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Sample records for microbiol infect dis

  1. ParaDIS_lib

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, Richard D.

    2016-05-25

    The ParaDIS_lib software is a project that is funded by the DOE ASC Program. Its purpose is to provide visualization and analysis capabilities for the existing ParaDIS parallel dislocation dynamics simulation code.

  2. Unparticle physics in DIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Gui-Jun; Yan, Mu-Lin

    2007-10-01

    The unparticle stuff scenario related to the nontrivial IR fixed point in 4D-conformal field theory was recently suggested by Georgi. We illustrate its physical effects in the deep inelastic scattering (DIS) process. The possible signals of the unparticle related to parity violation asymmetry in DIS is investigated. It is found out that the behavior of this parity violation signal is sensitive to the value of the scale dimension dU of the unparticle.

  3. DIS, DIS++ and the High Level Architecture (DIS, DIS++ en de High Level Architecture)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-12-01

    gedistribueerde simulaties zijn andere vormen van tijd- management en -synchronisatie noodza- kelijk (bijv. bij event-driven wargames en bij simulaties...Standards Organization. TNO-rapport FEL-96-A273 7 - Federation Development track - Federation Development Process Forum - Exercise Management Forum - VV&A...Response). De 1278.1-1995 (DIS versie 2.0) voegde daaraan toe: "* Simulation Management PDU’s (12 PDU’s: Create Entity, Remove Entity, Start/Resume, Stop

  4. Kick Dis Power Puck

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, John E.

    2004-03-01

    There is a new toy available that can be used to demonstrate many interesting physics principles. It is called the "Kick Dis Power Puck" and is basically a round plastic hovercraft with a soft cushion material around the perimeter (Fig. 1). It is a product of the Estes Company, which is well known for their model rockets, and is available from advertisers in this journal.1,2 The puck has a diameter of 19.5 cm and comes in two colors, red or green. The two samples I purchased had masses of 307 g and 303 g, respectively. There is a forceful, built-in fan, which is run by a rechargeable battery and powers the puck for about 30 minutes. A 9-V battery charger completes the package, which sells for about 45.

  5. DoD Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System -- Partnering in the Fight Against Emerging Infections, Fiscal Year 2006

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-02-01

    Administration Jennifer Bondarenko, Steve Gubenia Composition/Printing Deborah Ford, Henry M. Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine ISBN...Montano, A. Laguna-Torres, L. Suarez, J. Sanchez, P. Campos , C. Gallardo, C. Mosquera, M. Villafane, N. Aguayo, M.M. Avila, M. Weissenbacher, E. Ramirez, R...Microbiol Infect Dis 54:263-6. 10. Henry , K.M., J. Jiang, P.J. Rozmajzl, A.F. Azad, K.R. Macaluso, and A.L. Richards. 2006. Development of quantitative

  6. Identities of Dis/Ability and Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Michael; Ridley, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Centring on a small-scale capability-based case study of music provision for adults with profound dis/abilities, this paper considers the significance of music and music education in people's lives. It offers a philosophical defence of music's importance in enjoying a truly human life and then, drawing on an overview of the work of dis/abled…

  7. Treatment of feline leukemia virus (FeLV) infection.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, K; Block, A; Ferk, G; Beer, B; Vollmar, A; Lutz, H

    1999-09-01

    FeLV infection is still considered to account for most disease-related deaths in pet cats. Different treatment attempts with various drugs were performed in the past but none resulted in healing or complete virus elimination. Therefore, it caused a sensation when Horber and Mayr [Horber, D., Mayr, B., 1991. Prax. 19, 311-314; Horber, D., Schnabl, W., Mayr, B., 1992. Tierarztl. Umschau 47, 556-560; Mayr, B., Horber, D., 1992. Kleintierprax. 37, 515-518] published that they were able to cure 80 to 100% FeLV-infected cats from viremia by using an immunomodulating compound. Articles in cat breeder and cat owner journals appeared assuming that obviously there is a rescue for FeLV-infected cats suffering from this deadly infection. The immunomodulator [Buttner, M., 1993. Comp. Immun. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 18, 1-10] used in those studies was the so-called 'paramunity inducer' PIND-ORF (Baypamun, Bayer, Leverkusen, Germany) consisting of inactivated parapox ovis virus. Since that time, Baypamun is the most commonly used drug for treatment of FeLV infection in Germany and other European countries. Four placebo-controlled double-blind trials were performed to determine the therapeutic efficacy of Baypamun and other compounds in naturally FeLV-infected cats under controlled conditions.

  8. Two-Photon Exchange in (Semi-)Inclusive DIS

    SciTech Connect

    Schlegel, M.; Metz, A.

    2009-08-04

    In this note we consider effects of a Two-Photon Exchange (TPE) in inclusive DIS and semi-inclusive DIS (SIDIS). In particular, transverse single spin asymmetries are generated in inclusive DIS if more than one photon is exchanged between the lepton and the hadron. We briefly summarize the TPE in DIS in the parton model and extend our approach to SIDIS, where a new leading twist sin(2{phi}) contribution to the longitudinal beam spin asymmetry shows up. Possible TPE effects for the Sivers and the Collins asymmetries in SIDIS are power-suppressed.

  9. Two-Photon Exchange in (Semi-)Inclusive DIS

    SciTech Connect

    Schlegel, Marc; Metz, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    In this note we consider effects of a Two-Photon Exchange (TPE) in inclusive DIS and semi-inclusive DIS (SIDIS). In particular, transverse single spin asymmetries are generated in inclusive DIS if more than one photon is exchanged between the lepton and the hadron. We briefly summarize the TPE in DIS in the parton model and extend our approach to SIDIS, where a new leading twist $\\sin(2\\phi)$ contribution to the longitudinal beam spin asymmetry shows up. Possible TPE effects for the Sivers and the Collins asymmetries in SIDIS are power-suppressed.

  10. The human core exosome interacts with differentially localized processive RNases: hDIS3 and hDIS3L

    PubMed Central

    Tomecki, Rafal; Kristiansen, Maiken S; Lykke-Andersen, Søren; Chlebowski, Aleksander; Larsen, Katja M; Szczesny, Roman J; Drazkowska, Karolina; Pastula, Agnieszka; Andersen, Jens S; Stepien, Piotr P; Dziembowski, Andrzej; Jensen, Torben Heick

    2010-01-01

    The eukaryotic RNA exosome is a ribonucleolytic complex involved in RNA processing and turnover. It consists of a nine-subunit catalytically inert core that serves a structural function and participates in substrate recognition. Best defined in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, enzymatic activity comes from the associated subunits Dis3p (Rrp44p) and Rrp6p. The former is a nuclear and cytoplasmic RNase II/R-like enzyme, which possesses both processive exo- and endonuclease activities, whereas the latter is a distributive RNase D-like nuclear exonuclease. Although the exosome core is highly conserved, identity and arrangements of its catalytic subunits in different vertebrates remain elusive. Here, we demonstrate the association of two different Dis3p homologs—hDIS3 and hDIS3L—with the human exosome core. Interestingly, these factors display markedly different intracellular localizations: hDIS3 is mainly nuclear, whereas hDIS3L is strictly cytoplasmic. This compartmental distribution reflects the substrate preferences of the complex in vivo. Both hDIS3 and hDIS3L are active exonucleases; however, only hDIS3 has retained endonucleolytic activity. Our data suggest that three different ribonucleases can serve as catalytic subunits for the exosome in human cells. PMID:20531386

  11. Precision QCD measurements in DIS at HERA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Britzger, Daniel

    2016-08-01

    New and recent results on QCD measurements from the H1 and ZEUS experiments at the HERA ep collider are reviewed. The final results on the combined deep-inelastic neutral and charged current cross-sections are presented and their role in the extractions of parton distribution functions (PDFs) is studied. The PDF fits give insight into the compatibility of QCD evolution and heavy flavor schemes with the data as a function of kinematic variables such as the scale Q2. Measurements of jet production cross-sections in ep collisions provide direct proves of QCD and extractions of the strong coupling constants are performed. Charm and beauty cross-section measurements are used for the determination of the heavy quark masses. Their role in PDF fits is investigated. In the regime of diffractive DIS and photoproduction, dijet and prompt photon production cross-sections provide insights into the process of factorization and the nature of the diffractive exchange.

  12. The Development and Validation of the Dieting Intentions Scale (DIS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cruwys, Tegan; Platow, Michael J.; Rieger, Elizabeth; Byrne, Don G.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents information on the psychometric properties of the Dieting Intentions Scale (DIS), a new scale of dieting that predicts future behavioral efforts to lose weight. We begin by reviewing recent research indicating theoretical and empirical problems with traditional approaches to measuring dieting. The DIS addresses several of…

  13. (dis)Ability and Postsecondary Education: One Woman's Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Melissa; MacDonald, Judy E.; Jacquard, Sarah; Mcneil, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    The storied experiences of a (dis)Abled student negotiating postsecondary education in Canada are highlighted within this article, including advocacy strategies and a critique of related policies. Persons with (dis)Abilities are a particularly marginalized population, traditionally excluded from society, with modern day views of pity or heroics…

  14. The development and validation of the Dieting Intentions Scale (DIS).

    PubMed

    Cruwys, Tegan; Platow, Michael J; Rieger, Elizabeth; Byrne, Don G

    2013-03-01

    This article presents information on the psychometric properties of the Dieting Intentions Scale (DIS), a new scale of dieting that predicts future behavioral efforts to lose weight. We begin by reviewing recent research indicating theoretical and empirical problems with traditional approaches to measuring dieting. The DIS addresses several of these problems by (a) focusing on naturalistic dieting behavior and (b) being future-oriented. Four validation studies are presented with a total of 741 participants. We demonstrate that the DIS has predictive utility for dieting behaviors and is positively correlated with other measures related to eating, weight, and shape. Furthermore, the DIS demonstrates discriminant validity by not being related to constructs such as self-esteem and social desirability. The DIS also has high internal consistency, with a 1-factor solution replicated with confirmatory factor analysis. The potential uses of the scale in both research and clinical settings are considered.

  15. Mea Culpa: Formal Education and the Dis-Integrated World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coppola, Brian P.; Daniels, Douglas S.

    Formal education has removed itself so far from any truly integrated view of the Natural World that fragmentation and certainty are prevailing ethics. Technological progress has resulted in increased specialization within academic disciplines and their concurrent separation from each other. Knowledge is extracted from a fully integrated world, but is examined and defined by the 'dis-integrated' objectives.

  16. DisVis: Visualizing Discussion Threads in Online Health Communities

    PubMed Central

    Nakikj, Drashko; Mamykina, Lena

    2016-01-01

    An increasing number of individuals turn to online health communities (OHC) for information, advice and support about their health condition or disease. As a result of users’ active participation, these forums store overwhelming volumes of information, which can make access to this information challenging and frustrating. To help overcome this problem we designed a discussion visualization tool DisVis. DisVis includes features for overviewing, browsing and finding particular information in a discussion. In a between subjects study, we tested the impact of DisVis on individuals’ ability to provide an overview of a discussion, find topics of interest and summarize opinions. The study showed that after using the tool, the accuracy of participants’ answers increased by 68% (p-value = 0.023) while at the same time exhibiting trends for reducing the time to answer by 38% with no statistical significance (p-value = 0.082). Qualitative interviews showed general enthusiasm regarding tools for improving browsing and searching for information within discussion forums, suggested different usage scenarios, highlighted opportunities for improving the design of DisVis, and outlined new directions for visualizing user-generated content within OHCs. PMID:28269891

  17. Isolated Photons + Jets in DIS and Photoproduction at ZEUS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuprash, Oleg

    2013-12-01

    In this report, recent measurements of the production of isolated photons accompanied by jets in DIS and photo-production at HERA are presented. The measurements are compared to the perturbative QCD calculations and to the predictions made within the kT-factorisation QCD approach. A reasonable level of agreement between data and the predictions of both types is observed, however there is still room for the theories to be improved.

  18. Nuclear higher-twist effects in eA DIS

    SciTech Connect

    Zakharov, B. G.

    2009-03-23

    We discuss the relation between the treatments of the higher twist nuclear effects in eA DIS based on the pQCD collinear approximation and the light-cone path integral formalism. We show that in the collinear approximation the N = 1 rescattering contribution to the gluon emission vanishes. It is demonstrated that the nonzero gluon spectrum obtained by Guo, Wang and Zhang is a consequence of unjustified neglect of some terms in the collinear expansion.

  19. General mass scheme for jet production in DIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotko, P.; Slominski, W.

    2012-11-01

    We propose a method for calculating DIS jet production cross sections in QCD at NLO accuracy with consistent treatment of heavy quarks. The scheme relies on the dipole subtraction method for jets, which we extend to all possible initial state splittings with heavy partons, so that the Aivazis-Collins-Olness-Tung massive collinear factorization scheme can be applied. As a first check of the formalism we recover the Aivazis-Collins-Olness-Tung result for the heavy quark structure function using a dedicated Monte Carlo program.

  20. Experimental Results in DIS, SIDIS and DES from Jefferson Lab

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhn, Sebastian E.

    2011-07-15

    Jefferson Lab's electron accelerator in its present incarnation, with a maximum beam energy slightly above 6 GeV, has already enabled a large number of experiments expanding our knowledge of nucleon and nuclear structure (especially in Deep Inelastic Scattering--DIS--at moderately high x, and in the resonance region). Several pioneering experiments have yielded first results on Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) and other Deep Exclusive Processes (DES), and the exploration of the rich landscape of transverse momentum-dependent (TMD) structure functions using Semi-Inclusive electron scattering (SIDIS) has begun. With the upgrade of CEBAF to 12 GeV now underway, a significantly larger kinematic space will become available. The 12 GeV program taking shape will complete a detailed mapping of inclusive, TMD and generalized distribution functions for quarks, antiquarks and gluons in the valence region and beyond.

  1. Infection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    standing, diagnosis, and treatment of musculoskeletal infections. Key Words: musculoskeletal infection, biofilm , bacteria, biomaterial (J Orthop Trauma...form a biofilm , or slime layer.1 The recurrence of infections is often the result of microbial biofilm formation on the implant, enabling the persistence...Klebsiella pneumoniae). Staphylococcus species is by far the most studied pathogen in musculoskeletal infections and can produce a multilayered biofilm

  2. Talking (and Not Talking) about Race, Social Class and Dis/Ability: Working Margin to Margin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferri, Beth A.; Connor, David J.

    2014-01-01

    In this article we examine some of the omnipresent yet unacknowledged discourses of social and economic disadvantage and dis/ability within schools in the US. First, we document ways that social class, race, and dis/ability function within schools to further disadvantage and exclude already marginalized students. Next, we show how particular ways…

  3. Children with Dis/abilities in Namibia, Africa: Uncovering Complexities of Exclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartlett, Maggie

    2010-01-01

    Children with dis/abilities the world over are widely required to sacrifice their human rights to education, equity, community, and inclusion. Fewer than 10% of children with dis/abilities in developing countries attend school. Namibia, Africa, where this study took place, is no different. Despite Namibia's adoption of international covenants and…

  4. Distributed interactive simulation virtual cassette recorder (DIS VCR); A datalogger with variable speed replay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortner, Jonathan L.

    1994-12-01

    The overall objective of the Distributed Interactive Simulation Virtual Cassette Recorder (DIS VCR) is to add a flexible replay capability to any DIS environment and specifically to the Remote Debriefing Tool (RDT). The DIS VCR's abilities include selective filtering of incoming DIS Protocol Data Units (PDUs), variable-speed replays, ability to pause, fast-forward, rewind, efficient data storage and retrieval, and an interface that simplifies the execution of those functions. The thesis includes a DIS VCR-compatible design for concurrent replay of audio extracted from signal PDUs and an extension to the replay design that supports unmodifiable rendering or receiving applications. For variable-speed replays, the authors created a scalable simulation clock and a new PDU (the Replay PDU). Applications modified for replays use the simulation clock to govern their dead reckoning algorithms while the DIS VCR uses it to control the timed release of stored PDUs. The Replay PDU communicates mode and speed changes between the DIS VCR and replay-modified applications. The DIS VCR's full functionality was successfully demonstrated at the 1994 AFA convention.

  5. DIS[subscript 2]ECT: A Framework for Effective Inclusive Science Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spaulding, Lucinda S.; Flannagan, Jenny Sue

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide special education and general education teachers a framework (DIS[subscript 2]ECT) for teaching science in inclusive settings. DIS2ECT stands for Design (Backwards); Individualization; Scaffolding and Strategies; Experiential learning; Cooperative Learning; and Teamwork. This framework was derived from our…

  6. Cumulative Viral Load and Virologic Decay Patterns after Antiretroviral Therapy in HIV-Infected Subjects Influence CD4 Recovery and AIDS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-20

    study). The Antiproteases Cohorte Agence Nationale de Recherches sur le SIDA EP 11 study. J Infect Dis 186: 710–714. 8. Hermankova M, Ray SC, Ruff C... Sida (ANRS) CO3 Aquitaine Cohort. Clin Infect Dis 49: 1109–1116. 59. Choi AI, Shlipak MG, Hunt PW, Martin JN, Deeks SG (2009) HIV-infected persons

  7. Hemostatic effects of recombinant DisBa-01, a disintegrin from Bothrops alternatus.

    PubMed

    Kauskot, Alexandre; Cominetti, Marcia R; Ramos, Oscar H P; Bechyne, Iga; Renard, Jean-Marie; Hoylaerts, Marc F; Crepin, Michel; Legrand, Chantal; Selistre-de-Araujo, Heloisa S; Bonnefoy, Arnaud

    2008-05-01

    A monomeric RGD-disintegrin was recently identified from a cDNA library from the venom gland of Bothrops alternatus. The corresponding 12 kDa-recombinant protein, DisBa-01, specifically interacted with alpha(v)beta3 integrin and displayed potent anti-metastatic and anti-angiogenic properties. Here, the interaction of DisBa-01 with platelet alphaIIb beta3 integrin and its effects on hemostasis and thrombosis were investigated. DisBa-01 bound to Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells expressing beta3 or alphaIIb beta3 and promoted their adhesion and the adhesion of resting platelets onto glass coverslips. The disintegrin inhibited the binding of FITC-fibrinogen and FITC-PAC-1 to ADP-stimulated platelets and inhibited ADP-, TRAP- and collagen-induced aggregation of murine, rabbit or human platelets. In a flow chamber assay, DisBa-01 inhibited and reverted platelet adhesion to immobilized fibrinogen. DisBa-01 inhibited the phosphorylation of FAK following platelet activation. The intravenous injection of DisBa-01 in C57Bl6/j mice, prolonged tail bleeding time as well as thrombotic occlusion time in mesenteric venules and arterioles following vessel injury with FeCl3. In conclusion, DisBa-01 antagonizes the platelet alphaIIb beta3 integrin and potently inhibits thrombosis.

  8. Analytic calculation of 1-jettiness in DIS at O (αs)

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Daekyoung; Lee, Christopher; Stewart, Iain W.

    2014-11-01

    We present an analytic O(αs) calculation of cross sections in deep inelastic scattering (DIS) dependent on an event shape, 1-jettiness, that probes final states with one jet plus initial state radiation. This is the first entirely analytic calculation for a DIS event shape cross section at this order. We present results for the differential and cumulative 1-jettiness cross sections, and express both in terms of structure functions dependent not only on the usual DIS variables x, Q 2 but also on the 1-jettiness τ. Combined with previous results for log resummation, predictions are obtained over the entire range of the 1-jettiness distribution.

  9. Infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... 23(4):251-69. Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology (APIC) guideline. Back to Top Administration ... : Hospital Scope | Glossary | References | Site Map | Credits Freedom of ...

  10. DisSim: an online system for exploring significant similar diseases and exhibiting potential therapeutic drugs

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Liang; Jiang, Yue; Wang, Zhenzhen; Shi, Hongbo; Sun, Jie; Yang, Haixiu; Zhang, Shuo; Hu, Yang; Zhou, Meng

    2016-01-01

    The similarity of pair-wise diseases reveals the molecular relationships between them. For example, similar diseases have the potential to be treated by common therapeutic chemicals (TCs). In this paper, we introduced DisSim, an online system for exploring similar diseases, and comparing corresponding TCs. Currently, DisSim implemented five state-of-the-art methods to measure the similarity between Disease Ontology (DO) terms and provide the significance of the similarity score. Furthermore, DisSim integrated TCs of diseases from the Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD), which can help to identify potential relationships between TCs and similar diseases. The system can be accessed from http://123.59.132.21:8080/DisSim. PMID:27457921

  11. Emergent properties define the subjective nature of health and dis-ease.

    PubMed

    Sturmberg, Joachim P

    2014-08-01

    Health and dis-ease by their etymological origins refer to an evaluative, not objective, state. Health is an adaptive state, constantly reestablishing itself through interactions between the many biological, social, emotional, and cognitive factors in a person's life. Such adaptive processes define health as an emergent state. Outcomes of emergent phenomena are not precisely predictable and reside in a phase space that contains all possible states ranging from perfect to poor health states, the latter reflecting dis-ease. However, we have seen a migration of meaning from the subjective, dis-ease, to the objective, disease, referring to uniquely identifiable biomedical change. Clinical reality though teaches us that many experiences of dis-ease are not associated with any objective abnormality, an insight with important implications for clinical care and health policy.

  12. DisPredict: A Predictor of Disordered Protein Using Optimized RBF Kernel

    PubMed Central

    Iqbal, Sumaiya; Hoque, Md Tamjidul

    2015-01-01

    Intrinsically disordered proteins or, regions perform important biological functions through their dynamic conformations during binding. Thus accurate identification of these disordered regions have significant implications in proper annotation of function, induced fold prediction and drug design to combat critical diseases. We introduce DisPredict, a disorder predictor that employs a single support vector machine with RBF kernel and novel features for reliable characterization of protein structure. DisPredict yields effective performance. In addition to 10-fold cross validation, training and testing of DisPredict was conducted with independent test datasets. The results were consistent with both the training and test error minimal. The use of multiple data sources, makes the predictor generic. The datasets used in developing the model include disordered regions of various length which are categorized as short and long having different compositions, different types of disorder, ranging from fully to partially disordered regions as well as completely ordered regions. Through comparison with other state of the art approaches and case studies, DisPredict is found to be a useful tool with competitive performance. DisPredict is available at https://github.com/tamjidul/DisPredict_v1.0. PMID:26517719

  13. Infection,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-10-16

    inapparent infection. A refeeding program may thus become complicated by the sudden appearance of a life-threatening infectious illness (3). (3) The...Beisel, W. R. 23 Unusually low serum concentrations of inorganic phosphate have been reported in patients with gram-negative sepsis and in Reye’s syndrome ...infection should be corrected by a well-managed program of convalescent-period refeeding . This aspect of nutritional support is too often ignored. On the

  14. The 3' to 5' Exoribonuclease DIS3: From Structure and Mechanisms to Biological Functions and Role in Human Disease

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Sophie R.; Oliver, Antony W.; Chevassut, Timothy J.; Newbury, Sarah F.

    2015-01-01

    DIS3 is a conserved exoribonuclease and catalytic subunit of the exosome, a protein complex involved in the 3' to 5' degradation and processing of both nuclear and cytoplasmic RNA species. Recently, aberrant expression of DIS3 has been found to be implicated in a range of different cancers. Perhaps most striking is the finding that DIS3 is recurrently mutated in 11% of multiple myeloma patients. Much work has been done to elucidate the structural and biochemical characteristics of DIS3, including the mechanistic details of its role as an effector of RNA decay pathways. Nevertheless, we do not understand how DIS3 mutations can lead to cancer. There are a number of studies that pertain to the function of DIS3 at the organismal level. Mutant phenotypes in S. pombe, S. cerevisiae and Drosophila suggest DIS3 homologues have a common role in cell-cycle progression and microtubule assembly. DIS3 has also recently been implicated in antibody diversification of mouse B-cells. This article aims to review current knowledge of the structure, mechanisms and functions of DIS3 as well as highlighting the genetic patterns observed within myeloma patients, in order to yield insight into the putative role of DIS3 mutations in oncogenesis. PMID:26193331

  15. Analytic calculation of 1-jettiness in DIS at O (αs)

    DOE PAGES

    Kang, Daekyoung; Lee, Christopher; Stewart, Iain W.

    2014-11-01

    We present an analytic O(αs) calculation of cross sections in deep inelastic scattering (DIS) dependent on an event shape, 1-jettiness, that probes final states with one jet plus initial state radiation. This is the first entirely analytic calculation for a DIS event shape cross section at this order. We present results for the differential and cumulative 1-jettiness cross sections, and express both in terms of structure functions dependent not only on the usual DIS variables x, Q 2 but also on the 1-jettiness τ. Combined with previous results for log resummation, predictions are obtained over the entire range of themore » 1-jettiness distribution.« less

  16. Roof-harvested rainwater for potable purposes: application of solar collector disinfection (SOCO-DIS).

    PubMed

    Amin, M T; Han, M Y

    2009-12-01

    The efficiency of solar disinfection (SODIS), recommended by the World Health Organization, has been determined for rainwater disinfection, and potential benefits and limitations discussed. The limitations of SODIS have now been overcome by the use of solar collector disinfection (SOCO-DIS), for potential use of rainwater as a small-scale potable water supply, especially in developing countries. Rainwater samples collected from the underground storage tanks of a rooftop rainwater harvesting (RWH) system were exposed to different conditions of sunlight radiation in 2-L polyethylene terephthalate bottles in a solar collector with rectangular base and reflective open wings. Total and fecal coliforms were used, together with Escherichia coli and heterotrophic plate counts, as basic microbial and indicator organisms of water quality for disinfection efficiency evaluation. In the SOCO-DIS system, disinfection improved by 20-30% compared with the SODIS system, and rainwater was fully disinfected even under moderate weather conditions, due to the effects of concentrated sunlight radiation and the synergistic effects of thermal and optical inactivation. The SOCO-DIS system was optimized based on the collector configuration and the reflective base: an inclined position led to an increased disinfection efficiency of 10-15%. Microbial inactivation increased by 10-20% simply by reducing the initial pH value of the rainwater to 5. High turbidities also affected the SOCO-DIS system; the disinfection efficiency decreased by 10-15%, which indicated that rainwater needed to be filtered before treatment. The problem of microbial regrowth was significantly reduced in the SOCO-DIS system compared with the SODIS system because of residual sunlight effects. Only total coliform regrowth was detected at higher turbidities. The SOCO-DIS system was ineffective only under poor weather conditions, when longer exposure times or other practical means of reducing the pH were required for the

  17. Validation of the MG-DIS: a disability assessment for myasthenia gravis.

    PubMed

    Raggi, Alberto; Leonardi, Matilde; Schiavolin, Silvia; Antozzi, Carlo; Brenna, Greta; Maggi, Lorenzo; Mantegazza, Renato

    2016-05-01

    This paper is aimed to present the validation of the myasthenia gravis disability assessment (MG-DIS), a MG-specific patient-reported disability outcome measure. Consecutive MG patients were enrolled, followed-up for 12 months and administered the SF-36, the WHO disability assessment schedule (WHODAS 2.0) and the preliminary 31-item MG-DIS addressing impairments and activity limitations. Factor structure and metric properties were assessed. In total, 109 patients were enrolled: 76 were females, mean age 50, mean MG duration 10.4 years, 86 were AChR-positive. The MG-DIS was reduced to 20 items, explaining 70.6 % of the original questionnaire variance, four subscales (generalized impairment-related problems; bulbar function-related problems; mental health and fatigue-related problems; vision-related problems) and an overall disability index. The MG-DIS has good metric properties (Cronbach's alpha ranging between .808 and .930), is stable, showed to be more sensitive than the WHODAS 2.0 and SF-36 to detect group differences and longitudinal changes and was well correlated with the MG-composite (.642). The MG-DIS includes items representing ocular, generalized, bulbar and respiratory symptoms, and is therefore well-built around MG-specific features. MG-DIS can be used in clinical trials as well as in observational or epidemiological studies to characterize patients' disability level and address the amount of improvement in disability. Further studies are needed to explore the possibility of a shorter disability scale.

  18. Utilizing a Low-Cost, Laser-Driven Interactive System (LaDIS) to Improve Learning in Developing Rural Regions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liou, Wei-Kai; Chang, Chun-Yen

    2014-01-01

    This study proposes an innovation Laser-Driven Interactive System (LaDIS), utilizing general IWBs (Interactive Whiteboard) didactics, to support student learning for rural and developing regions. LaDIS is a system made to support traditional classroom practices between an instructor and a group of students. This invention effectively transforms a…

  19. A Socio-Cultural Reframing of Science and Dis/ability in Education: Past Problems, Current Concerns, and Future Possibilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connor, David J.; Valle, Jan W.

    2015-01-01

    In this article we assert the value of a socio-cultural reframing of science and dis/ability in education. We begin by problematizing current issues in education pertaining to the often-unquestioned concept of dis/ability and the impact that has upon research, theory, practice, and policy. As our topic is broad, we have chosen to focus upon four…

  20. Performances of Student Activism: Sound, Silence, Gender, and Dis/ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasque, Penny A.; Vargas, Juanita Gamez

    2014-01-01

    This chapter explores the various performances of activism by students through sound, silence, gender, and dis/ability and how these performances connect to social change efforts around issues such as human trafficking, homeless children, hunger, and children with varying abilities.

  1. Scripted Curriculum: What Movies Teach about Dis/ability and Black Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agosto, Vonzell

    2014-01-01

    Background/Context: Tropes of dis/ability in the movies and master-narratives of Black males in education and society are typically treated in isolation. Furthermore, education research on Hollywood movies has typically focused on portrayals of schools, principals, and teachers even though education professionals are exposed to a broader range of…

  2. Pion content of the nucleon in polarized semi-inclusive DIS

    SciTech Connect

    Melnitchouk, W.; Thomas, A.W.

    1994-04-01

    An explicit pionic component of the nucleon may be identified by measuring polarized {Delta}{sup ++} fragments produced in deep-inelastic scattering (DIS) off polarized protons. The pion-exchange model predicts highly correlated polarizations of the {Delta}{sup ++} and target proton, in marked contrast with the competing diquark fragmentation process.

  3. Arts Integration: An Exploration of the Dis/Connect between Policy and Live(d) Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaJevic, Lisa M.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation explores the dis/connect between arts integration policy (i.e. written texts and curriculum documents) and the live(d) practice of teachers working with arts integration. Although previous studies have examined how arts integration is implemented in schools and how it affects student achievement, particularly standardized test…

  4. AuDis: an automatic CRF-enhanced disease normalization in biomedical text.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hsin-Chun; Hsu, Yi-Yu; Kao, Hung-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Diseases play central roles in many areas of biomedical research and healthcare. Consequently, aggregating the disease knowledge and treatment research reports becomes an extremely critical issue, especially in rapid-growth knowledge bases (e.g. PubMed). We therefore developed a system, AuDis, for disease mention recognition and normalization in biomedical texts. Our system utilizes an order two conditional random fields model. To optimize the results, we customize several post-processing steps, including abbreviation resolution, consistency improvement and stopwords filtering. As the official evaluation on the CDR task in BioCreative V, AuDis obtained the best performance (86.46% of F-score) among 40 runs (16 unique teams) on disease normalization of the DNER sub task. These results suggest that AuDis is a high-performance recognition system for disease recognition and normalization from biomedical literature.Database URL: http://ikmlab.csie.ncku.edu.tw/CDR2015/AuDis.html.

  5. AuDis: an automatic CRF-enhanced disease normalization in biomedical text

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hsin-Chun; Hsu, Yi-Yu; Kao, Hung-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Diseases play central roles in many areas of biomedical research and healthcare. Consequently, aggregating the disease knowledge and treatment research reports becomes an extremely critical issue, especially in rapid-growth knowledge bases (e.g. PubMed). We therefore developed a system, AuDis, for disease mention recognition and normalization in biomedical texts. Our system utilizes an order two conditional random fields model. To optimize the results, we customize several post-processing steps, including abbreviation resolution, consistency improvement and stopwords filtering. As the official evaluation on the CDR task in BioCreative V, AuDis obtained the best performance (86.46% of F-score) among 40 runs (16 unique teams) on disease normalization of the DNER sub task. These results suggest that AuDis is a high-performance recognition system for disease recognition and normalization from biomedical literature. Database URL: http://ikmlab.csie.ncku.edu.tw/CDR2015/AuDis.html PMID:27278815

  6. 32 CFR 298.4 - Procedures for release of DIS records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... will be notified by DIS of the defect. (2) The request must contain the first name, middle name or initial, surname, date and place of birth, social security number, and, if applicable, military service... the requester is notified in writing. If a significant number of requests prevents responding in...

  7. 32 CFR 298.4 - Procedures for release of DIS records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... will be notified by DIS of the defect. (2) The request must contain the first name, middle name or initial, surname, date and place of birth, social security number, and, if applicable, military service... the requester is notified in writing. If a significant number of requests prevents responding in...

  8. The Regulatory Environment: A Source of Job (Dis)Satisfaction for Early Childhood Professionals?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenech, Marianne; Sumsion, Jennifer; Robertson, Greg; Goodfellow, Joy

    2008-01-01

    This article extends current understandings of sources of job (dis)satisfaction for childcare staff by investigating the hypothesis that early childhood professionals' satisfaction with regulatory requirements is a predictor of job satisfaction. Findings show that for early childhood professionals in New South Wales, Australia, satisfaction with…

  9. The Transparency of Evil in "The Leftovers" and Its Implications for Student (Dis)engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Kessel, Cathryn

    2016-01-01

    The HBO series, "The Leftovers," provides a thought-provoking platform for discussing Baudrillard's conceptualization of evil and the implications for contemporary pedagogical discourse about student (dis)engagement. The dystopic scenario of 2% of the world's population suddenly disappearing might help us rethink our own society,…

  10. Short-range and long-range correlations in DIS at HERA.

    SciTech Connect

    Chekanov, S. V.; Zawiejski, L.

    1999-09-23

    Correlations in deep-inelastic scattering (DIS) at HERA are investigated in order to test perturbative QCD and quark fragmentation universality. Two-particle correlations at small angular separations are measured in the Breit frame and compared to e{sup +}e{sup -} collisions. Also presented are the correlations between the current and target regions of the Breit frame.

  11. Choriodecidual inflammatory syndrome (CoDIS) is the leading, and under recognised, cause of early preterm delivery and second trimester miscarriage.

    PubMed

    Sebire, N J

    2001-04-01

    Severe preterm birth (delivery before 32 completed weeks of gestation), with or without preterm premature rupture of the membranes (PPROM), remains the leading cause of perinatal mortality. It is proposed that localized inflammation of the chorion and decidua in the membranes immediately above the internal cervical os, with or without amniotic cavity infection and inflammation, is the leading, but under recognised, cause of second trimester miscarriage and severe preterm delivery. The term 'CoDIS' (choriodecidual inflammatory syndrome), may provide a better understanding of the underlying pathophysiology than currently used terminology which over emphasizes the importance of overt intra-amniotic infection as opposed to localized extra-amniotic inflammation which stimulates uterine evacuation.

  12. Dis3- and exosome subunit-responsive 3 Prime mRNA instability elements

    SciTech Connect

    Kiss, Daniel L.; Hou, Dezhi; Gross, Robert H.; Andrulis, Erik D.

    2012-07-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Successful use of a novel RNA-specific bioinformatic tool, RNA SCOPE. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Identified novel 3 Prime UTR cis-acting element that destabilizes a reporter mRNA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Show exosome subunits are required for cis-acting element-mediated mRNA instability. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Define precise sequence requirements of novel cis-acting element. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Show that microarray-defined exosome subunit-regulated mRNAs have novel element. -- Abstract: Eukaryotic RNA turnover is regulated in part by the exosome, a nuclear and cytoplasmic complex of ribonucleases (RNases) and RNA-binding proteins. The major RNase of the complex is thought to be Dis3, a multi-functional 3 Prime -5 Prime exoribonuclease and endoribonuclease. Although it is known that Dis3 and core exosome subunits are recruited to transcriptionally active genes and to messenger RNA (mRNA) substrates, this recruitment is thought to occur indirectly. We sought to discover cis-acting elements that recruit Dis3 or other exosome subunits. Using a bioinformatic tool called RNA SCOPE to screen the 3 Prime untranslated regions of up-regulated transcripts from our published Dis3 depletion-derived transcriptomic data set, we identified several motifs as candidate instability elements. Secondary screening using a luciferase reporter system revealed that one cassette-harboring four elements-destabilized the reporter transcript. RNAi-based depletion of Dis3, Rrp6, Rrp4, Rrp40, or Rrp46 diminished the efficacy of cassette-mediated destabilization. Truncation analysis of the cassette showed that two exosome subunit-sensitive elements (ESSEs) destabilized the reporter. Point-directed mutagenesis of ESSE abrogated the destabilization effect. An examination of the transcriptomic data from exosome subunit depletion-based microarrays revealed that mRNAs with ESSEs are found in every up-regulated mRNA data set but are

  13. DisGeNET: a discovery platform for the dynamical exploration of human diseases and their genes

    PubMed Central

    Piñero, Janet; Queralt-Rosinach, Núria; Bravo, Àlex; Deu-Pons, Jordi; Bauer-Mehren, Anna; Baron, Martin; Sanz, Ferran; Furlong, Laura I.

    2015-01-01

    DisGeNET is a comprehensive discovery platform designed to address a variety of questions concerning the genetic underpinning of human diseases. DisGeNET contains over 380 000 associations between >16 000 genes and 13 000 diseases, which makes it one of the largest repositories currently available of its kind. DisGeNET integrates expert-curated databases with text-mined data, covers information on Mendelian and complex diseases, and includes data from animal disease models. It features a score based on the supporting evidence to prioritize gene-disease associations. It is an open access resource available through a web interface, a Cytoscape plugin and as a Semantic Web resource. The web interface supports user-friendly data exploration and navigation. DisGeNET data can also be analysed via the DisGeNET Cytoscape plugin, and enriched with the annotations of other plugins of this popular network analysis software suite. Finally, the information contained in DisGeNET can be expanded and complemented using Semantic Web technologies and linked to a variety of resources already present in the Linked Data cloud. Hence, DisGeNET offers one of the most comprehensive collections of human gene-disease associations and a valuable set of tools for investigating the molecular mechanisms underlying diseases of genetic origin, designed to fulfill the needs of different user profiles, including bioinformaticians, biologists and health-care practitioners. Database URL: http://www.disgenet.org/ PMID:25877637

  14. DisGeNET: a discovery platform for the dynamical exploration of human diseases and their genes.

    PubMed

    Piñero, Janet; Queralt-Rosinach, Núria; Bravo, Àlex; Deu-Pons, Jordi; Bauer-Mehren, Anna; Baron, Martin; Sanz, Ferran; Furlong, Laura I

    2015-01-01

    DisGeNET is a comprehensive discovery platform designed to address a variety of questions concerning the genetic underpinning of human diseases. DisGeNET contains over 380,000 associations between >16,000 genes and 13,000 diseases, which makes it one of the largest repositories currently available of its kind. DisGeNET integrates expert-curated databases with text-mined data, covers information on Mendelian and complex diseases, and includes data from animal disease models. It features a score based on the supporting evidence to prioritize gene-disease associations. It is an open access resource available through a web interface, a Cytoscape plugin and as a Semantic Web resource. The web interface supports user-friendly data exploration and navigation. DisGeNET data can also be analysed via the DisGeNET Cytoscape plugin, and enriched with the annotations of other plugins of this popular network analysis software suite. Finally, the information contained in DisGeNET can be expanded and complemented using Semantic Web technologies and linked to a variety of resources already present in the Linked Data cloud. Hence, DisGeNET offers one of the most comprehensive collections of human gene-disease associations and a valuable set of tools for investigating the molecular mechanisms underlying diseases of genetic origin, designed to fulfill the needs of different user profiles, including bioinformaticians, biologists and health-care practitioners. Database URL: http://www.disgenet.org/

  15. Polarized 3He target and Final State Interactions in SiDIS

    DOE PAGES

    Del Dotto, Alessio; Kaptari, Leonid; Pace, Emanuele; ...

    2017-01-03

    Jefferson Lab is starting a wide experimental program aimed at studying the neutron’s structure, with a great emphasis on the extraction of the parton transverse-momentum distributions (TMDs). To this end, Semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering (SiDIS) experiments on polarized $^3$He will be carried out, providing, together with proton and deuteron data, a sound flavor decomposition of the TMDs. Here, given the expected high statistical accuracy, it is crucial to disentangle nuclear and partonic degrees of freedom to get an accurate theoretical description of both initial and final states. In this contribution, a preliminary study of the Final State Interaction (FSI) in themore » standard SiDIS, where a pion (or a Kaon) is detected in the final state is presented, in view of constructing a realistic description of the nuclear initial and final states.« less

  16. Polarized ^{\\varvec{3}}He Target and Final State Interactions in SiDIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Dotto, Alessio; Kaptari, Leonid; Pace, Emanuele; Salmè, Giovanni; Scopetta, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    Jefferson Lab is starting a wide experimental program aimed at studying the neutron's structure, with a great emphasis on the extraction of the parton transverse-momentum distributions (TMDs). To this end, Semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering (SiDIS) experiments on polarized ^3He will be carried out, providing, together with proton and deuteron data, a sound flavor decomposition of the TMDs. Given the expected high statistical accuracy, it is crucial to disentangle nuclear and partonic degrees of freedom to get an accurate theoretical description of both initial and final states. In this contribution, a preliminary study of the Final State Interaction (FSI) in the standard SiDIS, where a pion (or a Kaon) is detected in the final state is presented, in view of constructing a realistic description of the nuclear initial and final states.

  17. AdS black disk model for small-x DIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornalba, Lorenzo; Costa, Miguel S.; Penedones, João

    2011-05-01

    Using the approximate conformal invariance of QCD at high energies we consider a simple AdS black disk model to describe saturation in DIS. Deep inside saturation the structure functions have the same power law scaling, FT˜FL˜x-ω, where ω is related to the expansion rate of the black disk with energy. Furthermore, the ratio FL/FT is given by the universal value 1+ω/3+ω, independently of the target.

  18. Innovative Training Concepts for Use in Distributed Interactive Simulation (DIS) Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-07-30

    Corporation .) At present, all of these DCA components are only available atB test-oriented DIS facilities such as the Mounted Warfare Testbed 6I (MWTB) at...TRAINING OBJEO:TIVE: Process incoming message traffic as appropriate. EXPLANATION: Risk of fratricide decreases by informing subordinates of scout...location. Situational Awareness decreases the risk of fratricide. P.11 13:15:30 Exercise 12 Ivis Broadcast PDU by Vehicle 3/72/1 on Network 1/Bn

  19. DisProt 7.0: a major update of the database of disordered proteins.

    PubMed

    Piovesan, Damiano; Tabaro, Francesco; Mičetić, Ivan; Necci, Marco; Quaglia, Federica; Oldfield, Christopher J; Aspromonte, Maria Cristina; Davey, Norman E; Davidović, Radoslav; Dosztányi, Zsuzsanna; Elofsson, Arne; Gasparini, Alessandra; Hatos, András; Kajava, Andrey V; Kalmar, Lajos; Leonardi, Emanuela; Lazar, Tamas; Macedo-Ribeiro, Sandra; Macossay-Castillo, Mauricio; Meszaros, Attila; Minervini, Giovanni; Murvai, Nikoletta; Pujols, Jordi; Roche, Daniel B; Salladini, Edoardo; Schad, Eva; Schramm, Antoine; Szabo, Beata; Tantos, Agnes; Tonello, Fiorella; Tsirigos, Konstantinos D; Veljković, Nevena; Ventura, Salvador; Vranken, Wim; Warholm, Per; Uversky, Vladimir N; Dunker, A Keith; Longhi, Sonia; Tompa, Peter; Tosatto, Silvio C E

    2017-01-04

    The Database of Protein Disorder (DisProt, URL: www.disprot.org) has been significantly updated and upgraded since its last major renewal in 2007. The current release holds information on more than 800 entries of IDPs/IDRs, i.e. intrinsically disordered proteins or regions that exist and function without a well-defined three-dimensional structure. We have re-curated previous entries to purge DisProt from conflicting cases, and also upgraded the functional classification scheme to reflect continuous advance in the field in the past 10 years or so. We define IDPs as proteins that are disordered along their entire sequence, i.e. entirely lack structural elements, and IDRs as regions that are at least five consecutive residues without well-defined structure. We base our assessment of disorder strictly on experimental evidence, such as X-ray crystallography and nuclear magnetic resonance (primary techniques) and a broad range of other experimental approaches (secondary techniques). Confident and ambiguous annotations are highlighted separately. DisProt 7.0 presents classified knowledge regarding the experimental characterization and functional annotations of IDPs/IDRs, and is intended to provide an invaluable resource for the research community for a better understanding structural disorder and for developing better computational tools for studying disordered proteins.

  20. DisProt 7.0: a major update of the database of disordered proteins

    PubMed Central

    Piovesan, Damiano; Tabaro, Francesco; Mičetić, Ivan; Necci, Marco; Quaglia, Federica; Oldfield, Christopher J.; Aspromonte, Maria Cristina; Davey, Norman E.; Davidović, Radoslav; Dosztányi, Zsuzsanna; Elofsson, Arne; Gasparini, Alessandra; Hatos, András; Kajava, Andrey V.; Kalmar, Lajos; Leonardi, Emanuela; Lazar, Tamas; Macedo-Ribeiro, Sandra; Macossay-Castillo, Mauricio; Meszaros, Attila; Minervini, Giovanni; Murvai, Nikoletta; Pujols, Jordi; Roche, Daniel B.; Salladini, Edoardo; Schad, Eva; Schramm, Antoine; Szabo, Beata; Tantos, Agnes; Tonello, Fiorella; Tsirigos, Konstantinos D.; Veljković, Nevena; Ventura, Salvador; Vranken, Wim; Warholm, Per; Uversky, Vladimir N.; Dunker, A. Keith; Longhi, Sonia; Tompa, Peter; Tosatto, Silvio C.E.

    2017-01-01

    The Database of Protein Disorder (DisProt, URL: www.disprot.org) has been significantly updated and upgraded since its last major renewal in 2007. The current release holds information on more than 800 entries of IDPs/IDRs, i.e. intrinsically disordered proteins or regions that exist and function without a well-defined three-dimensional structure. We have re-curated previous entries to purge DisProt from conflicting cases, and also upgraded the functional classification scheme to reflect continuous advance in the field in the past 10 years or so. We define IDPs as proteins that are disordered along their entire sequence, i.e. entirely lack structural elements, and IDRs as regions that are at least five consecutive residues without well-defined structure. We base our assessment of disorder strictly on experimental evidence, such as X-ray crystallography and nuclear magnetic resonance (primary techniques) and a broad range of other experimental approaches (secondary techniques). Confident and ambiguous annotations are highlighted separately. DisProt 7.0 presents classified knowledge regarding the experimental characterization and functional annotations of IDPs/IDRs, and is intended to provide an invaluable resource for the research community for a better understanding structural disorder and for developing better computational tools for studying disordered proteins. PMID:27899601

  1. Cumulative (Dis)Advantage and the Matthew Effect in Life-Course Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bask, Miia; Bask, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    To foster a deeper understanding of the mechanisms behind inequality in society, it is crucial to work with well-defined concepts associated with such mechanisms. The aim of this paper is to define cumulative (dis)advantage and the Matthew effect. We argue that cumulative (dis)advantage is an intra-individual micro-level phenomenon, that the Matthew effect is an inter-individual macro-level phenomenon and that an appropriate measure of the Matthew effect focuses on the mechanism or dynamic process that generates inequality. The Matthew mechanism is, therefore, a better name for the phenomenon, where we provide a novel measure of the mechanism, including a proof-of-principle analysis using disposable personal income data. Finally, because socio-economic theory should be able to explain cumulative (dis)advantage and the Matthew mechanism when they are detected in data, we discuss the types of models that may explain the phenomena. We argue that interactions-based models in the literature traditions of analytical sociology and statistical mechanics serve this purpose. PMID:26606386

  2. [Estimation of cost-saving for reducing radioactive waste from nuclear medicine facilities by implementing decay in storage (DIS) in Japan].

    PubMed

    Kida, Tetsuo; Hiraki, Hitoshi; Yamaguchi, Ichirou; Fujibuchi, Toshioh; Watanabe, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    DIS has not yet been implemented in Japan as of 2011. Therefore, even if risk was negligible, medical institutions have to entrust radioactive temporal waste disposal to Japan Radio Isotopes Association (JRIA) in the current situation. To decide whether DIS should be implemented in Japan or not, cost-saving effect of DIS was estimated by comparing the cost that nuclear medical facilities pay. By implementing DIS, the total annual cost for all nuclear medical facilities in Japan is estimated to be decreased to 30 million yen or less from 710 million yen. DIS would save 680 million yen (96%) per year.

  3. A socio-cultural reframing of science and dis/ability in education: past problems, current concerns, and future possibilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connor, David J.; Valle, Jan W.

    2015-12-01

    In this article we assert the value of a socio-cultural reframing of science and dis/ability in education. We begin by problematizing current issues in education pertaining to the often-unquestioned concept of dis/ability and the impact that has upon research, theory, practice, and policy. As our topic is broad, we have chosen to focus upon four interconnected areas: (1) the historical mistrust of science and pseudo-science by people with dis/abilities; (2) the pervasive use of pseudo-science within the contemporary field of special education; (3) the use of dis/ability studies in education (DSE) to provide a contrast between a traditional positivist framing and a socio-cultural framing of dis/ability, and; (4) a brief exploration of what a DSE/socio-cultural grounding looks like for both schools and classroom teachers. In sum, our intention is to engage science educators to reject deficit-notions of dis/ability in favor of understanding it as part of human variation, and consider the personal and professional benefits of this shift.

  4. Targeted Prevention or Treatment of Bacterial Biofilm Infections of Severe Burns and Wounds

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-01

    highly predictable settings, thus lending it to preventive strategies. References Cited 1. Church, D ., S. Elsayed, O. Reid, B. Winston, and R. Lindsay...2006. Burn wound infections. Clin Microbiol Rev 19(2):403-34. 2. Suber, F., M. C. Carroll, and F. D . Moore, Jr. 2007. Innate response to self...12 neutrophils. Infect Immun 73(6): 3693 -701. 4. Moskowitz, S. M., J. M. Foster, J. Emerson, and J. L. Burns. 2004. Clinically feasible biofilm

  5. Targeted Prevention or Treatment of Bacterial Biofilm Infections of Severe Burns and Wounds

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-01

    to preventive strategies. 9 References Cited 1. Church, D ., S. Elsayed, O. Reid, B. Winston, and R. Lindsay. 2006. Burn wound infections. Clin...Microbiol Rev 19(2):403-34. 2. Suber, F., M. C. Carroll, and F. D . Moore, Jr. 2007. Innate response to self-antigen significantly exacerbates burn wound...M. L. Vasil, and J. A. Nick. 2005. Enhanced Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm development mediated by human neutrophils. Infect Immun 73(6): 3693 -701. 4

  6. Perlman syndrome nuclease DIS3L2 controls cytoplasmic non-coding RNAs and provides surveillance pathway for maturing snRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Łabno, Anna; Warkocki, Zbigniew; Kuliński, Tomasz; Krawczyk, Paweł Szczepan; Bijata, Krystian; Tomecki, Rafał; Dziembowski, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    The exosome-independent exoribonuclease DIS3L2 is mutated in Perlman syndrome. Here, we used extensive global transcriptomic and targeted biochemical analyses to identify novel DIS3L2 substrates in human cells. We show that DIS3L2 regulates pol II transcripts, comprising selected canonical and histone-coding mRNAs, and a novel FTL_short RNA from the ferritin mRNA 5′ UTR. Importantly, DIS3L2 contributes to surveillance of maturing snRNAs during their cytoplasmic processing. Among pol III transcripts, DIS3L2 particularly targets vault and Y RNAs and an Alu-like element BC200 RNA, but not Alu repeats, which are removed by exosome-associated DIS3. Using 3′ RACE-Seq, we demonstrate that all novel DIS3L2 substrates are uridylated in vivo by TUT4/TUT7 poly(U) polymerases. Uridylation-dependent DIS3L2-mediated decay can be recapitulated in vitro, thus reinforcing the tight cooperation between DIS3L2 and TUTases. Together these results indicate that catalytically inactive DIS3L2, characteristic of Perlman syndrome, can lead to deregulation of its target RNAs to disturb transcriptome homeostasis. PMID:27431325

  7. IGBP-DIS global 1 km land cover data set, DISCover: First results

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Loveland, T.R.; Belward, A.S.

    1997-01-01

    The International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme Data and Information System (IGBP-DIS) is co-ordinating the development of global land data sets from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data. The first is a 1 km spatial resolution land cover product `DISCover', based on monthly Normalized Difference Vegetation Index composites from 1992 and 1993. DISCover is a 17 class land cover dataset based on the science requirements of IGBP elements. Mapping uses unsupervised classification with post-classification refinement using ancillary data. Draft Africa, North America and South America products are now available for peer review.

  8. [The nursing team and Maslow: (dis)satisfaction in the work].

    PubMed

    Vitória Regis, Lorena Fagundes Ladeia; Porto, Isaura Setenta

    2006-01-01

    This text tries to understand the Nursing team and their (dis)satisfactions in the work. We consider the association with the theory of basic human needs of Abraham Maslow as a way to systemize and to comprehend the recurrent situations and the day-by-day Nursing issues. The necessities are structuralized hierarchically in physiological, security, social, auto-esteem and auto-accomplishment indicating the degree of satisfaction (from the disease to the fullness) of an individual or group. The advantage of this approach consists of being able to use the solid, depth and rich Maslow theory in concrete and particular situations of the Nursing team.

  9. QCD analysis of DIS and SIDIS data with two alternative methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shevchenko, O. Yu.; Akhunzyanov, R. R.

    2014-01-01

    The global fit analysis of all published data on DIS and semi-inclusive DIS (SIDIS) asymmetries is performed in the next to leading (NLO) QCD order. The respective parameterization on polarized PDFs is constructed. The especial attention is paid to the impact of novel SIDIS data on the polarized distributions of light sea and strange quarks as well as on the polarized gluon distributions. The first moments of these distributions entering the nucleon spin are found to be surprisingly small quantities. The alternative direct (free of any fitting procedure) method of NLO QCD analysis is elaborated. Method is especially important for analysis of SIDIS data because it allows to avoid the problems arising in the conventional fitting procedure: functional arbitrariness at initial scale and ambiguities in the error band calculation. Within the alternative method the central values and uncertainties of the measured asymmetries directly propagate to the central values and uncertainties of the polarized PDFs we are interested in. The method is applied to all existing SIDIS data on pion production for an estimation in NLO QCD of the valence and sea quark contributions to the proton spin. As a result one arrives at the conclusion that, contrary to the valence contributions, the sea contributions to the proton spin are compatible with zero within the errors.

  10. DisGeNET-RDF: harnessing the innovative power of the Semantic Web to explore the genetic basis of diseases

    PubMed Central

    Queralt-Rosinach, Núria; Piñero, Janet; Bravo, Àlex; Sanz, Ferran; Furlong, Laura I.

    2016-01-01

    Motivation: DisGeNET-RDF makes available knowledge on the genetic basis of human diseases in the Semantic Web. Gene-disease associations (GDAs) and their provenance metadata are published as human-readable and machine-processable web resources. The information on GDAs included in DisGeNET-RDF is interlinked to other biomedical databases to support the development of bioinformatics approaches for translational research through evidence-based exploitation of a rich and fully interconnected linked open data. Availability and implementation: http://rdf.disgenet.org/ Contact: support@disgenet.org PMID:27153650

  11. On morphological selection rule of noisy character applied to model (dis)orderly protein formations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siódmiak, Jacek; Santamaría-Holek, Ivan; Gadomski, Adam

    2010-05-01

    We propose that the main mechanism controlling the selection rule of model (dis)orderly protein formations, such as non-Kossel crystal growth and aggregation of lysozyme from aqueous solution, is an ion-channeling filter having flicker-noise properties. This filter is originated at the interfaces between growing solidlike object and its external liquid-type phase, and it can be considered as a series of voltage gated ion subchannels. The dynamics of each channel is studied by using both simulation and analytic argumentation lines, and represents a novel thought on how to utilize the presence of constructive-noise sources in protein formation, a field of utmost experimental and technological interest.

  12. Electron-deuteron DIS with spectator tagging at EIC: Development of theoretical framework

    SciTech Connect

    Cosyn, Wim B.; Guzey, Vadim A.; Sargsian, Misak M.; Strikman, Mark M.; Weiss, Christian

    2016-03-01

    An Electron-Ion Collider (EIC) would enable next-generation measurements of deep-inelastic scattering (DIS) on the deuteron with detection of a forward-moving nucleon (p, n) and measurement of its recoil momentum ("spectator tagging''). Such experiments offer full control of the nuclear configuration during the high-energy process and can be used for precision studies of the neutron's partonic structure and its spin dependence, nuclear modifications of partonic structure, and nuclear shadowing at small x. We review the theoretical description of spectator tagging at EIC energies (light-front nuclear structure, on-shell extrapolation in the recoil nucleon momentum, final-state interactions, diffractive effects at small x) and report about on-going developments.

  13. Regulation of Microtubule Dynamics by TOG-domain proteins XMAP215/Dis1 and CLASP

    PubMed Central

    Al-Bassam, Jawdat; Chang, Fred

    2011-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms by which microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) regulate the dynamic properties of microtubules (MTs) are still poorly understood. Here, we review recent advances in our understanding of two conserved families of MAPs, the XMAP215/Dis1 and CLASP family of proteins. In vivo and in vitro studies show that XMAP215 proteins act as microtubule polymerases at MT plus ends to accelerate MT assembly, while CLASP proteins promote MT rescue and suppress MT catastrophe events. These are structurally related proteins that use conserved TOG domains to recruit tubulin dimers to MTs. We discuss models for how these proteins might use these individual tubulin dimers to regulate dynamic behaviors of MT plus ends. PMID:21782439

  14. Systematic phenomenological study of the cos2{phi} asymmetry in unpolarized semi-inclusive DIS

    SciTech Connect

    Barone, Vincenzo; Prokudin, Alexei; Ma Boqiang

    2008-08-15

    We study the cos2{phi} azimuthal asymmetry in unpolarized semi-inclusive DIS, taking into account both the perturbative contribution (gluon emission and splitting) and the nonperturbative effects arising from intrinsic transverse motion and transverse spin of quarks. In particular we explore the possibility to extract from some information about the Boer-Mulders function h{sub 1}{sup perpendicular}, which represents a transverse-polarization asymmetry of quarks inside an unpolarized hadron. Predictions are presented for the HERMES, COMPASS and JLab kinematics, where is dominated by the kinematical higher-twist contribution, and turns to be of order of a few percent. We show that under reasonable assumptions a larger asymmetry in {pi}{sup -} production, compared to {pi}{sup +} production, would represent a signature of the Boer-Mulders effect.

  15. Social origins and post-high school institutional pathways: a cumulative dis/advantage approach.

    PubMed

    Giudici, Francesco; Pallas, Aaron M

    2014-03-01

    The social stratification that takes place during the transition out of high school is traditionally explained with theoretical frameworks such as status attainment and social reproduction. In our paper, we suggest the cumulative dis/advantage hypothesis as an alternative theoretical and empirical approach that explains this divergence in institutional pathways as the result of the dynamic interplay between social institutions (in our case, schools) and individuals' resources. We use data from the NLSY79 in order to compute institutional pathways (defined by educational and occupational status) of 9,200 high school graduates. Optimal Matching Analysis and Cluster Analysis generated a typology of life course pathways. Our results show that both ascribed characteristics and students' high school characteristics and resources are predictors of post-high school pathways.

  16. Progress Report for the Sixth Quarter (1 April 1994 - 30 June 1994) for Contract N00014-93-C-0019 (Hawaii Biotechnology Group, Inc)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-06-30

    Konkel, M.E., F. Babakhani, and L.A. Joens. 1990. Invasion-related antigens of Campylobacter jejuni . J. Infect. Dis. 162:888-895. Naess, V., and T...Hofstad. 1984. Chemical studies of partially hydrolysed lipopolysaccharides from four strains of Campylobacter jejuni and two strains of Campylobacter coll. J. Gen. Microbiol. 130:2783-2789. -4- i

  17. Multifactorial causal model of brain (dis)organization and therapeutic intervention: Application to Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Iturria-Medina, Yasser; Carbonell, Félix M; Sotero, Roberto C; Chouinard-Decorte, Francois; Evans, Alan C

    2017-02-28

    Generative models focused on multifactorial causal mechanisms in brain disorders are scarce and generally based on limited data. Despite the biological importance of the multiple interacting processes, their effects remain poorly characterized from an integrative analytic perspective. Here, we propose a spatiotemporal multifactorial causal model (MCM) of brain (dis)organization and therapeutic intervention that accounts for local causal interactions, effects propagation via physical brain networks, cognitive alterations, and identification of optimum therapeutic interventions. In this article, we focus on describing the model and applying it at the population-based level for studying late onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD). By interrelating six different neuroimaging modalities and cognitive measurements, this model accurately predicts spatiotemporal alterations in brain amyloid-β (Aβ) burden, glucose metabolism, vascular flow, resting state functional activity, structural properties, and cognitive integrity. The results suggest that a vascular dysregulation may be the most-likely initial pathologic event leading to LOAD. Nevertheless, they also suggest that LOAD it is not caused by a unique dominant biological factor (e.g. vascular or Aβ) but by the complex interplay among multiple relevant direct interactions. Furthermore, using theoretical control analysis of the identified population-based multifactorial causal network, we show the crucial advantage of using combinatorial over single-target treatments, explain why one-target Aβ based therapies might fail to improve clinical outcomes, and propose an efficiency ranking of possible LOAD interventions. Although still requiring further validation at the individual level, this work presents the first analytic framework for dynamic multifactorial brain (dis)organization that may explain both the pathologic evolution of progressive neurological disorders and operationalize the influence of multiple interventional

  18. Coxiella Burnetii: Host and Bacterial Responses to Infection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-10-16

    investigations into Rocky Mountain spotted fever . Allowing the ticks to feed on guinea pigs resulted in a febrile response [2] and their inflammatory...Introduction .1. History Q fever was first observed in Australia in 1933 as a dis...bacterial response to infection. This review is ntended to provide a basic introduction to C. burnetii and Q fever , while emphasizing immunomodulatory

  19. The Canadian Legal System, the Robert Latimer Case, and the Rhetorical Construction of (Dis)ability: "Bodies that Matter?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayward, Sally

    2009-01-01

    This paper considers Judge Ted Noble's 1997 ruling of the Latimer case in terms of how it rhetorically constructs and privileges the normal, able-bodied status quo, while, at the same time, deconstructs and positions as inferior the "abnormal," dis-abled minority. In this case, Noble not only took the unprecedented step of granting…

  20. DisGeNET: a comprehensive platform integrating information on human disease-associated genes and variants

    PubMed Central

    Piñero, Janet; Bravo, Àlex; Queralt-Rosinach, Núria; Gutiérrez-Sacristán, Alba; Deu-Pons, Jordi; Centeno, Emilio; García-García, Javier; Sanz, Ferran; Furlong, Laura I.

    2017-01-01

    The information about the genetic basis of human diseases lies at the heart of precision medicine and drug discovery. However, to realize its full potential to support these goals, several problems, such as fragmentation, heterogeneity, availability and different conceptualization of the data must be overcome. To provide the community with a resource free of these hurdles, we have developed DisGeNET (http://www.disgenet.org), one of the largest available collections of genes and variants involved in human diseases. DisGeNET integrates data from expert curated repositories, GWAS catalogues, animal models and the scientific literature. DisGeNET data are homogeneously annotated with controlled vocabularies and community-driven ontologies. Additionally, several original metrics are provided to assist the prioritization of genotype–phenotype relationships. The information is accessible through a web interface, a Cytoscape App, an RDF SPARQL endpoint, scripts in several programming languages and an R package. DisGeNET is a versatile platform that can be used for different research purposes including the investigation of the molecular underpinnings of specific human diseases and their comorbidities, the analysis of the properties of disease genes, the generation of hypothesis on drug therapeutic action and drug adverse effects, the validation of computationally predicted disease genes and the evaluation of text-mining methods performance. PMID:27924018

  1. Highly efficient enzymatic preparation of c-di-AMP using the diadenylate cyclase DisA from Bacillus thuringiensis.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Cao; Wang, Jieping; Luo, Yunchao; Fu, Yang; Su, Jianmei; He, Jin

    2013-05-10

    Cyclic 3',5'-diadenosine monophosphate (c-di-AMP) is a newly recognized bacterial nucleotide second messenger molecule. In addition, it has been shown to be a potential vaccine adjuvant. Although multiple methods are available for c-di-AMP synthesis, the yields are low and the purification procedures are laborious. Here, we report an enzymatic method for more efficient and economical c-di-AMP synthesis using a diadenylate cyclase DisA from Bacillus thuringiensis BMB 171 (btDisA). After overexpression and purification of btDisA, the enzyme-catalyzed reaction conditions were further investigated. Under the optimum conditions, in which 100mM CHES (pH 9.5) containing 2μM btDisA, 10mM ATP, and 10mM MgCl2 was incubated at 50°C for 4h, a high conversion rate of c-di-AMP was obtained. Coupling this process with HPLC purification and lyophilization yielded 100mg of highly pure c-di-AMP that was harvested in white powder form from a 50mL enzyme-catalyzed reaction system. The protocol is not only directly applicable for preparing abundant amounts of c-di-AMP for extensive biochemical and immunological use, but can also be scaled up to meet the requirements for medical applications.

  2. Beyond the University of Racial Diversity: Some Remarks on Race, Diversity, (Dis)Advantage and Affirmative Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waghid, Y.

    2010-01-01

    The compelling essays in this issue of the journal take on the often contentious and complex issue of racial affirmative action. I do not wish to repeat the arguments authors offer either in defence or against student admissions to a university on the grounds of race, (dis)advantage, class, gender, and so on. Rather, I wish to respond to a…

  3. Conception and evaluation of a QoS-based architecture for DIS applications in a differentiated services Internet domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Fabien; Chassot, Christophe; Lozes, Andre; Diaz, Michel

    2001-07-01

    Compared with classical applications, advanced distributed applications such as multimedia applications or distributed interactive simulation (DIS) have both new features and new constraints in terms of communication requirements. To tackle these needs, several projects have been initiated within the Internet community to design a new generation of protocols for the future Internet's architec-ture. The research reported here deals with the design of a communication architecture with guaranteed end to end quality of service (QoS) for DIS-like applications in an IPv6 environment providing 'differentiated' services. The paper is composed of three major parts: the first one presents features and requirement of DIS applications; the second part exposes the design principles of the pro-posed architecture and the networking platform on which it has been developed; the third part presents the experimental measures defined for the validation of the IP QoS management mechanisms, and then proposes and discusses a possible configuration of the architecture allowing to distribute DIS applications with respect to their communication requirements.

  4. (Re)Writing Civics in the Digital Age: The Role of Social Media in Student (Dis)Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portman Daley, Joannah

    2012-01-01

    (Re)Writing Civics in the Digital Age: The Role of Social Media in Student (Dis)Engagement addresses an important gap in the knowledge of civic rhetoric available in Rhetoric and Composition by using qualitative methods to explore the parameters of civic engagement through social media-based digital writing. With funding from URI's Office of…

  5. Development of In Vitro Correlate Assays of Immunity to Infection with Yersinia Pestis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-01

    to Yersinia enterocolitica in mice. Med. Microbiol. Immunol. 181:333–338. 5. Boise, L. H., and C. M. Collins. 2001. Salmonella-induced cell lysis...666. 28. Mills, S. D., A. Boland, M. P. Sory, P. van der Smissen, C. Kerbourch, B. B. Finlay, and G. R. Cornelis. 1997. Yersinia enterocolitica induces...Heesemann, and B. Rouot. 1997. Interaction of Yersinia enterocolitica with macrophages leads to macrophage cell death through apoptosis. Infect. Immun

  6. Archaeal Viruses of the Sulfolobales: Isolation, Infection, and CRISPR Spacer Acquisition.

    PubMed

    Erdmann, Susanne; Garrett, Roger A

    2015-01-01

    Infection of archaea with phylogenetically diverse single viruses, performed in different laboratories, has failed to activate spacer acquisition into host CRISPR loci. The first successful uptake of archaeal de novo spacers was observed on infection of Sulfolobus solfataricus P2 with an environmental virus mixture isolated from Yellowstone National Park (Erdmann and Garrett, Mol Microbiol 85:1044-1056, 2012). Experimental studies of isolated genetic elements from this mixture revealed that SMV1 (S ulfolobus Monocauda Virus 1), a tailed spindle-shaped virus, can induce spacer acquisition in CRISPR loci of Sulfolobus species from a second coinfecting conjugative plasmid or virus (Erdmann and Garrett, Mol Microbiol 85:1044-1056, 2012; Erdmann et al. Mol Microbiol 91:900-917, 2014). Here we describe, firstly, the isolation of archaeal virus mixtures from terrestrial hot springs and the techniques used both to infect laboratory strains with these virus mixtures and to obtain purified virus particles. Secondly, we present the experimental conditions required for activating SMV1-induced spacer acquisition in two different Sulfolobus species.

  7. The Influence of (Dis)belief in Free Will on Immoral Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Caspar, Emilie A.; Vuillaume, Laurène; Magalhães De Saldanha da Gama, Pedro A.; Cleeremans, Axel

    2017-01-01

    One of the hallmarks of human existence is that we all hold beliefs that determine how we act. Amongst such beliefs, the idea that we are endowed with free will appears to be linked to prosocial behaviors, probably by enhancing the feeling of responsibility of individuals over their own actions. However, such effects appear to be more complex that one might have initially thought. Here, we aimed at exploring how induced disbeliefs in free will impact the sense of agency over the consequences of one’s own actions in a paradigm that engages morality. To do so, we asked participants to choose to inflict or to refrain from inflicting an electric choc to another participant in exchange of a small financial benefit. Our results show that participants who were primed with a text defending neural determinism – the idea that humans are a mere bunch of neurons guided by their biology – administered fewer shocks and were less vindictive toward the other participant. Importantly, this finding only held for female participants. These results show the complex interaction between gender, (dis)beliefs in free will and moral behavior. PMID:28144228

  8. Immunogenomic engineering of a plug-and-(dis)play hybridoma platform

    PubMed Central

    Pogson, Mark; Parola, Cristina; Kelton, William J.; Heuberger, Paul; Reddy, Sai T.

    2016-01-01

    Hybridomas, fusions of primary mouse B cells and myelomas, are stable, rapidly-proliferating cell lines widely utilized for antibody screening and production. Antibody specificity of a hybridoma clone is determined by the immunoglobulin sequence of the primary B cell. Here we report a platform for rapid reprogramming of hybridoma antibody specificity by immunogenomic engineering. Here we use CRISPR-Cas9 to generate double-stranded breaks in immunoglobulin loci, enabling deletion of the native variable light chain and replacement of the endogenous variable heavy chain with a fluorescent reporter protein (mRuby). New antibody genes are introduced by Cas9-targeting of mRuby for replacement with a donor construct encoding a light chain and a variable heavy chain, resulting in full-length antibody expression. Since hybridomas surface express and secrete antibodies, reprogrammed cells are isolated using flow cytometry and cell culture supernatant is used for antibody production. Plug-and-(dis)play hybridomas can be reprogrammed with only a single transfection and screening step. PMID:27531490

  9. Social (dis)order and psychosocial trauma: Look earlier, look outside, and look beyond the persons.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Amalio; Blanco, Rubén; Díaz, Darío

    2016-04-01

    The most common and extreme suffering humankind has ever experienced comes from interpersonal and collective intentional violence. In dealing with traumatic outcomes psychology must overcome the mutually constitutive interaction between the (dis)order of a given macro or microsocial context and the mental health of the persons living in it. Social psychologist Ignacio Martín-Baró addressed in a preferential way the study of civil war in El Salvador in terms of intergroup hostility and polarization. He also approached the aftereffects of war by means of a theoretical core assumption: that traumatic experience rooted in collective violence (a human-made stressor) should be understood bearing in mind its social roots (pretraumatic situation), its personal and collective harm (collective injury), and the destruction of the social fabric. These are the arguments for his conceptualization of psychosocial trauma. Twenty-six years after the violent murder of Martín-Baró, along with 5 Jesuit priests, a housekeeper, and his teenage daughter, the current authors have adopted his general framework. Based on new theoretical insights and supporting data, the authors propose an expanded 4-dimension theoretical argument on psychosocial trauma: (a) pretrauma conditions based on social distress, (b) shared network of fear leading to breakdown of core social assumptions, (c) the outgroup as a target of negative emotions, and (d) destruction of family ties and community networks.

  10. Heterogeneous performances of conceptual dis/continuity: a dialectic reading of Brown and Kloser's article

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Sungwon; Kim, Mijung

    2009-12-01

    We review Brown and Kloser's article, "Conceptual continuity and the science of baseball: using informal science literacy to promote students science learning" from a Vygotskian cultural-historical and dialectic perspective. Brown and Kloser interpret interview data with student baseball players and claim that students' conceptual understanding articulated in vernacular genres involves continuities (similarities) with the canonical scientific explanations. In this commentary, we suggest that the authors' approach presupposes the dichotomy of the formal and the informal, which brings the authors' attention to continuity into the separation of cognition from language. We propose a Vygotskian approach that points out the problem of theorizing cognition (conceptual understanding) by depending on specific forms of representation (e.g., scientific terms). As alternative, we envision a Vygotskian cultural-historical approach to language, which considers different, irreducible modes of communication as an integrated whole and therefore allows theorizing cognition without dichotomizing it from the concrete ways by which human being communicates. We provide an exemplary analysis of a lecture talk in a university physics classroom and exemplify dialectic theories that explain the development of conceptual understanding. We discuss that this Vygotskian dialectic approach shows that people communicate scientific concepts through hybridization, which does not reproduce a genre self-identically; the continuity of conceptual understanding involves dis/continuity.

  11. Transverse target spin asymmetry in inclusive DIS with two-photon exchange

    SciTech Connect

    Andrei Afanasev; Mark Strikman; Christian Weiss

    2007-09-06

    We study the transverse target spin dependence of the cross section for the inclusive electron-nucleon scattering with unpolarized beam. Such dependence is absent in the one-photon exchange approximation (Christ-Lee theorem) and arises only in higher orders of the QED expansion, from the interference of one-photon and absorptive two-photon exchange amplitudes as well as from real photon emission (bremsstrahlung). We demonstrate that the transverse spin-dependent two-photon exchange cross section is free of QED infrared and collinear divergences. We argue that in DIS kinematics the transverse spin dependence should be governed by a "parton-like" mechanism in which the two-photon exchange couples mainly to a single quark. We calculate the normal spin asymmetry in an approximation where the dominant contribution arises from quark helicity flip due to interactions with non-perturbative vacuum fields (constituent quark picture) and is proportional to the quark transversity distribution in the nucleon. Such helicity-flip processes are not significantly Sudakov-suppressed if the infrared scale for gluon emission in the photon-quark subprocess is of the order of the chiral symmetry breaking scale, mu^2_chiral>>Lambda^2_QCD. We estimate the asymmetry in the kinematics of the planned Jefferson Lab Hall A experiment to be of the order 10^-4, with different sign for proton and neutron. We also comment on the spin dependence in the limit of soft high-energy scattering.

  12. Epizootiology of Hantavirus Infections in Baltimore Isolation of a Virus from Norway Rats, and Characteristics of Infected Rat Populations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    diagnosis of human 6. Svedmyr A, Lee HW, Berglund A, et al. Epidemic infection. J Infect Dis 1980;141:131-4. nephropathy in Scandinavia is related to...perforate trypsinized monolayers, were 1) passed to vaginal orifices and/or pregnancy in fe- cell-free 25 cm 2 flasks; 2) inoculated onto males), and...Simi- was seen in the largest mass class (>500 g). larly, males and females showed no signifi- This difference in pregnancy rates in the cant

  13. Factors Associated with Parent-Child (Dis)Agreement on Child Behavior and Parenting Problems in Chinese Immigrant Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fung, Joey J.; Lau, Anna S.

    2010-01-01

    We examined familial and cultural factors predicting parent-child (dis)agreement on child behavior and parenting problems. Immigrant Chinese parents (89.7% mothers; M age = 44.24 years) and their children (62 boys; 57.9%) between the ages of 9 and 17 years (M = 11.9 years, SD = 2.9) completed measures of parent punitive behavior and child…

  14. Low-cost real-time 3D PC distributed-interactive-simulation (DIS) application for C4I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonthier, David L.; Veron, Harry

    1998-04-01

    A 3D Distributed Interactive Simulation (DIS) application was developed and demonstrated in a PC environment. The application is capable of running in the stealth mode or as a player which includes battlefield simulations, such as ModSAF. PCs can be clustered together, but not necessarily collocated, to run a simulation or training exercise on their own. A 3D perspective view of the battlefield is displayed that includes terrain, trees, buildings and other objects supported by the DIS application. Screen update rates of 15 to 20 frames per second have been achieved with fully lit and textured scenes thus providing high quality and fast graphics. A complete PC system can be configured for under $2,500. The software runs under Windows95 and WindowsNT. It is written in C++ and uses a commercial API called RenderWare for 3D rendering. The software uses Microsoft Foundation classes and Microsoft DirectPlay for joystick input. The RenderWare libraries enhance the performance through optimization for MMX and the Pentium Pro processor. The RenderWare and the Righteous 3D graphics board from Orchid Technologies with an advertised rendering rate of up to 2 million texture mapped triangles per second. A low-cost PC DIS simulator that can partake in a real-time collaborative simulation with other platforms is thus achieved.

  15. Chains of (dis)trust: exploring the underpinnings of knowledge-sharing and quality care across mental health services.

    PubMed

    Brown, Patrick R; Calnan, Michael W

    2016-02-01

    Quality and safety in healthcare settings are underpinned by organisational cultures, which facilitate or impede the refinement, sharing and application of knowledge. Avoiding the use of the term culture as a residual category, we focus specifically on describing chains of (dis)trust, analysing their development across relatively low-trust service contexts and their impact upon knowledge-sharing and caregiving. Drawing upon data from in-depth interviews with service users, healthcare professionals, service managers and other stakeholders across three mental healthcare (psychosis) teams in southern England, we identify micro-mechanisms that explain how (dis)trust within one intra-organisational relationship impacts upon other relationships. Experiences and inferences of vulnerability, knowledge, uncertainty, interests and time, among actors who are both trustees and trusters across different relationships, are pertinent to such analyses. This more micro-level understanding facilitates detailed conceptualisations of trust chains as meso-level tendencies that contribute to wider vicious or virtuous cycles of organisational (dis)trust. We explore how knowledge-sharing and caregiving are vitally interwoven within these chains of trust or distrust, enhancing and/or inhibiting the instrumental and communicative aspects of quality healthcare as a result.

  16. Network protocol changes can improve DisCom WAN performance : evaluating TCP modifications and SCTP in the ASC tri-lab environment.

    SciTech Connect

    Tolendino, Lawrence F.; Hu, Tan Chang

    2005-06-01

    The Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) Distance Computing (DisCom) Wide Area Network (WAN) is a high performance, long distance network environment that is based on the ubiquitous TCP/IP protocol set. However, the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and the algorithms that govern its operation were defined almost two decades ago for a network environment vastly different from the DisCom WAN. In this paper we explore and evaluate possible modifications to TCP that purport to improve TCP performance in environments like the DisCom WAN. We also examine a much newer protocol, SCTP (Stream Control Transmission Protocol) that claims to provide reliable network transport while also implementing multi-streaming, multi-homing capabilities that are appealing in the DisCom high performance network environment. We provide performance comparisons and recommendations for continued development that will lead to network communications protocol implementations capable of supporting the coming ASC Petaflop computing environments.

  17. Viral Etiologies of Lower Respiratory Tract Infections Among Egyptian Children under Five Years of Age

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-13

    authors thank Dr. Dean Erdman from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Atlanta, GA for providing the primers/probes and protocol...Etiology of acute respiratory tract infections among children in a combined community and hospital study in Rio de Janeiro. Clin Infect Dis 1995, 20(4...Garcia-Garcia ML, Blanco C, Vazquez MC, Frias ME, Perez-Brena P, Casas I: Multiple simultaneous viral infections in infants with acute respiratory

  18. Plagioclase-melt (dis)equilibrium due to cooling dynamics: Implications for thermometry, barometry and hygrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mollo, Silvio; Putirka, Keith; Iezzi, Gianluca; Del Gaudio, Pierdomenico; Scarlato, Piergiorgio

    2011-07-01

    The compositional variation of plagioclase and the partitioning of major elements between plagioclase and melt have been experimentally measured as a function of the cooling rate. Crystals were grown from a basaltic melt at a pressure of 500 MPa under (i) variable cooling rates of 0.5, 2.1, 3, 9.4, and 15 °C/min from 1250 °C down to 1000 °C, (ii) quenching temperatures of 1025, 1050, 1075, 1090, and 1100 °C at the fixed cooling rate of 0.5 °C/min, and (iii) isothermal temperatures of 1000, 1025, 1050, 1075, 1090, and 1100 °C. Our results show that euhedral, faceted plagioclases form during isothermal and slower cooling experiments exhibiting idiomorphic tabular shapes. In contrast, dendritic shapes are observed from faster cooled charges. As the cooling rate is increased, concentrations of Al + Ca + Fe + Mg increase and Si + Na + K decrease in plagioclase favoring higher An and lower Ab + Or contents. Significant variations of pl-liqKd are also observed by the comparison between isothermal and cooled charges; notably, pl-liqKdAb-An, pl-liqKdCa-Na and pl-liqKdFe-Mg progressively change with increasing cooling rate. Therefore, crystal-melt exchange reactions have the potential to reveal the departure from equilibrium for plagioclase-bearing cooling magmas. Finally, thermometers, barometers, and hygrometers derived through the plagioclase-liquid equilibria have been tested at these non-equilibrium experimental conditions. Since such models are based on assumption of equilibrium, any form of disequilibrium will yield errors. Results show that errors on estimates of temperature, pressure, and melt-water content increase systematically with increasing cooling rate (i.e. disequilibrium condition) depicting monotonic trends towards drastic overestimates. These trends are perfectly correlated with those of pl-liqKdCa-Na, pl-liqKdAb-An, and pl-liqKdFe-Mg, thus demonstrating their ability to test (dis)equilibrium conditions.

  19. Exploring Physicians' Dissatisfaction and Work-Related Stress: Development of the PhyDis Scale

    PubMed Central

    Pedrazza, Monica; Berlanda, Sabrina; Trifiletti, Elena; Bressan, Franco

    2016-01-01

    with reference to attachment styles, which is recognized as being a central variable of individual difference supporting caregiving practices. This study represents an original and innovative attempt to address physicians' dissatisfaction and job satisfaction. The PhyDis scale has been developed and, in line with international findings, our results indicate that role uncertainty and loss of social esteem are the most dissatisfying factors. PMID:27588013

  20. Exploring Physicians' Dissatisfaction and Work-Related Stress: Development of the PhyDis Scale.

    PubMed

    Pedrazza, Monica; Berlanda, Sabrina; Trifiletti, Elena; Bressan, Franco

    2016-01-01

    reference to attachment styles, which is recognized as being a central variable of individual difference supporting caregiving practices. This study represents an original and innovative attempt to address physicians' dissatisfaction and job satisfaction. The PhyDis scale has been developed and, in line with international findings, our results indicate that role uncertainty and loss of social esteem are the most dissatisfying factors.

  1. 9 CFR 82.2 - Criteria for determining birds or poultry to be infected with, exposed to, or free from END.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... poultry to be infected with, exposed to, or free from END. 82.2 Section 82.2 Animals and Animal Products... ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DIS- EASE (END) AND CHLAMYDIOSIS Exotic Newcastle Disease (END) § 82.2 Criteria for determining birds or poultry to be infected with, exposed to,...

  2. 9 CFR 82.2 - Criteria for determining birds or poultry to be infected with, exposed to, or free from END.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... poultry to be infected with, exposed to, or free from END. 82.2 Section 82.2 Animals and Animal Products... ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DIS- EASE (END) AND CHLAMYDIOSIS Exotic Newcastle Disease (END) § 82.2 Criteria for determining birds or poultry to be infected with, exposed to,...

  3. Cumulative Viral Load and Virologic Decay Patterns After Antiretroviral Therapy in HIV-Infected Subjects Influence CD4 Recovery and AIDS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-20

    Cohorte Agence Nationale de Recherches sur le SIDA EP 11 study. J Infect Dis 186: 710–714. 8. Hermankova M, Ray SC, Ruff C, Powell-Davis M, Ingersoll R, et...malignancy in HIV-infected patients during the combination antiretroviral therapy era: Agence Nationale de Recherche sur le Sida (ANRS) CO3 Aquitaine

  4. cos(4φ) azimuthal anisotropy in small- x DIS dijet production beyond the leading power TMD limit

    DOE PAGES

    Dumitru, Adrian; Skokov, Vladimir

    2016-07-25

    Here we determine the first correction to the quadrupole operator in high-energy QCD beyond the transverse momentum dependent (TMD) limit of Weizsäcker-Williams and linearly polarized gluon distributions. These functions give rise to isotropic, respectively, ~cos2more » $$\\phi$$ angular distributions in deep inelastic scattering (DIS) dijet production. On the other hand, the correction produces a ~cos4$$\\phi$$ angular dependence which is suppressed by one additional power of the dijet transverse momentum scale (squared) P2.« less

  5. A novel role for the 3′-5′ exoribonuclease Dis3L2 in controlling cell proliferation and tissue growth

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In a complex organism, cell proliferation and apoptosis need to be precisely controlled in order for tissues to develop correctly. Excessive cell proliferation can lead to diseases such as cancer. We have shown that the exoribonuclease Dis3L2 is required for the correct regulation of proliferation in a natural tissue within the model organism Drosophila melanogaster. Dis3L2 is a member of a highly conserved family of exoribonucleases that degrade RNA in a 3′-5′ direction. We show that knockdown of dis3L2 in the Drosophila wing imaginal discs results in substantial wing overgrowth due to increased cellular proliferation rather than an increase in cell size. Imaginal discs are specified in the embryo before proliferating and differentiating to form the adult structures of the fly. Using RNA-seq we identified a small set of mRNAs that are sensitive to Dis3L2 activity. Of the mRNAs which increase in levels and are therefore potential targets of Dis3L2, we identified 2 that change at the post-transcriptional level but not at the transcriptional level, namely CG2678 (a transcription factor) and pyrexia (a TRP cation channel). We also demonstrate a compensatory effect between Dis3L2 and the 5′-3′ exoribonuclease Pacman demonstrating that these 2 exoribonucleases function to regulate opposing pathways within the developing tissue. This work provides the first description of the molecular and developmental consequences of Dis3L2 inactivation in a non-human animal model. The work is directly relevant to the understanding of human overgrowth syndromes such as Perlman syndrome. PMID:27630034

  6. Prevalence of Circumcision and its Association With HIV and Sexually Transmitted Infections in a Male US Navy Population

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-07-01

    STI acquisition, several studies among western populations have shown circumcision to have a strong protective effect against urinary tract infections (UTIs...WE. Urinary tract infections and the uncircumcised state: an update. Clin Pediatr (Phila) 1993; 32:130–134. 16. Shaw KN, Gorelick M, McGowan KL...Herzog LW. Urinary tract infections and circumcision. A case-control study. Am J Dis Child 1989; 143:348–350. Circumcision and HIV/STI association 16

  7. Bio-dis and the paddle dissolution apparatuses applied to the release characterization of ketoprofen from hypromellose matrices.

    PubMed

    Ramos Pezzini, Bianca; Gomes Ferraz, Humberto

    2009-01-01

    The purposes of this work were: (1) to comparatively evaluate the effects of hypromellose viscosity grade and content on ketoprofen release from matrix tablets, using Bio-Dis and the paddle apparatuses, (2) to investigate the influence of the pH of the dissolution medium on drug release. Furthermore, since direct compression had not shown to be appropriate to obtain the matrices under study, it was also an objective (3) to evaluate the impact of granulation on drug release process. Six formulations of ketoprofen matrix tablets were obtained by compression, with or without previous granulation, varying the content and viscosity grade of hypromellose. Dissolution tests were carried out at a fixed pH, in each experiment, with the paddle method (pH 4.5, 6.0, 6.8, or 7.2), while a pH gradient was used in Bio-Dis (pH 1.2 to 7.2). The higher the hypromellose viscosity grade and content were, the lower the amount of ketoprofen released was in both apparatuses, the content effect being more expressive. Drug dissolution enhanced with the increase of the pH of the medium due to its pH-dependent solubility. Granulation caused an increase in drug dissolution and modified the mechanism of the release process.

  8. The DisVis and PowerFit Web Servers: Explorative and Integrative Modeling of Biomolecular Complexes.

    PubMed

    van Zundert, G C P; Trellet, M; Schaarschmidt, J; Kurkcuoglu, Z; David, M; Verlato, M; Rosato, A; Bonvin, A M J J

    2017-02-03

    Structure determination of complex molecular machines requires a combination of an increasing number of experimental methods with highly specialized software geared toward each data source to properly handle the gathered data. Recently, we introduced the two software packages PowerFit and DisVis. These combine high-resolution structures of atomic subunits with density maps from cryo-electron microscopy or distance restraints, typically acquired by chemical cross-linking coupled with mass spectrometry, respectively. Here, we report on recent advances in both GPGPU-accelerated software packages: PowerFit is a tool for rigid body fitting of atomic structures in cryo-electron density maps and has been updated to also output reliability indicators for the success of fitting, through the use of the Fisher z-transformation and associated confidence intervals; DisVis aims at quantifying the information content of distance restraints and identifying false-positive restraints. We extended its analysis capabilities to include an analysis of putative interface residues and to output an average shape representing the putative location of the ligand. To facilitate their use by a broad community, they have been implemented as web portals harvesting both local CPU resources and GPGPU-accelerated EGI grid resources. They offer user-friendly interfaces, while minimizing computational requirements, and provide a first interactive view of the results. The portals can be accessed freely after registration via http://milou.science.uu.nl/services/DISVIS and http://milou.science.uu.nl/services/POWERFIT.

  9. An unconventional interaction between Dis1/TOG and Mal3/EB1 in fission yeast promotes the fidelity of chromosome segregation

    PubMed Central

    Matsuo, Yuzy; Maurer, Sebastian P.; Yukawa, Masashi; Zakian, Silva; Singleton, Martin R.; Surrey, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Dynamic microtubule plus-ends interact with various intracellular target regions such as the cell cortex and the kinetochore. Two conserved families of microtubule plus-end-tracking proteins, the XMAP215, ch-TOG or CKAP5 family and the end-binding 1 (EB1, also known as MAPRE1) family, play pivotal roles in regulating microtubule dynamics. Here, we study the functional interplay between fission yeast Dis1, a member of the XMAP215/TOG family, and Mal3, an EB1 protein. Using an in vitro microscopy assay, we find that purified Dis1 autonomously tracks growing microtubule ends and is a bona fide microtubule polymerase. Mal3 recruits additional Dis1 to microtubule ends, explaining the synergistic enhancement of microtubule dynamicity by these proteins. A non-canonical binding motif in Dis1 mediates the interaction with Mal3. X-ray crystallography shows that this new motif interacts in an unconventional configuration with the conserved hydrophobic cavity formed within the Mal3 C-terminal region that typically interacts with the canonical SXIP motif. Selectively perturbing the Mal3–Dis1 interaction in living cells demonstrates that it is important for accurate chromosome segregation. Whereas, in some metazoans, the interaction between EB1 and the XMAP215/TOG family members requires an additional binding partner, fission yeast relies on a direct interaction, indicating evolutionary plasticity of this critical interaction module. PMID:27872152

  10. Functional requirements document for NASA/MSFC Earth Science and Applications Division: Data and information system (ESAD-DIS). Interoperability, 1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, J. Briscoe; Grider, Gary W.

    1992-01-01

    These Earth Science and Applications Division-Data and Information System (ESAD-DIS) interoperability requirements are designed to quantify the Earth Science and Application Division's hardware and software requirements in terms of communications between personal and visualization workstation, and mainframe computers. The electronic mail requirements and local area network (LAN) requirements are addressed. These interoperability requirements are top-level requirements framed around defining the existing ESAD-DIS interoperability and projecting known near-term requirements for both operational support and for management planning. Detailed requirements will be submitted on a case-by-case basis. This document is also intended as an overview of ESAD-DIs interoperability for new-comers and management not familiar with these activities. It is intended as background documentation to support requests for resources and support requirements.

  11. The beneficial endophyte Trichoderma hamatum isolate DIS 219b promotes growth and delays the onset of the drought response in Theobroma cacao

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Hanhong; Sicher, Richard C.; Kim, Moon S.; Kim, Soo-Hyung; Strem, Mary D.; Melnick, Rachel L.; Bailey, Bryan A.

    2009-01-01

    Theobroma cacao (cacao) is cultivated in tropical climates and is exposed to drought stress. The impact of the endophytic fungus Trichoderma hamatum isolate DIS 219b on cacao's response to drought was studied. Colonization by DIS 219b delayed drought-induced changes in stomatal conductance, net photosynthesis, and green fluorescence emissions. The altered expression of 19 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) (seven in leaves and 17 in roots with some overlap) by drought was detected using quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR. Roots tended to respond earlier to drought than leaves, with the drought-induced changes in expression of seven ESTs being observed after 7 d of withholding water. Changes in gene expression in leaves were not observed until after 10 d of withholding water. DIS 219b colonization delayed the drought-altered expression of all seven ESTs responsive to drought in leaves by ≥3 d, but had less influence on the expression pattern of the drought-responsive ESTs in roots. DIS 219b colonization had minimal direct influence on the expression of drought-responsive ESTs in 32-d-old seedlings. By contrast, DIS 219b colonization of 9-d-old seedlings altered expression of drought-responsive ESTs, sometimes in patterns opposite of that observed in response to drought. Drought induced an increase in the concentration of many amino acids in cacao leaves, while DIS 219b colonization caused a decrease in aspartic acid and glutamic acid concentrations and an increase in alanine and γ-aminobutyric acid concentrations. With or without exposure to drought conditions, colonization by DIS 219b promoted seedling growth, the most consistent effects being an increase in root fresh weight, root dry weight, and root water content. Colonized seedlings were slower to wilt in response to drought as measured by a decrease in the leaf angle drop. The primary direct effect of DIS 219b colonization was promotion of root growth, regardless of water status, and an increase

  12. 9 CFR 82.21 - Vehicles, cages, coops, containers, troughs, and other equipment used for infected poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., troughs, and other equipment used for infected poultry. 82.21 Section 82.21 Animals and Animal Products... ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DIS- EASE (END) AND CHLAMYDIOSIS Chlamydiosis in Poultry § 82.21 Vehicles, cages, coops, containers, troughs, and other equipment used...

  13. 9 CFR 82.21 - Vehicles, cages, coops, containers, troughs, and other equipment used for infected poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., troughs, and other equipment used for infected poultry. 82.21 Section 82.21 Animals and Animal Products... ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DIS- EASE (END) AND CHLAMYDIOSIS Chlamydiosis in Poultry § 82.21 Vehicles, cages, coops, containers, troughs, and other equipment used...

  14. Arabidopsis RabF1 (ARA6) Is Involved in Salt Stress and Dark-Induced Senescence (DIS)

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Congfei; Karim, Sazzad; Zhang, Hongsheng; Aronsson, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    Arabidopsis small GTPase RabF1 (ARA6) functions in endosomal vesicle transport and may play a crucial role in recycling and degradation of molecules, thus involved in stress responses. Here we have reported that complementary overexpression lines RabF1OE (overexpression), GTPase mutants RabF1Q93L (constitutively active) and RabF1S47N (dominant negative) lines show longer root growth than wild-type, rabF1 knockout and N-myristoylation deletion (Δ1−29, N-terminus) complementary overexpression mutant plants under salt induced stress, which indicates that N-myristoylation of RabF1 is indispensable for salt tolerance. Moreover, RabF1 is highly expressed during senescence and RabF1OE lines were more tolerant of dark-induced senescence (DIS) than wild-type and rabF1. PMID:28157156

  15. Factors associated with parent-child (dis)agreement on child behavior and parenting problems in Chinese immigrant families.

    PubMed

    Fung, Joey J; Lau, Anna S

    2010-01-01

    We examined familial and cultural factors predicting parent-child (dis)agreement on child behavior and parenting problems. Immigrant Chinese parents (89.7% mothers; M age = 44.24 years) and their children (62 boys; 57.9%) between the ages of 9 and 17 years (M = 11.9 years, SD = 2.9) completed measures of parent punitive behavior and child problems. Concordance in item profiles and discrepancies in overall problem levels were assessed. Overall, immigrant parents reported fewer child and parenting problems than did their children. Relationship closeness predicted less disagreement in ratings of child internalizing symptoms and punitive parenting. Parental acculturative stress and parent-child acculturation dissonance predicted more disagreement regarding internalizing problems. The findings highlight potential under-identification of internalizing problems among immigrant Chinese families that may be driven by acculturation processes.

  16. Analyse And Graphical Representation On Implementation Of New ISO/DIS 14001:2015 Revision In Automotive Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fagateanu, Alina Mihaela; Nicolaescu, Sergiu Ştefan; Kifor, Claudiu Vasile

    2015-09-01

    We live in a dynamic world that is constantly changing in order to lighten our daily activities. All changes made must meet several conditions, most of them having a direct relationship with the environment and are applicable for more than one person. Considering that in this moment the standard for environment protection has passed the review period and will be published in the near future, the present article aims to highlight the most important changes from the new version of ISO / DIS 14001: 2015. The information is structured for the organizations which holds the old version ISO 14001: 2004, so, the necessary steps to follow can be easily understood while moving totally to the new version.

  17. Particle production in the Color Glass Condensate: from electron-proton DIS to proton-nucleus collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lappi, T.; Mäntysaari, H.

    2014-06-01

    We study single inclusive hadron production in proton-proton and proton-nucleus collisions in the CGC framework. The parameters in the calculation are obtained by fitting electron-proton deep inelastic scattering data. The obtained dipole-proton amplitude is generalized to dipole-nucleus scattering without any additional nuclear parameters other than the Woods-Saxon distribution. We show that it is possible to use an initial condition without an anomalous dimension and still obtain a good description of the HERA inclusive cross section and LHC single particle production measurements. We argue that one must consistently use the proton transverse area as measured by a high virtuality probe in DIS also for the single inclusive cross section in proton-proton and proton-nucleus collisions, and obtain a nuclear modification factor RpA that at midrapidity approaches unity at large momenta and at all energies.

  18. Managing risk and marginalizing identities: on the society-of-captives thesis and the harm of social dis-ease.

    PubMed

    Arrigo, Bruce A

    2013-06-01

    This article develops the constitutive features of the society-of-captives thesis as suggested by Arrigo and Milovanovic, and Arrigo, Bersot, and Sellers. The relevance of this thesis is briefly explored in relation to the institutional and community-based treatment philosophies that currently inform the mental health and criminal justice systems. This exploration specifies how risk (being human and doing humanness differently) is managed symbolically, linguistically, materially, and culturally. The management of this risk extends to the kept as well as to their keepers, regulators, and watchers (i.e., the society of captives). This article calls for a new clinical praxis (being/doing a critical mindfulness) designed to overcome the totalizing madness (the harm of social dis-ease) that follows from managing risk fearfully and marginalizing identities desperately as reified recursively through society's captivity. The ethical underpinnings of this clinical praxis represent an emergent direction for undertaking correctional policy reform.

  19. Student (dis)engagement and need-supportive teaching behavior: a multi-informant and multilevel approach.

    PubMed

    Van den Berghe, Lynn; Tallir, Isabel B; Cardon, Greet; Aelterman, Nathalie; Haerens, Leen

    2015-08-01

    Starting from self-determination theory, we explored whether student engagement/disengagement relates to teachers' need support and whether this relationship is moderated by teachers' causality orientations. A sample of 2004 students situated in 127 classes taught by 33 physical education teachers participated in the study. Both teachers and students reported on students' (dis)engagement, allowing investigation of the proposed relationships both at the student and teacher level. Most of the variance in need support was at the student level, but there was also between-teacher and between-class variance in need support. Engagement related to more need support, but only at the student level. In total, few moderation effects were found. Teachers with a relatively low controlled orientation were more need supportive when perceiving their students as emotionally and behaviorally engaged. By making teachers aware of these dynamics, automatic responses to student engagement can be better thought out. Recommendations for future research are discussed.

  20. The Allee effect and infectious diseases: extinction, multistability, and the (dis-)appearance of oscillations.

    PubMed

    Hilker, Frank M; Langlais, Michel; Malchow, Horst

    2009-01-01

    Infectious diseases that affect their host on a long timescale can regulate the host population dynamics. Here we show that a strong Allee effect can lead to complex dynamics in simple epidemic models. Generally, the Allee effect renders a population bistable, but we also identify conditions for tri- or monostability. Moreover, the disease can destabilize endemic equilibria and induce sustained oscillations. These disappear again for high transmissibilities, with eventually vanishing host population. Disease-induced extinction is thus possible for density-dependent transmission and without any alternative reservoirs. The overall complexity suggests that the system is very sensitive to perturbations and control methods, even in parameter regions with a basic reproductive ratio far beyond R(0) = 1. This may have profound implications for biological conservation as well as pest management. We identify important threshold quantities and attribute the dynamical behavior to the joint interplay of a strong Allee effect and infection.

  1. Cross-Pollinating Culturally Sustaining Pedagogy and Universal Design for Learning: Toward an Inclusive Pedagogy That Accounts for Dis/Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waitoller, Federico R.; Thorius, Kathleen A. King

    2016-01-01

    In this article, Federico R. Waitoller and Kathleen A. King Thorius extend recent discussions on culturally sustaining pedagogy (CSP) in order to explicitly account for student dis/ability. The authors engage in this work as part of an inclusive education agenda. Toward this aim, they discuss how CSP and universal design for learning will benefit…

  2. Central line infections - hospitals

    MedlinePlus

    ... infection; CVC - infection; Central venous device - infection; Infection control - central line infection; Nosocomial infection - central line infection; Hospital acquired infection - central line infection; Patient safety - central ...

  3. Pneumococcal Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... the bloodstream (bacteremia) Joint infection (arthritis) Ear infection (otitis media) Infection of the sinus membranes (sinusitis) Eye infection ( ... breathing; for bacteremia, fever and less energy; for ear infections, fever and ear pain; and for sinustitis, fever ...

  4. Epizootiology of Hantavirus Infections in Baltimore Isolation of a Virus from Norway Rats, and Characteristics of Infected Rat Populations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    bank voles and serologic diagnosis of human 6. Svedmyr A, Lee HW. Berglund A, et al. Epidemic infection. I Infect Dis 1980:141:131 4. nephropathy in...or pregnancy in fe- cell-free 25 cm- flasks; 2) inoculated onto males), and body mass was used as an in- fresh monolayers of 50-70 per cent con...signifi- This difference in pregnancy rates in the cant difference in geometric mean titers four mass classes above 200 g was signifi- (males, 8.93 ± 2.16

  5. Bacillus Anthracis Spores of the bclA Mutant Exhibit Increased Adherence to Epithelial Cells, Fibroblasts, and Endothelial Cells but not to Macrophages

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    Approximately 20 exosporium-associated proteins and glycoproteins have been identified from analyses of B. anthracis and Bacillus cereus spores (4, 5...Pathog. 38:1–12. 5. Charlton, S., A. J. Moir, L. Baillie, and A. Moir. 1999. Characterization of the exosporium of Bacillus cereus . J. Appl. Microbiol...Clin. Top. Infect. Dis. 20:335–349. 12. Gerhardt, P., and E. Ribi. 1964. Ultrastructure of the exosporium enveloping spores of Bacillus cereus . J

  6. Possible Involvement of Endogenous Beta-Endorphin in the Pathophysiological Mechanisms of Pichinde Virus-Infected Guinea Pigs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    without significant histopathological changes. treatment of arenavirus -induced Lassa fever in humans Furthermore, among many other organs ex;amined, no S(1... fever , leukopenia, Pichinde virus infection and after fl-endorphin intra- thrombopenia, inalertness, terminal hypothermia, and venous infusion...Science 245:188-190, 1989. Lassa fever contrasted. Rev Infect Dis 2(supplement 4):S743- 28. Holaday JW. Cardiovascular effects of endogenous opiate sys

  7. Chlamydia muridarum Alters the Immune Environment of the Murine Genital Tract to be More Permissive for Infection with Neisseria gonorrhoeae in a Novel Coinfection Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-05

    fever , suggesting a systemic response to infection. Shedding of the organism can be detected for up to 21 days and it is thought that the pig model may...attending Colorado family planning clinics. Sex Transm Dis 23:481-8. 102. Ghaem-Maghami, S., G. Ratti, M. Ghaem-Maghami, M. Comanducci, P. E. Hay , R. L

  8. Infection with foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) induces a natural killer (NK) cell response in cattle that is lacking following vaccination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Natural killer (NK) cells play a role in innate antiviral immunity by directly lysing virus-infected cells and producing antiviral cytokines such as interferon gamma (IFNgamma). We developed a system for characterizing the bovine NK response to foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), which causes a dis...

  9. Senescent cancer-associated fibroblasts secrete active MMP-2 that promotes keratinocyte dis-cohesion and invasion

    PubMed Central

    Hassona, Y; Cirillo, N; Heesom, K; Parkinson, E K; Prime, S S

    2014-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have demonstrated that senescent cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) derived from genetically unstable oral squamous cell carcinomas (GU-OSCC), unlike non-senescent CAFs from genetically stable carcinomas (GS-OSCC), promoted keratinocyte invasion in vitro in a paracrine manner. The mechanism by which this occurs is unclear. Methods: Previous work to characterise the senescent-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) has used antibody arrays, technology that is limited by the availability of suitable antibodies. To extend this work in an unbiased manner, we used 2D gel electrophoresis and mass spectroscopy for protein identification. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) were investigated by gelatin zymography and western blotting. Neutralising antibodies were used to block key molecules in the functional assays of keratinocyte adhesion and invasion. Results: Among a variety of proteins that were differentially expressed between CAFs from GU-OSCC and GS-OSCC, MMP-2 was a major constituent of senescent CAF-CM derived from GU-OSCC. The presence of active MMP-2 was confirmed by gelatine zymography. MMP-2 derived from senescent CAF-CM induced keratinocyte dis-cohesion and epithelial invasion into collagen gels in a TGF-β-dependent manner. Conclusions: Senescent CAFs from GU-OSCC promote a more aggressive oral cancer phenotype by production of active MMP-2, disruption of epithelial adhesion and induction of keratinocyte invasion. PMID:25117810

  10. Biodegradable sizing agents from soy protein via controlled hydrolysis and dis-entanglement for remediation of textile effluents.

    PubMed

    Yang, Maiping; Xu, Helan; Hou, Xiuliang; Zhang, Jie; Yang, Yiqi

    2017-03-01

    Fully biodegradable textile sizes with satisfactory performance properties were developed from soy protein with controlled hydrolysis and dis-entanglement to tackle the intractable environmental issues associated with the non-biodegradable polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) in textile effluents. PVA derived from petroleum is the primary sizing agent due to its excellent sizing performance on polyester-containing yarns, especially in increasingly prevailing high-speed weaving. However, due to the poor biodegradability, PVA causes serious environmental pollution, and thus, should be substituted with more environmentally friendly polymers. Soy protein treated with high amount of triethanolamine was found with acceptable sizing properties. However, triethanolamine is also non-biodegradable and originated from petroleum, therefore, is not an ideal additive. In this research, soy sizes were developed from soy protein treated with glycerol, the biodegradable triol that could also be obtained from soy. The soy sizes had good film properties, adhesion to polyester and abrasion resistance close to PVA, rendering them qualified for sizing applications. Regarding desizing, consumption of water and energy for removal of soy size could be remarkably decreased, comparing to removal of PVA. Moreover, with satisfactory degradability, the wastewater containing soy sizes was readily dischargeable after treated in activated sludge for two days. In summary, the fully biodegradable soy sizes had potential to substitute PVA for sustainable textile processing.

  11. (Dis)placing trust: the long-term effects of job displacement on generalised trust over the adult lifecourse.

    PubMed

    Laurence, James

    2015-03-01

    Increasing rates of job displacement (i.e. involuntary job loss from redundancy, downsizing, restructuring) have been suggested to be a key driver of declining macro-levels of generalised trust. This article undertakes the first test of how job displacement affects individuals' tendencies to (dis)trust over the adult lifecourse, using two-waves of the Great Britain National Child Development Study cohort data, on a sample of n=6840 individuals. Applying both lagged dependent variable logistic regression and two-wave change-score models, experiencing job displacement between the ages of 33 and 50 appears to significantly scar individuals' generalised trust, with depressed trust observable at least nine years after the event occurred. However, this effect is dependent on the value an individual places on work: the greater the attachment to employment the stronger the negative effect of displacement. A range of mediators, such as physical health, mental well-being, and personal efficacy, do not appear to account for the effect.

  12. Prince Edward Island implements province-wide drug information system. A small step for DIS; a giant leap for the pan-Canadian interoperable electronic health record.

    PubMed

    Giokas, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    On March 13, 2008, Friendly Pharmacy in Charlottetown made a small but significant piece of Canadian healthcare history. It was the first drugstore to go online with Prince Edward Island's Drug Information System (DIS), the centrepiece of the province's All Drugs All People program. PEI is the first province to implement a DIS solution using a common pan-Canadian messaging standard based on Health Level 7 Version 3, an internationally recognized set of standards for clinical, financial and administrative messaging. PEI's initiative has positive implications for the rest of Canada. It is an important step toward the creation of a pan-Canadian interoperable electronic health record system covering all facets of patient care.

  13. Streptococcal Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... disease) Group B strep can cause blood infections, pneumonia and meningitis in newborns. A screening test during ... urinary tract infections, blood infections, skin infections and pneumonia in adults. Antibiotics are used to treat strep ...

  14. Kidney Infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... X-ray called a voiding cystourethrogram. Antibiotics for kidney infections Antibiotics are the first line of treatment ... the infection is completely eliminated. Hospitalization for severe kidney infections For a severe kidney infection, your doctor ...

  15. Efficient export of prefolded, disulfide-bonded recombinant proteins to the periplasm by the Tat pathway in Escherichia coli CyDisCo strains.

    PubMed

    Matos, Cristina F R O; Robinson, Colin; Alanen, Heli I; Prus, Piotr; Uchida, Yuko; Ruddock, Lloyd W; Freedman, Robert B; Keshavarz-Moore, Eli

    2014-01-01

    Numerous high-value therapeutic proteins are produced in Escherichia coli and exported to the periplasm, as this approach simplifies downstream processing and enables disulfide bond formation. Most recombinant proteins are exported by the Sec pathway, which transports substrates across the plasma membrane in an unfolded state. The Tat system also exports proteins to the periplasm, but transports them in a folded state. This system has attracted interest because of its tendency to transport correctly folded proteins, but this trait renders it unable to export proteins containing disulfide bonds since these are normally acquired only in the periplasm; reduced substrates tend to be recognized as incorrectly folded and rejected. In this study we have used a series of novel strains (termed CyDisCo) which oxidise disulfide bonds in the cytoplasm, and we show that these cells efficiently export a range of disulfide-containing proteins when a Tat signal peptide is attached. These test proteins include alkaline phosphatase (PhoA), a phytase containing four disulfide bonds (AppA), an antiinterleukin 1β scFv and human growth hormone. No export of PhoA or AppA is observed in wild-type cells lacking the CyDisCo factors. The PhoA, AppA and scFv proteins were exported in an active form by Tat in the CyDisCo strain, and mass spectrometry showed that the vast majority of the scFv protein was disulfide-bonded and correctly processed. The evidence indicates that this combination of Tat + CyDisCo offers a novel means of exporting active, correctly folded disulfide bonded proteins to the periplasm.

  16. Structural analysis of the diadenylate cyclase reaction of DNA-integrity scanning protein A (DisA) and its inhibition by 3'-dATP.

    PubMed

    Müller, Martina; Deimling, Tobias; Hopfner, Karl-Peter; Witte, Gregor

    2015-08-01

    The identification of the essential bacterial second messenger cyclic-di-AMP (c-di-AMP) synthesized by the DNA-integrity scanning protein A (DisA) has opened up a new and emerging field in bacterial signalling. To further analyse the diadenylate cyclase (DAC) reaction catalysed by the DAC domains of DisA, we crystallized Thermotoga maritima DisA in the presence of different ATP analogues and metal ions to identify the metal-binding site and trap the enzyme in pre- and post-reaction states. Through structural and biochemical assays we identified important residues essential for the reaction in the active site of the DAC domains. Our structures resolve the metal-binding site and thus explain the activation of ATP for the DAC reaction. Moreover, we were able to identify a potent inhibitor of the DAC domain. Based on the available structures and homology to annotated DAC domains we propose a common mechanism for c-di-AMP synthesis by DAC domains in c-di-AMP-producing species and a possible approach for its effective inhibition.

  17. Dis-appearance and dys-appearance anew: living with excess skin and intestinal changes following weight loss surgery.

    PubMed

    Groven, Karen Synne; Råheim, Målfrid; Engelsrud, Gunn

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this article is to explore bodily changes following weight loss surgery. Our empirical material is based on individual interviews with 22 Norwegian women. To further analyze their experiences, we build primarily on the phenomenologist Drew Leder`s distinction between bodily dis-appearance and dys-appearance. Additionally, our analysis is inspired by Simone de Beauvoir, Merleau-Ponty and Julia Kristeva. Although these scholars have not directed their attention to obesity operations, they occupy a prime framework for shedding light on different dimensions of bodily change. In doing so, we were able to identify two main themes: The felt "inner" body versus the visible "surface" body and the "old" body versus the "new" body. In different, though interconnected ways, these main themes encompass tensions between changes the women experienced as contributing to a more "normal" and active life, feeling more accepted, and changes that generated ambivalence. In particular, their skin became increasingly problematic because it did not "shrink" like the rest of the body. On the contrary, it became looser and looser. Moreover, badsmelling folds of skin that wobbled, sweated and chafed at the smallest movement, aprons of fat hanging in front of their stomachs, batwing arms, thick flabby thighs and sagging breasts were described as a huge contrast to the positive response they received to their changed body shape when they were out and about with their clothes on. At the same time, they expressed ambivalence with regards to removing the excess skin by means of plastic surgery. Through their own and other women`s experiences they learned removing the excess skin by means of surgery could be a double-edged sword. By illuminating the experiences of the ones undergoing such changes our article offers new insight in a scholarly debate predominated by medical research documenting the positive outcomes of weight loss surgery.

  18. [Microbiological diagnosis of infections of the skin and soft tissues].

    PubMed

    Burillo, Almudena; Moreno, Antonio; Salas, Carlos

    2007-11-01

    Skin and soft tissue infections are often seen in clinical practice, yet their microbiological diagnosis is among the most complex of laboratory tasks. The diagnosis of a skin and a soft tissue infection is generally based on clinical criteria and not microbiological results. A microbiological diagnosis is reserved for cases in which the etiology of infection is required, e.g., when the infection is particularly severe, when less common microorganisms are suspected as the causative agent (e.g. in immunocompromised patients), when response to antimicrobial treatment is poor, or when a longstanding wound does not heal within a reasonable period of time. We report the indications, sampling and processing techniques, and interpretation criteria for various culture types, including quantitative cultures from biopsy or tissue specimens and semiquantitative and qualitative cultures performed on all types of samples. For non-invasive samples taken from open wounds, application of the Q index to Gram stains is a cost-effective way to standardize sample quality assessment and interpretation of the pathogenic involvement of the different microorganisms isolated from cultures. All these issues are covered in the SEIMC microbiological procedure number 22: Diagnóstico microbiológico de las infecciones de piel y tejidos blandos (Microbiological diagnosis of infections of the skin and soft tissues) (2nd ed., 2006, www.seimc.org/protocolos/microbiologia).

  19. Laboratory Diagnosis of Human Immunodeficiency Deficiency Virus Infection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-01

    Dis 158:1158, 1988 2. Albert J, Bredberg U, Chiodi F, et a: A new human retrovirus isolate of West African origin (SBL-6669) and its relationship to...J Epidemiol 4:426, 1988 27. Chiodi F, Albert J, Olausson E, et al: Isolation frequency of human immunodeficiency virus from cerebrospinal fluid and...blood of patients with varying severity of HIV infection. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 4:351, 1988 28. Chiodi F, Bredberg-Baden U, Biberfeld G, et al

  20. Hookworm infection

    MedlinePlus

    Hookworm disease; Ground itch; Ancylostoma duodenale infection; Necator americanus infection; Parasitic infection - hookworm ... The last 2 types also occur in animals. Hookworm disease is common in the moist tropics and ...

  1. Staph Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... Staph Infection? Staph is the shortened name for Staphylococcus (pronounced: staf-uh-low-KAH-kus), a type ... most staph infections are caused by the species Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) . S. aureus most commonly causes skin infections ...

  2. Staphylococcal Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... bacteria. There are over 30 types, but Staphylococcus aureus causes most staph infections (pronounced "staff infections"), including ... staph bacteria such as MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) are resistant to certain antibiotics, making infections harder ...

  3. The tobacco MAP215/Dis1-family protein TMBP200 is required for the functional organization of microtubule arrays during male germline establishment

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Sung Aeong; Pal, Madhumita Das; Park, Soon Ki; Johnson, James Andrew; Twell, David

    2010-01-01

    The haploid microspore division during pollen development in flowering plants is an intrinsically asymmetric division which establishes the male germline for sexual reproduction. Arabidopsis gem1 mutants lack the male germline as a result of disturbed microspore polarity, division asymmetry, and cytokinesis and represent loss-of-function mutants in MOR1/GEM1, a plant orthologue of the conserved MAP215/Dis1 microtubule associated protein (MAP) family. This provides genetic evidence for the role of MAP215/Dis1 in the organization of gametophytic microtubule arrays, but it has remained unknown how microtubule arrays are affected in gem1 mutant microspores. Here, novel male gametophytic microtubule-reporter Nicotiana tabacum plants were constructed, expressing a green fluorescent protein-α-TUBULIN fusion protein (GFP-TUA6) under the control of a microspore-specific promoter. These plants allow effective visualization of all major male gametophytic microtubule arrays and provide useful tools to study the regulation of microtubule arrays by MAPs and other effectors. Depletion of TMBP200, a tobacco homologue of MOR1/GEM1 in gametophytic microtubule-reporter plants using microspore-targeted RNA interference, induced defects in microspore polarity, division asymmetry and cytokinesis that were associated with striking defects in phragmoplast position, orientation, and structure. Our observations further reveal a requirement for TMBP200 in gametophytic spindle organization and a novel role in spindle position and orientation in polarized microspores. These results provide direct evidence for the function of MAP215/Dis1 family protein TMBP200 in the organization of microtubule arrays critical for male germline formation in plants. PMID:20022922

  4. Skin Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... it can get infected by them. Some common types of skin infections are Bacterial: Cellulitis and impetigo. Staphylococcal infections can also affect the skin. Viral: Shingles, warts, and herpes simplex Fungal: Athlete's foot and yeast infections Parasitic: Body lice, head lice, and scabies ...

  5. The Finnish disease heritage database (FinDis) update-a database for the genes mutated in the Finnish disease heritage brought to the next-generation sequencing era.

    PubMed

    Polvi, Anne; Linturi, Henna; Varilo, Teppo; Anttonen, Anna-Kaisa; Byrne, Myles; Fokkema, Ivo F A C; Almusa, Henrikki; Metzidis, Anthony; Avela, Kristiina; Aula, Pertti; Kestilä, Marjo; Muilu, Juha

    2013-11-01

    The Finnish Disease Heritage Database (FinDis) (http://findis.org) was originally published in 2004 as a centralized information resource for rare monogenic diseases enriched in the Finnish population. The FinDis database originally contained 405 causative variants for 30 diseases. At the time, the FinDis database was a comprehensive collection of data, but since 1994, a large amount of new information has emerged, making the necessity to update the database evident. We collected information and updated the database to contain genes and causative variants for 35 diseases, including six more genes and more than 1,400 additional disease-causing variants. Information for causative variants for each gene is collected under the LOVD 3.0 platform, enabling easy updating. The FinDis portal provides a centralized resource and user interface to link information on each disease and gene with variant data in the LOVD 3.0 platform. The software written to achieve this has been open-sourced and made available on GitHub (http://github.com/findis-db), allowing biomedical institutions in other countries to present their national data in a similar way, and to both contribute to, and benefit from, standardized variation data. The updated FinDis portal provides a unique resource to assist patient diagnosis, research, and the development of new cures.

  6. Detection of Legionella spp. and Legionella pneumophila in water samples of Spain by specific real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Grúas, Cristina; Llambi, Silvia; Arruga, M Victoria

    2014-01-01

    Legionella pneumophila is the primary cause of the legionellosis diseases (90 %) (Yu et al. in J Infect Dis 186:127-128, 2002; Doleans et al. in J Clin Microbiol 42:458-460, 2004; Den Boer et al. in Clin Microbiol Infect 14:459-466, 2008). In this study, methodologies based on molecular biology were developed in order to provide a quick diagnosis of the bacterial presence in water samples of Spain. Multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction assays were realized to target the 16S rRNA and macrophage infectivity potentiator (mip) genes of, respectively, Legionella spp. and L. pneumophila including in the design of an internal control. The results obtained by the culture and the gene amplification methods agreed in 94.44 % for the 16S rRNA gene, and a concordance of 66.67 % of the cases was obtained for the mip gene.

  7. Infection and Cardiovascular Disease

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-02-17

    Cardiovascular Diseases; Coronary Disease; Cerebrovascular Accident; Heart Diseases; Myocardial Infarction; Infection; Chlamydia Infections; Cytomegalovirus Infections; Helicobacter Infections; Atherosclerosis

  8. Rotavirus Infections

    MedlinePlus

    Rotavirus is a virus that causes gastroenteritis. Symptoms include severe diarrhea, vomiting, fever, and dehydration. Almost all ... the U.S. are likely to be infected with rotavirus before their 5th birthday. Infections happen most often ...

  9. Postpartum Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... Fundamentals Heart and Blood Vessel Disorders Hormonal and Metabolic Disorders Immune Disorders Infections Injuries and Poisoning Kidney and ... Fundamentals Heart and Blood Vessel Disorders Hormonal and Metabolic Disorders Immune Disorders Infections Injuries and Poisoning Kidney and ...

  10. Staph Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... About Staph Infections Staph infections are caused by Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. Many healthy people carry these bacteria ... MRSA You may have heard about methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), a type of staph bacteria with ...

  11. Hantavirus Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... but deadly viral infection. It is spread by mice and rats. They shed the virus in their ... breathe infected air or come into contact with rodents or their urine or droppings. You cannot catch ...

  12. Spinal infections.

    PubMed

    Tay, Bobby K-B; Deckey, Jeffrey; Hu, Serena S

    2002-01-01

    Spinal infections can occur in a variety of clinical situations. Their presentation ranges from the infant with diskitis who is unwilling to crawl or walk to the adult who develops an infection after a spinal procedure. The most common types of spinal infections are hematogenous bacterial or fungal infections, pediatric diskitis, epidural abscess, and postoperative infections. Prompt and accurate diagnosis of spinal infections, the cornerstone of treatment, requires a high index of suspicion in at-risk patients and the appropriate evaluation to identify the organism and determine the extent of infection. Neurologic function and spinal stability also should be carefully evaluated. The goals of therapy should include eradicating the infection, relieving pain, preserving or restoring neurologic function, improving nutrition, and maintaining spinal stability.

  13. MRSA Infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... MRSA infection By Mayo Clinic Staff Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection is caused by a type ... a fever, see your doctor. Different varieties of Staphylococcus aureus bacteria, commonly called "staph," exist. Staph bacteria ...

  14. Salmonella Infection

    MedlinePlus

    Salmonella infection Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Salmonella infection (salmonellosis) is a common bacterial disease that affects the intestinal tract. Salmonella bacteria typically live in animal and human intestines and are ...

  15. Neonatal Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... previous continue E. Coli Infection What is it? Escherichia coli (E. coli) is another bacterial culprit behind some ... at home. Most newborns who become ill from E. coli infection have particularly fragile immune systems that make them ...

  16. Coronavirus Infections

    MedlinePlus

    Coronaviruses are common viruses that most people get some time in their life. They are common throughout the world, and they can infect people and animals. Several different coronaviruses can infect people ...

  17. Opportunistic Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... Infections Opportunistic Infections and Their Relationship to HIV/AIDS People with healthy immune systems can be exposed ... Disease Dementia Hospitalization & Palliative Care Related Topics on AIDS.gov Signs and Symptoms Immune System 101 Stages ...

  18. Vaginal Infections

    PubMed Central

    Nicolle, Lindsay E.

    1989-01-01

    Vaginal infections are among the most common complaints for which women see their physicians. The patient complains primarily of vaginal discharge or pruritus. Optimal management of these infections requires a careful history, physical examination, and laboratory assessment to determine the pathogen. Specific therapy is available for the three important causes of vaginal infection: yeast vulvovaginitis, trichomoniasis, and bacterial vaginosis. Concomitant sexually transmitted diseases should be excluded in women with complaints suggestive of vaginal infection. PMID:21248968

  19. Bone Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... bloodstream. People who are at risk for bone infections include those with diabetes, poor circulation, or recent injury to the bone. You may also be at risk if you are having hemodialysis. Symptoms of bone infections include Pain in the infected area Chills and ...

  20. The World Health Organization Quality of Life instrument for people with intellectual and physical disabilities (WHOQOL-Dis): evidence of validity of the Brazilian version

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The number of people with disabilities in Brazil and worldwide has grown substantially in recent decades. Cross-cultural quality of life instruments can be helpful in the development of interventions designed to meet the needs of this population and contribute to rational allocation of resources. This study sought to provide evidence of validity and reliability the Brazilian Portuguese version of WHOQOL-Dis-D (a cross-cultural, multicentre instrument developed by the WHOQOL-Group for the assessment of quality of life in persons with physical disability – PD) and WHOQOL-Dis-ID (for persons with intellectual disability – ID). Methods Classical psychometric methods were used to conduct independent analyses of the PD and ID samples. Criterion groups were established for analysis of construct validity. Concurrent validity was assessed in relation to SWLS and BDI-II scores; discriminant validity, in relation to WHODAS-II. Cronbach alpha was used to test the instrument scales and subscales for reliability. The ID subgroup was retested, and test-retest reliability assessed by means of intraclass correlation coefficients and paired Student’s t-test. Results A total of 162 (98 females) people with PD and 156 (55 females) people with ID participated in the study. Cronbach alpha was satisfactory across practically all domains and factors in the PD subsample. In IDs, most factors or domains had coefficients higher than 0.70, but four subscales exhibited less satisfactory performance. Evidence of construct and concurrent validity and reliability were obtained. Conclusions The analyses presented herein provide satisfactory evidence of the validity and reliability of the instrument and corroborated the factor structure revealed during cross-cultural research. Further studies with larger sample sizes are required to obtain additional evidence of validity and reliability. PMID:24886102

  1. Development of a spatio-temporal disaggregation method (DisNDVI) for generating a time series of fine resolution NDVI images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bindhu, V. M.; Narasimhan, B.

    2015-03-01

    Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), a key parameter in understanding the vegetation dynamics, has high spatial and temporal variability. However, continuous monitoring of NDVI is not feasible at fine spatial resolution (<60 m) owing to the long revisit time needed by the satellites to acquire the fine spatial resolution data. Further, the study attains significance in the case of humid tropical regions of the earth, where the prevailing atmospheric conditions restrict availability of fine resolution cloud free images at a high temporal frequency. As an alternative to the lack of high resolution images, the current study demonstrates a novel disaggregation method (DisNDVI) which integrates the spatial information from a single fine resolution image and temporal information in terms of crop phenology from time series of coarse resolution images to generate estimates of NDVI at fine spatial and temporal resolution. The phenological variation of the pixels captured at the coarser scale provides the basis for relating the temporal variability of the pixel with the NDVI available at fine resolution. The proposed methodology was tested over a 30 km × 25 km spatially heterogeneous study area located in the south of Tamil Nadu, India. The robustness of the algorithm was assessed by an independent comparison of the disaggregated NDVI and observed NDVI obtained from concurrent Landsat ETM+ imagery. The results showed good spatial agreement across the study area dominated with agriculture and forest pixels, with a root mean square error of 0.05. The validation done at the coarser scale showed that disaggregated NDVI spatially averaged to 240 m compared well with concurrent MODIS NDVI at 240 m (R2 > 0.8). The validation results demonstrate the effectiveness of DisNDVI in improving the spatial and temporal resolution of NDVI images for utility in fine scale hydrological applications such as crop growth monitoring and estimation of evapotranspiration.

  2. Acinetobacter baumannii Genes Required for Bacterial Survival during Bloodstream Infection

    PubMed Central

    Subashchandrabose, Sargurunathan; Smith, Sara; DeOrnellas, Valerie; Crepin, Sebastien; Kole, Monica; Zahdeh, Carina

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Acinetobacter baumannii is emerging as a leading global multiple-antibiotic-resistant nosocomial pathogen. The identity of genes essential for pathogenesis in a mammalian host remains largely unknown. Using transposon-directed insertion-site sequencing (TraDIS), we identified A. baumannii genes involved in bacterial survival in a leukopenic mouse model of bloodstream infection. Mice were inoculated with a pooled transposon mutant library derived from 109,000 mutants, and TraDIS was used to map transposon insertion sites in the genomes of bacteria in the inoculum and of bacteria recovered from mouse spleens. Unique transposon insertion sites were mapped and used to calculate a fitness factor for every insertion site based on its relative abundance in the inoculum and postinfection libraries. Eighty-nine transposon insertion mutants that were underrepresented after experimental infection in mice compared to their presence in the inocula were delineated as candidates for further evaluation. Genetically defined mutants lacking feoB (ferrous iron import), ddc (d-ala-d-ala-carboxypeptidase), and pntB (pyridine nucleotide transhydrogenase subunit) exhibited a fitness defect during systemic infection resulting from bacteremia. In vitro, these mutants, as well as a fepA (ferric enterobactin receptor) mutant, are defective in survival in human serum and within macrophages and are hypersensitive to killing by antimicrobial peptides compared to the survival of the parental strain under these conditions. Our data demonstrate that FepA is involved in the uptake of exogenous enterobactin in A. baumannii. Genetic complementation rescues the phenotypes of mutants in assays that emulate conditions encountered during infection. In summary, we have determined novel A. baumannii fitness genes involved in the pathogenesis of mammalian infection. IMPORTANCE A. baumannii is a significant cause of bacterial bloodstream infection in humans. Since multiple antibiotic resistance

  3. [Spanish Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (SEIMC) guidelines for the diagnosis of invasive fungal infections. 2010 update].

    PubMed

    Ayats, Josefina; Martín-Mazuelos, Estrella; Pemán, Javier; Quindós, Guillermo; Sánchez, Fernando; García-Rodríguez, Julio; Guarro, Josep; Guinea, Jesús; Linares, María J; Pontón, José; Rodríguez-Tudela, Juan L; Cuenca-Estrella, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    These guidelines are an update of recommendations for the diagnosis of invasive fungal infections by the Spanish Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (SEIMC) published in 2004 (Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin. 2004, 22:32-9). In this updated version of the guidelines, a comprehensive review of the most recent diagnostic innovations and levels of evidence to recommend those diagnostic procedures are included. We first analyse conventional diagnostic methods, microscopic examination and culture, underlining their limitations which have led to the development of alternative methods, such as fungal antigen and DNA quantification. Those alternative methods of diagnosis are analysed by fungal infection. We also briefly review the methods for molecular identification of fungal species and recommendations for carrying out susceptibility tests for antifungal drugs, including reference procedures, commercial techniques and their indications.

  4. Identification of Novel Inverted Terminal Repeat (ITR) Deletions of Human Adenovirus (AD) From Infected Host: Virulent Ads Containing Mixed Populations of Genomic Sequences

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    INTRODUCTION Acute respiratory disease ( ARD ) in military personnel is the most significant cause of morbidity, hospitalizations, and work-time loss...vaccination program in 1990s, recurrent epidemic outbreaks of human adenovirus-associated acute respiratory diseases ( ARD ) caused mainly by the new Ad4...type 4 acute respiratory disease in military trainees:report of an outbreak during a lapse in vaccination. J. Infect Dis 179:1531-1533. 3. Berge, T.O

  5. Arbovirus Infections

    PubMed Central

    Beckham, J. David; Tyler, Kenneth L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of Review Arbovirus (arthropod-borne virus) infections are increasingly important causes of neurologic disease in the United States through both endemic transmission and travel-associated infections. This article reviews the major arbovirus infections that can cause neurologic disease likely to be encountered in the United States. Recent Findings West Nile virus continues to be an important cause of epidemic encephalitis, while emerging arbovirus infections such as dengue and chikungunya have rapidly expanded their geographic distribution. As emerging arboviruses expand in new geographic regions, neurologic abnormalities are reported in new patient populations. Summary Emerging arbovirus infections are increasingly important causes of neurologic disease throughout the world and in the United States. While no US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)–approved therapy is yet available for these infections, prompt recognition and diagnosis from the consulting neurologist will ensure appropriate supportive care for the patient. PMID:26633778

  6. [Hand infections].

    PubMed

    Schiele, Philippe; Le Nen, Dominique

    2013-11-01

    Superficial and deep hand infections are frequent in general medical practice. Clinical examination is a crucial step for an adapted provided care. Most of the time, surgery is the only way to heal infections. However, in some cases (like bites), empiric antibiotherapy is first indicated to limit infection. Staphyloccocus aureus as well as Group Beta Streptococcus are the most frequently pathogenes associated with hand infections. Methicillin resistant S. Aureus must always be considered in the diagnoses. Whatever treatment is provided, clinical assessement must be repeated within two days. An early adaquated treatment prevent functional complications and in some cases death of the patients.

  7. Peeking under the Iron Curtain: Development of a Microcosm for Imaging the Colonization of Steel Surfaces by Mariprofundus sp. Strain DIS-1, an Oxygen-Tolerant Fe-Oxidizing Bacterium.

    PubMed

    Mumford, Adam C; Adaktylou, Irini J; Emerson, David

    2016-11-15

    Microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) is a major cause of damage to steel infrastructure in the marine environment. Despite their ability to grow directly on Fe(II) released from steel, comparatively little is known about the role played by neutrophilic iron-oxidizing bacteria (FeOB). Recent work has shown that FeOB grow readily on mild steel (1018 MS) incubated in situ or as a substrate for pure cultures in vitro; however, details of how they colonize steel surfaces are unknown yet are important for understanding their effects. In this study, we combine a novel continuously upwelling microcosm with confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) to determine the degree of colonization of 1018 MS by the marine FeOB strain DIS-1. 1018 MS coupons were incubated with sterile seawater (pH 8) inoculated with strain DIS-1. Incubations were performed both under oxic conditions and in an anoxic-to-oxic gradient. Following incubations of 1 to 10 days, the slides were removed from the microcosms and stained to visualize both cells and stalk structures. Stained coupons were visualized by CLSM after being mounted in a custom frame to preserve the three-dimensional structure of the biofilm. The incubation of 1018 MS coupons with strain DIS-1 under oxic conditions resulted in initial attachment of cells within 2 days and nearly total coverage of the coupon with an ochre film within 5 days. CLSM imaging revealed a nonadherent biofilm composed primarily of the Fe-oxide stalks characteristic of strain DIS-1. When incubated with elevated concentrations of Fe(II), DIS-1 colonization of 1018 MS was inhibited.

  8. Salmonella Infections

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infections with bacteria of the genus Salmonella are responsible for both acute and chronic poultry diseases. These diseases cause economically significant losses for poultry producers in many nations and absorb large investments of public and private resources in testing and control efforts. Infect...

  9. Staph Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... doctor. previous continue Can I Prevent a Staph Skin Infection? Staphylococcus aureus bacteria are everywhere. Many healthy people carry staph bacteria without getting sick. Cleanliness and good hygiene are ... You can help prevent staph skin infections by washing your hands often and by ...

  10. Eye Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issues Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Eye Infections in Infants & Children Page Content ​​​If the ... must be treated early to prevent serious complications. Eye infections that occur after the newborn period: These ...

  11. Skin Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... feels sick or has fever or chills has red streaks near the infected area Think Prevention! Wash hands well and often, especially after touching infected areas. Clean cuts and scrapes with soap and water, apply an antibiotic ointment, and cover with a ...

  12. Campylobacter Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... feces (poop), which can lead to infection in humans via contaminated food, meats (especially chicken), water taken from contaminated sources (streams or rivers near where animals graze), and milk products that haven't been ... the human digestive system, Campylobacter infects and attacks the lining ...

  13. The Energy Industry Profile of ISO/DIS 19115-1: Facilitating Discovery and Evaluation of, and Access to Distributed Information Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hills, S. J.; Richard, S. M.; Doniger, A.; Danko, D. M.; Derenthal, L.; Energistics Metadata Work Group

    2011-12-01

    A diverse group of organizations representative of the international community involved in disciplines relevant to the upstream petroleum industry, - energy companies, - suppliers and publishers of information to the energy industry, - vendors of software applications used by the industry, - partner government and academic organizations, has engaged in the Energy Industry Metadata Standards Initiative. This Initiative envisions the use of standard metadata within the community to enable significant improvements in the efficiency with which users discover, evaluate, and access distributed information resources. The metadata standard needed to realize this vision is the initiative's primary deliverable. In addition to developing the metadata standard, the initiative is promoting its adoption to accelerate realization of the vision, and publishing metadata exemplars conformant with the standard. Implementation of the standard by community members, in the form of published metadata which document the information resources each organization manages, will allow use of tools requiring consistent metadata for efficient discovery and evaluation of, and access to, information resources. While metadata are expected to be widely accessible, access to associated information resources may be more constrained. The initiative is being conducting by Energistics' Metadata Work Group, in collaboration with the USGIN Project. Energistics is a global standards group in the oil and natural gas industry. The Work Group determined early in the initiative, based on input solicited from 40+ organizations and on an assessment of existing metadata standards, to develop the target metadata standard as a profile of a revised version of ISO 19115, formally the "Energy Industry Profile of ISO/DIS 19115-1 v1.0" (EIP). The Work Group is participating on the ISO/TC 211 project team responsible for the revision of ISO 19115, now ready for "Draft International Standard" (DIS) status. With ISO 19115 an

  14. Assessment of the Duration of Protection in Campylobacter jejuni Experimental Infection in Humans

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    limited comparative data from challenge studies to assess the duration of protection; however, infection- derived protective immunity to Vibrio dw/erae...derived immunity to cholera . J. In- fect. Dis. 143:818-1)20. 29. 1\\.fortin. P. M., J, Mathiot, J. lperu, M. Kirimat. A. J, Georges. and M. C...and manophagcs in acute Campy· lnbar:ler colitis and cholera : an ;, ri1•o study. J. Gastroenterul. I Iepatol. 23:752-758. 38. Rao, M. R., A. B

  15. Generation of a Tn5 transposon library in Haemophilus parasuis and analysis by transposon-directed insertion-site sequencing (TraDIS).

    PubMed

    Luan, Shi-Lu; Chaudhuri, Roy R; Peters, Sarah E; Mayho, Matthew; Weinert, Lucy A; Crowther, Sarah A; Wang, Jinhong; Langford, Paul R; Rycroft, Andrew; Wren, Brendan W; Tucker, Alexander W; Maskell, Duncan J

    2013-10-25

    Haemophilus parasuis is an important respiratory tract pathogen of swine and the etiological agent of Glässer's disease. The molecular pathogenesis of H. parasuis is not well studied, mainly due to the lack of efficient tools for genetic manipulation of this bacterium. In this study we describe a Tn5-based random mutagenesis method for use in H. parasuis. A novel chloramphenicol-resistant Tn5 transposome was electroporated into the virulent H. parasuis serovar 5 strain 29755. High transposition efficiency of Tn5, up to 10(4) transformants/μg of transposon DNA, was obtained by modification of the Tn5 DNA in the H. parasuis strain HS071 and establishment of optimal electrotransformation conditions, and a library of approximately 10,500 mutants was constructed. Analysis of the library using transposon-directed insertion-site sequencing (TraDIS) revealed that the insertion of Tn5 was evenly distributed throughout the genome. 10,001 individual mutants were identified, with 1561 genes being disrupted (69.4% of the genome). This newly-developed, efficient mutagenesis approach will be a powerful tool for genetic manipulation of H. parasuis in order to study its physiology and pathogenesis.

  16. Characteristics of a 85Kr beta-particle source applied in Series 1 reference irradiations of DIS-1 direct ion storage dosemeters.

    PubMed

    Hakanen, A T; Sipilä, P M; Sahla, T T

    2007-01-01

    Characteristics necessary to specify an ISO 6980 Series 1 reference radiation field were determined for a commercially available 85Kr beta-particle source, using a BEAM EGS4 Monte Carlo code. The characteristics include residual maximum beta energy, E(res), and the uniformity of the dose rate over the calibration area. The E(res) and the uniformity were also determined experimentally, using an extrapolation ionization chamber (EC) and a 0.2 cm3 parallel plate ionization chamber, respectively. The depth-dose curve measured with the EC gave a value 0.62 MeV for the E(res). Series 2 90Sr + 90Y and Series 1(85) Kr beta-particle sources calibrated for H(p)(0.07) at the secondary standard dosimetry laboratory (SSDL) of STUK were used to determine the energy and angular responses of DIS-1 direct ion storage dosemeters. The averaged zero angle H(p)(0.07) responses to the 90Sr + 90Y and 85Kr reference radiations were 135 and 80%, respectively. The responses were normalized to 100%, H(p)(0.07) response to 137Cs photon radiation.

  17. Breast infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... female breast anatomy Breast infection Female breast References Hunt KK, Mittendorf EA. Diseases of the breast. In: ... Jacobson, MD, Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Loma Linda University School of Medicine, Loma Linda Center for ...

  18. Tapeworm Infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... a laboratory for testing. A laboratory uses microscopic identification techniques to check for eggs or tapeworm segments ... to the anus to collect eggs for microscopic identification. Blood test. For tissue-invasive infections, your doctor ...

  19. Pinworm Infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... length. While the infected person sleeps, female pinworms lay thousands of eggs in the folds of skin ... Female pinworms move to the anal area to lay their eggs, which often results in anal itching. ...

  20. Campylobacter Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... infections are connected with touching or eating undercooked poultry. Therefore, proper food handling and preparation are important. ... family: Wash your hands thoroughly after handling raw poultry. Also, wash cutting boards and utensils with soap ...

  1. Viral Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... from medicines, which usually move through your bloodstream. Antibiotics do not work for viral infections. There are a few antiviral medicines available. Vaccines can help prevent you from getting many viral diseases. NIH: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases

  2. Staph Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... of today's staph infections can be cured with penicillin. The emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains of staph ... Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) — Prevention. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. http://www.niaid.nih.gov/ ...

  3. Bacterial Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... body will learn to resist them causing antibiotic resistance. Later, you could get or spread an infection that those antibiotics cannot cure. NIH: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases

  4. Mycobacterial Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... many different kinds. The most common one causes tuberculosis. Another one causes leprosy. Still others cause infections ... aren't "typical" because they don't cause tuberculosis. But they can still harm people, especially people ...

  5. Staphylococcal Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... Page Content Article Body Infections caused by staphylococcal organisms can lead to a variety of diseases, including ... blood tests may be ordered to identify the organism involved. Antibiotics taken by mouth are usually prescribed ...

  6. Hand Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... spread to others. Necrotizing Fasciitis, or “Flesh-Eating Bacteria” Necrotizing fasciitis is a very rare but severe infection. Streptococcus pyogenes or other “flesh-eating bacteria” enter the body through a cut. Bacteria toxins ...

  7. Shigella Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... Adenovirus Amebiasis E. Coli Stool Test: Bacteria Culture Cholera Giardiasis Rotavirus What Are Germs? Why Is Hand ... to Wash My Hands? Food Poisoning Salmonellosis Shigellosis Cholera E. Coli Gastrointestinal Infections and Diarrhea Salmonellosis Contact ...

  8. Spinal Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... spinal infection include fever, chills, headache, neck stiffness, pain, wound redness and tenderness, and wound drainage. In some cases, patients may notice new weakness, numbness or tingling sensations in the arms and/or legs. The symptoms ...

  9. Significance of Staphylococcus epidermidis in Health Care-Associated Infections, from Contaminant to Clinically Relevant Pathogen: This Is a Wake-Up Call!

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Coagulase-negative staphylococci, particularly Staphylococcus epidermidis, have been recognized as an important cause of health care-associated infections. Concurrently, S. epidermidis is a common contaminant in clinical cultures, which poses a diagnostic challenge. An article in this issue of Journal of Clinical Microbiology (I. Tolo, J. C. Thomas, R. S. B. Fischer, E. L. Brown, B. M. Gray, and D. A. Robinson, J Clin Microbiol 54:1711–1719, 2015, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JCM.03345-15) describes a rapid single nucleotide polymorphism-based assay for distinguishing between S. epidermidis isolates from hospital and nonhospital sources, which represents an important contribution to the characterization and understanding of S. epidermidis health care-associated infections. PMID:27170016

  10. Historical Perspectives and Guidelines for Botulinum Neurotoxin Subtype Nomenclature

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-26

    of neurotransmission, Curr Top Microbiol Immunol, 364, 139-157 (2013) 10. J. Leuchs, Beitraege zur kenntnis des toxins und antitoxins des Bacillus ...botulinus., Z Hyg Infektionskr, 76, 55-84 (1910) 11. G.S. Burke, Notes on Bacillus botulinus, J Bacteriol, 4(5), 555-570 551 (1919) 12. L.D. Smith...deaths, J Infect Dis, 143(1), 22-27 (1981) 99. E. van Ermengem, A new anaerobic bacillus and its relation to botulism (originally published as

  11. Vaginal Yeast Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Vaginal Yeast Infections KidsHealth > For Teens > Vaginal Yeast Infections Print ... side effect of taking antibiotics. What Is a Yeast Infection? A yeast infection is a common infection ...

  12. Infection: musculoskeletal.

    PubMed

    Jaramillo, Diego

    2011-05-01

    The imaging approach to osteomyelitis has evolved in the past two decades. Advances in MRI allow for whole body imaging, decreasing the need for scintigraphy when symptoms are not localized or the disease may be multifocal. There is an increasing clinical need for depiction of abscesses in the soft tissues and subperiosteal space, particularly because methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections constitute more than one-third of all the infections. The increasing emphasis on radiation dose reduction has also led away from scintigraphy and computed tomography. MR imaging has become the advanced imaging modality of choice in osteomyelitis. There is an increasing understanding of the appropriate role for gadolinium enhancement, which is not indicated when the pre-gadolinium images are normal. Other related infections, including pyomyositis, are best imaged with MRI.

  13. Drug release from E chemistry hypromellose tablets using the Bio-Dis USP type III apparatus: An evaluation of the effect of systematic agitation and ionic strength.

    PubMed

    Asare-Addo, Kofi; Supuk, Enes; Mahdi, Mohammed H; Adebisi, Adeola O; Nep, Elijah; Conway, Barbara R; Kaialy, Waseem; Al-Hamidi, Hiba; Nokhodchi, Ali

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of systematic agitation, increasing ionic strength and gel strength on drug release from a gel-forming matrix (HPMC E10M, E4M and E50LV) using USP type III Bio-Dis apparatus with theophylline as a model drug. The triboelectric charging; particle sizing, water content, true density and SEM of all the hypromellose grades, theophylline and formulated blends were characterised. The results showed that balanced inter-particulate forces exist between drug particles and the excipient surface and this enabled optimum charge to mass ratio to be measured. Agitation and ionic strength affected drug release from E50LV and E4M tablet matrices in comparison to the E10M tablet matrices. Drug release increased substantially when water was used as the dissolution media relative to media at pH 1.2 (containing 0.4M NaCl). The results showed all f2 values for the E10M tablet matrices were above 50 suggesting the drug release from these tablet matrices to be similar. Rheological data also explained the different drug release behaviour with the stress required to yield/erode being 1Pa, 150Pa, and 320Pa, for the E50LV, E4M and E10M respectively. The stiffness of the gel was also found to be varied from 2.5Pa, 176.2Pa and 408.3Pa for the E50LV, E4M and E10M respectively. The lower G' value can be explained by a softer gel being formed after tablet introduction into the dissolution media thereby indicating faster drug release.

  14. Tinea Infections

    MedlinePlus

    Tinea is the name of a group of diseases caused by a fungus. Types of tinea include ringworm, athlete's foot and jock itch. These infections are ... depend on the affected area of the body: Ringworm is a red skin rash that forms a ...

  15. Paratyphoid Infections

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The numerous motile members of the bacterial genus Salmonella are collectively referred to as paratyphoid (PT) salmonellae. Found throughout the world, these organisms infect a wide variety of hosts (including invertebrate and vertebrate wildlife, domestic animals, and humans) to yield either asympt...

  16. [Infected pseudarthrosis].

    PubMed

    Kinzl, L; Suger, G

    1996-09-01

    In open fractures the rate of infected non-union defects has in recent years decreased due to the increased primary application of external fixation. In spite of this positive state of affairs the condition is still encountered often enough to warrant specific treatment strategies and techniques. In the treatment of infected pseudarthroses the general principles of osteitis treatment are applied. This includes radical excision of infected pseudarthrotic bone and of the diseased surrounding soft tissue, provides mechanical stability in the non-union area and requires effective local treatment of the infection in combination with systemic, target-specific and temporary well-defined antibiotic therapy as well as procedures to improve local circulation. The incorporation of autogenous bone transplants in defects appears to depend on close contact between the transplant and the vascularized receiving site and on the quantity of the transplanted osseous material. A promising alternative method of dealing with extensive bone defects is osteogenesis produced by callus distraction; therefore special attention is given to Ilizarov's ring fixation system. Unstable scar formation demands local muscular flaps or microvascularized free flap transfer, which seems to be superior to other methods.

  17. Fungal Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... it, you'll be saying bye-bye to fungi (say: FUN-guy). What Is a Fungal Infection? Fungi , the word for more than one fungus, can ... but of course, they're not!). Because the fungi that cause tinea (ringworm) live on different parts ...

  18. Chlamydia Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... PID). PID can cause permanent damage to your reproductive system. This can lead to long-term pelvic pain, infertility, and ectopic pregnancy. Women who have had chlamydia infections more than once are at higher risk of serious reproductive health complications. Men often don't have health ...

  19. The DisHuman Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodley, Dan; Runswick-Cole, Katherine; Liddiard, Kirsty

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the relationship between the human and disability; with specific focus on the lives of disabled children and young people. We begin with an analysis of the close relationship between "the disabled" and "the freak". We demonstrate that the historical markings of disability as object of curiosity and…

  20. Risk Factors for Chorioamnion Infection and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome Among Active-Duty Military women and Dependent Women

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-10-01

    invasion and premature birth. This study will determine if the presence of bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a risk factor for ureaplasmal invasion of the...urealyticum, Mycoplasma species and Bacterial Vaginosis Pre-natal Screens N=2,101 BV Uu MYCO SP NEG BV+Uu BV+MYCO SP BV+Uu+MYCO SP Uu+MYCO SP OVG* only only... bacterial vaginosis in pregnant women. Clin. Infect. Dis. 16 Suppl 4:S273-81, 1993. 5. Romero, R., M. Sirtori, E. Oyarzum, C. Avila, M. Mazor, R. Callahan

  1. Infective endocarditis.

    PubMed

    Cahill, Thomas J; Prendergast, Bernard D

    2016-02-27

    Infective endocarditis occurs worldwide, and is defined by infection of a native or prosthetic heart valve, the endocardial surface, or an indwelling cardiac device. The causes and epidemiology of the disease have evolved in recent decades with a doubling of the average patient age and an increased prevalence in patients with indwelling cardiac devices. The microbiology of the disease has also changed, and staphylococci, most often associated with health-care contact and invasive procedures, have overtaken streptococci as the most common cause of the disease. Although novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies have emerged, 1 year mortality has not improved and remains at 30%, which is worse than for many cancers. Logistical barriers and an absence of randomised trials hinder clinical management, and longstanding controversies such as use of antibiotic prophylaxis remain unresolved. In this Seminar, we discuss clinical practice, controversies, and strategies needed to target this potentially devastating disease.

  2. Protozoan Infections

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    Infectious Disease Service, Walter Reed Army Medical Center,N Washington, DC, USA MONTE S. MELTZER 0 CAROL A. NACY ( Department of Immunology/Walter Reed...patient’s demise. Toxoplasma gondii infects a wide range of animals, including humans. The parasite undergoes sexual reproduction only in felines , the...definitive hosts. Felines are required to maintain the life cycle in nature, since incidental hosts do not excrete the parasite in their faeces. Humans

  3. Infective endocarditis.

    PubMed

    Ferro, José M; Fonseca, Ana Catarina

    2014-01-01

    Infective endocarditis is a serious disease of the endocardium of the heart and cardiac valves, caused by a variety of infectious agents, ranging from streptococci to rickettsia. The proportion of cases associated with rheumatic valvulopathy and dental surgery has decreased in recent years, while endocarditis associated with intravenous drug abuse, prosthetic valves, degenerative valve disease, implanted cardiac devices, and iatrogenic or nosocomial infections has emerged. Endocarditis causes constitutional, cardiac and multiorgan symptoms and signs. The central nervous system can be affected in the form of meningitis, cerebritis, encephalopathy, seizures, brain abscess, ischemic embolic stroke, mycotic aneurysm, and subarachnoid or intracerebral hemorrhage. Stroke in endocarditis is an ominous prognostic sign. Treatment of endocarditis includes prolonged appropriate antimicrobial therapy and in selected cases, cardiac surgery. In ischemic stroke associated with infective endocarditis there is no indication to start antithrombotic drugs. In previously anticoagulated patients with an ischemic stroke, oral anticoagulants should be replaced by unfractionated heparin, while in intracranial hemorrhage, all anticoagulation should be interrupted. The majority of unruptured mycotic aneurysms can be treated by antibiotics, but for ruptured aneurysms, endovascular or neurosurgical therapy is indicated.

  4. Fungal nail infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Common fungal infections include: Athlete's foot Jock itch Ringworm on the skin of the body or head ... fungal infection. Alternative Names Nails - fungal infection; Onychomycosis; Tinea unguium Images Nail infection, candidal Yeast and mold ...

  5. Fish tapeworm infection

    MedlinePlus

    Fish tapeworm infection is an intestinal infection with the tapeworm parasite found in fish. ... The fish tapeworm ( Diphyllobothrium latum ) is the largest parasite that infects humans. Humans become infected when they eat raw or undercooked ...

  6. Prevention of indigenous infection of mice with Escherichia coli by nonspecific immunostimulation.

    PubMed Central

    Nomoto, K; Yokokura, T; Mitsuyama, M; Yoshikai, Y; Nomoto, K

    1992-01-01

    We have previously reported that the lethal toxicity of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in specific-pathogen-free mice is due to an intestinal infection with indigenous Escherichia coli induced by the drug (K. Nomoto, T. Yokokura, Y. Yoshikai, M. Mitsuyama, and K. Nomoto, Can J. Microbiol. 37:244-247, 1991). In the present study we demonstrate that nonspecific immunostimulation is effective in the protection of mice from the lethal indigenous infection induced by 5-FU. Intravenous or subcutaneous injection of a preparation of heat-killed Lactobacillus casei YIT 9018, a potent nonspecific immunostimulant, into BALB/c mice reduced the lethal toxicity of 5-FU at doses ranging from 338 to 800 mg/kg of body weight if YIT 9018 was injected 7 to 40 days before administration of 5-FU. Systemic infection with E. coli developed in all of the 5-FU-treated control mice 7 days or more after administration of 5-FU in large doses and was accompanied by overgrowth of the bacteria in the intestinal tract. Pretreatment of mice with YIT 9018 resulted in a decreased occurrence of systemic infection with E. coli to levels of 0 to 20% and no significant changes in the population levels of E. coli in the intestinal tract during the 14 days after administration of 5-FU. The levels of leukopenia in the spleen and peripheral blood were lower, and recovery of granulocyte-macrophage precursor cells in the spleen and femur began earlier in the treated animals than in the 5-FU-treated controls. Intravenous transfusion of syngeneic normal bone marrow cells or spleen cells into the mice at an early period after administration of 5-FU diminished markedly the occurrence of the lethal indigenous infection, suggestion that an earlier recovery from chemotherapy-induced myelosuppression is important in the mechanisms of protection of the host from the infection. PMID:1605602

  7. DisPATCh as a tool to evaluate coarse-scale remotely sensed soil moisture using localized in situ measurements: Application to SMOS and AMSR-E data in Southeastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malbéteau, Yoann; Merlin, Olivier; Molero, Beatriz; Rüdiger, Christoph; Bacon, Stephan

    2016-03-01

    Validating coarse-scale satellite soil moisture data still represents a big challenge, notably due to the large mismatch existing between the spatial resolution (> 10 km) of microwave radiometers and the representativeness scale (several m) of localized in situ measurements. This study aims to examine the potential of DisPATCh (Disaggregation based on Physical and Theoretical scale Change) for validating SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity) and AMSR-E (Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-Earth observation system) level-3 soil moisture products. The ∽40-50 km resolution SMOS and AMSR-E data are disaggregated at 1 km resolution over the Murrumbidgee catchment in Southeastern Australia during a one year period in 2010-2011, and the satellite products are compared with the in situ measurements of 38 stations distributed within the study area. It is found that disaggregation improves the mean difference, correlation coefficient and slope of the linear regression between satellite and in situ data in 77%, 92% and 94% of cases, respectively. Nevertheless, the downscaling efficiency is lower in winter than during the hotter months when DisPATCh performance is optimal. Consistently, better results are obtained in the semi-arid than in a temperate zone of the catchment. In the semi-arid Yanco region, disaggregation in summer increases the correlation coefficient from 0.63 to 0.78 and from 0.42 to 0.71 for SMOS and AMSR-E in morning overpasses and from 0.37 to 0.63 and from 0.47 to 0.73 for SMOS and AMSR-E in afternoon overpasses, respectively. DisPATCh has strong potential in low vegetated semi-arid areas where it can be used as a tool to evaluate coarse-scale remotely sensed soil moisture by explicitly representing the sub-pixel variability.

  8. [Norovirus infections].

    PubMed

    Stock, Ingo

    2007-10-01

    During the last winter season, there was the hitherto largest norovirus gastroenteritis epidemic in Germany. Noroviruses are genetically highly variable, non-enveloped viruses with a single-stranded, positive sense RNA genome. They are the major cause of epidemic non-bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide, and have been identified as the cause of more than 70% of outbreaks and approximately half of all gastroenteritis outbreaks. Noroviruses also are frequently involved in sporadic cases of gastroenteritis. Typically, norovirus-associated enteritis is characterized by the sudden onset of vomiting and watery diarrhoea, frequently accompanied by several unspecific symptoms, e. g. abdominal pain, anorexia, malaise, headache, and low-grade fever. Diarrhoea without emesis as well as asymptomatic infections is also common. With few exceptions, diseases due to noroviruses are self-limited and the illness duration is restricted to a few days. Noroviruses are transmitted primarily from person-to-person by the faecal-oral route, but airborne transmission also occurs. Contamination of food and water represent important sources for human infection. Treatment ofnorovirus gastroenteritis is usually symptomatic and comprises a sufficient fluid and electrolyte substitution. There is no specific antiviral therapy. For prophylaxis, obeying of common hygienic rules in canteen kitchens and community institutions is regarded to be sufficient. Food with high risk of contamination should be cooked thoroughly. Because of the high stability of noroviruses to several environmental conditions, disinfection should be performed applying disinfectants with proven activity against noroviruses.

  9. Murine Mycobacterium marinum Infection as a Model for Tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Lienard, Julia; Carlsson, Fredric

    2017-01-01

    Mycobacteria are a major human health problem globally. Regarding tuberculosis the situation is worsened by the poor efficacy of current vaccine regimens and by emergence of drug-resistant strains (Manjelievskaia J et al, Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 110: 110, 2016; Pereira et al., Lancet Infect Dis 12:300-306, 2012; http://www.who.int/tb/publications/global_report/en/) undermining both disease-prevention and available treatments. Thus, increased basic understanding of mycobacterial-and particularly Mycobacterium tuberculosis-virulence strategies and pathogenesis is of great importance. To this end several in vivo infection models are available (Guirado and Schlesinger, Front Immunol 4:98, 2013; Leung et al., Eur J Immunol 43:2246-2254, 2013; Patel et al., J Lab Physicians 3:75-79, 2011; van Leeuwen et al., Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med 5:a018580, 2015). While these models all have their merits they also exhibit limitations, and none perfectly mimics all aspects of human tuberculosis. Thus, there is a need for multiple models that may complement each other, ultimately allowing us to gain true insight into the pathogenesis of mycobacterial infections.Here, we describe a recently developed mouse model of Mycobacterium marinum infection that allows kinetic and quantitative studies of disease progression in live animals [8]. Notably, this model exhibits features of human tuberculosis not replicated in M. tuberculosis infected mice, and may provide an important complement to the field. For example, granulomas in the M. marinum model develop central caseating necrosis (Carlsson et al., PLoS Pathog 6:e1000895, 2010), a hallmark of granulomas in human tuberculosis normally not replicated in murine M. tuberculosis infection. Moreover, while tuberculosis is heterogeneous and presents with a continuum of active and latent disease, M. tuberculosis infected mice essentially lack this dynamic range and do not replicate latency (Guirado and Schlesinger, Front Immunol 4:98, 2013

  10. A Toll-Like Receptor 2-Responsive Lipid Effector Pathway Protects Mammals against Skin Infections with Gram-Positive Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Georgel, Philippe; Crozat, Karine; Lauth, Xavier; Makrantonaki, Evgenia; Seltmann, Holger; Sovath, Sosathya; Hoebe, Kasper; Du, Xin; Rutschmann, Sophie; Jiang, Zhengfan; Bigby, Timothy; Nizet, Victor; Zouboulis, Christos C.; Beutler, Bruce

    2005-01-01

    flake (flk), an N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea-induced recessive germ line mutation of C57BL/6 mice, impairs the clearance of skin infections by Streptococcus pyogenes and Staphylococcus aureus, gram-positive pathogens that elicit innate immune responses by activating Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) (K. Takeda and S. Akira, Cell. Microbiol. 5:143-153, 2003). Positional cloning and sequencing revealed that flk is a novel allele of the stearoyl coenzyme A desaturase 1 gene (Scd1). flake homozygotes show reduced sebum production and are unable to synthesize the monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) palmitoleate (C16:1) and oleate (C18:1), both of which are bactericidal against gram-positive (but not gram-negative) organisms in vitro. However, intradermal MUFA administration to S. aureus-infected mice partially rescues the flake phenotype, which indicates that an additional component of the sebum may be required to improve bacterial clearance. In normal mice, transcription of Scd1—a gene with numerous NF-κB elements in its promoter—is strongly and specifically induced by TLR2 signaling. Similarly, the SCD1 gene is induced by TLR2 signaling in a human sebocyte cell line. These observations reveal the existence of a regulated, lipid-based antimicrobial effector pathway in mammals and suggest new approaches to the treatment or prevention of infections with gram-positive bacteria. PMID:16040962

  11. Will droplet digital PCR become the test of choice for detecting and quantifying ocular Chlamydia trachomatis infection? Maybe not.

    PubMed

    Schachter, Julius

    2013-11-01

    Evaluation of: Roberts CH, Last A, Molina-Gonzalez S et al. Development and evaluation of a next-generation digital PCR diagnostic assay for ocular chlamydia trachomatis infections. J. Clin. Microbiol. 51(7), 2195-2203 (2013). Trachoma is the leading infectious cause of blindness in developing countries. Currently, there is no program to eliminate blinding trachoma as a public health problem. We need better diagnostic tests for research and to assess progress in control programs. Roberts et al. adapted droplet digital PCR (ddPCR), an emulsion PCR process that performs absolute quantitation of nucleic acids, to detect and quantify Chlamydia trachomatis infections. They compared the results with ddPCR on conjunctival swab specimens collected in trachoma-endemic area to results using Roche's Amplicor® C. trachomatis/Neisseria gonorrhoeae (CT/NG) PCR and found that ddPCR sensitivity was 73.3%. The authors concluded that 'ddPCR is an effective diagnostic technology suitable for both research and clinical use in diagnosing ocular C. trachomatis infections'. This reviewer disagrees, feeling that if the stated sensitivity is accurate, it is too low, and suggests there may be good reasons to adapt commercially available tests for this purpose.

  12. Listeria Infections (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Listeria Infections KidsHealth > For Parents > Listeria Infections A A ... to Call the Doctor en español Listeriosis About Listeria Listeria infections (known as listeriosis ) are rare. When ...

  13. Listeria Infection (Listeriosis)

    MedlinePlus

    Listeria infection Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Listeria infection is a foodborne bacterial illness that can be very serious for pregnant women and people with impaired immune systems. Listeria infection is ...

  14. Ear Infection (Middle Ear)

    MedlinePlus

    Ear infection (middle ear) Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff An ear infection (acute otitis media) is most often a bacterial or viral infection that affects the middle ear, the air-filled space behind the eardrum that ...

  15. Enterobiasis (Pinworm Infection): Diagnosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... About CDC.gov . Pinworm Infection General Information Pinworm Infection FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Biology Disease Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals Publications Get Email Updates ...

  16. Enterobiasis (Pinworm Infection): Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... About CDC.gov . Pinworm Infection General Information Pinworm Infection FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Biology Disease Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals Publications Get Email Updates ...

  17. Enterobiasis (Pinworm Infection) FAQs

    MedlinePlus

    ... About CDC.gov . Pinworm Infection General Information Pinworm Infection FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Biology Disease Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals Publications Get Email Updates ...

  18. [Hantavirus infections].

    PubMed

    Strady, C; Jaussaud, R; Remy, G; Penalba, C

    2005-03-12

    Hantaviruses are cosmopolite anthropozoonosis considered as an emerging disease. Four pathogenic types for humans and part of the Bunyaviridae species are hosted by rodents and have been isolated: the Sin nombre virus responsible for the severe American respiratory form; the Hantaan and Seoul viruses responsible for hemorrhagic fevers with renal syndrome (HFRS) of severe to moderate expression in Asia and also in the Balkans; the Puumala virus responsible for HFRS of moderate expression or the socalled nephropathia epidemica in Europe. The Puumala virus is responsible for a minor form of the disease that is observed in areas of the Occidental sector of the ex-URSS, in Scandinavia and in the rest of Europe, notably in the North-East of France. The epidemic episodes occur every three years. They follow the proliferation of rodents, notably russet voles, the reservoir hosts, and their degree of infection. The concept of an occupation at risk in 20 to 49 year-old men (working in forests, agriculture, living near a forest, contact with wood) in an endemic area has not always been found. Its clinical form can vary greatly in its presentation. Basically it is a severe algic influenza syndrome accompanied by acute myopia in 38% of cases, but is nearly pathognomonic in the context. Respiratory involvement is frequent but benign. The initial syndrome can suggest an abdominal or urological surgical emergency, which is source of diagnostic and therapeutic errors. Early biological examination reveals thrombopenia and proteinuria. Then more or less severe acute kidney failure appears in slightly more than 50% of cases. Although it usually regresses with symptomatic treatment, after effects remain in some patients. The environmental changes, the geographical distribution depending on the biotope, the dynamics and behaviour of rodents and the viral circulation between them and its transmission to human beings and its risk factors must continue to be studied in order to gain

  19. What Is Infective Endocarditis?

    MedlinePlus

    ANSWERS by heart Cardiovascular Conditions What Is Infective Endocarditis? Infective (bacterial) endocarditis (IE) is an infection of either the heart’s inner lining (endocardium) or the heart valves. Infective endocarditis is a serious — and sometimes fatal — illness. Two ...

  20. Who Gets Fungal Infections?

    MedlinePlus

    ... infections can also happen in people without weak immune systems Fungal infections that are not life-threatening, such ... likely to cause an infection. People with weak immune systems Infections that happen because a person’s immune system ...

  1. Human Spotted Fever Rickettsial Infections

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-04-01

    Salitral (Piura Department); La Merced (Junin Department); and Cusco ( Cusco Department) (Figure). Chiclayito is a small village (population 6,133) ≈30 m...city of Lima, on the eastern side of the Andes. The dis- trict has a population of 31,000; approximately half live in La Merced. Cusco (population...50 from Chiclayito and the Salitral Health Centers (Piura Department), 67 from Cusco Hospital ( Cusco Department), and 53 from La Merced Hospital

  2. Identification of Staphylococcus epidermidis in the clinical microbiology laboratory by molecular methods.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Amity L

    2014-01-01

    Biochemical assays for the phenotypic identification of coagulase-negative staphylococci in the clinical microbiology laboratory have been well described in previous publications (Becker and Von Eiff Manual of Clinical Microbiology, ASM Press, Washington, pp. 308-330, 2011; Kloos and Wolfshohl J Clin Microbiol 16:509-516, 1982). This discussion focuses on identification of Staphylococcus epidermidis through molecular and proteomic methods. Molecular assays have been shown to be more discriminatory between the coagulase-negative staphylococcal species than are phenotypic assays (Zadoks and Watts Vet Microbiol 134:20-28, 2009; Sheraba et al. BMC Res Notes 3:278, 2010; Patteet et al. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 31:747-751, 2012). The molecular and proteomic methods that have shown the greatest utilization potential within the clinical laboratory are as follows: PCR amplification and sequencing of discriminatory genes, real-time polymerase chain reaction with species-specific probes in conjunction with a melt-curve analysis, fluorescence in situ hybridization, and matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

  3. Pediatric HIV Infection.

    PubMed

    Espanol, Teresa; Caragol, Isabel; Soler, Pere; Hernandez, Manuel

    2004-12-01

    HIV infection by maternal transmission is increasing in the world due to the increase in infected women who are not receiving appropriate antiretroviral therapy. Prognosis of HIV infection in children is poor because the newborn has an immature immune system. Early diagnosis and therapy are needed to avoid the development of AIDS. New therapies are becoming available but prevention of infection, through maternal therapy during pregnancy, is the most effective measure in avoiding this infection through this transmission route.

  4. Bloodstream infections in HIV-infected patients.

    PubMed

    Taramasso, Lucia; Tatarelli, Paola; Di Biagio, Antonio

    2016-04-02

    In the combined antiretroviral therapy era, HIV-infected patients remain a vulnerable population for the onset of bloodstream infections (BSI). Worldwide, nontyphoid salmonellae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase negative staphylococci are the most important pathogens. Intravenous catheter associated infection, skin-soft tissue infection and endocarditis are associated with Gram-positive bacteremia. Among the Gram-negative, nontyphoidal Salmonella have been previously correlated to sepsis. Other causes of BSI in HIV-infected patients are mycobacteria and fungi. Mycobacteria constitute a major cause of BSI in limited resource countries. Fungal BSI are not frequent and among them Cryptococcus neoformans is the most common life-threatening infection. The degree of immunosuppression remains the key prognostic factor leading to the development of BSI.

  5. Bloodstream infections in HIV-infected patients

    PubMed Central

    Taramasso, Lucia; Tatarelli, Paola; Di Biagio, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In the combined antiretroviral therapy era, HIV-infected patients remain a vulnerable population for the onset of bloodstream infections (BSI). Worldwide, nontyphoid salmonellae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase negative staphylococci are the most important pathogens. Intravenous catheter associated infection, skin-soft tissue infection and endocarditis are associated with Gram-positive bacteremia. Among the Gram-negative, nontyphoidal Salmonella have been previously correlated to sepsis. Other causes of BSI in HIV-infected patients are mycobacteria and fungi. Mycobacteria constitute a major cause of BSI in limited resource countries. Fungal BSI are not frequent and among them Cryptococcus neoformans is the most common life-threatening infection. The degree of immunosuppression remains the key prognostic factor leading to the development of BSI. PMID:26950194

  6. [Infection prevention and control for foodborne infections].

    PubMed

    Mitsuda, Toshihiro

    2012-08-01

    Patients' care for foodborne infections is sometimes very critical, since these patients exerting high copy numbers of contagious pathogens. Recently, Norovirus infection became the most frequent pathogen for large outbreaks in the community and the hospital around the world. Norovirus is alcohol-resistant and highly contagious. For preventing outbreaks of foodborne infections, standard precaution(and contact precaution for diaper changing patients) is required by the CDC's isolation precaution guideline revised at 2007. We need to provide for infection prevention and control in the epidemic winter period not only in healthcare facilities but also for communities.

  7. Cold atmospheric plasma: a new tool for the treatment of superficial driveline infections.

    PubMed

    Hilker, Lutz; von Woedtke, Thomas; Weltmann, Klaus Dieter; Wollert, Hans-Georg

    2017-01-01

    Percutaneous driveline infections (DI) are leading factors for morbidity and mortality in ventricular assist device (VAD) patients. In recent years, cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) has been safely and effectively used in clinical settings to treat topical infections. We describe the first use of CAP to treat a superficial DI. CAP was applied with the kinPen® MED plasma jet device (neoplas tools GmbH, Greifswald, Germany), in the treatment of a DI in a 66-year-old VAD patient in Klinikum Karlsburg, Germany. The patient received a daily application of CAP of 1 min for 12 days. One CAP application was administered each week for 4 weeks in our outpatient clinic after patient discharge. Laboratory tests were conducted and photographs of the driveline exit site were taken. After CAP treatment, the local infection was completely regressed without any signs of exudation or recurrence of the infection. There were no adverse side effects observed, and the HVAD logfile data did not show any abnormalities during treatment. Here, we demonstrate a successful resolution of a VAD DI with the kinPen plasma jet device. We believe that CAP has the potential to be a simple and effective tool in the treatment of superficial DIs.

  8. [Infections after organ transplantation].

    PubMed

    Kern, W V; Wagner, D; Hirsch, H H

    2005-06-01

    Early postoperative infections after transplantation vary according to the transplanted organ. During the subsequent course opportunistic infections such as cytomegalovirus reactivation, Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia, invasive pneumococcal infection and mould infections predominate. Reactivated tuberculous infection appears to become more prevalent. Some of the opportunistic infections are preventable by chemoprophylaxis; others can be managed very effectively by monitoring and early preemptive therapy. Physicians caring for patients after organ transplantation need to early consider in the differential diagnosis rare pathogens which are often overlooked with standard diagnostic procedures.

  9. Ear Infection and Vaccines

    MedlinePlus

    ... an ENT Doctor Near You Ear Infection and Vaccines Ear Infection and Vaccines Patient Health Information News ... or may need reinsertion over time. What about vaccines? A vaccine is a preparation administered to stimulate ...

  10. Tapeworm infection - Hymenolepsis

    MedlinePlus

    ... United States. Insects eat the eggs of these worms. Humans and other animals become infected when they ... an infected person, it is possible for the worm's entire life cycle to be completed in the ...

  11. Necrotizing soft tissue infection

    MedlinePlus

    Necrotizing fasciitis; Fasciitis - necrotizing; Flesh-eating bacteria; Soft tissue gangrene; Gangrene - soft tissue ... Many different types of bacteria can cause this infection. A very severe and usually deadly form of necrotizing soft tissue infection is due to the ...

  12. Middle ear infection (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A middle ear infection is also known as otitis media. It is one of the most common of childhood infections. With this illness, the middle ear becomes red, swollen, and inflamed because of bacteria ...

  13. E. Coli Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... adults with weak immune systems. You can get E. coli infections by eating foods containing the bacteria. Symptoms of ... pool contaminated with human waste. Most cases of E. coli infection get better without treatment in 5 to 10 ...

  14. Salmonella Infections (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Salmonella Infections KidsHealth > For Parents > Salmonella Infections A A ... bathroom and before handling food in any way. Salmonella Basics Not everyone who ingests Salmonella bacteria will ...

  15. Particle exposures and infections

    EPA Science Inventory

    Particle exposures increase the risk for human infections. Particles can deposit in the nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and distal lung and, accordingly, the respiratory tract is the system most frequently infected after such exposure; however, meningitis also occurs. Ci...

  16. Vaginal yeast infection

    MedlinePlus

    Yeast infection - vagina; Vaginal candidiasis; Monilial vaginitis ... Most women have a vaginal yeast infection at some time. Candida albicans is a common type of fungus. It is often found in small amounts in the ...

  17. Yeast Infection during Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... OK? What's the best way to treat a yeast infection during pregnancy? Answers from Yvonne Butler Tobah, M.D. You can safely treat a yeast infection during pregnancy with various over-the-counter ...

  18. Ear infection - acute

    MedlinePlus

    ... more than 6 children) Changes in altitude or climate Cold climate Exposure to smoke Family history of ear infections ... or fewer children. This can reduce your child's chances of getting a cold or other infection, and ...

  19. Disseminated Balamuthia mandrillaris Infection

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Neil; Almira-Suarez, M. I.; Reese, Jennifer M.; Hoke, George M.; Mandell, James W.; Roy, Sharon L.; Visvesvara, Govinda

    2015-01-01

    Balamuthia mandrillaris is a rare cause of human infection, but when infections do occur, they result in high rates of morbidity and mortality. A case of disseminated Balamuthia infection is presented. Early diagnosis and initiation of recommended therapy are essential for increased chances of successful outcomes. PMID:26135864

  20. Asymptomatic HIV infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... infection URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000682.htm Asymptomatic HIV infection To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Asymptomatic HIV infection is a phase of HIV/AIDS during which there are no symptoms of HIV ...

  1. Infection after hand surgery.

    PubMed

    Eberlin, Kyle R; Ring, David

    2015-05-01

    Postoperative infections are uncommon after hand surgery. Infection can delay recovery and contribute to scarring and stiffness. Measures intended to reduce the risk of infection after hand surgery include hand washing, skin preparation, sterile technique, and prophylactic antibiotics. The role of prophylactic antibiotics for small, clean, elective hand surgery procedures lasting less than 2 hours is debated.

  2. Cutaneous Infections in Wrestlers

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Eugene K.; deWeber, Kevin; Berry, James W.; Wilckens, John H.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Cutaneous infections are common in wrestlers. Although many are simply a nuisance in the everyday population, they can be problematic to wrestlers because such infections may result in disqualification from practice or competition. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are therefore important. Evidence Acquisition: Medline and PubMed databases, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and UpToDate were searched through 2012 with the following keywords in various combinations: skin infections, cutaneous infections, wrestlers, athletes, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, skin and soft tissue infections, tinea corporis, tinea capitis, herpes simplex, varicella zoster, molluscum contagiosum, verruca vulgaris, warts, scabies, and pediculosis. Relevant articles found in the primary search, and selected references from those articles were reviewed for pertinent clinical information. Results: The most commonly reported cutaneous infections in wrestlers are herpes simplex virus infections (herpes gladiatorum), bacterial skin and soft tissue infections, and dermatophyte infections (tinea gladiatorum). The clinical appearance of these infections can be different in wrestlers than in the community at large. Conclusion: For most cutaneous infections, diagnosis and management options in wrestlers are similar to those in the community at large. With atypical presentations, testing methods are recommended to confirm the diagnosis of herpes gladiatorum and tinea gladiatorum. There is evidence to support the use of prophylactic medications to prevent recurrence of herpes simplex virus and reduce the incidence of dermatophyte infections in wrestlers. PMID:24427413

  3. Primary Aortic Infections and Infected Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Primary infections of the aorta and infected aortic aneurysms are rare and are life threatening. Most of them are due to bacterial infection occurring in an atheromatous plaque or a pre existing aneurysm during bacteremia. Rarely spread from a contiguous septic process may be the cause. The reported hospital mortality ranges from 16–44%. Gram positive bacteria are still the most common causative organisms. More recently, Gram negative bacilli are seen increasingly responsible. The mortality rate is higher for the Gram negative infection since they most often cause supra renal aneurysms and are more prone for rupture. Best results are achieved by appropriate antibiotics and aggressive surgical treatment. Excision of the infected aneurysm sac as well as surrounding tissue and in situ reconstruction of aorta is the preferred treatment. Pedicled omental cover also helps to reduce infection. Long term antibiotic is needed to prevent reinfection. Mortality is high for those who undergo emergency operation, with advanced age and for nonsalmonella infection. PMID:23555384

  4. Rapid Detection of Mycobacteria in Patients with HIV Infection.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-06-30

    Mycobacterium paratuberculosis strains by restriction endonuclease analysis and ENA hybridization. J. Clin. Microbiol. 28:1591-1596. 5. Chiodini, R.J...1990. Characterization of Mvcobacterium paratuberculosis and organisms of the Mycobacterium avium complex by restriction polymorphism of the rim gene

  5. Nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary infections

    PubMed Central

    Odell, John A.

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary infections due to nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are increasingly recognized worldwide. Although over 150 different species of NTM have been described, pulmonary infections are most commonly due to Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC), Mycobacterium kansasii, and Mycobacterium abscessus. The identification of these organisms in pulmonary specimens does not always equate with active infection; supportive radiographic and clinical findings are needed to establish the diagnosis. It is difficult to eradicate NTM infections. A prolonged course of therapy with a combination of drugs is required. Unfortunately, recurrent infection with new strains of mycobacteria or a relapse of infection caused by the original organism is not uncommon. Surgical resection is appropriate in selected cases of localized disease or in cases in which the infecting organism is resistant to medical therapy. Additionally, surgery may be required for infections complicated by hemoptysis or abscess formation. This review will summarize the practical aspects of the diagnosis and management of NTM thoracic infections, with emphasis on the indications for surgery and the results of surgical intervention. The management of NTM disease in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections is beyond the scope of this article and, unless otherwise noted, comments apply to hosts without HIV infection PMID:24624285

  6. Catheter-Associated Infections

    PubMed Central

    Trautner, Barbara W.; Darouiche, Rabih O.

    2010-01-01

    Intravascular catheters and urinary catheters are the 2 most commonly inserted medical devices in the United States, and they are likewise the two most common causes of nosocomially acquired bloodstream infection. Biofilm formation on the surfaces of indwelling catheters is central to the pathogenesis of infection of both types of catheters. The cornerstone to any preventive strategy of intravascular catheter infections is strict attention to infection control practices. Antimicrobial-impregnated intravascular catheters are a useful adjunction to infection control measures. Prevention of urinary catheter–associated infection is hindered by the numbers and types of organisms present in the periurethral area as well as by the typically longer duration of catheter placement. Antimicrobial agents in general have not been effective in preventing catheter-associated urinary tract infection in persons with long-term, indwelling urethral catheters. Preventive strategies that avoid the use of antimicrobial agents may be necessary in this population. PMID:15111369

  7. Bacterial infections in HIV-infected patients.

    PubMed

    Berger, B J; Hussain, F; Roistacher, K

    1994-06-01

    Although the original opportunistic pathogens described in AIDS were protozoal and fungal organisms, bacterial infections are now recognized with increased prevalence and altered expression in patients with HIV infection. Especially since populations outside of North America and populations of i.v. drug abusers have been studied, bacterial infections have been shown to cause substantially increased morbidity and mortality both early and late in the course of HIV infection. Just as strategies have been developed for primary and secondary prophylaxis of classical HIV-related opportunistic infections, prevention of bacterial complications should be a high priority. Good hygiene and avoidance of unsterile needles in illicit drug use, tattooing, ear-piercing, or other cosmetic or ritual activities should be emphasized in patient education. Patients should be counseled to avoid uncooked or poorly cooked eggs and poultry and to avoid unpasteurized milk products. Pneumococcal vaccine is recommended for all HIV-seropositive patients and should be given as early as possible after recognition of HIV infection for maximal efficacy. Influenza vaccine is also recommended. It may have a role in preventing bacterial pneumonia secondary to influenza. Patient management should include regular dental care and nutritional evaluation. The use of intravenous or central catheters should be limited to essential therapies. When patients present with new febrile illness, a high index of suspicion for invasive bacterial disease is appropriate. The signs of serious bacterial infection in HIV-positive patients are subtle. Diagnostic evaluation should include cultures of blood and other relevant clinical specimens. Empiric antimicrobial therapy based on the clinical presentation may be life saving in patients with invasive bacterial disease complicating HIV infection.

  8. Periprosthetic Joint Infections

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Ana Lucia L.; Oliveira, Priscila R.; Carvalho, Vladimir C.; Saconi, Eduardo S.; Cabrita, Henrique B.; Rodrigues, Marcelo B.

    2013-01-01

    Implantation of joint prostheses is becoming increasingly common, especially for the hip and knee. Infection is considered to be the most devastating of prosthesis-related complications, leading to prolonged hospitalization, repeated surgical intervention, and even definitive loss of the implant. The main risk factors to periprosthetic joint infections (PJIs) are advanced age, malnutrition, obesity, diabetes mellitus, HIV infection at an advanced stage, presence of distant infectious foci, and antecedents of arthroscopy or infection in previous arthroplasty. Joint prostheses can become infected through three different routes: direct implantation, hematogenic infection, and reactivation of latent infection. Gram-positive bacteria predominate in cases of PJI, mainly Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. PJIs present characteristic signs that can be divided into acute and chronic manifestations. The main imaging method used in diagnosing joint prosthesis infections is X-ray. Computed tomography (CT) scan may assist in distinguishing between septic and aseptic loosening. Three-phase bone scintigraphy using technetium has high sensitivity, but low specificity. Positron emission tomography using fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG-PET) presents very divergent results in the literature. Definitive diagnosis of infection should be made by isolating the microorganism through cultures on material obtained from joint fluid puncturing, surgical wound secretions, surgical debridement procedures, or sonication fluid. Success in treating PJI depends on extensive surgical debridement and adequate and effective antibiotic therapy. Treatment in two stages using a spacer is recommended for most chronic infections in arthroplasty cases. Treatment in a single procedure is appropriate in carefully selected cases. PMID:24023542

  9. Viral infections and allergies.

    PubMed

    Xepapadaki, Paraskevi; Papadopoulos, Nikolaos G

    2007-01-01

    Respiratory viral infections have been implicated in the origin of, protection from and exacerbation of allergy-related symptoms in a variety of ways. Viral infections are closely linked to infantile wheezing. Severe bronchiolitis in early infancy may predispose to chronic childhood asthma as well as allergic sensitization; alternatively it could represent a marker of susceptible individuals. In contrast, repeated mild infections in early life may have a protective role in the development of asthma or atopy by driving the immune system towards Th1 responses. However, evidence on this hypothesis is not consistent as far as respiratory viruses are concerned. Several factors, including the presence of an atopic environment, timing of exposure and severity of the infection, interactively contribute to the allergy-infection relationship. In the present report, recent data on the role of viral infections in the development and progression of allergy and asthma are reviewed.

  10. Cryptococcal ventriculoperitoneal shunt infection.

    PubMed

    Viereck, Matthew J; Chalouhi, Nohra; Krieger, David I; Judy, Kevin D

    2014-11-01

    The standard treatment of hydrocephalus is placement of a ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt. While infection is a common complication, rarely are fungal organisms implicated. Cryptococcus neoformans has been reported in only nine cases of shunt infection to our knowledge. The timing from shunt placement to symptom onset varies widely from 10 days to 15 months. We present a patient who developed a cryptococcal infection of his VP shunt more than two decades following shunt placement.

  11. Urinary Tract Infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... minimize bladder pressure or discomfort. Many people drink cranberry juice to prevent UTIs, but there's no proven evidence that cranberry juice works to treat or prevent infection. Researchers ...

  12. Congenital brain infections.

    PubMed

    Arbelaez, Andres; Restrepo, Feliza; Davila, Jorge; Castillo, Mauricio

    2014-06-01

    Pediatric congenital intracranial infections are a group of different and important entities that constitute a small percentage of all pediatric infections. The causal factors and clinical presentations are different in children compared with adults. They require early recognition because delay diagnosis and initiation of treatment may have catastrophic consequences. Despite improvements in prenatal screening, vaccine safety, and antibiotics, infections of the central nervous system remain an important cause of neurological disabilities worldwide. This article reviews the most common congenital infections and their imaging findings.

  13. Unusual infections in humans.

    PubMed Central

    Neafie, R C; Marty, A M

    1993-01-01

    Nine cases of unusual infections in humans are presented. In each case, we present the clinical history, histopathologic changes (if indicated), morphologic features of the causative organism, diagnosis, discussion, differential diagnosis, therapy, and current literature. All of the cases are illustrated with pertinent photographs. The nine cases are as follows: (i) acanthocephaliasis, the first acquired human infection by Moniliformis moniliformis in the United States; (ii) dipylidiasis, an uncommon infection caused by the dog tapeworm, Dipylidium caninum; (iii) granulomatous amebic encephalitis, caused by the recently identified leptomyxid group of amebae; (iv) schistosomiasis, a dual infection of the urinary bladder with the rare presentation of both adult worms and eggs of Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma mansoni in tissue sections; (v) syphilitic gastritis, an uncommon presentation of Treponema pallidum infection, in a patient with an additional incidental infection by Helicobacter pylori; (vi) microsporidiosis, the only infection caused by a Pleistophora sp. in humans; (vii) sporotrichosis, a rare disseminated infection caused by Sporothrix schenckii with numerous yeast cells in the scrotum; (viii) angiostrongyliasis, the first and only infection caused by Angiostrongylus costaricensis acquired in either Puerto Rico or the United States; and (ix) botryomycosis of the skin and subcutaneous tissue, caused by gram-positive cocci with an unusually large number of granules. Images PMID:8457979

  14. Giardia Infection Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Illness & Symptoms Diagnosis & Detection Treatment Sources of Infection & Risk ... Giardia trophozoites under scanning electron microscope. Credit: Waterborne Disease Prevention Branch, CDC Several drugs can ...

  15. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection

    MedlinePlus

    CMV mononucleosis; Cytomegalovirus; CMV; Human cytomegalovirus; HCMV ... infection is spread by: Blood transfusions Organ transplants ... viruses remain in your body for the rest of your life. If your ...

  16. [ZIKA--VIRUS INFECTION].

    PubMed

    Velev, V

    2016-01-01

    This review summarizes the knowledge of the scientific community for Zika-virus infection. It became popular because of severe congenital damage causes of CNS in newborns whose mothers are infected during pregnancy, as well as the risk of pandemic distribution. Discusses the peculiarities of the biology and ecology of vectors--blood-sucking mosquitoes Aedes; stages in the spread of infection and practical problems which caused during pregnancy. Attention is paid to the recommendations that allow leading national and international medical organizations to deal with the threat Zika-virus infection.

  17. HIV infections in otolaryngology

    PubMed Central

    Rzewnicki, Ireneusz; Olszewska, Ewa; Rogowska-Szadkowska, Dorota

    2012-01-01

    Summary HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) infection may produce no clinical symptoms for 10 years on average. However, after many years of infection most people develop symptoms that indicate progression of the disease. There are no regular characteristic symptoms or early stage, and no logical sequence of AIDS indicator disorders has been observed. People who are not aware of the infection are referred to physicians of various specializations, including otolaryngologists. It is on their knowledge about HIV infections, among other factors, that early diagnosis of the disease depends. Appropriate and quick introduction of anti-retroviral drugs may let a person with HIV live decades longer. PMID:22367140

  18. Preventing Giardia Infection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beer, W. Nicholas

    1993-01-01

    Outdoor recreationists are at risk for developing giardia infection from drinking contaminated stream water. Giardia is the most common human parasite found in contaminated water that causes gastrointestinal illness. Describes medical treatment and ways of preventing infection through water treatment, including heat, filtration, and chemical…

  19. Yeast Infection (Vaginal)

    MedlinePlus

    ... dose estrogen birth control pills or estrogen hormone therapy. Uncontrolled diabetes. Women with diabetes who have poorly controlled blood ... of yeast infections than women with well-controlled diabetes. Impaired ... such as from corticosteroid therapy or HIV infection — are more likely to get ...

  20. Preventing infections when visiting

    MedlinePlus

    ... Goering R, Dockrell H, Zuckerman M, et al. Hospital infection, sterilization and disinfection. In: Goering R, Dockrell H, Zuckerman M, et al., eds. Mims' Medical Microbiology . 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:chap 36. Infection control. In: Mills JE, ed. Nursing Procedures . 5th ed. ...

  1. [Nosocomial infection: clinical aspects].

    PubMed

    Frottier, J

    1993-05-01

    Nosocomial infections develop within a hospital or are produced by microorganisms acquired during hospitalization. They may involve not only patients (2 to 10 percent) but also hospital personnel. They arise from complex interactions of multiple causal factors. Patients risk factors are these that reduce the patient's capacity for resisting the injurious effects of the microorganisms and impair natural host defense mechanisms: patients with malignant disorders or immunosuppressive therapy, poor nutritional status, extensive burn wounds ... The young and the elderly are generally more susceptible to infection. Other infections are preventable. Disease causation is often multifactorial. Nosocomial urinary tract infections had the highest rate, followed by lower respiratory tract infections, surgical infections and bacteremias. The emergence of other nosocomial infections, caused by bacteria (tuberculosis), virus (HIV, hepatitis B and C virus, cytomegalovirus...), Aspergillus species or Pneumocystis carinii appears to be recent in origin and is of importance to immunocompromised hosts, other patients and hospital personnel. Nosocomial infections and their social and economic impacts require for their prevention vigorous organized hospital-wide surveillance and control programs.

  2. The MentDis_ICF65+ study protocol: prevalence, 1-year incidence and symptom severity of mental disorders in the elderly and their relationship to impairment, functioning (ICF) and service utilisation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The EU currently lacks reliable data on the prevalence and incidence of mental disorders in older people. Despite the availability of several national and international epidemiological studies, the size and burden of mental disorders in the elderly remain unclear due to various reasons. Therefore, the aims of the MentDis_ICF65+ study are (1) to adapt existing assessment instruments, and (2) to collect data on the prevalence, the incidence, and the natural course and prognosis of mental disorders in the elderly. Method/design Using a cross-sectional and prospective longitudinal design, this multi-centre study from six European countries and associated states (Germany, Great Britain, Israel, Italy, Spain, and Switzerland) is based on age-stratified, random samples of elderly people living in the community. The study program consists of three phases: (1) a methodological phase devoted primarily to the adaptation of age- and gender-specific assessment tools for older people (e.g., the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, CIDI) as well as psychometric evaluations including translation, back translation; (2) a baseline community study in all participating countries to assess the lifetime, 12 month and 1 month prevalence and comorbidity of mental disorders, including prior course, quality of life, health care utilization and helpseeking, impairments and participation and, (3) a 12 month follow-up of all baseline participants to monitor course and outcome as well as examine predictors. Discussion The study is an essential step forward towards the further development and improvement of harmonised instruments for the assessment of mental disorders as well as the evaluation of activity impairment and participation in older adults. This study will also facilitate the comparison of cross-cultural results. These results will have bearing on mental health care in the EU and will offer a starting point for necessary structural changes to be initiated for

  3. Thinking about HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Simpkins, Evelyn P; Siberry, George K; Hutton, Nancy

    2009-09-01

    Mother-to-child transmission of HIV can occur during pregnancy, labor, delivery, and breastfeeding. Evidence-based interventions (routine screening of pregnant women, initiation of antiretroviral drugs for mother's treatment or prevention of MTCT, and avoiding breastfeeding) have reduced transmission rates in the United States from 25% to 30% to less than 2%. Triple-drug combination antiretroviral therapy effectively controls HIV infection and improves survival and quality of life for HIV-infected children and adolescents. Initial regimens use combinations of two NRTIs together with an NNRTI or a ritonavir-boosted PI. These regimens have been shown to increase CD4 counts and achieve virologic suppression. Prevention of serious and opportunistic infections reduces morbidity and mortality in children and adolescents who have HIV infection. Recommendations for immunizations and chemoprophylaxis vary with the patient's CD4 count. Condoms made from latex, polyurethane, or other synthetic materials have been shown to decrease the transmission of STIs, including HIV infection.

  4. Occupational Infection in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Yeon-Soon; Jeong, Jae Sim

    2010-01-01

    Occupational infection is a human disease caused by work-associated exposure to microbial agents through human and environmental contact. According to the literature, occupational infection was the third leading cause of occupational disease (861 cases, 8.0%), and health care, agricultural, forestry, and fishery workers were risk groups in Korea. In addition, most high-risk groups have not been protected by workers' compensation, which could lead to underestimation of the exact spectrum and magnitude of the problem, and may also result in a lack of development and implementation of occupational infection management. Through a review of national guidelines and documentations on prevention and control of occupational infection, a management strategy would promote adherence to worker safety regulations if it is explicit with regard to the agent and mode of infection in each of the high-risk groups. PMID:21258592

  5. [Surgical site infections].

    PubMed

    Sganga, Gabriele

    2014-01-01

    Surgical site infections (SSIs) are recognized as a common surgical complication, occurring in about 2-5% of all surgical procedures. SSIs represent the third most frequent nosocomial infection, accounting for 14-16% of all infections observed in hospitalized patients and up to 38% of those observed among surgical patients. Knowledge of incidence, epidemiology, classification, process of wound healing, and pathogenesis of surgical site infection is of great importance. Given the high economic burden that infections provoke, beyond the increased morbidity and mortality, it appears mandatory to improve our tools in order to reduce their incidence, as a reduction of only 0.1% can result in a considerable saving of economic resources to be allocated to other activities, such as screening and prevention programs.

  6. Lung transplant infection.

    PubMed

    Burguete, Sergio R; Maselli, Diego J; Fernandez, Juan F; Levine, Stephanie M

    2013-01-01

    Lung transplantation has become an accepted therapeutic procedure for the treatment of end-stage pulmonary parenchymal and vascular disease. Despite improved survival rates over the decades, lung transplant recipients have lower survival rates than other solid organ transplant recipients. The morbidity and mortality following lung transplantation is largely due to infection- and rejection-related complications. This article will review the common infections that develop in the lung transplant recipient, including the general risk factors for infection in this population, and the most frequent bacterial, viral, fungal and other less frequent opportunistic infections. The epidemiology, diagnosis, prophylaxis, treatment and outcomes for the different microbial pathogens will be reviewed. The effects of infection on lung transplant rejection will also be discussed.

  7. Genitourinary infection in diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Julka, Sandeep

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes is known to increase the risk of infection and the commonest amongst them are the ones involving the genitourinary tract. The infections in a diabetic patient are unique in that they are recurrent, more severe, requiring hospitalization, and also have higher mortality than nondiabetics. Some infections are exclusively found in diabetics like the emphysematous pyelonephritis while others have their natural history complicated due to hyperglycemia. Asymptomatic bacteriuria may lead to albuminuria and urinary tract infection and may need to be treated in diabetics. Not just this certain organisms have a predilection for the genitourinary tract of the diabetic patient. All of the above makes the diabetic patient vulnerable to infections and therefore early diagnosis and appropriate treatment is mandatory. PMID:24251228

  8. Types of Haemophilus influenzae Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... Multimedia Related Links Global Hib Vaccination Hib Vaccination Meningitis Pneumonia Sepsis Types of Haemophilus influenzae Infections Recommend ... infection, but can also cause severe illnesses like meningitis (an infection of the covering of the brain ...

  9. Toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma infection) Disease Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... Toxoplasma infection can result from congenital infection or infection after birth by any of the modes of transmission discussed on the epidemiology and risk factors page. Eye lesions from congenital ...

  10. Understanding (Dis)abilities through Children's Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurtts, Stephanie A.; Gavigan, Karen W.

    2008-01-01

    The authors of this article examined how pre-service teachers can use children's and young adult literature about disabilities to enhance understanding of individual differences through a bibliotherapeutic approach. An introduction to bibliotherapy is provided along with related literature from the field. Strategies for using children's and young…

  11. The GMO-Nanotech (Dis)Analogy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandler, Ronald; Kay, W. D.

    2006-01-01

    The genetically-modified-organism (GMO) experience has been prominent in motivating science, industry, and regulatory communities to address the social and ethical dimensions of nanotechnology. However, there are some significant problems with the GMO-nanotech analogy. First, it overstates the likelihood of a GMO-like backlash against…

  12. Dis-integrating Perspectives of Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Bob

    1995-01-01

    Responds to L. Eubank and K. R. Gregg article (this issue), suggesting they have misinterpreted and misrepresented claims made by B. Jacobs and J. Schumann. Claims discussed include the micro- and macro-organization of neurobiology and language, the Explananda, Jacobs and Schumann's acquisition mechanism, and reductionism. The single acquisition…

  13. Excursions in fluvial (dis)continuity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grant, Gordon E.; O'Connor, James E.; Safran, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    Lurking below the twin concepts of connectivity and disconnectivity are their first, and in some ways, richer cousins: continuity and discontinuity. In this paper we explore how continuity and discontinuity represent fundamental and complementary perspectives in fluvial geomorphology, and how these perspectives inform and underlie our conceptions of connectivity in landscapes and rivers. We examine the historical roots of continuum and discontinuum thinking, and how much of our understanding of geomorphology rests on contrasting views of continuity and discontinuity. By continuum thinking we refer to a conception of geomorphic processes as well as geomorphic features that are expressed along continuous gradients without abrupt changes, transitions, or thresholds. Balance of forces, graded streams, and hydraulic geometry are all examples of this perspective. The continuum view has played a prominent role in diverse disciplinary fields, including ecology, paleontology, and evolutionary biology, in large part because it allows us to treat complex phenomena as orderly progressions and invoke or assume equilibrium processes that introduce order and prediction into our sciences.In contrast the discontinuous view is a distinct though complementary conceptual framework that incorporates non-uniform, non-progressive, and non-equilibrium thinking into understanding geomorphic processes and landscapes. We distinguish and discuss examples of three different ways in which discontinuous thinking can be expressed: 1) discontinuous spatial arrangements or singular events; 2) specific process domains generally associated with thresholds, either intrinsic or extrinsic; and 3) physical dynamics or changes in state, again often threshold-linked. In moving beyond the continuous perspective, a fertile set of ideas comes into focus: thresholds, non-equilibrium states, heterogeneity, catastrophe. The range of phenomena that is thereby opened up to scientific exploration similarly expands: punctuated episodes of cutting and filling, discretization of landscapes into hierarchies of structure and control, the work of extreme events. Orderly and progressive evolution towards a steady or ideal state is replaced by chaotic episodes of disturbance and recovery. Recent developments in the field of geomorphology suggest that we may be on the cusp of a new paradigm that recognizes that both continuous and discontinuous processes and mechanisms play a role in fluvial processes and landscape evolution with neither holding sway over the other and both needed to see rivers as they are.

  14. Experimental Results in DIS from Jefferson Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Sebastian Kuhn

    2009-10-01

    We are summarizing the experimental program of Jefferson Lab (Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility in Newport News, VA) in deep inelastic electron scattering. We show recent results and discuss future plans for both the present 6 GeV era and the 12 GeV energy-upgraded facility.

  15. Dis/Ability through Artists' Eyes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metcalf, Suesi; Gervais, Julie; Dase, Monica; Griseta, Lynn

    2005-01-01

    An individual's concept of disability depends upon one's experience, based on personal, physical, mental, and emotional knowledge (Linton, 1998; Wendell, 1996). The United Nations (United Nations, 2005) defines disability as any restriction or deficiency of ability to perform within the range of what is considered normal for an individual. A…

  16. Data Intensive Systems (DIS) Benchmark Performance Summary

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-08-01

    calculated. These give a rough measure of the texture of each ROI. A gray-level co-occurrence matrix ( GLCM ) contains information about the spatial...sum and difference histograms.19 The descriptors chosen as features for this benchmark are GLCM entropy and GLCM energy, and are defined in terms of...stressmark, the relationships of pairs of pixels within a randomly generated image are measured. These features quantify the texture of the image

  17. The (dis)unity of nursing science.

    PubMed

    Bluhm, Robyn L

    2014-10-01

    This paper looks at the implications of contemporary work in philosophy of science for nursing science. Early work on the nature of theories in nursing was strongly influenced by logical empiricism, and this influence remains even long after nurse scholars have come to reject logical empiricism as an adequate philosophy of science. Combined with the need to establish nursing as an autonomous profession, nursing theory's use of logical empiricism has led to serious conceptual problems. Philosophers of science have also rejected many of the central tenets of logical empiricism, including its focus on the logical justification of theories and the idea that science is, or should be, unified. Instead, there has been an increasing focus on the practice of science, which in turn has led to a pluralist understanding of science that emphasizes the construction of scientific models that are appropriate for certain purposes or in certain contexts. I suggest that this approach to philosophy of science may provide better resources for nursing science.

  18. International Education and (Dis)Embodied Cosmopolitanisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidhu, Ravinder Kaur; Dall'Alba, Gloria

    2012-01-01

    This article is a critical examination of practices and representations that constitute international education. While international education has provided substantial contributions and benefits for nation-states and international students, we question the discourses and practices which inform the international education export industry. The…

  19. Soft color screening effects in diffractive DIS

    SciTech Connect

    Pasechnik, Roman; Enberg, Rikard; Ingelman, Gunnar

    2011-07-15

    We construct a QCD-based model where soft gluon rescattering between final state partons in deep inelastic scattering leads to events with large rapidity gaps and a leading proton. The model successfully describes the precise HERA data on the diffractive deep inelastic structure function in the whole available kinematical range.

  20. New DIS and collider results on PDFs

    SciTech Connect

    Rizvi, E.

    2015-05-15

    The HERA ep collider experiments have measured the proton structure functions over a wide kinematic range. New data from the H1 experiment now extend the range to higher 4-momentum transfer (√(Q{sup 2})) over which a precision of ∼ 2% is achieved in the neutral current channel. A factor of two reduction in the systematic uncertainties over previous measurement is attained. The charged current structure function measurements are also significantly improved in precision. These data, when used in QCD analyses of the parton density functions (PDFs) reduce the PDF uncertainties particularly at high momentum fractions x which is relevant to low energy neutrino scattering cross sections. New data from the LHC pp collider experiments may also offer significant high x PDF improvements as the experimental uncertainties improve.

  1. Chlamydia trachomatis Genital Infections

    PubMed Central

    O’Connell, Catherine M.; Ferone, Morgan E.

    2016-01-01

    Etiology, transmission and protection: Chlamydia trachomatis is the leading cause of bacterial sexually transmitted infection (STI) globally. However, C. trachomatis also causes trachoma in endemic areas, mostly Africa and the Middle East, and is a leading cause of preventable blindness worldwide. Epidemiology, incidence and prevalence: The World Health Organization estimates 131 million new cases of C. trachomatis genital infection occur annually. Globally, infection is most prevalent in young women and men (14-25 years), likely driven by asymptomatic infection, inadequate partner treatment and delayed development of protective immunity. Pathology/Symptomatology: C. trachomatis infects susceptible squamocolumnar or transitional epithelial cells, leading to cervicitis in women and urethritis in men. Symptoms are often mild or absent but ascending infection in some women may lead to Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID), resulting in reproductive sequelae such as ectopic pregnancy, infertility and chronic pelvic pain. Complications of infection in men include epididymitis and reactive arthritis. Molecular mechanisms of infection: Chlamydiae manipulate an array of host processes to support their obligate intracellular developmental cycle. This leads to activation of signaling pathways resulting in disproportionate influx of innate cells and the release of tissue damaging proteins and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Treatment and curability: Uncomplicated urogenital infection is treated with azithromycin (1 g, single dose) or doxycycline (100 mg twice daily x 7 days). However, antimicrobial treatment does not ameliorate established disease. Drug resistance is rare but treatment failures have been described. Development of an effective vaccine that protects against upper tract disease or that limits transmission remains an important goal. PMID:28357377

  2. Infections of the cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Pruitt, Amy A

    2014-11-01

    Although the cerebellum can be affected by any infection that also involves other parts of the brain parenchyma, cerebrospinal fluid, or nerve roots, a limited range of infections targets cerebellar structures preferentially. Thus, a primarily cerebellar syndrome narrows infectious differential diagnostic considerations. The differential diagnosis of rapidly evolving cerebellar signs suggesting infection includes prescription or illicit drug intoxications or adverse reactions, inflammatory pseudotumor, paraneoplastic processes, and acute postinfectious cerebellitis. This article discusses the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of viral, bacterial, fungal, and prion pathogens affecting the cerebellum in patterns predictable by pace of illness and by involved neuroanatomic structures.

  3. Prosthetic Joint Infection

    PubMed Central

    Tande, Aaron J.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Prosthetic joint infection (PJI) is a tremendous burden for individual patients as well as the global health care industry. While a small minority of joint arthroplasties will become infected, appropriate recognition and management are critical to preserve or restore adequate function and prevent excess morbidity. In this review, we describe the reported risk factors for and clinical manifestations of PJI. We discuss the pathogenesis of PJI and the numerous microorganisms that can cause this devastating infection. The recently proposed consensus definitions of PJI and approaches to accurate diagnosis are reviewed in detail. An overview of the treatment and prevention of this challenging condition is provided. PMID:24696437

  4. Infection prevention and control.

    PubMed

    Pegram, Anne; Bloomfield, Jacqueline

    2015-03-18

    All newly registered graduate nurses are required to have the appropriate knowledge and understanding to perform the skills required for patient care, specifically the competencies identified in the Nursing and Midwifery Council's essential skills clusters. This article focuses on the third essential skills cluster - infection prevention and control. It provides an overview and discussion of the key skills and behaviours that must be demonstrated to meet the standards set by the Nursing and Midwifery Council. In doing so, it considers the key principles of infection prevention and control, including local and national policies, standard infection control precautions, risk assessment, standard isolation measures and asepsis.

  5. Tapeworm infection - beef or pork

    MedlinePlus

    Teniasis; Pork tapeworm; Beef tapeworm; Tapeworm; Taenia saginata ; Taenia solium ; Taeniasis ... Tapeworm infection is caused by eating the raw or undercooked meat of infected animals. Cattle usually carry ...

  6. [Relationship between odontogenic infections and infective endocarditis].

    PubMed

    Bascones-Martínez, Antonio; Muñoz-Corcuera, Marta; Bascones-Ilundain, Jaime

    2012-03-24

    Revised guidelines for the prevention of infective endocarditis published by national and international associations in the last years do not support the indiscriminate use of antibiotic prophylaxis for dental procedures. However, some of them still recommend its use in high-risk patients before dental treatments likely to cause bleeding. Given the high prevalence of bacteremia of dental origin due to tooth-brushing, mastication or other daily activities, it appears unlikely that infective endocarditis from oral microorganisms can be completely prevented. A good oral health status and satisfactory level of oral hygiene are sufficient to control the consequences of the systemic spread of oral microorganisms in healthy individuals. However, caution is still needed and prophylactic antibiotics must be administered to susceptible or medically compromised patients. This review briefly outlines the current concepts of odontogenic bacteremia and antibiotic prophylaxis for patients undergoing dental treatment.

  7. Pets and Pasteurella Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ear Nose & Throat Emotional Problems Eyes Fever From Insects or Animals Genitals and Urinary Tract Glands & Growth ... Preventable Diseases Healthy Children > Health Issues > Conditions > From Insects or Animals > Pets and Pasteurella Infections Health Issues ...

  8. Repeated Infections in Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... another cause for runny noses and wheezing in young children. Because more women of childbearing age are ... the head grows, drainage problems get better. If young children are having too many ear infections, they ...

  9. Microbiome in HIV infection

    PubMed Central

    Salas, January T.; Chang, Theresa L.

    2014-01-01

    HIV primary infection occurs at mucosa tissues, suggesting an intricate interplay between microbiome and HIV infection. Recent advanced technologies of high-throughput sequencing and bioinformatics allow researchers to explore nonculturable microbes including bacteria, virus and fungi and their association with diseases. HIV/SIV infection is associated with microbiome shifts and immune activation that may affect the outcome of disease progression. Similarly, altered microbiome and inflammation are associated with increased risks of HIV acquisition, suggesting the role of microbiome in HIV transmission. In this review, we will focus on microbiome in HIV infection at various mucosal compartments. Understanding the relationship between microbiome and HIV may offer insights into development of better strategies for HIV prevention and treatment. PMID:25439273

  10. Coxsackievirus Infections (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... soft palate, the fleshy back portion of the roof of the mouth. Hemorrhagic conjunctivitis , an infection that ... one or both testicles Reviewed by: Nicole A. Green, MD Date reviewed: January 2014 previous 1 • 2 • ...

  11. Fungus Infections: Tinea

    MedlinePlus

    ... Share: Yes No, Keep Private Fungus Infections Share | Tinea is the name given to a fungal skin ... Sometime the susceptibility will run in the family. Tinea Pedis (Athlete's foot) This is the most common ...

  12. Viruses Infecting Reptiles

    PubMed Central

    Marschang, Rachel E.

    2011-01-01

    A large number of viruses have been described in many different reptiles. These viruses include arboviruses that primarily infect mammals or birds as well as viruses that are specific for reptiles. Interest in arboviruses infecting reptiles has mainly focused on the role reptiles may play in the epidemiology of these viruses, especially over winter. Interest in reptile specific viruses has concentrated on both their importance for reptile medicine as well as virus taxonomy and evolution. The impact of many viral infections on reptile health is not known. Koch’s postulates have only been fulfilled for a limited number of reptilian viruses. As diagnostic testing becomes more sensitive, multiple infections with various viruses and other infectious agents are also being detected. In most cases the interactions between these different agents are not known. This review provides an update on viruses described in reptiles, the animal species in which they have been detected, and what is known about their taxonomic positions. PMID:22163336

  13. Toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma infection) Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Parasites - Toxoplasmosis ( Toxoplasma infection) Note: Javascript is disabled or is ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Toxoplasmosis General Information Toxoplasmosis FAQs Toxoplasmosis & Pregnancy FAQs Epidemiology & ...

  14. Infections and arthritis.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Ashish Jacob; Ravindran, Vinod

    2014-12-01

    Bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites can all cause arthritis of either acute or chronic nature, which can be divided into infective/septic, reactive, or inflammatory. Considerable advances have occurred in diagnostic techniques in the recent decades resulting in better treatment outcomes in patients with infective arthritis. Detection of emerging arthritogenic viruses has changed the epidemiology of infection-related arthritis. The role of viruses in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory arthritides such as rheumatoid arthritis is increasingly being recognized. We discuss the various causative agents of infective arthritis and emphasize on the approach to each type of arthritis, highlighting the diagnostic tests, along with their statistical accuracy. Various investigations including newer methods such as nucleic acid amplification using polymerase chain reaction are discussed along with the pitfalls in interpreting the tests.

  15. Staph infections - hospital

    MedlinePlus

    ... eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 282. Chambers HF. Staphylococcal infections. ... eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 288. Huskins WC, Sammons JS, ...

  16. Infection and autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Cooke, Anne

    2009-01-01

    The development of some autoimmune diseases is increasing in the developed world faster than can be accounted for by genetic change. The development of these autoimmune diseases, such as Type 1 diabetes, is known to be influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. Environmental factors which have been considered to play a role include infectious agents such as viruses or bacteria. The search for a common initiating infection in the aetiology of Type 1 diabetes as proved thus far inconclusive. An alternative way of considering a role for infection is that infection may have historically prevented the development of autoimmune disease. In the developing world changes have occurred such that many chronic infections have been eliminated and this may have led to the emergence of autoimmune pathology. Evidence in support of this hypothesis is considered here and factors governing the development of autoimmunity compared with those which might have influenced the development of childhood leukaemia.

  17. Cancer treatment: preventing infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... before they spread. How Having Cancer Increases Infection Risk As part of your immune system, your white ... urac.org). URAC's accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A.D.A.M. follows ...

  18. Ear infection - chronic

    MedlinePlus

    ... Paralysis of the face Inflammation around the brain ( epidural abscess ) or in the brain Damage to the part ... pubmed/23818543 . Read More Cholesteatoma Ear infection - acute Epidural abscess Mastoiditis Otitis Review Date 4/21/2015 Updated ...

  19. Group B Strep Infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Questions OverviewWhat is group B strep?Group B streptococcus, or group B strep for short, is a ... can develop an infection of the lungs (called pneumonia), bloodstream (called sepsis), or the fluid around the ...

  20. Advances in infection control

    PubMed Central

    Marra, Alexandre Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Several initiatives took place in recent years in relation to nosocomial infection control in order to increase patient safety. Some of these initiatives will be commented in this brief review. PMID:27074240

  1. Infection and Other Complications

    MedlinePlus

    ... is Lymphedema? What Causes Lymphedema What is the Lymphatic System? Signs and Symptoms Stage 0 Stage 1 Stage ... is Lymphedema? What Causes Lymphedema What is the Lymphatic System? Signs and Symptoms Infection and Other Complications NLN ...

  2. Periprosthetic Shoulder Infection

    PubMed Central

    Franceschini, Vincenzo; Chillemi, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    Shoulder arthroplasty is considered the most effective surgical procedure for endstage shoulder pain from different causes including osteoarthritis, cuff-tear arthropathy, trauma, and tumors. Although uncommon and less frequent than knee or hip periprosthetic infection, periprosthetic shoulder infection represents a devastating complication and, despite treatment, is associated with unsatisfactory results. The most commonly identified microorganisms in periprosthetic shoulder infections are Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase-negative Staphylococci and Propionibacterium acnes. Diagnosis is not always easy and mainly derives from the integration of clinical symptoms, laboratory exams, radiological studies and microbiological swabs. Different options are available for treatment, including antibiotic therapy, lavage and debridement with retention of the prosthesis, one-stage reimplantation, two-stage reimplantation with antibiotic-impregnated cement spacer and resection arthroplasty. The aim of this review is to describe the current knowledge regarding risk factors, etiology, diagnosis and treatment of periprosthetic shoulder infection. PMID:23919098

  3. Dengue viral infections

    PubMed Central

    Malavige, G; Fernando, S; Fernando, D; Seneviratne, S

    2004-01-01

    Dengue viral infections are one of the most important mosquito borne diseases in the world. They may be asymptomatic or may give rise to undifferentiated fever, dengue fever, dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF), or dengue shock syndrome. Annually, 100 million cases of dengue fever and half a million cases of DHF occur worldwide. Ninety percent of DHF subjects are children less than 15 years of age. At present, dengue is endemic in 112 countries in the world. No vaccine is available for preventing this disease. Early recognition and prompt initiation of appropriate treatment are vital if disease related morbidity and mortality are to be limited. This review outlines aspects of the epidemiology of dengue infections, the dengue virus and its mosquito vector, clinical features and pathogenesis of dengue infections, and the management and control of these infections. PMID:15466994

  4. E. Coli Infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is E. coli?E. coli is short for Escherichia coli -- bacteria (germs) that cause severe cramps and diarrhea. ... staff Tags: bacterial endotoxin, bloody diarrhea, enterohemorrhagic infection, Escherichia coli, food-borne illness, gastroenteritis, hemorrhagic colitis, HUS, thrombotic ...

  5. Dengue viral infections.

    PubMed

    Malavige, G N; Fernando, S; Fernando, D J; Seneviratne, S L

    2004-10-01

    Dengue viral infections are one of the most important mosquito borne diseases in the world. They may be asymptomatic or may give rise to undifferentiated fever, dengue fever, dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF), or dengue shock syndrome. Annually, 100 million cases of dengue fever and half a million cases of DHF occur worldwide. Ninety percent of DHF subjects are children less than 15 years of age. At present, dengue is endemic in 112 countries in the world. No vaccine is available for preventing this disease. Early recognition and prompt initiation of appropriate treatment are vital if disease related morbidity and mortality are to be limited. This review outlines aspects of the epidemiology of dengue infections, the dengue virus and its mosquito vector, clinical features and pathogenesis of dengue infections, and the management and control of these infections.

  6. Prevent Infections in Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... before and during pregnancy: Protect yourself from Zika virus. Zika virus can be passed from a pregnant woman to ... to her baby around the time of birth. Zika virus infection during pregnancy can cause microcephaly (a birth ...

  7. Gastrointestinal Infections and Diarrhea

    MedlinePlus

    ... in and drinking water from contaminated streams or lakes can lead to an infection and chronic diarrhea. ... or camping, never drink from streams, springs, or lakes unless local health authorities have certified the water ...

  8. Viruses infecting reptiles.

    PubMed

    Marschang, Rachel E

    2011-11-01

    A large number of viruses have been described in many different reptiles. These viruses include arboviruses that primarily infect mammals or birds as well as viruses that are specific for reptiles. Interest in arboviruses infecting reptiles has mainly focused on the role reptiles may play in the epidemiology of these viruses, especially over winter. Interest in reptile specific viruses has concentrated on both their importance for reptile medicine as well as virus taxonomy and evolution. The impact of many viral infections on reptile health is not known. Koch's postulates have only been fulfilled for a limited number of reptilian viruses. As diagnostic testing becomes more sensitive, multiple infections with various viruses and other infectious agents are also being detected. In most cases the interactions between these different agents are not known. This review provides an update on viruses described in reptiles, the animal species in which they have been detected, and what is known about their taxonomic positions.

  9. Mycoplasma infections of plants.

    PubMed

    Bove, J M

    1981-07-01

    Plants can be infected by two types of wall-less procaryotes, spiroplasmas and mycoplasma-like organisms (MLO), both located intracellularly in the phloem tissues of affected plants. Spiroplasmas have been cultured, characterized and shown to be true members of the class Mollicutes. MLO have not yet been cultured or characterized; they are thought to be mycoplasma-like on the basis of their ultrastructure as seen in situ, their sensitivity to tetracycline and resistance to penicillin. Mycoplasmas can also be found on the surface of plants. These extracellularly located organisms are members of the following genera: Spiroplasma. Mycoplasma and Acholeplasma. The presence of such surface mycoplasmas must not be overlooked when attempts to culture MLO from affected plants are undertaken. Sensitive serological techniques such as the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) can successfully be used to compare the MLO located in the phloem of affected plants with those eventually cultured from the same plants. In California and Morocco periwinkles naturally infected with both Spiroplasma citri and MLO have been reported. With such doubly infected plants, the symptom expression has been that characteristic of the MLO disease (phyllody or stolbur), not that given by S. citri. Only S. citri can be cultured from such plants, but this does not indicate that S. citri is the causal agent of the disease expressed by the plant. In California many nonrutaceous plants have been found to be infected with S. citri. Stubborn affected citrus trees represent an important reservoir of S. citri, and Circulifer tenellus is an active leafhopper vector of S. citri. Hence, it is not surprising that in California MLO-infected fruit trees could also become infected with S. citri but it would not mean that S. citri is the causal agent of the disease. Criteria are discussed that are helpful in distinguishing between MLO infections and S. citri infections.

  10. INFECTION AS OCCUPATIONAL RISK,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The percentage of the job-connected infectious diseases of the total number of occupational diseases has been subject to only minor fluctuations...since 1949. Of the occupational infections of medical personnel, tuberculosis and infectious hepatitis are the most important; among diseases that can be...importance in the recognition of an infectious disease as an occupational disease. The article discusses the sources of infection, the manner of

  11. Detection and Characterization of Infections and Infection Susceptibility

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-03-10

    Immune Disorders; Chronic Granulomatous Disease; Genetic Immunological Deficiencies; Hyperimmunoglobulin-E Recurrent Infection Syndrome; Recurrent Infections; Unknown Immune Deficiency; GATA2 Deficiency (MonoMAC); Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Infections; Hyper IgE (Job s) Syndrome; Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency; Susceptibility to Disseminated Infections; Primary Immune Deficiency Disease (PIDD)

  12. Nosocomial infection update.

    PubMed Central

    Weinstein, R. A.

    1998-01-01

    Historically, staphylococci, pseudomonads, and Escherichia coli have been the nosocomial infection troika; nosocomial pneumonia, surgical wound infections, and vascular access-related bacteremia have caused the most illness and death in hospitalized patients; and intensive care units have been the epicenters of antibiotic resistance. Acquired antimicrobial resistance is the major problem, and vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is the pathogen of greatest concern. The shift to outpatient care is leaving the most vulnerable patients in hospitals. Aging of our population and increasingly aggressive medical and surgical interventions, including implanted foreign bodies, organ transplantations, and xenotransplantation, create a cohort of particularly susceptible persons. Renovation of aging hospitals increases risk of airborne fungal and other infections. To prevent and control these emerging nosocomial infections, we need to increase national surveillance, "risk adjust" infection rates so that interhospital comparisons are valid, develop more noninvasive infection-resistant devices, and work with health-care workers on better implementation of existing control measures such as hand washing. PMID:9716961

  13. [Urinary catheter biofilm infections].

    PubMed

    Holá, V; Růzicka, F

    2008-04-01

    Urinary tract infections, most of which are biofilm infections in catheterized patients, account for more than 40% of hospital infections. Bacterial colonization of the urinary tract and catheters causes not only infection but also other complications such as catheter blockage by bacterial encrustation, urolithiasis and pyelonephritis. About 50% of long-term catheterized patients face urinary flow obstruction due to catheter encrustation, but no measure is currently available to prevent it. Encrustation has been known either to result from metabolic dysfunction or to be of microbial origin, with urease positive bacterial species implicated most often. Infectious calculi account for about 15-20% of all cases of urolithiasis and are often associated with biofilm colonization of a long-term indwelling urinary catheter or urethral stent. The use of closed catheter systems is helpful in reducing such problems; nevertheless, such a system only delays the inevitable, with infections emerging a little later. Various coatings intended to prevent the bacterial adhesion to the surface of catheters and implants and thus also the emergence of biofilm infections, unfortunately, do not inhibit the microbial adhesion completely and permanently and the only reliable method for biofilm eradication remains the removal of the foreign body from the patient.

  14. Urticaria and infections

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Urticaria is a group of diseases that share a distinct skin reaction pattern. Triggering of urticaria by infections has been discussed for many years but the exact role and pathogenesis of mast cell activation by infectious processes is unclear. In spontaneous acute urticaria there is no doubt for a causal relationship to infections and all chronic urticaria must have started as acute. Whereas in physical or distinct urticaria subtypes the evidence for infections is sparse, remission of annoying spontaneous chronic urticaria has been reported after successful treatment of persistent infections. Current summarizing available studies that evaluated the course of the chronic urticaria after proven Helicobacter eradication demonstrate a statistically significant benefit compared to untreated patients or Helicobacter-negative controls without urticaria (p < 0.001). Since infections can be easily treated some diagnostic procedures should be included in the routine work-up, especially the search for Helicobacter pylori. This review will update the reader regarding the role of infections in different urticaria subtypes. PMID:20066173

  15. Bartonella (Rochalimaea) quintana infections.

    PubMed Central

    Maurin, M; Raoult, D

    1996-01-01

    Bartonella (formerly Rochalimaea) quintana is the etiological agent of trench fever, a disease extensively reported during the World Wars. Recent molecular biology approaches have allowed dramatic extension of the spectrum of Bartonella infections. B. quintana is now also recognized as an etiological agent of fever and bacteremia, endocarditis, bacillary angiomatosis, and chronic lymphadenopathy. Human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients and/or homeless people are the most vulnerable to infection. Poverty and louse infestation were the main epidemiological factors associated with B. quintana infections during wartime. Although poverty and chronic alcoholism have been associated with modern cases of trench fever and bacteremia due to B. quintana in Europe and the United States, vectors for B. quintana have not been clearly identified and B. quintana has not been isolated from modern-day lice. Microscopic bacillary angiomatosis lesions are characterized by tumor-like capillary lobules, with proliferating endothelial cells. In vitro experiments have shown that B. quintana survives within endothelial cells and stimulates cell proliferation. These observations, together with the finding that lesions may regress when antibiotic therapy is administered, strongly suggest that B. quintana itself stimulates angiogenesis. Bartonella infections are characterized by a high frequency of relapses after brief courses of antibiotic therapy. It is to be noted that in vitro, although Bartonella species are highly susceptible to antibiotics, only the aminoglycosides have proved to be bactericidal. However, the most effective antibiotic regimen for Bartonella infections remains to be established. PMID:8809460

  16. Neuroparasitic Infections: Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Walker, M.D.; Zunt, J.R.

    2009-01-01

    Globalization has produced an increase in the number of people at risk for contracting parasitic infection. Central nervous system infection by nematodal parasites can be devastating. Early recognition and treatment of infection can significantly decrease morbidity of the parasitic infection, as well as the risk of secondary superinfection. The clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment for five of the more common nematodal infections of the nervous system—Angiostrongylus spp., Baylisacaris procyonis, Gnathostoma spinigerum, Strongyloides stercoralis, and Toxocara spp.—is reviewed. Objectives On completion of this article, the reader should be able to summarize the clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of the common nematodal infections of the nervous system. Accreditation The Indiana University School of Medicine is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education to provide continuing medical education for physicians. Credit The Indiana University School of Medicine designates this educational activity for a maximum of 1 Category 1 credit toward the AMA Physicians Recognition Award. Each physician should claim only those credits that he/she actually spent in the educational activity. Disclosure Statements of disclosure have been obtained regarding the authors’ relevant financial relationships. The authors have nothing to disclose. PMID:16170738

  17. Aerococci and aerococcal infections.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Magnus

    2013-06-01

    Aerococcus is a genus that comprises seven species, of which Aerococcus urinae, and Aerococcus sanguinicola are emerging human pathogens. Aerococci are gram positive cocci that are easily misidentified as streptococci or staphylococci, and thus the incidence of aerococcal infections has been underestimated. With the introduction of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) clinical microbiologists now have access to a rapid and accurate method to identify aerococci. A. urinae and A. sanguinicola are isolated in a small proportion of urinary specimens in many laboratories and many patients with bacteriuria with aerococci have symptoms of urinary tract infection (UTI). A. urinae, and also A. sanguinicola, cause invasive infections including infective endocarditis (IE) with many reported fatalities. Especially older men with urinary tract abnormalities are at risk for bacteraemia with A. urinae but the prognosis of bacteraemia without IE is favourable. Penicillin is appropriate for treatment of invasive infections and in IE, addition of an aminoglycoside should be considered. Treatment of UTI with aerococci is complicated by uncertainty about the effect of trimethoprim-sulphametoxazole and fluoroquinolones on aerococci. This review will discuss identification of Aerococcus spp., antibiotic resistance, the clinical presentation and management of aerococcal infections as well as the virulence mechanisms of these bacteria.

  18. Novel Approaches to Preventing Urinary Tract Infection in Women

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-09-01

    Winberg, A. Lundblad, S. Svensson, and B. Cedergren 1980. The Pk antigen as receptor for the haemagglutinin of pyelonephritic Escherichia coli FEMS...Microbiol Lett. 7:297-302. 8. Kallenius, G., S. B. Svenson, R. Mollby, B. Cedergren , H. Hultberg, and J. Winberg 1981. Structure of carbohydrate part of...the murine stage-specific embryonic antigens -3 and -4 3389-3394. (SSEA-3 and SSEA-4). Vox Sang. 51:53-56. 22. Lomberg, H., B. Cedergren , H. Leffler, B

  19. Can newly developed, rapid immunochromatographic antigen detection tests be reliably used for the laboratory diagnosis of influenza virus infections?

    PubMed

    Dunn, James J; Ginocchio, Christine C

    2015-06-01

    Five years ago, the Point-Counterpoint series was launched. The initial article asked about the role of rapid immunochromatographic antigen testing in the diagnosis of influenza A virus 2009 H1N1 infection (D. F. Welch and C. C. Ginocchio, J Clin Microbiol 48:22-25, 2010, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JCM.02268-09). Since that article, not only have major changes been made in immunochromatographic antigen detection (IAD) testing for the influenza viruses, but there has also been rapid development of commercially available nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) for influenza virus detection. Further, a novel variant of influenza A, H7N9, has emerged in Asia, and H5N1 is also reemergent. In that initial article, the editor of this series, Peter Gilligan, identified two issues that required further consideration. One was how well IAD tests worked in clinical settings, especially in times of antigen drift and shift. The other was the role of future iterations of influenza NAATs and whether this testing would be available in a community hospital setting. James Dunn, who is Director of Medical Microbiology and Virology at Texas Children's Hospital, has extensive experience using IAD tests for diagnosing influenza. He will discuss the application and value of these tests in influenza diagnosis. Christine Ginocchio, who recently retired as the Senior Medical Director, Division of Infectious Disease Diagnostics, North Shore-LIJ Health System, and now is Vice President for Global Microbiology Affairs at bioMérieux, Durham, NC, wrote the initial counterpoint in this series, where she advocated the use of NAATs for influenza diagnosis. She will update us on the commercially available NAAT systems and explain what their role should be in the diagnosis of influenza infection.

  20. Lipid Metabolism during Infection and Endotoxemia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-01

    containing 8- and 10-carbon fatty acids almost exclusively) have been used in certain therapeutic diets . In contrast to the long-chain triglycerides...increased utilization of ketone bodies. The major substrates for hepatic ketogenesis are long-chain fatty acids. The term ’ ketogenic capacity’ refers to the...bodies is influenced not only by substrate availability and enzyme activities, but also more directly by the dis- posal of acetyl-CoA through ketogenic

  1. Pneumocystis infections: the iceberg?

    PubMed

    Dei-Cas, E

    2000-01-01

    Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) is a well-recognized lung disease of immunocompromised patients, but the real impact of Pneumocystis infection in humans remains to be discovered. Pneumocystis represents probably one of the more frequent infectious agents faced by humans. Seroconversion revealed P. carinii primary infection in > 90% of infants and small children, but the infection source and the clinical or pathological changes associated with this first contact with the parasite remain unknown. Pneumocystis organisms are atypical microfungi able to attach specifically to type-I alveolar epithelial cells, and to proliferate, provoking severe pneumonitis. A deep impairment of cell-mediated immunity associated with changes in pulmonary surfactant make it possible for Pneumocystis to grow within the host. Alveolar type-II cell hypertrophy, macrophagic infiltrate and intra-alveolar foamy eosinophilic material are the most typical changes. CD4+ T-lymphocytes and interferon play a major role in host defense against P. carinii. Alveolar macrophages phagocytose P. carinii via the macrophage-mannose receptor and produce reactive free-radicals and nitric oxide under Pneumocystis stimulation. Furthermore, PCP is associated with an early decrease of surfactant phospholipids, increased hydrophilic surfactant protein (SP) levels and decreased hydrophobic SPs. Normal surfactant improves PCP, and consistently, it inhibits the parasite growth. New detection tools have revealed that hospitalized patients can be latently infected with Pneumocystis and that immunocompetent hosts develop transient Pneumocystis infections. Pneumocystis organisms circulate in human populations, being able to infect hosts with diverse susceptibility levels. In fact, airborne Pneumocystis infection can display a large spectrum of clinical presentations and most likely, we recognize at present only the tip of the iceberg.

  2. HIV infection and AIDS.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, A

    1996-09-01

    Many of the clinical features of HIV/AIDS can be ascribed to the profound immune deficiency which develops in infected patients. The destruction of the immune system by the virus results in opportunistic infection, as well as an increased risk of autoimmune disease and malignancy. In addition, disease manifestations related to the virus itself may occur. For example, during the primary illness which occurs within weeks after first exposure to HIV, clinical symptoms occur in at least 50% of cases, typically as a mononucleosis syndrome. HIV-related complications are rarely encountered in patients with preserved immunity (i.e. CD4 T-cell counts greater than 500 cells/mm3). Recurrent mucocutaneous herpes simplex (HSV), herpes zoster (VZV), oral candidiasis and oral hairy leukoplakia occur with increasing frequency as the CD4 count drops below this level. Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) occurs in association with HIV and often presents early in the clinical course. The risk of developing opportunistic infections and malignancies typical of AIDS increases progressively as CD4 counts fall below 200 cells/mm3. The clinical manifestations of infections associated with AIDS tend to fall into well-recognized patterns of presentation, including pneumonia, dysphagia/odynophagia, diarrhoea, neurological symptoms, fever, wasting, anaemia and visual loss. The commonest pathogens include Candida albicans, Pneumocystis carinii, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Toxoplasma gondii, Cryptococcus neoformans, Mycobacterium avium intracellulare and cytomegalovirus. Malignant disease in patients with HIV infection also occurs in a characteristic pattern. Only two tumours are prevalent: Kaposi's sarcoma, a multifocal tumour of vascular endothelium which typically involves skin and mucosal surfaces; and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, which is typically high grade in phenotype, often arising within the central nervous system. The principles of therapy include reduction of HIV replication by antiretroviral

  3. Worm Infections in Children.

    PubMed

    Weatherhead, Jill E; Hotez, Peter J

    2015-08-01

    • On the basis of research evidence, worm infections are important global child health conditions causing chronic disability that lasts from childhood into adulthood (Table 1). (2)(3) Evidence Quality: B • On the basis of research evidence, the major worm infections found in developing countries include ascariasis, trichuriasis, hookworm infection, and schistosomiasis; toxocariasis, enterobiasis, and cysticercosis are also found in poor regions of North America and Europe. (4)(9)(13) Evidence Quality: B • On the basis of expert consensus, children and adolescents are often vulnerable to acquiring large numbers of worms, ie, high-intensity infections (Fig 1)(21)(22)(23) Evidence Quality: D • On the basis of expert consensus and research evidence, moderate and heavy worm burdens cause increased morbidity because of growth and intellectual stunting in children and adolescents. Many of these effects may result from helminth-induced malnutrition. (21)(22)(23) Evidence Quality: C • On the basis of expert consensus and research evidence, worm infections are also commonly associated with eosinophilia. (48) (49) Evidence Quality: B • On the basis of research evidence as well as consensus, helminthes can cause inflammation in the lung (asthma), gastrointestinal tract (enteritis and colitis), liver (hepatitis and fibrosis), and urogenital tract. (7)(21)(22)(23)(27)(28)(40)(41)(43) Evidence Quality: B • On the basis of research evidence, microscopy techniques for diagnosis of worm infections in children often exhibit suboptimal sensitivities and specificities, necessitating new or improved diagnostic modalities such as polymerase chain reaction. (54)(55) Evidence Quality: A • On the basis of research evidence and expert consensus, mass drug administration (“preventive chemotherapy”) has becomea standard practice for ministries of health in low- and middle-income countries to control intestinal helminth infections and schistosomiasis. (67)(68) Evidence

  4. [Emerging invasive fungal infections].

    PubMed

    Alvez, F; Figueras, C; Roselló, E

    2010-07-01

    The frequency and diversity of invasive fungal infections has changed over the last 25 years. The emergence of less common, but medically important fungi has increased, and the children at risk has expanded, with the inclusion of medical conditions such as cancer, mainly haematological malignancy or stem cell transplant, immunosuppressive therapy, prolonged neutropenia, and T-cell immunodeficiency. Among mould infections, fusariosis and phaeohyphomycosis (Dematiaceous fungi) have been increasingly reported in this group of patients. To successfully manage these challenging infections, it is imperative that paediatricians and sub-specialists remain aware of the optimal and timely diagnosis and therapeutic options. Unlike other common mycoses that cause human disease, there no simple antigen or serological tests available to detect these pathogens in tissue or blood. The outcome for these disseminate, and often refractory fungal infections in neutropenic patients and transplant recipients remains extremely poor, requiring early and aggressive therapy. Unfortunately there are no guidelines outlining the choices for optimal therapy in the treatment of paediatric invasive fungal infections do not exist, and on the other hand are limited paediatric data available comparing antifungal agents in children with proven, probable or suspected invasive fungal infection. The options for treatment rest mainly on some adult guidelines that comment on the treatment of these emerging and uncommon important fungi in children. Despite the sparse clinical trials available on treatment and its poor outcome, options for treatment of invasive fungal infections have increased with the advance of new antifungal agents, with improved tolerability and increased range of activity. The epidemiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis and treatment of fusariosis and phaeohyphomycosis are discussed in this article.

  5. [Urinary tract infections].

    PubMed

    Hörl, W H

    2011-09-01

    Urinary tract infections occur very frequently in the community and in hospitalized patients and are mainly caused by Escherichia (E.) coli. Depending on virulence determinants of uropathogenic microorganisms and host-specific defense mechanisms, urinary tract infections can manifest as cystitis, pyelonephritis (bacterial interstitial nephritis), bacteremia or urosepsis. Uncomplicated urinary tract infections in otherwise healthy women should be treated for 3-7 days depending on the antibiotic therapy chosen, even if spontaneous remission rates of up to 40% have been reported. Antibiotics of the first choice for empirical treatment of uncomplicated urinary tract infection are fluoroquinolones, pivmecillinam and fosfomycin. A huge problem is the increasing antimicrobial resistance of uropathogenic microorganisms. Complicated urinary tract infections associated with anatomical and/or functional abnormalities of the urinary tract and/or comorbidities such as diabetes or immunosuppressive therapy, need longer antibiotic treatment (e.g. 10-14 days) as well as interdisciplinary diagnostic procedures. Treatment of community acquired urosepsis includes cephalosporins of the third generation, piperacillin/tazobactam or ciprofloxacin. For nosocomial urosepsis the combination with an aminoglycoside or a carbapenem is recommended.

  6. Immunization against brucella infection

    PubMed Central

    Elberg, Sanford S.

    1959-01-01

    The author describes a study, carried out in the Province of Córdoba, Spain, to test the efficacy of a live vaccine prepared from the Rev I strain of Brucella melitensis against caprine brucellosis and to determine the extent of natural infection in goats and humans in the Province. It was found that the vaccine significantly increased the resistance of the goats to infection without inducing a carrier state of the vaccine strain and that the immunity persisted for at least 15 months—the period of test. Serum agglutination tests, milk ring tests, and milk culture tests on goats showed that approximately 16-29% of the individual animals examined would be considered infective on the basis of one or other of the tests. Of the 118 herds tested, 111 were discovered to be harbouring infected animals. Serum agglutination tests on humans revealed that 25 of the 880 people tested (2.8%) had titres of 160 International Units (IU) or above and that, on the basis of a diagnostic titre of 80 IU or above, 7% of the population would be regarded as showing evidence of a past or present infection. PMID:13819864

  7. Burn Wound Infections

    PubMed Central

    Church, Deirdre; Elsayed, Sameer; Reid, Owen; Winston, Brent; Lindsay, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Burns are one of the most common and devastating forms of trauma. Patients with serious thermal injury require immediate specialized care in order to minimize morbidity and mortality. Significant thermal injuries induce a state of immunosuppression that predisposes burn patients to infectious complications. A current summary of the classifications of burn wound infections, including their diagnosis, treatment, and prevention, is given. Early excision of the eschar has substantially decreased the incidence of invasive burn wound infection and secondary sepsis, but most deaths in severely burn-injured patients are still due to burn wound sepsis or complications due to inhalation injury. Burn patients are also at risk for developing sepsis secondary to pneumonia, catheter-related infections, and suppurative thrombophlebitis. The introduction of silver-impregnated devices (e.g., central lines and Foley urinary catheters) may reduce the incidence of nosocomial infections due to prolonged placement of these devices. Improved outcomes for severely burned patients have been attributed to medical advances in fluid resuscitation, nutritional support, pulmonary and burn wound care, and infection control practices. PMID:16614255

  8. [Arthritis and infections].

    PubMed

    Cimaz, R; Meregalli, E; Biggioggero, M; Casadei, A; Careddu, P

    2005-08-01

    Arthritis caused by infectious agents can be secondary to direct invasion of the joint space or to immune mechanisms (subsequent to or concomitant to an infection). Septic arthritis refers to a situation when bacteria can be cultured in synovial fluid. Arthritis can complicate for example meningococcemia or infection by Neisseria gonorrhoeae or Haemophilus influenzae. Reactive (postinfectious) arthritides are an important diagnostic category within a pediatric rheumatology practice. Yersinia and, less frequently, Salmonella, play an important role in postdiarrheal disorders. The arthritis that can ensue is usually oligoarticular and occurs 1-2 weeks after the enteric infection. Reiter's syndrome, rare in the pediatric age, is characterized by the triad urethritis-conjunctivitis-arthritis. Postviral arthritides can occur after a variety of viral infections, including Parvovirus B19, rubella, and others (e.g. hepatitis B, Epstein-Barr virus, chickenpox, mumps). Especially in patients with acute arthritis, the presence of preceding infections should always be investigated. Although the majority of postinfectious arthritides are self-limiting in nature and do not require specific treatment, conditions such as Lyme borreliosis and rheumatic fever can be associated with significant morbidity, and sometimes can be even lethal.

  9. Surgical infection in art.

    PubMed

    Meakins, J L

    1996-12-01

    The earliest images of medicine and surgery in Western art are from the late Middle Ages. Although often attractive, at that time they were illustrative and mirrored the text on how to diagnose or treat a specific condition. These drawings in medieval manuscripts represent management of abscesses, perianal infection and fistulas, amputation, and wound dressings. With the Renaissance, art in all its forms flourished, and surgeons were represented at work draining carbuncles, infected bursae, and mastoiditis; managing ulcers, scrofula, and skin infections; and performing amputations. Specific diagnosis can be made, such as streptococcal infection in the discarded leg of the miraculous transplantation performed by Saints Cosmas and Damian and in the works of Rembrandt van Rijn and Frederic Bazille. Evocations of cytokine activity are evident in works by Albrecht Dürer, Edvard Munch, and James Tissot. The iconography of society's view of a surgeon is apparent and often not complimentary. The surgeon's art is a visual art. Astute observation leads to early diagnosis and better results in surgical infection and the septic state. Learning to see what we look at enhances our appreciation of the world around us but, quite specifically, makes us better clinicians.

  10. CELLULAR RESISTANCE TO INFECTION

    PubMed Central

    Mackaness, G. B.

    1962-01-01

    The mouse was found to be natively susceptible to Listeria monocytogenes. Its susceptibility was attributed to the capacity of the organism to survive and multiplying in host macrophages. During the first 3 days of a primary infection the bacterial populations of spleen and liver were found to increase at a constant rate. On the 4th day of infection the host became hypersensitive to Listeria antigens and at the same time bacterial growth ceased. A rapid inactivation of the organism ensued. Convalescent mice were resistant to challenge, but no protective factor could be found in their serum. Histological evidence suggested that acquired resistance was the result of a change occurring in the host's mononuclear phagocytes. When challenged in vitro, the macrophages of convalescent mice were found to resist infection with Listeria monocytogenes. Listeria-resistant cells appeared during the course of infection at a time which corresponded with the development of the antibacterial mechanism in the spleen. They persisted for as long as the antibacterial mechanism remained intact in this organ. This period of absolute resistance to Listeria lasted about 3 weeks. Thereafter, the host remained hypersensitive but unable to inactivate a challenge inoculum of Listeria. However, it remained capable of producing an accelerated response to reinfection. This was thought to depend upon an ability to generate a new population of resistant cells from a residuum of specifically sensitized macrophages or macrophage precursors still surviving in the tissues as a result of the immunological activation which occurred during the primary infection. PMID:14467923

  11. cos(4φ) azimuthal anisotropy in small- x DIS dijet production beyond the leading power TMD limit

    SciTech Connect

    Dumitru, Adrian; Skokov, Vladimir

    2016-07-25

    Here we determine the first correction to the quadrupole operator in high-energy QCD beyond the transverse momentum dependent (TMD) limit of Weizsäcker-Williams and linearly polarized gluon distributions. These functions give rise to isotropic, respectively, ~cos2$\\phi$ angular distributions in deep inelastic scattering (DIS) dijet production. On the other hand, the correction produces a ~cos4$\\phi$ angular dependence which is suppressed by one additional power of the dijet transverse momentum scale (squared) P2.

  12. Infection and anorexia.

    PubMed

    Kanra, Güler Y; Ozen, Hasan; Kara, Ateş

    2006-01-01

    Whereas anorexia is a common behavioral response to infectious diseases, the reasons for and mechanisms behind this observation are still unknown. When it is considered on an evolutionary basis, the organism must have net benefits from anorexia. The first response to infection is the development of acute phase response (APR). The APR is triggered by microbial products and characterized by production of several cytokines known to induce anorexia. Several microbial products and cytokines reduce food intake after parenteral administration, suggesting a role of these substances in the anorexia during infection. Locally released cytokines may inhibit feeding by activating peripheral sensory fibers directly or indirectly, and without a concomitant increase in circulating cytokines. However, the final center for appetite or eating is the central nervous system (CNS). Thus, these peripheral signals must reach and interact with brain regions that control appetite. In addition, a direct action of cytokines and microbial products on the CNS is presumably involved in the anorexia during infection.

  13. Blood-borne infections.

    PubMed

    Pirozzolo, Jason J; LeMay, Donald C

    2007-07-01

    Blood-borne infections are transmitted by way of direct blood contact from one individual to another from injured skin or a mucous membrane. Blood-borne infections can also be transmitted through blood doping and drug abuse and through sexual contact. Risk factors for hepatitis B virus (HBV) HBV infection include travel to regions with endemic hepatitis. Prevention of blood-borne pathogens in the student-athlete should focus on traditional transmission routes and off-the-field behavior because experts believe that field transmission of blood-borne pathogens is minimal. Worldwide, HBV, hepatitis C virus (HCV), and HIV are the most common pathogens encountered. This article focuses on HBV and HCV as being the most prevalent in athletics.

  14. Overwhelming postsplenectomy infection.

    PubMed

    Krivit, W

    1977-01-01

    One of the more intriguing aspects of the spleen is the protection against certain bacterial infections afforded by its unique vascular and immune function. There have been extensive clinical surveys which indicate an incidence of overwhelming postsplenectomy infection (OPSI) above that of the disease for which the splenectomy was done. In the absence of the spleen, either congenital or subsequent to surgical removal, this overwhelming sepsis has a 50% case fatality rate. The most common infective organism has been Diplococcus (tstreptococcus) pneumoniae (D. pneumoniae). Intensive investigations indicated loss of phagocytic function of the spleen, depression of serum IgM levels, a possible suppression of the lymphocyte responsiveness, and changes in opsonin-alternative complement system as potential causes of OPSI. Preventive measures against OPSI include trials of prophylactic Phenoxymethyl Penicillin (penicillin) and pneumococcal vaccine.

  15. Hemophagocytic syndromes and infection.

    PubMed Central

    Fisman, D. N.

    2000-01-01

    Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is an unusual syndrome characterized by fever, splenomegaly, jaundice, and the pathologic finding of hemophagocytosis (phagocytosis by macrophages of erythrocytes, leukocytes, platelets, and their precursors) in bone marrow and other tissues. HLH may be diagnosed in association with malignant, genetic, or autoimmune diseases but is also prominently linked with Epstein-Barr (EBV) virus infection. Hyperproduction of cytokines, including interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor-alpha, by EBV- infected T lymphocytes may play a role in the pathogenesis of HLH. EBV-associated HLH may mimic T-cell lymphoma and is treated with cytotoxic chemotherapy, while hemophagocytic syndromes associated with nonviral pathogens often respond to treatment of the underlying infection. PMID:11076718

  16. Septins and Bacterial Infection

    PubMed Central

    Torraca, Vincenzo; Mostowy, Serge

    2016-01-01

    Septins, a unique cytoskeletal component associated with cellular membranes, are increasingly recognized as having important roles in host defense against bacterial infection. A role for septins during invasion of Listeria monocytogenes into host cells was first proposed in 2002. Since then, work has shown that septins assemble in response to a wide variety of invasive bacterial pathogens, and septin assemblies can have different roles during the bacterial infection process. Here we review the interplay between septins and bacterial pathogens, highlighting septins as a structural determinant of host defense. We also discuss how investigation of septin assembly in response to bacterial infection can yield insight into basic cellular processes including phagocytosis, autophagy, and mitochondrial dynamics. PMID:27891501

  17. Infections, inflammation and epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Vezzani, Annamaria; Fujinami, Robert S.; White, H. Steve; Preux, Pierre-Marie; Blümcke, Ingmar; Sander, Josemir W.; Löscher, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Epilepsy is the tendency to have unprovoked epileptic seizures. Anything causing structural or functional derangement of brain physiology may lead to seizures, and different conditions may express themselves solely by recurrent seizures and thus be labelled “epilepsy.” Worldwide, epilepsy is the most common serious neurological condition. The range of risk factors for the development of epilepsy varies with age and geographic location. Congenital, developmental and genetic conditions are mostly associated with the development of epilepsy in childhood, adolescence and early adulthood. Head trauma, infections of the central nervous system (CNS) and tumours may occur at any age and may lead to the development of epilepsy. Infections of the CNS are a major risk factor for epilepsy. The reported risk of unprovoked seizures in population-based cohorts of survivors of CNS infections from developed countries is between 6.8 and 8.3 %, and is much higher in resource-poor countries. In this review, the various viral, bacterial, fungal and parasitic infectious diseases of the CNS which result in seizures and epilepsy are discussed. The pathogenesis of epilepsy due to brain infections, as well as the role of experimental models to study mechanisms of epileptogenesis induced by infectious agents, is reviewed. The sterile (non-infectious) inflammatory response that occurs following brain insults is also discussed, as well as its overlap with inflammation due to infections, and the potential role in epileptogenesis. Furthermore, autoimmune encephalitis as a cause of seizures is reviewed. Potential strategies to prevent epilepsy resulting from brain infections and non-infectious inflammation are also considered. PMID:26423537

  18. Immunopathology of Brucella infection.

    PubMed

    Baldi, Pablo C; Giambartolomei, Guillermo H

    2013-04-01

    In spite of the protean nature of the disease, inflammation is a hallmark of brucellosis and affected tissues usually exhibit inflammatory infiltrates. As Brucella lacks exotoxins, exoproteases or cytolysins, pathological findings in brucellosis probably arise from inflammation-driven processes. The cellular and molecular bases of immunopathological phenomena probably involved in Brucella pathogenesis have been unraveled in the last few years. Brucella-infected osteoblasts, either alone or in synergy with infected macrophages, produce cytokines, chemokines and matrixmetalloproteinases (MMPs), and similar phenomena are mounted by fibroblast-like synoviocytes. The released cytokines promote the secretion of MMPs and induce osteoclastogenesis. Altogether, these phenomena may contribute to the bone loss and cartilage degradation usually observed in brucellar arthritis and osteomyelitis. Proinflammatory cytokines may be also involved in the pathogenesis of neurobrucellosis. B. abortus and its lipoproteins elicit an inflammatory response in the CNS of mice, leading to astrogliosis, a characteristic feature of neurobrucellosis. Heat-killed bacteria (HKBA) and the L-Omp19 lipoprotein elicit astrocyte apoptosis and proliferation (two features of astrogliosis), and apoptosis depends on TNF-α signaling. Brucella also infects and replicates in human endothelial cells, inducing the production of chemokines and IL-6, and an increased expression of adhesion molecules. The sustained inflammatory process derived from the longlasting infection of the endothelium may be important for the development of endocarditis. Therefore, while Brucella induces a low grade inflammation as compared to other pathogens, its prolonged intracellular persistence in infected tissues supports a long-lasting inflammatory response that mediates different pathways of tissue damage. In this context, approaches to avoid the invasion of host cells or limit the intracellular survival of the bacterium may be

  19. Veillonella infections in children.

    PubMed Central

    Brook, I

    1996-01-01

    From 1974 to 1994, 2,033 specimens from children were submitted for cultures for anaerobic bacteria. Eighty-three Veillonella spp. were recovered from 83 children (4%). Most Veillonella species were recovered from abscesses, aspiration pneumonias, burns, bites, and sinuses. The infections were polymicrobial in 79 (95%) patients, but in 4 (5%) patients, Veillonella species were recovered in pure culture. The predisposing conditions associated with the recovery of these organisms were previous surgery, malignancy, steroid therapy, foreign body, and immunodeficiency. These data illustrate that Veillonella spp. are found infrequently in children, mostly in association with mixed infections, and are recovered mixed with mouth and bowel flora. PMID:8727920

  20. Lymphangiosarcoma after filarial infection

    SciTech Connect

    Sordillo, E.M.; Sordillo, P.P.; Hajdu, S.I.; Good, R.A.

    1981-03-01

    A case of lymphangiosarcoma of a lower extremity is described in a patient with chronic lymphedema of that leg from a filarial infection in childhood. Histologically, the neoplasm resembled lymphangiosarcomas that arise in arms that become lymphedematous after mastectomies, but was different in that it also contained areas of calcification consistent with prior filarial infection. Calcifications were also present in muscle uninvolved by the lymphangiosarcoma of this case. The prolonged survival of this patient is unlike that of most patients with lymphangiosarcoma, which is generally shorter. Although lymphedema after filariasis is common, this is the first case of a lymphangiosarcoma arising in chronic lymphedema of filarial origin.

  1. Dipylidium caninum infection

    PubMed Central

    Cabello, Raúl Romero; Ruiz, Aurora Candil; Feregrino, Raul Romero; Romero, Leticia Calderón; Feregrino, Rodrigo Romero; Zavala, Jorge Tay

    2011-01-01

    Dipylidium caninum is a cestode that requires from the participation of an arthropod in its life cycle. This parasitosis occurs in dogs and cats, and occasionally in human beings. Human cases of D caninum infection have been reported in Europe, Philippines, China, Japan, Latin America and the United States; mostly children, one third of them being infants under 6 months old. The diagnosis of this disease is done by the parasitological study of the feces, observing the characteristics of the gravid proglottids. The treatment is performed by administering broad-spectrum anthelmintics. The authors report a case of a rare infection in a Mexican child. PMID:22674592

  2. Dipylidium caninum infection.

    PubMed

    Cabello, Raúl Romero; Ruiz, Aurora Candil; Feregrino, Raul Romero; Romero, Leticia Calderón; Feregrino, Rodrigo Romero; Zavala, Jorge Tay

    2011-11-15

    Dipylidium caninum is a cestode that requires from the participation of an arthropod in its life cycle. This parasitosis occurs in dogs and cats, and occasionally in human beings. Human cases of D caninum infection have been reported in Europe, Philippines, China, Japan, Latin America and the United States; mostly children, one third of them being infants under 6 months old. The diagnosis of this disease is done by the parasitological study of the feces, observing the characteristics of the gravid proglottids. The treatment is performed by administering broad-spectrum anthelmintics. The authors report a case of a rare infection in a Mexican child.

  3. Clostridium difficile Infection

    PubMed Central

    Heinlen, Latisha; Ballard, Jimmy D.

    2010-01-01

    Clostridium difficile is the leading cause of hospital-acquired diarrhea in Europe and North America and is a serious re-emerging pathogen. Recent outbreaks have led to increasing morbidity and mortality and have been associated with a new strain (BI/NAP1/027) of C. difficile that produces more toxin than historical strains. With the increasing incidence of C. difficile infection, clinicians have also seen a change in the epidemiology with increased infections in previously low-risk populations. This chapter highlights the current knowledge on C. difficile virulence, human disease, epidemic outbreaks, and optimal treatment strategies. PMID:20697257

  4. Pathogenesis of Acanthamoeba infections.

    PubMed

    Khan, Naveed Ahmed

    2003-06-01

    Acanthamoeba are free-living, harmless organisms, however, given the opportunity and the appropriate conditions, they can cause painful, sight-threatening as well as fatal infections and, thus, are considered opportunistic pathogens. Acanthamoeba infections have become increasingly important in the past few years due to increasing populations of contact lens users and AIDS patients. The mechanisms associated with the pathogenesis of Acanthamoeba tend to be highly complex, depending on parasite, host and the environmental factors. Elucidation of the biochemical, cellular and molecular basis of the pathogenesis of diseases caused by Acanthamoeba may lead to the development of therapeutic interventions.

  5. Vaginal infections update.

    PubMed

    Mashburn, Jane

    2012-01-01

    Vaginal symptoms are one of the leading reasons that women visit their health care providers. Women often self-diagnose and may treat themselves inappropriately. This article describes the etiology, risk factors, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of the 3 most common vaginal infections: bacterial vaginosis, trichomoniasis, and vulvovaginal candidiasis.

  6. Pediatric Urinary Tract Infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... can cause infection. www.spinabildaassociation.org • 1600 Wilson Blvd. Suite 800 Arlington, VA 22209 • 800-621-3141 ... of this literature. www.spinabildaassociation.org • 1600 Wilson Blvd. Suite 800 Arlington, VA 22209 • 800-621-3141

  7. Gastrointestinal Infections and Diarrhea

    MedlinePlus

    ... resistant to chlorine treatment. Bathing in and drinking water from contaminated streams or lakes can lead to an infection and ... you're traveling or camping, never drink from streams, springs, or lakes ... certified the water safe for drinking. In some developing countries, you ...

  8. Genital human papillomavirus infection.

    PubMed Central

    Lowy, D R; Kirnbauer, R; Schiller, J T

    1994-01-01

    Genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a common sexually transmitted disease that at the present time is not effectively controlled or treated. Many infections are inapparent and transient. However, some HPV infections result in persistent lesions that in some cases undergo carcinogenic progression. A subset of genital HPVs, designated high-risk types, are preferentially associated with high-grade dysplasias and carcinomas. About 90% of cervical cancers contain high-risk HPV DNA, most often HPV16. Development of a subunit vaccine against high-risk genital HPVs is a desirable and, it appears, an increasingly feasible long-term goal. The viral E6 and E7 oncoproteins are selectively maintained and expressed in progressed HPV tumors and could potentially be targets for therapeutic vaccines. The L1 major virion structural proteins have recently been shown to self-assemble into virus-like particles when expressed in insect cells. These particles might serve as the basis for a prophylactic vaccine to prevent genital HPV infection. Images PMID:8146136

  9. Human Influenza Virus Infections.

    PubMed

    Peteranderl, Christin; Herold, Susanne; Schmoldt, Carole

    2016-08-01

    Seasonal and pandemic influenza are the two faces of respiratory infections caused by influenza viruses in humans. As seasonal influenza occurs on an annual basis, the circulating virus strains are closely monitored and a yearly updated vaccination is provided, especially to identified risk populations. Nonetheless, influenza virus infection may result in pneumonia and acute respiratory failure, frequently complicated by bacterial coinfection. Pandemics are, in contrary, unexpected rare events related to the emergence of a reassorted human-pathogenic influenza A virus (IAV) strains that often causes increased morbidity and spreads extremely rapidly in the immunologically naive human population, with huge clinical and economic impact. Accordingly, particular efforts are made to advance our knowledge on the disease biology and pathology and recent studies have brought new insights into IAV adaptation mechanisms to the human host, as well as into the key players in disease pathogenesis on the host side. Current antiviral strategies are only efficient at the early stages of the disease and are challenged by the genomic instability of the virus, highlighting the need for novel antiviral therapies targeting the pulmonary host response to improve viral clearance, reduce the risk of bacterial coinfection, and prevent or attenuate acute lung injury. This review article summarizes our current knowledge on the molecular basis of influenza infection and disease progression, the key players in pathogenesis driving severe disease and progression to lung failure, as well as available and envisioned prevention and treatment strategies against influenza virus infection.

  10. Bacterial infections in cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Tsao, Guadalupe

    2004-06-01

    Hospitalized patients with cirrhosis are at increased risk of developing bacterial infections, the most common being spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) and urinary tract infections. Independent predictors of the development of bacterial infections in hospitalized cirrhotic patients are poor liver synthetic function and admission for gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Short term (seven-day) prophylaxis with norfloxacin reduces the rate of infections and improves survival and should therefore be administered to all patients with cirrhosis and variceal hemorrhage. Cirrhotic patients who develop abdominal pain, tenderness, fever, renal failure or hepatic encephalopathy should undergo diagnostic paracentesis, and those who meet the criterion for SBP (eg, an ascites neutrophil count greater than 250/mm3) should receive antibiotics, preferably a third-generation cephalosporin. In addition to antibiotic therapy, albumin infusions have been shown to reduce the risk of renal failure and mortality in patients with SBP, particularly in those with renal dysfunction and hyperbilirubinemia at the time of diagnosis. Patients who recover from an episode of SBP should be given long term prophylaxis with norfloxacin and should be assessed for liver transplantation.

  11. Biophysics of Biofilm Infection

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Philip S.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines a likely basis of the tenacity of biofilm infections that has received relatively little attention: the resistance of biofilms to mechanical clearance. One way that a biofilm infection persists is by withstanding the flow of fluid or other mechanical forces that work to wash or sweep microorganisms out of the body. The fundamental criterion for mechanical persistence is that the biofilm failure strength exceeds the external applied stress. Mechanical failure of the biofilm and release of planktonic microbial cells is also important in vivo because it can result in dissemination of infection. The fundamental criterion for detachment and dissemination is that the applied stress exceeds the biofilm failure strength. The apparent contradiction for a biofilm to both persist and disseminate is resolved by recognizing that biofilm material properties are inherently heterogeneous. There are also mechanical aspects to the ways that infectious biofilms evade leukocyte phagocytosis. The possibility of alternative therapies for treating biofilm infections that work by reducing biofilm cohesion could: 1) allow prevailing hydrodynamic shear to remove biofilm, 2) increase the efficacy of designed interventions for removing biofilms, 3) enable phagocytic engulfment of softened biofilm aggregates, and 4) improve phagocyte mobility and access to biofilm. PMID:24376149

  12. Fungal Burn Wound Infection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-01

    severely limits the may prove to be useful in burn patients. Clotrimazole , applied clinical utility of such a culture. Biopsy and frozen-section and as...useful in wound and permit prompt institution of appropriate the treatment of systemic fungal infections. Clotrimazole is treatment. poorly absorbed

  13. Nail Fungal Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are treatments usually effective?Are there any side effects of the treatment?If my treatment works, will my nail grow back normally?If I've had one fungal nail infection, am I likely to get another?What kinds of shoes should I wear?Should I wear gloves when ...

  14. Infections and Brain Development

    PubMed Central

    Cordeiro, Christina N.; Tsimis, Michael; Burd, Irina

    2016-01-01

    Several different bodies of evidence support a link between infection and altered brain development. Maternal infections, such as influenza and human immunodeficiency virus, have been linked to the development of autism spectrum disorders, differences in cognitive test scores, and bipolar disorder; an association that has been shown in both epidemiologic and retrospective studies. Several viral, bacterial, and parasitic illnesses are associated with alterations in fetal brain structural anomalies including brain calcifications and hydrocephalus. The process of infection can activate inflammatory pathways causing the release of various proinflammatory biomarkers and histological changes consistent with an infectious intrauterine environment (chorioamnionitis) or umbilical cord (funisitis). Elevations in inflammatory cytokines are correlated with cerebral palsy, schizophrenias, and autism. Animal studies indicate that the balance of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines is critical to the effect prenatal inflammation plays in neurodevelopment. Finally, chorioamnionitis is associated with cerebral palsy and other abnormal neurodevelopmental outcomes. In conclusion, a plethora of evidence supports, albeit with various degrees of certainty, the theory that maternal infection and inflammation that occur during critical periods of fetal development could theoretically alter brain structure and function in a time-sensitive manner. PMID:26490164

  15. Odontogenic Orofacial Infections.

    PubMed

    Bertossi, Dario; Barone, Antonio; Iurlaro, Antonio; Marconcini, Simone; De Santis, Daniele; Finotti, Marco; Procacci, Pasquale

    2017-01-01

    Acute dental abscess is a frequent and sometimes underestimated disease of the oral cavity. The acute dental abscess usually occurs secondary to caries, trauma, or failed endodontic treatment. After the intact pulp chamber is opened, colonization of the root canals takes place with a variable set of anaerobic bacteria, which colonize the walls of the necrotic root canals forming a specialized mixed anaerobic biofilm. Asymptomatic necrosis is common. However, abscess formation occurs when these bacteria and their toxic products breach into the periapical tissues through the apical foramen and induce acute inflammation and pus formation. The main signs and symptoms of the acute dental abscess (often referred to as a periapical abscess or infection) are pain, swelling, erythema, and suppuration usually localized to the affected tooth, even if the abscess can eventually spread causing a severe odontogenic infection which is characterized by local and systemic involvement culminating in sepsis syndrome. The vast majority of dental abscesses respond to antibiotic treatment, however, in some patients surgical management of the infection may be indicated. In the present work, a retrospective analysis of the patients with dental orofacial infections referred to the Unit of Dentistry and Maxillofacial Surgery of the University of Verona from 1991 to 2011 has been performed.

  16. Varicella zoster virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Gershon, Anne A.; Breuer, Judith; Cohen, Jeffrey I.; Cohrs, Randall J.; Gershon, Michael D.; Gilden, Don; Grose, Charles; Hambleton, Sophie; Kennedy, Peter G. E.; Oxman, Michael N.; Seward, Jane F.; Yamanishi, Koichi

    2017-01-01

    Infection with varicella zoster virus (VZV) causes varicella (chickenpox), which can be severe in immunocompromised individuals, infants and adults. Primary infection is followed by latency in ganglionic neurons. During this period, no virus particles are produced and no obvious neuronal damage occurs. Reactivation of the virus leads to virus replication, which causes zoster (shingles) in tissues innervated by the involved neurons, inflammation and cell death — a process that can lead to persistent radicular pain (postherpetic neuralgia). The pathogenesis of postherpetic neuralgia is unknown and it is difficult to treat. Furthermore, other zoster complications can develop, including myelitis, cranial nerve palsies, meningitis, stroke (vasculopathy), retinitis, and gastroenterological infections such as ulcers, pancreatitis and hepatitis. VZV is the only human herpesvirus for which highly effective vaccines are available. After varicella or vaccination, both wild-type and vaccine-type VZV establish latency, and long-term immunity to varicella develops. However, immunity does not protect against reactivation. Thus, two vaccines are used: one to prevent varicella and one to prevent zoster. In this Primer we discuss the pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of VZV infections, with an emphasis on the molecular events that regulate these diseases. For an illustrated summary of this Primer, visit: http://go.nature.com/14×VI1 PMID:27188665

  17. Helicobacter Pylori Infections

    MedlinePlus

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a type of bacteria that causes infection in the stomach. It is found in about two-thirds of ... or stool to see if it contains H. pylori. The best treatment is a combination of antibiotics ...

  18. Urinary Tract Infections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plummer, Nancy; Michael, Nancy, Ed.

    This module on urinary tract infections is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who administer medications in long-term care facilities. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions, and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are…

  19. [Urinary calculi and infection].

    PubMed

    Trinchieri, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Infection urinary stones resulting from urease-producing bacteria are composed by struvite and/or carbonate apatite. Bacterial urease splits urea and promotes the formation of ammonia and carbon dioxide leading to urine alkalinization and formation of phosphate salts. Proteus species are urease-producers, whereas a limited number of strains of other Gram negative and positive species may produce urease. Ureaplasma urealyticum and Corynebacterium urealyticum are urease-producers that are not isolated by conventional urine cultures, but require specific tests for identification. Primary treatment requires surgical removal of stones as complete as possible. Extracorporeal and endoscopic treatments are usually preferred, while open surgery is actually limited to few selected cases. Residual stones or fragments should be treated by chemolysis via ureteral catheter or nephrostomy or administration of citrate salts in order to achieve a stone-free renal unit. Postoperatively, recurrent urinary tract infection should be treated with appropriate antibiotic treatment although long-term antibiotic prophylaxis can cause resistance. Urinary acidification has been proposed for the prophylaxis of infection stones, but long-term acidification is difficult to achieve in urine infected by urease-producing bacteria. Urease inhibitors lead to prevention and/or dissolution of stones and encrustations in patients with infection by urea-splitting bacteria, but their use is limited by their toxicity. The administration of citrate salts involves an increase of the value of nucleation pH (pHn), that is the pH value at which calcium and magnesium phosphate crystallization occurs, in a greater way than the corresponding increase in the urinary pH due to its alkalinizing effect and resulting in a reduction of the risk of struvite crystallization. In conclusion prevention of the recurrence of infection stones can be achieved by an integrated approach tailored on the single patient. Complete

  20. The distribution of Mycobacterium bovis infection in naturally infected badgers.

    PubMed

    Corner, Leigh A L; O'Meara, D; Costello, E; Lesellier, S; Gormley, E

    2012-11-01

    Populations of Eurasian badgers (Meles meles) with tuberculosis (Mycobacterium bovis infection) are a significant reservoir of infection for cattle in Ireland and the United Kingdom. In this study the distribution of infection, histological lesions and gross lesions was determined in a sample of 132 culled badgers from naturally-infected wild populations. Badgers were culled when an epidemiological investigation following a tuberculosis breakdown in a cattle herd implicated badgers as the probable source of infection. The definition of tuberculosis infection was based on the isolation of M. bovis from tissues or clinical samples. An accurate diagnosis of infection was achieved by culturing a wide range of lymph nodes (LN) and organ tissues (mean 32.1) and clinical samples (faeces and urine) from each badger. Infection was detected in 57/132 badgers (43.2%). Histological lesions consistent with tuberculosis were seen in 39/57 (68.4%) culture-positive and 7/75 (9.3%) culture-negative animals. Gross lesions were seen in only 30/57 (52.6%) infected badgers, leaving a high proportion (47.4%) of infected animals with latent infection (no grossly visible lesions). The most frequently infected tissues were the lungs and axillary LN, followed by the deep cervical LN, parotid LN and tracheobronchial LN. The data support the hypotheses that in badgers there are only two significant routes of infection, namely, the lower respiratory tract and bite wounds, and that badgers are very susceptible to infection but resistant to the development and progression of the disease. At all levels of disease severity, infection was found in widely dispersed anatomical locations suggesting that there is early dissemination of infection in the period preceding the development of active immunity.

  1. Nosocomial Fungal Infections: Epidemiology, Infection Control, and Prevention.

    PubMed

    Suleyman, Geehan; Alangaden, George J

    2016-12-01

    Invasive fungal infections are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients and in the immunocompromised population. This article reviews the current epidemiology of nosocomial fungal infections in adult patients, with an emphasis on invasive candidiasis and aspergillosis. Recently published recommendations and guidelines for the control and prevention of these nosocomial fungal infections are summarized in this article.

  2. Allergic diseases and helminth infections

    PubMed Central

    Sitcharungsi, Raweerat; Sirivichayakul, Chukiat

    2013-01-01

    The relationships between allergic diseases and helminth infections are inconsistent. Some studies have suggested that helminth infections induce or increase the severity of atopic diseases. Other studies report that children infected with some helminths have lower prevalence and milder atopic symptoms. Expanding our knowledge on the mechanism of immunological modification as a result of helminth infection, and understanding the interaction between helminth infections and allergic diseases will be useful for developing potentially new treatments using some helminths, and for evaluating the risks and benefits of eradicating helminth infections in endemic areas. This article reviews current knowledge on the mechanisms of allergic disease, the immunological modifications that result from helminth infections, and clinical evidence of the effects of these infections on allergic diseases. PMID:23683364

  3. Bacterial infections complicating tongue piercing.

    PubMed

    Yu, Catherine Hy; Minnema, Brian J; Gold, Wayne L

    2010-01-01

    Tongue piercing has become an increasingly popular form of body art. However, this procedure can occasionally be complicated by serious bacterial infections. The present article reports a case of prosthetic valve endocarditis caused by a Gemella species in a patient with a pierced tongue, and reviews 18 additional cases of local and systemic bacterial infections associated with tongue piercing. Infections localized to the oral cavity and head and neck region included molar abscess, glossal abscess, glossitis, submandibular lymphadenitis, submandibular sialadenitis, Ludwig's angina and cephalic tetanus. Infections distal to the piercing site included eight cases of infective endocarditis, one case of chorioamnionitis and one case of cerebellar abscess. Oropharyngeal flora were isolated from all cases. While bacterial infections following tongue piercing are rare, there are reports of potentially life-threatening infections associated with the procedure. Both piercers and their clients should be aware of these potential complications, and standardized infection prevention and control practices should be adopted by piercers to reduce the risk.

  4. Salmonella typhi sternal wound infection.

    PubMed

    Sfeir, Maroun; Youssef, Pierre; Mokhbat, Jacques E

    2013-12-01

    Samonella typhi usually causes gastrointestinal infections. Few reports in the literature described skin and soft tissue infections related to Salmonella species, especially in immunocompetent patients. Our case exhibited sternal abscess growing Salmonella typhi.

  5. Fungal infection following renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Gallis, H A; Berman, R A; Cate, T R; Hamilton, J D; Gunnells, J C; Stickel, D L

    1975-09-01

    Twenty-seven deep fungal infections developed in 22 of 171 patients following renal transplantation. These infections included cryptococcosis (ten), nocardiosis (seven), candidiasis (four), aspergillosis (two), phycomycosis (two), chromomycosis (one), and subcutaneous infection with Phialophora gougeroti (one). Twelve infections occurred in living-related and ten in cadaveric recipients. Nineteen of the 22 patients were male. Infections occurred from 0 to 61 months after transplantation. Complicating non-fungal infections were present concomitantly in 15 patients. Thirteen patients died, eight probably as a result of fungal infection. Appropriate diagnostic procedures yielded a diagnosis in 20 of 27 infections, and therapy was begun in 18 patients. Serologic, culture, and biopsy procedures useful in making rapid diagnoses are advocated in the hope of increasing survival.

  6. Candida infection of the skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... hosts a variety of germs, including bacteria and fungi. Some of these are useful to the body, ... harmful infections. Some fungal infections are caused by fungi that live on the hair, nails, and outer ...

  7. Avoiding Infection After Ear Piercing

    MedlinePlus

    ... Text Size Email Print Share Avoiding Infection After Ear Piercing Page Content Article Body What is the best way to avoid infection after ear piercing? Ears may be pierced for cosmetic reasons ...

  8. SIV Infection Facilitates Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection of Rhesus Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Ming; Xian, Qiao-Yang; Rao, Yan; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Yong; Huang, Zhi-Xiang; Wang, Xin; Bao, Rong; Zhou, Li; Liu, Jin-Biao; Tang, Zhi-Jiao; Guo, De-yin; Qin, Chuan; Li, Jie-Liang; Ho, Wen-Zhe

    2017-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a common opportunistic infection and the leading cause of death for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. Thus, it is necessary to understand the pathogenetic interactions between M.tb and HIV infection. In this study, we examined M.tb and/or simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection of Chinese rhesus macaques. While there was little evidence that M.tb enhanced SIV infection of macaques, SIV could facilitate M.tb infection as demonstrated by X-rays, pathological and microbiological findings. Chest X-rays showed that co-infected animals had disseminated lesions in both left and right lungs, while M.tb mono-infected animals displayed the lesions only in right lungs. Necropsy of co-infected animals revealed a disseminated M.tb infection not only in the lungs but also in the extrapulmonary organs including spleen, pancreas, liver, kidney, and heart. The bacterial counts in the lungs, the bronchial lymph nodes, and the extrapulmonary organs of co-infected animals were significantly higher than those of M.tb mono-infected animals. The mechanistic studies demonstrated that two of three co-infected animals had lower levels of M.tb specific IFN-γ and IL-22 in PBMCs than M.tb mono-infected animals. These findings suggest that Chinese rhesus macaque is a suitable and alternative non-human primate model for SIV/M.tb coinfection studies. The impairment of the specific anti-TB immunity is likely to be a contributor of SIV-mediated enhancement M.tb infection. PMID:28133458

  9. Retroviral infections of small animals.

    PubMed

    Dunham, Stephen P; Graham, Elizabeth

    2008-07-01

    Retroviral infections are particularly important in cats, which are commonly infected with feline leukemia virus and feline immunodeficiency virus. This article describes the biology of these viruses and explores current issues regarding vaccination and diagnosis. The seeming lack of a recognized retrovirus infection in dogs is speculated on, and current and potential future therapies are discussed.

  10. [Poxvirus infection in a cat].

    PubMed

    Ballauf, B; Linckh, S; Lechner, J

    1989-01-01

    For the first time, a poxvirus infection was diagnosed as an etiologic agent of dermal disease in a living domestic cat in Germany. A literature survey, the clinical symptoms of the infection and the diagnostic procedures are described. Poxvirus infections should be considered as a differential diagnosis in feline dermatologic problems.

  11. Infection control and prevention considerations.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Titus L; Talbot, Thomas R

    2014-01-01

    Due to the nature of their underlying illness and treatment regimens, cancer patients are at increased risk of infection. Though the advent and widespread use of anti-infective agents has allowed for the application of ever-greater immune-suppressing therapies with successful treatment of infectious complications, prevention of infection remains the primary goal. The evolutionary changes of microorganisms, whereby resistance to anti-infective therapy is increasingly common, have facilitated a paradigm shift in the field of healthcare epidemiology. No longer is the focus on "control" of infection once established in a healthcare environment. Rather, the emphasis is on prevention of infection before it occurs. The most basic tenet of infection prevention, and the cornerstone of all well-designed infection prevention and control programs, is hand hygiene. The hands of healthcare workers provide a common potential source for transmission of infectious agents, and effective decontamination of the hands reduces the risk of transmission of infectious material to other patients. Once infection is suspected or established; however, implementation of effective control strategies is important to limit the spread of infection within a healthcare environment. This chapter outlines the basic tenets of infection prevention, principles of isolation precautions and control measures, and elements for a successful infection control and prevention program.

  12. Clinical correlation between HBV infection and concomitant bacterial infections.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Jin, Ronghua; Chen, Peng; Zhao, Guoxian; Li, Ning; Wu, Hao

    2015-12-04

    Bacterial infections are common in patients suffering viral hepatitis and critical for prognosis. However, any correlation between HBV and concomitant bacterial infections is not well characterized. A retrospective study was conducted from Jan 2012 to Jan 2014 on 1333 hospitalized patients infected with bacteria. Among them, 491 HBV-infected patients were co-infected with E. coli (268), S. aureus (61), P. aeruginosa (64) or K. pneumoniae (98). A group of 300 complication-free chronically HBV-infected patients were controls. We found that HBV DNA levels were elevated in patients with each of the bacterial infections (all P < 0.05). ALT and HBeAg were strong determinants of high HBV DNA concentration. Patterns of determinants varied in infections by Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Patients with HBV DNA ≥ 2000 IU/mL had higher rates of all four concomitant bacterial infections (all P < 0.001). All types of strains isolated from HBV-positive patients showed less resistance to tested antimicrobials. The HBV DNA serum concentrations were inversely correlated to the number of ineffective antimicrobials in E. coli, P. aeruginosa and K. pneumoniae infections (P = 0.022, 0.017 and 0.016, respectively), but not S. aureus (P = 0.194). In conclusion, bacterial infections are associated with a high level of HBV replication, which, in turn, has a significant positive impact on bacterial resistance to antimicrobials. These correlations vary between Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria.

  13. Superficial fungal infections.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Robert A

    Superficial fungal infections arise from a pathogen that is restricted to the stratum corneum, with little or no tissue reaction. In this Seminar, three types of infection will be covered: tinea versicolor, piedra, and tinea nigra. Tinea versicolor is common worldwide and is caused by Malassezia spp, which are human saprophytes that sometimes switch from yeast to pathogenic mycelial form. Malassezia furfur, Malassezia globosa, and Malassezia sympodialis are most closely linked to tinea versicolor. White and black piedra are both common in tropical regions of the world; white piedra is also endemic in temperate climates. Black piedra is caused by Piedraia hortae; white piedra is due to pathogenic species of the Trichosporon genus. Tinea nigra is also common in tropical areas and has been confused with melanoma.

  14. Varicella infection modeling.

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Katherine A.; Finley, Patrick D.; Moore, Thomas W.; Nozick, Linda Karen; Martin, Nathaniel; Bandlow, Alisa; Detry, Richard Joseph; Evans, Leland B.; Berger, Taylor Eugen

    2013-09-01

    Infectious diseases can spread rapidly through healthcare facilities, resulting in widespread illness among vulnerable patients. Computational models of disease spread are useful for evaluating mitigation strategies under different scenarios. This report describes two infectious disease models built for the US Department of Veteran Affairs (VA) motivated by a Varicella outbreak in a VA facility. The first model simulates disease spread within a notional contact network representing staff and patients. Several interventions, along with initial infection counts and intervention delay, were evaluated for effectiveness at preventing disease spread. The second model adds staff categories, location, scheduling, and variable contact rates to improve resolution. This model achieved more accurate infection counts and enabled a more rigorous evaluation of comparative effectiveness of interventions.

  15. [HIV infection and immigration].

    PubMed

    Monge, Susana; Pérez-Molina, José A

    2016-01-01

    Migrants represent around one third of patients newly diagnosed with HIV in Spain and they constitute a population with higher vulnerability to its negative consequences due to the socio-cultural, economical, working, administrative and legal contexts. Migrants are diagnosed later, which worsens their individual prognosis and facilitates the maintenance of the HIV epidemic. In spite of the different barriers they experience to access healthcare in general, and HIV-related services in particular, access to antiretroviral treatment has been similar to that of the autochthonous population. However, benefits of treatment have been not, with women in general and men from Sub-Saharan Africa exhibiting the worse response to treatment. We need to proactively promote earlier diagnosis of HIV infection, the adoption of preventive measures to avoid new infections, and to deliver accessible, adapted and high-quality health-care.

  16. Transfusion-transmitted infections

    PubMed Central

    Bihl, Florian; Castelli, Damiano; Marincola, Francesco; Dodd, Roger Y; Brander, Christian

    2007-01-01

    Although the risk of transfusion-transmitted infections today is lower than ever, the supply of safe blood products remains subject to contamination with known and yet to be identified human pathogens. Only continuous improvement and implementation of donor selection, sensitive screening tests and effective inactivation procedures can ensure the elimination, or at least reduction, of the risk of acquiring transfusion transmitted infections. In addition, ongoing education and up-to-date information regarding infectious agents that are potentially transmitted via blood components is necessary to promote the reporting of adverse events, an important component of transfusion transmitted disease surveillance. Thus, the collaboration of all parties involved in transfusion medicine, including national haemovigilance systems, is crucial for protecting a secure blood product supply from known and emerging blood-borne pathogens. PMID:17553144

  17. Intestinal parasitic infection.

    PubMed

    Park, Mi-Suk; Kim, Ki Whang; Ha, Hyun Kwon; Lee, Dong Ho

    2008-01-01

    In general, gastrointestinal tract is the primary involvement site of parasites during their life cycle. In this article, we will describe amebiasis, ascariasis, and anisakiasis among the many common intestinal parasitic diseases. We will review the epidemiology, life cycles, clinical manifestations and complications, and illustrate detailed imaging findings of intestinal parasites. Recognizing features of parasitic infection is important to establish an early diagnosis that leads to prompt treatment and helps avoid unnecessary surgery.

  18. Human microsporidial infections.

    PubMed Central

    Weber, R; Bryan, R T; Schwartz, D A; Owen, R L

    1994-01-01

    Microsporidia are obligate intracellular spore-forming protozoal parasites belonging to the phylum Microspora. Their host range is extensive, including most invertebrates and all classes of vertebrates. More than 100 microsporidial genera and almost 1,000 species have now been identified. Five genera (Enterocytozoon spp., Encephalitozoon spp., Septata spp., Pleistophora sp., and Nosema spp.) and unclassified microsporidia (referred to by the collective term Microsporidium) have been associated with human disease, which appears to manifest primarily in immunocompromised persons. The clinical manifestations of microsporidiosis are diverse and include intestinal, pulmonary, ocular, muscular, and renal disease. Among persons not infected with human immunodeficiency virus, ten cases of microsporidiosis have been documented. In human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients, on the other hand, over 400 cases of microsporidiosis have been identified, the majority attributed to Enterocytozoon bieneusi, an important cause of chronic diarrhea and wasting. Diagnosis of microsporidiosis currently depends on morphological demonstration of the organisms themselves. Initial detection of microsporidia by light microscopic examination of tissue sections and of more readily obtainable specimens such as stool, duodenal aspirates, urine, sputum, nasal discharge, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and conjunctival smears is now becoming routine practice. Definitive species identification is made by using the specific fluorescein-tagged antibody (immunofluorescence) technique or electron microscopy. Treatment options are limited, but symptomatic improvement of Enterocytozoon bieneusi infection may be achieved with the anthelmintic-antiprotozoal drug albendazole. Preliminary observations suggest that Septata intestinalis and Encephalitozoon infections may be cured with albendazole. Progress is being made with respect to in vitro propagation of microsporidia, which is crucial for developing

  19. Zika virus infection.

    PubMed

    Pougnet, Laurence; Thill, Chloé; Pougnet, Richard; Auvinet, Henri; Giacardi, Christophe; Drouillard, Isabelle

    2016-12-01

    A 21-year old woman from New-Caledonia had 40 ̊C fever with vomiting, arthralgia, myalgia, and measles-like rash. Etiological analyses showed primary infection with Zika virus. Because of severe clinical presentation, she was hospitalized in the intensive care unit of the Brest military Hospital. Zika virus is mainly transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. If they settle in Metropolitan France, Zika virus might also spread there.

  20. Carcinogenic human papillomavirus infection.

    PubMed

    Schiffman, Mark; Doorbar, John; Wentzensen, Nicolas; de Sanjosé, Silvia; Fakhry, Carole; Monk, Bradley J; Stanley, Margaret A; Franceschi, Silvia

    2016-12-01

    Infections with human papillomavirus (HPV) are common and transmitted by direct contact. Although the great majority of infections resolve within 2 years, 13 phylogenetically related, sexually transmitted HPV genotypes, notably HPV16, cause - if not controlled immunologically or by screening - virtually all cervical cancers worldwide, a large fraction of other anogenital cancers and an increasing proportion of oropharyngeal cancers. The carcinogenicity of these HPV types results primarily from the activity of the oncoproteins E6 and E7, which impair growth regulatory pathways. Persistent high-risk HPVs can transition from a productive (virion-producing) to an abortive or transforming infection, after which cancer can result after typically slow accumulation of host genetic mutations. However, which precancerous lesions progress and which do not is unclear; the majority of screening-detected precancers are treated, leading to overtreatment. The discovery of HPV as a carcinogen led to the development of effective preventive vaccines and sensitive HPV DNA and RNA tests. Together, vaccination programmes (the ultimate long-term preventive strategy) and screening using HPV tests could dramatically alter the landscape of HPV-related cancers. HPV testing will probably replace cytology-based cervical screening owing to greater reassurance when the test is negative. However, the effective implementation of HPV vaccination and screening globally remains a challenge.

  1. Vimentin in Bacterial Infections

    PubMed Central

    Mak, Tim N.; Brüggemann, Holger

    2016-01-01

    Despite well-studied bacterial strategies to target actin to subvert the host cell cytoskeleton, thus promoting bacterial survival, replication, and dissemination, relatively little is known about the bacterial interaction with other components of the host cell cytoskeleton, including intermediate filaments (IFs). IFs have not only roles in maintaining the structural integrity of the cell, but they are also involved in many cellular processes including cell adhesion, immune signaling, and autophagy, processes that are important in the context of bacterial infections. Here, we summarize the knowledge about the role of IFs in bacterial infections, focusing on the type III IF protein vimentin. Recent studies have revealed the involvement of vimentin in host cell defenses, acting as ligand for several pattern recognition receptors of the innate immune system. Two main aspects of bacteria-vimentin interactions are presented in this review: the role of vimentin in pathogen-binding on the cell surface and subsequent bacterial invasion and the interaction of cytosolic vimentin and intracellular pathogens with regards to innate immune signaling. Mechanistic insight is presented involving distinct bacterial virulence factors that target vimentin to subvert its function in order to change the host cell fate in the course of a bacterial infection. PMID:27096872

  2. Dimorphic fungal osteoarticular infections.

    PubMed

    Rammaert, B; Gamaletsou, M N; Zeller, V; Elie, C; Prinapori, R; Taj-Aldeen, S J; Roilides, E; Kontoyiannis, D P; Brause, B; Sipsas, N V; Walsh, T J; Lortholary, O

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this investigation was to review the clinical manifestations, management, and outcome of osteoarticular infections caused by dimorphic fungi. We exhaustively reviewed reports of bone and joint infections caused by dimorphic fungi published between 1970 and 2012. Underlying conditions, microbiological features, histological characteristics, clinical manifestations, antifungal therapy, and outcome were analyzed in 222 evaluable cases. Among 222 proven cases (median age 41 years [interquartile range (IQR) 26-57]), 73 % had no predisposing condition. Histopathology performed in 128 (57 %) cases and culture in 170 confirmed diagnosis in 63 % and 98 % of the cases, respectively. Diagnosis was obtained from an extra-osteoarticular site in 16 cases. The median diagnostic time was 175 days (IQR 60-365). Sporothrix schenckii was the most frequent pathogen (n = 84), followed by Coccidioides immitis (n = 47), Blastomyces dermatitidis (n = 44), Histoplasma capsulatum (n = 18), Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (n = 16), and Penicillium marneffei (n = 13). Arthritis occurred in 87 (58 %) cases and osteomyelitis in 64 (42 %), including 19 vertebral osteomyelitis. Dissemination was reported in 123 (55 %) cases. Systemic antifungal agents were used in 216 (97 %) patients and in combination with surgery in 129 (60 %). Following the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) guidelines, a successful initial medical strategy was observed in 97/116 (84 %) evaluable cases. The overall mortality was 6 %, and was highest for P. marneffei (38.5 %). This study demonstrates that dimorphic osteoarticular infections have distinctive clinical presentations, occur predominantly in apparently immunocompetent patients, develop often during disseminated disease, and may require surgical intervention.

  3. Infections on Cruise Ships.

    PubMed

    Kak, Vivek

    2015-08-01

    The modern cruise ship is a small city on the seas, with populations as large as 5,000 seen on large ships. The growth of the cruise ship industry has continued in the twenty-first century, and it was estimated that nearly 21.3 million passengers traveled on cruise ships in 2013, with the majority of these sailing from North America. The presence of large numbers of individuals in close proximity to each other facilitates transmission of infectious diseases, often through person-to-person spread or via contaminated food or water. An infectious agent introduced into the environment of a cruise ship has the potential to be distributed widely across the ship and to cause significant morbidity. The median cruise ship passenger is over 45 years old and often has chronic medical problems, so it is important that, to have a safe cruise ship experience, any potential for the introduction of an infecting agent as well as its transmission be minimized. The majority of cruise ship infections involve respiratory and gastrointestinal infections. This article discusses infectious outbreaks on cruise ships and suggests preventative measures for passengers who plan to travel on cruise ships.

  4. Pet-Related Infections.

    PubMed

    Day, Michael J

    2016-11-15

    Physicians and veterinarians have many opportunities to partner in promoting the well-being of people and their pets, especially by addressing zoonotic diseases that may be transmitted between a pet and a human family member. Common cutaneous pet-acquired zoonoses are dermatophytosis (ringworm) and sarcoptic mange (scabies), which are both readily treated. Toxoplasmosis can be acquired from exposure to cat feces, but appropriate hygienic measures can minimize the risk to pregnant women. Persons who work with animals are at increased risk of acquiring bartonellosis (e.g., cat-scratch disease); control of cat fleas is essential to minimize the risk of these infections. People and their pets share a range of tick-borne diseases, and exposure risk can be minimized with use of tick repellent, prompt tick removal, and appropriate tick control measures for pets. Pets such as reptiles, amphibians, and backyard poultry pose a risk of transmitting Salmonella species and are becoming more popular. Personal hygiene after interacting with these pets is crucial to prevent Salmonella infections. Leptospirosis is more often acquired from wildlife than infected dogs, but at-risk dogs can be protected with vaccination. The clinical history in the primary care office should routinely include questions about pets and occupational or other exposure to pet animals. Control and prevention of zoonoses are best achieved by enhancing communication between physicians and veterinarians to ensure patients know the risks of and how to prevent zoonoses in themselves, their pets, and other people.

  5. Saliva and viral infections.

    PubMed

    Corstjens, Paul L A M; Abrams, William R; Malamud, Daniel

    2016-02-01

    Over the last 10 years there have been only a handful of publications dealing with the oral virome, which is in contrast to the oral microbiome, an area that has seen considerable interest. Here, we survey viral infections in general and then focus on those viruses that are found in and/or are transmitted via the oral cavity; norovirus, rabies, human papillomavirus, Epstein-Barr virus, herpes simplex viruses, hepatitis C virus, and HIV. Increasingly, viral infections have been diagnosed using an oral sample (e.g. saliva mucosal transudate or an oral swab) instead of blood or urine. The results of two studies using a rapid and semi-quantitative lateral flow assay format demonstrating the correlation of HIV anti-IgG/sIgA detection with saliva and serum samples are presented. When immediate detection of infection is important, point-of-care devices that obtain a non-invasive sample from the oral cavity can be used to provide a first line diagnosis to assist in determining appropriate counselling and therapeutic path for an increasing number of diseases.

  6. [West Nile virus infection].

    PubMed

    Pérez Ruiz, Mercedes; Gámez, Sara Sanbonmatsu; Clavero, Miguel Angel Jiménez

    2011-12-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is an arbovirus usually transmitted by mosquitoes. The main reservoirs are birds, although the virus may infect several vertebrate species, such as horses and humans. Up to 80% of human infections are asymptomatic. The most frequent clinical presentation is febrile illness, and neuroinvasive disease can occur in less than 1% of cases. Spain is considered a high-risk area for the emergence of WNV due to its climate and the passage of migratory birds from Africa (where the virus is endemic). These birds nest surrounding wetlands where populations of possible vectors for the virus are abundant. Diagnosis of human neurological infections can be made by detection of IgM in serum and/or cerebrospinal fluid samples, demonstration of a four-fold increase in IgG antibodies between acute-phase and convalescent-phase serum samples, or by detection of viral genome by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (especially useful in transplant recipients). Since WNV is a biosafety level 3 agent, techniques that involve cell culture are restricted to laboratories with this level of biosafety, such as reference laboratories. The National Program for the Surveillance of WNV Encephalitis allows the detection of virus circulation among birds and vectors in areas especially favorable for the virus, such as wetlands, and provides information for evaluation of the risk of disease in horses and humans.

  7. [Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections].

    PubMed

    Furuya, Ryusaburo; Tanaka, Masatoshi

    2009-01-01

    Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections are common bacterial sexually transmitted diseases. Men will usually experience lower urinary tract symptons attributed to urethritis, epididymitis, proctitis, or prostatitis, with associated mucopurulent urethral discharge. Many women are asymptomatic. But, occasionally, they have symptons of vaginal and pelvic discomfort of dysuria, and these infections can lead to pelvic inflammatory disease. Recentry, high prevalence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates resistant to antimicrobial agents is a serious problem in the treatment of gonorrhea. For example, in Fukuoka city, Japan, the proportion of the isolates resistant to ciprofloxacin (CPFX) were 73.4% in 2006 and it was still so high. The proportion of the isolates resistant to tetracycline (TC) was 38.5% in 2006 and that of isolates resistant to penicillin G (PCG) was 17.5%. Owing to this high prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae in Japan, the clinical efficacy rates of oral antimicrobial agents have become lower. So, as first-line therapy for gonococcal infections, only three parenteral regimens of single doses of ceftriaxone, cefodizime or spectinomycin are recommended by the Japanese Society for Sexually Transmitted Diseases. In the circumstances, we studied in vitro activity of combinations of oral agents such as, beta-lactam and azithromycin, fluoroquinolone and azithromycin, or beta-lactam and fluoroquinolone against Neisseria gonorrhoeae. The cefixime+azithromycin combination demonstrated greater synergy than other combinations.

  8. [Hantaviruses and hantavirus infections].

    PubMed

    Dekonenko, A E; Tkachenko, E A

    2004-01-01

    Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HVRS) has been for decades a topical problem for healthcare systems of many countries in the Eurasian continent. Viruses triggering HVRS alongside with other related viruses (but not pathogenic to man) were discovered in 70-80-ies and formed a new genus Hantavirus of the Bunyaviridae family. The study results of a severe outbreak of the respiratory disease with the mortality rate of 60% (South-West of the USA, 1933) showed that hantaviruses were also among the causative agents. Later, the disease was designated as hantavirus cardio-pulmonary syndrome. By now, it has been established that hantaviruses are wide spread with different rodents being their carriers. The discussed viruses cause, in rodents, a chronic asymptomatic infection and are transferred, later, to man by the aerogenic path through excretions of infected animals. Studies of hantaviruses have been restricted for a long time due to their high pathogenicity (protection equipment not below than the P-3 level is needed), because of a lack of a laboratory model of infected animals and because of a low growth in cell cultures. With the rapid development and application of molecular biological techniques of the recent years, substantial progress has been made in studies of hantaviruses. Different aspects of hantavirus ecology, molecular biology, morphology, pathogenesis and diagnostics are discussed in the offered survey.

  9. Paleomicrobiology of Bartonella infections.

    PubMed

    Fournier, Pierre-Edouard; Drancourt, Michel; Aboudharam, Gérard; Raoult, Didier

    2015-01-01

    Studying ancient infectious diseases is a challenge, as written contemporary descriptions, when available, are often imprecise and do not allow for accurate discrimination among the pathogens endemic at that time. Paleomicrobiology offers a unique access to the history of these infections by identifying precisely the causative agents. Body louse-transmitted infections are amongst the most epidemic diseases in history, especially in war and famine periods. Of these, Bartonella quintana was detected by suicide PCR in 4000-year-old human remains, thus representing the oldest evidence to date of an arthropod-transmitted infection to human beings. This species has also been detected in human specimens from the 11th to 15th, 18th and 19th centuries. In addition, Bartonella henselae, a cat- and flea-associated pathogen, was detected in cat specimens from the 13th to 18th centuries, therefore demonstrating an association of the bacterium and its reservoir for over 800 years. Therefore, pathogenic Bartonella species have been involved in several outbreaks in the past millennia and should systematically be investigated in human remains from suspected epidemics.

  10. Important Infections in Elderly Persons

    PubMed Central

    Yoshikawa, Thomas T.

    1981-01-01

    Elderly persons are prone to more frequent or greater morbidity and higher mortality from selected infectious diseases than the average population. Factors that may affect this increased predilection or poorer prognosis include environmental exposure, normal physiological changes of aging, coexistence of chronic diseases and alteration of host defense mechanisms. Infections to which the aged are particularly vulnerable are pneumonia, influenza, tuberculosis, urinary tract infection, Gram-negative bacteremia, intra-abdominal sepsis, soft tissue infection, infective endocarditis, bacterial meningitis, bacterial arthritis and herpes zoster infection. PMID:7039132

  11. The threat of emerging infections.

    PubMed

    1996-11-01

    A variety of newly discovered pathogens and new forms of older infectious agents threaten to reemerge. Typical symptoms of acute infection are fever, headache, malaise, vomiting, and diarrhea. Some of the better-known emerging viral infections include dengue, filoviruses (Ebola, Marburg), hantaviruses, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, HIV, influenza, lassa fever, measles, rift valley fever, rotavirus, and yellow fever. Emerging bacterial infections include cholera, Escherichia coli 0157:H7, legionnaires disease (Legionella), lyme disease, streptococcus infections (group A), tuberculosis, and typhoid. Emerging parasitic infections include cryptosporidium and other waterborne pathogens and malaria. The causes of many diseases are still shrouded in mystery; thus, treatments and cures for them are as yet unknown.

  12. Bacterial infection after liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang Il

    2014-05-28

    Infectious complications are major causes of morbidity and mortality after liver transplantation, despite recent advances in the transplant field. Bacteria, fungi, viruses and parasites can cause infection before and after transplantation. Among them, bacterial infections are predominant during the first two months post-transplantation and affect patient and graft survival. They might cause surgical site infections, including deep intra-abdominal infections, bacteremia, pneumonia, catheter-related infections and urinary tract infections. The risk factors for bacterial infections differ between the periods after transplant, and between centers. Recently, the emergence of multi-drug resistant bacteria is great concern in liver transplant (LT) patients. The instructive data about effects of infections with extended-spectrum beta lactamase producing bacteria, carbapenem-resistant gram-negative bacteria, and glycopeptide-resistant gram-positive bacteria were reported on a center-by-center basis. To prevent post-transplant bacterial infections, proper strategies need to be established based upon center-specific data and evidence from well-controlled studies. This article reviewed the recent epidemiological data, risk factors for each type of infections and important clinical issues in bacterial infection after LT.

  13. Bacterial infection after liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sang Il

    2014-01-01

    Infectious complications are major causes of morbidity and mortality after liver transplantation, despite recent advances in the transplant field. Bacteria, fungi, viruses and parasites can cause infection before and after transplantation. Among them, bacterial infections are predominant during the first two months post-transplantation and affect patient and graft survival. They might cause surgical site infections, including deep intra-abdominal infections, bacteremia, pneumonia, catheter-related infections and urinary tract infections. The risk factors for bacterial infections differ between the periods after transplant, and between centers. Recently, the emergence of multi-drug resistant bacteria is great concern in liver transplant (LT) patients. The instructive data about effects of infections with extended-spectrum beta lactamase producing bacteria, carbapenem-resistant gram-negative bacteria, and glycopeptide-resistant gram-positive bacteria were reported on a center-by-center basis. To prevent post-transplant bacterial infections, proper strategies need to be established based upon center-specific data and evidence from well-controlled studies. This article reviewed the recent epidemiological data, risk factors for each type of infections and important clinical issues in bacterial infection after LT. PMID:24876741

  14. Talaromyces (Penicillium) marneffei infection in non-HIV-infected patients

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Jasper FW; Lau, Susanna KP; Yuen, Kwok-Yung; Woo, Patrick CY

    2016-01-01

    Talaromyces (Penicillium) marneffei is an important pathogenic thermally dimorphic fungus causing systemic mycosis in Southeast Asia. The clinical significance of T. marneffei became evident when the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome epidemic arrived in Southeast Asia in 1988. Subsequently, a decline in the incidence of T. marneffei infection among HIV-infected patients was seen in regions with access to highly active antiretroviral therapy and other control measures for HIV. Since the 1990s, an increasing number of T. marneffei infections have been reported among non-HIV-infected patients with impaired cell-mediated immunity. Their comorbidities included primary adult-onset immunodeficiency due to anti-interferon-gamma autoantibodies and secondary immunosuppressive conditions including other autoimmune diseases, solid organ and hematopoietic stem cell transplantations, T-lymphocyte-depleting immunsuppressive drugs and novel anti-cancer targeted therapies such as anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies and kinase inhibitors. Moreover, improved immunological diagnostics identified more primary immunodeficiency syndromes associated with T. marneffei infection in children. The higher case-fatality rate of T. marneffei infection in non-HIV-infected than HIV-infected patients might be related to delayed diagnosis due to the lack of clinical suspicion. Correction of the underlying immune defects and early use of antifungals are important treatment strategies. Clinicians should be familiar with the changing epidemiology and clinical management of T. marneffei infection among non-HIV-infected patients. PMID:26956447

  15. Seasonal fluctuation and histopathology of Henneguya ghaffari (Myxozoa: Myxosporea) infection in the gills of the Nile perch, Lates niloticus, in the River Nile: a new locality record.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Baki, Abdel-Azeem S; Sakran, Thabet; Zayed, Eman; Al-Quraishy, Saleh

    2014-04-01

    Henneguya ghaffari Ali (Dis Aquat Org 38:225-230, 1999), which was originally described in Lake Wadi El-Rayan in the western desert of Egypt, has been discovered in the gills of the Nile perch, Lates niloticus, sourced from the River Nile at Beni-Suef governorate. The species identification was based on the spore morphometry. Of 180 Nile perch, 68 were found to be naturally infected with H. ghaffari (37.7%). A significant seasonal fluctuation in the prevalence was discerned, with the maximum rate occurring in the winter (68.8%) and the minimum rate in the summer (8.8%). The plasmodia of the parasite were evident as white rods, occupying almost a third of the gill filament and with mean dimensions of 0.7 × 0.2 mm. Histological investigations revealed that the present plasmodia were potentially compatible with the intrafilamental type. Infection with H. ghaffari initiated epithelial hyperplasia and curling and atrophy of the respiratory lamellae, which underpin its deleterious effect on the host by decreasing the functional respiratory surface of the gills. The present study concluded that infection with H. ghaffari originated in the River Nile before moving to the new ecosystem of Lake Wadi El-Rayan through drainage water.

  16. Retinitis due to opportunistic infections in Iranian HIV infected patients.

    PubMed

    Abdollahi, Ali; Mohraz, Minoo; Rasoulinejad, Mehrnaz; Shariati, Mona; Kheirandish, Parastou; Abdollahi, Maryam; Soori, Tahereh

    2013-01-01

    We tried to evaluate prevalence and characteristics of Iranian HIV infected patients with retinitis due to opportunistic infections. In this cross sectional study, we evaluated 106 HIV infected patients via indirect ophthalmoscopy and slit lamp examination by 90 lens to find retinitis cases. General information and results of ophthalmologic examination were analyzed. Prevalence of retinitis due to opportunistic infections was 6.6%: cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis 1.88%, toxoplasmosis retinochoroiditis 1.88% and tuberculosis chorioretinitis 2.83%. CD4 count was higher than 50 cell/µlit in both cases with CMV retinitis. Along with increasing survival in the HIV infected patients, the prevalence of complications such as ocular manifestation due to opportunistic infections are increasing and must be more considered.

  17. Cardiac Implantable Electronic Device Infection: From an Infection Prevention Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Sastry, Sangeeta; Rahman, Riaz; Yassin, Mohamed H.

    2015-01-01

    A cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) is indicated for patients with severely reduced ejection fraction or with life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias. Infection related to a CIED is one of the most feared complications of this life-saving device. The rate of CIED infection has been estimated to be between 2 and 25; though evidence shows that this rate continues to rise with increasing expenditure to the patient as well as healthcare systems. Multiple risk factors have been attributed to the increased rates of CIED infection and host comorbidities as well as procedure related risks. Infection prevention efforts are being developed as defined bundles in numerous hospitals around the country given the increased morbidity and mortality from CIED related infections. This paper aims at reviewing the various infection prevention measures employed at hospitals and also highlights the areas that have relatively less established evidence for efficacy. PMID:26550494

  18. Nosocomial fungal infections: candidemia.

    PubMed

    Verduyn Lunel, F M; Meis, J F; Voss, A

    1999-07-01

    Candida species are frequently encountered as part of the human commensal flora. Colonization mostly precedes candidemia and is an independent risk factor for the development of candidemia. Genotyping methods showed the similarity between colonizing and infecting strains, thus making endogenous origin likely, though exogenous sources like total parenteral nutrition also have been described. Health care workers (HCWs) play an important role in the transmission of yeasts. Candida species are frequently isolated from the hands of HCWs and can be transmitted from hands to patients. Granulocytopenia and damage of the mucosal lining resulting from intensive chemotherapy due to cancer, the increasing use of broad spectrum antibiotics, and the use of intravenous catheters are other important risk factors for the development of candidemia. Candidemia is associated with a high mortality and prolonged hospitalization. Therefore, and because of the high frequency of dissemination, all candidemias should be treated. Amphotericin B was considered the standard drug for the systemic treatment of candidemia. Fluconazole has been shown to be an effective and safe alternative in non-neutropenic patients. 5-Fluorocytosine has been used in combination with amphotericin B in the treatment of deep-seated infections. Liposomal formulations of amphotericin B and other new antifungal drugs currently are under investigation. C. albicans is the most frequently isolated Candida species, although the proportion of infections caused by non-C. albicans species is increasing. Also, there are reports of development of resistance to amphotericin B. C. lusitaniae is known for primary resistance and the development of resistance to amphotericin B. Development of resistance to fluconazole is mainly seen in AIDS patients with recurrent oropharyngeal candidiasis who receive longer courses of therapy.

  19. Urinary tract infections in adults.

    PubMed

    Orenstein, R; Wong, E S

    1999-03-01

    Urinary tract infections remain a significant cause of morbidity in all age groups. Recent studies have helped to better define the population groups at risk for these infections, as well as the most cost-effective management strategies. Initially, a urinary tract infection should be categorized as complicated or uncomplicated. Further categorization of the infection by clinical syndrome and by host (i.e., acute cystitis in young women, acute pyelonephritis, catheter-related infection, infection in men, asymptomatic bacteriuria in the elderly) helps the physician determine the appropriate diagnostic and management strategies. Uncomplicated urinary tract infections are caused by a predictable group of susceptible organisms. These infections can be empirically treated without the need for urine cultures. The most effective therapy for an uncomplicated infection is a three-day course of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Complicated infections are diagnosed by quantitative urine cultures and require a more prolonged course of therapy. Asymptomatic bacteriuria rarely requires treatment and is not associated with increased morbidity in elderly patients.

  20. Infections Caused by Scedosporium spp.

    PubMed Central

    Cortez, Karoll J.; Roilides, Emmanuel; Quiroz-Telles, Flavio; Meletiadis, Joseph; Antachopoulos, Charalampos; Knudsen, Tena; Buchanan, Wendy; Milanovich, Jeffrey; Sutton, Deanna A.; Fothergill, Annette; Rinaldi, Michael G.; Shea, Yvonne R.; Zaoutis, Theoklis; Kottilil, Shyam; Walsh, Thomas J.

    2008-01-01

    Scedosporium spp. are increasingly recognized as causes of resistant life-threatening infections in immunocompromised patients. Scedosporium spp. also cause a wide spectrum of conditions, including mycetoma, saprobic involvement and colonization of the airways, sinopulmonary infections, extrapulmonary localized infections, and disseminated infections. Invasive scedosporium infections are also associated with central nervous infection following near-drowning accidents. The most common sites of infection are the lungs, sinuses, bones, joints, eyes, and brain. Scedosporium apiospermum and Scedosporium prolificans are the two principal medically important species of this genus. Pseudallescheria boydii, the teleomorph of S. apiospermum, is recognized by the presence of cleistothecia. Recent advances in molecular taxonomy have advanced the understanding of the genus Scedosporium and have demonstrated a wider range of species than heretofore recognized. Studies of the pathogenesis of and immune response to Scedosporium spp. underscore the importance of innate host defenses in protection against these organisms. Microbiological diagnosis of Scedosporium spp. currently depends upon culture and morphological characterization. Molecular tools for clinical microbiological detection of Scedosporium spp. are currently investigational. Infections caused by S. apiospermum and P. boydii in patients and animals may respond to antifungal triazoles. By comparison, infections caused by S. prolificans seldom respond to medical therapy alone. Surgery and reversal of immunosuppression may be the only effective therapeutic options for infections caused by S. prolificans. PMID:18202441

  1. Immunology of Pediatric HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Tobin, Nicole H.; Aldrovandi, Grace M.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Most infants born to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected women escape HIV infection. Infants evade infection despite an immature immune system and, in the case of breastfeeding, prolonged repetitive, exposure. If infants become infected, the course of their infection and response to treatment differs dramatically depending upon the timing (in utero, intrapartum, or during breastfeeding) and potentially the route of their infection. Perinatally acquired HIV infection occurs during a critical window of immune development. HIV’s perturbation of this dynamic process may account for the striking age-dependent differences in HIV disease progression. HIV infection also profoundly disrupts the maternal immune system upon which infants rely for protection and immune instruction. Therefore, it is not surprising that infants who escape HIV infection still suffer adverse effects. In this review, we highlight the unique aspects of pediatric HIV transmission and pathogenesis with a focus on mechanisms by which HIV infection during immune ontogeny may allow discovery of key elements for protection and control from HIV. PMID:23772619

  2. Lincomycin and Staphylococcal Infections

    PubMed Central

    Grondin, Carrol; St-Martin, M.; Potvin, Andre

    1965-01-01

    Lincomycin, a chemically new antibiotic effective against Gram-positive organisms, was evaluated in vitro and tested clinically. In vitro testing indicated that lincomycin is especially effective against Staphylococcus aureus. Clinical testing showed that lincomycin was free of toxicity in a series of 18 cases of staphylococcal infection. Of particular interest was its pronounced effectiveness in nine cases of chronic osteomyelitis, one of which was of 15 years' duration and unresponsive to all other forms of antibiotic and surgical treatment. The only side effect noted was loose stools in the occasional patient. PMID:14281088

  3. Giardia infection in cats.

    PubMed

    Janeczko, Stephanie; Griffin, Brenda

    2010-08-01

    The protozoon Giardia duodenalis is a common gastrointestinal parasite of cats. While most Giardia-infected cats are asymptomatic, acute small bowel diarrhea, occasionally with concomitant weight loss, may occur. Giardia poses a diagnostic challenge, but newer tests, including a commercially available ELISA kit, have improved clinicians' ability to obtain an accurate diagnosis. Several treatment options have been reported, and although none has been shown to be universally effective, most cases can be successfully managed with drug therapy, supportive measures, and environmental control. Current recommendations suggest that combination therapy with fenbendazole and metronidazole may be the safest, most effective treatment option for symptomatic cats.

  4. [Research on arbovirus infections].

    PubMed

    Drăgănescu, N

    1989-01-01

    The author presents the results of researches done at the "Stefan S. Nicolau" Institute of Virology in Bucharest on the infections induced by arboviruses. The characteristics of three tick encephalitis virus strains (two strains isolated from Ixodes ricinus and Ixodes persulcatus ticks and one from a patient with encephalitis symptoms) are given. Most of the report is devoted to the results of serological survey conducted in a human population, in several domestic birds and mammals from some districts of Romania, as well as in migratory birds from the Danube delta, with regards to the incidence of some Toga-, Bunya- and Reoviruses.

  5. Cryptosporidium infections: molecular advances.

    PubMed

    Lendner, Matthias; Daugschies, Arwid

    2014-09-01

    Cryptosporidium host cell interaction remains fairly obscure compared with other apicomplexans such as Plasmodium or Toxoplasma. The reason for this is probably the inability of this parasite to complete its life cycle in vitro and the lack of a system to genetically modify Cryptosporidium. However, there is a substantial set of data about the molecules involved in attachment and invasion and about the host cell pathways involved in actin arrangement that are altered by the parasite. Here we summarize the recent advances in research on host cell infection regarding the excystation process, attachment and invasion, survival in the cell, egress and the available data on omics.

  6. Autoimmunity in picornavirus infections

    PubMed Central

    Massilamany, Chandirasegaran; Koenig, Andreas; Reddy, Jay; Huber, Sally

    2015-01-01

    Enteroviruses are small, non-enveloped, positive-sense single-strand RNA viruses, and are ubiquitously found throughout the world. These viruses usually cause asymptomatic or mild febrile illnesses, but have a propensity to induce severe diseases including type 1 diabetes and pancreatitis, paralysis and neuroinflammatory disease, myocarditis, or hepatitis. This pathogenicity may result from induction of autoimmunity to organ-specific antigens. While enterovirus-triggered autoimmunity can arise from multiple mechanisms including antigenic mimicry and release of sequestered antigens, the recent demonstration of T cells expressing dual T cell receptors arising as a natural consequence of Theiler's virus infection is the first demonstration of this autoimmune mechanism. PMID:26554915

  7. Sternal wound infections.

    PubMed

    Mauermann, William J; Sampathkumar, Priya; Thompson, Rodney L

    2008-09-01

    Deep sternal wound infections (DSWI) continue to be a relatively uncommon event occurring in about 1%-2% of all patients undergoing cardiac surgery. However, the sheer number of cardiac surgery patients and the relatively high mortality associated with DSWIs makes them of clinical relevance. This review will describe the current incidence of DSWIs and their associated morbidity and mortality as well as risk factors for the development of this complication. The microbiology of DSWIs will be reviewed and strategies to prevent these complications will be discussed with a focus on interventions that may be undertaken by the clinical anesthesiologist.

  8. Burn Wound Infection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    wound invasion was identified only Nine of 97 patients (9%) with histologic burn wound after septic or cardiogenic shock had been present in invasion...051= ADA12589 Th JouRHAL oP TRAUMA Vol. 21, No. 9 Copyright 0 1981 by The Williams & Wilkins Co. ,r, Prin U.S.A. . Burn Wound Infection WILLIAM F...admitted to a burn center during a 3-year period C had histologically confirmed bacterial or tungal burn wound invasion. Nine of t X Q these 97

  9. Urinary tract infections.

    PubMed

    Litza, Janice A; Brill, John R

    2010-09-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common urologic disorder and one of the most common conditions for which physicians are consulted. Patients at increased risk for UTI include women; diabetics; the immunocompromised; and those with anatomic abnormalities, impaired mobility, incontinence, advanced age, and instrumentation. Antibiotic therapy aims to relieve symptoms and prevent complications such as pyelonephritis and renal scarring. Distinguishing asymptomatic bacteriuria from a UTI can be difficult, especially in those with comorbidities. Most experts do not recommend screening for UTI, except in the first trimester of pregnancy.

  10. Neonatal Haemophilus influenzae infections.

    PubMed Central

    Takala, A K; Pekkanen, E; Eskola, J

    1991-01-01

    Nine cases of neonatal Haemophilus influenzae septicaemia were recorded in Finland during 1985-9; incidence was 2.8/100,000 live births, and 1.6% of all cases of neonatal septicaemia. The onset of the disease was early in all cases, ranging from 0-6 hours after delivery. Seven of the infants were preterm and three died (overall mortality 33%). H influenzae was isolated from blood in seven of the cases, and in two neonates with clinical signs of septicaemia it was found on several surface sites and the placenta. One of the eight strains of H influenzae was capsular type b and biotype I, the rest being non-typable--a distribution similar to those previously reported. Four of the uncapsulated strains were of biotype III, and three were of biotype II. None of the strains of H influenzae was of biotype IV, which has been reported to be characteristic of neonatal and genital isolates of H influenzae. All nine mothers had some sign of infection at the time of or shortly after delivery. H influenzae was isolated from five mothers: from the blood (n = 1) or from the placenta or cervix (n = 4). The use of intrauterine devices may be a possible risk factor for neonatal H influenzae infections; two of the mothers had such devices in place during their pregnancies. PMID:2025040

  11. Enterovirus D68 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Esposito, Susanna; Bosis, Samantha; Niesters, Hubert; Principi, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    First described in 1962 in children hospitalized for pneumonia and bronchiolitis, the Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) is an emergent viral pathogen. Since its discovery, during the long period of surveillance up to 2005, EV-D68 was reported only as a cause of sporadic outbreaks. In recent years, many reports from different countries have described an increasing number of patients with respiratory diseases due to EV-D68 associated with relevant clinical severity. In particular, an unexpectedly high number of children have been hospitalized for severe respiratory disease due to EV-D68, requiring intensive care such as intubation and mechanical ventilation. Moreover, EV-D68 has been associated with acute flaccid paralysis and cranial nerve dysfunction in children, which has caused concerns in the community. As no specific antiviral therapy is available, treatment is mainly supportive. Moreover, because no vaccines are available, conventional infection control measures (i.e., standard, for contacts and droplets) in both community and healthcare settings are recommended. However, further studies are required to fully understand the real importance of this virus. Prompt diagnosis and continued surveillance of EV-D68 infections are essential to managing and preventing new outbreaks. Moreover, if the association between EV-D68 and severe diseases will be confirmed, the development of adequate preventive and therapeutic approaches are a priority. PMID:26610548

  12. Infection in conflict wounded

    PubMed Central

    Eardley, W. G. P.; Brown, K. V.; Bonner, T. J.; Green, A. D.; Clasper, J. C.

    2011-01-01

    Although mechanisms of modern military wounding may be distinct from those of ancient conflicts, the infectious sequelae of ballistic trauma and the evolving microbial flora of war wounds remain a considerable burden on both the injured combatant and their deployed medical systems. Battlefield surgeons of ancient times favoured suppuration in war wounding and as such Galenic encouragement of pus formation would hinder progress in wound care for centuries. Napoleonic surgeons eventually abandoned this mantra, embracing radical surgical intervention, primarily by amputation, to prevent infection. Later, microscopy enabled identification of microorganisms and characterization of wound flora. Concurrent advances in sanitation and evacuation enabled improved outcomes and establishment of modern military medical systems. Advances in medical doctrine and technology afford those injured in current conflicts with increasing survivability through rapid evacuation, sophisticated resuscitation and timely surgical intervention. Infectious complications in those that do survive, however, are a major concern. Addressing antibiotic use, nosocomial transmission and infectious sequelae are a current clinical management and research priority and will remain so in an era characterized by a massive burden of combat extremity injury. This paper provides a review of infection in combat wounding from a historical setting through to the modern evidence base. PMID:21149356

  13. Viruses infecting marine molluscs.

    PubMed

    Arzul, Isabelle; Corbeil, Serge; Morga, Benjamin; Renault, Tristan

    2017-02-09

    Although a wide range of viruses have been reported in marine molluscs, most of these reports rely on ultrastructural examination and few of these viruses have been fully characterized. The lack of marine mollusc cell lines restricts virus isolation capacities and subsequent characterization works. Our current knowledge is mostly restricted to viruses affecting farmed species such as oysters Crassostrea gigas, abalone Haliotis diversicolor supertexta or the scallop Chlamys farreri. Molecular approaches which are needed to identify virus affiliation have been carried out for a small number of viruses, most of them belonging to the Herpesviridae and birnaviridae families. These last years, the use of New Generation Sequencing approach has allowed increasing the number of sequenced viral genomes and has improved our capacity to investigate the diversity of viruses infecting marine molluscs. This new information has in turn allowed designing more efficient diagnostic tools. Moreover, the development of experimental infection protocols has answered some questions regarding the pathogenesis of these viruses and their interactions with their hosts. Control and management of viral diseases in molluscs mostly involve active surveillance, implementation of effective bio security measures and development of breeding programs. However factors triggering pathogen development and the life cycle and status of the viruses outside their mollusc hosts still need further investigations.

  14. Urinary tract infections.

    PubMed

    Chenoweth, Carol E; Saint, Sanjay

    2011-03-01

    Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) account for approximately 40% of all health care-associated infections. Despite studies showing benefit of interventions for prevention of CAUTI, adoption of these practices has not occurred in many healthcare facilities in the United States. As urinary catheters account for the majority of healthcare-associated UTIs, the most important interventions are directed at avoiding placement of urinary catheters and promoting early removal when appropriate. Alternatives to indwelling catheters such as intermittent catheterization and condom catheters should be considered. If indwelling catheterization is appropriate, proper aseptic practices for catheter insertion and maintenance and use of a closed catheter collection system are essential for preventing CAUTI. The use of antimicrobial catheters also may be considered when the rates of CAUTI remain persistently high despite adherence to other evidence-based practices, or in patients deemed to be at high risk for CAUTI or its complications. Attention toward prevention of CAUTI will likely increase as Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services and other third-party payers no longer reimburse for hospital-acquired UTI.

  15. Parma wallaby herpesvirus infection.

    PubMed

    Acland, H M

    1981-07-01

    Three Parma wallabies (Macropus parma) were inoculated with a herpesvirus recovered from a captive Parma wallaby with fatal naturally-occurring disease. Two intravenously inoculated animals died after 5 days and one animal infected via the conjunctiva and nasal mucosa was killed when moribund at 7 days. An additional two wallabies held in contact with the others became infected; they were killed at 11 days, when one was severely affected and one was mildly affected. All had small vesicles and ulcers of the skin of the upper and lower lips, eyelids, anogenital area and adjacent genital mucosa. Small vesicles and ulcers and large ulcers, with adherent necrotic epithelium and inflammatory debris, were present on the mucosa of the upper lips and adjacent gums and the conjunctiva. Numerous large basophilic or eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies were observed in the epithelial cells of these vesicles and ulcers and of adjacent hair follicles and sebaceous glands. There was a mild to moderately severe rhinitis. Keratitis was present in two wallabies. Liver lesions were present in two animals but were unlike those seen in herpesviral hepatitis in other species.

  16. Immunization against Brucella infection*

    PubMed Central

    Elberg, Sanford S.; Faunce, W. K.

    1962-01-01

    Experiments have been carried out on monkeys, goats and guinea-pigs to define as closely as possible the degree of attenuation of the Rev I strain of B. melitensis. Earlier studies had conclusively demonstrated the effectiveness of the strain as an immunizing agent of the three animal species and had suggested that the degree of attenuation was such as to warrant limited study in humans. Results of such a limited study suggested more intensive measurement of the virulence of the strain in other stocks of animals as well as in individual animals rendered increasingly susceptible. A comparison of Rev I with B. abortus, strain 19-BA, and with a fully virulent strain of B. melitensis in guinea-pigs confirmed that the BA strain was more attenuated than Rev I. Cynomolgus monkeys were effectively immunized by Rev I and showed temporary signs of generalized infection. Human isolates of the Rev I strain were striking in the temporary infectivity possessed by rough colony types. PMID:13889789

  17. [Recurrent urinary tract infections].

    PubMed

    Pigrau-Serrallach, Carlos

    2005-12-01

    Recurrent urinary tract infections (RUTI) are a frequent clinical problem in sexually active young women, pregnant or postmenopausal women and in patients with underlying urological abnormalities. The present chapter reviews RUTI based on their classification: relapses, which usually occur early (< 1 month), are caused by the same microorganism and are associated with underlying urological abnormalities, and reinfections, which usually occur later and are caused by a new distinct microorganism (or by the same microorganism usually located in the rectum or uroepithelial cells). The pathogenesis of RUTI is reviewed and the risk factors associated with RUTI in premenopausal women (usually related to sexual activity), postmenopausal women (in whom estrogen deficiency has a significant effect on the vaginal Lactobacillus flora), and in pregnant women are discussed. Likewise, an extensive review of the distinct therapeutic strategies to prevent RUTI is provided: self-treatment of cystitis, continuous antibiotic prophylaxis, postcoital antibiotic prophylaxis, topical vaginal estrogens, Lactobacillus, cranberry juice, intravesical administration of non-virulent E. coli strains and vaccines, among others. Several diagnostic-therapeutic algorithms are included. These algorithms are based on the type of urinary infection (relapse-reinfection), on the type of patient (young, postmenopausal, or pregnant women) and on the number of episodes of RUTI.

  18. Fungal infections in immunocompromised travelers.

    PubMed

    Lortholary, Olivier; Charlier, Caroline; Lebeaux, David; Lecuit, Marc; Consigny, Paul Henri

    2013-03-01

    Immunocompromised patients represent an increasing group of travelers, for business, tourism, and visiting friends and relatives. Those with severe cellular immunodeficiency (advanced human immunodeficiency virus infection and transplant recipients) display the highest risk of fungal infections. International travel is less risky in most other types of immunodeficiency (except those with neutropenia). A systematic visit in a travel clinic for immunocompromised patients traveling to the tropics ensures that the specific risks of acquiring fungal infections (and others) are understood. When immunocompromised hosts return to their area of residence, a nonbacteriologically documented, potentially severe, febrile pneumonia, with or without dissemination signs (skin lesions, cytopenia) should alert for travel-acquired fungal infection, even years after return. Localized subcutaneous nodule may be also ascribed to fungal infection. Finally, infectious diseases physicians should be aware of major clinical patterns of travel-acquired fungal infection, as well as the fungi involved, and risk factors according to the geographical area visited.

  19. Listeria infections of the eye.

    PubMed

    Hof, Herbert

    2017-03-10

    The bacterium Listeria monocytogenes resides originally in the environment. Infections of the eye have been induced experimentally; for example, in rabbits and guinea pigs. Natural ocular infections occur in various animals; in most instances, they are induced exogenously; for example, by contaminated silage affecting primarily the conjunctiva, cornea, or the anterior chamber. Sporadic infections as well as outbreaks have been described. In humans, besides exogenous infections, endogenous infections also occur, inducing mainly endophthalmitis. Since an exact diagnosis of the causative agent is often delayed, specific therapy starts too late, so that the outcome is often poor. The antibiotics of primary choice would be ampicillin or a quinolone such as moxifloxacin or levofloxacin. The role of fosfomycin for therapy of ocular infections is discussed.

  20. Kingella kingae intervertebral disk infection.

    PubMed

    Amir, J; Shockelford, P G

    1991-05-01

    Disk inflammation in children is believed to result from infection, and Staphylococcus aureus is reported to be the organism most commonly isolated from cases of intervertebral disk infection. A case of disk inflammation caused by the unusual pathogen Kingella kingae is described. The antibiotic susceptibility of other K. kingae isolates and the clinical features of 11 other previously reported cases of disk infection caused by this microorganism are reviewed.

  1. Fungal infection of the colon

    PubMed Central

    Praneenararat, Surat

    2014-01-01

    Fungi are pathogens that commonly infect immunocompromised patients and can affect any organs of the body, including the colon. However, the literature provides limited details on colonic infections caused by fungi. This article is an intensive review of information available on the fungi that can cause colon infections. It uses a comparative style so that its conclusions may be accessible for clinical application. PMID:25364269

  2. Essentials of paediatric infection control

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Dorothy L

    2001-01-01

    Young children readily transmit and acquire nosocomial infections. Children are also vulnerable to endogenous infections as a result of the breakdown of their normal defences by disease, invasive procedures or therapy. The increasing acuity of illness in hospitalized children and therapeutic advances have resulted in a patient population that is increasingly at higher risk for nosocomial infections. Antibiotic resistance has emerged as a problem in some paediatric hospitals, usually in intensive care and oncology units. Infection rates are the highest in neonatal and paediatric intensive care units (where bloodstream infections are the most frequent), and are usually associated with intravascular devices. On general paediatric wards, respiratory and gastrointestinal infections predominate, reflecting the occurrence in the community. The surveillance of nosocomial infections identifies priorities for infection control activities and permits evaluation of interventions. The prevention of transmission between patients and to personnel requires that certain measures be taken with all patients, and that additional precautions be taken with some infections, based on the route of transmission. The prevention of transmission from personnel involves ensuring that personnel are appropriately immunized and counselled about working with infections. The prevention of nosocomial infection also involves control of visitors, appropriate management of invasive procedures and devices, sterilization and disinfection of equipment, provision of a clean environment and adequate staffing. Severely immunocompromised children require extra protection, including ventilation systems that reduce the risk of exposure to filamentous fungi. Infection control in paediatrics is an evolving field that must adapt to changes in the paediatric patient population and in health care technology. PMID:20084127

  3. Radionuclide Imaging of Cardiovascular Infection.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Fozia Zahir; James, Jackie; Memmott, Matthew J; Arumugam, Parthiban

    2016-02-01

    Owing to expanding clinical indications, cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs) are being increasingly used. Despite improved surgical techniques and the use of prophylactic antimicrobial therapy, the rate of CIED-related infection is also increasing. Infection is a potentially serious complication, with clinical manifestations ranging from surgical site infection and local symptoms in the region of the generator pocket to fulminant endocarditis. The utility of radionuclide imaging as a stand-alone noninvasive diagnostic imaging test in patients with suspected endocarditis has been less frequently examined. This article summarizes the recent advances in radionuclide imaging for evaluation of patients with suspected cardiovascular infections.

  4. Bartonella infections and HIV disease.

    PubMed

    Lindauer, A

    1996-01-01

    Successful assessment and treatment of Bartonella in HIV-seropositive people depends on nursing's fundamental role in the management of these bacterial infections. Bartonella species are responsible for a variety of infections, including cat scratch disease and bacillary angiomatosis, which can be debilitating to people living with AIDS. This paper provides an overview of the clinical presentation and nursing management of Bartonella infection in PLWAs. The author discusses common diagnostic procedures, treatment strategies, and the nurse's role in caring for patients with a Bartonella infection.

  5. Pneumococcal Disease: Types of Infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Programs Related Pages Global Pneumococcal Vaccination World Health Organization National Foundation for Infectious Diseases Sepsis Types of Infection Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ...

  6. Glomerulopathy Associated with Parasitic Infections

    PubMed Central

    van Velthuysen, M.-L. F.; Florquin, S.

    2000-01-01

    Although parasitic infections do not usually present with disturbance in renal function, glomerular lesions can be seen in most of these infections. The glomerular lesions observed in parasitic infections cover the whole range of glomerular lesions known, but most of them are proliferative. Little is known of the exact pathogenic mechanisms. In this review, we try to explain the glomerular lesions associated with parasitic infections in terms of the specific immunologic events observed during these diseases against the background of recent developments in the general knowledge of the pathogenesis of glomerular disease. PMID:10627491

  7. [Catheter-related infections: microbiology].

    PubMed

    Timsit, J F

    2005-03-01

    Coagulase negative staphylococci, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas sp. are the most frequent microorganisms responsible for catheter-related infections. A relative frequency of microorganisms varies according to the countries, microenvironment and outbreaks of multiresistant bacterias. Infections due to fungi, S. aureus and Pseudomonas sp. are associated with the more severe complications. Recent data suggest that chlorhexidine, either used for cutaneous antisepsis or for catheter impregnation decreases infections due to gram positive cocci. Ecological data should be taken into account when deciding a probabilistic treatment in case of suspicion of catheter-related infection.

  8. Dermatologic manifestations of infective endocarditis*

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Rafael Tomaz; Tiberto, Larissa Rezende; Bello, Viviane Nardin Monte; Lima, Margarete Aparecida Jacometo; Nai, Gisele Alborghetti; de Abreu, Marilda Aparecida Milanez Morgado

    2016-01-01

    Despite advances in diagnosis and treatment, infective endocarditis still shows considerable morbidity and mortality rates. The dermatological examination in patients with suspected infective endocarditis may prove very useful, as it might reveal suggestive abnormalities of this disease, such as Osler’s nodes and Janeway lesions. Osler’s nodes are painful, purple nodular lesions, usually found on the tips of fingers and toes. Janeway lesions, in turn, are painless erythematous macules that usually affect palms and soles. We report a case of infective endocarditis and highlight the importance of skin examination as a very important element in the presumptive diagnosis of infective endocarditis. PMID:28300907

  9. [Infections of the oral mucosa].

    PubMed

    Reibel, Jesper; Kragelund, Camilla

    2010-11-01

    The most common infections of the oral mucosa are those caused by Candida albicans and herpes simplex virus (HSV). Candidosis occurs as pseudomembraneous, erythematous and hyperplastic types with varying symptoms from no to a burning sensation. Treatment most importantly includes elimination of any predisposing factors such as smoking, sub-optimal denture hygiene and hyposalivation. A primary HSV infection results in a life-long latent infection recurring in some infected persons either intraorally or on the lip. If treatment is indicated, topical or systemic aciclovir and related drugs can be used.

  10. Cutaneous (non-HIV) infections.

    PubMed

    Callahan, E F; Adal, K A; Tomecki, K J

    2000-07-01

    Cutaneous infections continue to represent a large proportion of inpatient dermatology. Though most infectious skin diseases do not warrant hospitalization, some do and can rapidly become fatal if not treated promptly. A selected group of infections are reviewed--primary cutaneous infections, exotoxin-mediated syndromes, and systemic infections--that warrant hospitalization. Dermatologists play a critical role in the synthesis of patient history and appreciation of morphologic skin disease, which, when coupled with appropriate lab tests, may help to establish a diagnosis allowing for the timely implementation of effective and targeted therapy.

  11. [Zika virus infection during pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Picone, O; Vauloup-Fellous, C; D'Ortenzio, E; Huissoud, C; Carles, G; Benachi, A; Faye, A; Luton, D; Paty, M-C; Ayoubi, J-M; Yazdanpanah, Y; Mandelbrot, L; Matheron, S

    2016-05-01

    A Zika virus epidemic is currently ongoing in the Americas. This virus is linked to congenital infections with potential severe neurodevelopmental dysfunction. However, incidence of fetal infection and whether this virus is responsible of other fetal complications are still unknown. National and international public health authorities recommend caution and several prevention measures. Declaration of Zika virus infection is now mandatory in France. Given the available knowledge on Zika virus, we suggest here a review of the current recommendations for management of pregnancy in case of suspicious or infection by Zika virus in a pregnant woman.

  12. Odontogenic infections. Complications. Systemic manifestations.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Yolanda; Bagán, José Vicente; Murillo, Judith; Poveda, Rafael

    2004-01-01

    The term, odontogenic infection refers to an infection that originates in the tooth proper or in the tissues that closely surround it; said infection then progresses along the periodontia down to the apex, involving periapical bone and from this area, it then spreads through the bone and periosteum towards near-by or more distant structures. The relevance of this type of infection lies in that it can cause infections that compromise more distant structures (via direct spread and distant spread), for example, intracraneal, retropharyngeal and pulmonary pleural infections. Dissemination by means of the bloodstream can lead to rheumatic problems and deposits on the valves of the heart (endocarditis), etc. The conditions or factors that influence the spread of infection are dependent on the balance between patient-related conditions and microorganism-related conditions. The virulence of the affecting germs is dependent upon their quality and quantity and is one of the microbiological conditions that influences the infection. It is this virulence that promotes infectious invasion and the deleterious effects the microbe will have on the host. Patient-related conditions include certain systemic factors that determine host resistance, which may be impaired in situations such as immunodeficiency syndrome or in brittle diabetes, as well as local factors that will also exert their impact on the spread of the infection.

  13. Neonatal herpes simplex virus infections.

    PubMed

    Pinninti, Swetha G; Kimberlin, David W

    2013-04-01

    Neonatal herpes simplex virus infections are uncommon, but because of the morbidity and mortality associated with the infection they are often considered in the differential diagnosis of ill neonates. The use of polymerase chain reaction for diagnosis of central nervous system infections and the development of safe and effective antiviral therapy has revolutionized the diagnosis and management of these infants. Initiation of long-term antiviral suppressive therapy in these infants has led to significant improvement in morbidity. This article summarizes the epidemiology of neonatal herpes simplex virus infections and discusses clinical presentation, diagnosis, management, and follow up of infants with neonatal herpes disease.

  14. Complicated Urinary Tract Infections: What's a Lab To Do?

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The article by Price et al. in this issue (T. K. Price et al., J Clin Microbiol 54:1216–1222, 2016, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JCM.00044-16) advocates for the use of a larger inoculum when culturing urine obtained by “in-and-out” catheterization in a selected female population. Their findings and the resulting challenges will afford clinical microbiologists and specialty physicians an opportunity to review what will or should be done with the additional microbiological culture data. PMID:26962089

  15. [Nocosomial urinary tract infections].

    PubMed

    Pigrau, Carlos

    2013-11-01

    Nosocomial urinary tract infections (UTI) are mainly related to urinary catheterisation. In this paper we review the pathogenic mechanisms, particularly the route by which the microorganisms colonise the urinary tract, their adhesion ability, and their capacity to form biofilms, and are related not only to the microorganism but also to the type of urinary catheter. The aetiology of catheter related UTI is variable, and multiresistant microorganisms are often isolated, making empirical antibiotic therapy complex. Clinical findings are frequently atypical, and its diagnosis is difficult. The therapeutic management of catheter-related UTI should be stratified according to the type of UTI: asymptomatic bacteriuria should not be habitually treated, but patients with septic shock should receive a broad spectrum antibiotic. In this review, the value of the different preventive measures are discussed.

  16. Epigenetics and bacterial infections.

    PubMed

    Bierne, Hélène; Hamon, Mélanie; Cossart, Pascale

    2012-12-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms regulate expression of the genome to generate various cell types during development or orchestrate cellular responses to external stimuli. Recent studies highlight that bacteria can affect the chromatin structure and transcriptional program of host cells by influencing diverse epigenetic factors (i.e., histone modifications, DNA methylation, chromatin-associated complexes, noncoding RNAs, and RNA splicing factors). In this article, we first review the molecular bases of the epigenetic language and then describe the current state of research regarding how bacteria can alter epigenetic marks and machineries. Bacterial-induced epigenetic deregulations may affect host cell function either to promote host defense or to allow pathogen persistence. Thus, pathogenic bacteria can be considered as potential epimutagens able to reshape the epigenome. Their effects might generate specific, long-lasting imprints on host cells, leading to a memory of infection that influences immunity and might be at the origin of unexplained diseases.

  17. "SAPHO syndrome and infections".

    PubMed

    Govoni, Marcello; Colina, Matteo; Massara, Alfonso; Trotta, Francesco

    2009-01-01

    The syndrome of synovitis, acne, pustulosis, hyperostosis, osteitis (SAPHO) encompasses a broad spectrum of cutaneous manifestations associated with osteitic and hyperostotic lesions, which typically may involve the anterior chest wall (ACW). The aetiopathogenetic mechanisms as well as the nosographic framing of the disease are still not fully defined although an important role has been suggested for Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes). This germ might be able to stimulate both the innate and the T-cell-mediated immune system. The elicited immunological response could be an attempt to eliminate the germ thus inducing the perpetuation of the inflammation. Whether the osteo-articular changes seen in SAPHO could be attributable directly to the infection or to an inflammatory reaction induced by pathogenic material remains a debated issue. The current concept of SAPHO syndrome as a reactive infectious osteitis in genetic predisposed subjects seems appealing, but it has not been yet demonstrated.

  18. Morbillivirus Infections: An Introduction

    PubMed Central

    de Vries, Rory D.; Duprex, W. Paul; de Swart, Rik L.

    2015-01-01

    Research on morbillivirus infections has led to exciting developments in recent years. Global measles vaccination coverage has increased, resulting in a significant reduction in measles mortality. In 2011 rinderpest virus was declared globally eradicated – only the second virus to be eradicated by targeted vaccination. Identification of new cellular receptors and implementation of recombinant viruses expressing fluorescent proteins in a range of model systems have provided fundamental new insights into the pathogenesis of morbilliviruses, and their interactions with the host immune system. Nevertheless, both new and well-studied morbilliviruses are associated with significant disease in wildlife and domestic animals. This illustrates the need for robust surveillance and a strategic focus on barriers that restrict cross-species transmission. Recent and ongoing measles outbreaks also demonstrate that maintenance of high vaccination coverage for these highly infectious agents is critical. This introduction briefly summarizes the most important current research topics in this field. PMID:25685949

  19. [Vasculitis and viral infection].

    PubMed

    Martínez Aguilar, N E; Guido Bayardo, R; Vargas Camaño, M E; Compañ González, D; Miranda Feria, A J

    1997-01-01

    Viruses have been implicated in vasculitis. To determine activity of viral infection associated with vasculitis. 17 patients with vasculitis had been in immunological and antiviral antibodies evaluation. Twenty five healthy controls sex and age matched with hematic biometry (BH) and AA. All subjects were negative to HIV and HBV. Viral activity was demonstrated in eight patients; vascular purpura (5), Takayasu disease (1), polyarteritis nodosa (1), erythema nodosum (1). None subject of control group had IgM activity. Antibodies response of IgG in patients were of lesser intensity than in control group. 14 abnormalities in BH were found in patients and 4 in control group. Immune response in patients, measured by lymphocyte subpopulations and circulating immune complexes was abnormal. In conclusion 47% showed viral activity, but the dominant feature was abnormal immune response in 82%.

  20. Autoimmunity in trypanosome infections

    PubMed Central

    MacKenzie, A. R.; Boreham, P. F. L.

    1974-01-01

    Ten rabbits infected with Trypanosoma (Trypanozoon) brucei showed a substantial increase in a natural anti-tissue autoantibody and Wassermann antibody. Absorptions suggest that the liver and Wassermann antibodies are distinct. The liver antibody reacts equally well with homologous and autologous liver. Absorption with trypanosomes and liver show that cross-reacting trypanosomal antibodies are not responsible for the liver activity. These antibodies will contribute to the raised IgM levels of rabbit trypanosomiasis and may be important in this respect but the precise extent of the contribution is not known. It is suggested that a depression of certain T-cell functions may release antibody secreting B-cell descendants from T-cell control resulting in elevated IgM. PMID:4211823

  1. Bacteriophages infecting Propionibacterium acnes.

    PubMed

    Brüggemann, Holger; Lood, Rolf

    2013-01-01

    Viruses specifically infecting bacteria, or bacteriophages, are the most common biological entity in the biosphere. As such, they greatly influence bacteria, both in terms of enhancing their virulence and in terms of killing them. Since the first identification of bacteriophages in the beginning of the 20th century, researchers have been fascinated by these microorganisms and their ability to eradicate bacteria. In this review, we will cover the history of the Propionibacterium acnes bacteriophage research and point out how bacteriophage research has been an important part of the research on P. acnes itself. We will further discuss recent findings from phage genome sequencing and the identification of phage sequence signatures in clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs). Finally, the potential to use P. acnes bacteriophages as a therapeutic strategy to combat P. acnes-associated diseases will be discussed.

  2. Streptococcus suis infection

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Youjun; Zhang, Huimin; Wu, Zuowei; Wang, Shihua; Cao, Min; Hu, Dan; Wang, Changjun

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus suis (S. suis) is a family of pathogenic gram-positive bacterial strains that represents a primary health problem in the swine industry worldwide. S. suis is also an emerging zoonotic pathogen that causes severe human infections clinically featuring with varied diseases/syndromes (such as meningitis, septicemia, and arthritis). Over the past few decades, continued efforts have made significant progress toward better understanding this zoonotic infectious entity, contributing in part to the elucidation of the molecular mechanism underlying its high pathogenicity. This review is aimed at presenting an updated overview of this pathogen from the perspective of molecular epidemiology, clinical diagnosis and typing, virulence mechanism, and protective antigens contributing to its zoonosis. PMID:24667807

  3. Managing urinary tract infections.

    PubMed

    Saadeh, Sermin A; Mattoo, Tej K

    2011-11-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) are common in childhood. Presence of pyuria and bacteriuria in an appropriately collected urine sample are diagnostic of UTI. The risk of UTI is increased with an underlying urological abnormality such as vesicoureteral reflux, constipation, and voiding dysfunction. Patients with acute pyelonephritis are at risk of renal scarring and subsequent complications such as hypertension, proteinuria with and without FSGS, pregnancy-related complications and even end-stage renal failure. The relevance and the sequence of the renal imaging following initial UTI, and the role of antimicrobial prophylaxis and surgical intervention are currently undergoing an intense debate. Prompt treatment of UTI and appropriate follow-up of those at increased risk of recurrence and/or renal scarring are important.

  4. Gastrointestinal infections in children.

    PubMed

    Mönkemüller, K E; Wilcox, C M

    2001-01-01

    Gastrointestinal infections in children are a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Children living in developing countries are particularly susceptible to infectious diarrhea because of poor standards of hygiene and sanitation. Although the magnitude of diarrheal illnesses in developed countries is less, costly hospital admissions are still frequent. The causal agent of infectious diarrhea is most frequently related to age, geographical location, lifestyle habits, use of antibiotics, associated medical conditions, social circumstances, and degree of immune competence. In this article we present some of the most important articles published in the field during the last year. The role of Helicobacter pylori in the pathogenesis of gastritis and peptic ulcer disease has been shown in adults and children. Information about the natural history of H. pylori, symptomatology, and diagnostic therapeutic approaches for children are being generated constantly; we discuss some of the most relevant information in this review.

  5. Candida Infective Endocarditis

    PubMed Central

    Baddley, John W.; Benjamin, Daniel K.; Patel, Mukesh; Miró, José; Athan, Eugene; Barsic, Bruno; Bouza, Emilio; Clara, Liliana; Elliott, Tom; Kanafani, Zeina; Klein, John; Lerakis, Stamatios; Levine, Donald; Spelman, Denis; Rubinstein, Ethan; Tornos, Pilar; Morris, Arthur J.; Pappas, Paul; Fowler, Vance G.; Chu, Vivian H.; Cabell, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Candida infective endocarditis (IE) is uncommon but often fatal. Most epidemiologic data are derived from small case series or case reports. This study was conducted to explore epidemiology, treatment patterns, and outcomes of patients with Candida IE. Methods We compared 33 Candida IE cases to 2716 patients with non-fungal IE in the International Collaboration on Endocarditis - Prospective Cohort Study. Patients were enrolled and data collected from June 2000 until August 2005. Results Patients with Candida IE were more likely to have prosthetic valves (p<0.001), short term indwelling catheters (p<0.0001), and have healthcare-associated infection (p<0.001). Reasons for surgery differed between the two groups: myocardial abscess (46.7% vs. 22.2% p=0.026) and persistent positive blood cultures (33.3% vs. 9.9%, p=0.003) were more common among those with Candida IE. Mortality at discharge was higher in patients with Candida IE (30.3%) when compared to non-fungal cases (17%, p=0.046). Among Candida patients, mortality was similar in patients who received combination surgical and antifungal therapy versus antifungal therapy alone (33.3% vs. 27.8%, p=0.26). New antifungal drugs, particularly echinocandins, were used frequently. Conclusions These multi-center data suggest distinct epidemiologic features of Candida IE when compared to non-fungal cases. Indications for surgical intervention are different and mortality is increased. Newer antifungal treatment options are increasingly used. Large, multi-center studies are needed to help better define Candida IE. PMID:18283504

  6. Candida infective endocarditis.

    PubMed

    Baddley, J W; Benjamin, D K; Patel, M; Miró, J; Athan, E; Barsic, B; Bouza, E; Clara, L; Elliott, T; Kanafani, Z; Klein, J; Lerakis, S; Levine, D; Spelman, D; Rubinstein, E; Tornos, P; Morris, A J; Pappas, P; Fowler, V G; Chu, V H; Cabell, C

    2008-07-01

    Candida infective endocarditis (IE) is uncommon but often fatal. Most epidemiologic data are derived from small case series or case reports. This study was conducted to explore the epidemiology, treatment patterns, and outcomes of patients with Candida IE. We compared 33 Candida IE cases to 2,716 patients with non-fungal IE in the International Collaboration on Endocarditis-Prospective Cohort Study (ICE-PCS). Patients were enrolled and the data collected from June 2000 until August 2005. We noted that patients with Candida IE were more likely to have prosthetic valves (p < 0.001), short-term indwelling catheters (p < 0.0001), and have healthcare-associated infections (p < 0.001). The reasons for surgery differed between the two groups: myocardial abscess (46.7% vs. 22.2%, p = 0.026) and persistent positive blood cultures (33.3% vs. 9.9%, p = 0.003) were more common among those with Candida IE. Mortality at discharge was higher in patients with Candida IE (30.3%) when compared to non-fungal cases (17%, p = 0.046). Among Candida patients, mortality was similar in patients who received combination surgical and antifungal therapy versus antifungal therapy alone (33.3% vs. 27.8%, p = 0.26). New antifungal drugs, particularly echinocandins, were used frequently. These multi-center data suggest distinct epidemiologic features of Candida IE when compared to non-fungal cases. Indications for surgical intervention are different and mortality is increased. Newer antifungal treatment options are increasingly used. Large, multi-center studies are needed to help better define Candida IE.

  7. [Urinary tract infections in adults].

    PubMed

    Ali, Adel Ben; Bagnis, Corinne Isnard

    2014-09-01

    Urinary tract infections in adults are frequent and can induce several septic situations. Their economic cost (drugs, microbiologic samples, consultations and/or hospitalizations and stop working) and ecologic cost (second reasons of antibiotic prescription in winter and first in the rest of the year) are important. A better respect of recommendations can improve the outcome of this different infections and decrease their cost.

  8. [Urinary tract infections in adults].

    PubMed

    Emonet, Stéphane; Harbarth, Stephan; van Delden, Christian

    2011-04-27

    Urinary tract infections are commonly seen by general practitioners. Quinolones are frequently prescribed in this setting. The emergence of resistance to these antibiotics has led to new guidelines for the management of uncomplicated UTI, based on the use of fosfomycin and furadantine. This article reviews the epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnostic and treatment of urinary tract infections in adults.

  9. Neurologic infections in diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Jay, Cheryl A; Solbrig, Marylou V

    2014-01-01

    Even at a time when HIV/AIDS and immunosuppressive therapy have increased the number of individuals living with significant immunocompromise, diabetes mellitus (DM) remains a major comorbid disorder for several rare but potentially lethal infections, including rhino-orbital-cerebral mucormycosis and malignant external otitis. DM is also a commonly associated condition in patients with nontropical pyomyositis, pyogenic spinal infections, Listeria meningitis, and blastomycosis. As West Nile virus spread to and across North America over a decade ago, DM appeared in many series as a risk factor for death or neuroinvasive disease. More recently, in several large international population-based studies, DM was identified as a risk factor for herpes zoster. The relationships among infection, DM, and the nervous system are multidirectional. Viral infections have been implicated in the pathogenesis of type 1 and type 2 DM, while parasitic infections have been hypothesized to protect against autoimmune disorders, including type 1 DM. DM-related neurologic disease can predispose to systemic infection - polyneuropathy is the predominant risk factor for diabetic foot infection. Because prognosis for many neurologic infections depends on timely institution of antimicrobial and sometimes surgical therapy, neurologists caring for diabetic patients should be familiar with the clinical features of the neuroinfectious syndromes associated with DM.

  10. Extraintestinal Vibrio infections in Mauritius.

    PubMed

    Issack, Mohammad I; Appiah, Deoraz; Rassoul, Ameen; Unuth, Mahesswaree N; Unuth-Lutchun, Nehma

    2008-10-01

    Few extraintestinal Vibrio infections have been reported in the African region. We report 3 cases from Mauritius: one case of Vibrio alginolyticus otitis externa; one case of soft tissue infection caused by non-O1 Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio parahaemolyticus; and one fatal case of non-O1 V. cholerae cellulitis and septicaemia.

  11. HIV Infection: The Cellular Picture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Jonathan N.; Weiss, Robin A.

    1988-01-01

    Explains a key finding of the research which revealed that initial infection resulted from the binding of the human immunodeficiency virus to a molecule known as the CD4 antigen. Describes various assays used to determine the affect of antibodies on the ability of the virus to infect the cells. (RT)

  12. Catheter-related bloodstream infections

    PubMed Central

    Gahlot, Rupam; Nigam, Chaitanya; Kumar, Vikas; Yadav, Ghanshyam; Anupurba, Shampa

    2014-01-01

    Central-venous-catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSIs) are an important cause of hospital-acquired infection associated with morbidity, mortality, and cost. Consequences depend on associated organisms, underlying pre-morbid conditions, timeliness, and appropriateness of the treatment/interventions received. We have summarized risk factors, pathogenesis, etiology, diagnosis, and management of CRBSI in this review. PMID:25024944

  13. Epidemiology of infections in women.

    PubMed

    Risser, Jan M H; Risser, William L; Risser, Amanda L

    2008-12-01

    This article describes the epidemiologic profiles of sexually transmitted infections seen in US women. We present a brief description of the infectious agent, describe the epidemiology of the infection among women in terms of race/ethnicity and age (if those data are available), and present what is known about the behavioral risk factors associated with acquisition.

  14. Middle Ear Infections (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... en español Infecciones del oído medio After the common cold , ear infections are the most frequently diagnosed childhood ... winter season, when lots of people get upper respiratory tract infections or colds. Signs and Symptoms The signs and ...

  15. Infections and systemic lupus erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Skare, Thelma Larocca; Dagostini, Jéssica Scherer; Zanardi, Patricia Imai; Nisihara, Renato Mitsunori

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To determine the incidence of infections in a population of systemic lupus erythematosus individuals and the characteristics of infections regarding original site, as well as to study the possible associations between infections and treatment. Methods An analytical retrospective study using data from medical charts of systemic lupus erythematosus patients from a single university hospital. A total of 144 patients followed up for five years were included. Data collected comprised age of patients and age at onset of lupus, sex and ethnicity, disease duration before the study period, medications, cumulative dose of prednisone, occurrence of infections and their original site. Results The most frequent infections were urinary tract infections (correlated to use of prednisone − p<0.0001 and cyclophosphamide − p=0.045), upper airways infections (correlated to use of prednisone − p=0.0004, mycophenolate mofetil − p=0.0005, and cyclosporine − p=0.025), and pneumonia (associated to prednisone − p=0.017). Conclusion Prednisone was the drug more often associated with presence of infections, pointing to the need for a more judicious management of this drug. PMID:27074234

  16. Infections and the antiphospholipid syndrome.

    PubMed

    García-Carrasco, Mario; Galarza-Maldonado, Claudio; Mendoza-Pinto, Claudia; Escarcega, Ricardo O; Cervera, Ricard

    2009-06-01

    Currently, the origin of autoimmune diseases is considered to be multifactorial. Genetic predisposition, immune system malfunction or even backfire, hormonal regulation, and environmental factors, i.e. infections, all play important roles in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases such as the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). New drugs and strategies aimed at preventing infections could further improve the outcome of APS and other autoimmune diseases.

  17. Serious fungal infections in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Jabeen, K; Farooqi, J; Mirza, S; Denning, D; Zafar, A

    2017-02-04

    The true burden of fungal infection in Pakistan is unknown. High-risk populations for fungal infections [tuberculosis (TB), diabetes, chronic respiratory diseases, asthma, cancer, transplant and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection] are numerous. Here, we estimate the burden of fungal infections to highlight their public health significance. Whole and at-risk population estimates were obtained from the WHO (TB), BREATHE study (COPD), UNAIDS (HIV), GLOBOCAN (cancer) and Heartfile (diabetes). Published data from Pakistan reporting fungal infections rates in general and specific populations were reviewed and used when applicable. Estimates were made for the whole population or specific populations at risk, as previously described in the LIFE methodology. Of the 184,500,000 people in Pakistan, an estimated 3,280,549 (1.78%) are affected by a serious fungal infection, omitting all cutaneous infection, oral candidiasis and allergic fungal sinusitis, which we could not estimate. Compared with other countries, the rates of candidaemia (21/100,000) and mucormycosis (14/100,000) are estimated to be very high, and are based on data from India. Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis rates are estimated to be high (39/100,000) because of the high TB burden. Invasive aspergillosis was estimated to be around 5.9/100,000. Fungal keratitis is also problematic in Pakistan, with an estimated rate of 44/100,000. Pakistan probably has a high rate of certain life- or sight-threatening fungal infections.

  18. [Diabetic foot infections: microbiological aspects].

    PubMed

    Noviello, Silvana; Esposito, Isabella; Pascale, Renato; Esposito, Silvano; Zeppa, Pio

    2012-01-01

    The diagnosis of wound infection is based on clinical signs and local and/or systemic inflammation. Therefore, the examination has a major role in the diagnosis of infected lesions of the foot. Once the clinical diagnosis of infection is made, the next step is to determine the etiology with the aim to undertake a rational and appropriate treatment. The most reliable method for assessing microbiological etiology is the specimen of material from infected lesion to perform a bacterioscopic examination and culture. The microorganisms involved in the etiology of diabetic foot depends on the type of injury and on specific patient features (antibiotic therapy, previous hospitalization). The most frequently detected pathogen is Staphylococcus aureus. Mild infections are mostly caused by Gram positive cocci, with a prevalence of S. aureus. Moderate infections are mostly supported by pyogenic Gram positive cocci, but also Gram-negative bacteria can be involved. In severe infections the etiology is polymicrobial. As regards the involvement of fungi in diabetic foot infections data are few and mostly conflicting.

  19. Ear Infections and Language Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Joanne E.; Zeisel, Susan A.

    Ear infections in infants and preschoolers can cause mild or moderate temporary hearing loss, which may in turn affect a child's ability to understand and learn language. Noting that providing children with proper medical treatment for ear infections or middle ear fluid is important in preventing possible problems with language development, this…

  20. Hemodialysis Tunneled Catheter-Related Infections

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Lisa M.; Clark, Edward; Dipchand, Christine; Hiremath, Swapnil; Kappel, Joanne; Kiaii, Mercedeh; Lok, Charmaine; Luscombe, Rick; Moist, Louise; Oliver, Matthew; MacRae, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Catheter-related bloodstream infections, exit-site infections, and tunnel infections are common complications related to hemodialysis central venous catheter use. The various definitions of catheter-related infections are reviewed, and various preventive strategies are discussed. Treatment options, for both empiric and definitive infections, including antibiotic locks and systemic antibiotics, are reviewed. PMID:28270921

  1. Approach to urinary tract infections

    PubMed Central

    Najar, M. S.; Saldanha, C. L.; Banday, K. A.

    2009-01-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common infection experienced by humans after respiratory and gastro-intestinal infections, and also the most common cause of both community-acquired and nosocomial infections for patients admitted to hospitals. For better management and prognosis, it is mandatory to know the possible site of infection, whether the infection is uncomplicated or complicated, re-infection or relapse, or treatment failure and its pathogenesis and risk factors. Asymptomatic bacteriuria is common in certain age groups and has different connotations. It needs to be treated and completely cured in pregnant women and preschool children. Reflux nephropathy in children could result in chronic kidney disease; otherwise, urinary tract infections do not play a major role in the pathogenesis of end-stage renal disease. Symptomatic urinary tract infections occur most commonly in women of child-bearing age. Cystitis predominates, but needs to be distinguished from acute urethral syndrome that affects both sexes and has a different management plan than UTIs. The prostatitis symptoms are much more common than bacterial prostatic infections. The treatment needs to be prolonged in bacterial prostatitis and as cure rates are not very high and relapses are common, the classification of prostatitis needs to be understood. The consensus conference convened by National Institute of Health added two more groups of patients, namely, chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome and asymptomatic inflammatory prostatitis, in addition to acute and chronic bacterial prostatitis. Although white blood cells in urine signify inflammation, they do not always signify UTI. Quantitative cultures of urine provide definitive evidence of UTI. Imaging studies should be done 3-6 weeks after cure of acute infection to identify abnormalities predisposing to infection or renal damage or which may affect management. Treatment of cystitis in women should be a three-day course and if

  2. Approach to urinary tract infections.

    PubMed

    Najar, M S; Saldanha, C L; Banday, K A

    2009-10-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common infection experienced by humans after respiratory and gastro-intestinal infections, and also the most common cause of both community-acquired and nosocomial infections for patients admitted to hospitals. For better management and prognosis, it is mandatory to know the possible site of infection, whether the infection is uncomplicated or complicated, re-infection or relapse, or treatment failure and its pathogenesis and risk factors. Asymptomatic bacteriuria is common in certain age groups and has different connotations. It needs to be treated and completely cured in pregnant women and preschool children. Reflux nephropathy in children could result in chronic kidney disease; otherwise, urinary tract infections do not play a major role in the pathogenesis of end-stage renal disease. Symptomatic urinary tract infections occur most commonly in women of child-bearing age. Cystitis predominates, but needs to be distinguished from acute urethral syndrome that affects both sexes and has a different management plan than UTIs. The prostatitis symptoms are much more common than bacterial prostatic infections. The treatment needs to be prolonged in bacterial prostatitis and as cure rates are not very high and relapses are common, the classification of prostatitis needs to be understood. The consensus conference convened by National Institute of Health added two more groups of patients, namely, chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome and asymptomatic inflammatory prostatitis, in addition to acute and chronic bacterial prostatitis. Although white blood cells in urine signify inflammation, they do not always signify UTI. Quantitative cultures of urine provide definitive evidence of UTI. Imaging studies should be done 3-6 weeks after cure of acute infection to identify abnormalities predisposing to infection or renal damage or which may affect management. Treatment of cystitis in women should be a three-day course and if

  3. Fosfomycin i.v. for Treatment of Severely Infected Patients

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-02-28

    Bacterial Infections; Bone Diseases, Infectious; Osteomyelitis; Central Nervous System Bacterial Infections; Meningitis, Bacterial; Encephalitis; Brain Abscess; Urinary Tract Infections; Respiratory Tract Infections; Pneumonia, Bacterial; Skin Diseases, Bacterial; Soft Tissue Infections; Intraabdominal Infections; Sepsis; Bacteremia; Endocarditis, Bacterial

  4. Therapy of environmental mycobacterial infections.

    PubMed

    Fabroni, Caterina; Buggiani, Gionata; Lotti, Torello

    2008-01-01

    Environmental mycobacteria are the causative factors of an increasing number of infections worldwide. Cutaneous infections as a result of environmental mycobacteria are often misdiagnosed, and their treatment is difficult because these agents can show in vivo and in vitro multidrug resistance. The most common environmental mycobacteria that can cause cutaneous infections are Mycobacterium fortuitum and Mycobacterium marinum. All mycobacteria are characterized by low pathogenicity and they can contaminate affected or traumatized skin only in immunocompetent subjects (mainly in fishermen, swimming-pool attendants, and aquarium owners) whereas medical and esthetic procedures are at risk for the infections because of the quick-growing mycobacteria. Immunocompromised subjects can instead easily develop environmental mycobacterial infections of differing degrees of severity.

  5. Scintigraphic imaging in renal infections.

    PubMed

    Rossleigh, M A

    2009-02-01

    The scintigraphic imaging modality of choice in the evaluation of renal infections is renal cortical scintigraphy utilizing [(99m)Tc]dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA). This technique is able to demonstrate upper tract involvement with infection and to assess for the presence of renal cortical scarring following a urinary tract infection (UTI). There are recent publications advocating its use to determine which patients need to proceed to further investigation with cystography. It is also being utilized in the evaluation of different treatment regimes used in patients with UTI. Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET and leukocyte scanning have only a minor role in the diagnosis of renal infection. Their main application is in the diagnosis of renal cyst infections in patients with polycystic renal disease.

  6. Severe acute malnutrition and infection

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Kelsey D J; Berkley, James A

    2014-01-01

    Severe acute malnutrition (SAM) is associated with increased severity of common infectious diseases, and death amongst children with SAM is almost always as a result of infection. The diagnosis and management of infection are often different in malnourished versus well-nourished children. The objectives of this brief are to outline the evidence underpinning important practical questions relating to the management of infectious diseases in children with SAM and to highlight research gaps. Overall, the evidence base for many aspects covered in this brief is very poor. The brief addresses antimicrobials; antipyretics; tuberculosis; HIV; malaria; pneumonia; diarrhoea; sepsis; measles; urinary tract infection; nosocomial Infections; soil transmitted helminths; skin infections and pharmacology in the context of SAM. The brief is structured into sets of clinical questions, which we hope will maximise the relevance to contemporary practice. PMID:25475887

  7. Biofilms in periprosthetic orthopedic infections

    PubMed Central

    McConoughey, Stephen J; Howlin, Rob; Granger, Jeff F; Manring, Maurice M; Calhoun, Jason H; Shirtlif, Mark; Kathju, Sandeep; Stoodley, Paul

    2015-01-01

    As the number of total joint arthroplasty and internal fixation procedures continues to rise, the threat of infection following surgery has significant clinical implications. These infections may have highly morbid consequences to patients, who often endure additional surgeries and lengthy exposures to systemic antibiotics, neither of which are guaranteed to resolve the infection. Of particular concern is the threat of bacterial biofilm development, since biofilm-mediated infections are difficult to diagnose and effective treatments are lacking. Developing therapeutic strategies have targeted mechanisms of biofilm formation and the means by which these bacteria communicate with each other to take on specialized roles such as persister cells within the biofilm. In addition, prevention of infection through novel coatings for prostheses and the local delivery of high concentrations of antibiotics by absorbable carriers has shown promise in laboratory and animal studies. Biofilm development, especially in an arthoplasty environment, and future diagnostic and treatment options are discussed. PMID:25302955

  8. Severe acute malnutrition and infection.

    PubMed

    Jones, Kelsey D J; Berkley, James A

    2014-12-01

    Severe acute malnutrition (SAM) is associated with increased severity of common infectious diseases, and death amongst children with SAM is almost always as a result of infection. The diagnosis and management of infection are often different in malnourished versus well-nourished children. The objectives of this brief are to outline the evidence underpinning important practical questions relating to the management of infectious diseases in children with SAM and to highlight research gaps. Overall, the evidence base for many aspects covered in this brief is very poor. The brief addresses antimicrobials; antipyretics; tuberculosis; HIV; malaria; pneumonia; diarrhoea; sepsis; measles; urinary tract infection; nosocomial Infections; soil transmitted helminths; skin infections and pharmacology in the context of SAM. The brief is structured into sets of clinical questions, which we hope will maximise the relevance to contemporary practice.

  9. Infections After Orthotopic Liver Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Mark; Seetharam, Anil

    2014-01-01

    Opportunistic infections are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality after orthotopic liver transplantation. Systemic immunosuppression renders the liver recipient susceptible to de novo infection with bacteria, viruses and fungi post-transplantation as well to reactivation of pre-existing, latent disease. Pathogens are also transmissible via the donor organ. The time from transplantation and degree of immunosuppression may guide the differential diagnosis of potential infectious agents. However, typical systemic signs and symptoms of infection are often absent or blunted after transplant and a high index of suspicion is needed. Invasive procedures are often required to procure tissue for culture and guide antimicrobial therapy. Antimicrobial prophylaxis reduces the incidence of opportunistic infections and is routinely employed in the care of patients after liver transplant. In this review, we survey common bacterial, fungal, and viral infections after orthotopic liver transplantation and highlight recent developments in their diagnosis and management. PMID:25755581

  10. Testing for Occult Heartworm Infection

    PubMed Central

    Stogdale, L.

    1984-01-01

    Heartworm infection in dogs is endemic in southern Ontario but occurs only sporadically throughout the remainder of Canada. The disease may either be associated with microfilariae in the patient's blood, a patent infection, or it may be occult. This paper describes a case of occult dirofilariasis in a dog, with emphasis on the diagnosis. A patent infection could be missed if the clinician tests an insufficient amount of blood. He should perform multiple concentration tests using either the modified Knott's technique or a filtration method. Occult infections occur in prepatent or unisexual infections, when the worms become sterile following therapy, or when the host produces antibodies that result in the destruction of the microfilariae. The recent release of a kit which detects the presence of antibodies to the adult heartworms now enables veterinarians to make an accurate diagnosis in the vast majority of dogs. PMID:17422386

  11. [Infections due to Mycobacterium simiae].

    PubMed

    García-Martos, Pedro; García-Agudo, Lidia; González-Moya, Enrique; Galán, Fátima; Rodríguez-Iglesias, Manuel

    2015-10-01

    Mycobacterium simiae is a slow-growing photochromogenic environmental mycobacterium, first described in 1965. Rarely associated with human infections, possibly due to its limited pathogenicity, it mainly produces lung infection in immunocompetent elderly patients with underlying lung disease, and in disseminated infections in immunosuppressed young patients with AIDS. A microbiological culture is needed to confirm the clinical suspicion, and genetic sequencing techniques are essential to correctly identify the species. Treating M. simiae infections is complicated, owing to the multiple resistance to tuberculous drugs and the lack of correlation between in vitro susceptibility data and in vivo response. Proper treatment is yet to be defined, but must include clarithromycin combined with other antimicrobials such as moxifloxacin and cotrimoxazole. It is possible that M. simiae infections are undiagnosed.

  12. Microbial Infection and Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Song; Yu, Yangsheng; Yue, Yinshi; Zhang, Zhixin; Su, Kaihong

    2014-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a complex autoimmune disease affecting 1–2% of general worldwide population. The etiopathogenesis of RA involves the interplay of multiple genetic risk factors and environmental triggers. Microbial infections are believed to play an important role in the initiation and perpetuation of RA. Recent clinical studies have shown the association of microbial infections with RA. Accumulated studies using animal models have also found that microbial infections can induce and/or exaggerate the symptoms of experimental arthritis. In this review, we have identified the most common microbial infections associated with RA in the literature and summarized the current evidence supporting their pathogenic role in RA. We also discussed the potential mechanisms whereby infection may promote the development of RA, such as generation of neo-autoantigens, induction of loss of tolerance by molecular mimicry, and bystander activation of the immune system. PMID:25133066

  13. [Mold infections in lung transplants].

    PubMed

    Solé, Amparo; Ussetti, Piedad

    2014-01-01

    Invasive infections by molds, mainly Aspergillus infections, account for more than 10% of infectious complications in lung transplant recipients. These infections have a bimodal presentation: an early one, mainly invading bronchial airways, and a late one, mostly focused on lung or disseminated. The Aspergillus colonization at any time in the post-transplant period is one of the major risk factors. Late colonization, together with chronic rejection, is one of the main causes of late invasive forms. A galactomannan value of 0.5 in bronchoalveolar lavage is currently considered a predictive factor of pulmonary invasive infection. There is no universal strategy in terms of prophylaxis. Targeted prophylaxis and preemptive treatment instead of universal prophylaxis, are gaining more followers. The therapeutic drug monitoring level of azoles is highly recommended in the treatment. Monotherapy with voriconazole is the treatment of choice in invasive aspergillosis; combined antifungal therapies are only recommended in severe, disseminated, and other infections due to non-Aspergillus molds.

  14. Prevention of Periprosthetic Joint Infection

    PubMed Central

    Shahi, Alisina; Parvizi, Javad

    2015-01-01

    Prosthetic joint infection (PJI) is a calamitous complication with high morbidity and substantial cost. The reported incidence is low but it is probably underestimated due to the difficulty in diagnosis. PJI has challenged the orthopaedic community for several years and despite all the advances in this field, it is still a real concern with immense impact on patients, and the healthcare system. Eradication of infection can be very difficult. Therefore, prevention remains the ultimate goal. The medical community has executed many practices with the intention to prevent infection and treat it effectively when it encounters. Numerous factors can predispose patients to PJI. Identifying the host risk factors, patients’ health modification, proper wound care, and optimizing operative room environment remain some of the core fundamental steps that can help minimizing the overall incidence of infection. In this review we have summarized the effective prevention strategies along with the recommendations of a recent International Consensus Meeting on Surgical Site and Periprosthetic Joint Infection. PMID:26110171

  15. Kingella kingae infections in children.

    PubMed

    Lebel, Ehud; Rudensky, Bernard; Karasik, Michael; Itzchaki, Menachem; Schlesinger, Yechiel

    2006-07-01

    Kingella kingae is a beta-hemolytic gram-negative bacillus. It was first described in the 1960's by EO King and has been reported as a cause of osteo-articular pediatric infections since the early 1980's. We performed a retrospective review of all pediatric cases of invasive K. kingae infection between 1997 and 2002, in order to define the incidence, clinical presentation and outcome of invasive K. kingae infections in a pediatric population. During the study period, a total of 24 pediatric patients with K. kingae infection were identified. There were 15 blood culture isolates of K. kingae, out of a total of 1151 (1.3%) positive blood cultures, and 9 synovial fluid culture isolates out of a total of 76 (11.8%) positive synovial fluids. Fifteen patients had osteo-articular infections and 9 had primary bacteremia without osteo-articular infection. Outcome was favorable in all cases and only in 2 patients with knee joint infection was surgical intervention performed, by means of formal knee arthrotomy. All patients recovered uneventfully, in 7 cases without any intervention and in the others with intravenous or oral antibiotic. In conclusion, invasive K. kingae infection is not uncommon in Israel. It usually has a mild course and thus is not always detected and treated. As K. kingae grows best in blood culture broth, blood and joint fluid should always be inoculated into blood culture bottles in suspected cases. This bacterium is highly sensitive to betalactame antibiotics and infection resolves quickly with antibiotic treatment. Surgical intervention for osteo-articular infection is seldom indicated.

  16. Dengue Virus Infection Perturbs Lipid Homeostasis in Infected Mosquito Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Perera, Rushika M.; Riley, Catherine; Isaac, Georgis; Hopf- Jannasch, Amber; Moore, Ronald J.; Weitz, Karl K.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana; Metz, Thomas O.; Adamec, Jiri; Kuhn, Richard J.

    2012-03-22

    Dengue virus causes {approx}50-100 million infections per year and thus is considered one of the most aggressive arthropod-borne human pathogen worldwide. During its replication, dengue virus induces dramatic alterations in the intracellular membranes of infected cells. This phenomenon is observed both in human and vector-derived cells. Using high-resolution mass spectrometry of mosquito cells, we show that this membrane remodeling is directly linked to a unique lipid repertoire induced by dengue virus infection. Specifically, 15% of the metabolites detected were significantly different between DENV infected and uninfected cells while 85% of the metabolites detected were significantly different in isolated replication complex membranes. Furthermore, we demonstrate that intracellular lipid redistribution induced by the inhibition of fatty acid synthase, the rate-limiting enzyme in lipid biosynthesis, is sufficient for cell survival but is inhibitory to dengue virus replication. Lipids that have the capacity to destabilize and change the curvature of membranes as well as lipids that change the permeability of membranes are enriched in dengue virus infected cells. Several sphingolipids and other bioactive signaling molecules that are involved in controlling membrane fusion, fission, and trafficking as well as molecules that influence cytoskeletal reorganization are also up regulated during dengue infection. These observations shed light on the emerging role of lipids in shaping the membrane and protein environments during viral infections and suggest membrane-organizing principles that may influence virus-induced intracellular membrane architecture.

  17. Sexually transmitted infections, adverse pregnancy outcome and neonatal infection.

    PubMed

    Moodley, P; Sturm, A W

    2000-08-01

    Prevention and treatment of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in the sexually active population are the main steps to prevent perinatal infection. However, the spread of STIs continues at an astronomical pace despite various attempts at controlling the epidemic. An important reason for this lack of STI control is that a large percentage of infected people go untreated because they have asymptomatic or unrecognized infections. The microbial differential diagnosis of STIs implicated in adverse pregnancy outcome is broad and includes viral, bacterial and protozoal infections. Infertility, ectopic pregnancy, pelvic inflammatory disease, chorioamnionitis, premature rupture of membranes, preterm birth and puerperal sepsis are some of complications seen in women as a result of infection with sexually transmitted pathogens. In addition, STIs may facilitate the acquisition and transmission of HIV. In the fetus or neonate, complications include abnormalities of the major organ systems. Infections in the form of pneumonia or conjunctivitis may also occur. Due to the lack of simple, inexpensive and sensitive point-of-care tests, screening for STIs in pregnancy is not performed routinely.

  18. Pharmacotherapy of ectoparasitic infections.

    PubMed

    Roos, T C; Alam, M; Roos, S; Merk, H F; Bickers, D R

    2001-01-01

    Epizoonoses such as scabies, lice and cimicosis are common, vexing disorders that occur worldwide. Historically, many treatment modalities have been employed in the management of these disorders, and most of the drugs described in this review are of historical interest and no longer recommended or in widespread use because of their wide spectrum of adverse effects. More recently, reports documenting resistance against various antiectoparasite drugs, complicated and severe courses of the diseases, and adverse effects of drug therapy have prompted the development of new treatment strategies and drugs for optimal disease management. Because the strategies currently recommended for the treatment of ectoparasites differ worldwide, this review proposes a rational approach to selecting the best therapeutic agent by comparing the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, drug efficacy and adverse effects. A literature search of the currently Internet accessible libraries PubMed, Medline and Ideal library, of citations of articles found there, and from communications with the Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices, Germany, was conducted based on this approach. One major observation of this literature search is that permethrin is the treatment of choice for lice and scabies in the US and in Great Britain, whereas lindane is still recommended for scabies in most other European countries because of its longer-standing record of effectiveness. Although permethrin has not yet been proven to be more effective than lindane in treating infections with these ectoparasites, it currently appears to have the best efficacy versus safety profile of topical treatments for scabies and lice. Ivermectin is a newer oral drug for the treatment of ectoparasites, which has been used with great success in the treatment of onchocercosis and other endoparasites. Although ivermectin appears to be a promising drug, its role in the treatment of ectoparasitic infections will be clarified as more

  19. Susceptible-infected-recovered model with recurrent infection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruziska, Flávia M.; Tomé, Tânia; de Oliveira, Mário J.

    2017-02-01

    We analyze a stochastic lattice model describing the spreading of a disease among a community composed by susceptible, infected and removed individuals. A susceptible individual becomes infected catalytically. An infected individual may, spontaneously, either become recovered, that is, acquire a permanent immunization, or become again susceptible. The critical properties including the phase diagram is obtained by means of mean-field theories as well as numerical simulations. The model is found to belong to the universality class of dynamic percolation except when the recovering rate vanishes in which case the model belongs to the directed percolation universality class.

  20. Systematic Search for Primary Immunodeficiency in Adults With Infections

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-11-23

    Complement Deficiency; Antibody Deficiency; Chronic Sinus Infection; Meningitis, Bacterial; Pneumonia, Bacterial; Otitis Media; Streptococcal Infection; Neisseria Infections; Haemophilus Influenza; Pneumococcal Infections

  1. Scarlet Fever: A Group A Streptococcal Infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is a bacterial infection caused by group A Streptococcus or "group A strep." This illness affects some ... infections Abscesses (pockets of pus) of the throat Pneumonia (lung infection) Arthritis (joint inflammation) Treatment with antibiotics ...

  2. Giant viruses infecting algae.

    PubMed

    Van Etten, J L; Meints, R H

    1999-01-01

    Paramecium bursaria chlorella virus (PBCV-1) is the prototype of a family of large, icosahedral, plaque-forming, double-stranded-DNA-containing viruses that replicate in certain unicellular, eukaryotic chlorella-like green algae. DNA sequence analysis of its 330, 742-bp genome leads to the prediction that this phycodnavirus has 376 protein-encoding genes and 10 transfer RNA genes. The predicted gene products of approximately 40% of these genes resemble proteins of known function. The chlorella viruses have other features that distinguish them from most viruses, in addition to their large genome size. These features include the following: (a) The viruses encode multiple DNA methyltransferases and DNA site-specific endonucleases; (b) PBCV-1 encodes at least part, if not the entire machinery to glycosylate its proteins; (c) PBCV-1 has at least two types of introns--a self-splicing intron in a transcription factor-like gene and a splicesomal processed type of intron in its DNA polymerase gene. Unlike the chlorella viruses, large double-stranded-DNA-containing viruses that infect marine, filamentous brown algae have a circular genome and a lysogenic phase in their life cycle.

  3. [HIV infection in immigrants].

    PubMed

    López-Vélez, Rogelio; Navarro Beltrá, Miriam; Hernando Jerez, Asunción; del Amo Valero, Julia

    2008-05-01

    Immigration to Spain has greatly increased since 1995. Currently, more than 4 million foreigners are resident in the country. The immigration process increases vulnerability. The most common route of HIV infection in the immigrant population and ethnic minorities is heterosexual transmission. The number of people living with HIV worldwide (39.5 million people in 2006) and the number of those dying from AIDS continues to increase. In 2006, there were an estimated 30,000 people living with HIV/AIDS in Spain. The number of cases of AIDS in immigrants has risen in the last few years. AIDS in immigrants from any country, and especially in those from sub-Saharan Africa, is associated with a greater frequency of tuberculosis disease. Knowledge of opportunistic pathogens with tropical distribution is required for a correct differential diagnosis. Throughout the European Union, the number of AIDS cases has progressively decreased since the introduction of highly effective anti- HIV treatment, but this decrease has been significantly lower in immigrants. The difference may be due to lower access to health systems caused by administrative, legal, cultural and linguistic barriers.

  4. Cryptococcus gattii infections.

    PubMed

    Chen, Sharon C-A; Meyer, Wieland; Sorrell, Tania C

    2014-10-01

    Understanding of the taxonomy and phylogeny of Cryptococcus gattii has been advanced by modern molecular techniques. C. gattii probably diverged from Cryptococcus neoformans between 16 million and 160 million years ago, depending on the dating methods applied, and maintains diversity by recombining in nature. South America is the likely source of the virulent C. gattii VGII molecular types that have emerged in North America. C. gattii shares major virulence determinants with C. neoformans, although genomic and transcriptomic studies revealed that despite similar genomes, the VGIIa and VGIIb subtypes employ very different transcriptional circuits and manifest differences in virulence phenotypes. Preliminary evidence suggests that C. gattii VGII causes severe lung disease and death without dissemination, whereas C. neoformans disseminates readily to the central nervous system (CNS) and causes death from meningoencephalitis. Overall, currently available data indicate that the C. gattii VGI, VGII, and VGIII molecular types more commonly affect nonimmunocompromised hosts, in contrast to VGIV. New, rapid, cheap diagnostic tests and imaging modalities are assisting early diagnosis and enabling better outcomes of cerebral cryptococcosis. Complications of CNS infection include increased intracranial pressure, severe neurological sequelae, and development of immune reconstitution syndrome, although the mortality rate is low. C. gattii VGII isolates may exhibit higher fluconazole MICs than other genotypes. Optimal therapeutic regimens are yet to be determined; in most cases, initial therapy with amphotericin B and 5-flucytosine is recommended.

  5. Neuroretinitis with dual infections

    PubMed Central

    Kiu, Kwong-Han; Hanizasurana, Hashim; Zunaina, Embong

    2015-01-01

    A 22-year-old Malay female presented with left eye floaters for 2 weeks, associated with temporal visual field defect and metamorphopsia for 3 days. She has a guinea pig and a hedgehog at home, but denied being bitten or scratched by them. Her visual acuity at presentation was 6/12 on the left eye and 6/6 on the right eye. Her left eye relative afferent pupillary defect was barely positive with mild anterior chamber reaction. Fundus examination of the left eye showed mild vitritis, swollen optic disc with macular star, crops of active choroidal lesions at superonasal retina with a linear arrangement in the form of migratory track nasally. However, there were no nematodes seen on fundus examination. Investigations showed normal full blood count with no eosinophilia and positive serology test for Bartonella henselae. She was diagnosed to have dual infection – diffuse unilateral subacute neuroretinitis (DUSN), based on the presence of crops of choroidal lesions with migratory track, and cat scratch disease (CSD) based on a positive serological test. She was treated with oral albendazole 400 mg 12 hourly for 6 weeks for DUSN and oral doxycycline 100 mg 12 hourly for 4 weeks for CSD. Focal laser had been applied to the area of migratory track in the left eye. Her left eye vision improved to 6/6 at 1 month after treatment, with resolution of neuroretinitis. PMID:26527902

  6. Cryptococcus gattii Infections

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Sharon C.-A.; Meyer, Wieland

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Understanding of the taxonomy and phylogeny of Cryptococcus gattii has been advanced by modern molecular techniques. C. gattii probably diverged from Cryptococcus neoformans between 16 million and 160 million years ago, depending on the dating methods applied, and maintains diversity by recombining in nature. South America is the likely source of the virulent C. gattii VGII molecular types that have emerged in North America. C. gattii shares major virulence determinants with C. neoformans, although genomic and transcriptomic studies revealed that despite similar genomes, the VGIIa and VGIIb subtypes employ very different transcriptional circuits and manifest differences in virulence phenotypes. Preliminary evidence suggests that C. gattii VGII causes severe lung disease and death without dissemination, whereas C. neoformans disseminates readily to the central nervous system (CNS) and causes death from meningoencephalitis. Overall, currently available data indicate that the C. gattii VGI, VGII, and VGIII molecular types more commonly affect nonimmunocompromised hosts, in contrast to VGIV. New, rapid, cheap diagnostic tests and imaging modalities are assisting early diagnosis and enabling better outcomes of cerebral cryptococcosis. Complications of CNS infection include increased intracranial pressure, severe neurological sequelae, and development of immune reconstitution syndrome, although the mortality rate is low. C. gattii VGII isolates may exhibit higher fluconazole MICs than other genotypes. Optimal therapeutic regimens are yet to be determined; in most cases, initial therapy with amphotericin B and 5-flucytosine is recommended. PMID:25278580

  7. Cardiac Involvement with Parasitic Infections

    PubMed Central

    Hidron, Alicia; Vogenthaler, Nicholas; Santos-Preciado, José I.; Rodriguez-Morales, Alfonso J.; Franco-Paredes, Carlos; Rassi, Anis

    2010-01-01

    Summary: Parasitic infections previously seen only in developing tropical settings can be currently diagnosed worldwide due to travel and population migration. Some parasites may directly or indirectly affect various anatomical structures of the heart, with infections manifested as myocarditis, pericarditis, pancarditis, or pulmonary hypertension. Thus, it has become quite relevant for clinicians in developed settings to consider parasitic infections in the differential diagnosis of myocardial and pericardial disease anywhere around the globe. Chagas' disease is by far the most important parasitic infection of the heart and one that it is currently considered a global parasitic infection due to the growing migration of populations from areas where these infections are highly endemic to settings where they are not endemic. Current advances in the treatment of African trypanosomiasis offer hope to prevent not only the neurological complications but also the frequently identified cardiac manifestations of this life-threatening parasitic infection. The lack of effective vaccines, optimal chemoprophylaxis, or evidence-based pharmacological therapies to control many of the parasitic diseases of the heart, in particular Chagas' disease, makes this disease one of the most important public health challenges of our time. PMID:20375355

  8. Autoimmune diseases and HIV infection

    PubMed Central

    Virot, Emilie; Duclos, Antoine; Adelaide, Leopold; Miailhes, Patrick; Hot, Arnaud; Ferry, Tristan; Seve, Pascal

    2017-01-01

    Abstract To describe the clinical manifestations, treatments, prognosis, and prevalence of autoimmune diseases (ADs) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. All HIV-infected patients managed in the Infectious Diseases Department of the Lyon University Hospitals, France, between January 2003 and December 2013 and presenting an AD were retrospectively included. Thirty-six ADs were found among 5186 HIV-infected patients which represents a prevalence of 0.69% including immune thrombocytopenic purpura (n = 15), inflammatory myositis (IM) (n = 4), sarcoidosis (n = 4), Guillain–Barré syndrome (GBS) (n = 4), myasthenia gravis (n = 2), Graves’ disease (n = 2), and 1 case of each following conditions: systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, autoimmune hepatitis, Hashimoto thyroiditis and autoimmune hemolytic anemia. One patient presented 2 ADs. Thirty patients were known to be HIV-infected when they developed an AD. The AD preceded HIV infection in 2 patients. GBS and HIV infection were diagnosed simultaneously in 3 cases. At AD diagnosis, CD4 T lymphocytes count were higher than 350/mm3 in 63% of patients, between 200 and 350/mm3 in 19% and less than 200/mm3 in 19%. Twenty patients benefited from immunosuppressant treatments, with a good tolerance. ADs during HIV infection are uncommon in this large French cohort. Immune thrombocytopenic purpura, sarcoidosis, IM, and GBS appear to be more frequent than in the general population. Immunosuppressant treatments seem to be effective and well tolerated. PMID:28121924

  9. Urinary tract infections. An overview.

    PubMed

    Jepsen, O B

    1987-06-01

    Urinary tract infection remains the most prevalent infection acquired by hospitalized patients. The association with manipulations of the urinary tract is well known and the etiology of these infections is studied in detail. The excess cost of preventable UTI has not been established. It may be negligible for the single case but a high prevalence of nosocomial UTI could add substantially to hospital expenses. Differences in practices of bladder drainage between hospitals and countries have been identified, and educational efforts would seem effective in the management of incontinent patients when hospitalized. Though the infection is often self-limiting, when the catheter is removed, complications are seen. The lower survival with bacteriuria in old age is best explained by the presence of fatal disease in bacteriuric patients. Prevention of the infection with the catheter in situ is discouraging, and measures intended to interfere with the endogenous source of infection have largely failed or postponed infection. A radical approach to the use of indwelling catheters in hospitalized patients may seem the only way out, requiring highly skilled nursing care instead.

  10. Epidemiology of nosocomial fungal infections.

    PubMed Central

    Fridkin, S K; Jarvis, W R

    1996-01-01

    This paper briefly reviews the current knowledge of the epidemiology and modes of transmission of nosocomial fungal infections and some of the therapeutic options for treating these diseases. In the mid-1980s, many institutions reported that fungi were common pathogens in nosocomial infections. Most, if not all, hospitals care for patients at risk for nosocomial fungal infections. The proportion in all nosocomial infections reportedly caused by Candida spp. increased from 2% in 1980 to 5% in 1986 to 1989. Numerous studies have identified common risk factors for acquiring these infections, most of which are very common among hospitalized patients; some factors act primarily by inducing immunosuppression (e.g., corticosteroids, chemotherapy, malnutrition, malignancy, and neutropenia), while others primarily provide a route of infection (e.g., extensive burns, indwelling catheter), and some act in combination. Non-albicans Candida spp., including fluconazole-resistant C. krusei and Torulopsis (C.) glabrata, have become more common pathogens. Newer molecular typing techniques can assist in the determination of a common source of infection caused by several fungal pathogens. Continued epidemiologic and laboratory research is needed to better characterize these pathogens and allow for improved diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. PMID:8894349

  11. Helicobacter pylori Infection in Pediatrics.

    PubMed

    Roma, Eleftheria; Miele, Erasmo

    2015-09-01

    This review includes the main pediatric studies published from April 2014 to March 2015. The host response of Treg cells with increases in FOXP3 and TGF-β1 combined with a reduction in IFN-γ by Teff cells may contribute to Helicobacter pylori susceptibility in children. Genotypic variability in H. pylori strains influences the clinical manifestation of the infection. Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with variables indicative of a crowded environment and poor living conditions, while breast-feeding has a protective effect. Intrafamilial infection, especially from mother to children and from sibling to sibling, is the dominant transmission route. Studies showed conflicting results regarding the association between H. pylori infection and iron deficiency anemia. One study suggests that H. pylori eradication plays a role in the management of chronic immune thrombocytopenic purpura in H. pylori-infected children and adolescents. The prevalence of H. pylori was higher in chronic urticaria patients than in controls and, following H. pylori eradication, urticarial symptoms disappeared. An inverse relationship between H. pylori infection and allergic disease was reported. Antibiotic resistance and insufficient compliance to treatment limit the efficacy of eradication therapy. Sequential therapy had no advantage over standard triple therapy. In countries where H. pylori infection is prevalent, studies focusing on virulence factors and antibiotic susceptibility may provide anticipation of the prognosis and may be helpful to reduce morbidity and mortality.

  12. Congenital parasitic infections: a review.

    PubMed

    Carlier, Yves; Truyens, Carine; Deloron, Philippe; Peyron, François

    2012-02-01

    This review defines the concepts of maternal-fetal (congenital) and vertical transmissions (mother-to-child) of pathogens and specifies the human parasites susceptible to be congenitally transferred. It highlights the epidemiological features of this transmission mode for the three main congenital parasitic infections due to Toxoplasma gondii, Trypanosoma cruzi and Plasmodium sp. Information on the possible maternal-fetal routes of transmission, the placental responses to infection and timing of parasite transmission are synthesized and compared. The factors susceptible to be involved in parasite transmission and development of congenital parasitic diseases, such as the parasite genotypes, the maternal co-infections and parasitic load, the immunological features of pregnant women and the capacity of some fetuses/neonates to overcome their immunological immaturity to mount an immune response against the transmitted parasites are also discussed and compared. Analysis of clinical data indicates that parasitic congenital infections are often asymptomatic, whereas symptomatic newborns generally display non-specific symptoms. The long-term consequences of congenital infections are also mentioned, such as the imprinting of neonatal immune system and the possible trans-generational transmission. The detection of infection in pregnant women is mainly based on standard serological or parasitological investigations. Amniocentesis and cordocentesis can be used for the detection of some fetal infections. The neonatal infection can be assessed using parasitological, molecular or immunological methods; the place of PCR in such neonatal diagnosis is discussed. When such laboratory diagnosis is not possible at birth or in the first weeks of life, standard serological investigations can also be performed 8-10 months after birth, to avoid detection of maternal transmitted antibodies. The specific aspects of treatment of T. gondii, T. cruzi and Plasmodium congenital infections are

  13. Alcaligenes infection in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Tan, Kenneth; Conway, Steven P; Brownlee, Keith G; Etherington, Christine; Peckham, Daniel G

    2002-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of chronic Alcaligenes species infection of the respiratory tract on the clinical status of patients with cystic fibrosis. We conducted a retrospective case-controlled study. The microbiological records of all patients attending the Leeds Regional Pediatric and Adult Cystic Fibrosis Units from 1992-1999 were examined. Chronic Alcaligenes infection was defined as a positive sputum culture on at least three occasions over a 6-month period. These patients were compared with controls matched for age, gender, respiratory function, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection status. Respiratory function tests, anthropometric data, Shwachman-Kulczycki score, Northern chest x-ray score, intravenous and nebulized antibiotic treatment, and corticosteroid treatment were compared from 2 years before to 2 years after Alcaligenes infection. From a clinic population of 557, 13 (2.3%) fulfilled the criteria for chronic infection. The median age at acquisition of infection was 17.2 years (range, 6.5-33.6). There was no significant difference in the changes of percentage predicted values for FEV(1), FVC, FEF(25-75), or Shwachman-Kulczycki and Northern chest x-ray scores, or in weight, height, and body mass index z-scores between Alcaligenes-infected cases and controls. There was also no significant difference in the use of antibiotics (intravenous and nebulized) or corticosteroids (inhaled and oral). We conclude that in our clinic, chronic infection with Alcaligenes species was uncommon. Chronically infected patients showed no excess deterioration in clinical or pulmonary function status from 2 years before to 2 years after primary acquisition.

  14. Lung Infections in Systemic Rheumatic Disease: Focus on Opportunistic Infections

    PubMed Central

    Di Franco, Manuela; Lucchino, Bruno; Spaziante, Martina; Iannuccelli, Cristina; Valesini, Guido; Iaiani, Giancarlo

    2017-01-01

    Systemic rheumatic diseases have significant morbidity and mortality, due in large part to concurrent infections. The lung has been reported among the most frequent sites of infection in patients with rheumatic disease, who are susceptible to developing pneumonia sustained both by common pathogens and by opportunistic microorganisms. Patients with rheumatic disease show a peculiar vulnerability to infectious complications. This is due in part to intrinsic disease-related immune dysregulation and in part to the immunosuppressive treatments. Several therapeutic agents have been associated to a wide spectrum of infections, complicating the management of rheumatic diseases. This review discusses the most frequent pulmonary infections encountered in rheumatic diseases, focusing on opportunistic agents, consequent diagnostic challenges and appropriate therapeutic strategies. PMID:28146077

  15. Liver involvement in systemic infection

    PubMed Central

    Minemura, Masami; Tajiri, Kazuto; Shimizu, Yukihiro

    2014-01-01

    The liver is often involved in systemic infections, resulting in various types of abnormal liver function test results. In particular, hyperbilirubinemia in the range of 2-10 mg/dL is often seen in patients with sepsis, and several mechanisms for this phenomenon have been proposed. In this review, we summarize how the liver is involved in various systemic infections that are not considered to be primarily hepatotropic. In most patients with systemic infections, treatment for the invading microbes is enough to normalize the liver function tests. However, some patients may show severe liver injury or fulminant hepatic failure, requiring intensive treatment of the liver. PMID:25276279

  16. Intraabdominal Infections in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Berlin, Ana; Johanning, Jason Michael

    2016-08-01

    Intraabdominal infections represent a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge in the elderly population. Atypical presentations, diagnostic delays, additional comorbidities, and decreased physiologic reserve contribute to high morbidity and mortality, particularly among frail patients undergoing emergency abdominal surgery. While many infections are the result of age-related inflammatory, mechanical, or obstructive processes, infectious complications of feeding tubes are also common. The pillars of treatment are source control of the infection and judicious use of antibiotics. A patient-centered approach considering the invasiveness, risk, and efficacy of a procedure for achieving the desired outcomes is recommended. Structured communication and time-limited trials help ensure goal-concordant treatment.

  17. Pancreatic infection with Candida parapsilosis.

    PubMed

    Ibáñez, R; Serrano-Heranz, R

    1999-01-01

    Candida species other than C. albicans have been implicated as pathogens in intravascular (bloodstream, intravascular devices, endocarditis) and extravascular (arthritis, osteomielitis, endophtalmitis) infections. C. parapsilosis, however, is rarely implicated in intra-abdominal infections (peritonitis during peritoneal dialysis, complicating surgery or solid-organ transplantation). We describe a case of a 48-y-old male with acute pancreatitis who had a pancreatic abscess produced by primary C. parapsilosis infection. Although he received adequate treatment with antifungal medication and surgical drainage, the outcome was fatal. Because the clinical findings are indistinguishable from bacterial abscesses, Candida species should be considered in cases of complicated pancreatitis, in order to establish a prompt adequate treatment.

  18. Diagnostic testing for Giardia infections.

    PubMed

    Heyworth, Martin F

    2014-03-01

    The traditional method for diagnosing Giardia infections involves microscopic examination of faecal specimens for Giardia cysts. This method is subjective and relies on observer experience. From the 1980s onwards, objective techniques have been developed for diagnosing Giardia infections, and are superseding diagnostic techniques reliant on microscopy. Detection of Giardia antigen(s) by immunoassay is the basis of commercially available diagnostic kits. Various nucleic acid amplification techniques (NAATs) can demonstrate DNA of Giardia intestinalis, and have the potential to become standard approaches for diagnosing Giardia infections. Of such techniques, methods involving either fluorescent microspheres (Luminex) or isothermal amplification of DNA (loop-mediated isothermal amplification; LAMP) are especially promising.

  19. Treatment of severe orthopedic infections.

    PubMed

    Dernell, W S

    1999-09-01

    Severe infections are uncommon following orthopedic surgery, yet they can be frustrating for the veterinarian and owner to treat and can result in devastating consequences for the patient. This article reviews the common causes for postoperative infection, reviews established treatment, and introduces newer methods for treatment and control. A thorough understanding of the pathogenesis, application of appropriate diagnostic procedures, the institution of aggressive treatment regimens, with adherence to established principles, will often result in satisfactory outcomes even with severe orthopedic infections. For those more refractory to treatment, the use of newer treatment methods, specifically locally implantable materials for sustained release of antimicrobials can improve success in the treatment of these more difficult cases.

  20. Nanoparticle Approaches against Bacterial Infections

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Weiwei; Thamphiwatana, Soracha; Angsantikul, Pavimol; Zhang, Liangfang

    2014-01-01

    Despite the wide success of antibiotics, the treatment of bacterial infection still faces significant challenges, particularly the emergence of antibiotic resistance. As a result, nanoparticle drug delivery platforms including liposomes, polymeric nanoparticles, dendrimers, and various inorganic nanoparticles have been increasingly exploited to enhance the therapeutic effectiveness of existing antibiotics. This review focuses on areas where nanoparticle approaches hold significant potential to advance the treatment of bacterial infection. These areas include targeted antibiotic delivery, environmentally responsive antibiotic delivery, combinatorial antibiotic delivery, nanoparticle-enabled antibacterial vaccination, and nanoparticle-based bacterial detection. In each area we highlight the innovative antimicrobial nanoparticle platforms and review their progress made against bacterial infections. PMID:25044325