbiota present. These results provide valuable insight into microbiota-food component interactions in IBD.

  18. Automated Corrosion Detection Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-10-01

    More detailed explanations of the methodology development can be found in Hidden Corrosion Detection Technology Assessment, a paper presented at...Detection Program, a paper presented at the Fourth Joint DoD/FAA/NASA Conference on Aging Aircraft, 2000. AS&M PULSE. The PULSE system, developed...selection can be found in The Evaluation of Hidden Corrosion Detection Technologies on the Automated Corrosion Detection Program, a paper presented

  19. Electrochemical corrosion studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knockemus, W. W.

    1986-01-01

    The objective was to gain familiarity with the Model 350 Corrosion Measurement Console, to determine if metal protection by grease coatings can be measured by the polarization-resistance method, and to compare corrosion rates of 4130 steel coated with various greases. Results show that grease protection of steel may be determined electrochemically. Studies were also conducted to determine the effectiveness of certain corrosion inhibitors on aluminum and steel.

  20. Microbial pesticides

    Treesearch

    Michael L. McManus

    1991-01-01

    Interest in the use of microbial pesticides has intensified because of public concern about the safety of chemical pesticides and their impact in the environment. Characteristics of the five groups of entomopathogens that have potential as microbial pesticides are briefly discussed and an update is provided on research and development activities underway to enhance the...

  1. Biocide-mediated corrosion of coiled tubing

    PubMed Central

    An, Dongshan; Liu, Tao; Pinnock, Tijan; Cheng, Frank; Voordouw, Gerrit

    2017-01-01

    Coiled tubing corrosion was investigated for 16 field water samples (S5 to S20) from a Canadian shale gas field. Weight loss corrosion rates of carbon steel beads incubated with these field water samples averaged 0.2 mm/yr, but injection water sample S19 had 1.25±0.07 mm/yr. S19 had a most probable number of zero acid-producing bacteria and incubation of S19 with carbon steel beads or coupons did not lead to big changes in microbial community composition. In contrast other field water samples had most probable numbers of APB of 102/mL to 107/mL and incubation of these field water samples with carbon steel beads or coupons often gave large changes in microbial community composition. HPLC analysis indicated that all field water samples had elevated concentrations of bromide (average 1.6 mM), which may be derived from bronopol, which was used as a biocide. S19 had the highest bromide concentration (4.2 mM) and was the only water sample with a high concentration of active bronopol (13.8 mM, 2760 ppm). Corrosion rates increased linearly with bronopol concentration, as determined by weight loss of carbon steel beads, for experiments with S19, with filtered S19 and with bronopol dissolved in defined medium. This indicated that the high corrosion rate found for S19 was due to its high bronopol concentration. The corrosion rate of coiled tubing coupons also increased linearly with bronopol concentration as determined by electrochemical methods. Profilometry measurements also showed formation of multiple pits on the surface of coiled tubing coupon with an average pit depth of 60 μm after 1 week of incubation with 1 mM bronopol. At the recommended dosage of 100 ppm the corrosiveness of bronopol towards carbon steel beads was modest (0.011 mm/yr). Higher concentrations, resulting if biocide is added repeatedly as commonly done in shale gas operations, are more corrosive and should be avoided. Overdosing may be avoided by assaying the presence of residual biocide by HPLC

  2. Biocide-mediated corrosion of coiled tubing.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Mohita; An, Dongshan; Liu, Tao; Pinnock, Tijan; Cheng, Frank; Voordouw, Gerrit

    2017-01-01

    Coiled tubing corrosion was investigated for 16 field water samples (S5 to S20) from a Canadian shale gas field. Weight loss corrosion rates of carbon steel beads incubated with these field water samples averaged 0.2 mm/yr, but injection water sample S19 had 1.25±0.07 mm/yr. S19 had a most probable number of zero acid-producing bacteria and incubation of S19 with carbon steel beads or coupons did not lead to big changes in microbial community composition. In contrast other field water samples had most probable numbers of APB of 102/mL to 107/mL and incubation of these field water samples with carbon steel beads or coupons often gave large changes in microbial community composition. HPLC analysis indicated that all field water samples had elevated concentrations of bromide (average 1.6 mM), which may be derived from bronopol, which was used as a biocide. S19 had the highest bromide concentration (4.2 mM) and was the only water sample with a high concentration of active bronopol (13.8 mM, 2760 ppm). Corrosion rates increased linearly with bronopol concentration, as determined by weight loss of carbon steel beads, for experiments with S19, with filtered S19 and with bronopol dissolved in defined medium. This indicated that the high corrosion rate found for S19 was due to its high bronopol concentration. The corrosion rate of coiled tubing coupons also increased linearly with bronopol concentration as determined by electrochemical methods. Profilometry measurements also showed formation of multiple pits on the surface of coiled tubing coupon with an average pit depth of 60 μm after 1 week of incubation with 1 mM bronopol. At the recommended dosage of 100 ppm the corrosiveness of bronopol towards carbon steel beads was modest (0.011 mm/yr). Higher concentrations, resulting if biocide is added repeatedly as commonly done in shale gas operations, are more corrosive and should be avoided. Overdosing may be avoided by assaying the presence of residual biocide by HPLC

  3. A New Corrosion Sensor to Determine the Start and Development of Embedded Rebar Corrosion Process at Coastal Concrete

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Chen; Li, Zhiyuan; Jin, Weiliang

    2013-01-01

    The corrosion of reinforcements induced by chloride has resulted to be one of the most frequent causes of their premature damage. Most corrosion sensors were designed to monitor corrosion state in concrete, such as Anode-Ladder-System and Corrowatch System, which are widely used to monitor chloride ingress in marine concrete. However, the monitoring principle of these corrosion sensors is based on the macro-cell test method, so erroneous information may be obtained, especially from concrete under drying or saturated conditions due to concrete resistance taking control in macro-cell corrosion. In this paper, a fast weak polarization method to test corrosion state of reinforcements based on electrochemical polarization dynamics was proposed. Furthermore, a new corrosion sensor for monitoring the corrosion state of concrete cover was developed based on the proposed test method. The sensor was tested in cement mortar, with dry-wet cycle tests to accelerate the chloride ingress rate. The results show that the corrosion sensor can effectively monitor chloride penetration into concrete with little influence of the relative humidity in the concrete. With a reasonable corrosion sensor electrode arrangement, it seems the Ohm-drop effect measured by EIS can be ignored, which makes the tested electrochemical parameters more accurate. PMID:24084117

  4. A new corrosion sensor to determine the start and development of embedded rebar corrosion process at coastal concrete.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chen; Li, Zhiyuan; Jin, Weiliang

    2013-09-30

    The corrosion of reinforcements induced by chloride has resulted to be one of the most frequent causes of their premature damage. Most corrosion sensors were designed to monitor corrosion state in concrete, such as Anode-Ladder-System and Corrowatch System, which are widely used to monitor chloride ingress in marine concrete. However, the monitoring principle of these corrosion sensors is based on the macro-cell test method, so erroneous information may be obtained, especially from concrete under drying or saturated conditions due to concrete resistance taking control in macro-cell corrosion. In this paper, a fast weak polarization method to test corrosion state of reinforcements based on electrochemical polarization dynamics was proposed. Furthermore, a new corrosion sensor for monitoring the corrosion state of concrete cover was developed based on the proposed test method. The sensor was tested in cement mortar, with dry-wet cycle tests to accelerate the chloride ingress rate. The results show that the corrosion sensor can effectively monitor chloride penetration into concrete with little influence of the relative humidity in the concrete. With a reasonable corrosion sensor electrode arrangement, it seems the Ohm-drop effect measured by EIS can be ignored, which makes the tested electrochemical parameters more accurate.

  5. A Microstructural and Kinetic Investigation of the KCl-Induced Corrosion of an FeCrAl Alloy at 600 °C

    DOE PAGES

    Israelsson, Niklas; Unocic, Kinga A.; Hellström, K.; ...

    2015-03-18

    In this paper, the corrosion behaviour of a FeCrAl alloy was investigated at 600 °C in O 2 + H 2O with solid KCl applied. A kinetics and microstructural investigation showed that KCl accelerates corrosion and that potassium chromate formation depletes the protective scale in Cr, thus triggering the formation of a fast-growing iron-rich scale. Iron oxide was found to grow both inward and outward, on either side of the initial oxide. A chromia layer is formed with time underneath the iron oxide. Finally, it was found that although the alloy does not form a continuous pure alumina scale atmore » the investigated temperature, aluminium is, however, always enriched at the oxide/alloy interface.« less

  6. Use of cyclic current reversal polarization voltammetry for investigating the relationship between corrosion resistance and heat-treatment induced variations in microstructures of 400 C martensitic stainless steels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ambrose, John R.

    1992-01-01

    Software for running a cyclic current reversal polarization voltammagram has been developed for use with a EG&G Princeton Applied Research Model 273 potentiostat/galvanostat system. The program, which controls the magnitude, direction and duration of an impressed galvanostatic current, will produce data in ASCII spreadsheets (Lotus, Quattro) for graphical representation of CCRPV voltammograms. The program was used to determine differences in corrosion resistance of 440 C martenstic stainless steel produced as a result of changes in microstructure effected by tempering. It was determined that tempering at all temperatures above 400 F resulted in increased polarizability of the material, with the increased likelihood that pitting would be initiated upon exposure to marine environments. These results will be used in development of remedial procedures for lowering the susceptibility of these alloys toward the stress corrosion cracking experienced in bearings used in high pressure oxygen turbopumps used in the main engines of space shuttle orbiters.

  7. Ultraviolet radiation-induced limitation to epilithic microbial growth in arid deserts--dosimetric experiments in the hyperarid core of the Atacama Desert.

    PubMed

    Cockell, Charles S; McKay, Christopher P; Warren-Rhodes, Kim; Horneck, Gerda

    2008-02-27

    Experiments were conducted during November 2003 in the dry core of the Atacama Desert, Yungay, Chile to test the hypothesis that UV radiation, in environments where liquid water is not available, and thus enzymatic repair of UV-induced damage is inhibited, can prevent epilithic colonization. Novel dosimeters made from the cryptoendolithic, desiccation and radiation-resistant cyanobacterium Chroococcidiopsis sp. isolated from the dry Negev desert, Israel, showed that monolayers of this organism were killed within one day. The diurnal profile of microbial loss of viability was investigated with dosimeters of Bacillus subtilis, which similarly showed cell death within one day. Soil grains obtained from south of Yungay where liquid water is more abundant and transported to the hyperarid core showed killing of indigenous vegetative organisms within one day. Gypsum and mineral grain coverings of 1mm were sufficient to prevent measurable UV-induced damage of Chroococcidiopsis and B. subtilis after 8d exposure. These results show that under extreme desiccation and an ambient UV flux the surface of rocks can potentially be rendered sterile, but that millimetre thick mineral coverings can protect organisms from UV-induced killing, consistent with the observed patterns of lithophytic colonization in the Atacama Desert. These data further show that UV radiation can be an important limiting factor in surface biological rock weathering in arid regions.

  8. Demystifying Controlling Copper Corrosion

    EPA Science Inventory

    The LCR systematically misses the highest health and corrosion risk sites for copper. Additionally, there are growing concerns for WWTP copper in sludges and discharge levels. There are many corrosion control differences between copper and lead. This talk explains the sometimes c...

  9. Potentiodynamic Corrosion Testing.

    PubMed

    Munir, Selin; Pelletier, Matthew H; Walsh, William R

    2016-09-04

    Different metallic materials have different polarization characteristics as dictated by the open circuit potential, breakdown potential, and passivation potential of the material. The detection of these electrochemical parameters identifies the corrosion factors of a material. A reliable and well-functioning corrosion system is required to achieve this. Corrosion of the samples was achieved via a potentiodynamic polarization technique employing a three-electrode configuration, consisting of reference, counter, and working electrodes. Prior to commencement a baseline potential is obtained. Following the stabilization of the corrosion potential (Ecorr), the applied potential is ramped at a slow rate in the positive direction relative to the reference electrode. The working electrode was a stainless steel screw. The reference electrode was a standard Ag/AgCl. The counter electrode used was a platinum mesh. Having a reliable and well-functioning in vitro corrosion system to test biomaterials provides an in-expensive technique that allows for the systematic characterization of the material by determining the breakdown potential, to further understand the material's response to corrosion. The goal of the protocol is to set up and run an in vitro potentiodynamic corrosion system to analyze pitting corrosion for small metallic medical devices.

  10. A model for microbially induced precipitation of vadose-zone calcites in fractures at LOS Alamos, New Mexico, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, Brent D.; Campbell, Andrew R.; Norman, David I.; Ringelberg, David B.

    1997-05-01

    Fractures are unique environments that can concentrate the flow of water, nutrients, and contaminants. As such, fractures play an important role in controlling the flux of various substances into and through the vadose zone. Calcite fracture fillings are present in the near surface in the Bandelier Tuff Formation at Los Alamos, New Mexico, and provide a record of the geochemical and hydrologic processes that have occurred in fractures. The objective of this study was to examine calcite fracture fills in order to improve understanding of processes within fractures, and in particular those that lead to precipitation of calcite. Samples of calcite fillings were collected from vertical and horizontal fractures exposed in a shallow waste-burial pit. Scanning electron microscopy show morphologies which suggest that plants, fungi, and bacteria were important in the precipitation process. Quadrupole mass spectrometric analyses of fluid inclusion gases show predominantly methane (17-99%) and little to no oxygen (0-8%), suggesting the development of anaerobic conditions in the fractures. Ester-linked phospholipid biomarkers are evidence for a diverse microbial community in the fractures, and the presence of di-ether lipids indicate that the methane was generated by anaerobic bacteria. The calcite fillings apparently resulted from multiple biological and chemical processes in which plant roots in the fractures were converted to calcite. Roots grew into the fractures, eventually died, and were decomposed by bacteria and fungi. Anaerobic gases were generated from encapsulated organic material within the calcite via microbial decomposition, or were generated by microbes simultaneously with calcite precipitation. It is likely that the biological controls on calcite formation that occurred in the Los Alamos fractures also occurs in soils, and may explain the occurrence of other types of pedogenic calcites.

  11. Spatial distribution of crystalline corrosion products formed during corrosion of stainless steel in concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Serdar, Marijana; Meral, Cagla; Kunz, Martin

    2015-05-15

    The mineralogy and spatial distribution of nano-crystalline corrosion products that form in the steel/concrete interface were characterized using synchrotron X-ray micro-diffraction (μ-XRD). Two types of low-nickel high-chromium reinforcing steels embedded into mortar and exposed to NaCl solution were investigated. Corrosion in the samples was confirmed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). μ-XRD revealed that goethite (α-FeOOH) and akaganeite (β-FeOOH) are the main iron oxide–hydroxides formed during the chloride-induced corrosion of stainless steel in concrete. Goethite is formed closer to the surface of the steel due to the presence of chromium in the steel, while akaganeite is formed further away from themore » surface due to the presence of chloride ions. Detailed microstructural analysis is shown and discussed on one sample of each type of steel. - Highlights: • Synchrotron micro-diffraction used to map the distribution of crystalline phases. • Goethite and akaganeite are the main corrosion products during chloride induced corrosion in mortar. • Layers of goethite and akaganeite are negatively correlated. • EDS showed Cr present in corrosion products identified by SEM.« less

  12. A strain-mediated corrosion model for bioabsorbable metallic stents.

    PubMed

    Galvin, E; O'Brien, D; Cummins, C; Mac Donald, B J; Lally, C

    2017-06-01

    This paper presents a strain-mediated phenomenological corrosion model, based on the discrete finite element modelling method which was developed for use with the ANSYS Implicit finite element code. The corrosion model was calibrated from experimental data and used to simulate the corrosion performance of a WE43 magnesium alloy stent. The model was found to be capable of predicting the experimentally observed plastic strain-mediated mass loss profile. The non-linear plastic strain model, extrapolated from the experimental data, was also found to adequately capture the corrosion-induced reduction in the radial stiffness of the stent over time. The model developed will help direct future design efforts towards the minimisation of plastic strain during device manufacture, deployment and in-service, in order to reduce corrosion rates and prolong the mechanical integrity of magnesium devices. The need for corrosion models that explore the interaction of strain with corrosion damage has been recognised as one of the current challenges in degradable material modelling (Gastaldi et al., 2011). A finite element based plastic strain-mediated phenomenological corrosion model was developed in this work and was calibrated based on the results of the corrosion experiments. It was found to be capable of predicting the experimentally observed plastic strain-mediated mass loss profile and the corrosion-induced reduction in the radial stiffness of the stent over time. To the author's knowledge, the results presented here represent the first experimental calibration of a plastic strain-mediated corrosion model of a corroding magnesium stent. Copyright © 2017 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Maintainability Improvement Through Corrosion Prediction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-12-01

    Aluminum base alloys - Mechanical properties; Lithium- Alloying elements; Crack propagation- Corrosion effects ; Fatigue life - Corrosion... effects on the corrosion fatigue life of 7075-T6 aluminum alloy . Ma,L CORPORATE SOURCE: University of Utah JOURNAL: Dissertation Abstracts International...Diffusion effects ; Hydrogen- Diffusion SECTION HEADINGS: 64 (Corrosion) 52. 715866 87-640094 The Life Prediction for 2024

  14. Concrete Cracking Prediction Including the Filling Proportion of Strand Corrosion Products.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Dai, Lizhao; Zhang, Xuhui; Zhang, Jianren

    2016-12-23

    The filling of strand corrosion products during concrete crack propagation is investigated experimentally in the present paper. The effects of stirrups on the filling of corrosion products and concrete cracking are clarified. A prediction model of crack width is developed incorporating the filling proportion of corrosion products and the twisting shape of the strand. Experimental data on cracking angle, crack width, and corrosion loss obtained from accelerated corrosion tests of concrete beams are presented. The proposed model is verified by experimental data. Results show that the filling extent of corrosion products varies with crack propagation. The rust filling extent increases with the propagating crack until a critical width. Beyond the critical width, the rust-filling extent remains stable. Using stirrups can decrease the critical crack width. Stirrups can restrict crack propagation and reduce the rust filling. The tangent of the cracking angle increases with increasing corrosion loss. The prediction of corrosion-induced crack is sensitive to the rust-filling extent.

  15. Understanding the Risk of Chloride Induced Stress Corrosion Cracking of Interim Storage Containers for the Dry Storage of Spent Nuclear Fuel: Evolution of Brine Chemistry on the Container Surface.

    SciTech Connect

    Enos, David; Bryan, Charles R.

    Although the susceptibility of austenitic stainless steels to chloride-induced stress corrosion cracking is well known, uncertainties exist in terms of the environmental conditions that exist on the surface of the storage containers. While a diversity of salts is present in atmospheric aerosols, many of these are not stable when placed onto a heated surface. Given that the surface temperature of any container storing spent nuclear fuel will be well above ambient, it is likely that salts deposited on its surface may decompose or degas. To characterize this effect, relevant single and multi-salt mixtures are being evaluated as a function ofmore » temperature and relative humidity to establish the rates of degassing, as well as the likely final salt and brine chemistries that will remain on the canister surface.« less

  16. The Corrosion and Preservation of Iron Antiques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Robert

    1982-01-01

    Discusses general corrosion reactions (iron to rust), including corrosion of iron, sulfur dioxide, chlorides, immersed corrosion, and underground corrosion. Also discusses corrosion inhibition, including corrosion inhibitors (anodic, cathodic, mixed, organic); safe/dangerous inhibitors; and corrosion/inhibition in concrete/marble, showcases/boxes,…

  17. Corrosion-resistant uranium

    DOEpatents

    Hovis, V.M. Jr.; Pullen, W.C.; Kollie, T.G.; Bell, R.T.

    1981-10-21

    The present invention is directed to the protecting of uranium and uranium alloy articles from corrosion by providing the surfaces of the articles with a layer of an ion-plated metal selected from aluminum and zinc to a thickness of at least 60 microinches and then converting at least the outer surface of the ion-plated layer of aluminum or zinc to aluminum chromate or zinc chromate. This conversion of the aluminum or zinc to the chromate form considerably enhances the corrosion resistance of the ion plating so as to effectively protect the coated article from corrosion.

  18. Corrosion-resistant uranium

    DOEpatents

    Hovis, Jr., Victor M.; Pullen, William C.; Kollie, Thomas G.; Bell, Richard T.

    1983-01-01

    The present invention is directed to the protecting of uranium and uranium alloy articles from corrosion by providing the surfaces of the articles with a layer of an ion-plated metal selected from aluminum and zinc to a thickness of at least 60 microinches and then converting at least the outer surface of the ion-plated layer of aluminum or zinc to aluminum chromate or zinc chromate. This conversion of the aluminum or zinc to the chromate form considerably enhances the corrosion resistance of the ion plating so as to effectively protect the coated article from corrosion.

  19. Watershed-Induced Limnological and Microbial Status in Two Oligotrophic Andean Lakes Exposed to the Same Climatic Scenario

    PubMed Central

    Echeverría-Vega, Alex; Chong, Guillermo; Serrano, Antonio E.; Guajardo, Mariela; Encalada, Olga; Parro, Victor; Blanco, Yolanda; Rivas, Luis; Rose, Kevin C.; Moreno-Paz, Mercedes; Luque, José A.; Cabrol, Nathalie A.; Demergasso, Cecilia S.

    2018-01-01

    Laguna Negra and Lo Encañado are two oligotrophic Andean lakes forming part of the system fed by meltwater from distinct glacial tongues of the Echaurren glacier in central Chile, which is in a recession period. The recent increase in temperature and decline in precipitation have led to an increase of glacial meltwater and sediments entering these lakes. Although the lacustrine systems are also hydrogeologically connected, the limnology of the lakes is strongly controlled by the surface processes related to the respective sub-watersheds and hydrology. Watershed characteristics (area and length, slope, lithology, resistance to erosion, among others) affect the chemical and physical characteristics of both lakes (e.g., nutrient concentration and turbidity). We studied physical and chemical variables and performed 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing to determine the specific microbial signature of the lakes. The transparency, temperature, turbidity and concentrations of chlorophyll-a, dissolved organic matter, nutrients and the total number of cells, revealed the different status of both lakes at the time of sampling. The predominant bacterial groups in both lakes were Proteobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, and Bacteroidetes. Interestingly, the contribution of phototrophs was significantly higher in LN compared to LE (13 and 4% respectively) and the major fraction corresponded to Anoxygenic Phototrophs (AP) represented by Chloroflexi, Alpha, and Betaproteobacteria. Multivariate analyses showed that the nutrient levels and the light availability of both lakes, which finally depend on the hydrological characteristics of the respective watersheds, explain the differential community composition/function. The abundance of a diverse photoheterotrophic bacterioplankton community suggests that the ability to utilize solar energy along with organic and inorganic substrates is a key function in these oligotrophic mountain lakes. PMID:29556224

  20. Watershed-Induced Limnological and Microbial Status in Two Oligotrophic Andean Lakes Exposed to the Same Climatic Scenario.

    PubMed

    Echeverría-Vega, Alex; Chong, Guillermo; Serrano, Antonio E; Guajardo, Mariela; Encalada, Olga; Parro, Victor; Blanco, Yolanda; Rivas, Luis; Rose, Kevin C; Moreno-Paz, Mercedes; Luque, José A; Cabrol, Nathalie A; Demergasso, Cecilia S

    2018-01-01

    Laguna Negra and Lo Encañado are two oligotrophic Andean lakes forming part of the system fed by meltwater from distinct glacial tongues of the Echaurren glacier in central Chile, which is in a recession period. The recent increase in temperature and decline in precipitation have led to an increase of glacial meltwater and sediments entering these lakes. Although the lacustrine systems are also hydrogeologically connected, the limnology of the lakes is strongly controlled by the surface processes related to the respective sub-watersheds and hydrology. Watershed characteristics (area and length, slope, lithology, resistance to erosion, among others) affect the chemical and physical characteristics of both lakes (e.g., nutrient concentration and turbidity). We studied physical and chemical variables and performed 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing to determine the specific microbial signature of the lakes. The transparency, temperature, turbidity and concentrations of chlorophyll-a, dissolved organic matter, nutrients and the total number of cells, revealed the different status of both lakes at the time of sampling. The predominant bacterial groups in both lakes were Proteobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, and Bacteroidetes. Interestingly, the contribution of phototrophs was significantly higher in LN compared to LE (13 and 4% respectively) and the major fraction corresponded to Anoxygenic Phototrophs (AP) represented by Chloroflexi, Alpha, and Betaproteobacteria. Multivariate analyses showed that the nutrient levels and the light availability of both lakes, which finally depend on the hydrological characteristics of the respective watersheds, explain the differential community composition/function. The abundance of a diverse photoheterotrophic bacterioplankton community suggests that the ability to utilize solar energy along with organic and inorganic substrates is a key function in these oligotrophic mountain lakes.

  1. Control of metallic corrosion through microbiological route.

    PubMed

    Maruthamuthu, S; Ponmariappan, S; Mohanan, S; Palaniswamy, N; Palaniappan, R; Rengaswamy, N S

    2003-09-01

    Involvement of biofilm or microorganisms in corrosion processes is widely acknowledged. Although majority of the studies on microbiologically induced corrosion (MIC) have concentrated on aerobic/anaerobic bacteria. There are numerous aerobic bacteria, which could hinder the corrosion process. The microbiologically produced exopolymers provide the structural frame work for the biofilm. These polymers combine with dissolved metal ions and form organometallic complexes. Generally heterotrophic bacteria contribute to three major processes: (i) synthesis of polymers (ii) accumulation of reserve materials like poly-beta-hydroxy butrate (iii) production of high molecular weight extracellular polysaccharides. Poly-beta-hydroxy butyrate is a polymer of D(-)beta-hydroxy butrate and has a molecular weight between 60,000 and 2,50,000. Some extracellular polymers also have higher molecular weights. It seems that higher molecular weight polymer acts as biocoating. In the present review, role of biochemistry on corrosion inhibition and possibilities of corrosion inhibition by various microbes are discussed. The role of bacteria on current demand during cathodic protection is also debated. In addition, some of the significant contributions made by CECRI in this promising area are highlighted.

  2. Life Support Systems Microbial Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roman, Monsi C.

    2010-01-01

    Many microbiological studies were performed during the development of the Space Station Water Recovery and Management System from1990-2009. Studies include assessments of: (1) bulk phase (planktonic) microbial population (2) biofilms, (3) microbially influenced corrosion (4) biofouling treatments. This slide presentation summarizes the studies performed to assess the bulk phase microbial community during the Space Station Water Recovery Tests (WRT) from 1990 to 1998. This report provides an overview of some of the microbiological analyses performed during the Space Station WRT program. These tests not only integrated several technologies with the goal of producing water that met NASA s potable water specifications, but also integrated humans, and therefore human flora into the protocols. At the time these tests were performed, not much was known (or published) about the microbial composition of these types of wastewater. It is important to note that design changes to the WRS have been implemented over the years and results discussed in this report might be directly related to test configurations that were not chosen for the final flight configuration. Results microbiological analyses performed Conclusion from the during the WRT showed that it was possible to recycle water from different sources, including urine, and produce water that can exceed the quality of municipally produced water.

  3. Corrosion Inhibitors for Aluminum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Bodo

    1995-01-01

    Describes a simple and reliable test method used to investigate the corrosion-inhibiting effects of various chelating agents on aluminum pigments in aqueous alkaline media. The experiments that are presented require no complicated or expensive electronic equipment. (DDR)

  4. Effects of Stress on Corrosion in a Molten Salt Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girdzis, Samuel; Manos, Dennis; Cooke, William

    Molten salt is often used as a heat transfer and energy storage fluid in concentrating solar power plants. Despite its suitable thermal properties, molten salt can present challenges in terms of corrosion. Previous studies have focused extensively on mass loss due to molten salt-induced corrosion. In contrast, we have investigated how corrosion begins and how it changes the surface of stainless steel. Samples of alloys including 304 and 316 stainless steel were exposed to the industry-standard NaNO3-KNO3 (60%-40% by weight) mixture at temperatures over 500°C and then analyzed using Hirox, SEM, and TOF-SIMS. We compare the corrosion at grain boundaries to that within single grain surfaces, showing the effect of the increased internal stresses and the weakened passivation layer. Also, we have examined the enhanced corrosion of samples under mechanical stress, simulating the effects of thermal stresses in a power plant.

  5. Review of Corrosion Fatigue.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-11-16

    other is not always well defined. 3.0 CORROSIM FATIGUE VARIABLES AND THEIR EFFECTS Corrosion fatigue behavior is pverned, y Ir of variables- environmental...on near threshold fatigue crack growth behavior is primarily a function of environmental reaction in this steel . 3.2 Mechanical Effects Among the...Gallagher""’ and Pao studied the corrosion fatigue behavior of 4340 steel at various * Ifrequencies in distilled water and water vapor, respectively

  6. Biogeochemical modification of Nontronite by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1: Evidence of Microbially induced Smectite-to-Illite reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koo, T. H.; Kogure, T.; Kim, J. W.

    2017-12-01

    The biogeochemical modification of chemistry/structure of smectite associated with microbial Fe(III) respiration is a major process of promoting smectite-to-illite reaction (S-I reaction). Direct evidence of illitization including K-fixation and changes in Al/Si, formation of K-nontronite/illite-like structure has not been suggested systematically. Nontronite (NAu-1) was inoculated with Fe-reducing bacteria (FeRB), Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 at 30 ° with pH buffered (7.0 and 8.0) M1 medium in the anaerobic chamber, and the evidence of illitization was suggested by microscopic/spectroscopic measurements as well as aqueous chemistry in the supernatant with various incubation time. A progressive morphological change in bio-reduced notnronite (altered nontronite → K-nontronite → illite) corresponded to chemical modification in solid phase (Al/Si 0.16 to 0.28). Fe and Al contents in the supernatant increased continuously up to 70 days of incubation (3.4 to 20 and 1.7 to 13 20 mmol/mg of NAu-1, respectively) then decreased in 120 days of incubation (20 to 8 and 13 to 3 mmol/mg of NAu-1, respectively) indicating new mineral phase precipitated. Si contents showed slightly decreased in 7 days (133 to 100 mmol/mg of NAu-1) then showed fluctuated pattern (increased to 183 mmol/mg of NAu-1 in 70 days, then decreased to 102 mmol/mg of NAu-1 in 120 days of incubation). Formation of biotic silica globule within 120-day incubation supported the dissolution of bio-reduced notnronite. Indeed, modification in structure (appearance of 10-Å shoulder in X-ray diffraction profile) and formation of discrete illite-like packet (d001=1.0 nm) in the wavy bio-reduced nontronite matrix (d001=1.2-1.3 nm) strongly suggest that bio-reduced nontronite underwent the reductive dissolution and precipitated the newly formed illite

  7. Structural Effects of Reinforced Concrete Beam Due to Corrosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noh, Hamidun Mohd; Idris, Nur'ain; Noor, Nurazuwa Md; Sarpin, Norliana; Zainal, Rozlin; Kasim, Narimah

    2018-03-01

    Corrosion of steel in reinforced concrete is one of the main issues among construction stakeholders. The main consequences of steel corrosion include loss of cross section of steel area, generation of expansive pressure which caused cracking of concrete, spalling and delaminating of the concrete cover. Thus, it reduces the bond strength between the steel reinforcing bar and concrete, and deteriorating the strength of the structure. The objective of this study is to investigate the structural effects of corrosion damage on the performance of reinforced concrete beam. A series of corroded reinforced concrete beam with a corrosion rate of 0%, 20% and 40% of rebar corrosion is used in parametric study to assess the influence of different level of corrosion rate to the structural performance. As a result, the used of interface element in the finite element modelling predicted the worst case of corrosion analysis since cracks is induced and generate at this surface. On the other hand, a positive linear relationship was sketched between the increase of expansive pressure and the corrosion rate. Meanwhile, the gradient of the graph is decreased with the increase of steel bar diameter. Furthermore, the analysis shows that there is a significant effect on the load bearing capacity of the structure where the higher corrosion rate generates a higher stress concentration at the mid span of the beam. This study could predict the residual strength of reinforced concrete beam under the corrosion using the finite element analysis. The experimental validation is needed on the next stage to investigate the quantitative relation between the corrosion rate and its influence on the mechanical properties.

  8. Rust preventive oil additives based on microbial fats

    SciTech Connect

    Salenko, V.I.; Fedorov, V.V.; Kazantsev, Yu.E.

    1983-03-01

    This article investigates the composition and lubricating properties of microbial fats obtained from microorganisms grown on various hydrocarbon substrates (n-paraffins, alcohols, natural gas, petroleum distillates, etc.). Focuses on the protective functions of the 4 main fractions (unsaponifiables, free fatty acids, glycerides, and phospholipids) which comprise the microbial fat from a yeast grown on purified liquid n-paraffins. Concludes that neutralized microbial fats can be used as preservative additives; that the principal components of the microbial fats have the properties necessary for oil-soluble corrosion inhibitors; that the phospholipids of the microbial fat can fulfill the functions of not only preservative additives, butmore » also highly effective operational/ preservative additives; and that fats of microbial origin can be used in the development of multipurpose polyfunctional additives.« less

  9. Oral administration of Saccharomyces boulardii ameliorates carbon tetrachloride-induced liver fibrosis in rats via reducing intestinal permeability and modulating gut microbial composition.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming; Zhu, Lin; Xie, Ao; Yuan, Jieli

    2015-02-01

    To investigate the effects of orally administrated Saccharomyces boulardii (S. boulardii) on the progress of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver fibrosis, 34 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four experimental groups including the control group (n = 8), the cirrhotic group (n = 10), the preventive group (n = 8), and the treatment group (n = 8). Results showed that the liver expression levels of collagen, type I, alpha 1 (Col1A1), alpha smooth muscle actin (αSMA), transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) and the serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and malondialdehyde (MDA) increased significantly in cirrhotic rats compared with control and decreased by S. boulardii administration. Treatment of S. boulardii also attenuated the increased endotoxin levels and pro-inflammatory cytokines in CCl4-treated rats. And, these were associated with the changes of intestinal permeability and fecal microbial composition. Our study suggested that oral administration of S. boulardii can promote the liver function of CCl4-treated rats, and the preventive treatment of this probiotic yeast may decelerate the progress of liver fibrosis.

  10. Laser-induced fluorescence emission (L.I.F.E.): in situ nondestructive detection of microbial life in the ice covers of Antarctic lakes.

    PubMed

    Storrie-Lombardi, Michael C; Sattler, Birgit

    2009-09-01

    Laser-induced fluorescence emission (L.I.F.E.) images were obtained in situ following 532 nm excitation of cryoconite assemblages in the ice covers of annual and perennially frozen Antarctic lakes during the 2008 Tawani International Expedition to Schirmacher Oasis and Lake Untersee in Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica. Laser targeting of a single millimeter-scale cryoconite results in multiple neighboring excitation events secondary to ice/air interface reflection and refraction in the bubbles surrounding the primary target. Laser excitation at 532 nm of cyanobacteria-dominated assemblages produced red and infrared autofluorescence activity attributed to the presence of phycoerythrin photosynthetic pigments. The method avoids destruction of individual target organisms and does not require the disruption of either the structure of the microbial community or the surrounding ice matrix. L.I.F.E. survey strategies described may be of interest for orbital monitoring of photosynthetic primary productivity in polar and alpine glaciers, ice sheets, snow, and lake ice of Earth's cryosphere. The findings open up the possibility of searching from either a rover or from orbit for signs of life in the polar regions of Mars and the frozen regions of exoplanets in neighboring star systems.

  11. Bovine milk oligosaccharides decrease gut permeability and improve inflammation and microbial dysbiosis in diet-induced obese mice

    PubMed Central

    Boudry, Gaëlle; Hamilton, M. Kristina; Chichlowski, Maciej; Wickramasinghe, Saumya; Barile, Daniela; Kalanetra, Karen M.; Mills, David A.; Raybould, Helen E.

    2017-01-01

    Obesity is characterized by altered gut homeostasis, including dysbiosis and increased gut permeability closely linked to the development of metabolic disorders. Milk oligosaccharides are complex sugars that selectively enhance the growth of specific beneficial bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract and could be used as prebiotics. The aim of the study was to demonstrate the effects of bovine milk oligosaccharides (BMO) and Bifidobacterium longum ssp. infantis (B. infantis) on restoring diet-induced obesity intestinal microbiota and barrier function defects in mice. Male C57/BL6 mice were fed a Western diet (WD, 40% fat/kcal) or normal chow (C, 14% fat/kcal) for 7 wk. During the final 2 wk of the study, the diet of a subgroup of WD-fed mice was supplemented with BMO (7% wt/wt). Weekly gavage of B. infantis was performed in all mice starting at wk 3, yet B. infantis could not be detected in any luminal contents when mice were killed. Supplementation of the WD with BMO normalized the cecal and colonic microbiota with increased abundance of Lactobacillus compared with both WD and C mice and restoration of Allobaculum and Ruminococcus levels to that of C mice. The BMO supplementation reduced WD-induced increase in paracellular and transcellular flux in the large intestine as well as mRNA levels of the inflammatory marker tumor necrosis factor α. In conclusion, BMO are promising prebiotics to modulate gut microbiota and intestinal barrier function for enhanced health. PMID:28131576

  12. Role of the competitive microbial flora in the radiation-induced enhancement of ochratoxin production by Aspergillus alutaceus var. alutaceus NRRL 3174

    SciTech Connect

    Chelack, W.S.; Borsa, J.; Marquardt, R.R.

    1991-09-01

    The radiation sensitivity and the toxigenic potential of conidiospores of the fungus Aspergillus alutaceus var alutaceus were determined after irradiation with {sup 60}Co gamma rays and high-energy electrons. Over the pH range of 3.6 to 8.8, the doses required for a 1 log{sup 10} reduction in viability based on the exponential portion of the survival curve ranged from 0.21 to 0.22 kGy, with extrapolation numbers (extrapolation of the exponential portion of the survival curve to zero dose) of 1.01 to 1.33, for electron irradiation, and from 0.24 to 0.27 kGy, with extrapolation numbers of 2.26 to 5.13, for gamma irradiation.more » Nonsterile barley that was inoculated with conidia of the fungus and then irradiated with either electrons or gamma rays and incubated for prolonged periods at 28C and at a moisture content of 25% produced less ochratoxin levels compared with unirradiated controls. In these experiments, inoculation with 10{sup 2} spores per g produced greater radiation-induced enhancement than inoculation with 10{sup 5} spores per g. There was no radiation-induced enhancement when the barley was surface sterilized by chemical means prior to irradiation. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that a reduction in the competing microbial flora by irradiation is responsible for the enhanced mycotoxin production observed when nonsterile barley is inoculated with the toxigenic fungus A. alutaceus var. alutaceus after irradiation.« less

  13. Comparative study between the effects of photodynamic therapy and conventional therapy on microbial reduction in ligature-induced peri-implantitis in dogs.

    PubMed

    Hayek, Ricardo R A; Araújo, Ney S; Gioso, Marco A; Ferreira, Jonathan; Baptista-Sobrinho, Carlos A; Yamada, Aécio M; Ribeiro, Martha S

    2005-08-01

    Progressive peri-implant bone losses, which are accompanied by inflammatory lesions in the soft tissues, are referred to as peri-implantitis. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of photodynamic therapy (PDT) and conventional technique on microbial reduction in ligature-induced peri-implantitis in dogs. Eighteen third premolars from nine Labrador retriever dogs were extracted and the implants were submerged. After osseointegration, peri-implantitis was induced. After 4 months, ligature was removed and natural bacterial plaque was allowed to form for another 4 months. The animals were then randomly divided into two groups. In the conventional group, they were treated using mucoperiosteal flaps for scaling the implant surface and chlorexidine (conventional) irrigation. In the PDT group, only mucoperiosteal scaling was carried out before photodynamic therapy. Inside the peri-implant pocket, a paste-based azulene photosensitizer was placed and then a GaAlAs low-power laser (lambda=660 nm, P=40 mW, E=7.2 J for 3 minutes) was used. Microbiological samples were obtained before and immediately after treatment. Before treatment, one implant was removed and analyzed by scanning electron microscopy to validate the contamination. The results of this study showed that Prevotella sp., Fusobacterium sp., and S. Beta-haemolyticus were significantly reduced for both groups. After treatment, no significant differences were observed between the groups. These findings suggest that photodynamic therapy is a non-invasive method that could be used to reduce microorganisms in peri-implantitis. J Periodontol 2005;76:1275-1281.

  14. Ecology, Microbial

    SciTech Connect

    Konopka, Allan

    2009-05-15

    Microbial ecology is a relatively young discipline within the field of microbiology. Its modern history spans just the past 60 years, and the field is defined by its emphasis on understanding the interactions of microbes with their environment, rather than their behavior under artificial laboratory conditions. Because microbes are ubiquitous, microbial ecologists study a broad diversity of habitats that range from aquatic to terrestrial to plant- or animal-associated. This has made it a challenge to identify unifying principles within the field. One approach is to recognize that although the activity of microbes in nature have effects at the macroscale, theymore » interact with their physical, chemical and biological milieu at a scale of micrometers. At this scale, several different microbial ecosystems can be defined, based upon association with particles, the presence of environmental gradients and the continuous availability of water. Principles applicable to microbial ecology reflect not only their population ecology and physiological ecology, but also their broad versatility and quantitative importance in the biosphere as biogeochemical catalysts and capacity for rapid physiological and evolutionary responses.« less

  15. Corrosion behaviour and biocorrosion of galvanized steel water distribution systems.

    PubMed

    Delaunois, F; Tosar, F; Vitry, V

    2014-06-01

    Galvanized steel tubes are a popular mean for water distribution systems but suffer from corrosion despite their zinc or zinc alloy coatings. First, the quality of hot-dip galvanized (HDG) coatings was studied. Their microstructure, defects, and common types of corrosion were observed. It was shown that many manufactured tubes do not reach European standard (NBN EN 10240), which is the cause of several corrosion problems. The average thickness of zinc layer was found at 41μm against 55μm prescribed by the European standard. However, lack of quality, together with the usual corrosion types known for HDG steel tubes was not sufficient to explain the high corrosion rate (reaching 20μm per year versus 10μm/y for common corrosion types). Electrochemical tests were also performed to understand the corrosion behaviours occurring in galvanized steel tubes. Results have shown that the limiting step was oxygen diffusion, favouring the growth of anaerobic bacteria in steel tubes. EDS analysis was carried out on corroded coatings and has shown the presence of sulphur inside deposits, suggesting the likely bacterial activity. Therefore biocorrosion effects have been investigated. Actually sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB) can reduce sulphate contained in water to hydrogen sulphide (H2S), causing the formation of metal sulphides. Although microbial corrosion is well-known in sea water, it is less investigated in supply water. Thus, an experimental water main was kept in operation for 6months. SRB were detected by BART tests in the test water main. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The Tension and Puncture Properties of HDPE Geomembrane under the Corrosion of Leachate

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Qiang; Zhang, Qian; Li, Zhen-Ze; Xiao, Kai

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the gradual failure of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) geomembrane as a result of long-term corrosion, four dynamic corrosion tests were conducted at different temperatures and durations. By combining tension and puncture tests, we systematically studied the variation law of tension and puncture properties of the HDPE geomembrane under different corrosion conditions. Results showed that tension and puncture failure of the HDPE geomembrane was progressive, and tensile strength in the longitudinal grain direction was evidently better than that in the transverse direction. Punctures appeared shortly after puncture force reached the puncture strength. The tensile strength of geomembrane was in inversely proportional to the corrosion time, and the impact of corrosion was more obvious in the longitudinal direction than transverse direction. As corrosion time increased, puncture strength decreased and corresponding deformation increased. As with corrosion time, the increase of corrosion temperature induced the decrease of geomembrane tensile strength. Tensile and puncture strength were extremely sensitive to temperature. Overall, residual strength had a negative correlation with corrosion time or temperature. Elongation variation increased initially and then decreased with the increase in temperature. However, it did not show significant law with corrosion time. The reduction in puncture strength and the increase in puncture deformation had positive correlations with corrosion time or temperature. The geomembrane softened under corrosion condition. The conclusion may be applicable to the proper designing of the HDPE geomembrane in landfill barrier system. PMID:28788321

  17. The Tension and Puncture Properties of HDPE Geomembrane under the Corrosion of Leachate.

    PubMed

    Xue, Qiang; Zhang, Qian; Li, Zhen-Ze; Xiao, Kai

    2013-09-17

    To investigate the gradual failure of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) geomembrane as a result of long-term corrosion, four dynamic corrosion tests were conducted at different temperatures and durations. By combining tension and puncture tests, we systematically studied the variation law of tension and puncture properties of the HDPE geomembrane under different corrosion conditions. Results showed that tension and puncture failure of the HDPE geomembrane was progressive, and tensile strength in the longitudinal grain direction was evidently better than that in the transverse direction. Punctures appeared shortly after puncture force reached the puncture strength. The tensile strength of geomembrane was in inversely proportional to the corrosion time, and the impact of corrosion was more obvious in the longitudinal direction than transverse direction. As corrosion time increased, puncture strength decreased and corresponding deformation increased. As with corrosion time, the increase of corrosion temperature induced the decrease of geomembrane tensile strength. Tensile and puncture strength were extremely sensitive to temperature. Overall, residual strength had a negative correlation with corrosion time or temperature. Elongation variation increased initially and then decreased with the increase in temperature. However, it did not show significant law with corrosion time. The reduction in puncture strength and the increase in puncture deformation had positive correlations with corrosion time or temperature. The geomembrane softened under corrosion condition. The conclusion may be applicable to the proper designing of the HDPE geomembrane in landfill barrier system.

  18. CORROSION PROCESS IN REINFORCED CONCRETE IDENTIFIED BY ACOUSTIC EMISSION

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawasaki, Yuma; Kitaura, Misuzu; Tomoda, Yuichi; Ohtsu, Masayasu

    Deterioration of Reinforced Concrete (RC) due to salt attack is known as one of serious problems. Thus, development of non-destructive evaluation (NDE) techniques is important to assess the corrosion process. Reinforcement in concrete normally does not corrode because of a passive film on the surface of reinforcement. When chloride concentration at reinfo rcement exceeds the threshold level, the passive film is destroyed. Thus maintenance is desirable at an early stage. In this study, to identify the onset of corrosion and the nucleation of corrosion-induced cracking in concrete due to expansion of corrosion products, continuous acoustic emission (AE) monitoring is applied. Accelerated corrosion and cyclic wet and dry tests are performed in a laboratory. The SiGMA (Simplified Green's functions for Moment tensor Analysis) proce dure is applied to AE waveforms to clarify source kinematics of micro-cracks locations, types and orientations. Results show that the onset of corrosion and the nu cleation of corrosion-induced cracking in concrete are successfully identified. Additionally, cross-sections inside the reinforcement are observed by a scanning electron microscope (SEM). From these results, a great promise for AE techniques to monitor salt damage at an early stage in RC structures is demonstrated.

  19. Corrosion and Corrosion Control in Light Water Reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Barry M.

    2013-08-01

    Serious corrosion problems have plagued the light water reactor (LWR) industry for decades. The complex corrosion mechanisms involved and the development of practical engineering solutions for their mitigation will be discussed in this article. After a brief overview of the basic designs of the boiling water reactor (BWR) and pressurized water reactor (PWR), emphasis will be placed on the general corrosion of LWR containments, flow-accelerated corrosion of carbon steel components, intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) in BWRs, primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) in PWRs, and irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) in both systems. Finally, the corrosion future of both plants will be discussed as plants extend their period of operation for an additional 20 to 40 years.

  20. A review of 'green' strategies to prevent or mitigate microbiologically influenced corrosion.

    PubMed

    Little, Brenda; Lee, Jason; Ray, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Two approaches to control microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) have been developed that do not require the use of biocides. These strategies include the following: i) use of biofilms to inhibit or prevent corrosion, and ii) manipulation (removal or addition) of an electron acceptor, (e.g. oxygen, sulphate or nitrate) to influence the microbial population. In both approaches the composition of the microbial community is affected by small perturbations in the environment (e.g. temperature, nutrient concentration and flow) and the response of microorganisms cannot be predicted with certainty. The following sections will review the literature on the effectiveness of these environmentally friendly, "green," strategies for controlling MIC.

  1. Corrosion testing using isotopes

    DOEpatents

    Hohorst, Frederick A.

    1995-12-05

    A method for determining the corrosion behavior of a material with respect to a medium in contact with the material by: implanting a substantially chemically inert gas in a matrix so that corrosion experienced by the material causes the inert gas to enter the medium; placing the medium in contact with the material; and measuring the amount of inert gas which enters the medium. A test sample of a material whose resistance to corrosion by a medium is to be tested, composed of: a body of the material, which body has a surface to be contacted by the medium; and a substantially chemically inert gas implanted into the body to a depth below the surface. A test sample of a material whose resistance to corrosion by a medium is to be tested, composed of: a substrate of material which is easily corroded by the medium, the substrate having a surface; a substantially chemically inert gas implanted into the substrate; and a sheet of the material whose resistance to corrosion is to be tested, the sheet being disposed against the surface of the substrate and having a defined thickness.

  2. Corrosion testing using isotopes

    DOEpatents

    Hohorst, F.A.

    1995-12-05

    A method is described for determining the corrosion behavior of a material with respect to a medium in contact with the material by: implanting a substantially chemically inert gas in a matrix so that corrosion experienced by the material causes the inert gas to enter the medium; placing the medium in contact with the material; and measuring the amount of inert gas which enters the medium. A test sample of a material whose resistance to corrosion by a medium is to be tested is described composed of: a body of the material, which body has a surface to be contacted by the medium; and a substantially chemically inert gas implanted into the body to a depth below the surface. A test sample of a material whose resistance to corrosion by a medium is to be tested is described composed of: a substrate of material which is easily corroded by the medium, the substrate having a surface; a substantially chemically inert gas implanted into the substrate; and a sheet of the material whose resistance to corrosion is to be tested, the sheet being disposed against the surface of the substrate and having a defined thickness. 3 figs.

  3. EFFECTS OF CHEMISTRY AND OTHER VARIABLES ON CORROSION AND STRESS CORROSION CRACKING IN HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANKS

    SciTech Connect

    BROWN MH

    2008-11-13

    Laboratory testing was performed to develop a comprehensive understanding of the corrosivity of the tank wastes stored in Double-Shell Tanks using simulants primarily from Tanks 241-AP-105, 241-SY-103 and 241-AW-105. Additional tests were conducted using simulants of the waste stored in 241-AZ-102, 241-SY-101, 241-AN-107, and 241-AY-101. This test program placed particular emphasis on defining the range of tank waste chemistries that do not induce the onset of localized forms of corrosion, particularly pitting and stress corrosion cracking. This document summarizes the key findings of the research program.

  4. Influence of biofilm formation on corrosion and scaling in geothermal plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleyböcker, Anne; Lerm, Stephanie; Monika, Kasina; Tobias, Lienen; Florian, Eichinger; Andrea, Seibt; Markus, Wolfgramm; Hilke, Würdemann

    2017-04-01

    Process failures may occur due to corrosion and scaling processes in open loop geothermal systems. Especially after heat extraction, sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) contribute to corrosion processes due to a more favorable temperature for their growth. In biofilms containing FeS scales, corrosion processes are enhanced. Furthermore, scales can lead to reduced pipe profiles, to a diminished heat transfer and a decrease in the wellbore injectivity. Inhibitors are frequently applied to minimize scaling in technical systems. A prerequisite for the application of inhibitors in geothermal plants located in the Molasse basin is their degradability under reservoir conditions, e. g. in a reduced environment. In order to determine the effects of scale-inhibitors on the subsurface and microbial processes, laboratory experiments were performed focusing on the microbial inhibitor degradation. First results indicate that the inhibitor degradation under anaerobic conditions is possible. Besides the inhibitor application also other techniques are investigated to economically reduce corrosion and scaling in geothermal plants. In a mobile bypass system, the influence of biofilm formation on corrosion and scaling was investigated. The bypass system was tested at a geothermal heat store in the North German Basin. The plant is operated with highly saline fluid (salinity 130 g/L) and known to be affected by SRB. The SRB contributed to corrosion damages especially at the pump in the well on the cold side. Heat shocks were successfully used in the bypass system to reduce biofilm formation as well as corrosion and scaling processes.

  5. Corrosion inhibitors for concrete bridges.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2004-12-01

    Deicing salts and salt-water spray can cause serious corrosion problems for reinforced concrete bridge structures. : These problems can lead to costly and labor-intensive repair and even replacement of the structure. Surface applied : corrosion inhib...

  6. Solving A Corrosion Problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The corrosion problem, it turned out, stemmed from the process called electrolysis. When two different metals are in contact, an electrical potential is set up between them; when the metals are surrounded by an electrolyte, or a conducting medium, the resulting reaction causes corrosion, often very rapid corrosion. In this case the different metals were the copper grounding system and the ferry's aluminum hull; the dockside salt water in which the hull was resting served as the electrolyte. After identifying the source of the trouble, the Ames engineer provided a solution: a new wire-and-rod grounding system made of aluminum like the ferry's hull so there would no longer be dissimilar metals in contact. Ames research on the matter disclosed that the problem was not unique to the Golden Gate ferries. It is being experienced by many pleasure boat operators who are probably as puzzled about it as was the Golden Gate Transit Authority.

  7. Stochastic theory of fatigue corrosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Haiyun

    1999-10-01

    A stochastic theory of corrosion has been constructed. The stochastic equations are described giving the transportation corrosion rate and fluctuation corrosion coefficient. In addition the pit diameter distribution function, the average pit diameter and the most probable pit diameter including other related empirical formula have been derived. In order to clarify the effect of stress range on the initiation and growth behaviour of pitting corrosion, round smooth specimen were tested under cyclic loading in 3.5% NaCl solution.

  8. Corrosion-resistant metal surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Sugama, Toshifumi [Wading River, NY

    2009-03-24

    The present invention relates to metal surfaces having thereon an ultrathin (e.g., less than ten nanometer thickness) corrosion-resistant film, thereby rendering the metal surfaces corrosion-resistant. The corrosion-resistant film includes an at least partially crosslinked amido-functionalized silanol component in combination with rare-earth metal oxide nanoparticles. The invention also relates to methods for producing such corrosion-resistant films.

  9. Steel reinforcement corrosion detection with coaxial cable sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muchaidze, Iana; Pommerenke, David; Chen, Genda

    2011-04-01

    Corrosion processes in the steel reinforced structures can result in structural deficiency and with time create a threat to human lives. Millions of dollars are lost each year because of corrosion. According to the U. S. Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) the average annual cost of corrosion in the infrastructure sector by the end of 2002 was estimated to be $22.6 billion. Timely remediation/retrofit and effective maintenance can extend the structure's live span for much less expense. Thus the considerable effort should be done to deploy corrosion monitoring techniques to have realistic information on the location and the severity of damage. Nowadays commercially available techniques for corrosion monitoring require costly equipment and certain interpretational skills. In addition, none of them is designed for the real time quality assessment. In this study the crack sensor developed at Missouri University of Science and Technology is proposed as a distributed sensor for real time corrosion monitoring. Implementation of this technology may ease the pressure on the bridge owners restrained with the federal budget by allowing the timely remediation with the minimal financial and labor expenses. The sensor is instrumented in such a way that the location of any discontinuity developed along its length can be easily detected. When the sensor is placed in immediate vicinity to the steel reinforcement it is subjected to the same chemical process as the steel reinforcement. And corrosion pitting is expected to develop on the sensor exactly at the same location as in the rebar. Thus it is expected to be an effective tool for active corrosion zones detection within reinforced concrete (RC) members. A series of laboratory tests were conducted to validate the effectiveness of the proposed methodology. Nine sensors were manufactured and placed in the artificially created corrosive environment and observed over the time. To induce accelerated corrosion 3% and 5% Na

  10. Corrosion resistant PEM fuel cell

    DOEpatents

    Fronk, Matthew Howard; Borup, Rodney Lynn; Hulett, Jay S.; Brady, Brian K.; Cunningham, Kevin M.

    2011-06-07

    A PEM fuel cell having electrical contact elements comprising a corrosion-susceptible substrate metal coated with an electrically conductive, corrosion-resistant polymer containing a plurality of electrically conductive, corrosion-resistant filler particles. The substrate may have an oxidizable metal first layer (e.g., stainless steel) underlying the polymer coating.

  11. Corrosion resistant PEM fuel cell

    DOEpatents

    Fronk, Matthew Howard; Borup, Rodney Lynn; Hulett, Jay S.; Brady, Brian K.; Cunningham, Kevin M.

    2002-01-01

    A PEM fuel cell having electrical contact elements comprising a corrosion-susceptible substrate metal coated with an electrically conductive, corrosion-resistant polymer containing a plurality of electrically conductive, corrosion-resistant filler particles. The substrate may have an oxidizable metal first layer (e.g., stainless steel) underlying the polymer coating.

  12. Maternal Antibiotic-Induced Early Changes in Microbial Colonization Selectively Modulate Colonic Permeability and Inducible Heat Shock Proteins, and Digesta Concentrations of Alkaline Phosphatase and TLR-Stimulants in Swine Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Arnal, Marie-Edith; Zhang, Jing; Erridge, Clett; Smidt, Hauke; Lallès, Jean-Paul

    2015-01-01

    Elevated intake of high energy diets is a risk factor for the development of metabolic diseases and obesity. High fat diets cause alterations in colonic microbiota composition and increase gut permeability to bacterial lipopolysaccharide, and subsequent low-grade chronic inflammation in mice. Chronic inflammatory bowel diseases are increasing worldwide and may involve alterations in microbiota-host dialog. Metabolic disorders appearing in later life are also suspected to reflect changes in early programming. However, how the latter affects the colon remains poorly studied. Here, we hypothesized that various components of colonic physiology, including permeability, ion exchange and protective inducible heat shock proteins (HSP) are influenced in the short- and long-terms by early disturbances in microbial colonization. The hypothesis was tested in a swine model. Offspring were born to control mothers (n = 12) or mothers treated with the antibiotic (ATB) amoxicillin around parturition (n = 11). Offspring were slaughtered between 14 and 42 days of age to study short-term effects. For long-term effects, young adult offspring from the same litters consumed a normal or a palm oil-enriched diet for 4 weeks between 140 and 169 days of age. ATB treatment transiently modified maternal fecal microbiota although the minor differences observed for offspring colonic microbiota were nonsignificant. In the short-term, consistently higher HSP27 and HSP70 levels and transiently increased horseradish peroxidase permeability in ATB offspring colon were observed. Importantly, long-term consequences included reduced colonic horseradish peroxidase permeability, and increased colonic digesta alkaline phosphatase (AP) and TLR2- and TLR4-stimulant concentrations in rectal digesta in adult ATB offspring. Inducible HSP27 and HSP70 did not change. Interactions between early ATB treatment and later diet were noted for paracellular permeability and concentrations of colonic digesta AP. In

  13. Maternal antibiotic-induced early changes in microbial colonization selectively modulate colonic permeability and inducible heat shock proteins, and digesta concentrations of alkaline phosphatase and TLR-stimulants in swine offspring.

    PubMed

    Arnal, Marie-Edith; Zhang, Jing; Erridge, Clett; Smidt, Hauke; Lallès, Jean-Paul

    2015-01-01

    Elevated intake of high energy diets is a risk factor for the development of metabolic diseases and obesity. High fat diets cause alterations in colonic microbiota composition and increase gut permeability to bacterial lipopolysaccharide, and subsequent low-grade chronic inflammation in mice. Chronic inflammatory bowel diseases are increasing worldwide and may involve alterations in microbiota-host dialog. Metabolic disorders appearing in later life are also suspected to reflect changes in early programming. However, how the latter affects the colon remains poorly studied. Here, we hypothesized that various components of colonic physiology, including permeability, ion exchange and protective inducible heat shock proteins (HSP) are influenced in the short- and long-terms by early disturbances in microbial colonization. The hypothesis was tested in a swine model. Offspring were born to control mothers (n = 12) or mothers treated with the antibiotic (ATB) amoxicillin around parturition (n = 11). Offspring were slaughtered between 14 and 42 days of age to study short-term effects. For long-term effects, young adult offspring from the same litters consumed a normal or a palm oil-enriched diet for 4 weeks between 140 and 169 days of age. ATB treatment transiently modified maternal fecal microbiota although the minor differences observed for offspring colonic microbiota were nonsignificant. In the short-term, consistently higher HSP27 and HSP70 levels and transiently increased horseradish peroxidase permeability in ATB offspring colon were observed. Importantly, long-term consequences included reduced colonic horseradish peroxidase permeability, and increased colonic digesta alkaline phosphatase (AP) and TLR2- and TLR4-stimulant concentrations in rectal digesta in adult ATB offspring. Inducible HSP27 and HSP70 did not change. Interactions between early ATB treatment and later diet were noted for paracellular permeability and concentrations of colonic digesta AP. In

  14. Exopolysaccharides from lactic acid bacteria as corrosion inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ignatova-Ivanova, Tsveteslava; Ivanov, Radoslav

    2016-03-01

    Bacterial EPSs (exopolysaccharides) are believed to play an important role in the environment by promoting survival strategies such as bacterial attachment to surfaces and nutrient trapping, which facilitate processes of biofilm formation and development. These microbial biofilms have been implicated in corrosion of metals, bacterial attachment to prosthetic devices, fouling of heat exchange surfaces, toxicant immobilization, and fouling of ship hulls. In this paper, data on EPS production and the effect of EPS on corrosion of steel produced by Lactobacillus sp. are presented and discussed. Lactobacillus delbrueckii K27, Lactobacillus delbrueckii B8, Lactobacillus delbrueckii KO43, Lactobacillus delbrueckii K3, Lactobacillus delbrueckii K15 and Lactobacillus delbrueckii K17 was obtained from Collection of Department of General and Applied Microbiology, Sofia University. It was tested for its ability to produce exopolysaccharides when cultivated in a media containing 10% sucrose, 10% lacose and 10% maltose. The study of the corrosive stability of steel samples was conducted on the gravimetrique method. The rate of corrosion, the degree of protection, and coefficient of protection have been calculated. The structure of layer over steel plates was analysed by SEM (scanning electron microscopy) JSM 5510. It could be underlined that 10% sucrose, 10% lactose and 10% maltose in the media stimulated the process of protection of corrosion.

  15. ENVIRONMENTAL BENIGN MITIGATION OF MICROBIOLOGICALLY INFLUENCED CORROSION (MIC)

    SciTech Connect

    J.R. Paterek; G. Husmillo; V. Trbovic

    The overall program objective is to develop and evaluate environmental benign agents or products that are effective in the prevention, inhibition, and mitigation of microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) in the internal surfaces of metallic natural gas pipelines. The goal is one or more environmental benign, a.k.a. ''green'' products that can be applied to maintain the structure and dependability of the natural gas infrastructure. The technical approach for this quarter were isolation and cultivation of MIC-causing microorganisms from corroded pipeline samples, optimizing parameters in the laboratory-scale corrosion test loop system and testing the effective concentrations of Capsicum sp. extracts to verifymore » the extent of corrosion on metal coupons by batch culture method. A total of 22 strains from the group of heterotrophic, acid producing, denitrifying and sulfate reducing bacteria were isolated from the gas pipeline samples obtained from Northern Indiana Public Service Company in Trenton, Indiana. They were purified and will be sent out for identification. Bacterial strains of interest were used in antimicrobial screenings and test loop experiments. Parameters for the laboratory-scale test loop system such as gas and culture medium flow rate; temperature; inoculation period; and length of incubation were established. Batch culture corrosion study against Desulfovibrio vulgaris showed that one (S{sub 1}M) out of the four Capsicum sp. extracts tested was effective in controlling the corrosion rate in metal coupons by 33.33% when compared to the untreated group.« less

  16. Microbial community diversity associated with moonmilk deposits in a karstic cave system in Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rooney, D.; Hutchens, E.; Clipson, Nick; McDermott, Frank

    2009-04-01

    Microbial ecology in subterranean systems has yet to be fully studied. Cave systems present highly unusual and extreme habitats, where microbial activity can potentially play a major role in nutrient cycling and possibly contribute to the formation of characteristic subaerial structures. How microorganisms actually function in cave systems, and what ecological roles they may perform, has yet to be widely addressed, although recent studies using molecular techniques combined with analytical geochemistry have begun to answer some questions surrounding subterranean microbial ecology (Northup et al., 2003). Moonmilk has a ‘cottage-cheese' like consistency, comprised of fine crystal aggregates of carbonate minerals, commonly calcite, hydromagnesite and gypsum, and is believed to be at least partially precipitated by microbial activity (Baskar et al., 2006). Microbial metabolic processes have been implicated in the formation of moonmilk, probably a result of biochemical corrosion of bedrock under high moisture conditions. Mineral weathering via bacterial activity has become accepted as a major influence on subsurface geochemistry and formation of belowground structures (Summers-Engel et al., 2004). While many studies focus on bacterial communities in subterranean systems, fungal community structure is also likely to be important in cave systems, given the important role fungi play in the transformations of organic and inorganic substrates (Gadd, 2004) and the significant role of fungi in mineral dissolution and secondary mineral formation (Burford et al., 2003). In general, it is agreed that both biotic and abiotic processes influence moonmilk formation, yet the diversity of the microbial community associated with moonmilk formations has not been characterised to date. Ballinamintra Cave (Waterford County, Ireland) is largely protected from human influence due to accessibility difficulties and thereby offers an opportunity to study microbial community structure that

  17. Timescale Correlation between Marine Atmospheric Exposure and Accelerated Corrosion Testing - Part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, Eliza L.; Calle, Luz Marina; Curran, Jerome C.; Kolody, Mark R.

    2012-01-01

    Evaluation of metals to predict service life of metal-based structures in corrosive environments has long relied on atmospheric exposure test sites. Traditional accelerated corrosion testing relies on mimicking the exposure conditions, often incorporating salt spray and ultraviolet (UV) radiation, and exposing the metal to continuous or cyclic conditions similar to those of the corrosive environment. Their reliability to correlate to atmospheric exposure test results is often a concern when determining the timescale to which the accelerated tests can be related. Accelerated corrosion testing has yet to be universally accepted as a useful tool in predicting the long-term service life of a metal, despite its ability to rapidly induce corrosion. Although visual and mass loss methods of evaluating corrosion are the standard, and their use is crucial, a method that correlates timescales from accelerated testing to atmospheric exposure would be very valuable. This paper presents work that began with the characterization of the atmospheric environment at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Beachside Corrosion Test Site. The chemical changes that occur on low carbon steel, during atmospheric and accelerated corrosion conditions, were investigated using surface chemistry analytical methods. The corrosion rates and behaviors of panels subjected to long-term and accelerated corrosion conditions, involving neutral salt fog and alternating seawater spray, were compared to identify possible timescale correlations between accelerated and long-term corrosion performance. The results, as well as preliminary findings on the correlation investigation, are presented.

  18. Fracture of concrete caused by the reinforcement corrosion products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Q. T.; Millard, A.; Caré, S.; L'Hostis, V.; Berthaud, Y.

    2006-11-01

    One of the most current degradations in reinforced concrete structures is related to the corrosion of the reinforcements. The corrosion products during active corrosion induce a mechanical pressure on the surrounding concrete that leads to cover cracking along the rebar. The objective of this work is to study the cracking of concrete due to the corrosion of the reinforcements. The phenomenon of corrosion/cracking is studied in experiments through tests of accelerated corrosion on plate and cylindrical specimens. A CCD camera is used to take images every hour and the pictures are analyzed by using the intercorrelation image technique (Correli^LMT) to derive the displacement and strain field. Thus the date of appearance of the first through crack is detected and the cinematic crack initiations are observed during the test. A finite element model that allows prediction of the mechanical consequences of the corrosion of steel in reinforced concrete structures is proposed. From the comparison between the test results and numerical simulations, it may be concluded that the model is validated in term of strains up to the moment when the crack becomes visible, and in terms of crack pattern.

  19. Concrete Infrastructure Corrosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waanders, F. B.; Vorster, S. W.

    2003-06-01

    It is well known that many reinforced concrete structures are at risk of deterioration due to chloride ion contamination of the concrete or atmospheric carbon dioxide dissolving in water to form carbonic acid, which reacts with the concrete and the reinforcing steel. The environment within the concrete will determine the corrosion product layers, which might, inter alia, contain the oxides and/or hydroxides of iron. Tensile forces resulting from volume changes during their formation lead to the cracking and delamination of the concrete. In the present investigation the handrail of an outside staircase suffered rebar corrosion during 30 year's service, leading to severe delamination damage to the concrete structure. The railings had been sealed into the concrete staircase using a polysulphide sealant, Thiokol®. The corrosion products were identified by means of Mössbauer and SEM analyses, which indicated that the corrosion product composition varied from the original steel surface to the outer layers, the former being mainly iron oxides and the latter iron oxyhydroxide.

  20. COPPER CORROSION RESEARCH UPDATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Copper release and corrosion related issues continue to be important to many water systems. The objective of this presentation is to discuss the current state of copper research at the USEPA. Specifically, the role of aging on copper release, use of phosphates for copper corrosio...

  1. Chloride Sensitivity of the Corrosion Rate of Zinc-Coated Reinforcing Bars

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-09-01

    wide use of deicing salts on highway pavements and bridges also represents a major source of concrete deterioration induced by rebar corrosion . Adding...cm] Cover in the Spall Zones 11 3a Underlayment of Trestle Showing Spalling of Concrete and Corrosion of Steel Supports 12 3b Deterioration of...Statement Concrete , when placed in cor.act with metals, may be corrosive , neutral, or protective. ihe response of metal to concrete depends on the alloy

  2. Smart Coatings for Corrosion Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calle, Luz Marina; Li, Wendy; Buhrow, Jerry W.; Johnsey, Marissa N.

    2016-01-01

    Nearly all metals and their alloys are subject to corrosion that causes them to lose their structural integrity or other critical functionality. It is essential to detect corrosion when it occurs, and preferably at its early stage, so that action can be taken to avoid structural damage or loss of function. Protective coatings are the most commonly used method of corrosion control. However, progressively stricter environmental regulations have resulted in the ban of many commercially available corrosion protective coatings due to the harmful effects of their solvents or corrosion inhibitors. This work concerns the development of a multifunctional, smart coating for the autonomous control of corrosion. This coating is being developed to have the inherent ability to detect the chemical changes associated with the onset of corrosion and respond autonomously to indicate it and control it.

  3. Corrosion potential analysis system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiefer, Karl F.

    1998-03-01

    Many cities in the northeastern U.S. transport electrical power from place to place via underground cables, which utilize voltages from 68 kv to 348 kv. These cables are placed in seamless steel pipe to protect the conductors. These buried pipe-type-cables (PTCs) are carefully designed and constantly pressurized with transformer oil to prevent any possible contamination. A protective coating placed on the outside diameter of the pipe during manufacture protects the steel pipe from the soil environment. Notwithstanding the protection mechanisms available, the pipes remain vulnerable to electrochemical corrosion processes. If undetected, corrosion can cause the pipes to leak transformer oil into the environment. These leaks can assume serious proportions due to the constant pressure on the inside of the pipe. A need exists for a detection system that can dynamically monitor the corrosive potential on the length of the pipe and dynamically adjust cathodic protection to counter local and global changes in the cathodic environment surrounding the pipes. The northeastern United States contains approximately 1000 miles of this pipe. This milage is critical to the transportation and distribution of power. So critical, that each of the pipe runs has a redundant double running parallel to it. Invocon, Inc. proposed and tested a technically unique and cost effective solution to detect critical corrosion potential and to communicate that information to a central data collection and analysis location. Invocon's solution utilizes the steel of the casing pipe as a communication medium. Each data gathering station on the pipe can act as a relay for information gathered elsewhere on the pipe. These stations must have 'smart' network configuration algorithms that constantly test various communication paths and determine the best and most power efficient route through which information should flow. Each network station also performs data acquisition and analysis tasks that ultimately

  4. Temporal patterning of the potential induced by localized corrosion of iron passivity in acid media. Growth and breakdown of the oxide film described in terms of a point defect model.

    PubMed

    Sazou, Dimitra; Pavlidou, Maria; Pagitsas, Michael

    2009-10-21

    This work analyses the nature of temporal patterning of the anodic potential induced by chlorides during polarization of iron under current-controlled conditions in acid solutions. It is shown that potential oscillations emerged as a result of the local chloride attack of a thin oxide layer, which covers the iron surface in its passive state. The mechanism by which both the local oxide breakdown and the subsequent localized active dissolution (pitting) occur is explained by considering a point defect model (PDM) developed to describe the oxide growth and breakdown. According to the PDM, chlorides occupy oxygen vacancies resulting in the inhibition of oxide growth and autocatalytic generation of cation vacancies that destabilize the oxide layer. Simultaneous transformation of the outer surface of the inner oxide layer to non-adherent ferrous chloride or oxo-chloride species leads to a further thinning of the oxide layer and its lifting-on from the iron surface. The process repeats again yielding sustained oscillations of the anodic potential. Analysis of the oscillatory response obtained under current-controlled conditions as a function of either the current or the time allows the suggestion of a set of alternate diagnostic criteria, which might be used to characterize localized corrosion of iron in acid solutions.

  5. Forest understory plant and soil microbial response to an experimentally induced drought and heat-pulse event: the importance of maintaining the continuum.

    PubMed

    von Rein, Isabell; Gessler, Arthur; Premke, Katrin; Keitel, Claudia; Ulrich, Andreas; Kayler, Zachary E

    2016-08-01

    Drought duration and intensity are expected to increase with global climate change. How changes in water availability and temperature affect the combined plant-soil-microorganism response remains uncertain. We excavated soil monoliths from a beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) forest, thus keeping the understory plant-microbe communities intact, imposed an extreme climate event, consisting of drought and/or a single heat-pulse event, and followed microbial community dynamics over a time period of 28 days. During the treatment, we labeled the canopy with (13) CO2 with the goal of (i) determining the strength of plant-microbe carbon linkages under control, drought, heat and heat-drought treatments and (ii) characterizing microbial groups that are tightly linked to the plant-soil carbon continuum based on (13) C-labeled PLFAs. Additionally, we used 16S rRNA sequencing of bacteria from the Ah horizon to determine the short-term changes in the active microbial community. The treatments did not sever within-plant transport over the experiment, and carbon sinks belowground were still active. Based on the relative distribution of labeled carbon to roots and microbial PLFAs, we determined that soil microbes appear to have a stronger carbon sink strength during environmental stress. High-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA revealed multiple trajectories in microbial community shifts within the different treatments. Heat in combination with drought had a clear negative effect on microbial diversity and resulted in a distinct shift in the microbial community structure that also corresponded to the lowest level of label found in the PLFAs. Hence, the strongest changes in microbial abundances occurred in the heat-drought treatment where plants were most severely affected. Our study suggests that many of the shifts in the microbial communities that we might expect from extreme environmental stress will result from the plant-soil-microbial dynamics rather than from direct effects of

  6. Numerical model of RC beam response to corrosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    German, Magdalena; Pamin, Jerzy

    2018-01-01

    The chloride-induced corrosion of reinforcement used to be represented by Tuutti's model with initiation and propagation phases. During the initiation phase chlorides penetrate the concrete cover and accumulate around reinforcement bars. The chloride concentration in concrete increases until it reaches a chloride threshold value, causing deterioration of the passive layer of reinforcement. Then the propagation phase begins. During the propagation phase steel has no natural anti-corrosion protection, a corrosion current flows and this induces the production of rust. A growing volume of corrosion products generates stresses in concrete, which leads to cracking, splitting, delamination and loss of strength. The mechanical response of RC elements to reinforcement corrosion has mostly been examined on the basis of a 2D cross-section analysis. However, with this approach it is not possible to represent both corrosion and static loading. In the paper a 3D finite element model of an RC beam with the two actions applied is presented. Rust is represented as an interface between steel and concrete, considering the volumetric expansion of rust.

  7. Microbial monitoring during CO2 storage in deep subsurface saline aquifers in Ketzin, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wuerdemann, H.; Wandrey, M.; Fischer, S.; Zemke, K.; Let, D.; Zettlitzer, M.; Morozova, D.

    2010-12-01

    Investigations on subsurface saline aquifers have shown an active biosphere composed of diverse groups of microorganisms in the subsurface. Since microorganisms represent very effective geochemical catalysts, they may influence the process of CO2 storage significantly. In the frames of the EU Project CO2SINK a field laboratory to study CO2 storage into saline aquifer was operated. Our studies aim at monitoring of biological and biogeochemical processes and their impact on the technical effectiveness of CO2 storage technique. The interactions between microorganisms and the minerals of both the reservoir and the cap rock may cause changes to the structure and chemical composition of the rock formations, which may influence the reservoir permeability locally. In addition, precipitation and corrosion may be induced around the well affecting the casing and the casing cement. Therefore, analyses of the composition of microbial communities and its changes should contribute to an evaluation of the effectiveness and reliability of the long-term CO2 storage technique. In order to investigate processes in the deep biosphere caused by the injection of supercritical CO2, genetic fingerprinting (PCR SSCP Single-Strand-Conformation Polymorphism) and FISH (Fluorescence in situ Hybridisation) were used for identification and quantification of microorganisms. Although saline aquifers could be characterised as an extreme habitat for microorganisms due to reduced conditions, high pressure and salinity, a high number of diverse groups of microorganisms were detected with downhole sampling in the injection and observation wells at a depth of about 650m depth. Of great importance was the identification of the sulphate reducing bacteria, which are known to be involved in corrosion processes. Microbial monitoring during CO2 injection has shown that both quantity and diversity of microbial communities were strongly influenced by the CO2 injection. In addition, the indigenous microbial

  8. Laser Induced Fluorescence Emission (L.I.F.E.): In Situ Non-Destructive Detection of Microbial Life on Supraglacial Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sattler, B.; Tilg, M.; Storrie-Lombardi, M.; Remias, D.; Psenner, R.

    2012-04-01

    Laser-induced fluorescence emission (L.I.F.E.) is an in situ laser scanning technique to detect photoautotrophic pigments such as phycoerythrin of an ice ecosystem such as supraglacial environments without contamination. The sensitivity of many psychrophiles to even moderate changes in temperature, and the logistical difficulties associated with either in situ analysis or sampling makes it difficult to study microbial metabolism in ice ecosystems in a high resolution. Surface communities of cold ecosystems are highly autotrophic and therefor ideal systems for L.I.F.E examinations. 532nm green lasers excite photopigments in cyanobacteria and produce multiple fluorescence signatures between 550nm and 750nm including carotenoids, phycobiliproteins which would enable a non-invasive in-situ measurement. The sensitivity of many psychrophiles to even moderate changes in temperature, and the logistical difficulties associated with either in situ analysis or sampling makes it difficult to study these cryosphere ecosystems. In general, the ice habitat has to be disrupted using techniques that usually include coring, sawing, and melting. Samples are also often chosen blindly, with little indication of probable biomass. The need for an in situ non-invasive, non-destructive technique to detect, localize, and sample cryosphere biomass in the field is therefore of considerable importance. L.I.F.E has already been tested in remote ecosystems like Antarctica (Lake Untersee, Lake Fryxell), supraglacial environments in the Kongsfjord region in the High Arctic and High Alpine glaciers but until now no calibration was set to convert the L.I.F.E. signal into pigment concentration. Here we describe the standardization for detection of Phycobiliproteins (Phycoerythrine) which are found in red algae, cyanobacteria, and cryptomonads. Similar methods are already used for detection of phytoplankton in liquid systems like oceans and lakes by NASÁs Airborne Oceanographic LIDAR since 1979. The

  9. Office of Naval Research Overview of Corrosion S&T Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-02

    a carbon induced passivity for LTCSS treated austenitic stainless steels - Low temp. allows interstitial C diffusion, but not substitutional...paraequilibrium carburization mechanism(s) that lead to the enhanced corrosion resistance seaw ater crevice corrosion on 316 Stainless Steel LTC...Treated 316 untreated LTC process TTT diagram LTCSS Surface Modification: • Carbon concentrations > 12 at. % in 316 stainless steel while maintaining

  10. Stress Corrosion Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Advanced testing of structural materials was developed by Lewis Research Center and Langley Research Center working with the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). Under contract, Aluminum Company of America (Alcoa) conducted a study for evaluating stress corrosion cracking, and recommended the "breaking load" method which determines fracture strengths as well as measuring environmental degradation. Alcoa and Langley plan to submit the procedure to ASTM as a new testing method.

  11. Corrosion resistant coating

    DOEpatents

    Wrobleski, D.A.; Benicewicz, B.C.; Thompson, K.G.; Bryan, C.J.

    1997-08-19

    A method of protecting a metal substrate from corrosion including coating a metal substrate of, e.g., steel, iron or aluminum, with a conductive polymer layer of, e.g., polyaniline, coating upon said metal substrate, and coating the conductive polymer-coated metal substrate with a layer of a topcoat upon the conductive polymer coating layer, is provided, together with the resultant coated article from said method.

  12. Papering Over Corrosion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Kennedy Space Center's battle against corrosion led to a new coating that was licensed to GeoTech and is commercially sold as Catize. The coating uses ligno sulfonic acid doped polyaniline (Ligno-Pani), also known as synthetic metal. Ligno-Pani can be used to extend the operating lives of steel bridges as one example of its applications. future applications include computers, televisions, cellular phones, conductive inks, and stealth technology.

  13. Corrosive resistant heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Richlen, Scott L.

    1989-01-01

    A corrosive and errosive resistant heat exchanger which recovers heat from a contaminated heat stream. The heat exchanger utilizes a boundary layer of innocuous gas, which is continuously replenished, to protect the heat exchanger surface from the hot contaminated gas. The innocuous gas is conveyed through ducts or perforations in the heat exchanger wall. Heat from the heat stream is transferred by radiation to the heat exchanger wall. Heat is removed from the outer heat exchanger wall by a heat recovery medium.

  14. Anti-Corrosion Coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    SuperSpan RM 8000 is an anti-corrosion coating which effectively counteracts acid degradation, abrasive wear, and cracking in power industry facilities. It was developed by RM Industrial Products Company, Inc. with NERAC assistance. It had previously been necessary to shut down plants to repair or replace corroded duct-work in coal burning utilities. NASA-developed technology was especially useful in areas relating to thermoconductivity of carbon steel and the bonding characteristics of polymers. The product has sold well.

  15. Corrosion resistant coating

    DOEpatents

    Wrobleski, Debra A.; Benicewicz, Brian C.; Thompson, Karen G.; Bryan, Coleman J.

    1997-01-01

    A method of protecting a metal substrate from corrosion including coating a metal substrate of, e.g., steel, iron or aluminum, with a conductive polymer layer of, e.g., polyaniline, coating upon said metal substrate, and coating the conductive polymer-coated metal substrate with a layer of a topcoat upon the conductive polymer coating layer, is provided, together with the resultant coated article from said method.

  16. Corrosion Protection of Aluminum

    DOEpatents

    Dalrymple, R. S.; Nelson, W. B.

    1963-07-01

    Treatment of aluminum-base metal surfaces in an autoclave with an aqueous chromic acid solution of 0.5 to 3% by weight and of pH below 2 for 20 to 50 hrs at 160 to 180 deg C produces an extremely corrosion-resistant aluminum oxidechromium film on the surface. A chromic acid concentration of 1 to 2% and a pH of about 1 are preferred.

  17. CORROSION PROTECTION OF ALUMINUM

    DOEpatents

    Dalrymple, R.S.; Nelson, W.B.

    1963-07-01

    Treatment of aluminum-base metal surfaces in an autoclave with an aqueous chromic acid solution of 0.5 to 3% by weight and of pH below 2 for 20 to 50 hrs at 160 to 180 deg C produces an extremely corrosion-resistant aluminum oxidechromium film on the surface. A chromic acid concentration of 1 to 2% and a pH of about 1 are preferred. (D.C.W.)

  18. Stainless steel corrosion by molten nitrates : analysis and lessons learned.

    SciTech Connect

    Kruizenga, Alan Michael

    2011-09-01

    A secondary containment vessel, made of stainless 316, failed due to severe nitrate salt corrosion. Corrosion was in the form of pitting was observed during high temperature, chemical stability experiments. Optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy were all used to diagnose the cause of the failure. Failure was caused by potassium oxide that crept into the gap between the primary vessel (alumina) and the stainless steel vessel. Molten nitrate solar salt (89% KNO{sub 3}, 11% NaNO{sub 3} by weight) was used during chemical stability experiments, with an oxygen cover gas, at a salt temperature of 350-700 C.more » Nitrate salt was primarily contained in an alumina vessel; however salt crept into the gap between the alumina and 316 stainless steel. Corrosion occurred over a period of approximately 2000 hours, with the end result of full wall penetration through the stainless steel vessel; see Figures 1 and 2 for images of the corrosion damage to the vessel. Wall thickness was 0.0625 inches, which, based on previous data, should have been adequate to avoid corrosion-induced failure while in direct contact with salt temperature at 677 C (0.081-inch/year). Salt temperatures exceeding 650 C lasted for approximately 14 days. However, previous corrosion data was performed with air as the cover gas. High temperature combined with an oxygen cover gas obviously drove corrosion rates to a much higher value. Corrosion resulted in the form of uniform pitting. Based on SEM and EDS data, pits contained primarily potassium oxide and potassium chromate, reinforcing the link between oxides and severe corrosion. In addition to the pitting corrosion, a large blister formed on the side wall, which was mainly composed of potassium, chromium and oxygen. All data indicated that corrosion initiated internally and moved outward. There was no evidence of intergranular corrosion nor were there any indication of fast pathways along grain boundaries. Much

  19. F-16 Microbially Influenced Corrosion (MIC) Characterization & Prevention Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-12

    Staphylococcus epidermidis Fungal Consortium Aspergillus fumigatus Fusarium oxysporum Penicillium oxalicum Rhodoturula sp. Trichoderma sp. Control...Growth, or Soil and Dirt Accumulation • Fungal Consortium – Aspergillus sp (FI-19) Aureobasidium pullulans (FI-16) – Fusarium oxysporum (FI-6) Fusarium...species (common environmental isolates) – Minimal impact to health & safety • Fungal species promote MIC of Al2024-T3 alloy • Intergranular attack with

  20. Anaerobic hydrocarbon and fatty acid metabolism by syntrophic bacteria and their impact on carbon steel corrosion.

    PubMed

    Lyles, Christopher N; Le, Huynh M; Beasley, William Howard; McInerney, Michael J; Suflita, Joseph M

    2014-01-01

    The microbial metabolism of hydrocarbons is increasingly associated with the corrosion of carbon steel in sulfate-rich marine waters. However, how such transformations influence metal biocorrosion in the absence of an electron acceptor is not fully recognized. We grew a marine alkane-utilizing, sulfate-reducing bacterium, Desulfoglaeba alkanexedens, with either sulfate or Methanospirillum hungatei as electron acceptors, and tested the ability of the cultures to catalyze metal corrosion. Axenically, D. alkanexedens had a higher instantaneous corrosion rate and produced more pits in carbon steel coupons than when the same organism was grown in syntrophic co-culture with the methanogen. Since anaerobic hydrocarbon biodegradation pathways converge on fatty acid intermediates, the corrosive ability of a known fatty acid-oxidizing syntrophic bacterium, Syntrophus aciditrophicus was compared when grown in pure culture or in co-culture with a H2-utilizing sulfate-reducing bacterium (Desulfovibrio sp., strain G11) or a methanogen (M. hungatei). The instantaneous corrosion rates in the cultures were not substantially different, but the syntrophic, sulfate-reducing co-culture produced more pits in coupons than other combinations of microorganisms. Lactate-grown cultures of strain G11 had higher instantaneous corrosion rates and coupon pitting compared to the same organism cultured with hydrogen as an electron donor. Thus, if sulfate is available as an electron acceptor, the same microbial assemblages produce sulfide and low molecular weight organic acids that exacerbated biocorrosion. Despite these trends, a surprisingly high degree of variation was encountered with the corrosion assessments. Differences in biomass, initial substrate concentration, rates of microbial activity or the degree of end product formation did not account for the variations. We are forced to ascribe such differences to the metallurgical properties of the coupons.

  1. Anaerobic hydrocarbon and fatty acid metabolism by syntrophic bacteria and their impact on carbon steel corrosion

    PubMed Central

    Lyles, Christopher N.; Le, Huynh M.; Beasley, William Howard; McInerney, Michael J.; Suflita, Joseph M.

    2014-01-01

    The microbial metabolism of hydrocarbons is increasingly associated with the corrosion of carbon steel in sulfate-rich marine waters. However, how such transformations influence metal biocorrosion in the absence of an electron acceptor is not fully recognized. We grew a marine alkane-utilizing, sulfate-reducing bacterium, Desulfoglaeba alkanexedens, with either sulfate or Methanospirillum hungatei as electron acceptors, and tested the ability of the cultures to catalyze metal corrosion. Axenically, D. alkanexedens had a higher instantaneous corrosion rate and produced more pits in carbon steel coupons than when the same organism was grown in syntrophic co-culture with the methanogen. Since anaerobic hydrocarbon biodegradation pathways converge on fatty acid intermediates, the corrosive ability of a known fatty acid-oxidizing syntrophic bacterium, Syntrophus aciditrophicus was compared when grown in pure culture or in co-culture with a H2-utilizing sulfate-reducing bacterium (Desulfovibrio sp., strain G11) or a methanogen (M. hungatei). The instantaneous corrosion rates in the cultures were not substantially different, but the syntrophic, sulfate-reducing co-culture produced more pits in coupons than other combinations of microorganisms. Lactate-grown cultures of strain G11 had higher instantaneous corrosion rates and coupon pitting compared to the same organism cultured with hydrogen as an electron donor. Thus, if sulfate is available as an electron acceptor, the same microbial assemblages produce sulfide and low molecular weight organic acids that exacerbated biocorrosion. Despite these trends, a surprisingly high degree of variation was encountered with the corrosion assessments. Differences in biomass, initial substrate concentration, rates of microbial activity or the degree of end product formation did not account for the variations. We are forced to ascribe such differences to the metallurgical properties of the coupons. PMID:24744752

  2. Imaging of Subsurface Corrosion Using Gradient-Field Pulsed Eddy Current Probes with Uniform Field Excitation

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Shuting; Yan, Bei; Zainal Abidin, Ilham Mukriz; Wang, Yi

    2017-01-01

    A corrosive environment leaves in-service conductive structures prone to subsurface corrosion which poses a severe threat to the structural integrity. It is indispensable to detect and quantitatively evaluate subsurface corrosion via non-destructive evaluation techniques. Although the gradient-field pulsed eddy current technique (GPEC) has been found to be superior in the evaluation of corrosion in conductors, it suffers from a technical drawback resulting from the non-uniform field excited by the conventional pancake coil. In light of this, a new GPEC probe with uniform field excitation for the imaging of subsurface corrosion is proposed in this paper. The excited uniform field makes the GPEC signal correspond only to the field perturbation due to the presence of subsurface corrosion, which benefits the corrosion profiling and sizing. A 3D analytical model of GPEC is established to analyze the characteristics of the uniform field induced within a conductor. Following this, experiments regarding the imaging of subsurface corrosion via GPEC have been carried out. It has been found from the results that the proposed GPEC probe with uniform field excitation not only applies to the imaging of subsurface corrosion in conductive structures, but provides high-sensitivity imaging results regarding the corrosion profile and opening size. PMID:28758985

  3. Imaging of Subsurface Corrosion Using Gradient-Field Pulsed Eddy Current Probes with Uniform Field Excitation.

    PubMed

    Li, Yong; Ren, Shuting; Yan, Bei; Zainal Abidin, Ilham Mukriz; Wang, Yi

    2017-07-31

    A corrosive environment leaves in-service conductive structures prone to subsurface corrosion which poses a severe threat to the structural integrity. It is indispensable to detect and quantitatively evaluate subsurface corrosion via non-destructive evaluation techniques. Although the gradient-field pulsed eddy current technique (GPEC) has been found to be superior in the evaluation of corrosion in conductors, it suffers from a technical drawback resulting from the non-uniform field excited by the conventional pancake coil. In light of this, a new GPEC probe with uniform field excitation for the imaging of subsurface corrosion is proposed in this paper. The excited uniform field makes the GPEC signal correspond only to the field perturbation due to the presence of subsurface corrosion, which benefits the corrosion profiling and sizing. A 3D analytical model of GPEC is established to analyze the characteristics of the uniform field induced within a conductor. Following this, experiments regarding the imaging of subsurface corrosion via GPEC have been carried out. It has been found from the results that the proposed GPEC probe with uniform field excitation not only applies to the imaging of subsurface corrosion in conductive structures, but provides high-sensitivity imaging results regarding the corrosion profile and opening size.

  4. Accelerated Stress-Corrosion Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Test procedures for accelerated stress-corrosion testing of high-strength aluminum alloys faster and provide more quantitative information than traditional pass/fail tests. Method uses data from tests on specimen sets exposed to corrosive environment at several levels of applied static tensile stress for selected exposure times then subsequently tensile tested to failure. Method potentially applicable to other degrading phenomena (such as fatigue, corrosion fatigue, fretting, wear, and creep) that promote development and growth of cracklike flaws within material.

  5. Corrosion Mitigation Strategies - an Introduction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-05

    formed • Stress corrosion cracking Leaders in Corrosion Control Technology • Overpressure • Pressure of a gas over a liquid- solubility of gases in...Power surges • Crack protective films, fretting, fatique Design – Chemistry • Used to eliminate candidate materials • pH acidic (H+) basic (OH...Technology • Laboratory tests • Published data Mechanical Properties • Strength • Ductility • Environmental cracking Methods of Corrosion Control–Materials

  6. Corrosion Monitors for Embedded Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, Alex L.; Pfeifer, Kent B.; Casias, Adrian L.

    2017-05-01

    We have developed and characterized novel in-situ corrosion sensors to monitor and quantify the corrosive potential and history of localized environments. Embedded corrosion sensors can provide information to aid health assessments of internal electrical components including connectors, microelectronics, wires, and other susceptible parts. When combined with other data (e.g. temperature and humidity), theory, and computational simulation, the reliability of monitored systems can be predicted with higher fidelity.

  7. Terahertz NDE Application for Corrosion Detection and Evaluation under Shuttle Tiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anastasi, Robert F.; Madaras, Eric I.; Seebo, Jeffrey P.; Smith, Stephen W.; Lomness, Janice K.; Hintze, Paul E.; Kammerer, Catherine C.; Winfree, William P.; Russell, Richard W.

    2007-01-01

    Pulsed Terahertz NDE is being examined as a method to inspect for possible corrosion under Space Shuttle Tiles. Other methods such as ultrasonics, infrared, eddy current and microwave technologies have demonstrable shortcomings for tile NDE. This work applies Terahertz NDE, in the frequency range between 50 GHz and 1 THz, for the inspection of manufactured corrosion samples. The samples consist of induced corrosion spots that range in diameter (2.54 to 15.2 mm) and depth (0.036 to 0.787 mm) in an aluminum substrate material covered with tiles. Results of these measurements are presented for known corrosion flaws both covered and uncovered and for blind tests with unknown corrosion flaws covered with attached tiles. The Terahertz NDE system is shown to detect all artificially manufactured corrosion regions under a Shuttle tile with a depth greater than 0.13 mm.

  8. Terahertz NDE application for corrosion detection and evaluation under Shuttle tiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anastasi, Robert F.; Madaras, Eric I.; Seebo, Jeffrey P.; Smith, Stephen W.; Lomness, Janice K.; Hintze, Paul E.; Kammerer, Catherine C.; Winfree, William P.; Russell, Richard W.

    2007-04-01

    Pulsed Terahertz NDE is being examined as a method to inspect for possible corrosion under Space Shuttle Tiles. Other methods such as ultrasonics, infrared, eddy current and microwave technologies have demonstrable shortcomings for tile NDE. This work applies Terahertz NDE, in the frequency range between 50 GHz and 1 THz, for the inspection of manufactured corrosion samples. The samples consist of induced corrosion spots that range in diameter (2.54 to 15.2 mm) and depth (0.036 to 0.787 mm) in an aluminum substrate material covered with tiles. Results of these measurements are presented for known corrosion flaws both covered and uncovered and for blind tests with unknown corrosion flaws covered with attached tiles. The Terahertz NDE system is shown to detect all artificially manufactured corrosion regions under a Shuttle tile with a depth greater than 0.13 mm.

  9. Modeling of Nonlinear Dynamics and Synchronized Oscillations of Microbial Populations, Carbon and Oxygen Concentrations, Induced by Root Exudation in the Rhizosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molz, F. J.; Faybishenko, B.; Jenkins, E. W.

    2012-12-01

    Mass and energy fluxes within the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum are highly coupled and inherently nonlinear. The main focus of this presentation is to demonstrate the results of numerical modeling of a system of 4 coupled, nonlinear ordinary differential equations (ODEs), which are used to describe the long-term, rhizosphere processes of soil microbial dynamics, including the competition between nitrogen-fixing bacteria and those unable to fix nitrogen, along with substrate concentration (nutrient supply) and oxygen concentration. Modeling results demonstrate the synchronized patterns of temporal oscillations of competing microbial populations, which are affected by carbon and oxygen concentrations. The temporal dynamics and amplitude of the root exudation process serve as a driving force for microbial and geochemical phenomena, and lead to the development of the Gompetzian dynamics, synchronized oscillations, and phase-space attractors of microbial populations and carbon and oxygen concentrations. The nonlinear dynamic analysis of time series concentrations from the solution of the ODEs was used to identify several types of phase-space attractors, which appear to be dependent on the parameters of the exudation function and Monod kinetic parameters. This phase space analysis was conducted by means of assessing the global and local embedding dimensions, correlation time, capacity and correlation dimensions, and Lyapunov exponents of the calculated model variables defining the phase space. Such results can be used for planning experimental and theoretical studies of biogeochemical processes in the fields of plant nutrition, phyto- and bio-remediation, and other ecological areas.

  10. Microencapsulation of Self Healing Agents for Corrosion Control Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jolley, S. T.; Li, W.; Buhrow, J. W.; Calle, L. M.

    2011-01-01

    Corrosion, the environmentally induced degradation of materials, is a very costly problem that has a major impact on the global economy. Results from a 2-year breakthrough study released in 2002 by the U.S. Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) showed that the total annual estimated direct cost associated with metallic corrosion in nearly every U.S. industry sector was a staggering $276 billion, approximately 3.1% of the nation's Gross Domestic Product (GOP). Corrosion protective coatings are widely used to protect metallic structures from the detrimental effects of corrosion but their effectiveness can be seriously compromised by mechanical damage, such as a scratch, that exposes the metallic substrate. The incorporation of a self healing mechanism into a corrosion control coating would have the potential to significantly increase its effectiveness and useful lifetime. This paper describes work performed to incorporate a number of microcapsule-based self healing systems into corrosion control coatings. The work includes the preparation and evaluation of self-healing systems based on curable epoxy, acrylate, and siloxane resins, as well as, microencapsulated systems based on passive, solvent born, healing agent delivery. The synthesis and optimization of microcapsule-based self healing systems for thin coating (less than 100 micron) will be presented.

  11. Corrosion and fatigue of surgical implants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lisagor, W. B.

    1975-01-01

    Implants for the treatment of femoral fractures, mechanisms leading to the failure or degradation of such structures, and current perspectives on surgical implants are discussed. Under the first heading, general usage, materials and procedures, environmental conditions, and laboratory analyses of implants after service are considered. Corrosion, crevice corrosion, stress corrosion cracking, intergranular corrosion, pitting corrosion, fatigue, and corrosion fatigue are the principal degradation mechanisms described. The need for improvement in the reliability of implants is emphasized.

  12. Long-term corrosion of a Ga-containing restorative material.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, N K; Moiseyeva, R; Berzins, D W; Osborne, J W

    2000-03-01

    The aim was to simulate and characterize the long-term corrosion of a Ga-containing alloy (Galloy, SDI). To induce corrosion, cylindrical specimens, 8 x 4 mm, of the material were subject to potentiostatic polarization at -0.1 V (SCE) in a phosphated buffered saline (PBS) solution at 20 degrees C for d. The current-time transients during polarization were recorded and the corresponding anodic charge, Q, was calculated. Parallel potentiostatic corrosion tests in a Cl-free PBS solution were also conducted to demonstrate the significance of the Cl- ion in corrosion. In addition, potentiodynamic anodic polarization tests were performed to characterize the overall corrosion behavior of the alloy in both electrolytes. The external and internal corroded layers, formed during potentiostatic corrosion in PBS, were measured by optical microscopy. SEM and EDXA were used to characterize the morphology and composition of the potentiostatically polarized surfaces. Galloy was passive in Cl-free PBS. The Cl- ion in PBS destroyed passivity and initiated a "dissolution-precipitation" type reaction during potentiostatic corrosion. The latter led to circumferential internal corrosion and growth of a layer of external corrosion products. The thickness of the internal and external corrosion layers was 0.77 +/- 0.07 and 0.86 +/- 0.37 mm, respectively. The Q value (89.3 +/- 13.7 C/cm2) in PBS was about two orders of magnitude higher than that (0.66 +/- 0.24 C/cm2) in Cl-free PBS. The corrosion products contained Sn, Ga, In, Cu, O and Cl. Massive internal and external corrosion in a Cl-containing medium as in saliva, accumulation of corrosion products at the cavity wall, and the consequent stress build-up contribute to post-operative pain, tooth straining, marginal breakdown and fractured teeth reported with the clinical use of Galloy.

  13. Mitigation of Corrosion on Magnesium Alloy by Predesigned Surface Corrosion

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xuming; Wu, Guosong; Peng, Xiang; Li, Limin; Feng, Hongqing; Gao, Biao; Huo, Kaifu; Chu, Paul K.

    2015-01-01

    Rapid corrosion of magnesium alloys is undesirable in structural and biomedical applications and a general way to control corrosion is to form a surface barrier layer isolating the bulk materials from the external environment. Herein, based on the insights gained from the anticorrosion behavior of corrosion products, a special way to mitigate aqueous corrosion is described. The concept is based on pre-corrosion by a hydrothermal treatment of Al-enriched Mg alloys in water. A uniform surface composed of an inner compact layer and top Mg-Al layered double hydroxide (LDH) microsheet is produced on a large area using a one-step process and excellent corrosion resistance is achieved in saline solutions. Moreover, inspired by the super-hydrophobic phenomenon in nature such as the lotus leaves effect, the orientation of the top microsheet layer is tailored by adjusting the hydrothermal temperature, time, and pH to produce a water-repellent surface after modification with fluorinated silane. As a result of the trapped air pockets in the microstructure, the super-hydrophobic surface with the Cassie state shows better corrosion resistance in the immersion tests. The results reveal an economical and environmentally friendly means to control and use the pre-corrosion products on magnesium alloys. PMID:26615896

  14. Mitigation of Corrosion on Magnesium Alloy by Predesigned Surface Corrosion.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuming; Wu, Guosong; Peng, Xiang; Li, Limin; Feng, Hongqing; Gao, Biao; Huo, Kaifu; Chu, Paul K

    2015-11-30

    Rapid corrosion of magnesium alloys is undesirable in structural and biomedical applications and a general way to control corrosion is to form a surface barrier layer isolating the bulk materials from the external environment. Herein, based on the insights gained from the anticorrosion behavior of corrosion products, a special way to mitigate aqueous corrosion is described. The concept is based on pre-corrosion by a hydrothermal treatment of Al-enriched Mg alloys in water. A uniform surface composed of an inner compact layer and top Mg-Al layered double hydroxide (LDH) microsheet is produced on a large area using a one-step process and excellent corrosion resistance is achieved in saline solutions. Moreover, inspired by the super-hydrophobic phenomenon in nature such as the lotus leaves effect, the orientation of the top microsheet layer is tailored by adjusting the hydrothermal temperature, time, and pH to produce a water-repellent surface after modification with fluorinated silane. As a result of the trapped air pockets in the microstructure, the super-hydrophobic surface with the Cassie state shows better corrosion resistance in the immersion tests. The results reveal an economical and environmentally friendly means to control and use the pre-corrosion products on magnesium alloys.

  15. Mitigation of Corrosion on Magnesium Alloy by Predesigned Surface Corrosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xuming; Wu, Guosong; Peng, Xiang; Li, Limin; Feng, Hongqing; Gao, Biao; Huo, Kaifu; Chu, Paul K.

    2015-11-01

    Rapid corrosion of magnesium alloys is undesirable in structural and biomedical applications and a general way to control corrosion is to form a surface barrier layer isolating the bulk materials from the external environment. Herein, based on the insights gained from the anticorrosion behavior of corrosion products, a special way to mitigate aqueous corrosion is described. The concept is based on pre-corrosion by a hydrothermal treatment of Al-enriched Mg alloys in water. A uniform surface composed of an inner compact layer and top Mg-Al layered double hydroxide (LDH) microsheet is produced on a large area using a one-step process and excellent corrosion resistance is achieved in saline solutions. Moreover, inspired by the super-hydrophobic phenomenon in nature such as the lotus leaves effect, the orientation of the top microsheet layer is tailored by adjusting the hydrothermal temperature, time, and pH to produce a water-repellent surface after modification with fluorinated silane. As a result of the trapped air pockets in the microstructure, the super-hydrophobic surface with the Cassie state shows better corrosion resistance in the immersion tests. The results reveal an economical and environmentally friendly means to control and use the pre-corrosion products on magnesium alloys.

  16. Experimental investigation of microbiologically influenced corrosion of selected steels in sugarcane juice environment.

    PubMed

    Wesley, Sunil Bala; Maurya, Devendra Prasad; Goyal, Hari Sharan; Negi, Sangeeta

    2013-12-01

    In the current study, ferritic stainless grades AISI 439 and AISI 444 were investigated as possible construction materials for machinery and equipment in the cane-sugar industry. Their performance in corrosive cane-sugar juice environment was compared with the presently used low carbon steel AISI 1010 and austenitic stainless steel AISI 304. The Tafel plot electrochemical technique was used to evaluate general corrosion performance. Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) behaviour in sugarcane juice environment was studied. Four microbial colonies were isolated from the biofilms on the metal coupon surfaces on the basis of their different morphology. These were characterized as Brevibacillus parabrevis, Bacillus azotoformans, Paenibacillus lautus and Micrococcus sp. The results of SEM micrographs showed that AISI 439 and AISI 304 grades had suffered maximum localized corrosion. MIC investigations revealed that AISI 444 steel had the best corrosion resistance among the tested materials. However from the Tafel plots it was evident that AISI 1010 had the least corrosion resistance and AISI 439 the best corrosion resistance.

  17. Atomic level characterization in corrosion studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcus, Philippe; Maurice, Vincent

    2017-06-01

    Atomic level characterization brings fundamental insight into the mechanisms of self-protection against corrosion of metals and alloys by oxide passive films and into how localized corrosion is initiated on passivated metal surfaces. This is illustrated in this overview with selected data obtained at the subnanometre, i.e. atomic or molecular, scale and also at the nanometre scale on single-crystal copper, nickel, chromium and stainless steel surfaces passivated in well-controlled conditions and analysed in situ and/or ex situ by scanning tunnelling microscopy/spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. A selected example of corrosion modelling by ab initio density functional theory is also presented. The discussed aspects include the surface reconstruction induced by hydroxide adsorption and formation of two-dimensional (hydr)oxide precursors, the atomic structure, orientation and surface hydroxylation of three-dimensional ultrathin oxide passive films, the effect of grain boundaries in polycrystalline passive films acting as preferential sites of passivity breakdown, the differences in local electronic properties measured at grain boundaries of passive films and the role of step edges at the exposed surface of oxide grains on the dissolution of the passive film. This article is part of the themed issue 'The challenges of hydrogen and metals'.

  18. pH Sensitive Microcapsules for Delivery of Corrosion Inhibitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Wenyan; Calle, Luz M.

    2006-01-01

    show visible color changes at induced corrosion sites and improvement of corrosion protection. Further investigation of the performance of the coating using electrochemical techniques and long term exposure are currently underway.

  19. Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-05

    high in water content, are less corrosive owing to their elevated viscosity and resulting low conductivity (᝺-7 S/cm) [30]. Asphaltenes and resins...wet surface to a water-wet surface. Sludge deposits are combinations of hydrocarbons, sand, clay , corTosion prod- ucts, and biomass that can reach 50...fine clay sun·ounded by a film of water. Under low flow conditions, these particles precipitate and form a sludge deposit. 27.4 TESTING 27 .4.1 A

  20. Corrosion of Ceramic Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Opila, Elizabeth J.; Jacobson, Nathan S.

    1999-01-01

    Non-oxide ceramics are promising materials for a range of high temperature applications. Selected current and future applications are listed. In all such applications, the ceramics are exposed to high temperature gases. Therefore it is critical to understand the response of these materials to their environment. The variables to be considered here include both the type of ceramic and the environment to which it is exposed. Non-oxide ceramics include borides, nitrides, and carbides. Most high temperature corrosion environments contain oxygen and hence the emphasis of this chapter will be on oxidation processes.

  1. INHIBITION OF CORROSION

    DOEpatents

    Atherton, J.E. Jr.; Gurinsky, D.H.

    1958-06-24

    A method is described for preventing corrosion of metallic container materials by a high-temperature liquid bismuth flowing therein. The method comprises fabricating the containment means from a steel which contains between 2 and 12% chromium, between 0.5 and 1.5% of either molybdenum and silicon, and a minimum of nickel and manganese, and maintaining zirconium dissolved in the liquid bismuth at a concentration between 50 parts per million and its saturation value at the lowest temperature in the system.

  2. Agricultural Polymers as Corrosion Inhibitors

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Agricultural polymers were composed of extra-cellular polysaccharides secreted by Leuconostoc mesenteroides have been shown to inhibit corrosion on corrosion-sensitive metals. The substantially pure exopolysaccharide has a general structure consisting of alpha(1-6)-linked D-glucose backbone and appr...

  3. Corrosion-Resistant Ball Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zdankiewicz, E. M.; Linaburg, E. L.; Lytle, L. J.

    1990-01-01

    Self-lubricating bearing system withstands highly corrosive environment of wastewater-recycling unit. New bearings contain cobalt-based-alloy balls and races, graphite/polyimide polymer ball cages, and single integral polytetrafluoroethylene seals on wet sides. Materials and design prevent corrosion by acids and provide lubrication.

  4. Atlas 5013 tank corrosion test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutherland, W. M.; Girton, L. D.; Treadway, D. G.

    1978-01-01

    The type and cause of corrosion in spot welded joints were determined by X-ray and chemical analysis. Fatigue and static tests showed the degree of degradation of mechanical properties. The corrosion inhibiting effectiveness of WD-40 compound and required renewal period by exposing typical joint specimens were examined.

  5. INTERNAL CORROSION AND DEPOSITION CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Corrosion is one of the most important problems in the drinking water industry. It can affect public health, public acceptance of a water supply, and the cost of providing safe water. Deterioration of materials resulting from corrosion can necessitate huge yearly expenditures o...

  6. Characterization of Microbial Communities in Gas Industry Pipelines

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xiang Y.; Lubeck, John; Kilbane, John J.

    2003-01-01

    Culture-independent techniques, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis, and random cloning of 16S rRNA gene sequences amplified from community DNA were used to determine the diversity of microbial communities in gas industry pipelines. Samples obtained from natural gas pipelines were used directly for DNA extraction, inoculated into sulfate-reducing bacterium medium, or used to inoculate a reactor that simulated a natural gas pipeline environment. The variable V2-V3 (average size, 384 bp) and V3-V6 (average size, 648 bp) regions of bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA genes, respectively, were amplified from genomic DNA isolated from nine natural gas pipeline samples and analyzed. A total of 106 bacterial 16S rDNA sequences were derived from DGGE bands, and these formed three major clusters: beta and gamma subdivisions of Proteobacteria and gram-positive bacteria. The most frequently encountered bacterial species was Comamonas denitrificans, which was not previously reported to be associated with microbial communities found in gas pipelines or with microbially influenced corrosion. The 31 archaeal 16S rDNA sequences obtained in this study were all related to those of methanogens and phylogenetically fall into three clusters: order I, Methanobacteriales; order III, Methanomicrobiales; and order IV, Methanosarcinales. Further microbial ecology studies are needed to better understand the relationship among bacterial and archaeal groups and the involvement of these groups in the process of microbially influenced corrosion in order to develop improved ways of monitoring and controlling microbially influenced corrosion. PMID:12957923

  7. Materials and Methods for Corrosion Control of Reinforced and Prestressed Concrete Structures in New Construction

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2000-08-03

    Salt-induced reinforcing steel corrosion in concrete bridges has undoubtedly become a considerable economic burden to many State and local transportation agencies. Since the iron in the steel has a natural tendency to revert eventually to its most st...

  8. Improved corrosion inspection procedures for reinforced concrete bridges : electrical resistivity of concrete.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2015-07-01

    The effects of steel reinforcement and chloride-induced corrosion initiation on the electrical resistivity measurements using the Wenner : probe technique were studied experimentally on custom-designed reinforced concrete slabs. Investigation paramet...

  9. Corrosion of Titanium Matrix Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Covino, B.S., Jr.; Alman, D.E.

    2002-09-22

    The corrosion behavior of unalloyed Ti and titanium matrix composites containing up to 20 vol% of TiC or TiB{sub 2} was determined in deaerated 2 wt% HCl at 50, 70, and 90 degrees C. Corrosion rates were calculated from corrosion currents determined by extrapolation of the tafel slopes. All curves exhibited active-passive behavior but no transpassive region. Corrosion rates for Ti + TiC composites were similar to those for unalloyed Ti except at 90 degrees C where the composites were slightly higher. Corrosion rates for Ti + TiB{sub 2} composites were generally higher than those for unalloyed Ti and increasedmore » with higher concentrations of TiB{sub 2}. XRD and SEM-EDS analyses showed that the TiC reinforcement did not react with the Ti matrix during fabrication while the TiB{sub 2} reacted to form a TiB phase.« less

  10. Corrosion control for reinforced concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torigoe, R. M.

    The National Bureau of Standards has recorded that in 1975 the national cost of corrosion was estimated at $70 billion. Approximately 40% of that total was attributed to the corrosion of steel reinforcements in concrete. Though concrete is generally perceived as a permanent construction material, cracking and spalling can occur when corrosion of steel reinforcements progresses to an advanced stage. This problem frequently occurs in reinforced concrete highway bridge decks, wharves, piers, and other structures in marine and snowbelt environments. Since concrete has a very low tensile strength, steel reinforcements are added to carry the tensile load of the composite member. Corrosion reduces the effective diameter of the reinforcements and, therefore, decreases the load carrying capability of the member. Though the corrosion process may occur in various forms and may be caused by different sources, the ultimate result is still the failure of the reinforced concrete.

  11. Electrochemical studies of corrosion inhibitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danford, M. D.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of single salts, as well as multicomponent mixtures, on corrosion inhibition was studied for type 1010 steel; for 5052, 1100, and 2219-T87 aluminum alloys; and for copper. Molybdate-containing inhibitors exhibit an immediate, positive effect for steel corrosion, but an incubation period may be required for aluminum before the effect of a given inhibitor can be determined. The absence of oxygen was found to provide a positive effect (smaller corrosion rate) for steel and copper, but a negative effect for aluminum. This is attributed to the two possible mechanisms by which aluminum can oxidize. Corrosion inhibition is generally similar for oxygen-rich and oxygen-free environments. The results show that the electrochemical method is an effective means of screening inhibitors for the corrosion of single metals, with caution to be exercised in the case of aluminum.

  12. Enamel coated steel reinforcement for improved durability and life-cycle performance of concrete structures: microstructure, corrosion, and deterioration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Fujian

    This study is aimed (a) to statistically characterize the corrosion-induced deterioration process of reinforced concrete structures (concrete cracking, steel mass loss, and rebar-concrete bond degradation), and (b) to develop and apply three types of enamel-coated steel bars for improved corrosion resistance of the structures. Commercially available pure enamel, mixed enamel with 50% calcium silicate, and double enamel with an inner layer of pure enamel and an outer layer of mixed enamel were considered as various steel coatings. Electrochemical tests were respectively conducted on steel plates, smooth bars embedded in concrete, and deformed bars with/without concrete cover in 3.5 wt.% NaCl or saturated Ca(OH)2 solution. The effects of enamel microstructure, coating thickness variation, potential damage, mortar protection, and corrosion environment on corrosion resistance of the steel members were investigated. Extensive test results indicated that corrosion-induced concrete cracking can be divided into four stages that gradually become less correlated with corrosion process over time. The coefficient of variation of crack width increases with the increasing level of corrosion. Corrosion changed the cross section area instead of mechanical properties of steel bars. The bond-slip behavior between the corroded bars and concrete depends on the corrosion level and distribution of corrosion pits. Although it can improve the chemical bond with concrete and steel, the mixed enamel coating is the least corrosion resistant. The double enamel coating provides the most consistent corrosion performance and is thus recommended to coat reinforcing steel bars for concrete structures applied in corrosive environments. Corrosion pits in enamel-coated bars are limited around damage locations.

  13. Microbial micropatches within microbial hotspots

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Renee J.; Tobe, Shanan S.; Paterson, James S.; Seymour, Justin R.; Oliver, Rod L.; Mitchell, James G.

    2018-01-01

    The spatial distributions of organism abundance and diversity are often heterogeneous. This includes the sub-centimetre distributions of microbes, which have ‘hotspots’ of high abundance, and ‘coldspots’ of low abundance. Previously we showed that 300 μl abundance hotspots, coldspots and background regions were distinct at all taxonomic levels. Here we build on these results by showing taxonomic micropatches within these 300 μl microscale hotspots, coldspots and background regions at the 1 μl scale. This heterogeneity among 1 μl subsamples was driven by heightened abundance of specific genera. The micropatches were most pronounced within hotspots. Micropatches were dominated by Pseudomonas, Bacteroides, Parasporobacterium and Lachnospiraceae incertae sedis, with Pseudomonas and Bacteroides being responsible for a shift in the most dominant genera in individual hotspot subsamples, representing up to 80.6% and 47.3% average abundance, respectively. The presence of these micropatches implies the ability these groups have to create, establish themselves in, or exploit heterogeneous microenvironments. These genera are often particle-associated, from which we infer that these micropatches are evidence for sub-millimetre aggregates and the aquatic polymer matrix. These findings support the emerging paradigm that the microscale distributions of planktonic microbes are numerically and taxonomically heterogeneous at scales of millimetres and less. We show that microscale microbial hotspots have internal structure within which specific local nutrient exchanges and cellular interactions might occur. PMID:29787564

  14. Microbial micropatches within microbial hotspots.

    PubMed

    Dann, Lisa M; McKerral, Jody C; Smith, Renee J; Tobe, Shanan S; Paterson, James S; Seymour, Justin R; Oliver, Rod L; Mitchell, James G

    2018-01-01

    The spatial distributions of organism abundance and diversity are often heterogeneous. This includes the sub-centimetre distributions of microbes, which have 'hotspots' of high abundance, and 'coldspots' of low abundance. Previously we showed that 300 μl abundance hotspots, coldspots and background regions were distinct at all taxonomic levels. Here we build on these results by showing taxonomic micropatches within these 300 μl microscale hotspots, coldspots and background regions at the 1 μl scale. This heterogeneity among 1 μl subsamples was driven by heightened abundance of specific genera. The micropatches were most pronounced within hotspots. Micropatches were dominated by Pseudomonas, Bacteroides, Parasporobacterium and Lachnospiraceae incertae sedis, with Pseudomonas and Bacteroides being responsible for a shift in the most dominant genera in individual hotspot subsamples, representing up to 80.6% and 47.3% average abundance, respectively. The presence of these micropatches implies the ability these groups have to create, establish themselves in, or exploit heterogeneous microenvironments. These genera are often particle-associated, from which we infer that these micropatches are evidence for sub-millimetre aggregates and the aquatic polymer matrix. These findings support the emerging paradigm that the microscale distributions of planktonic microbes are numerically and taxonomically heterogeneous at scales of millimetres and less. We show that microscale microbial hotspots have internal structure within which specific local nutrient exchanges and cellular interactions might occur.

  15. Hot Corrosion of Cobalt-Base Alloys

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-06-01

    Alloys 20. ABSTRACT (Continue on revet -se tside lf necessary and identify by block number) ~ lThe sodium sulfate-induced hot corrosion of cobalt and...Figures 12 and 13. The Na2 SO 4 was observed to form puddles on the oxide-covered specimen surface. An oxide slag was usually suspended in the... slag (black arrows) were suspended (30 sees at 1000°C in air). b) After washing the Na2SO 4 from the specimen, the exposed oxide surface was highly

  16. Naval electrochemical corrosion reducer

    DOEpatents

    Clark, Howard L.

    1991-10-01

    A corrosion reducer for use with ships having a hull, a propeller mounted a propeller shaft and extending through the hull, bearings supporting the shaft, at least one thrust bearing and one seal. The improvement includes a current collector and a current reduction assembly for reducing the voltage between the hull and shaft in order to reduce corrosion due to electrolytic action. The current reduction assembly includes an electrical contact, the current collector, and the hull. The current reduction assembly further includes a device for sensing and measuring the voltage between the hull and the shaft and a device for applying a reverse voltage between the hull and the shaft so that the resulting voltage differential is from 0 to 0.05 volts. The current reduction assembly further includes a differential amplifier having a voltage differential between the hull and the shaft. The current reduction assembly further includes an amplifier and a power output circuit receiving signals from the differential amplifier and being supplied by at least one current supply. The current selector includes a brush assembly in contact with a slip ring over the shaft so that its potential may be applied to the differential amplifier.

  17. Copper Corrosion and Biocorrosion Events in Premise Plumbing

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Diego A.; Alsina, Marco A.; Pastén, Pablo A.

    2017-01-01

    Corrosion of copper pipes may release high amounts of copper into the water, exceeding the maximum concentration of copper for drinking water standards. Typically, the events with the highest release of copper into drinking water are related to the presence of biofilms. This article reviews this phenomenon, focusing on copper ingestion and its health impacts, the physicochemical mechanisms and the microbial involvement on copper release, the techniques used to describe and understand this phenomenon, and the hydrodynamic effects. A conceptual model is proposed and the mathematical models are reviewed. PMID:28872628

  18. Copper Corrosion and Biocorrosion Events in Premise Plumbing.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Ignacio T; Fischer, Diego A; Alsina, Marco A; Pavissich, Juan P; Pastén, Pablo A; Pizarro, Gonzalo E

    2017-09-05

    Corrosion of copper pipes may release high amounts of copper into the water, exceeding the maximum concentration of copper for drinking water standards. Typically, the events with the highest release of copper into drinking water are related to the presence of biofilms. This article reviews this phenomenon, focusing on copper ingestion and its health impacts, the physicochemical mechanisms and the microbial involvement on copper release, the techniques used to describe and understand this phenomenon, and the hydrodynamic effects. A conceptual model is proposed and the mathematical models are reviewed.

  19. Progress in the understanding of the long-term corrosion behaviour of copper canisters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Fraser; Lilja, Christina; Vähänen, Marjut

    2013-07-01

    highly compacted bentonite buffer which (i) inhibits the transport of reactants to, and of corrosion products away from, the canister surface, (ii) limits the amount of atmospheric O2 initially trapped in the repository, and (iii) suppresses microbial activity close to the canister surface [5,6,9]. The environment will evolve with time as the initially trapped atmospheric O2 is consumed and as the canister cools. This evolution can be described as a transition from an early period of warm, oxidising conditions to an indefinite period of cool, anoxic conditions. In turn, this environmental evolution will impact the corrosion behaviour of the canister. Localised corrosion and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) will only be possible for a limited period of time initially when there is sufficient oxidant available to support these forms of corrosion. This aerobic phase is only expected to last a few tens or hundreds of years [10,11]. For the vast majority of the service life of the canister, the redox conditions will be determined by the absence of O2 and the presence of sulphide. Although obvious, it is important to remember that the corrosion behaviour is determined by the environmental conditions at the canister surface. Because of the presence of the compacted bentonite, the environment at the canister surface will be quite different from that in the ground water in the rock. In particular, the interfacial concentration of HS- will be small as the rate of corrosion in the presence of sulphide is transport limited [1,2,12]. The low interfacial [HS-] has important implications for various sulphur-related corrosion mechanisms. The relatively high salinity of the ground water (and, hence, of the bentonite pore water) promotes the general dissolution of copper and inhibits localised corrosion and SCC [5,6].

  20. Uniform Corrosion and General Dissolution of Aluminum Alloys 2024-T3, 6061-T6, and 7075-T6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, I.-Wen

    Uniform corrosion and general dissolution of aluminum alloys was not as well-studied in the past, although it was known for causing significant amount of weight loss. This work comprises four chapters to understand uniform corrosion of aluminum alloys 2024-T3, 6061-T6, and 7075-T6. A preliminary weight loss experiment was performed for distinguishing corrosion induced weight loss attributed to uniform corrosion and pitting corrosion. The result suggested that uniform corrosion generated a greater mass loss than pitting corrosion. First, to understand uniform corrosion mechanism and kinetics in different environments, a series of static immersion tests in NaCl solutions were performed to provide quantitative measurement of uniform corrosion. Thereafter, uniform corrosion development as a function of temperature, pH, Cl-, and time was investigated to understand the influence of environmental factors. Faster uniform corrosion rate has been found at lower temperature (20 and 40°C) than at higher temperature (60 and 80°C) due to accelerated corrosion product formation at high temperatures inhibiting corrosion reactions. Electrochemical tests including along with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were utilized to study the temperature effect. Second, in order to further understand the uniform corrosion influence on pit growth kinetics, a long term exposures for 180 days in both immersion and ASTM-B117 test were performed. Uniform corrosion induced surface recession was found to have limited impact on pit geometry regardless of exposure methods. It was also found that the competition for limited cathodic current from uniform corrosion the primary rate limiting factor for pit growth. Very large pits were found after uniform corrosion growth reached a plateau due to corrosion product coverage. Also, optical microscopy and focused ion beam (FIB) imaging has provided more insights of distinctive pitting geometry and subsurface damages found from immersion samples and B117

  1. INVESTIGATING THE EFFECT OF MICROBIAL GROWTH AND BIOFILM FORMATION ON SEISMIC WAVE PROPAGATION IN SEDIMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous laboratory investigations have demonstrated that the seismic methods are sensitive to microbially-induced changes in porous media through the generation of biogenic gases and biomineralization. The seismic signatures associated with microbial growth and biofilm formation...

  2. A Multifunctional Coating for Autonomous Corrosion Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calle, Luz M.; Li, Wenyan; Buhrow, Jerry W.; Jolley, Scott t.

    2011-01-01

    Nearly all metals and their alloys are subject to corrosion that causes them to lose their structural integrity or other critical functionality. Protective coatings are the most commonly used method of corrosion control. However, progressively stricter environmental regulations have resulted in the ban of many commercially available corrosion protective coatings due to the harmful effects of their solvents or corrosion inhibitors. This work concerns the development of a multifunctional smart coating for the autonomous control of corrosion. This coating is being developed to have the inherent ability to detect the chemical changes associated with the onset of corrosion and respond autonomously to indicate it and control it. The multi-functionality of the coating is based on microencapsulation technology specifically designed for corrosion control applications. This design has, in addition to all the advantages of existing microcapsulation designs, the corrosion controlled release function that triggers the delivery of corrosion indicators and inhibitors on demand, only when and where needed. Microencapsulation of self-healing agents for autonomous repair of mechanical damage to the coating is also being pursued. Corrosion indicators, corrosion inhibitors, as well as self-healing agents, have been encapsulated and dispersed into several paint systems to test the corrosion detection, inhibition, and self-healing properties of the coating. Key words: Corrosion, coating, autonomous corrosion control, corrosion indication, corrosion inhibition, self-healing coating, smart coating, multifunctional coating, microencapsulation.

  3. Corrosion and corrosion fatigue of airframe aluminum alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, G. S.; Gao, M.; Harlow, D. G.; Wei, R. P.

    1994-01-01

    Localized corrosion and corrosion fatigue crack nucleation and growth are recognized as degradation mechanisms that effect the durability and integrity of commercial transport aircraft. Mechanically based understanding is needed to aid the development of effective methodologies for assessing durability and integrity of airframe components. As a part of the methodology development, experiments on pitting corrosion, and on corrosion fatigue crack nucleation and early growth from these pits were conducted. Pitting was found to be associated with constituent particles in the alloys and pit growth often involved coalescence of individual particle-nucleated pits, both laterally and in depth. Fatigue cracks typically nucleated from one of the larger pits that formed by a cluster of particles. The size of pit at which fatigue crack nucleates is a function of stress level and fatigue loading frequency. The experimental results are summarized, and their implications on service performance and life prediction are discussed.

  4. Initial investigation of the corrosion stability of craniofacial implants.

    PubMed

    Beline, Thamara; Vechiato Filho, Aljomar José; Wee, Alvin G; Sukotjo, Cortino; Dos Santos, Daniela Micheline; Brandão, Thaís Bianca; Barão, Valentim Adelino Ricardo

    2018-01-01

    Although craniofacial implants have been used for retention of facial prostheses, failures are common. Titanium undergoes corrosion in the oral cavity, but the corrosion of craniofacial implants requires evaluation. The purpose of this in vitro study was to investigate the corrosion stability of commercially pure titanium (CP Ti) exposed to simulated human perspiration at 2 different pH levels (5.5 and 8). Fifteen titanium disks were divided into 3 groups (n=5 per group). The control group was subjected to simulated body fluid (SBF) (control). Disks from the 2 experimental groups were immersed in simulated alkaline perspiration (SA K P) and simulated acidic perspiration (SA C P). Electrochemical tests, including open circuit potential (3600 seconds), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and potentiodynamic tests were performed according to the standardized method of 3-cell electrodes. Data were analyzed by 1-way ANOVA and the Tukey honestly significant difference tests (α=.05). Simulated human perspiration reduced the corrosion stability of CP Ti (P<.05). The SBF group presented the lowest capacitance values (P<.05). SA K P and SA C P groups showed increased values of capacitance and showed no statistically significant differences (P>.05) from each other. The increase in capacitance suggests that the acceleration of the ionic exchanges between the CP Ti and the electrolyte leads to a lower corrosion resistance. SA K P reduced the oxide layer resistance of CP Ti (P<.05), and an increased corrosion rate was noted in both simulated human perspiration groups. Craniofacial implants can corrode when in contact with simulated human perspiration, whereas alkaline perspiration shows a more deleterious effect. Perspiration induces a more corrosive effect than simulated body fluid. Copyright © 2017 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Corrosion resistant ceramic materials

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, T.D.

    1996-07-23

    Ceramic materials are disclosed which exhibit stability in severely-corrosive environments having high alkali-metal activity, high sulfur/sulfide activity and/or molten halides at temperatures of 200--550 C or organic salt (including SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}) at temperatures of 25--200 C. These sulfide ceramics form stoichiometric (single-phase) compounds with sulfides of Ca, Li, Na, K, Al, Mg, Si, Y, La, Ce, Ga, Ba, Zr and Sr and show melting-points that are sufficiently low and have excellent wettability with many metals (Fe, Ni, Mo) to easily form metal/ceramic seals. Ceramic compositions are also formulated to adequately match thermal expansion coefficient of adjacent metal components. 1 fig.

  6. Corrosion resistant ceramic materials

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, Thomas D.

    1995-01-01

    Ceramic materials which exhibit stability in severely-corrosive environments having high alkali-metal activity, high sulfur/sulfide activity and/or molten halides at temperatures of 200.degree.-550.degree. C. or organic salt (including SO.sub.2 and SO.sub.2 Cl.sub.2) at temperatures of 25.degree.-200.degree. C. These sulfide ceramics form stoichiometric (single-phase) compounds with sulfides of Ca, Li, Na, K, Al, Mg, Si, Y, La, Ce, Ga, Ba, Zr and Sr and show melting-points that are sufficiently low and have excellent wettability with many metals (Fe, Ni, Mo) to easily form metal/ceramic seals. Ceramic compositions are also formulated to adequately match thermal expansion coefficient of adjacent metal components.

  7. Corrosion resistant ceramic materials

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, Thomas D.

    1996-01-01

    Ceramic materials which exhibit stability in severely-corrosive environments having high alkali-metal activity, high sulfur/sulfide activity and/or molten halides at temperatures of 200.degree.-550.degree. C. or organic salt (including SO.sub.2 and SO.sub.2 Cl.sub.2) at temperatures of 25.degree.-200.degree. C. These sulfide ceramics form stoichiometric (single-phase) compounds with sulfides of Ca, Li, Na, K, Al, Mg, Si, Y, La, Ce, Ga, Ba, Zr and Sr and show melting-points that are sufficiently low and have excellent wettability with many metals (Fe, Ni, Mo) to easily form metal/ceramic seals. Ceramic compositions are also formulated to adequately match thermal expansion coefficient of adjacent metal components.

  8. Evaluating Rebar Corrosion Using Nonlinear Ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodward, Clinton; Amin, Md. Nurul

    2008-02-01

    The early detection of rebar corrosion in reinforced concrete is difficult using current methods. This pilot study investigated the viability of using nonlinear ultrasound to detect the effects of rebar corrosion in its early stages. The study utilized three accelerated corrosion specimens and one control specimen. Results showed that when corrosion developed in the area isonified by a Rayleigh wave, nonlinear parameters increased. As corrosion progressed, these nonlinear parameters also increased.

  9. Corrosion of cordierite ceramics by sodium sulphate at 1000 C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bianco, Robert; Jacobson, Nathan

    1989-01-01

    The corrosion of a sintered cordierite (2MgO-2Al2O3-5SiO2) ceramic by sodium sulphate (Na2SO4) was investigated at 1000 C. Laboratory tests with thin films of Na2SO4/O2 and Na2SO4/1 percent SO2-O2 were performed. In the Na2SO4/O2 case, the cordierite reacted to form NaAlSiO4. After several hours of corrosion, the Na2SO4 appeared to induce surface cracks in the cordierite. In the Na2SO4/1 percent SO2-O2 case, other dissolution reactions occurred. The material was also tested in a burner rig with No. 2 Diesel fuel and 2 ppm sodium. The corrosion process was similar to that observed in the Na2SO4/O2 furnace tests, with more severe attack occurring.

  10. Microfluidics and microbial engineering.

    PubMed

    Kou, Songzi; Cheng, Danhui; Sun, Fei; Hsing, I-Ming

    2016-02-07

    The combination of microbial engineering and microfluidics is synergistic in nature. For example, microfluidics is benefiting from the outcome of microbial engineering and many reported point-of-care microfluidic devices employ engineered microbes as functional parts for the microsystems. In addition, microbial engineering is facilitated by various microfluidic techniques, due to their inherent strength in high-throughput screening and miniaturization. In this review article, we firstly examine the applications of engineered microbes for toxicity detection, biosensing, and motion generation in microfluidic platforms. Secondly, we look into how microfluidic technologies facilitate the upstream and downstream processes of microbial engineering, including DNA recombination, transformation, target microbe selection, mutant characterization, and microbial function analysis. Thirdly, we highlight an emerging concept in microbial engineering, namely, microbial consortium engineering, where the behavior of a multicultural microbial community rather than that of a single cell/species is delineated. Integrating the disciplines of microfluidics and microbial engineering opens up many new opportunities, for example in diagnostics, engineering of microbial motors, development of portable devices for genetics, high throughput characterization of genetic mutants, isolation and identification of rare/unculturable microbial species, single-cell analysis with high spatio-temporal resolution, and exploration of natural microbial communities.

  11. Low iron availability in continuous in vitro colonic fermentations induces strong dysbiosis of the child gut microbial consortium and a decrease of main metabolites

    PubMed Central

    Dostal, Alexandra; Fehlbaum, Sophie; Chassard, Christophe; Zimmermann, Michael Bruce; Lacroix, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    Iron (Fe) deficiency affects an estimated 2 billion people worldwide and Fe supplements are a common corrective strategy. The impact of Fe deficiency and Fe supplementation on the complex microbial community of the child gut was studied using in vitro colonic fermentation models inoculated with immobilized fecal microbiota. Chyme media (all Fe chelated by 2,2’-dipyridyl to 26.5 mg Fe L-1) mimicking Fe deficiency and supplementation were continuously fermented. Fermentation effluent samples were analyzed daily on the microbial composition and metabolites by qPCR, 16S rRNA gene 454-pyrosequencing and HPLC. Low Fe conditions (1.56 mg Fe L-1) significantly decreased acetate concentrations and subsequent Fe supplementation (26.5 mg Fe L-1) restored acetate production. High Fe following normal Fe conditions had no impact on the gut microbiota composition and metabolic activity. During very low Fe conditions (0 . 9 m g F e L-1 or Fe chelated b y 2,2’-dipyridyl), a decrease of Roseburia spp./Eubacterium rectale, Clostridium Cluster IV members and Bacteroides spp. was observed while Lactobacillus spp. and Enterobacteriaceae increased consistent with a decrease of butyrate (-84%) and propionate (-55%). The strong dysbiosis of the gut microbiota together with decrease of main gut microbiota metabolites observed with very low iron conditions could weaken the barrier effect of the microbiota and negatively impact gut health. PMID:22845175

  12. Low iron availability in continuous in vitro colonic fermentations induces strong dysbiosis of the child gut microbial consortium and a decrease in main metabolites.

    PubMed

    Dostal, Alexandra; Fehlbaum, Sophie; Chassard, Christophe; Zimmermann, Michael B; Lacroix, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    Iron (Fe) deficiency affects an estimated 2 billion people worldwide, and Fe supplements are a common corrective strategy. The impact of Fe deficiency and Fe supplementation on the complex microbial community of the child gut was studied using in vitro colonic fermentation models inoculated with immobilized fecal microbiota. Chyme media (all Fe chelated by 2,2'-dipyridyl to 26.5 mg Fe L(-1) ) mimicking Fe deficiency and supplementation were continuously fermented. Fermentation effluent samples were analyzed daily on the microbial composition and metabolites by quantitative PCR, 16S rRNA gene 454-pyrosequencing, and HPLC. Low Fe conditions (1.56 mg Fe L(-1) ) significantly decreased acetate concentrations, and subsequent Fe supplementation (26.5 mg Fe L(-1) ) restored acetate production. High Fe following normal Fe conditions had no impact on the gut microbiota composition and metabolic activity. During very low Fe conditions (0.9 mg Fe L(-1) or Fe chelated by 2,2'-dipyridyl), a decrease in Roseburia spp./Eubacterium rectale, Clostridium Cluster IV members and Bacteroides spp. was observed, while Lactobacillus spp. and Enterobacteriaceae increased consistent with a decrease in butyrate (-84%) and propionate (-55%). The strong dysbiosis of the gut microbiota together with decrease in main gut microbiota metabolites observed with very low iron conditions could weaken the barrier effect of the microbiota and negatively impact gut health. © 2012 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Microbial community changes at a terrestrial volcanic CO2 vent induced by soil acidification and anaerobic microhabitats within the soil column.

    PubMed

    Frerichs, Janin; Oppermann, Birte I; Gwosdz, Simone; Möller, Ingo; Herrmann, Martina; Krüger, Martin

    2013-04-01

    CO2 capture and storage (CCS) in deep geological formations is one option currently evaluated to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Consequently, the impact of a possible CO2 leakage from a storage site into surface environments has to be evaluated. During such a hypothetical leakage event, the CO2 migrates upwards along fractures entering surface soils, a scenario similar to naturally occurring CO2 vents. Therefore, such a natural analogue site at the Laacher See was chosen for an ecosystem study on the effects of high CO2 concentrations on soil chemistry and microbiology. The microbial activities revealed differences in their spatial distribution and temporal variability for CO2 -rich and reference soils. Furthermore, the abundance of several functional and group-specific gene markers revealed further differences, for example, a decrease in Geobacteraceae and an increase in sulphate-reducing prokaryotes in the vent centre. Molecular-biological fingerprinting of the microbial communities with DGGE indicated a shift in the environmental conditions within the Laacher See soil column leading to anaerobic and potentially acidic microenvironments. Furthermore, the distribution and phylogenetic affiliation of the archaeal 16S rRNA genes, the presence of ammonia-oxidizing Archaea and the biomarker analysis revealed a predominance of Thaumarchaeota as possible indicator organisms for elevated CO2 concentrations in soils. © 2012 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Heated Aluminum Tanks Resist Corrosion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, L. E.

    1983-01-01

    Simple expedient of heating foam-insulated aluminum alloy tanks prevents corrosion by salt-laden moisture. Relatively-small temperature difference between such tank and surrounding air will ensure life of tank is extended by many years.

  15. Corrosion Problems in Absorption Chillers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stetson, Bruce

    1978-01-01

    Absorption chillers use a lithium bromide solution as the medium of absorption and water as the refrigerant. Discussed are corrosion and related problems, tests and remedies, and cleaning procedures. (Author/MLF)

  16. Main Pipelines Corrosion Monitoring Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anatoliy, Bazhenov; Galina, Bondareva; Natalia, Grivennaya; Sergey, Malygin; Mikhail, Goryainov

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the article is to substantiate the technical solution for the problem of monitoring corrosion changes in oil and gas pipelines with use (using) of an electromagnetic NDT method. Pipeline wall thinning under operating conditions can lead to perforations and leakage of the product to be transported outside the pipeline. In most cases there is danger for human life and environment. Monitoring of corrosion changes in pipeline inner wall under operating conditions is complicated because pipelines are mainly made of structural steels with conductive and magnetic properties that complicate test signal passage through the entire thickness of the object under study. The technical solution of this problem lies in monitoring of the internal corrosion changes in pipes under operating conditions in order to increase safety of pipelines by automated prediction of achieving the threshold pre-crash values due to corrosion.

  17. Review of recent developments in the field of magnesium corrosion: Recent developments in Mg corrosion

    SciTech Connect

    Atrens, Andrej; Song, Guang -Ling; Liu, Ming

    2015-01-07

    This paper provides a review of recent developments in the field of Mg corrosion and puts those into context. This includes considerations of corrosion manifestations, material influences, surface treatment, anodization, coatings, inhibition, biodegradable medical applications, stress corrosion cracking, flammability, corrosion mechanisms for HP Mg, critical evaluation of corrosion mechanisms, and concluding remarks. There has been much research recently, and much research continues in this area. In conclusion, this is expected to produce significantly better, more-corrosion-resistant Mg alloys.

  18. Corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coatings

    DOEpatents

    Choi, Jor-Shan [El Cerrito, CA; Farmer, Joseph C [Tracy, CA; Lee, Chuck K [Hayward, CA; Walker, Jeffrey [Gaithersburg, MD; Russell, Paige [Las Vegas, NV; Kirkwood, Jon [Saint Leonard, MD; Yang, Nancy [Lafayette, CA; Champagne, Victor [Oxford, PA

    2012-05-29

    A method of forming a corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coating comprising the steps of spray or deposition or sputtering or welding processing to form a composite material made of a spray or deposition or sputtering or welding material, and a neutron absorbing material. Also a corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coating comprising a composite material made of a spray or deposition or sputtering or welding material, and a neutron absorbing material.

  19. Corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coatings

    DOEpatents

    Choi, Jor-Shan; Farmer, Joseph C; Lee, Chuck K; Walker, Jeffrey; Russell, Paige; Kirkwood, Jon; Yang, Nancy; Champagne, Victor

    2013-11-12

    A method of forming a corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coating comprising the steps of spray or deposition or sputtering or welding processing to form a composite material made of a spray or deposition or sputtering or welding material, and a neutron absorbing material. Also a corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coating comprising a composite material made of a spray or deposition or sputtering or welding material, and a neutron absorbing material.

  20. Vascular corrosion casting technique steps.

    PubMed

    Verli, Flaviana Dornela; Rossi-Schneider, Tissiana Raquel; Schneider, Felipe Luís; Yurgel, Liliane Soares; de Souza, Maria Antonieta Lopes

    2007-01-01

    The vascular corrosion casting technique produces a replica of vascular beds of normal or pathological tissues. Once associated with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), this technique provides details of the three-dimensional anatomic arrangement of the vascular replica, which is the main advantage of this method. The present study is intended to describe the steps of the vascular corrosion casting technique and the different ways to perform them. them.

  1. Environmentally Friendly Corrosion Preventative Compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calle, Luz Marina; Montgomery, Eliza; Kolody, Mark; Curran, Jerry; Back, Teddy; Balles, Angela

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the Ground Systems Development and Operations Program Environmentally Friendly Corrosion Protective Coatings and Corrosion Preventive Compounds (CPCs) project is to identify, test, and develop qualification criteria for the use of environmentally friendly corrosion protective coatings and CPCs for flight hardware and ground support equipment. This document is the Final Report for Phase I evaluations, which included physical property, corrosion resistance, and NASA spaceport environment compatibility testing and analysis of fifteen CPC types. The CPCs consisted of ten different oily film CPCs and five different wax or grease CPC types. Physical property testing encompassed measuring various properties of the bulk CPCs, while corrosion resistance testing directly measured the ability of each CPC material to protect various metals against corrosion. The NASA spaceport environment compatibility testing included common tests required by NASA-STD-6001, "Flammability, Odor, Offgassing, and Compatibility Requirements and Test Procedures for Materials in Environments that Support Combustion". At the end of Phase I, CPC materials were down-selected for inclusion in the next test phases. This final report includes all data and analysis of results obtained by following the experimental test plan that was developed as part of the project. Highlights of the results are summarized by test criteria type.

  2. Corrosion Protection of Launch Infrastructure and Hardware Through the Space Shuttle Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calle, L. M.

    2011-01-01

    Corrosion, the environmentally induced degradation of materials, has been a challenging and costly problem that has affected NASA's launch operations since the inception of the Space Program. Corrosion studies began at NASA's Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in 1966 during the Gemini/Apollo Programs with the evaluation of long-term protective coatings for the atmospheric protection of carbon steel. NASA's KSC Beachside Corrosion Test Site, which has been documented by the American Society of Materials (ASM) as one of the most corrosive, naturally occurring environments in the world, was established at that time. With the introduction of the Space Shuttle in 1981, the already highly corrosive natural conditions at the launch pad were rendered even more severe by the acidic exhaust from the solid rocket boosters. In the years that followed, numerous efforts at KSC identified materials, coatings, and maintenance procedures for launch hardware and equipment exposed to the highly corrosiye environment at the launch pads. Knowledge on materials degradation, obtained by facing the highly corrosive conditions of the Space Shuttle launch environment, as well as limitations imposed by the environmental impact of corrosion control, have led researchers at NASA's Corrosion Technology Laboratory to establish a new technology development capability in the area of corrosion prevention, detection, and mitigation at KSC that is included as one of the "highest priority" technologies identified by NASA's integrated technology roadmap. A historical perspective highlighting the challenges encountered in protecting launch infrastructure and hardware from corrosion during the life of the Space Shuttle program and the new technological advances that have resulted from facing the unique and highly corrosive conditions of the Space Shuttle launch environment will be presented.

  3. Characterization of microbial growth on processing equipment by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Microbial activity that leads to the formation of biofilms on process equipment can accelerate corrosion, reduce heat transfer rates, and generally decrease process efficiencies. Additional concerns arise in the food and pharma industries where product quality and safety are a high priority. Followi...

  4. Influence of Chloride Ion and Temperature on the Corrosion Behavior of Ni-Fe-Cr Alloy 028

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, L. N.; Dong, J. X.; Szpunar, J. A.; Zhang, M. C.; Basu, R.

    Recently, the working condition of tubing systems used in oil and natural gas industries are severer than before with the increasing exploitation of acidic gas fields. The corrosion problems induced from the corrosive environment with chloride ion medium and high temperature have been much more concerned. The presence of chloride ion can accelerate the dissolution of metals. The corrosion performance is also sensitive to the operating temperature. Classic localized corrosions such as the pitting or the crevice type due to environmental temperature and chloride ion.

  5. Effects of environmental variables on the crack initiation stages of corrosion fatigue of high strength aluminum alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poteat, L. E.

    1981-01-01

    Fatigue initiation in six aluminum alloys used in the aircraft industry was investigated. Cyclic loading superimposed on a constant stress was alternated with atmospheric corrosion. Tests made at different stress levels revealed that a residual stress as low as 39% of the yield strength caused stress corrosion cracking in some of the alloys. An atmospheric corrosion rate meter developed to measure the corrosivity of the atmosphere is described. An easily duplicated hole in the square test specimen with a self-induced residual stress was developed.

  6. Laser engineering of microbial systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusupov, V. I.; Gorlenko, M. V.; Cheptsov, V. S.; Minaev, N. V.; Churbanova, E. S.; Zhigarkov, V. S.; Chutko, E. A.; Evlashin, S. A.; Chichkov, B. N.; Bagratashvili, V. N.

    2018-06-01

    A technology of laser engineering of microbial systems (LEMS) based on the method of laser-induced transfer of heterogeneous mixtures containing microorganisms (laser bioprinting) is described. This technology involves laser printing of soil microparticles by focusing near-infrared laser pulses on a specially prepared gel/soil mixture spread onto a gold-coated glass plate. The optimal range of laser energies from the point of view of the formation of stable jets and droplets with minimal negative impact on living systems of giant accelerations, laser pulse irradiation, and Au nanoparticles was found. Microsamples of soil were printed on glucose-peptone-yeast agar plates to estimate the LEMS process influence on structural and morphological microbial diversity. The obtained results were compared with traditionally treated soil samples. It was shown that LEMS technology allows significantly increasing the biodiversity of printed organisms and is effective for isolating rare or unculturable microorganisms.

  7. Effect of Waterproofing Admixtures on the Flexural Strength and Corrosion Resistance of Concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geetha, A.; Perumal, P.

    2012-02-01

    This paper deals about the flexural strength and corrosion behaviour of concrete using waterproofing admixtures. The effect of waterproofing admixtures on the corrosion behaviour of RCC specimen has been studied by conducting accelerated corrosion test. To identify the effect of corrosion in pull out strength, corrosion process was induced by means of accelerated corrosion procedure. To accelerate the reinforcement corrosion, direct electric current was impressed on the rebar embedded in the specimen using a DC power supply system that has a facility to adjust voltage. The addition of waterproofing admixtures also shows the improvement in the flexural strength of concrete has been studied by conducting flexural strength tests on the concrete prism specimen of size 100 × 100 × 500 mm with and without admixtures for various dosages and various curing periods of 7 and 28 days. The results showed that the presence of waterproofing admixtures always improves the corrosion resistance and thus increases the strength of concrete due to the hydrophobic action of waterproofing admixtures.

  8. Review and study of physics driven pitting corrosion modeling in 2024-T3 aluminum alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Lingyu; Jata, Kumar V.

    2015-04-01

    Material degradation due to corrosion and corrosion fatigue has been recognized to significantly affect the airworthiness of civilian and military aircraft, especially for the current fleet of airplanes that have served beyond their initial design life. The ability to predict the corrosion damage development in aircraft components and structures, therefore, is of great importance in managing timely maintenance for the aging aircraft vehicles and in assisting the design of new ones. The assessment of aircraft corrosion and its influence on fatigue life relies on appropriate quantitative models that can evaluate the initiation of the corrosion as well as the accumulation during the period of operation. Beyond the aircraft regime, corrosion has also affected the maintenance, safety and reliability of other systems such as nuclear power systems, steam and gas turbines, marine structures and so on. In the work presented in this paper, we reviewed and studied several physics based pitting corrosion models that have been reported in the literature. The classic work of particle induced pitting corrosion by Wei and Harlow is reviewed in detail. Two types of modeling, a power law based simplified model and a microstructure based model, are compared for 2024-T3 alloy. Data from literatures are used as model inputs. The paper ends with conclusions and recommendations for future work.

  9. Inter-relationships between corrosion and mineral-scale deposition in aqueous systems.

    PubMed

    Hodgkiess, T

    2004-01-01

    The processes of corrosion and scale deposition in natural and process waters are often linked and this paper considers a number of instances of interactions between the two phenomena. In some circumstances a scale layer (e.g. calcium carbonate) can be advantageously utilised as a corrosion-protection coating on components and this feature has been exploited for many decades in the conditioning of water to induce spontaneous precipitation of a scale layer upon the surfaces of engineering equipment. The electrochemical mechanisms associated with some corrosion and corrosion-control processes can promote alkaline-scale deposition directly upon component surfaces. This is a feature that can be exploited in the operation of cathodic protection (CP) of structures and components submerged in certain types of water (e.g. seawater). Similar phenomena can occur during bi-metallic corrosion and a case study, involving carbon steel/stainless steel couples in seawater, is presented. Additional complexities pertain during cyclic loading of submerged reinforced concrete members in which scale deposition may reduce the severity of fatigue stresses but can be associated with severe corrosion damage to embedded reinforcing steel. Also considered are scale-control/corrosion interactions in thermal desalination plant and an indirect consequence of the scale-control strategy on vapourside corrosion is discussed.

  10. Concrete Cracking Prediction Including the Filling Proportion of Strand Corrosion Products

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lei; Dai, Lizhao; Zhang, Xuhui; Zhang, Jianren

    2016-01-01

    The filling of strand corrosion products during concrete crack propagation is investigated experimentally in the present paper. The effects of stirrups on the filling of corrosion products and concrete cracking are clarified. A prediction model of crack width is developed incorporating the filling proportion of corrosion products and the twisting shape of the strand. Experimental data on cracking angle, crack width, and corrosion loss obtained from accelerated corrosion tests of concrete beams are presented. The proposed model is verified by experimental data. Results show that the filling extent of corrosion products varies with crack propagation. The rust filling extent increases with the propagating crack until a critical width. Beyond the critical width, the rust-filling extent remains stable. Using stirrups can decrease the critical crack width. Stirrups can restrict crack propagation and reduce the rust filling. The tangent of the cracking angle increases with increasing corrosion loss. The prediction of corrosion-induced crack is sensitive to the rust-filling extent. PMID:28772367

  11. Analysis of in vivo corrosion of 316L stainless steel posterior thoracolumbar plate systems: a retrieval study.

    PubMed

    Majid, Kamran; Crowder, Terence; Baker, Erin; Baker, Kevin; Koueiter, Denise; Shields, Edward; Herkowitz, Harry N

    2011-12-01

    One hundred eighteen patients retrieved 316L stainless steel thoracolumbar plates, of 3 different designs, used for fusion in 60 patients were examined for evidence of corrosion. A medical record review and statistical analysis were also carried out. This study aims to identify types of corrosion and examine preferential metal ion release and the possibility of statistical correlation to clinical effects. Earlier studies have found that stainless steel spine devices showed evidence of mild-to-severe corrosion; fretting and crevice corrosion were the most commonly reported types. Studies have also shown the toxicity of metal ions released from stainless steel corrosion and how the ions may adversely affect bone formation and/or induce granulomatous foreign body responses. The retrieved plates were visually inspected and graded based on the degree of corrosion. The plates were then analyzed with optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. A retrospective medical record review was performed and statistical analysis was carried out to determine any correlations between experimental findings and patient data. More than 70% of the plates exhibited some degree of corrosion. Both fretting and crevice corrosion mechanisms were observed, primarily at the screw plate interface. Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy analysis indicated reductions in nickel content in corroded areas, suggestive of nickel ion release to the surrounding biological environment. The incidence and severity of corrosion was significantly correlated with the design of the implant. Stainless steel thoracolumbar plates show a high incidence of corrosion, with statistical dependence on device design.

  12. Materials corrosion and protection from first principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Donald F.

    Materials erode under environmental stresses such as high temperature, high pressure, and mechanical shock/stress, but erosion is often exacerbated by chemical corrosion. In this dissertation, periodic density functional theory (DFT) is employed to simulate interfacial adhesion, absorption kinetics, bulk diffusion, and other material phenomena (e.g., hydrogen-enhanced decohesion and shock-induced phase changes) with the intention of understanding corrosion and subsequent failure processes and guiding the design of new protective coatings. This work examines corrosion and/or protection of materials ( i.e., Fe, Ni, W) with important applications: structural steel, gun tubes, high-pressure oil recovery vessels, jet engine turbine blades, and fusion reactor walls. We use DFT to model the pressure-induced, bcc-to-hcp phase transformation in Fe, in which a new low energy pathway is predicted exhibiting nonadiabatic behavior coupling magnetic and structural changes. Protection of steel is addressed in two aspects: interfacial adhesion of protective coatings and assessment of corrosion resistance provided by a surface alloy. First, the current chrome-coated steel system is examined where extremely strong adhesion is predicted at the Cr/Fe interface originating in strong spin correlations. A ceramic coating, SiC, is considered as a possible replacement for Cr. Strong adhesion is predicted, especially for C-Fe interfacial bonds. To assess corrosion resistance, we model ingress of two common corrosive elements, H and C, into two Fe alloys, FeAl and Fe3Si. Adsorption and absorption thermodynamics and kinetics, as well as bulk dissolution and diffusion are calculated in order to determine whether these two alloys can inhibit uptake of H and C. Relative to pure Fe, dissolved H and C are less stable in the alloys, as the dissolution enthalpy is predicted to be more endothermic. Overall, the energy barriers and rate constants for adsorbed H/C diffusing into Fe3Si subsurface layers

  13. Corrosion Behavior of X80 Steel with Coupled Coating Defects under Alternating Current Interference in Alkaline Environment

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhong; Li, Caiyu; Qian, Hongchang; Li, Jun; Huang, Liang; Du, Cuiwei

    2017-01-01

    The corrosion behavior of X80 steel in the presence of coupled coating defects was simulated and studied under the interference of alternating current (AC) in an alkaline environment. The results from electrochemical measurements showed that the electrode potential of the coating defect with the smaller exposed area was lower than that with the larger area, which indicated that the steel with the smaller coating defect was more prone to corrosion. The result of weight loss tests also showed that the smaller coating defect had induced a higher corrosion rate. However, the corrosion rate of X80 steel at the larger coating defect decreased gradually with the increase of the larger defect area at a constant smaller defect area. The corrosion morphology images showed that the coating defects with smaller areas suffered from more severe pitting corrosion. PMID:28773078

  14. Genotoxicity of corrosion eluates obtained from orthodontic brackets in vitro.

    PubMed

    Angelieri, Fernanda; Marcondes, Joao Paulo C; de Almeida, Danielle Cristina; Salvadori, Daisy M F; Ribeiro, Daniel A

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether corrosion eluates obtained from commercially available orthodontic brackets are able to induce genetic damage in vitro. Genotoxicity was assessed by the single cell gel (comet) assay using Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. The following orthodontic metallic brackets were used: Morelli (Sorocaba, Brazil); Abzil (São José do Rio Preto, Brazil); Dentaurum (Pforzheim, Germany); and 3M Unitek (Puchheim, Germany). Each dental bracket was submitted to a corrosion process in a solution containing equal amounts of acetic acid and sodium chloride at 0.1 M concentration for 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, 35, and 70 days. CHO cells were exposed to eluates for 30 minutes at 37°C. The negative control was treated with the same solution used for corrosion process for 30 minutes at 37°C. Independent positive control was performed with methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) (Sigma Aldrich, St. Louis, Mo) at 1 ug/mL for 1 hour. None of the eluates was found to exhibit genotoxicity, regardless of the different commercial brands of orthodontic appliance used. In summary, our results indicate corrosion eluates obtained from orthodontic brackets do not induce genetic damage as assessed by single cell gel (comet) assay. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Munitions integrity and corrosion features observed during the HUMMA deep-sea munitions disposal site investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Jeff A. K.; Chock, Taylor

    2016-06-01

    An evaluation of the current condition of sea-disposed military munitions observed during the 2009 Hawaii Undersea Military Munitions Assessment Project investigation is presented. The 69 km2 study area is located south of Pearl Harbor, Oahu, Hawaii, and is positioned within a former deep-sea disposal area designated as Hawaii-05 or HI-05 by the United States Department of Defense. HI-05 is known to contain both conventional and chemical munitions that were sea-disposed between 1920 and 1951. Digital images and video reconnaissance logs collected during six remotely operated vehicle and 16 human-occupied vehicle surveys were used to classify the integrity and state of corrosion of the 1842 discarded military munitions (DMM) objects encountered. Of these, 5% (or 90 individual DMM objects) were found to exhibit a mild-moderate degree of corrosion. The majority (66% or 1222 DMM objects) were observed to be significantly corroded, but visually intact on the seafloor. The remaining 29% of DMM encountered were found to be severely corroded and breached, with their contents exposed. Chemical munitions were not identified during the 2009 investigation. In general, identified munitions known to have been constructed with thicker casings were better preserved. Unusual corrosion features were also observed, including what are termed here as 'corrosion skirts' that resembled the flow and cementation of corrosion products at and away from the base of many munitions, and 'corrosion pedestal' features resembling a combination of cemented corrosion products and seafloor sediments that were observed to be supporting munitions above the surface of the seafloor. The origin of these corrosion features could not be determined due to the lack of physical samples collected. However, a microbial-mediated formation hypothesis is presented, based on visual analysis, which can serve as a testable model for future field programs.

  16. Chem I Supplement: Corrosion: A Waste of Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Chemical Education, 1979

    1979-01-01

    This article, intended for secondary school chemistry students, discusses the corrosion of metals. The discussion includes: (1) thermodynamic aspects of corrosion; (2) electrochemical aspects of corrosion; and (3) inhibition of corrosion processes. (HM)

  17. An assessment of alternative diesel fuels: microbiological contamination and corrosion under storage conditions.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jason S; Ray, Richard I; Little, Brenda J

    2010-08-01

    Experiments were designed to evaluate the nature and extent of microbial contamination and the potential for microbiologically influenced corrosion of alloys exposed in a conventional high sulfur diesel (L100) and alternative fuels, including 100% biodiesel (B100), ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) and blends of ULSD and B100 (B5 and B20). In experiments with additions of distilled water, all fuels supported biofilm formation. Changes in the water pH did not correlate with observations related to corrosion. In all exposures, aluminum 5052 was susceptible to pitting while stainless steel 304L exhibited passive behavior. Carbon steel exhibited uniform corrosion in ULSD and L100, and passive behavior in B5, B20, and B100.

  18. Effect of Hydrogenase and Mixed Sulfate-Reducing Bacterial Populations on the Corrosion of Steel

    PubMed Central

    Bryant, Richard D.; Jansen, Wayne; Boivin, Joe; Laishley, Edward J.; Costerton, J. William

    1991-01-01

    The importance of hydrogenase activity to corrosion of steel was assessed by using mixed populations of sulfate-reducing bacteria isolated from corroded and noncorroded oil pipelines. Biofilms which developed on the steel studs contained detectable numbers of sulfate-reducing bacteria (104 increasing to 107/0.5 cm2). However, the biofilm with active hydrogenase activity (i.e., corrosion pipeline organisms), as measured by a semiquantitative commercial kit, was associated with a significantly higher corrosion rate (7.79 mm/year) relative to noncorrosive biofilm (0.48 mm/year) with 105 sulfate-reducing bacteria per 0.5 cm2 but no measurable hydrogenase activity. The importance of hydrogenase and the microbial sulfate-reducing bacterial population making up the biofilm are discussed relative to biocorrosion. Images PMID:16348560

  19. Report on accelerated corrosion studies.

    SciTech Connect

    Mowry, Curtis Dale; Glass, Sarah Jill; Sorensen, Neil Robert

    2011-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) conducted accelerated atmospheric corrosion testing for the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) to help further the understanding of the development of corrosion products on conductor materials in household electrical components exposed to environmental conditions representative of homes constructed with problem drywall. The conditions of the accelerated testing were chosen to produce corrosion product growth that would be consistent with long-term exposure to environments containing humidity and parts per billion (ppb) levels of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) that are thought to have been the source of corrosion in electrical components from affected homes. This report documentsmore » the test set-up, monitoring of electrical performance of powered electrical components during the exposure, and the materials characterization conducted on wires, screws, and contact plates from selected electrical components. No degradation in electrical performance (measured via voltage drop) was measured during the course of the 8-week exposure, which was approximately equivalent to 40 years of exposure in a light industrial environment. Analyses show that corrosion products consisting of various phases of copper sulfide, copper sulfate, and copper oxide are found on exposed surfaces of the conductor materials including wires, screws, and contact plates. The morphology and the thickness of the corrosion products showed a range of character. In some of the copper wires that were observed, corrosion product had flaked or spalled off the surface, exposing fresh metal to the reaction with the contaminant gasses; however, there was no significant change in the wire cross-sectional area.« less

  20. Thermodynamic analysis on the role of hydrogen in anodic stress corrosion cracking

    SciTech Connect

    Qiao, L.; Mao, X.

    1995-11-01

    A synergistic effect of hydrogen and stress on a corrosion rate was analyzed with thermodynamics. The results showed that an interaction of stress and hydrogen could increase the corrosion rate remarkably. Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of austenitic stainless steel (ASS) was investigated in boiling chloride solution to confirm the analysis. Hydrogen could be introduced into the specimen concentrated at the crack tip during SCC in boiling LiCl solution (143 C). The concentrating factor is about 3 which is consistent with calculated results according to stress induced diffusion.

  1. High-level waste borosilicate glass: A compendium of corrosion characteristics. Volume 3

    SciTech Connect

    Cunnane, J.C.; Bates, J.K.; Bradley, C.R.

    1994-03-01

    The objective of this document is to summarize scientific information pertinent to evaluating the extent to which high-level waste borosilicate glass corrosion and the associated radionuclide release processes are understood for the range of environmental conditions to which waste glass may be exposed in service. Alteration processes occurring within the bulk of the glass (e.g., devitrification and radiation-induced changes) are discussed insofar as they affect glass corrosion. Volume III contains a bibliography of glass corrosion studies, including studies that are not cited in Volumes I and II.

  2. Microbial communities associated with wet flue gas desulfurization systems

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Bryan P.; Brown, Shannon R.; Senko, John M.

    2012-01-01

    Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems are employed to remove SOx gasses that are produced by the combustion of coal for electric power generation, and consequently limit acid rain associated with these activities. Wet FGDs represent a physicochemically extreme environment due to the high operating temperatures and total dissolved solids (TDS) of fluids in the interior of the FGD units. Despite the potential importance of microbial activities in the performance and operation of FGD systems, the microbial communities associated with them have not been evaluated. Microbial communities associated with distinct process points of FGD systems at several coal-fired electricity generation facilities were evaluated using culture-dependent and -independent approaches. Due to the high solute concentrations and temperatures in the FGD absorber units, culturable halothermophilic/tolerant bacteria were more abundant in samples collected from within the absorber units than in samples collected from the makeup waters that are used to replenish fluids inside the absorber units. Evaluation of bacterial 16S rRNA genes recovered from scale deposits on the walls of absorber units revealed that the microbial communities associated with these deposits are primarily composed of thermophilic bacterial lineages. These findings suggest that unique microbial communities develop in FGD systems in response to physicochemical characteristics of the different process points within the systems. The activities of the thermophilic microbial communities that develop within scale deposits could play a role in the corrosion of steel structures in FGD systems. PMID:23226147

  3. Microbially mediated mineral carbonation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Power, I. M.; Wilson, S. A.; Dipple, G. M.; Southam, G.

    2010-12-01

    Mineral carbonation involves silicate dissolution and carbonate precipitation, which are both natural processes that microorganisms are able to mediate in near surface environments (Ferris et al., 1994; Eq. 1). (Ca,Mg)SiO3 + 2H2CO3 + H2O → (Ca,Mg)CO3 + H2O + H4SiO4 + O2 (1) Cyanobacteria are photoautotrophs with cell surface characteristics and metabolic processes involving inorganic carbon that can induce carbonate precipitation. This occurs partly by concentrating cations within their net-negative cell envelope and through the alkalinization of their microenvironment (Thompson & Ferris, 1990). Regions with mafic and ultramafic bedrock, such as near Atlin, British Columbia, Canada, represent the best potential sources of feedstocks for mineral carbonation. The hydromagnesite playas near Atlin are a natural biogeochemical model for the carbonation of magnesium silicate minerals (Power et al., 2009). Field-based studies at Atlin and corroborating laboratory experiments demonstrate the ability of a microbial consortium dominated by filamentous cyanobacteria to induce the precipitation of carbonate minerals. Phototrophic microbes, such as cyanobacteria, have been proposed as a means for producing biodiesel and other value added products because of their efficiency as solar collectors and low requirement for valuable, cultivable land in comparison to crops (Dismukes et al., 2008). Carbonate precipitation and biomass production could be facilitated using specifically designed ponds to collect waters rich in dissolved cations (e.g., Mg2+ and Ca2+), which would allow for evapoconcentration and provide an appropriate environment for growth of cyanobacteria. Microbially mediated carbonate precipitation does not require large quantities of energy or chemicals needed for industrial systems that have been proposed for rapid carbon capture and storage via mineral carbonation (e.g., Lackner et al., 1995). Therefore, this biogeochemical approach may represent a readily

  4. Long-term corrosion evaluation of stainless steels in Space Shuttle iodinated resin and water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krohn, Douglas D.

    1992-01-01

    The effects of stainless steel exposure to iodinated water is a concern in developing the Integrated Water System (IWS) for Space Station Freedom. The IWS has a life requirement of 30 years, but the effects of general and localized corrosion over such a long period have not been determined for the candidate materials. In 1978, Umpqua Research Center immersed stainless steel 316L, 321, and 347 specimens in a solution of deionized water and the Space Shuttle microbial check valve resin. In April 1990, the solution was chemically analyzed to determine the level of corrosion formed, and the surface of each specimen was examined with scanning electron microscopy and metallography to determine the extent of general and pitting corrosion. This examination showed that the attack on the stainless steels was negligible and never penetrated past the first grain boundary layer. Of the three alloys, 316L performed the best; however, all three materials proved to be compatible with an aqueous iodine environment. In addition to the specimens exposed to aqueous iodine, a stainless steel specimen (unspecified alloy) was exposed to moist microbial check valve resin and air for a comparable period. This environment allowed contact of the metal to the resin as well as to the iodine vapor. Since the particular stainless steel alloy was not known, energy dispersive spectroscopy was used to determine that this alloy was stainless steel 301. The intergranular corrosion found on the specimen was limited to the first grain boundary layer.

  5. Graphene: corrosion-inhibiting coating.

    PubMed

    Prasai, Dhiraj; Tuberquia, Juan Carlos; Harl, Robert R; Jennings, G Kane; Rogers, Bridget R; Bolotin, Kirill I

    2012-02-28

    We report the use of atomically thin layers of graphene as a protective coating that inhibits corrosion of underlying metals. Here, we employ electrochemical methods to study the corrosion inhibition of copper and nickel by either growing graphene on these metals, or by mechanically transferring multilayer graphene onto them. Cyclic voltammetry measurements reveal that the graphene coating effectively suppresses metal oxidation and oxygen reduction. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements suggest that while graphene itself is not damaged, the metal under it is corroded at cracks in the graphene film. Finally, we use Tafel analysis to quantify the corrosion rates of samples with and without graphene coatings. These results indicate that copper films coated with graphene grown via chemical vapor deposition are corroded 7 times slower in an aerated Na(2)SO(4) solution as compared to the corrosion rate of bare copper. Tafel analysis reveals that nickel with a multilayer graphene film grown on it corrodes 20 times slower while nickel surfaces coated with four layers of mechanically transferred graphene corrode 4 times slower than bare nickel. These findings establish graphene as the thinnest known corrosion-protecting coating.

  6. Microbial Properties Database Editor Tutorial

    EPA Science Inventory

    A Microbial Properties Database Editor (MPDBE) has been developed to help consolidate microbial-relevant data to populate a microbial database and support a database editor by which an authorized user can modify physico-microbial properties related to microbial indicators and pat...

  7. Observations of solar-cell metallization corrosion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mon, G. R.

    1983-01-01

    The Engineering Sciences Area of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) Flat-Plate Solar Array Project is performing long term environmental tests on photovoltaic modules at Wyle Laboratories in Huntsville, Alabama. Some modules have been exposed to 85 C/85% RH and 40 C/93% RH for up to 280 days. Other modules undergoing temperature-only exposures ( 3% RH) at 85 C and 100 C have been tested for more than 180 days. At least two modules of each design type are exposed to each environment - one with, and the other without a 100-mA forward bias. Degradation is both visually observed and electrically monitored. Visual observations of changes in appearance are recorded at each inspection time. Significant visual observations relating to metallization corrosion (and/or metallization-induced corrosion) include discoloration (yellowing and browning) of grid lines, migration of grid line material into the encapsulation (blossoming), the appearance of rainbow-like diffraction patterns on the grid lines, and brown spots on collectors and grid lines. All of these observations were recorded for electrically biased modules in the 280-day tests with humidity.

  8. Microbial electrosynthetic cells

    DOEpatents

    May, Harold D.; Marshall, Christopher W.; Labelle, Edward V.

    2018-01-30

    Methods are provided for microbial electrosynthesis of H.sub.2 and organic compounds such as methane and acetate. Method of producing mature electrosynthetic microbial populations by continuous culture is also provided. Microbial populations produced in accordance with the embodiments as shown to efficiently synthesize H.sub.2, methane and acetate in the presence of CO.sub.2 and a voltage potential. The production of biodegradable and renewable plastics from electricity and carbon dioxide is also disclosed.

  9. Inferring Microbial Fitness Landscapes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-02-25

    infer from data the determinants of microbial evolution with sufficient resolution that we can quantify 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 4. TITLE AND...Distribution Unlimited UU UU UU UU 25-02-2016 1-Oct-2012 30-Sep-2015 Final Report: Inferring Microbial Fitness Landscapes The views, opinions and/or findings...Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 evolution, fitness landscapes, epistasis, microbial populations REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT

  10. Synergy effect of naphthenic acid corrosion and sulfur corrosion in crude oil distillation unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, B. S.; Yin, W. F.; Sang, D. H.; Jiang, Z. Y.

    2012-10-01

    The synergy effect of naphthenic acid corrosion and sulfur corrosion at high temperature in crude oil distillation unit was studied using Q235 carbon-manganese steel and 316 stainless steel. The corrosion of Q235 and 316 in corrosion media containing sulfur and/or naphthenic acid at 280 °C was investigated by weight loss, scanning electron microscope (SEM), EDS and X-ray diffractometer (XRD) analysis. The results showed that in corrosion media containing only sulfur, the corrosion rate of Q235 and 316 first increased and then decreased with the increase of sulfur content. In corrosion media containing naphthenic acid and sulfur, with the variations of acid value or sulfur content, the synergy effect of naphthenic acid corrosion and sulfur corrosion has a great influence on the corrosion rate of Q235 and 316. It was indicated that the sulfur accelerated naphthenic acid corrosion below a certain sulfur content but prevented naphthenic acid corrosion above that. The corrosion products on two steels after exposure to corrosion media were investigated. The stable Cr5S8 phases detected in the corrosion products film of 316 were considered as the reason why 316 has greater corrosion resistance to that of Q235.

  11. Combining hygrothermal and corrosion models to predict corrosion of metal fasteners embedded in wood

    Treesearch

    Samuel L. Zelinka; Dominique Derome; Samuel V. Glass

    2011-01-01

    A combined heat, moisture, and corrosion model is presented and used to simulate the corrosion of metal fasteners embedded in solid wood exposed to the exterior environment. First, the moisture content and temperature at the wood/fastener interface is determined at each time step. Then, the amount of corrosion is determined spatially using an empirical corrosion rate...

  12. Corrosion guidelines : Version 1.0.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2003-09-01

    These guidelines outline the corrosion evaluation and recommendation aspects of site investigations for California Department of Transportation (Department) projects. The guidelines list the requirements for field investigations related to corrosion,...

  13. Degreasing of titanium to minimize stress corrosion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, S. R.

    1967-01-01

    Stress corrosion of titanium and its alloys at elevated temperatures is minimized by replacing trichloroethylene with methanol or methyl ethyl ketone as a degreasing agent. Wearing cotton gloves reduces stress corrosion from perspiration before the metal components are processed.

  14. Corrosion and Preservation of Bronze Artifacts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Robert

    1980-01-01

    Reviews chemical information relating to the corrosion of bronze artifacts. Properties of copper alloys are reviewed, with a thorough discussion of the specialized properties of bronze. Techniques to reduce or eliminate corrosion are listed. (CS)

  15. Research notes : salt helps fight corrosion.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2003-03-01

    Bridges on Oregons coast must withstand the corrosive marine environment. Many reinforced concrete bridges, some having historical significance, have been damaged by corrosion. In the late 1990s, the Oregon Department of Transportation (ODOT) bega...

  16. Method For Testing Properties Of Corrosive Lubricants

    DOEpatents

    Ohi, James; De La Cruz, Jose L.; Lacey, Paul I.

    2006-01-03

    A method of testing corrosive lubricating media using a wear testing apparatus without a mechanical seal. The wear testing apparatus and methods are effective for testing volatile corrosive lubricating media under pressure and at high temperatures.

  17. Microencapsulation of Corrosion Indicators for Smart Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Wenyan; Buhrow, Jerry W.; Jolley, Scott T.; Calle, Luz M.; Hanna,Joshua S.; Rawlins, James W.

    2011-01-01

    A multifunctional smart coating for the autonomous detection, indication, and control of corrosion is been developed based on microencapsulation technology. This paper summarizes the development, optimization, and testing of microcapsules specifically designed for early detection and indication of corrosion when incorporated into a smart coating. Results from experiments designed to test the ability of the microcapsules to detect and indicate corrosion, when blended into several paint systems, show that these experimental coatings generate a color change, indicative of spot specific corrosion events, that can be observed with the naked eye within hours rather than the hundreds of hours or months typical of the standard accelerated corrosion test protocols.. Key words: smart coating, corrosion detection, microencapsulation, microcapsule, pH-sensitive microcapsule, corrosion indicator, corrosion sensing paint

  18. Rail base corrosion and cracking prevention

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2014-07-01

    Rail base corrosion combined with fatigue or damage can significantly reduce rail life. Studies were done to examine the relative contribution of damage, corrosion, and fatigue on rail life. The combined effects can be separated into constituent fact...

  19. Adding mucins to an in vitro batch fermentation model of the large intestine induces changes in microbial population isolated from porcine feces depending on the substrate.

    PubMed

    Tran, T H T; Boudry, C; Everaert, N; Théwis, A; Portetelle, D; Daube, G; Nezer, C; Taminiau, B; Bindelle, J

    2016-02-01

    Adding mucus to in vitro fermentation models of the large intestine shows that some genera, namely lactobacilli, are dependent on host-microbiota interactions and that they rely on mucosal layers to increase their activity. This study investigated whether this dependence on mucus is substrate dependent and to what extent other genera are impacted by the presence of mucus. Inulin and cellulose were fermented in vitro by a fecal inoculum from pig in the presence or not of mucin beads in order to compare fermentation patterns and bacterial communities. Mucins increased final gas production with inulin and shifted short-chain fatty acid molar ratios (P < 0.001). Quantitative real-time PCR analyses revealed that Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacterium spp. decreased with mucins, but Bacteroides spp. increased when inulin was fermented. A more in-depth community analysis indicated that the mucins increased Proteobacteria (0.55 vs 0.25%, P = 0.013), Verrucomicrobia (5.25 vs 0.03%, P = 0.032), Ruminococcaceae, Bacteroidaceae and Akkermansia spp. Proteobacteria (5.67 vs 0.55%, P < 0.001) and Lachnospiraceae (33 vs 10.4%) were promoted in the mucus compared with the broth, while Ruminococcaceae decreased. The introduction of mucins affected many microbial genera and fermentation patterns, but from PCA results, the impact of mucus was independent of the fermentation substrate. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Corrosion Effects on the Fatigue Crack Propagation of Giga-Grade Steel and its Heat Affected Zone in pH Buffer Solutions for Automotive Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, H. S.

    2018-03-01

    Corrosion fatigue crack propagation test was conducted of giga-grade steel and its heat affected zone in pH buffer solutions, and the results were compared with model predictions. Pure corrosion effect on fatigue crack propagation, particularly, in corrosive environment was evaluated by means of the modified Forman equation. As shown in results, the average corrosion rate determined from the ratio of pure corrosion induced crack length to entire crack length under a cycle load were 0.11 and 0.37 for base metal and heat affected zone, respectively, with load ratio of 0.5, frequency of 0.5 and pH 10.0 environment. These results demonstrate new interpretation methodology for corrosion fatigue crack propagation enabling the pure corrosion effects on the behavior to be determined.

  1. Identification of controlling factors for the initiation of corrosion of fresh concrete sewers.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Guangming; Sun, Xiaoyan; Keller, Jurg; Bond, Philip L

    2015-09-01

    The development of concrete corrosion in new sewer pipes undergoes an initiation process before reaching an active corrosion stage. This initiation period is assumed to last several months to years but the key factors affecting the process, and its duration, are not well understood. This study is therefore focused on this initial stage of the corrosion process and the effect of key environmental factors. Such knowledge is important for the effective management of corrosion in new sewers, as every year of life extension of such systems has a very high financial benefit. This long-term (4.5 year) study has been conducted in purpose-built corrosion chambers that closely simulated the sewer environment, but with control of three key environmental factors being hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gas phase concentration, relative humidity and air temperature. Fresh concrete coupons, cut from an industry-standard sewer pipe, were exposed to the corrosive conditions in the chambers, both in the gas phase and partially submerged in wastewater. A total of 36 exposure conditions were investigated to determine the controlling factors by regular retrieval of concrete coupons for detailed analysis of surface pH, sulfur compounds (elemental sulfur and sulfate) and concrete mass loss. Corrosion initiation times were thus determined for different exposure conditions. It was found that the corrosion initiation time of both gas-phase and partially-submerged coupons was positively correlated with the gas phase H2S concentration, but only at levels of 10 ppm or below, indicating that sulfide oxidation rate rather than the H2S concentration was the limiting factor during the initiation stage. Relative humidity also played a role for the corrosion initiation of the gas-phase coupons. However, the partially-submerged coupons were not affected by humidity as these coupons were in direct contact with the sewage and hence did have sufficient moisture to enable the microbial processes to proceed. The

  2. Ballast Water Treatment Corrosion Scoping Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-01

    measurements can only be indicative and are seldom conclusive. For the maritime industry , corrosion and corrosion protection is a considerable cost element...8  Table 4. Corrosion rates of several alloys in natural and chlorinated seawater...10  Table 5. Corrosion rates of selected marine alloys in untreated seawater and seawater with 0, 0.1, 0.25, and 0.50 mg L-1 residual

  3. Smart Coatings for Launch Site Corrosion Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calle, Luz M.

    2014-01-01

    Smart, environmentally friendly paint system for early corrosion detection, mitigation, and healing that will enable supportability in KSC launch facilities and ground systems through their operational life cycles. KSC's Corrosion Technology Laboratory is developing a smart, self-healing coating that can detect and repair corrosion at an early stage. This coating is being developed using microcapsules specifically designed to deliver the contents of their core when corrosion starts.

  4. The Mineralogy of Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    cathodically active). The biomineralization rate and the corrosion current control oxide accumulation. Localized corrosion current that exceeds the... phosphate ). Localized corrosion would not readily occur unless Cl- was the predominant anion in the medium. They concluded that the Cl- concentration...transforms into goethite and/or hematite over time. For mild steel corrosion under anodic control , manganese oxides elevate con-osion current, but will

  5. The corrosion fatigue fractography of Ti-24Al-11Nb

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Y.; Wang, Y.B.; Chu, W.Y.

    1994-03-01

    Many researchers have studied the fracture behaviors and fractography of the Ti-24Al-11Nb alloy. While hydrogen induced delayed fracture could occur in this titanium aluminide in hydrogen gas at temperatures above 300[degree]C, there was no obvious difference in fractography of the alloy in hydrogen or air. The fractography of stress corrosion cracking in a solution was also similar to that of overloaded fracture in air. The recent work showed that hydrogen induced delayed fracture for a notched sample could occur during dynamic cathodic charging at the temperature. There were a lot of small dimples on the fracture surface near the notchmore » tip when K[sub I] neared the threshold k[sub IH]. This differed from that of an overloaded fracture. The fractography of corrosion fatigue in methanol or during dynamic charging for the Ti-24Al-11Nb alloy was studied in this paper.« less

  6. Electrochemical Measurement of Atmospheric Corrosion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeArmond, Anna H.; Davis, Dennis D.; Beeson, Harold D.

    1999-01-01

    Corrosion of Shuttle thruster components in atmospheres containing high concentrations of nitrogen tetroxide (NTO) and water is an important issue in ground operations of bipropellant systems in humid locations. Measurements of the corrosivities of NTO-containing atmospheres and the responses of different materials to these atmospheres have been accomplished using an electrochemical sensor. The sensor is composed of alternating aluminum/titanium strips separated by thin insulating layers. Under high humidity conditions a thin film of water covers the surface of the sensor. Added NTO vapor reacts with the water film to form a conductive medium and establishes a galvanic cell. The current from this cell can be integrated with respect to time and related to the corrosion activity. The surface layer formed from humid air/NTO reacts in the same way as an aqueous solution of nitric acid. Nitric acid is generally considered an important agent in NTO corrosion situations. The aluminum/titanium sensor is unresponsive to dry air, responds slightly to humid air (> 75% RH), and responds strongly to the combination of humid air and NTO. The sensor response is a power function (n = 2) of the NTO concentration. The sensor does not respond to NTO in dry air. The response of other materials in this type of sensor is related to position of the material in a galvanic series in aqueous nitric acid. The concept and operation of this electrochemical corrosion measurement is being applied to other corrosive atmospheric contaminants such as hydrogen chloride, hydrogen fluoride, sulfur dioxide, and acidic aerosols.

  7. The effects of Nitinol phases on corrosion and fatigue behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denton, Melissa

    The purpose of these studies was to provide a detailed understanding of Nitinol phases and their effects on corrosion and fatigue life. The two primary phases, austenite and martensite, were carefully evaluated with respect to material geometry, corrosion behavior, wear, and fatigue life. Material characterization was performed using several techniques that include metallography, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), x-ray photoelectron spectrum (XPS), and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). Uniaxial tensile tests were conducted to determine the mechanical properties such as elongation, ultimate tensile strength, modulus, transformation strain, and plateau stress. In addition, accelerated wear testing and four point bend fatigue testing were completed to study the fatigue life and durability of the material. The corrosion of Nitinol was found to be dependent on various surface conditions. Electrochemical corrosion behavior of each phase was investigated using cyclic potentiodyamic polarization testing. The corrosion response of electropolished Nitinol was found to be acceptable, even after durability testing. Stress-induced martensite had a lower breakdown potential due to a rougher surface morphology, while thermally induced martensite and austenite performed similarly well. The surface conditioning also had a significant effect on Nitinol mechanical properties. Electropolishing provided a smooth mirror finish that reduced localized texture and enhanced the ductility of the material. Quasi-static mechanical properties can be good indicators of fatigue life, but further fatigue testing revealed that phase transformations had an important role as well. The governing mechanisms for the fatigue life of Nitinol were determined to be both martesitic phase transformations and surface defects. A new ultimate dislocation strain model was proposed based on specific accelerated step-strain testing.

  8. Magnetic fields from electric toothbrushes promote corrosion in orthodontic stainless steel appliances but not in titanium appliances.

    PubMed

    Kameda, Takashi; Ohkuma, Kazuo; Oda, Hirotake; Sano, Natsuki; Batbayar, Nomintsetseg; Terashima, Yukari; Sato, Soh; Terada, Kazuto

    2013-01-01

    Electric toothbrushes are widely used, and their electric motors have been reported to produce low-frequency electromagnetic fields that induced electric currents in metallic objects worn by the users. In this study, we showed that electric toothbrushes generated low-frequency magnetic fields (MFs) and induced electric currents in orthodontic appliances in artificial saliva (AS), which accelerated corrosion in stainless steel (SUS) appliances, but not in titanium (Ti) appliances; the corrosion was evaluated by using an inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometer and a three-dimensional laser confocal microscope. The pH of AS used for appliance immersion did not change during or after MF exposure. These results suggested that MF-induced currents from electric toothbrushes could erode SUS appliances, but not Ti appliances, because of their high corrosion potentials. Further studies are required to clarify the mechanisms of metallic corrosion by induced currents in dental fields, which may trigger metal allergies in patients.

  9. 7 CFR 2902.44 - Corrosion preventatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Corrosion preventatives. 2902.44 Section 2902.44... Items § 2902.44 Corrosion preventatives. (a) Definition. Products designed to prevent the deterioration (corrosion) of metals. (b) Minimum biobased content. The preferred procurement product must have a minimum...

  10. 49 CFR 193.2625 - Corrosion protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Corrosion protection. 193.2625 Section 193.2625...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 193.2625 Corrosion protection. (a) Each operator shall determine which metallic components could, unless corrosion is controlled, have their integrity or reliability...

  11. 7 CFR 2902.44 - Corrosion preventatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Corrosion preventatives. 2902.44 Section 2902.44... Items § 2902.44 Corrosion preventatives. (a) Definition. Products designed to prevent the deterioration (corrosion) of metals. (b) Minimum biobased content. The preferred procurement product must have a minimum...

  12. Fastener corrosion : testing, research, and design considerations

    Treesearch

    Douglas R. Rammer; Samuel L. Zelinka; Philip Line

    2006-01-01

    In 2004, the voluntary removal of chromated copper arsenate (CCA) from residential wood construction raised concern about corrosion of metal fasteners in wood treated with replacement preservatives. Replacement preservatives contain more copper, which may increase corrosion, and do not contain chromates or arsenates, which are known corrosion inhibitors. This paper is...

  13. 7 CFR 3201.44 - Corrosion preventatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Corrosion preventatives. 3201.44 Section 3201.44... Designated Items § 3201.44 Corrosion preventatives. (a) Definition. Products designed to prevent the deterioration (corrosion) of metals. (b) Minimum biobased content. The preferred procurement product must have a...

  14. 49 CFR 193.2625 - Corrosion protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Corrosion protection. 193.2625 Section 193.2625...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 193.2625 Corrosion protection. (a) Each operator shall determine which metallic components could, unless corrosion is controlled, have their integrity or reliability...

  15. 7 CFR 3201.44 - Corrosion preventatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Corrosion preventatives. 3201.44 Section 3201.44... Designated Items § 3201.44 Corrosion preventatives. (a) Definition. Products designed to prevent the deterioration (corrosion) of metals. (b) Minimum biobased content. The preferred procurement product must have a...

  16. 49 CFR 193.2625 - Corrosion protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Corrosion protection. 193.2625 Section 193.2625...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 193.2625 Corrosion protection. (a) Each operator shall determine which metallic components could, unless corrosion is controlled, have their integrity or reliability...

  17. 7 CFR 3201.44 - Corrosion preventatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Corrosion preventatives. 3201.44 Section 3201.44... Designated Items § 3201.44 Corrosion preventatives. (a) Definition. Products designed to prevent the deterioration (corrosion) of metals. (b) Minimum biobased content. The preferred procurement product must have a...

  18. 49 CFR 193.2625 - Corrosion protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Corrosion protection. 193.2625 Section 193.2625...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 193.2625 Corrosion protection. (a) Each operator shall determine which metallic components could, unless corrosion is controlled, have their integrity or reliability...

  19. Corrosion avoidance with new wood preservatives

    Treesearch

    Samuel L. Zelinka; Douglas R. Rammer

    2007-01-01

    This article focuses on considerations that need to be made when choosing products, other than stainless steel, to minimize corrosion of metals in contact with treated wood. With so many ?corrosion-resistant? alternative products on the market, it is important to know the fundamental principles of corrosion protection to make informed decisions when designing...

  20. A Multifunctional Coating for Autonomous Corrosion Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calle, Luz M.; Hintze, Paul E.; Li, Wenyan; Buhrow, Jerry W.; Jolley, Scott T.

    2010-01-01

    Corrosion is a destructive process that often causes failure in metallic components and structures. Protective coatings are the most commonly used method of corrosion control. However, progressively stricter environmental regulations have resulted in the ban of many commercially available corrosion protective coatings due to the harmful effects of their solvents or corrosion inhibitors. This work concerns the development of a multifunctional, smart coating for the autonomous control of corrosion. This coating is being developed to have the inherent ability to detect the chemical changes associated with the onset of corrosion and respond autonomously to control it. The multi-functionality of the coating is based on microencapsulation technology specifically designed for corrosion control applications. This design has, in addition to all the advantages of other existing microcapsules designs, the corrosion controlled release function that allows the delivery of corrosion indicators and inhibitors on demand only when and where they are needed. Corrosion indicators as well as corrosion inhibitors have been incorporated into the microcapsules, blended into several paint systems, and tested for corrosion detection and protection efficacy.

  1. Integrated membrane and microbial fuel cell technologies for enabling energy-efficient effluent Re-use in power plants.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Namita; Chilkoor, Govinda; Xia, Lichao; Alvarado, Catalina; Kilduff, James E; Keating, John J; Belfort, Georges; Gadhamshetty, Venkataramana

    2017-06-15

    Municipal wastewater is an attractive alternative to freshwater sources to meet the cooling water needs of thermal power plants. Here we offer an energy-efficient integrated microbial fuel cell (MFC)/ultrafiltration (UF) process to purify primary clarifier effluent from a municipal wastewater treatment plant for use as cooling water. The microbial fuel cell was shown to significantly reduce chemical oxygen demand (COD) in the primary settled wastewater effluent upstream of the UF module, while eliminating the energy demand required to deliver dissolved oxygen in conventional aerobic treatment. We investigated surface modification of the UF membranes to control fouling. Two promising hydrophilic monomers were identified in a high-throughput search: zwitterion (2-(Methacryloyloxy)-ethyl-dimethyl-(3-sulfopropyl ammoniumhydroxide, abbreviated BET SO 3 - ), and amine (2-(Methacryloyloxy) ethyl trimethylammonium chloride, abbreviated N(CH 3 ) 3 + ). Monomers were grafted using UV-induced polymerization on commercial poly (ether sulfone) membranes. Filtration of MFC effluent by membranes modified with BET SO 3 - and N(CH 3 ) 3 + exhibited a lower rate of resistance increase and lower energy consumption than the commercially available membrane. The MFC/UF process produced high quality cooling water that meets the Electrical Power Research Institute (EPRI) recommendations for COD, a suite of metals (Fe, Al, Cu, Zn, Si, Mn, S, Ca and Mg), and offered extremely low corrosion rates (<0.05 mm/yr). A series of AC and DC diagnostic tests were used to evaluate the MFC performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. CORROSION RESISTANT JACKETED METAL BODY

    DOEpatents

    Brugmann, E.W.

    1958-08-26

    Jacketed metal bodies of the type used as fuel elements for nuclear reactors, which contain an internal elongated body of fissionable material jacketed in a corrosion resistant metal are described. The ends of the internal bodies are provided with screw threads having a tapered outer end. The jacket material overlaps the ends and extends into the tapered section of the screw threaded opening. Screw caps with a mating tapered section are screwed into the ends of the body to compress the jacket material in the tapered sections to provtde an effective seal against corrosive gases and liquids.

  3. Stress corrosion cracking of duplex stainless steels in caustic solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Ananya

    susceptibility. Annealed and water quenched specimens were found to be immune to SCC in caustic environment. Aging treatment at 800°C gave rise to sigma and chi precipitates in the DSS. However, these sigma and chi precipitates, known to initiate cracking in DSS in chloride environment did not cause any cracking of DSS in caustic solutions. Aging of DSS at 475°C had resulted in '475°C embrittlement' and caused cracks to initiate in the ferrite phase. This was in contrast to the cracks initiating in the austenite phase in the as-received DSS. Alloy composition and microstructure of DSS as well as solution composition (dissolved ionic species) was also found to affect the electrochemical behavior and passivation of DSS which in turn plays a major role in stress corrosion crack initiation and propagation. Corrosion rates and SCC susceptibility of DSS was found to increase with addition of sulfide to caustic solutions. Corrosion films on DSS, characterized using XRD and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, indicated that the metal sulfide compounds were formed along with oxides at the metal surface in the presence of sulfide containing caustic environments. These metal sulfide containing passive films are unstable and hence breaks down under mechanical straining, leading to SCC initiations. The overall results from this study helped in understanding the mechanism of SCC in caustic solutions. Favorable slip systems in the austenite phase of DSS favors slip-induced local film damage thereby initiating a stress corrosion crack. Repeated film repassivation and breaking, followed by crack tip dissolution results in crack propagation in the austenite phase of DSS alloys. Result from this study will have a significant impact in terms of identifying the alloy compositions, fabrication processes, microstructures, and environmental conditions that may be avoided to mitigate corrosion and stress corrosion cracking of DSS in caustic solutions.

  4. Novel Galvanic Corrosion Inhibitors: Synthesis, Characterization, Fabrication and Testing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-30

    have attempted to develop methods based on chemical structural modification to prevent galvanically-induced composite corrosion. [9, 10-12] These...of the two metallopolymers 11 and 12 show characteristic MLCT (metal-to-ligand charge transfer) absorption band of tris(bipyridyl)Ru(II) unit at k...showed absorption band at 450 nm and emission band at 325 nm of tris(bipyridyl)Ru(II) units in its respective UV-vis and fluorescence spectra. Very

  5. Impact of Alloying on Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion. A Review

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-09-01

    H.A. Videla, Acta MIC. Chromium and molybdenum sion 47,9 (1991): p. 674. Cientifica Venezolana 35 (1984): p. 244. additions as high as 20 and 6%, re...conductivity, described a model that predicts sul- logical settlement. Biofilms produce ease of soldering and brazing , and fide-induced corrosion in the pres...highly aerated, the area immediately under the de- (Cu3,S16) formation hasbeen reported high -velocity seawater applications. posit becomes a

  6. Amorphous-silicon module intercell corrosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mon, G. R.; Ross, R. G.

    1987-06-01

    Three non-electrochemical, moisture-induced a-Si module degradation modes have been observed and their mechanisms studied: (1) the formation and growth of pinholes in the thin-film layers; (2) the directional interfusion of pinholes along process scribe lines to form metallization-free regions that tend to open-circuit the module; and (3) worm-like filiform corrosion in the aluminum layer. The dependency on time-of-exposure to moist environments of the amount of material erosion in the module intercell zone has been quantified by two methods—directly by EDS analysis, and indirectly by sheet resistivity measurements on fully aluminized back surface modules. In addition, changes in maximum power output, series resistance, and open circuit voltage have been documented. Consequences for fielded modules are discussed.

  7. Sulphide production and corrosion in seawaters during exposure to FAME diesel.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jason S; Ray, Richard I; Little, Brenda J; Duncan, Kathleen E; Oldham, Athenia L; Davidova, Irene A; Suflita, Joseph M

    2012-01-01

    Experiments were designed to evaluate the corrosion-related consequences of storing/transporting fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) alternative diesel fuel in contact with natural seawater. Coastal Key West, FL (KW), and Persian Gulf (PG) seawaters, representing an oligotrophic and a more organic- and inorganic mineral-rich environment, respectively, were used in 60 day incubations with unprotected carbon steel. The original microflora of the two seawaters were similar with respect to major taxonomic groups but with markedly different species. After exposure to FAME diesel, the microflora of the waters changed substantially, with Clostridiales (Firmicutes) becoming dominant in both. Despite low numbers of sulphate-reducing bacteria in the original waters and after FAME diesel exposure, sulphide levels and corrosion increased markedly due to microbial sulphide production. Corrosion morphology was in the form of isolated pits surrounded by an intact, passive surface with the deepest pits associated with the fuel/seawater interface in the KW exposure. In the presence of FAME diesel, the highest corrosion rates measured by linear polarization occurred in the KW exposure correlating with significantly higher concentrations of sulphur and chlorine (presumed sulphide and chloride, respectively) in the corrosion products.

  8. A Multifunctional Coating for Autonomous Corrosion Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calle, L. M.; Hintze, P. E.; Li, W.; Buhrow, J. W.; Jolley, S. T.

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the effects of corrosion on various structures at the Kennedy Space Center, and the work to discover a corrosion control coating that will be autonomous and will indicate corrosion at an early point in the process. Kennedy Space Center has many environmental conditions that are corrosive: ocean salt spray, heat, humidity, sunlight and acidic exhaust from the Solid Rocket Boosters (SRBs). Presented is a chart which shows the corrosion rates of carbon steel at various locations. KSC has the highest corrosion rates with 42.0 mils/yr, leading the next highest Galeta Point Beach, in the Panama Canal Zone with 27 mils/yr corrosion. A chart shows the changes in corrosion rate with the distance from the ocean. The three types of corrosion protective coatings are described: barrier (passive), Barrier plus active corrosion inhibiting components, and smart. A smart coating will detect and respond actively to changes in its environment in a functional and predictable manner and is capable of adapting its properties dynamically. The smart coating uses microcapsules, particles or liquid drops coated in polymers, that can detect and control the corrosion caused by the environment. The mechanism for a pH sensitive microcapsule and the hydrophobic core microcapsule are demonstrated and the chemistry is reviewed. When corrosion begins, the microcapsule will release the contents of the core (indicator, inhibitor, and self healing agent) in close proximity to the corrosion. The response to a pH increase is demonstrated by a series of pictures that show the breakdown of the microcapsule and the contents release. An example of bolt corrosion is used, as an example of corrosion in places that are difficult to ascertain. A comparison of various coating systems is shown.

  9. Marine sulfate-reducing bacteria cause serious corrosion of iron under electroconductive biogenic mineral crust

    PubMed Central

    Enning, Dennis; Venzlaff, Hendrik; Garrelfs, Julia; Dinh, Hang T; Meyer, Volker; Mayrhofer, Karl; Hassel, Achim W; Stratmann, Martin; Widdel, Friedrich

    2012-01-01

    Iron (Fe0) corrosion in anoxic environments (e.g. inside pipelines), a process entailing considerable economic costs, is largely influenced by microorganisms, in particular sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). The process is characterized by formation of black crusts and metal pitting. The mechanism is usually explained by the corrosiveness of formed H2S, and scavenge of ‘cathodic’ H2 from chemical reaction of Fe0 with H2O. Here we studied peculiar marine SRB that grew lithotrophically with metallic iron as the only electron donor. They degraded up to 72% of iron coupons (10 mm × 10 mm × 1 mm) within five months, which is a technologically highly relevant corrosion rate (0.7 mm Fe0 year−1), while conventional H2-scavenging control strains were not corrosive. The black, hard mineral crust (FeS, FeCO3, Mg/CaCO3) deposited on the corroding metal exhibited electrical conductivity (50 S m−1). This was sufficient to explain the corrosion rate by electron flow from the metal (4Fe0 → 4Fe2+ + 8e−) through semiconductive sulfides to the crust-colonizing cells reducing sulfate (8e− + SO42− + 9H+ → HS− + 4H2O). Hence, anaerobic microbial iron corrosion obviously bypasses H2 rather than depends on it. SRB with such corrosive potential were revealed at naturally high numbers at a coastal marine sediment site. Iron coupons buried there were corroded and covered by the characteristic mineral crust. It is speculated that anaerobic biocorrosion is due to the promiscuous use of an ecophysiologically relevant catabolic trait for uptake of external electrons from abiotic or biotic sources in sediments. PMID:22616633

  10. Titanium Corrosion: Implications For Dental Implants.

    PubMed

    Shah, Rucha; Penmetsa, Deepika Shree Lakshmi; Thomas, Raison; Mehta, Dhoom Singh

    2016-12-01

    Titanium has been considered as one of the most biocompatible metals. Studies testing its corrosion resistance have proposed that the titanium oxide layer formed on the metal surface is lost under certain unavoidable conditions to which it is exposed in the oral environment. This questions its property of corrosion resistance in the oral cavity. Hence, there is a need to understand the mechanisms of corrosion, which can help in the long-term stability and function of implants. Here, we review the possible pathways of corrosion of titanium in the oral cavity, its implications and proposed methods of prevention of corrosion. Copyright© 2016 Dennis Barber Ltd.

  11. Fireside corrosion in kraft recovery boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Tran, H.N.; Barham, D.; Hupa, M.

    1988-01-01

    Causes and corrective measures are reviewed for several common types of fireside corrosion in kraft recovery boilers. Corrosion differs significantly with location in the boiler due tio the great differences in metal surface temperature and deposit and flue gas chemistry. Sulphidation corrosion associated with sulphur-bearing gases under reducing conditions is dominant in the lower furnace, while sulphidation/oxidation resulting from gas-deposit-metal reactions is important in the upper boiler. In many cases, although corrosion has been controlled by ensuring the absence of a molten phase at the metal surface, the corrosion mechanism is not fully understood.

  12. Microbial community response to the CO2 injection and storage in the saline aquifer, Ketzin, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozova, Daria; Zettlitzer, Michael; Vieth, Andrea; Würdemann, Hilke

    2010-05-01

    The concept of CO2 capture and storage in the deep underground is currently receiving great attention as a consequence of the effects of global warming due to the accumulation of carbon dioxide gas in the atmosphere. The EU funded CO2SINK project is aimed as a pilot storage of CO2 in a saline aquifer located near Ketzin, Germany. One of the main aims of the project is to develop efficient monitoring procedures for assessing the processes that are triggered in the reservoir by CO2 injection. This study reveals analyses of the composition and activity of the microbial community of a saline CO2 storage aquifer and its response to CO2 injection. The availability of CO2 has an influence on the metabolism of both heterotrophic microorganisms, which are involved in carbon cycle, and lithoautotrophic microorganisms, which are able to use CO2 as the sole carbon source and electron acceptor. Injection of CO2 in the supercritical state (temperature above 31.1 °C, pressure above 72.9 atm) may induce metabolic shifts in the microbial communities. Furthermore, bacterial population and activity can be strongly influenced by changes in pH value, pressure, temperature, salinity and other abiotic factors, which will be all influenced by CO2 injection into the deep subsurface. Analyses of the composition of microbial communities and its changes should contribute to an evaluation of the effectiveness and reliability of the long-term CO2 storage technique. The interactions between microorganisms and the minerals of both the reservoir and the cap rock may cause major changes to the structure and chemical composition of the rock formations, which would influence the permeability within the reservoir. In addition, precipitation and corrosion may occur around the well affecting the casing and the casing cement. By using Fluorescence in situ Hybridisation (FISH) and molecular fingerprinting such as Polymerase-Chain-Reaction Single-Strand-Conformation Polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) and Denaturing

  13. Corrosion of post-tensioning strands in ungrouted ducts - unstressed condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchison, Michael

    Recent failures and severe corrosion distress of post-tensioned (PT) bridges in Florida have revealed corrosion of the 7-wire strands in tendons. Post-tensioned duct assemblies are fitted with multiple 7-wire steel strands and ducts are subsequently filled with grout. During construction, the length of time from the moment in which the strands have been inserted into the ducts, until the ducts are grouted, is referred to as the `ungrouted' period. During this phase, the steel strands are vulnerable to corrosion and consequently the length of this period is restricted (typically to 7 days) by construction guidelines. This investigation focuses on determining the extent of corrosion that may take place during that period, but limited to strands that were in the unstressed condition. Visual inspections and tensile testing were used to identify trends in corrosion development. Corrosion induced cracking mechanisms were also investigated via wire bending and metallographic cross section evaluation. Corrosion damage on unstressed strands during ungrouted periods of durations in the order of those otherwise currently prescribed did not appear to seriously degrade mechanical performance as measured by standardized tests. However the presence of stress in the ungrouted period, as is normally the case, may activate other mechanisms (e.g., EAC) that require further investigation. As expected in the unstressed condition, no evidence of transverse cracking was observed.

  14. Monitoring Concrete Deterioration Due to Reinforcement Corrosion by Integrating Acoustic Emission and FBG Strain Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Li, Weijie; Xu, Changhang; Ho, Siu Chun Michael; Wang, Bo; Song, Gangbing

    2017-01-01

    Corrosion of concrete reinforcement members has been recognized as a predominant structural deterioration mechanism for steel reinforced concrete structures. Many corrosion detection techniques have been developed for reinforced concrete structures, but a dependable one is more than desired. Acoustic emission technique and fiber optic sensing have emerged as new tools in the field of structural health monitoring. In this paper, we present the results of an experimental investigation on corrosion monitoring of a steel reinforced mortar block through combined acoustic emission and fiber Bragg grating strain measurement. Constant current was applied to the mortar block in order to induce accelerated corrosion. The monitoring process has two aspects: corrosion initiation and crack propagation. Propagation of cracks can be captured through corresponding acoustic emission whereas the mortar expansion due to the generation of corrosion products will be monitored by fiber Bragg grating strain sensors. The results demonstrate that the acoustic emission sources comes from three different types, namely, evolution of hydrogen bubbles, generation of corrosion products and crack propagation. Their corresponding properties are also discussed. The results also show a good correlation between acoustic emission activity and expansive strain measured on the specimen surface. PMID:28327510