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Sample records for microbial rhodopsins restores

  1. Ectopic Expression of a Microbial-Type Rhodopsin Restores Visual Responses in Mice with Photoreceptor Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Bi, Anding; Cui, Jinjuan; Ma, Yu-Ping; Olshevskaya, Elena; Pu, Mingliang; Dizhoor, Alexander M.; Pan, Zhuo-Hua

    2006-01-01

    Summary The death of photoreceptor cells caused by retinal degenerative diseases often results in a complete loss of retinal responses to light. We explore the feasibility of converting inner retinal neurons to photosensitive cells as a possible strategy for imparting light sensitivity to retinas lacking rods and cones. Using delivery by an adeno-associated viral vector, here, we show that long-term expression of a microbial-type rhodopsin, channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2), can be achieved in rodent inner retinal neurons in vivo. Furthermore, we demonstrate that expression of ChR2 in surviving inner retinal neurons of a mouse with photoreceptor degeneration can restore the ability of the retina to encode light signals and transmit the light signals to the visual cortex. Thus, expression of microbial-type channelrhodopsins, such as ChR2, in surviving inner retinal neurons is a potential strategy for the restoration of vision after rod and cone degeneration. PMID:16600853

  2. Microbial rhodopsins: wide distribution, rich diversity and great potential

    PubMed Central

    Kurihara, Marie; Sudo, Yuki

    2015-01-01

    One of the major topics in biophysics and physicobiology is to understand and utilize biological functions using various advanced techniques. Taking advantage of the photoreactivity of the seven-transmembrane rhodopsin protein family has been actively investigated by a variety of methods. Rhodopsins serve as models for membrane-embedded proteins, for photoactive proteins and as a fundamental tool for optogenetics, a new technology to control biological activity with light. In this review, we summarize progress of microbial rhodopsin research from the viewpoint of distribution, diversity and potential. PMID:27493861

  3. Recent Advances in Engineering Microbial Rhodopsins for Optogenetics

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Frances H.

    2015-01-01

    Protein engineering of microbial rhodopsins has been successful in generating variants with improved properties for applications in optogenetics. Members of this membrane protein family can act as both actuators and sensors of neuronal activity. Chimeragenesis, structure-guided mutagenesis, and directed evolution have proven effective strategies for tuning absorption wavelength, altering ion specificity and increasing fluorescence. These approaches facilitate the development of useful optogenetic tools and, in some cases, have yielded insights into rhodopsin structure-function relationships. PMID:26038227

  4. Enlightening the life sciences: the history of halobacterial and microbial rhodopsin research.

    PubMed

    Grote, Mathias; O'Malley, Maureen A

    2011-11-01

    The history of research on microbial rhodopsins offers a novel perspective on the history of the molecular life sciences. Events in this history play important roles in the development of fields such as general microbiology, membrane research, bioenergetics, metagenomics and, very recently, neurobiology. New concepts, techniques, methods and fields have arisen as a result of microbial rhodopsin investigations. In addition, the history of microbial rhodopsins sheds light on the dynamic connections between basic and applied science, and hypothesis-driven and data-driven approaches. The story begins with the late nineteenth century discovery of microorganisms on salted fish and leads into ecological and taxonomical studies of halobacteria in hypersaline environments. These programmes were built on by the discovery of bacteriorhodopsin in organisms that are part of what is now known as the archaeal genus Halobacterium. The transfer of techniques from bacteriorhodopsin studies to the metagenomic discovery of proteorhodopsin in 2000 further extended the field. Microbial rhodopsins have also been used as model systems to understand membrane protein structure and function, and they have become the target of technological applications such as optogenetics and nanotechnology. Analysing the connections between these historical episodes provides a rich example of how science works over longer time periods, especially with regard to the transfer of materials, methods and concepts between different research fields.

  5. Enhancement of Long-Wavelength Sensitivity of Optogenetic Microbial Rhodopsins by 3,4-Dehydroretinal†

    PubMed Central

    Sineshchekov, Oleg A.; Govorunova, Elena G.; Wang, Jihong; Spudich, John L.

    2012-01-01

    Electrogenic microbial rhodopsins (ion pumps and channelrhodopsins) are widely used to control activity of neurons and other cells by light (optogenetics). Long-wavelength absorption by optogenetic tools is desirable to increase the penetration depth of the stimulus light by minimizing tissue scattering and absorption by hemoglobin. A2 retinal (3,4-dehydroretinal) is a natural retinoid that serves as the chromophore in red-shifted visual pigments of several lower aquatic animals. Here we show that A2 retinal reconstitutes a fully functional archaerhodopsin-3 (AR-3) proton pump and four channelrhodopsin variants (CrChR1, CrChR2, CaChR1 and MvChR1). Substitution of A1 by A2 retinal significantly shifted the spectral sensitivity of all tested rhodopsins to longer wavelengths without altering other aspects of their function. The spectral shift upon substitution of A1 by A2 in AR-3 was close to that measured in other archaeal rhodopsins. Notably, the shifts in channelrhodopsins were larger than those measured in archaeal rhodopsins and close to those in animal visual pigments with similar absorption maxima of their A1-bound forms. Our results show that chromophore substitution provides a complementary strategy to improve the efficiency of optogenetic tools. PMID:22577956

  6. Cation-Specific Conformations in a Dual-Function Ion-Pumping Microbial Rhodopsin.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Giordano F Z; Goblirsch, Brandon R; Tsai, Ah-Lim; Spudich, John L

    2015-06-30

    A recently discovered rhodopsin ion pump (DeNaR, also known as KR2) in the marine bacterium Dokdonia eikasta uses light to pump protons or sodium ions from the cell depending on the ionic composition of the medium. In cells suspended in a KCl solution, DeNaR functions as a light-driven proton pump, whereas in a NaCl solution, DeNaR conducts light-driven sodium ion pumping, a novel activity within the rhodopsin family. These two distinct functions raise the questions of whether the conformations of the protein differ in the presence of K(+) or Na(+) and whether the helical movements that result in the canonical E → C conformational change in other microbial rhodopsins are conserved in DeNaR. Visible absorption maxima of DeNaR in its unphotolyzed (dark) state show an 8 nm difference between Na(+) and K(+) in decyl maltopyranoside micelles, indicating an influence of the cations on the retinylidene photoactive site. In addition, electronic paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra of the dark states reveal repositioning of helices F and G when K(+) is replaced with Na(+). Furthermore, the conformational changes assessed by EPR spin-spin dipolar coupling show that the light-induced transmembrane helix movements are very similar to those found in bacteriorhodopsin but are altered by the presence of Na(+), resulting in a new feature, the clockwise rotation of helix F. The results establish the first observation of a cation switch controlling the conformations of a microbial rhodopsin and indicate specific interactions of Na(+) with the half-channels of DeNaR to open an appropriate path for ion translocation.

  7. Microbial and viral-like rhodopsins present in coastal marine sediments from four polar and subpolar regions.

    PubMed

    López, J L; Golemba, M; Hernández, E; Lozada, M; Dionisi, H M; Jansson, J; Carroll, J; Lundgren, L; Sjöling, S; Cormack, W P Mac

    2016-11-03

    Rhodopsins are broadly distributed. In this work we analyzed 23 metagenomes corresponding to marine sediment samples from four regions which share cold climate conditions (Norway; Sweden; Argentina and Antarctica). In order to investigate the genes evolution of viral-rodopsins, an initial set of 6224 bacterial rhodopsins sequences according COG5524 were retrieved from the 23 metagenomes. After selection by the presence of transmembrane domains and alignment 123 viral (51) and non-viral (72) sequences (>50 aminoacids) were finally included in further analysis. Viral rhodopsin genes were homologues of Phaeocystis globosa virus and Organic lake Phycodnavirus Non-viral microbial rhodopsin genes were ascribed to Bacteroidetes, Planctomycetes, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Cyanobacteria, Proteobacteria, Deinococcus-Thermus as well as Cryptophyta and Fungi. A re-screening using Blastp, using as queries the viral sequences previously described, retrieved 30 sequences (>100 aminoacids). Phylogeographic analysis revealed a geographycal clustering of the sequences affiliated to the viral group. This clustering was not observed for the microbial non-viral sequences. The phylogenetic reconstruction allowed us to propose the existence of a putative ancestor of viral rhodopsins (PAVR) genes related to Actinobacteria and Chloroflexi This is the first report about the existence of a phylogeographic association of the viral rhodopsins sequences from marine sediments.

  8. NEUROSCIENCE. Natural light-gated anion channels: A family of microbial rhodopsins for advanced optogenetics.

    PubMed

    Govorunova, Elena G; Sineshchekov, Oleg A; Janz, Roger; Liu, Xiaoqin; Spudich, John L

    2015-08-07

    Light-gated rhodopsin cation channels from chlorophyte algae have transformed neuroscience research through their use as membrane-depolarizing optogenetic tools for targeted photoactivation of neuron firing. Photosuppression of neuronal action potentials has been limited by the lack of equally efficient tools for membrane hyperpolarization. We describe anion channel rhodopsins (ACRs), a family of light-gated anion channels from cryptophyte algae that provide highly sensitive and efficient membrane hyperpolarization and neuronal silencing through light-gated chloride conduction. ACRs strictly conducted anions, completely excluding protons and larger cations, and hyperpolarized the membrane of cultured animal cells with much faster kinetics at less than one-thousandth of the light intensity required by the most efficient currently available optogenetic proteins. Natural ACRs provide optogenetic inhibition tools with unprecedented light sensitivity and temporal precision.

  9. Wetland Microbial Community Response to Restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theroux, S.; Hartman, W.; Tringe, S. G.

    2015-12-01

    Wetland restoration has been proposed as a potential long-term carbon storage solution, with a goal of engineering geochemical dynamics to accelerate peat accretion and encourage greenhouse gas (GHG) sequestration. However, wetland microbial community composition and metabolic rates are poorly understood and their predicted response to wetland restoration is a veritable unknown. In an effort to better understand the underlying factors that shape the balance of carbon flux in wetland soils, we targeted the microbial communities along a salinity gradient ranging from freshwater tidal marshes to hypersaline ponds in the San Francisco Bay-Delta region. Using 16S rRNA gene sequencing and shotgun metagenomics, coupled with greenhouse gas measurements, we sampled sixteen sites capturing a range in salinity and restoration status. Seawater delivers sulfate to wetland ecosystems, encouraging sulfate reduction and discouraging methane production. As expected, we observed the highest rates of methane production in the freshwater wetlands. Recently restored wetlands had significantly higher rates of methane production compared to their historic counterparts that could be attributed to variations in trace metal and organic carbon content in younger wetlands. In contrast, our sequencing results revealed an almost immediate return of the indigenous microbial communities following seasonal flooding and full tidal restoration in saline and hypersaline wetlands and managed ponds. Notably, we found elevated methane production rates in hypersaline ponds, the result of methylotrophic methane production confirmed by sequence data and lab incubations. Our study links belowground microbial communities and their aboveground greenhouse gas production and highlights the inherent complexity in predicting wetland microbial response in the face of both natural and unnatural disturbances.

  10. Restoration of visual function in P23H rhodopsin transgenic rats by gene delivery of BiP/Grp78.

    PubMed

    Gorbatyuk, Marina S; Knox, Tessa; LaVail, Matthew M; Gorbatyuk, Oleg S; Noorwez, Syed M; Hauswirth, William W; Lin, Jonathan H; Muzyczka, Nicholas; Lewin, Alfred S

    2010-03-30

    The P23H mutation within the rhodopsin gene (RHO) causes rhodopsin misfolding, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and activates the unfolded protein response (UPR), leading to rod photoreceptor degeneration and autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (ADRP). Grp78/BiP is an ER-localized chaperone that is induced by UPR signaling in response to ER stress. We have previously demonstrated that BiP mRNA levels are selectively reduced in animal models of ADRP arising from P23H rhodopsin expression at ages that precede photoreceptor degeneration. We have now overexpressed BiP to test the hypothesis that this chaperone promotes the trafficking of P23H rhodopsin to the cell membrane, reprograms the UPR favoring the survival of photoreceptors, blocks apoptosis, and, ultimately, preserves vision in ADRP rats. In cell culture, increasing levels of BiP had no impact on the localization of P23H rhodopsin. However, BiP overexpression alleviated ER stress by reducing levels of cleaved pATF6 protein, phosphorylated eIF2alpha and the proapoptotic protein CHOP. In P23H rats, photoreceptor levels of cleaved ATF6, pEIF2alpha, CHOP, and caspase-7 were much higher than those of wild-type rats. Subretinal delivery of AAV5 expressing BiP to transgenic rats led to reduction in CHOP and photoreceptor apoptosis and to a sustained increase in electroretinogram amplitudes. We detected complexes between BiP, caspase-12, and the BH3-only protein BiK that may contribute to the antiapoptotic activity of BiP. Thus, the preservation of photoreceptor function resulting from elevated levels of BiP is due to suppression of apoptosis rather than to a promotion of rhodopsin folding.

  11. Microbial Rhodopsin Optogenetic Tools: Application for Analyses of Synaptic Transmission and of Neuronal Network Activity in Behavior.

    PubMed

    Glock, Caspar; Nagpal, Jatin; Gottschalk, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Optogenetics was introduced as a new technology in the neurosciences about a decade ago (Zemelman et al., Neuron 33:15-22, 2002; Boyden et al., Nat Neurosci 8:1263-1268, 2005; Nagel et al., Curr Biol 15:2279-2284, 2005; Zemelman et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 100:1352-1357, 2003). It combines optics, genetics, and bioengineering to render neurons sensitive to light, in order to achieve a precise, exogenous, and noninvasive control of membrane potential, intracellular signaling, network activity, or behavior (Rein and Deussing, Mol Genet Genomics 287:95-109, 2012; Yizhar et al., Neuron 71:9-34, 2011). As C. elegans is transparent, genetically amenable, has a small nervous system mapped with synapse resolution, and exhibits a rich behavioral repertoire, it is especially open to optogenetic methods (White et al., Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 314:1-340, 1986; De Bono et al., Optogenetic actuation, inhibition, modulation and readout for neuronal networks generating behavior in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, In: Hegemann P, Sigrist SJ (eds) Optogenetics, De Gruyter, Berlin, 2013; Husson et al., Biol Cell 105:235-250, 2013; Xu and Kim, Nat Rev Genet 12:793-801, 2011). Optogenetics, by now an "exploding" field, comprises a repertoire of different tools ranging from transgenically expressed photo-sensor proteins (Boyden et al., Nat Neurosci 8:1263-1268, 2005; Nagel et al., Curr Biol 15:2279-2284, 2005) or cascades (Zemelman et al., Neuron 33:15-22, 2002) to chemical biology approaches, using photochromic ligands of endogenous channels (Szobota et al., Neuron 54:535-545, 2007). Here, we will focus only on optogenetics utilizing microbial rhodopsins, as these are most easily and most widely applied in C. elegans. For other optogenetic tools, for example the photoactivated adenylyl cyclases (PACs, that drive neuronal activity by increasing synaptic vesicle priming, thus exaggerating rather than overriding the intrinsic activity of a neuron, as occurs with

  12. Dead Sea rhodopsins revisited.

    PubMed

    Bodaker, Idan; Suzuki, Marcelino T; Oren, Aharon; Béjà, Oded

    2012-12-01

    The Dead Sea is a unique hypersaline ecosystem with near toxic magnesium levels (∼2 M), dominance of divalent cations and a slightly acidic pH. Previously, we reported a haloarchaeon related to Halobacterium salinarum to dominate in a microbial bloom that developed in 1992 in the upper water layers of the lake following massive freshwater runoff. Whether this clade also dominated an earlier bloom in 1980-1982 cannot be ascertained as no samples for cultivation-independent analysis were preserved. The presence of the light-driven proton pump bacteriorhodopsin was reported in the 1980-1982 bloom of prokaryotes that had developed in the Dead Sea. To test the hypothesis that bacteriorhodopsin proton pumping may play a major role in determining what type of haloarchaea may dominate in specific bloom conditions, we compared rhodopsin genes recovered from Dead Sea biomass collected in different periods with genes coding for retinal proteins in isolated haloarchaea. Novel bacteriorhodopsin and sensory rhodopsin genes were found in samples collected in 2007 and 2010. The fact that no rhodopsin genes were recovered from samples collected during the 1992 bloom, which was dominated by a single species, suggests that different clades were present in the 1980-1982 and 1992 blooms, and that bacteriorhodopsin proton pumping did not necessarily play a determinative role in the dominance of specific halophiles in the blooms.

  13. Microbial diversity in restored wetlands of San Francisco Bay

    SciTech Connect

    Theroux, Susanna; Hartman, Wyatt; He, Shaomei; Tringe, Susannah

    2013-12-09

    Wetland ecosystems may serve as either a source or a sink for atmospheric carbon and greenhouse gases. This delicate carbon balance is influenced by the activity of belowground microbial communities that return carbon dioxide and methane to the atmosphere. Wetland restoration efforts in the San Francisco Bay-Delta region may help to reverse land subsidence and possibly increase carbon storage in soils. However, the effects of wetland restoration on microbial communities, which mediate soil metabolic activity and carbon cycling, are poorly studied. In an effort to better understand the underlying factors which shape the balance of carbon flux in wetland soils, we targeted the microbial communities in a suite of restored and historic wetlands in the San Francisco Bay-Delta region. Using DNA and RNA sequencing, coupled with greenhouse gas monitoring, we profiled the diversity and metabolic potential of the wetland soil microbial communities along biogeochemical and wetland age gradients. Our results show relationships among geochemical gradients, availability of electron acceptors, and microbial community composition. Our study provides the first genomic glimpse into microbial populations in natural and restored wetlands of the San Francisco Bay-Delta region and provides a valuable benchmark for future studies.

  14. Ecological restoration alters microbial communities in mine tailings profiles

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yang; Jia, Zhongjun; Sun, Qingye; Zhan, Jing; Yang, Yang; Wang, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Ecological restoration of mine tailings have impact on soil physiochemical properties and microbial communities. The surface soil has been a primary concern in the past decades, however it remains poorly understood about the adaptive response of microbial communities along the profile during ecological restoration of the tailings. In this study, microbial communities along a 60-cm profile were investigated in a mine tailing pond during ecological restoration of the bare waste tailings (BW) with two vegetated soils of Imperata cylindrica (IC) and Chrysopogon zizanioides (CZ) plants. Revegetation of both IC and CZ could retard soil degradation of mine tailing by stimulation of soil pH at 0–30 cm soils and altered the bacterial communities at 0–20 cm depths of the mine tailings. Significant differences existed in the relative abundance of the phyla Alphaproteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Firmicutes and Nitrospira. Slight difference of bacterial communities were found at 30–60 cm depths of mine tailings. Abundance and activity analysis of nifH genes also explained the elevated soil nitrogen contents at the surface 0–20 cm of the vegetated soils. These results suggest that microbial succession occurred primarily at surface tailings and vegetation of pioneering plants might have promoted ecological restoration of mine tailings. PMID:27126064

  15. Ecological restoration alters microbial communities in mine tailings profiles.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Jia, Zhongjun; Sun, Qingye; Zhan, Jing; Yang, Yang; Wang, Dan

    2016-04-29

    Ecological restoration of mine tailings have impact on soil physiochemical properties and microbial communities. The surface soil has been a primary concern in the past decades, however it remains poorly understood about the adaptive response of microbial communities along the profile during ecological restoration of the tailings. In this study, microbial communities along a 60-cm profile were investigated in a mine tailing pond during ecological restoration of the bare waste tailings (BW) with two vegetated soils of Imperata cylindrica (IC) and Chrysopogon zizanioides (CZ) plants. Revegetation of both IC and CZ could retard soil degradation of mine tailing by stimulation of soil pH at 0-30 cm soils and altered the bacterial communities at 0-20 cm depths of the mine tailings. Significant differences existed in the relative abundance of the phyla Alphaproteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Firmicutes and Nitrospira. Slight difference of bacterial communities were found at 30-60 cm depths of mine tailings. Abundance and activity analysis of nifH genes also explained the elevated soil nitrogen contents at the surface 0-20 cm of the vegetated soils. These results suggest that microbial succession occurred primarily at surface tailings and vegetation of pioneering plants might have promoted ecological restoration of mine tailings.

  16. Ecological restoration alters microbial communities in mine tailings profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yang; Jia, Zhongjun; Sun, Qingye; Zhan, Jing; Yang, Yang; Wang, Dan

    2016-04-01

    Ecological restoration of mine tailings have impact on soil physiochemical properties and microbial communities. The surface soil has been a primary concern in the past decades, however it remains poorly understood about the adaptive response of microbial communities along the profile during ecological restoration of the tailings. In this study, microbial communities along a 60-cm profile were investigated in a mine tailing pond during ecological restoration of the bare waste tailings (BW) with two vegetated soils of Imperata cylindrica (IC) and Chrysopogon zizanioides (CZ) plants. Revegetation of both IC and CZ could retard soil degradation of mine tailing by stimulation of soil pH at 0–30 cm soils and altered the bacterial communities at 0–20 cm depths of the mine tailings. Significant differences existed in the relative abundance of the phyla Alphaproteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Firmicutes and Nitrospira. Slight difference of bacterial communities were found at 30–60 cm depths of mine tailings. Abundance and activity analysis of nifH genes also explained the elevated soil nitrogen contents at the surface 0–20 cm of the vegetated soils. These results suggest that microbial succession occurred primarily at surface tailings and vegetation of pioneering plants might have promoted ecological restoration of mine tailings.

  17. Development of soil microbial communities during tallgrass prairie restoration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil microbial communities were examined in a chronosequence of four different land-use treatments at the Konza Prairie Biological Station, Kansas. The time series comprised a conventionally tilled cropland (CTC) developed on former prairie soils, two restored grasslands that were initiated on forme...

  18. Vision Science: Can Rhodopsin Cure Blindness?

    PubMed

    Van Gelder, Russell N; Kaur, Kuldeep

    2015-08-17

    Outer retinal degeneration is the leading cause of blindness in the developed world. A new study now demonstrates that ectopic expression of human rhodopsin in the inner retina, mediated by viral gene therapy, can restore light sensitivity and some vision to mice blind from outer retinal degeneration.

  19. Rhodopsin 7–The unusual Rhodopsin in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Rhodopsins are the major photopigments in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. Drosophila express six well-characterized Rhodopsins (Rh1–Rh6) with distinct absorption maxima and expression pattern. In 2000, when the Drosophila genome was published, a novel Rhodopsin gene was discovered: Rhodopsin 7 (Rh7). Rh7 is highly conserved among the Drosophila genus and is also found in other arthropods. Phylogenetic trees based on protein sequences suggest that the seven Drosophila Rhodopsins cluster in three different groups. While Rh1, Rh2 and Rh6 form a “vertebrate-melanopsin-type”–cluster, and Rh3, Rh4 and Rh5 form an “insect-type”-Rhodopsin cluster, Rh7 seem to form its own cluster. Although Rh7 has nearly all important features of a functional Rhodopsin, it differs from other Rhodopsins in its genomic and structural properties, suggesting it might have an overall different role than other known Rhodopsins. PMID:27651995

  20. Effect of Rhodopsin Phosphorylation on Dark Adaptation in Mouse Rods

    PubMed Central

    Berry, Justin; Frederiksen, Rikard; Yao, Yun; Nymark, Soile

    2016-01-01

    Rhodopsin is a prototypical G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that is activated when its 11-cis-retinal moiety is photoisomerized to all-trans retinal. This step initiates a cascade of reactions by which rods signal changes in light intensity. Like other GPCRs, rhodopsin is deactivated through receptor phosphorylation and arrestin binding. Full recovery of receptor sensitivity is then achieved when rhodopsin is regenerated through a series of steps that return the receptor to its ground state. Here, we show that dephosphorylation of the opsin moiety of rhodopsin is an extremely slow but requisite step in the restoration of the visual pigment to its ground state. We make use of a novel observation: isolated mouse retinae kept in standard media for routine physiologic recordings display blunted dephosphorylation of rhodopsin. Isoelectric focusing followed by Western blot analysis of bleached isolated retinae showed little dephosphorylation of rhodopsin for up to 4 h in darkness, even under conditions when rhodopsin was completely regenerated. Microspectrophotometeric determinations of rhodopsin spectra show that regenerated phospho-rhodopsin has the same molecular photosensitivity as unphosphorylated rhodopsin and that flash responses measured by trans-retinal electroretinogram or single-cell suction electrode recording displayed dark-adapted kinetics. Single quantal responses displayed normal dark-adapted kinetics, but rods were only half as sensitive as those containing exclusively unphosphorylated rhodopsin. We propose a model in which light-exposed retinae contain a mixed population of phosphorylated and unphosphorylated rhodopsin. Moreover, complete dark adaptation can only occur when all rhodopsin has been dephosphorylated, a process that requires >3 h in complete darkness. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) constitute the largest superfamily of proteins that compose ∼4% of the mammalian genome whose members share a common membrane

  1. Soil microbial community structure and functionality during grassland restoration in the Texas High Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil microbial communities are an indispensable part of restoration programs due to their significant role in ecosystem functioning and sensitivity to disturbance. We evaluated soil microbial community structure using ester-linked fatty acid (EL-FAME) profiling and metabolic functioning, by measurin...

  2. Transition of soil microbial communities in a tallgrass prairie restoration chronosequence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extensive agriculture since the 1830’s has led to a 82-99% decline of the tallgrass prairie ecosystem in North America. Restoration of these prairies is of great interest. Objectives were to: (1) investigate the change in soil microbial communities during grassland restoration and (2) study the in...

  3. Microbial diversity in restored wetlands of the San Francisco Bay Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theroux, S.; Hartman, W.; Tringe, S. G.; He, S.

    2013-12-01

    Wetland ecosystems may serve as either a source or a sink for atmospheric carbon and greenhouse gases. This delicate carbon balance is influenced by the activity of below-ground microbial communities that return carbon dioxide and methane to the atmosphere. Wetland restoration efforts in the San Francisco Bay-Delta region may help to reverse land subsidence and possibly increase carbon storage in soils. However, the effects of wetland restoration on microbial communities, which mediate soil metabolic activity and carbon cycling, are poorly studied. In an effort to better understand the underlying factors which shape the balance of carbon flux in wetland soils, we targeted the microbial communities in a suite of restored and historic wetlands in the San Francisco Bay-Delta region. Using DNA and RNA sequencing, coupled with greenhouse gas monitoring, we profiled the diversity and metabolic potential of the wetland soil microbial communities along biogeochemical and wetland age gradients. Our results show relationships among geochemical gradients, availability of electron acceptors, and microbial community composition. Our study provides the first genomic glimpse into microbial populations in natural and restored wetlands of the San Francisco Bay-Delta region and provides a valuable benchmark for future studies.

  4. MICROBIAL POPULATION ANALYSIS AS A MEASURE OF ECOSYSTEM RESTORATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    During a controlled oil spill study in a freshwater wetland, four methods were used to track changes in microbial populations in response to in situ remediation treatments, including nutrient amendments and the removal of surface vegetation. Most probable number (MPN) esimates o...

  5. Alteration of soil microbial communities and water quality in restored wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bossio, D.A.; Fleck, J.A.; Scow, K.M.; Fujii, R.

    2006-01-01

    Land usage is a strong determinant of soil microbial community composition and activity, which in turn determine organic matter decomposition rates and decomposition products in soils. Microbial communities in permanently flooded wetlands, such as those created by wetland restoration on Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta islands in California, function under restricted aeration conditions that result in increasing anaerobiosis with depth. It was hypothesized that the change from agricultural management to permanently flooded wetland would alter microbial community composition, increase the amount and reactivity of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) compounds in Delta waters; and have a predominant impact on microbial communities as compared with the effects of other environmental factors including soil type and agricultural management. Based on phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis, active microbial communities of the restored wetlands were changed significantly from those of the agricultural fields, and wetland microbial communities varied widely with soil depth. The relative abundance of monounsaturated fatty acids decreased with increasing soil depth in both wetland and agricultural profiles, whereas branched fatty acids were relatively more abundant at all soil depths in wetlands as compared to agricultural fields. Decomposition conditions were linked to DOC quantity and quality using fatty acid functional groups to conclude that restricted aeration conditions found in the wetlands were strongly related to production of reactive carbon compounds. But current vegetation may have had an equally important role in determining DOC quality in restored wetlands. In a larger scale analysis, that included data from wetland and agricultural sites on Delta islands and data from two previous studies from the Sacramento Valley, an aeration gradient was defined as the predominant determinant of active microbial communities across soil types and land usage. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All

  6. Retinal Flip in Rhodopsin Activation?

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Jun; Brown, Michael F.; Mertz, Blake

    2015-01-01

    Rhodopsin is a well-characterized structural model of a G protein-coupled receptor. Photoisomerization of the covalently bound retinal triggers activation. Surprisingly, the x-ray crystal structure of the active Meta-II state has a 180° rotation about the long-axis of the retinal polyene chain. Unbiased microsecond-timescale all-atom molecular dynamics simulations show that the retinal cofactor can flip back to the orientation observed in the inactive state of rhodopsin under conditions favoring the Meta-I state. Our results provide, to our knowledge, the first evidence from molecular dynamics simulations showing how rotation of the retinal ligand within its binding pocket can occur in the activation mechanism of rhodopsin. PMID:26083914

  7. Light-Promoted Rhodopsin Expression and Starvation Survival in the Marine Dinoflagellate Oxyrrhis marina

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Zhiling; Zhang, Huan; Lin, Senjie

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of microbial rhodopsins in marine proteobacteria changed the dogma that photosynthesis is the only pathway to use the solar energy for biological utilization in the marine environment. Although homologs of these rhodopsins have been identified in dinoflagellates, the diversity of the encoding genes and their physiological roles remain unexplored. As an initial step toward addressing the gap, we conducted high-throughput transcriptome sequencing on Oxyrrhis marina to retrieve rhodopsin transcripts, rapid amplification of cDNA ends to isolate full-length cDNAs of dominant representatives, and quantitative reverse-transcription PCR to investigate their expression under varying conditions. Our phylogenetic analyses showed that O. marina contained both the proton-pumping type (PR) and sensory type (SR) rhodopsins, and the transcriptome data showed that the PR type dominated over the SR type. We compared rhodopsin gene expression for cultures kept under light: dark cycle and continuous darkness in a time course of 24 days without feeding. Although both types of rhodopsin were expressed under the two conditions, the expression levels of PR were much higher than SR, consistent with the transcriptomic data. Furthermore, relative to cultures kept in the dark, rhodopsin expression levels and cell survival rate were both higher in cultures grown in the light. This is the first report of light-dependent promotion of starvation survival and concomitant promotion of PR expression in a eukaryote. While direct evidence needs to come from functional test on rhodopsins in vitro or gene knockout/knockdown experiments, our results suggest that the proton-pumping rhodopsin might be responsible for the light-enhanced survival of O. marina, as previously demonstrated in bacteria. PMID:25506945

  8. Soil Microbial Community Successional Patterns during Forest Ecosystem Restoration ▿†

    PubMed Central

    Banning, Natasha C.; Gleeson, Deirdre B.; Grigg, Andrew H.; Grant, Carl D.; Andersen, Gary L.; Brodie, Eoin L.; Murphy, D. V.

    2011-01-01

    Soil microbial community characterization is increasingly being used to determine the responses of soils to stress and disturbances and to assess ecosystem sustainability. However, there is little experimental evidence to indicate that predictable patterns in microbial community structure or composition occur during secondary succession or ecosystem restoration. This study utilized a chronosequence of developing jarrah (Eucalyptus marginata) forest ecosystems, rehabilitated after bauxite mining (up to 18 years old), to examine changes in soil bacterial and fungal community structures (by automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis [ARISA]) and changes in specific soil bacterial phyla by 16S rRNA gene microarray analysis. This study demonstrated that mining in these ecosystems significantly altered soil bacterial and fungal community structures. The hypothesis that the soil microbial community structures would become more similar to those of the surrounding nonmined forest with rehabilitation age was broadly supported by shifts in the bacterial but not the fungal community. Microarray analysis enabled the identification of clear successional trends in the bacterial community at the phylum level and supported the finding of an increase in similarity to nonmined forest soil with rehabilitation age. Changes in soil microbial community structure were significantly related to the size of the microbial biomass as well as numerous edaphic variables (including pH and C, N, and P nutrient concentrations). These findings suggest that soil bacterial community dynamics follow a pattern in developing ecosystems that may be predictable and can be conceptualized as providing an integrated assessment of numerous edaphic variables. PMID:21724890

  9. Spreading Topsoil Encourages Ecological Restoration on Embankments: Soil Fertility, Microbial Activity and Vegetation Cover

    PubMed Central

    Rivera, Desirée; Mejías, Violeta; Jáuregui, Berta M.; López-Archilla, Ana Isabel; Peco, Begoña

    2014-01-01

    The construction of linear transport infrastructure has severe effects on ecosystem functions and properties, and the restoration of the associated roadslopes contributes to reduce its impact. This restoration is usually approached from the perspective of plant cover regeneration, ignoring plant-soil interactions and the consequences for plant growth. The addition of a 30 cm layer of topsoil is a common practice in roadslope restoration projects to increase vegetation recovery. However topsoil is a scarce resource. This study assesses the effects of topsoil spreading and its depth (10 to 30 cm) on two surrogates of microbial activity (β-glucosidase and phosphatase enzymes activity and soil respiration), and on plant cover, plant species richness and floristic composition of embankment vegetation. The study also evaluates the differences in selected physic-chemical properties related to soil fertility between topsoil and the original embankment substrate. Topsoil was found to have higher values of organic matter (11%), nitrogen (44%), assimilable phosphorous (50%) and silt content (54%) than the original embankment substrate. The topsoil spreading treatment increased microbial activity, and its application increased β-glucosidase activity (45%), phosphatase activity (57%) and soil respiration (60%). Depth seemed to affect soil respiration, β-glucosidase and phosphatase activity. Topsoil application also enhanced the species richness of restored embankments in relation to controls. Nevertheless, the depth of the spread topsoil did not significantly affect the resulting plant cover, species richness or floristic composition, suggesting that both depths could have similar effects on short-term recovery of the vegetation cover. A significant implication of these results is that it permits the application of thinner topsoil layers, with major savings in this scarce resource during the subsequent slope restoration work, but the quality of topsoil relative to the

  10. Spreading topsoil encourages ecological restoration on embankments: soil fertility, microbial activity and vegetation cover.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Desirée; Mejías, Violeta; Jáuregui, Berta M; Costa-Tenorio, Marga; López-Archilla, Ana Isabel; Peco, Begoña

    2014-01-01

    The construction of linear transport infrastructure has severe effects on ecosystem functions and properties, and the restoration of the associated roadslopes contributes to reduce its impact. This restoration is usually approached from the perspective of plant cover regeneration, ignoring plant-soil interactions and the consequences for plant growth. The addition of a 30 cm layer of topsoil is a common practice in roadslope restoration projects to increase vegetation recovery. However topsoil is a scarce resource. This study assesses the effects of topsoil spreading and its depth (10 to 30 cm) on two surrogates of microbial activity (β-glucosidase and phosphatase enzymes activity and soil respiration), and on plant cover, plant species richness and floristic composition of embankment vegetation. The study also evaluates the differences in selected physic-chemical properties related to soil fertility between topsoil and the original embankment substrate. Topsoil was found to have higher values of organic matter (11%), nitrogen (44%), assimilable phosphorous (50%) and silt content (54%) than the original embankment substrate. The topsoil spreading treatment increased microbial activity, and its application increased β-glucosidase activity (45%), phosphatase activity (57%) and soil respiration (60%). Depth seemed to affect soil respiration, β-glucosidase and phosphatase activity. Topsoil application also enhanced the species richness of restored embankments in relation to controls. Nevertheless, the depth of the spread topsoil did not significantly affect the resulting plant cover, species richness or floristic composition, suggesting that both depths could have similar effects on short-term recovery of the vegetation cover. A significant implication of these results is that it permits the application of thinner topsoil layers, with major savings in this scarce resource during the subsequent slope restoration work, but the quality of topsoil relative to the

  11. The Activation Pathway of Human Rhodopsin in Comparison to Bovine Rhodopsin*

    PubMed Central

    Kazmin, Roman; Rose, Alexander; Szczepek, Michal; Elgeti, Matthias; Ritter, Eglof; Piechnick, Ronny; Hofmann, Klaus Peter; Scheerer, Patrick; Hildebrand, Peter W.; Bartl, Franz J.

    2015-01-01

    Rhodopsin, the photoreceptor of rod cells, absorbs light to mediate the first step of vision by activating the G protein transducin (Gt). Several human diseases, such as retinitis pigmentosa or congenital night blindness, are linked to rhodopsin malfunctions. Most of the corresponding in vivo studies and structure-function analyses (e.g. based on protein x-ray crystallography or spectroscopy) have been carried out on murine or bovine rhodopsin. Because these rhodopsins differ at several amino acid positions from human rhodopsin, we conducted a comprehensive spectroscopic characterization of human rhodopsin in combination with molecular dynamics simulations. We show by FTIR and UV-visible difference spectroscopy that the light-induced transformations of the early photointermediates are very similar. Significant differences between the pigments appear with formation of the still inactive Meta I state and the transition to active Meta II. However, the conformation of Meta II and its activity toward the G protein are essentially the same, presumably reflecting the evolutionary pressure under which the active state has developed. Altogether, our results show that although the basic activation pathways of human and bovine rhodopsin are similar, structural deviations exist in the inactive conformation and during receptor activation, even between closely related rhodopsins. These differences between the well studied bovine or murine rhodopsins and human rhodopsin have to be taken into account when the influence of point mutations on the activation pathway of human rhodopsin are investigated using the bovine or murine rhodopsin template sequences. PMID:26105054

  12. Genomic Makeup of the Marine Flavobacterium Nonlabens (Donghaeana) dokdonensis and Identification of a Novel Class of Rhodopsins

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Soon-Kyeong; Kim, Byung Kwon; Song, Ju Yeon; Kwak, Min-Jung; Lee, Choong Hoon; Yoon, Jung-Hoon; Oh, Tae Kwang; Kim, Jihyun F.

    2013-01-01

    Rhodopsin-containing marine microbes such as those in the class Flavobacteriia play a pivotal role in the biogeochemical cycle of the euphotic zone (Fuhrman JA, Schwalbach MS, Stingl U. 2008. Proteorhodopsins: an array of physiological roles? Nat Rev Microbiol. 6:488–494). Deciphering the genome information of flavobacteria and accessing the diversity and ecological impact of microbial rhodopsins are important in understanding and preserving the global ecosystems. The genome sequence of the orange-pigmented marine flavobacterium Nonlabens dokdonensis (basonym: Donghaeana dokdonensis) DSW-6 was determined. As a marine photoheterotroph, DSW-6 has written in its genome physiological features that allow survival in the oligotrophic environments. The sequence analysis also uncovered a gene encoding an unexpected type of microbial rhodopsin containing a unique motif in addition to a proteorhodopsin gene and a number of photolyase or cryptochrome genes. Homologs of the novel rhodopsin gene were found in other flavobacteria, alphaproteobacteria, a species of Cytophagia, a deinococcus, and even a eukaryote diatom. They all contain the characteristic NQ motif and form a phylogenetically distinct group. Expression analysis of this rhodopsin gene in DSW-6 indicated that it is induced at high NaCl concentrations, as well as in the presence of light and the absence of nutrients. Genomic and metagenomic surveys demonstrate the diversity of the NQ rhodopsins in nature and the prevalent occurrence of the encoding genes among microbial communities inhabiting hypersaline niches, suggesting its involvement in sodium metabolism and the sodium-adapted lifestyle. PMID:23292138

  13. Genomic makeup of the marine flavobacterium Nonlabens (Donghaeana) dokdonensis and identification of a novel class of rhodopsins.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Soon-Kyeong; Kim, Byung Kwon; Song, Ju Yeon; Kwak, Min-Jung; Lee, Choong Hoon; Yoon, Jung-Hoon; Oh, Tae Kwang; Kim, Jihyun F

    2013-01-01

    Rhodopsin-containing marine microbes such as those in the class Flavobacteriia play a pivotal role in the biogeochemical cycle of the euphotic zone (Fuhrman JA, Schwalbach MS, Stingl U. 2008. Proteorhodopsins: an array of physiological roles? Nat Rev Microbiol. 6:488-494). Deciphering the genome information of flavobacteria and accessing the diversity and ecological impact of microbial rhodopsins are important in understanding and preserving the global ecosystems. The genome sequence of the orange-pigmented marine flavobacterium Nonlabens dokdonensis (basonym: Donghaeana dokdonensis) DSW-6 was determined. As a marine photoheterotroph, DSW-6 has written in its genome physiological features that allow survival in the oligotrophic environments. The sequence analysis also uncovered a gene encoding an unexpected type of microbial rhodopsin containing a unique motif in addition to a proteorhodopsin gene and a number of photolyase or cryptochrome genes. Homologs of the novel rhodopsin gene were found in other flavobacteria, alphaproteobacteria, a species of Cytophagia, a deinococcus, and even a eukaryote diatom. They all contain the characteristic NQ motif and form a phylogenetically distinct group. Expression analysis of this rhodopsin gene in DSW-6 indicated that it is induced at high NaCl concentrations, as well as in the presence of light and the absence of nutrients. Genomic and metagenomic surveys demonstrate the diversity of the NQ rhodopsins in nature and the prevalent occurrence of the encoding genes among microbial communities inhabiting hypersaline niches, suggesting its involvement in sodium metabolism and the sodium-adapted lifestyle.

  14. Molecular bases for the selection of the chromophore of animal rhodopsins

    PubMed Central

    Luk, Hoi Ling; Melaccio, Federico; Rinaldi, Silvia; Gozem, Samer; Olivucci, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    The functions of microbial and animal rhodopsins are triggered by the isomerization of their all-trans and 11-cis retinal chromophores, respectively. To lay the molecular basis driving the evolutionary transition from the all-trans to the 11-cis chromophore, multiconfigurational quantum chemistry is used to compare the isomerization mechanisms of the sensory rhodopsin from the cyanobacterium Anabaena PCC 7120 (ASR) and of the bovine rhodopsin (Rh). It is found that, despite their evolutionary distance, these eubacterial and vertebrate rhodopsins start to isomerize via distinct implementations of the same bicycle-pedal mechanism originally proposed by Warshel [Warshel A (1976) Nature 260:678–683]. However, by following the electronic structure changes of ASR (featuring the all-trans chromophore) during the isomerization, we find that ASR enters a region of degeneracy between the first and second excited states not found in Rh (featuring the 11-cis chromophore). We show that such degeneracy is modulated by the preorganized structure of the chromophore and by the position of the reactive double bond. It is argued that the optimization of the electronic properties of the chromophore, which affects the photoisomerization efficiency and the thermal isomerization barrier, provided a key factor for the emergence of the striking amino acid sequence divergence observed between the microbial and animal rhodopsins. PMID:26607446

  15. [Effects of plateau zokor disturbance and restoration years on soil nutrients and microbial functional diversity in alpine meadow].

    PubMed

    Hu, Lei; Ade, Lu-ji; Zi, Hong-biao; Wang, Chang-ting

    2015-09-01

    To explore the dynamic process of restoration succession in degraded alpine meadow that had been disturbed by plateau zokors in the eastern Tibetan Plateau, we examined soil nutrients and microbial functional diversity using conventional laboratory analysis and the Biolog-ECO microplate method. Our study showed that: 1) The zokors disturbance significantly reduced soil organic matter, total nitrogen, available nitrogen and phosphorus contents, but had no significant effects on soil total phosphorus and potassium contents; 2) Soil microbial carbon utilization efficiency, values of Shannon, Pielou and McIntosh indexes increased with alpine meadow restoration years; 3) Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that carbohydrates and amino acids were the main carbon sources for maintaining soil microbial community; 4) Redundancy analysis ( RDA) indicated that soil pH, soil organic matter, total nitrogen, available nitrogen, and total potassium were the main factors influencing the metabolic rate of soil microbial community and microbial functional diversity. In summary, variations in soil microbial functional diversity at different recovery stages reflected the microbial response to aboveground vegetation, soil microbial composition and soil nutrients.

  16. Four of the six Drosophila rhodopsin-expressing photoreceptors can mediate circadian entrainment in low light.

    PubMed

    Saint-Charles, Alexandra; Michard-Vanhée, Christine; Alejevski, Faredin; Chélot, Elisabeth; Boivin, Antoine; Rouyer, François

    2016-10-01

    Light is the major stimulus for the synchronization of circadian clocks with day-night cycles. The light-driven entrainment of the clock that controls rest-activity rhythms in Drosophila relies on different photoreceptive molecules. Cryptochrome (CRY) is expressed in most brain clock neurons, whereas six different rhodopsins (RH) are present in the light-sensing organs. The compound eye includes outer photoreceptors that express RH1 and inner photoreceptors that each express one of the four rhodopsins RH3-RH6. RH6 is also expressed in the extraretinal Hofbauer-Buchner eyelet, whereas RH2 is only found in the ocelli. In low light, the synchronization of behavioral rhythms relies on either CRY or the canonical rhodopsin phototransduction pathway, which requires the phospholipase C-β encoded by norpA (no receptor potential A). We used norpA(P24) cry(02) double mutants that are circadianly blind in low light and restored NORPA function in each of the six types of photoreceptors, defined as expressing a particular rhodopsin. We first show that the NORPA pathway is less efficient than CRY for synchronizing rest-activity rhythms with delayed light-dark cycles but is important for proper phasing, whereas the two light-sensing pathways can mediate efficient adjustments to phase advances. Four of the six rhodopsin-expressing photoreceptors can mediate circadian entrainment, and all are more efficient for advancing than for delaying the behavioral clock. In contrast, neither RH5-expressing retinal photoreceptors nor RH2-expressing ocellar photoreceptors are sufficient to mediate synchronization through the NORPA pathway. Our results thus reveal different contributions of rhodopsin-expressing photoreceptors and suggest the existence of several circuits for rhodopsin-dependent circadian entrainment. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:2828-2844, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Evidence from Chlamydomonas on the photoactivation of rhodopsins without isomerization of their chromophore

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Kenneth W.; Saranak, Jureepan; Krane, Sonja; Johnson, Randy L.; Nakanishi, Koji

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Attachment of retinal to opsin forms the chromophore N-retinylidene which isomerizes during photoactivation of rhodopsins. To test whether isomerization is crucial, custom-tailored chromophores lacking the β-ionone ring and any isomerizable bonds were incorporated in vivo into the opsin of a blind mutant of the eukaryote Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The analogues restored phototaxis with the anticipated action spectra, ruling out the need for isomerization in photoactivation. To further elucidate photoactivation, responses to chromophores formed from naphthalene aldehydes were studied. The resulting action spectral shifts suggest that charge separation within the excited chromophore leads to electric field induced polarization of nearby amino-acid residues and altered hydrogen bonding. This redistribution of charge faciliates the reported multiple bond rotations and protein rearrangements of rhodopsin activation. These results provide new insight into the activation of rhodopsins and related GPCRs. PMID:21700209

  18. A Pilot-scale Benthic Microbial Electrochemical System (BMES) for Enhanced Organic Removal in Sediment Restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Henan; Tian, Yan; Qu, Youpeng; Qiu, Ye; Liu, Jia; Feng, Yujie

    2017-01-01

    A benthic microbial electrochemical systems (BMES) of 195 L (120 cm long, 25 cm wide and 65 cm height) was constructed for sediment organic removal. Sediment from a natural river (Ashi River) was used as test sediments in the present research. Three-dimensional anode (Tri-DSA) with honeycomb structure composed of carbon cloth and supporting skeleton was employed in this research for the first time. The results demonstrated that BMES performed good in organic-matter degradation and energy generation from sediment and could be considered for river sediments in situ restoration as novel method. Community analysis from the soil and anode using 16S rDNA gene sequencing showed that more electrogenic functional bacteria was accumulated in anode area when circuit connected than control system.

  19. A Pilot-scale Benthic Microbial Electrochemical System (BMES) for Enhanced Organic Removal in Sediment Restoration

    PubMed Central

    Li, Henan; Tian, Yan; Qu, Youpeng; Qiu, Ye; Liu, Jia; Feng, Yujie

    2017-01-01

    A benthic microbial electrochemical systems (BMES) of 195 L (120 cm long, 25 cm wide and 65 cm height) was constructed for sediment organic removal. Sediment from a natural river (Ashi River) was used as test sediments in the present research. Three-dimensional anode (Tri-DSA) with honeycomb structure composed of carbon cloth and supporting skeleton was employed in this research for the first time. The results demonstrated that BMES performed good in organic-matter degradation and energy generation from sediment and could be considered for river sediments in situ restoration as novel method. Community analysis from the soil and anode using 16S rDNA gene sequencing showed that more electrogenic functional bacteria was accumulated in anode area when circuit connected than control system. PMID:28059105

  20. Characterization of an Unconventional Rhodopsin from the Freshwater Actinobacterium Rhodoluna lacicola

    PubMed Central

    Keffer, J. L.; Hahn, M. W.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Rhodopsin-encoding microorganisms are common in many environments. However, knowing that rhodopsin genes are present provides little insight into how the host cells utilize light. The genome of the freshwater actinobacterium Rhodoluna lacicola encodes a rhodopsin of the uncharacterized actinorhodopsin family. We hypothesized that actinorhodopsin was a light-activated proton pump and confirmed this by heterologously expressing R. lacicola actinorhodopsin in retinal-producing Escherichia coli. However, cultures of R. lacicola did not pump protons, even though actinorhodopsin mRNA and protein were both detected. Proton pumping in R. lacicola was induced by providing exogenous retinal, suggesting that the cells lacked the retinal cofactor. We used high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and oxidation of accessory pigments to confirm that R. lacicola does not synthesize retinal. These results suggest that in some organisms, the actinorhodopsin gene is constitutively expressed, but rhodopsin-based light capture may require cofactors obtained from the environment. IMPORTANCE Up to 70% of microbial genomes in some environments are predicted to encode rhodopsins. Because most microbial rhodopsins are light-activated proton pumps, the prevalence of this gene suggests that in some environments, most microorganisms respond to or utilize light energy. Actinorhodopsins were discovered in an analysis of freshwater metagenomic data and subsequently identified in freshwater actinobacterial cultures. We hypothesized that actinorhodopsin from the freshwater actinobacterium Rhodoluna lacicola was a light-activated proton pump and confirmed this by expressing actinorhodopsin in retinal-producing Escherichia coli. Proton pumping in R. lacicola was induced only after both light and retinal were provided, suggesting that the cells lacked the retinal cofactor. These results indicate that photoheterotrophy in this organism and others may require cofactors obtained from the

  1. EVALUATION OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF RIPARIAN ZONE RESTORATION IN THE SOUTHERN APPALACHIANS BY ASSESSING SOIL MICROBIAL POPULATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microbial biomass, nitrifiers and denitrifiers in surface soil (0?10 cm) were quantified in a riparian zone restoration project at Coweeta, North Carolina, USA. Four treatments are included in this study: (1) a degraded (+N) riparian zone with continued compaction, vegetation rem...

  2. Site History and Edaphic Features Override the Influence of Plant Species on Microbial Communities in Restored Tidal Freshwater Wetlands

    PubMed Central

    Prasse, Christine E.; Baldwin, Andrew H.

    2015-01-01

    Restored wetland soils differ significantly in physical and chemical properties from their natural counterparts even when plant community compositions are similar, but effects of restoration on microbial community composition and function are not well understood. Here, we investigate plant-microbe relationships in restored and natural tidal freshwater wetlands from two subestuaries of the Chesapeake Bay. Soil samples were collected from the root zone of Typha latifolia, Phragmites australis, Peltandra virginica, and Lythrum salicaria. Soil microbial composition was assessed using 454 pyrosequencing, and genes representing bacteria, archaea, denitrification, methanogenesis, and methane oxidation were quantified. Our analysis revealed variation in some functional gene copy numbers between plant species within sites, but intersite comparisons did not reveal consistent plant-microbe trends. We observed more microbial variations between plant species in natural wetlands, where plants have been established for a long period of time. In the largest natural wetland site, sequences putatively matching methanogens accounted for ∼17% of all sequences, and the same wetland had the highest numbers of genes coding for methane coenzyme A reductase (mcrA). Sequences putatively matching aerobic methanotrophic bacteria and anaerobic methane-oxidizing archaea (ANME) were detected in all sites, suggesting that both aerobic and anaerobic methane oxidation are possible in these systems. Our data suggest that site history and edaphic features override the influence of plant species on microbial communities in restored wetlands. PMID:25769832

  3. Site history and edaphic features override the influence of plant species on microbial communities in restored tidal freshwater wetlands.

    PubMed

    Prasse, Christine E; Baldwin, Andrew H; Yarwood, Stephanie A

    2015-05-15

    Restored wetland soils differ significantly in physical and chemical properties from their natural counterparts even when plant community compositions are similar, but effects of restoration on microbial community composition and function are not well understood. Here, we investigate plant-microbe relationships in restored and natural tidal freshwater wetlands from two subestuaries of the Chesapeake Bay. Soil samples were collected from the root zone of Typha latifolia, Phragmites australis, Peltandra virginica, and Lythrum salicaria. Soil microbial composition was assessed using 454 pyrosequencing, and genes representing bacteria, archaea, denitrification, methanogenesis, and methane oxidation were quantified. Our analysis revealed variation in some functional gene copy numbers between plant species within sites, but intersite comparisons did not reveal consistent plant-microbe trends. We observed more microbial variations between plant species in natural wetlands, where plants have been established for a long period of time. In the largest natural wetland site, sequences putatively matching methanogens accounted for ∼17% of all sequences, and the same wetland had the highest numbers of genes coding for methane coenzyme A reductase (mcrA). Sequences putatively matching aerobic methanotrophic bacteria and anaerobic methane-oxidizing archaea (ANME) were detected in all sites, suggesting that both aerobic and anaerobic methane oxidation are possible in these systems. Our data suggest that site history and edaphic features override the influence of plant species on microbial communities in restored wetlands.

  4. Microbial Communities as Environmental Indicators of Ecological Disturbance in Restored Carbonate Fen-Results of 10 Years of Studies.

    PubMed

    Mieczan, Tomasz; Tarkowska-Kukuryk, Monika

    2017-03-06

    Interactions between bacteria and protists are essential to the ecosystem ecology of fens. Until now, however, there has been almost no information on how restoration procedures in carbonate fens affect the functioning of microbial food webs. Changes in vegetation patterns resulting from restoration may take years to be observed, whereas microbial processes display effects even after short-term exposure to changes in environmental conditions caused by restoration. Therefore, microbial processes and patterns can be used as sensitive indicators of changes in environmental conditions. The present study attempts to verify the hypothesis that the species richness and abundance of microbial loop components would differ substantially before and after restoration. The effect of restoration processes on the functioning of the food web was investigated for a 10 years in a carbonate-rich fen, before and after restoration. The restoration procedure (particularly the improvement in hydrological conditions) distinctly modified the taxonomic composition and functioning of microbial food webs. This is reflected in the increased abundance and diversity of testate amoeba, i.e. top predators, within the microbial food web and in the pronounced increase in the abundance of bacteria. This study suggests potential use of microbial loop components as bio-indicators and bio-monitoring tools for hydrological status of fens and concentrations of nutrients. Better understanding of what regulates microbial populations and activity in fens and unravelling of these fundamental mechanisms are particularly critical in order to more accurately predict how fens will respond to global change or anthropogenic disturbances.

  5. Fluorescence spectroscopy of rhodopsins: Insights and approaches

    PubMed Central

    Alexiev, Ulrike; Farrens, David L.

    2014-01-01

    Fluorescence spectroscopy has become an established tool at the interface of biology, chemistry and physics because of its exquisite sensitivity and recent technical advancements. However, rhodopsin proteins present the fluorescence spectroscopist with a unique set of challenges and opportunities due to the presence of the light-sensitive retinal chromophore. This review briefly summarizes some approaches that have successfully met these challenges and the novel insights they have yielded about rhodopsin structure and function. We start with a brief overview of fluorescence fundamentals and experimental methodologies, followed by more specific discussions of technical challenges rhodopsin proteins present to fluorescence studies. Finally, we end by discussing some of the unique insights that have been gained specifically about visual rhodopsin and its interactions with affiliate proteins through the use of fluorescence spectroscopy. PMID:24183695

  6. Structural elements of the signal propagation pathway in squid rhodopsin and bovine rhodopsin.

    PubMed

    Sugihara, Minoru; Fujibuchi, Wataru; Suwa, Makiko

    2011-05-19

    Squid and bovine rhodopsins are G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) that activate Gq- and Gt-type G-proteins, respectively. To understand the structural elements of the signal propagation pathway, we performed molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of squid and bovine rhodopsins plus a detailed sequence analysis of class A GPCRs. The computations indicate that although the geometry of the retinal is similar in bovine and squid rhodopsins, the important interhelical hydrogen bond networks are different. In squid rhodopsin, an extended hydrogen bond network that spans ∼13 Å to Tyr315 on the cytoplasmic site is present regardless of the protonation state of Asp80. In contrast, the extended hydrogen bond network is interrupted at Tyr306 in bovine rhodopsin. Those differences in the hydrogen bond network may play significant functional roles in the signal propagation from the retinal binding site to the cytoplasmic site, including transmembrane helix (TM) 6 to which the G-protein binds. The MD calculations demonstrate that the elongated conformation of TM6 in squid rhodopsin is stabilized by salt bridges formed with helix (H) 9. Together with the interhelical hydrogen bonds, the salt bridges between TM6 and H9 stabilize the protein conformation of squid rhodopsin and may hinder the occurrence of large conformational changes that are observed upon activation of bovine rhodopsin.

  7. Effects of organic amendments and mulches on soil microbial communities in quarry restoration under semiarid climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luna Ramos, Lourdes; Pastorelli, Roberta; Miralles Mellado, Isabel; Fabiani, Arturo; Bastida López, Felipe; Hernández Fernández, María Teresa; García Izquierdo, Carlos; Solé Benet, Albert

    2015-04-01

    Mining activities generate loss of the quality of the environment and landscape specially in arid and semiarid Mediterranean regions. A precondition for ecosystem reclamation in such highly disturbed mining areas is the development of functional soils with appropriate levels of organic matter. In an experimental soil restoration in limestone quarries from Sierra de Gádor (Almería), SE Spain, 9 plots 15 x 5 m were prepared to test organic amendments (compost from solid urban residues-DOW-, sludge from urban water treatment-SS-, control-NA-) and different mulches (fine gravel-GM-, wood chips-WM-, control-NM-) with the aim to improve soil/substrate properties and to reduce evaporation and erosion. In each experimental plot, 75 native plants (Macrochloa tenacissima, Anthyllis terniflora and Anthyllis cytisoides) were planted. After 5 years from the start of the experiment, we evaluated how microbial community composition responded to the organic amendments and mulches. Microbial community composition of both bacteria and fungi was determined by phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) and polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) fingerprinting. The results of the two-way ANOVA showed that PLFAs were significantly affected by organic amendments but not by the mulches or interaction of both factors. Experimental plots with DOW showed significantly higher level of fungal PLFAs than those with SS and NA, even higher than the reference undisturbed soil. However, any plot with organic amendments did not reach the content of bacterial PLFAs of the reference soils. The bacterial diversity (evaluated by diversity indices calculated from DGGE profiles) was greater in soil samples taken under NA and GM. Comparing these indices in fungal DGGE, we found greater values for soil samples taken under DOW and without mulches. Results from UPGMA analysis showed significant differences in the structure of soil bacterial communities from the different treatments

  8. Changes in microbial activity of soils during the natural restoration of abandoned lands in central Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ovsepyan, Lilit; Mostovaya, Anna; Lopes de Gerenyu, Valentin; Kurganova, Irina

    2015-04-01

    Most changes in land use affect significantly the amount of soil organic carbon (SOC) and alter the nutrition status of soil microbial community. The arable lands withdrawal induced usually the carbon sequestration in soil, the significant shifts in quality of soil organic matter and structure of microbial community. This study was aimed to determine the microbial activity of the abandoned lands in Central Russia due to the process of natural self-restoration. For the study, two representative chronosequences were selected in Central Russia: (1) deciduous forest area, DFA (Moscow region, 54o49N'; 37o34'E; Haplic Luvisols) and (2) forest steppe area, FSA (Belgorod region 50o36'N, 36o01'E Luvic Phaeozems). Each chronosequence included current arable, abandoned lands of different age, and forest plots. The total soil organic carbon (Corg, automatic CHNS analyzer), carbon immobilized in microbial biomass (Cmic, SIR method), and respiratory activity (RA) were determined in the topsoil (0-5, 5-10, 10-20 and 20-30 cm layers) for each plots. Relationships between Corg, Cmic, and RA were determined by liner regression method. Our results showed that the conversion of croplands to the permanent forest induced the progressive accumulation Corg, Cmic and acceleration of RA in the top 10-cm layer for both chronosequences. Carbon stock increased from 24.1 Mg C ha-1 in arable to 45.3 Mg C ha-1 in forest soil (Luvic Phaeozems, Belgorod region). In Haplic Luvisols (Moscow region), SOC build up was 2 time less: from 13.5 Mg C ha-1 in arable to 27.9 Mg C ha-1 in secondary forest. During post-agrogenic evolution, Cmic also increased significantly: from 0.34 to 1.43 g C kg-1 soil in Belgorod region and from 0.34 to 0.64 g C kg-1 soil in Moscow region. RA values varied widely in soils studied: from 0.54-0.63 mg C kg-1h-1 in arable plots to 2.02-3.4 mg C kg-1h-1 in forest ones. The close correlations between Cmic, RA and Corg in the top 0-5cm layer (R2 = 0.81-0.90; P<0.01-0.05) were

  9. Electrophysiological study of Drosophila rhodopsin mutants

    PubMed Central

    1986-01-01

    Electrophysiological investigations were carried out on several independently isolated mutants of the ninaE gene, which encodes opsin in R1-6 photoreceptors, and a mutant of the ninaD gene, which is probably important in the formation of the rhodopsin chromophore. In these mutants, the rhodopsin content in R1-6 photoreceptors is reduced by 10(2)-10(6)-fold. Light-induced bumps recorded from even the most severely affected mutants are physiologically normal. Moreover, a detailed noise analysis shows that photoreceptor responses of both a ninaE mutant and a ninaD mutant follow the adapting bump model. Since any extensive rhodopsin-rhodopsin interactions are not likely in these mutants, the above results suggest that such interactions are not needed for the generation and adaptation of light-induced bumps. Mutant bumps are strikingly larger in amplitude than wild-type bumps. This difference is observed both in ninaD and ninaE mutants, which suggests that it is due to severe depletion of rhodopsin content, rather than to any specific alterations in the opsin protein. Lowering or buffering the intracellular calcium concentration by EGTA injection mimics the effects of the mutations on the bump amplitude, but, unlike the mutations, it also affects the latency and kinetics of light responses. PMID:3097245

  10. FTIR difference and resonance Raman spectroscopy of rhodopsins with applications to optogenetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saint Clair, Erica C.

    or absent. Structural changes of internal water molecules and possible bands associated with the interaction with beta-arrestins were also detected in photoactivated squid rhodopsin when transformed to the acid Meta intermediate. Near-IR confocal resonance Raman measurements were performed both on AR3 reconstituted into E. coli polar lipids and in vivo in E. coli expressing AR3 in the absence and presence of a negative transmembrane potential. On the basis of these measurements, a model is proposed which provides a possible explanation for the observed fluorescence dependence of AR3 and other microbial rhodopsins on transmembrane potential.

  11. Microbial Biomass and Activity in Geomorphic Features in Forested and Urban Restored and Degraded Streams

    EPA Science Inventory

    Geomorphic spatial heterogeneity affects sediment denitrification, an anaerobic microbial process that results in the loss of nitrogen (N), and other anaerobic microbial processes such as methanogenesis in urban streams. We measured sediment denitrification potential (DEA), metha...

  12. Dark regeneration of rhodopsin in crayfish photoreceptors

    PubMed Central

    1984-01-01

    The eyes of crayfish were exposed to lights of known spectral composition, and the course of regeneration was followed in the dark by measuring the content of rhodopsin and metarhodopsin in single rhabdoms isolated at various times after the adaptation, using an assay that is based on the fluorescence of metarhodopsin. Complete recovery requires several days in the dark after intense adaptation to orange light, but requires less than 2 d after blue light exposure. Following an orange light exposure with blue produces recovery kinetics characteristic of the blue light exposure alone. This quickening of recovery occurs whether the receptors are exposed to blue light either immediately or many hours after the original exposure to orange. Conversely, following blue light adaptation with orange leads to slow recovery, which is characteristic of orange alone. Recovery from long-wavelength adaptation is slower principally because many rhabdoms seem to delay the onset of regeneration. We suggest that the regeneration system is itself photosensitive, and after orange light adaptation the supply of active chromophore (presumably 11-cis retinal) limits the rate of recovery. Once started, recovery proceeds slowly and continuously, and the total pigment concentration (rhodopsin plus metarhodopsin) in the rhabdomeric membrane remains approximately constant. Within hours after intense adapting exposures, the rhabdoms become altered in appearance, the surfaces become coated with accessory pigment, and the bands of microvilli are less distinct. These changes persist until recovery of rhodopsin proceeds, which suggests that visual pigment regeneration results from addition of newly synthesized rhodopsin associated with membrane turn-over. PMID:6747600

  13. The rhodopsins: structure and function. Introduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lanyi, J. K.

    1992-01-01

    Nature makes use of the propensity of retinal for light-dependent double-bond isomerization in a number of systems and in a variety of ways. The common theme for light receptors based on this kind of chemistry is that (1) the retinal is bound in most cases to a small membrane protein via a protonated lysine-retinal Schiff base, (2) the absorption maximum in the visible is tuned to a suitable wavelength largely by electrostatic interaction with polar protein residues, and (3) the light-induced bond rotations and strains in the retinal set off reaction chains during which at least part of the excess free energy acquired is transferred to the protein and causes pK shifts of acidic residues and/or backbone conformational changes. The physiological consequence of the process initiated by absorption of light is either the activation of an information transfer chain (sensory and visual rhodopsins) or energy transduction which drives the electrogenic movement of ions across the membrane (ion-motive rhodopsins). Rhodopsins with these functions occur in bacteria and in higher organisms; from an evolutionary standpoint they are not related to one another. Nevertheless, all of these proteins are remarkably similar and form a distinct family.

  14. Photochemistry of Acetabularia rhodopsin II from a marine plant, Acetabularia acetabulum.

    PubMed

    Kikukawa, Takashi; Shimono, Kazumi; Tamogami, Jun; Miyauchi, Seiji; Kim, So Young; Kimura-Someya, Tomomi; Shirouzu, Mikako; Jung, Kwang-Hwan; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki; Kamo, Naoki

    2011-10-18

    Acetabularia rhodopsins are the first microbial rhodopsins discovered in a marine plant organism, Acetabularia acetabulum. Previously, we expressed Acetabularia rhodopsin II (ARII) by a cell-free system from one of two opsin genes in A. acetabulum cDNA and showed that ARII is a light-driven proton pump [Wada, T., et al. (2011) J. Mol. Biol. 411, 986-998]. In this study, the photochemistry of ARII was examined using the flash-photolysis technique, and data were analyzed using a sequential irreversible model. Five photochemically defined intermediates (P(i)) were sufficient to simulate the data. Noticeably, both P(3) and P(4) contain an equilibrium mixture of M, N, and O. Using a transparent indium tin oxide electrode, the photoinduced proton transfer was measured over a wide pH range. Analysis of the pH-dependent proton transfer allowed estimation of the pK(a) values of some amino acid residues. The estimated values were 2.6, 5.9 (or 6.3), 8.4, 9.3, 10.5, and 11.3. These values were assigned as the pK(a) of Asp81 (Asp85(BR)) in the dark, Asp92 (Asp96(BR)) at N, Glu199 (Glu204(BR)) at M, Glu199 in the dark, an undetermined proton-releasing residue at the release, and the pH to start denaturation, respectively. Following this analysis, the proton transfer of ARII is discussed.

  15. Crystallographic Study of the LUMI Intermediate of Squid Rhodopsin.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Midori; Kouyama, Tsutomu

    2015-01-01

    Upon absorption of light, the retinal chromophore in rhodopsin isomerizes from the 11-cis to the trans configuration, initiating a photoreaction cycle. The primary photoreaction state, bathorhodopsin (BATHO), relaxes thermally through lumirhodopsin (LUMI) into a photoactive state, metarhodopsin (META), which stimulates the conjugated G-protein. Previous crystallographic studies of squid and bovine rhodopsins have shown that the structural change in the primary photoreaction of squid rhodopsin is considerably different from that observed in bovine rhodopsin. It would be expected that there is a fundamental difference in the subsequent thermal relaxation process between vertebrate and invertebrate rhodopsins. In this work, we performed crystallographic analyses of the LUMI state of squid rhodopsin using the P62 crystal. When the crystal was illuminated at 100 K with blue light, a half fraction of the protein was converted into BATHO. This reaction state relaxed into LUMI when the illuminated crystal was warmed in the dark to 170 K. It was found that, whereas trans retinal is largely twisted in BATHO, it takes on a more planar configuration in LUMI. This relaxation of retinal is accompanied by reorientation of the Schiff base NH bond, the hydrogen-bonding partner of which is switched to Asn185 in LUMI. Unlike bovine rhodopsin, the BATHO-to-LUMI transition in squid rhodopsin was accompanied by no significant change in the position/orientation of the beta-ionone ring of retinal.

  16. Characterizing rhodopsin signaling by EPR spectroscopy: from structure to dynamics.

    PubMed

    Van Eps, Ned; Caro, Lydia N; Morizumi, Takefumi; Ernst, Oliver P

    2015-09-26

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, together with spin labeling techniques, has played a major role in the characterization of rhodopsin, the photoreceptor protein and G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) in rod cells. Two decades ago, these biophysical tools were the first to identify transmembrane helical movements in rhodopsin upon photo-activation, a critical step in the study of GPCR signaling. EPR methods were employed to identify functional loop dynamics within rhodopsin, to measure light-induced millisecond timescale changes in rhodopsin conformation, to characterize the effects of partial agonists on the apoprotein opsin, and to study lipid interactions with rhodopsin. With the emergence of advanced pulsed EPR techniques, the stage was set to determine the amplitude of structural changes in rhodopsin and the dynamics in the rhodopsin signaling complexes. Work in this area has yielded invaluable information about mechanistic properties of GPCRs. Using EPR techniques, receptors are studied in native-like membrane environments and the effects of lipids on conformational equilibria can be explored. This perspective addresses the impact of EPR methods on rhodopsin and GPCR structural biology, highlighting historical discoveries made with spin labeling techniques, and outlining exciting new directions in the field.

  17. The influence of salinity and restoration on wetland soil microbial communities and carbon cycling in the San Francisco Bay-Delta Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theroux, S.; Hartman, W.; He, S.; Windham-Myers, L.; Tringe, S. G.

    2014-12-01

    Climate change is predicted to increase the average salinity of the San Francisco Bay-Delta watershed as sea levels rise and alpine snow volume decreases. Wetland soil microbial communities are responsible for cycling greenhouse gases and their response to climate change will heavily influence whether increasing salinity will have a negative or positive effect on the net greenhouse gas budgets of wetlands. To better understand the underlying factors determining the balance of greenhouse gas flux in wetland soils, we targeted the microbial communities along a salinity gradient ranging from freshwater to full seawater in the San Francisco Bay-Delta region. Using DNA and RNA sequencing, coupled with greenhouse gas monitoring, we sampled sixteen sites capturing a range of wetland plant types and restoration states. We determined a suite of soil biogeochemical parameters including moisture, carbon and nutrient contents, pH, sulfate, chloride, and trace metal concentrations. The results of our microbial diversity survey (16S rRNA gene Illumina tag sequencing) showed that salinity and sampling location were the primary drivers of belowground microbial community composition. Freshwater wetland soils, with lower sulfate concentrations, produced more methane than saline sites and we found a parallel increase in the relative abundance of methanogen populations in the high-methane samples. Surprisingly, wetland restoration status did not significantly alter microbial community composition, despite orders of magnitude greater methane flux in restored wetlands compared to reference sites. Deeper metagenomic and metatranscriptomic sequencing in a restored wetland allowed us to further evaluate the roles of methanogen abundance and activity in shaping soil methane production. Our study links belowground microbial communities with their greenhouse gas production, providing a mechanistic microbial framework for assessing climate change feedbacks in wetland soils resulting from sea

  18. Free backbone carbonyls mediate rhodopsin activation

    PubMed Central

    Kimata, Naoki; Pope, Andreyah; Sanchez-Reyes, Omar B.; Eilers, Markus; Opefi, Chikwado A.; Ziliox, Martine; Reeves, Philip J.; Smith, Steven O.

    2016-01-01

    Conserved prolines in the transmembrane helices of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are often considered to function as hinges that divide the helix into two segments capable of independent motion. Depending on their potential to hydrogen-bond, the free C=O groups associated with these prolines can facilitate conformational flexibility, conformational switching or stabilize receptor structure. To address the role of conserved prolines in family A GPCRs, we focus on bovine rhodopsin, a GPCR in the visual receptor subfamily, using solid-state NMR spectroscopy. The free backbone C=O groups on helices H5 and H7 are found to stabilize the inactive rhodopsin structure through hydrogen-bonds to residues on adjacent helices. In response to light-induced isomerization of the retinal chromophore, hydrogen-bonding interactions involving these C=O groups are released facilitating H5 and H7 repacking onto the transmembrane core of the receptor. These results provide insights into the multiple structural and functional roles prolines play in membrane proteins. PMID:27376589

  19. Archaebacterial rhodopsin sequences: Implications for evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lanyi, J. K.

    1991-01-01

    It was proposed over 10 years ago that the archaebacteria represent a separate kingdom which diverged very early from the eubacteria and eukaryotes. It follows that investigations of archaebacterial characteristics might reveal features of early evolution. So far, two genes, one for bacteriorhodopsin and another for halorhodopsin, both from Halobacterium halobium, have been sequenced. We cloned and sequenced the gene coding for the polypeptide of another one of these rhodopsins, a halorhodopsin in Natronobacterium pharaonis. Peptide sequencing of cyanogen bromide fragments, and immuno-reactions of the protein and synthetic peptides derived from the C-terminal gene sequence, confirmed that the open reading frame was the structural gene for the pharaonis halorhodopsin polypeptide. The flanking DNA sequences of this gene, as well as those of other bacterial rhodopsins, were compared to previously proposed archaebacterial consensus sequences. In pairwise comparisons of the open reading frame with DNA sequences for bacterio-opsin and halo-opsin from Halobacterium halobium, silent divergences were calculated. These indicate very considerable evolutionary distance between each pair of genes, even in the dame organism. In spite of this, three protein sequences show extensive similarities, indicating strong selective pressures.

  20. Directed evolution of a far-red fluorescent rhodopsin

    PubMed Central

    McIsaac, R. Scott; Engqvist, Martin K. M.; Wannier, Timothy; Rosenthal, Adam Z.; Herwig, Lukas; Flytzanis, Nicholas C.; Imasheva, Eleonora S.; Lanyi, Janos K.; Balashov, Sergei P.; Gradinaru, Viviana; Arnold, Frances H.

    2014-01-01

    Microbial rhodopsins are a diverse group of photoactive transmembrane proteins found in all three domains of life. A member of this protein family, Archaerhodopsin-3 (Arch) of halobacterium Halorubrum sodomense, was recently shown to function as a fluorescent indicator of membrane potential when expressed in mammalian neurons. Arch fluorescence, however, is very dim and is not optimal for applications in live-cell imaging. We used directed evolution to identify mutations that dramatically improve the absolute brightness of Arch, as confirmed biochemically and with live-cell imaging (in Escherichia coli and human embryonic kidney 293 cells). In some fluorescent Arch variants, the pKa of the protonated Schiff-base linkage to retinal is near neutral pH, a useful feature for voltage-sensing applications. These bright Arch variants enable labeling of biological membranes in the far-red/infrared and exhibit the furthest red-shifted fluorescence emission thus far reported for a fluorescent protein (maximal excitation/emission at ∼620 nm/730 nm). PMID:25157169

  1. Carbon Cycling in Restored Wisconsin Grasslands: Examining Linkages Between Plant Diversity, Microbial Communities and Ecosystem Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahill, K. N.; Kucharik, C. J.; Balser, T. C.; Foley, J. A.

    2002-12-01

    It is important to characterize the variability of carbon (C) fluxes and stocks and the relationship between biotic and abiotic factors and C sequestration, a proposed strategy to help mitigate climate change. An observation site to study C cycling was established on land enrolled in the USDA Conservation Reserve Program in southwestern Wisconsin in spring 2002 on silt-loam soil. The site was converted from intensive row-crop agriculture in 1987 to three adjacent land cover types: an assortment of native C4 grasses, two C3 grasses and a nitrogen-fixer, and a disk planted, no-tillage food plot rotation of maize and soybeans. Key goals of the study were to characterize the effect of plant species composition and microbial community characteristics on carbon cycling in an attempt to link above- and below-ground processes. Measurements of soil surface CO2 efflux were made on a near-weekly basis during the growing season using a LICOR-6400, concurrently with soil surface moisture adjacent to the CO2 collars. Thermocouples were installed to record hourly average air temperature and soil temperature at 5 depths, from 2 to 70 cm, and water content sensors made hourly average measurements at 15 and 30 cm. Leaf area index measurements were made weekly, aboveground vegetation biomass was collected monthly, and belowground root biomass was collected bimonthly. Monthly microbial measurements included an assessment of community physiological profiles using BiOLOG, and assays of community composition (lipid analysis) and activity. Preliminary results suggest that land cover types significantly altered carbon cycling and microbial community structure and function, leading to different rates of C sequestration.

  2. Partial restoration of the microbiota of cesarean-born infants via vaginal microbial transfer.

    PubMed

    Dominguez-Bello, Maria G; De Jesus-Laboy, Kassandra M; Shen, Nan; Cox, Laura M; Amir, Amnon; Gonzalez, Antonio; Bokulich, Nicholas A; Song, Se Jin; Hoashi, Marina; Rivera-Vinas, Juana I; Mendez, Keimari; Knight, Rob; Clemente, Jose C

    2016-03-01

    Exposure of newborns to the maternal vaginal microbiota is interrupted with cesarean birthing. Babies delivered by cesarean section (C-section) acquire a microbiota that differs from that of vaginally delivered infants, and C-section delivery has been associated with increased risk for immune and metabolic disorders. Here we conducted a pilot study in which infants delivered by C-section were exposed to maternal vaginal fluids at birth. Similarly to vaginally delivered babies, the gut, oral and skin bacterial communities of these newborns during the first 30 d of life was enriched in vaginal bacteria--which were underrepresented in unexposed C-section-delivered infants--and the microbiome similarity to those of vaginally delivered infants was greater in oral and skin samples than in anal samples. Although the long-term health consequences of restoring the microbiota of C-section-delivered infants remain unclear, our results demonstrate that vaginal microbes can be partially restored at birth in C-section-delivered babies.

  3. Lateral diffusion of rhodopsin in photoreceptor membrane: a reappraisal

    PubMed Central

    Korenyak, Darya A.; Shukolyukov, Sergei A.; Zueva, Lidia V.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose In a series of works between 1972 and 1984, it was established that rhodopsin undergoes rotational and lateral Brownian motion in the plane of photoreceptor membrane. The concept of free movement of proteins of phototransduction cascade is an essential principle of the present scheme of vertebrate phototransduction. This has recently been challenged by findings that show that in certain conditions rhodopsin in the membrane may be dimeric and form extended areas of paracrystalline organization. Such organization seems incompatible with earlier data on free rhodopsin diffusion. Thus we decided to reinvestigate lateral diffusion of rhodopsin and products of its photolysis in photoreceptor membrane specifically looking for indications of possible oligomeric organization. Methods Diffusion exchange by rhodopsin and its photoproducts between bleached and unbleached halves of rod outer segment was traced using high-speed dichroic microspectrophotometer. Measurements were conducted on amphibian (frog, toad, and salamander) and gecko rods. Results We found that the curves that are supposed to reflect the process of diffusion equilibration of rhodopsin in nonuniformly bleached outer segment largely show production of long-lived bleaching intermediate, metarhodopsin III (Meta III). After experimental elimination of Meta III contribution, we observed rhodopsin equilibration time constant was threefold to tenfold longer than estimated previously. However, after proper correction for the geometry of rod discs, it translates into generally accepted value of diffusion constant of approximately 5×10−9 cm2 s−1. Yet, we found that there exists an immobile rhodopsin fraction whose size can vary from virtually zero to 100%, depending on poorly defined factors. Controls suggest that the formation of the immobile fraction is not due to fragmentation of rod outer segment discs but supposedly reflects oligomerization of rhodopsin. Conclusions Implications of the new findings

  4. Microbial Nursery Production of High-Quality Biological Soil Crust Biomass for Restoration of Degraded Dryland Soils.

    PubMed

    Velasco Ayuso, Sergio; Giraldo Silva, Ana; Nelson, Corey; Barger, Nichole N; Garcia-Pichel, Ferran

    2017-02-01

    Biological soil crusts (biocrusts) are slow-growing, phototroph-based microbial assemblages that develop on the topsoils of drylands. Biocrusts help maintain soil fertility and reduce erosion. Because their loss through human activities has negative ecological and environmental health consequences, biocrust restoration is of interest. Active soil inoculation with biocrust microorganisms can be an important tool in this endeavor. We present a culture-independent, two-step process to grow multispecies biocrusts in open greenhouse nursery facilities, based on the inoculation of local soils with local biocrust remnants and incubation under seminatural conditions that maintain the essence of the habitat but lessen its harshness. In each of four U.S. Southwest sites, we tested and deployed combinations of factors that maximized growth (gauged as chlorophyll a content) while minimizing microbial community shifts (assessed by 16S rRNA sequencing and bioinformatics), particularly for crust-forming cyanobacteria. Generally, doubling the frequency of natural wetting events, a 60% reduction in sunlight, and inoculation by slurry were optimal. Nutrient addition effects were site specific. In 4 months, our approach yielded crusts of high inoculum quality reared on local soil exposed to locally matched climates, acclimated to desiccation, and containing communities minimally shifted in composition from local ones. Our inoculum contained abundant crust-forming cyanobacteria and no significant numbers of allochthonous phototrophs, and it was sufficient to treat ca. 6,000 m(2) of degraded dryland soils at 1 to 5% of the typical crust biomass concentration, having started from a natural crust remnant as small as 6 to 30 cm(2) IMPORTANCE: Soil surface crusts can protect dryland soils from erosion, but they are often negatively impacted by human activities. Their degradation causes a loss of fertility, increased production of fugitive dust and intensity of dust storms with associated

  5. Incorporating H2 Dynamics and Inhibition into a Microbially Based Methanogenesis Model for Restored Wetland Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, David; Jaffe, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Estimates of global CH4 emissions from wetlands indicate that wetlands are the largest natural source of CH4 to the atmosphere. In this paper, we propose that there is a missing component to these models that should be addressed. CH4 is produced in wetland sediments from the microbial degradation of organic carbon through multiple fermentation steps and methanogenesis pathways. There are multiple sources of carbon for methananogenesis; in vegetated wetland sediments, microbial communities consume root exudates as a major source of organic carbon. In many methane models propionate is used as a model carbon molecule. This simple sugar is fermented into acetate and H2, acetate is transformed to methane and CO2, while the H2 and CO2 are used to form an additional CH4 molecule. The hydrogenotrophic pathway involves the equilibrium of two dissolved gases, CH4 and H2. In an effort to limit CH4 emissions from wetlands, there has been growing interest in finding ways to limit plant transport of soil gases through root systems. Changing planted species, or genetically modifying new species of plants may control this transport of soil gases. While this may decrease the direct emissions of methane, there is little understanding about how H2 dynamics may feedback into overall methane production. The results of an incubation study were combined with a new model of propionate degradation for methanogenesis that also examines other natural parameters (i.e. gas transport through plants). This presentation examines how we would expect this model to behave in a natural field setting with changing sulfate and carbon loading schemes. These changes can be controlled through new plant species and other management practices. Next, we compare the behavior of two variations of this model, with or without the incorporation of H2 interactions, with changing sulfate, carbon loading and root volatilization. Results show that while the models behave similarly there may be a discrepancy of nearly

  6. Efficient femtosecond energy transfer from carotenoid to retinal in gloeobacter rhodopsin-salinixanthin complex.

    PubMed

    Iyer, E Siva Subramaniam; Gdor, Itay; Eliash, Tamar; Sheves, Mordechai; Ruhman, Sanford

    2015-02-12

    The retinal proton pump xanthorhodopsin (XR) was recently found to function with an attached carotenoid light harvesting antenna, salinixanthin (SX). It is intriguing to discover if this departure from single chromophore architecture is singular or if it has been adopted by other microbial rhodopsins. In search of other cases, retinal protein encoding genes in numerous bacteria have been identified containing sequences corresponding to carotenoid binding sites like that in XR. Gloeobacter rhodopsin (GR), exhibiting particularly close homology to XR, has been shown to attach SX, and fluorescence measurements suggest SX can function as a light harvesting (LH) antenna in GR as well. In this study, we test this suggestion in real time using ultrafast transient absorption. Results show that energy transfer indeed occurs from S2 of SX to retinal in the GR-SX composite with an efficiency of ∼40%, even higher than that in XR. This validates the earlier fluorescence study, and supports the notion that many microbial retinal proteins use carotenoid antennae to harvest light.

  7. Voltage imaging in vivo with a new class of rhodopsin-based indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglass, Adam

    2013-03-01

    Reliable, optical detection of single action potentials in an intact brain is one of the longest-standing challenges in neuroscience. We have recently shown that a number of microbial rhodopsins exhibit intrinsic fluorescence that is sensitive to transmembrane potential. One class of indicator, derived from Archaerhodopsin-3 (Arch), responds to voltage transients with a speed and sensitivity that enable near-perfect identification of single action potentials in cultured neurons [Nat Methods. (2011). 9:90-5]. We have extended the use of these indicators to an in vivo context through the application of advanced imaging techniques to the larval zebrafish. Using planar-illumination, spinning-disk confocal, and epifluorescence imaging modalities, we have successfully recorded electrical activity in a variety of fish structures, including the brain and heart, in a completely noninvasive manner. Transgenic lines expressing Arch variants in defined cells enable comprehensive measurements to be made from specific target populations. In parallel, we have also extended the capabilities of our indicators by improving their multiphoton excitability and overall brightness. Microbial rhodopsin-based voltage indicators now enable optical interrogation of complex neural circuits, and electrophysiology in systems for which electrode-based techniques are challenging.

  8. Primary Processes in Photolysis of Octopus Rhodopsin

    PubMed Central

    Ohtani, Hiroyuki; Kobayashi, Takayoshi; Tsuda, Motoyuki; Ebrey, Thomas G.

    1988-01-01

    The photolysis of octopus rhodopsin was studied by picosecond time-resolved spectroscopy at physiological temperature (8°C) and by steady-state spectroscopy at very low temperature (10 K). Both hypsorhodopsin and bathorhodopsin were formed from a bathorhodopsin-like red-shifted intermediate “primerhodopsin,” which was the primary photoproduct with our time resolution (36 ps). Though it was proposed that hypsorhodopsin is formed solely by a multiphoton process, the present results obtained by using blue light pulses (461 nm) of low intensity showed that hypsorhodopsin is formed by a single photon mechanism via thermal decay from primerhodopsin. When the excitation intensity is increased, a channel for the photochemical formation of hypsorhodopsin from primerhodopsin is opened. There are two thermal pathways leading from primerhodopsin. One process is the formation of hypsorhodopsin, which is later thermally converted to bathorhodopsin, and the other is the direct formation of bathorhodopsin from primerhodopsin. The formation efficiencies at room temperature of hypsorhodopsin and bathorhodopsin at very low excitation intensity were estimated to be larger than 0.6 and smaller than 0.4, respectively. The formation of hypsorhodopsin was also found in the early stages of the irradiation of octopus rhodopsin with weak continuous light at 10 K. However bathorhodopsin is formed three times more efficiently than hypsorhodopsin at 10 K. At physiological temperatures the formation of hypsorhodopsin in D2O takes place more slowly than in H2O. This indicates that the lifetime of primerhodopsin is decreased by H2O/D2O exchange. The rate constant for the primerhodopsin → bathorhodopsin conversion is more sensitive than that for the primerhodopsin → hypsorhodopsin conversion. The transformation of hypsorhodopsin to bathorhodopsin shows no deuterium effect at low temperature. PMID:19431715

  9. Vitamin A activates rhodopsin and sensitizes it to ultraviolet light.

    PubMed

    Miyazono, Sadaharu; Isayama, Tomoki; Delori, François C; Makino, Clint L

    2011-11-01

    The visual pigment, rhodopsin, consists of opsin protein with 11-cis retinal chromophore, covalently bound. Light activates rhodopsin by isomerizing the chromophore to the all-trans conformation. The activated rhodopsin sets in motion a biochemical cascade that evokes an electrical response by the photoreceptor. All-trans retinal is eventually released from the opsin and reduced to vitamin A. Rod and cone photoreceptors contain vast amounts of rhodopsin, so after exposure to bright light, the concentration of vitamin A can reach relatively high levels within their outer segments. Since a retinal analog, β-ionone, is capable of activating some types of visual pigments, we tested whether vitamin A might produce a similar effect. In single-cell recordings from isolated dark-adapted salamander green-sensitive rods, exogenously applied vitamin A decreased circulating current and flash sensitivity and accelerated flash response kinetics. These changes resembled those produced by exposure of rods to steady light. Microspectrophotometric measurements showed that vitamin A accumulated in the outer segments and binding of vitamin A to rhodopsin was confirmed in in vitro assays. In addition, vitamin A improved the sensitivity of photoreceptors to ultraviolet (UV) light. Apparently, the energy of a UV photon absorbed by vitamin A transferred by a radiationless process to the 11-cis retinal chromophore of rhodopsin, which subsequently isomerized. Therefore, our results suggest that vitamin A binds to rhodopsin at an allosteric binding site distinct from the chromophore binding pocket for 11-cis retinal to activate the rhodopsin, and that it serves as a sensitizing chromophore for UV light.

  10. Methyl-accepting protein associated with bacterial sensory rhodopsin I.

    PubMed Central

    Spudich, E N; Hasselbacher, C A; Spudich, J L

    1988-01-01

    In vivo radiolabeling of Halobacterium halobium phototaxis mutants and revertants with L-[methyl-3H] methionine implicated seven methyl-accepting protein bands with apparent molecular masses from 65 to 150 kilodaltons (kDa) in adaptation of the organism to chemo and photo stimuli, and one of these (94 kDa) was specifically implicated in phototaxis. The lability of the radiolabeled bands to mild base treatment indicated that the methyl linkages are carboxylmethylesters, as is the case in the eubacterial chemotaxis receptor-transducers. The 94-kDa protein was present in increased amounts in an overproducer of the apoprotein of sensory rhodopsin I, one of two retinal-containing phototaxis receptors in H. halobium. It was absent in a strain that contained sensory rhodopsin II and that lacked sensory rhodopsin I and was also absent in a mutant that lacked both photoreceptors. Based on the role of methyl-accepting proteins in chemotaxis in other bacteria, we suggest that the 94-kDa protein is the signal transducer for sensory rhodopsin I. By [3H]retinal labeling studies, we previously identified a 25-kDa retinal-binding polypeptide that was derived from photochemically reactive sensory rhodopsin I. When H. halobium membranes containing sensory rhodopsin I were treated by a procedure that stably reduced [3H]retinal onto the 25-kDa apoprotein, a 94-kDa protein was also found to be radiolabeled. Protease digestion confirmed that the 94-kDa retinal-labeled protein was the same as the methyl-accepting protein that was suggested above to be the signal transducer for sensory rhodopsin I. Possible models are that the 25- and 94-kDa proteins are tightly interacting components of the photosensory signaling machinery or that both are forms of sensory rhodopsin I. Images PMID:3410829

  11. The molecular basis for the high photosensitivity of rhodopsin.

    PubMed

    Liu, Robert S H; Colmenares, Leticia U

    2003-12-09

    Based on structural information derived from the F NMR data of labeled rhodopsins, rhodopsin crystal structure, and excited-state properties of model polyenes, we propose a molecular mechanism that accounts specifically for the causes of the well-known enhanced photoreactivity of rhodopsin (increased rates and quantum yield of isomerization). It involves the key features of close proximity of C-187 to H-12 and chromophore bond lengthening upon light absorption. The resultant "sudden punch" to H-12 triggers dual processes of decay of the Franck-Condon-excited rhodopsin, a productive directed photoisomerization and a nonproductive decay returning to the ground state as two separate molecular pathways [based on real-time fluorescence results of Chosrowjan, H., Mataga, N., Shibata, Y., Tachibanaki, S., Kandori, H., Shichida, Y., Okada, T. & Kouyama, T. (1998) J. Am. Chem. Soc. 120, 9706-9707]. The two processes are controlled by the local protein structure: an empty space provided by the intradiscal loop connecting transmembrane helices 4 and 5 and a protein wall composed of amino acid units in transmembrane 3. Suggestions, involving retinal analogs and rhodopsin mutants, to improve the unusually high photosensitivity of rhodopsin are proposed.

  12. N-fixing trees in wetland restoration plantings: effects on nitrogensupply and soil microbial communities.

    PubMed

    Chen, XuePing; Yang, JunNa; Zhu, XiE; Liang, Xia; Lei, YanRu; He, ChiQuan

    2016-12-01

    To investigate the impact of an exotic Frankia nodulated tree (Alnus trabeculosa) on soil nitrogen content, soil microbial composition, and the abundance of N turnover-related functional microorganism community, we compared the community structure and abundance of key functional genes (nifH, bacterial/archaeal amoA, and nosZ) in the rhizosphere and nonrhizosphere of monoculture of Phragmites australis and A.trabeculosa-P.australis mixed communities by MiSeq Illumina sequencing and real-time PCR, respectively. The introduction of Frankia nodulated tree to recover degraded wetland was effective in the accumulation of soil organic carbon and nitrogen, which was the key factor to impact on the bacterial community composition revealed by canonical correspondence analysis. Acidobacteria and Proteobacteria were the dominant bacterial phylums while seven rare phyla appeared the most phylogenetically different among the investigated soil of two vegetations, including Chlorobi, Cyanobacteria, OD1, OP11, TM6, TM7, and GN02. The gene copy numbers of nifH were ranged from 2.28 × 10(8) to 2.96 × 10(9) copies g(-1) dry soil in the wetland, and which were significantly higher in soil samples from P. australis than that from A.trabeculosa. While the abundance of nosZ in both rhizosphere and nonrhizosphere soils of A.trabeculosa-P.australis mixed communities was significantly lower compared with P.australis monoculture. The potential nitrification (PNA) (0.15-0.41 mg NOx-N kg(-1) dry soil d(-1)) in the rhizosphere of A. trabeculosa was significantly higher than that of P. australis, and the soil denitrification enzyme activity (DEA) (0.42-0.90 nmol N2O-N g(-1) dry soil h(-1)) was lower in the mixed community compared with monoculture of P. australis. The introduced planting of Frankia nodulated tree effectively accumulated soil organic carbon and nitrogen and reduce the relative abundance and activity of nitrogen-fixing bacteria and denitrification bacteria.

  13. Proton movement and photointermediate kinetics in rhodopsin mutants.

    PubMed

    Lewis, James W; Szundi, Istvan; Kazmi, Manija A; Sakmar, Thomas P; Kliger, David S

    2006-05-02

    The role of ionizable amino acid side chains in the bovine rhodopsin activation mechanism was studied in mutants E134Q, E134R/R135E, H211F, and E122Q. All mutants exhibited bathorhodopsin stability on the 30 ns to 1 micros time scale similar to that of the wild type. Lumirhodopsin decay was also similar to that of the wild type except for the H211F mutant where early decay (20 micros) to a second form of lumirhodopsin was seen, followed by formation of an extremely long-lived Meta I(480) product (34 ms), an intermediate which forms to a much reduced extent, if at all, in dodecyl maltoside suspensions of wild-type rhodopsin. A smaller amount of a similar long-lived Meta I(480) product was seen after photolysis of E122Q, but E134Q and E134R/R135Q displayed kinetics much more similar to those of the wild type under these conditions (i.e., no Meta I(480) product). These results support the idea that specific interaction of His211 and Glu122 plays a significant role in deprotonation of the retinylidene Schiff base and receptor activation. Proton uptake measurements using bromcresol purple showed that E122Q was qualitatively similar to wild-type rhodopsin, with at least one proton being released during lumirhodopsin decay per Meta I(380) intermediate formed, followed by uptake of at least two protons per rhodopsin bleached on a time scale of tens of milliseconds. Different results were obtained for H211F, E134Q, and E134R/R135E, which all released approximately two protons per rhodopsin bleached. These results show that several ionizable groups besides the Schiff base imine are affected by the structural changes involved in rhodopsin activation. At least two proton uptake groups and probably at least one proton release group in addition to the Schiff base are present in rhodopsin.

  14. Legacy effects overwhelm the short-term effects of exotic plant invasion and restoration on soil microbial community structure, enzyme activities, and nitrogen cycling.

    PubMed

    Elgersma, Kenneth J; Ehrenfeld, Joan G; Yu, Shen; Vor, Torsten

    2011-11-01

    Plant invasions can have substantial consequences for the soil ecosystem, altering microbial community structure and nutrient cycling. However, relatively little is known about what drives these changes, making it difficult to predict the effects of future invasions. In addition, because most studies compare soils from uninvaded areas to long-established dense invasions, little is known about the temporal dependence of invasion impacts. We experimentally manipulated forest understory vegetation in replicated sites dominated either by exotic Japanese barberry (Berberis thunbergii), native Viburnums, or native Vacciniums, so that each vegetation type was present in each site-type. We compared the short-term effect of vegetation changes to the lingering legacy effects of the previous vegetation type by measuring soil microbial community structure (phospholipid fatty acids) and function (extracellular enzymes and nitrogen mineralization). We also replaced the aboveground litter in half of each plot with an inert substitute to determine if changes in the soil microbial community were driven by aboveground or belowground plant inputs. We found that after 2 years, the microbial community structure and function was largely determined by the legacy effect of the previous vegetation type, and was not affected by the current vegetation. Aboveground litter removal had only weak effects, suggesting that changes in the soil microbial community and nutrient cycling were driven largely by belowground processes. These results suggest that changes in the soil following either invasion or restoration do not occur quickly, but rather exhibit long-lasting legacy effects from previous belowground plant inputs.

  15. Characterization of a Cyanobacterial Chloride-pumping Rhodopsin and Its Conversion into a Proton Pump.

    PubMed

    Hasemi, Takatoshi; Kikukawa, Takashi; Kamo, Naoki; Demura, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Light-driven ion-pumping rhodopsins are widely distributed in microorganisms and are now classified into the categories of outward H(+) and Na(+) pumps and an inward Cl(-) pump. These different types share a common protein architecture and utilize the photoisomerization of the same chromophore, retinal, to evoke photoreactions. Despite these similarities, successful pump-to-pump conversion had been confined to only the H(+) pump bacteriorhodopsin, which was converted to a Cl(-) pump in 1995 by a single amino acid replacement. In this study we report the first success of the reverse conversion from a Cl(-) pump to a H(+) pump. A novel microbial rhodopsin (MrHR) from the cyanobacterium Mastigocladopsis repens functions as a Cl(-) pump and belongs to a cluster that is far distant from the known Cl(-) pumps. With a single amino acid replacement, MrHR is converted to a H(+) pump in which dissociable residues function almost completely in the H(+) relay reactions. MrHR most likely evolved from a H(+) pump, but it has not yet been highly optimized into a mature Cl(-) pump.

  16. His166 is the Schiff base proton acceptor in attractant phototaxis receptor sensory rhodopsin I.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Jun; Takahashi, Hazuki; Furutani, Yuji; Sineshchekov, Oleg A; Spudich, John L; Kandori, Hideki

    2014-09-23

    Photoactivation of attractant phototaxis receptor sensory rhodopsin I (SRI) in Halobacterium salinarum entails transfer of a proton from the retinylidene chromophore's Schiff base (SB) to an unidentified acceptor residue on the cytoplasmic half-channel, in sharp contrast to other microbial rhodopsins, including the closely related repellent phototaxis receptor SRII and the outward proton pump bacteriorhodopsin, in which the SB proton acceptor is an aspartate residue salt-bridged to the SB in the extracellular (EC) half-channel. His166 on the cytoplasmic side of the SB in SRI has been implicated in the SB proton transfer reaction by mutation studies, and mutants of His166 result in an inverted SB proton release to the EC as well as inversion of the protein's normally attractant phototaxis signal to repellent. Here we found by difference Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy the appearance of Fermi-resonant X-H stretch modes in light-minus-dark difference spectra; their assignment with (15)N labeling and site-directed mutagenesis demonstrates that His166 is the SB proton acceptor during the photochemical reaction cycle of the wild-type SRI-HtrI complex.

  17. Distribution of rhodopsin and retinochrome in the squid retina

    PubMed Central

    1976-01-01

    The cephalopod retina contains two kinds of photopigments, rhodopsin and retinochrome. For many years retinochrome has been thought to be localized in the inner segments of the visual cells, whereas rhodopsin is in the outer segments. However, it is now clear that retinochrome can be extracted also from fragments of outer segments. In the dark- adapted retina of Loligo pealei retinochrome is distributed half-and- half in the inner and outer segments. Todarodes pacificus contains much more retinochrome than Loligo, and it is more abundant in the outer than in the inner segments. The outer segments of Loligo contain retinochrome and metarhodopsin in addition to rhodopsin, whether squids are kept in the dark or in the light. But there is extremely little metarhodopsin (about 3% of rhodopsin) even in light-adapted eyes. The inner segments contain only retinochrome, and much less in the light than in the dark. On the other hand, retinochrome in the outer segments increases markedly during light adaptation. These facts suggest the possibility that some retinochrome moves forward from the inner to the outer segments during light adaptation and there reacts with metarhodopsin to promote regeneration of rhodopsin. PMID:6620

  18. Dimerization deficiency of enigmatic retinitis pigmentosa-linked rhodopsin mutants

    PubMed Central

    Ploier, Birgit; Caro, Lydia N.; Morizumi, Takefumi; Pandey, Kalpana; Pearring, Jillian N.; Goren, Michael A.; Finnemann, Silvia C.; Graumann, Johannes; Arshavsky, Vadim Y.; Dittman, Jeremy S.; Ernst, Oliver P.; Menon, Anant K.

    2016-01-01

    Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a blinding disease often associated with mutations in rhodopsin, a light-sensing G protein-coupled receptor and phospholipid scramblase. Most RP-associated mutations affect rhodopsin's activity or transport to disc membranes. Intriguingly, some mutations produce apparently normal rhodopsins that nevertheless cause disease. Here we show that three such enigmatic mutations—F45L, V209M and F220C—yield fully functional visual pigments that bind the 11-cis retinal chromophore, activate the G protein transducin, traffic to the light-sensitive photoreceptor compartment and scramble phospholipids. However, tests of scramblase activity show that unlike wild-type rhodopsin that functionally reconstitutes into liposomes as dimers or multimers, F45L, V209M and F220C rhodopsins behave as monomers. This result was confirmed in pull-down experiments. Our data suggest that the photoreceptor pathology associated with expression of these enigmatic RP-associated pigments arises from their unexpected inability to dimerize via transmembrane helices 1 and 5. PMID:27694816

  19. Dimerization deficiency of enigmatic retinitis pigmentosa-linked rhodopsin mutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ploier, Birgit; Caro, Lydia N.; Morizumi, Takefumi; Pandey, Kalpana; Pearring, Jillian N.; Goren, Michael A.; Finnemann, Silvia C.; Graumann, Johannes; Arshavsky, Vadim Y.; Dittman, Jeremy S.; Ernst, Oliver P.; Menon, Anant K.

    2016-10-01

    Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a blinding disease often associated with mutations in rhodopsin, a light-sensing G protein-coupled receptor and phospholipid scramblase. Most RP-associated mutations affect rhodopsin's activity or transport to disc membranes. Intriguingly, some mutations produce apparently normal rhodopsins that nevertheless cause disease. Here we show that three such enigmatic mutations--F45L, V209M and F220C--yield fully functional visual pigments that bind the 11-cis retinal chromophore, activate the G protein transducin, traffic to the light-sensitive photoreceptor compartment and scramble phospholipids. However, tests of scramblase activity show that unlike wild-type rhodopsin that functionally reconstitutes into liposomes as dimers or multimers, F45L, V209M and F220C rhodopsins behave as monomers. This result was confirmed in pull-down experiments. Our data suggest that the photoreceptor pathology associated with expression of these enigmatic RP-associated pigments arises from their unexpected inability to dimerize via transmembrane helices 1 and 5.

  20. The trafficking of bacterial type rhodopsins into the Chlamydomonas eyespot and flagella is IFT mediated.

    PubMed

    Awasthi, Mayanka; Ranjan, Peeyush; Sharma, Komal; Veetil, Sindhu Kandoth; Kateriya, Suneel

    2016-10-03

    The bacterial type rhodopsins are present in all the three domains of life. In contrast to the animal type rhodopsin that performs mainly sensory functions in higher eukaryotes, the bacterial type rhodopsin could function as ion channel, pumps and as sensory proteins. The functioning of rhodopsin in higher eukaryotes requires the transport of rhodopsin from its site of synthesis to the ciliated outer segment of the photoreceptive cells. However, the trafficking of bacterial type rhodopsin from its site of synthesis to the position of action is not characterized. Here we present the first report for the existence of an IFT-interactome mediated trafficking of the bacterial type rhodopsins into eyespot and flagella of the Chlamydomonas. We show that there is a light-dependent, dynamic localization of rhodopsins between flagella and eyespot of Chlamydomonas. The involvement of IFT components in the rhodopsin trafficking was elucidated by the use of conditional IFT mutants. We found that rhodopsin can be co-immunoprecipitated with the components of IFT machinery and with other protein components required for the IFT-cargo complex formation. These findings show that light-regulated localization of rhodopsin is not restricted to animals thereby suggesting that rhodopsin trafficking is an IFT dependent ancient process.

  1. Rhodopsin management during the light-dark cycle of Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Young Min; Metoxen, Alexander J.; Leming, Matthew T.; Whaley, Michelle A.; O’Tousa, Joseph E.

    2014-01-01

    The tropical disease vector mosquito Anopheles gambiae possesses 11 rhodopsin genes. Three of these, GPROP1, GPROP3, and GPROP4, encode rhodopsins with >99% sequence identity. We created antisera against these rhodopsins and used immunohistology to show that one or more of these rhodopsins are expressed in the major R1-6 photoreceptor class of the adult Anopheles gambiae eye. Under dark conditions, rhodopsin accumulates within the light-sensitive rhabdomere of the photoreceptor. Light treatment, however, causes extensive movement of rhodopsin to the cytoplasmic compartment. Protein electrophoresis showed that the rhodopsin is present in two different forms. The larger form is an immature species that is deglycosylated during the posttranslational maturation process to generate the smaller, mature form. The immature form is maintained at a constant level regardless of lighting conditions. These results indicate that rhodopsin biosynthesis and movement into the rhabdomere occurs at a constant rate. In contrast, the mature form increases in abundance when animals are placed in dark conditions. Light-triggered internalization and protein degradation counteracts this rhodopsin increase and keeps rhabdomeric rhodopsin levels low in light conditions. The interplay of the constant maturation rate with light-triggered degradation causes rhodopsin to accumulate within the rhabdomere only in dark conditions. Thus, Anopheles photoreceptors possess a mechanism for adjusting light sensitivity through light-dependent control of rhodopsin levels and cellular location. PMID:25260623

  2. The trafficking of bacterial type rhodopsins into the Chlamydomonas eyespot and flagella is IFT mediated

    PubMed Central

    Awasthi, Mayanka; Ranjan, Peeyush; Sharma, Komal; Veetil, Sindhu Kandoth; Kateriya, Suneel

    2016-01-01

    The bacterial type rhodopsins are present in all the three domains of life. In contrast to the animal type rhodopsin that performs mainly sensory functions in higher eukaryotes, the bacterial type rhodopsin could function as ion channel, pumps and as sensory proteins. The functioning of rhodopsin in higher eukaryotes requires the transport of rhodopsin from its site of synthesis to the ciliated outer segment of the photoreceptive cells. However, the trafficking of bacterial type rhodopsin from its site of synthesis to the position of action is not characterized. Here we present the first report for the existence of an IFT-interactome mediated trafficking of the bacterial type rhodopsins into eyespot and flagella of the Chlamydomonas. We show that there is a light-dependent, dynamic localization of rhodopsins between flagella and eyespot of Chlamydomonas. The involvement of IFT components in the rhodopsin trafficking was elucidated by the use of conditional IFT mutants. We found that rhodopsin can be co-immunoprecipitated with the components of IFT machinery and with other protein components required for the IFT-cargo complex formation. These findings show that light-regulated localization of rhodopsin is not restricted to animals thereby suggesting that rhodopsin trafficking is an IFT dependent ancient process. PMID:27694882

  3. The Cytoplasmic Rhodopsin-Protein Interface: Potential for Drug Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Yanamala, Naveena; Gardner, Eric; Riciutti, Alec; Klein-Seetharaman, Judith

    2011-01-01

    The mammalian dim-light photoreceptor rhodopsin is a prototypic G protein coupled receptor (GPCR), interacting with the G protein, transducin, rhodopsin kinase, and arrestin. All of these proteins interact with rhodopsin at its cytoplasmic surface. Structural and modeling studies have provided in-depth descriptions of the respective interfaces. Overlap and thus competition for binding surfaces is a major regulatory mechanism for signal processing. Recently, it was found that the same surface is also targeted by small molecules. These ligands can directly interfere with the binding and activation of the proteins of the signal transduction cascade, but they can also allosterically modulate the retinal ligand binding pocket. Because the pocket that is targeted contains residues that are highly conserved across Class A GPCRs, these findings imply that it may be possible to target multiple GPCRs with the same ligand(s). This is desirable for example in complex diseases such as cancer where multiple GPCRs participate in the disease networks. PMID:21777183

  4. Rhodopsin photoactivation dynamics revealed by quasi-elastic neutron scattering

    DOE PAGES

    Bhowmik, Debsindhu; Shrestha, Utsab; Perera, Suchithranga M.d.c.; ...

    2015-01-27

    Rhodopsin is a G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) responsible for vision under dim light conditions. During rhodopsin photoactivation, the chromophore retinal undergoes cis-trans isomerization, and subsequently dissociates from the protein yielding the opsin apoprotein [1]. What are the changes in protein dynamics that occur during the rhodopsin photoactivation process? Here, we studied the microscopic dynamics of the dark-state rhodopsin and the ligand-free opsin using quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS). The QENS technique tracks the individual hydrogen atom motions in the protein molecules, because the neutron scattering cross-section of hydrogen is much higher than other atoms [2-4]. We used protein (rhodopsin/opsin) samples with CHAPSmore » detergent hydrated with heavy water. The solvent signal is suppressed due to the heavy water, so that only the signals from proteins and detergents are detected. The activation of proteins is confirmed at low temperatures up to 300 K by the mean-square displacement (MSD) analysis. Our QENS experiments conducted at temperatures ranging from 220 K to 300 K clearly indicate that the protein dynamic behavior increases with temperature. The relaxation time for the ligand-bound protein rhodopsin was longer compared to opsin, which can be correlated with the photoactivation. Moreover, the protein dynamics are orders of magnitude slower than the accompanying CHAPS detergent, which forms a band around the protein molecule in the micelle. Unlike the protein, the CHAPS detergent manifests localized motions that are the same as in the bulk empty micelles. Furthermore QENS provides unique understanding of the key dynamics involved in the activation of the GPCR involved in the visual process.« less

  5. Rhodopsin photoactivation dynamics revealed by quasi-elastic neutron scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Bhowmik, Debsindhu; Shrestha, Utsab; Perera, Suchithranga M.d.c.; Chawla, Udeep; Mamontov, Eugene; Brown, Michael F.; Chu, Xiang -Qiang

    2015-01-27

    Rhodopsin is a G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) responsible for vision under dim light conditions. During rhodopsin photoactivation, the chromophore retinal undergoes cis-trans isomerization, and subsequently dissociates from the protein yielding the opsin apoprotein [1]. What are the changes in protein dynamics that occur during the rhodopsin photoactivation process? Here, we studied the microscopic dynamics of the dark-state rhodopsin and the ligand-free opsin using quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS). The QENS technique tracks the individual hydrogen atom motions in the protein molecules, because the neutron scattering cross-section of hydrogen is much higher than other atoms [2-4]. We used protein (rhodopsin/opsin) samples with CHAPS detergent hydrated with heavy water. The solvent signal is suppressed due to the heavy water, so that only the signals from proteins and detergents are detected. The activation of proteins is confirmed at low temperatures up to 300 K by the mean-square displacement (MSD) analysis. Our QENS experiments conducted at temperatures ranging from 220 K to 300 K clearly indicate that the protein dynamic behavior increases with temperature. The relaxation time for the ligand-bound protein rhodopsin was longer compared to opsin, which can be correlated with the photoactivation. Moreover, the protein dynamics are orders of magnitude slower than the accompanying CHAPS detergent, which forms a band around the protein molecule in the micelle. Unlike the protein, the CHAPS detergent manifests localized motions that are the same as in the bulk empty micelles. Furthermore QENS provides unique understanding of the key dynamics involved in the activation of the GPCR involved in the visual process.

  6. Rhodopsin coexpression in UV photoreceptors of Aedes aegypti and Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaobang; Leming, Matthew T; Whaley, Michelle A; O'Tousa, Joseph E

    2014-03-15

    Differential rhodopsin gene expression within specialized R7 photoreceptor cells divides the retinas of Aedes aegypti and Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes into distinct domains. The two species express the rhodopsin orthologs Aaop8 and Agop8, respectively, in a large subset of these R7 photoreceptors that function as ultraviolet receptors. We show here that a divergent subfamily of mosquito rhodopsins, Aaop10 and Agop10, is coexpressed in these R7 photoreceptors. The properties of the A. aegypti Aaop8 and Aaop10 rhodopsins were analyzed by creating transgenic Drosophila expressing these rhodopsins. Electroretinogram recordings, and spectral analysis of head extracts, obtained from the Aaop8 strain confirmed that Aaop8 is an ultraviolet-sensitive rhodopsin. Aaop10 was poorly expressed and capable of eliciting only small and slow light responses in Drosophila photoreceptors, and electroretinogram analysis suggested that it is a long-wavelength rhodopsin with a maximal sensitivity near 500 nm. Thus, coexpression of Aaop10 rhodopsin with Aaop8 rhodopsin has the potential to modify the spectral properties of mosquito ultraviolet receptors. Retention of Op10 rhodopsin family members in the genomes of Drosophila species suggests that this rhodopsin family may play a conserved role in insect vision.

  7. pH dependence of Anabaena sensory rhodopsin: retinal isomer composition, rate of dark adaptation, and photochemistry.

    PubMed

    Rozin, Rinat; Wand, Amir; Jung, Kwang-Hwan; Ruhman, Sanford; Sheves, Mordechai

    2014-07-31

    Microbial rhodopsins are photoactive proteins, and their binding site can accommodate either all-trans or 13-cis retinal chromophore. The pH dependence of isomeric composition, dark-adaptation rate, and primary events of Anabaena sensory rhodopsin (ASR), a microbial rhodopsin discovered a decade ago, are presented. The main findings are: (a) Two pKa values of 6.5 and 4.0 assigned to two different protein residues are observed using spectroscopic titration experiments for both ground-state retinal isomers: all-trans, 15-anti (AT) and 13-cis, 15-syn (13C). The protonation states of these protein residues affect the absorption spectrum of the pigment and most probably the isomerization process of the retinal chromophore. An additional pKa value of 8.5 is observed only for 13C-ASR. (b) The isomeric composition of ASR is determined over a wide pH range and found to be almost pH-independent in the dark (>96% AT isomer) but highly pH-dependent in the light-adapted form. (c) The kinetics of dark adaptation is recorded over a wide pH range, showing that the thermal isomerization from 13C to AT retinal occurs much faster at high pH rather than under acidic conditions. (d) Primary photochemical events of ASR at pH 5 are recorded using VIS hyperspectral pump-probe spectroscopy with <100 fs resolution and compared with the previously recorded results at pH 7.5. For AT-ASR, these are shown to be almost pH-independent. However, photochemistry of 13C-ASR is pH-dependent and slowed down in acidic environments.

  8. Rhodopsin Molecular Evolution in Mammals Inhabiting Low Light Environments

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Huabin; Ru, Binghua; Teeling, Emma C.; Faulkes, Christopher G.; Zhang, Shuyi; Rossiter, Stephen J.

    2009-01-01

    The ecological radiation of mammals to inhabit a variety of light environments is largely attributed to adaptive changes in their visual systems. Visual capabilities are conferred by anatomical features of the eyes as well as the combination and properties of their constituent light sensitive pigments. To test whether evolutionary switches to different niches characterized by dim-light conditions coincided with molecular adaptation of the rod pigment rhodopsin, we sequenced the rhodopsin gene in twenty-two mammals including several bats and subterranean mole-rats. We compared these to thirty-seven published mammal rhodopsin sequences, from species with divergent visual ecologies, including nocturnal, diurnal and aquatic groups. All taxa possessed an intact functional rhodopsin; however, phylogenetic tree reconstruction recovered a gene tree in which rodents were not monophyletic, and also in which echolocating bats formed a monophyletic group. These conflicts with the species tree appear to stem from accelerated evolution in these groups, both of which inhabit low light environments. Selection tests confirmed divergent selection pressures in the clades of subterranean rodents and bats, as well as in marine mammals that live in turbid conditions. We also found evidence of divergent selection pressures among groups of bats with different sensory modalities based on vision and echolocation. Sliding window analyses suggest most changes occur in transmembrane domains, particularly obvious within the pinnipeds; however, we found no obvious pattern between photopic niche and predicted spectral sensitivity based on known critical amino acids. This study indicates that the independent evolution of rhodopsin vision in ecologically specialised groups of mammals has involved molecular evolution at the sequence level, though such changes might not mediate spectral sensitivity directly. PMID:20016835

  9. Rhodopsin kinase and arrestin binding control the decay of photoactivated rhodopsin and dark adaptation of mouse rods.

    PubMed

    Frederiksen, Rikard; Nymark, Soile; Kolesnikov, Alexander V; Berry, Justin D; Adler, Leopold; Koutalos, Yiannis; Kefalov, Vladimir J; Cornwall, M Carter

    2016-07-01

    Photoactivation of vertebrate rhodopsin converts it to the physiologically active Meta II (R*) state, which triggers the rod light response. Meta II is rapidly inactivated by the phosphorylation of C-terminal serine and threonine residues by G-protein receptor kinase (Grk1) and subsequent binding of arrestin 1 (Arr1). Meta II exists in equilibrium with the more stable inactive form of rhodopsin, Meta III. Dark adaptation of rods requires the complete thermal decay of Meta II/Meta III into opsin and all-trans retinal and the subsequent regeneration of rhodopsin with 11-cis retinal chromophore. In this study, we examine the regulation of Meta III decay by Grk1 and Arr1 in intact mouse rods and their effect on rod dark adaptation. We measure the rates of Meta III decay in isolated retinas of wild-type (WT), Grk1-deficient (Grk1(-/-)), Arr1-deficient (Arr1(-/-)), and Arr1-overexpressing (Arr1(ox)) mice. We find that in WT mouse rods, Meta III peaks ∼6 min after rhodopsin activation and decays with a time constant (τ) of 17 min. Meta III decay slows in Arr1(-/-) rods (τ of ∼27 min), whereas it accelerates in Arr1(ox) rods (τ of ∼8 min) and Grk1(-/-) rods (τ of ∼13 min). In all cases, regeneration of rhodopsin with exogenous 11-cis retinal is rate limited by the decay of Meta III. Notably, the kinetics of rod dark adaptation in vivo is also modulated by the levels of Arr1 and Grk1. We conclude that, in addition to their well-established roles in Meta II inactivation, Grk1 and Arr1 can modulate the kinetics of Meta III decay and rod dark adaptation in vivo.

  10. Rhodopsin kinase and arrestin binding control the decay of photoactivated rhodopsin and dark adaptation of mouse rods

    PubMed Central

    Nymark, Soile; Kolesnikov, Alexander V.; Berry, Justin D.; Adler, Leopold; Koutalos, Yiannis; Kefalov, Vladimir J.; Cornwall, M. Carter

    2016-01-01

    Photoactivation of vertebrate rhodopsin converts it to the physiologically active Meta II (R*) state, which triggers the rod light response. Meta II is rapidly inactivated by the phosphorylation of C-terminal serine and threonine residues by G-protein receptor kinase (Grk1) and subsequent binding of arrestin 1 (Arr1). Meta II exists in equilibrium with the more stable inactive form of rhodopsin, Meta III. Dark adaptation of rods requires the complete thermal decay of Meta II/Meta III into opsin and all-trans retinal and the subsequent regeneration of rhodopsin with 11-cis retinal chromophore. In this study, we examine the regulation of Meta III decay by Grk1 and Arr1 in intact mouse rods and their effect on rod dark adaptation. We measure the rates of Meta III decay in isolated retinas of wild-type (WT), Grk1-deficient (Grk1−/−), Arr1-deficient (Arr1−/−), and Arr1-overexpressing (Arr1ox) mice. We find that in WT mouse rods, Meta III peaks ∼6 min after rhodopsin activation and decays with a time constant (τ) of 17 min. Meta III decay slows in Arr1−/− rods (τ of ∼27 min), whereas it accelerates in Arr1ox rods (τ of ∼8 min) and Grk1−/− rods (τ of ∼13 min). In all cases, regeneration of rhodopsin with exogenous 11-cis retinal is rate limited by the decay of Meta III. Notably, the kinetics of rod dark adaptation in vivo is also modulated by the levels of Arr1 and Grk1. We conclude that, in addition to their well-established roles in Meta II inactivation, Grk1 and Arr1 can modulate the kinetics of Meta III decay and rod dark adaptation in vivo. PMID:27353443

  11. Rhodopsin molecular contrast imaging by optical coherence tomography for functional assessment of photoreceptors (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nafra, Zahra; Liu, Tan; Jiao, Shuliang

    2016-03-01

    Rhodopsin, the light-sensing molecule in the outer segments of rod photoreceptors, is responsible for converting light into neuronal signals in a process known as phototransduction. Rhodopsin is thus a functional biomarker for rod photoreceptors. We developed a novel technology based on visible-light optical coherence tomography (VIS-OCT) for in vivo molecular imaging of rhodopsin. The depth resolution of OCT allows the visualization of the location where the change of optical absorption occurs and provides a potentially accurate assessment of rhodopsin content by segmentation of the image at the location. A broadband supercontinuum laser, whose filtered output was centered at 520 nm, was used as the illuminating light source. To test the capabilities of the system on rhodopsin mapping we imaged the retina of albino rats. The rats were dark adapted before imaging. An integrated near infrared OCT was used to guide the alignment in dark. VIS-OCT three-dimensional images were then acquired under dark- and light- adapted states sequentially. Rhodopsin distribution was calculated from the differential image. The rhodopsin distributions can be displayed in both en face view and depth-resolved cross-sectional image. Rhodopsin OCT can be used to quantitatively image rhodopsin distribution and thus assess the distribution of functional rod photoreceptors in the retina. Rhodopsin OCT can bring significant impact into ophthalmic clinics by providing a tool for the diagnosis and severity assessment of a variety of retinal conditions.

  12. QM/MM Study of Dehydro and Dihydro β-Ionone Retinal Analogues in Squid and Bovine Rhodopsins: Implications for Vision in Salamander Rhodopsin

    PubMed Central

    Sekharan, Sivakumar; Altun, Ahmet; Morokuma, Keiji

    2010-01-01

    Visual pigment rhodopsin provides a decisive crossing point for interaction between organisms and environment. Naturally occurring visual pigments contain only PSB11 and 3,4-dehydro-PSB11 as chromophores. Therefore, the ability of visual opsin to discriminate between the retinal geometries is investigated by means of QM/MM incorporation of PSB11, 6-s-cis and 6-s-trans forms of 3,4-dehydro-PSB11, 3,4-dehydro-5,6-dihydro-PSB11, 5,6-dihydro-PSB11 analogues into squid and bovine rhodopsin environments. The analogue-protein interaction reveals the binding site of squid rhodopsin to be malleable and ductile, while that of bovine rhodopsin to be rigid and stiff. On the basis of these studies, a tentative model of salamander rhodopsin binding site is also proposed. PMID:20964383

  13. Rhodopsin Forms Nanodomains in Rod Outer Segment Disc Membranes of the Cold-Blooded Xenopus laevis.

    PubMed

    Rakshit, Tatini; Senapati, Subhadip; Sinha, Satyabrata; Whited, A M; Park, Paul S-H

    2015-01-01

    Rhodopsin forms nanoscale domains (i.e., nanodomains) in rod outer segment disc membranes from mammalian species. It is unclear whether rhodopsin arranges in a similar manner in amphibian species, which are often used as a model system to investigate the function of rhodopsin and the structure of photoreceptor cells. Moreover, since samples are routinely prepared at low temperatures, it is unclear whether lipid phase separation effects in the membrane promote the observed nanodomain organization of rhodopsin from mammalian species. Rod outer segment disc membranes prepared from the cold-blooded frog Xenopus laevis were investigated by atomic force microscopy to visualize the organization of rhodopsin in the absence of lipid phase separation effects. Atomic force microscopy revealed that rhodopsin nanodomains form similarly as that observed previously in mammalian membranes. Formation of nanodomains in ROS disc membranes is independent of lipid phase separation and conserved among vertebrates.

  14. Modelling vibrational coherence in the primary rhodopsin photoproduct

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weingart, O.; Garavelli, M.

    2012-12-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations of the rhodopsin photoreaction reveal coherent low frequency oscillations in the primary photoproduct (photorhodopsin), with frequencies slightly higher than observed in the experiment. The coherent molecular motions in the batho-precursor can be attributed to the activation of ground state vibrational modes in the hot photo-product, involving out-of-plane deformations of the carbon skeleton. Results are discussed and compared with respect to spectroscopic data and suggested reaction mechanisms.

  15. Spatial arrangement of rhodopsin in retinal rod outer segment membranes studied by spin-labeling and pulsed electron double resonance.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Satoshi; Hara, Hideyuki; Tokunaga, Fumio; Arata, Toshiaki

    2012-08-24

    We have determined the spatial arrangement of rhodopsin in the retinal rod outer segment (ROS) membrane by measuring the distances between rhodopsin molecules in which native cysteines were spin-labeled at ~1.0 mol/mol rhodopsin. The echo modulation decay of pulsed electron double resonance (PELDOR) from spin-labeled ROS curved slightly with strong background decay. This indicated that the rhodopsin was densely packed in the retina and that the rhodopsin molecules were not aligned well. The curve was simulated by a model in which rhodopsin is distributed randomly as monomers in a planar membrane.

  16. Rhodopsin Kinase Activity in the Mammalian Pineal Gland and Other Tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somers, Robert L.; Klein, David C.

    1984-10-01

    Rhodopsin kinase, an enzyme involved in photochemical transduction in the retina, has been found in the mammalian pineal gland in amounts equal to those in the retina; other tissues had 7 percent of this amount, or less. This finding suggests that, in mammals, rhodopsin kinase functions in the pineal gland and other tissues to phosphorylate rhodopsin-like integral membrane receptors and is thereby involved in signal transduction.

  17. Rhodopsin Photoactivation Dynamics Revealed by Quasi-Elastic Neutron Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhowmik, Debsindhu; Shrestha, Utsab; Perera, Suchhithranga M. C. D.; Chawla, Udeep; Mamontov, Eugene; Brown, Michael; Chu, Xiang-Qiang

    2015-03-01

    Rhodopsin is a G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) responsible for vision. During photoactivation, the chromophore retinal dissociates from protein yielding the opsin apoprotein. What are the changes in protein dynamics that occur during the photoactivation process? Here, we studied the microscopic dynamics of dark-state rhodopsin and the ligand-free opsin using quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS). The QENS technique tracks individual hydrogen atom motion because of the much higher neutron scattering cross-section of hydrogen than other atoms. We used protein with CHAPS detergent hydrated with heavy water. The activation of proteins is confirmed at low temperatures up to 300 K by mean-square displacement (MSD) analysis. The QENS experiments at temperatures ranging from 220 K to 300 K clearly indicate an increase in protein dynamic behavior with temperature. The relaxation time for the ligand-bound protein rhodopsin is faster compared to opsin, which can be correlated with the photoactivation. Moreover, the protein dynamics are orders of magnitude slower than the accompanying CHAPS detergent, which unlike protein, manifests localized motions.

  18. Directed Evolution of a Bright Near-Infrared Fluorescent Rhodopsin Using a Synthetic Chromophore.

    PubMed

    Herwig, Lukas; Rice, Austin J; Bedbrook, Claire N; Zhang, Ruijie K; Lignell, Antti; Cahn, Jackson K B; Renata, Hans; Dodani, Sheel C; Cho, Inha; Cai, Long; Gradinaru, Viviana; Arnold, Frances H

    2017-03-16

    By engineering a microbial rhodopsin, Archaerhodopsin-3 (Arch), to bind a synthetic chromophore, merocyanine retinal, in place of the natural chromophore all-trans-retinal (ATR), we generated a protein with exceptionally bright and unprecedentedly red-shifted near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence. We show that chromophore substitution generates a fluorescent Arch complex with a 200-nm bathochromic excitation shift relative to ATR-bound wild-type Arch and an emission maximum at 772 nm. Directed evolution of this complex produced variants with pH-sensitive NIR fluorescence and molecular brightness 8.5-fold greater than the brightest ATR-bound Arch variant. The resulting proteins are well suited to bacterial imaging; expression and stability have not been optimized for mammalian cell imaging. By targeting both the protein and its chromophore, we overcome inherent challenges associated with engineering bright NIR fluorescence into Archaerhodopsin. This work demonstrates an efficient strategy for engineering non-natural, tailored properties into microbial opsins, properties relevant for imaging and interrogating biological systems.

  19. In vivo imaging rhodopsin distribution in the photoreceptors with nano-second pulsed scanning laser ophthalmoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tan; Liu, Xiaojing; Wen, Rong; Lam, Byron L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Rhodopsin is a biomarker for the function of rod photoreceptors, the dysfunction of which is related to many blinding diseases like retinitis pigmentosa and age-related macular degeneration. Imaging rhodopsin quantitatively may provide a powerful clinical tool for diagnosis of these diseases. To map rhodopsin distribution accurately in the retina, absorption by rhodopsin intermediates need to be minimized. Methods and materials We developed nano-second pulsed scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO) to image rhodopsin distribution in the retina. The system takes advantage of the light-induced shift of rhodopsin absorption spectra, which in turn affects the fundus spectral reflection before and after photo-bleaching. By imaging the retina twice, one in the dark-adapted state and the other one in the light-adapted state, the rhodopsin absorption change can be calculated from the differential image, which is a function of the rhodopsin concentration in the rod photoreceptors. Results The system was successfully applied to in vivo imaging of rat retina in different bleaching conditions to verify its feasibility. Our studies showed that the differential image between the dark- and light-adapted states represents rhodopsin distribution in the retina. We also conducted a dynamic bleaching experiment to prove the importance of reducing light absorption of rhodopsin intermediates. Conclusions The preliminary results showed that our nano-second pulsed-light SLO is promising in imaging the functional biomarker of the rod photoreceptors. By using nanosecond pulsed laser, in which one laser pulse generates one pixel of the image, the absorption of rhodopsin intermediates can be reduced. PMID:25694955

  20. An experimental comparison of human and bovine rhodopsin provides insight into the molecular basis of retinal disease.

    PubMed

    Morrow, James M; Castiglione, Gianni M; Dungan, Sarah Z; Tang, Portia L; Bhattacharyya, Nihar; Hauser, Frances E; Chang, Belinda S W

    2017-03-30

    Rhodopsin is the visual pigment that mediates dim-light vision in vertebrates and is a model system for the study of retinal disease. The majority of rhodopsin experiments are performed using bovine rhodopsin; however, recent evidence suggests that significant functional differences exist among mammalian rhodopsins. In this study, we identify differences in both thermal decay and light-activated retinal release rates between bovine and human rhodopsin and perform mutagenesis studies to highlight two clusters of substitutions that contribute to these differences. We also demonstrate that the retinitis pigmentosa-associated mutation G51A behaves differently in human rhodopsin compared to bovine rhodopsin and determine that the thermal decay rate of an ancestrally reconstructed mammalian rhodopsin displays an intermediate phenotype compared to the two extant pigments. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  1. Primary structural response in tryptophan residues of Anabaena sensory rhodopsin to photochromic reactions of the retinal chromophore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inada, Seisuke; Mizuno, Misao; Kato, Yoshitaka; Kawanabe, Akira; Kandori, Hideki; Wei, Zhengrong; Takeuchi, Satoshi; Tahara, Tahei; Mizutani, Yasuhisa

    2013-06-01

    Anabaena sensory rhodopsin (ASR) is a microbial rhodopsin found in eubacteria and functions as a photosensor. The photoreaction of ASR is photochromic between all-trans, 15-anti (ASRAT), and 13-cis, 15-syn (ASR13C) isomers. To understand primary protein dynamics in the photoreaction starting in ASRAT and ASR13C, picosecond time-resolved ultraviolet resonance Raman spectra were obtained. In the intermediate state appearing in the picosecond temporal region, spectral changes of Trp bands were observed. For both ASRAT and ASR13C, the intensities of the Trp bands were bleached within the instrumental response time and recovered with a time constant of 30 ps. This suggests that the rates of structural changes in the Trp residue in the vicinity of the chromophore do not depend on the direction of the isomerization of retinal. A comparison between spectra of the wild-type and Trp mutants indicates that the structures of Trp76 and Trp46 change upon the primary photoreaction of retinal.

  2. The electric dipole moment of rhodopsin solubilized in Triton X-100.

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, D C; Cone, R A

    1975-01-01

    The electric dipole moment of solubilized rhodopsin was determined with dielectric dispersion measurements. Rhodopsin was extracted from disc membranes of cattle rod outer segments with the nonionic detergent Triton X-100. The dipole moment of rhodopsin at its isoionic point in the detergent micelle is 720 D (150 charge-A). This value is comparable to dipole moments of nonmembrane proteins, especially those which tend to aggregate or polymerize. Flash irradiation of the rhodopsin results in an increase in the dipole moment of about 25 D (5 charge-A). The light-induced increase in dipole moment appears to be composed of two parts--a faster component related to a change in the number of protons bound by rhodopsin and a slower component apparently independent of the change in proton binding. PMID:1203446

  3. Rhodopsin in the rod surface membrane regenerates more rapidly than bulk rhodopsin in the disc membranes in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Kessler, Christopher; Tillman, Megan; Burns, Marie E; Pugh, Edward N

    2014-01-01

    Sustained vertebrate vision requires that opsin chromophores isomerized by light to the all-trans form be replaced with 11-cis retinal to regenerate the visual pigment. We have characterized the early receptor potential (ERP), a component of the electroretinogram arising from photoisomerization-induced charge displacements in plasma membrane visual pigment, and used it to measure pigment bleaching and regeneration in living mice. The mouse ERP was characterized by an outward ‘R2’ charge displacement with a time constant of 215 μs that discharged through a membrane with an apparent time constant of ∼0.6 ms. After complete bleaching of rhodopsin, the ERP recovered in two phases. The initial, faster phase had a time constant of ∼1 min, accounted for ∼20% of the total, and was not dependent on the level of expression of the retinal pigment epithelium isomerase, Rpe65. The slower, complementary phase had a time constant of 23 min in wild-type (WT) mice (C57Bl/6) and was substantially slowed in Rpe65+/− mice. Comparison of the ERPs of a mouse line expressing 150% of the normal level of cone M-opsin with those of WT mice revealed that M-opsin contributed 26% of the total WT ERP in these experiments, with the remaining 74% arising from rhodopsin. Thus, the fast regenerating fraction (20%) corresponds approximately to the fraction of the total ERP independently estimated to arise from M-opsin. Because both phases of the ERP recover substantially faster than previous measurements of bulk rhodopsin regeneration in living mice, we conclude that delivery of the highly hydrophobic 11-cis retinal to the interior of rod photoreceptors appears to be retarded by transit across the cytoplasmic gap between plasma and disc membranes. PMID:24801306

  4. Rescue of Photoreceptor Degeneration by Curcumin in Transgenic Rats with P23H Rhodopsin Mutation

    PubMed Central

    Vasireddy, Vidyullatha; Chavali, Venkata R. M.; Joseph, Victory T.; Kadam, Rajendra; Lin, Jonathan H.; Jamison, Jeffrey A.; Kompella, Uday B.; Reddy, Geereddy Bhanuprakash; Ayyagari, Radha

    2011-01-01

    The P23H mutation in the rhodopsin gene causes rhodopsin misfolding, altered trafficking and formation of insoluble aggregates leading to photoreceptor degeneration and autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (RP). There are no effective therapies to treat this condition. Compounds that enhance dissociation of protein aggregates may be of value in developing new treatments for such diseases. Anti-protein aggregating activity of curcumin has been reported earlier. In this study we present that treatment of COS-7 cells expressing mutant rhodopsin with curcumin results in dissociation of mutant protein aggregates and decreases endoplasmic reticulum stress. Furthermore we demonstrate that administration of curcumin to P23H-rhodopsin transgenic rats improves retinal morphology, physiology, gene expression and localization of rhodopsin. Our findings indicate that supplementation of curcumin improves retinal structure and function in P23H-rhodopsin transgenic rats. This data also suggest that curcumin may serve as a potential therapeutic agent in treating RP due to the P23H rhodopsin mutation and perhaps other degenerative diseases caused by protein trafficking defects. PMID:21738619

  5. UV-Visible and Infrared Methods for Investigating Lipid-Rhodopsin Membrane Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Michael F.

    2017-01-01

    Summary Experimental UV-visible and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic methods are described for characterizing lipid-protein interactions for the example of rhodopsin in a membrane bilayer environment. The combined use of FTIR and UV-visible difference spectroscopy monitors the structural and functional changes during rhodopsin activation. Such studies investigate how membrane lipids stabilize the various rhodopsin photoproducts, analogous to mutating the protein. Interpretation of the results entails a non-specific flexible surface model for explaining the role of membrane lipid-protein interactions in biological functions. PMID:22976026

  6. Ultrafast photochemistry of anabaena sensory rhodopsin: experiment and theory.

    PubMed

    Schapiro, Igor; Ruhman, Sanford

    2014-05-01

    Light induced isomerization of the retinal chromophore activates biological function in all retinal protein (RP) driving processes such as ion-pumping, vertebrate vision and phototaxis in organisms as primitive as archea, or as complex as mammals. This process and its consecutive reactions have been the focus of experimental and theoretical research for decades. The aim of this review is to demonstrate how the experimental and theoretical research efforts can now be combined to reach a more comprehensive understanding of the excited state process on the molecular level. Using the Anabaena Sensory Rhodopsin as an example we will show how contemporary time-resolved spectroscopy and recently implemented excited state QM/MM methods consistently describe photochemistry in retinal proteins. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Retinal Proteins - You can teach an old dog new tricks.

  7. Highly conserved tyrosine stabilizes the active state of rhodopsin.

    PubMed

    Goncalves, Joseph A; South, Kieron; Ahuja, Shivani; Zaitseva, Ekaterina; Opefi, Chikwado A; Eilers, Markus; Vogel, Reiner; Reeves, Philip J; Smith, Steven O

    2010-11-16

    Light-induced isomerization of the 11-cis-retinal chromophore in the visual pigment rhodopsin triggers displacement of the second extracellular loop (EL2) and motion of transmembrane helices H5, H6, and H7 leading to the active intermediate metarhodopsin II (Meta II). We describe solid-state NMR measurements of rhodopsin and Meta II that target the molecular contacts in the region of the ionic lock involving these three helices. We show that a contact between Arg135(3.50) and Met257(6.40) forms in Meta II, consistent with the outward rotation of H6 and breaking of the dark-state Glu134(3.49)-Arg135(3.50)-Glu247(6.30) ionic lock. We also show that Tyr223(5.58) and Tyr306(7.53) form molecular contacts with Met257(6.40). Together these results reveal that the crystal structure of opsin in the region of the ionic lock reflects the active state of the receptor. We further demonstrate that Tyr223(5.58) and Ala132(3.47) in Meta II stabilize helix H5 in an active orientation. Mutation of Tyr223(5.58) to phenylalanine or mutation of Ala132(3.47) to leucine decreases the lifetime of the Meta II intermediate. Furthermore, the Y223F mutation is coupled to structural changes in EL2. In contrast, mutation of Tyr306(7.53) to phenylalanine shows only a moderate influence on the Meta II lifetime and is not coupled to EL2.

  8. Rhodopsin: the Functional Significance of Asn-Linked Glycosylation and Other Post-translational Modifications

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Anne R.; Fliesler, Steven J.; Al-Ubaidi, Muayyad R.

    2010-01-01

    Rhodopsin, the G-protein coupled receptor in retinal rod photoreceptors, is a highly conserved protein that undergoes several types of post-translational modifications. These modifications are essential to maintain the protein’s structure as well as its proper function in the visual transduction cycle. Rhodopsin is N-glycosylated at Asn-2 and Asn-15 in its extracellular N-terminal domain. Mutations within the glycosylation consensus sequences of rhodopsin cause autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa, a disease that leads to blindness. Several groups have studied the role of rhodopsin’s N-linked glycan chains in protein structure and function using a variety of approaches. These include the generation of a transgenic mouse model, study of a naturally occurring mutant animal model, in vivo pharmacological inhibition of glycosylation, and in vitro analyses using transfected COS-1 cells. These studies have provided insights into the possible role of rhodopsin glycosylation, but have yielded conflicting results. PMID:19941415

  9. Normal and Mutant Rhodopsin Activation Measured with the Early Receptor Current in a Unicellular Expression System

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Pragati; Sullivan, Jack M.

    1999-01-01

    The early receptor current (ERC) represents molecular charge movement during rhodopsin conformational dynamics. To determine whether this time-resolved assay can probe various aspects of structure–function relationships in rhodopsin, we first measured properties of expressed normal human rhodopsin with ERC recordings. These studies were conducted in single fused giant cells containing on the order of a picogram of regenerated pigment. The action spectrum of the ERC of normal human opsin regenerated with 11-cis-retinal was fit by the human rhodopsin absorbance spectrum. Successive flashes extinguished ERC signals consistent with bleaching of a rhodopsin photopigment with a normal range of photosensitivity. ERC signals followed the univariance principle since millisecond-order relaxation kinetics were independent of the wavelength of the flash stimulus. After signal extinction, dark adaptation without added 11-cis-retinal resulted in spontaneous pigment regeneration from an intracellular store of chromophore remaining from earlier loading. After the ERC was extinguished, 350-nm flashes overlapping metarhodopsin-II absorption promoted immediate recovery of ERC charge motions identified by subsequent 500-nm flashes. Small inverted R2 signals were seen in response to some 350-nm flashes. These results indicate that the ERC can be photoregenerated from the metarhodopsin-II state. Regeneration with 9-cis-retinal permits recording of ERC signals consistent with flash activation of isorhodopsin. We initiated structure–function studies by measuring ERC signals in cells expressing the D83N and E134Q mutant human rhodopsin pigments. D83N ERCs were simplified in comparison with normal rhodopsin, while E134Q ERCs had only the early phase of charge motion. This study demonstrates that properties of normal rhodopsin can be accurately measured with the ERC assay and that a structure–function investigation of rapid activation processes in analogue and mutant visual pigments is

  10. Rapid hydrogen ion uptake of rod outer segments and rhodopsin solutions on illumination

    PubMed Central

    Falk, G.; Fatt, P.

    1966-01-01

    1. Flash illumination of a suspension of frog rod outer segments or rhodopsin solution in contact with a platinum electrode produces a rapidly developing negative displacement of potential of the electrode (with respect to a reversible electrode). 2. The amplitude of the potential change varies inversely with the H+ buffering capacity of the medium. It is inferred that the response is due to an uptake of H+ by the rod outer segments or rhodopsin, with the platinum surface acting as a pH electrode. 3. Determination of the action spectrum shows that the response depends on the absorption of light by rhodopsin. 4. In frog rods one acid-binding group with a pK of about 7·9 is produced for each molecule of rhodopsin bleached, consistent with a rhodopsin concentration in frog rods of 1·7 mM. 5. It is suggested that the time course of the response with rhodopsin solutions reflects the kinetics of the conversion of metarhodopsin I to metarhodopsin II. 6. A slower time course of voltage change observed for suspensions of outer segments is attributable to the time required for the diffusion of H+ buffer out of the rods. PMID:5945249

  11. Rhodopsin expression in the zebrafish pineal gland from larval to adult stage.

    PubMed

    Magnoli, Domenico; Zichichi, Rosalia; Laurà, Rosaria; Guerrera, Maria Cristina; Campo, Salvatore; de Carlos, Felix; Suárez, Alberto Álvarez; Abbate, Francesco; Ciriaco, Emilia; Vega, Jose Antonio; Germanà, Antonino

    2012-03-09

    The zebrafish pineal gland plays an important role in different physiological functions including the regulation of the circadian clock. In the fish pineal gland the pinealocytes are made up of different segments: outer segment, inner segment and basal pole. Particularly, in the outer segment the rhodopsin participates in the external environment light reception that represents the first biochemical step in the melatonin production. It is well known that the rhodopsin in the adult zebrafish is well expressed in the pineal gland but both the expression and the cellular localization of this protein during development remain still unclear. In this study using qRT-PCR, sequencing and immunohistochemistry the expression as well as the protein localization of the rhodopsin in the zebrafish from larval (10 dpf) to adult stage (90 dpf) were demonstrated. The rhodopsin mRNA expression presents a peak of expression at 10 dpf, a further reduction to 50 dpf before increasing again in the adult stage. Moreover, the cellular localization of the rhodopsin-like protein was always localized in the pinealocyte at all ages examined. Our results demonstrated the involvement of the rhodopsin in the zebrafish pineal gland physiology particularly in the light capture during the zebrafish lifespan.

  12. Epistatic interactions influence terrestrial-marine functional shifts in cetacean rhodopsin.

    PubMed

    Dungan, Sarah Z; Chang, Belinda S W

    2017-03-15

    Like many aquatic vertebrates, whales have blue-shifting spectral tuning substitutions in the dim-light visual pigment, rhodopsin, that are thought to increase photosensitivity in underwater environments. We have discovered that known spectral tuning substitutions also have surprising epistatic effects on another function of rhodopsin, the kinetic rates associated with light-activated intermediates. By using absorbance spectroscopy and fluorescence-based retinal release assays on heterologously expressed rhodopsin, we assessed both spectral and kinetic differences between cetaceans (killer whale) and terrestrial outgroups (hippo, bovine). Mutation experiments revealed that killer whale rhodopsin is unusually resilient to pleiotropic effects on retinal release from key blue-shifting substitutions (D83N and A292S), largely due to a surprisingly specific epistatic interaction between D83N and the background residue, S299. Ancestral sequence reconstruction indicated that S299 is an ancestral residue that predates the evolution of blue-shifting substitutions at the origins of Cetacea. Based on these results, we hypothesize that intramolecular epistasis helped to conserve rhodopsin's kinetic properties while enabling blue-shifting spectral tuning substitutions as cetaceans adapted to aquatic environments. Trade-offs between different aspects of molecular function are rarely considered in protein evolution, but in cetacean and other vertebrate rhodopsins, may underlie multiple evolutionary scenarios for the selection of specific amino acid substitutions.

  13. Time-resolved rhodopsin activation currents in a unicellular expression system.

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, J M; Shukla, P

    1999-01-01

    The early receptor current (ERC) is the charge redistribution occurring in plasma membrane rhodopsin during light activation of photoreceptors. Both the molecular mechanism of the ERC and its relationship to rhodopsin conformational activation are unknown. To investigate whether the ERC could be a time-resolved assay of rhodopsin structure-function relationships, the distinct sensitivity of modern electrophysiological tools was employed to test for flash-activated ERC signals in cells stably expressing normal human rod opsin after regeneration with 11-cis-retinal. ERCs are similar in waveform and kinetics to those found in photoreceptors. The action spectrum of the major R(2) charge motion is consistent with a rhodopsin photopigment. The R(1) phase is not kinetically resolvable and the R(2) phase, which overlaps metarhodopsin-II formation, has a rapid risetime and complex multiexponential decay. These experiments demonstrate, for the first time, kinetically resolved electrical state transitions during activation of expressed visual pigment in a unicellular environment (single or fused giant cells) containing only 6 x 10(6)-8 x 10(7) molecules of rhodopsin. This method improves measurement sensitivity 7 to 8 orders of magnitude compared to other time-resolved techniques applied to rhodopsin to study the role particular amino acids play in conformational activation and the forces that govern those transitions. PMID:10465746

  14. Three-dimensional structure of an invertebrate rhodopsin and basis for ordered alignment in the photoreceptor membrane.

    PubMed

    Davies, A; Gowen, B E; Krebs, A M; Schertler, G F; Saibil, H R

    2001-11-30

    Invertebrate rhodopsins activate a G-protein signalling pathway in microvillar photoreceptors. In contrast to the transducin-cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase pathway found in vertebrate rods and cones, visual transduction in cephalopod (squid, octopus, cuttlefish) invertebrates is signalled via Gq and phospholipase C. Squid rhodopsin contains the conserved residues of the G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) family, but has only 35% identity with mammalian rhodopsins. Unlike vertebrate rhodopsins, cephalopod rhodopsin is arranged in an ordered lattice in the photoreceptor membranes. This organization confers sensitivity to the plane of polarized light and also provides the optimal orientation of the linear retinal chromophores in the cylindrical microvillar membranes for light capture. Two-dimensional crystals of squid rhodopsin show a rectilinear arrangement that is likely to be related to the alignment of rhodopsins in vivo.Here, we present a three-dimensional structure of squid rhodopsin determined by cryo-electron microscopy of two-dimensional crystals. Docking the atomic structure of bovine rhodopsin into the squid density map shows that the helix packing and extracellular plug structure are conserved. In addition, there are two novel structural features revealed by our map. The linear lattice contact appears to be made by the transverse C-terminal helix lying on the cytoplasmic surface of the membrane. Also at the cytoplasmic surface, additional density may correspond to a helix 5-6 loop insertion found in most GPCRs relative to vertebrate rhodopsins. The similarity supports the conservation in structure of rhodopsins (and other G-protein-coupled receptors) from phylogenetically distant organisms. The map provides the first indication of the structural basis for rhodopsin alignment in the microvillar membrane.

  15. Rhodopsins carrying modified chromophores--the 'making of', structural modelling and their light-induced reactivity.

    PubMed

    Ockenfels, Andreas; Schapiro, Igor; Gärtner, Wolfgang

    2016-02-01

    A series of vitamin-A aldehydes (retinals) with modified alkyl group substituents (9-demethyl-, 9-ethyl-, 9-isopropyl-, 10-methyl, 10-methyl-13-demethyl-, and 13-demethyl retinal) was synthesized and their 11-cis isomers were used as chromophores to reconstitute the visual pigment rhodopsin. Structural changes were selectively introduced around the photoisomerizing C11=C12 bond. The effect of these structural changes on rhodopsin formation and bleaching was determined. Global fit of assembly kinetics yielded lifetimes and spectral features of the assembly intermediates. Rhodopsin formation proceeds stepwise with prolonged lifetimes especially for 9-demethyl retinal (longest lifetime τ3 = 7500 s, cf., 3500 s for retinal), and for 10-methyl retinal (τ3 = 7850 s). These slowed-down processes are interpreted as either a loss of fixation (9dm) or an increased steric hindrance (10me) during the conformational adjustment within the protein. Combined quantum mechanics and molecular mechanics (QM/MM) simulations provided structural insight into the retinal analogues-assembled, full-length rhodopsins. Extinction coefficients, quantum yields and kinetics of the bleaching process (μs-to-ms time range) were determined. Global fit analysis yielded lifetimes and spectral features of bleaching intermediates, revealing remarkably altered kinetics: whereas the slowest process of wild-type rhodopsin and of bleached and 11-cis retinal assembled rhodopsin takes place with lifetimes of 7 and 3.8 s, respectively, this process for 10-methyl-13-demethyl retinal was nearly 10 h (34670 s), coming to completion only after ca. 50 h. The structural changes in retinal derivatives clearly identify the precise interactions between chromophore and protein during the light-induced changes that yield the outstanding efficiency of rhodopsin.

  16. Using Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence Microscopy To Visualize Rhodopsin-Containing Cells

    PubMed Central

    Keffer, J. L.; Sabanayagam, C. R.; Lee, M. E.; DeLong, E. F.; Hahn, M. W.

    2015-01-01

    Sunlight is captured and converted to chemical energy in illuminated environments. Although (bacterio)chlorophyll-based photosystems have been characterized in detail, retinal-based photosystems, rhodopsins, have only recently been identified as important mediators of light energy capture and conversion. Recent estimates suggest that up to 70% of cells in some environments harbor rhodopsins. However, because rhodopsin autofluorescence is low—comparable to that of carotenoids and significantly less than that of (bacterio)chlorophylls—these estimates are based on metagenomic sequence data, not direct observation. We report here the use of ultrasensitive total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy to distinguish between unpigmented, carotenoid-producing, and rhodopsin-expressing bacteria. Escherichia coli cells were engineered to produce lycopene, β-carotene, or retinal. A gene encoding an uncharacterized rhodopsin, actinorhodopsin, was cloned into retinal-producing E. coli. The production of correctly folded and membrane-incorporated actinorhodopsin was confirmed via development of pink color in E. coli and SDS-PAGE. Cells expressing carotenoids or actinorhodopsin were imaged by TIRF microscopy. The 561-nm excitation laser specifically illuminated rhodopsin-containing cells, allowing them to be differentiated from unpigmented and carotenoid-containing cells. Furthermore, water samples collected from the Delaware River were shown by PCR to have rhodopsin-containing organisms and were examined by TIRF microscopy. Individual microorganisms that fluoresced under illumination from the 561-nm laser were identified. These results verify the sensitivity of the TIRF microscopy method for visualizing and distinguishing between different molecules with low autofluorescence, making it useful for analyzing natural samples. PMID:25769822

  17. Rhodopsin 5– and Rhodopsin 6–Mediated Clock Synchronization in Drosophila melanogaster Is Independent of Retinal Phospholipase C-β Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Szular, Joanna; Sehadova, Hana; Gentile, Carla; Szabo, Gisela; Chou, Wen-Hai; Britt, Steven G.; Stanewsky, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Circadian clocks of most organisms are synchronized with the 24-hour solar day by the changes of light and dark. In Drosophila, both the visual photoreceptors in the compound eyes as well as the blue-light photoreceptor Cryptochrome expressed within the brain clock neurons contribute to this clock synchronization. A specialized photoreceptive structure located between the retina and the optic lobes, the Hofbauer-Buchner (H-B) eyelet, projects to the clock neurons in the brain and also participates in light synchronization. The compound eye photoreceptors and the H-B eyelet contain Rhodopsin photopigments, which activate the canonical invertebrate phototransduction cascade after being excited by light. We show here that 2 of the photopigments present in these photoreceptors, Rhodopsin 5 (Rh5) and Rhodopsin 6 (Rh6), contribute to light synchronization in a mutant (norpAP41) that disrupts canonical phototransduction due to the absence of Phospholipase C-β (PLC-β). We reveal that norpAP41 is a true loss-of-function allele, resulting in a truncated PLC-β protein that lacks the catalytic domain. Light reception mediated by Rh5 and Rh6 must therefore utilize either a different (nonretinal) PLC-β enzyme or alternative signaling mechanisms, at least in terms of clock-relevant photoreception. This novel signaling mode may distinguish Rhodopsin-mediated irradiance detection from image-forming vision in Drosophila. PMID:22306971

  18. Rhodopsin targeted transcriptional silencing by DNA-binding.

    PubMed

    Botta, Salvatore; Marrocco, Elena; de Prisco, Nicola; Curion, Fabiola; Renda, Mario; Sofia, Martina; Lupo, Mariangela; Carissimo, Annamaria; Bacci, Maria Laura; Gesualdo, Carlo; Rossi, Settimio; Simonelli, Francesca; Surace, Enrico Maria

    2016-03-14

    Transcription factors (TFs) operate by the combined activity of their DNA-binding domains (DBDs) and effector domains (EDs) enabling the coordination of gene expression on a genomic scale. Here we show that in vivo delivery of an engineered DNA-binding protein uncoupled from the repressor domain can produce efficient and gene-specific transcriptional silencing. To interfere with RHODOPSIN (RHO) gain-of-function mutations we engineered the ZF6-DNA-binding protein (ZF6-DB) that targets 20 base pairs (bp) of a RHOcis-regulatory element (CRE) and demonstrate Rho specific transcriptional silencing upon adeno-associated viral (AAV) vector-mediated expression in photoreceptors. The data show that the 20 bp-long genomic DNA sequence is necessary for RHO expression and that photoreceptor delivery of the corresponding cognate synthetic trans-acting factor ZF6-DB without the intrinsic transcriptional repression properties of the canonical ED blocks Rho expression with negligible genome-wide transcript perturbations. The data support DNA-binding-mediated silencing as a novel mode to treat gain-of-function mutations.

  19. Retinal Photoisomerization in Rhodopsin: Electrostatic and Steric Catalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Tomasello, Gaia; Altoe, Piero; Stenta, Marco; Olaso-Gonzalez, Gloria; Garavelli, Marco; Orlandi, Giorgio

    2007-12-26

    Excited state QM(CASPT2//CASSCF)/MM(GAFF) calculations, by our recently developed code COBRAMM (Computations at Bologna Relating Ab-initio and Molecular Mechanic Methods), were carried out in rhodopsin to investigate on the steric and electrostatic effects in retinal photoisomerization catalysis due to the {beta}-ionone ring and glutammate 181 (GLU 181), respectively. The excited state photoisomerization channel has been mapped and a new christallographyc structure (2.2 Aa resolution) has been used for this purpose. Two different set-ups have been used to evaluate the electrostatic effects of GLU 181 (which is very close to the central double bond of the chromophore): the first with a neutral GLU 181 (as commonly accepted), the second with a negatively charged (i.e. deprotonated) GLU 181 (as very recent experimental findings seem to suggest). On the other hand, {beta}-ionone ring steric effects were evaluated by calculating the photoisomerization path of a modified chromophore, where the ring double bond has been saturated. Spectroscopic properties were calculated and compared with the available experimental data.

  20. Photoreceptor IFT complexes containing chaperones, guanylyl cyclase 1 and rhodopsin.

    PubMed

    Bhowmick, Reshma; Li, Mei; Sun, Jun; Baker, Sheila A; Insinna, Christine; Besharse, Joseph C

    2009-06-01

    Intraflagellar transport (IFT) provides a mechanism for the transport of cilium-specific proteins, but the mechanisms for linkage of cargo and IFT proteins have not been identified. Using the sensory outer segments (OS) of photoreceptors, which are derived from sensory cilia, we have identified IFT-cargo complexes containing IFT proteins, kinesin 2 family proteins, two photoreceptor-specific membrane proteins, guanylyl cyclase 1 (GC1, Gucy2e) and rhodopsin (RHO), and the chaperones, mammalian relative of DNAJ, DnajB6 (MRJ), and HSC70 (Hspa8). Analysis of these complexes leads to a model in which MRJ through its binding to IFT88 and GC1 plays a critical role in formation or stabilization of the IFT-cargo complexes. Consistent with the function of MRJ in the activation of HSC70 ATPase activity, Mg-ATP enhances the co-IP of GC1, RHO, and MRJ with IFT proteins. Furthermore, RNAi knockdown of MRJ in IMCD3 cells expressing GC1-green fluorescent protein (GFP) reduces cilium membrane targeting of GC1-GFP without apparent effect on cilium elongation.

  1. Light-induced currents in Xenopus oocytes expressing bovine rhodopsin.

    PubMed Central

    Knox, B E; Khorana, H G; Nasi, E

    1993-01-01

    1. We have investigated the functioning of bovine rod opsin, which is efficiently synthesized from RNA made by in vitro transcription, following injection into Xenopus oocytes. We found that oocytes expressing the gene for opsin exhibit light-dependent ionic currents only after pigment generation by incubation with 11-cis-retinal. These currents are similar to the endogenous muscarinic acetylcholine (ACh) response of oocytes, but their amplitude is substantially smaller. 2. In order to optimize the conditions for obtaining light-induced currents in RNA-injected oocytes, the native ACh response was examined under several conditions. It was found that elevated external calcium markedly enhances the muscarinic response and that these currents have a non-linear dependence on membrane voltage, increasing substantially with depolarization. 3. Using the optimal conditions for evoking the largest ACh responses, (28 mM [Ca2+]o, 0 mV, omission of serum and Hepes from the media), the light-evoked currents obtained in RNA-injected oocytes were remarkably enhanced, and responses to multiple light stimuli could be obtained. 4. The light response appeared to desensitize, even after long periods of recovery and pigment regeneration. By contrast, the ACh responses continued to appear normal. These results suggest that desensitization of photoresponses expressed in Xenopus oocytes involve changes at early stages of the pathway, resulting in a reduced ability of rhodopsin to couple to the endogenous signalling system. Images Fig. 3 PMID:7692039

  2. Rhodopsin targeted transcriptional silencing by DNA-binding

    PubMed Central

    Botta, Salvatore; Marrocco, Elena; de Prisco, Nicola; Curion, Fabiola; Renda, Mario; Sofia, Martina; Lupo, Mariangela; Carissimo, Annamaria; Bacci, Maria Laura; Gesualdo, Carlo; Rossi, Settimio; Simonelli, Francesca; Surace, Enrico Maria

    2016-01-01

    Transcription factors (TFs) operate by the combined activity of their DNA-binding domains (DBDs) and effector domains (EDs) enabling the coordination of gene expression on a genomic scale. Here we show that in vivo delivery of an engineered DNA-binding protein uncoupled from the repressor domain can produce efficient and gene-specific transcriptional silencing. To interfere with RHODOPSIN (RHO) gain-of-function mutations we engineered the ZF6-DNA-binding protein (ZF6-DB) that targets 20 base pairs (bp) of a RHOcis-regulatory element (CRE) and demonstrate Rho specific transcriptional silencing upon adeno-associated viral (AAV) vector-mediated expression in photoreceptors. The data show that the 20 bp-long genomic DNA sequence is necessary for RHO expression and that photoreceptor delivery of the corresponding cognate synthetic trans-acting factor ZF6-DB without the intrinsic transcriptional repression properties of the canonical ED blocks Rho expression with negligible genome-wide transcript perturbations. The data support DNA-binding-mediated silencing as a novel mode to treat gain-of-function mutations. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12242.001 PMID:26974343

  3. Expression and light-triggered movement of rhodopsins in the larval visual system of mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Manuel; Kimler, Kyle J.; Leming, Matthew T.; Hu, Xiaobang; Whaley, Michelle A.; O'Tousa, Joseph E.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT During the larval stages, the visual system of the mosquito Aedes aegypti contains five stemmata, often referred to as larval ocelli, positioned laterally on each side of the larval head. Here we show that stemmata contain two photoreceptor types, distinguished by the expression of different rhodopsins. The rhodopsin Aaop3 (GPROP3) is expressed in the majority of the larval photoreceptors. There are two small clusters of photoreceptors located within the satellite and central stemmata that express the rhodopsin Aaop7 (GPROP7) instead of Aaop3. Electroretinogram analysis of transgenic Aaop7 Drosophila indicates that Aaop3 and Aaop7, both classified as long-wavelength rhodopsins, possess similar but not identical spectral properties. Light triggers an extensive translocation of Aaop3 from the photosensitive rhabdoms to the cytoplasmic compartment, whereas light-driven translocation of Aaop7 is limited. The results suggest that these photoreceptor cell types play distinct roles in larval vision. An additional component of the larval visual system is the adult compound eye, which starts to develop at the anterior face of the larval stemmata during the 1st instar stage. The photoreceptors of the developing compound eye show rhodopsin expression during the 4th larval instar stage, consistent with indications from previous reports that the adult compound eye contributes to larval and pupal visual capabilities. PMID:25750414

  4. Expression and light-triggered movement of rhodopsins in the larval visual system of mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Manuel; Kimler, Kyle J; Leming, Matthew T; Hu, Xiaobang; Whaley, Michelle A; O'Tousa, Joseph E

    2015-05-01

    During the larval stages, the visual system of the mosquito Aedes aegypti contains five stemmata, often referred to as larval ocelli, positioned laterally on each side of the larval head. Here we show that stemmata contain two photoreceptor types, distinguished by the expression of different rhodopsins. The rhodopsin Aaop3 (GPROP3) is expressed in the majority of the larval photoreceptors. There are two small clusters of photoreceptors located within the satellite and central stemmata that express the rhodopsin Aaop7 (GPROP7) instead of Aaop3. Electroretinogram analysis of transgenic Aaop7 Drosophila indicates that Aaop3 and Aaop7, both classified as long-wavelength rhodopsins, possess similar but not identical spectral properties. Light triggers an extensive translocation of Aaop3 from the photosensitive rhabdoms to the cytoplasmic compartment, whereas light-driven translocation of Aaop7 is limited. The results suggest that these photoreceptor cell types play distinct roles in larval vision. An additional component of the larval visual system is the adult compound eye, which starts to develop at the anterior face of the larval stemmata during the 1st instar stage. The photoreceptors of the developing compound eye show rhodopsin expression during the 4th larval instar stage, consistent with indications from previous reports that the adult compound eye contributes to larval and pupal visual capabilities.

  5. Modeling photo-bleaching kinetics to map local variations in rod rhodopsin density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehler, M.; Dobrosotskaya, J.; King, E. J.; Czaja, W.; Bonner, R. F.

    2011-03-01

    Localized rod photoreceptor and rhodopsin losses have been observed in post mortem histology both in normal aging and in age-related maculopathy. We propose to noninvasively map local rod rhodopsin density through analysis of the brightening of the underlying lipofuscin autofluorescence (LAF) in confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (cSLO) imaging sequences starting in the dark adapted eye. The detected LAF increases as rhodopsin is bleached (time constant ~ 25sec) by the average retinal irradiance of the cSLO 488nm laser beam. We fit parameters of analytical expressions for the kinetics of rhodopsin bleaching that Lamb validated using electroretinogram recordings in human. By performing localized (~ 100μm) kinetic analysis, we create high resolution maps of the rhodopsin density. This new noninvasive imaging and analysis approach appears well-suited for measuring localized changes in the rod photoreceptors and correlating them at high spatial resolution with localized pathological changes of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) seen in steady-state LAF images.

  6. Rescue of mutant rhodopsin traffic by metformin-induced AMPK activation accelerates photoreceptor degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Athanasiou, Dimitra; Aguila, Monica; Opefi, Chikwado A.; South, Kieron; Bellingham, James; Bevilacqua, Dalila; Munro, Peter M.; Kanuga, Naheed; Mackenzie, Francesca E.; Dubis, Adam M.; Georgiadis, Anastasios; Graca, Anna B.; Pearson, Rachael A.; Ali, Robin R.; Sakami, Sanae; Palczewski, Krzysztof; Sherman, Michael Y.; Reeves, Philip J.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Protein misfolding caused by inherited mutations leads to loss of protein function and potentially toxic ‘gain of function’, such as the dominant P23H rhodopsin mutation that causes retinitis pigmentosa (RP). Here, we tested whether the AMPK activator metformin could affect the P23H rhodopsin synthesis and folding. In cell models, metformin treatment improved P23H rhodopsin folding and traffic. In animal models of P23H RP, metformin treatment successfully enhanced P23H traffic to the rod outer segment, but this led to reduced photoreceptor function and increased photoreceptor cell death. The metformin-rescued P23H rhodopsin was still intrinsically unstable and led to increased structural instability of the rod outer segments. These data suggest that improving the traffic of misfolding rhodopsin mutants is unlikely to be a practical therapy, because of their intrinsic instability and long half-life in the outer segment, but also highlights the potential of altering translation through AMPK to improve protein function in other protein misfolding diseases. PMID:28065882

  7. A rhodopsin immunoanalog in the related photosensitive protozoans Blepharisma japonicum and Stentor coeruleus.

    PubMed

    Fabczak, Hanna; Sobierajska, Katarzyna; Fabczak, Stanisław

    2008-09-01

    Immunoblotting of isolated cell membrane fractions from ciliates Blepharisma japonicum and Stentor coeruleus with a polyclonal antibody raised against rhodopsin revealed one strong protein band of about 36 kDa, thought to correspond to protozoan rhodopsin. Inspection of both ciliates labeled with the same antibody using a confocal microscope confirmed the immunoblotting result and demonstrated the presence of these rhodopsin-like molecules localized within the cell membrane area. Immunoblot analysis of the ciliate membrane fractions resolved by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis identified two distinct 36 kDa spots at pIs of 4.5 and 7.0 for Blepharisma, and three spots at pIs of 4.4, 5.0 and 6.0 for Stentor, indicating a possible mixture of phosphorylated rhodopsin species in these cells. The obtained results suggest that both Blepharisma and the related ciliate Stentor contain within the cell membrane the rhodopsin-like proteins, which may be involved as receptor molecules in the sensory transduction pathway mediating motile photoresponses in these protists as in other species of lower eukaryota.

  8. A Photochromic Histidine Kinase Rhodopsin (HKR1) That Is Bimodally Switched by Ultraviolet and Blue Light*

    PubMed Central

    Luck, Meike; Mathes, Tilo; Bruun, Sara; Fudim, Roman; Hagedorn, Rolf; Tran Nguyen, Tra My; Kateriya, Suneel; Kennis, John T. M.; Hildebrandt, Peter; Hegemann, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Rhodopsins are light-activated chromoproteins that mediate signaling processes via transducer proteins or promote active or passive ion transport as ion pumps or directly light-activated channels. Here, we provide spectroscopic characterization of a rhodopsin from the Chlamydomonas eyespot. It belongs to a recently discovered but so far uncharacterized family of histidine kinase rhodopsins (HKRs). These are modular proteins consisting of rhodopsin, a histidine kinase, a response regulator, and in some cases an effector domain such as an adenylyl or guanylyl cyclase, all encoded in a single protein as a two-component system. The recombinant rhodopsin fragment, Rh, of HKR1 is a UVA receptor (λmax = 380 nm) that is photoconverted by UV light into a stable blue light-absorbing meta state Rh-Bl (λmax = 490 nm). Rh-Bl is converted back to Rh-UV by blue light. Raman spectroscopy revealed that the Rh-UV chromophore is in an unusual 13-cis,15-anti configuration, which explains why the chromophore is deprotonated. The excited state lifetime of Rh-UV is exceptionally stable, probably caused by a relatively unpolar retinal binding pocket, converting into the photoproduct within about 100 ps, whereas the blue form reacts 100 times faster. We propose that the photochromic HKR1 plays a role in the adaptation of behavioral responses in the presence of UVA light. PMID:23027869

  9. Photoactivation of rhodopsin causes an increased hydrogen-deuterium exchange of buried peptide groups.

    PubMed Central

    Rath, P; DeGrip, W J; Rothschild, K J

    1998-01-01

    A key step in visual transduction is the light-induced conformational changes of rhodopsin that lead to binding and activation of the G-protein transducin. In order to explore the nature of these conformational changes, time-resolved Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to measure the kinetics of hydrogen/deuterium exchange in rhodopsin upon photoexcitation. The extent of hydrogen/deuterium exchange of backbone peptide groups can be monitored by measuring the integrated intensity of the amide II and amide II' bands. When rhodopsin films are exposed to D2O in the dark for long periods, the amide II band retains at least 60% of its integrated intensity, reflecting a core of backbone peptide groups that are resistant to H/D exchange. Upon photoactivation, rhodopsin in the presence of D2O exhibits a new phase of H/D exchange which at 10 degrees C consists of fast (time constant approximately 30 min) and slow (approximately 11 h) components. These results indicate that photoactivation causes buried portions of the rhodopsin backbone structure to become more accessible. PMID:9449322

  10. Investigation of Rhodopsin Dynamics in its Signaling State by Solid-State Deuterium NMR Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Struts, Andrey V.; Chawla, Udeep; Perera, Suchithranga M.D.C.; Brown, Michael F.

    2017-01-01

    Site-directed deuterium NMR spectroscopy is a valuable tool to study the structural dynamics of biomolecules in cases where solution NMR is inapplicable. Solid-state 2H NMR spectral studies of aligned membrane samples of rhodopsin with selectively labeled retinal provide information on structural changes of the chromophore in different protein states. In addition, solid-state 2H NMR relaxation time measurements allow one to study the dynamics of the ligand during the transition from the inactive to the active state. Here we describe the methodological aspects of solid-state 2H NMR spectroscopy for functional studies of rhodopsin, with an emphasis on the dynamics of the retinal cofactor. We provide complete protocols for the preparation of NMR samples of rhodopsin with 11-cis-retinal selectively deuterated at the methyl groups in aligned membranes. In addition, we review optimized conditions for trapping the rhodopsin photointermediates; and lastly we address the challenging problem of trapping the signaling state of rhodopsin in aligned membrane films. PMID:25697522

  11. Rhodopsin-Regulated Insulin Receptor Signaling Pathway in Rod Photoreceptor Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Rajala, Raju V.S.; Anderson, Robert E.

    2010-01-01

    The retina is an integral part of the central nervous system and retinal cells are known to express insulin receptors (IR), although their function is not known. This article describes recent studies that link the photoactivation of rhodopsin to tyrosine phosphorylation of the IR and subsequent activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), a neuron survival factor. Our studies suggest that the physiological role of this process is to provide neuroprotection of the retina against light-damage by activating proteins that protect against stress-induced apoptosis. We focus mainly on our recently identified regulation of the IR pathway through the G-protein-coupled receptor rhodopsin. Various mutant and knockout proteins of phototransduction cascade have been used to study the light-induced activation of the retinal IR. Our studies suggest that rhodopsin may have additional previously uncharacterized signaling functions in photoreceptors. PMID:20407846

  12. Transmembrane Helices Tilt, Bend, Slide, Torque, and Unwind between Functional States of Rhodopsin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Zhong; Ren, Peter X.; Balusu, Rohith; Yang, Xiaojing

    2016-09-01

    The seven-helical bundle of rhodopsin and other G-protein coupled receptors undergoes structural rearrangements as the transmembrane receptor protein is activated. These structural changes are known to involve tilting and bending of various transmembrane helices. However, the cause and effect relationship among structural events leading to a cytoplasmic crevasse for G-protein binding is less well defined. Here we present a mathematical model of the protein helix and a simple procedure to determine multiple parameters that offer precise depiction of a helical conformation. A comprehensive survey of bovine rhodopsin structures shows that the helical rearrangements during the activation of rhodopsin involve a variety of angular and linear motions such as torsion, unwinding, and sliding in addition to the previously reported tilting and bending. These hitherto undefined motion components unify the results obtained from different experimental approaches, and demonstrate conformational similarity between the active opsin structure and the photoactivated structures in crystallo near the retinal anchor despite their marked differences.

  13. The kinetics of regeneration of rhodopsin under enzyme-limited availability of 11-cis retinoid.

    PubMed

    Lamb, Trevor D; Corless, Robert M; Pananos, A Demetri

    2015-05-01

    In order to describe the regeneration of rhodopsin and the recovery of visual sensitivity following exposure of the eye to intense bleaching illumination, two models have been proposed, in which there is either a "resistive" or an "enzymatic" limit to the supply of retinoid. A solution has previously been derived for the resistive model, and here we derive an analytical solution for the enzymatic model and we investigate the form of this solution as a function of parameter values. We demonstrate that this enzymatic model provides a good fit to human post-bleach recovery, for four cases: for rhodopsin regeneration in normal subjects; for psychophysical scotopic dark adaptation in normal subjects; for rhodopsin regeneration and scotopic dark adaptation in fundus albipunctatus patients; and for cone pigment regeneration in normal subjects. Finally, we present arguments favouring the enzymatic model as the cellular basis for normal human rod and cone pigment regeneration.

  14. Electron density deformations provide new insights into the spectral shift of rhodopsins.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Rodríguez, Erix Wiliam; Montero-Alejo, Ana Lilian; López, Rafael; Sánchez-García, Elsa; Montero-Cabrera, Luis Alberto; de la Vega, José Manuel García

    2013-10-30

    Spectral shifts of rhodopsin, which are related to variations of the electron distribution in 11-cis-retinal, are investigated here using the method of deformed atoms in molecules. We found that systems carrying the M207R and S186W mutations display large perturbations of the π-conjugated system with respect to wild-type rhodopsins. These changes agree with the predicted behavior of the bond length alternation (BLA) and the blue shifts of vertical excitation energies of these systems. The effect of the planarity of the central and Schiff-base regions of retinal chain on the electronic structure of the chromophore is also investigated. By establishing nonlinear polynomial relations between BLA, chain distortions, and vertical excitation energies, we are also able to provide a semiquantitative approach for the understanding of the mechanisms regulating spectral shifts in rhodopsin and its mutants.

  15. A rhodopsin-like protein in Cyanophora paradoxa: gene sequence and protein immunolocalization.

    PubMed

    Frassanito, Anna Maria; Barsanti, Laura; Passarelli, Vincenzo; Evangelista, Valtere; Gualtieri, Paolo

    2010-03-01

    Here, we report the DNA sequence of the rhodopsin gene in the alga Cyanophora paradoxa (Glaucophyta). The primers were designed according to the conserved regions of prokaryotic and eukaryotic rhodopsin-like proteins deposited in the GenBank. The sequence consists of 1,272 bp comprised of 5 introns. The correspondent protein, named Cyanophopsin, showed high identity to rhodopsin-like proteins of Archea, Bacteria, Fungi, and Algae. At the N-terminal, the protein is characterized by a region with no transmembrane alpha-helices (80 aa), followed by a region with 7alpha-helices (219 aa) and a shorter 35-aa C-terminal region. The DNA sequence of the N-terminal region was expressed in E. coli and the recombinant purified peptide was used as antigen in hens to obtain polyclonal antibodies. Indirect immunofluorescence in C. paradoxa cells showed a marked labeling of the muroplast (aka cyanelle) membrane.

  16. The Retromer Complex Is Required for Rhodopsin Recycling and Its Loss Leads to Photoreceptor Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shiuan; Tan, Kai Li; Agosto, Melina A.; Xiong, Bo; Yamamoto, Shinya; Sandoval, Hector; Jaiswal, Manish; Bayat, Vafa; Zhang, Ke; Charng, Wu-Lin; David, Gabriela; Duraine, Lita; Venkatachalam, Kartik; Wensel, Theodore G.; Bellen, Hugo J.

    2014-01-01

    Rhodopsin mistrafficking can cause photoreceptor (PR) degeneration. Upon light exposure, activated rhodopsin 1 (Rh1) in Drosophila PRs is internalized via endocytosis and degraded in lysosomes. Whether internalized Rh1 can be recycled is unknown. Here, we show that the retromer complex is expressed in PRs where it is required for recycling endocytosed Rh1 upon light stimulation. In the absence of subunits of the retromer, Rh1 is processed in the endolysosomal pathway, leading to a dramatic increase in late endosomes, lysosomes, and light-dependent PR degeneration. Reducing Rh1 endocytosis or Rh1 levels in retromer mutants alleviates PR degeneration. In addition, increasing retromer abundance suppresses degenerative phenotypes of mutations that affect the endolysosomal system. Finally, expressing human Vps26 suppresses PR degeneration in Vps26 mutant PRs. We propose that the retromer plays a conserved role in recycling rhodopsins to maintain PR function and integrity. PMID:24781186

  17. MODELLING THE P2Y PURINOCEPTOR USING RHODOPSIN AS TEMPLATE

    PubMed Central

    Van Rhee, A. Michiel; Fischer, Bilha; Van Galen, Philip J. M.; Jacobson, Kenneth A.

    2012-01-01

    The P2Y1 purinoceptor cloned from chick brain (Webb, T. et al. (1993) FEBS Lett., 324, 219–225) is a 362 amino acid, 41 kDa protein. To locate residues tentatively involved in ligand recognition a molecular model of the P2Y purinoceptor has been constructed. The model was based on the primary sequence and structural homology with the G-protein coupled photoreceptor rhodopsin, in analogy to the method proposed by Ballesteros and Weinstein ((1995) Meth. Neurosci. 25, 366–428). Transmembrane helices were constructed from the amino acid sequence, minimized individually, and positioned in a helical bundle. The helical bundle was then minimized using the Amber forcefield in Discover (BIOSYM Technologies) to obtain the final model. Several residues that have been shown to be critical in ligand binding in other GPCRs are conserved in the P2Y1 purinoceptor. According to our model the side chains of these conserved residues are facing the internal cleft in which ligand binding likely occurs. The model also suggests four basic residues (H121 in TM3, H266 and K269 in TM6 and R299 in TM7) near the extracellular surface that might be involved in ligand binding. These basic residues might be essential in coordinating the triphosphate chain of the endogenous ligand adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP). Potential binding sites for agonists have been explored by docking several derivatives (including newly synthesized N6-derivatives) into the model. The N6-phenylethyl substituent is tolerated pharmacologically, and in our model this substituent occupies a region predominantly defined by aromatic residues such as F51 (TM1), Y100 (TM2) and F120 (TM3). The dimethylated analogue of ATP, N6,N6-dimethyl-adenosine 5′-triphosphate, is less well tolerated pharmacologically, and our model predicts that the attenuated activity is due to interference with hydrogen bonding capacity to Q296 (TM7). PMID:8872457

  18. Missense mutation (E150K) of rhodopsin in autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa

    SciTech Connect

    Orth, U.; Oehlmann, R.; Gal, A.

    1994-09-01

    Missense or nonsense mutations of the rhodopsin gene have been implied in the pathogenesis of at least 3 different traits; autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (adRP), congenital stationary night blindness (CSNB), and autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa (arRP). For the latter, a single patient has been reported with a nonsense mutation at codon 249 on both alleles. Heterozygous carriers of missense mutations of rhodopsin develop either adRP or CSNB depending on the particular amino acid substitution. Four of the 9 siblings from a consanguineous marriage in southern India were reported the have arRP. Mutational screening and sequencing of the rhodopsin gene revealed a G-to-A transition of the first nucleotide at codon 150 in exon II, which alters glutamate to lysine. The E150K mutation was present in the 4 patients in homozygous form, whereas the parents and 2 of the siblings were heterozygotes. Two-point analysis produced a Zmax=3.46 at theta=0.00. Two unaffected siblings who are heterozygotes for the E150K mutation underwent a thorough ophthalmological and psychophysical examination. No clinical abnormalities were found although these individuals were over forty, whereas the onset of RP in their affected siblings was in the second decade. Collectively, both the genetic and clinical findings strongly suggest that the E150K mutation of rhodopsin is recessive in this family. Glu150 forms part of the CD cytoplasmic loop of rhodopsin, which has been implicated in the binding and activation of transducin. We speculate that E150K leads to RP because the mutant protein may be incapable of activating transducin. It is tempting to speculate that, in addition to mutations in the genes for rhodopsin and the {beta}-subunit of PDE, mutations in the genes for transducin may also result in arRP.

  19. Structure and dynamics of retinal in rhodopsin elucidated by deuterium solid state NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salgado, Gilmar Fernandes De Jesus

    Rhodopsin is a seven transmembrane helix GPCR found which mediates dim light vision, in which the binding pocket is occupied by the ligand 11- cis-retinal. A site-directed 2H-labeling approach utilizing solid-state 2H NMR spectroscopy was used to investigate the structure and dynamics of retinal within its binding pocket in the dark state of rhodopsin, and as well the MetaI and MetaII. 11-cis-[5-C 2H3]-, 11-cis-[9-C 2H3]-, and 11-cis-[13-C2H 3]-retinal were used to regenerate bleached rhodopsin. Recombinant membranes comprising purified rhodopsin and 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) were prepared (1:50 molar ratio). Solid-state 2H NMR spectra were obtained for the aligned rhodopsin/POPC recombinant membranes at temperatures below the order-disorder phase transition temperature of POPC. The solid-state NMR studies of aligned samples, give the orientations of the 2H nuclear coupling tensor relative to the membrane frame, which involve both the conformation and orientation of the bound retinal chromophore. Theoretical simulations of the experimental 2H NMR spectra employed a new lineshape treatment for a semi-random distribution due to static uniaxial disorder. The analysis gives the orientation of the 2H-labeled C-C2H3 methyl bond axes relative to the membrane plane as well as the extent of three-dimensional alignment disorder (mosaic spread). These results clearly demonstrate the applicability of site-directed 2H NMR methods for investigating conformational changes and dynamics of ligands bound to rhodopsin and other GPCRs in relation to their characteristic mechanisms of action.

  20. Low-Temperature Trapping of Photointermediates of the Rhodopsin E181Q Mutant.

    PubMed

    Sandberg, Megan N; Greco, Jordan A; Wagner, Nicole L; Amora, Tabitha L; Ramos, Lavoisier A; Chen, Min-Hsuan; Knox, Barry E; Birge, Robert R

    Three active-site components in rhodopsin play a key role in the stability and function of the protein: 1) the counter-ion residues which stabilize the protonated Schiff base, 2) water molecules, and 3) the hydrogen-bonding network. The ionizable residue Glu-181, which is involved in an extended hydrogen-bonding network with Ser-186, Tyr-268, Tyr-192, and key water molecules within the active site of rhodopsin, has been shown to be involved in a complex counter-ion switch mechanism with Glu-113 during the photobleaching sequence of the protein. Herein, we examine the photobleaching sequence of the E181Q rhodopsin mutant by using cryogenic UV-visible spectroscopy to further elucidate the role of Glu-181 during photoactivation of the protein. We find that lower temperatures are required to trap the early photostationary states of the E181Q mutant compared to native rhodopsin. Additionally, a Blue Shifted Intermediate (BSI, λmax = 498 nm, 100 K) is observed after the formation of E181Q Bathorhodopsin (Batho, λmax = 556 nm, 10 K) but prior to formation of E181Q Lumirhodopsin (Lumi, λmax = 506 nm, 220 K). A potential energy diagram of the observed photointermediates suggests the E181Q Batho intermediate has an enthalpy value 7.99 KJ/mol higher than E181Q BSI, whereas in rhodopsin, the BSI is 10.02 KJ/mol higher in enthalpy than Batho. Thus, the Batho to BSI transition is enthalpically driven in E181Q and entropically driven in native rhodopsin. We conclude that the substitution of Glu-181 with Gln-181 results in a significant perturbation of the hydrogen-bonding network within the active site of rhodopsin. In addition, the removal of a key electrostatic interaction between the chromophore and the protein destabilizes the protein in both the dark state and Batho intermediate conformations while having a stabilizing effect on the BSI conformation. The observed destabilization upon this substitution further supports that Glu-181 is negatively charged in the early

  1. Ecological and Lineage-Specific Factors Drive the Molecular Evolution of Rhodopsin in Cichlid Fishes.

    PubMed

    Torres-Dowdall, Julián; Henning, Frederico; Elmer, Kathryn R; Meyer, Axel

    2015-11-01

    The visual system in the colorful cichlid fishes from the African great lakes is believed to be important for their adaptive radiations. However, few studies have attempted to compare the visual system of radiating cichlid lineages with that of cichlids that have not undergone recent radiations. One such study published in this journal (Schott RK, Refvik SP, Hauser FE, López-Fernández H, Chang BSW. 2014. Divergent positive selection in rhodopsin from lake and riverine cichlid fishes. Mol Biol Evol. 31:1149-1165) found divergent selection on rhodopsin between African lacustrine and riverine cichlid species and riverine Neotropical cichlids, concluding that ecology drives the molecular evolution of this opsin. Here, we expand this analysis by incorporating rhodopsin sequences from Neotropical lacustrine cichlids and show that both ecology and phylogeny are important drivers of the molecular evolution of rhodopsin in cichlids. We found little overlap of sites under selection between African and Neotropical lineages and a faster rate of molecular evolution in African compared with Neotropical cichlids. These results support the notion that genetic or population genetic features particular to African cichlids contributed to their radiations.

  2. Crystal structure of rhodopsin bound to arrestin by femtosecond X-ray laser

    DOE PAGES

    Kang, Yanyong; Zhou, X. Edward; Gao, Xiang; ...

    2015-07-22

    G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) signal primarily through G proteins or arrestins. Arrestin binding to GPCRs blocks G protein interaction and redirects signalling to numerous G-protein-independent pathways. Here we report the crystal structure of a constitutively active form of human rhodopsin bound to a pre-activated form of the mouse visual arrestin, determined by serial femtosecond X-ray laser crystallography. Together with extensive biochemical and mutagenesis data, the structure reveals an overall architecture of the rhodopsin-arrestin assembly in which rhodopsin uses distinct structural elements, including transmembrane helix 7 and helix 8, to recruit arrestin. Correspondingly, arrestin adopts the pre-activated conformation, with a ~20° rotationmore » between the amino and carboxy domains, which opens up a cleft in arrestin to accommodate a short helix formed by the second intracellular loop of rhodopsin. In conclusion, this structure provides a basis for understanding GPCR-mediated arrestin-biased signalling and demonstrates the power of X-ray lasers for advancing the frontiers of structural biology.« less

  3. Formation and Decay of the Arrestin·Rhodopsin Complex in Native Disc Membranes*

    PubMed Central

    Beyrière, Florent; Sommer, Martha E.; Szczepek, Michal; Bartl, Franz J.; Hofmann, Klaus Peter; Heck, Martin; Ritter, Eglof

    2015-01-01

    In the G protein-coupled receptor rhodopsin, light-induced cis/trans isomerization of the retinal ligand triggers a series of distinct receptor states culminating in the active Metarhodopsin II (Meta II) state, which binds and activates the G protein transducin (Gt). Long before Meta II decays into the aporeceptor opsin and free all-trans-retinal, its signaling is quenched by receptor phosphorylation and binding of the protein arrestin-1, which blocks further access of Gt to Meta II. Although recent crystal structures of arrestin indicate how it might look in a precomplex with the phosphorylated receptor, the transition into the high affinity complex is not understood. Here we applied Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to monitor the interaction of arrestin-1 and phosphorylated rhodopsin in native disc membranes. By isolating the unique infrared signature of arrestin binding, we directly observed the structural alterations in both reaction partners. In the high affinity complex, rhodopsin adopts a structure similar to Gt-bound Meta II. In arrestin, a modest loss of β-sheet structure indicates an increase in flexibility but is inconsistent with a large scale structural change. During Meta II decay, the arrestin-rhodopsin stoichiometry shifts from 1:1 to 1:2. Arrestin stabilizes half of the receptor population in a specific Meta II protein conformation, whereas the other half decays to inactive opsin. Altogether these results illustrate the distinct binding modes used by arrestin to interact with different functional forms of the receptor. PMID:25847250

  4. Crystal structure of rhodopsin bound to arrestin by femtosecond X-ray laser

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Yanyong; Zhou, X. Edward; Gao, Xiang; He, Yuanzheng; Liu, Wei; Ishchenko, Andrii; Barty, Anton; White, Thomas A.; Yefanov, Oleksandr; Han, Gye Won; Xu, Qingping; de Waal, Parker W.; Ke, Jiyuan; Eileen Tan, M. H.; Zhang, Chenghai; Moeller, Arne; West, Graham M.; Pascal, Bruce; Van Eps, Ned; Caro, Lydia N.; Vishnivetskiy, Sergey A.; Lee, Regina J.; Suino-Powell, Kelly M.; Gu, Xin; Pal, Kuntal; Ma, Jinming; Zhi, Xiaoyong; Boutet, Sébastien; Williams, Garth J.; Messerschmidt, Marc; Gati, Cornelius; Zatsepin, Nadia A.; Wang, Dingjie; James, Daniel; Basu, Shibom; Roy-Chowdhury, Shatabdi; Conrad, Chelsie; Coe, Jesse; Liu, Haiguang; Lisova, Stella; Kupitz, Christopher; Grotjohann, Ingo; Fromme, Raimund; Jiang, Yi; Tan, Minjia; Yang, Huaiyu; Li, Jun; Wang, Meitian; Zheng, Zhong; Li, Dianfan; Howe, Nicole; Zhao, Yingming; Standfuss, Jörg; Diederichs, Kay; Dong, Yuhui; Potter, Clinton S; Carragher, Bridget; Caffrey, Martin; Jiang, Hualiang; Chapman, Henry N.; Spence, John C. H.; Fromme, Petra; Weierstall, Uwe; Ernst, Oliver P.; Katritch, Vsevolod; Gurevich, Vsevolod V.; Griffin, Patrick R.; Hubbell, Wayne L.; Stevens, Raymond C.; Cherezov, Vadim; Melcher, Karsten; Xu, H. Eric

    2015-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) signal primarily through G proteins or arrestins. Arrestin binding to GPCRs blocks G protein interaction and redirects signaling to numerous G protein-independent pathways. Here we report the crystal structure of a constitutively active form of human rhodopsin bound to a pre-activated form of the mouse visual arrestin, determined by serial femtosecond X-ray laser crystallography. Together with extensive biochemical and mutagenesis data, the structure reveals an overall architecture of the rhodopsin-arrestin assembly, in which rhodopsin uses distinct structural elements, including TM7 and Helix 8 to recruit arrestin. Correspondingly, arrestin adopts the pre-activated conformation, with a ~20° rotation between the N- and C- domains, which opens up a cleft in arrestin to accommodate a short helix formed by the second intracellular loop of rhodopsin. This structure provides a basis for understanding GPCR-mediated arrestin-biased signaling and demonstrates the power of X-ray lasers for advancing the frontiers of structural biology. PMID:26200343

  5. Crystal structure of rhodopsin bound to arrestin by femtosecond X-ray laser

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Yanyong; Zhou, X. Edward; Gao, Xiang; He, Yuanzheng; Liu, Wei; Ishchenko, Andrii; Barty, Anton; White, Thomas A.; Yefanov, Oleksandr; Han, Gye Won; Xu, Qingping; de Waal, Parker W.; Ke, Jiyuan; Tan, M. H. Eileen; Zhang, Chenghai; Moeller, Arne; West, Graham M.; Pascal, Bruce D.; Van Eps, Ned; Caro, Lydia N.; Vishnivetskiy, Sergey A.; Lee, Regina J.; Suino-Powell, Kelly M.; Gu, Xin; Pal, Kuntal; Ma, Jinming; Zhi, Xiaoyong; Boutet, Sébastien; Williams, Garth J.; Messerschmidt, Marc; Gati, Cornelius; Zatsepin, Nadia A.; Wang, Dingjie; James, Daniel; Basu, Shibom; Roy-Chowdhury, Shatabdi; Conrad, Chelsie E.; Coe, Jesse; Liu, Haiguang; Lisova, Stella; Kupitz, Christopher; Grotjohann, Ingo; Fromme, Raimund; Jiang, Yi; Tan, Minjia; Yang, Huaiyu; Li, Jun; Wang, Meitian; Zheng, Zhong; Li, Dianfan; Howe, Nicole; Zhao, Yingming; Standfuss, Jörg; Diederichs, Kay; Dong, Yuhui; Potter, Clinton S.; Carragher, Bridget; Caffrey, Martin; Jiang, Hualiang; Chapman, Henry N.; Spence, John C. H.; Fromme, Petra; Weierstall, Uwe; Ernst, Oliver P.; Katritch, Vsevolod; Gurevich, Vsevolod V.; Griffin, Patrick R.; Hubbell, Wayne L.; Stevens, Raymond C.; Cherezov, Vadim; Melcher, Karsten; Xu, H. Eric

    2015-07-22

    G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) signal primarily through G proteins or arrestins. Arrestin binding to GPCRs blocks G protein interaction and redirects signalling to numerous G-protein-independent pathways. Here we report the crystal structure of a constitutively active form of human rhodopsin bound to a pre-activated form of the mouse visual arrestin, determined by serial femtosecond X-ray laser crystallography. Together with extensive biochemical and mutagenesis data, the structure reveals an overall architecture of the rhodopsin-arrestin assembly in which rhodopsin uses distinct structural elements, including transmembrane helix 7 and helix 8, to recruit arrestin. Correspondingly, arrestin adopts the pre-activated conformation, with a ~20° rotation between the amino and carboxy domains, which opens up a cleft in arrestin to accommodate a short helix formed by the second intracellular loop of rhodopsin. In conclusion, this structure provides a basis for understanding GPCR-mediated arrestin-biased signalling and demonstrates the power of X-ray lasers for advancing the frontiers of structural biology.

  6. Guanylate cyclase 1 relies on rhodopsin for intracellular stability and ciliary trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Pearring, Jillian N; Spencer, William J; Lieu, Eric C; Arshavsky, Vadim Y

    2015-01-01

    Sensory cilia are populated by a select group of signaling proteins that detect environmental stimuli. How these molecules are delivered to the sensory cilium and whether they rely on one another for specific transport remains poorly understood. Here, we investigated whether the visual pigment, rhodopsin, is critical for delivering other signaling proteins to the sensory cilium of photoreceptor cells, the outer segment. Rhodopsin is the most abundant outer segment protein and its proper transport is essential for formation of this organelle, suggesting that such a dependency might exist. Indeed, we demonstrated that guanylate cyclase-1, producing the cGMP second messenger in photoreceptors, requires rhodopsin for intracellular stability and outer segment delivery. We elucidated this dependency by showing that guanylate cyclase-1 is a novel rhodopsin-binding protein. These findings expand rhodopsin’s role in vision from being a visual pigment and major outer segment building block to directing trafficking of another key signaling protein. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12058.001 PMID:26590321

  7. Batch crystallization of rhodopsin for structural dynamics using an X-ray free-electron laser

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Wenting; Nogly, Przemyslaw; Rheinberger, Jan; Kick, Leonhard M.; Gati, Cornelius; Nelson, Garrett; Deupi, Xavier; Standfuss, Jörg; Schertler, Gebhard; Panneels, Valérie

    2015-06-27

    A new batch preparation method is presented for high-density micrometre-sized crystals of the G protein-coupled receptor rhodopsin for use in time-resolved serial femtosecond crystallography at an X-ray free-electron laser using a liquid jet. Rhodopsin is a membrane protein from the G protein-coupled receptor family. Together with its ligand retinal, it forms the visual pigment responsible for night vision. In order to perform ultrafast dynamics studies, a time-resolved serial femtosecond crystallography method is required owing to the nonreversible activation of rhodopsin. In such an approach, microcrystals in suspension are delivered into the X-ray pulses of an X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) after a precise photoactivation delay. Here, a millilitre batch production of high-density microcrystals was developed by four methodical conversion steps starting from known vapour-diffusion crystallization protocols: (i) screening the low-salt crystallization conditions preferred for serial crystallography by vapour diffusion, (ii) optimization of batch crystallization, (iii) testing the crystal size and quality using second-harmonic generation (SHG) imaging and X-ray powder diffraction and (iv) production of millilitres of rhodopsin crystal suspension in batches for serial crystallography tests; these crystals diffracted at an XFEL at the Linac Coherent Light Source using a liquid-jet setup.

  8. Reaction rate and collisional efficiency of the rhodopsin-transducin system in intact retinal rods.

    PubMed Central

    Kahlert, M; Hofmann, K P

    1991-01-01

    A model of transducin activation is constructed from its partial reactions (formation of metarhodopsin II, association, and dissociation of the rhodopsin-transducin complex). The kinetic equations of the model are solved both numerically and, for small photoactivation, analytically. From data on the partial reactions in vitro, rate and activation energy profile of amplified transducin turnover are modeled and compared with measured light-scattering signals of transducin activation in intact retinal rods. The data leave one free parameter, the rate of association between transducin and rhodopsin. Best fit is achieved for an activation energy of 35 kJ/mol, indicating lateral membrane diffusion of the proteins as its main determinant. The absolute value of the association rate is discussed in terms of the success of collisions to form the catalytic complex. It is greater than 30% for the intact retina and 10 times lower after permeabilization with staphylococcus aureus alpha-toxin. Dissociation rates for micromolar guanosinetriphosphale (GTP) (Kohl, B., and K. P. Hofmann, 1987. Biophys. J. 52:271-277) must be extrapolated linearly up to the millimolar range to explain the rapid transducin turnover in situ. This is interpreted by an unstable rhodopsin-transducin-GTP transient state. At the time of maximal turnover after a flash, the rate of activation is determined as 30, 120, 800, 2,500, and 4,000 activated transducins per photoactivated rhodopsin and second at 5, 10, 20, 30, 37 degrees C, respectively. PMID:1901231

  9. Functional role of positively selected amino acid substitutions in mammalian rhodopsin evolution

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Sampedro, Miguel A.; Invergo, Brandon M.; Ramon, Eva; Bertranpetit, Jaume; Garriga, Pere

    2016-01-01

    Visual rhodopsins are membrane proteins that function as light photoreceptors in the vertebrate retina. Specific amino acids have been positively selected in visual pigments during mammal evolution, which, as products of adaptive selection, would be at the base of important functional innovations. We have analyzed the top candidates for positive selection at the specific amino acids and the corresponding reverse changes (F13M, Q225R and A346S) in order to unravel the structural and functional consequences of these important sites in rhodopsin evolution. We have constructed, expressed and immunopurified the corresponding mutated pigments and analyzed their molecular phenotypes. We find that position 13 is very important for the folding of the receptor and also for proper protein glycosylation. Position 225 appears to be important for the function of the protein affecting the G-protein activation process, and position 346 would also regulate functionality of the receptor by enhancing G-protein activation and presumably affecting protein phosphorylation by rhodopsin kinase. Our results represent a link between the evolutionary analysis, which pinpoints the specific amino acid positions in the adaptive process, and the structural and functional analysis, closer to the phenotype, making biochemical sense of specific selected genetic sequences in rhodopsin evolution. PMID:26865329

  10. All-optical electrophysiology in mammalian neurons using engineered microbial rhodopsins

    PubMed Central

    Hochbaum, Daniel R.; Zhao, Yongxin; Farhi, Samouil L.; Klapoetke, Nathan; Werley, Christopher A.; Kapoor, Vikrant; Zou, Peng; Kralj, Joel M.; Maclaurin, Dougal; Smedemark-Margulies, Niklas; Saulnier, Jessica L.; Boulting, Gabriella L.; Straub, Christoph; Cho, Yong Ku; Melkonian, Michael; Wong, Gane Ka-Shu; Harrison, D. Jed; Murthy, Venkatesh N.; Sabatini, Bernardo; Boyden, Edward S.; Campbell, Robert E.; Cohen, Adam E.

    2014-01-01

    All-optical electrophysiology—spatially resolved simultaneous optical perturbation and measurement of membrane voltage—would open new vistas in neuroscience research. We evolved two archaerhodopsin-based voltage indicators, QuasAr1 and 2, which show improved brightness and voltage sensitivity, microsecond response times, and produce no photocurrent. We engineered a novel channelrhodopsin actuator, CheRiff, which shows improved light sensitivity and kinetics, and spectral orthogonality to the QuasArs. A co-expression vector, Optopatch, enabled crosstalk-free genetically targeted all-optical electrophysiology. In cultured neurons, we combined Optopatch with patterned optical excitation to probe back-propagating action potentials in dendritic spines, synaptic transmission, sub-cellular microsecond-timescale details of action potential propagation, and simultaneous firing of many neurons in a network. Optopatch measurements revealed homeostatic tuning of intrinsic excitability in human stem cell-derived neurons. In brain slice, Optopatch induced and reported action potentials and subthreshold events, with high signal-to-noise ratios. The Optopatch platform enables high-throughput, spatially resolved electrophysiology without use of conventional electrodes. PMID:24952910

  11. Channelrhodopsin-2 gene transduced into retinal ganglion cells restores functional vision in genetically blind rats.

    PubMed

    Tomita, Hiroshi; Sugano, Eriko; Isago, Hitomi; Hiroi, Teru; Wang, Zhuo; Ohta, Emi; Tamai, Makoto

    2010-03-01

    To test the hypothesis that transduction of the channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) gene, a microbial-type rhodopsin gene, into retinal ganglion cells of genetically blind rats will restore functional vision, we recorded visually evoked potentials and tested the experimental rats for the presence of optomotor responses. The N-terminal fragment of the ChR2 gene was fused to the fluorescent protein Venus and inserted into an adeno-associated virus to make AAV2-ChR2V. AAV2-ChR2V was injected intravitreally into the eyes of 6-month-old dystrophic RCS (rdy/rdy) rats. Visual function was evaluated six weeks after the injection by recording visually evoked potentials (VEPs) and testing optomotor responses. The expression of ChR2V in the retina was investigated histologically. We found that VEPs could not be recorded from 6-month-old dystrophic RCS rats that had not been injected with AAV2-ChR2V. In contrast, VEPs were elicited from RCS rats six weeks after injection with AAV2-ChR2V. The VEPs were recorded at stimulation rates <20Hz, which was the same as that of normal rats. Optomotor responses were also significantly better after the AAV2-ChR2V injection. Expression of ChR2V was observed mainly in the retinal ganglion cells. These findings demonstrate that visual function can be restored in blind rats by transducing the ChR2V gene into retinal ganglion cells.

  12. Cooperative activation of Xenopus rhodopsin transcription by paired-like transcription factors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In vertebrates, rod photoreceptor-specific gene expression is regulated by the large Maf and Pax-like transcription factors, Nrl/LNrl and Crx/Otx5. The ubiquitous occurrence of their target DNA binding sites throughout rod-specific gene promoters suggests that multiple transcription factor interactions within the promoter are functionally important. Cooperative action by these transcription factors activates rod-specific genes such as rhodopsin. However, a quantitative mechanistic explanation of transcriptional rate determinants is lacking. Results We investigated the contributions of various paired-like transcription factors and their cognate cis-elements to rhodopsin gene activation using cultured cells to quantify activity. The Xenopus rhodopsin promoter (XOP) has a bipartite structure, with ~200 bp proximal to the start site (RPP) coordinating cooperative activation by Nrl/LNrl-Crx/Otx5 and the adjacent 5300 bp upstream sequence increasing the overall expression level. The synergistic activation by Nrl/LNrl-Crx/Otx5 also occurred when XOP was stably integrated into the genome. We determined that Crx/Otx5 synergistically activated transcription independently and additively through the two Pax-like cis-elements, BAT1 and Ret4, but not through Ret1. Other Pax-like family members, Rax1 and Rax2, do not synergistically activate XOP transcription with Nrl/LNrl and/or Crx/Otx5; rather they act as co-activators via the Ret1 cis-element. Conclusions We have provided a quantitative model of cooperative transcriptional activation of the rhodopsin promoter through interaction of Crx/Otx5 with Nrl/LNrl at two paired-like cis-elements proximal to the NRE and TATA binding site. Further, we have shown that Rax genes act in cooperation with Crx/Otx5 with Nrl/LNrl as co-activators of rhodopsin transcription. PMID:24499263

  13. Screening for mutations in rhodopsin and peripherin/RDS in patients with autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, J.A.; Gannon, A.M.; Daiger, S.P.

    1994-09-01

    Mutations in rhodopsin account for approximately 30% of all cases of autosomal dominant retinits pigmentosa (adRP) and mutations in peripherin/RDS account for an additional 5% of cases. Also, mutations in rhodopsin can cause autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa and mutations in peripherin/RDS can cause dominant macular degeneration. Most disease-causing mutations in rhodopsin and peripherin/RDS are unique to one family or, at most, to a few families within a limited geographic region, though a few mutations are found in multiple, unrelated families. To further determine the spectrum of genetic variation in these genes, we screened DNA samples from 134 unrelated patients with retinitis pigmentosa for mutations in both rhodopsin and peripherin/RDS using SSCP followed by genomic sequencing. Of the 134 patients, 86 were from families with apparent adRP and 48 were either isolated cases or were from families with an equivocal mode of inheritance. Among these patients we found 14 distinct rhodopsin mutations which are likely to cause retinal disease. Eleven of these mutations were found in one individual or one family only, whereas the Pro23His mutation was found in 14 {open_quotes}unrelated{close_quotes}individuals. The splice-site mutation produces dominant disease though with highly variable expression. Among the remaining patients were found 6 distinct peripherin/RDS mutations which are likely to cause retinal disease. These mutations were also found in one patient or family only, except the Gly266Asp mutation which was found in two unrelated patients. These results confirm the expected frequency and broad spectrum of mutations causing adRP.

  14. Regulation of rhodopsin-eGFP distribution in transgenic xenopus rod outer segments by light.

    PubMed

    Haeri, Mohammad; Calvert, Peter D; Solessio, Eduardo; Pugh, Edward N; Knox, Barry E

    2013-01-01

    The rod outer segment (OS), comprised of tightly stacked disk membranes packed with rhodopsin, is in a dynamic equilibrium governed by a diurnal rhythm with newly synthesized membrane inserted at the OS base balancing membrane loss from the distal tip via disk shedding. Using transgenic Xenopus and live cell confocal imaging, we found OS axial variation of fluorescence intensity in cells expressing a fluorescently tagged rhodopsin transgene. There was a light synchronized fluctuation in intensity, with higher intensity in disks formed at night and lower intensity for those formed during the day. This fluctuation was absent in constant light or dark conditions. There was also a slow modulation of the overall expression level that was not synchronized with the lighting cycle or between cells in the same retina. The axial variations of other membrane-associated fluorescent proteins, eGFP-containing two geranylgeranyl acceptor sites and eGFP fused to the transmembrane domain of syntaxin, were greatly reduced or not detectable, respectively. In acutely light-adapted rods, an arrestin-eGFP fusion protein also exhibited axial variation. Both the light-sensitive Rho-eGFP and arrestin-eGFP banding were in phase with the previously characterized birefringence banding (Kaplan, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 21, 395-402 1981). In contrast, endogenous rhodopsin did not exhibit such axial variation. Thus, there is an axial inhomogeneity in membrane composition or structure, detectable by the rhodopsin transgene density distribution and regulated by the light cycle, implying a light-regulated step for disk assembly in the OS. The impact of these results on the use of chimeric proteins with rhodopsin fused to fluorescent proteins at the carboxyl terminus is discussed.

  15. Rhodopsin-stimulated activation-deactivation cycle of transducin: kinetics of the intrinsic fluorescence response of the alpha subunit.

    PubMed

    Guy, P M; Koland, J G; Cerione, R A

    1990-07-31

    The intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence of the alpha subunit of transducin (alpha T) has been shown to be sensitive to the binding of guanine nucleotides, with the fluorescence being enhanced by as much as 2-fold upon the binding of GTP or nonhydrolyzable GTP analogues [cf. Phillips and Cerione (1988) J. Biol. Chem. 263, 15498-15505]. In this work, we have used these fluorescence changes to analyze the kinetics for the activation (GTP binding)-deactivation (GTPase) cycle of transducin in a well-defined reconstituted phospholipid vesicle system containing purified rhodopsin and the alpha T and beta gamma T subunits of the retinal GTP-binding protein. Both the rate and the extent of the GTP-induced fluorescence enhancement are dependent on [rhodopsin], while only the rate (and not the extent) of the GTP gamma S-induced enhancement is dependent on the levels of rhodopsin. Comparisons of the fluorescence enhancements elicited by GTP gamma S and GTP indicate that the GTP gamma S-induced enhancements directly reflect the GTP gamma S-binding event while the GTP-induced enhancements represent a composite of the GTP-binding and GTP hydrolysis events. At high [rhodopsin], the rates for GTP binding and GTPase are sufficiently different such that the GTP-induced enhancement essentially reflects GTP binding. A fluorescence decay, which always follows the GTP-induced enhancement, directly reflects the GTP hydrolytic event. The rate of the fluorescence decay matches the rate of [32P]Pi production due to [gamma-32P]GTP hydrolysis, and the decay is immediately reversed by rechallenging with GTP. The GTP-induced fluorescence changes (i.e., the enhancement and ensuing decay) could be fit to a simple model describing the activation-deactivation cycle of transducin. The results of this modeling suggest the following points: (1) the dependency of the activation-deactivation cycle on [rhodopsin] can be described by a simple dose response profile; (2) the rate of the rhodopsin

  16. The Severe Autosomal Dominant Retinitis Pigmentosa Rhodopsin Mutant Ter349Glu Mislocalizes and Induces Rapid Rod Cell Death*

    PubMed Central

    Hollingsworth, T. J.; Gross, Alecia K.

    2013-01-01

    Mutations in the rhodopsin gene cause approximately one-tenth of retinitis pigmentosa cases worldwide, and most result in endoplasmic reticulum retention and apoptosis. Other rhodopsin mutations cause receptor mislocalization, diminished/constitutive activity, or faulty protein-protein interactions. The purpose of this study was to test for mechanisms by which the autosomal dominant rhodopsin mutation Ter349Glu causes an early, rapid retinal degeneration in patients. The mutation adds an additional 51 amino acids to the C terminus of the protein. Folding and ligand interaction of Ter349Glu rhodopsin were tested by ultraviolet-visible (UV-visible) spectrophotometry. The ability of the mutant to initiate phototransduction was tested using a radioactive filter binding assay. Photoreceptor localization was assessed both in vitro and in vivo utilizing fluorescent immunochemistry on transfected cells, transgenic Xenopus laevis, and knock-in mice. Photoreceptor ultrastructure was observed by transmission electron microscopy. Spectrally, Ter349Glu rhodopsin behaves similarly to wild-type rhodopsin, absorbing maximally at 500 nm. The mutant protein also displays in vitro G protein activation similar to that of WT. In cultured cells, mislocalization was observed at high expression levels whereas ciliary localization occurred at low expression levels. Similarly, transgenic X. laevis expressing Ter349Glu rhodopsin exhibited partial mislocalization. Analysis of the Ter349Glu rhodopsin knock-in mouse showed a rapid, early onset degeneration in homozygotes with a loss of proper rod outer segment development and improper disc formation. Together, the data show that both mislocalization and rod outer segment morphogenesis are likely associated with the human phenotype. PMID:23940033

  17. Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscope Measurement of Local Fundus Reflectance and Autofluorescence Changes Arising from Rhodopsin Bleaching and Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Jessica I. W.; Pugh, Edward N.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. We measured the bleaching and regeneration kinetics of rhodopsin in the living human eye with two-wavelength, wide-field scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO), and investigated the effect of rhodopsin bleaching on autofluorescence intensity. Methods. The retina was imaged with an Optos P200C SLO by its reflectance of 532 and 633 nm light, and its autofluorescence excited by 532 nm light, before and after exposure to lights calibrated to bleach rhodopsin substantially. Bleaching was confined to circular retinal regions of 4.8° visual angle located approximately 16° superotemporal and superonasal to fixation. Images were captured as 12-bit tiff files and postprocessed to extract changes in reflectance and autofluorescence. Results. At the locus of bleaching transient increases in reflectance of the 532 nm, but not the 633 nm beam were observed readily and quantified. A transient increase in autofluorescence also occurred. The action spectrum, absolute sensitivity, and recovery of the 532 nm reflectance increase were consistent with previous measurements of human rhodopsin's spectral sensitivity, photosensitivity, and regeneration kinetics. The autofluorescence changes closely tracked the changes in rhodopsin density. Conclusions. The bleaching and regeneration kinetics of rhodopsin can be measured locally in the human retina with a widely available SLO. The increased autofluorescence excited by 532 nm light upon bleaching appears primarily due to transient elimination of rhodopsin's screening of autofluorescent fluorochromes in the RPE. The spatially localized measurement with a widely available SLO of rhodopsin, the most abundant protein in the retina, could be a valuable adjunct to retinal health assessment. PMID:23412087

  18. Structural Mechanism for Light-driven Transport by a New Type of Chloride Ion Pump, Nonlabens marinus Rhodopsin-3.

    PubMed

    Hosaka, Toshiaki; Yoshizawa, Susumu; Nakajima, Yu; Ohsawa, Noboru; Hato, Masakatsu; DeLong, Edward F; Kogure, Kazuhiro; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki; Kimura-Someya, Tomomi; Iwasaki, Wataru; Shirouzu, Mikako

    2016-08-19

    The light-driven inward chloride ion-pumping rhodopsin Nonlabens marinus rhodopsin-3 (NM-R3), from a marine flavobacterium, belongs to a phylogenetic lineage distinct from the halorhodopsins known as archaeal inward chloride ion-pumping rhodopsins. NM-R3 and halorhodopsin have distinct motif sequences that are important for chloride ion binding and transport. In this study, we present the crystal structure of a new type of light-driven chloride ion pump, NM-R3, at 1.58 Å resolution. The structure revealed the chloride ion translocation pathway and showed that a single chloride ion resides near the Schiff base. The overall structure, chloride ion-binding site, and translocation pathway of NM-R3 are different from those of halorhodopsin. Unexpectedly, this NM-R3 structure is similar to the crystal structure of the light-driven outward sodium ion pump, Krokinobacter eikastus rhodopsin 2. Structural and mutational analyses of NM-R3 revealed that most of the important amino acid residues for chloride ion pumping exist in the ion influx region, located on the extracellular side of NM-R3. In contrast, on the opposite side, the cytoplasmic regions of K. eikastus rhodopsin 2 were reportedly important for sodium ion pumping. These results provide new insight into ion selection mechanisms in ion pumping rhodopsins, in which the ion influx regions of both the inward and outward pumps are important for their ion selectivities.

  19. Properties of a water-soluble, yellow protein isolated from a halophilic phototrophic bacterium that has photochemical activity analogous to sensory rhodopsin.

    PubMed

    Meyer, T E; Yakali, E; Cusanovich, M A; Tollin, G

    1987-01-27

    A water-soluble yellow protein, previously discovered in the purple photosynthetic bacterium Ectothiorhodospira halophila, contains a chromophore which has an absorbance maximum at 446 nm. The protein is now shown to be photoactive. A pulse of 445-nm laser light caused the 446-nm peak to be partially bleached and red-shifted in a time less than 1 microsecond. The intermediate thus formed was subsequently further bleached in the dark in a biphasic process occurring in approximately 20 ms. Finally, the absorbance of native protein was restored in a first-order process occurring over several seconds. These kinetic processes are remarkably similar to those of sensory rhodopsin from Halobacterium, and to a lesser extent bacteriorhodopsin and halorhodopsin; although these proteins are membrane-bound, they have absorbance maxima at about 570 nm, and they cycle more rapidly. In attempts to remove the chromophore for identification, it was found that a variety of methods of denaturation of the protein caused transient or permanent conversion to a form which has an absorbance maximum near 340 nm. Thus, by analogy to the rhodopsins, the absorption at 446 nm in the native protein appears to result from a 106-nm red shift of the chromophore induced by the protein. Acid denaturation followed by extraction with organic solvents established that the chromophore could be removed from the protein. It is not identical with all-trans-retinal and remains to be identified, although it could still be a related pigment. The E. halophila yellow protein has a circular dichroism spectrum which indicates little alpha-helical secondary structure (19%).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. River restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohl, Ellen; Angermeier, Paul L.; Bledsoe, Brian; Kondolf, G. Mathias; Macdonnell, Larry; Merritt, David M.; Palmer, Margaret A.; Poff, N. Leroy; Tarboton, David

    2005-10-01

    River restoration is at the forefront of applied hydrologic science. However, many river restoration projects are conducted with minimal scientific context. We propose two themes around which a research agenda to advance the scientific basis for river restoration can be built. First, because natural variability is an inherent feature of all river systems, we hypothesize that restoration of process is more likely to succeed than restoration aimed at a fixed end point. Second, because physical, chemical, and biological processes are interconnected in complex ways across watersheds and across timescales, we hypothesize that restoration projects are more likely to be successful in achieving goals if undertaken in the context of entire watersheds. To achieve restoration objectives, the science of river restoration must include (1) an explicit recognition of the known complexities and uncertainties, (2) continued development of a theoretical framework that enables us to identify generalities among river systems and to ask relevant questions, (3) enhancing the science and use of restoration monitoring by measuring the most effective set of variables at the correct scales of measurement, (4) linking science and implementation, and (5) developing methods of restoration that are effective within existing constraints. Key limitations to river restoration include a lack of scientific knowledge of watershed-scale process dynamics, institutional structures that are poorly suited to large-scale adaptive management, and a lack of political support to reestablish delivery of the ecosystem amenities lost through river degradation. This paper outlines an approach for addressing these shortcomings.

  1. Determinants of visual pigment absorbance: identification of the retinylidene Schiff's base counterion in bovine rhodopsin.

    PubMed

    Nathans, J

    1990-10-16

    The role of negatively charged residues in tuning the absorbance spectrum of bovine rhodopsin has been tested by mutating each aspartate and glutamate to asparagine and glutamine, respectively. Previous work demonstrated that aspartate83, glutamate122, and glutamate134 can be replaced by neutral residues with little or no effect on the absorbance spectrum of the resulting pigment [Nathans, J. (1990) Biochemistry 29, 937-942]. With one exception, mutations at the remaining 19 aspartate and glutamate residues result in very nearly wild-type absorbance spectra. The exception is glutamate113: mutation to glutamine causes the pigment to absorb at 380 nm, reflecting deprotonation of the retinylidene Schiff's base. Upon addition of either chloride, bromide, or iodide, the absorbance rapidly shifts to 495, 498, or 504.5 nm, respectively, reflecting protonation of the Schiff's base. The progressive red shift observed upon addition of halides with larger atomic radii strongly suggests that halides are serving as the Schiff's base counterion. Halides have no effect on the absorbance spectrum of wild-type rhodopsin. I infer, therefore, that glutamate113 is the retinylidene Schiff's base counterion in wild-type rhodopsin. Sakmar et al. [(1989) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 86, 8309-8313] and Zhukovsky and Oprian [(1989) Science 246, 928-930] have arrived at the same conclusion based upon a related series of experiments. These data support a model in which spectral tuning in bovine rhodopsin results from interactions between the polyene chain of 11-cis-retinal and uncharged amino acids in the binding pocket.

  2. Modulation of thermal noise and spectral sensitivity in Lake Baikal cottoid fish rhodopsins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luk, Hoi Ling; Bhattacharyya, Nihar; Montisci, Fabio; Morrow, James M.; Melaccio, Federico; Wada, Akimori; Sheves, Mudi; Fanelli, Francesca; Chang, Belinda S. W.; Olivucci, Massimo

    2016-12-01

    Lake Baikal is the deepest and one of the most ancient lakes in the world. Its unique ecology has resulted in the colonization of a diversity of depth habitats by a unique fauna that includes a group of teleost fish of the sub-order Cottoidei. This relatively recent radiation of cottoid fishes shows a gradual blue-shift in the wavelength of the absorption maximum of their visual pigments with increasing habitat depth. Here we combine homology modeling and quantum chemical calculations with experimental in vitro measurements of rhodopsins to investigate dim-light adaptation. The calculations, which were able to reproduce the trend of observed absorption maxima in both A1 and A2 rhodopsins, reveal a Barlow-type relationship between the absorption maxima and the thermal isomerization rate suggesting a link between the observed blue-shift and a thermal noise decrease. A Nakanishi point-charge analysis of the electrostatic effects of non-conserved and conserved amino acid residues surrounding the rhodopsin chromophore identified both close and distant sites affecting simultaneously spectral tuning and visual sensitivity. We propose that natural variation at these sites modulate both the thermal noise and spectral shifting in Baikal cottoid visual pigments resulting in adaptations that enable vision in deep water light environments.

  3. Transmembrane Helices Tilt, Bend, Slide, Torque, and Unwind between Functional States of Rhodopsin

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Zhong; Ren, Peter X.; Balusu, Rohith; Yang, Xiaojing

    2016-01-01

    The seven-helical bundle of rhodopsin and other G-protein coupled receptors undergoes structural rearrangements as the transmembrane receptor protein is activated. These structural changes are known to involve tilting and bending of various transmembrane helices. However, the cause and effect relationship among structural events leading to a cytoplasmic crevasse for G-protein binding is less well defined. Here we present a mathematical model of the protein helix and a simple procedure to determine multiple parameters that offer precise depiction of a helical conformation. A comprehensive survey of bovine rhodopsin structures shows that the helical rearrangements during the activation of rhodopsin involve a variety of angular and linear motions such as torsion, unwinding, and sliding in addition to the previously reported tilting and bending. These hitherto undefined motion components unify the results obtained from different experimental approaches, and demonstrate conformational similarity between the active opsin structure and the photoactivated structures in crystallo near the retinal anchor despite their marked differences. PMID:27658480

  4. Glutamic acid 181 is negatively charged in the bathorhodopsin photointermediate of visual rhodopsin

    PubMed Central

    Sandberg, Megan N.; Amora, Tabitha L.; Ramos, Lavoisier S.; Chen, Min-Hsuan; Knox, Barry E.; Birge, Robert R.

    2011-01-01

    Assignment of the protonation state of the residue Glu-181 is important to our understanding of the primary event, activation processes and wavelength selection in rhodopsin. Despite extensive study, there is no general agreement on the protonation state of this residue in the literature. Electronic assignment is complicated by the location of Glu-181 near the nodal point in the electrostatic charge shift that accompanies excitation of the chromophore into the low-lying, strongly allowed ππ* state. Thus, the charge on this residue is effectively hidden from electronic spectroscopy. This situation is resolved in bathorhodopsin, because photoisomerization of the chromophore places Glu-181 well within the region of negative charge shift following excitation. We demonstrate that Glu-181 is negatively charged in bathorhodopsin based on the shift in the batho absorption maxima at 10K [λmax band (native)= 544±2 nm, λmax band (E181Q)= 556±3 nm] and the decrease in the λmax band oscillator strength (0.069±0.004) of E181Q relative to the native protein. Because the primary event in rhodopsin does not include a proton translocation or disruption of the hydrogen-bonding network within the binding pocket, we may conclude that the Glu-181 residue in rhodopsin is also charged. PMID:21319741

  5. Improvements in G protein-coupled receptor purification yield light stable rhodopsin crystals.

    PubMed

    Salom, David; Le Trong, Isolde; Pohl, Ehmke; Ballesteros, Juan A; Stenkamp, Ronald E; Palczewski, Krzysztof; Lodowski, David T

    2006-12-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) represent the largest family of transmembrane signaling proteins and are the target of approximately half of all therapeutic agents. Agonist ligands bind their cognate GPCRs stabilizing the active conformation that is competent to bind G proteins, thus initiating a cascade of intracellular signaling events leading to modification of the cell activity. Despite their biomedical importance, the only known GPCR crystal structures are those of inactive rhodopsin forms. In order to understand how GPCRs are able to transduce extracellular signals across the plasma membrane, it is critical to determine the structure of these receptors in their ligand-bound, active state. Here, we report a novel combination of purification procedures that allowed the crystallization of rhodopsin in two new crystal forms and can be applicable to the purification and crystallization of other membrane proteins. Importantly, these new crystals are stable upon photoactivation and the preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of both photoactivated and ground state rhodopsin crystals are also reported.

  6. Modulation of thermal noise and spectral sensitivity in Lake Baikal cottoid fish rhodopsins

    PubMed Central

    Luk, Hoi Ling; Bhattacharyya, Nihar; Montisci, Fabio; Morrow, James M.; Melaccio, Federico; Wada, Akimori; Sheves, Mudi; Fanelli, Francesca; Chang, Belinda S. W.; Olivucci, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Lake Baikal is the deepest and one of the most ancient lakes in the world. Its unique ecology has resulted in the colonization of a diversity of depth habitats by a unique fauna that includes a group of teleost fish of the sub-order Cottoidei. This relatively recent radiation of cottoid fishes shows a gradual blue-shift in the wavelength of the absorption maximum of their visual pigments with increasing habitat depth. Here we combine homology modeling and quantum chemical calculations with experimental in vitro measurements of rhodopsins to investigate dim-light adaptation. The calculations, which were able to reproduce the trend of observed absorption maxima in both A1 and A2 rhodopsins, reveal a Barlow-type relationship between the absorption maxima and the thermal isomerization rate suggesting a link between the observed blue-shift and a thermal noise decrease. A Nakanishi point-charge analysis of the electrostatic effects of non-conserved and conserved amino acid residues surrounding the rhodopsin chromophore identified both close and distant sites affecting simultaneously spectral tuning and visual sensitivity. We propose that natural variation at these sites modulate both the thermal noise and spectral shifting in Baikal cottoid visual pigments resulting in adaptations that enable vision in deep water light environments. PMID:27934935

  7. The effect of phosphorylation on arrestin-rhodopsin interaction in the squid visual system.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Kelly A; Ou, Wei-Lin; Guan, Xinyu; Sugamori, Kim S; Bandyopadhyay, Abhishek; Ernst, Oliver P; Mitchell, Jane

    2015-12-01

    Invertebrate visual opsins are G protein-coupled receptors coupled to retinoid chromophores that isomerize reversibly between inactive rhodopsin and active metarhodopsin upon absorption of photons of light. The squid visual system has an arrestin protein that binds to metarhodopsin to block signaling to Gq and activation of phospholipase C. Squid rhodopsin kinase (SQRK) can phosphorylate both metarhodopsin and arrestin, a dual role that is unique among the G protein-coupled receptor kinases. The sites and role of arrestin phosphorylation by SQRK were investigated here using recombinant proteins. Arrestin was phosphorylated on serine 392 and serine 397 in the C-terminus. Unphosphorylated arrestin bound to metarhodopsin and phosphorylated metarhodopsin with similar high affinities (Kd 33 and 21 nM respectively), while phosphorylation of arrestin reduced the affinity 3- to 5-fold (Kd 104 nM). Phosphorylation of metarhodopsin slightly increased the dissociation of arrestin observed during a 1 hour incubation. Together these studies suggest a unique role for SQRK in phosphorylating both receptor and arrestin and inhibiting the binding of these two proteins in the squid visual system. Invertebrate visual systems are inactivated by arrestin binding to metarhodopsin that does not require receptor phosphorylation. Here we show that squid rhodopsin kinase phosphorylates arrestin on two serines (S392,S397) in the C-terminus and phosphorylation decreases the affinity of arrestin for squid metarhodopsin. Metarhodopsin phosphorylation has very little effect on arrestin binding but does increase arrestin dissociation.

  8. Modulation of thermal noise and spectral sensitivity in Lake Baikal cottoid fish rhodopsins.

    PubMed

    Luk, Hoi Ling; Bhattacharyya, Nihar; Montisci, Fabio; Morrow, James M; Melaccio, Federico; Wada, Akimori; Sheves, Mudi; Fanelli, Francesca; Chang, Belinda S W; Olivucci, Massimo

    2016-12-09

    Lake Baikal is the deepest and one of the most ancient lakes in the world. Its unique ecology has resulted in the colonization of a diversity of depth habitats by a unique fauna that includes a group of teleost fish of the sub-order Cottoidei. This relatively recent radiation of cottoid fishes shows a gradual blue-shift in the wavelength of the absorption maximum of their visual pigments with increasing habitat depth. Here we combine homology modeling and quantum chemical calculations with experimental in vitro measurements of rhodopsins to investigate dim-light adaptation. The calculations, which were able to reproduce the trend of observed absorption maxima in both A1 and A2 rhodopsins, reveal a Barlow-type relationship between the absorption maxima and the thermal isomerization rate suggesting a link between the observed blue-shift and a thermal noise decrease. A Nakanishi point-charge analysis of the electrostatic effects of non-conserved and conserved amino acid residues surrounding the rhodopsin chromophore identified both close and distant sites affecting simultaneously spectral tuning and visual sensitivity. We propose that natural variation at these sites modulate both the thermal noise and spectral shifting in Baikal cottoid visual pigments resulting in adaptations that enable vision in deep water light environments.

  9. Batch crystallization of rhodopsin for structural dynamics using an X-ray free-electron laser

    DOE PAGES

    Wu, Wenting; Nogly, Przemyslaw; Rheinberger, Jan; ...

    2015-06-27

    Rhodopsin is a membrane protein from the G protein-coupled receptor family. Together with its ligand retinal, it forms the visual pigment responsible for night vision. In order to perform ultrafast dynamics studies, a time-resolved serial femtosecond crystallography method is required owing to the nonreversible activation of rhodopsin. In such an approach, microcrystals in suspension are delivered into the X-ray pulses of an X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) after a precise photoactivation delay. Here in this study, a millilitre batch production of high-density microcrystals was developed by four methodical conversion steps starting from known vapour-diffusion crystallization protocols: (i) screening the low-salt crystallizationmore » conditions preferred for serial crystallography by vapour diffusion, (ii) optimization of batch crystallization, (iii) testing the crystal size and quality using second-harmonic generation (SHG) imaging and X-ray powder diffraction and (iv) production of millilitres of rhodopsin crystal suspension in batches for serial crystallography tests; these crystals diffracted at an XFEL at the Linac Coherent Light Source using a liquid-jet setup.« less

  10. Batch crystallization of rhodopsin for structural dynamics using an X-ray free-electron laser

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Wenting; Nogly, Przemyslaw; Rheinberger, Jan; Kick, Leonhard M.; Gati, Cornelius; Nelson, Garrett; Deupi, Xavier; Standfuss, Jorg; Schertler, Gebhard; Panneels, Valerie

    2015-06-27

    Rhodopsin is a membrane protein from the G protein-coupled receptor family. Together with its ligand retinal, it forms the visual pigment responsible for night vision. In order to perform ultrafast dynamics studies, a time-resolved serial femtosecond crystallography method is required owing to the nonreversible activation of rhodopsin. In such an approach, microcrystals in suspension are delivered into the X-ray pulses of an X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) after a precise photoactivation delay. Here in this study, a millilitre batch production of high-density microcrystals was developed by four methodical conversion steps starting from known vapour-diffusion crystallization protocols: (i) screening the low-salt crystallization conditions preferred for serial crystallography by vapour diffusion, (ii) optimization of batch crystallization, (iii) testing the crystal size and quality using second-harmonic generation (SHG) imaging and X-ray powder diffraction and (iv) production of millilitres of rhodopsin crystal suspension in batches for serial crystallography tests; these crystals diffracted at an XFEL at the Linac Coherent Light Source using a liquid-jet setup.

  11. Retinal ligand mobility explains internal hydration and reconciles active rhodopsin structures.

    PubMed

    Leioatts, Nicholas; Mertz, Blake; Martínez-Mayorga, Karina; Romo, Tod D; Pitman, Michael C; Feller, Scott E; Grossfield, Alan; Brown, Michael F

    2014-01-21

    Rhodopsin, the mammalian dim-light receptor, is one of the best-characterized G-protein-coupled receptors, a pharmaceutically important class of membrane proteins that has garnered a great deal of attention because of the recent availability of structural information. Yet the mechanism of rhodopsin activation is not fully understood. Here, we use microsecond-scale all-atom molecular dynamics simulations, validated by solid-state (2)H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, to understand the transition between the dark and metarhodopsin I (Meta I) states. Our analysis of these simulations reveals striking differences in ligand flexibility between the two states. Retinal is much more dynamic in Meta I, adopting an elongated conformation similar to that seen in the recent activelike crystal structures. Surprisingly, this elongation corresponds to both a dramatic influx of bulk water into the hydrophobic core of the protein and a concerted transition in the highly conserved Trp265(6.48) residue. In addition, enhanced ligand flexibility upon light activation provides an explanation for the different retinal orientations observed in X-ray crystal structures of active rhodopsin.

  12. Hydrogen bonding changes of internal water molecules in rhodopsin during metarhodopsin I and metarhodopsin II formation.

    PubMed Central

    Rath, P; Delange, F; Degrip, W J; Rothschild, K J

    1998-01-01

    Rhodopsin is a 7-helix, integral membrane protein found in the rod outer segments, which serves as the light receptor in vision. Light absorption by the retinylidene chromophore of rhodopsin triggers an 11-cis-->all-trans isomerization, followed by a series of protein conformational changes, which culminate in the binding and activation of the G-protein transducin by the metarhodopsin II (Meta II) intermediate. Fourier transform IR difference spectroscopy has been used to investigate the structural changes that water, as well as other OH- and NH-containing groups, undergo during the formation of the metarhodopsin I (Meta I) and Meta II intermediates. Bands associated with the OH stretch modes of water are identified by characteristic downshifts upon substitution of H2(18)O for H2O. Compared with earlier work, several negative bands associated with water molecules in unphotolysed rhodopsin were detected, which shift to lower frequencies upon formation of the Meta I and Meta II intermediates. These data indicate that at least one water molecule undergoes an increase in hydrogen bonding upon formation of the Meta I intermediate, while at least one other increases its hydrogen bonding during Meta II formation. Amino acid residue Asp-83, which undergoes a change in its hydrogen bonding during Meta II formation, does not appear to interact with any of the structurally active water molecules. Several NH and/or OH groups, which are inaccessible to hydrogen/deuterium exchange, also undergo alterations during Meta I and Meta II formation. PMID:9445403

  13. Structure and function in rhodopsin. Cysteines 65 and 316 are in proximity in a rhodopsin mutant as indicated by disulfide formation and interactions between attached spin labels.

    PubMed

    Yang, K; Farrens, D L; Altenbach, C; Farahbakhsh, Z T; Hubbell, W L; Khorana, H G

    1996-11-12

    To probe proximity relationships between different amino acids in the interhelical loops in the cytoplasmic domain of rhodopsin, we are using a general approach in which two cysteine residues are introduced at different locations. Here we report on the characteristics of one such mutant that contains the naturally occurring cysteine 316 near the cytoplasmic end of helix G and a second cysteine at position 65 (H65C), near the cytoplasmic end of helix A. The mutant protein after expression in COS-1 cells and reconstitution with 11-cis-retinal can be bound to anti-rhodopsin antibody 1D4-Sepharose at pH 6 in a form that contains the two cysteines in the free sulfhydryl form. In this form, the mutant protein reacts as expected with N-ethylmaleimide in the dark at room temperature and can be derivatized with nitroxide spin labels. However, under appropriate conditions, the mutant can be isolated with the cysteines in the disulfide form, which has been characterized by analysis of fragments produced on proteolysis with thermolysin. A study of the interactions between nitroxide spin labels attached to the two cysteine residues in the mutant protein indicates that in the dark state they are within about 10 A of each other. On illumination the distance between the spin labels increases. Collectively, the above results show that, upon folding of the mutant opsin in vivo, cysteines 65 and 316, and by inference, helices A and G, are in proximal locations and move further apart upon photoactivation.

  14. Rhodopsin in the Dark Hot Sea: Molecular Analysis of Rhodopsin in a Snailfish, Careproctus rhodomelas, Living near the Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vent.

    PubMed

    Sakata, Rie; Kabutomori, Ryo; Okano, Keiko; Mitsui, Hiromasa; Takemura, Akihiro; Miwa, Tetsuya; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Okano, Toshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    Visual systems in deep-sea fishes have been previously studied from a photobiological aspect; however, those of deep-sea fish inhabiting the hydrothermal vents are far less understood due to sampling difficulties. In this study, we analyzed the visual pigment of a deep-sea snailfish, Careproctus rhodomelas, discovered and collected only near the hydrothermal vents of oceans around Japan. Proteins were solubilized from the C. rhodomelas eyeball and subjected to spectroscopic analysis, which revealed the presence of a pigment characterized by an absorption maximum (λmax) at 480 nm. Immunoblot analysis of the ocular protein showed a rhodopsin-like immunoreactivity. We also isolated a retinal cDNA encoding the entire coding sequence of putative C. rhodomelas rhodopsin (CrRh). HEK293EBNA cells were transfected with the CrRh cDNA and the proteins extracted from the cells were subjected to spectroscopic analysis. The recombinant CrRh showed the absorption maximum at 480 nm in the presence of 11-cis retinal. Comparison of the results from the eyeball extract and the recombinant CrRh strongly suggests that CrRh has an A1-based 11-cis-retinal chromophore and works as a photoreceptor in the C. rhodomelas retina, and hence that C. rhodomelas responds to dim blue light much the same as other deep-sea fishes. Because hydrothermal vent is a huge supply of viable food, C. rhodomelas likely do not need to participate diel vertical migration and may recognize the bioluminescence produced by aquatic animals living near the hydrothermal vents.

  15. Rhodopsin in the Dark Hot Sea: Molecular Analysis of Rhodopsin in a Snailfish, Careproctus rhodomelas, Living near the Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vent

    PubMed Central

    Sakata, Rie; Kabutomori, Ryo; Okano, Keiko; Mitsui, Hiromasa; Takemura, Akihiro; Miwa, Tetsuya; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Okano, Toshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    Visual systems in deep-sea fishes have been previously studied from a photobiological aspect; however, those of deep-sea fish inhabiting the hydrothermal vents are far less understood due to sampling difficulties. In this study, we analyzed the visual pigment of a deep-sea snailfish, Careproctus rhodomelas, discovered and collected only near the hydrothermal vents of oceans around Japan. Proteins were solubilized from the C. rhodomelas eyeball and subjected to spectroscopic analysis, which revealed the presence of a pigment characterized by an absorption maximum (λmax) at 480 nm. Immunoblot analysis of the ocular protein showed a rhodopsin-like immunoreactivity. We also isolated a retinal cDNA encoding the entire coding sequence of putative C. rhodomelas rhodopsin (CrRh). HEK293EBNA cells were transfected with the CrRh cDNA and the proteins extracted from the cells were subjected to spectroscopic analysis. The recombinant CrRh showed the absorption maximum at 480 nm in the presence of 11-cis retinal. Comparison of the results from the eyeball extract and the recombinant CrRh strongly suggests that CrRh has an A1-based 11-cis-retinal chromophore and works as a photoreceptor in the C. rhodomelas retina, and hence that C. rhodomelas responds to dim blue light much the same as other deep-sea fishes. Because hydrothermal vent is a huge supply of viable food, C. rhodomelas likely do not need to participate diel vertical migration and may recognize the bioluminescence produced by aquatic animals living near the hydrothermal vents. PMID:26275172

  16. Light activation of rhodopsin: insights from molecular dynamics simulations guided by solid-state NMR distance restraints

    PubMed Central

    Hornak, Viktor; Ahuja, Shivani; Eilers, Markus; Goncalves, Joseph A.; Sheves, Mordechai; Reeves, Philip J.; Smith, Steven O.

    2009-01-01

    Structural restraints provided by solid-state NMR measurements of the metarhodopsin II intermediate are combined with molecular dynamics simulations to help visualize the structural changes in the light activation of rhodopsin. Since the time scale for the formation of the metarhodopsin II intermediate (> 1 ms) is beyond that readily accessible by molecular dynamics, we use NMR distance restraints derived from 13C dipolar recoupling measurements to guide the simulations. The simulations yield a working model for how photoisomerization of the 11-cis retinylidene chromophore bound within the interior of rhodopsin is coupled to transmembrane helix motion and receptor activation. The mechanism of activation that emerges is that multiple switches on the extracellular (or intradiscal) side of rhodopsin trigger structural changes that converge to disrupt the ionic lock between helices H3 and H6 on the intracellular side of the receptor. PMID:20004206

  17. Ultra-high vacuum surface analysis study of rhodopsin incorporation into supported lipid bilayers.

    PubMed

    Michel, Roger; Subramaniam, Varuni; McArthur, Sally L; Bondurant, Bruce; D'Ambruoso, Gemma D; Hall, Henry K; Brown, Michael F; Ross, Eric E; Saavedra, S Scott; Castner, David G

    2008-05-06

    Planar supported lipid bilayers that are stable under ambient atmospheric and ultra-high-vacuum conditions were prepared by cross-linking polymerization of bis-sorbylphosphatidylcholine (bis-SorbPC). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) were employed to investigate bilayers that were cross-linked using either redox-initiated radical polymerization or ultraviolet photopolymerization. The redox method yields a more structurally intact bilayer; however, the UV method is more compatible with incorporation of transmembrane proteins. UV polymerization was therefore used to prepare cross-linked bilayers with incorporated bovine rhodopsin, a light-activated, G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR). A previous study (Subramaniam, V.; Alves, I. D.; Salgado, G. F. J.; Lau, P. W.; Wysocki, R. J.; Salamon, Z.; Tollin, G.; Hruby, V. J.; Brown, M. F.; Saavedra, S. S. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2005, 127, 5320-5321) showed that rhodopsin retains photoactivity after incorporation into UV-polymerized bis-SorbPC, but did not address how the protein is associated with the bilayer. In this study, we show that rhodopsin is retained in supported bilayers of poly(bis-SorbPC) under ultra-high-vacuum conditions, on the basis of the increase in the XPS nitrogen concentration and the presence of characteristic amino acid peaks in the ToF-SIMS data. Angle-resolved XPS data show that the protein is inserted into the bilayer, rather than adsorbed on the bilayer surface. This is the first study to demonstrate the use of ultra-high-vacuum techniques for structural studies of supported proteolipid bilayers.

  18. Computer Molecular Dynamics Studies on Protein Structures (Visual Pigment Rhodopsin and Cyclin-Dependent Kinases)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kholmurodov, Kholmirzo T.

    2007-05-01

    Based on the computer molecular dynamics (MD) calculations we have simulated for the visual pigment rhodopsin and cyclin-dependent kinase proteins the dynamical and structural properties at reliable physiological temperatures and conditions. MD simulations are carried out on the rhodopsin protein to investigate the conformational changes of the protein in relation to the inclusion of the 11-cis chromophore retinal into consideration. It was demonstrated that the adaptation of the chromophore retinal in the opsin site causes a considerable influence on its protein binding pocket, as well as on conformations of the cytoplasmic part, but the extracelluar part of the protein shows a comparably small changes. On the basis of the simulaton results we discuss some molecular mechanisms for the rhodopsin protein function as a G-protein-coupled receptor in the dark state, i.e. for the chromophore retinal as a ligand-agonist stabilizaing the inactive conformation. The central role that cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK) play in the timing of cell division and repair and the high incidence of genetic alteration of CDKs or deregulation of CDK inhibitors in a number of cancers make CDC28 of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae very attractive model for studies of mechanisms of CDK regulation. The crystal structure of the human CDK2 has served as a model for the catalytic core of other CDKs, including CDC28. Nanoseconds long molecular dynamics trajectories of the CDK2/ATP complex were analyzed. The MD simulations of substitution CDK2-G16S in conserved G-loop shows an important of this amino acid and a conformational change of CDK2 structure resulting in the moving of the G-loop away from ATP and a new rearrangement of amino acids in the T-loop.

  19. Spectral Tuning of Killer Whale (Orcinus orca) Rhodopsin: Evidence for Positive Selection and Functional Adaptation in a Cetacean Visual Pigment.

    PubMed

    Dungan, Sarah Z; Kosyakov, Alexander; Chang, Belinda S W

    2016-02-01

    Cetaceans have undergone a remarkable evolutionary transition that was accompanied by many sensory adaptations, including modification of the visual system for underwater environments. Recent sequencing of cetacean genomes has made it possible to begin exploring the molecular basis of these adaptations. In this study we use in vitro expression methods to experimentally characterize the first step of the visual transduction cascade, the light activation of rhodopsin, for the killer whale. To investigate the spectral effects of amino acid substitutions thought to correspond with absorbance shifts relative to terrestrial mammals, we used the orca gene as a background for the first site-directed mutagenesis experiments in a cetacean rhodopsin. The S292A mutation had the largest effect, and was responsible for the majority of the spectral difference between killer whale and bovine (terrestrial) rhodopsin. Using codon-based likelihood models, we also found significant evidence for positive selection in cetacean rhodopsin sequences, including on spectral tuning sites we experimentally mutated. We then investigated patterns of ecological divergence that may be correlated with rhodopsin functional variation by using a series of clade models that partitioned the data set according to phylogeny, habitat, and foraging depth zone. Only the model partitioning according to depth was significant. This suggests that foraging dives might be a selective regime influencing cetacean rhodopsin divergence, and our experimental results indicate that spectral tuning may be playing an adaptive role in this process. Our study demonstrates that combining computational and experimental methods is crucial for gaining insight into the selection pressures underlying molecular evolution.

  20. Quantum-classical model of retinal photoisomerization reaction in visual pigment rhodopsin.

    PubMed

    Lakhno, V D; Shigaev, A S; Feldman, T B; Nadtochenko, V A; Ostrovsky, M A

    2016-11-01

    A quantum-classical model of photoisomerization of the visual pigment rhodopsin chromophore is proposed. At certain (and more realistic) parameter value combinations, the model is shown to accurately reproduce a number of independent experimental data on the photoreaction dynamics: the quantum yield, the time to reach the point of conical intersection of potential energy surfaces, the termination time of the evolution of quantum subsystem, as well as the characteristic low frequencies of retinal molecular lattice fluctuations during photoisomerization. In addition, the model behavior is in good accordance with experimental data about coherence and local character of quantum transition.

  1. Frequency-rank correlations of rhodopsin mutations with tuned hydropathic roughness based on self-organized criticality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, J. C.

    2012-11-01

    The behavior of disease-linked mutations of membrane proteins is especially simple in rhodopsin, where they are well-studied, as they are responsible for retinitis pigmentosa, RP (retinal degeneration). Here we show that the frequency of occurrence of single RP mutations is strongly influenced by their transportational survival rates, and that this survival correlates well (82%) with a long-range, non-local hydropathic measure of the roughness of the water interfaces of ex-membrane rhodopsin based on self-organized criticality (SOC). It is speculated that this concept may be generally useful in studying survival rates of many mutated proteins.

  2. Opposite displacement of helix F in attractant and repellent signaling by sensory rhodopsin-Htr complexes.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Jun; Tsai, Ah-lim; Spudich, John L

    2011-05-27

    Two forms of the phototaxis receptor sensory rhodopsin I distinguished by differences in its photoactive site have been shown to be directly correlated with attractant and repellent signaling by the dual-signaling protein. In prior studies, differences in the photoactive site defined the two forms, namely the direction of light-induced proton transfer from the chromophore and the pK(a) of an Asp counterion to the protonated chromophore. Here, we show by both in vivo and in vitro measurements that the two forms are distinct protein conformers with structural similarities to two conformers seen in the light-driven proton transport cycle of the related protein bacteriorhodopsin. Measurements of spontaneous cell motility reversal frequencies, an in vivo measure of histidine kinase activity in the phototaxis system, indicate that the two forms are a photointerconvertible pair, with one conformer activating and the other inhibiting the kinase. Protein conformational changes in these photoconversions monitored by site-directed spin labeling show that opposite structural changes in helix F, distant from the photoactive site, correspond to the opposite phototaxis signals. The results provide the first direct evidence that displacements of helix F are directly correlated with signaling and impact our understanding of the sensory rhodopsin I signaling mechanism and the evolution of diverse functionality in this protein family.

  3. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy indicates a major conformational rearrangement in the activation of rhodopsin.

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Quintana, D; Francesch, A; Garriga, P; de Lera, A R; Padrós, E; Manyosa, J

    1995-01-01

    The study of the structural differences between rhodopsin and its active form (metarhodopsin II) has been carried out by means of deconvolution analysis of infrared spectra. Deconvolution techniques allow the direct identification of the spectral changes that have occurred, which results in a significantly different view of the conformational changes occurring after activation of the receptor as compared with previous difference spectroscopy analysis. Thus, a number of changes in the bands assigned to solvent-exposed domains of the receptor are detected, indicating significant decreases in extended (beta) sequences and in reverse turns, and increases in irregular/aperiodic sequences and in helices with a non-alpha geometry, whereas there is no decrease in alpha-helices. In addition to secondary structure conversions, qualitative alterations within a given secondary structure type are detected. These are seen to occur in both reverse turns and helices. The nature of this spectral change is of great importance, since a clear alteration in the helices bundle core is detected. All these changes indicate that the rhodopsin --> metarhodopsin II transition involves not a minor but a major conformational rearrangement, reconciling the infrared data with the energetics of the activation process. PMID:8519961

  4. Vibrational resonance, allostery, and activation in rhodopsin-like G protein-coupled receptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods, Kristina N.; Pfeffer, Jürgen; Dutta, Arpana; Klein-Seetharaman, Judith

    2016-11-01

    G protein-coupled receptors are a large family of membrane proteins activated by a variety of structurally diverse ligands making them highly adaptable signaling molecules. Despite recent advances in the structural biology of this protein family, the mechanism by which ligands induce allosteric changes in protein structure and dynamics for its signaling function remains a mystery. Here, we propose the use of terahertz spectroscopy combined with molecular dynamics simulation and protein evolutionary network modeling to address the mechanism of activation by directly probing the concerted fluctuations of retinal ligand and transmembrane helices in rhodopsin. This approach allows us to examine the role of conformational heterogeneity in the selection and stabilization of specific signaling pathways in the photo-activation of the receptor. We demonstrate that ligand-induced shifts in the conformational equilibrium prompt vibrational resonances in the protein structure that link the dynamics of conserved interactions with fluctuations of the active-state ligand. The connection of vibrational modes creates an allosteric association of coupled fluctuations that forms a coherent signaling pathway from the receptor ligand-binding pocket to the G-protein activation region. Our evolutionary analysis of rhodopsin-like GPCRs suggest that specific allosteric sites play a pivotal role in activating structural fluctuations that allosterically modulate functional signals.

  5. Small-angle neutron and X-ray scattering reveal conformational changes in rhodopsin activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, Utsab R.; Bhowmik, Debsindhu; Perera, Suchitrhanga M. C. D.; Chawla, Udeep; Struts, Andrey V.; Graziono, Vito; Pingali, Sai Venkatesh; Heller, William T.; Qian, Shuo; Brown, Michael F.; Chu, Xiang-Qiang

    2015-03-01

    Understanding G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) activation plays a crucial role in the development of novel improved molecular drugs. During photo-activation, the retinal chromophore of the visual GPCR rhodopsin isomerizes from 11-cis to all-trans conformation, yielding an equilibrium between inactive Meta-I and active Meta-II states. The principal goals of this work are to address whether the activation of rhodopsin leads to a single state or a conformational ensemble, and how protein organizational structure changes with detergent environment in solution. We use both small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) techniques to answer the above questions. For the first time we observe the change in protein conformational ensemble upon photo-activation by SANS with contrast variation, which enables the separate study of the protein structure within the detergent assembly. In addition, SAXS study of protein structure within detergent assembly suggests that the detergent molecules form a belt of monolayer (micelle) around protein with different geometrical shapes to keep the protein in folded state.

  6. Retinal orientation and interactions in rhodopsin reveal a two-stage trigger mechanism for activation

    PubMed Central

    Kimata, Naoki; Pope, Andreyah; Eilers, Markus; Opefi, Chikwado A.; Ziliox, Martine; Hirshfeld, Amiram; Zaitseva, Ekaterina; Vogel, Reiner; Sheves, Mordechai; Reeves, Philip J.; Smith, Steven O.

    2016-01-01

    The 11-cis retinal chromophore is tightly packed within the interior of the visual receptor rhodopsin and isomerizes to the all-trans configuration following absorption of light. The mechanism by which this isomerization event drives the outward rotation of transmembrane helix H6, a hallmark of activated G protein-coupled receptors, is not well established. To address this question, we use solid-state NMR and FTIR spectroscopy to define the orientation and interactions of the retinal chromophore in the active metarhodopsin II intermediate. Here we show that isomerization of the 11-cis retinal chromophore generates strong steric interactions between its β-ionone ring and transmembrane helices H5 and H6, while deprotonation of its protonated Schiff's base triggers the rearrangement of the hydrogen-bonding network involving residues on H6 and within the second extracellular loop. We integrate these observations with previous structural and functional studies to propose a two-stage mechanism for rhodopsin activation. PMID:27585742

  7. Evolution of eye morphology and rhodopsin expression in the Drosophila melanogaster species subgroup.

    PubMed

    Posnien, Nico; Hopfen, Corinna; Hilbrant, Maarten; Ramos-Womack, Margarita; Murat, Sophie; Schönauer, Anna; Herbert, Samantha L; Nunes, Maria D S; Arif, Saad; Breuker, Casper J; Schlötterer, Christian; Mitteroecker, Philipp; McGregor, Alistair P

    2012-01-01

    A striking diversity of compound eye size and shape has evolved among insects. The number of ommatidia and their size are major determinants of the visual sensitivity and acuity of the compound eye. Each ommatidium is composed of eight photoreceptor cells that facilitate the discrimination of different colours via the expression of various light sensitive Rhodopsin proteins. It follows that variation in eye size, shape, and opsin composition is likely to directly influence vision. We analyzed variation in these three traits in D. melanogaster, D. simulans and D. mauritiana. We show that D. mauritiana generally has larger eyes than its sibling species, which is due to a combination of larger ommatidia and more ommatidia. In addition, intra- and inter-specific differences in eye size among D. simulans and D. melanogaster strains are mainly caused by variation in ommatidia number. By applying a geometric morphometrics approach to assess whether the formation of larger eyes influences other parts of the head capsule, we found that an increase in eye size is associated with a reduction in the adjacent face cuticle. Our shape analysis also demonstrates that D. mauritiana eyes are specifically enlarged in the dorsal region. Intriguingly, this dorsal enlargement is associated with enhanced expression of rhodopsin 3 in D. mauritiana. In summary, our data suggests that the morphology and functional properties of the compound eyes vary considerably within and among these closely related Drosophila species and may be part of coordinated morphological changes affecting the head capsule.

  8. Bidirectional regulation of fragile X mental retardation protein phosphorylation controls rhodopsin homoeostasis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao; Mu, Yawen; Sun, Mengshi; Han, Junhai

    2016-10-04

    Homoeostatic regulation of the light sensor, rhodopsin, is critical for the maintenance of light sensitivity and survival of photoreceptors. The major fly rhodopsin, Rh1, undergoes light-induced endocytosis and degradation, but its protein and mRNA levels remain constant during light/dark cycles. It is not clear how translation of Rh1 is regulated. Here, we show that adult photoreceptors maintain a constant, abundant quantity of ninaE mRNA, which encodes Rh1. We demonstrate that the Fmr1 protein associates with ninaE mRNA and represses its translation. Further, light exposure triggers a calcium-dependent dephosphorylation of Fmr1, which relieves suppression of Rh1 translation. We demonstrate that Mts, the catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), mediates light-induced Fmr1 dephosphorylation in a regulatory B subunit of PP2A (CKa)-dependent manner. Finally, we show that blocking light-induced Rh1 translation results in reduced light sensitivity. Our results reveal the molecular mechanism of Rh1 homoeostasis and physiological consequence of Rh1 dysregulation.

  9. CULD is required for rhodopsin and TRPL channel endocytic trafficking and survival of photoreceptor cells

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ying; Wang, Tao

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Endocytosis of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and associated channels contributes to desensitization and adaptation of a variety of signaling cascades. In Drosophila melanogaster, the main light-sensing rhodopsin (Rh1; encoded by ninaE) and the downstream ion channel, transient receptor potential like (TRPL), are endocytosed in response to light, but the mechanism is unclear. By using an RNA-Sequencing (RNA-Seq) approach, we discovered a protein we named CULD, a photoreceptor-cell enriched CUB- and LDLa-domain transmembrane protein, that is required for endocytic trafficking of Rh1 and TRPL. CULD localized to endocytic Rh1-positive or TRPL-positive vesicles. Mutations in culd resulted in the accumulation of Rh1 and TRPL within endocytic vesicles, and disrupted the regular turnover of endocytic Rh1 and TRPL. In addition, loss of CULD induced light- and age-dependent retinal degeneration, and reduced levels of Rh1, but not of TRPL, suppressed retinal degeneration in culd-null mutant flies. Our data demonstrate that CULD plays an important role in the endocytic turnover of Rh1 and TRPL, and suggest that CULD-dependent rhodopsin endocytic trafficking is required for maintaining photoreceptor integrity. PMID:26598556

  10. Vibrational resonance, allostery, and activation in rhodopsin-like G protein-coupled receptors.

    PubMed

    Woods, Kristina N; Pfeffer, Jürgen; Dutta, Arpana; Klein-Seetharaman, Judith

    2016-11-16

    G protein-coupled receptors are a large family of membrane proteins activated by a variety of structurally diverse ligands making them highly adaptable signaling molecules. Despite recent advances in the structural biology of this protein family, the mechanism by which ligands induce allosteric changes in protein structure and dynamics for its signaling function remains a mystery. Here, we propose the use of terahertz spectroscopy combined with molecular dynamics simulation and protein evolutionary network modeling to address the mechanism of activation by directly probing the concerted fluctuations of retinal ligand and transmembrane helices in rhodopsin. This approach allows us to examine the role of conformational heterogeneity in the selection and stabilization of specific signaling pathways in the photo-activation of the receptor. We demonstrate that ligand-induced shifts in the conformational equilibrium prompt vibrational resonances in the protein structure that link the dynamics of conserved interactions with fluctuations of the active-state ligand. The connection of vibrational modes creates an allosteric association of coupled fluctuations that forms a coherent signaling pathway from the receptor ligand-binding pocket to the G-protein activation region. Our evolutionary analysis of rhodopsin-like GPCRs suggest that specific allosteric sites play a pivotal role in activating structural fluctuations that allosterically modulate functional signals.

  11. Molecular study of the rhodopsin gene in retinitis pigmentosa patients in the Basque Country.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, A I; Arostegui, E; Martin, R; Duran, M; Onaindia, M L; Molina, M; Tejada, M I

    1998-05-01

    Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a degenerative disorder affecting the outer segment of the retina and leading to night blindness and progressive visual field loss. The rhodopsin gene encodes a photolabile pigment located in the rod outer segments constituting around 80-90% of its protein content and is the initiation point for the visual cascade upon absorption of a single photon. Seventy-five unrelated, isolated RP families in the Basque Country, with at least one affected member, were diagnosed at our hospital after ophthalmic examination and electroretinogram analysis. The patients received genetic counselling according to their individual case based on their clinical diagnosis. The modes of inheritance found from pedigree studies were the following: 20% (15/75) were classified as autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (ADRP), 17.33% (13/75) were autosomal recessive (ARRP), 2.66% (2/75) were unclassified (NC), and 60% (45/75) were sporadic cases (SCRP). From these families, 75 unrelated and affected index cases together with 22 affected relatives and 42 unaffected relatives were screened for mutations in the rhodopsin gene by GC clamped denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Our results showed that five ADRP, three ARRP, 15 SCRP, and one NC families had alterations in this gene. Only three of these alterations, that is 4% (3/75) (95% CL 0-8), appeared to be responsible for the disease. This represents a lower percentage than the 10% previously reported.

  12. In Situ Structural Studies of Anabaena Sensory Rhodopsin in the E. coli Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Meaghan E.; Wang, Shenlin; Munro, Rachel; Ritz, Emily; Hung, Ivan; Gor’kov, Peter L.; Jiang, Yunjiang; Liang, Hongjun; Brown, Leonid S.; Ladizhansky, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance is well suited for the study of membrane proteins in the nativelike lipid environment. However, the natural cellular membrane is invariably more complex than the proteoliposomes most often used for solid-state NMR (SSNMR) studies, and differences may affect the structure and dynamics of the proteins under examination. In this work we use SSNMR and other biochemical and biophysical methods to probe the structure of a seven-transmembrane helical photoreceptor, Anabaena sensory rhodopsin (ASR), prepared in the Escherichia coli inner membrane, and compare it to that in a bilayer formed by DMPC/DMPA lipids. We find that ASR is organized into trimers in both environments but forms two-dimensional crystal lattices of different symmetries. It favors hexagonal packing in liposomes, but may form a square lattice in the E. coli membrane. To examine possible changes in structure site-specifically, we perform two- and three-dimensional SSNMR experiments and analyze the differences in chemical shifts and peak intensities. Overall, this analysis reveals that the structure of ASR is largely conserved in the inner membrane of E. coli, with many of the important structural features of rhodopsins previously observed in ASR in proteoliposomes being preserved. Small, site-specific perturbations in protein structure that occur as a result of the membrane changes indicate that the protein can subtly adapt to its environment without large structural rearrangement. PMID:25863060

  13. Vibrational resonance, allostery, and activation in rhodopsin-like G protein-coupled receptors

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Kristina N.; Pfeffer, Jürgen; Dutta, Arpana; Klein-Seetharaman, Judith

    2016-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors are a large family of membrane proteins activated by a variety of structurally diverse ligands making them highly adaptable signaling molecules. Despite recent advances in the structural biology of this protein family, the mechanism by which ligands induce allosteric changes in protein structure and dynamics for its signaling function remains a mystery. Here, we propose the use of terahertz spectroscopy combined with molecular dynamics simulation and protein evolutionary network modeling to address the mechanism of activation by directly probing the concerted fluctuations of retinal ligand and transmembrane helices in rhodopsin. This approach allows us to examine the role of conformational heterogeneity in the selection and stabilization of specific signaling pathways in the photo-activation of the receptor. We demonstrate that ligand-induced shifts in the conformational equilibrium prompt vibrational resonances in the protein structure that link the dynamics of conserved interactions with fluctuations of the active-state ligand. The connection of vibrational modes creates an allosteric association of coupled fluctuations that forms a coherent signaling pathway from the receptor ligand-binding pocket to the G-protein activation region. Our evolutionary analysis of rhodopsin-like GPCRs suggest that specific allosteric sites play a pivotal role in activating structural fluctuations that allosterically modulate functional signals. PMID:27849063

  14. Detection of rhodopsin dimerization in situ by PIE-FCCS, a time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Smith, Adam W

    2015-01-01

    Rhodopsin self-associates in the plasma membrane. At low concentrations, the interactions are consistent with a monomer-dimer equilibrium (Comar et al., J Am Chem Soc 136(23):8342-8349, 2014). At high concentrations in native tissue, higher-order clusters have been observed (Fotiadis et al., Nature 421:127-128, 2003). The physiological role of rhodopsin dimerization is still being investigated, but it is clear that a quantitative assessment is essential to determining the function of rhodopsin clusters in vision. To quantify rhodopsin interactions, I will outline the theory and methodology of a specialized time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy for measuring membrane protein-protein interactions called pulsed-interleaved excitation fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy (PIE-FCCS). The strength of this technique is its ability to quantify rhodopsin interactions in situ (i.e., a live cell plasma membrane). There are two reasons for restricting the scope to live cell membranes. First, the compositional heterogeneity of the plasma membrane creates a complex milieu with thousands of lipid, protein, and carbohydrate species. This makes it difficult to infer quaternary interactions from detergent solubilized samples or construct a model phospholipid bilayer that recapitulates all of the interactions present in native membranes. Second, organizational structure and dynamics is a key feature of the plasma membrane, and fixation techniques like formaldehyde cross-linking and vitrification will modulate the interactions. PIE-FCCS is based on two-color fluorescence imaging with time-correlated single-photon counting (TCSPC) (Becker et al., Rev Sci Instrum 70:1835-1841, 1999). By time-tagging every detected photon, the data can be analyzed as a fluorescence intensity distribution, fluorescence lifetime histogram, or fluorescence (cross-)correlation spectra (FCS/FCCS) (Becker, Advanced time-correlated single-photon counting techniques, Springer, Berlin, 2005). These

  15. Microbial community structure and denitrification in a wetland mitigation bank.

    PubMed

    Peralta, Ariane L; Matthews, Jeffrey W; Kent, Angela D

    2010-07-01

    Wetland mitigation is implemented to replace ecosystem functions provided by wetlands; however, restoration efforts frequently fail to establish equivalent levels of ecosystem services. Delivery of microbially mediated ecosystem functions, such as denitrification, is influenced by both the structure and activity of the microbial community. The objective of this study was to compare the relationship between soil and vegetation factors and microbial community structure and function in restored and reference wetlands within a mitigation bank. Microbial community composition was assessed using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism targeting the 16S rRNA gene (total bacteria) and the nosZ gene (denitrifiers). Comparisons of microbial function were based on potential denitrification rates. Bacterial community structures differed significantly between restored and reference wetlands; denitrifier community assemblages were similar among reference sites but highly variable among restored sites throughout the mitigation bank. Potential denitrification was highest in the reference wetland sites. These data demonstrate that wetland restoration efforts in this mitigation bank have not successfully restored denitrification and that differences in potential denitrification rates may be due to distinct microbial assemblages observed in restored and reference (natural) wetlands. Further, we have identified gradients in soil moisture and soil fertility that were associated with differences in microbial community structure. Microbial function was influenced by bacterial community composition and soil fertility. Identifying soil factors that are primary ecological drivers of soil bacterial communities, especially denitrifying populations, can potentially aid the development of predictive models for restoration of biogeochemical transformations and enhance the success of wetland restoration efforts.

  16. Constraints on the conformation of the cytoplasmic face of dark-adapted and light-excited rhodopsin inferred from antirhodopsin antibody imprints

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Brian W.; Mumey, Brendan; Hargrave, Paul A.; Arendt, Anatol; Ernst, Oliver P.; Hofmann, Klaus Peter; Callis, Patrik R.; Burritt, James B.; Jesaitis, Algirdas J.; Dratz, Edward A.

    2003-01-01

    Rhodopsin is the best-understood member of the large G protein–coupled receptor (GPCR) superfamily. The G-protein amplification cascade is triggered by poorly understood light-induced conformational changes in rhodopsin that are homologous to changes caused by agonists in other GPCRs. We have applied the "antibody imprint" method to light-activated rhodopsin in native membranes by using nine monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against aqueous faces of rhodopsin. Epitopes recognized by these mAbs were found by selection from random peptide libraries displayed on phage. A new computer algorithm, FINDMAP, was used to map the epitopes to discontinuous segments of rhodopsin that are distant in the primary sequence but are in close spatial proximity in the structure. The proximity of a segment of the N-terminal and the loop between helices VI and VIII found by FINDMAP is consistent with the X-ray structure of the dark-adapted rhodopsin. Epitopes to the cytoplasmic face segregated into two classes with different predicted spatial proximities of protein segments that correlate with different preferences of the antibodies for stabilizing the metarhodopsin I or metarhodopsin II conformations of light-excited rhodopsin. Epitopes of antibodies that stabilize metarhodopsin II indicate conformational changes from dark-adapted rhodopsin, including rearrangements of the C-terminal tail and altered exposure of the cytoplasmic end of helix VI, a portion of the C-3 loop, and helix VIII. As additional antibodies are subjected to antibody imprinting, this approach should provide increasingly detailed information on the conformation of light-excited rhodopsin and be applicable to structural studies of other challenging protein targets. PMID:14573859

  17. Natural restoration

    SciTech Connect

    Kamlet, K.S.

    1993-02-01

    After a company pays millions of dollars to clean up contaminated site, its liability may not be over. It may have to spend tens of millions more to restore damaged natural resources under an oft-overlooked Superfund program. Examples of liability are cited in this report from the Exxon Valdez oil spill and a pcb leak which contaminated a harbor.

  18. Wavelength Discrimination in Drosophila Suggests a Role of Rhodopsin 1 in Color Vision

    PubMed Central

    Garbers, Christian; Wachtler, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Among the five photoreceptor opsins in the eye of Drosophila, Rhodopsin 1 (Rh1) is expressed in the six outer photoreceptors. In a previous study that combined behavioral genetics with computational modeling, we demonstrated that flies can use the signals from Rh1 for color vision. Here, we provide an in-depth computational analysis of wildtype Drosophila wavelength discrimination specifically considering the consequences of different choices of computations in the preprocessing of the behavioral data. The results support the conclusion that Drosophila wavelength discrimination behavior can best be explained by a contribution of Rh1. These findings are corroborated by results of an information-theoretical analysis that shows that Rh1 provides information for discrimination of natural reflectance spectra. PMID:27258000

  19. Electrostatic versus Resonance Interactions in Photoreceptor Proteins: The Case of Rhodopsin.

    PubMed

    Guareschi, Riccardo; Valsson, Omar; Curutchet, Carles; Mennucci, Benedetta; Filippi, Claudia

    2016-11-17

    Light sensing in photoreceptor proteins is subtly modulated by the multiple interactions between the chromophoric unit and its binding pocket. Many theoretical and experimental studies have tried to uncover the fundamental origin of these interactions but reached contradictory conclusions as to whether electrostatics, polarization, or intrinsically quantum effects prevail. Here, we select rhodopsin as a prototypical photoreceptor system to reveal the molecular mechanism underlying these interactions and regulating the spectral tuning. Combining a multireference perturbation method and density functional theory with a classical but atomistic and polarizable embedding scheme, we show that accounting for electrostatics only leads to a qualitatively wrong picture, while a responsive environment can successfully capture both the classical and quantum dominant effects. Several residues are found to tune the excitation by both differentially stabilizing ground and excited states and through nonclassical "inductive resonance" interactions. The results obtained with such a quantum-in-classical model are validated against both experimental data and fully quantum calculations.

  20. X-ray laser diffraction for structure determination of the rhodopsin-arrestin complex

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, X. Edward; Gao, Xiang; Barty, Anton; Kang, Yanyong; He, Yuanzheng; Liu, Wei; Ishchenko, Andrii; White, Thomas A.; Yefanov, Oleksandr; Han, Gye Won; Xu, Qingping; de Waal, Parker W.; Suino-Powell, Kelly M.; Boutet, Sebastien; Williams, Garth J.; Wang, Meitian; Li, Dianfan; Caffrey, Martin; Chapman, Henry N.; Spence, John C. H.; Fromme, Petra; Weierstall, Uwe; Stevens, Raymond C.; Cherezov, Vadim; Melcher, Karsten; Xu, H. Eric

    2016-04-12

    Here, serial femtosecond X-ray crystallography (SFX) using an X-ray free electron laser (XFEL) is a recent advancement in structural biology for solving crystal structures of challenging membrane proteins, including G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), which often only produce microcrystals. An XFEL delivers highly intense X-ray pulses of femtosecond duration short enough to enable the collection of single diffraction images before significant radiation damage to crystals sets in. Here we report the deposition of the XFEL data and provide further details on crystallization, XFEL data collection and analysis, structure determination, and the validation of the structural model. The rhodopsin-arrestin crystal structure solved with SFX represents the first near-atomic resolution structure of a GPCR-arrestin complex, provides structural insights into understanding of arrestin-mediated GPCR signaling, and demonstrates the great potential of this SFX-XFEL technology for accelerating crystal structure determination of challenging proteins and protein complexes.

  1. Characterization of Ribozymes Targeting a Congenital Night Blindness Mutation in Rhodopsin Mutation.

    PubMed

    Conley, Shannon M; Whalen, Patrick; Lewin, Alfred S; Naash, Muna I

    2016-01-01

    The G90D mutation in the rhodopsin gene leads to autosomal dominant congenital stationary night blindness (CSNB) in patients. This occurs because the G90D mutant protein cannot efficiently bind chromophore and is constitutively active. To combat this mutation, we designed and characterized two different hammerhead ribozymes to cleave G90D transcript. In vitro testing showed that the G90D1 ribozyme efficiently and specifically cleaved the mutant transcript while G90D2 cleaved both WT and mutant transcript. AAV-mediated delivery of G90D1 under the control of the mouse opsin promoter (MOP500) to G90D transgenic eyes showed that the ribozyme partially retarded the functional degeneration (as measured by electroretinography [ERG]) associated with this mutation. These results suggest that with additional optimization, ribozymes may be a useful part of the gene therapy knockdown strategy for dominant retinal disease.

  2. Photochemical reactivity of polyenes: from dienes to rhodopsin, from microseconds to femtoseconds.

    PubMed

    Liu, Robert S H; Hammond, George S

    2003-08-01

    In reviewing the photochemistry of polyenes (from dienes and trienes to the visual retinyl chromophore), we categorize condensed-phase photochemical reactivity of molecules into two groups: those from thermally equilibrated excited species and those from unequilibrated excited species. Classical theories on radiationless transitions are useful for rationalizing the reactivity of molecules belonging to the first set only. The second group includes many of the exciting ultrafast photochemical reactions reported recently for polyenes (including dienes and trienes), in some cases with rates faster than vibrational relaxation. Much of the excited singlet-state reactions of polyenes, including the Hula-twist mechanism of photoisomerization, have been integrated with concepts introduced in other ultrafast spectroscopic/photochemical studies. Taking into consideration the special environment of the retinyl chromophore in rhodopsin, we propose a new mechanism for the phototrigger that accounts for its unusually fast rate of isomerization.

  3. Helix movement is coupled to displacement of the second extracellular loop in rhodopsin activation.

    PubMed

    Ahuja, Shivani; Hornak, Viktor; Yan, Elsa C Y; Syrett, Natalie; Goncalves, Joseph A; Hirshfeld, Amiram; Ziliox, Martine; Sakmar, Thomas P; Sheves, Mordechai; Reeves, Philip J; Smith, Steven O; Eilers, Markus

    2009-02-01

    The second extracellular loop (EL2) of rhodopsin forms a cap over the binding site of its photoreactive 11-cis retinylidene chromophore. A crucial question has been whether EL2 forms a reversible gate that opens upon activation or acts as a rigid barrier. Distance measurements using solid-state (13)C NMR spectroscopy between the retinal chromophore and the beta4 strand of EL2 show that the loop is displaced from the retinal binding site upon activation, and there is a rearrangement in the hydrogen-bonding networks connecting EL2 with the extracellular ends of transmembrane helices H4, H5 and H6. NMR measurements further reveal that structural changes in EL2 are coupled to the motion of helix H5 and breaking of the ionic lock that regulates activation. These results provide a comprehensive view of how retinal isomerization triggers helix motion and activation in this prototypical G protein-coupled receptor.

  4. The rhodopsin-like pigments of halobacteria - Light-energy and signal transducers in an archaebacterium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoeckenius, W.

    1985-01-01

    Three, small retinylidene proteins observed in halobacteria are described. The characteristics of bacteriorhodopsin (bR), which is synthesized during low O2 tension and intense illumination, and the role of bR in the cyclic photoreactions that translocate protons are examined. The detected light-driven chloride influx pigment, halorhodopsin (hR), is also capable of light-driven ion translocation; the hR transport reactions which are chloride dependent and involve isomerization are studied. The sensory photosystem of halobacteria and the receptor functions of the retinal pigment slow rhodopsin are discussed. The similarity of the choromphore structure and photoreactions, and the evolutionary relation between halobacteria and animal pigments are considered.

  5. X-ray laser diffraction for structure determination of the rhodopsin-arrestin complex

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, X. Edward; Gao, Xiang; Barty, Anton; Kang, Yanyong; He, Yuanzheng; Liu, Wei; Ishchenko, Andrii; White, Thomas A.; Yefanov, Oleksandr; Han, Gye Won; Xu, Qingping; de Waal, Parker W.; Suino-Powell, Kelly M.; Boutet, Sébastien; Williams, Garth J.; Wang, Meitian; Li, Dianfan; Caffrey, Martin; Chapman, Henry N.; Spence, John C.H.; Fromme, Petra; Weierstall, Uwe; Stevens, Raymond C.; Cherezov, Vadim; Melcher, Karsten; Xu, H. Eric

    2016-01-01

    Serial femtosecond X-ray crystallography (SFX) using an X-ray free electron laser (XFEL) is a recent advancement in structural biology for solving crystal structures of challenging membrane proteins, including G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), which often only produce microcrystals. An XFEL delivers highly intense X-ray pulses of femtosecond duration short enough to enable the collection of single diffraction images before significant radiation damage to crystals sets in. Here we report the deposition of the XFEL data and provide further details on crystallization, XFEL data collection and analysis, structure determination, and the validation of the structural model. The rhodopsin-arrestin crystal structure solved with SFX represents the first near-atomic resolution structure of a GPCR-arrestin complex, provides structural insights into understanding of arrestin-mediated GPCR signaling, and demonstrates the great potential of this SFX-XFEL technology for accelerating crystal structure determination of challenging proteins and protein complexes. PMID:27070998

  6. X-ray laser diffraction for structure determination of the rhodopsin-arrestin complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, X. Edward; Gao, Xiang; Barty, Anton; Kang, Yanyong; He, Yuanzheng; Liu, Wei; Ishchenko, Andrii; White, Thomas A.; Yefanov, Oleksandr; Han, Gye Won; Xu, Qingping; de Waal, Parker W.; Suino-Powell, Kelly M.; Boutet, Sébastien; Williams, Garth J.; Wang, Meitian; Li, Dianfan; Caffrey, Martin; Chapman, Henry N.; Spence, John C. H.; Fromme, Petra; Weierstall, Uwe; Stevens, Raymond C.; Cherezov, Vadim; Melcher, Karsten; Xu, H. Eric

    2016-04-01

    Serial femtosecond X-ray crystallography (SFX) using an X-ray free electron laser (XFEL) is a recent advancement in structural biology for solving crystal structures of challenging membrane proteins, including G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), which often only produce microcrystals. An XFEL delivers highly intense X-ray pulses of femtosecond duration short enough to enable the collection of single diffraction images before significant radiation damage to crystals sets in. Here we report the deposition of the XFEL data and provide further details on crystallization, XFEL data collection and analysis, structure determination, and the validation of the structural model. The rhodopsin-arrestin crystal structure solved with SFX represents the first near-atomic resolution structure of a GPCR-arrestin complex, provides structural insights into understanding of arrestin-mediated GPCR signaling, and demonstrates the great potential of this SFX-XFEL technology for accelerating crystal structure determination of challenging proteins and protein complexes.

  7. Restoration Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    In the accompanying photos, a laboratory technician is restoring the once-obliterated serial number of a revolver. The four-photo sequence shows the gradual progression from total invisibility to clear readability. The technician is using a new process developed in an applications engineering project conducted by NASA's Lewis Research Center in conjunction with Chicago State University. Serial numbers and other markings are frequently eliminated from metal objects to prevent tracing ownership of guns, motor vehicles, bicycles, cameras, appliances and jewelry. To restore obliterated numbers, crime laboratory investigators most often employ a chemical etching technique. It is effective, but it may cause metal corrosion and it requires extensive preparatory grinding and polishing. The NASA-Chicago State process is advantageous because it can be applied without variation to any kind of metal, it needs no preparatory work and number recovery can be accomplished without corrosive chemicals; the liquid used is water.

  8. Response of soil microbial communities during changes in land management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The response of soil microbial communities to restoration following disturbances is poorly understood. We studied the soil microbial communities in a forest disturbance-restoration series comprising a native deciduous forest (DF), conventionally tilled cropland (CT) and mid-succession forest (SF) re...

  9. Early Events in Retinal Degeneration Caused by Rhodopsin Mutation or Pigment Epithelium Malfunction: Differences and Similarities.

    PubMed

    Di Pierdomenico, Johnny; García-Ayuso, Diego; Pinilla, Isabel; Cuenca, Nicolás; Vidal-Sanz, Manuel; Agudo-Barriuso, Marta; Villegas-Pérez, María P

    2017-01-01

    To study the course of photoreceptor cell death and macro and microglial reactivity in two rat models of retinal degeneration with different etiologies. Retinas from P23H-1 (rhodopsin mutation) and Royal College of Surgeon (RCS, pigment epithelium malfunction) rats and age-matched control animals (Sprague-Dawley and Pievald Viro Glaxo, respectively) were cross-sectioned at different postnatal ages (from P10 to P60) and rhodopsin, L/M- and S-opsin, ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 (Iba1), glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP), and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) proteins were immunodetected. Photoreceptor nuclei rows and microglial cells in the different retinal layers were quantified. Photoreceptor degeneration starts earlier and progresses quicker in P23H-1 than in RCS rats. In both models, microglial cell activation occurs simultaneously with the initiation of photoreceptor death while GFAP over-expression starts later. As degeneration progresses, the numbers of microglial cells increase in the retina, but decreasing in the inner retina and increasing in the outer retina, more markedly in RCS rats. Interestingly, and in contrast with healthy animals, microglial cells reach the outer nuclei and outer segment layers. The higher number of microglial cells in dystrophic retinas cannot be fully accounted by intraretinal migration and PCNA immunodetection revealed microglial proliferation in both models but more importantly in RCS rats. The etiology of retinal degeneration determines the initiation and pattern of photoreceptor cell death and simultaneously there is microglial activation and migration, while the macroglial response is delayed. The actions of microglial cells in the degeneration cannot be explained only in the basis of photoreceptor death because they participate more actively in the RCS model. Thus, the retinal degeneration caused by pigment epithelium malfunction is more inflammatory and would probably respond better to interventions

  10. An ion-responsive motif in the second transmembrane segment of rhodopsin-like receptors.

    PubMed

    Parker, M S; Wong, Y Y; Parker, S L

    2008-06-01

    A L(M)xxxD(N, E) motif (x=a non-ionic amino acid residue, most frequently A, S, L or F; small capitals indicating a minor representation) is found in the second transmembrane (tm2) segment of most G-protein coupling metazoan receptors of the rhodopsin family (Rh-GPCRs). Changes in signal transduction, agonist binding and receptor cycling are known for numerous receptors bearing evolved or experimentally introduced mutations in this tm2 motif, especially of its aspartate residue. The [Na(+)] sensitivity of the receptor-agonist interaction relates to this aspartate in a number of Rh-GPCRs. Native non-conservative mutations in the tm2 motif only rarely coincide with significant changes in two other ubiquitous features of the rhodopsin family, the seventh transmembrane N(D)PxxY(F) motif and the D(E)RY(W,F) or analogous sequence at the border of the third transmembrane helix and the second intracellular loop. Native tm2 mutations with Rh-GPCRs frequently result in constitutive signaling, and with visual opsins also in shifts to short-wavelength sensitivity. Substitution of a strongly basic residue for the tm2 aspartate in Taste-2 receptors could be connected to a lack of sodium sensing by these receptors. These properties could be consistent with ionic interactions, and even of ion transfer, that involve the tm2 motif. A decrease in cation sensing by this motif is usually connected to an enhanced constitutive interaction of the mutated receptors with cognate G- proteins, and also relates to both the constitutive and the overall activity of the short-wavelength opsins.

  11. Sensory rhodopsins I and II modulate a methylation/demethylation system in Halobacterium halobium phototaxis

    SciTech Connect

    Spudich, E.N.; Takahashi, T.; Spudich, J.L. )

    1989-10-01

    This work demonstrates that phototaxis stimuli in the archaebacterium Halobacterium halobium control a methylation/demethylation system in vivo through photoactivation of sensory rhodopsin I (SR-I) in either its attractant or repellent signaling form as well as through the repellent receptor sensory rhodopsin II (SR-II, also called phoborhodopsin). The effects of positive stimuli that suppress swimming reversals (i.e., an increase in attractant or decrease in repellent light) and negative stimuli that induce swimming reversals (i.e., a decrease in attractant or increase in repellent light) through each photoreceptor were monitored by assaying release of volatile (3H)methyl groups. This assay has been used to measure (3H)methanol produced during the process of adaptation to chemotactic stimuli in eubacteria. In H. halobium positive photostimuli produce a transient increase in the rate of demethylation followed by a decrease below the unstimulated value, whereas negative photostimuli cause an increase followed by a rate similar to that of the unstimulated value. Photoactivation of the SR-I attractant and simultaneous photoactivation of the SR-II repellent receptors cancel in their effects on demethylation, demonstrating the methylation system is regulated by an integrated signal. Analysis of mutants indicates that the source for the volatile methyl groups is intrinsic membrane proteins distinct from the chromoproteins that share the membrane. A methyl-accepting protein (94 kDa) previously correlated in amount with the SR-I chromoprotein (25 kDa) is shown here to be missing in a recently isolated SR-I-SR-II+ mutant (Flx3b), thus confirming the association of this protein with SR-I. Photoactivated SR-II in mutant Flx3b controls demethylation, predicting the existence of a photomodulated methyl-accepting component distinct from the 94-kDa protein of SR-I.

  12. Attractant and repellent signaling conformers of sensory rhodopsin-transducer complexes.

    PubMed

    Sineshchekov, Oleg A; Sasaki, Jun; Wang, Jihong; Spudich, John L

    2010-08-10

    Attractant and repellent signaling conformers of the dual-signaling phototaxis receptor sensory rhodopsin I and its transducer subunit (SRI-HtrI) have recently been distinguished experimentally by the opposite connection of their retinylidene protonated Schiff bases to the outwardly located periplasmic side and inwardly located cytoplasmic side. Here we show that the pK(a) of the outwardly located Asp76 counterion in the outwardly connected conformer is lowered by approximately 1.5 units from that of the inwardly connected conformer. The pK(a) difference enables quantitative determination of the relative amounts of the two conformers in wild-type cells and behavioral mutants prior to photoexcitation, comparison of their absorption spectra, and determination of their relative signaling efficiency. We have shown that the one-photon excitation of the SRI-HtrI attractant conformer causes a Schiff base connectivity switch from inwardly connected to outwardly connected states in the attractant signaling photoreaction. Conversely, a second near-UV photon drives the complex back to the inwardly connected conformer in the repellent signaling photoreaction. The results suggest a model of the color-discriminating dual-signaling mechanism in which phototaxis responses (his-kinase modulation) result from the photointerconversion of the two oppositely connected SRI-HtrI conformers by one-photon and two-photon activation. Furthermore, we find that the related repellent phototaxis SRII-HtrII receptor complex has an outwardly connected retinylidene Schiff base like the repellent signaling forms of the SRI-HtrI complex, indicating the general applicability of macro conformational changes, which can be detected by the connectivity switch, to phototaxis signaling by sensory rhodopsin-transducer complexes.

  13. Early Events in Retinal Degeneration Caused by Rhodopsin Mutation or Pigment Epithelium Malfunction: Differences and Similarities

    PubMed Central

    Di Pierdomenico, Johnny; García-Ayuso, Diego; Pinilla, Isabel; Cuenca, Nicolás; Vidal-Sanz, Manuel; Agudo-Barriuso, Marta; Villegas-Pérez, María P.

    2017-01-01

    To study the course of photoreceptor cell death and macro and microglial reactivity in two rat models of retinal degeneration with different etiologies. Retinas from P23H-1 (rhodopsin mutation) and Royal College of Surgeon (RCS, pigment epithelium malfunction) rats and age-matched control animals (Sprague-Dawley and Pievald Viro Glaxo, respectively) were cross-sectioned at different postnatal ages (from P10 to P60) and rhodopsin, L/M- and S-opsin, ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 (Iba1), glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP), and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) proteins were immunodetected. Photoreceptor nuclei rows and microglial cells in the different retinal layers were quantified. Photoreceptor degeneration starts earlier and progresses quicker in P23H-1 than in RCS rats. In both models, microglial cell activation occurs simultaneously with the initiation of photoreceptor death while GFAP over-expression starts later. As degeneration progresses, the numbers of microglial cells increase in the retina, but decreasing in the inner retina and increasing in the outer retina, more markedly in RCS rats. Interestingly, and in contrast with healthy animals, microglial cells reach the outer nuclei and outer segment layers. The higher number of microglial cells in dystrophic retinas cannot be fully accounted by intraretinal migration and PCNA immunodetection revealed microglial proliferation in both models but more importantly in RCS rats. The etiology of retinal degeneration determines the initiation and pattern of photoreceptor cell death and simultaneously there is microglial activation and migration, while the macroglial response is delayed. The actions of microglial cells in the degeneration cannot be explained only in the basis of photoreceptor death because they participate more actively in the RCS model. Thus, the retinal degeneration caused by pigment epithelium malfunction is more inflammatory and would probably respond better to interventions

  14. Molecular Mechanisms of Disease for Mutations at Gly-90 in Rhodopsin*

    PubMed Central

    Toledo, Darwin; Ramon, Eva; Aguilà, Mònica; Cordomí, Arnau; Pérez, Juan J.; Mendes, Hugo F.; Cheetham, Michael E.; Garriga, Pere

    2011-01-01

    Two different mutations at Gly-90 in the second transmembrane helix of the photoreceptor protein rhodopsin have been proposed to lead to different phenotypes. G90D has been classically associated with congenital night blindness, whereas the newly reported G90V substitution was linked to a retinitis pigmentosa phenotype. Here, we used Val/Asp replacements of the native Gly at position 90 to unravel the structure/function divergences caused by these mutations and the potential molecular mechanisms of inherited retinal disease. The G90V and G90D mutants have a similar conformation around the Schiff base linkage region in the dark state and same regeneration kinetics with 11-cis-retinal, but G90V has dramatically reduced thermal stability when compared with the G90D mutant rhodopsin. The G90V mutant also shows, like G90D, an altered photobleaching pattern and capacity to activate Gt in the opsin state. Furthermore, the regeneration of the G90V mutant with 9-cis-retinal was improved, achieving the same A280/A500 as wild type isorhodopsin. Hydroxylamine resistance was also recovered, indicating a compact structure around the Schiff base linkage, and the thermal stability was substantially improved when compared with the 11-cis-regenerated mutant. These results support the role of thermal instability and/or abnormal photoproduct formation in eliciting a retinitis pigmentosa phenotype. The improved stability and more compact structure of the G90V mutant when it was regenerated with 9-cis-retinal brings about the possibility that this isomer or other modified retinoid analogues might be used in potential treatment strategies for mutants showing the same structural features. PMID:21940625

  15. Comparison of the isomerization mechanisms of human melanopsin and invertebrate and vertebrate rhodopsins

    PubMed Central

    Rinaldi, Silvia; Melaccio, Federico; Gozem, Samer; Fanelli, Francesca; Olivucci, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    Comparative modeling and ab initio multiconfigurational quantum chemistry are combined to investigate the reactivity of the human nonvisual photoreceptor melanopsin. It is found that both the thermal and photochemical isomerization of the melanopsin 11-cis retinal chromophore occur via a space-saving mechanism involving the unidirectional, counterclockwise twisting of the =C11H-C12H= moiety with respect to its Lys340-linked frame as proposed by Warshel for visual pigments [Warshel A (1976) Nature 260(5553):679–683]. A comparison with the mechanisms documented for vertebrate (bovine) and invertebrate (squid) visual photoreceptors shows that such a mechanism is not affected by the diversity of the three chromophore cavities. Despite such invariance, trajectory computations indicate that although all receptors display less than 100 fs excited state dynamics, human melanopsin decays from the excited state ∼40 fs earlier than bovine rhodopsin. Some diversity is also found in the energy barriers controlling thermal isomerization. Human melanopsin features the highest computed barrier which appears to be ∼2.5 kcal mol−1 higher than that of bovine rhodopsin. When assuming the validity of both the reaction speed/quantum yield correlation discussed by Warshel, Mathies and coworkers [Weiss RM, Warshel A (1979) J Am Chem Soc 101:6131–6133; Schoenlein RW, Peteanu LA, Mathies RA, Shank CV (1991) Science 254(5030):412–415] and of a relationship between thermal isomerization rate and thermal activation of the photocycle, melanopsin turns out to be a highly sensitive pigment consistent with the low number of melanopsin-containing cells found in the retina and with the extraretina location of melanopsin in nonmammalian vertebrates. PMID:24449866

  16. The transcription-splicing protein NonO/p54nrb and three NonO-interacting proteins bind to distal enhancer region and augment rhodopsin expression.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Sharda P; Hao, Hong; Yang, Hyun-Jin; Kautzmann, Marie-Audrey I; Brooks, Matthew; Nellissery, Jacob; Klocke, Bernward; Seifert, Martin; Swaroop, Anand

    2014-04-15

    Phototransduction machinery in vertebrate photoreceptors is contained within the membrane discs of outer segments. Daily renewal of 10% of photoreceptor outer segments requires stringent control of gene expression. Rhodopsin constitutes over 90% of the protein in rod discs, and its altered expression or transport is associated with photoreceptor dysfunction and/or death. Two cis-regulatory sequences have been identified upstream of the rhodopsin transcription start site. While the proximal promoter binds to specific transcription factors, including NRL and CRX, the rhodopsin enhancer region (RER) reportedly contributes to precise and high-level expression of rhodopsin in vivo. Here, we report the identification of RER-bound proteins by mass spectrometry. We validate the binding of NonO (p54(nrb)), a protein implicated in coupling transcription to splicing, and three NonO-interacting proteins-hnRNP M, Ywhaz and Ppp1ca. NonO and its interactors can activate rhodopsin promoter in HEK293 cells and function synergistically with NRL and CRX. DNA-binding domain of NonO is critical for rhodopsin promoter activation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by deep sequencing (ChIP-seq) analysis demonstrates high occupancy of NonO at rhodopsin and a subset of phototransduction genes. Furthermore, shRNA knockdown of NonO in mouse retina leads to loss of rhodopsin expression and rod cell death, which can be partially rescued by a C-terminal NonO construct. RNA-seq analysis of the NonO shRNA-treated retina revealed splicing defects and altered expression of genes, specifically those associated with phototransduction. Our studies identify an important contribution of NonO and its interacting modulator proteins in enhancing rod-specific gene expression and controlling rod homeostasis.

  17. The receptor kinase family: primary structure of rhodopsin kinase reveals similarities to the beta-adrenergic receptor kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Lorenz, W; Inglese, J; Palczewski, K; Onorato, J J; Caron, M G; Lefkowitz, R J

    1991-01-01

    Light-dependent deactivation of rhodopsin as well as homologous desensitization of beta-adrenergic receptors involves receptor phosphorylation that is mediated by the highly specific protein kinases rhodopsin kinase (RK) and beta-adrenergic receptor kinase (beta ARK), respectively. We report here the cloning of a complementary DNA for RK. The deduced amino acid sequence shows a high degree of homology to beta ARK. In a phylogenetic tree constructed by comparing the catalytic domains of several protein kinases, RK and beta ARK are located on a branch close to, but separate from the cyclic nucleotide-dependent protein kinase and protein kinase C subfamilies. From the common structural features we conclude that both RK and beta ARK are members of a newly delineated gene family of guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein)-coupled receptor kinases that may function in diverse pathways to regulate the function of such receptors. Images PMID:1656454

  18. Drawing the Retinal Out of Its Comfort Zone: An ONIOM(QM/MM) Study of Mutant Squid Rhodopsin.

    PubMed

    Sekharan, Sivakumar; Morokuma, Keiji

    2010-01-21

    Engineering squid rhodopsin with modified retinal analogues is essential for understanding the conserved steric and electrostatic interaction networks that govern the architecture of the Schiff base binding site. Depriving the retinal of its steric and electrostatic contacts affects the positioning of the Schiff-base relative to the key residues Asn87, Tyr111, and Glu180. Displacement of the W1 and W2 positions and the impact on the structural rearrangements near the Schiff base binding region reiterates the need for the presence of internal water molecules and the accessibility of binding sites to them. Also, the dominant role of the Glu180 counterion in inducing the S(1)/S(2) state reversal for SBR is shown for the first time in squid rhodopsin.

  19. In vivo dynamics of retinal injury and repair in the rhodopsin mutant dog model of human retinitis pigmentosa.

    PubMed

    Cideciyan, Artur V; Jacobson, Samuel G; Aleman, Tomas S; Gu, Danian; Pearce-Kelling, Susan E; Sumaroka, Alexander; Acland, Gregory M; Aguirre, Gustavo D

    2005-04-05

    Genetic and environmental factors modify the severity of human neurodegenerations. Retinal degenerations caused by rhodopsin gene mutations show severity differences within and between families and even within regions of the same eye. Environmental light is thought to contribute to this variation. In the naturally occurring dog model of the human disorder, we found that modest light levels, as used in routine clinical practice, dramatically accelerated the neurodegeneration. Dynamics of acute retinal injury (consisting of abnormal intraretinal light scattering) were visualized in vivo in real time with high-resolution optical imaging. Long term consequences included fast or slow retinal degeneration or repair of injury depending on the dose of light exposure. These experiments provide a platform to study mechanisms of neuronal injury, repair, compensation, and degeneration. The data also argue for a gene-specific clinical trial of light reduction in human rhodopsin disease.

  20. In vivo dynamics of retinal injury and repair in the rhodopsin mutant dog model of human retinitis pigmentosa

    PubMed Central

    Cideciyan, Artur V.; Jacobson, Samuel G.; Aleman, Tomas S.; Gu, Danian; Pearce-Kelling, Susan E.; Sumaroka, Alexander; Acland, Gregory M.; Aguirre, Gustavo D.

    2005-01-01

    Genetic and environmental factors modify the severity of human neurodegenerations. Retinal degenerations caused by rhodopsin gene mutations show severity differences within and between families and even within regions of the same eye. Environmental light is thought to contribute to this variation. In the naturally occurring dog model of the human disorder, we found that modest light levels, as used in routine clinical practice, dramatically accelerated the neurodegeneration. Dynamics of acute retinal injury (consisting of abnormal intraretinal light scattering) were visualized in vivo in real time with high-resolution optical imaging. Long term consequences included fast or slow retinal degeneration or repair of injury depending on the dose of light exposure. These experiments provide a platform to study mechanisms of neuronal injury, repair, compensation, and degeneration. The data also argue for a gene-specific clinical trial of light reduction in human rhodopsin disease. PMID:15784735

  1. Rhodopsin-stimulated activation-deactivation cycle of transducin: Kinetics of the intrinsic fluorescence response of the alpha subunit

    SciTech Connect

    Guy, P.M.; Koland, J.G.; Cerione, R.A. )

    1990-07-31

    The intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence of the alpha subunit of transducin (alpha T) has been shown to be sensitive to the binding of guanine nucleotides, with the fluorescence being enhanced by as much as 2-fold upon the binding of GTP or nonhydrolyzable GTP analogues. In this work, we have used these fluorescence changes to analyze the kinetics for the activation (GTP binding)-deactivation (GTPase) cycle of transducin in a well-defined reconstituted phospholipid vesicle system containing purified rhodopsin and the alpha T and beta gamma T subunits of the retinal GTP-binding protein. Both the rate and the extent of the GTP-induced fluorescence enhancement are dependent on (rhodopsin), while only the rate (and not the extent) of the GTP gamma S-induced enhancement is dependent on the levels of rhodopsin. Comparisons of the fluorescence enhancements elicited by GTP gamma S and GTP indicate that the GTP gamma S-induced enhancements directly reflect the GTP gamma S-binding event while the GTP-induced enhancements represent a composite of the GTP-binding and GTP hydrolysis events. At high (rhodopsin), the rates for GTP binding and GTPase are sufficiently different such that the GTP-induced enhancement essentially reflects GTP binding. A fluorescence decay, which always follows the GTP-induced enhancement, directly reflects the GTP hydrolytic event. The rate of the fluorescence decay matches the rate of (32P)Pi production due to (gamma-32P)GTP hydrolysis, and the decay is immediately reversed by rechallenging with GTP. The GTP-induced fluorescence changes (i.e., the enhancement and ensuing decay) could be fit to a simple model describing the activation-deactivation cycle of transducin.

  2. Small GTPases Rab8a and Rab11a Are Dispensable for Rhodopsin Transport in Mouse Photoreceptors

    PubMed Central

    Ying, Guoxin; Gerstner, Cecilia D.; Frederick, Jeanne M.; Boye, Sanford L.; Hauswirth, William W.; Baehr, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Rab11a and Rab8a are ubiquitous small GTPases shown as required for rhodopsin transport in Xenopus laevis and zebrafish photoreceptors by dominant negative (dn) disruption of function. Here, we generated retina-specific Rab11a (retRab11a) and Rab8a (retRab8a) single and double knockout mice to explore the consequences in mouse photoreceptors. Rhodopsin and other outer segment (OS) membrane proteins targeted correctly to OS and electroretinogram (ERG) responses in all three mutant mouse lines were indistinguishable from wild-type (WT). Further, AAV (adeno-associated virus)-mediated expression of dnRab11b in retRab11a-/- retina, or expression of dnRab8b in retRab8a-/- retina did not cause OS protein mislocalization. Finally, a retRab8a-/- retina injected at one month of age with AAVs expressing dnRab11a, dnRab11b, dnRab8b, and dnRab10 (four dn viruses on Rab8a-/- background) and harvested three months later exhibited normal OS protein localization. In contrast to results obtained with dnRab GTPases in Xenopus and zebrafish, mouse Rab11a and Rab8a are dispensable for proper rhodopsin and outer segment membrane protein targeting. Absence of phenotype after expression of four dn Rab GTPases in a Rab8a-/- retina suggests that Rab8b and Rab11b paralogs maybe dispensable as well. Our data thus demonstrate significant interspecies variation in photoreceptor membrane protein and rhodopsin trafficking. PMID:27529348

  3. Rhodopsin gene expression regulated by the light dark cycle, light spectrum and light intensity in the dinoflagellate Prorocentrum

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Xinguo; Li, Ling; Guo, Chentao; Lin, Xin; Li, Meizhen; Lin, Senjie

    2015-01-01

    The proton pump rhodopsin is widely found in marine bacteria and archaea, where it functions to capture light energy and convert it to ATP. While found in several lineages of dinoflagellates, this gene has not been studied in Prorocentrales species and whether it functionally tunes to light spectra and intensities as in bacteria remains unclear. Here we identified and characterized this gene in the bloom-forming Prorocentrum donghaiense. It is a 7-helix transmembrane polypeptide containing conserved domains and critical amino acid residues of PPR. This gene is phylogenetically affiliated to the xanthorhodopsin clade, but seems to have a distinct evolutionary origin. Quantitative reverse transcription PCR showed that in regular cultures, the transcript abundance of the gene exhibited a clear diel pattern, high abundance in the light period and low in the dark. The same diel pattern was observed for protein abundance with a Western blot using specific antiserum. The rhythm was dampened when the cultures were shifted to continuous dark or light condition, suggesting that this gene is not under circadian clock control. Rhodopsin transcript and protein abundances varied with light intensity, both being highest at a moderate illumination level. Furthermore, the expression of this gene responded to different light spectra, with slightly higher transcript abundance under green than blue light, and lowest abundance under red light. Transformed Escherichia coli over-expressing this rhodopsin gene also exhibited an absorption maximum in the blue–green region with slightly higher absorption in the green. These rhodopsin-promoting light conditions are similar to the relatively turbid marine habitat where the species forms blooms, suggesting that this gene may function to compensate for the light-limited photosynthesis in the dim environment. PMID:26082770

  4. Rhodopsin and Melanopsin Contributions to the Early Redilation Phase of the Post-Illumination Pupil Response (PIPR)

    PubMed Central

    Adhikari, Prakash; Feigl, Beatrix; Zele, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    Melanopsin expressing intrinsically photosensitive Retinal Ganglion Cells (ipRGCs) entirely control the post-illumination pupil response (PIPR) from 6 s post-stimulus to the plateau during redilation after light offset. However, the photoreceptor contributions to the early redilation phase of the PIPR (< 6 s post-stimulus) have not been reported. Here, we evaluated the photoreceptor contributions to the early phase PIPR (0.6 s to 5.0 s) by measuring the spectral sensitivity of the criterion PIPR amplitude in response to 1 s light pulses at five narrowband stimulus wavelengths (409, 464, 508, 531 and 592 nm). The retinal irradiance producing a criterion PIPR was normalised to the peak and fitted by either a single photopigment nomogram or the combined melanopsin and rhodopsin spectral nomograms with the +L+M cone photopic luminous efficiency (Vλ) function. We show that the PIPR spectral sensitivity at times ≥ 1.7 s after light offset is best described by the melanopsin nomogram. At times < 1.7 s, the peak PIPR sensitivity shifts to longer wavelengths (range: 482 to 498 nm) and is best described by the combined photoreceptor nomogram, with major contributions from melanopsin and rhodopsin. This first report of melanopsin and rhodopsin contributions to the early phase PIPR is in line with the electrophysiological findings of ipRGC and rod signalling after the cessation of light stimuli and provides a cut-off time for isolating photoreceptor specific function in healthy and diseased eyes. PMID:27548480

  5. Analysis of Conserved Glutamate and Aspartate Residues in Drosophila Rhodopsin 1 and Their Influence on Spectral Tuning.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Lijun; Farrell, David M; Fulton, Ruth M; Bagg, Eve E; Salcedo, Ernesto; Manino, Meridee; Britt, Steven G

    2015-09-04

    The molecular mechanisms that regulate invertebrate visual pigment absorption are poorly understood. Studies of amphioxus Go-opsin have demonstrated that Glu-181 functions as the counterion in this pigment. This finding has led to the proposal that Glu-181 may function as the counterion in other invertebrate visual pigments as well. Here we describe a series of mutagenesis experiments to test this hypothesis and to also test whether other conserved acidic amino acids in Drosophila Rhodopsin 1 (Rh1) may serve as the counterion of this visual pigment. Of the 5 Glu and Asp residues replaced by Gln or Asn in our experiments, none of the mutant pigments shift the absorption of Rh1 by more than 6 nm. In combination with prior studies, these results suggest that the counterion in Drosophila Rh1 may not be located at Glu-181 as in amphioxus, or at Glu-113 as in bovine rhodopsin. Conversely, the extremely low steady state levels of the E194Q mutant pigment (bovine opsin site Glu-181), and the rhabdomere degeneration observed in flies expressing this mutant demonstrate that a negatively charged residue at this position is essential for normal rhodopsin function in vivo. This work also raises the possibility that another residue or physiologic anion may compensate for the missing counterion in the E194Q mutant.

  6. A second rhodopsin-like protein in Cyanophora paradoxa: gene sequence and protein expression in a cell-free system.

    PubMed

    Frassanito, Anna Maria; Barsanti, Laura; Passarelli, Vincenzo; Evangelista, Valtere; Gualtieri, Paolo

    2013-08-05

    Here we report the identification and expression of a second rhodopsin-like protein in the alga Cyanophora paradoxa (Glaucophyta), named Cyanophopsin_2. This new protein was identified due to a serendipity event, since the RACE reaction performed to complete the sequence of Cyanophopsin_1, (the first rhodopsin-like protein of C. paradoxa identified in 2009 by our group), amplified a 619 bp sequence corresponding to a portion of a new gene of the same protein family. The full sequence consists of 1175 bp consisting of 849 bp coding DNA sequence and 4 introns of 326 bp. The protein is characterized by an N-terminal region of 47 amino acids, followed by a region with 7 α-helices of 213 amino acids and a C-terminal region of 22 amino acids. This protein showed high identity with Cyanophopsin_1 and other rhodopsin-like proteins of Archea, Bacteria, Fungi and Algae. Cyanophosin_2 (CpR2) was expressed in a cell-free expression system, and characterized by means of absorption spectroscopy.

  7. JGI's Carbon Cycling Studies on Restored Marshes

    SciTech Connect

    Tringe, Susannah; Theroux, Susanna

    2015-06-02

    DOE Joint Genome Institute Metagenome Program Head, Susannah Tringe, and postdoc, Susie Theroux, discuss the lessons to be learned from studying the microbial diversity of marshes that have been converted to other uses, and are now being restored, as well as the potential impacts on the global carbon cycle.

  8. JGI's Carbon Cycling Studies on Restored Marshes

    ScienceCinema

    Tringe, Susannah; Theroux, Susanna

    2016-07-12

    DOE Joint Genome Institute Metagenome Program Head, Susannah Tringe, and postdoc, Susie Theroux, discuss the lessons to be learned from studying the microbial diversity of marshes that have been converted to other uses, and are now being restored, as well as the potential impacts on the global carbon cycle.

  9. Picosecond Raman Study of Vibrational Cooling and Protein Dynamics in the Primary Photochemistry of Rhodopsin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Judy; Mathies, Richard

    2003-03-01

    Picosecond Stokes and anti-Stokes Raman spectra are used to probe the structural dynamics and reactive energy flow of both the chromophore and binding pocket residues in the primary cis-to-trans isomerization reaction of rhodopsin. The appearance of characteristic ethylenic, hydrogen out-of-plane (HOOP) and low-wavenumber photoproduct bands in the Stokes Raman spectra of the chromophore is instrument-response limited, consistent with a sub-picosecond product appearance time (1,2). Intense high and low-frequency anti-Stokes chromophore peaks demonstrate that the all-trans photoproduct, photorhodopsin, is produced vibrationally hot on the ground-state surface (2). Specifically, the low-frequency modes at 282, 350 and 477 cm-1 are highly vibrationally excited (T > 2000 K) immediately following isomerization, revealing that these low-frequency motions directly participate in the reactive curve-crossing process. The anti-Stokes modes are characterized by a ˜2.5 ps temporal decay that coincides with the conversion of photorhodopsin to bathorhodopsin. This correspondence shows that the photo-to-batho transition is a ground-state cooling process, and that energy storage in the primary visual photoproduct is complete on the picosecond time scale. The remarkable similarity between the room-temperature picosecond vibrational structure of photo- and bathorhodopsin and that of the low-temperature trapped primary photoproduct suggests that chromophore isomerization impulsively excites and drives changes in nearby protein residues. These amino acid changes within the binding pocket are probed by picosecond UV Raman spectroscopy of aromatic residues (3). Difference spectra reveal that at least one tryptophan (trp265) and one tyrosine (tyr191, 268 and/or 178) residue undergoes structural changes in < 5 ps, presumably due to steric interaction with the isomerizing chromophore as well as energy flow from chromophore to the binding pocket. This result indicates that the protein

  10. Role of Asn112 in a Light-Driven Sodium Ion-Pumping Rhodopsin.

    PubMed

    Abe-Yoshizumi, Rei; Inoue, Keiichi; Kato, Hideaki E; Nureki, Osamu; Kandori, Hideki

    2016-10-18

    Light-driven outward sodium-pumping rhodopsin (NaR) was recently found in marine bacteria. Krokinobacter eikastus rhodopsin 2 (KR2) actively transports sodium and lithium ions in NaCl and LiCl, respectively, while it pumps protons in KCl. NaR has a conserved NDQ (N112, D116, and Q123 in KR2) motif, and previous studies suggested an important role for N112 in the function of KR2. Here we replaced N112 with 19 different amino acids and studied the molecular properties of the mutants. All mutants exhibited absorption bands from a protonated Schiff base in the λmax range from 508 to 531 nm upon heterologous expression in Escherichia coli, whose ion-pumping activity was measured using pH electrodes. The function of these mutants was classified into three phenotypes: wild-type (WT)-like Na(+)/H(+) compatible pump, exclusive H(+) pump, and no pump. Among the 19 mutants, only N112D, -G, -S, and -T showed light-driven Na(+) pump activity, N112A, -C, -P, -V, -E, -Q, -I, -L, -M, -F, and -W were exclusively H(+) pumps, and N112H, -K, -Y, and -R exhibited no pump activity. The mutants of the no pump function lack a blue-shifted M intermediate, indicating that Schiff base deprotonation is a prerequisite for Na(+) and H(+) pumps. In contrast, the subsequent red-shifted O intermediate was observed for WT and N112V but absent for N112T and N112A, suggesting that observation of this intermediate depends on kinetics. Although N112D, -G, -S, and -T are able to pump Na(+), they also pump H(+) in NaCl, where Na(+) and H(+) pumps compete with each other because of the decreased Na(+) uptake efficiency. From these facts, an exclusive Na(+) pump in NaCl exists only in WT. We conclude that N112 is one of the functional determinants of NaR.

  11. Imaging rhodopsin degeneration in vivo in a new model of ocular ischemia in living mice

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Jiaqian; Chen, Yinching I.; Mackey, Ashley M.; Liu, Philip K.

    2016-01-01

    Delivery of antibodies to monitor key biomarkers of retinopathy in vivo represents a significant challenge because living cells do not take up immunoglobulins to cellular antigens. We met this challenge by developing novel contrast agents for retinopathy, which we used with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Biotinylated rabbit polyclonal to chick IgY (rIgPxcIgY) and phosphorylthioate-modified oligoDNA (sODN) with random sequence (bio-sODN-Ran) were conjugated with NeutrAvidin-activated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION). The resulting Ran-SPION-rIgPxcIgY carries chick polyclonal to microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) as Ran-SPION-rIgP/cIgY-MAP2, or to rhodopsin (Rho) as anti-Rho-SPION-Ran. We examined the uptake of Ran-SPION-rIgP/cIgY-MAP2 or SPION-rIgP/cIgY-MAP2 in normal C57black6 mice (n = 3 each, 40 μg/kg, i.c.v.); we found retention of Ran-SPION-rIgP/cIgY-MAP2 using molecular contrast-enhanced MRI in vivo and validated neuronal uptake using Cy5-goat IgPxcIgY ex vivo. Applying this novel method to monitor retinopathy in a bilateral carotid artery occlusion-induced ocular ischemia, we observed pericytes (at d 2, using Gd-nestin, by eyedrop solution), significant photoreceptor degeneration (at d 20, using anti-Rho-SPION-Ran, eyedrops, P = 0.03, Student's t test), and gliosis in Müller cells (at 6 mo, using SPION–glial fibrillary acidic protein administered by intraperitoneal injection) in surviving mice (n ≥ 5). Molecular contrast-enhanced MRI results were confirmed by optical and electron microscopy. We conclude that chimera and molecular contrast-enhanced MRI provide sufficient sensitivity for monitoring retinopathy and for theranostic applications.—Ren, J., Chen, Y. I., Mackey, A. M., Liu, P. K. Imaging rhodopsin degeneration in vivo in a new model of ocular ischemia in living mice. PMID:26443823

  12. A second visual rhodopsin gene, rh1-2, is expressed in zebrafish photoreceptors and found in other ray-finned fishes.

    PubMed

    Morrow, James M; Lazic, Savo; Dixon Fox, Monica; Kuo, Claire; Schott, Ryan K; de A Gutierrez, Eduardo; Santini, Francesco; Tropepe, Vincent; Chang, Belinda S W

    2017-01-15

    Rhodopsin (rh1) is the visual pigment expressed in rod photoreceptors of vertebrates that is responsible for initiating the critical first step of dim-light vision. Rhodopsin is usually a single copy gene; however, we previously discovered a novel rhodopsin-like gene expressed in the zebrafish retina, rh1-2, which we identified as a functional photosensitive pigment that binds 11-cis retinal and activates in response to light. Here, we localized expression of rh1-2 in the zebrafish retina to a subset of peripheral photoreceptor cells, which indicates a partially overlapping expression pattern with rh1 We also expressed, purified and characterized Rh1-2, including investigation of the stability of the biologically active intermediate. Using fluorescence spectroscopy, we found the half-life of the rate of retinal release of Rh1-2 following photoactivation to be more similar to that of the visual pigment rhodopsin than to the non-visual pigment exo-rhodopsin (exorh), which releases retinal around 5 times faster. Phylogenetic and molecular evolutionary analyses show that rh1-2 has ancient origins within teleost fishes, is under similar selective pressure to rh1, and likely experienced a burst of positive selection following its duplication and divergence from rh1 These findings indicate that rh1-2 is another functional visual rhodopsin gene, which contradicts the prevailing notion that visual rhodopsin is primarily found as a single copy gene within ray-finned fishes. The reasons for retention of this duplicate gene, as well as possible functional consequences for the visual system, are discussed.

  13. Measurement of activation of rhodopsine with heavy ions irradiation in the ALTEA program: a possible mechanism responsible for light flash perceptions in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narici, Livio; Rinaldi, Adele; Sannita, Walter, , Prof; Paci, Maurizio; Brunetti, Valentina; de Martino, Angelo; Picozza, Piergiorgio

    Since late 60s astronauts in space have reported seeing flashes of light, more frequently when dark adapted. Experiments have been performed to characterize these phenomena, and to suggest possible mechanisms. High Z ions have been shown to be the most likely cause of these perceptions: when ionizing radiation hits the eye there is a high probability of a light flash perception. However the mechanisms behind this phenomenon are not fully understood yet. We show that one of these mechanisms is the activation of the rhodopsin (bleaching) by heavy ions. Rhodopsin is at the start of the photo-electronic cascade in the process of vision. It is one of the best molecular transducer to convert a visible photon into an electric signal. In this work we show that rhodopsine can also be activated by irradiation with 12C nuclei. In the frame of ALTEA program, aimed at studying the effects of cosmic radiation on brain functions, an investigation on the interaction between heavy ions and rhodopsin has been performed. Intact Rod Outer Segment (ROS) containing rhodopsin were isolated from bovine retina. Suspended rods were irradiated with 12C (200 MeV/n, well below the Cherenkov threshold) at GSI (Darmstadt FRG) with doses ranging from few mrem to several rem. Spectrophotometric measurements investigated the presence of non activated and activated rhodopsin. The functionality of the purified rods were checked by previous light irradiation and subsequent regeneration by the addition of external 11-cis-retinal, to confirm the reversibility of the process in vitro. We can show effective and reversible bleaching also following irradiation, thus proving that the rhodopsin was not damaged by radiation. Works are in progress to model this interaction. Latest analysis results and considerations about the underlying mechanism will be presented.

  14. Asymmetric properties of the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cytoskeleton direct rhodopsin photoreceptor localization

    PubMed Central

    Mittelmeier, Telsa M.; Boyd, Joseph S.; Lamb, Mary Rose

    2011-01-01

    The eyespot of the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a photoreceptive organelle required for phototaxis. Relative to the anterior flagella, the eyespot is asymmetrically positioned adjacent to the daughter four-membered rootlet (D4), a unique bundle of acetylated microtubules extending from the daughter basal body toward the posterior of the cell. Here, we detail the relationship between the rhodopsin eyespot photoreceptor Channelrhodopsin 1 (ChR1) and acetylated microtubules. In wild-type cells, ChR1 was observed in an equatorial patch adjacent to D4 near the end of the acetylated microtubules and along the D4 rootlet. In cells with cytoskeletal protein mutations, supernumerary ChR1 patches remained adjacent to acetylated microtubules. In mlt1 (multieyed) mutant cells, supernumerary photoreceptor patches were not restricted to the D4 rootlet, and more anterior eyespots correlated with shorter acetylated microtubule rootlets. The data suggest a model in which photoreceptor localization is dependent on microtubule-based trafficking selective for the D4 rootlet, which is perturbed in mlt1 mutant cells. PMID:21555459

  15. X-ray laser diffraction for structure determination of the rhodopsin-arrestin complex

    DOE PAGES

    Zhou, X. Edward; Gao, Xiang; Barty, Anton; ...

    2016-04-12

    Here, serial femtosecond X-ray crystallography (SFX) using an X-ray free electron laser (XFEL) is a recent advancement in structural biology for solving crystal structures of challenging membrane proteins, including G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), which often only produce microcrystals. An XFEL delivers highly intense X-ray pulses of femtosecond duration short enough to enable the collection of single diffraction images before significant radiation damage to crystals sets in. Here we report the deposition of the XFEL data and provide further details on crystallization, XFEL data collection and analysis, structure determination, and the validation of the structural model. The rhodopsin-arrestin crystal structure solvedmore » with SFX represents the first near-atomic resolution structure of a GPCR-arrestin complex, provides structural insights into understanding of arrestin-mediated GPCR signaling, and demonstrates the great potential of this SFX-XFEL technology for accelerating crystal structure determination of challenging proteins and protein complexes.« less

  16. Identification of a rhodopsin gene mutation in a large family with autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xinping; Shi, Wei; Cheng, Lulu; Wang, Yanfang; Chen, Ding; Hu, Xuting; Xu, Jinling; Xu, Limin; Wu, Yaming; Qu, Jia; Gu, Feng

    2016-01-22

    Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a genetically highly heterogeneous retinal disease and one of the leading causes of blindness in the world. Next-generation sequencing technology has enormous potential for determining the genetic etiology of RP. We sought to identify the underlying genetic defect in a 35-year-old male from an autosomal-dominant RP family with 14 affected individuals. By capturing next-generation sequencing (CNGS) of 144 genes associated with retinal diseases, we identified eight novel DNA variants; however, none of them cosegregated for all the members of the family. Further analysis of the CNGS data led to identification of a recurrent missense mutation (c.403C > T, p.R135W) in the rhodopsin (RHO) gene, which cosegregated with all affected individuals in the family and was not observed in any of the unaffected family members. The p.R135W mutation has a reference single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) ID (rs104893775), and it appears to be responsible for the disease in this large family. This study highlights the importance of examining NGS data with reference SNP IDs. Thus, our study is important for data analysis of NGS-based clinical genetic diagnoses.

  17. Reconstitution of rhodopsin into polymerizable planar supported lipid bilayers: influence of dienoyl monomer structure on photoactivation.

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, Varuni; D'Ambruoso, Gemma D; Hall, H K; Wysocki, Ronald J; Brown, Michael F; Saavedra, S Scott

    2008-10-07

    G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) play key roles in cellular signal transduction and many are pharmacologically important targets for drug discovery. GPCRs can be reconstituted in planar supported lipid bilayers (PSLBs) with retention of activity, which has led to development of GPCR-based biosensors and biochips. However, PSLBs composed of natural lipids lack the high stability desired for many technological applications. One strategy is to use synthetic lipid monomers that can be polymerized to form robust bilayers. A key question is how lipid polymerization affects GPCR structure and activity. Here we have investigated the photochemical activity of bovine rhodopsin (Rho), a model GPCR, reconstituted into PSLBs composed of lipids having one or two polymerizable dienoyl moieties located in different regions of the acyl chains. Plasmon waveguide resonance spectroscopy was used to compare the degree of Rho photoactivation in fluid and poly(lipid) PSLBs. The position of the dienoyl moiety was found to have a significant effect: polymerization near the glycerol backbone significantly attenuates Rho activity whereas polymerization near the acyl chain termini does not. Differences in cross-link density near the acyl chain termini also do not affect Rho activity. In unpolymerized PSLBs, an equimolar mixture of phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylcholine (PC) lipids enhances activity relative to pure PC; however after polymerization, the enhancement is eliminated which is attributed to stabilization of the membrane lamellar phase. These results should provide guidance for the design of robust lipid bilayers functionalized with transmembrane proteins for use in membrane-based biochips and biosensors.

  18. A Chimera Na+-Pump Rhodopsin as an Effective Optogenetic Silencer

    PubMed Central

    Hoque, Mohammad Razuanul; Ishizuka, Toru; Inoue, Keiichi; Abe-Yoshizumi, Rei; Igarashi, Hiroyuki; Mishima, Takaaki; Kandori, Hideki

    2016-01-01

    With the progress of optogenetics, the activities of genetically identified neurons can be optically silenced to determine whether the neurons in question are necessary for the network performance of the behavioral expression. This logical induction is expected to be improved by the application of the Na+ pump rhodopsins (NaRs), which hyperpolarize the membrane potential with negligible influence on the ionic/pH balance. Here, we made several chimeric NaRs between two NaRs, KR2 and IaNaR from Krokinobacter eikastus and Indibacter alkaliphilus, respectively. We found that one of these chimeras, named I1K6NaR, exhibited some improvements in the membrane targeting and photocurrent properties over native NaRs. The I1K6NaR-expressing cortical neurons were stably silenced by green light irradiation for a certain long duration. With its rapid kinetics and voltage dependency, the photoactivation of I1K6NaR would specifically counteract the generation of action potentials with less hyperpolarization of the neuronal membrane potential than KR2. PMID:27861619

  19. New Insights on Signal Propagation by Sensory Rhodopsin II/Transducer Complex

    PubMed Central

    Ishchenko, A.; Round, E.; Borshchevskiy, V.; Grudinin, S.; Gushchin, I.; Klare, J. P.; Remeeva, A.; Polovinkin, V.; Utrobin, P.; Balandin, T.; Engelhard, M.; Büldt, G.; Gordeliy, V.

    2017-01-01

    The complex of two membrane proteins, sensory rhodopsin II (NpSRII) with its cognate transducer (NpHtrII), mediates negative phototaxis in halobacteria N. pharaonis. Upon light activation NpSRII triggers a signal transduction chain homologous to the two-component system in eubacterial chemotaxis. Here we report on crystal structures of the ground and active M-state of the complex in the space group I212121. We demonstrate that the relative orientation of symmetrical parts of the dimer is parallel (“U”-shaped) contrary to the gusset-like (“V”-shaped) form of the previously reported structures of the NpSRII/NpHtrII complex in the space group P21212, although the structures of the monomers taken individually are nearly the same. Computer modeling of the HAMP domain in the obtained “V”- and “U”-shaped structures revealed that only the “U”-shaped conformation allows for tight interactions of the receptor with the HAMP domain. This is in line with existing data and supports biological relevance of the “U” shape in the ground state. We suggest that the “V”-shaped structure may correspond to the active state of the complex and transition from the “U” to the “V”-shape of the receptor-transducer complex can be involved in signal transduction from the receptor to the signaling domain of NpHtrII. PMID:28165484

  20. Kinetics of slow thermal reactions during the bleaching of rhodopsin in the perfused frog retina

    PubMed Central

    Baumann, C.

    1972-01-01

    1. Slow thermal reactions occurring in the rhodopsin rods of flash-irradiated frog retinas were investigated spectrophotometrically. 2. Five substances were identified as reactants: metarhodopsin II, metarhodopsin III, all-trans-retinal, opsin, and all-trans-retinol. 3. Quantitative analysis showed that the transition between these substances are not a series of three consecutive reactions. 4. An alternative scheme, compatible with the results, consisted of four reactions and involved two parallel pathways for the decay of metarhodopsin II, viz. conversion into metarhodopsin III, and hydrolysis into retinal and opsin. 5. The first-order rate constants for the four reactions were as follows: 1·4 × 10-2 sec-1 for the conversion of metarhodopsin II into metarhodopsin III; 7·9 × 10-3 sec-1 for the hydrolysis of metarhodopsin II; 1·4 × 10-3 sec-1 for the hydrolysis of metarhodopsin III; and 2·6 × 10-3 sec-1 for the reduction of retinal into retinol (21° C). 6. Two other four-parameter schemes involving an equilibrium between metarhodopsin II and metarhodopsin III were also considered. One was found to be incompatible with the results. The other, though adequate, did not describe the data as well as the model summarized in 4 and 5. It also had the peculiar property of requiring that two apparently independent parameters be equated. PMID:4537508

  1. Rhodopsin gene polymorphism associated with divergent light environments in Atlantic cod.

    PubMed

    Pampoulie, Christophe; Skirnisdottir, Sigurlaug; Star, Bastiaan; Jentoft, Sissel; Jónsdóttir, Ingibjörg G; Hjörleifsson, Einar; Thorsteinsson, Vilhjálmur; Pálsson, Ólafur K; Berg, Paul R; Andersen, Øivind; Magnusdottir, Steinunn; Helyar, Sarah J; Daníelsdóttir, Anna K

    2015-03-01

    The spectral sensitivity of visual pigments in vertebrate eyes is optimized for specific light conditions. One of such pigments, rhodopsin (RH1), mediates dim-light vision. Amino acid replacements at tuning sites may alter spectral sensitivity, providing a mechanism to adapt to ambient light conditions and depth of habitat in fish. Here we present a first investigation of RH1 gene polymorphism among two ecotypes of Atlantic cod in Icelandic waters, which experience divergent light environments throughout the year due to alternative foraging behaviour. We identified one synonymous single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the RH1 protein coding region and one in the 3' untranslated region (3'-UTR) that are strongly divergent between these two ecotypes. Moreover, these polymorphisms coincided with the well-known panthophysin (Pan I) polymorphism that differentiates coastal and frontal (migratory) populations of Atlantic cod. While the RH1 SNPs do not provide direct inference for a specific molecular mechanism, their association with this dim-sensitive pigment indicates the involvement of the visual system in local adaptation of Atlantic cod.

  2. Photoisomerization dynamics of a rhodopsin-based molecule (potential molecular switch) with high quantum yields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Roland; Jiang, Chen-Wei; Zhang, Xiu-Xing; Fang, Ai-Ping; Li, Hong-Rong; Xie, Rui-Hua; Li, Fu-Li

    2015-03-01

    It is worthwhile to explore the detailed reaction dynamics of various candidates for molecular switches, in order to understand, e.g., the differences in quantum yields and switching times. Here we report density-functional-based simulations for the rhodopsin-based molecule 4-[4-Methylbenzylidene]-5-p-tolyl-3,4-dihydro-2H-pyrrole (MDP), synthesized by Sampedro et al. We find that the photoisomerization quantum yields are remarkably high: 82% for cis-to-trans, and 68% for trans-to-cis. The lifetimes of the S1 excited state in cis-MDP in our calculations are in the range of 900-1800 fs, with a mean value of 1270 fs, while the range of times required for full cis-to-trans isomerization are 1100-2000 fs, with a mean value of 1530 fs. In trans-MDP, the calculated S1 excited state lifetimes are 860-2140 fs, with a mean value of 1330 fs, and with the full trans-to-cis isomerization completed about 200 fs later. In both cases, the dominant reaction mechanism is rotation around the central C =C bond (connected to the pyrroline ring), and de-excitation occurs at an avoided crossing between the ground state and the lowest singlet state, near the midpoint of the rotational pathway. Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China; Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities; Robert A. Welch Foundation; National Natural Science Foundation of China.

  3. Photoisomerization dynamics of a rhodopsin-based molecule (potential molecular switch) with high quantum yields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Chen-Wei; Zhang, Xiu-Xing; Fang, Ai-Ping; Li, Hong-Rong; Xie, Rui-Hua; Li, Fu-Li; Allen, Roland E.

    2015-02-01

    It is worthwhile to explore the detailed reaction dynamics of various candidates for molecular switches, in order to understand, e.g., the differences in quantum yields and switching times. Here we report density-functional-based simulations for the rhodopsin-based molecule 4-[4-methylbenzylidene]-5-p-tolyl-3,4-dihydro-2H-pyrrole (MDP), synthesized by Sampedro et al We find that the photoisomerization quantum yields are remarkably high: 82% for cis-to-trans, and 68% for trans-to-cis. The lifetimes of the S1 excited state in cis-MDP in our calculations are in the range of 900-1800 fs, with a mean value of 1270 fs, while the range of times required for full cis-to-trans isomerization are 1100-2000 fs, with a mean value of 1530 fs. In trans-MDP, the calculated S1 excited state lifetimes are 860-2140 fs, with a mean value of 1330 fs, and with the full trans-to-cis isomerization completed about 200 fs later. In both cases, the dominant reaction mechanism is rotation around the central C=C bond (connected to the pyrroline ring), and de-excitation occurs at an avoided crossing between the ground state and the lowest singlet state, near the midpoint of the rotational pathway. Perhaps remarkably, but apparently because of electrostatic repulsion, the direction of rotation is the same for both reactions.

  4. A Chimera Na+-Pump Rhodopsin as an Effective Optogenetic Silencer.

    PubMed

    Hoque, Mohammad Razuanul; Ishizuka, Toru; Inoue, Keiichi; Abe-Yoshizumi, Rei; Igarashi, Hiroyuki; Mishima, Takaaki; Kandori, Hideki; Yawo, Hiromu

    2016-01-01

    With the progress of optogenetics, the activities of genetically identified neurons can be optically silenced to determine whether the neurons in question are necessary for the network performance of the behavioral expression. This logical induction is expected to be improved by the application of the Na+ pump rhodopsins (NaRs), which hyperpolarize the membrane potential with negligible influence on the ionic/pH balance. Here, we made several chimeric NaRs between two NaRs, KR2 and IaNaR from Krokinobacter eikastus and Indibacter alkaliphilus, respectively. We found that one of these chimeras, named I1K6NaR, exhibited some improvements in the membrane targeting and photocurrent properties over native NaRs. The I1K6NaR-expressing cortical neurons were stably silenced by green light irradiation for a certain long duration. With its rapid kinetics and voltage dependency, the photoactivation of I1K6NaR would specifically counteract the generation of action potentials with less hyperpolarization of the neuronal membrane potential than KR2.

  5. The CarO rhodopsin of the fungus Fusarium fujikuroi is a light-driven proton pump that retards spore germination

    PubMed Central

    García-Martínez, Jorge; Brunk, Michael; Avalos, Javier; Terpitz, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Rhodopsins are membrane-embedded photoreceptors found in all major taxonomic kingdoms using retinal as their chromophore. They play well-known functions in different biological systems, but their roles in fungi remain unknown. The filamentous fungus Fusarium fujikuroi contains two putative rhodopsins, CarO and OpsA. The gene carO is light-regulated, and the predicted polypeptide contains all conserved residues required for proton pumping. We aimed to elucidate the expression and cellular location of the fungal rhodopsin CarO, its presumed proton-pumping activity and the possible effect of such function on F. fujikuroi growth. In electrophysiology experiments we confirmed that CarO is a green-light driven proton pump. Visualization of fluorescent CarO-YFP expressed in F. fujikuroi under control of its native promoter revealed higher accumulation in spores (conidia) produced by light-exposed mycelia. Germination analyses of conidia from carO− mutant and carO+ control strains showed a faster development of light-exposed carO− germlings. In conclusion, CarO is an active proton pump, abundant in light-formed conidia, whose activity slows down early hyphal development under light. Interestingly, CarO-related rhodopsins are typically found in plant-associated fungi, where green light dominates the phyllosphere. Our data provide the first reliable clue on a possible biological role of a fungal rhodopsin. PMID:25589426

  6. Untangling ciliary access and enrichment of two rhodopsin-like receptors using quantitative fluorescence microscopy reveals cell-specific sorting pathways.

    PubMed

    Geneva, Ivayla I; Tan, Han Yen; Calvert, Peter D

    2017-02-15

    Resolution limitations of optical systems are major obstacles for determining whether proteins are enriched within cell compartments. Here we use an approach to determine the degree of membrane protein ciliary enrichment that quantitatively accounts for the differences in sampling of the ciliary and apical membranes inherent to confocal microscopes. Theory shows that cilia will appear more than threefold brighter than the surrounding apical membrane when the densities of fluorescently labeled proteins are the same, thus providing a benchmark for ciliary enrichment. Using this benchmark, we examined the ciliary enrichment signals of two G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs)-the somatostatin receptor 3 and rhodopsin. Remarkably, we found that the C-terminal VxPx motif, required for efficient enrichment of rhodopsin within rod photoreceptor sensory cilia, inhibited enrichment of the somatostatin receptor in primary cilia. Similarly, VxPx inhibited primary cilium enrichment of a chimera of rhodopsin and somatostatin receptor 3, where the dual Ax(S/A)xQ ciliary targeting motifs within the third intracellular loop of the somatostatin receptor replaced the third intracellular loop of rhodopsin. Rhodopsin was depleted from primary cilia but gained access, without being enriched, with the dual Ax(S/A)xQ motifs. Ciliary enrichment of these GPCRs thus operates via distinct mechanisms in different cells.

  7. Docosahexaenoic acid phospholipid differentially modulates the conformation of G90V and N55K rhodopsin mutants associated with retinitis pigmentosa.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xiaoyun; Herrera-Hernández, María Guadalupe; Ramon, Eva; Garriga, Pere

    2017-05-01

    Rhodopsin is the visual photoreceptor of the retinal rod cells that mediates dim light vision and a prototypical member of the G protein-coupled receptor superfamily. The structural stability and functional performance of rhodopsin are modulated by membrane lipids. Docosahexaenoic acid has been shown to interact with native rhodopsin but no direct evidence has been established on the effect of such lipid on the stability and regeneration of rhodopsin mutants associated with retinal diseases. The stability and regeneration of two thermosensitive mutants G90V and N55K, associated with the retinal degenerative disease retinitis pigmentosa, have been analyzed in docosohexaenoic phospholipid (1,2-didocosa-hexaenoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine; DDHA-PC) liposomes. G90V mutant reconstituted in DDHA-PC liposomes significantly increased its thermal stability, but N55K mutant showed similar thermal sensitivity both in dodecyl maltoside detergent solution and in DDHA-PC liposomes. The retinal release process, measured by fluorescence spectroscopy, became faster in the lipid system for the two mutants. The opsin conformation was stabilized for the G90V mutant allowing improved retinal uptake whereas no chromophore binding could be detected for N55K opsin after photoactivation. The results emphasize the distinct role of DHA on different phenotypic rhodopsin mutations associated with classical (G90V) and sector (N55K) retinitis pigmentosa.

  8. Binding of transducin and transducin-derived peptides to rhodopsin studies by attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared difference spectroscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Fahmy, K

    1998-01-01

    Fourier transform infrared difference spectroscopy combined with the attenuated total reflection technique allows the monitoring of the association of transducin with bovine photoreceptor membranes in the dark. Illumination causes infrared absorption changes linked to formation of the light-activated rhodopsin-transducin complex. In addition to the spectral changes normally associated with meta II formation, prominent absorption increases occur at 1735 cm-1, 1640 cm-1, 1550 cm-1, and 1517 cm-1. The D2O sensitivity of the broad carbonyl stretching band around 1735 cm-1 indicates that a carboxylic acid group becomes protonated upon formation of the activated complex. Reconstitution of rhodopsin into phosphatidylcholine vesicles has little influence on the spectral properties of the rhodopsin-transducin complex, whereas pH affects the intensity of the carbonyl stretching band. AC-terminal peptide comprising amino acids 340-350 of the transducin alpha-subunit reproduces the frequencies and isotope sensitivities of several of the transducin-induced bands between 1500 and 1800 cm-1, whereas an N-terminal peptide (aa 8-23) does not. Therefore, the transducin-induced absorption changes can be ascribed mainly to an interaction between the transducin-alpha C-terminus and rhodopsin. The 1735 cm-1 vibration is also seen in the complex with C-terminal peptides devoid of free carboxylic acid groups, indicating that the corresponding carbonyl group is located on rhodopsin. PMID:9726932

  9. The CarO rhodopsin of the fungus Fusarium fujikuroi is a light-driven proton pump that retards spore germination.

    PubMed

    García-Martínez, Jorge; Brunk, Michael; Avalos, Javier; Terpitz, Ulrich

    2015-01-15

    Rhodopsins are membrane-embedded photoreceptors found in all major taxonomic kingdoms using retinal as their chromophore. They play well-known functions in different biological systems, but their roles in fungi remain unknown. The filamentous fungus Fusarium fujikuroi contains two putative rhodopsins, CarO and OpsA. The gene carO is light-regulated, and the predicted polypeptide contains all conserved residues required for proton pumping. We aimed to elucidate the expression and cellular location of the fungal rhodopsin CarO, its presumed proton-pumping activity and the possible effect of such function on F. fujikuroi growth. In electrophysiology experiments we confirmed that CarO is a green-light driven proton pump. Visualization of fluorescent CarO-YFP expressed in F. fujikuroi under control of its native promoter revealed higher accumulation in spores (conidia) produced by light-exposed mycelia. Germination analyses of conidia from carO(-) mutant and carO(+) control strains showed a faster development of light-exposed carO(-) germlings. In conclusion, CarO is an active proton pump, abundant in light-formed conidia, whose activity slows down early hyphal development under light. Interestingly, CarO-related rhodopsins are typically found in plant-associated fungi, where green light dominates the phyllosphere. Our data provide the first reliable clue on a possible biological role of a fungal rhodopsin.

  10. Biophysical Properties of Optogenetic Tools and Their Application for Vision Restoration Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Klapper, Simon D.; Swiersy, Anka; Bamberg, Ernst; Busskamp, Volker

    2016-01-01

    Optogenetics is the use of genetically encoded light-activated proteins to manipulate cells in a minimally invasive way using light. The most prominent example is channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2), which allows the activation of electrically excitable cells via light-dependent depolarization. The combination of ChR2 with hyperpolarizing-light-driven ion pumps such as the Cl− pump halorhodopsin (NpHR) enables multimodal remote control of neuronal cells in culture, tissue, and living animals. Very soon, it became obvious that this method offers a chance of gene therapy for many diseases affecting vision. Here, we will give a brief introduction to retinal function and retinal diseases; optogenetic vision restoration strategies will be highlighted. We will discuss the functional and structural properties of rhodopsin-based optogenetic tools and analyze the potential for the application of vision restoration. PMID:27642278

  11. Disruption of Rhodopsin Dimerization with Synthetic Peptides Targeting an Interaction Interface.

    PubMed

    Jastrzebska, Beata; Chen, Yuanyuan; Orban, Tivadar; Jin, Hui; Hofmann, Lukas; Palczewski, Krzysztof

    2015-10-16

    Although homo- and heterodimerizations of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are well documented, GPCR monomers are able to assemble in different ways, thus causing variations in the interactive interface between receptor monomers among different GPCRs. Moreover, the functional consequences of this phenomenon, which remain to be clarified, could be specific for different GPCRs. Synthetic peptides derived from transmembrane (TM) domains can interact with a full-length GPCR, blocking dimer formation and affecting its function. Here we used peptides corresponding to TM helices of bovine rhodopsin (Rho) to investigate the Rho dimer interface and functional consequences of its disruption. Incubation of Rho with TM1, TM2, TM4, and TM5 peptides in rod outer segment (ROS) membranes shifted the resulting detergent-solubilized protein migration through a gel filtration column toward smaller molecular masses with a reduced propensity for dimer formation in a cross-linking reaction. Binding of these TM peptides to Rho was characterized by both mass spectrometry and a label-free assay from which dissociation constants were calculated. A BRET (bioluminescence resonance energy transfer) assay revealed that the physical interaction between Rho molecules expressed in membranes of living cells was blocked by the same four TM peptides identified in our in vitro experiments. Although disruption of the Rho dimer/oligomer had no effect on the rates of G protein activation, binding of Gt to the activated receptor stabilized the dimer. However, TM peptide-induced disruption of dimer/oligomer decreased receptor stability, suggesting that Rho supramolecular organization could be essential for ROS stabilization and receptor trafficking.

  12. Location of the retinal chromophore in the activated state of rhodopsin*.

    PubMed

    Ahuja, Shivani; Crocker, Evan; Eilers, Markus; Hornak, Viktor; Hirshfeld, Amiram; Ziliox, Martine; Syrett, Natalie; Reeves, Philip J; Khorana, H Gobind; Sheves, Mordechai; Smith, Steven O

    2009-04-10

    Rhodopsin is a highly specialized G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that is activated by the rapid photochemical isomerization of its covalently bound 11-cis-retinal chromophore. Using two-dimensional solid-state NMR spectroscopy, we defined the position of the retinal in the active metarhodopsin II intermediate. Distance constraints were obtained between amino acids in the retinal binding site and specific (13)C-labeled sites located on the beta-ionone ring, polyene chain, and Schiff base end of the retinal. We show that the retinal C20 methyl group rotates toward the second extracellular loop (EL2), which forms a cap on the retinal binding site in the inactive receptor. Despite the trajectory of the methyl group, we observed an increase in the C20-Gly(188) (EL2) distance consistent with an increase in separation between the retinal and EL2 upon activation. NMR distance constraints showed that the beta-ionone ring moves to a position between Met(207) and Phe(208) on transmembrane helix H5. Movement of the ring toward H5 was also reflected in increased separation between the Cepsilon carbons of Lys(296) (H7) and Met(44) (H1) and between Gly(121) (H3) and the retinal C18 methyl group. Helix-helix interactions involving the H3-H5 and H4-H5 interfaces were also found to change in the formation of metarhodopsin II reflecting increased retinal-protein interactions in the region of Glu(122) (H3) and His(211) (H5). We discuss the location of the retinal in metarhodopsin II and its interaction with sequence motifs, which are highly conserved across the pharmaceutically important class A GPCR family, with respect to the mechanism of receptor activation.

  13. Strongly hydrogen-bonded water molecule present near the retinal chromophore of Leptosphaeria rhodopsin, the bacteriorhodopsin-like proton pump from a eukaryote.

    PubMed

    Sumii, Masayo; Furutani, Yuji; Waschuk, Stephen A; Brown, Leonid S; Kandori, Hideki

    2005-11-22

    Leptosphaeria rhodopsin (LR) is an archaeal-type rhodopsin found in fungi, and is the first light-driven proton-pumping retinal protein from eukaryotes. LR pumps protons in a manner similar to that of bacteriorhodopsin (BR), a light-driven proton pump of haloarchaea. The amino acid sequence of LR is more homologous to that of Neurospora rhodopsin (NR) than BR, whereas NR has no proton-pumping activity. These facts raise the question of how the proton-pumping function is achieved. In this paper, we studied structural changes of LR following the retinal photoisomerization by means of low-temperature Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and compared the obtained spectra with those for BR and NR. While the light-induced photoisomerization from the all-trans to 13-cis form was commonly observed among LR, BR, and NR, we found that the structural changes of LR are closer to those of BR than to those of NR in terms of detailed vibrational bands of retinal and protein. The most prominent difference was seen for the water O-D stretching vibrations (measured in D2O). LR exhibits an O-D stretch of water at 2257 cm(-1), indicating the presence of a strongly hydrogen-bonded water molecule. Such strongly hydrogen-bonded water molecules (O-D stretch at <2400 cm(-1)) were observed for BR, but not for NR. Comprehensive studies of BR mutants and archaeal rhodopsins have revealed that strongly hydrogen-bonded water molecules are found only in the proteins exhibiting proton-pumping activity, suggesting that strongly hydrogen-bonded water molecules and transient weakening of their binding are essential for the proton-pumping function of rhodopsins. This observation for LR provided additional experimental evidence of the correlation between strongly hydrogen-bonded water molecules and proton-pumping activity of archaeal rhodopsins.

  14. Histochemical demonstration of a rhodopsin-like substance in the eye of the arrow-worm, Spadella schizoptera (Chaetognatha).

    PubMed

    Goto, T; Yoshida, M

    1988-01-01

    The presumed photoreceptive region of the arrow-worms of the species Sagitta crassa and Spadella schizoptera consists of perforated lamellae which are unique as the photoreceptive structure. The existence of a visual pigment in this region was demonstrated by a histofluorescent technique using Spadella schizoptera, whose presumed photoreceptive region was much larger than in Sagitta crassa. A specific fluorescence, indicative of the presence of retinal-based proteins, appeared only in the perforated lamellar region. The result suggests that the perforated lamellae contain a rhodopsin-like substance and could be the primary photoreceptive site.

  15. Naturally occurring rhodopsin mutation in the dog causes retinal dysfunction and degeneration mimicking human dominant retinitis pigmentosa.

    PubMed

    Kijas, James W; Cideciyan, Artur V; Aleman, Tomas S; Pianta, Michael J; Pearce-Kelling, Susan E; Miller, Brian J; Jacobson, Samuel G; Aguirre, Gustavo D; Acland, Gregory M

    2002-04-30

    Rhodopsin is the G protein-coupled receptor that is activated by light and initiates the transduction cascade leading to night (rod) vision. Naturally occurring pathogenic rhodopsin (RHO) mutations have been previously identified only in humans and are a common cause of dominantly inherited blindness from retinal degeneration. We identified English Mastiff dogs with a naturally occurring dominant retinal degeneration and determined the cause to be a point mutation in the RHO gene (Thr4Arg). Dogs with this mutant allele manifest a retinal phenotype that closely mimics that in humans with RHO mutations. The phenotypic features shared by dog and man include a dramatically slowed time course of recovery of rod photoreceptor function after light exposure and a distinctive topographic pattern to the retinal degeneration. The canine disease offers opportunities to explore the basis of prolonged photoreceptor recovery after light in RHO mutations and determine whether there are links between the dysfunction and apoptotic retinal cell death. The RHO mutant dog also becomes the large animal needed for preclinical trials of therapies for a major subset of human retinopathies.

  16. The photochemical reaction cycle and photoinduced proton transfer of sensory rhodopsin II (Phoborhodopsin) from Halobacterium salinarum.

    PubMed

    Tamogami, Jun; Kikukawa, Takashi; Ikeda, Yoichi; Takemura, Ayaka; Demura, Makoto; Kamo, Naoki

    2010-04-07

    Sensory rhodopsin II (HsSRII, also called phoborhodopsin) is a negative phototaxis receptor of Halobacterium salinarum, a bacterium that avoids blue-green light. In this study, we expressed the protein in Escherichia coli cells, and reconstituted the purified protein with phosphatidylcholine. The reconstituted HsSRII was stable. We examined the photocycle by flash-photolysis spectroscopy in the time range of milliseconds to seconds, and measured proton uptake/release using a transparent indium-tin oxide electrode. The pKa of the counterion of the Schiff base, Asp(73), was 3.0. Below pH 3, the depleted band was observed on flash illumination, but the positive band in the difference spectra was not found. Above pH 3, the basic photocycle was HsSRII (490) --> M (350) --> O (520) --> Y (490) --> HsSRII, where the numbers in parentheses are the maximum wavelengths. The decay rate of O-intermediate and Y-intermediate were pH-independent, whereas the M-intermediate decay was pH-dependent. For 3 < pH < 4.5, the M-decay was one phase, and the rate decreased with an increase in pH. For 4.5 < pH < 6.5, the decay was one phase with pH-independent rates, and azide markedly accelerated the M-decay. These findings suggest the existence of a protonated amino acid residue (X-H) that may serve as a proton relay to reprotonate the Schiff base. Above pH 6.5, the M-decay showed two phases. The fast M-decay was pH-independent and originated from the molecule having a protonated X-H, and the slow M-decay originated from the molecule having a deprotonated X, in which the proton came directly from the outside. The analysis yielded a value of 7.5 for the pKa of X-H. The proton uptake and release occurred during M-decay and O-decay, respectively.

  17. Effectiveness of ecological rescue for altered soil microbial communities and functions.

    PubMed

    Calderón, Kadiya; Spor, Aymé; Breuil, Marie-Christine; Bru, David; Bizouard, Florian; Violle, Cyrille; Barnard, Romain L; Philippot, Laurent

    2017-01-01

    Soil ecosystems worldwide are subjected to marked modifications caused by anthropogenic disturbances and global climate change, resulting in microbial diversity loss and alteration of ecosystem functions. Despite the paucity of studies, restoration ecology provides an appropriate framework for testing the potential of manipulating soil microbial communities for the recovery of ecosystem functioning. We used a reciprocal transplant design in experimentally altered microbial communities to investigate the effectiveness of introducing microbial communities in degraded soil ecosystems to restore N-cycle functioning. Microbial diversity loss resulted in alternative compositional states associated with impaired N-cycle functioning. Here, the addition of complex microbial communities to these altered communities revealed a pivotal role of deterministic community assembly processes. The diversity of some alternative compositional states was successfully increased but without significant restoration of soil N-cycle functioning. However, in the most degraded alternative state, the introduction of new microbial communities caused an overall decrease in phylogenetic diversity and richness. The successful soil colonization by newly introduced species for some compositional states indicates that priority effects could be overridden when attempting to manipulate microbial communities for soil restoration. Altogether, our result showed consistent patterns within restoration treatments with minor idiosyncratic effects. This suggests the predominance of deterministic processes and the predictability of restoration trajectories, which could be used to guide the effective management of microbial community assemblages for ecological restoration of soils.

  18. Fourier transform infrared studies of active-site-methylated rhodopsin. Implications for chromophore-protein interaction, transducin activation, and the reaction pathway.

    PubMed

    Ganter, U M; Longstaff, C; Pajares, M A; Rando, R R; Siebert, F

    1991-03-01

    Fourier transform infrared studies of active-site-methylated rhodopsin (ASMR) show that, as compared to unmodified rhodopsin, the photoreaction is almost unchanged up to the formation of lumirhodopsin. Especially, the deviations are much smaller than those observed for the corresponding intermediates of 13-desmethyl-rhodopsin. In metarhodopsin-I, larger alterations are present with respect to the three internal carboxyl groups. Similar deviations have been observed in meta-I of 13-desmethyl-rhodopsin. This indicates that, in agreement with our previous investigations, these carboxyl groups are located in close proximity to the chromophore. Because this latter pigment is capable, when bleached, of activating transducin, our data provide support for the earlier conclusion that deprotonation of the Schiff base is a prerequisite for transducin activation. The positions of the C = C and C - C stretching modes of the retinal suggest that the redshift observed in ASMR and its photoproducts can be explained by an increased distance of the Schiff base from the counterion(s). It is further shown that the photoreaction does not stop at metarhodopsin-I, but that this intermediate directly decays to a metarhodopsin-III-like species.

  19. Fourier transform infrared studies of active-site-methylated rhodopsin. Implications for chromophore-protein interaction, transducin activation, and the reaction pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Ganter, U.M.; Longstaff, C.; Pajares, M.A.; Rando, R.R.; Siebert, F. )

    1991-03-01

    Fourier transform infrared studies of active-site-methylated rhodopsin (ASMR) show that, as compared to unmodified rhodopsin, the photoreaction is almost unchanged up to the formation of lumirhodopsin. Especially, the deviations are much smaller than those observed for the corresponding intermediates of 13-desmethyl-rhodopsin. In metarhodopsin-I, larger alterations are present with respect to the three internal carboxyl groups. Similar deviations have been observed in meta-I of 13-desmethyl-rhodopsin. This indicates that, in agreement with our previous investigations, these carboxyl groups are located in close proximity to the chromophore. Because this latter pigment is capable, when bleached, of activating transducin, our data provide support for the earlier conclusion that deprotonation of the Schiff base is a prerequisite for transducin activation. The positions of the C = C and C - C stretching modes of the retinal suggest that the redshift observed in ASMR and its photoproducts can be explained by an increased distance of the Schiff base from the counterion(s). It is further shown that the photoreaction does not stop at metarhodopsin-I, but that this intermediate directly decays to a metarhodopsin-III-like species.

  20. Sequence, Structure and Ligand Binding Evolution of Rhodopsin-Like G Protein-Coupled Receptors: A Crystal Structure-Based Phylogenetic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Steffen; Grünewald, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) form the largest family of membrane receptors in the human genome. Advances in membrane protein crystallization so far resulted in the determination of 24 receptors available as high-resolution atomic structures. We performed the first phylogenetic analysis of GPCRs based on the available set of GPCR structures. We present a new phylogenetic tree of known human rhodopsin-like GPCR sequences based on this structure set. We can distinguish the three separate classes of small-ligand binding GPCRs, peptide binding GPCRs, and olfactory receptors. Analyzing different structural subdomains, we found that small molecule binding receptors most likely have evolved from peptide receptor precursors, with a rhodopsin/S1PR1 ancestor, most likely an ancestral opsin, forming the link between both classes. A light-activated receptor therefore seems to be the origin of the small molecule hormone receptors of the central nervous system. We find hints for a common evolutionary path of both ligand binding site and central sodium/water binding site. Surprisingly, opioid receptors exhibit both a binding cavity and a central sodium/water binding site similar to the one of biogenic amine receptors instead of peptide receptors, making them seemingly prone to bind small molecule ligands, e.g. opiates. Our results give new insights into the relationship and the pharmacological properties of rhodopsin-like GPCRs. PMID:25881057

  1. Mechanism of Rhodopsin Activation as Examined with Ring-constrained Retinal Analogs and the Crystal Structure of the Ground State Protein*

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Geeng-Fu; Kuksa, Vladimir; Filipek, Stawomir; Bartl||, Franz; Ritter, Eglof; Gelb, Michael H.; Hofmann, Klaus Peter; Palczewski, Krzysztof

    2006-01-01

    The guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G-protein)-coupled receptor superfamily (GPCR) is comprised of a large group of membrane proteins involved in a wide range of physiological signaling processes. The functional switch from a quiescent to an active conformation is at the heart of GPCR action. The GPCR rhodopsin has been studied extensively because of its key role in scotopic vision. The ground state chromophore, 11-cis-retinal, holds the transmembrane region of the protein in the inactive conformation. Light induces cis-trans isomerization and rhodopsin activation. Here we show that rhodopsin regenerated with a ring-constrained 11-cis-retinal analog undergoes photoisomerization; however, it remains marginally active because isomerization occurs without the chromophore-induced conformational change of the opsin moiety. Modeling the locked chromophore analogs in the active site of rhodopsin suggests that the β-ionone ring rotates but is largely confined within the binding site of the natural 11-cis-retinal chromophore. This constraint is a result of the geometry of the stable 11-cis-locked configuration of the chromophore analogs. These results suggest that the native chromophore cis-trans isomerization is merely a mechanism for repositioning of the β-ionone ring which ultimately leads to helix movements and determines receptor activation. PMID:11316815

  2. Breuner Marsh Restoration Project

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information about the San Francisco Bay Water Quality Project (SFBWQP) Breuner Marsh Restoration Project, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resources.

  3. Quartermaster Reach Restoration Project

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information about the SFBWQP Quartermaster Reach Restoration Project, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resources.

  4. The Photosensitivity of Rhodopsin Bleaching and Light-Induced Increases of Fundus Reflectance in Mice Measured In Vivo With Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Pengfei; Goswami, Mayank; Zawadzki, Robert J.; Pugh, Edward N.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To quantify bleaching-induced changes in fundus reflectance in the mouse retina. Methods Light reflected from the fundus of albino (Balb/c) and pigmented (C57Bl/6J) mice was measured with a multichannel scanning laser ophthalmoscopy optical coherence tomography (SLO-OCT) optical system. Serial scanning of small retinal regions was used for bleaching rhodopsin and measuring reflectance changes. Results Serial scanning generated a saturating reflectance increase centered at 501 nm with a photosensitivity of 1.4 × 10−8 per molecule μm2 in both strains, 2-fold higher than expected were irradiance at the rod outer segment base equal to that at the retinal surface. The action spectrum of the reflectance increase corresponds to the absorption spectrum of mouse rhodopsin in situ. Spectra obtained before and after bleaching were fitted with a model of fundus reflectance, quantifying contributions from loss of rhodopsin absorption with bleaching, absorption by oxygenated hemoglobin (HbO2) in the choroid (Balb/c), and absorption by melanin (C57Bl/6J). Both mouse strains exhibited light-induced broadband reflectance changes explained as bleaching-induced reflectivity increases at photoreceptor inner segment/outer segment (IS/OS) junctions and OS tips. Conclusions The elevated photosensitivity of rhodopsin bleaching in vivo is explained by waveguide condensing of light in propagation from rod inner segment (RIS) to rod outer segment (ROS). The similar photosensitivity of rhodopsin in the two strains reveals that little light backscattered from the sclera can enter the ROS. The bleaching-induced increases in reflectance at the IS/OS junctions and OS tips resemble results previously reported in human cones, but are ascribed to rods due to their 30/1 predominance over cones in mice and to the relatively minor amount of cone M-opsin in the regions scanned. PMID:27403994

  5. Restorative dentistry for children.

    PubMed

    Donly, Kevin J

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses contemporary pediatric restorative dentistry. Indications and contraindications for the choice of different restorative materials in different clinical situations, including the risk assessment of the patient, are presented. The specific use of glass ionomer cement or resin-modified glass ionomer cement, resin-based composite, and stainless steel crowns is discussed so that preparation design and restoration placement is understood.

  6. Linking restoration ecology with coastal dune restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lithgow, D.; Martínez, M. L.; Gallego-Fernández, J. B.; Hesp, P. A.; Flores, P.; Gachuz, S.; Rodríguez-Revelo, N.; Jiménez-Orocio, O.; Mendoza-González, G.; Álvarez-Molina, L. L.

    2013-10-01

    Restoration and preservation of coastal dunes is urgently needed because of the increasingly rapid loss and degradation of these ecosystems because of many human activities. These activities alter natural processes and coastal dynamics, eliminate topographic variability, fragment, degrade or eliminate habitats, reduce diversity and threaten endemic species. The actions of coastal dune restoration that are already taking place span contrasting activities that range from revegetating and stabilizing the mobile substrate, to removing plant cover and increasing substrate mobility. Our goal was to review how the relative progress of the actions of coastal dune restoration has been assessed, according to the ecosystem attributes outlined by the Society of Ecological Restoration: namely, integrity, health and sustainability and that are derived from the ecological theory of succession. We reviewed the peer reviewed literature published since 1988 that is listed in the ISI Web of Science journals as well as additional references, such as key books. We exclusively focused on large coastal dune systems (such as transgressive and parabolic dunefields) located on natural or seminatural coasts. We found 150 articles that included "coastal dune", "restoration" and "revegetation" in areas such as title, keywords and abstract. From these, 67 dealt specifically with coastal dune restoration. Most of the studies were performed in the USA, The Netherlands and South Africa, during the last two decades. Restoration success has been assessed directly and indirectly by measuring one or a few ecosystem variables. Some ecosystem attributes have been monitored more frequently (ecosystem integrity) than others (ecosystem health and sustainability). Finally, it is important to consider that ecological succession is a desirable approach in restoration actions. Natural dynamics and disturbances should be considered as part of the restored system, to improve ecosystem integrity, health and

  7. Power system restoration planning

    SciTech Connect

    Adibi, M.M. ); Fink, L.H.

    1994-02-01

    System restoration, as an extraordinary mode of system operation, requires careful planning and operator training. The generic tasks of restoration include determination of system and equipment status, preparation of plants and network for systematic restoration, reenergization of the network, and system rebuilding. The procedures for developing an effective restoration plan include formation of a qualified planning team, review of relevant system characteristics, formulation of assumptions regarding blackout scenarios, agreement on restoration goals, development of strategy and tactics, validation of the plan, training, and documentation.

  8. Quantitative modeling of the molecular steps underlying shut-off of rhodopsin activity in rod phototransduction

    PubMed Central

    Kraft, Timothy W.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To examine the predictions of alternative models for the stochastic shut-off of activated rhodopsin (R*) and their implications for the interpretation of experimentally recorded single-photon responses (SPRs) in mammalian rods. Theory We analyze the transitions that an activated R* molecule undergoes as a result of successive phosphorylation steps and arrestin binding. We consider certain simplifying cases for the relative magnitudes of the reaction rate constants and derive the probability distributions for the time to arrestin binding. In addition to the conventional model in which R* catalytic activity declines in a graded manner with successive phosphorylations, we analyze two cases in which the activity is assumed to occur not via multiple small steps upon each phosphorylation but via a single large step. We refer to these latter two cases as the binary R* shut-off and three-state R* shut-off models. Methods We simulate R*’s stochastic reactions numerically for the three models. In the simplifying cases for the ratio of rate constants in the binary and three-state models, we show that the probability distribution of the time to arrestin binding is accurately predicted. To simulate SPRs, we then integrate the differential equations for the downstream reactions using a standard model of the rod outer segment that includes longitudinal diffusion of cGMP and Ca2+. Results Our simulations of SPRs in the conventional model of graded shut-off of R* conform closely to the simulations in a recent study. However, the gain factor required to account for the observed mean SPR amplitude is higher than can be accounted for from biochemical experiments. In addition, a substantial minority of the simulated SPRs exhibit features that have not been reported in published experiments. Our simulations of SPRs using the model of binary R* shut-off appear to conform closely to experimental results for wild type (WT) mouse rods, and the required gain factor conforms to

  9. Restoring the incisal edge.

    PubMed

    Terry, Douglas A

    2005-01-01

    Restorative dentistry evolves with each development of new material and innovative technique. Selection of improved restorative materials that simulate the physical properties and other characteristics of natural teeth, in combination with restorative techniques such as the proximal adaptation and incremental layering, provide the framework that ensures the optimal development of an esthetic restoration. These advanced placement techniques offer benefits such as enhanced chromatic integration, polychromatism, ideal anatomical form and function, optimal proximal contact, improved marginal integrity and longer lasting directly placed composite restorations. The purpose of this article is to give the reader a better understanding of the complex restorative challenge in achieving true harmonization of the primary parameters in esthetics (that is, color, shape and texture) represented by the replacement of a single anterior tooth. The case presented demonstrates the restoration of a Class IV fracture integrating basic adhesive principles with these placement techniques and a recently developed nanoparticle hybrid composite resin system (Premise, Kerr/Sybron, Orange, CA). The clinical presentation describes preoperative considerations, tooth preparation, development of the body layer, internal characterization with tints, development of the artificial enamel layer, shaping and contouring, and polishing of a Class IV composite restoration. The clinical significance is that anterior tooth fractures can be predictably restored using contemporary small particle hybrid composite resin systems with the aforementioned restorative techniques. These placement techniques when used with proper attention to preparation design, adhesive protocol and finishing and polishing procedures, allow the clinician to successfully restore form, function and esthetics to the single anterior tooth replacement.

  10. Structural and dynamic effects of cholesterol at preferred sites of interaction with rhodopsin identified from microsecond length molecular dynamics simulations

    PubMed Central

    Khelashvili, George; Grossfield, Alan; Feller, Scott E.; Pitman, Michael C.; Weinstein, Harel

    2014-01-01

    An unresolved question about GPCR function is the role of membrane components in receptor stability and activation. In particular, cholesterol is known to affect the function of membrane proteins, but the details of its effect on GPCRs are still elusive. Here, we describe how cholesterol modulates the behavior of the TM1-TM2-TM7-helix 8(H8) functional network that comprises the highly conserved NPxxY(x)5,6F motif, through specific interactions with the receptor. The inferences are based on the analysis of microsecond length molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of rhodopsin in an explicit membrane environment. Three regions on the rhodopsin exhibit the highest cholesterol density throughout the trajectory: the extracellular end of TM7, a location resembling the high-density sterol area from the electron microscopy data; the intracellular parts of TM1, TM2, and TM4, a region suggested as the cholesterol binding site in the recent X-ray crystallography data on β2-adrenergic GPCR; and the intracellular ends of TM2-TM3, a location that was categorized as the high cholesterol density area in multiple independent 100 ns MD simulations of the same system. We found that cholesterol primarily affects specific local perturbations of the helical TM domains such as the kinks in TM1, TM2, and TM7. These local distortions, in turn, relate to rigid-body motions of the TMs in the TM1-TM2-TM7-H8 bundle. The specificity of the effects stems from the nonuniform distribution of cholesterol around the protein. Through correlation analysis we connect local effects of cholesterol on structural perturbations with a regulatory role of cholesterol in the structural rearrangements involved in GPCR function. PMID:19173312

  11. Photoactivation-Induced Instability of Rhodopsin Mutants T4K and T17M in Rod Outer Segments Underlies Retinal Degeneration in X. laevis Transgenic Models of Retinitis Pigmentosa

    PubMed Central

    Tam, Beatrice M.; Noorwez, Syed M.; Kaushal, Shalesh; Kono, Masahiro

    2014-01-01

    Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is an inherited neurodegenerative disease involving progressive vision loss, and is often linked to mutations in the rhodopsin gene. Mutations that abolish N-terminal glycosylation of rhodopsin (T4K and T17M) cause sector RP in which the inferior retina preferentially degenerates, possibly due to greater light exposure of this region. Transgenic animal models expressing rhodopsin glycosylation mutants also exhibit light exacerbated retinal degeneration (RD). In this study, we used transgenic Xenopus laevis to investigate the pathogenic mechanism connecting light exposure and RD in photoreceptors expressing T4K or T17M rhodopsin. We demonstrate that increasing the thermal stability of these rhodopsins via a novel disulfide bond resulted in significantly less RD. Furthermore, T4K or T17M rhodopsins that were constitutively inactive (due to lack of the chromophore-binding site or dietary deprivation of the chromophore precursor vitamin A) induced less toxicity. In contrast, variants in the active conformation accumulated in the ER and caused RD even in the absence of light. In vitro, T4K and T17M rhodopsins showed reduced ability to regenerate pigment after light exposure. Finally, although multiple amino acid substitutions of T4 abolished glycosylation at N2 but were not toxic, similar substitutions of T17 were not tolerated, suggesting that the carbohydrate moiety at N15 is critical for cell viability. Our results identify a novel pathogenic mechanism in which the glycosylation-deficient rhodopsins are destabilized by light activation. These results have important implications for proposed RP therapies, such as vitamin A supplementation, which may be ineffective or even detrimental for certain RP genotypes. PMID:25274813

  12. Watershed Restoration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Julie Thompson; Betsy Macfarlan

    2007-09-27

    In 2003, the U.S. Department of Energy issued the Eastern Nevada Landscape Coalition (ENLC) funding to implement ecological restoration in Gleason Creek and Smith Valley Watersheds. This project was made possible by congressionally directed funding that was provided through the US Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Office of the Biomass Program. The Ely District Bureau of Land Management (Ely BLM) manages these watersheds and considers them priority areas within the Ely BLM district. These three entities collaborated to address the issues and concerns of Gleason Creek and Smith Valley and prepared a restoration plan to improve the watersheds’ ecological health and resiliency. The restoration process began with watershed-scale vegetation assessments and state and transition models to focus on restoration sites. Design and implementation of restoration treatments ensued and were completed in January 2007. This report describes the restoration process ENLC undertook from planning to implementation of two watersheds in semi-arid Eastern Nevada.

  13. Ecology, Microbial

    SciTech Connect

    Konopka, Allan

    2009-03-19

    Microbial ecology is a relatively young discipline within the field of microbiology. Its modern history spans just the past 60 years, and the field is defined by its emphasis on understanding the interactions of microbes with their environment, rather than their behavior under artificial laboratory conditions. Because microbes are ubiquitous, microbial ecologists study a broad diversity of habitats that range from aquatic to terrestrial to plant- or animal-associated. This has made it a challenge to identify unifying principles within the field. One approach is to recognize that although the activity of microbes in nature have effects at the macroscale, they interact with their physical, chemical and biological milieu at a scale of micrometers. At this scale, several different microbial ecosystems can be defined, based upon association with particles, the presence of environmental gradients and the continuous availability of water. Principles applicable to microbial ecology reflect not only their population ecology and physiological ecology, but also their broad versatility and quantitative importance in the biosphere as biogeochemical catalysts and capacity for rapid physiological and evolutionary responses.

  14. Ecology, Microbial

    SciTech Connect

    Konopka, Allan

    2009-05-15

    Microbial ecology is a relatively young discipline within the field of microbiology. Its modern history spans just the past 60 years, and the field is defined by its emphasis on understanding the interactions of microbes with their environment, rather than their behavior under artificial laboratory conditions. Because microbes are ubiquitous, microbial ecologists study a broad diversity of habitats that range from aquatic to terrestrial to plant- or animal-associated. This has made it a challenge to identify unifying principles within the field. One approach is to recognize that although the activity of microbes in nature have effects at the macroscale, they interact with their physical, chemical and biological milieu at a scale of micrometers. At this scale, several different microbial ecosystems can be defined, based upon association with particles, the presence of environmental gradients and the continuous availability of water. Principles applicable to microbial ecology reflect not only their population ecology and physiological ecology, but also their broad versatility and quantitative importance in the biosphere as biogeochemical catalysts and capacity for rapid physiological and evolutionary responses.

  15. Arrestin interactions with G protein-coupled receptors. Direct binding studies of wild type and mutant arrestins with rhodopsin, beta 2-adrenergic, and m2 muscarinic cholinergic receptors.

    PubMed

    Gurevich, V V; Dion, S B; Onorato, J J; Ptasienski, J; Kim, C M; Sterne-Marr, R; Hosey, M M; Benovic, J L

    1995-01-13

    Arrestins play an important role in quenching signal transduction initiated by G protein-coupled receptors. To explore the specificity of arrestin-receptor interaction, we have characterized the ability of various wild-type arrestins to bind to rhodopsin, the beta 2-adrenergic receptor (beta 2AR), and the m2 muscarinic cholinergic receptor (m2 mAChR). Visual arrestin was found to be the most selective arrestin since it discriminated best between the three different receptors tested (highest binding to rhodopsin) as well as between the phosphorylation and activation state of the receptor (> 10-fold higher binding to the phosphorylated light-activated form of rhodopsin compared to any other form of rhodopsin). While beta-arrestin and arrestin 3 were also found to preferentially bind to the phosphorylated activated form of a given receptor, they only modestly discriminated among the three receptors tested. To explore the structural characteristics important in arrestin function, we constructed a series of truncated and chimeric arrestins. Analysis of the binding characteristics of the various mutant arrestins suggests a common molecular mechanism involved in determining receptor binding selectivity. Structural elements that contribute to arrestin binding include: 1) a C-terminal acidic region that serves a regulatory role in controlling arrestin binding selectivity toward the phosphorylated and activated form of a receptor, without directly participating in receptor interaction; 2) a basic N-terminal domain that directly participates in receptor interaction and appears to serve a regulatory role via intramolecular interaction with the C-terminal acidic region; and 3) two centrally localized domains that are directly involved in determining receptor binding specificity and selectivity. A comparative structure-function model of all arrestins and a kinetic model of beta-arrestin and arrestin 3 interaction with receptors are proposed.

  16. Plant and Soil Responses to High and Low Diversity Grassland Restoration Practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bach, Elizabeth M.; Baer, Sara G.; Six, Johan

    2012-02-01

    The USDA's Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) has predominantly used only a few species of dominant prairie grasses (CP2 practice) to reduce soil erosion, but recently has offered a higher diversity planting practice (CP25) to increase grassland habitat quality. We quantified plant community composition in CP25 and CP2 plantings restored for 4 or 8 years and compared belowground properties and processes among restorations and continuously cultivated soils in southeastern Nebraska, USA. Relative to cultivated soils, restoration increased soil microbial biomass ( P = 0.033), specifically fungi ( P < 0.001), and restored soils exhibited higher rates of carbon (C) mineralization ( P = 0.010). High and low diversity plantings had equally diverse plant communities; however, CP25 plantings had greater frequency of cool-season (C3) grasses ( P = 0.007). Older (8 year) high diversity restorations contained lower microbial biomass ( P = 0.026), arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) biomass ( P = 0.003), and C mineralization rates ( P = 0.028) relative to 8 year low diversity restorations; older plantings had greater root biomass than 4 year plantings in all restorations ( P = 0.001). Low diversity 8 year plantings contained wider root C:N ratios, and higher soil microbial biomass, microbial community richness, AMF biomass, and C mineralization rate relative to 4 year restorations ( P < 0.050). Net N mineralization and nitrification rates were lower in 8 year than 4 year high diversity plantings ( P = 0.005). We attributed changes in soil C and N pools and fluxes to increased AMF associated with C4 grasses in low diversity plantings. Thus, reduced recovery of AMF in high diversity plantings restricted restoration of belowground microbial diversity and microbially-mediated soil processes over time.

  17. Gill's 'History' restored

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurn, Mark

    2009-06-01

    Note about the restoration of the copy of Sir David Gill's 'A History and Description of the Royal Observatory, Cape of Good Hope' in the Library of the Institute of Astronomy, Cambridge. The book was restored with funds provided by the SHA in thanks for facilities for meetings provided to the Institute.

  18. Guiding Restoration Principles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-12-01

    restoration of important ecosystem functions requires reintegrating landscapes or restorating the func- tional aspects of landscapes ( Risser 1992...51-64. Risser , P. G. 1992. Landscape ecology approach to ecosystem rehabilitation. Pages 37-46 in M. L. Wali (ed.), Ecosystem Rehabilitation

  19. Utah Paiute Tribal Restoration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Allen C.

    The Paiute Indian Tribe of Utah Restoration Act (1980) restored federal recognition of the tribe after a quarter century of ambiguous political status, and resulted in significant improvements of educational status of tribal members and intensification of the political presence of Southern Paiutes. Following the Paiute Indian Termination Act…

  20. Power system restoration issues

    SciTech Connect

    Adibi, M.M. ); Kafka, R.J. )

    1991-04-01

    This article describes some of the problems encountered in the three phases of power system restoration (PSR). The three phases of PSR are: Planning for restart and reintegration of the bulk power supply; Actions during system degradation for saving and retaining critical sources of power; Restoration when the power system has stabilized at some degraded level.

  1. Retributive and restorative justice.

    PubMed

    Wenzel, Michael; Okimoto, Tyler G; Feather, Norman T; Platow, Michael J

    2008-10-01

    The emergence of restorative justice as an alternative model to Western, court-based criminal justice may have important implications for the psychology of justice. It is proposed that two different notions of justice affect responses to rule-breaking: restorative and retributive justice. Retributive justice essentially refers to the repair of justice through unilateral imposition of punishment, whereas restorative justice means the repair of justice through reaffirming a shared value-consensus in a bilateral process. Among the symbolic implications of transgressions, concerns about status and power are primarily related to retributive justice and concerns about shared values are primarily related to restorative justice. At the core of these processes, however, lies the parties' construal of their identity relation, specifically whether or not respondents perceive to share an identity with the offender. The specific case of intergroup transgressions is discussed, as are implications for future research on restoring a sense of justice after rule-breaking.

  2. Soil microbial community of abandoned sand fields.

    PubMed

    Elhottová, D; Szili-Kovács, T; Tríska, J

    2002-01-01

    Microbiological evaluation of sandy grassland soils from two different stages of secondary succession on abandoned fields (4 and 8 years old fallow) was carried out as a part of research focused on restoration of semi-natural vegetation communities in Kiskunság National Park in Hungary. There was an apparent total N and organic C enrichment, stimulation of microbial growth and microbial community structure change on fields abandoned by agricultural practice (small family farm) in comparison with native undisturbed grassland. A successional trend of the microbial community was found after 4 and 8 years of fallow-lying soil. It consisted in a shift of r-survival strategy to more efficient C economy, in a decrease of specific respiration and metabolic activity, forced accumulation of storage bacterial compounds and increased fungal distribution. The composition of microbial phospholipid fatty acids mixture of soils abandoned at various times was significantly different.

  3. Microbial degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Varjani, Sunita J

    2017-01-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbon pollutants are recalcitrant compounds and are classified as priority pollutants. Cleaning up of these pollutants from environment is a real world problem. Bioremediation has become a major method employed in restoration of petroleum hydrocarbon polluted environments that makes use of natural microbial biodegradation activity. Petroleum hydrocarbons utilizing microorganisms are ubiquitously distributed in environment. They naturally biodegrade pollutants and thereby remove them from the environment. Removal of petroleum hydrocarbon pollutants from environment by applying oleophilic microorganisms (individual isolate/consortium of microorganisms) is ecofriendly and economic. Microbial biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbon pollutants employs the enzyme catalytic activities of microorganisms to enhance the rate of pollutants degradation. This article provides an overview about bioremediation for petroleum hydrocarbon pollutants. It also includes explanation about hydrocarbon metabolism in microorganisms with a special focus on new insights obtained during past couple of years.

  4. Stimulating nitrate removal processes of restored wetlands.

    PubMed

    Ballantine, Kate A; Groffman, Peter M; Lehmann, Johannes; Schneider, Rebecca L

    2014-07-01

    The environmental and health effects caused by nitrate contamination of aquatic systems are a serious problem throughout the world. A strategy proposed to address nitrate pollution is the restoration of wetlands. However, although natural wetlands often remove nitrate via high rates of denitrification, wetlands restored for water quality functions often fall below expectations. This may be in part because key drivers for denitrification, in particular soil carbon, are slow to develop in restored wetlands. We added organic soil amendments that range along a gradient of carbon lability to four newly restored wetlands in western New York to investigate the effect of carbon additions on denitrification and other processes of the nitrogen cycle. Soil carbon increased by 12.67-63.30% with the use of soil amendments (p ≤ 0.0001). Soil nitrate, the carbon to nitrogen ratio, and microbial biomass nitrogen were the most significant predictors of denitrification potential. Denitrification potential, potential net nitrogen nitrification and mineralization, and soil nitrate and ammonium, were highest in topsoil-amended plots, with increases in denitrification potential of 161.27% over control plots. While amendment with topsoil more than doubled several key nitrogen cycling processes, more research is required to determine what type and level of amendment application are most effective for stimulating removal of exogenous nitrate and meeting functional goals within an acceptable time frame.

  5. Bearing restoration by grinding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanau, H.; Parker, R. J.; Zaretsky, E. V.; Chen, S. M.; Bull, H. L.

    1976-01-01

    A joint program was undertaken by the NASA Lewis Research Center and the Army Aviation Systems Command to restore by grinding those rolling-element bearings which are currently being discarded at aircraft engine and transmission overhaul. Three bearing types were selected from the UH-1 helicopter engine (T-53) and transmission for the pilot program. No bearing failures occurred related to the restoration by grinding process. The risk and cost of a bearing restoration by grinding programs was analyzed. A microeconomic impact analysis was performed.

  6. Age dependent sensitivity of two-photon isomerization of rhodopsin chromophores in the human retina (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojtkowski, Maciej; Komar, Katarzyna; Palczewska, Grazyna; Zielinska, Agnieszka; Stremplewski, Patrycjusz; Palczewski, Krzysztof

    2016-03-01

    Light sensation relies on photoisomerization of chromophores in rod and cone photoreceptor cells. Spectral sensitivity of these photoreceptor cells in the retina is determined by the absorption spectra of their pigments which covers a range from 400 nm to above 700 nm. Regardless the mechanism leading to visual pigment isomerization, light sensation is triggered every time visual pigment molecules change their conformation. Thus, two-photon absorption (TPA) should produce the same result (visual sensation) as single photon absorption of light. This observation was positively verified and published by our group. During human psychophysics experiments, we found that humans can perceive light in the infrared (IR) range as colors that match half of the wavelength of the applied laser beam. Other experiments and theoretical research, such as mouse electrophysiology, biochemical studies of TPA in rhodopsin or molecular modeling studies, confirmed that visual sensation can be triggered by TPA. There are few publications describing human near infrared (NIR) perception and no formal proposals to use this phenomenon to improve ophthalmic diagnosis and monitor treatment. Here we report that the use of novel instrumentation revealed that the sensitivity threshold for NIR vision depends on age.

  7. The Gos28 SNARE Protein Mediates Intra-Golgi Transport of Rhodopsin and Is Required for Photoreceptor Survival*

    PubMed Central

    Rosenbaum, Erica E.; Vasiljevic, Eva; Cleland, Spencer C.; Flores, Carlos; Colley, Nansi Jo

    2014-01-01

    SNARE proteins play indispensable roles in membrane fusion events in many cellular processes, including synaptic transmission and protein trafficking. Here, we characterize the Golgi SNARE protein, Gos28, and its role in rhodopsin (Rh1) transport through Drosophila photoreceptors. Mutations in gos28 lead to defective Rh1 trafficking and retinal degeneration. We have pinpointed a role for Gos28 in the intra-Golgi transport of Rh1, downstream from α-mannosidase-II in the medial- Golgi. We have confirmed the necessity of key residues in Gos28's SNARE motif and demonstrate that its transmembrane domain is not required for vesicle fusion, consistent with Gos28 functioning as a t-SNARE for Rh1 transport. Finally, we show that human Gos28 rescues both the Rh1 trafficking defects and retinal degeneration in Drosophila gos28 mutants, demonstrating the functional conservation of these proteins. Our results identify Gos28 as an essential SNARE protein in Drosophila photoreceptors and provide mechanistic insights into the role of SNAREs in neurodegenerative disease. PMID:25261468

  8. Advanced solid-state NMR techniques for characterization of membrane protein structure and dynamics: Application to Anabaena Sensory Rhodopsin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Meaghan E.; Brown, Leonid S.; Ladizhansky, Vladimir

    2015-04-01

    Studies of the structure, dynamics, and function of membrane proteins (MPs) have long been considered one of the main applications of solid-state NMR (SSNMR). Advances in instrumentation, and the plethora of new SSNMR methodologies developed over the past decade have resulted in a number of high-resolution structures and structural models of both bitopic and polytopic α-helical MPs. The necessity to retain lipids in the sample, the high proportion of one type of secondary structure, differential dynamics, and the possibility of local disorder in the loop regions all create challenges for structure determination. In this Perspective article we describe our recent efforts directed at determining the structure and functional dynamics of Anabaena Sensory Rhodopsin, a heptahelical transmembrane (7TM) protein. We review some of the established and emerging methods which can be utilized for SSNMR-based structure determination, with a particular focus on those used for ASR, a bacterial protein which shares its 7TM architecture with G-protein coupled receptors.

  9. Novel functions for Period 3 and Exo-rhodopsin in rhythmic transcription and melatonin biosynthesis within the zebrafish pineal organ.

    PubMed

    Pierce, Lain X; Noche, Ramil R; Ponomareva, Olga; Chang, Christopher; Liang, Jennifer O

    2008-08-05

    Entrainment of circadian clocks to environmental cues such as photoperiod ensures that daily biological rhythms stay in synchronization with the Earth's rotation. The vertebrate pineal organ has a conserved role in circadian regulation as the primary source of the nocturnal hormone melatonin. In lower vertebrates, the pineal has an endogenous circadian clock as well as photoreceptive cells that regulate this clock. The zebrafish opsin protein Exo-rhodopsin (Exorh) is expressed in pineal photoreceptors and is a candidate to mediate the effects of environmental light on pineal rhythms and melatonin synthesis. We demonstrate that Exorh has an important role in regulating gene transcription within the pineal. In developing embryos that lack Exorh, expression of the exorh gene itself and of the melatonin synthesis gene serotonin N-acetyl transferase 2 (aanat2) are significantly reduced. This suggests that the Exorh protein at the cell membrane is part of a signaling pathway that positively regulates transcription of these genes, and ultimately melatonin production, in the pineal. Like many other opsin genes, exorh is expressed with a daily rhythm: mRNA levels are higher at night than during the day. We found that the transcription factor Orthodenticle homeobox 5 (Otx5) activates exorh transcription, while the putative circadian clock component Period 3 (Per3) represses expression during the day, thereby contributing to the rhythm of transcription. This work identifies novel roles for Exorh and Per3, and gives insight into potential interactions between the sensory and circadian systems within the pineal.

  10. The Gos28 SNARE protein mediates intra-Golgi transport of rhodopsin and is required for photoreceptor survival.

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, Erica E; Vasiljevic, Eva; Cleland, Spencer C; Flores, Carlos; Colley, Nansi Jo

    2014-11-21

    SNARE proteins play indispensable roles in membrane fusion events in many cellular processes, including synaptic transmission and protein trafficking. Here, we characterize the Golgi SNARE protein, Gos28, and its role in rhodopsin (Rh1) transport through Drosophila photoreceptors. Mutations in gos28 lead to defective Rh1 trafficking and retinal degeneration. We have pinpointed a role for Gos28 in the intra-Golgi transport of Rh1, downstream from α-mannosidase-II in the medial- Golgi. We have confirmed the necessity of key residues in Gos28's SNARE motif and demonstrate that its transmembrane domain is not required for vesicle fusion, consistent with Gos28 functioning as a t-SNARE for Rh1 transport. Finally, we show that human Gos28 rescues both the Rh1 trafficking defects and retinal degeneration in Drosophila gos28 mutants, demonstrating the functional conservation of these proteins. Our results identify Gos28 as an essential SNARE protein in Drosophila photoreceptors and provide mechanistic insights into the role of SNAREs in neurodegenerative disease.

  11. A comparison of the efficiency of G protein activation by ligand-free and light-activated forms of rhodopsin.

    PubMed Central

    Melia, T J; Cowan, C W; Angleson, J K; Wensel, T G

    1997-01-01

    Activation of the photoreceptor G protein transducin (Gt) by opsin, the ligand-free form of rhodopsin, was measured using rod outer segment membranes with densities of opsin and Gt similar to those found in rod cells. When GTPgammaS was used as the activating nucleotide, opsin catalyzed transducin activation with an exponential time course with a rate constant k(act) on the order of 2 x 10(-3)s(-1). Comparison under these conditions to activation by flash-generated metarhodopsin II (MII) revealed that opsin- and R*-catalyzed activation showed similar kinetics when MII was present at a surface density approximately 10(-6) lower than that of opsin. Thus, in contrast to some previous reports, we find that the catalytic potency of opsin is only approximately 10(-6) that of MII. In the presence of residual retinaldehyde-derived species present in membranes treated with hydroxylamine after bleaching, the apparent k(act) observed was much higher than that for opsin, suggesting a possible explanation for previous reports of more efficient activation by opsin. These results are important for considering the possible role of opsin in the diverse phenomena in which it has been suggested to play a key role, such as bleaching desensitization and retinal degeneration induced by continuous light or vitamin A deprivation. PMID:9414230

  12. pH-dependent absorption spectra of rhodopsin mutant E113Q: On the role of counterions and protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Peng; Zhou, Panwang; Alsaedi, Ahmed; Zhang, Yan

    2017-03-01

    The absorption spectra of bovine rhodopsin mutant E113Q in solutions were investigated at the molecular level by using a hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) method. The calculations suggest the mechanism of the absorption variations of E113Q at different pH values. The results indicate that the polarizations of the counterions in the vicinity of Schiff base under protonation and unprotonation states of the mutant E113Q would be a crucial factor to change the energy gap of the retinal to tune the absorption spectra. Glu-181 residue, which is close to the chromophore, cannot serve as the counterion of the protonated Schiff base of E113Q in dark state. Moreover, the results of the absorption maximum in mutant E113Q with the various anions (Cl-, Br-, I- and NO3-) manifested that the mutant E113Q could have the potential for use as a template of anion biosensors at visible wavelength.

  13. Principles of Wetland Restoration

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    the return of a degraded ecosystem to a close approximation of its remaining natural potential - is experiencing a groundswell of support across the United States. The number of stream, river, lake, wetland and estuary restoration projects grows yearly

  14. Ecosystem restoration: Chapter 4

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cullinane Thomas, Catherine M.; Skrabis, K. E.; Gascoigne, William

    2012-01-01

    The Department of the Interior extensively supports―through its mission, policy, programs, and funding― the study, planning, implementation, and monitoring of ecosystem restoration. This commitment is reflected in the Department's FY2011-2016 Strategic Plan.

  15. The Menominee Restoration Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deer, Ada E.

    1973-01-01

    The article discusses the background and current status of the Menominee Restoration Bill, which will reverse the termination of Federal responsibility effected on the Wisconsin Menominee Tribe in 1961. (KM)

  16. ESTUARINE HABITAT RESTORATION

    SciTech Connect

    Thom, Ronald M.; Borde, Amy B.

    2015-09-01

    Restoring estuarine habitats generally means repairing damages caused by humans and natural forces. Because of the extensive human occupation, development, and use of coastal areas for centuries, the extensive estuarine habitats have been either destroyed or significantly impaired.

  17. Restoration of Ailing Wetlands

    PubMed Central

    Schmitz, Oswald J.

    2012-01-01

    It is widely held that humankind's destructive tendencies when exploiting natural resources leads to irreparable harm to the environment. Yet, this thinking runs counter to evidence that many ecological systems damaged by severe natural environmental disturbances (e.g., hurricanes) can restore themselves via processes of natural recovery. The emerging field of restoration ecology is capitalizing on the natural restorative tendencies of ecological systems to build a science of repairing the harm inflicted by humans on natural environment. Evidence for this, for example, comes from a new meta-analysis of 124 studies that synthesizes recovery of impacted wetlands worldwide. While it may take up to two human generations to see full recovery, there is promise, given human will, to restore many damaged wetlands worldwide. PMID:22291573

  18. Microbial Metalloproteomics

    PubMed Central

    Hagedoorn, Peter-Leon

    2015-01-01

    Metalloproteomics is a rapidly developing field of science that involves the comprehensive analysis of all metal-containing or metal-binding proteins in a biological sample. The purpose of this review is to offer a comprehensive overview of the research involving approaches that can be categorized as inductively coupled plasma (ICP)-MS based methods, X-ray absorption/fluorescence, radionuclide based methods and bioinformatics. Important discoveries in microbial proteomics will be reviewed, as well as the outlook to new emerging approaches and research areas. PMID:28248278

  19. Microbial Metabolomics

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Jane

    2011-01-01

    Microbial metabolomics constitutes an integrated component of systems biology. By studying the complete set of metabolites within a microorganism and monitoring the global outcome of interactions between its development processes and the environment, metabolomics can potentially provide a more accurate snap shot of the actual physiological state of the cell. Recent advancement of technologies and post-genomic developments enable the study and analysis of metabolome. This unique contribution resulted in many scientific disciplines incorporating metabolomics as one of their “omics” platforms. This review focuses on metabolomics in microorganisms and utilizes selected topics to illustrate its impact on the understanding of systems microbiology. PMID:22379393

  20. Restoring primary anterior teeth.

    PubMed

    Waggoner, William F

    2002-01-01

    A variety of esthetic restorative materials are available for restoring primary incisors. Knowledge of the specific strengths, weakness, and properties of each material will enhance the clinician's ability to make the best choice of selection for each individual situation. Intracoronal restorations of primary teeth may utilize resin composites, glass ionomer cements, resin-modified ionomers, or polyacid-modified resins. Each has distinct advantages and disadvantages and the clinical conditions of placement may be a strong determining factor as to which material is utilized. Full coronal restoration of primary incisors may be indicated for a number of reasons. Crowns available for restoration of primary incisors include those that are directly bonded onto the tooth, which generally are a resin material, and those crowns that are luted onto the tooth and are some type of stainless steel crown. However, due to lack of supporting clinical data, none of the crowns can be said to be superior to the others under all circumstances. Though caries in the mandibular region is rare, restorative solutions for mandibular incisors are needed. Neither stainless steel crowns nor celluloid crown forms are made specifically for mandibular incisors. Many options exist to repair carious primary incisors, but there is insufficient controlled, clinical data to suggest that one type of restoration is superior to another. This does not discount the fact that dentists have been using many of these crowns for years with much success. Operator preferences, esthetic demands by parents, the child's behavior, and moisture and hemorrhage control are all variables which affect the decision and ultimate outcome of whatever restorative treatment is chosen.

  1. Soil microbial communities and metabolic function of a Northern Alabama forest ecosystem

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thinning, prescribed burning, and their combinations, are common forest management practices to restore degraded forest communities and to prevent uncontrollable wildfires. However, their impacts on soil microbial communities, which are vital to global element cycling, are traditionally overlooked. ...

  2. Orientational changes of the absorbing dipole or retinal upon the conversion of rhodopsin to bathorhodopsin, lumirhodopsin, and isorhodopsin.

    PubMed Central

    Michel-Villaz, M; Roche, C; Chabre, M

    1982-01-01

    The orientational change of the absorbing dipole of the retinal chromophore in vertebrate rhodopsin (rhodo) upon photo-excitation to bathorhodopsin (batho), lumirhodopsin (lumi) and isorhodopsin (iso), has been studied by polarized absorption and linear dichroism measurements on magnetically oriented frog rod suspensions that were blocked at liquid nitrogen temperature. Both the azimuthal component delta theta and the polar component delta theta of the total angular change were studied in separate experiments. Delta theta was estimated from polarized absorption measurements on rods oriented transversally with respect to the analyzing beam. The data show unequivocally that upon the rhodo leads to batho transition, the dipole shifts out of the membrane plane by only few degrees; delta theta congruent to -3 degree. This azimuthal shift was nearly exactly reversed upon the batho leads to lumi decay. A very small shift (delta theta less than or equal to 1 degree) toward the membrane plane was observed upon a rhodo leads to iso conversion. The polar component delta theta of the angular shift was estimated by studying the photoreversion of linear dichroism induced by photo-excitation with polarized light in rods oriented parallel to the analyzing beam. Upon the rhodo leads to batho transition, ther was a shift delta theta = 11 +/- 3 degrees. The overall angular shift upon this first photo-exciting step, which corresponded to the isomerisation of retinal, was only delta omega = 11 +/- 3 degrees. This is smaller than what may be expected for a cis-trans isomerization of a retinal molecule with one end fixed, and different from what has been previously estimated by another group. These discrepancies are discussed. PMID:6978738

  3. Genetic Analysis of the Rhodopsin Gene Identifies a Mosaic Dominant Retinitis Pigmentosa Mutation in a Healthy Individual

    PubMed Central

    Beryozkin, Avigail; Levy, Gal; Blumenfeld, Anat; Meyer, Segev; Namburi, Prasanthi; Morad, Yair; Gradstein, Libe; Swaroop, Anand; Banin, Eyal; Sharon, Dror

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a group of clinically and genetically heterogeneous hereditary retinal diseases that result in blindness due to photoreceptor degeneration. Mutations in the rhodopsin (RHO) gene are the most common cause of autosomal dominant RP (adRP) and are responsible for 16% to 35% of adRP cases in the Western population. Our purpose was to investigate the contribution of RHO to adRP in the Israeli and Palestinian populations. Methods Thirty-two adRP families participated in the study. Mutation detection was performed by whole exome sequencing (WES) and Sanger sequencing of RHO exons. Fluorescence PCR reactions of serially diluted samples were used to predict the percentage of mosaic cells in blood samples. Results Eight RHO disease-causing mutations were identified in nine families, with only one novel mutation, c.548-638dup91bp, identified in a family where WES failed to detect any causal variant. Segregation analysis revealed that the origin of the mutation is in a mosaic healthy individual carrying the mutation in approximately 13% of blood cells. Conclusions This is the first report of the mutation spectrum of a known adRP gene in the Israeli and Palestinian populations, leading to the identification of seven previously reported mutations and one novel mutation. Our study shows that RHO mutations are a major cause of adRP in this cohort and are responsible for 28% of adRP families. The novel mutation exhibits a unique phenomenon in which an unaffected individual is mosaic for an adRP-causing mutation. PMID:26962691

  4. Characterization and mapping of the human rhodopsin kinase gene and screening of the gene for mutations in patients with retinitis pigmentosa

    SciTech Connect

    Khani, S.C.; Lin, D.; Magovcevic, I.

    1994-09-01

    Rhodopsin kinase (RK) is a cytosolic enzyme in rod photoreceptors that initiates the deactivation of the phototransductions cascade by phosphorylating photoactivated rhodopsin. Although the cDNA sequence of bovine RK has been determined previously, no human cDNA or genomic sequence has thus far been available for genetic studies. In order to investigate the possible role of this candidate gene in retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and allied diseases, we have isolated and characterized human cDNA and genomic clones derived from the RK locus. The coding sequence of the human gene is 1692 nucleotides in length and is split into seven exons. The human and the bovine sequence show 84% identity at the nucleotide level and 92% identity at the amino acid level. Thus far, the intronic sequences flanking each exon except for one have been determined. We have also mapped the human RK gene to chromosome 13q34 using fluorescence in situ hybridization. To our knowledge, no RP gene has as yet been linked to this region. However, since the substrate for RK (rhodopsin) and other members of the phototransduction cascade have been implicated in the pathogenesis of RP, it is conceivable that defects in RK can also cause some forms of this disease. We are evaluating this possibility by screening DNA from 173 patients with autosomal recessive RP and 190 patients with autosomal dominant RP. So far, we have found 11 patients with variant bands. In one patient with autosomal dominant RP we discovered the missense change Ser536Leu. Cosegregation studies and further sequencing of the variant bands are currently underway.

  5. MICROBIAL TRANSFORMATIONS OF URANIUM AND ENVIRONMENTAL RESTORATION THROUGH BIOREMEDIATION.

    SciTech Connect

    FRANCIS,A.J.

    2002-09-10

    Microorganisms present in the natural environment play a significant role in the mobilization and immobilization of uranium. Fundamental understanding of the mechanisms of microbiological transformations of various chemical forms of uranium present in wastes and contaminated soils and water has led to the development of novel bioremediation processes. One process uses anaerobic bacteria to stabilize the radionuclides and toxic metals from the waste, with a concurrent reduction in volume due to the dissolution and removal of nontoxic elements from the waste matrix. In an another process, uranium and other toxic metals are removed from contaminated soils and wastes by extracting with the chelating agent citric acid. Uranium is recovered from the citric acid extract after biodegradation/photodegradation in a concentrated form as UO{sub 3} {center_dot} 2H{sub 2}O for recycling or appropriate disposal.

  6. MICROBIAL TRANSFORMATIONS OF RADIONUCLIDES AND ENVIRONMENTAL RESTORATION THROUGH BIOREMEDIATION.

    SciTech Connect

    FRANCIS, A.J.

    2006-09-29

    Treatment of waste streams containing radionuclides, the remediation of contaminated materials, soils, and water, and the safe and economical disposal of radionuclides and toxic metals containing wastes is a major concern. Radionuclides may exist in various oxidation states and may be present as oxide, coprecipitates, inorganic, and organic complexes depending on the process and waste stream. Unlike organic contaminants, the metals cannot be destroyed, but must either be converted to a stable form or removed. Microorganisms present in the natural environment play a major role in the mobilization and immobilization of radionuclides and toxic metals by direct enzymatic or indirect non-enzymatic actions and could affect the chemical nature of the radionuclides by altering the speciation, solubility and sorption properties and thus could increase or decrease the concentrations of radionuclides in solution. Fundamental understanding of the mechanisms of microbiological transformations of various chemical forms of uranium present in wastes and contaminated soils and water has led to the development of novel bioremediation processes. One process uses anaerobic bacteria to stabilize the radionuclides by reductive precipitation from higher to lower oxidation state with a concurrent reduction in volume due to the dissolution and removal of nontoxic elements from the waste matrix. In an another process, uranium and other toxic metals are removed from contaminated surfaces, soils, and wastes by extracting with the chelating agent citric acid. Uranium is recovered from the citric acid extract after biodegradation followed by photodegradation in a concentrated form as UO{sub 3} {center_dot} 2H{sub 2}O for recycling or appropriate disposal. These processes use all naturally occurring materials, common soil bacteria, naturally occurring organic compound citric acid and sunlight.

  7. Restoring the prairie

    SciTech Connect

    Mlot, C.

    1990-12-01

    The US DOE at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory in Batavia, Illinois, prairie restoration is taking place in order to conserve the rich topsoil. This is the largest of many prairie restoration experiments. Big bluestem grass (Andropogon gerardi), blue grama (Bouteloua gracilis), and buffalo grass (Buchloe dactyloides) are the main initial grasses grown. After their growth reaches enough biomass to sustain a fire, other prairie plants such as purple prairie clover and dropseed grass appear. The goal of this is to provide a generous refuge for disappearing native plants and animals, a site for scientific research, and a storehouse of genes adapted to a region that produces much of the worlds food. Plans for restoring the marsh and oak savanna, also native to the Fermilab site are also in the works.

  8. Evidence for a bound water molecule next to the retinal Schiff base in bacteriorhodopsin and rhodopsin: a resonance Raman study of the Schiff base hydrogen/deuterium exchange.

    PubMed Central

    Deng, H.; Huang, L.; Callender, R.; Ebrey, T.

    1994-01-01

    The retinal chromophores of both rhodopsin and bacteriorhodopsin are bound to their apoproteins via a protonated Schiff base. We have employed continuous-flow resonance Raman experiments on both pigments to determine that the exchange of a deuteron on the Schiff base with a proton is very fast, with half-times of 6.9 +/- 0.9 and 1.3 +/- 0.3 ms for rhodopsin and bacteriorhodopsin, respectively. When these results are analyzed using standard hydrogen-deuteron exchange mechanisms, i.e., acid-, base-, or water-catalyzed schemes, it is found that none of these can explain the experimental results. Because the exchange rates are found to be independent of pH, the deuterium-hydrogen exchange can not be hydroxyl (or acid-)-catalyzed. Moreover, the deuterium-hydrogen exchange of the retinal Schiff base cannot be catalyzed by water acting as a base because in that case the estimated exchange rate is predicted to be orders of magnitude slower than that observed. The relatively slow calculated exchange rates are essentially due to the high pKa values of the Schiff base in both rhodopsin (pKa > 17) and bacteriorhodopsin (pKa approximately 13.5). We have also measured the deuterium-hydrogen exchange of a protonated Schiff base model compound in aqueous solution. Its exchange characteristics, in contrast to the Schiff bases of the pigments, is pH-dependent and consistent with the standard base-catalyzed schemes. Remarkably, the water-catalyzed exchange, which has a half-time of 16 +/- 2 ms and which dominates at pH 3.0 and below, is slower than the exchange rate of the Schiff base in rhodopsin and bacteriorhodopsin. Thus, there are two anomalous results, the inconsistency of the observed hydrogen exchange rates of retinal Schiff base in the two pigments with those predicted from the standard exchange schemes and the enhancement of the rate of hydrogen exchange in the two proteins over the model Schiff base in aqueous solution. We suggest that these results are explained by the

  9. Everglades Restoration Critiqued

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    The monitoring and assessment plan for the $7.8-billion effort to restore the hydrologic regime of the remaining wetlands of Florida's Everglades needs to be strengthened, according to a 2 April study by a committee of the National Academy of Sciences. The evolving monitoring and assessment plan of the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan is grounded in current scientific theory and practice of adaptive management, according to the report. However, the least-developed aspects of the management are feedback mechanisms to connect monitoring to planning and management, the report notes.

  10. Overvoltage control during restoration

    SciTech Connect

    Adibi, M.M. ); Alexander, R.W. ); Avra-Movic, B. )

    1992-11-01

    This paper is one in a series presented on behalf of the System Operation Subcommittee with the intent of focusing industry attention on power system restoration issues. Restoration of a bulk power supply system presents the operator with unique challenges not normally encountered in daily operations. The initial, and even intermediate transmission system topologies are quite different from the well integrated systems during normal operation. There are several problems that pertain to these non-normal topologies that are of common concern to operators and need to be addressed. One of these, the problem of overvoltages, is the subject of this paper.

  11. NATURAL ATTENUATION FOR ECOSYSTEM RESTORATION IN NY/NJ HARBOR

    SciTech Connect

    Van der Lelie, D.; Reid-Green, J. D.; Stern, E. A.

    2003-12-31

    We have investigated the feasibility of using natural attenuation methods for ecosystem restoration in New York/New Jersey Harbor. Measurements were made of the most probable number of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in native sediments and in samples, which had been supplemented with an appropriate electron donor and electron acceptor. The results showed that the activity of the endogenous microbial population in the native sediment was high enough to make possible adequate chemical transformation rates. The bioavailability of the zinc in the sediments was measured using the BIOMET biosensor technique. The bioavailability of the zinc was effectively eliminated following the microbial activities. We concluded that natural attenuation could be used effectively in treating sediments from Newark Bay and surrounding waters and that the resultant materials could likely be used in environmental restoration projects of the type proposed for construction in South Kearny, NJ.

  12. Arid soil microbial enzymatic activity profile as affected by geographical location and soil degradation status

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evaluating soil health is critical for any successful remediation effort. Arid lands, with their minimal carbon and water contents, low nutritional status and restricted, seasonal microbial activity pose specific challenges to soil health restoration and by extension, restoration of ecosystem repr...

  13. Model for Coastal Restoration

    SciTech Connect

    Thom, Ronald M.; Judd, Chaeli

    2007-07-27

    Successful restoration of wetland habitats depends on both our understanding of our system and our ability to characterize it. By developing a conceptual model, looking at different spatial scales and integrating diverse data streams: GIS datasets and NASA products, we were able to develop a dynamic model for site prioritization based on both qualitative and quantitative relationships found in the coastal environment.

  14. Nitriding of restored crankshafts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponukalin, V. V.; Aleksandrov, V. N.

    1984-02-01

    The following technology is recommended for restoration of steel crankshafts: facing with an Sv-08 electrode wire under an AN-348A flux with chromium and niobium introduced into the melt in accordance with the method used at automotive-repair plants and subsequent gas nitriding at (570±10)°C for 12 h.

  15. Restoring Fossil Creek

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flaccus, Kathleen; Vlieg, Julie; Marks, Jane C.; LeRoy, Carri J.

    2004-01-01

    Fossil Creek had been dammed for the past 90 years, and plans were underway to restore the stream. The creek runs through Central Arizona and flows from the high plateaus to the desert, cutting through the same formations that form the Grand Canyon. This article discusses the Fossil Creek monitoring project. In this project, students and teachers…

  16. Involvement of Reduced Microbial Diversity in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Xiaojie; Wang, Lili; Yu, Xinjuan

    2016-01-01

    A considerable number of studies have been conducted to study the microbial profiles in inflammatory conditions. A common phenomenon in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is the reduction of the diversity of microbiota, which demonstrates that microbial diversity negatively correlates with disease severity in IBD. Increased microbial diversity is known to occur in disease remission. Species diversity plays an important role in maintaining the stability of the intestinal ecosystem as well as normal ecological function. A reduction in microbial diversity corresponds to a decrease in the stability of the ecosystem and can impair ecological function. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), probiotics, and prebiotics, which aim to modulate the microbiota and restore its normal diversity, have been shown to be clinically efficacious. In this study, we hypothesized that a reduction in microbial diversity could play a role in the development of IBD. PMID:28074093

  17. Restoration of rare earth mine areas: organic amendments and phytoremediation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lingyan; Li, Zhaolong; Liu, Wen; Liu, Shenghong; Zhang, Limin; Zhong, Liyan; Luo, Ximei; Liang, Hong

    2015-11-01

    Overexploitation of rare earth mine has caused serious desertification and various environmental issues, and ecological restoration of a mining area is an important concern in China. In this study, experiments involving dry grass landfilling, chicken manure broadcasting, and plant cultivation were carried out to reclaim a rare earth mine area located in Heping County, Guangdong Province, China. The prime focus was to improve soil quality in terms of nutrients, microbial community, enzyme activity, and physicochemical properties so as to reclaim the land. After 2 years of restoration, an increase of organic matter (OM), available potassium (K), available phosphorus (P) levels, and acid phosphatase (ACP) activity and a reduction of the available nitrogen (N) level and urease (URE) activity in soil were achieved compared to the original mined land. The nutrients and enzyme activities in soil with 5 years of restoration were close to or surpass those in the unexploited land as control. The bulk density, total porosity, water holding capacity, pH, and electrical conductivity (EC) of soil were improved, and the number of cultivable microorganisms and the bacterial diversity in soil were greatly increased with time during ecological restoration, especially for surface soil. Furthermore, the artificial vegetation stably grew at the restored mining sites. The results indicated that organic amendments and phytoremediation could ecologically restore the rare earth mining sites and the mined land could finally be planted as farmland.

  18. Digital restoration of multichannel images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galatsanos, Nikolas P.; Chin, Roland T.

    1989-01-01

    The Wiener solution of a multichannel restoration scheme is presented. Using matrix diagonalization and block-Toeplitz to block-circulant approximation, the inversion of the multichannel, linear space-invariant imaging system becomes feasible by utilizing a fast iterative matrix inversion procedure. The restoration uses both the within-channel (spatial) and between-channel (spectral) correlation; hence, the restored result is a better estimate than that produced by independent channel restoration. Simulations are also presented.

  19. Adaptive wiener image restoration kernel

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, Ding

    2007-06-05

    A method and device for restoration of electro-optical image data using an adaptive Wiener filter begins with constructing imaging system Optical Transfer Function, and the Fourier Transformations of the noise and the image. A spatial representation of the imaged object is restored by spatial convolution of the image using a Wiener restoration kernel.

  20. Prairie Restoration for Wisconsin Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Molly Fifield; Greenler, Robin McC.

    This packet is composed of several resources for teachers interested in prairie ecology and restoration. "A Guide to Restoration from Site Analysis to Management" focuses on the Prairie/Oak Savanna communities of Wisconsin and takes teachers through the planning and design process for a restoration project on school grounds including…

  1. Relativistic Linear Restoring Force

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, D.; Franklin, J.; Mann, N.

    2012-01-01

    We consider two different forms for a relativistic version of a linear restoring force. The pair comes from taking Hooke's law to be the force appearing on the right-hand side of the relativistic expressions: d"p"/d"t" or d"p"/d["tau"]. Either formulation recovers Hooke's law in the non-relativistic limit. In addition to these two forces, we…

  2. Microfluidics and microbial engineering.

    PubMed

    Kou, Songzi; Cheng, Danhui; Sun, Fei; Hsing, I-Ming

    2016-02-07

    The combination of microbial engineering and microfluidics is synergistic in nature. For example, microfluidics is benefiting from the outcome of microbial engineering and many reported point-of-care microfluidic devices employ engineered microbes as functional parts for the microsystems. In addition, microbial engineering is facilitated by various microfluidic techniques, due to their inherent strength in high-throughput screening and miniaturization. In this review article, we firstly examine the applications of engineered microbes for toxicity detection, biosensing, and motion generation in microfluidic platforms. Secondly, we look into how microfluidic technologies facilitate the upstream and downstream processes of microbial engineering, including DNA recombination, transformation, target microbe selection, mutant characterization, and microbial function analysis. Thirdly, we highlight an emerging concept in microbial engineering, namely, microbial consortium engineering, where the behavior of a multicultural microbial community rather than that of a single cell/species is delineated. Integrating the disciplines of microfluidics and microbial engineering opens up many new opportunities, for example in diagnostics, engineering of microbial motors, development of portable devices for genetics, high throughput characterization of genetic mutants, isolation and identification of rare/unculturable microbial species, single-cell analysis with high spatio-temporal resolution, and exploration of natural microbial communities.

  3. PBN (Phenyl-N-Tert-Butylnitrone)-Derivatives Are Effective in Slowing the Visual Cycle and Rhodopsin Regeneration and in Protecting the Retina from Light-Induced Damage.

    PubMed

    Stiles, Megan; Moiseyev, Gennadiy P; Budda, Madeline L; Linens, Annette; Brush, Richard S; Qi, Hui; White, Gary L; Wolf, Roman F; Ma, Jian-Xing; Floyd, Robert; Anderson, Robert E; Mandal, Nawajes A

    2015-01-01

    A2E and related toxic molecules are part of lipofuscin found in the retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells in eyes affected by Stargardt's disease, age-related macular degeneration (AMD), and other retinal degenerations. A novel therapeutic approach for treating such degenerations involves slowing down the visual cycle, which could reduce the amount of A2E in the RPE. This can be accomplished by inhibiting RPE65, which produces 11-cis-retinol from all-trans-retinyl esters. We recently showed that phenyl-N-tert-butylnitrone (PBN) inhibits RPE65 enzyme activity in RPE cells. In this study we show that like PBN, certain PBN-derivatives (PBNDs) such as 4-F-PBN, 4-CF3-PBN, 3,4-di-F-PBN, and 4-CH3-PBN can inhibit RPE65 and synthesis of 11-cis-retinol in in vitro assays using bovine RPE microsomes. We further demonstrate that systemic (intraperitoneal, IP) administration of these PBNDs protect the rat retina from light damage. Electroretinography (ERG) and histological analysis showed that rats treated with PBNDs retained ~90% of their photoreceptor cells compared to a complete loss of function and 90% loss of photoreceptors in the central retina in rats treated with vehicle/control injections. Topically applied PBN and PBNDs also significantly slowed the rate of the visual cycle in mouse and baboon eyes. One hour dark adaptation resulted in 75-80% recovery of bleachable rhodopsin in control/vehicle treated mice. Eye drops of 5% 4-CH3-PBN were most effective, inhibiting the regeneration of bleachable rhodopsin significantly (60% compared to vehicle control). In addition, a 10% concentration of PBN and 5% concentration of 4-CH3-PBN in baboon eyes inhibited the visual cycle by 60% and by 30%, respectively. We have identified a group of PBN related nitrones that can reach the target tissue (RPE) by systemic and topical application and slow the rate of rhodopsin regeneration and therefore the visual cycle in mouse and baboon eyes. PBNDs can also protect the rat retina from

  4. PBN (Phenyl-N-Tert-Butylnitrone)-Derivatives Are Effective in Slowing the Visual Cycle and Rhodopsin Regeneration and in Protecting the Retina from Light-Induced Damage

    PubMed Central

    Stiles, Megan; Moiseyev, Gennadiy P.; Budda, Madeline L.; Linens, Annette; Brush, Richard S.; Qi, Hui; White, Gary L.; Wolf, Roman F.; Ma, Jian-xing; Floyd, Robert; Anderson, Robert E.; Mandal, Nawajes A.

    2015-01-01

    A2E and related toxic molecules are part of lipofuscin found in the retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells in eyes affected by Stargardt’s disease, age-related macular degeneration (AMD), and other retinal degenerations. A novel therapeutic approach for treating such degenerations involves slowing down the visual cycle, which could reduce the amount of A2E in the RPE. This can be accomplished by inhibiting RPE65, which produces 11-cis-retinol from all-trans-retinyl esters. We recently showed that phenyl-N-tert-butylnitrone (PBN) inhibits RPE65 enzyme activity in RPE cells. In this study we show that like PBN, certain PBN-derivatives (PBNDs) such as 4-F-PBN, 4-CF3-PBN, 3,4-di-F-PBN, and 4-CH3-PBN can inhibit RPE65 and synthesis of 11-cis-retinol in in vitro assays using bovine RPE microsomes. We further demonstrate that systemic (intraperitoneal, IP) administration of these PBNDs protect the rat retina from light damage. Electroretinography (ERG) and histological analysis showed that rats treated with PBNDs retained ~90% of their photoreceptor cells compared to a complete loss of function and 90% loss of photoreceptors in the central retina in rats treated with vehicle/control injections. Topically applied PBN and PBNDs also significantly slowed the rate of the visual cycle in mouse and baboon eyes. One hour dark adaptation resulted in 75–80% recovery of bleachable rhodopsin in control/vehicle treated mice. Eye drops of 5% 4-CH3-PBN were most effective, inhibiting the regeneration of bleachable rhodopsin significantly (60% compared to vehicle control). In addition, a 10% concentration of PBN and 5% concentration of 4-CH3-PBN in baboon eyes inhibited the visual cycle by 60% and by 30%, respectively. We have identified a group of PBN related nitrones that can reach the target tissue (RPE) by systemic and topical application and slow the rate of rhodopsin regeneration and therefore the visual cycle in mouse and baboon eyes. PBNDs can also protect the rat retina

  5. Tape Dump and Restore.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-28

    VM/ CMS as provided at Virginia Tech and to make it possible to transfer files from this system to other computer systems , possibly machines using the...Technical Memorandum No. 80-5 DTI(-C August 28, 1980 DEC T.77w S DEC23 1980 F ABSTRACT A set of three programs to write CMS disk files on magnetic...tape in a variety of formats suitable for reading on a variety of computing systems and for restoring these tape files to disk within the restrictions

  6. Extracellular enzyme activity and biogeochemical cycling in restored prairies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, L.; Hernandez, D.; Schade, J. D.

    2011-12-01

    Winter microbial activity in mid-latitude prairie ecosystems is thermally sensitive and significantly influenced by snow depth. Snow insulates the soil column facilitating microbial processing of complex organic substrates. Previous studies in forests and tundra ecosystems suggest patterns of substrate utilization and limitation are seasonal; above freezing, soil microbes access fresh litter inputs and sugar exudates from plant roots, while under frozen condition they recycle nutrients incorporated in microbial biomass. In order to liberate nutrients required for carbon degradation, soil microbes invest energy in the production of extracellular enzymes that cleave monomers from polymer bonds. The inverse relationship between relative enzyme abundance and substrate availability makes enzyme assays a useful proxy to assess changes in resources over time. Our objective in this study was to assess patterns in microbial biomass, nutrient availability, and extracellular enzyme activity in four snow exclosure sites over a seven-month period. Over the past three years, we have maintained a snow removal experiment on two restored prairies in central Minnesota. In each prairie, snow was continuously removed annually from two 4 x 4 m plots by shoveling after each snow event. Extractable C, N and P, and microbial C, N and P in soil samples were measured in samples collected from these snow removal plots, as well as in adjacent unmanipulated prairie control plots. Pools of C, N, and P were estimated using standard extraction protocols, and microbial pools were estimated using chloroform fumigation direct extraction (CFDE). We conducted fluorometric extracellular enzyme assays (EEA) to assess how the degradation potential of cellulose (cellobiohydrolase, CBH), protein (leucine aminopeptidase, LAP), and phosphate esters (phosphatase, PHOS) changed seasonally. Microbial C and N declined between October and June, while microbial P declined during the fall and winter, but increased

  7. Multiple Steps of Phosphorylation of Activated Rhodopsin Can Account for the Reproducibility of Vertebrate Rod Single-photon Responses

    PubMed Central

    Hamer, R.D.; Nicholas, S.C.; Tranchina, D.; Liebman, P.A.; Lamb, T.D.

    2003-01-01

    Single-photon responses (SPRs) in vertebrate rods are considerably less variable than expected if isomerized rhodopsin (R*) inactivated in a single, memoryless step, and no other variability-reducing mechanisms were available. We present a new stochastic model, the core of which is the successive ratcheting down of R* activity, and a concomitant increase in the probability of quenching of R* by arrestin (Arr), with each phosphorylation of R* (Gibson, S.K., J.H. Parkes, and P.A. Liebman. 2000. Biochemistry. 39:5738–5749.). We evaluated the model by means of Monte-Carlo simulations of dim-flash responses, and compared the response statistics derived from them with those obtained from empirical dim-flash data (Whitlock, G.G., and T.D. Lamb. 1999. Neuron. 23:337–351.). The model accounts for four quantitative measures of SPR reproducibility. It also reproduces qualitative features of rod responses obtained with altered nucleotide levels, and thus contradicts the conclusion that such responses imply that phosphorylation cannot dominate R* inactivation (Rieke, F., and D.A. Baylor. 1998a. Biophys. J. 75:1836–1857; Field, G.D., and F. Rieke. 2002. Neuron. 35:733–747.). Moreover, the model is able to reproduce the salient qualitative features of SPRs obtained from mouse rods that had been genetically modified with specific pathways of R* inactivation or Ca2+ feedback disabled. We present a theoretical analysis showing that the variability of the area under the SPR estimates the variability of integrated R* activity, and can provide a valid gauge of the number of R* inactivation steps. We show that there is a heretofore unappreciated tradeoff between variability of SPR amplitude and SPR duration that depends critically on the kinetics of inactivation of R* relative to the net kinetics of the downstream reactions in the cascade. Because of this dependence, neither the variability of SPR amplitude nor duration provides a reliable estimate of the underlying variability

  8. Membrane Protein Incorporation into Nano-Bioelectronics: An insight into Rhodopsin Controlled SiNW-FET Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tunuguntla, Ramya

    that the manipulation of lipid composition can indeed control orientation of an asymmetrically charged membrane protein, proteorhodopsin, in liposomes. One-dimensional inorganic nanostructures, which have critical dimensions comparable to the sizes of biological molecules, form an excellent materials platform for building such integrated structures. Researchers already use silicon nanowire-based field effect transistors functionalized with molecular recognition sites in a diverse array of biosensors. In our group, we have been developing a platform for integration of membrane protein functionality and electronic devices using a 1-D phospholipid bilayer device architecture. In these devices, the membrane proteins reside within the lipid bilayer that covers a nanowire channel of a field-effect transistor. This lipid bilayer performs several functions: it shields the nanowire from the solution species; it serves as a native-like environment for membrane proteins and preserves their functionality, integrity, and even vectorality. In this work, we show that a 1-D bilayer device incorporating a rhodopsin proton pump allows us to couple light-driven proton transport to a bioelectronic circuit. We also report that we were able to adapt another distinctive feature of biological signal processing---their widespread use of modifiers, co-factors, and mediator molecules---to regulate and fine-tune the operational characteristics of the bioelectronic device. In our example, we use co-assembly of protein channels and ionophores in the 1-D bilayer to modify the device output levels and response time.

  9. Immune restoration disease after antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    French, Martyn A; Price, Patricia; Stone, Shelley F

    2004-08-20

    Suppression of HIV replication by highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) often restores protective pathogen-specific immune responses, but in some patients the restored immune response is immunopathological and causes disease [immune restoration disease (IRD)]. Infections by mycobacteria, cryptococci, herpesviruses, hepatitis B and C virus, and JC virus are the most common pathogens associated with infectious IRD. Sarcoid IRD and autoimmune IRD occur less commonly. Infectious IRD presenting during the first 3 months of therapy appears to reflect an immune response against an active (often quiescent) infection by opportunistic pathogens whereas late IRD may result from an immune response against the antigens of non-viable pathogens. Data on the immunopathogenesis of IRD is limited but it suggests that immunopathogenic mechanisms are determined by the pathogen. For example, mycobacterial IRD is associated with delayed-type hypersensitivity responses to mycobacterial antigens whereas there is evidence of a CD8 T-cell response in herpesvirus IRD. Furthermore, the association of different cytokine gene polymorphisms with mycobacterial or herpesvirus IRD provides evidence of different pathogenic mechanisms as well as indicating a genetic susceptibility to IRD. Differentiation of IRD from an opportunistic infection is important because IRD indicates a successful, albeit undesirable, effect of HAART. It is also important to differentiate IRD from drug toxicity to avoid unnecessary cessation of HAART. The management of IRD often requires the use of anti-microbial and/or anti-inflammatory therapy. Investigation of strategies to prevent IRD is a priority, particularly in developing countries, and requires the development of risk assessment methods and diagnostic criteria.

  10. Paul Davis Restoration Information Sheet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Paul Davis Restoration (the Company) is located in Nicholasville, Kentucky. The settlement involves renovation activities conducted at a property constructed prior to 1978, located in Lexington, Kentucky.

  11. Longevity of Posterior Composite Restorations

    PubMed Central

    Opdam, N.J.M.; van de Sande, F.H.; Bronkhorst, E.; Cenci, M.S.; Bottenberg, P.; Pallesen, U.; Gaengler, P.; Lindberg, A.; Huysmans, M.C.D.N.J.M.; van Dijken, J.W.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this meta-analysis, based on individual participant data from several studies, was to investigate the influence of patient-, materials-, and tooth-related variables on the survival of posterior resin composite restorations. Following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, we conducted a search resulting in 12 longitudinal studies of direct posterior resin composite restorations with at least 5 years’ follow-up. Original datasets were still available, including placement/failure/censoring of restorations, restored surfaces, materials used, reasons for clinical failure, and caries-risk status. A database including all restorations was constructed, and a multivariate Cox regression method was used to analyze variables of interest [patient (age; gender; caries-risk status), jaw (upper; lower), number of restored surfaces, resin composite and adhesive materials, and use of glass-ionomer cement as base/liner (present or absent)]. The hazard ratios with respective 95% confidence intervals were determined, and annual failure rates were calculated for subgroups. Of all restorations, 2,816 (2,585 Class II and 231 Class I) were included in the analysis, of which 569 failed during the observation period. Main reasons for failure were caries and fracture. The regression analyses showed a significantly higher risk of failure for restorations in high-caries-risk individuals and those with a higher number of restored surfaces. PMID:25048250

  12. Sediment denitrification and nitrification is enhanced by the presence of macrophytes in a restored agricultural stream, Black Earth Creek, WI USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Restoration of habitats that support microbial processing can enhance nitrate removal in agricultural streams. Macrophytes are common both in-stream and in the wetted fringe of agricultural stream systems, but are often removed in restoration to increase stream velocity or stabil...

  13. Gut Microbial Metabolites Fuel Host Antibody Responses.

    PubMed

    Kim, Myunghoo; Qie, Yaqing; Park, Jeongho; Kim, Chang H

    2016-08-10

    Antibody production is a metabolically demanding process that is regulated by gut microbiota, but the microbial products supporting B cell responses remain incompletely identified. We report that short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), produced by gut microbiota as fermentation products of dietary fiber, support host antibody responses. In B cells, SCFAs increase acetyl-CoA and regulate metabolic sensors to increase oxidative phosphorylation, glycolysis, and fatty acid synthesis, which produce energy and building blocks supporting antibody production. In parallel, SCFAs control gene expression to express molecules necessary for plasma B cell differentiation. Mice with low SCFA production due to reduced dietary fiber consumption or microbial insufficiency are defective in homeostatic and pathogen-specific antibody responses, resulting in greater pathogen susceptibility. However, SCFA or dietary fiber intake restores this immune deficiency. This B cell-helping function of SCFAs is detected from the intestines to systemic tissues and conserved among mouse and human B cells, highlighting its importance.

  14. Microbial diversity and carbon cycling in San Francisco Bay wetlands

    SciTech Connect

    Theroux, Susanna; Hartman, Wyatt; He, Shaomei; Tringe, Susannah

    2014-03-21

    Wetland restoration efforts in San Francisco Bay aim to rebuild habitat for endangered species and provide an effective carbon storage solution, reversing land subsidence caused by a century of industrial and agricultural development. However, the benefits of carbon sequestration may be negated by increased methane production in newly constructed wetlands, making these wetlands net greenhouse gas (GHG) sources to the atmosphere. We investigated the effects of wetland restoration on below-ground microbial communities responsible for GHG cycling in a suite of historic and restored wetlands in SF Bay. Using DNA and RNA sequencing, coupled with real-time GHG monitoring, we profiled the diversity and metabolic potential of wetland soil microbial communities. The wetland soils harbor diverse communities of bacteria and archaea whose membership varies with sampling location, proximity to plant roots and sampling depth. Our results also highlight the dramatic differences in GHG production between historic and restored wetlands and allow us to link microbial community composition and GHG cycling with key environmental variables including salinity, soil carbon and plant species.

  15. 15 CFR 990.56 - Restoration selection-use of a Regional Restoration Plan or existing restoration project.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Restoration selection-use of a..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OIL POLLUTION ACT REGULATIONS NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Restoration Planning Phase § 990.56 Restoration selection—use of a Regional Restoration Plan or existing restoration...

  16. Microbial Properties Database Editor Tutorial

    EPA Science Inventory

    A Microbial Properties Database Editor (MPDBE) has been developed to help consolidate microbial-relevant data to populate a microbial database and support a database editor by which an authorized user can modify physico-microbial properties related to microbial indicators and pat...

  17. Why Microbial Communities?

    ScienceCinema

    Fredrickson, Jim (PNNL)

    2016-07-12

    The Microbial Communities Initiative is a 5-year investment by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory that integrates biological/ecological experimentation, analytical chemistry, and simulation modeling. The objective is to create transforming technologies, elucidate mechanistic forces, and develop theoretical frameworks for the analysis and predictive understanding of microbial communities. Dr. Fredrickson introduces the symposium by defining microbial communities and describing their scientific relevance as they relate to solving problems in energy, climate, and sustainability.

  18. Restorative Nurse Assistant. Instructor Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Instructional Materials Lab.

    This curriculum material covers the basic orientation and necessary skills which would enable the practicing Certified Nurse Assistant to be trained as a Restorative Nurse Assistant. The shift in emphasis from maintenance care to restorative care in the long-term care setting has created a need for trained paraprofessionals who are competent in…

  19. A Restorative Approach to Postvention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schubert, Judith

    2007-01-01

    Restorative principles are at the core of effective response to crisis situations. The goal of these interventions is to repair hurt and rebuild trust between persons and within the community. Restorative practices can be implemented in a wide variety of settings, offering an opportunity for healing to take place in a way which benefits not only…

  20. Degraded Land Restoration in Reinstating CH4 Sink

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Jay Shankar; Gupta, Vijai K.

    2016-01-01

    Methane (CH4), a potent greenhouse gas, contributes about one third to the global green house gas emissions. CH4-assimilating microbes (mostly methanotrophs) in upland soils play very crucial role in mitigating the CH4 release into the atmosphere. Agricultural, environmental, and climatic shifts can alter CH4 sink profiles of soils, likely through shifts in CH4-assimilating microbial community structure and function. Landuse change, as forest and grassland ecosystems altered to agro-ecosystems, has already attenuated the soil CH4 sink potential, and are expected to be continued in the future. We hypothesized that variations in CH4 uptake rates in soils under different landuse practices could be an indicative of alterations in the abundance and/or type of methanotrophic communities in such soils. However, only a few studies have addressed to number and methanotrophs diversity and their correlation with the CH4 sink potential in soils of rehabilitated/restored lands. We focus on landuse practices that can potentially mitigate CH4 gas emissions, the most prominent of which are improved cropland, grazing land management, use of bio-fertilizers, and restoration of degraded lands. In this perspective paper, it is proposed that restoration of degraded lands can contribute considerably to improved soil CH4 sink strength by retrieving/conserving abundance and assortment of efficient methanotrophic communities. We believe that this report can assist in identifying future experimental directions to the relationships between landuse changes, methane-assimilating microbial communities and soil CH4 sinks. The exploitation of microbial communities other than methanotrophs can contribute significantly to the global CH4 sink potential and can add value in mitigating the CH4 problems. PMID:27379053

  1. The Hip Restoration Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Stubbs, Allston Julius; Atilla, Halis Atil

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Despite the rapid advancement of imaging and arthroscopic techniques about the hip joint, missed diagnoses are still common. As a deep joint and compared to the shoulder and knee joints, localization of hip symptoms is difficult. Hip pathology is not easily isolated and is often related to intra and extra-articular abnormalities. In light of these diagnostic challenges, we recommend an algorithmic approach to effectively diagnoses and treat hip pain. Methods In this review, hip pain is evaluated from diagnosis to treatment in a clear decision model. First we discuss emergency hip situations followed by the differentiation of intra and extra-articular causes of the hip pain. We differentiate the intra-articular hip as arthritic and non-arthritic and extra-articular pain as surrounding or remote tissue generated. Further, extra-articular hip pain is evaluated according to pain location. Finally we summarize the surgical treatment approach with an algorithmic diagram. Conclusion Diagnosis of hip pathology is difficult because the etiologies of pain may be various. An algorithmic approach to hip restoration from diagnosis to rehabilitation is crucial to successfully identify and manage hip pathologies. Level of evidence: V. PMID:28066734

  2. Involvement of rhodopsin and ATP in the activation of membranous guanylate cyclase in retinal photoreceptor outer segments (ROS-GC) by GC-activating proteins (GCAPs): a new model for ROS-GC activation and its link to retinal diseases.

    PubMed

    Bondarenko, Vladimir A; Hayashi, Fumio; Usukura, Jiro; Yamazaki, Akio

    2010-01-01

    Membranous guanylate cyclase in retinal photoreceptor outer segments (ROS-GC), a key enzyme for the recovery of photoreceptors to the dark state, has a topology identical to and cytoplasmic domains homologous to those of peptide-regulated GCs. However, under the prevailing concept, its activation mechanism is significantly different from those of peptide-regulated GCs: GC-activating proteins (GCAPs) function as the sole activator of ROS-GC in a Ca(2+)-sensitive manner, and neither reception of an outside signal by the extracellular domain (ECD) nor ATP binding to the kinase homology domain (KHD) is required for its activation. We have recently shown that ATP pre-binding to the KHD in ROS-GC drastically enhances its GCAP-stimulated activity, and that rhodopsin illumination, as the outside signal, is required for the ATP pre-binding. These results indicate that illuminated rhodopsin is involved in ROS-GC activation in two ways: to initiate ATP binding to ROS-GC for preparation of its activation and to reduce [Ca(2+)] through activation of cGMP phosphodiesterase. These two signal pathways are activated in a parallel and proportional manner and finally converge for strong activation of ROS-GC by Ca(2+)-free GCAPs. These results also suggest that the ECD receives the signal for ATP binding from illuminated rhodopsin. The ECD is projected into the intradiscal space, i.e., an intradiscal domain(s) of rhodopsin is also involved in the signal transfer. Many retinal disease-linked mutations are found in these intradiscal domains; however, their consequences are often unclear. This model will also provide novel insights into causal relationship between these mutations and certain retinal diseases.

  3. Adaptively Addressing Uncertainty in Estuarine and Near Coastal Restoration Projects

    SciTech Connect

    Thom, Ronald M.; Williams, Greg D.; Borde, Amy B.; Southard, John A.; Sargeant, Susan L.; Woodruff, Dana L.; Laufle, Jeffrey C.; Glasoe, Stuart

    2005-03-01

    Act; CWPPRA) have incorporated very specific and detailed elements in a more active adaptive management effort. In Puget Sound, the Puget Sound Action Team uses site-specific case studies, monitoring, and public involvement to direct actions to reduce microbial contamination of harvestable shellfish. Small-scale projects can also be improved through application of adaptive management. For example, directed research and site assessments resulted in successful restoration of seagrasses near a ferry terminal in Puget Sound. It is recommended that all restoration programs be conducted in an adaptive management framework, and where appropriate, a more active adaptive management approach be applied. The net effect should be less uncertainty, improved project success, advancement of the science of restoration, and cost savings.

  4. CRITERIA FOR PRIORITIZATION OF ECOSYSTEM RESTORATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Prioritization of ecosystem restoration measures is important for state and federal agencies, watershed coalitions, science advisory boards and other groups responsible for decision-making regarding restoration activities. Although widely utilized, the term "restoration prioriti...

  5. Biofilms: A microbial home

    PubMed Central

    Chandki, Rita; Banthia, Priyank; Banthia, Ruchi

    2011-01-01

    Microbial biofilms are mainly implicated in etiopathogenesis of caries and periodontal disease. Owing to its properties, these pose great challenges. Continuous and regular disruption of these biofilms is imperative for prevention and management of oral diseases. This essay provides a detailed insight into properties, mechanisms of etiopathogenesis, detection and removal of these microbial biofilms. PMID:21976832

  6. Inflight microbial analysis technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, Duane L.; Brown, Harlan D.

    1987-01-01

    This paper provides an assessment of functional characteristics needed in the microbial water analysis system being developed for Space Station. Available technology is reviewed with respect to performing microbial monitoring, isolation, or identification functions. An integrated system composed of three different technologies is presented.

  7. Fernald restoration: ecologists and engineers integrate restoration and cleanup

    SciTech Connect

    Woods, Eric; Homer, John

    2002-07-15

    As cleanup workers excavate pits and tear down buildings at the Fernald site in southwest Ohio, site ecologists are working side-by-side to create thriving wetlands and develop the early stages of forest, prairie, and savanna ecosystems to restore natural resources that were impacted by years of site operations. In 1998, the U.S. Department of Energy-Fernald Office (DOE-FN) and its cleanup contractor, Fluor Fernald, Inc., initiated several ecological restoration projects in perimeter areas of the site (e.g., areas not used for or impacted by uranium processing or waste management). The projects are part of Fernald's final land use plan to restore natural resources over 904 acres of the 1,050-acre site. Pete Yerace, the DOE-FN Natural Resource Trustee representative is working with the Fernald Natural Resource Trustees in an oversight role to resolve the state of Ohio's 1986 claim against DOE for injuries to natural resources. Fluor Fernald, Inc., and DOE-FN developed the ''Natural Resource Restoration Plan'', which outlines 15 major restoration projects for the site and will restore injured natural resources at the site. In general, Fernald's plan includes grading to maximize the formation of wetlands or expanded floodplain, amending soil where topsoil has been removed during excavation, and establishing native vegetation throughout the site. Today, with cleanup over 35 percent complete and site closure targeted for 2006, Fernald is entering a new phase of restoration that involves heavily remediated areas. By working closely with engineers and cleanup crews, site ecologists can take advantage of remediation fieldwork (e.g., convert an excavated depression into a wetland) and avoid unnecessary costs and duplication. This collaboration has also created opportunities for relatively simple and inexpensive restoration of areas that were discovered during ongoing remediation. To ensure the survival of the plant material in heavily disturbed soils, Fernald will use

  8. Image restoration for a hypertelescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakai, Yuto; Baba, Naoshi; Murakami, Naoshi; Miura, Noriaki; Tamura, Motohide

    2016-08-01

    An effective aperture with several tens or more kilometers is needed to resolve exoplanets. A hypertelescope consists of multiple elemental telescopes like an interferometric array. Light beams from the elemental telescopes are collected and densified and used to form a snap-shot image. Thus formed image, however, does not exhibit high quality features, because the spatial frequency sampling is not dense enough to image properly exoplanets. Some kind of image restoration should be implemented to reveal the surface features of exoplanets. We conduct the image restoration and show the results and the effectiveness of the image restoration through computer simulations.

  9. Microbial community response to hydration-desiccation cycles in desert soil

    PubMed Central

    Šťovíček, Adam; Kim, Minsu; Or, Dani; Gillor, Osnat

    2017-01-01

    Life in desert soil is marked by episodic pulses of water and nutrients followed by long periods of drought. While the desert flora and fauna flourish after rainfall the response of soil microorganisms remains unclear and understudied. We provide the first systematic study of the role of soil aqueous habitat dynamics in shaping microbial community composition and diversity. Detailed monitoring of natural microbial communities after a rainfall event revealed a remarkable decrease in diversity and a significant transition in community composition that were gradually restored to pre-rainfall values during soil desiccation. Modelling results suggest a critical role for the fragmented aqueous habitat in maintaining microbial diversity under dry soil conditions and diversity loss with wetting events that increase connectivity among habitats. This interdisciplinary study provides new insights into wetting and drying processes that promote and restore the unparalleled microbial diversity found in soil. PMID:28383531

  10. Mechanism for microbial population collapse in a fluctuating resource environment.

    PubMed

    Turkarslan, Serdar; Raman, Arjun V; Thompson, Anne W; Arens, Christina E; Gillespie, Mark A; von Netzer, Frederick; Hillesland, Kristina L; Stolyar, Sergey; López García de Lomana, Adrian; Reiss, David J; Gorman-Lewis, Drew; Zane, Grant M; Ranish, Jeffrey A; Wall, Judy D; Stahl, David A; Baliga, Nitin S

    2017-03-20

    Managing trade-offs through gene regulation is believed to confer resilience to a microbial community in a fluctuating resource environment. To investigate this hypothesis, we imposed a fluctuating environment that required the sulfate-reducer Desulfovibrio vulgaris to undergo repeated ecologically relevant shifts between retaining metabolic independence (active capacity for sulfate respiration) and becoming metabolically specialized to a mutualistic association with the hydrogen-consuming Methanococcus maripaludis Strikingly, the microbial community became progressively less proficient at restoring the environmentally relevant physiological state after each perturbation and most cultures collapsed within 3-7 shifts. Counterintuitively, the collapse phenomenon was prevented by a single regulatory mutation. We have characterized the mechanism for collapse by conducting RNA-seq analysis, proteomics, microcalorimetry, and single-cell transcriptome analysis. We demonstrate that the collapse was caused by conditional gene regulation, which drove precipitous decline in intracellular abundance of essential transcripts and proteins, imposing greater energetic burden of regulation to restore function in a fluctuating environment.

  11. Human dental pulp stem cells respond to cues from the rat retina and differentiate to express the retinal neuronal marker rhodopsin.

    PubMed

    Bray, A F; Cevallos, R R; Gazarian, K; Lamas, M

    2014-11-07

    Human adult dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) are self-renewing stem cells that originate from the neural crest during development and remain within the dental pulp niche through adulthood. Due to their multi-lineage differentiation potential and their relative ease of access they represent an exciting alternative for autologous stem cell-based therapies in neurodegenerative diseases. In animal models, DPSCs transplanted into the brain differentiate into functional neurons or astrocytes in response to local environmental cues that appear to influence the fate of the surviving cells. Here we tested the hypothesis that DPSCs might be able to respond to factors present in the retina enabling the regenerative potential of these cells. We evaluated the response of DPSCs to conditioned media from organotypic explants from control and chemically damaged rat retinas. To evaluate cell differentiation, we analyzed the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), early neuronal and retinal markers (polysialic acid-neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM); Pax6; Ascl1; NeuroD1) and the late photoreceptor marker rhodopsin, by immunofluorescence and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Exposure of DPSC cultures to conditioned media from control retinas induced a 39% reduction on the number of DPSCs that expressed GFAP; the expression of Pax6, Ascl1, PSA-NCAM or NeuroD1 was undetectable or did not change significantly. Expression of rhodopsin was not detectable in control or after exposure of the cultures with retinal conditioned media. By contrast, 44% of DPSCs exposed to conditioned media from damaged retinas were immunopositive to this protein. This response could not be reproduced when conditioned media from Müller-enriched primary cultures was used. Finally, quantitative RT-PCR was performed to compare the relative expression of glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), nerve growth factor (NGF), ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) and brain

  12. Wetlands Restoration Definitions and Distinctions

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Ecological restoration is a valuable endeavor that has proven very difficult to define. The term indicates that degraded and destroyed natural wetland systems will be reestablished to sites where they once existed. But, what wetland ecosystems are we talki

  13. Temperature-compensating dc restorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, H. M.

    1980-01-01

    Circuit provides stable references restoration in addition to temperature compensation. Possible TV monitor applications include traffic and security surveillance systems, where cameras are subject to environmental extremes, as in unheated warehouses or outdoors.

  14. Basic research for environmental restoration

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the midst of a major environmental restoration effort to reduce the health and environmental risks resulting from past waste management and disposal practices at DOE sites. This report describes research needs in environmental restoration and complements a previously published document, DOE/ER-0419, Evaluation of Mid-to-Long Term Basic Research for Environmental Restoration. Basic research needs have been grouped into five major categories patterned after those identified in DOE/ER-0419: (1) environmental transport and transformations; (2) advanced sampling, characterization, and monitoring methods; (3) new remediation technologies; (4) performance assessment; and (5) health and environmental effects. In addition to basic research, this document deals with education and training needs for environmental restoration. 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  15. Trauma from occlusion. Restorative concerns.

    PubMed

    Neff, P

    1995-04-01

    Trauma from occlusion and restorative concerns may affect the tooth itself, the supporting structures inside and around the tooth's immediate structures, and the total articulating system, which includes the neuromuscular system, the temporomandibular joints, and other systems such as the impairment of hearing or vision and many other peripheral conditions. A thorough examination and a differential diagnosis procedure is essential to restore the health of the articulating system and reverse peripheral condition. This includes the ability to restore the individual tooth in its best anatomic position as a complement to the articulating system using all individual disciplines of dentistry in the finest abilities of treatment and the ability to share and distinguish the possible parafunctional habits and the need for behavioral understanding, support, and management to limit or lessen the wear and destruction of the individual tissues and to restore a healthier physical support.

  16. Expansion of Microbial Forensics

    PubMed Central

    Schmedes, Sarah E.; Sajantila, Antti

    2016-01-01

    Microbial forensics has been defined as the discipline of applying scientific methods to the analysis of evidence related to bioterrorism, biocrimes, hoaxes, or the accidental release of a biological agent or toxin for attribution purposes. Over the past 15 years, technology, particularly massively parallel sequencing, and bioinformatics advances now allow the characterization of microorganisms for a variety of human forensic applications, such as human identification, body fluid characterization, postmortem interval estimation, and biocrimes involving tracking of infectious agents. Thus, microbial forensics should be more broadly described as the discipline of applying scientific methods to the analysis of microbial evidence in criminal and civil cases for investigative purposes. PMID:26912746

  17. Soil microbial communities following bush removal in a Namibian savanna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buyer, Jeffrey S.; Schmidt-Küntzel, Anne; Nghikembua, Matti; Maul, Jude E.; Marker, Laurie

    2016-03-01

    Savanna ecosystems are subject to desertification and bush encroachment, which reduce the carrying capacity for wildlife and livestock. Bush thinning is a management approach that can, at least temporarily, restore grasslands and raise the grazing value of the land. In this study we examined the soil microbial communities under bush and grass in Namibia. We analyzed the soil through a chronosequence where bush was thinned at 9, 5, or 3 years before sampling. Soil microbial biomass, the biomass of specific taxonomic groups, and overall microbial community structure was determined by phospholipid fatty acid analysis, while the community structure of Bacteria, Archaea, and fungi was determined by multiplex terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Soil under bush had higher pH, C, N, and microbial biomass than under grass, and the microbial community structure was also altered under bush compared to grass. A major disturbance to the ecosystem, bush thinning, resulted in an altered microbial community structure compared to control plots, but the magnitude of this perturbation gradually declined with time. Community structure was primarily driven by pH, C, and N, while vegetation type, bush thinning, and time since bush thinning were of secondary importance.

  18. Soil microbial communities following bush removal in a Namibian savanna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buyer, J. S.; Schmidt-Küntzel, A.; Nghikembua, M.; Maul, J. E.; Marker, L.

    2015-12-01

    Savanna ecosystems are subject to desertification and bush encroachment, which reduce the carrying capacity for wildlife and livestock. Bush thinning is a management approach that can, at least temporarily, restore grasslands and raise the grazing value of the land. In this study we examined the soil microbial communities under bush and grass in Namibia. We analyzed the soil through a chronosequence where bush was thinned at 9, 5, or 3 years before sampling. Soil microbial biomass, the biomass of specific taxonomic groups, and overall microbial community structure was determined by phospholipid fatty acid analysis, while the community structure of Bacteria, Archaea, and fungi was determined by multiplex terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Soil under bush had higher pH, C, N, and microbial biomass than under grass, and the microbial community structure was also altered under bush compared to grass. A major disturbance to the ecosystem, bush thinning, resulted in an altered microbial community structure compared to control plots, but the magnitude of this perturbation gradually declined with time. Community structure was primarily driven by pH, C, and N, while vegetation type, bush thinning, and time since bush thinning were of secondary importance.

  19. In vivo Editing of the Human Mutant Rhodopsin Gene by Electroporation of Plasmid-based CRISPR/Cas9 in the Mouse Retina

    PubMed Central

    Latella, Maria Carmela; Di Salvo, Maria Teresa; Cocchiarella, Fabienne; Benati, Daniela; Grisendi, Giulia; Comitato, Antonella; Marigo, Valeria; Recchia, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    The bacterial CRISPR/Cas system has proven to be an efficient tool for genetic manipulation in various organisms. Here we show the application of CRISPR-Cas9 technology to edit the human Rhodopsin (RHO) gene in a mouse model for autosomal dominant Retinitis Pigmentosa. We designed single or double sgRNAs to knock-down mutant RHO expression by targeting exon 1 of the RHO gene carrying the P23H dominant mutation. By delivering Cas9 and sgRNAs in a single plasmid we induced an efficient gene editing in vitro, in HeLa cells engineered to constitutively express the P23H mutant RHO allele. Similarly, after subretinal electroporation of the CRISPR/Cas9 plasmid expressing two sgRNAs into P23H RHO transgenic mice, we scored specific gene editing as well as significant reduction of the mutant RHO protein. Successful in vivo application of the CRISPR/Cas9 system confirms its efficacy as a genetic engineering tool in photoreceptor cells. PMID:27874856

  20. Probing ultrafast photochemistry of retinal proteins in the near-IR: bacteriorhodopsin and anabaena sensory rhodopsin vs retinal protonated Schiff base in solution.

    PubMed

    Wand, Amir; Loevsky, Boris; Friedman, Noga; Sheves, Mordechai; Ruhman, Sanford

    2013-04-25

    Photochemistry of bacteriorhodopsin (bR), anabaena sensory rhodopsin (ASR), and all-trans retinal protonated Schiff base (RPSB) in ethanol is followed with femtosecond pump-hyperspectral near-IR (NIR) probe spectroscopy. This is the first systematic probing of retinal protein photochemistry in this spectral range. Stimulated emission of the proteins is demonstrated to extend deep into the NIR, and to decay on the same characteristic time scales previously determined by visible probing. No signs of a transient NIR absorption band above λpr > 1.3 μm, which was recently reported and is verified here for the RPSB in solution, is observed in either protein. This discrepancy demonstrates that the protein surroundings change photochemical traits of the chromophore significantly, inducing changes either in the energies or couplings of photochemically relevant electronic excited states. In addition, low-frequency and heavily damped spectral modulations are observed in the NIR signals of all three systems up to 1.4 μm. By background subtraction and Fourier analysis they are shown to resemble wave packet signatures in the visible, stemming from multiple vibrational modes and by analogy are assigned to torsional wave packets in the excited state of the retinal chromophore. Differences in the vibrational frequencies between the three samples and the said discrepancy in transient spectra are discussed in terms of opsin effects on the RPSB electronic structure.

  1. A novel express bioassay for detecting toxic substances in water by recording rhodopsin-mediated photoelectric responses in Chlamydomonas cell suspensions.

    PubMed

    Govorunova, E G; Altschuler, I M; Häder, D P; Sineshchekov, O A

    2000-09-01

    The influence of Cu2+, Zn2+, Cd2+, Pb2+ and formaldehyde on rhodopsin-mediated photoelectric responses in the green flagellate Chlamydomonas reinhardtii was investigated using three modifications of a recently developed population method for electrical recording (in nonoriented, phototactically preoriented (PO) and gravitactically preoriented cell suspensions). The addition of the heavy metal ions at concentrations several times lower than those known to affect swimming velocity and other physiological parameters in photosynthetic flagellates led to a rapid (one to several minutes) inhibition of the responses. Formaldehyde induced a significant temporary increase in the gravi-orientation of the cells simultaneously with an inhibition of their photoelectric cascade, photo-orientation and motility. The signals recorded in PO suspensions were more sensitive to all tested toxic substances than those recorded from nonoriented cells and indicated a switch from negative to positive phototaxis in the presence of the toxic substances. Of the two major components of the photoelectric cascade, the regenerative response was more sensitive to the tested heavy metal ions, but not to formaldehyde, than the photoreceptor current. The results obtained show that measurement of the photoinduced electrical responses in Chlamydomonas cell suspensions is a powerful novel bioassay for testing environmental pollutants in water samples.

  2. The mutation p.E113K in the Schiff base counterion of rhodopsin is associated with two distinct retinal phenotypes within the same family

    PubMed Central

    Reiff, Charlotte; Owczarek-Lipska, Marta; Spital, Georg; Röger, Carsten; Hinz, Hebke; Jüschke, Christoph; Thiele, Holger; Altmüller, Janine; Nürnberg, Peter; Da Costa, Romain; Neidhardt, John

    2016-01-01

    The diagnoses of retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and stationary night blindness (CSNB) are two distinct clinical entities belonging to a group of clinically and genetically heterogeneous retinal diseases. The current study focused on the identification of causative mutations in the RP-affected index patient and in several members of the same family that reported a phenotype resembling CSNB. Ophthalmological examinations of the index patient confirmed a typical form of RP. In contrast, clinical characterizations and ERGs of another affected family member showed the Riggs-type CSNB lacking signs of RP. Applying whole exome sequencing we detected the non-synonymous substitution c.337G > A, p.E113 K in the rhodopsin (RHO) gene. The mutation co-segregated with the diseases. The identification of the pathogenic variant p.E113 K is the first description of a naturally-occurring mutation in the Schiff base counterion of RHO in human patients. The heterozygous mutation c.337G > A in exon 1 was confirmed in the index patient as well as in five CSNB-affected relatives. This pathogenic sequence change was excluded in a healthy family member and in 199 ethnically matched controls. Our findings suggest that a mutation in the biochemically well-characterized counterion p.E113 in RHO can be associated with RP or Riggs-type CSNB, even within the same family. PMID:27812022

  3. Homology-based Modeling of Rhodopsin-like Family Members in the Inactive State: Structural Analysis and Deduction of Tips for Modeling and Optimization.

    PubMed

    Pappalardo, Matteo; Rayan, Mahmoud; Abu-Lafi, Saleh; Leonardi, Martha E; Milardi, Danilo; Guccione, Salvatore; Rayan, Anwar

    2017-04-04

    Modeling G-Protein Coupled Receptors (GPCRs) is an emergent field of research, since utility of high-quality models in receptor structure-based strategies might facilitate the discovery of interesting drug candidates. The findings from a quantitative analysis of eighteen resolved structures of rhodopsin family "A" receptors crystallized with antagonists and 153 pairs of structures are described. A strategy termed endeca-amino acids fragmentation was used to analyze the structures models aiming to detect the relationship between sequence identity and Root Mean Square Deviation (RMSD) at each trans-membrane-domain. Moreover, we have applied the leave-one-out strategy to study the shiftiness likelihood of the helices. The type of correlation between sequence identity and RMSD was studied using the aforementioned set receptors as representatives of membrane proteins and 98 serine proteases with 4753 pairs of structures as representatives of globular proteins. Data analysis using fragmentation strategy revealed that there is some extent of correlation between sequence identity and global RMSD of 11AA width windows. However, spatial conservation is not always close to the endoplasmic side as was reported before. A comparative study with globular proteins shows that GPCRs have higher standard deviation and higher slope in the graph with correlation between sequence identity and RMSD. The extracted information disclosed in this paper could be incorporated in the modeling protocols while using technique for model optimization and refinement.

  4. Environmental Restoration Quality Program Plan. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Colley, J.S.

    1992-08-01

    The Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Environmental Restoration (ER) Program was initially chartered on October 1, 1989, as a ``entral Environmental Restoration Division`` to manage the investigation and remediation of inactive sites and facilities that have been declared surplus and have no further programmatic use. The Energy Systems ER Division was established to support the DOE Oak Ridge Field Office (DOE-OR) consolidated ER Program. The DOE-OR Assistant Manager for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management provides program and budget direction to the Energy Systems ER Program for environmental restoration activities at the sites operated by Energy Systems (Oak Ridge K-25 Site, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant) and at the off-site locations. The Energy Systems ER Division is specifically charged with assessing these sites for potential contamination and managing the cleanup processes. The Energy Systems Environmental Restoration Division was chartered on October 1, 1989, as a central organization to manage the Remedial Action (RA) Program. The purpose of this document is to ensure that: senior ER management provides planning, organization, direction, control, and support to achieve the organization`s objectives; the line organization achieves quality; and overall performance is reviewed and evaluated using a rigorous assessment process.

  5. Nitrate-transformations during simulated drought on a restored floodplain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoagland, B.; Russo, T. A.; Schmidt, C. M.; Tran, D.

    2015-12-01

    Water resources in the California Central Valley face challenges due to recurring drought, aging levee systems, and nitrate contamination. As decisions are made to restore floodplain connectivity, soil microbial metabolic pathways such as denitrification, anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox), and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) transform nitrate under saturated soil conditions and may each affect downstream water quality. However, few studies have quantified the contribution of all three pathways to nitrate retention in freshwater systems, and specifically in restored floodplains. Additionally, no former studies quantify the rates of these microbial nitrate transformations during floods after prolonged periods of drought. To test how flood duration impacts nitrogen cycling we added 15N-enriched tracer to soil mesocosms to measure denitrification, anammox, and DNRA transformation rates. In July 2015, we extracted seven soil mesocosms from the floodplain and riverbed of the Lower Cosumnes River in the San Joaquin Basin of California. Cosumnes River water enriched with 15N-NO3- tracer was pumped into each mesocosm at a constant rate simulating flood durations of 20 h, 30 h, and 96 h. Samples were collected from the surface water, soil pore water, drain water, and sediment for measurements of NO3-, NO2-, NH4+, gas isotopes, and DNA extraction. This study aims to demonstrate the relevance of anammox and DNRA to total nitrate retention and characterize the hydrologic conditions most favorable to each pathway.

  6. Microbial safety in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krooneman, Janneke; Harmsen, Hermie; Landini, Paolo; Zinn, Manfred; Munaut, Françoise; van der Meer, Walter; Beimfohr, Claudia; Reichert, Bas; Preuß, Andrea

    2005-10-01

    Microbial hygiene is important in our daily lives; preventing and combating microbial infections is increasingly important in society. In hospitals, strict monitoring and control is exercised for people and infrastructure alike. In modern buildings, air-conditioning system are screened for harmful bacteria such as Legionella. More recently, concerns about SARS (virus) and anthrax (bacteria) have added pressure on the scientific community to come up with adequate monitoring and control techniques to assure microbial hygiene. Additionally, the use of biotechnological recycling and cleaning processes for sustainability brings the need for reliable monitoring tools and preventive or riks-reducing strategies. In the manned space environment, similar problems need to be solved and efforts have already been made to study the behaviour of micro-organisms and microbial hygiene onboard space stations.

  7. Microbial Source Tracking

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bacterial indicators of fecal contamination provide the basis for assessing the microbial quality of environmental waters. While the indicator concept has overall helped reduce waterborne outbreaks in recreational waters, the public health value of currently used indicator bacter...

  8. Environmental Restoration Quality Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Colley, J.S.

    1992-08-01

    The Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Environmental Restoration (ER) Program was initially chartered on October 1, 1989, as a entral Environmental Restoration Division'' to manage the investigation and remediation of inactive sites and facilities that have been declared surplus and have no further programmatic use. The Energy Systems ER Division was established to support the DOE Oak Ridge Field Office (DOE-OR) consolidated ER Program. The DOE-OR Assistant Manager for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management provides program and budget direction to the Energy Systems ER Program for environmental restoration activities at the sites operated by Energy Systems (Oak Ridge K-25 Site, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant) and at the off-site locations. The Energy Systems ER Division is specifically charged with assessing these sites for potential contamination and managing the cleanup processes. The Energy Systems Environmental Restoration Division was chartered on October 1, 1989, as a central organization to manage the Remedial Action (RA) Program. The purpose of this document is to ensure that: senior ER management provides planning, organization, direction, control, and support to achieve the organization's objectives; the line organization achieves quality; and overall performance is reviewed and evaluated using a rigorous assessment process.

  9. Restoration of primary anterior teeth: review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jacob K

    2002-01-01

    This paper reviews the published data on restorations of primary anterior teeth. The discussion includes Class III restorations, Class V restorations, various forms of full coronal restorations, atraumatic restorative technique (ART) and recommendations for future research.

  10. Effects of agricultural and industrial by-products on restoration quality of reclaimed coal mine soil in Mississippi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The generally low level of organic C in reclaimed coal mine soils may limit microbial activity. The oxidized material used as substitute soil for upland restoration at a surface mine in Mississippi contains a mixture of topsoil plus oxidized subsoils that provide for biota reestablishment. By incre...

  11. Soldering ceramic-metal restorations.

    PubMed

    Presswood, R G

    1975-09-01

    This is a technique for soldering ceramic-metal restorations in a vacuum-fired furnace. Care must be exercised to prevent adherence of the flux to the porcelain surfaces. Low-heat solders have been used, but they do not flow any better and may result in a weak union. The various colors of impression plaster to form the key for removal of the assembly are used to prevent softening and distortion of the individual units. There are several techniques described in assembling and soldering ceramic-metal restorations. This technique is direct, accurate, and easily accomplished.

  12. Iterative Restoration Of Tomosynthetic Slices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruttimann, U. E.; Groenhuis, R. A.; Webber, R. L.

    1984-08-01

    Tomosynthetic reconstructions suffer from the disadvantage that blurred images of object detail lying outside the plane of interest are superimposed over the desired image of structures in the tomosynthetic plane. It is proposed to selectively reduce these undesired superimpositions by a constrained iterative restoration method. Sufficient conditions are derived ensuring the convergence of the iterations to the exact solution in the absence of noise and constraints. Although in practice the restoration process must be left incomplete because of noise and quantization artifacts, the experimental results demonstrate that for reasons of stability these convergence conditions must be satisfied.

  13. Restoring Detroit's Street Lighting System

    SciTech Connect

    Kinzey, Bruce R.

    2015-10-21

    The City of Detroit is undertaking a comprehensive restoration of its street lighting system that includes transitioning the existing high-pressure sodium (HPS) sources to light-emitting diode (LED). Detroit’s well-publicized financial troubles over the last several years have added many hurdles and constraints to this process. Strategies to overcome these issues have largely been successful, but have also brought some mixed results. This document provides an objective review of the circumstances surrounding the system restoration, the processes undertaken and decisions made, and the results so far.

  14. Protective system issues during restoration

    SciTech Connect

    Adibi, M.M.; Milanicz, D.P.

    1995-08-01

    This paper is one of a series presented on behalf of the System Operation Subcommittee with the intent of focusing industry attention on power system restoration issues. Performance of protective systems may be measured by the relative percentages of correct and appropriate relay operations, correct but inappropriate operations, wrong tripping, and failure to trip. The primary reason for correct but inappropriate operations is attributed to the power system changes. During restoration, the power system undergoes continual changes and therefore it is subject to ``correct but inappropriate`` relay operations.

  15. Is manure an alternative to topsoil in road embankment restoration?

    PubMed Central

    Rivera, Desirée; García-Palacios, Pablo; Jauregui, Berta M.

    2017-01-01

    One of the main steps in road and railway embankment restoration is the spreading of previously removed topsoil, which provides an input of seeds, organic matter and microorganisms and encourages the establishment of a vegetation cover, essential to stabilise the embankment and blend it with the landscape. However, topsoil is a scarce resource, prompting the search for economic alternatives with similar results. The present study compares the results of spreading topsoil with an organic amendment (manure) for the soil's physico-chemical properties, erosion resistance and microbial activity, floristic richness and composition, and bare soil cover. For this purpose, experimental plots with three treatments (Control, Topsoil and Manure) were maintained on a recently built embankment in Central Spain for 20 months. Manure was found to be an effective alternative to topsoil for the improvement of soil fertility (organic matter content and total nitrogen). The two types of organic amendment produced similar reductions in bare soil cover and erosion rates. However, plots with topsoil showed greater soil respiration and species richness and a different floristic composition in comparison to those treated with manure, which was closer to control plots. These results suggest that manure can be used to replace topsoil to enhance embankment stability during the early stages of restoration. However, if the aim of the restoration process is to promote plant diversity, topsoil is recommended. PMID:28346511

  16. Is manure an alternative to topsoil in road embankment restoration?

    PubMed

    Peco, Begoña; Rivera, Desirée; García-Palacios, Pablo; Jauregui, Berta M

    2017-01-01

    One of the main steps in road and railway embankment restoration is the spreading of previously removed topsoil, which provides an input of seeds, organic matter and microorganisms and encourages the establishment of a vegetation cover, essential to stabilise the embankment and blend it with the landscape. However, topsoil is a scarce resource, prompting the search for economic alternatives with similar results. The present study compares the results of spreading topsoil with an organic amendment (manure) for the soil's physico-chemical properties, erosion resistance and microbial activity, floristic richness and composition, and bare soil cover. For this purpose, experimental plots with three treatments (Control, Topsoil and Manure) were maintained on a recently built embankment in Central Spain for 20 months. Manure was found to be an effective alternative to topsoil for the improvement of soil fertility (organic matter content and total nitrogen). The two types of organic amendment produced similar reductions in bare soil cover and erosion rates. However, plots with topsoil showed greater soil respiration and species richness and a different floristic composition in comparison to those treated with manure, which was closer to control plots. These results suggest that manure can be used to replace topsoil to enhance embankment stability during the early stages of restoration. However, if the aim of the restoration process is to promote plant diversity, topsoil is recommended.

  17. Deep subsurface microbial processes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lovley, D.R.; Chapelle, F.H.

    1995-01-01

    Information on the microbiology of the deep subsurface is necessary in order to understand the factors controlling the rate and extent of the microbially catalyzed redox reactions that influence the geophysical properties of these environments. Furthermore, there is an increasing threat that deep aquifers, an important drinking water resource, may be contaminated by man's activities, and there is a need to predict the extent to which microbial activity may remediate such contamination. Metabolically active microorganisms can be recovered from a diversity of deep subsurface environments. The available evidence suggests that these microorganisms are responsible for catalyzing the oxidation of organic matter coupled to a variety of electron acceptors just as microorganisms do in surface sediments, but at much slower rates. The technical difficulties in aseptically sampling deep subsurface sediments and the fact that microbial processes in laboratory incubations of deep subsurface material often do not mimic in situ processes frequently necessitate that microbial activity in the deep subsurface be inferred through nonmicrobiological analyses of ground water. These approaches include measurements of dissolved H2, which can predict the predominant microbially catalyzed redox reactions in aquifers, as well as geochemical and groundwater flow modeling, which can be used to estimate the rates of microbial processes. Microorganisms recovered from the deep subsurface have the potential to affect the fate of toxic organics and inorganic contaminants in groundwater. Microbial activity also greatly influences 1 the chemistry of many pristine groundwaters and contributes to such phenomena as porosity development in carbonate aquifers, accumulation of undesirably high concentrations of dissolved iron, and production of methane and hydrogen sulfide. Although the last decade has seen a dramatic increase in interest in deep subsurface microbiology, in comparison with the study of

  18. The importance of hydrology in restoration of bottomland hardwood wetland functions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunter, R.G.; Faulkner, S.P.; Gibson, K.A.

    2008-01-01

    Bottomland hardwood (BLH) forests have important biogeochemical functions and it is well known that certain structural components, including pulsed hydrology, hydric soils, and hydrophytic vegetation, enhance these functions. It is unclear, however, how functions of restored BLH wetlands compare to mature, undisturbed wetlands. We measured a suite of structural and functional attributes in replicated natural BLH wetlands (NAT), restored BLH wetlands with hydrology re-established (RWH), and restored BLH wetlands without hydrology re-established (RWOH) in this study. Trees were replanted in all restored wetlands at least four years prior to the study and those wetlands with hydrology re-established had flashboard risers placed in drainage ditches to allow seasonal surface flooding. Vegetation, soils, and selected biogeochemical functions were characterized at each site. There was a marked difference in woody vegetation among the wetlands that was due primarily to site age. There was also a difference in herbaceous vegetation among the restored sites that may have been related to differences in age or hydrology. Water table fluctuations of the RWH wetlands were comparable to those of the NAT wetlands. Thus, placing flashboard risers in existing drainage ditches, along with proper management, can produce a hydroperiod that is similar to that of a relatively undisturbed BLH. Average length of saturation within the upper 15 cm of soils was 37, 104, and 97 days for RWOH, RWH, and NAT, respectively. Soil moisture, denitrification potential, and soluble organic carbon concentrations differed among wetland sites, but soil carbon and nitrogen concentrations, heterotrophic microbial activity, and readily mineralizable carbon concentrations did not. Significant linear relationships were also found between soil moisture and heterotrophic microbial activity, readily mineralizable carbon, and soluble organic carbon. In addition, sedimentation rates were higher in NAT and RWH

  19. Microbial reduction of uranium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lovley, D.R.; Phillips, E.J.P.; Gorby, Y.A.; Landa, E.R.

    1991-01-01

    REDUCTION of the soluble, oxidized form of uranium, U(VI), to insoluble U(IV) is an important mechanism for the immobilization of uranium in aquatic sediments and for the formation of some uranium ores1-10. U(VI) reduction has generally been regarded as an abiological reaction in which sulphide, molecular hydrogen or organic compounds function as the reductant1,2,5,11. Microbial involvement in U(VI) reduction has been considered to be limited to indirect effects, such as microbial metabolism providing the reduced compounds for abiological U(VI) reduction and microbial cell walls providing a surface to stimulate abiological U(VI) reduction1,12,13. We report here, however, that dissimilatory Fe(III)-reducing microorganisms can obtain energy for growth by electron transport to U(VI). This novel form of microbial metabolism can be much faster than commonly cited abiological mechanisms for U(VI) reduction. Not only do these findings expand the known potential terminal electron acceptors for microbial energy transduction, they offer a likely explanation for the deposition of uranium in aquatic sediments and aquifers, and suggest a method for biological remediation of environments contaminated with uranium.

  20. Granular Microbial Habitats Built from Iron Sulfides: Alternative Microbial Lifestyles?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schieber, J.

    2005-03-01

    Concentrically zoned pyrite grains grew as granular microbial colonies. They stayed in the surface layer during long history of reworking and accretion and consist of marcasite and pyrite cortices with sulfide mineralized microbial remains.

  1. Weed biocontrol in landscape restoration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weed biological control programs in natural areas are often undertaken with the goal of restoring native plant communities and/or ecosystem services to a pre-invasion level. These objectives may be achieved in some areas with biological control alone; however, in other sites integration of biologica...

  2. Origins of the Restoration Playhouse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Dennis D.

    Contrary to the popular theory that the proscenium type of playhouse was imported from France by the Court of Charles II in 1660, the Restoration playhouse in fact developed from Elizabethan theatres and court masques. These Elizabethan theatres were the private theatres, and were generally small, rectangular, roofed structures where aristocratic…

  3. Will Retinal Implants Restore Vision?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zrenner, Eberhart

    2002-02-01

    A number of research groups are developing electrical implants that can be attached directly to the retina in an attempt to restore vision to patients suffering from retinal degeneration. However, despite promising results in animal experiments, there are still several major obstacles to overcome before retinal prostheses can be used clinically.

  4. The Human Rhodopsin Kinase Promoter in an AAV5 Vector Confers Rod- and Cone-Specific Expression in the Primate Retina

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, John J.; Boye, Sanford L.; Witherspoon, Clark D.; Sandefer, Kristen J.; Conlon, Thomas J.; Erger, Kirsten; Sun, Jingfen; Ryals, Renee; Chiodo, Vince A.; Clark, Mark E.; Girkin, Christopher A.; Hauswirth, William W.; Gamlin, Paul D.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Adeno-associated virus (AAV) has proven an effective gene delivery vehicle for the treatment of retinal disease. Ongoing clinical trials using a serotype 2 AAV vector to express RPE65 in the retinal pigment epithelium have proven safe and effective. While many proof-of-concept studies in animal models of retinal disease have suggested that gene transfer to the neural retina will also be effective, a photoreceptor-targeting AAV vector has yet to be used in the clinic, principally because a vector that efficiently but exclusively targets all primate photoreceptors has yet to be demonstrated. Here, we evaluate a serotype 5 AAV vector containing the human rhodopsin kinase (hGRK1) promoter for its ability to target transgene expression to rod and cone photoreceptors when delivered subretinally in a nonhuman primate (NHP). In vivo fluorescent fundus imaging confirmed that AAV5-hGRK1-mediated green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression was restricted to the injection blebs of treated eyes. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) revealed a lack of gross pathology after injection. Neutralizing antibodies against AAV5 were undetectable in post-injection serum samples from subjects receiving uncomplicated subretinal injections (i.e., no hemorrhage). Immunohistochemistry of retinal sections confirmed hGRK1 was active in, and specific for, both rods and cones of NHP retina. Biodistribution studies revealed minimal spread of vector genomes to peripheral tissues. These results suggest that AAV5-hGRK1 is a safe and effective AAV serotype/promoter combination for targeting therapeutic transgene expression protein to rods and cones in a clinical setting. PMID:22845794

  5. The human rhodopsin kinase promoter in an AAV5 vector confers rod- and cone-specific expression in the primate retina.

    PubMed

    Boye, Shannon E; Alexander, John J; Boye, Sanford L; Witherspoon, Clark D; Sandefer, Kristen J; Conlon, Thomas J; Erger, Kirsten; Sun, Jingfen; Ryals, Renee; Chiodo, Vince A; Clark, Mark E; Girkin, Christopher A; Hauswirth, William W; Gamlin, Paul D

    2012-10-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) has proven an effective gene delivery vehicle for the treatment of retinal disease. Ongoing clinical trials using a serotype 2 AAV vector to express RPE65 in the retinal pigment epithelium have proven safe and effective. While many proof-of-concept studies in animal models of retinal disease have suggested that gene transfer to the neural retina will also be effective, a photoreceptor-targeting AAV vector has yet to be used in the clinic, principally because a vector that efficiently but exclusively targets all primate photoreceptors has yet to be demonstrated. Here, we evaluate a serotype 5 AAV vector containing the human rhodopsin kinase (hGRK1) promoter for its ability to target transgene expression to rod and cone photoreceptors when delivered subretinally in a nonhuman primate (NHP). In vivo fluorescent fundus imaging confirmed that AAV5-hGRK1-mediated green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression was restricted to the injection blebs of treated eyes. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) revealed a lack of gross pathology after injection. Neutralizing antibodies against AAV5 were undetectable in post-injection serum samples from subjects receiving uncomplicated subretinal injections (i.e., no hemorrhage). Immunohistochemistry of retinal sections confirmed hGRK1 was active in, and specific for, both rods and cones of NHP retina. Biodistribution studies revealed minimal spread of vector genomes to peripheral tissues. These results suggest that AAV5-hGRK1 is a safe and effective AAV serotype/promoter combination for targeting therapeutic transgene expression protein to rods and cones in a clinical setting.

  6. Steroids Do Not Prevent Photoreceptor Degeneration in the Light-Exposed T4R Rhodopsin Mutant Dog Retina Irrespective of AP-1 Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Danian; Beltran, William A.; Pearce-Kelling, Sue; Li, Zexiao; Acland, Gregory M.; Aguirre, Gustavo D.

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE AP-1 has been proposed as a key intermediate linking exposure to light and photoreceptor cell death in rodent light damage models. Inhibition of AP-1 associated with steroid administration also prevents light damage. In this study the role of steroids in inhibiting AP-1 activation and/or in preventing photoreceptor degeneration was examined in the rhodopsin mutant dog model. METHODS The dogs were dark adapted overnight, eyes dilated with mydriatics; the right eye was light occluded and the fundus of the left eye photographed (∼15-17 overlapping frames) with a fundus camera. For biochemical studies, the dogs remained in the dark for 1 to 3 hours after exposure. Twenty-four hours before exposure to light, some dogs were treated with systemic dexamethasone or intravitreal/subconjunctival triamcinolone. AP-1 DNA-binding activity was determined by electrophoresis mobility shift assay (EMSA) and phosphorylation of c-Fos and activation of ERK1/2 were determined by immunoblot analyses. The eyes were collected 1 hour and 2 weeks after exposure to light, for histopathology and immunocytochemistry. RESULTS Inhibition of AP-1 activation, and phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and c-Fos were found after dexamethasone treatment in light-exposed T4R RHO mutant dog retinas. In contrast, increased AP-1 activity and phosphorylation of c-Fos and ERK1/2 were found in triamcinolone-treated mutant retinas. Similar extensive rod degeneration was found after exposure to light with or without treatment, and areas with surviving photoreceptor nuclei consisted primarily of cones. Only with systemic dexamethasone did the RPE cell layer remain. CONCLUSIONS Intraocular or systemic steroids fail to prevent light-induced photoreceptor degeneration in the T4R RHO dog retina. Finding that systemic dexamethasone prevents AP-1 activation, yet does not prevent retinal light damage, further supports the hypothesis that AP-1 is not the critical player in the cell-death signal that occurs in rods. PMID

  7. Analytical tool requirements for power system restoration

    SciTech Connect

    Adibi, M.M. ); Borkoski, J.N. ); Kafka, R.J. )

    1994-08-01

    This paper is one of series presented by Power System Restoration Working Group (SRWG) on behalf of the System, Operation Subcommittee with the intent of focusing industry attention on power system restoration. In this paper a set of analytical tools is specified which together describe the static, transient and dynamic behavior of a power system during restoration. These tools are identified and described for restoration planning, training and operation. Their applications cover all stages of restoration including pre-disturbance condition, post-disturbance status, post-restoration target system, and minimization of unserved loads. The paper draws on the previous reports by the SRWG.

  8. Patterns in Wetland Microbial Community Composition and Functional Gene Repertoire Associated with Methane Emissions

    PubMed Central

    He, Shaomei; Malfatti, Stephanie A.; McFarland, Jack W.; Anderson, Frank E.; Pati, Amrita; Huntemann, Marcel; Tremblay, Julien; Glavina del Rio, Tijana; Waldrop, Mark P.; Windham-Myers, Lisamarie

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Wetland restoration on peat islands previously drained for agriculture has potential to reverse land subsidence and sequester atmospheric carbon dioxide as peat accretes. However, the emission of methane could potentially offset the greenhouse gas benefits of captured carbon. As microbial communities play a key role in governing wetland greenhouse gas fluxes, we are interested in how microbial community composition and functions are associated with wetland hydrology, biogeochemistry, and methane emission, which is critical to modeling the microbial component in wetland methane fluxes and to managing restoration projects for maximal carbon sequestration. Here, we couple sequence-based methods with biogeochemical and greenhouse gas measurements to interrogate microbial communities from a pilot-scale restored wetland in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta of California, revealing considerable spatial heterogeneity even within this relatively small site. A number of microbial populations and functions showed strong correlations with electron acceptor availability and methane production; some also showed a preference for association with plant roots. Marker gene phylogenies revealed a diversity of major methane-producing and -consuming populations and suggested novel diversity within methanotrophs. Methanogenic archaea were observed in all samples, as were nitrate-, sulfate-, and metal-reducing bacteria, indicating that no single terminal electron acceptor was preferred despite differences in energetic favorability and suggesting spatial microheterogeneity and microniches. Notably, methanogens were negatively correlated with nitrate-, sulfate-, and metal-reducing bacteria and were most abundant at sampling sites with high peat accretion and low electron acceptor availability, where methane production was highest. PMID:25991679

  9. The Microbial Olympics

    PubMed Central

    Youle, Merry; Rohwer, Forest; Stacy, Apollo; Whiteley, Marvin; Steel, Bradley C.; Delalez, Nicolas J.; Nord, Ashley L.; Berry, Richard M.; Armitage, Judith P.; Kamoun, Sophien; Hogenhout, Saskia; Diggle, Stephen P.; Gurney, James; Pollitt, Eric J. G.; Boetius, Antje; Cary, S. Craig

    2014-01-01

    Every four years, the Olympic Games plays host to competitors who have built on their natural talent by training for many years to become the best in their chosen discipline. Similar spirit and endeavour can be found throughout the microbial world, in which every day is a competition to survive and thrive. Microorganisms are trained through evolution to become the fittest and the best adapted to a particular environmental niche or lifestyle, and to innovate when the ‘rules of the game’ are changed by alterations to their natural habitats. In this Essay, we honour the best competitors in the microbial world by inviting them to take part in the inaugural Microbial Olympics. PMID:22796885

  10. Toward the development of microbial indicators for wetland assessment.

    PubMed

    Sims, Atreyee; Zhang, Yanyan; Gajaraj, Shashikanth; Brown, Pamela B; Hu, Zhiqiang

    2013-04-01

    Wetland assessment tools are being developed and employed in wetland monitoring and conservation based on physical, chemical and biological characterization. In wetland biological assessment, various ecological functions have been described by biological traits of an entire species pool that adapts to different types of wetland environments. Since microorganisms play a key role in wetland biogeochemical processes and respond quickly to environmental disturbances, this review paper describes the different macro indicators used in wetland biological monitoring and expands the potential use of microbial indicators in wetland assessment and management. Application of molecular microbial technologies paves the path to an integrated measure of wetland health conditions. For example, the ratio of ammonia-oxidizing archaeal and bacterial populations has been proposed to serve as a microbial indicator of wetland nutrient conditions. The microbial indicators coupled with physical, chemical and other biological parameters are vital to the development of multi-metric index for measuring wetland health conditions. Inclusion of microbial indicators will lead to a more comprehensive wetland assessment for wetland restoration and management practices.

  11. Microbial Load Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, S. F.; Royer, E. R.

    1979-01-01

    The Microbial Load Monitor (MLM) is an automated and computerized system for detection and identification of microorganisms. Additionally, the system is designed to enumerate and provide antimicrobic susceptibility profiles for medically significant bacteria. The system is designed to accomplish these tasks in a time of 13 hours or less versus the traditional time of 24 hours for negatives and 72 hours or more for positives usually required for standard microbiological analysis. The MLM concept differs from other methods of microbial detection in that the system is designed to accept raw untreated clinical samples and to selectively identify each group or species that may be present in a polymicrobic sample.

  12. Soil restoration with organic amendments: linking cellular functionality and ecosystem processes.

    PubMed

    Bastida, F; Selevsek, N; Torres, I F; Hernández, T; García, C

    2015-10-27

    A hot topic in recent decades, the application of organic amendments to arid-degraded soils has been shown to benefit microbially-mediated processes. However, despite the importance of soils for global sustainability, a gap has not been addressed yet in soil science: is there any connection between ecosystem-community processes, cellular functionality, and microbial lifestyles (i.e. oligotrophy-copiotrophy) in restored soils? Together with classical ecosystem indicators (fatty-acids, extracellular-enzyme activities, basal respiration), state-of-the-art metaproteomics was applied to fill this gap in a model-restoration experiment initiated 10-years ago by the addition of sewage-sludge and compost. Organic amendment strongly impacted ecosystem processes. Furthermore, the type of material used induced differences in the cellular functionalities through variations in the percentages of proteins involved in translation, transcription, energy production and C-fixation. We conclude that the long-term impact of organic restoration goes beyond ecosystem processes and affects cellular functionalities and phyla-lifestyles coupled with differences in microbial-community structures.

  13. Soil restoration with organic amendments: linking cellular functionality and ecosystem processes

    PubMed Central

    Bastida, F.; Selevsek, N.; Torres, I. F.; Hernández, T.; García, C.

    2015-01-01

    A hot topic in recent decades, the application of organic amendments to arid-degraded soils has been shown to benefit microbially-mediated processes. However, despite the importance of soils for global sustainability, a gap has not been addressed yet in soil science: is there any connection between ecosystem-community processes, cellular functionality, and microbial lifestyles (i.e. oligotrophy-copiotrophy) in restored soils? Together with classical ecosystem indicators (fatty-acids, extracellular-enzyme activities, basal respiration), state-of-the-art metaproteomics was applied to fill this gap in a model-restoration experiment initiated 10-years ago by the addition of sewage-sludge and compost. Organic amendment strongly impacted ecosystem processes. Furthermore, the type of material used induced differences in the cellular functionalities through variations in the percentages of proteins involved in translation, transcription, energy production and C-fixation. We conclude that the long-term impact of organic restoration goes beyond ecosystem processes and affects cellular functionalities and phyla-lifestyles coupled with differences in microbial-community structures. PMID:26503516

  14. Soil restoration with organic amendments: linking cellular functionality and ecosystem processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastida, F.; Selevsek, N.; Torres, I. F.; Hernández, T.; García, C.

    2015-10-01

    A hot topic in recent decades, the application of organic amendments to arid-degraded soils has been shown to benefit microbially-mediated processes. However, despite the importance of soils for global sustainability, a gap has not been addressed yet in soil science: is there any connection between ecosystem-community processes, cellular functionality, and microbial lifestyles (i.e. oligotrophy-copiotrophy) in restored soils? Together with classical ecosystem indicators (fatty-acids, extracellular-enzyme activities, basal respiration), state-of-the-art metaproteomics was applied to fill this gap in a model-restoration experiment initiated 10-years ago by the addition of sewage-sludge and compost. Organic amendment strongly impacted ecosystem processes. Furthermore, the type of material used induced differences in the cellular functionalities through variations in the percentages of proteins involved in translation, transcription, energy production and C-fixation. We conclude that the long-term impact of organic restoration goes beyond ecosystem processes and affects cellular functionalities and phyla-lifestyles coupled with differences in microbial-community structures.

  15. Microbial and metabolic interactions between the gastrointestinal tract and Clostridium difficile infection

    PubMed Central

    Theriot, Casey M; Young, Vincent B

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotics disturb the gastrointestinal tract microbiota and in turn reduce colonization resistance against Clostridium difficile. The mechanism for this loss of colonization resistance is still unknown but likely reflects structural (microbial) and functional (metabolic) changes to the gastrointestinal tract. Members of the gut microbial community shape intestinal metabolism that provides nutrients and ultimately supports host immunity. This review will discuss how antibiotics alter the structure of the gut microbiota and how this impacts bacterial metabolism in the gut. It will also explore the chemical requirements for C. difficile germination, growth, toxin production and sporulation. Many of the metabolites that influence C. difficile physiology are products of gut microbial metabolism including bile acids, carbohydrates and amino acids. To restore colonization resistance against C. difficile after antibiotics a targeted approach restoring both the structure and function of the gastrointestinal tract is needed. PMID:24335555

  16. Microbial Control News - November 2011

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is the first of a column in the Society for Invertebrate Pathology Newsletter. Entitled "Microbial Control News" this article summarizes regulatory actions in the U.S. and Canada regarding microbial insect pest control agents....

  17. Environmental Restoration Quality Program Implementation Plan. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    The Environmental Restoration (ER) Program requirements for implementation of DOE Order 5700.6C are identified in the Environmental Restoration Quality Program Plan, (QPP). Management systems necessary to implement the ER QPP consist of the necessary standards and procedures required to be developed to adequately control ER processes. To the extent possible, Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., standards and procedures will be utilized at the ER Program level, and requirements will not be repeated. The quality management systems identified for enhancement or development are identified in the section on Procedure Development Strategy and directly relate to unique ER Program activities. Procedures and standards that currently exist in the ER Program will be validated for compliance with ER QPP requirements.

  18. Technology needs for environmental restoration remedial action. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, J.S.

    1992-11-01

    This report summarizes the current view of the most important technology needs for the US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities operated by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. These facilities are the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the Oak Ridge K-25 Site, the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, and the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The sources of information used in this assessment were a survey of selected representatives of the Environmental Restoration (ER) programs at each facility, results from a questionnaire distributed by Geotech CWM, Inc., for DOE, and associated discussions with individuals from each facility. This is not a final assessment, but a brief look at an ongoing assessment; the needs will change as the plans for restoration change and, it is hoped, as some technical problems are solved through successful development programs.

  19. Unravelling the active microbial community in a thermophilic anaerobic digester-microbial electrolysis cell coupled system under different conditions.

    PubMed

    Cerrillo, Míriam; Viñas, Marc; Bonmatí, August

    2017-03-01

    Thermophilic anaerobic digestion (AD) of pig slurry coupled to a microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) with a recirculation loop was studied at lab-scale as a strategy to increase AD stability when submitted to organic and nitrogen overloads. The system performance was studied, with the recirculation loop both connected and disconnected, in terms of AD methane production, chemical oxygen demand removal (COD) and volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations. Furthermore, the microbial population was quantitatively and qualitatively assessed through DNA and RNA-based qPCR and high throughput sequencing (MiSeq), respectively to identify the RNA-based active microbial populations from the total DNA-based microbial community composition both in the AD and MEC reactors under different operational conditions. Suppression of the recirculation loop reduced the AD COD removal efficiency (from 40% to 22%) and the methane production (from 0.32 to 0.03 m(3) m(-3) d(-1)). Restoring the recirculation loop led to a methane production of 0.55 m(3) m(-3) d(-1) concomitant with maximum MEC COD and ammonium removal efficiencies of 29% and 34%, respectively. Regarding microbial analysis, the composition of the AD and MEC anode populations differed from really active microorganisms. Desulfuromonadaceae was revealed as the most active family in the MEC (18%-19% of the RNA relative abundance), while hydrogenotrophic methanogens (Methanobacteriaceae) dominated the AD biomass.

  20. Cullinan Ranch Tidal Marsh Restoration Project

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information about the SFBWQP Cullinan Ranch Tidal Marsh Restoration Project, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resources.

  1. Recent Advances in Microbial Electrocatalysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    Microbial electrocatalysis is a relatively new field of research in which the intrinsic metabolic capacities of various microbes are coupled with...inorganic electrodes to carryout interesting chemical conversions. Given the great diversity in microbial metabolic pathways, a wide variety of processes...past decade. A relatively new development is electrosynthesis, the electrically driven fixation of CO2 into various chemicals. Moreover, microbial

  2. Exxon Valdez oil spill restoration plan

    SciTech Connect

    1994-11-01

    In 1989, the Exxon Valdez oil spill contaminated about 1,500 miles of Alaska`s coastline. It killed birds, mammals, and fish, and disrupted the ecosystem in the path of the oil. The Exxon Valdez Restoration Plan provides long-term guidance for restoring the resources and services injured by the oil spill. It contains policies for making restoration decisions and describes how restoration activities will be implemented.

  3. The state of microbial complexes in soils of forest ecosystems after fires and defoliation of stands by gypsy moths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogorodskaya, A. V.; Baranchikov, Yu. N.; Ivanova, G. A.

    2009-03-01

    The state of microbial cenoses in the soils of forest ecosystems damaged by fires of different strengths and gypsy moth outbreaks (Central Siberia) was assessed by the intensity of the basal respiration, the content of carbon of the microbial biomass, and the microbial metabolic quotient. The degree of the disturbance of the microbial cenoses in the soils under pine forests after fires was higher than that in the soils under the forests defoliated by gypsy moths. The greatest changes of the microbial complexes were recorded after the fires of high and medium intensity. In the litters, the content of the microbial biomass, the intensity of basal respiration, and the microbial metabolic quotient value were restored on the fifth year after the fires, whereas in the upper (0-10 cm) soil layer, these parameters still differed from those in the control variant, especially after the highly intense fires. After the weak fires, the ecophysiological state of the microbial complexes was restored within two-three years.

  4. Pretreatment of microbial sludges

    DOEpatents

    Rivard, C.J.; Nagle, N.J.

    1995-01-10

    Methods are described for pretreating microbial sludges to break cells and disrupt organic matter. One method involves the use of sonication, and another method involves the use of shear forces. The pretreatment of sludge enhances bioconversion of the organic fraction. This allows for efficient dewatering of the sludge and reduces the cost for final disposal of the waste.

  5. Pretreatment of microbial sludges

    DOEpatents

    Rivard, Christopher J.; Nagle, Nicholas J.

    1995-01-01

    Methods are described for pretreating microbial sludges to break cells and disrupt organic matter. One method involves the use of sonication, and another method involves the use of shear forces. The pretreatment of sludge enhances bioconversion of the organic fraction. This allows for efficient dewatering of the sludge and reduces the cost for final disposal of the waste.

  6. Microbial Weathering of Olivine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKay, D. S.; Longazo, T. G.; Wentworth, S. J.; Southam, G.

    2002-01-01

    Controlled microbial weathering of olivine experiments displays a unique style of nanoetching caused by biofilm attachment to mineral surfaces. We are investigating whether the morphology of biotic nanoetching can be used as a biosignature. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  7. Indirect microbial detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkins, J. R.

    1980-01-01

    Indirect method for detection of microbial growth utilizes flow of charged particles across barrier that physically separated growing cells from electrodes and measures resulting difference in potential between two platinum electrodes. Technique allows simplified noncontact monitoring of all growth in highly infectious cultures or in critical biochemical studies.

  8. Automated Microbial Genome Annotation

    SciTech Connect

    Land, Miriam

    2009-05-29

    Miriam Land of the DOE Joint Genome Institute at Oak Ridge National Laboratory gives a talk on the current state and future challenges of moving toward automated microbial genome annotation at the "Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future" meeting in Santa Fe, NM

  9. SEAGRASS RHIZOSPHERE MICROBIAL COMMUNITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Devereux, Richard. 2005. Seagrass Rhizosphere Microbial Communities. In: Interactions Between Macro- and Microorganisms in Marine Sediments. E. Kristense, J.E. Kostka and R.H. Haese, Editors. American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC. p199-216. (ERL,GB 1213).

    Seagrasses ...

  10. A Microbial Murder Mystery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Melissa A.; Mitchell, James K.

    2002-01-01

    Proposes a microbial mystery activity to test students' knowledge of human anatomy and their ability to identify microbes. Provides an opportunity for students to develop logical deductive reasoning. Includes national science education standards related to this activity, activity sheets with whole procedures, and Internet resources. (KHR)

  11. Indirect microbial detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkins, J. R. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    The growth of microorganisms in a sample is detected and monitored by culturing microorganisms in a growth medium and detecting a change in potential between two electrodes, separated from the microbial growth by a barrier which is permeable to charged paticles but microorganism impermeable.

  12. Microbial solubilization of coal

    DOEpatents

    Strandberg, G.W.; Lewis, S.N.

    1988-01-21

    The present invention relates to a cell-free preparation and process for the microbial solubilization of coal into solubilized coal products. More specifically, the present invention relates to bacterial solubilization of coal into solubilized coal products and a cell-free bacterial byproduct useful for solubilizing coal. 5 tabs.

  13. Microbial Energy Conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Buckley, Merry; Wall, Judy D.

    2006-10-01

    The American Academy of Microbiology convened a colloquium March 10-12, 2006, in San Francisco, California, to discuss the production of energy fuels by microbial conversions. The status of research into various microbial energy technologies, the advantages and disadvantages of each of these approaches, research needs in the field, and education and training issues were examined, with the goal of identifying routes for producing biofuels that would both decrease the need for fossil fuels and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Currently, the choices for providing energy are limited. Policy makers and the research community must begin to pursue a broader array of potential energy technologies. A diverse energy portfolio that includes an assortment of microbial energy choices will allow communities and consumers to select the best energy solution for their own particular needs. Funding agencies and governments alike need to prepare for future energy needs by investing both in the microbial energy technologies that work today and in the untested technologies that will serve the world’s needs tomorrow. More mature bioprocesses, such as ethanol production from starchy materials and methane from waste digestors, will find applications in the short term. However, innovative techniques for liquid fuel or biohydrogen production are among the longer term possibilities that should also be vigorously explored, starting now. Microorganisms can help meet human energy needs in any of a number of ways. In their most obvious role in energy conversion, microorganisms can generate fuels, including ethanol, hydrogen, methane, lipids, and butanol, which can be burned to produce energy. Alternatively, bacteria can be put to use in microbial fuel cells, where they carry out the direct conversion of biomass into electricity. Microorganisms may also be used some day to make oil and natural gas technologies more efficient by sequestering carbon or by assisting in the recovery of oil and

  14. Microbial load monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caplin, R. S.; Royer, E. R.

    1977-01-01

    Design analysis of a microbial load monitor system flight engineering model was presented. Checkout of the card taper and media pump system was fabricated as well as the final two incubating reading heads, the sample receiving and card loading device assembly, related sterility testing, and software. Progress in these areas was summarized.

  15. Restorative Justice as Strength-Based Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Robert

    2003-01-01

    This article compares strength-based and restorative justice philosophies for young people and their families. Restorative justice provides ways to respond to crime and harm that establish accountability while seeking to reconcile members of a community. Restorative approaches are an important subset of strength-based interventions.

  16. 7 CFR 3201.77 - Asphalt restorers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Asphalt restorers. 3201.77 Section 3201.77... Designated Items § 3201.77 Asphalt restorers. (a) Definition. Products designed to seal, protect, or restore poured asphalt and concrete surfaces. (b) Minimum biobased content. The Federal preferred...

  17. 7 CFR 3201.77 - Asphalt restorers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Asphalt restorers. 3201.77 Section 3201.77... Designated Items § 3201.77 Asphalt restorers. (a) Definition. Products designed to seal, protect, or restore poured asphalt and concrete surfaces. (b) Minimum biobased content. The Federal preferred...

  18. "Re-story-ing" Our Restorative Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rundell, Frida

    2007-01-01

    A metaphor for crossing a frontier into a new territory is explored. The restorative justice principles as used by the United Nations and the International Institute for Restorative Practices (IIRP) help to translate into restorative practice principles. An action research project in South Africa provides the background to an evaluation process.…

  19. RESEARCH NEEDS IN RIPARIAN BUFFER RESTORATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Riparian buffer restorations are used as management tools to produce favorable water quality impacts; moreover, the basis for riparian buffers as an instrument of water quality restoration rests on a relatively firm foundation. However, the extent to which buffers can restore rip...

  20. 5 CFR 353.301 - Restoration rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Restoration rights. 353.301 Section 353... DUTY FROM UNIFORMED SERVICE OR COMPENSABLE INJURY Compensable Injury § 353.301 Restoration rights. (a.... Although these restoration rights are agencywide, the employee's basic entitlement is to the...

  1. Lake restoration technology transfer assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Daschbach, M.H.; Roe, E.M.; Sharpe, W.E.

    1982-06-01

    Based upon a review of the eutrophication problem and its impact on lake restoration (LR) programs, treatment of the relatively new problem of acid deposition and its impact on LR activities, consideration of the LR programs of the Environmental Protection Agency and several states, and a review of individual LR technology transfer publications, it is recommended that new LR technology transfer programs be given a low priority until more new information is available on the restoration of acidified lakes. Both primary and secondary users of LR research, technology transfer documents, and public awareness documents were considered in this assessment. Primary users included the general public and recreationists, lakeshore property owners, lake/homeowner associations, lake/sanitary districts, and research and environmental organizations; secondary users included state/county/local officials who administer/manage water-related regulations/activities. 4 tables.

  2. Natural restoration basics for wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Middleton, Beth A.

    2004-01-01

    Around the world, dams, diversions, and drainage systems reengineer rivers for navigation, farming, and urban development, and this has caused vast changes in the environmental conditions of the flood plains adjacent to these rivers (Middleton, 2002). Even though “flood pulses,” the periodic overflow of these rivers, were once the most important hydrological factor regulating all functions of the flood plain (Junk and others, 1986), now they have been reduced or eliminated along many of the world’s waterways (Sparks and others, 1998). These changes in river channels have created a hydrologic setting on flood plains that has not been conducive to restoration and nature conservation (Middleton, 2002). Consequently, USGS scientists are studying the long-term effects of hydrologic changes on flood plains, such as how the restoration of baldcypress (Taxodium distichum) swamps has been hindered because seeds cannot disperse or germinate without the seasonally driven high and low water levels associated with the flood pulse.

  3. Microleakage of intermediate restorative materials.

    PubMed

    Lim, K C

    1990-03-01

    This study compares the microleakage of a glass ionomer cement, Ketac Fil, used without cavity conditioning, with the established intermediate restorative materials, Cavit-W, and a reinforced zinc oxide-eugenol cement, Kalzinol. Microleakage was assessed using an electrochemical technique. At the end of 30 days, the materials tested, listed in decreasing order of microleakage, were Cavit-W, Ketac Fil inserted without cavity conditioning, Kalzinol, and the control group of Ketac Fil inserted into conditioned cavities. There was no significant difference in the microleakage observed in Ketac Fil restorations inserted without cavity conditioning and Kalzinol (p = 0.450), while the differences between the other groups were highly significant (p less than 0.001).

  4. Metric Selection for Ecosystem Restoration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    Conceptual modeling can be used in a situation where there is little funding for monitoring and evaluation planning, and when planning needs to be done...ecosystem restoration monitoring and evaluation programs, compile a list of these previous metrics, and assess and narrow them down based on...and understanding of the system will likely correlate with the benefits gained from monitoring and evaluation . A more appropriate, robust metric

  5. Image Restoration And Resolution Enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrne, Charles L.; Fitzgerald, Raymond M.

    1983-09-01

    We consider mathematical algorithms for the restoration of object information from finitely many measurements of the object's spectrum, with particular emphasis on the development of linear and nonlinear non-iterative methods that can incorporate prior information about object extent and shape. The linear method presented here generalizes the minimum energy bandlimited extrapolation procedure, which is the closed form limit of Gerchberg-Papoulis iteration in this case. The nonlinear method generalizes the maximum entropy method (MEM) of Burg.

  6. Minimum thickness anterior porcelain restorations.

    PubMed

    Radz, Gary M

    2011-04-01

    Porcelain laminate veneers (PLVs) provide the dentist and the patient with an opportunity to enhance the patient's smile in a minimally to virtually noninvasive manner. Today's PLV demonstrates excellent clinical performance and as materials and techniques have evolved, the PLV has become one of the most predictable, most esthetic, and least invasive modalities of treatment. This article explores the latest porcelain materials and their use in minimum thickness restoration.

  7. Limited recovery of soil microbial activity after transient exposure to gasoline vapors.

    PubMed

    Modrzyński, Jakub J; Christensen, Jan H; Mayer, Philipp; Brandt, Kristian K

    2016-09-01

    During gasoline spills complex mixtures of toxic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are released to terrestrial environments. Gasoline VOCs exert baseline toxicity (narcosis) and may thus broadly affect soil biota. We assessed the functional resilience (i.e. resistance and recovery of microbial functions) in soil microbial communities transiently exposed to gasoline vapors by passive dosing via headspace for 40 days followed by a recovery phase of 84 days. Chemical exposure was characterized with GC-MS, whereas microbial activity was monitored as soil respiration (CO2 release) and soil bacterial growth ([(3)H]leucine incorporation). Microbial activity was strongly stimulated and inhibited at low and high exposure levels, respectively. Microbial growth efficiency decreased with increasing exposure, but rebounded during the recovery phase for low-dose treatments. Although benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX) concentrations decreased by 83-97% during the recovery phase, microbial activity in high-dose treatments did not recover and numbers of viable bacteria were 3-4 orders of magnitude lower than in control soil. Re-inoculation with active soil microorganisms failed to restore microbial activity indicating residual soil toxicity, which could not be attributed to BTEX, but rather to mixture toxicity of more persistent gasoline constituents or degradation products. Our results indicate a limited potential for functional recovery of soil microbial communities after transient exposure to high, but environmentally relevant, levels of gasoline VOCs which therefore may compromise ecosystem services provided by microorganisms even after extensive soil VOC dissipation.

  8. [Soil microbial properties under different vegetation types in Loess hilly region].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan-Yan; Qu, Lai-Ye; Chen, Li-Ding; Wei, Wei

    2010-01-01

    By using fumigation-extract (FE) method and Biolog Ecoplate, this paper investigated the microbial biomass and diversity in 0-20 cm soil layer under five vegetation types, including artificial woodland, shrubland, cropland, abandoned farmland, and natural grassland, in Dingxi of Gansu Province. In the meanwhile, the relationships between soil microbes and soil nutrients were studied by path analysis, and the five typical vegetation types were evaluated from the aspect of soil microbes. Relative to cropland, "grain for green" project played a key role in improving soil microbial resources. Microbial biomass carbon was the highest in ridge grassland, abandoned farmland, and pine woodland, followed by in Caragana korshinskii land, Medicago sativa land, restored land, and roadside land, and in wheat field and potato field. Microbial biomass nitrogen was the highest in ridge land, abandoned farmland, Pinus tabulaeformis woodland, Caragana korshinskii land, and Medicago sativa land, followed by in restored land and roadside land, and in wheat field and potato field. Caragana korshinskii land and Medicago sativa land, due to the existence of N-fixing rhizobium, had the highest ratio of soil microbial biomass nitrogen to soil total nitrogen. Owing to the continual biomass loss and rare feedback, cropland had the lowest quantity and activity of soil microbes. Through planting trees, shrubs and grasses or through fallowing, soil microbial biomass and activity were recovered, and the effect was increased with time. In 20-year old Caragana korshinskii land, the quantity and activity of soil microbes were similar to those in 50-year old Pinus tabulaeformis woodland, and the microbial community catabolic activity and soil nutrient use efficiency were higher. Considering the features of soil microbes under test vegetation types, Caragana korshinskii would be a good choice for local vegetation restoration.

  9. A philosophy for restoring virgin caries.

    PubMed

    Henry, Dan B

    2008-01-01

    This paper demonstrates and discusses the clinical relevance for the use of direct gold, especially in restoring virgin caries in the modern restorative dental practice. In addition, this article is intented to highlight the advantages for oral health of placing restorative materials with the highest probability of long-term success. Also, this paper demonstrates the use of the latest formula of direct gold (E-Z Gold), developed by Dr Lloyd Baum of Loma Linda, CA, USA, and how this new product has made it practical to include direct gold restorations as an integral part of an active restorative practice.

  10. Materials for chairside CAD/CAM restorations.

    PubMed

    Fasbinder, Dennis J

    2010-01-01

    Chairside computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) systems have become considerably more accurate, efficient, and prevalent as the technology has evolved in the past 25 years. The initial restorative material option for chairside CAD/CAM restorations was limited to ceramic blocks. Restorative material options have multiplied and now include esthetic ceramics, high-strength ceramics, and composite materials for both definitive and temporary restoration applications. This article will review current materials available for chairside CAD/CAM restorations.

  11. Class II Resin Composites: Restorative Options.

    PubMed

    Patel, Minesh; Mehta, Shamir B; Banerji, Subir

    2015-10-01

    Tooth-coloured, resin composite restorations are amongst the most frequently prescribed forms of dental restoration to manage defects in posterior teeth. The attainment of a desirable outcome when placing posterior resin composite restorations requires the clinician to have a good understanding of the benefits (as well as the limitations) posed by this material, together with a sound knowledge of placement technique. Numerous protocols and materials have evolved to assist the dental operator with this type of demanding posterior restoration. With the use of case examples, four techniques available are reported here. CPD/Clinical Relevance: This article explores varying techniques for the restoration of Class II cavities using resin composite.

  12. Applications of Microbial Cell Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimomura-Shimizu, Mifumi; Karube, Isao

    Since the first microbial cell sensor was studied by Karube et al. in 1977, many types of microbial cell sensors have been developed as analytical tools. The microbial cell sensor utilizes microbes as a sensing element and a transducer. The characteristics of microbial cell sensors as sensing devices are a complete contrast to those of enzyme sensors or immunosensors, which are highly specific for the substrates of interest, although the specificity of the microbial cell sensor has been improved by genetic modification of the microbe used as the sensing element. Microbial cell sensors have the advantages of tolerance to measuring conditions, a long lifetime, and good cost performance, and have the disadvantage of a long response time. In this review, applications of microbial cell sensors are summarized.

  13. Soil Organic Carbon Fractions and Stocks Respond to Restoration Measures in Degraded Lands by Water Erosion.

    PubMed

    Nie, Xiaodong; Li, Zhongwu; Huang, Jinquan; Huang, Bin; Xiao, Haibing; Zeng, Guangming

    2017-05-01

    Assessing the degree to which degraded soils can be recovered is essential for evaluating the effects of adopted restoration measures. The objective of this study was to determine the restoration of soil organic carbon under the impact of terracing and reforestation. A small watershed with four typical restored plots (terracing and reforestation (four different local plants)) and two reference plots (slope land with natural forest (carbon-depleted) and abandoned depositional land (carbon-enriched)) in subtropical China was studied. The results showed that soil organic carbon, dissolved organic carbon and microbial biomass carbon concentrations in the surface soil (10 cm) of restored lands were close to that in abandoned depositional land and higher than that in natural forest land. There was no significant difference in soil organic carbon content among different topographic positions of the restored lands. Furthermore, the soil organic carbon stocks in the upper 60 cm soils of restored lands, which were varied between 50.08 and 62.21 Mg C ha(-1), were higher than 45.90 Mg C ha(-1) in natural forest land. Our results indicated that the terracing and reforestation could greatly increase carbon sequestration and accumulation and decrease carbon loss induced by water erosion. And the combination measures can accelerate the restoration of degraded soils when compared to natural forest only. Forest species almost have no impact on the total amount of soil organic carbon during restoration processes, but can significantly influence the activity and stability of soil organic carbon. Combination measures which can provide suitable topography and continuous soil organic carbon supply could be considered in treating degraded soils caused by water erosion.

  14. The science and practice of river restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohl, Ellen; Lane, Stuart N.; Wilcox, Andrew C.

    2015-08-01

    River restoration is one of the most prominent areas of applied water-resources science. From an initial focus on enhancing fish habitat or river appearance, primarily through structural modification of channel form, restoration has expanded to incorporate a wide variety of management activities designed to enhance river process and form. Restoration is conducted on headwater streams, large lowland rivers, and entire river networks in urban, agricultural, and less intensively human-altered environments. We critically examine how contemporary practitioners approach river restoration and challenges for implementing restoration, which include clearly identified objectives, holistic understanding of rivers as ecosystems, and the role of restoration as a social process. We also examine challenges for scientific understanding in river restoration. These include: how physical complexity supports biogeochemical function, stream metabolism, and stream ecosystem productivity; characterizing response curves of different river components; understanding sediment dynamics; and increasing appreciation of the importance of incorporating climate change considerations and resiliency into restoration planning. Finally, we examine changes in river restoration within the past decade, such as increasing use of stream mitigation banking; development of new tools and technologies; different types of process-based restoration; growing recognition of the importance of biological-physical feedbacks in rivers; increasing expectations of water quality improvements from restoration; and more effective communication between practitioners and river scientists.

  15. Periodontal health--challenges in restorative dentistry.

    PubMed

    Reeves, J

    2014-05-01

    As the population ages and life expectancy increases, clinicians today find themselves in the wake of an ever-growing demand for high-quality aesthetic dental treatment, by increasingly informed patients. The long-term success of both cosmetic and restorative dentistry is dependent on well designed restorations and the health of the periodontal tissues. Overhanging restorations, full crown restorations with poor marginal fit, and implant-supported prosthetics with inadequate hygiene access all increase the risk for periodontal sequelae and interproximal caries. When planning restorative treatment, consideration should be given to the restorative design, the need for hygiene access and the location of intended implants. In addition, the patient's manual dexterity and ability to manipulate oral hygiene aids is a crucial consideration, as is adequate access for the hygienist to manually debride and maintain the restorations.

  16. Microbiology of subtidal sediments: Monitoring microbial populations. Restoration project 93047-2. Exxon Valdez oil spill restoration project final report

    SciTech Connect

    Braddock, J.F.; Richter, Z.

    1994-06-01

    Following the Exxon Valdez oil spill in 1989, the authors measured numbers of hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms and hydrocarbon mineralization potentials of microorganisms in oiled and unoiled surface sediments from the shore through 100 m depth offshore. The authors found both temporal and spatial variations in numbers and activity of hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms with statistically significant higher values at the oiled sites than at reference sites. In the summer of 1993, the authors returned to ten study sites within Prince William Sound to monitor the changes in the numbers and activities of hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms at these sites with time. In 1993 the numbers and activities of hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms were generally very low at all sites although elevated populations and activities were measured in intertidal sub-surface samples at several sites (Northwest Bay, Herring Bay and Sleepy Bay) with observable sub-surface oiling.

  17. Evolution of microbial markets.

    PubMed

    Werner, Gijsbert D A; Strassmann, Joan E; Ivens, Aniek B F; Engelmoer, Daniel J P; Verbruggen, Erik; Queller, David C; Noë, Ronald; Johnson, Nancy Collins; Hammerstein, Peter; Kiers, E Toby

    2014-01-28

    Biological market theory has been used successfully to explain cooperative behavior in many animal species. Microbes also engage in cooperative behaviors, both with hosts and other microbes, that can be described in economic terms. However, a market approach is not traditionally used to analyze these interactions. Here, we extend the biological market framework to ask whether this theory is of use to evolutionary biologists studying microbes. We consider six economic strategies used by microbes to optimize their success in markets. We argue that an economic market framework is a useful tool to generate specific and interesting predictions about microbial interactions, including the evolution of partner discrimination, hoarding strategies, specialized versus diversified mutualistic services, and the role of spatial structures, such as flocks and consortia. There is untapped potential for studying the evolutionary dynamics of microbial systems. Market theory can help structure this potential by characterizing strategic investment of microbes across a diversity of conditions.

  18. Antibiotics in microbial coculture.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Kenji; Beppu, Teruhiko

    2017-04-01

    Today, the frequency of discovery of new antibiotics in microbial culture is significantly decreasing. The evidence from whole-genome surveys suggests that many genes involved in the synthesis of unknown metabolites do exist but are not expressed under conventional cultivation conditions. Therefore, it is urgently necessary to study the conditions that make otherwise silent genes active in microbes. Here we overview the knowledge on the antibiotic production promoted by cocultivation of multiple microbial strains. Accumulating evidence indicates that cocultivation can be an effective way to stimulate the production of substances that are not formed during pure cultivation. Characterization of the promotive factors produced by stimulator strains is expected to give clues to the development of effective cultivation conditions for drug discovery.

  19. Microbial Genomes Multiply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doolittle, Russell F.

    2002-01-01

    The publication of the first complete sequence of a bacterial genome in 1995 was a signal event, underscored by the fact that the article has been cited more than 2,100 times during the intervening seven years. It was a marvelous technical achievement, made possible by automatic DNA-sequencing machines. The feat is the more impressive in that complete genome sequencing has now been adopted in many different laboratories around the world. Four years ago in these columns I examined the situation after a dozen microbial genomes had been completed. Now, with upwards of 60 microbial genome sequences determined and twice that many in progress, it seems reasonable to assess just what is being learned. Are new concepts emerging about how cells work? Have there been practical benefits in the fields of medicine and agriculture? Is it feasible to determine the genomic sequence of every bacterial species on Earth? The answers to these questions maybe Yes, Perhaps, and No, respectively.

  20. Microbial Risk Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ott, C. M.; Mena, K. D.; Nickerson, C.A.; Pierson, D. L.

    2009-01-01

    Historically, microbiological spaceflight requirements have been established in a subjective manner based upon expert opinion of both environmental and clinical monitoring results and the incidence of disease. The limited amount of data, especially from long-duration missions, has created very conservative requirements based primarily on the concentration of microorganisms. Periodic reevaluations of new data from later missions have allowed some relaxation of these stringent requirements. However, the requirements remain very conservative and subjective in nature, and the risk of crew illness due to infectious microorganisms is not well defined. The use of modeling techniques for microbial risk has been applied in the food and potable water industries and has exceptional potential for spaceflight applications. From a productivity standpoint, this type of modeling can (1) decrease unnecessary costs and resource usage and (2) prevent inadequate or inappropriate data for health assessment. In addition, a quantitative model has several advantages for risk management and communication. By identifying the variable components of the model and the knowledge associated with each component, this type of modeling can: (1) Systematically identify and close knowledge gaps, (2) Systematically identify acceptable and unacceptable risks, (3) Improve communication with stakeholders as to the reasons for resource use, and (4) Facilitate external scientific approval of the NASA requirements. The modeling of microbial risk involves the evaluation of several key factors including hazard identification, crew exposure assessment, dose-response assessment, and risk characterization. Many of these factors are similar to conditions found on Earth; however, the spaceflight environment is very specialized as the inhabitants live in a small, semi-closed environment that is often dependent on regenerative life support systems. To further complicate modeling efforts, microbial dose

  1. Evolution of microbial markets

    PubMed Central

    Werner, Gijsbert D. A.; Strassmann, Joan E.; Ivens, Aniek B. F.; Engelmoer, Daniel J. P.; Verbruggen, Erik; Queller, David C.; Noë, Ronald; Johnson, Nancy Collins; Hammerstein, Peter; Kiers, E. Toby

    2014-01-01

    Biological market theory has been used successfully to explain cooperative behavior in many animal species. Microbes also engage in cooperative behaviors, both with hosts and other microbes, that can be described in economic terms. However, a market approach is not traditionally used to analyze these interactions. Here, we extend the biological market framework to ask whether this theory is of use to evolutionary biologists studying microbes. We consider six economic strategies used by microbes to optimize their success in markets. We argue that an economic market framework is a useful tool to generate specific and interesting predictions about microbial interactions, including the evolution of partner discrimination, hoarding strategies, specialized versus diversified mutualistic services, and the role of spatial structures, such as flocks and consortia. There is untapped potential for studying the evolutionary dynamics of microbial systems. Market theory can help structure this potential by characterizing strategic investment of microbes across a diversity of conditions. PMID:24474743

  2. Microbial field pilot study

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, R.M.; McInerney, M.J.; Menzie, D.E.; Chisholm, J.L.

    1992-03-01

    The objective of this project is to perform a microbial enhanced oil recovery field pilot in the Southeast Vassar Vertz Sand Unit (SEVVSU) in Payne County, Oklahoma. Indigenous, anaerobic, nitrate reducing bacteria will be stimulated to selectively plug flow paths which have been referentially swept by a prior waterflood. This will force future flood water to invade bypassed regions of the reservoir and increase sweep efficiency. This report covers progress made during the second year, January 1, 1990 to December 31, 1990, of the Microbial Field Pilot Study project. Information on reservoir ecology, surface facilities design, operation of the unit, core experiments, modeling of microbial processes, and reservoir characterization and simulation are presented in the report. To better understand the ecology of the target reservoir, additional analyses of the fluids which support bacteriological growth and the microbiology of the reservoir were performed. The results of the produced and injected water analysis show increasing sulfide concentrations with respect to time. In March of 1990 Mesa Limited Partnership sold their interest in the SEVVSU to Sullivan and Company. In April, Sullivan and Company assumed operation of the field. The facilities for the field operation of the pilot were refined and implementation was begun. Core flood experiments conducted during the last year were used to help define possible mechanisms involved in microbial enhanced oil recovery. The experiments were performed at SEVVSU temperature using fluids and inoculum from the unit. The model described in last year's report was further validated using results from a core flood experiment. The model was able to simulate the results of one of the core flood experiments with good quality.

  3. Microbial field pilot study

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, R.M.; McInerney, M.J.; Menzie, D.E.; Chisholm, J.L.

    1992-03-01

    The objective of this project is to perform a microbial enhanced oil recovery field pilot in the Southeast Vassar Vertz Sand Unit (SEVVSU) in Payne County, Oklahoma. Indigenous, anaerobic, nitrate reducing bacteria will be stimulated to selectively plug flow paths which have been referentially swept by a prior waterflood. This will force future flood water to invade bypassed regions of the reservoir and increase sweep efficiency. This report covers progress made during the second year, January 1, 1990 to December 31, 1990, of the Microbial Field Pilot Study project. Information on reservoir ecology, surface facilities design, operation of the unit, core experiments, modeling of microbial processes, and reservoir characterization and simulation are presented in the report. To better understand the ecology of the target reservoir, additional analyses of the fluids which support bacteriological growth and the microbiology of the reservoir were performed. The results of the produced and injected water analysis show increasing sulfide concentrations with respect to time. In March of 1990 Mesa Limited Partnership sold their interest in the SEVVSU to Sullivan and Company. In April, Sullivan and Company assumed operation of the field. The facilities for the field operation of the pilot were refined and implementation was begun. Core flood experiments conducted during the last year were used to help define possible mechanisms involved in microbial enhanced oil recovery. The experiments were performed at SEVVSU temperature using fluids and inoculum from the unit. The model described in last year`s report was further validated using results from a core flood experiment. The model was able to simulate the results of one of the core flood experiments with good quality.

  4. Automated Microbial Metabolism Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Development of the automated microbial metabolism laboratory (AMML) concept is reported. The focus of effort of AMML was on the advanced labeled release experiment. Labeled substrates, inhibitors, and temperatures were investigated to establish a comparative biochemical profile. Profiles at three time intervals on soil and pure cultures of bacteria isolated from soil were prepared to establish a complete library. The development of a strategy for the return of a soil sample from Mars is also reported.

  5. Nanoporous microscale microbial incubators.

    PubMed

    Ge, Zhifei; Girguis, Peter R; Buie, Cullen R

    2016-02-07

    Reconstruction of phylogenetic trees based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing reveals abundant microbial diversity that has not been cultured in the laboratory. Many attribute this so-called 'great plate count anomaly' to traditional microbial cultivation techniques, which largely facilitate the growth of a single species. Yet, it is widely recognized that bacteria in nature exist in complex communities. One technique to increase the pool of cultivated bacterial species is to co-culture multiple species in a simulated natural environment. Here, we present nanoporous microscale microbial incubators (NMMI) that enable high-throughput screening and real-time observation of multi-species co-culture. The key innovation in NMMI is that they facilitate inter-species communication while maintaining physical isolation between species, which is ideal for genomic analysis. Co-culture of a quorum sensing pair demonstrates that the NMMI can be used to culture multiple species in chemical communication while monitoring the growth dynamics of individual species.

  6. Advances in microbial amylases.

    PubMed

    Pandey, A; Nigam, P; Soccol, C R; Soccol, V T; Singh, D; Mohan, R

    2000-04-01

    This review makes a comprehensive survey of microbial amylases, i.e. alpha-amylase, beta-amylase and glucoamylase. Amylases are among the most important enzymes and are of great significance in present-day biotechnology. Although they can be derived from several sources, such as plants, animals and micro-organisms, the enzymes from microbial sources generally meet industrial demands. Microbial amylases could be potentially useful in the pharmaceutical and fine-chemical industries if enzymes with suitable properties could be prepared. With the advent of new frontiers in biotechnology, the spectrum of amylase application has widened in many other fields, such as clinical, medicinal and analytical chemistries, as well as their widespread application in starch saccharification and in the textile, food, brewing and distilling industries. In this review, after a brief description of the sources of amylases, we discuss the molecular biology of amylases, describing structures, cloning, sequences, and protoplast fusion and mutagenesis. This is followed by sections on their production and finally the properties of various amylases.

  7. Pathogenesis of microbial keratitis.

    PubMed

    Lakhundi, Sahreena; Siddiqui, Ruqaiyyah; Khan, Naveed Ahmed

    2017-03-01

    Microbial keratitis is a sight-threatening ocular infection caused by bacteria, fungi, and protist pathogens. Epithelial defects and injuries are key predisposing factors making the eye susceptible to corneal pathogens. Among bacterial pathogens, the most common agents responsible for keratitis include Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus pneumonia and Serratia species. Fungal agents of corneal infections include both filamentous as well as yeast, including Fusarium, Aspergillus, Phaeohyphomycetes, Curvularia, Paecilomyces, Scedosporium and Candida species, while in protists, Acanthamoeba spp. are responsible for causing ocular disease. Clinical features include redness, pain, tearing, blur vision and inflammation but symptoms vary depending on the causative agent. The underlying molecular mechanisms associated with microbial pathogenesis include virulence factors as well as the host factors that aid in the progression of keratitis, resulting in damage to the ocular tissue. The treatment therefore should focus not only on the elimination of the culprit but also on the neutralization of virulence factors to minimize the damage, in addition to repairing the damaged tissue. A complete understanding of the pathogenesis of microbial keratitis will lead to the rational development of therapeutic interventions. This is a timely review of our current understanding of the advances made in this field in a comprehensible manner. Coupled with the recently available genome sequence information and high throughput genomics technology, and the availability of innovative approaches, this will stimulate interest in this field.

  8. Microbial reduction of iodate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Councell, T.B.; Landa, E.R.; Lovley, D.R.

    1997-01-01

    The different oxidation species of iodine have markedly different sorption properties. Hence, changes in iodine redox states can greatly affect the mobility of iodine in the environment. Although a major microbial role has been suggested in the past to account for these redox changes, little has been done to elucidate the responsible microorganisms or the mechanisms involved. In the work presented here, direct microbial reduction of iodate was demonstrated with anaerobic cell suspensions of the sulfate reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio desulfuricans which reduced 96% of an initial 100 ??M iodate to iodide at pH 7 in 30 mM NaHCO3 buffer, whereas anaerobic cell suspensions of the dissimilatory Fe(III)-reducing bacterium Shewanella putrefaciens were unable to reduce iodate in 30 mM NaHCO3 buffer (pH 7). Both D. desulfuricans and S. putrefaciens were able to reduce iodate at pH 7 in 10 mM HEPES buffer. Both soluble ferrous iron and sulfide, as well as iron monosulfide (FeS) were shown to abiologically reduce iodate to iodide. These results indicate that ferric iron and/or sulfate reducing bacteria are capable of mediating both direct, enzymatic, as well as abiotic reduction of iodate in natural anaerobic environments. These microbially mediated reactions may be important factors in the fate and transport of 129I in natural systems.

  9. Microbial biosurfactants and biodegradation.

    PubMed

    Ward, Owen P

    2010-01-01

    Microbial biosurfactants are amphipathic molecules having typical molecular weights of 500-1500 Da, made up of peptides, saccharides or lipids or their combinations. In biodegradation processes they mediate solubilisation, mobilization and/or accession of hydrophobic substrates to microbes. They may be located on the cell surface or be secreted into the extracellular medium and they facilitate uptake of hydrophobic molecules through direct cellular contact with hydrophobic solids or droplets or through micellarisation. They are also involved in cell physiological processes such as biofilm formation and detachment, and in diverse biofilm associated processes such as wastewater treatment and microbial pathogenesis. The protection of contaminants in biosurfactants micelles may also inhibit uptake of contaminants by microbes. In bioremediation processes biosurfactants may facilitate release of contaminants from soil, but soils also tend to bind surfactants strongly which makes their role in contaminant desorption more complex. A greater understanding of the underlying roles played by biosurfactants in microbial physiology and in biodegradative processes is developing through advances in cell and molecular biology.

  10. Microbial naphthenic Acid degradation.

    PubMed

    Whitby, Corinne

    2010-01-01

    Naphthenic acids (NAs) are an important group of trace organic pollutants predominantly comprising saturated aliphatic and alicyclic carboxylic acids. NAs are ubiquitous; occurring naturally in hydrocarbon deposits (petroleum, oil sands, bitumen, and crude oils) and also have widespread industrial uses. Consequently, NAs can enter the environment from both natural and anthropogenic processes. NAs are highly toxic, recalcitrant compounds that persist in the environment for many years, and it is important to develop efficient bioremediation strategies to decrease both their abundance and toxicity in the environment. However, the diversity of microbial communities involved in NA-degradation, and the mechanisms by which NAs are biodegraded, are poorly understood. This lack of knowledge is mainly due to the difficulties in identifying and purifying individual carboxylic acid compounds from complex NA mixtures found in the environment, for microbial biodegradation studies. This paper will present an overview of NAs, their origin and fate in the environment, and their toxicity to the biota. The review describes the microbial degradation of both naturally occurring and chemically synthesized NAs. Proposed pathways for aerobic NA biodegradation, factors affecting NA biodegradation rates, and possible bioremediation strategies are also discussed.

  11. Current status of zirconia restoration.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Takashi; Nakamura, Takashi; Matsumura, Hideo; Ban, Seiji; Kobayashi, Taira

    2013-10-01

    During the past decade, zirconia-based ceramics have been successfully introduced into the clinic to fabricate fixed dental prostheses (FDPs), along with a dental computer-aided/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) system. In this article (1) development of dental ceramics, (2) the current status of dental CAD/CAM systems, (3) CAD/CAM and zirconia restoration, (4) bond between zirconia and veneering ceramics, (5) bond of zirconia with resin-based luting agents, (6) surface finish of zirconia restoration and antagonist enamel wear, and (7) clinical evaluation of zirconia restoration are reviewed. Yttria partially stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystalline (Y-TZP) showed better mechanical properties and superior resistance to fracture than other conventional dental ceramics. Furthermore, ceria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystalline and alumina nanocomposites (Ce-TZP/A) had the highest fracture toughness and had resistance to low-temperature aging degradation. Both zirconia-based ceramics have been clinically available as an alternative to the metal framework for fixed dental prostheses (FDPs). Marginal adaptation of zirconia-based FDPs is acceptable for clinical application. The most frequent clinical complication with zirconia-based FDPs was chipping of the veneering porcelain that was affected by many factors. The mechanism for the bonding between zirconia and veneering ceramics remains unknown. There was no clear evidence of chemical bonding and the bond strength between zirconia and porcelain was lower than that between metal and porcelain. There were two alternatives proposed that might avoid chipping of veneering porcelains. One was hybrid-structured FDPs comprising CAD/CAM-fabricated porcelain parts adhering to a CAD/CAM fabricated zirconia framework. Another option was full-contour zirconia FDPs using high translucent zirconia. Combined application of silica coating and/or silane coupler, and 10-methacryloyloxydecyl dihydrogen phosphate is

  12. Restoring HIV-specific immunity.

    PubMed

    James, J S

    1999-02-12

    When HIV is controlled with antiretrovirals, immunity to other infections often returns. Sometimes patients can stop prophylactic treatment, and sometimes opportunistic infections can clear up without treatment. However, immunity to HIV itself does not return, or returns very slowly, even when HIV has been suppressed for years with drug therapy. Researchers do not know why HIV immunity reacts differently, but several possible approaches to restoring HIV-specific immunity are being researched. One approach involves a therapeutic vaccination while the virus is well suppressed with antiretrovirals. The other approach is beginning HIV treatment very early, before the virus begins destroying the cells that recognize it. Several studies are discussed.

  13. The use of soil quality indicators to assess soil functionality in restored semi-arid ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz-Rojas, Miriam; Erickson, Todd E.; Dixon, Kingsley W.; Merritt, David J.

    2016-04-01

    Keywords: Pilbara, 1-day CO2 test, microbial activity, mine restoration, soil health, ecosystem services. Introduction Semi-arid and arid environments are highly vulnerable to land degradation and their restoration has commonly showed low rates of success (James et al., 2013). A systematic knowledge of soil functionality is critical to successful restoration of degraded ecosystems since approximately 80% of ecosystem services can be connected to soil functions. The assessment of soil functionality generally involves the evaluation of soil properties and processes as they relate to the ability of soil to function effectively as a component of a healthy ecosystem (Costantini et al., 2015) Using soil quality indicators may be a valuable approach to assess functionality of topsoil and novel substrates used in restoration (Muñoz-Rojas et al., 2014; 2015). A key soil chemical indicator is soil organic C, that has been widely used as an attribute of soil quality because of the many functions that it provides and supports (Willaarts et al., 2015). However, microbial indicators can be more sensitive to disturbances and could be a valuable addition in soil assessment studies in restoration programs. Here, we propose a set of soil quality indicators to assess the soil status in restored soils (topsoil and waste material) of semi-arid environments. The study was conducted during March 2015 in the Pilbara biogeographical region (northwestern Australia) at an iron ore mine site rehabilitated in 2011. Methods Soil samples were collected from two sub-areas with different soil materials used as growth media: topsoil retrieved from nearby stockpiles and a lateritic waste material utilised for its erosive stability and physical competence. An undisturbed natural shrub-grassland ecosystem dominated by Triodia spp. and Acacia spp. representative of the restored area was selected as the analogue reference site. Soil physicochemical analysis were undertaken according to standard methods

  14. Subsistence restoration planning and implementation. Restoration projects 94428 and 95428. Exxon Valdez oil spill restoration project final report

    SciTech Connect

    Fall, J.A.

    1995-10-01

    The project attempted to develop a comprehensive approach to subsistence restoration by organizing a planning team, meeting with community and regional organization representatives, and assisting communities and organizations in preparing subsistence restoration project proposals for funding either from the civil settlement Restoration Fund or a $5 million appropriation by the Alaska legislature of criminal settlement funds. The project resulted in an enhanced role for subsistence users and communities in the restoration process, as evidenced by a notable increase in funding of subsistence restoration projects. A review of findings of a joint Alaska Department of Fish and Game/Minerals Management Service research project suggests that while partial recovery of subsistence uses has occurred, restoration is not complete.

  15. Biotic interactions mediate soil microbial feedbacks to climate change.

    PubMed

    Crowther, Thomas W; Thomas, Stephen M; Maynard, Daniel S; Baldrian, Petr; Covey, Kristofer; Frey, Serita D; van Diepen, Linda T A; Bradford, Mark A

    2015-06-02

    Decomposition of organic material by soil microbes generates an annual global release of 50-75 Pg carbon to the atmosphere, ∼7.5-9 times that of anthropogenic emissions worldwide. This process is sensitive to global change factors, which can drive carbon cycle-climate feedbacks with the potential to enhance atmospheric warming. Although the effects of interacting global change factors on soil microbial activity have been a widespread ecological focus, the regulatory effects of interspecific interactions are rarely considered in climate feedback studies. We explore the potential of soil animals to mediate microbial responses to warming and nitrogen enrichment within a long-term, field-based global change study. The combination of global change factors alleviated the bottom-up limitations on fungal growth, stimulating enzyme production and decomposition rates in the absence of soil animals. However, increased fungal biomass also stimulated consumption rates by soil invertebrates, restoring microbial process rates to levels observed under ambient conditions. Our results support the contemporary theory that top-down control in soil food webs is apparent only in the absence of bottom-up limitation. As such, when global change factors alleviate the bottom-up limitations on microbial activity, top-down control becomes an increasingly important regulatory force with the capacity to dampen the strength of positive carbon cycle-climate feedbacks.

  16. Contribution of genetics to ecological restoration.

    PubMed

    Mijangos, Jose Luis; Pacioni, Carlo; Spencer, Peter B S; Craig, Michael D

    2015-01-01

    Ecological restoration of degraded ecosystems has emerged as a critical tool in the fight to reverse and ameliorate the current loss of biodiversity and ecosystem services. Approaches derived from different genetic disciplines are extending the theoretical and applied frameworks on which ecological restoration is based. We performed a search of scientific articles and identified 160 articles that employed a genetic approach within a restoration context to shed light on the links between genetics and restoration. These articles were then classified on whether they examined association between genetics and fitness or the application of genetics in demographic studies, and on the way the studies informed restoration practice. Although genetic research in restoration is rapidly growing, we found that studies could make better use of the extensive toolbox developed by applied fields in genetics. Overall, 41% of reviewed studies used genetic information to evaluate or monitor restoration, and 59% provided genetic information to guide prerestoration decision-making processes. Reviewed studies suggest that restoration practitioners often overlook the importance of including genetic aspects within their restoration goals. Even though there is a genetic basis influencing the provision of ecosystem services, few studies explored this relationship. We provide a view of research gaps, future directions and challenges in the genetics of restoration.

  17. Restoration and management for plant diversity enhances the rate of belowground ecosystem recovery.

    PubMed

    Klopf, Ryan P; Baer, Sara G; Bach, Elizabeth M; Six, Johan

    2017-03-01

    The positive relationship between plant diversity and ecosystem functioning has been criticized for its applicability at large scales and in less controlled environments that are relevant to land management. To inform this gap between ecological theory and application, we compared recovery rates of belowground properties using two chronosequences consisting of continuously cultivated and independently restored fields with contrasting diversity management strategies: grasslands restored with high plant richness and managed for diversity with frequent burning (n = 20) and grasslands restored with fewer species that were infrequently burned (n = 15). Restoration and management for plant diversity resulted in 250% higher plant richness. Greater recovery of roots and more predictable recovery of the active microbial biomass across the high diversity management strategy chronosequence corresponded with faster recovery of soil structure. The high diversity grasslands also had greater nutrient conservation indicated by lower available inorganic nitrogen. Thus, mesic grasslands restored with more species and managed for high plant diversity with frequent burning enhances the rate of belowground ecosystem recovery from long-term disturbance at a scale relevant to conservation practices on the landscape.

  18. Effect of river restoration on organic carbon (OC) dynamics in a riparian groundwater system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peter, Simone; Tockner, Klement; Wehrli, Bernard; Durisch-Kaiser, Edith

    2010-05-01

    The effect of river revitalization measures on OC dynamics was investigated in a restored and a channelized section of a riverine floodplain. Revitalization measures established high environmental heterogeneity reflected in different types of functional process zones (FPZ). High spatial variability is thought to enhance subsurface OC transformations by directing transport and transformation processes of relevant organic reactants. In 2008/09 water samples were collected along riparian hyporheic connectivity in the test site of the CCES Project RECORD (Restored corridor dynamics) at the prealpine River Thur, Switzerland. The distribution of total and dissolved organic carbon (TOC, DOC) and oxygen was monitored in the different FPZs. The OC was chemically characterized by measuring its stable C isotopic ratio, polydispersity, fluorescence properties, and the yield and composition of hydrolyzable amino acids (THAA). These data were related to cell abundance, extracellular enzymatic activity, and respiration. The results showed that river and groundwater OC was predominantly terrestrial derived. In the restored section, high hydrological connectivity transported river-borne OC into groundwater, and particularly flood disturbances facilitated vertical input of soil-derived OC. Re-dissolution enriched the flow with bioavailable substrates, which increased the potential for co-metabolic transformation hotspots, fuelling the turnover of highly refractory OC. While in the restored part groundwater OC became most diagenetically altered through microbial action, in the non-restored part transport prevailed relative to turnover processes. This study documented that OC dynamics are enhanced through high system heterogeneity, which allowed the formation of OC transformations loops along groundwater flow.

  19. 15 CFR 990.56 - Restoration selection-use of a Regional Restoration Plan or existing restoration project.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OIL POLLUTION ACT REGULATIONS NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Restoration...

  20. Mitochondrial DNA, restoring Beethovens music.

    PubMed

    Merheb, Maxime; Vaiedelich, Stéphane; Maniguet, Thiérry; Hänni, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Great ancient composers have endured many obstacles and constraints which are very difficult to understand unless we perform the restoration process of ancient music. Species identification in leather used during manufacturing is the key step to start such a restoration process in order to produce a facsimile of a museum piano. Our study reveals the species identification in the leather covering the hammer head in a piano created by Erard in 1802. This is the last existing piano similar to the piano that Beethoven used with its leather preserved in its original state. The leather sample was not present in a homogeneous piece, yet combined with glue. Using a DNA extraction method that avoids PCR inhibitors; we discovered that sheep and cattle are the origin of the combination. To identify the species in the leather, we focused on the amounts of mitochondrial DNA in both leather and glue and results have led us to the conclusion that the leather used to cover the hammer head in this piano was made of cattle hide.

  1. Restored pictures of Ganymede, moon of Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frieden, B. R.; Swindell, W.

    1976-01-01

    The paper discusses results of an attempt to restore two blurred pictures of Ganymede taken by Pioneer 10 through a blue filter and a red filter. The mathematical formulation of the restoration problem is outlined, it is noted that both conventional linear filtering and the maximum-entropy algorithm were employed as restoration techniques, and the two methods are described. The original blurred pictures are reproduced along with the two restorations of each image. The restored images are found to exhibit some mare-like features as well as a few large bright rings, possibly ice ridges. The results obtained with the two restoration techniques are compared, and it is concluded that the maximum-entropy method is more advantageous than linear methods in applications to moderately extended images.

  2. Concepts for Functional Restoration of Barrier Islands

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    Frisian barrier islands to sea-level rise: An investigation of past and future evolution. Geomorphology 15, 57-65. Farley, P. P. 1923. Coney Island ...ERDC/CHL CHETN-IV-74 September 2009 Concepts for Functional Restoration of Barrier Islands by Julie Dean Rosati PURPOSE: This Coastal and...Hydraulics Engineering Technical Note (CHETN) presents guid- ance for functional restoration of barrier islands . The concept of functional restoration

  3. Can Viral Videos Help Beaver Restore Streams?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, J. M.; Pollock, M. M.; Lewallen, G.; Jordan, C.; Woodruff, K.

    2015-12-01

    Have you watched YouTube lately? Did you notice the plethora of cute animal videos? Researchers, including members of our Beaver Restoration Research team, have been studying the restoration potential of beaver for decades, yet in the past few years, beaver have gained broad acclaim and some much deserved credit for restoration of aquatic systems in North America. Is it because people can now see these charismatic critters in action from the comfort of their laptops? While the newly released Beaver Restoration Guidebook attempts to answer many questions, sadly, this is not one of them. We do, however, address the use of beaver (Castor canadensis) in stream, wetland, and floodplain restoration and discuss the many positive effects of beaver on fluvial ecosystems. Our team, composed of researchers from NOAA National Marine Fisheries Service, US Fish and Wildlife Service, US Forest Service, and Portland State University, has developed a scientifically rigorous, yet accessible, practitioner's guide that provides a synthesis of the best available science for using beaver to improve ecosystem functions. Divided into two broad sections -- Beaver Ecology and Beaver Restoration and Management -- the guidebook focuses on the many ways in which beaver improve habitat, primarily through the construction of dams that impound water and retain sediment. In Beaver Ecology, we open with a discussion of the general effects that beaver dams have on physical and biological processes, and we close with "Frequently Asked Questions" and "Myth Busters". In Restoration and Management, we discuss common emerging restoration techniques and methods for mitigating unwanted beaver effects, followed by case studies from pioneering practitioners who have used many of these beaver restoration techniques in the field. The lessons they have learned will help guide future restoration efforts. We have also included a comprehensive beaver ecology library of over 1400 references from scientific journals

  4. Esthetic restoration of discolored primary incisors.

    PubMed

    Margolis, Fred S

    2005-01-01

    Restoring primary teeth can be a strenuous task for many dentists who would like to have an esthetic, easy-to-use and relatively quick restoration for children. But, the restoration of carious, fractured or discolored primary incisors gives the dentist the satisfaction of knowing that he/she has restored the smile and self-confidence of a growing child. This article describes a technique which is relatively easy and produces a beautiful outcome in a relatively short time. The author has used the technique in hundreds of children for over twenty-five years. Modifications in the technique have been made as newer materials and techniques have evolved.

  5. Ecological feasibility studies in restoration decision making.

    PubMed

    Hopfensperger, Kristine N; Engelhardt, Katharina A M; Seagle, Steven W

    2007-06-01

    The restoration of degraded systems is essential for maintaining the provision of valuable ecosystem services, including the maintenance of aesthetic values. However, restoration projects often fail to reach desired goals for a variety of ecologic, financial, and social reasons. Feasibility studies that evaluate whether a restoration effort should even be attempted can enhance restoration success by highlighting potential pitfalls and gaps in knowledge before the design phase of a restoration. Feasibility studies also can bring stakeholders together before a restoration project is designed to discuss potential disagreements. For these reasons, a feasibility study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of restoring a tidal freshwater marsh in the Potomac River near Alexandria, Virginia. The study focused on science rather than engineering questions, and thus differed in approach from other feasibility studies that are mostly engineering driven. The authors report the framework they used to conduct a feasibility study to inform other potential restoration projects with similar goals. The seven steps of the framework encompass (1) initiation of a feasibility study, (2) compilation of existing data, (3) collection of current site information, (4) examination of case studies, (5) synthesis of information in a handbook, (6) meeting with selected stakeholders, and (7) evaluation of meeting outcomes. By conducting a feasibility study using the seven-step framework, the authors set the stage for conducting future compliance studies and enhancing the chance of a successful restoration.

  6. Composite veneering of complex amalgam restorations.

    PubMed

    Demarco, Flávio Fernando; Zanchi, César Henrique; Bueno, Márcia; Piva, Evandro

    2007-01-01

    In large posterior cavities, indirect restorations could provide improved performance when compared to direct restorations, but with higher cost and removal of sound tooth structure. Improved mechanical properties have resulted in good clinical performance for amalgam in large cavities but without an esthetic appearance. Resin composites have become popular for posterior restorations, mainly because of good esthetic results. A restorative technique is presented that combines the esthetic properties of directly bonded resin composite and the wide range of indications for amalgam in stress-bearing areas.

  7. Soil microbial characteristics and seed bank dynamics of stock-piled top soils in ther western Rio Grande Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increased energy extraction has impacted rangelands throughout the western U.S. Ecological restoration can be enhanced with proper management of affected top soils. Little information exists on effects of stockpiling on soil microbial community composition and functionality and seed bank dynamics. T...

  8. Microbial field pilot study

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, R.M.; McInerney, M.J.; Menzie, D.E.; Coates, J.D.; Chisholm, J.L.

    1993-05-01

    A multi-well microbially enhanced oil recovery field pilot has been performed in the Southeast Vassar Vertz Sand Unit in Payne County, Oklahoma. The primary emphasis of the experiment was preferential plugging of high permeability zones for the purpose of improving waterflood sweep efficiency. Studies were performed to determine reservoir chemistry, ecology, and indigenous bacteria populations. Growth experiments were used to select a nutrient system compatible with the reservoir that encouraged growth of a group of indigenous nitrate-using bacteria and inhibit growth of sulfate-reducing bacteria. A specific field pilot area behind an active line drive waterflood was selected. Surface facilities were designed and installed. Injection protocols of bulk nutrient materials were prepared to facilitate uniform distribution of nutrients within the pilot area. By the end of December, 1991, 82.5 tons (75.0 tonnes) of nutrients had been injected in the field. A tracer test identified significant heterogeneity in the SEVVSU and made it necessary to monitor additional production wells in the field. The tracer tests and changes in production behavior indicate the additional production wells monitored during the field trial were also affected. Eighty two and one half barrels (13.1 m[sup 3]) of tertiary oil have been recovered. Microbial activity has increased CO[sub 2] content as indicated by increased alkalinity. A temporary rise in sulfide concentration was experienced. These indicate an active microbial community was generated in the field by the nutrient injection. Pilot area interwell pressure interference test results showed that significant permeability reduction occurred. The interwell permeabilities in the pilot area between the injector and the three pilot production wells were made more uniform which indicates a successful preferential plugging enhanced oil recovery project.

  9. Microbial metabolism of Tholin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoker, C. R.; Mancinelli, R. L.; Boston, P. J.; Segal, W.; Khare, B. N.

    1990-01-01

    Tholin, a class of complex organic heteropolymers hypothesized to possess wide solar system distribution, is shown to furnish the carbon and energy requirements of a wide variety of common soil bacteria which encompasses aerobic, anaerobic, and facultatively anaerobic bacteria. Some of these bacteria are able to derive not merely their carbon but also their nitrogen requirements from tholin. The palatability of tholins to modern microbes is speculated to have implications for the early evolution of microbial life on earth; tholins may have formed the base of the food chain for an early heterotrophic biosphere, prior to the evolution of autotrophy on the early earth.

  10. Microbial solubilization of phosphate

    DOEpatents

    Rogers, Robert D.; Wolfram, James H.

    1993-01-01

    A process is provided for solubilizing phosphate from phosphate containing ore by treatment with microorganisms which comprises forming an aqueous mixture of phosphate ore, microorganisms operable for solubilizing phosphate from the phosphate ore and maintaining the aqueous mixture for a period of time and under conditions operable to effect the microbial solubilization process. An aqueous solution containing soluble phosphorous can be separated from the reacted mixture by precipitation, solvent extraction, selective membrane, exchange resin or gravity methods to recover phosphate from the aqueous solution.

  11. Microbial field pilot study

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, R.M.; McInerney, M.J.; Menzie, D.E.

    1991-12-06

    The objective of this project is to perform a microbial enhanced oil recovery field pilot test in the Southeast Vassar Vertz Sand Unit (SEVVSU) in Payne County, Oklahoma. Indigenous, anaerobic, nitrate-reducing bacteria will be stimulated to selectively plug flow paths which have been preferentially swept by a prior waterflood. This will force future flood water to invade bypassed regions of the reservoir and increase sweep efficiency. During this quarter an additional tracer study was performed in the field to determine pre-treatment flow paths and the first nutrients were injected. 2 figs.

  12. [Microbial diffusion and antibiotherapy].

    PubMed

    Vilain, R

    1982-01-01

    Cleaning leg ulcers depends on tissular and microbial enzymes, the production of which depends on good vascularization. When an aetiological treatment is started, the microbes ensure sufficient cleaning, leading to granulation and epidermization. Antibiotherapy is pointless. Sometimes it can be detrimental, replacing a natural growth with alien strains which cause diffusion. Very exceptionally, a short course of antibiotherapy may be necessary to cope with signs of diffusion, usually signifying a Group A streptococcal infection, with seasonal recrudescence. The Blue Pus Microbe has no special pathological significance. It merely indicates that the case has become chronic.

  13. Microbial solubilization of phosphate

    DOEpatents

    Rogers, R.D.; Wolfram, J.H.

    1993-10-26

    A process is provided for solubilizing phosphate from phosphate containing ore by treatment with microorganisms which comprises forming an aqueous mixture of phosphate ore, microorganisms operable for solubilizing phosphate from the phosphate ore and maintaining the aqueous mixture for a period of time and under conditions operable to effect the microbial solubilization process. An aqueous solution containing soluble phosphorus can be separated from the reacted mixture by precipitation, solvent extraction, selective membrane, exchange resin or gravity methods to recover phosphate from the aqueous solution. 6 figures.

  14. Bayesian Integrated Microbial Forensics

    SciTech Connect

    Jarman, Kristin H.; Kreuzer-Martin, Helen W.; Wunschel, David S.; Valentine, Nancy B.; Cliff, John B.; Petersen, Catherine E.; Colburn, Heather A.; Wahl, Karen L.

    2008-06-01

    In the aftermath of the 2001 anthrax letters, researchers have been exploring ways to predict the production environment of unknown source microorganisms. Different mass spectral techniques are being developed to characterize components of a microbe’s culture medium including water, carbon and nitrogen sources, metal ions added, and the presence of agar. Individually, each technique has the potential to identify one or two ingredients in a culture medium recipe. However, by integrating data from multiple mass spectral techniques, a more complete characterization is possible. We present a Bayesian statistical approach to integrated microbial forensics and illustrate its application on spores grown in different culture media.

  15. Microbial bebop: creating music from complex dynamics in microbial ecology.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Peter; Gilbert, Jack

    2013-01-01

    In order for society to make effective policy decisions on complex and far-reaching subjects, such as appropriate responses to global climate change, scientists must effectively communicate complex results to the non-scientifically specialized public. However, there are few ways however to transform highly complicated scientific data into formats that are engaging to the general community. Taking inspiration from patterns observed in nature and from some of the principles of jazz bebop improvisation, we have generated Microbial Bebop, a method by which microbial environmental data are transformed into music. Microbial Bebop uses meter, pitch, duration, and harmony to highlight the relationships between multiple data types in complex biological datasets. We use a comprehensive microbial ecology, time course dataset collected at the L4 marine monitoring station in the Western English Channel as an example of microbial ecological data that can be transformed into music. Four compositions were generated (www.bio.anl.gov/MicrobialBebop.htm.) from L4 Station data using Microbial Bebop. Each composition, though deriving from the same dataset, is created to highlight different relationships between environmental conditions and microbial community structure. The approach presented here can be applied to a wide variety of complex biological datasets.

  16. Carbonate Precipitation through Microbial Activities in Natural Environment, and Their Potential in Biotechnology: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Tingting; Dittrich, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Calcium carbonate represents a large portion of carbon reservoir and is used commercially for a variety of applications. Microbial carbonate precipitation, a by-product of microbial activities, plays an important metal coprecipitation and cementation role in natural systems. This natural process occurring in various geological settings can be mimicked and used for a number of biotechnologies, such as metal remediation, carbon sequestration, enhanced oil recovery, and construction restoration. In this study, different metabolic activities leading to calcium carbonate precipitation, their native environment, and potential applications and challenges are reviewed. PMID:26835451

  17. Patterns in wetland microbial community composition and functional gene repertoire associated with methane emissions

    SciTech Connect

    He, Shaomei; Malfatti, Stephanie A.; McFarland, Jack W.; Anderson, Frank E.; Pati, Amrita; Huntemann, Marcel; Tremblay, Julien; Glavina del Rio, Tijana; Waldrop, Mark P.; Windham-Myers, Lisamarie; Tringe, Susannah G.

    2015-05-19

    Wetland restoration on peat islands previously drained for agriculture has potential to reverse land subsidence and sequester atmospheric carbon dioxide as peat accretes. However, the emission of methane could potentially offset the greenhouse gas benefits of captured carbon. As microbial communities play a key role in governing wetland greenhouse gas fluxes, we are interested in how microbial community composition and functions are associated with wetland hydrology, biogeochemistry, and methane emission, which is critical to modeling the microbial component in wetland methane fluxes and to managing restoration projects for maximal carbon sequestration. Here, we couple sequence-based methods with biogeochemical and greenhouse gas measurements to interrogate microbial communities from a pilot-scale restored wetland in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta of California, revealing considerable spatial heterogeneity even within this relatively small site. A number of microbial populations and functions showed strong correlations with electron acceptor availability and methane production; some also showed a preference for association with plant roots. Marker gene phylogenies revealed a diversity of major methane-producing and -consuming populations and suggested novel diversity within methanotrophs. Methanogenic archaea were observed in all samples, as were nitrate-, sulfate-, and metal-reducing bacteria, indicating that no single terminal electron acceptor was preferred despite differences in energetic favorability and suggesting spatial microheterogeneity and microniches. Notably, methanogens were negatively correlated with nitrate-, sulfate-, and metal-reducing bacteria and were most abundant at sampling sites with high peat accretion and low electron acceptor availability, where methane production was highest. Wetlands are the largest nonanthropogenic source of atmospheric methane but also a key global carbon reservoir. Characterizing belowground microbial communities

  18. Patterns in wetland microbial community composition and functional gene repertoire associated with methane emissions

    DOE PAGES

    He, Shaomei; Malfatti, Stephanie A.; McFarland, Jack W.; ...

    2015-05-19

    Wetland restoration on peat islands previously drained for agriculture has potential to reverse land subsidence and sequester atmospheric carbon dioxide as peat accretes. However, the emission of methane could potentially offset the greenhouse gas benefits of captured carbon. As microbial communities play a key role in governing wetland greenhouse gas fluxes, we are interested in how microbial community composition and functions are associated with wetland hydrology, biogeochemistry, and methane emission, which is critical to modeling the microbial component in wetland methane fluxes and to managing restoration projects for maximal carbon sequestration. Here, we couple sequence-based methods with biogeochemical and greenhousemore » gas measurements to interrogate microbial communities from a pilot-scale restored wetland in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta of California, revealing considerable spatial heterogeneity even within this relatively small site. A number of microbial populations and functions showed strong correlations with electron acceptor availability and methane production; some also showed a preference for association with plant roots. Marker gene phylogenies revealed a diversity of major methane-producing and -consuming populations and suggested novel diversity within methanotrophs. Methanogenic archaea were observed in all samples, as were nitrate-, sulfate-, and metal-reducing bacteria, indicating that no single terminal electron acceptor was preferred despite differences in energetic favorability and suggesting spatial microheterogeneity and microniches. Notably, methanogens were negatively correlated with nitrate-, sulfate-, and metal-reducing bacteria and were most abundant at sampling sites with high peat accretion and low electron acceptor availability, where methane production was highest. Wetlands are the largest nonanthropogenic source of atmospheric methane but also a key global carbon reservoir. Characterizing belowground microbial

  19. ASSESSMENT OF VISUAL FUNCTION AND RETINAL STRUCTURE FOLLOWING ACUTE LIGHT EXPOSURE IN THE LIGHT SENSITIVE T4R RHODOPSIN MUTANT DOG

    PubMed Central

    Iwabe, Simone; Ying, Gui-Shuang; Aguirre, Gustavo D.; Beltran, William A.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of acute exposure to various intensities of white light on visual behavior and retinal structure was evaluated in the T4R RHO dog, a naturally-occurring model of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa due to a mutation in the Rhodopsin gene. A total of 14 dogs (ages: 4–5.5 months) were used in this study: 3 homozygous mutant RHOT4R/T4R, 8 heterozygous mutant RHOT4R/+, and 3 normal wild-type (WT) dogs. Following overnight dark adaptation, the left eyes were acutely exposed to bright white light with a monocular Ganzfeld dome, while the contralateral right eye was shielded. Each of the 3 homozygous (RHOT4R/T4R) mutant dogs had a single unilateral light exposure (LE) to a different (low, moderate, and high) dose of white light (corneal irradiance/illuminance: 0.1 mW/cm2, 170 lux; 0.5 mW/cm2, 820 lux; or 1 mW/cm2, 1590 lux) for 1min. All 8 heterozygous (RHOT4R/+) mutant dogs were exposed once to the same moderate dose of light. The 3 WT dogs had their left eyes exposed 1, 2, or 3 times to the same highest dose of light. Visual function prior to LE and at 2 weeks and 33 weeks after exposure was objectively assessed in the RHOT4R/T4R and WT dogs by using an obstacle-avoidance course. Transit time through the obstacle course was measured under different scotopic to photopic ambient illuminations. Morphological retinal changes were evaluated by non-invasive in vivo cSLO/sdOCT imaging and histology before and at several time-points (2–36 weeks) after light exposure. The analysis of the transit time through the obstacle course showed that no differences were observed in any of mutant or WT dogs at 2 weeks and 33 weeks post LE. The RHOT4R/T4R retina exposed to the lowest dose of white light showed no obvious changes in ONL thickness at 2 weeks, but mild decrease was noted 36 weeks after LE. The RHOT4R/T4R retina that received a moderate dose (showed an obvious decrease in ONL thickness along the superior and temporal meridians at 2 weeks post LE with more

  20. Restoration of a mined peatland

    SciTech Connect

    Zolidis, N.R.

    1987-07-01

    A study of the hydrogeology of a 106 hectare mined peatland in southeastern Wisconsin was undertaken to determine hydroperiod, depth to water table and major source of water in order to plan for the restoration of sedge meadow, deepwater marsh and bog communities. A network of 20 surface stage posts, 21 shallow wells and 10 deeper piezometers was monitored to delineate groundwater and surface water elevations, and groundwater flowpaths. Results indicate that both groundwater recharge and discharge occur, however groundwater discharge is the major source of water. Depths to water table provide estimates of water level increases needed to ensure conditions favorable for desired wetland communities. Preliminary results suggest that changes in groundwater flowpaths may result from regulation of water levels, thus decreasing groundwater flow into the wetland.

  1. Nutrition considerations surrounding restorative proctocolectomy.

    PubMed

    Buckman, Sara A; Heise, Charles P

    2010-06-01

    Restorative proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis has become the surgical treatment of choice for patients with ulcerative colitis and familial polyposis coli syndromes. Pouch construction uses the distal 30-40 cm of ileum, and there exists a potential for postoperative nutrition consequences. These include vitamin B(12) deficiency, iron deficiency, bile acid malabsorption, and abnormalities of trace elements, fluids, and electrolytes. Patients who have undergone an ileal pouch-anal anastomosis procedure often describe specific food sensitivities that may require diet alteration, even more so than do patients with permanent ileostomy. There may be roles for postoperative probiotic supplementation in an attempt to decrease the rate of "pouchitis" and appropriate preoperative nutrition support to minimize the risk of perioperative complications.

  2. Electrical stimulation to restore respiration.

    PubMed

    Creasey, G; Elefteriades, J; DiMarco, A; Talonen, P; Bijak, M; Girsch, W; Kantor, C

    1996-04-01

    Electrical stimulation has been used for over 25 years to restore breathing to patients with high quadriplegia causing respiratory paralysis and patients with central alveolar hypoventilation. Three groups have developed electrical pacing systems for long-term support of respiration in humans. These systems consist of electrodes implanted on the phrenic nerves, connected by leads to a stimulator implanted under the skin, and powered and controlled from a battery-powered transmitter outside the body. The systems differ principally in the electrode design and stimulation waveform. Approximately 1,000 people worldwide have received one of the three phrenic pacing devices, most with strongly positive results: reduced risk of tracheal problems and chronic infection, the ability to speak and smell more normally, reduced risk of accidental interruption of respiration, greater independence, and reduced costs and time for ventilatory care. For patients with partial lesions of the phrenic nerves, intercostal muscle stimulation may supplement respiration.

  3. Megasessions for Robotic Hair Restoration.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Joa O Carlos; Pereira Filho, Joa O Carlos; Cabrera Pereira, Joa O Pedro

    2016-11-01

    A robotic system can select and remove individual hair follicles from the donor area with great precision and without fatigue. This report describes the use of the robotic system in a megasession for hair restoration. Patients were instructed to cut their hair to 1.0 to 1.2 mm before surgery. The robot selected and removed 600 to 800 grafts per hour so the follicular units (FU)s could be transplanted manually to recipient sites. The robot arm consists of a sharp inner punch and a blunt outer punch which together separate FUs from the sur- rounding tissue. Stereoscopic cameras controlled by image processing software allow the system to identify the angle and direction of hair growth. The physician and one assistant control the harvesting with a hand-held remote control and computer monitor while the patient is positioned in an adjustable chair. When the robot has harvested all the FUs they are removed by technicians with small forceps. Hairline design, creation of recipient sites, and graft placement are performed manually by the physician. Clinical photographs before and after surgery show that patients experience excellent outcomes with the robotic megasession. Phy- sician fatigue during graft extraction is reduced because the robot performs the repetitive movements without fatigue. Variability of graft extraction is minimized because the robot's optical system can be programmed to choose the best FUs. The transection rate is reduced because the robot's graft extraction system uses two needles, a sharp one to piece the skin and a blunt needle to dissect the root without trauma. A robotic megasession for hair restoration is minimally invasive, does not result in linear scars in the donor area, and is associated with minimal fatigue and discomfort for both patient and physician. Healing is rapid and patients experience a high level of satisfaction with the results. J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(11):1407-1412..

  4. Targeted Proteomics Approaches To Monitor Microbial Activity In Basalt Aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paszczynski, A. J.; Paidisetti, R.

    2007-12-01

    Microorganisms play a major role in biogeochemical cycles of the Earth. Information regarding microbial community composition can be very useful for environmental monitoring since the short generation times of microorganisms allows them to respond rapidly to changing environmental conditions. Microbial mediated attenuation of toxic chemicals offers great potential for the restoration of contaminated environments in an ecologically acceptable manner. Current knowledge regarding the structure and functional activities of microbial communities is limited, but more information is being acquired every day through many genomic- and proteomic- based methods. As of today, only a small fraction of the Earth's microorganisms has been cultured, and so most of the information regarding the biodegradation and therapeutic potentials of these uncultured microorganisms remains unknown. Sequence analysis of DNA and/or RNA has been used for identifying specific microorganisms, to study the community composition, and to monitor gene expression providing limited information about metabolic state of given microbial system. Proteomic studies can reveal information regarding the real-time metabolic state of the microbial communities thereby aiding in understanding their interaction with the environment. In research described here the involvement of microbial communities in the degradation of anthropogenic contaminants such as trichloroethylene (TCE) was studied using mass spectrometry-based proteomics. The co- metabolic degradation of TCE in the groundwater of the Snake River Plain Aquifer at the Test Area North (TAN) site of Idaho National Laboratory (INL) was monitored by the characterization of peptide sequences of enzymes such as methane monooxygenases (MMOs). MMOs, expressed by methanotrophic bacteria are involved in the oxidation of methane and non-specific co-metabolic oxidation of TCE. We developed a time- course cell lysis method to release proteins from complex microbial

  5. Restorative Mediation: The Application of Restorative Justice Practice and Philosophy to Clergy Sexual Abuse Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noll, Douglas E.; Harvey, Linda

    2008-01-01

    This article will present the restorative justice model and examine how the restorative justice philosophy and process can be applied to clergy-perpetrated sexual abuse and religious sexual misconduct to resolve legal claims and allow the process of healing to begin. Restorative justice is a holistic approach to criminal, civil, and church law…

  6. 15 CFR 990.53 - Restoration selection-developing restoration alternatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Restoration selection-developing... Restoration selection—developing restoration alternatives. (a) General. (1) If the information on injury... species, habitats, or public services that would facilitate the replacement of other, dependent...

  7. 15 CFR 990.53 - Restoration selection-developing restoration alternatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Restoration selection-developing... Restoration selection—developing restoration alternatives. (a) General. (1) If the information on injury... species, habitats, or public services that would facilitate the replacement of other, dependent...

  8. 15 CFR 990.53 - Restoration selection-developing restoration alternatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Restoration selection-developing... Restoration selection—developing restoration alternatives. (a) General. (1) If the information on injury... species, habitats, or public services that would facilitate the replacement of other, dependent...

  9. 15 CFR 990.53 - Restoration selection-developing restoration alternatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Restoration selection-developing... Restoration selection—developing restoration alternatives. (a) General. (1) If the information on injury... species, habitats, or public services that would facilitate the replacement of other, dependent...

  10. 15 CFR 990.53 - Restoration selection-developing restoration alternatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Restoration selection-developing... Restoration selection—developing restoration alternatives. (a) General. (1) If the information on injury... species, habitats, or public services that would facilitate the replacement of other, dependent...

  11. Microbial response to triepthylphosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Hazen, T.C.; Santo Domingo, J.W.; Berry, C.J.

    1997-05-01

    The effect of triethylphosphate (TEP) on the activity of a landfill aquifer microbial community was evaluated using standard techniques and in situ hybridizations with phylogenetic probes. Benzene was used as an external carbon source to monitor degradation of an aromatic compound in TEP amended microcosms. Microscopical and viable counts were higher in TEP containing microcosms when compared to unamended controls. A significant increase in metabolic activity was also observed for TEP amended samples as determined by the number of cells hybridizing to an eubacterial probe. In addition, the number of beta and gamma Proteobacteria increased from undetectable levels prior to the study to 15-29% of the total bacteria in microcosms containing TEP and benzene. In these microcosms, nearly 40% of the benzene was degraded during the incubation period compared to less than 5% in unamended microcosms. While TEP has previously been used as an alternate phosphate source in the bioremediation of chlorinated aliphatics, this study shows that it can also stimulate the microbial degradation of aromatics in phosphate limited aquifers.

  12. Overview of microbial biofilms.

    PubMed

    Costerton, J W

    1995-09-01

    As the success of this two-issue special section of the Journal of Industrial Microbiology attests, the study of microbial biofilms is truly burgeoning as the uniqueness and the importance of this mode of growth is increasingly recognized. Because of its universality the biofilm concept impacts virtually all of the subdivisions of Microbiology (including Medical, Dental, Agricultural, Industrial and Environmental) and these two issues incorporate contributions from authors in all of these disciplines. Some time ago we reasoned that bacteria cannot possibly be aware (sic) of their precise location, in terms of this spectrum of anthrocentric subspecialties, and that their behavior must be dictated by a standard set of phenotypic responses to environmental conditions in what must seem to them (sic) to be a continuum of very similar aquatic ecosystems. In this overview I will, therefore, stress the common features of microbial biofilms that we should bear in mind as we use this simple universal concept to seek to understand bacterial behavior in literally hundreds of aquatic ecosystems traditionally studied by dozens of subspecies of microbiologists reared in sharply different scientific and academic conventions.

  13. Microbial interactions during carrion decomposition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This addresses the microbial ecology of carrion decomposition in the age of metagenomics. It describes what is known about the microbial communities on carrion, including a brief synopsis about the communities on other organic matter sources. It provides a description of studies using state-of-the...

  14. Compositions of constructed microbial mats

    DOEpatents

    Bender, Judith A.; Phillips, Peter C.

    1999-01-01

    Compositions and methods of use of constructed microbial mats, comprising cyanobacteria and purple autotrophic bacteria and an organic nutrient source, in a laminated structure, are described. The constructed microbial mat is used for bioremediation of different individual contaminants and for mixed or multiple contaminants, and for production of beneficial compositions and molecules.

  15. The Promise of Microbial Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El Nawawy, Amin S.

    1982-01-01

    Prospects for microbial technology are discussed including: (1) possible transfer of nitrogen-fixing ability directly from bacteria to plant; (2) increasing food needs met through single-cell proteins and fermentation; (3) microbial production of antibiotics; and (4) increased biogas production. (Author/JN)

  16. Non-image Forming Light Detection by Melanopsin, Rhodopsin, and Long-Middlewave (L/W) Cone Opsin in the Subterranean Blind Mole Rat, Spalax Ehrenbergi: Immunohistochemical Characterization, Distribution, and Connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Esquiva, Gema; Avivi, Aaron; Hannibal, Jens

    2016-01-01

    The blind mole rat, Spalax ehrenbergi, can, despite severely degenerated eyes covered by fur, entrain to the daily light/dark cycle and adapt to seasonal changes due to an intact circadian timing system. The present study demonstrates that the Spalax retina contains a photoreceptor layer, an outer nuclear layer (ONL), an outer plexiform layer (OPL), an inner nuclear layer (INL), an inner plexiform layer (IPL), and a ganglion cell layer (GCL). By immunohistochemistry, the number of melanopsin (mRGCs) and non-melanopsin bearing retinal ganglion cells was analyzed in detail. Using the ganglion cell marker RNA-binding protein with multiple splicing (RBPMS) it was shown that the Spalax eye contains 890 ± 62 RGCs. Of these, 87% (752 ± 40) contain melanopsin (cell density 788 melanopsin RGCs/mm2). The remaining RGCs were shown to co-store Brn3a and calretinin. The melanopsin cells were located mainly in the GCL with projections forming two dendritic plexuses located in the inner part of the IPL and in the OPL. Few melanopsin dendrites were also found in the ONL. The Spalax retina is rich in rhodopsin and long/middle wave (L/M) cone opsin bearing photoreceptor cells. By using Ctbp2 as a marker for ribbon synapses, both rods and L/M cone ribbons containing pedicles in the OPL were found in close apposition with melanopsin dendrites in the outer plexus suggesting direct synaptic contact. A subset of cone bipolar cells and all photoreceptor cells contain recoverin while a subset of bipolar and amacrine cells contain calretinin. The calretinin expressing amacrine cells seemed to form synaptic contacts with rhodopsin containing photoreceptor cells in the OPL and contacts with melanopsin cell bodies and dendrites in the IPL. The study demonstrates the complex retinal circuitry used by the Spalax to detect light, and provides evidence for both melanopsin and non-melanopsin projecting pathways to the brain. PMID:27375437

  17. Restoring primary anterior teeth: updated for 2014.

    PubMed

    Waggoner, William F

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to review the current literature associated with the techniques and materials for the restoration of primary anterior teeth and make clinical recommendations based upon the available literature. A variety of esthetic restorative materials are available to utilize for restoring primary incisors. Awareness of the specific strengths, weakness, and properties of each material can enhance the clinician's ability to make the best choice of selection for each individual situation. Intracoronal restorations of primary teeth may utilize resin composites, glass ionomer cements, resin-modified ionomers, or polyacid-modified resins. Full coronal restoration of primary incisors may be indicated for a number of reasons. Crowns available for restoration of primary incisors include those that are directly bonded onto the tooth, which generally are a resin material, and crowns that are luted onto the tooth and are either some type of stainless steel or zirconia crown. There is insufficient controlled, clinical data to suggest that one type of restoration is superior to another. Operator preferences, esthetic demands by parents, the child's behavior, the amount of tooth structure remaining, and moisture and hemorrhage control are all variables that affect the decision and ultimate outcome of whatever restorative solution is chosen.

  18. Restoration of a fractured primary incisor.

    PubMed

    Romero, M; Saez, M; Cabrerizo, C

    2001-01-01

    Esthetic restoration on primary teeth has been a special challenge to pediatric dentists. Composite restorations are the most often used treatment for decay and fractures of primary teeth, however, there are other possible alternatives. We present a case in which we have used an acrylic crown to treat a fractured primary incisor in a 1.8 years old child.

  19. Restoration of missing or misplaced canines.

    PubMed

    Bower, C F; Reinhardt, R A

    1985-06-01

    Restorative treatments for canines were discussed to correct three clinical abnormalities: (1) fully erupted permanent canine in the lateral incisor position, (2) missing permanent canines, and (3) partially exposed canines in normal arch position. The primary concerns are the development of esthetics, anterior guidance, and adequate support for fixed restorations.

  20. Wetland restoration, flood pulsing, and disturbance dynamics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Middleton, Beth A.

    1999-01-01

    While it is generally accepted that flood pulsing and disturbance dynamics are critical to wetland viability, there is as yet no consensus among those responsible for wetland restoration about how best to plan for those phenomena or even whether it is really necessary to do so at all. In this groundbreaking book, Dr. Beth Middleton draws upon the latest research from around the world to build a strong case for making flood pulsing and disturbance dynamics integral to the wetland restoration planning process.While the initial chapters of the book are devoted to laying the conceptual foundations, most of the coverage is concerned with demonstrating the practical implications for wetland restoration and management of the latest ecological theory and research. It includes a fascinating case history section in which Dr. Middleton explores the restoration models used in five major North American, European, Australian, African, and Asian wetland projects, and analyzes their relative success from the perspective of flood pulsing and disturbance dynamics planning.Wetland Restoration also features a wealth of practical information useful to all those involved in wetland restoration and management, including: * A compendium of water level tolerances, seed germination, seedling recruitment, adult survival rates, and other key traits of wetland plant species * A bibliography of 1,200 articles and monographs covering all aspects of wetland restoration * A comprehensive directory of wetland restoration ftp sites worldwide * An extensive glossary of essential terms