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Sample records for microbiological containment measures

  1. Evidence-based biosafety: a review of the principles and effectiveness of microbiological containment measures.

    PubMed

    Kimman, Tjeerd G; Smit, Eric; Klein, Michèl R

    2008-07-01

    We examined the available evidence on the effectiveness of measures aimed at protecting humans and the environment against the risks of working with genetically modified microorganisms (GMOs) and with non-GMO pathogenic microorganisms. A few principles and methods underlie the current biosafety practice: risk assessment, biological containment, concentration and enclosure, exposure minimization, physical containment, and hazard minimization. Many of the current practices are based on experience and expert judgment. The effectiveness of biosafety measures may be evaluated at the level of single containment equipment items and procedures, at the level of the laboratory as a whole, or at the clinical-epidemiological level. Data on the containment effectiveness of equipment and laboratories are scarce and fragmented. Laboratory-acquired infections (LAIs) are therefore important for evaluating the effectiveness of biosafety. For the majority of LAIs there appears to be no direct cause, suggesting that failures of biosafety were not noticed or that containment may have been insufficient. The number of reported laboratory accidents associated with GMOs is substantially lower than that of those associated with non-GMOs. It is unknown to what extent specific measures contribute to the overall level of biosafety. We therefore recommend that the evidence base of biosafety practice be strengthened.

  2. Evidence-Based Biosafety: a Review of the Principles and Effectiveness of Microbiological Containment Measures

    PubMed Central

    Kimman, Tjeerd G.; Smit, Eric; Klein, Michèl R.

    2008-01-01

    We examined the available evidence on the effectiveness of measures aimed at protecting humans and the environment against the risks of working with genetically modified microorganisms (GMOs) and with non-GMO pathogenic microorganisms. A few principles and methods underlie the current biosafety practice: risk assessment, biological containment, concentration and enclosure, exposure minimization, physical containment, and hazard minimization. Many of the current practices are based on experience and expert judgment. The effectiveness of biosafety measures may be evaluated at the level of single containment equipment items and procedures, at the level of the laboratory as a whole, or at the clinical-epidemiological level. Data on the containment effectiveness of equipment and laboratories are scarce and fragmented. Laboratory-acquired infections (LAIs) are therefore important for evaluating the effectiveness of biosafety. For the majority of LAIs there appears to be no direct cause, suggesting that failures of biosafety were not noticed or that containment may have been insufficient. The number of reported laboratory accidents associated with GMOs is substantially lower than that of those associated with non-GMOs. It is unknown to what extent specific measures contribute to the overall level of biosafety. We therefore recommend that the evidence base of biosafety practice be strengthened. PMID:18625678

  3. Microbiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Lucia

    1976-01-01

    Presents classroom activities for teaching microbiology at the elementary and secondary levels. Activities demonstrate the existence of the microbial world, types of microbes, and their growth needs and effects in nature. (MLH)

  4. Microbiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spooner, D.

    1973-01-01

    Describes various types of training programs carried out in the study of microbiology. Indicates that the need for new energy sources and the expansion of medical schools and food industry may lead to an increasing demand for qualified microbiologists. (CC)

  5. Microbiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Lucia

    1976-01-01

    Presents classroom activities for teaching microbiology at the elementary and secondary levels. Activities demonstrate the existence of the microbial world, types of microbes, and their growth needs and effects in nature. (MLH)

  6. Microbiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spooner, D.

    1973-01-01

    Describes various types of training programs carried out in the study of microbiology. Indicates that the need for new energy sources and the expansion of medical schools and food industry may lead to an increasing demand for qualified microbiologists. (CC)

  7. Evaluation of sealed containers for use in centrifuges by a dynamic microbiological test method.

    PubMed Central

    Harper, G J

    1984-01-01

    A dynamic microbiological test has been used to assess the safety of sealed containers for use in laboratory centrifuges. When 26 models of containers (buckets or rotors) were examined 27% failed to contain aerosols. Some of the reasons for the failures are described. Images PMID:6436338

  8. [Optimalization of biocompatible artificial tears containing povidone-iodine according to pharmaceutical technological and microbiological aspects].

    PubMed

    Merczel, Sára; Pál, Szilardi; Kocsis, Béla; Dévay, Attila

    2010-01-01

    Microbiological preservatives play a great role in the preparation of artificial tears because they protect the eyes from further microorganisms and the preparation from contamination. In this contribution we are summarizing our experimental results given by pharmaceutical and microbiological optimalization of artificial tears. The incidental adaptability of povidone-iodine (PVP-I) as a preservative in artificial tears was examined compared to usually used materials. Some artificial tears (Oculogutta carbomerae and Oculogutta viscosa) were prepared according to the Formulae Normales Edition VII., others were isotonisated and buffered containing 3.0% and 3.5% povidonum as active substance. The analysed samples as a preservative instead of generally used agents contained 0.10%, 0.05% and 0.01% PVP-I. Reference preparations were dispensed using microbiological preservatives (Cetrimidum, Thiomersalum solutum 0.1%, Benzalconium chloratum solutum 10%). Pharmaceutical (pH, viscosity, freezing-point depression, refraction, surface-tension) and microbiological (breeding on aerobe and anaerobe bacteriological culture medium) trials were made to determine the qualitative property and adaptability of analysed preparations in which we also studied the stability and the microbiological changes after opening them. According to our experimental results we can establish that the PVP-I is suitable as microbiological preservative in the examined preparations.

  9. Sonic gas analyzer for microbiological metabolic measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horta, Miguel A.; Garrett, Steven

    2005-09-01

    A differential open-pipe resonator was built to track changes in gas-mixture concentration. A single miniature loudspeaker simultaneously drives two adjacent ducts at resonance and 180 deg out of phase. The resonant frequency is tracked with a phase-locked loop, using the difference signal from two electret microphones whose sensitivities are balanced by adjustment of the preamplifier gains to provide common-mode rejection of extraneous noise sources (for example, a magnetic stirrer) within the bioreactor. A small change of the gas concentration produces a proportional change of the driving frequency for a given binary mix of gases. This sensor is designed to measure the production of hydrogen or methane from metabolic processes of anaerobic bacteria. Results from an initial set of experiments using helium injection and hydrogen release from a HCl+Zn reaction will be presented. [For Engineering Acoustics Best Student Paper Award.

  10. Clinical and microbiological effects of commercially available dentifrice containing amine fluoride: A randomized controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Pradeep, A R; Agarwal, Esha; Bajaj, Pavan; Naik, Savitha B; Kumari, Minal; Guruprasad, C N

    2012-07-01

    The inability of the normal adult population to perform adequate tooth brushing has led to the search for chemotherapeutic agents in order to improve plaque control. This 6 month, single center, randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted to assess the clinical and microbiological effects of a dentifrice containing only amine fluoride (AF) as the active ingredient on gingivitis. NINETY SUBJECTS DIAGNOSED WITH CHRONIC GENERALIZED GINGIVITIS WERE SELECTED AND RANDOMLY DIVIDED IN THREE GROUPS: Group 1 - placebo toothpaste, Group 2 - AF containing toothpaste, and Group 3 - triclosan containing toothpaste with polymer and fluoride. Clinical evaluation was undertaken using the gingival index of Loe and Silness and the plaque index and microbiological counts were assessed at baseline, 6 weeks, 12 weeks, and 24 weeks. A subjective evaluation was also undertaken by a questionnaire. AF containing toothpaste showed significant improvement in gingival and plaque index scores as well as microbiologic counts compared with placebo dentifrice. These improvements were comparable to triclosan containing toothpaste. AF containing toothpaste may be a useful formulation for chemical plaque control agent and improvement in plaque and gingival status and add to the list of various therapeutic agents used for maintenance of gingival health.

  11. Clinical and microbiological effects of commercially available dentifrice containing amine fluoride: A randomized controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Pradeep, A. R.; Agarwal, Esha; Bajaj, Pavan; Naik, Savitha B.; Kumari, Minal; Guruprasad, C. N.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The inability of the normal adult population to perform adequate tooth brushing has led to the search for chemotherapeutic agents in order to improve plaque control. This 6 month, single center, randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted to assess the clinical and microbiological effects of a dentifrice containing only amine fluoride (AF) as the active ingredient on gingivitis. Materials and Methods: Ninety subjects diagnosed with chronic generalized gingivitis were selected and randomly divided in three groups: Group 1 – placebo toothpaste, Group 2 – AF containing toothpaste, and Group 3 – triclosan containing toothpaste with polymer and fluoride. Clinical evaluation was undertaken using the gingival index of Loe and Silness and the plaque index and microbiological counts were assessed at baseline, 6 weeks, 12 weeks, and 24 weeks. A subjective evaluation was also undertaken by a questionnaire. Results: AF containing toothpaste showed significant improvement in gingival and plaque index scores as well as microbiologic counts compared with placebo dentifrice. These improvements were comparable to triclosan containing toothpaste. Conclusions: AF containing toothpaste may be a useful formulation for chemical plaque control agent and improvement in plaque and gingival status and add to the list of various therapeutic agents used for maintenance of gingival health. PMID:23293479

  12. Clinical and microbiologic effects of commercially available dentifrice containing aloe vera: a randomized controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Pradeep, A R; Agarwal, Esha; Naik, Savitha B

    2012-06-01

    Certain plants used in folk medicine serve as a source of therapeutic agents that have antimicrobial and other multipotential effects. This prospective, randomized, placebo, and positively controlled clinical trial was designed to evaluate the clinical and microbiologic effects of a commercially available dentifrice containing aloe vera on the reduction of plaque and gingival inflammation in patients with gingivitis. Ninety patients diagnosed with chronic generalized gingivitis were selected and randomly divided into three groups: group 1, placebo toothpaste; group 2, toothpaste containing aloe vera; and group 3, toothpaste with polymer and fluoride containing triclosan. Clinical evaluation was undertaken using a gingival index, plaque was assessed using a modification of the Quigley-Hein index, and microbiologic counts were assessed at baseline, 6 weeks, 12 weeks, and 24 weeks. A subjective evaluation was also undertaken by questionnaire. Toothpaste containing aloe vera showed significant improvement in gingival and plaque index scores as well as microbiologic counts compared with placebo dentifrice. These improvements were comparable to those achieved with toothpaste containing triclosan. Toothpaste containing aloe vera may be a useful herbal formulation for chemical plaque control agents and improvement in plaque and gingival status.

  13. Microbiological Evaluation of Containment Isolators for the Care of Patients with Exotic Diseases.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-02-01

    diseases, such as Lassa fever, Marburg virus and Ebola fever, without risking in- 1fection of the attending staff. As part of the overall evaluation of the...Deposi- tion of these particles on surfaces inside the isolator simulates the same hazard from natural virus aerosols . Aerosol samples were collected...The microbiological integrity of containment isolators obtained from Vickers Limited Medical Engineering was evaluated using aerosols of Tl coliphage

  14. Comparative clinical and microbiological efficacy of mouthwashes containing 0.2% and 0.12% chlorhexidine

    PubMed Central

    Rath, S. K.; Singh, Munishwar

    2013-01-01

    Background: The main stay of primary and secondary prevention of periodontal diseases has been the control of supra gingival plaque. Acceptable plaque control by mechanical means is difficult to achieve by most individuals, so mouth rinses represent one form of attack on oral microbes and the malodor. Chlorhexidine (CHX) is a broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent known to cause damage to the cell membrane of microorganisms and at higher concentrations causes precipitation and coagulation of the proteins in the cytoplasm of the exposed microbes. The aim of this study is to evaluate and compare the efficacy of 0.12% and 0.2% concentration of CHX gluconate clinically as well as microbiologically. Materials and Methods: The single blind placebo controlled randomized study design comprising of 75 males with an age between 25 years and 50 years were selected from out-patient Department of Periodontics. The subjects were randomly divided into five groups. After baseline clinical and microbiological examination, the groups were subjected to mechanical plaque control with or without mouthwashes containing various concentrations of CHX and placebo. After 90 days the data pertaining to clinical and microbiological parameters were compared to the baseline data so as to compare the efficacy of different concentrations of mouthwashes. Results: The results achieved with the use of 0.2% and 0.12% concentrations of CHX were comparable; taking into consideration of various clinical and microbiological parameters. Conclusion: The study recommends the use of low concentration of (0.12%) CHX for better patient compliance with the optimum clinical results PMID:24019806

  15. Public health issues arising from microbiological and labelling quality of foods and supplements containing probiotic microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Hamilton-Miller, J M; Shah, S; Winkler, J T

    1999-06-01

    To assess the accuracy and helpfulness of labelling on products containing probiotic bacteria. 52 such products - 44 from the UK (21 supplements, 15 fermented functional foods, eight 'health-care' products) and eight from continental Europe - have been tested for microbiological content, and results compared to the information available on their labels. Products were stored in the dark at 4 degrees C and analysed before their expiry or sell-by date. Careful note was taken of wording on labels, package inserts, packaging, promotional literature and catalogue descriptions, as applicable. Products were cultured on appropriate bacteriological media, and organisms grown were counted and identified. Bioyoghurts gave no indication of numbers, and only five accurately described their bacterial content; results of culture were usually satisfactory. 'Healthcare' products (mostly intended for the bowel) usually indicated the presence of bacteria, but the numerical content was hard to ascertain, and cultural results fell short of label claims. Supplements were sometimes incorrectly labelled in bacteriological terms, and often contained markedly reduced numbers and/or had extraneous strains and/or strains specified on the label were missing. Products from continental Europe (that were sold for specific medical indications) seemed of a higher microbiological standard. The potential pathogen Enterococcus faecium was found in nine products. The most successful of the new functional foods in Britain now contain probiotics, and probiotic preparations are prominent among the expanding range of nutritional supplements presently available to consumers. Our findings have public health implications, and suggest that improvements are needed in labelling and quality assurance procedures for products containing probiotic organisms. The presence of the potential pathogen Enterococcus faecium (intentionally or as a contaminant) in some products calls for a review of the value of this species

  16. Microbiological stability of solutions containing local anesthetics and opioids in closed infusion systems used for epidural analgesia.

    PubMed

    Böttcher, K; Meissner, W; Edel, B; Hartmann, M

    2011-10-01

    Nine solutions containing opiod analgesics and local anesthetics as typically use in epidural catheters were tested for antimicrobial stability. Administration via a pefusor syringe requires several refill processes. It was shown that repetitive refilling of the syringes did not result in any microbiological contamination.

  17. Microbiological and molecular characterization of commercially available probiotics containing Bacillus clausii from India and Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Patrone, Vania; Molinari, Paola; Morelli, Lorenzo

    2016-11-21

    Probiotics are actively used for treatment of diarrhoea, respiratory infections, and prevention of infectious gastrointestinal diseases. The efficacy of probiotics is due to strain-specific features and the number of viable cells; however, several reports of deviations from the label in the actual content of strains in probiotic products are a matter of concern. Most of the available data on quality focuses on probiotic products containing lactobacilli and/or bifidobacteria, while very few data are available on spore-forming probiotics. The present study evaluates the label claims for spore count and species identification in five commercial probiotic products marketed in India and Pakistan that claim to contain Bacillus clausii: Tufpro, Ecogro, Enterogermina, Entromax, and Ospor. Bacterial enumeration from three batches was done by microbiological plating methods by two independent operators. Species identification was done using PCR amplification and sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene, and determination of the total amount of species present in the products was done using PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) analysis followed by DNA sequencing of the excised bands. Plate count methods demonstrated poor correlations between quantitative label indications and bacteria recovered from plates for Tufpro, Ecogro, and Ospor. The 16S rRNA analysis performed on bacteria isolated from plate counts showed that only Enterogermina and Ospor contained homogenous B. clausii. PCR-DGGE analysis revealed that only Enterogermina had a homogenous B. clausii population while other products had mixed bacterial populations. In conclusion, the current analysis clearly demonstrates that of the five analysed commercial probiotics, only Enterogermina followed the label claims.

  18. Fun Microbiology: How To Measure Growth of a Fungus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, James K.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Describes an experiment to demonstrate a simple method for measuring fungus growth by monitoring the effect of temperature on the growth of Trichoderma viride. Among the advantages that this experimental model provides is introducing students to the importance of using the computer as a scientific tool for analyzing and presenting data. (AIM)

  19. Fun Microbiology: How To Measure Growth of a Fungus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, James K.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Describes an experiment to demonstrate a simple method for measuring fungus growth by monitoring the effect of temperature on the growth of Trichoderma viride. Among the advantages that this experimental model provides is introducing students to the importance of using the computer as a scientific tool for analyzing and presenting data. (AIM)

  20. Rational development and validation of a new microbiological assay for linezolid and its measurement uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Saviano, Alessandro Morais; Francisco, Fabiane Lacerda; Lourenço, Felipe Rebello

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this work was to develop and validate a new microbiological assay to determine potency of linezolid in injectable solution. 2(4) factorial and central composite designs were used to optimize the microbiological assay conditions. In addition, we estimated the measurement uncertainty based on residual error of analysis of variance of inhibition zone diameters. Optimized conditions employed 4 mL of antibiotic 1 medium inoculated with 1% of Staphylococcus aureus suspension, and linezolid in concentrations from 25 to 100 µg mL(-1). The method was specific, linear (Y=10.03X+5.00 and Y=9.20X+6.53, r(2)=0.9950 and 0.9987, for standard and sample curves, respectively), accurate (mean recovery=102.7%), precise (repeatability=2.0% and intermediate precision=1.9%) and robust. Microbiological assay׳s overall uncertainty (3.1%) was comparable to those obtained for other microbiological assays (1.7-7.1%) and for determination of linezolid by spectrophotometry (2.1%) and reverse-phase ultra-performance liquid chromatography (RP-UPLC) (2.5%). Therefore, it is an acceptable alternative method for the routine quality control of linezolid in injectable solution. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Improved Properties and Microbiological Safety of Novel Cottage Cheese Containing Spices.

    PubMed

    Josipović, Renata; Knežević, Zvonimira Medverec; Frece, Jadranka; Markov, Ksenija; Kazazić, Snježana; Mrvčić, Jasna

    2015-12-01

    The study focuses on developing novel cottage cheese containing spices with acceptable sensory properties, increased biological value and extended shelf life. Thirty types of cheese with added fresh or dried parsley, dill, pepper, garlic and rosemary were produced. Characterisation of phenolic compounds, antioxidant capacity and antibacterial activity of spices and cheese samples were evaluated. The cheese containing fresh pepper and fresh and dried herbs showed excellent sensory properties, with the best results obtained with fresh sweet red pepper. Dry rosemary had the highest antioxidant and antibacterial activity due to high mass fractions of caffeic and rosmarinic acids as well as high mass fractions of flavones and phenolic diterpenes. The plant extracts examined in vitro and in situ effectively reduce numbers of foodborne pathogens like Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes, and therefore have potential as natural preservatives and antioxidants.

  2. Improved Properties and Microbiological Safety of Novel Cottage Cheese Containing Spices

    PubMed Central

    Knežević, Zvonimira Medverec; Frece, Jadranka; Markov, Ksenija; Kazazić, Snježana; Mrvčić, Jasna

    2015-01-01

    Summary The study focuses on developing novel cottage cheese containing spices with acceptable sensory properties, increased biological value and extended shelf life. Thirty types of cheese with added fresh or dried parsley, dill, pepper, garlic and rosemary were produced. Characterisation of phenolic compounds, antioxidant capacity and antibacterial activity of spices and cheese samples were evaluated. The cheese containing fresh pepper and fresh and dried herbs showed excellent sensory properties, with the best results obtained with fresh sweet red pepper. Dry rosemary had the highest antioxidant and antibacterial activity due to high mass fractions of caffeic and rosmarinic acids as well as high mass fractions of flavones and phenolic diterpenes. The plant extracts examined in vitro and in situ effectively reduce numbers of foodborne pathogens like Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes, and therefore have potential as natural preservatives and antioxidants. PMID:27904380

  3. Biochemical, microbiologic, and clinical comparisons between two dentifrices that contain different mixtures of sugar alcohols.

    PubMed

    Makinen, K K; Soderling, E; Hurttia, H; Lehtonen, O P; Luukkala, E

    1985-11-01

    It has been customary to think that in a dentifrice only a few of its ingredients would be active and have clinically significant effects on dental caries, oral hygiene, and the levels of caries-inducive microorganisms or harmful plaque metabolic products. Therefore, most of the emphasis has been placed on the type of fluorine compounds, abrasives, or similar dentifrice ingredients. This study shows that such common dentifrice components as the humectants, which contribute to the texture, rheologic characteristics, and shelf life of the product, also may affect the type of dental plaque grown on the tooth surfaces between toothbrushings or during long-term neglect of toothbrushing or of oral hygiene. Commonly used humectants include sorbitol, a sugar alcohol of the hexitol type, which is used often in sugarless candies. This study showed that when sorbitol in a dentifrice was replaced by xylitol, a sugar alcohol of the pentitol type, the dental plaque of human subjects contained more ammonia and significantly less bacterial polysaccharides. It is accepted generally that ammonia neutralizes plaque acids and that bacterial polysaccharides are involved in promoting caries. Xylitol-containing dentifrice also reduced the saliva levels of S mutans. The results further indicated that if sorbitol and xylitol could be compared in a short-term dentifrice study that relied on subjective and coarse plaque determinations only, no differences between those dentifrices would be found necessarily. To demonstrate the differences between the experimental dentifrices used in this study, it was necessary to analyze specific plaque components and the salivary levels of S mutans.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Ultrasonic measurement device for the characterization of microbiological and biochemical processes in liquid media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elvira, L.; Durán, C.; Sierra, C.; Resa, P.; Montero de Espinosa, F.

    2007-07-01

    A measuring device for the characterization of liquid media based on the propagation of ultrasonic waves is presented. It is a four-channel system especially designed for monitoring microbiological and biochemical processes. The liquid samples are placed in commercial glass bottles which can be sterilized. The bottles have inlet and outlet tubes, which can be used for adding substances or extracting samples during the measuring process without interruption. Magnetic stirring can be used to keep the liquid agitated for homogenization purposes. Thermal control elements assure the temperature stability during the measurement. The liquid characterization is based on the detection of amplitude and time-of-flight changes in the sample under study. The main features, operation and performance of this ultrasonic device are analysed in this work, and some measurements and preliminary results are shown.

  5. Physicochemical, microbiological and sensory profiles of fermented milk containing probiotic strains isolated from kefir.

    PubMed

    Kakisu, Emiliano; Irigoyen, Aurora; Torre, Paloma; De Antoni, Graciela L; Abraham, Analía G

    2011-11-01

    A two-strain starter culture containing Lactobacillus plantarum CIDCA 83114, a potential probiotic strain isolated from kefir grains, and Streptococcus thermophilus CIDCA 321 was tested for the preparation of a fermented milk product. Kluyveromyces marxianus CIDCA 8154, a yeast with immunomodulatory properties was included to formulate a three-strain starter culture. Supernatants of enterohaemorragic Escherichia coli, shiga-toxin-producing strain, along with a two-strain or a three-strain starter culture were included in the medium of Vero-cell surface cultures. The results demonstrated that these combinations of microorganisms antagonize the cytopathic action of shiga toxins. The cell concentration of Lb. plantarum did not decrease during fermentation, indicating that the viability of this strain was not affected by low pH, nor did the number of viable bacteria change during 21 days of storage in either fermented products. The number of viable yeasts increases during fermentation and storage. Trained assessors analyzed the general acceptability of fresh fermented milks and considered both acceptable. The milk fermented with the two-strain starter culture was considered acceptable after two week of storage, while the product fermented with the three-strain starter culture remained acceptable for less than one week. The main changes in sensory attributes detected by the trained panel were in sour taste, milky taste and also in fermented attributes. The correlation between different sensory attributes and acceptability indicated that the panel was positively influenced by milky attributes (taste, odour, and flavour) as well as the intensity of flavour. In conclusion, the two-strain starter culture would be the more promising alternative for inclusion of that potential probiotic lactobacillus in a fermented milk product.

  6. The effects of a dentifrice containing propolis on Mutans Streptococci: a clinico-microbiological study.

    PubMed

    Mohsin, S; Manohar, B; Rajesh, S; Asif, Y

    2015-01-01

    Propolis is a natural resinous mixture produced by honeybees, which exhibits anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory, cytostatic and cariostatic properties. The aim of the study was to evaluate the anti-bacterial efficacy of a propolis based dentifrice on Mutans Streptococci colonizing the oral cavity of young patients using Dentocult® SM strip mutans test. Screening of 367 male subjects within the age group of 7-12 years was carried out. A total of 30 children were included in the study. They were instructed to use a Propolis dentifrice (Probee,™ Quasi-Medical Products, Seoul Propolis) daily for three minutes over a period of four weeks. Plaque and salivary samples were collected at baseline, 1(st) week, 3(rd) week and 4(th) week and were analyzed for Mutans Streptococci count using Dentocult® SM strip Mutans kit (Orion Diagnostica Oy, Finland). Student paired t-test and Friedman test were used for statistical analysis. It was unveiled that mean Mutans streptococci count at 1(st) week and 4(th) week, showed significant reduction (p≤0.0001), compared to baseline scores. Using Friedman's test, statistically significant difference was found between baseline and 1(st) week, 3(rd) week and 4(th) week follow up (P < 0.001). Propolis dentifrice reduces in-vivo microbial load in microenvironments especially against Mutans streptococci in the oral cavity of young patients. Thus, it's potential to be inculcated and used as an alternative measure to prevent dental caries can be considered and further investigation involving greater number of participants is recommended.

  7. The effect of drinking milk containing conjugated linoleic acid on fecal microbiological profile, enzymatic activity, and fecal characteristics in humans.

    PubMed

    Farnworth, Edward R; Chouinard, Yvan P; Jacques, Helene; Venkatramanan, Sudha; Maf, Akier A; Defnoun, Sabrina; Jones, Peter J H

    2007-07-09

    The primary objective was to determine whether consumption of conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) affected the fecal microbiota composition, fecal enzyme activity or fecal composition. Human subjects consumed (1 L/day) cows' milk (4% fat) containing (5 mg/g fat) cis-9, trans-11 CLA (CONT), (32 mg/g fat) cis-9, trans-11 CLA (NAT) and (32 mg/g fat) trans-10, cis-12 CLA and cis-9, trans-11 CLA (SYN) for 8 weeks, in addition to their normal diet. Milk feeding periods were separated by 4 week washout periods. Fecal samples were obtained at the beginning (day 0) and the end (day 56) of each milk feeding period. Fecal samples were analysed for microbiological profile, enzyme activity, pH and short chain fatty acid content. Samples taken at day 0 and day 56 indicated that the numbers of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria significantly decreased after consumption of all experimental milks; total aerobes, total anaerobes, enterobacteria, and enterococci + streptococci did not change. At day 56, the activities of beta-glucosidase, nitroreductase, and urease enzymes had decreased compared to samples taken on day 0 for all treatments. beta-glucuronidase activity did not change. Fecal pH and ammonia content did not change. It was concluded that observed changes could have been attributed to increased milk intake; no differences could be attributed to consumption of the different CLAs.

  8. OCEANET-Atmosphere - The Autonomous Measurement Container

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalisch, John; Macke, Andreas; Althausen, Dietrich; Bumke, Karl; Engelmann, Ronny; Kanitz, Thomas; Kleta, Henry; Zoll, Yann

    2010-05-01

    OCEANET-Atmosphere is a joint venture project of IFM-GEOMAR and IFT to study the mass and energy transfer of ocean and atmosphere by introducing a special measurement container, which is suitable to perform a large spectrum of atmospheric underway measurements on offshore research vessels and cargo ships. The container combines state-of-the-art measurement devices and connect them to its own computer network to realize a comprehensive system for remote sensing. A Raman-lidar measures marine and anthropogenic optical aerosol properities by analyzing the elastic signal and the vibration-rotation Raman signal of nitrogen. Our passive microwave radiometer determines the integrated water vapor and the liquid water path of the atmospheric column, as well as vertical temperature and humidity profiles. Carbon dioxide is measured high-frequent. Turbulence measurements are performed by means of a sonic anemometer. In combination with fast humidity sensors the fluxes of momentum, latent and sensible heat are derived. An automatic full sky imager monitors the state of the cloudy sky. A selection of standard meteorological devices measure air temperature, humidity, wind velocity, wind speed and downward shortwave and longwave radiative fluxes. The GPS sensors register navigational data. For an almost real time monitoring of a data subset our telemetry system is sending short hourly data reports via satellite. OCEANET-Atmosphere is set up to improve the quantity and the quality of atmospheric data sets on intercontinental oceanic transects, where the previous data base is still weak. A first research mission has been performed onboard RV Polarstern at ANT XXVI/1.

  9. Reliability and Validity of a Questionnaire to Measure Consumer Knowledge regarding Safe Practices to Prevent Microbiological Contamination in Restaurants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uggioni, Paula Lazzarin; Salay, Elisabette

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to develop a validated and reliable questionnaire to measure consumer knowledge regarding safe practices to prevent microbiological contamination in restaurants and commercial kitchens. Methods: Non-probabilistic samples of individuals were interviewed in the city of Campinas, Brazil. Questionnaire items…

  10. Reliability and Validity of a Questionnaire to Measure Consumer Knowledge regarding Safe Practices to Prevent Microbiological Contamination in Restaurants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uggioni, Paula Lazzarin; Salay, Elisabette

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to develop a validated and reliable questionnaire to measure consumer knowledge regarding safe practices to prevent microbiological contamination in restaurants and commercial kitchens. Methods: Non-probabilistic samples of individuals were interviewed in the city of Campinas, Brazil. Questionnaire items…

  11. Multifrequency impedance measurement technique for wireless characterization of microbiological cell cultures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wissenwasser, J.; Vellekoop, M. J.; Kapferer, W.; Lepperdinger, G.; Heer, R.

    2011-11-01

    An impedance measurement system with probe signal frequencies up to 50 kHz with AC-probe voltages below 30 mV rms was integrated for wireless and battery-free monitoring of microbiological cell cultures. The here presented modular design and the use of state-of-the-art components greatly eases adoptions to a wide range of biotechnological applications without the need of bulky LCR-meters or potentiostats. The device had a power consumption of less than 2.5 mA at a 3.3 V single power supply and worked trouble-free within the humid environment of a cell culture incubator. Measurements on lumped RC-elements showed an error of less than 1% for absolute values and less than 1° regarding the phase of the complex impedance. The performance of sensor devices with interdigitated electrode structures for the measurement of adherent cell cultures was tested in the presence of phosphate-buffered saline solution in the humid atmosphere of an incubator for biological cell cultures.

  12. [Safety in the Microbiology laboratory].

    PubMed

    Rojo-Molinero, Estrella; Alados, Juan Carlos; de la Pedrosa, Elia Gómez G; Leiva, José; Pérez, José L

    2015-01-01

    The normal activity in the laboratory of microbiology poses different risks - mainly biological - that can affect the health of their workers, visitors and the community. Routine health examinations (surveillance and prevention), individual awareness of self-protection, hazard identification and risk assessment of laboratory procedures, the adoption of appropriate containment measures, and the use of conscientious microbiological techniques allow laboratory to be a safe place, as records of laboratory-acquired infections and accidents show. Training and information are the cornerstones for designing a comprehensive safety plan for the laboratory. In this article, the basic concepts and the theoretical background on laboratory safety are reviewed, including the main legal regulations. Moreover, practical guidelines are presented for each laboratory to design its own safety plan according its own particular characteristics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluating four measures of water quality in clay pots and plastic safe storage containers in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Jennifer L; Ayers, Tracy L; Knee, Jacqueline; Oremo, Jared; Odhiambo, Aloyce; Faith, Sitnah H; Nyagol, Ronald O; Stauber, Christine E; Lantagne, Daniele S; Quick, Robert E

    2016-11-01

    Household water treatment with chlorine can improve microbiological quality and reduce diarrhea. Chlorination is typically assessed using free chlorine residual (FCR), with a lower acceptable limit of 0.2 mg/L, however, accurate measurement of FCR is challenging with turbid water. To compare potential measures of adherence to treatment and water quality, we chlorinated recently-collected water in rural Kenyan households and measured total chlorine residual (TCR), FCR, oxidation reduction potential (ORP), and E. coli concentration over 72 h in clay and plastic containers. Results showed that 1) ORP served as a useful proxy for chlorination in plastic containers up to 24 h; 2) most stored water samples disinfected by chlorination remained significantly less contaminated than source water for up to 72 h, even in the absence of FCR; 3) TCR may be a useful proxy indicator of microbiologic water quality because it confirms previous chlorination and is associated with a lower risk of E. coli contamination compared to untreated source water; and 4) chlorination is more effective in plastic than clay containers presumably because of lower chlorine demand in plastic. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Valuation effects of health cost containment measures.

    PubMed

    Strange, M L; Ezzell, J R

    2000-01-01

    This study reports the findings of research into the valuation effects of health cost containment activities by publicly traded corporations. The motivation for this study was employers' increasing cost of providing health care insurance to their employees and employers' efforts to contain those costs. A 1990 survey of corporate health benefits indicated that these costs represented 25 percent of employers' net earnings and this would rise by the year 2000 if no actions were taken to reduce cost. Health cost containment programs that are implemented by firms should be seen by shareholders as a wealth maximizing effort. As such, this should be reflected in share price. This study employed standard event study methodology where the event is a media announcement or report regarding an attempt by a firm to contain the costs of providing health insurance and other health related benefits to employees. It examined abnormal returns on a number of event days and for a number of event intervals. Of the daily and interval returns that are least significant at the 10 percent level, virtually all are negative. Cross-sectional analysis shows that the abnormal returns are related negatively to a unionization variable.

  15. Epistemology of Environmental Microbiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madsen, Eugene L.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses a model that describes how knowledge is obtained in environmental microbiology. Suggests that constraints on knowledge will yield to relationships between methodological innovations and their iterative application. Contains 132 references. (DDR)

  16. Clinical and microbiological efficacy of an antimicrobial mouth rinse containing 0.05% cetylpyridinium chloride in patients with gingivitis.

    PubMed

    Rioboo, M; García, V; Serrano, J; O'Connor, A; Herrera, D; Sanz, M

    2012-05-01

    the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the use of a mouth rinse and dentifrice with cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) in patients with gingivitis. the study was designed as a 1-month, double-blind, parallel, randomized clinical trial comparing a negative control regimen (minus active ingredients dentifrice and mouth rinse) with the test products (dentifrice and mouth rinse with 0.05% CPC) in terms of plaque and gingival indexes (PI, GI), patient-based and microbiological outcome variables. The comparisons in relation to the main outcome variables (PI and GI) were made by means of the t-test, either unpaired or paired for the intergroup and intragroup comparisons, respectively. no differences were detected at baseline. Both groups showed statistically significant decreases in GI (0.17-0.19), without intergroup differences. The PI demonstrated a significant decrease of -0.12 in the test group and minor changes in the negative control group (increase of +0.01). Differences between groups showed a tendency towards statistical significance. A limited impact was observed for microbiological variables in both groups. the results of this study show limited benefits of the evaluated formulations as adjuncts to unsupervised oral hygiene in reducing plaque accumulation, and no effect on gingivitis. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  17. A Plutonium Storage Container Pressure Measurement Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Grim, T.J.

    2002-05-10

    Plutonium oxide and metal awaiting final disposition are currently stored at the Savannah River Site in crimp sealed food pack cans. Surveillances to ensure continued safe storage of the cans include periodic lid deflection measurements using a mechanical device.

  18. Microbiological water methods: quality control measures for Federal Clean Water Act and Safe Drinking Water Act regulatory compliance.

    PubMed

    Root, Patsy; Hunt, Margo; Fjeld, Karla; Kundrat, Laurie

    2014-01-01

    Quality assurance (QA) and quality control (QC) data are required in order to have confidence in the results from analytical tests and the equipment used to produce those results. Some AOAC water methods include specific QA/QC procedures, frequencies, and acceptance criteria, but these are considered to be the minimum controls needed to perform a microbiological method successfully. Some regulatory programs, such as those at Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40, Part 136.7 for chemistry methods, require additional QA/QC measures beyond those listed in the method, which can also apply to microbiological methods. Essential QA/QC measures include sterility checks, reagent specificity and sensitivity checks, assessment of each analyst's capabilities, analysis of blind check samples, and evaluation of the presence of laboratory contamination and instrument calibration and checks. The details of these procedures, their performance frequency, and expected results are set out in this report as they apply to microbiological methods. The specific regulatory requirements of CFR Title 40 Part 136.7 for the Clean Water Act, the laboratory certification requirements of CFR Title 40 Part 141 for the Safe Drinking Water Act, and the International Organization for Standardization 17025 accreditation requirements under The NELAC Institute are also discussed.

  19. Clinical and microbiological effects of an essential-oil-containing mouth rinse applied in the "one-stage full-mouth disinfection" protocol--a randomized doubled-blinded preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Cavalca Cortelli, Sheila; Cavallini, Fabiana; Regueira Alves, Marcello Faria; Alves Bezerra, Arnaud; Queiroz, Celso Silva; Cortelli, José Roberto

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this randomized double-blinded preliminary study was to evaluate the clinical and microbiological long-term effects of an essential-oil-containing mouth rinse as the active agent utilized in the "one-stage full-mouth disinfection protocol." Probing pocket depth and plaque and gingival indices were evaluated by the same calibrated examiner in all teeth of 20 moderate chronic periodontitis subjects. Presence of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Tannerella forsythensis were determined by polymerase chain reaction in nonstimulated saliva, tongue dorsum, and pooled subgingival samples. The subjects were randomized into two groups: full-mouth disinfection plus essential oils (Listerine) or full-mouth disinfection plus placebo. Clinical and microbial parameters were evaluated at baseline (T0), 45 (T1) and 180 (T2) days after therapy and analyzed using analysis of variance, Student t, and Wilcoxon tests (p < 0.05). No significant differences were observed between groups regarding clinical measurements at baseline. However, in the later examinations, T1 and T2, the test group always presented higher reductions of pocket depth, plaque index, and gingival index compared to the control group. The essential-oils group revealed significant reduction on occurrence of P. gingivalis in saliva comparing baseline and 45 days; this difference still remain at 180 days. The essential-oil-containing mouth rinse demonstrated beneficial effects on clinical parameters. Microbiological findings were less consistent. The results of this preliminary study suggest further investigations.

  20. Salty Microbiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneegurt, Mark A.; Wedel, Adrianne N.; Pokorski, Edward W.

    2004-01-01

    Using microbiology activities in the classroom is an effective way for teachers to address National Standards in the life sciences. However, common microbiology activities that involve swabbing doorknobs and hands are too risky due to the likelihood of culturing human pathogens. In addition, making sterile media and maintaining sterile conditions…

  1. Salty Microbiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneegurt, Mark A.; Wedel, Adrianne N.; Pokorski, Edward W.

    2004-01-01

    Using microbiology activities in the classroom is an effective way for teachers to address National Standards in the life sciences. However, common microbiology activities that involve swabbing doorknobs and hands are too risky due to the likelihood of culturing human pathogens. In addition, making sterile media and maintaining sterile conditions…

  2. Physicochemical and microbiological properties as well as stability of ointments containing aloe extract (Aloe arborescens Mill.) or aloe extract associated to neomycin sulphate.

    PubMed

    Kodym, A; Bujak, T

    2002-12-01

    The aim of the study was to work out methods of quality assessment of ointments containing dry extract from fresh leaves of Aloe arborescens Mill. (Lilliaceae) and also of ointments containing both of dry extract and neomycin sulphate. The stability of the ointments, stored at 20 degrees C, was studied and the following criteria were considered: chromatographic analysis (TLC), pH of the ointments, the content of the substances in the dry extract converted to aloenin, the content of aloenin and aloin, anti-microbial activity of neomycin in the ointments, the size of the particles of the dry extract and of neomycin sulphate in the ointment suspension and the sterility of the ointments. After two years of storage at 20 degrees C, the ointments prepared with the anhydrous lipophilic base, did not change their physicochemical characteristics and neomycin in those ointments retained almost 100% of starting anti-microbial activity. Water or propylene glycol significantly decreased the stability of the biologically active substances of the dry extract in the ointments. Besides, in the ointments containing the dry extract and neomycin sulphate, the presence of water or propylene glycol induced degradation of the biologically active substances of the dry extract and a decrease in the anti-microbial activity of neomycin in the ointments. Considering the physicochemical and microbiological stability, the most advisable base for the ointments with aloe and neomycin sulphate was composed of white vaseline, liquid paraffin, solid paraffin, cholesterol.

  3. Large-scale experiments for microbiological evaluation of measures for safeguarding sulfidic mine waste.

    PubMed

    Schippers, A; Jozsa, P G; Kovacs, Z M; Jelea, M; Sand, W

    2001-01-01

    In the framework of a German-Romanian scientific cooperation, experiments were performed to evaluate feasible and cheap techniques for the safe storage of mine waste to prevent acid rock drainage (ARD). A large four-chamber percolator (4CP) was installed in a waste heap at Ilba Mine, Romania, to test the effect of biocides and alkaline layers on the bacteria causing acid rock drainage (ARD). The 4CP consisted of four chambers each containing 65 m3 of sulfidic waste material. The 4CP enabled the transfer of laboratory results to a technical scale. The detergent sodiumdodecylsulfate (SDS) was proved to be active against the leaching bacteria. Organotrophic micro-organisms were not effected by the SDS application. The alkaline layers caused an increase of pH, however, a decrease of cell numbers was measured only in adjacent ore layers, but not in the whole ore body. A rapid evaluation of the effects of these countermeasures on ARD formation became possible by microcalorimetric activity measurements for bioleaching.

  4. [Biosafety of microbiological laboratories in Korea].

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin-Yong; Eun, Sang-Jun; Park, Ki-Dong; Kim, Jong-Kyun; Im, Jeong-Soo; Hwang, Yoo-Sung; Kim, Yong-Ik

    2005-11-01

    The biosafety level (BSL) practiced in microbiology laboratories in Korea according to the laboratory biosafety manual published by the World Health Organization (WHO) was evaluated using the data obtained by a survey. Under the advise of Clinical Laboratory Physicians, 144 types of microorganisms were screened based on the guidelines of biosafety in microbiological and biomedical laboratories published by the US Center for Disease Control and Prevention and classified into 1-4 risk groups. A questionnaire containing 21 questions in 5 areas was developed using the biosafety manual by published WHO. Of the 1,876 different organizations sent the survey, 563 responded to the survey (response rate: 30.0%). The species of microoganisms handled by as well as the biosafety level in microbiology laboratories were analyzed. There were 123 species of microorganisms handled in microbiology labs in Korea. The BSL required in 512 microbiology labs was answered by the survey responders as the first grade in 33 labs (6.4%), 2nd in 437 (85.4%), 3rd in 42 (8.2%), and 4th in none. The average number of items satisfied was 12.2, showing only a 57.9% satisfactory rate and normal distribution. The state of overall observance of BSL in most microbiology labs of Korea was evaluated as lagging compared with the standard set up by WHO. Therefore, the Korean government need to produce and distribute a biosafety manual in microbiology laboratories and make efforts to prevent this threat through measures such as training in biosafety in microbiology labs.

  5. New microbiological assay for determination of caspofungin in the presence of its degradation products and its measurement uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Ghisleni, Daniela Dal Molim; Okamoto, Rogério Takao; De Oliveira, Amaral Cleide Maria; Lourenço, Felipe Rebello; De Jesus, Andreoli Pinto Terezinha

    2014-01-01

    Caspofungin is an echinocandin antifungal used in the treatment of invasive fungal infections. Several methods have been reported for the quantitative analysis of echinocandins; however, there is no microbiological assay for determination of caspofungin potency in the presence of its degradation products. This study aimed to develop and validate a microbiological method for quantitative analysis of caspofungin in lyophilized powder, evaluate the stability, and determinate the degradation kinetics of the drug when the finished product is submitted to heat stress. A procedure was established to estimate measurement uncertainty for routine analysis. The validation was performed as recommended in the current official guidelines. The agar diffusion method is based on the inhibitory effect of caspofungin on Candida albicans. Results showed selectivity, linearity, precision, and accuracy of the method. Statistical analysis demonstrated that method is linear (in the range 2.5 to 16 microg/mL, y= 15.73 + 6.4x, r2 = 0.9965), precise (intermediate precision: 2.54%), and accurate (recovery range: 95.01-102.46%). The proposed method allowed evaluation of the thermal stability of the drug at 80 degreesC for 120 min and determination of first order degradation kinetics. The variability of inhibition zone sizes was the most important source of uncertainty at about 87% of the overall uncertainty (103.0+/-1.7%). These results show that the proposed method is applicable to routine laboratory testing, and is sensitive to thermal degradation of caspofungin.

  6. Agricultural Microbiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brill, Winston J.

    1981-01-01

    Elucidates strategies for applying microbiological techniques to traditional agricultural practices. Discusses the manipulation of microorganisms that live with plants and also the problems involved in the introduction of new genes into crop plants by recombinant DNA methods. (CS)

  7. Agricultural Microbiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brill, Winston J.

    1981-01-01

    Elucidates strategies for applying microbiological techniques to traditional agricultural practices. Discusses the manipulation of microorganisms that live with plants and also the problems involved in the introduction of new genes into crop plants by recombinant DNA methods. (CS)

  8. Coaxial cavity for measuring level of liquid in a container

    DOEpatents

    Booman, Glenn L.; Phelps, Frank R.

    1979-01-01

    A method and means for measuring the level of a liquid in a container. A coaxial cavity having a perforated outer conductor is partially submerged in the liquid in the container wherein the liquid enters and terminates the annular region of the coaxial cavity. The fundamental resonant frequency of the portion of the coaxial cavity which does not contain liquid is determined experimentally and is used to calculate the length of the liquid-free portion of the coaxial cavity and thereby the level of liquid in the container.

  9. Measurement uncertainty of the EU methods for microbiological examination of red meat.

    PubMed

    Corry, Janet E L; Hedges, Alan J; Jarvis, Basil

    2007-09-01

    Three parallel trials were made of EU methods proposed for the microbiological examination of red meat using two analysts in each of seven laboratories within the UK. The methods involved determination of aerobic colony count (ACC) and Enterobacteriaceae colony count (ECC) using simulated methods and a freeze-dried standardised culture preparation. Trial A was based on a simulated swab test, Trial B a simulated meat excision test and Trial C was a reference test on reconstituted inoculum. Statistical analysis (ANOVA) was carried out before and after rejection of outlying data. Expanded uncertainty values (relative standard deviation x2) for repeatability and reproducibility, based on the log10 cfu/ml, on the ACC ranged from +/-2.1% to +/-2.7% and from +/-5.5% to +/-10.5%, respectively, depending upon the test procedure. Similarly for the ECC, expanded uncertainty estimates for repeatability and reproducibility ranged from +/-4.6% to +/-16.9% and from +/-21.6% to +/-23.5%, respectively. The results are discussed in relation to the potential application of the methods.

  10. Combination of analytical and microbiological techniques to study the antimicrobial activity of a new active food packaging containing cinnamon or oregano against E. coli and S. aureus.

    PubMed

    Becerril, R; Gómez-Lus, R; Goñi, P; López, P; Nerín, C

    2007-07-01

    The aim of this work is the optimization and application of a group of analytical and microbiological techniques in the study of the activity of essential oils (EOs) incorporated in a new antimicrobial packaging material and the research in depth of the interaction between the microbial cells and the individual compounds present in the active material. For this purpose the antimicrobial activity of the active packaging containing cinnamon or oregano was evaluated against E. coli and S. aureus. The vapour phase activity and the direct contact between the antimicrobial agents themselves, or once incorporated in the packaging material, and the microbial cells have been studied. The direct contact was studied using a broth dilution method. The vapour phase was evaluated by using a new method which involves the use of a filter disk containing the EOs. Furthermore, the kill time assay was used to determine the exposure time for the maximum efficiency in packaging, and transmission electron microscopy was used to investigate the antimicrobial activity and the possible mechanism of action against E. coli and S. aureus. Finally, the compounds absorbed by cells were identified. The results showed that the techniques used provide relevant information about the antibacterial activity of cinnamon and oregano in direct contact as well as in the vapour phase. The antimicrobial packaging showed a fast efficiency which supports its likely application as a food packaging material. Bacteria treated with EOs exhibit a wide range of significant abnormalities; these include formation of blebs, coagulation of cytoplasmatic constituents, collapse of the cell structure and lack of cytoplasmatic material. Some of these observations are correlated to the ability of some of these substances to disrupt envelop structure, especially the inner membrane. After an extraction from dead cells, cinnamaldehyde was detected by GC-MS in E. coli exposed to the active packaging containing cinnamon.

  11. Measuring Arterial Blood Pressure. A Self-Contained Instructional Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Chris Ellen

    This self-contained instructional module is designed to help adult caregivers learn how to measure arterial blood pressure in the home. The module includes the following parts: objectives; pretest (with answers); four sections of instructional material covering (1) equipment, (2) cuff placement and locating the brachial artery, (3) measuring blood…

  12. A SENSOR FOR MEASURING PRESSURE IN A SEALED CONTAINER

    SciTech Connect

    DUNCAN; SEXTON; BALL; DOUGLAS; OHL

    2001-02-01

    A magnetically coupled pressure (MCPG) gauge has been developed that will measure changes of pressure inside a sealed container without penetrating the walls of the container and transmit the measured values to a readout attached to the external walls of the container. The gauge uses no electrical power. The gauge described in this paper was configured to measure the pressure in a specially designed stainless steel container called the Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO). The MCO was designed by the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site, to store the Site's decaying fuel rods on an interim basis. The magnetically coupled pressure gauge is comprised of a sender unit and a readout unit. The sender includes a Bourdon tube enclosed within a small, ported stainless steel cylinder and is installed within the pressure boundary of the MCO. In place of an indicating needle on a conventional pressure gauge, the sender uses a magnet. The readout unit consists of a simple compass-type needle, scaled to read on a pressure scale instead of magnetic direction. An extensive series of calibration tests of the gauge over a range of different magnetic orientations and pressure ranges have shown that the precision and accuracy of the gauge is, on average, better than 10% of full scale. This paper will describe the gauge and its performance in the MCO application. The magnetically coupled pressure gauge can be adapted to measure pressure in other types of DOE and industrial storage and transportation containers in which penetration of the walls is not desired. The technology used to measure pressure can also be used to measure other physical properties inside a sealed container (e.g., temperature). The only requirement is that the container be constructed of a material that is essentially transparent to magnetic flux.

  13. Measuring thermal conductivity of fluids containing oxide nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.; Choi, S.U.S.; Li, S.; Eastman, J.A.

    1999-05-01

    Oxide nanofluids were produced and their thermal conductivities were measured by a transient hot-wire method. The experimental results show that these nanofluids, containing a small amount of nanoparticles, have substantially higher thermal conductivities than the same liquids without nanoparticles. Comparisons between experiments and the Hamilton and Crosser model show that the model can predict the thermal conductivity of nanofluids containing large agglomerated Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles. However, the model appears to be inadequate for nanofluids containing CuO particles. This suggests that not only particle shape but size is considered to be dominant in enhancing the thermal conductivity of nanofluids.

  14. Microbiological investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, J. K.; Taylor, G. R.; Mieszkuc, B. J.

    1975-01-01

    The crew microbiology program was conducted to evaluate lunar contamination, to detect potentially pathogenic microoganisms, to identify medically important microorganisms recovered from ill crewmen, to aid in diagnosis and treatment, and to collect microbiological data that would aid in elucidating the response of the crew microbial autoflora to the space flight environment and in evaluating the resultant effect on the crewmember. Microbiological sampling of selected sites in the command module was initiated in support of the quarantine program. During lunar quarantine missions, microbial screening was accomplished for all support personnel to be isolated with the returning crewman. Virology support for the Apollo project consisted of characterization of the viral and mycoplasma flora of the crewmembers and performance of viral serology for crewmembers, crew contacts, and key mission personnel. Procedures and results are discussed in detail.

  15. Holographic Measurement Of Particulate Contamination In Sealed Sterile Containers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeiss, John C.; Knapp, Julius Z.; Crane, Joe S.; Dunn, Paul; Thompson, Brian J...

    1983-07-01

    The presence of particulates, in injectable: solutions, can be medically hazardous depending on their size and shape. Hence, a. mandatory particulate inspection is performed prior to the release of any injectable drug. However, the determination of realistic quality limits, has been hampered by the absence of any physical non-destructive, measurement or comparison technique. This paper describes a far-field holographic' method for the measurement of particulate, contamination in sealed sterile containers. This application of holography provides to the pharmaceutical industry for the first. time, a non-destructive technique to inspect production containers and to classify the size and quantity of contaminants.

  16. DOSE TO CURIE DETERMINATION FOR CONTAINERS WITH MEASURABLE CS-137

    SciTech Connect

    RATHBUN LA; ANDERSON JD; SWAN RJ

    2010-12-03

    The Next Generation Retrieval (NGR) project will retrieve suspect transuranic (TRU) waste containers from Trenches 17 and 27 in the 218-E-12B (12B) burial ground. The trenches were in operation from May 1970 through October 1972. A portion of the retrieved containers that will require shipment to and acceptance at a treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) facility and the containers will be either remote-handled (RH) and/or contact-handled (CH). The method discussed in this document will be used for the RH and some of the CH containers to determine the radionuclide inventory. Waste disposition (shipment and TSD acceptance) requires that the radioactive content be characterized for each container. Source-term estimates using high resolution, shielded, gamma-ray scan assay techniques cannot be performed on a number of RH and other containers with high dose rates from {sup 137}Cs-{sup 137m}Ba. This document provides the method to quantify the radioactive inventory of fission product gamma emitters within the containers based on the surface dose rate measurements taken in the field with hand-held survey instruments.

  17. Industrial Microbiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demain, Arnold L.; Solomon, Nadine A.

    1981-01-01

    Presents an overview of the field of industrial microbiology, providing historical backgrounds of scientific discoveries in the field and descriptions of industrially important microorganisms. Applied research in industry is also detailed, with mention of gene amplification, DNA recombination, pharmaceutical approaches, and detoxification and…

  18. Coral microbiology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenberg, Eugene; Kellogg, Christina A.; Rohwer, Forest

    2007-01-01

    In the last 30 years, there has been approximately a 30% loss of corals worldwide, largely due to emerging diseases (Harvell et al., 2002, 2007; Hughes et al., 2003). Coral microbiology is a new field, driven largely by a desire to understand the interactions between corals and their symbiotic microorganisms and to use this knowledge to eventually prevent the spread of coral diseases.

  19. Industrial Microbiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demain, Arnold L.; Solomon, Nadine A.

    1981-01-01

    Presents an overview of the field of industrial microbiology, providing historical backgrounds of scientific discoveries in the field and descriptions of industrially important microorganisms. Applied research in industry is also detailed, with mention of gene amplification, DNA recombination, pharmaceutical approaches, and detoxification and…

  20. Electrooptical measurements on purple membrane containing bacteriorhodopsin mutants.

    PubMed

    Mostafa, H I; Váró, G; Tóth-Boconádi, R; Dér, A; Keszthelyi, L

    1996-01-01

    Electrooptical measurements on purple membrane containing the wild-type and 10 different bacteriorhodopsin mutants have shown that the direction of the permanent electric dipole moment of all these membranes reverses at different pH values in the range 3.2-6.4. The induced dipole moment and the retinal angle exhibit an increased value at these pHs. The results demonstrate that the bacteriorhodopsin protein makes an important contribution to the electrooptical properties of the purple membrane.

  1. Microbiology--Safety Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffmann, Sheryl K.

    This paper discusses the risk assessment associated with microbiology instruction based on grade level, general control measures, appropriate activities for middle school and high school students, the preparation and sterilization of equipment, and safe handling techniques. Appended are instructions and figures on making wire loops and the…

  2. Self-contained instrument for measuring subterranean tunnel wall deflection

    DOEpatents

    Rasmussen, Donald Edgar; Hof, Jr., Peter John

    1978-01-01

    The deflection of a subterranean tunnel is measured with a rod-like, self-contained instrument that is adapted to be inserted into a radially extending bore of the tunnel adjacent an end of the tunnel where the tunnel is being dug. One end of the instrument is anchored at the end of the bore remote from the tunnel wall, while the other end of the intrument is anchored adjacent the end of the wall in proximity to the tunnel wall. The two ends of the instrument are linearly displaceable relative to each other; the displacement is measured by a transducer means mounted on the instrument. Included in the instrument is a data storage means including a paper tape recorder periodically responsive to a parallel binary signal indicative of the measured displacement.

  3. Susceptibility measurements of impurity-helium condensates containing magnetic impurities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulsen, C.; Järvinen, J.; Bernard, E. P.; Khmelenko, V. V.; Lee, D. M.

    2009-02-01

    The magnetic susceptibilities of impurity-helium condensates (IHCs), containing nanocrystals of molecular oxygen and atomic nitrogen free radicals embedded in molecular N2 have been measured via a SQUID magnetometer in the temperature range between 1.1 and 2.1 K. The susceptibilities of the samples containing nitrogen atoms followed Curie-Weiss behavior with very small Weiss temperatures ranging from 0 to -0.4 K. The behavior of samples composed of O2 nanocrystals deviated sharply from results for bulk solid. The susceptibilities of the samples were 102 larger than for bulk solid O2 and showed Curie-Weiss behavior with a Weiss temperature in the range from -4.5 K to -5 K. This result is qualitatively consistent with results obtained in other laboratories for O2 confined in restricted geometries.

  4. Microbiology System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Technology originating in a NASA-sponsored study of the measurement of microbial growth in zero gravity led to the development of Biomerieux Vitek, Inc.'s VITEK system. VITEK provides a physician with accurate diagnostic information and identifies the most effective medication. Test cards are employed to identify organisms and determine susceptibility to antibiotics. A photo-optical scanner scans the card and monitors changes in the growth of cells contained within the card. There are two configurations - VITEK and VITEK JR as well as VIDAS, a companion system that detects bacteria, viruses, etc. from patient specimens. The company was originally created by McDonnell Douglas, the NASA contractor.

  5. [Guideline 'Precautionary measures for contrast media containing iodine'].

    PubMed

    van Dijk Azn, R; Wetzels, J F M; ten Dam, M A G J; Aarts, N J M; Schimmelpenninck-Scheiffers, M L H H; Freericks, M P; Said, S A M; Geenen, R W F; Stuurman, A; van Everdingen, J J E

    2008-03-29

    Annually, 0.5-1 million injections of contrast media containing iodine are administered in the Netherlands. Almost all contrast media nowadays are low-osmolar and nonionic. Nevertheless, the development ofcontrast-induced nephropathy is still a relevant clinical problem. Through an initiative by the Radiological Society of the Netherlands and with aid of the Dutch Institute for Healthcare Improvement (CBO), a guideline was conceived for the intravascular use of iodine-containing contrast media, based on recent scientific literature. The guideline defines the risk factors for contrast-induced nephropathy. One of the major risk factors is an impaired renal function. It is important to measure the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in patients with a possible impaired kidney function, preferably by using the 'Modification of diet in renal disease' (MDRD)-study formula. The key measures for avoidance of contrast nephropathy are: limiting the amount of contrast agent used and to assure good hydration, by infusion of sodium chloride 0.9% 12-16 ml/kg body weight, both prior to and after contrast infusion. If time is limited, intravenous administration of sodium bicarbonate is an option. The guideline recommends discontinuation of metformin use from the day of contrast injection, if the GFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2, and to restart metformin 2 days following contrast infusion providing the GFR has not significantly deteriorated. Only in the case of previous moderate or severe adverse reactions to contrast media, prophylaxis with corticosteroids and antihistamines is recommended. Iodine allergy or an atopic condition is not a contraindication for the use of iodine-containing contrast media, and no prophylaxis is required. No specific measures are indicated in case of hyperthyroidism, acute pancreatitis, or phaeochromocytoma. Injection of contrast media is not contraindicated in case of pregnancy or lactation.

  6. Comparative Measures of Radionuclide Containment in the Crystalline Geophere

    SciTech Connect

    Cvetkovic, V.; Painter, S.; Selroos, J.O.

    2002-11-15

    A probabilistic model for assessing the capacity of a fractured crystalline rock volume to contain radionuclides is developed. The rock volume is viewed as a network of discrete fractures through which radionuclides are transported by flowing water. Diffusive mass transfer between the open fractures and the stagnant water in the pore space of the rock matrix allow radionuclides access to mineral grains where physical and chemical processes - collectively known as sorption - can retain radionuclides. A stochastic Lagrangian framework is adopted to compute the probability that a radionuclide particle will be retained by the rock, i.e., the probability that it will decay before being released from the rock volume. A dimensionless quantity referred to as the 'containment index' is related to this probability and proposed as a suitable measure for comparing different rock volumes; such a comparative measure may be needed, for example, in a site selection program for geological radioactive waste disposal. The probabilistic solution of the transport problem is based on the statistics of two Lagrangian variables: {tau}, the travel time of an imaginary tracer moving with the flowing water, and {beta}, a suitably normalized surface area available for retention. Statistics of {tau} and {beta} may be computed numerically using site-specific discrete fracture network simulations. Fracture data from the well-characterized Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory site in southern Sweden are used to illustrate the implementation of the proposed containment index for six radionuclides ({sup 126}Sn, {sup 129}I, {sup 135}Cs, {sup 237}Np, {sup 239}Pu, and {sup 79}Se). It is found that fractures of small aperture imply prolonged travel times and hence long tails in both beta and tau. This, in turn, enhances retention and is favorable from a safety assessment perspective.

  7. Forensic microbiology.

    PubMed

    Lehman, Donald C

    2012-01-01

    The field of forensic microbiology is fairly new and still evolving. With a threat of bioterror and biocrime, the rapid identification and subtyping of infectious agents is of upmost importance. Microbial genetic analysis is a valuable tool in this arena. The cost to sequence a microbial genome has fallen dramatically in recent years making this method more widely available. Surveillance and vigilance are important as is further research. The United States Department of Homeland Security established the Bioforensics Analysis Center to become the foremost U.S. biodefense research institution involved with bioforensics. Many countries are better prepared for biologic events than ever before, but more work is needed. Most medical laboratory scientists are not familiar with forensic principles or testifying in court. Demonstrating chain of custody and quality assurance are critical so that test results will be admissible in a court of law. The Scientific Working Group on Microbial Genetics and Forensics has published guidelines for forensic microbiology laboratories. Incorporating these guidelines help to provide test results that are useful in legal proceedings. If a laboratory scientist suspects bioterror or biocrime, or other legal case, law enforcement agents must be notified and diagnostic samples preserved. Additional sample testing might be necessary in court cases.

  8. Color measurements on prints containing fluorescent whitening agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, Mattias; Norberg, Ole

    2007-01-01

    Papers with a slightly blue shade are, at least among a majority of observers being perceived as whiter than papers having a more neutral color1. Therefore, practically all commercially available printing papers contain bluish dyes and fluorescent whitening agents (FWA) to give the paper a whiter appearance. Furthermore, in the paper industry, the most frequently used measure for paper whiteness is the CIE-whiteness. The CIE Whiteness formula, does in turn, also favor slightly bluish papers. Excessive examples of high CIE-whiteness values can be observed in the office-paper segment where a high CIE-whiteness value is an important sales argument. As an effect of the FWA, spectrophotometer measurements of optical properties such as paper whiteness are sensitive to the ultraviolet (UV) content of the light source used in the instrument. To address this, the standard spectrophotometers used in the paper industry are equipped with an adjustable filter for calibrating the UV-content of the illumination. In the paper industry, spectrophotometers with d/0 measurement geometry and a light source of type C are used. The graphical arts industry on the other hand, typically measures with spectrophotometers having 45/0 geometry and a light source of type A. Moreover, these instruments have only limited possibilities to adjust the UV-content by the use of different weighting filters. The standard for color measurements in the paper industry governs that measurements should be carried out using D65 standard illumination and the 10 ° standard observer. The corresponding standard for the graphic arts industry specify D50 standard illumination and the 2 ° standard observer. In both cases, the standard illuminants are simulated from the original light source by spectral weighting functions. However, the activation of FWA, which will impact the measured spectral reflectance, depends on the actual UV-content of the illumination used. Therefore, comparisons between measurements on

  9. Social Consequences of Ebola Containment Measures in Liberia

    PubMed Central

    Pellecchia, Umberto; Crestani, Rosa; Decroo, Tom; Van den Bergh, Rafael; Al-Kourdi, Yasmine

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In the Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) outbreak in Liberia, two major emergency disease-control measures were cremation of bodies and enforcement of quarantine for asymptomatic individuals suspected of being in contact with a positive case. Enforced by State-related actors, these were promoted as the only method to curtail transmissions as soon as possible. However, as with other harsh measures witnessed by Liberian citizens, in many cases those measures elicited uncontrolled negative reactions within the communities (stigma; fear) that produced, in some cases, the opposite effect of that intended. Methodology The research has been conducted in two phases, for a total of 8 weeks. Ethnography of local practices was carried out in 7 neighbourhoods in Monrovia and 5 villages in Grand Cape Mount County in Liberia. 45 Focus Group Discussions (432 participants) and 30 semi-structured interviews sustained the observing participation. Randomly selected people from different social layers were targeted. The principal investigator worked with the help of two local assistants. Perceptions and practices were both analysed. Results Participants stressed how cremation perpetuated the social breakdown that started with the isolation for the sickness. Socio-economical divides were created by inequitable management of the dead: those who could bribe the burial teams obtained a burial in a private cemetery or the use of Funeral Homes. Conversely, those in economic disadvantage were forced to send their dead for cremation. State-enforced quarantine, with a mandatory prohibition of movement, raised condemnation, strengthened stigmatization and created serious socio-economic distress. Food was distributed intermittently and some houses shared latrines with non-quarantined neighbours. Escapes were also recorded. Study participants narrated how they adopted local measures of containment, through local task forces and socially-rooted control of outsiders. They also stressed how

  10. Measurement uncertainty of lactase-containing tablets analyzed with FTIR.

    PubMed

    Paakkunainen, Maaret; Kohonen, Jarno; Reinikainen, Satu-Pia

    2014-01-01

    Uncertainty is one of the most critical aspects in determination of measurement reliability. In order to ensure accurate measurements, results need to be traceable and uncertainty measurable. In this study, homogeneity of FTIR samples is determined with a combination of variographic and multivariate approach. An approach for estimation of uncertainty within individual sample, as well as, within repeated samples is introduced. FTIR samples containing two commercial pharmaceutical lactase products (LactaNON and Lactrase) are applied as an example of the procedure. The results showed that the approach is suitable for the purpose. The sample pellets were quite homogeneous, since the total uncertainty of each pellet varied between 1.5% and 2.5%. The heterogeneity within a tablet strip was found to be dominant, as 15-20 tablets has to be analyzed in order to achieve <5.0% expanded uncertainty level. Uncertainty arising from the FTIR instrument was <1.0%. The uncertainty estimates are computed directly from FTIR spectra without any concentration information of the analyte.

  11. Lead testing wipes contain measurable background levels of lead.

    PubMed

    Keenan, James J; Le, Matthew H; Paustenbach, Dennis J; Gaffney, Shannon H

    2010-03-01

    Lead is registered under the California Safe Drinking Water and Toxic Enforcement Act of 1986 (Proposition 65) as both a carcinogen and a reproductive hazard. As part of the process to determine if consumer products satisfy Proposition 65 with respect to lead, various wipe sampling strategies have been utilized. Four commonly used wipe materials (cotton gauze, cotton balls, ashless filter paper, and Ghost Wipes) were tested for background lead levels. Ghost Wipe material was found to have 0.43 +/- 0.11 microg lead/sample (0.14 microg/wipe). Wipe testing for lead using Ghost Wipes may therefore result in measurable concentrations of lead, regardless of whether or not the consumer product actually contains leachable lead.

  12. Preprinting Microbiology

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The field of microbiology has experienced significant growth due to transformative advances in technology and the influx of scientists driven by a curiosity to understand how microbes sustain myriad biochemical processes that maintain Earth. With this explosion in scientific output, a significant bottleneck has been the ability to rapidly disseminate new knowledge to peers and the public. Preprints have emerged as a tool that a growing number of microbiologists are using to overcome this bottleneck. Posting preprints can help to transparently recruit a more diverse pool of reviewers prior to submitting to a journal for formal peer review. Although the use of preprints is still limited in the biological sciences, early indications are that preprints are a robust tool that can complement and enhance peer-reviewed publications. As publishing moves to embrace advances in Internet technology, there are many opportunities for preprints and peer-reviewed journals to coexist in the same ecosystem. PMID:28536284

  13. Microbiology in Switzerland,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Parasitological Institute; The Swiss Serum and Vaccine Institute, Bern; University of Zurich, Institute for Medical Microbiology ; and Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Institute of Microbiology at Zurich.

  14. Successful Application of Active Learning Techniques to Introductory Microbiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Elizabeth A.

    2001-01-01

    Points out the low student achievement in microbiology courses and presents an active learning method applied in an introductory microbiology course which features daily quizzes, cooperative learning activities, and group projects. (Contains 30 references.) (YDS)

  15. Successful Application of Active Learning Techniques to Introductory Microbiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Elizabeth A.

    2001-01-01

    Points out the low student achievement in microbiology courses and presents an active learning method applied in an introductory microbiology course which features daily quizzes, cooperative learning activities, and group projects. (Contains 30 references.) (YDS)

  16. Machine vision technique for measuring glass container thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, Ralph M.; Mercier, Jeffrey A.

    2003-05-01

    The inspection of sidewall thickness provides important information about the production processes for glass container manufacture. By monitoring the thickness profile around the perimeter of bottles in real-time, the manufacturing process can be altered to produce higher quality products. This also provides the ability to identify and remove defective products. In order to improve the speed and accuracy of inspections, a new non-contact method for acquiring thickness profiles of glass bottles that employs optical and machine vision techniques has been developed and tested. One of the fundamental laws of optics, Snell's Law, is the basic concept upon which the inspection technique relies. The thickness of a flat plane of transparent material can be determined from Snell"s Law with a single beam of light that passes through the medium, reflects off the secondary surface, and travels back to the initial surface and passes through it. Based upon this principle, a new non-contact glass thickness measurement technique has been developed and it has demonstrated good accuracy.

  17. Axially perpendicular offset Raman scheme for reproducible measurement of housed samples in a noncircular container under variation of container orientation.

    PubMed

    Duy, Pham K; Chang, Kyeol; Sriphong, Lawan; Chung, Hoeil

    2015-03-17

    An axially perpendicular offset (APO) scheme that is able to directly acquire reproducible Raman spectra of samples contained in an oval container under variation of container orientation has been demonstrated. This scheme utilized an axially perpendicular geometry between the laser illumination and the Raman photon detection, namely, irradiation through a sidewall of the container and gathering of the Raman photon just beneath the container. In the case of either backscattering or transmission measurements, Raman sampling volumes for an internal sample vary when the orientation of an oval container changes; therefore, the Raman intensities of acquired spectra are inconsistent. The generated Raman photons traverse the same bottom of the container in the APO scheme; the Raman sampling volumes can be relatively more consistent under the same situation. For evaluation, the backscattering, transmission, and APO schemes were simultaneously employed to measure alcohol gel samples contained in an oval polypropylene container at five different orientations and then the accuracies of the determination of the alcohol concentrations were compared. The APO scheme provided the most reproducible spectra, yielding the best accuracy when the axial offset distance was 10 mm. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to study the characteristics of photon propagation in the APO scheme and to explain the origin of the optimal offset distance that was observed. In addition, the utility of the APO scheme was further demonstrated by analyzing samples in a circular glass container.

  18. Effect of Plant Antimicrobial Agents Containing Marinades on Storage Stability and Microbiological Quality of Broiler Chicken Cuts Packed with Modified Atmosphere Packaging.

    PubMed

    Alakomi, H-L; Maukonen, J; Honkapää, K; Storgårds, E; Quirin, K-W; Yang, B; Saarela, M

    2017-10-01

    The food industry, including the meat industry, is currently looking for natural preservatives to prevent the growth of harmful microbes in foods. The potential of plant-derived antimicrobial extracts to increase the shelf life and to delay the microbiological spoilage of marinated broiler chicken cuts in modified atmosphere packages during cold storage was investigated in this study. We evaluated the impact of aqueous ethanolic extracts of Finnish sea buckthorn berries and lingonberries and supercritical CO2-extracted herbal extracts from an antimicrobial blend and oregano leaves on the shelf life of broiler meat. The commercial antimicrobial blend extract and the oregano extract inhibited the growth of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and Brochothrix thermosphacta in the marinated samples. The antimicrobial blend extract also reduced the growth of psychrotrophic aerobic bacteria, whereas the sea buckthorn and lingonberry extracts did not. Only minor antimicrobial activity against Enterobacteriaceae by all the extracts was observed. Plate count analysis, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, and quantitative real-time PCR indicated that LAB, which are the major spoilage group in marinated modified atmosphere-packaged poultry products, were not significantly affected by the berry extracts studied. During this shelf-life study, LAB isolates of Lactobacillus and Leuconostoc were identified in the marinated samples. Antimicrobial blends and oregano leaf extracts can act as antimicrobial agents in marinade blends, although tailoring of the dose is needed because of their strong taste. Further studies for exploiting synergistic effects of plant extracts could contribute to the development of potential and more effective antimicrobial blends. Studies are needed in meat matrices and in product applications to demonstrate the efficacy of these compounds.

  19. Aquatic Microbiology Laboratory Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Robert C.; And Others

    This laboratory manual presents information and techniques dealing with aquatic microbiology as it relates to environmental health science, sanitary engineering, and environmental microbiology. The contents are divided into three categories: (1) ecological and physiological considerations; (2) public health aspects; and (3)microbiology of water…

  20. Aquatic Microbiology Laboratory Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Robert C.; And Others

    This laboratory manual presents information and techniques dealing with aquatic microbiology as it relates to environmental health science, sanitary engineering, and environmental microbiology. The contents are divided into three categories: (1) ecological and physiological considerations; (2) public health aspects; and (3)microbiology of water…

  1. Pulsed eddy current thickness measurements of transuranic waste containers

    SciTech Connect

    O`Brien, T.K.; Kunerth, D.C.

    1995-12-31

    Thickness measurements on fifty five gallon waste drums for drum integrity purposes have been traditionally performed at the INEL using ultrasonic testing methods. Ultrasonic methods provide high resolution repeatable thickness measurements in a timely manner, however, the major drawback of using ultrasonic techniques is coupling to the drum. Areas with severe exterior corrosion, debonded paper labels or any other obstacle in the acoustic path will have to be omitted from the ultrasonic scan. We have developed a pulsed eddy current scanning system that can take thickness measurements on fifty five gallon carbon steel drums with wall thicknesses up to 65 mils. This type of measurement is not susceptible to the problems mentioned above. Eddy current measurements in the past have excluded ferromagnetic materials such as carbon steel because of the difficulty in penetrating the material and in compensating for changes in permeability from material to material. New developments in data acquisition electronics as well as advances in personal computers have made a pulsed eddy current system practical and inexpensive. Certain aspects of the pulsed eddy current technique as well as the operation of such a system and features such as real time pass/fail thresholds for overpacking identification and full scan data archiving for future evaluation will be discussed.

  2. Periodontal Microbiology.

    PubMed

    Harvey, John D

    2017-04-01

    This article provides a review of current information about periodontal bacteria, their activities within dental plaque biofilm, their interactions with the host immune system, and the infections with which they are associated. Periodontal disease, plaque formation, and the host immune response are also discussed, as are antimicrobial measures used to control the bacteria and the disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Microbiological assessment of the application of quicklime and limestone as a measure to stabilize the structure of compaction-prone soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deltedesco, Evi; Bauer, Lisa-Maria; Unterfrauner, Hans; Peticzka, Robert; Zehetner, Franz; Keiblinger, Katharina Maria

    2014-05-01

    Compaction of soils is caused by increasing mechanization of agriculture and forestry, construction of pipelines, surface mining and land recultivation. This results in degradation of aggregate stability and a decrease of pore space, esp. of macropores. It further impairs the water- and air permeability, and restricts the habitat of soil organisms. A promising approach to stabilize the structure and improve the permeability of soils is the addition of polyvalent ions like Ca2+ which can be added in form of quicklime (CaO) and limestone (CaCO3). In this study, we conducted a greenhouse pot experiment using these two different sources of calcium ions in order to evaluate their effect over time on physical properties and soil microbiology. We sampled silty and clayey soils from three different locations in Austria and incubated them with and without the liming materials (application 12.5 g) for 3 months in four replicates. In order to assess short-term and medium-term effects, soil samples were taken 2 days, 1 month and 3 months after application of quicklime and limestone, respectively. For these samples, we determined pH, bulk density, aggregate stability and water retention characteristics. Further, we measured microbiological parameters, such as potential enzyme activities (cellulase, phosphatase, chitinase, protease, phenoloxidase and peroxidase activity), PLFAs, microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen, dissolved organic carbon and nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen and ammonium nitrogen. In contrast to limestone, quicklime significantly improved soil aggregate stability in all tested soils only 2 days after application. Initially, soil pH was strongly increased by quicklime; however, after the second sampling (one month) the pH values of all tested soils returned to levels comparable to the soils treated with limestone. Our preliminary microbiological results show an immediate inhibition effect of quicklime on most potential hydrolytic enzyme activities and an increase in

  4. Application of stable isotope measurements and microbiological analysis for detecting methanogenic activity in a temperate forest wetland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoh, M.; Katsuyama, C.; Kondo, N.; Ohte, N.; Kato, K.

    2009-12-01

    Generally, forest soils act as a sink for methane (CH4). However, wetlands in riparian zones are recently reported to be “hot spots” of CH4 emissions, especially in forests under a humid climate. To understand how environmental conditions (i.e. hydrological and/or geomorphic condition) control on CH4 production, we investigated both methanogenic pathways (CO2/H2 reduction and acetate fermentation) and metahanogenic microbial communities in a wetland in a temperate forest catchment, central Japan. We used stable carbon isotopic analysis for detecting change in methanogenic pathways, and applied microbiological analysis for understanding the structure of methanogenic community. CH4 emission rates in wetland were strongly dependent on soil temperatures, and were highest in summer and lowest in winter. δ13CO2 increased with CH4 production in every summer, suggesting preferential use of 12CO2 as substrate for CO2/H2 reduction methanogenesis during high CH4 production period. δ13CH4 also increased in summer with δ13CO2. δ13CH4 changed more wildly than δ13CO2 did in summer with normal precipitation when CH4 production was strongly activated under high temperature and high groundwater table condition. This indicates increase in acetoclastic methanogenesis under hot and wet condition, considering that acetclastic methnogens produce heavier CH4 than that from CO2/H2 reducing pathway. Methanogen community composition estimated by cloning and sequence analyses implied that both acetoclastic and CO2/H2 reducing methanogens prevailed in wetland soil sampled in summer. This was consistent with the results of isotope measuremaents. Our results contribute to understand fully how the CH4 production changes with environmental conditions, with considering the activities of both main methanogenic pathway (from CO2 and acetate).

  5. [Effectiveness of the washing system in reusable glass containers: 3 "washing trials" at water bottling plants. Microbiologic results and methodologic and critical proposal].

    PubMed

    Bellido Blasco, J; Zulbeldia Lauzurica, L; Pagador Esteller, L

    1989-01-01

    As a consequence of carrying out the Cleaning Analysis for recoverable containers with a capacity of over 2 litres used in water bottling plants, executed in accordance with instructions from the Ministry of Health and Consumer Affairs, an analysis is made on its suitability and a system for evaluation is proposed, based on statistically verifiable hypotheses, thus taking advantage of the information generated by the Cleaning Analysis. The conclusions recommend the modification of these tests which affect a product whose consumption grows daily.

  6. Microbiologically influenced corrosion. Final report for fiscal year 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, D.A.; Amy, P.J.

    1996-06-06

    Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) is a serious concern when considering measures to guard against long-term corrosion of waste package containers at Yucca Mountain. An experimental program has been initiated to gain a better fundamental understanding of MIC in repository environments. Some engineering objectives will be achieved during the investigation: a reproducible apparatus and procedure for electrochemical monitoring of MIC will be developed; the most aggressive combinations of bacteria will be determined, and the MIC resistance of various candidate alloys for the multipurpose container (MPC) will be measured.

  7. Containment and surveillance -- A principal IAEA safeguards measure

    SciTech Connect

    Drayer, D.D.; Dupree, S.A.; Sonnier, C.S.

    1997-12-31

    The growth of the safeguards inspectorate of the Agency, spanning more than 40 years, has produced a variety of interesting subjects (legal, technical, political, etc.) for recollection, discussion, and study. Although the Agency was established in 1957, the first practical inspections did not occur until the early 1960s. In the early inspections, thee was little C/S equipment available, and no optical surveillance was used. However, by the third decade of the IAEA, the 1980s, many technology advances were made, and the level of C/S equipment activities increased. By the late 1980s, some 200 Twin Minolta film camera systems were deployed by the Agency for safeguards use. At the present time, the Agency is evaluating and beginning to implement remote monitoring as part of the Strengthened Safeguards System. However, adoption of remote monitoring by international agencies cannot occur rapidly because of the many technical and policy issues associated with this activity. A glimpse into the future indicates that an important element of safeguards instrumentation will be the merging of C/S and NDA equipment into integrated systems. The use of modern interior area monitors in International Safeguards also offers a great potential for advancing C/S measures. The research in microsensors is in its infancy, and the opportunities for their reducing the cost, increasing the life time, and increasing the reliability of sensors for safeguards applications are manifold. A period may be approaching in which the terminology of C/S will no longer have its original meaning, as integrated systems combining NDA instruments and C/S instruments are already in use and are expected to be the norm in the near future.

  8. Microbiological Spoilage of Acidified Specialty Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sperber, William H.

    Acidified specialty products or condiments are among the most microbiologically stable and safe food products. Often formulated, packaged, and distributed without heat treatments, they are microbiologically stable indefinitely at ambient temperatures in unopened containers. The packaged, acidified products are often intended for multiple uses, exposing them at the points of consumption to numerous opportunities for contamination with microorganisms. Nonetheless, they remain resistant to microbiological spoilage for many months, often under refrigerated conditions that are used to retard chemical reactions, flavor changes, and yeast growth.

  9. Evaluation of the efficacy of a probiotic drink containing Lactobacillus casei on the levels of periodontopathic bacteria in periodontitis: A clinico-microbiologic study.

    PubMed

    Imran, Faizuddin; Das, Sushma; Padmanabhan, Shyam; Rao, Ravi; Suresh, Aparnna; Bharath, Dhana

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate whether the oral administration of lactobacilli could change the bacterial population in subgingival plaque. Forty-two healthy volunteers with chronic generalized mild to moderate periodontitis were given a probiotic drink containing Lactobacillus casei for 1 month. Subgingival plaque samples were collected at baseline, after which the patients were asked to consume the probiotic drink once daily for 1 month. At the 1 month interval, plaque samples were collected, and the drink discontinued. The patients were recalled at 2 months interval for collection of the final samples. The bacterial amounts in the plaque samples were analyzed by multiplex polymerase chain reaction procedure. Of the three periodontopathic bacteria selected, Porphyromonas gingivalis showed highly significant reductions in the bacterial levels at 1-month and 2 months intervals. In comparison, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, when present higher than 10 × 10(3) at baseline, and Prevotella intermedia present higher than 2 × 10(3) at baseline, showed moderately significant reduction in their numbers. Oral administration of the probiotic lactobacilli reduced the numerical sum of the three selected periodontopathic bacteria and could contribute to the beneficial effects on periodontal conditions.

  10. Microbiology & Toxicology: Space Environment

    NASA Image and Video Library

    One key aspect in maintaining crew health and performance during spaceflight missions is the provision of a habitable environment with acceptably low concentrations of microbiological and toxicolog...

  11. Automation in Clinical Microbiology

    PubMed Central

    Ledeboer, Nathan A.

    2013-01-01

    Historically, the trend toward automation in clinical pathology laboratories has largely bypassed the clinical microbiology laboratory. In this article, we review the historical impediments to automation in the microbiology laboratory and offer insight into the reasons why we believe that we are on the cusp of a dramatic change that will sweep a wave of automation into clinical microbiology laboratories. We review the currently available specimen-processing instruments as well as the total laboratory automation solutions. Lastly, we outline the types of studies that will need to be performed to fully assess the benefits of automation in microbiology laboratories. PMID:23515547

  12. Microbiological Quality of Seafood Marketed in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Wong, Hin-Chung; Jiang, Huai-Yu; Lin, Hsu-Yang; Wang, Yu-Ting

    2015-11-01

    Seafood is often associated with foodborne illnesses, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus is the most common pathogen implicated in outbreaks in Taiwan. In this study, the microbiological quality of 300 raw or mixed ready-to-eat (RTE) and other cooking-needed seafood samples was examined. The total aerobic and coliform counts of the RTE samples were significantly higher than those of other cooking-needed samples. On average, 55.8 and 29.7% of the RTE samples failed to meet the local microbiological standards for total aerobic (5 log CFU/g) and coliform (3 log most probable number [MPN] per g), counts respectively; the corresponding percentages for the RTE samples from Taipei City were 9.1 and 18.2%, respectively. The total aerobic and coliform counts in the RTE samples from supermarkets and chain restaurants were significantly lower than those from traditional restaurants. The Vibrio species were more frequently identified in the cooking-needed samples than in RTE samples. Low incidences of V. parahaemolyticus (1.4%), V. vulnificus (1.9%), and V. cholerae (0%) were detected in most RTE samples. High densities of V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus (1,200 MPN/g) were detected in a few RTE samples, only one of which contained toxigenic (tdh(+)) V. parahaemolyticus. The results of this investigation reveal that better hygiene of seafood providers such as chain restaurants, supermarkets, and traditional restaurants in Taipei City would effectively improve the microbiological quality of the seafood. The results will facilitate the establishment of measures for controlling the risks associated with seafood in Taiwan.

  13. Egg Microbiology Basics

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Microbiology is the study of living microorganisms. This includes any single living animal not visible to the naked eye most of which are less than 0.1 mm in diameter. Bacteria, yeasts, molds, viruses, some algae and protozoans are considered microorganisms. Microbiology is a diverse field and fo...

  14. Microbiology, philosophy and education.

    PubMed

    O'Malley, Maureen A

    2016-09-01

    There are not only many links between microbiological and philosophical topics, but good educational reasons for microbiologists to explore the philosophical issues in their fields. I examine three broad issues of classification, causality and model systems, showing how these philosophical dimensions have practical implications. I conclude with a discussion of the educational benefits for recognising the philosophy in microbiology.

  15. Microbiology of Water.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geldreich, Edwin E.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of microbiology of water, covering publications of 1967-77. This review covers: (1) microbial indicators of pollution; and (2) microbiology of rivers, potable waters, natural lakes, and impoundments. A list of 192 references is also presented. (HM)

  16. Microbiology of Waste Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unz, Richard F.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of the microbiology of waste treatment, covering publications of 1976-77. This review includes topics such as: (1) sanitary microbiology; (2) wastewater disinfectant; (3) viruses in wastewater; and (4) wastewater microbial populations. A list of 142 references is also presented. (HM)

  17. Microbiology of Water.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geldreich, Edwin E.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of microbiology of water, covering publications of 1967-77. This review covers: (1) microbial indicators of pollution; and (2) microbiology of rivers, potable waters, natural lakes, and impoundments. A list of 192 references is also presented. (HM)

  18. Microbiology of Waste Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unz, Richard F.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of the microbiology of waste treatment, covering publications of 1976-77. This review includes topics such as: (1) sanitary microbiology; (2) wastewater disinfectant; (3) viruses in wastewater; and (4) wastewater microbial populations. A list of 142 references is also presented. (HM)

  19. Utilization management in microbiology.

    PubMed

    Branda, John A; Lewandrowski, Kent

    2014-01-01

    The available literature concerning utilization management in the clinical microbiology laboratory is relatively limited compared with that for high-volume, automated testing in the central Core Laboratory. However, the same strategies employed elsewhere in the clinical laboratory operation can be applied to utilization management challenges in microbiology, including decision support systems, application of evidence-based medicine, screening algorithms and gatekeeper functions. The results of testing in the microbiology laboratory have significant effects on the cost of clinical care, especially costs related to antimicrobial agents and infection control practices. Consequently many of the successful utilization management interventions described in clinical microbiology have targeted not just the volume of tests performed in the laboratory, but also the downstream costs of care. This article will review utilization management strategies in clinical microbiology, including specific examples from our institution and other healthcare organizations.

  20. [Environmental microbiological control].

    PubMed

    Martín Salas, Carmen; Tordoya Titichoca, Igberto J; Ezpeleta Baquedano, Carmen

    2016-07-01

    The environmental microbiological control is necessary to prevent infections associated with certain procedures that are performed at the hospital. In this review the procedures for control of water and dialysis fluids, and air in operating rooms and immunocompromised units are addressed. The dialysis quality management guidelines define the highest levels of chemical, microbiological and endotoxin in purified water and dialysis fluids based on the recommendations of scientific societies. The microbiological control of water and dialysis fluids should include detection of microorganisms and endotoxin levels. Regarding the microbiological air sampling of operating rooms and immunocompromised units the types of clean rooms in which is recommended to perform microbiological air monitoring; the sample collection methods; culture media; incubation conditions; the most common microorganisms, and permissible levels depending on the type of surgery are described. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Clinical microbiology informatics.

    PubMed

    Rhoads, Daniel D; Sintchenko, Vitali; Rauch, Carol A; Pantanowitz, Liron

    2014-10-01

    The clinical microbiology laboratory has responsibilities ranging from characterizing the causative agent in a patient's infection to helping detect global disease outbreaks. All of these processes are increasingly becoming partnered more intimately with informatics. Effective application of informatics tools can increase the accuracy, timeliness, and completeness of microbiology testing while decreasing the laboratory workload, which can lead to optimized laboratory workflow and decreased costs. Informatics is poised to be increasingly relevant in clinical microbiology, with the advent of total laboratory automation, complex instrument interfaces, electronic health records, clinical decision support tools, and the clinical implementation of microbial genome sequencing. This review discusses the diverse informatics aspects that are relevant to the clinical microbiology laboratory, including the following: the microbiology laboratory information system, decision support tools, expert systems, instrument interfaces, total laboratory automation, telemicrobiology, automated image analysis, nucleic acid sequence databases, electronic reporting of infectious agents to public health agencies, and disease outbreak surveillance. The breadth and utility of informatics tools used in clinical microbiology have made them indispensable to contemporary clinical and laboratory practice. Continued advances in technology and development of these informatics tools will further improve patient and public health care in the future. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  2. Microbiological Assay Using Bioluminescent Organism.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    A microbiological assay based on bioluminesce employing the bioluminescent dinoflagellate Pyrocystis lunula. An oil well drilling fluid sample is... Pyrocystis lunula in suspension. The mixture is agitated to subject th Pyrocystis lunula to a shear stress. Light emitted as a result of the shear...stress on the Pyrocystic lunula is measure and compared with a control to determine if there is diminution of light produced by the Pyrocystis lunula in

  3. Microbiological quality of natural waters.

    PubMed

    Borrego, J J; Figueras, M J

    1997-12-01

    Several aspects of the microbiological quality of natural waters, especially recreational waters, have been reviewed. The importance of the water as a vehicle and/or a reservoir of human pathogenic microorganisms is also discussed. In addition, the concepts, types and techniques of microbial indicator and index microorganisms are established. The most important differences between faecal streptococci and enterococci have been discussed, defining the concept and species included. In addition, we have revised the main alternative indicators used to measure the water quality.

  4. Assessing the effectiveness of health care cost containment measures: evidence from the market for rehabilitation care.

    PubMed

    Ziebarth, Nicolas R

    2014-03-01

    This study empirically evaluates the effectiveness of different health care cost containment measures. The measures investigated were introduced in Germany in 1997 to reduce moral hazard and public health expenditures in the market for rehabilitation care. Of the analyzed measures, doubling the daily copayments was clearly the most effective cost containment measure, resulting in a reduction in utilization of about [Formula: see text] . Indirect measures such as allowing employers to cut federally mandated sick pay or paid vacation during inpatient post-acute care stays did not significantly reduce utilization. There is evidence neither for adverse health effects nor for substitution effects in terms of more doctor visits.

  5. European journals on microbiology.

    PubMed

    Ronda, C; Vázquez, M

    1997-12-01

    A survey on the scientific journals dealing with microbiology published in Europe has been carried out. Eighteen European countries publish microbiological journals with the United Kingdom. Netherlands and Germany leading in number of journals on this specialty. Most of the European journals on microbiology are published bimonthly (27%), and English is the most common language used (54%). Most of these journals (86%) are included in some database, but only 36 (25%) are indexed in the six databases studied. Out of the 146 journals registered, 71 (49%), published in 11 European countries, are included in the 1995 Journal Citation Reports (ISI, Philadelphia).

  6. Microbiologic evaluation of commercial probiotics.

    PubMed

    Weese, J Scott

    2002-03-15

    To evaluate contents of commercial probiotic products marketed for veterinary or human administration. Microbiologic culture assay. 8 veterinary probiotics and 5 human probiotics. Quantitative bacteriologic culture was performed on all products, and isolates were identified via biochemical characteristics. Comparison of actual contents versus label claims was performed. Label descriptions of organisms and concentrations accurately described the actual contents of only 2 of 13 products. Five veterinary products did not specifically list their contents. Most products contained low concentrations of viable organisms. Five products did not contain 1 or more of the stated organisms, and 3 products contained additional species. Some products contained organisms with no reported probiotic effects; some of these organisms could be pathogens. Most commercial veterinary probiotic preparations are not accurately represented by label claims. Quality control appears to be poor for commercial veterinary probiotics.

  7. Next Generation Microbiology Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ott, C. M.; Oubre, C. M.; Elliott, T. F.; Castro, V. A.; Pierson, D. L.

    2012-01-01

    As humans continue to explore deep into space, microorganisms will travel with them. The primary means to mitigate the risk of infectious disease are a combination of prudent spacecraft design and rigorous operational controls. The effectiveness of these methods are evaluated by microbiological monitoring of spacecraft, food, water, and the crew that is performed preflight, in-flight, and post-flight. Current NASA requirements associated with microbiological monitoring are based on culture-based methodology where microorganisms are grown on a semi-solid growth medium and enumerated. Subsequent identification of the organisms requires specialized labor and large equipment, which historically has been performed on Earth. Requirements that rely strictly on culture-based units limit the use of non-culture based monitoring technology. Specifically, the culture-based "measurement criteria" are Colony Forming Units (CFU, representing the growth of one microorganism at a single location on the agar medium) per a given volume, area, or sample size. As the CFU unit by definition is culture-based, these requirements limit alternative technologies for spaceflight applications. As spaceflight missions such as those to Mars extend further into space, culture-based technology will become difficult to implement due to the (a) limited shelf life of the culture media, (b) mass/volume necessary to carry these consumables, and (c) problems associated with the production of biohazardous material in the habitable volume of the spacecraft. In addition, an extensive amount of new knowledge has been obtained during the Space Shuttle, NASA-Mir, and International Space Station Programs, which gave direction for new or modified microbial control requirements for vehicle design and mission operations. The goal of this task is to develop and recommend a new set of requirements for vehicle design and mission operations, including microbiological monitoring, based upon "lessons learned" and new

  8. How many microbiology consultants are needed?

    PubMed Central

    Bignardi, G E

    1993-01-01

    It is difficult to measure medical staff workload and medical staff requirements in microbiology departments. A review of 14 job descriptions for consultant microbiologists showed that the number of hospital beds and the number of specimens are more reliable workload indices than the population figure. Ratios between beds or specimens and medical staff numbers may help to identify understaffed or overstaffed microbiology departments. PMID:8254095

  9. Spectrometric microbiological analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlager, Kenneth J.; Meissner, Ken E.

    1996-04-01

    Currently, there are four general approaches to microbiological analysis, i.e., the detection, identification and quantification of micro-organisms: (1) Traditional culturing and staining procedures, metabolic fermentations and visual morphological characteristics; (2) Immunological approaches employing microbe-specific antibodies; (3) Biotechnical techniques employing DNA probes and related genetic engineering methods; and (4) Physical measurement techniques based on the biophysical properties of micro-organisms. This paper describes an instrumentation development in the fourth of the above categories, physical measurement, that uses a combination of fluorometric and light scatter spectra to detect and identify micro-organisms at the species level. A major advantage of this approach is the rapid turnaround possible in medical diagnostic or water testing applications. Fluorometric spectra serve to define the biochemical characteristics of the microbe, and light scatter spectra the size and shape morphology. Together, the two spectra define a 'fingerprint' for each species of microbe for detection, identification and quantification purposes. A prototype instrument has been developed and tested under NASA sponsorship based on fluorometric spectra alone. This instrument demonstrated identification and quantification capabilities at the species level. The paper reports on test results using this instrument, and the benefits of employing a combination of fluorometric and light scatter spectra.

  10. The Literature of Microbiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sengupta, I. N.

    1974-01-01

    A ranking of periodicals in the field of microbiology which may help librarians, documentalist and research workers in choosing journals which most effectively cover the significant literature. Includes tables of rank and citation analysis. (Author/LS)

  11. Educational Technology and Microbiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellias, Loretta C.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Reports the development of "interrupted guidance" and slide tape instructional units for college biology and microbiology laboratory courses to counter problems of decreasing student ability and preparation, decreasing funding, increasing costs, increasing enrollment, and decreasing student-faculty interchange. (SL)

  12. Subsurface Microbiology and Biogeochemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Fredrickson, Jim K.; Fletcher, Madilyn

    2001-05-01

    Jim contributed a chapter to this book, in addition to co-editing it with Madilyn Fletcher. Fredrickson, J. K., and M. Fletcher. (eds.) 2001 Subsurface Microbiology and Biogeochemistry. Wiley-Liss, Inc., New York.

  13. Microbiological and toxicological quality of dried herbs.

    PubMed

    Vitullo, M; Ripabelli, G; Fanelli, I; Tamburro, M; Delfine, S; Sammarco, M L

    2011-06-01

    The microbiological and toxicological quality of 51 samples of dried herbs (Melissa officinalis, Salvia officinalis, Malva sylvestris, Matricaria chamomilla, Alchemilla vulgaris and Centaurea cyanus) cultivated in family-managed farms in Molise Region (Italy) was evaluated. All the samples were analysed by using conventional methods, and for samples preparation, an alternative Washing and Shaking (WaS) protocol was developed to reduce release of antimicrobial compounds. None of the samples were of unsatisfactory quality with respect to aflatoxin B1, and only three samples from Malva sylvestris exceeded the limit of total aflatoxins according to Recommendation 2004/24/EC. The International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Foods limits for mesophilic bacteria and total coliforms were exceeded in the 29.4 and 3.9% of samples, respectively: 7.8% of samples also exceeded the limit for Escherichia coli established by European Spice Association. When the 'WaS' method was used, higher microbial counts were obtained, especially for A. vulgaris, S. officinalis and M. officinalis. Herbs cultivated in family-managed small agricultural areas showed a good microbiological and toxicological quality, irrespectively of preliminary washing or selection procedures. Herb matrices may contain antimicrobial activity which should be considered when applying the conventional microbiological methods for sample preparation. Alternative preparation protocols may have advantages to reduce antimicrobial effects and should be further evaluated. © 2011 The Authors. Letters in Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  14. A Microbiology Information System

    PubMed Central

    Peebles, James E.; Ryan, Kenneth J.

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes a microbiology information system which is integrated into a general purpose laboratory information system as well as into the normal workflow of the microbiology laboratory. Data entry using “customized” terminal keyboards greatly simplify technologists interaction with the system allowing direct entry of results at each workstation. Results are reported in a user oriented format utilizing full English description of all terms.

  15. Clinical Microbiology Informatics

    PubMed Central

    Sintchenko, Vitali; Rauch, Carol A.; Pantanowitz, Liron

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The clinical microbiology laboratory has responsibilities ranging from characterizing the causative agent in a patient's infection to helping detect global disease outbreaks. All of these processes are increasingly becoming partnered more intimately with informatics. Effective application of informatics tools can increase the accuracy, timeliness, and completeness of microbiology testing while decreasing the laboratory workload, which can lead to optimized laboratory workflow and decreased costs. Informatics is poised to be increasingly relevant in clinical microbiology, with the advent of total laboratory automation, complex instrument interfaces, electronic health records, clinical decision support tools, and the clinical implementation of microbial genome sequencing. This review discusses the diverse informatics aspects that are relevant to the clinical microbiology laboratory, including the following: the microbiology laboratory information system, decision support tools, expert systems, instrument interfaces, total laboratory automation, telemicrobiology, automated image analysis, nucleic acid sequence databases, electronic reporting of infectious agents to public health agencies, and disease outbreak surveillance. The breadth and utility of informatics tools used in clinical microbiology have made them indispensable to contemporary clinical and laboratory practice. Continued advances in technology and development of these informatics tools will further improve patient and public health care in the future. PMID:25278581

  16. Advanced ultrasonic measurement methodology for non-invasive interrogation and identification of fluids in sealed containers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucker, Brian J.; Diaz, Aaron A.; Eckenrode, Brian A.

    2006-03-01

    Government agencies and homeland security related organizations have identified the need to develop and establish a wide range of unprecedented capabilities for providing scientific and technical forensic services to investigations involving hazardous chemical, biological, and radiological materials, including extremely dangerous chemical and biological warfare agents. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has developed a prototype portable, hand-held, hazardous materials acoustic inspection prototype that provides noninvasive container interrogation and material identification capabilities using nondestructive ultrasonic velocity and attenuation measurements. Due to the wide variety of fluids as well as container sizes and materials encountered in various law enforcement inspection activities, the need for high measurement sensitivity and advanced ultrasonic measurement techniques were identified. The prototype was developed using a versatile electronics platform, advanced ultrasonic wave propagation methods, and advanced signal processing techniques. This paper primarily focuses on the ultrasonic measurement methods and signal processing techniques incorporated into the prototype. High bandwidth ultrasonic transducers combined with an advanced pulse compression technique allowed researchers to 1) obtain high signal-to-noise ratios and 2) obtain accurate and consistent time-of-flight (TOF) measurements through a variety of highly attenuative containers and fluid media. Results of work conducted in the laboratory have demonstrated that the prototype experimental measurement technique also provided information regarding container properties, which will be utilized in future container-independent measurements of hidden liquids.

  17. Advanced Ultrasonic Measurement Methodology for Non-Invasive Interrogation and Identification of Fluids in Sealed Containers

    SciTech Connect

    Tucker, Brian J.; Diaz, Aaron A.; Eckenrode, Brian A.

    2006-03-16

    The Hazardous Materials Response Unit (HMRU) and the Counterterrorism and Forensic Science Research Unit (CTFSRU), Laboratory Division, Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) have been mandated to develop and establish a wide range of unprecedented capabilities for providing scientific and technical forensic services to investigations involving hazardous chemical, biological, and radiological materials, including extremely dangerous chemical and biological warfare agents. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has developed a portable, hand-held, hazardous materials acoustic inspection device (HAZAID) that provides noninvasive container interrogation and material identification capabilities using nondestructive ultrasonic velocity and attenuation measurements. Due to the wide variety of fluids as well as container sizes and materials, the need for high measurement sensitivity and advanced ultrasonic measurement techniques were identified. The HAZAID prototype was developed using a versatile electronics platform, advanced ultrasonic wave propagation methods, and advanced signal processing techniques. This paper primarily focuses on the ultrasonic measurement methods and signal processing techniques incorporated into the HAZAID prototype. High bandwidth ultrasonic transducers combined with the advanced pulse compression technique allowed researchers to 1) impart large amounts of energy, 2) obtain high signal-to-noise ratios, and 3) obtain accurate and consistent time-of-flight (TOF) measurements through a variety of highly attenuative containers and fluid media. Results of this feasibility study demonstrated that the HAZAID experimental measurement technique also provided information regarding container properties, which will be utilized in future container-independent measurements of hidden liquids.

  18. Advanced ultrasonic measurement methodology for non-invasive interrogation and identification of fluids in sealed containers

    SciTech Connect

    Tucker, Brian J.; Diaz, Aaron A.; Eckenrode, Brian A.

    2006-05-01

    Government agencies and homeland security related organizations have identified the need to develop and establish a wide range of unprecedented capabilities for providing scientific and technical forensic services to investigations involving hazardous chemical, biological, and radiological materials, including extremely dangerous chemical and biological warfare agents. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has developed a prototype portable, hand-held, hazardous materials acoustic inspection prototype that provides noninvasive container interrogation and material identification capabilities using nondestructive ultrasonic velocity and attenuation measurements. Due to the wide variety of fluids as well as container sizes and materials encountered in various law enforcement inspection activities, the need for high measurement sensitivity and advanced ultrasonic measurement techniques were identified. The prototype was developed using a versatile electronics platform, advanced ultrasonic wave propagation methods, and advanced signal processing techniques. This paper primarily focuses on the ultrasonic measurement methods and signal processing techniques incorporated into the prototype. High bandwidth ultrasonic transducers combined with an advanced pulse compression technique allowed researchers to 1) obtain high signal-to-noise ratios and 2) obtain accurate and consistent time-of-flight (TOF) measurements through a variety of highly attenuative containers and fluid media. Results of work conducted in the laboratory have demonstrated that the prototype experimental measurement technique also provided information regarding container properties, which will be utilized in future container-independent measurements of hidden liquids.

  19. Containers and systems for the measurement of radioactive gases and related methods

    DOEpatents

    Mann, Nicholas R; Watrous, Matthew G; Oertel, Christopher P; McGrath, Christopher A

    2017-06-20

    Containers for a fluid sample containing a radionuclide for measurement of radiation from the radionuclide include an outer shell having one or more ports between an interior and an exterior of the outer shell, and an inner shell secured to the outer shell. The inner shell includes a detector receptacle sized for at least partial insertion into the outer shell. The inner shell and outer shell together at least partially define a fluid sample space. The outer shell and inner shell are configured for maintaining an operating pressure within the fluid sample space of at least about 1000 psi. Systems for measuring radioactivity in a fluid include such a container and a radiation detector received at least partially within the detector receptacle. Methods of measuring radioactivity in a fluid sample include maintaining a pressure of a fluid sample within a Marinelli-type container at least at about 1000 psi.

  20. Microbiological studies on hamburgers

    PubMed Central

    Tamminga, S. K.; Beumer, R. R.; Kampelmacher, E. H.

    1982-01-01

    One hundred and eighty-two raw, 112 pre-cooked and 750 cooked hamburgers composed mainly of beef or beef and pork were subjected to microbiological examination. Raw hamburgers gave total bacterial counts from 106 to 108 per g, counts of Enterobacteriaceae from 104 to 106 per g, of Escherichia coli from 103 to 105, of group D streptococci from 102 to 104, of Staphylococcus aureus from 3 to 102 and of Clostridium perfringens less than 10 bacteria per g. Of the samples, 32% contained salmonellas; the highest most probable number was 102 per g but most estimates were below 1 per g. Corresponding figures for the pre-cooked samples were 2-3 log cycles lower, and only one sample contained salmonella. Yersinia enterocolitica was not isolated from any raw or pre-cooked sample. Three hundred and ninety-five of the cooked hamburgers were prepared by grilling raw hamburgers for between 2 and 5·5 min. These gave total bacterial counts from 105 to 107 per g, and counts of Enterobacteriaceae from 102 to 105 per g. Of the samples, 9·4% contained salmonellas, always in numbers below 1 per g. The remaining 355 cooked hamburgers were prepared from samples pre-cooked for 10 min at 80 °C. Some were grilled and some fat fried. The total bacterial counts were from 103 to 105 per g, and counts of Enterobacteriaceae below 102 per g. Salmonellae, again in small numbers only, were recovered from 3·5% of samples. When hamburgers were artificially contaminated with Salmonella typhimurium it took 5·5 min on a commercial grill, 2·25 min frying in a frying pan and 1·75 min on a household grill to reliably reduce the salmonella count one hundredfold. This means that at many vending places hamburgers are often cooked for too short a time. D-values were determined for S. typhimurium in hamburger meat at 50, 55, 60, 65 and 70 °C, these values were 7·1, 5·1, 1·2, 0·9 and 0·6 min respectively. It can be concluded that the heating action in the centre of the hamburgers will take place more

  1. Microbiological quality of pediatric oral liquid formulations.

    PubMed

    Cabañas Poy, Maria Josep; Cañete Ramírez, Carme; González di Lauro, Sabina X; Rodríguez Garrido, Virginia; Roig Carbajosa, Gloria; Fernández-Polo, Aurora; Clemente Bautista, Susana

    2016-09-01

    The oral administration of drugs to the pediatric population involves the extemporaneous preparation of liquid formulations. These formulations have studies on their physicochemical stability, but they often lack microbiological studies. The objective of this study is to check the microbiological quality of five oral liquid formulations prepared with different excipients, which represent five major combinations, in two conditions: kept unopened until the day of the test, and in a multi-dose vial opened daily. The formulations were prepared according to standard operating procedures. Half of each batch was packaged in vials that remained closed until the day of testing, and the other half in a single container which was opened daily. Both the vials and the containers had been previously sterilized. Microbiological tests were performed weekly during the first month of the study, and then every two weeks, until the expiration date. The microbiological quality of oral liquid formulations is determined by the Royal Spanish Pharmacopoeia. The conclusion was that none of the formulations prepared that were packaged in sterilized containers became contaminated, either in unopened vials or in multi-dose containers when they were opened daily.

  2. Characteristics of atmospheric aerosols containing heavy metals measured on Fukue Island, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidemori, Takehiro; Nakayama, Tomoki; Matsumi, Yutaka; Kinugawa, Takashi; Yabushita, Akihiro; Ohashi, Masafumi; Miyoshi, Takao; Irei, Satoshi; Takami, Akinori; Kaneyasu, Naoki; Yoshino, Ayako; Suzuki, Ryota; Yumoto, Yayoi; Hatakeyama, Shiro

    2014-11-01

    To investigate transport and chemical compositions of fine aerosols in the East Asian region, aerosol chemical components and their mixing states were measured at Fukue Island in the spring of 2010. Off-line chemical analyses using an ion chromatographic analyzer and an inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer for the aerosols sampled by a high volume sampler have also been conducted. The mixing state and temporal variation of number concentrations of the particles containing lead (Pb) and vanadium (V) were studied by using a laser ionization single-particle aerosol mass spectrometer (LISPA-MS). The temporal variation of number concentrations of particles containing Pb measured by the LISPA-MS is well consistent with those obtained by the chemical analysis of the aerosols sampled by the high volume sampler. The Pb-containing particles were classified into four types from the statistical analysis on the basis of the single-particle mass spectra with assists of laboratory experiments. It is estimated that 52% of observed particles containing Pb were originated from coal combustion. The concentration-weighted trajectory (CWT) analysis suggests that these particles are mainly transported from China continent. The V-containing particles were classified into three types. The 41% of V-containing particles were internally mixed with sea salt and the result of CWT analysis suggests that the potentially anthropogenic V-containing particles possibility emitted from ships are mixing with sea salt in the region that is highly loaded with sea salt in the Pacific Ocean.

  3. Consolidated clinical microbiology laboratories.

    PubMed

    Sautter, Robert L; Thomson, Richard B

    2015-05-01

    The manner in which medical care is reimbursed in the United States has resulted in significant consolidation in the U.S. health care system. One of the consequences of this has been the development of centralized clinical microbiology laboratories that provide services to patients receiving care in multiple off-site, often remote, locations. Microbiology specimens are unique among clinical specimens in that optimal analysis may require the maintenance of viable organisms. Centralized laboratories may be located hours from patient care settings, and transport conditions need to be such that organism viability can be maintained under a variety of transport conditions. Further, since the provision of rapid results has been shown to enhance patient care, effective and timely means for generating and then reporting the results of clinical microbiology analyses must be in place. In addition, today, increasing numbers of patients are found to have infection caused by pathogens that were either very uncommon in the past or even completely unrecognized. As a result, infectious disease specialists, in particular, are more dependent than ever on access to high-quality diagnostic information from clinical microbiology laboratories. In this point-counterpoint discussion, Robert Sautter, who directs a Charlotte, NC, clinical microbiology laboratory that provides services for a 40-hospital system spread over 3 states in the southeastern United States explains how an integrated clinical microbiology laboratory service has been established in a multihospital system. Richard (Tom) Thomson of the NorthShore University HealthSystem in Evanston, IL, discusses some of the problems and pitfalls associated with large-scale laboratory consolidation.

  4. Apparatus for measuring the local void fraction in a flowing liquid containing a gas

    DOEpatents

    Dunn, Patrick F.

    1981-01-01

    The local void fraction in liquid containing a gas is measured by placing an impedance-variation probe in the liquid, applying a controlled voltage or current to the probe, and measuring the probe current or voltage. A circuit for applying the one electrical parameter and measuring the other includes a feedback amplifier that minimizes the effect of probe capacitance and a digitizer to provide a clean signal. Time integration of the signal provides a measure of the void fraction, and an oscilloscope display also shows bubble size and distribution.

  5. Apparatus for measuring the local void fraction in a flowing liquid containing a gas

    DOEpatents

    Dunn, P.F.

    1979-07-17

    The local void fraction in liquid containing a gas is measured by placing an impedance-variation probe in the liquid, applying a controlled voltage or current to the probe, and measuring the probe current or voltage. A circuit for applying the one electrical parameter and measuring the other includes a feedback amplifier that minimizes the effect of probe capacitance and a digitizer to provide a clean signal. Time integration of the signal provides a measure of the void fraction, and an oscilloscope display also shows bubble size and distribution.

  6. MICROBIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF FOOD SUPPLEMENTS.

    PubMed

    Ratajczak, Magdalena; Kubicka, Marcelina M; Kamińska, Dorota; Długaszewska, Jolanta

    2015-01-01

    Many specialists note that the food offered today - as a result of very complex technological processing - is devoid of many components that are important for the organism and the shortages have to be supplemented. The simplest for it is to consume diet supplements that provide the missing element in a concentrated form. In accordance with the applicable law, medicinal products include all substances or mixtures of substances that are attributed with properties of preventing or treating diseases with humans or animals. Permits to admit supplements to the market are issued by the Chief Sanitary Inspector and the related authorities; permits for medicines are issued by the Chief Pharmaceutical Inspector and the Office for Registration of Medicinal Products, Medical Devices and Biocidal Products. Therefore, admittance of a supplement to the market is less costly and time consuming_than admittance of a medicine. Supplements and medicines may contain the same component but medicines will have a larger concentration than supplements. Sale of supplements at drug stores and in the form of tablets, capsules, liquids or powders makes consumer often confusing supplements with medicines. Now there are no normative documents specifying limits of microbiological impurities in diet supplements. In Polish legislation, diet supplements are subject to legal acts concerning food. Medicines have to comply with microbiological purity requirements specified in the Polish Pharmacopeia. As evidenced with the completed tests, the proportion of diet supplement samples with microbiological impurities is 6.5%. Sales of diet supplements have been growing each year, they are consumed by healthy people but also people with immunology deficiencies and by children and therefore consumers must be certain that they buy safe products.

  7. OVERVIEW OF WATER MICROBIOLOGY AS IT RELATES TO PUBLIC HEALTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    One of the most important aspects of water microbiology is that we acquire numerous diseases from microorganisms found in water. Some of these diseases represent intoxications. One category of intoxication comes from drinking water which contains toxins produced by cyanobacteria ...

  8. 7 CFR 58.648 - Microbiological requirements for ice cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Service 1 Requirements for Finished Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.648 Microbiological requirements for ice cream. The finished product shall contain not more than 50,000 bacteria per gram...

  9. 7 CFR 58.653 - Microbiological requirements for sherbet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Service 1 Requirements for Finished Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.653 Microbiological requirements for sherbet. The finished product shall contain not more than 50,000 bacteria per gram...

  10. 7 CFR 58.653 - Microbiological requirements for sherbet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Service 1 Requirements for Finished Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.653 Microbiological requirements for sherbet. The finished product shall contain not more than 50,000 bacteria per gram...

  11. 7 CFR 58.653 - Microbiological requirements for sherbet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Service 1 Requirements for Finished Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.653 Microbiological requirements for sherbet. The finished product shall contain not more than 50,000 bacteria per gram...

  12. 7 CFR 58.648 - Microbiological requirements for ice cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Service 1 Requirements for Finished Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.648 Microbiological requirements for ice cream. The finished product shall contain not more than 50,000 bacteria per gram...

  13. 7 CFR 58.653 - Microbiological requirements for sherbet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Service 1 Requirements for Finished Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.653 Microbiological requirements for sherbet. The finished product shall contain not more than 50,000 bacteria per gram...

  14. 7 CFR 58.648 - Microbiological requirements for ice cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Service 1 Requirements for Finished Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.648 Microbiological requirements for ice cream. The finished product shall contain not more than 50,000 bacteria per gram...

  15. 7 CFR 58.653 - Microbiological requirements for sherbet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Service 1 Requirements for Finished Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.653 Microbiological requirements for sherbet. The finished product shall contain not more than 50,000 bacteria per gram...

  16. 7 CFR 58.648 - Microbiological requirements for ice cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Service 1 Requirements for Finished Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.648 Microbiological requirements for ice cream. The finished product shall contain not more than 50,000 bacteria per gram...

  17. OVERVIEW OF WATER MICROBIOLOGY AS IT RELATES TO PUBLIC HEALTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    One of the most important aspects of water microbiology is that we acquire numerous diseases from microorganisms found in water. Some of these diseases represent intoxications. One category of intoxication comes from drinking water which contains toxins produced by cyanobacteria ...

  18. Microbiology Made Relevant

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cronholm, Lois S.; Metz, Mildred C.

    1976-01-01

    Described are two hospital-based laboratory exercises which helped students perceive the relationship between the principles of microbiology and the practice of nursing. The exercises involved an environmental study focusing on problems of nosocomial infection and a study of patients hospitalized with infectious diseases. (Author/MS)

  19. Groundwater pollution microbiology

    SciTech Connect

    Bitton, G.; Gerba, C.P.

    1984-01-01

    This book provides a survey of available information on groundwater pollution microbiology. It is useful as a starting point for students and professionals investigating this topic. Subjects discussed include bacteria and virus movement through soils, carcinogenicity of some organic chemicals detected in groundwater, sampling techniques, and land treatment systems. Include references to the journal literature and a subject index.

  20. Microbiology of ensiling

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Recent advances in our understanding of silage microbiology are reviewed. The ability to extract microbial DNA from silages, amplify portions of DNA, and then separate those portions by the strains of microorganisms that have produced them has been at the core of the changes that have occurred recen...

  1. Curricular Guidelines in Microbiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilett, Norman P.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    The American Association of Dental Schools' guidelines for curriculum development in microbiology outline the scope of the subject, interrelationships with other disciplines and specialties, primary educational goals, prerequisites, core content, specific behavioral objectives in each subarea, sequencing, and faculty and facilities requirements.…

  2. Microbiology Made Relevant

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cronholm, Lois S.; Metz, Mildred C.

    1976-01-01

    Described are two hospital-based laboratory exercises which helped students perceive the relationship between the principles of microbiology and the practice of nursing. The exercises involved an environmental study focusing on problems of nosocomial infection and a study of patients hospitalized with infectious diseases. (Author/MS)

  3. INTRODUCTION TO ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental microbiology is the study of those microorganisms which exist in natural or artificial environments. The origin of scientific research in this field rests in the observations of Antony van Leewenhoeck that were published in 1677(4). Van Leewenhoeck used a microsco...

  4. Making Microbiology Even Smaller!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Linda Mull; Motz, Vicki Abrams

    2013-01-01

    We outline protocols for producing slant-minis (SLINIs) and mini-deeps (MEEPs) and examples of their use in simple microbiology experiments suitable for high school students. The principal benefits of these protocols are decreased cost associated with significantly reduced media use; easier, less expensive disposal of waste; and increased safety…

  5. Predictive Microbiology and HACCP.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Philip H

    1996-12-01

    While both predictive microbiology and hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) programs are still in the developmental stages as food-safety tools, predictive models are available that are potentially useful in the development and maintenance of HACCP systems. When conducting a HACCP study, models can be used to assess the risk (probability) and determine the consequence of a microbiological hazard in food. The risk of a hazard is reduced and controlled within the HACCP framework by assigning critical control points (CCPs) to the food process. By using predictive models, ranges and combinations of process parameters can be established as critical limits for CCPs. This has the advantage of providing more processing options while maintaining a degree of safety equivalent to that of a single set of critical limits. Validation testing of individual CCPs can be reduced if the CCP models were developed with a similar food type. Microbiological as well as mechanical and human reliability models may be used to establish sets of rules for rule-based expert computer systems in an effort to automate the development of HACCP plans and evaluate the status of process deviations. Models can also be used in combination with sensors and microprocessors for real-time process control. Since HACCP is a risk-reduction tool, then predictive microbiological models are tools used to aid in the decision-making processes of risk assessment and in describing process parameters necessary to achieve an acceptable level of risk.

  6. Making Microbiology Even Smaller!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Linda Mull; Motz, Vicki Abrams

    2013-01-01

    We outline protocols for producing slant-minis (SLINIs) and mini-deeps (MEEPs) and examples of their use in simple microbiology experiments suitable for high school students. The principal benefits of these protocols are decreased cost associated with significantly reduced media use; easier, less expensive disposal of waste; and increased safety…

  7. INTRODUCTION TO ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental microbiology is the study of those microorganisms which exist in natural or artificial environments. The origin of scientific research in this field rests in the observations of Antony van Leewenhoeck that were published in 1677(4). Van Leewenhoeck used a microsco...

  8. Analyzer for measuring gas contained in the pore space of rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudasik, Mateusz; Skoczylas, Norbert

    2017-10-01

    In the present paper, the authors discussed the functioning of their own analyzer for measuring gas contained in the pore space of high strength rocks. A sample is placed inside a hermetic measuring chamber, and then undergoes impact milling as a result of colliding with the vibrating blade of a knife which is rotationally driven by a high-speed brushless electric motor. The measuring chamber is equipped with all the necessary sensors, i.e. gas, pressure, and temperature sensors. Trial tests involving the comminution of dolomite and anhydrite samples demonstrated that the constructed device is able to break up rocks into grains so fine that they are measured in single microns, and the sensors used in the construction ensure balancing of the released gas. The tests of the analyzer showed that the metrological concept behind it, together with the way it was built, make it fit for measurements of the content and composition of selected gases from the rock pore space. On the basis of the conducted tests of balancing the gases contained in the two samples, it was stated that the gas content of Sample no. 1 was (0.055  ±  0.002) cm3 g‑1, and Sample no. 2 contained gas at atmospheric pressure, composed mostly of air.

  9. Microbiological studies on hamburgers.

    PubMed

    Tamminga, S K; Beumer, R R; Kampelmacher, E H

    1982-02-01

    One hundred and eighty-two raw, 112 pre-cooked and 750 cooked hamburgers composed mainly of beef or beef and pork were subjected to microbiological examination.Raw hamburgers gave total bacterial counts from 10(6) to 10(8) per g, counts of Enterobacteriaceae from 10(4) to 10(6) per g, of Escherichia coli from 10(3) to 10(5), of group D streptococci from 10(2) to 10(4), of Staphylococcus aureus from 3 to 10(2) and of Clostridium perfringens less than 10 bacteria per g. Of the samples, 32% contained salmonellas; the highest most probable number was 10(2) per g but most estimates were below 1 per g. Corresponding figures for the pre-cooked samples were 2-3 log cycles lower, and only one sample contained salmonella. Yersinia enterocolitica was not isolated from any raw or pre-cooked sample.Three hundred and ninety-five of the cooked hamburgers were prepared by grilling raw hamburgers for between 2 and 5.5 min. These gave total bacterial counts from 10(5) to 10(7) per g, and counts of Enterobacteriaceae from 10(2) to 10(5) per g. Of the samples, 9.4% contained salmonellas, always in numbers below 1 per g. The remaining 355 cooked hamburgers were prepared from samples pre-cooked for 10 min at 80 degrees C. Some were grilled and some fat fried. The total bacterial counts were from 10(3) to 10(5) per g, and counts of Enterobacteriaceae below 10(2) per g. Salmonellae, again in small numbers only, were recovered from 3.5% of samples.When hamburgers were artificially contaminated with Salmonella typhimurium it took 5.5 min on a commercial grill, 2.25 min frying in a frying pan and 1.75 min on a household grill to reliably reduce the salmonella count one hundredfold. This means that at many vending places hamburgers are often cooked for too short a time.D-values were determined for S. typhimurium in hamburger meat at 50, 55, 60, 65 and 70 degrees C, these values were 7.1, 5.1, 1.2, 0.9 and 0.6 min respectively. It can be concluded that the heating action in the centre of the

  10. Biogas Production: Microbiology and Technology.

    PubMed

    Schnürer, Anna

    Biogas, containing energy-rich methane, is produced by microbial decomposition of organic material under anaerobic conditions. Under controlled conditions, this process can be used for the production of energy and a nutrient-rich residue suitable for use as a fertilising agent. The biogas can be used for production of heat, electricity or vehicle fuel. Different substrates can be used in the process and, depending on substrate character, various reactor technologies are available. The microbiological process leading to methane production is complex and involves many different types of microorganisms, often operating in close relationships because of the limited amount of energy available for growth. The microbial community structure is shaped by the incoming material, but also by operating parameters such as process temperature. Factors leading to an imbalance in the microbial community can result in process instability or even complete process failure. To ensure stable operation, different key parameters, such as levels of degradation intermediates and gas quality, are often monitored. Despite the fact that the anaerobic digestion process has long been used for industrial production of biogas, many questions need still to be resolved to achieve optimal management and gas yields and to exploit the great energy and nutrient potential available in waste material. This chapter discusses the different aspects that need to be taken into consideration to achieve optimal degradation and gas production, with particular focus on operation management and microbiology.

  11. Laboratory Design for Microbiological Safety

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, G. Briggs; Runkle, Robert S.

    1967-01-01

    Of the large amount of funds spent each year in this country on construction and remodeling of biomedical research facilities, a significant portion is directed to laboratories handling infectious microorganisms. This paper is intended for the scientific administrators, architects, and engineers concerned with the design of new microbiological facilities. It develops and explains the concept of primary and secondary barriers for the containment of microorganisms. The basic objectives of a microbiological research laboratory, (i) protection of the experimenter and staff, (ii) protection of the surrounding community, and (iii) maintenance of experimental validity, are defined. In the design of a new infectious-disease research laboratory, early identification should be made of the five functional zones of the facility and their relation to each other. The following five zones and design criteria applicable to each are discussed: clean and transition, research area, animal holding and research area, laboratory support, engineering support. The magnitude of equipment and design criteria which are necessary to integrate these five zones into an efficient and safe facility are delineated. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 PMID:4961771

  12. Progress Report Abstracts. Microbiology Program.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Under the general topic of microbiology, the Office of Naval Research sponsors basic research in medical microbiology and aerobiology. In the area of... medical microbiology , it is important to develop new methods for the prevention, control and treatment of diseases of importance to the Navy and the

  13. The measured contribution of whipping and springing on the fatigue and extreme loading of container vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storhaug, Gaute

    2014-12-01

    Whipping/springing research started in the 50'ies. In the 60'ies inland water vessels design rules became stricter due to whipping/springing. The research during the 70-90'ies may be regarded as academic. In 2000 a large ore carrier was strengthened due to severe cracking from North Atlantic operation, and whipping/springing contributed to half of the fatigue damage. Measurement campaigns on blunt and slender vessels were initiated. A few blunt ships were designed to account for whipping/springing. Based on the measurements, the focus shifted from fatigue to extreme loading. In 2005 model tests of a 4,400 TEU container vessel included extreme whipping scenarios. In 2007 the 4400 TEU vessel MSC Napoli broke in two under similar conditions. In 2009 model tests of an 8,600 TEU container vessel container vessel included extreme whipping scenarios. In 2013 the 8,100 TEU vessel MOL COMFORT broke in two under similar conditions. Several classification societies have published voluntary guidelines, which have been used to include whipping/springing in the design of several container vessels. This paper covers results from model tests and full scale measurements used as background for the DNV Legacy guideline. Uncertainties are discussed and recommendations are given in order to obtain useful data. Whipping/springing is no longer academic.

  14. Accurate mass replacement method for the sediment concentration measurement with a constant volume container

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ban, Yunyun; Chen, Tianqin; Yan, Jun; Lei, Tingwu

    2017-04-01

    The measurement of sediment concentration in water is of great importance in soil erosion research and soil and water loss monitoring systems. The traditional weighing method has long been the foundation of all the other measuring methods and instrument calibration. The development of a new method to replace the traditional oven-drying method is of interest in research and practice for the quick and efficient measurement of sediment concentration, especially field measurements. A new method is advanced in this study for accurately measuring the sediment concentration based on the accurate measurement of the mass of the sediment-water mixture in the confined constant volume container (CVC). A sediment-laden water sample is put into the CVC to determine its mass before the CVC is filled with water and weighed again for the total mass of the water and sediments in the container. The known volume of the CVC, the mass of sediment-laden water, and sediment particle density are used to calculate the mass of water, which is replaced by sediments, therefore sediment concentration of the sample is calculated. The influence of water temperature was corrected by measuring water density to determine the temperature of water before measurements were conducted. The CVC was used to eliminate the surface tension effect so as to obtain the accurate volume of water and sediment mixture. Experimental results showed that the method was capable of measuring the sediment concentration from 0.5 up to 1200 kg m‑3. A good liner relationship existed between the designed and measured sediment concentrations with all the coefficients of determination greater than 0.999 and the averaged relative error less than 0.2%. All of these seem to indicate that the new method is capable of measuring a full range of sediment concentration above 0.5 kg m‑3 to replace the traditional oven-drying method as a standard method for evaluating and calibrating other methods.

  15. Advancements in Root Growth Measurement Technologies and Observation Capabilities for Container-Grown Plants

    PubMed Central

    Judd, Lesley A.; Jackson, Brian E.; Fonteno, William C.

    2015-01-01

    The study, characterization, observation, and quantification of plant root growth and root systems (Rhizometrics) has been and remains an important area of research in all disciplines of plant science. In the horticultural industry, a large portion of the crops grown annually are grown in pot culture. Root growth is a critical component in overall plant performance during production in containers, and therefore it is important to understand the factors that influence and/or possible enhance it. Quantifying root growth has varied over the last several decades with each method of quantification changing in its reliability of measurement and variation among the results. Methods such as root drawings, pin boards, rhizotrons, and minirhizotrons initiated the aptitude to measure roots with field crops, and have been expanded to container-grown plants. However, many of the published research methods are monotonous and time-consuming. More recently, computer programs have increased in use as technology advances and measuring characteristics of root growth becomes easier. These programs are instrumental in analyzing various root growth characteristics, from root diameter and length of individual roots to branching angle and topological depth of the root architecture. This review delves into the expanding technologies involved with expertly measuring root growth of plants in containers, and the advantages and disadvantages that remain. PMID:27135334

  16. Advancements in Root Growth Measurement Technologies and Observation Capabilities for Container-Grown Plants.

    PubMed

    Judd, Lesley A; Jackson, Brian E; Fonteno, William C

    2015-07-03

    The study, characterization, observation, and quantification of plant root growth and root systems (Rhizometrics) has been and remains an important area of research in all disciplines of plant science. In the horticultural industry, a large portion of the crops grown annually are grown in pot culture. Root growth is a critical component in overall plant performance during production in containers, and therefore it is important to understand the factors that influence and/or possible enhance it. Quantifying root growth has varied over the last several decades with each method of quantification changing in its reliability of measurement and variation among the results. Methods such as root drawings, pin boards, rhizotrons, and minirhizotrons initiated the aptitude to measure roots with field crops, and have been expanded to container-grown plants. However, many of the published research methods are monotonous and time-consuming. More recently, computer programs have increased in use as technology advances and measuring characteristics of root growth becomes easier. These programs are instrumental in analyzing various root growth characteristics, from root diameter and length of individual roots to branching angle and topological depth of the root architecture. This review delves into the expanding technologies involved with expertly measuring root growth of plants in containers, and the advantages and disadvantages that remain.

  17. Quantitative Microbiologic Models for Preterm Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Onderdonk, Andrew B.; Lee, Mei-Ling; Lieberman, Ellice; Delaney, Mary L.; Tuomala, Ruth E.

    2003-01-01

    Preterm delivery (PTD) is the leading cause of infant morbidity and mortality in the United States. An epidemiological association between PTD and various bacteria that are part of the vaginal microflora has been reported. No single bacterial species has been identified as being causally associated with PTD, suggesting a multifactorial etiology. Quantitative microbiologic cultures have been used previously to define normal vaginal microflora in a predictive model. These techniques have been applied to vaginal swab cultures from pregnant women in an effort to develop predictive microbiologic models for PTD. Logistic regression analysis with microbiologic information was performed for various risk groups, and the probability of a PTD was calculated for each subject. Four predictive models were generated by using the quantitative microbiologic data. The area under the curve (AUC) for the receiver operating curves ranged from 0.74 to 0.94, with confidence intervals (CI) ranging from 0.62 to 1. The model for the previous PTD risk group with the highest percentage of PTDs had an AUC of 0.91 (CI, 0.79 to 1). It may be possible to predict PTD by using microbiologic risk factors measured once the gestation period has reached the 20-week time point. PMID:12624032

  18. Quantitative NDA measurements of advanced reprocessing product materials containing uranium, neptunium, plutonium, and americium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goddard, Braden

    The ability of inspection agencies and facility operators to measure powders containing several actinides is increasingly necessary as new reprocessing techniques and fuel forms are being developed. These powders are difficult to measure with nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques because neutrons emitted from induced and spontaneous fission of different nuclides are very similar. A neutron multiplicity technique based on first principle methods was developed to measure these powders by exploiting isotope-specific nuclear properties, such as the energy-dependent fission cross sections and the neutron induced fission neutron multiplicity. This technique was tested through extensive simulations using the Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended (MCNPX) code and by one measurement campaign using the Active Well Coincidence Counter (AWCC) and two measurement campaigns using the Epithermal Neutron Multiplicity Counter (ENMC) with various (alpha,n) sources and actinide materials. Four potential applications of this first principle technique have been identified: (1) quantitative measurement of uranium, neptunium, plutonium, and americium materials; (2) quantitative measurement of mixed oxide (MOX) materials; (3) quantitative measurement of uranium materials; and (4) weapons verification in arms control agreements. This technique still has several challenges which need to be overcome, the largest of these being the challenge of having high-precision active and passive measurements to produce results with acceptably small uncertainties.

  19. An analytical method for measuring α-amylase activity in starch-containing foods.

    PubMed

    Koyama, Kazuo; Hirao, Takashi; Toriba, Akira; Hayakawa, Kazuichi

    2013-05-01

    The quality of starch-containing foods may be significantly impaired by contamination with very small amounts of α-amylase, which can enzymatically hydrolyze the starch and cause viscosity loss. Thus, for quality control, it is necessary to have an analytical method that can measure low amylase activity. We developed a sensitive analytical method for measuring the activity of α-amylase (from Bacillus subtilis) in starch-containing foods. The method consists of six steps: (1) crude extraction of α-amylase by centrifugation and filtration; (2) α-amylase purification by desalting and anion-exchange chromatography; (3) reaction of the purified amylase with boron-dipyrromethene (BODIPY)-labeled substrate, which releases a fluorescent fragment upon digestion of the substrate, thus avoiding interference from starch derivatives in the sample; (4) stopping the reaction with acetonitrile; (5) reversed-phase solid-phase extraction of the fluorescent substrate to remove contaminating dye and impurities; and (6) separation and measurement of BODIPY fluorescence by HPLC. The proposed method could quantify α-amylase activities as low as 10 mU/mL, which is enough to reduce the viscosity of starch-containing foods. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Measurements on an inventory of mixed fissile materials in shipping containers

    SciTech Connect

    Rinard, P.M.; Krick, M.S.; Kelley, T.A.

    1997-09-01

    An inventory contained a large number of previously unmeasured items, many with both uranium and plutonium. We have assembled a suite of instruments and measured the items in a variety of ways. This report first considers the measurements and deduced results in detail before summarizing the important differences with the declarations of the inventory`s database. The appendices referred to in this report are part of a classified version only and are not attached to this unclassified version. The classified report is by the same authors as this report, has the same title (which is unclassified), and is classified as {open_quotes}SRD.{close_quotes}

  1. Contribution of terms containing Z-boson exchange to the luminosity measurements at LEP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beenakker, W.; Pietrzyk, B.

    1992-12-01

    We have investigated the contribution of terms containing Z-boson exchange to the luminosity measurements at LEP. Comparing the Monte Carlo program BABAMC and the semi-analytical program ALIBABA, we have determined the technical precision of the corresponding O( α) calculation in BABAMC to be 0.03%. Using the ALIBABA program we have assessed the higher-order corrections to these Z-boson exchange contributions to be of the order of 0.1% for the present luminosity measurements. The total theoretical error on the luminosity calculation for LEP experiments is at present not larger than 0.3%.

  2. Ultrasonic non invasive techniques for microbiological instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elvira, L.; Sierra, C.; Galán, B.; Resa, P.

    2010-01-01

    Non invasive techniques based on ultrasounds have advantageous features to study, characterize and monitor microbiological and enzymatic reactions. These processes may change the sound speed, viscosity or particle distribution size of the medium where they take place, which makes possible their analysis using ultrasonic techniques. In this work, two different systems for the analysis of microbiological liquid media based on ultrasounds are presented. In first place, an industrial application based on an ultrasonic monitoring technique for microbiological growth detection in milk is shown. Such a system may improve the quality control strategies in food production factories, being able to decrease the time required to detect possible contaminations in packed products. Secondly, a study about the growing of the Escherichia coli DH5 α in different conditions is presented. It is shown that the use of ultrasonic non invasive characterization techniques in combination with other conventional measurements like optical density provides complementary information about the metabolism of these bacteria.

  3. Trends in wine microbiology.

    PubMed

    Ramón, D

    1997-12-01

    During the last few years many winemakers have started to use pure Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, frequently isolated from their own geographical regions, to produce wines of more reproductable quality. This microbiological simplification has opened the way for the genetic modification of wine yeast strains. This review concerns the application of molecular techniques in oenology, not only from the point of view of the construction of recombinant strains but also for the study of the population dynamics of wine fermentations.

  4. The large volume calorimeter for measuring the pressure cooker'' shipping container

    SciTech Connect

    Kasperski, P.W.; Duff, M.F.; Wetzel, J.R. ); Baker, L.B.; MacMurdo, K.W. )

    1991-01-01

    A precise, low wattage, large volume calorimeter system has been developed at Mound to measure two configurations of the 12081 containment vessel. This system was developed and constructed to perform verification measurements at the Savannah River Site. The calorimeter system has performance design specifications of {plus minus}0.3% error above the 2-watt level, and {plus minus}(0.03% plus 0.006 watts) at power levels below 2 watts (one sigma). Data collected during performance testing shows measurement errors well within this range, even down to 0.1-watt power levels. The development of this calorimeter shows that ultra-precise measurements can be achieved on extremely large volume sample configurations. 1 ref., 5 figs.

  5. Energetics of jellyfish locomotion determined from field measurements using a Self- Contained Underwater Velocimetry Apparatus (SCUVA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katija, K.; Dabiri, J. O.

    2007-12-01

    We conduct laboratory measurements of the flow fields induced by Aurelia labiata over a range of sizes using the method of digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV). The flow field measurements are used to directly quantify the kinetic energy induced by the swimming motions of individual medusae. This method provides details regarding the temporal evolution of the energetics during a swimming cycle and its scaling with bell diameter. These types of measurements also allow for the determination of propulsive efficiency, which can be used to compare various methods of propulsion, both biological and artificial. We then describe the development and application of a Self-Contained Underwater Velocimetry Apparatus (SCUVA), a device that enables a single SCUBA diver to make DPIV measurements of animal-fluid interactions in the field. Improvements and adjustments made to the original system will be presented, and a comparison between the animal-induced flow fields in the laboratory and in the field will be made.

  6. Microbiological analysis of cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Anavella Gaitan

    2004-01-01

    Cosmetics are products of chemical or natural origin dedicated specifically for use in skin and mucosa. The constant development of the cosmetic industry has generated the necessity to carry out microbiological analysis on the raw materials used in the industrial production of cosmetics as well as the final products, with the purpose of obtaining products of good microbiological quality. Cosmetic products are recognized to be substrates for the survival and development of a large variety of microorganisms, since they possess some of the nutrients that facilitate growth such as: lipids, polysaccharides, alcohol, proteins, amino acids, glucosides, esteroids, peptides, and vitamins. Also, the conditions of readiness (oxygenation, pH, temperature, osmotic degree, superficial activity, perfume, and essential oils) present in the cosmetic products favor microbial multiplication. Routine analyses to determine the microbiological quality of a cosmetic product include the following: Count of mesophilic aerobic microorganisms. Most probable number (MPN) of total coliforms. Count of molds and yeasts. Absence/presence of Staphylococcus aureus probe. Absence/presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa probe.

  7. Proteomics in medical microbiology.

    PubMed

    Cash, P

    2000-04-01

    The techniques of proteomics (high resolution two-dimensional electrophoresis and protein characterisation) are widely used for microbiological research to analyse global protein synthesis as an indicator of gene expression. The rapid progress in microbial proteomics has been achieved through the wide availability of whole genome sequences for a number of bacterial groups. Beyond providing a basic understanding of microbial gene expression, proteomics has also played a role in medical areas of microbiology. Progress has been made in the use of the techniques for investigating the epidemiology and taxonomy of human microbial pathogens, the identification of novel pathogenic mechanisms and the analysis of drug resistance. In each of these areas, proteomics has provided new insights that complement genomic-based investigations. This review describes the current progress in these research fields and highlights some of the technical challenges existing for the application of proteomics in medical microbiology. The latter concern the analysis of genetically heterogeneous bacterial populations and the integration of the proteomic and genomic data for these bacteria. The characterisation of the proteomes of bacterial pathogens growing in their natural hosts remains a future challenge.

  8. A batch assay to measure microbial hydrogen sulfide production from sulfur-containing solid wastes.

    PubMed

    Sun, Mei; Sun, Wenjie; Barlaz, Morton A

    2016-05-01

    Large volumes of sulfur-containing wastes enter municipal solid waste landfills each year. Under the anaerobic conditions that prevail in landfills, oxidized forms of sulfur, primarily sulfate, are converted to sulfide. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is corrosive to landfill gas collection and treatment systems, and its presence in landfill gas often necessitates the installation of expensive removal systems. For landfill operators to understand the cost of managing sulfur-containing wastes, an estimate of the H2S production potential is needed. The objective of this study was to develop and demonstrate a biochemical sulfide potential (BSP) test to measure the amount of H2S produced by different types of sulfur-containing wastes in a relatively fast (30days) and inexpensive (125mL serum bottles) batch assay. This study confirmed the toxic effect of H2S on both sulfate reduction and methane production in batch systems, and demonstrated that removing accumulated H2S by base adsorption was effective for mitigating inhibition. H2S production potentials of coal combustion fly ash, flue gas desulfurization residual, municipal solid waste combustion ash, and construction and demolition waste were determined in BSP assays. After 30days of incubation, most of the sulfate in the wastes was converted to gaseous or aqueous phase sulfide, with BSPs ranging from 0.8 to 58.8mLH2S/g waste, depending on the chemical composition of the samples. Selected samples contained solid phase sulfide which contributed to the measured H2S yield. A 60day incubation in selected samples resulted in 39-86% additional sulfide production. H2S production measured in BSP assays was compared with that measured in simulated landfill reactors and that calculated from chemical analyses. H2S production in BSP assays and in reactors was lower than the stoichiometric values calculated from chemical composition for all wastes tested, demonstrating the importance of assays to estimate the microbial sulfide production

  9. Biofilm development in a hotspot of mixing between shallow and deep groundwater in a fractured aquifer: field evidence from joint flow, chemical and microbiological measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bochet, O.; Dufresne, A.; Pédrot, M.; Chatton, E.; Labasque, T.; Ben Maamar, S.; Burté, L.; de la Bernardie, J.; Guihéneuf, N.; Lavenant, N.; Petton, C.; Bour, O.; Aquilina, L.; Le Borgne, T.

    2015-12-01

    Biofilms play a major role in controlling the fluxes and reactivity of chemical species transported in hydro-logical systems. Micro-organisms require both electron donors and electron acceptors for cellular growth, proliferation and maintenance of their metabolic functions. The mechanisms controlling these reactions derive from the interactions occurring at the micro-scale that depend on mineral compositions, the biota of subsurface environment, but also fluid mixing, which determines the local concentrations of nutriments, electron donors and electron acceptors. Hence, mixing zones between oxygen and nutriment rich shallow groundwater and mineralized deep groundwater are often considered as potential hotspots of microbial activity, although relatively few field data document flow distributions, transport properties, chemical gradients and micro-organisms distributions across these mixing interfaces. Here we investigate the origin of a localized biofilm development observed in the fractured granite aquifer at the Ploemeur observatory (H+ network hplus.ore.fr).This biofilm composed of ferro-oxidizing bacteria is observed in an 130m deep artesian well. Borehole video logs show an important colonization of the well by the biofilm in the shallower part (0 to 60m), while it is inexistent in the deeper part (60 to 130m). As flow is localized in a few deep and shallow fractures, we presume that the spatial distribution of biofilm is controlled by mixing between shallow and deep groundwater. To verify this hypothesis we conducted a field campaign with joint characterization of the flow and chemical composition of water flowing from the different fractures, as well as the microbiological composition of the biofilm at different depth, using pyrosequencing techniques. We will discuss in this presentation the results of this interdisciplinary dataset and their implications for the occurrence of hotspots of microbiological activity in the subsurface.

  10. In situ measurements of water uptake by black carbon-containing aerosol in wildfire plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perring, Anne E.; Schwarz, Joshua P.; Markovic, Milos Z.; Fahey, David W.; Jimenez, Jose L.; Campuzano-Jost, Pedro; Palm, Brett D.; Wisthaler, Armin; Mikoviny, Tomas; Diskin, Glenn; Sachse, Glen; Ziemba, Luke; Anderson, Bruce; Shingler, Taylor; Crosbie, Ewan; Sorooshian, Armin; Yokelson, Robert; Gao, Ru-Shan

    2017-01-01

    Water uptake by black carbon (BC)-containing aerosol was quantified in North American wildfire plumes of varying age (1 to 40 h old) sampled during the SEAC4RS mission (2013). A Humidified Dual SP2 (HD-SP2) is used to optically size BC-containing particles under dry and humid conditions from which we extract the hygroscopicity parameter, κ, of materials internally mixed with BC. Instrumental variability and the uncertainty of the technique are briefly discussed. An ensemble average κ of 0.04 is found for the set of plumes sampled, consistent with previous estimates of bulk aerosol hygroscopicity from biomass burning sources. The temporal evolution of κ in the Yosemite Rim Fire plume is explored to constrain the rate of conversion of BC-containing aerosol from hydrophobic to more hydrophilic modes in these emissions. A BC-specific κ increase of 0.06 over 40 h is found, fit well with an exponential curve corresponding to a transition from a κ of 0 to a κ of 0.09 with an e-folding time of 29 h. Although only a few percent of wildfire particles contain BC, a similar κ increase is estimated for bulk aerosol and the measured aerosol composition is used to infer that the observed κ change is driven by a combination of incorporation of ammonium sulfate and oxidation of existing organic materials. Finally, a substantial fraction of wildfire-generated BC-containing aerosol is calculated to be active as cloud condensation nuclei shortly after emission likely indicating efficient wet removal. These results can constrain model treatment of BC from wildfire sources.

  11. Knowledge about pandemic influenza and compliance with containment measures among Australians

    PubMed Central

    Durrheim, David; Francis, J Lynn; d’Espaignet, Edouard Tursan; Duncan, Sarah; Islam, Fakhrul; Speare, Rick

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Objective To examine the level of stated compliance with public health pandemic influenza control measures and explore factors influencing cooperation for pandemic influenza control in Australia. Methods A computer-assisted telephone interview survey was conducted by professional interviewers to collect information on the Australian public’s knowledge of pandemic influenza and willingness to comply with public health control measures. The sample was randomly selected using an electronic database and printed telephone directories to ensure sample representativeness from all Australian states and territories. After we described pandemic influenza to the respondents to ensure they understood the significance of the issue, the questions on compliance were repeated and changes in responses were analysed with McNemar’s test for paired data. Findings Only 23% of the 1166 respondents demonstrated a clear understanding of the term “pandemic influenza”. Of those interviewed, 94.1% reported being willing to comply with home quarantine; 94.2%, to avoid public events; and 90.7%, to postpone social gatherings. After we explained the meaning of “pandemic” to interviewees, stated compliance increased significantly (to 97.5%, 98.3% and 97.2% respectively). Those who reported being unfamiliar with the term “pandemic influenza,” male respondents and employed people not able to work from home were less willing to comply. Conclusion In Australia, should the threat arise, compliance with containment measures against pandemic influenza is likely to be high, yet it could be further enhanced through a public education programme conveying just a few key messages. A basic understanding of pandemic influenza is associated with stated willingness to comply with containment measures. Investing now in promoting measures to prepare for a pandemic or other health emergency will have considerable value. PMID:19705008

  12. Performance of a HPGe System for Surface and Container Measurements - 13582

    SciTech Connect

    Twomey, Timothy R.; Keyser, Ronald M.

    2013-07-01

    The decommissioning of a nuclear facility or post-accident cleanup is an immense engineering effort requiring an array of specialist tools and techniques. The decommissioning and cleanup activities generate large quantities of low activity waste. For economic disposal, it is desirable to certify the waste as suitable for free release. Every container must be assayed to a sufficient degree of accuracy and sensitivity so that it may be certified to be or not to be suitable for 'free release'. In a previous work, the performance of a highly-automated system for free release of large numbers of containers was presented in which the spectroscopy hardware comprised four ORTEC Interchangeable Detector Module (IDM) mechanically cooled HPGe spectrometers in conjunction with ORTEC ISOPlus waste assay software. It was shown that the system was capable of assaying large containers to free release levels in reasonable measurement times. Not all operations have enough waste to justify an automated system or rapid assay results may be required, perhaps in a remote location. To meet this need, a new mobile system has been developed for the assay of smaller objects (drums, boxes, and surfaces) In-Situ. The system incorporates the latest generation IDM-200 and ISOPlus software and a new variant of the ISOCart hardware. This paper will describe the system and performance. (authors)

  13. The case for biocentric microbiology

    PubMed Central

    Aziz, Ramy Karam

    2009-01-01

    Microbiology is a relatively modern scientific discipline intended to objectively study microorganisms, including pathogens and nonpathogens. However, since its birth, this science has been negatively affected by anthropocentric convictions, including rational and irrational beliefs. Among these, for example, is the artificial separation between environmental and medical microbiology that weakens both disciplines. Anthropocentric microbiology also fails to properly answer questions concerning the evolution of microbial pathogenesis. Here, I argue that an exclusively biocentric microbiology is imperative for improving our understanding not only of the microbial world, but also of our own species, our guts, and the world around us. PMID:19653908

  14. The case for biocentric microbiology.

    PubMed

    Aziz, Ramy Karam

    2009-08-04

    Microbiology is a relatively modern scientific discipline intended to objectively study microorganisms, including pathogens and nonpathogens. However, since its birth, this science has been negatively affected by anthropocentric convictions, including rational and irrational beliefs. Among these, for example, is the artificial separation between environmental and medical microbiology that weakens both disciplines. Anthropocentric microbiology also fails to properly answer questions concerning the evolution of microbial pathogenesis. Here, I argue that an exclusively biocentric microbiology is imperative for improving our understanding not only of the microbial world, but also of our own species, our guts, and the world around us.

  15. The novel measurement method of liquid level and density in airtight container

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Zhe; Zhao, Yulong; Tian, Bian; Guo, Fangfang

    2012-12-01

    This paper describes a novel method of liquid level and density measurement with application in airtight container such as oil storage tank. In order to prove the method, a multifunctional pressure-type liquidometer (MPTL) was designed. The MPTL comprises two pressure sensors for capturing the underwater pressure accurately, by which the MPTL could calculate the density of the liquid and back-calculate the level of the liquid. A digital temperature sensor was implanted in the MPTL to collect the temperature of the liquid. Series of experiments show a favorable linearity of 0.2% and a high accuracy of 0.27%. Besides, the simple fabrication, low cost and unconstrained conditions guarantee its popularity in the petrochemical industry fields. Overall, the findings of this study confirm the feasibility of the novel liquid level measure method and offer an economical scheme for mass producing.

  16. Translating Omics to Food Microbiology.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Aaron M; Crispie, Fiona; Claesson, Marcus J; Cotter, Paul D

    2017-02-28

    This review examines the applications of omics technologies in food microbiology, with a primary focus on high-throughput sequencing (HTS) technologies. We discuss the different sequencing approaches applicable to the study of food-related microbial isolates and mixed microbial communities in foods, and we provide an overview of the sequencing platforms suitable for each approach. We highlight the potential for genomics, metagenomics, and metatranscriptomics to guide efforts to optimize food fermentations. Additionally, we explore the use of comparative and functional genomics to further our understanding of the mechanisms of probiotic action and we describe the applicability of HTS as a food safety measure. Finally, we consider the use of HTS to investigate the effects that ingested microbes have on the human gut microbiota.

  17. [Microbiological diagnosis of viral hepatitis].

    PubMed

    Alonso, Roberto; Aguilera, Antonio; Córdoba, Juan; Fuertes, Antonio

    2015-11-01

    Liver inflammation or hepatitis has many different causes, both infectious and non-infectious. Among the former, viral infection is responsible for at least half of all hepatitis worldwide. Different viruses have been described with primary tropism for liver tissue. These microorganisms have been successively named with letters of the alphabet: A, B, C, D, E and G. The aim of this paper is to review this heterogeneous group of viruses in its most basic aspects, including clinical implications, treatment, main control, and prophylactic measures and, of special interest, diagnostic approaches, both serological and molecular, which are used for their detection, quantification and characterization. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  18. Recent advances in the study of microbiologically influenced corrosion

    SciTech Connect

    Little, B.; Wagner, P.

    1993-12-31

    The study of microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) has progressed from phenomenological case histories to a mature interdisciplinary science including electrochemical, metallurgical, surface analytical, microbiological, biotechnological and biophysical techniques. With gene probes and microelectrodes it is now possible to measure interfacial dissolved oxygen, dissolved sulfide and pH and to further determine the microbial species responsible for the localized chemistry. Biofilms can be tailored to contain consortia of specific microorganisms and naturally occurring biofilms can be dissected into cellular and extracellular constituents. Scanning vibrating electrodes can be used to map the distribution of anodes and cathodes so that localized corrosion can be correlated with the location of microorganisms. The development of environmental scanning electron, atomic force, and laser confocal microscopy makes it possible to image cells on surfaces and to accurately determine the spatial relationship between microorganisms and corrosion. Transport of nutrients through biofilms is being modeled using techniques including optical density measurements to precisely locate the water/biofilm interface and nuclear magnetic resonance imaging to visualize flow characteristics near surfaces colonized with microorganisms. The ways in which these new techniques can be used to understand fundamental mechanisms and to discriminate critical issues of MIC will be discussed.

  19. Stark broadening measurements in plasmas produced by laser ablation of hydrogen containing compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burger, Miloš; Hermann, Jörg

    2016-08-01

    We present a method for the measurement of Stark broadening parameters of atomic and ionic spectral lines based on laser ablation of hydrogen containing compounds. Therefore, plume emission spectra, recorded with an echelle spectrometer coupled to a gated detector, were compared to the spectral radiance of a plasma in local thermal equilibrium. Producing material ablation with ultraviolet nanosecond laser pulses in argon at near atmospheric pressure, the recordings take advantage of the spatially uniform distributions of electron density and temperature within the ablated vapor. By changing the delay between laser pulse and detector gate, the electron density could be varied by more than two orders of magnitude while the temperature was altered in the range from 6,000 to 14,000 K. The Stark broadening parameters of transitions were derived from their simultaneous observation with the hydrogen Balmer alpha line. In addition, assuming a linear increase of Stark widths and shifts with electron density for non-hydrogenic lines, our measurements indicate a change of the Stark broadening-dependence of Hα over the considered electron density range. The presented results obtained for hydrated calcium sulfate (CaSO4ṡ2H2O) can be extended to any kind of hydrogen containing compounds.

  20. Method for Non-Intrusively Identifying a Contained Material Utilizing Uncollided Nuclear Transmission Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, John L.; Stephens, Alan G.; Grover Blaine S.

    1999-02-26

    An improved nuclear diagnostic method identifies a contained target material by measuring on-axis, mono-energetic uncollided particle radiation transmitted through a target material for two penetrating radiation beam energies, and applying specially developed algorithms to estimate a ratio of macroscopic neutron cross-sections for the uncollided particle radiation at the two energies, where the penetrating radiation is a neutron beam, or a ratio of linear attenuation coefficients for the uncollided particle radiation at the two energies, where the penetrating radiation is a gamma-ray beam. Alternatively, the measurements are used to derive a minimization formula based on the macroscopic neutron cross-sections for the uncollided particle radiation at the two neutron beam energies, or the linear attenuation coefficients for the uncollided particle radiation at the two gamma-ray beam energies. A candidate target material database, including known macroscopic neutron cross-sections or linear attenuation coefficients for target materials at the selected neutron or gamma-ray beam energies, is used to approximate the estimated ratio or to solve the minimization formula, such that the identity of the contained target material is discovered.

  1. Measurement of the Z-boson branching fraction into hadrons containing bottom quarks

    SciTech Connect

    Kral, J.F.

    1990-09-01

    We use the Mark II detector to study Z decays into bottom quark-anti-quark pairs, leading to the production of bottom hadrons. The Z bosons are formed in e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} annihilation at the SLC at center-of-mass energies between 89 and 93 GeV. We identify events containing semileptonic decays of bottom hadrons by detecting isolated leptons, i.e leptons with high transverse momenta relative to the nearest hadronic jet. Using isolated electrons and muons, we measure the B-hadron semileptonic branching ratio times the fraction of hadronic Z decays which contain bottom hadrons, B(B {yields} X{ell}{nu}){center dot}{Gamma}(Z {yields} b{bar b})/{Gamma}(Z {yields} had) = 0.025 {sub {minus}0.009}{sup +0.100} {plus minus} 0.005, where we have listed the statistical errors followed by the systematic error. Assuming B(B {yields} X(ell){nu}) = 11% {plus minus} 1%, we measure {Gamma}(Z {yields} b{bar b})/{Gamma}(Z {yields} had) = 0.23 {sub {minus}0.09}{sup +0.11}, in good agreement with the standard-model prediction of 0.22. We find {Gamma}(Z {yields} b{bar b}) = 0.40 {sub {minus}0.16}{sup +0.19} GeV. 83 refs., 34 figs., 19 tabs.

  2. Method for non-intrusively identifying a contained material utilizing uncollided nuclear transmission measurements

    DOEpatents

    Morrison, John L.; Stephens, Alan G.; Grover, S. Blaine

    2001-11-20

    An improved nuclear diagnostic method identifies a contained target material by measuring on-axis, mono-energetic uncollided particle radiation transmitted through a target material for two penetrating radiation beam energies, and applying specially developed algorithms to estimate a ratio of macroscopic neutron cross-sections for the uncollided particle radiation at the two energies, where the penetrating radiation is a neutron beam, or a ratio of linear attenuation coefficients for the uncollided particle radiation at the two energies, where the penetrating radiation is a gamma-ray beam. Alternatively, the measurements are used to derive a minimization formula based on the macroscopic neutron cross-sections for the uncollided particle radiation at the two neutron beam energies, or the linear attenuation coefficients for the uncollided particle radiation at the two gamma-ray beam energies. A candidate target material database, including known macroscopic neutron cross-sections or linear attenuation coefficients for target materials at the selected neutron or gamma-ray beam energies, is used to approximate the estimated ratio or to solve the minimization formula, such that the identity of the contained target material is discovered.

  3. Design of an experiment to measure the fire exposure of radioactive materials packages aboard container cargo ships

    SciTech Connect

    Koski, J.A.

    1997-11-01

    The test described in this paper is intended to measure the typical accident environment for a radioactive materials package in a fire aboard a container cargo ship. A stack of nine used standard cargo containers will be variously loaded with empty packages, simulated packages and combustible cargo and placed over a large hydrocarbon pool fire of one hour duration. Both internal and external fire container fire environments typical of on-deck stowage will be measured as well as the potential for container to container fire spread. With the use of the inverse heat conduction calculations, the local heat transfer to the simulated packages can be estimated from thermocouple data. Data recorded will also provide information on fire durations in each container, fire intensity and container to container fire spread characteristics.

  4. [New microbiological techniques].

    PubMed

    Schubert, S; Wieser, A; Bonkat, G

    2017-06-01

    Microbiological diagnostic procedures have changed rapidly in recent years. This is especially true in the field of molecular diagnostics. Classical culture-based techniques are still the gold standard in many areas; however, they are already complemented by automated and also molecular techniques to guarantee faster and better quality results. The most commonly used techniques include real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) based systems and nucleic acid hybridization. These procedures are used most powerfully from direct patient samples or in assays to detect the presence of nonculturable or fastidious organisms. Further techniques such as DNA sequencing are not yet used routinely for urological samples and can be considered experimental. However, in conjunction with dropping prices and further technical developments, these techniques promise to be used much more in the near future. Regarding bacterial identification from culture, mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has become the technique of choice in recent years especially in Europe. It has tremendously shortened the time to result. This is now going to be extended to antibiotic susceptibility testing. This is of paramount importance in view of ever rising antimicrobial resistance rates. Techniques described in this review offer a faster and better microbiological diagnosis. Such continuous improvements are critical especially in times of cost pressure and rising antimicrobial resistance rates. It is in our interest to provide the best possible care for patients and in this regard a good and effective communication between the laboratory and the clinician is of vital importance.

  5. Microbiologically active nanocomposite media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petranovskii, Vitalii; Panina, Lyudmila; Bogomolova, Eugenia; Belostotskaya, Galina

    2003-07-01

    The most recent approach to the development of novel antimicrobial and antifungal agents is based on the application of synthetic and natural zeolites, because zeolites are known to be the carrier and slow releaser of the heavy metals with olygodynamic properties. The microbiological activity of the ion-exchanged zeolites is attributed to the ionic state of the metal sreleased from the zeolites by ion re-exchange. In the present work we used low cost natural clinoptilolite (Cli) as a substrate for copper and silver in different states. The state of oxidation of the exchanged metal in zeolite with supported Cu and Ag species (in the form of cations, small clusters, sub-coloidal particles, large particles) in order to fit them to fulfill the following criteria: to demonstrate their high protective abilities against fungi and long-term stability. The study of structure of samples with XRD, UV-visible spectroscopy, FTIR, their stability with temperature and during storage was carried out for obtaining the correct correlation with microbiological activity.

  6. Observation of neutral sulfuric acid-amine containing clusters in laboratory and ambient measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Kuang C.; Zhao, J.; Smith, J. N.; Eisele, F. L.; Chen, M.; McMurry, P. H.

    2011-11-02

    Recent ab initio calculations showed that amines can enhance atmospheric sulfuric acid-water nucleation more effectively than ammonia, and this prediction has been substantiated in laboratory measurements. Laboratory studies have also shown that amines can effectively displace ammonia in several types of ammonium clusters. However, the roles of amines in cluster formation and growth at a microscopic molecular scale (from molecular sizes up to 2 nm) have not yet been well understood. Processes that must be understood include the incorporation of amines into sulfuric acid clusters and the formation of organic salts in freshly nucleated particles, which contributes significantly to particle growth rates. We report the first laboratory and ambient measurements of neutral sulfuric acid-amine clusters using the Cluster CIMS, a recently-developed mass spectrometer designed for measuring neutral clusters formed in the atmosphere during nucleation. An experimental technique, which we refer to as Semi-Ambient Signal Amplification (SASA), was employed. Sulfuric acid was added to ambient air, and the concentrations and composition of clusters in this mixture were analyzed by the Cluster CIMS. This experimental approach led to significantly higher cluster concentrations than are normally found in ambient air, thereby increasing signal-to-noise levels and allowing us to study reactions between gas phase species in ambient air and sulfuric acid containing clusters. Mass peaks corresponding to clusters containing four H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} molecules and one amine molecule were clearly observed, with the most abundant sulfuric acid-amine clusters being those containing a C2- or C4-amine (i.e. amines with masses of 45 and 73 amu). Evidence for C3- and C5-amines (i.e. amines with masses of 59 and 87 amu) was also found, but their correlation with sulfuric acid tetramer was not as strong as was observed for the C2- and C4-amines. The formation mechanisms for those sulfuric acid

  7. Careers in Microbiology...Horizons Unlimited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldschmidt Millicent C.; Whitt, Dixie

    1978-01-01

    A broad range of present microbiological work is discussed in order to indicate the many possible careers now open in microbiology. Some areas are immunology, environmental microbiology, agricultural, industrial, and food microbiology, and space microbiology. An employment outlook is also given. (MDR)

  8. Careers in Microbiology...Horizons Unlimited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldschmidt Millicent C.; Whitt, Dixie

    1978-01-01

    A broad range of present microbiological work is discussed in order to indicate the many possible careers now open in microbiology. Some areas are immunology, environmental microbiology, agricultural, industrial, and food microbiology, and space microbiology. An employment outlook is also given. (MDR)

  9. Coupled physical, chemical, and microbiological measurements suggest a connection between internal waves and surf zone water quality in the Southern California Bight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Simon H. C.; Santoro, Alyson E.; Nidzieko, Nicholas J.; Hench, James L.; Boehm, Alexandria B.

    2012-02-01

    Internal waves have been implicated in the cross-shore transport of scalars such as larvae, nutrients, and pollutants at locations around the world. The present study combines physical measurements with a comprehensive set of surf zone water quality measurements to evaluate the possible impact of cross-shore internal wave transport on surf zone water quality during two study periods. An array of oceanographic moorings was deployed in the summer of 2005 and 2006 at 10-20 m depth offshore of the beach to observe internal waves. Concurrently, surf zone water quality was assessed twice daily at night at an adjacent station (Huntington State Beach) by measuring concentration of phosphate, dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN), silicate, chlorophyll a, fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), and the human-specific fecal DNA marker in Bacteroidales. The baroclinic component accounted for about 30% of the total variance in water column velocity, indicating the importance of density-driven flow during the summer when the water column was stratified. Arrival of cold subthermocline water in the very nearshore (within 1 km of the surf zone) was characterized by strong baroclinic onshore flow near the bottom of the water column. The near bottom, baroclinic, cross-shore current was significantly lag-correlated with the near bottom temperature data along a cross-shore transect towards shore, demonstrating shoreward transport of cold subthermocline water. Wavelet analysis of temperature data showed that non-stationary temperature fluctuations were correlated with buoyancy frequency and the near bottom cross-shore baroclinic current. During periods of large temperature fluctuations, the majority of the variance was within the semi-diurnal band; however, the diurnal and high frequency bands also contained a substantial fraction of total variance. The bottom cross-shore baroclinic current was proposed as a proxy for shoreward transport potential by internal waves and was positively correlated

  10. Measurements of relative BCl density in BCl3-containing inductively coupled radio frequency plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleddermann, C. B.; Hebner, G. A.

    1998-04-01

    The relative density of BCl radicals in inductively coupled plasmas has been studied using laser-induced fluorescence (LIF), and the BCl excited state has been studied using plasma-induced emission (PIE). Measurements were made as a function of input power, pressure, position, and as a function of gas ratio for industry-relevant metal-etch gas mixtures containing BCl3, Cl2, Ar, and N2. LIF was used to measure the ground state BCl population, whereas PIE monitored the BCl A1Π excited state; the LIF and PIE intensities varied differently as the plasma parameters were changed. Between 150 and 400 W input power at 20 mTorr pressure, there was no variation in BCl density, indicating that the dissociation fraction for BCl3 to BCl was constant with power. No significant interactions between BCl3 and Cl2 or Ar were evident in the LIF measurements. However, the BCl density was suppressed by addition of nitrogen to the plasma. The BCl density was radially uniform for all gas mixtures, but axial measurements showed a slight decrease in BCl density near the upper electrode. After running the reactor with a BCl3/N2 mixture, BCl was observed for up to an hour after the discharge was switched to Cl2: this is attributed to buildup of BN films on reactor surfaces and subsequent etching of the film by Cl.

  11. Pharmaceutical container/closure integrity. IV: Development of an indirect correlation between vacuum decay leak measurement and microbial ingress.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, L T; Muangsiri, W; Schiere, R; Guazzo, D K; Kirsch, L E

    1999-01-01

    The rational development of a physical test method to evaluate the microbial barrier properties of sterile containers necessitates its correlation to microbiological exclusion. This can be accomplished by direct or indirect correlation. In the former, the proposed physical test is directly compared to microbial challenges using appropriate test units that stimulate container leaks at both high and low probabilities of microbial ingress. Previous work has demonstrated the development of a direct correlation using helium leak rate methods and microbial immersion challenges. An indirect correlation can be established by comparing the proposed physical method to well-defined leakage standards that represent various known levels of microbial ingress. Thus the quality assurance properties of a physical test method can be established by comparison to another physical test method that has been previously characterized. This approach has the distinct advantages of being faster, quantitatively rigorous, and less subject to the vicissitudes, of microbial testing. This approach was demonstrated by comparing the helium leak rate method to vacuum decay testing. Additionally it was demonstrated that vacuum decay testing was a fast and reproducible method for detecting leaks of about 1 to 2 mm. Leaks were simulated by affixing micropipettes into glass vials.

  12. Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion: an Update

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    microbial/metal interactions. Microbiologically influenced corrosion, Sulphate reducing bacteria , Electrogenic bacteria , Electron acceptors, Microbial...Keywords: Microbiologically influenced corrosion, Sulphate reducing bacteria , Electrogenic bacteria , Electron acceptors, Microbial fuel cell Introduction...causative microorganisms are from all three main branches of evolutionary descent, i.e., bacteria , archaea (methanogens), and eukaryota (fungi

  13. Recent advances in silage microbiology

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Recent advances in our understanding of silage microbiology are reviewed. The ability to extract microbial DNA from silages, amplify portions of DNA, and use the amplified regions to identify strains of microorganisms is at the core of the changes occurring recently in silage microbiology. These dev...

  14. Measurement of chemical leaching potential of sulfate from landfill disposed sulfate containing wastes.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wenjie; Barlaz, Morton A

    2015-02-01

    A number of sulfate-containing wastes are disposed in municipal solid wastes (MSW) landfills including residues from coal, wood, and MSW combustion, and construction and demolition (C&D) waste. Under anaerobic conditions that dominate landfills, the sulfate can be reduced to hydrogen sulfide which is problematic for several reasons including its low odor threshold, toxicity, and corrosive nature. The overall objective of this study was to evaluate existing protocols for the quantification of total leachable sulfate from solid samples and to compare their effectiveness and efficiency with a new protocol described in this study. Methods compared include two existing acid extraction protocols commonly used in the U.S., a pH neutral protocol that requires multiple changes of the leaching solution, and a new acid extraction method. The new acid extraction method was shown to be simple and effective to measure the leaching potential of sulfate from a range of landfill disposed sulfate-containing wastes. However, the acid extraction methods do not distinguish between sulfate and other forms of sulfur and are thus most useful when sulfate is the only form of sulfur present.

  15. Vapor Pressures and Thermodynamics of Oxygen-Containing Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Measured Using Knudsen Effusion

    PubMed Central

    Goldfarb, Jillian L.

    2013-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their oxygenated derivatives (OPAHs) are ubiquitous environmental pollutants resulting from the incomplete combustion of coal and fossil fuels. Their vapor pressures are key thermodynamic data essential for modeling fate and transport within the environment. The present study involved nine PAHs containing oxygen heteroatoms, including aldehyde, carboxyl and nitro groups, specifically: 2-nitrofluorene; 9-fluorenecarboxylic acid; 2-fluorenecarboxaldehyde; 2-anthracenecarboxylic acid; 9-anthracenecarboxylic acid; 9-anthraldehyde; 1-nitropyrene; 1-pyrenecarboxaldehyde and 1-bromo-2-naphthoic acid. The vapor pressures of these compounds, with molecular weights ranging from 194 to 251 grams per mole, were measured using the isothermal Knudsen effusion technique in the temperature range of 329 to 421. The corresponding enthalpies of sublimation, calculated via the Clausius-Clapeyron equation, are compared to parent, non-oxygenated PAH compound data to determine the effect of the addition of these oxygen-containing heteroatoms. As expected, the addition of –CHO,–COOH, and –NO2 groups onto these PAHs increases the enthalpy of sublimation and decreases the vapor pressure as compared to the parent PAH; the position of substitution also plays a significant role in determining the vapor pressure of these OPAHs. PMID:18220445

  16. Evolution across the Curriculum: Microbiology

    PubMed Central

    Burmeister, Alita R.; Smith, James J.

    2016-01-01

    An integrated understanding of microbiology and evolutionary biology is essential for students pursuing careers in microbiology and healthcare fields. In this Perspective, we discuss the usefulness of evolutionary concepts and an overall evolutionary framework for students enrolled in microbiology courses. Further, we propose a set of learning goals for students studying microbial evolution concepts. We then describe some barriers to microbial evolution teaching and learning and encourage the continued incorporation of evidence-based teaching practices into microbiology courses at all levels. Next, we review the current status of microbial evolution assessment tools and describe some education resources available for teaching microbial evolution. Successful microbial evolution education will require that evolution be taught across the undergraduate biology curriculum, with a continued focus on applications and applied careers, while aligning with national biology education reform initiatives. Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education PMID:27158306

  17. Measurement system support at the JAERI-CRT Facility: pressure transducers. [Containment Research Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Shay, W.M. Jr.; McCauley, E.W.

    1981-11-01

    As part of a continuing liaison between the US NRC and foreigh full scale containment research programs, measurements assistance in the form of the loan of 30 flush diaphram pressure transducers has been provided to the JAERI-CRT MK II research program at Tokai-Mura, Japan. Procedures developed earlier at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) under similar research work sponsored by the US NRC were used by LLNL to successfully complete final installation and in-situ end-to-end calibration of the transducers in the CRT facility. The results from this calibration showed a very close agreement between sensitivities and linearities calculated at LLNL and the ones calculated at JAERI and indicate the transducers should give valid data during future testing.

  18. Space charge dosimeters for extremely low power measurements of radiation in shipping containers

    DOEpatents

    Britton, Jr; Charles, L [Alcoa, TN; Buckner, Mark A [Oak Ridge, TN; Hanson, Gregory R [Clinton, TN; Bryan, William L [Knoxville, TN

    2011-04-26

    Methods and apparatus are described for space charge dosimeters for extremely low power measurements of radiation in shipping containers. A method includes in situ polling a suite of passive integrating ionizing radiation sensors including reading-out dosimetric data from a first passive integrating ionizing radiation sensor and a second passive integrating ionizing radiation sensor, where the first passive integrating ionizing radiation sensor and the second passive integrating ionizing radiation sensor remain situated where the dosimetric data was integrated while reading-out. Another method includes arranging a plurality of ionizing radiation sensors in a spatially dispersed array; determining a relative position of each of the plurality of ionizing radiation sensors to define a volume of interest; collecting ionizing radiation data from at least a subset of the plurality of ionizing radiation sensors; and triggering an alarm condition when a dose level of an ionizing radiation source is calculated to exceed a threshold.

  19. Space charge dosimeters for extremely low power measurements of radiation in shipping containers

    DOEpatents

    Britton, Jr., Charles L.; Buckner, Mark A.; Hanson, Gregory R.; Bryan, William L.

    2011-05-03

    Methods and apparatus are described for space charge dosimeters for extremely low power measurements of radiation in shipping containers. A method includes insitu polling a suite of passive integrating ionizing radiation sensors including reading-out dosimetric data from a first passive integrating ionizing radiation sensor and a second passive integrating ionizing radiation sensor, where the first passive integrating ionizing radiation sensor and the second passive integrating ionizing radiation sensor remain situated where the dosimetric data was integrated while reading-out. Another method includes arranging a plurality of ionizing radiation sensors in a spatially dispersed array; determining a relative position of each of the plurality of ionizing radiation sensors to define a volume of interest; collecting ionizing radiation data from at least a subset of the plurality of ionizing radiation sensors; and triggering an alarm condition when a dose level of an ionizing radiation source is calculated to exceed a threshold.

  20. Containment consensus with measurement noises and time-varying communication delays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Feng; Wang, Zheng-Jie; Fan, Ning-Jun

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, we consider the containment consensus control problem for multi-agent systems with measurement noises and time-varying communication delays under directed networks. By using stochastic analysis tools and algebraic graph theory, we prove that the followers can converge to the convex hull spanned by the leaders in the sense of mean square if the allowed upper bound of the time-varying delays satisfies a certain sufficient condition. Moreover, the time-varying delays are asymmetric for each follower agent, and the time-delay-dependent consensus condition is derived. Finally, numerical simulations are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the obtained theoretical results. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11102019), the Aeronautical Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 2013ZC72006), and the Research Foundation of Beijing Institute of Technology, China.

  1. Treatment bed microbiological control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janauer, Gilbert E.; Fitzpatrick, Timothy W.; Kril, Michael B.; Wilber, Georgia A.; Sauer, Richard L.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of microbial fouling on treatment bed (TB) performance are being studied. Fouling of activated carbon (AC) and ion exchange resins (IEX) by live and devitalized bacteria can cause decreased capacity for selected sorbates with AC and IEX TB. More data are needed on organic species removal in the trace region of solute sorption isotherms. TB colonization was prevented by nonclassical chemical disinfectant compositions (quaternary ammonium resins) applied in suitable configurations. Recently, the protection of carbon beds via direct disinfectant impregnation has shown promise. Effects (of impregnation) upon bed sorption/removal characteristics are to be studied with representative contaminants. The potential need to remove solutes added or produced during water disinfection and/or TB microbiological control must be investigated.

  2. Treatment bed microbiological control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janauer, Gilbert E.; Fitzpatrick, Timothy W.; Kril, Michael B.; Wilber, Georgia A.; Sauer, Richard L.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of microbial fouling on treatment bed (TB) performance are being studied. Fouling of activated carbon (AC) and ion exchange resins (IEX) by live and devitalized bacteria can cause decreased capacity for selected sorbates with AC and IEX TB. More data are needed on organic species removal in the trace region of solute sorption isotherms. TB colonization was prevented by nonclassical chemical disinfectant compositions (quaternary ammonium resins) applied in suitable configurations. Recently, the protection of carbon beds via direct disinfectant impregnation has shown promise. Effects (of impregnation) upon bed sorption/removal characteristics are to be studied with representative contaminants. The potential need to remove solutes added or produced during water disinfection and/or TB microbiological control must be investigated.

  3. Microbiology of sinusitis.

    PubMed

    Brook, Itzhak

    2011-03-01

    Most sinus infections are viral, and only a small proportion develops a secondary bacterial infection. Rhinoviruses, influenza viruses, and parainfluenza viruses are the most common causes of sinusitis. The most common bacteria isolated from pediatric and adult patients with community-acquired acute purulent sinusitis are Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Streptococcus pyogenes. Staphylococcus aureus and anaerobic bacteria (Prevotella and Porphyromonas, Fusobacterium and Peptostreptococcus spp.) are the main isolates in chronic sinusitis. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and other aerobic and facultative gram-negative rods are commonly isolated from patients with nosocomial sinusitis, the immunocompromised host, those with HIV infection, and in cystic fibrosis. Fungi and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are the most common isolates in neutropenic patients. The microbiology of sinusitis is influenced by the previous antimicrobial therapy, vaccinations, and the presence of normal flora capable of interfering with the growth of pathogens.

  4. How much information do extinction and backscattering measurements contain about the chemical composition of atmospheric aerosol?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahnert, Michael; Andersson, Emma

    2017-03-01

    We theoretically and numerically investigate the problem of assimilating multiwavelength lidar observations of extinction and backscattering coefficients of aerosols into a chemical transport model. More specifically, we consider the inverse problem of determining the chemical composition of aerosols from these observations. The main questions are how much information the observations contain to determine the particles' chemical composition, and how one can optimize a chemical data assimilation system to make maximum use of the available information. We first quantify the information content of the measurements by computing the singular values of the scaled observation operator. From the singular values we can compute the number of signal degrees of freedom, Ns, and the reduction in Shannon entropy, H. As expected, the information content as expressed by either Ns or H grows as one increases the number of observational parameters and/or wavelengths. However, the information content is strongly sensitive to the observation error. The larger the observation error variance, the lower the growth rate of Ns or H with increasing number of observations. The right singular vectors of the scaled observation operator can be employed to transform the model variables into a new basis in which the components of the state vector can be partitioned into signal-related and noise-related components. We incorporate these results in a chemical data assimilation algorithm by introducing weak constraints that restrict the assimilation algorithm to acting on the signal-related model variables only. This ensures that the information contained in the measurements is fully exploited, but not overused. Numerical tests show that the constrained data assimilation algorithm provides a solution to the inverse problem that is considerably less noisy than the corresponding unconstrained algorithm. This suggests that the restriction of the algorithm to the signal-related model variables suppresses

  5. Use of Fast Green in Agar-Diffusion Microbiological Assays

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, D. E.; Caldwell, R. C.

    1969-01-01

    Microbiological assay plates containing agar stained with fast green and inoculated with test microorganisms could be readily distinguished from unstained seeded agar plates. The boundaries of zones of growth inhibition were more sharply defined in those plates which contained stained agar. PMID:5370664

  6. Microbiology of aggressive periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Könönen, Eija; Müller, Hans-Peter

    2014-06-01

    For decades, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans has been considered the most likely etiologic agent in aggressive periodontitis. Implementation of DNA-based microbiologic methodologies has considerably improved our understanding of the composition of subgingival biofilms, and advanced open-ended molecular techniques even allow for genome mapping of the whole bacterial spectrum in a sample and characterization of both the cultivable and not-yet-cultivable microbiota associated with periodontal health and disease. Currently, A. actinomycetemcomitans is regarded as a minor component of the resident oral microbiota and as an opportunistic pathogen in some individuals. Its specific JP2 clone, however, shows properties of a true exogenous pathogen and has an important role in the development of aggressive periodontitis in certain populations. Still, limited data exist on the impact of other microbes specifically in aggressive periodontitis. Despite a wide heterogeneity of bacteria, especially in subgingival samples collected from patients, bacteria of the red complex in particular, and those of the orange complex, are considered as potential pathogens in generalized aggressive periodontitis. These types of bacterial findings closely resemble those found for chronic periodontitis, representing a mixed polymicrobial infection without a clear association with any specific microorganism. In aggressive periodontitis, the role of novel and not-yet-cultivable bacteria has not yet been elucidated. There are geographic and ethnic differences in the carriage of periodontitis-associated microorganisms, and they need to be taken into account when comparing study reports on periodontal microbiology in different study populations. In the present review, we provide an overview on the colonization of potential periodontal pathogens in childhood and adolescence, and on specific microorganisms that have been suspected for their role in the initiation and progression of aggressive

  7. A training course on food hygiene for butchers: measuring its effectiveness through microbiological analysis and the use of an inspection checklist.

    PubMed

    Vaz, Maria Luiza Santomauro; Novo, Neil Ferreira; Sigulem, Dirce Maria; Morais, Tania Beninga

    2005-11-01

    The effectiveness of food hygiene training for a group of retail butchers was evaluated with the aim of verifying whether the butchers modified their behavior in the light of knowledge gained and whether their acquired knowledge or behavior change was sustained over a period of time. Microbiological analysis (enumeration of mesophilic and coliform bacteria and Escherichia coli) of a raw semiprocessed product (stuffed rolled beef) was conducted, and an inspection checklist was issued before the training course (T0). Initial results were later compared with results obtained 1 month (T1) and 6 months (T6) after the training. The checklist comprised 89 items classified into five categories: A, approved suppliers and product reception; B, storage conditions and temperature control; C, flow process, food handling procedures, and conditions of the window display unit; D, facility design and proper cleaning and sanitizing of equipment, utensils, and work surfaces; and E, pest control system, water supply control, and garbage disposal. The inspection results were recorded as "yes" or "no" for each item. Compliance with food safety procedures was recorded as the percentage of "yes" answers. The bacterial counts were significantly higher at T0. At T6, there was no significant increase in bacterial counts. There was a significant improvement in food safety practices at T1 and T6 compared with T0 for all categories. When comparing T0 and T1, the largest increases in the compliance scores were seen within categories C and D. No significant decrease in scores for compliance with food safety practices was observed at T6. Supervision and refresher activities may be necessary to maintain behavioral changes for a longer period of time.

  8. Structural destabilization of DNA duplexes containing single-base lesions investigated by nanopore measurements.

    PubMed

    Jin, Qian; Fleming, Aaron M; Ding, Yun; Burrows, Cynthia J; White, Henry S

    2013-11-12

    The influence of DNA duplex structural destabilization introduced by a single base-pair modification was investigated by nanopore measurements. A series of 11 modified base pairs were introduced into the context of an otherwise complementary DNA duplex formed by a 17-mer and a 65-mer such that the overhanging ends comprised poly(dT)23 tails, generating a representative set of duplexes that display a range of unzipping mechanistic behaviors and kinetic stabilities. The guanine oxidation products 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (OG), guanidinohydantoin (Gh), and spiroiminodihydantoin (Sp) were paired with either cytosine (C), adenine (A), or 2,6-diaminopurine (D) to form modified base pairs. The mechanism and kinetic rate constants of duplex dissociation were determined by threading either the 3' or 5' overhangs into an α-hemolysin (α-HL) channel under an electrical field and measuring the distributions of unzipping times at constant force. In order of decreasing thermodynamic stability (as measured by duplex melting points), the rate of duplex dissociation increases, and the mechanism evolves from a first-order reaction to two sequential first-order reactions. These measurements allow us to rank the kinetic stability of lesion-containing duplexes relative to the canonical G:C base pair in which the OG:C, Gh:C, and Sp:C base pairs are, respectively, 3-200 times less stable. The rate constants also depend on whether unzipping was initiated from the 3' versus 5' side of the duplex. The kinetic stability of these duplexes was interpreted in terms of the structural destabilization introduced by the single base-pair modification. Specifically, a large distortion of the duplex backbone introduced by the presence of the highly oxidized guanine products Sp and Gh leads to a rapid two-step unzipping. The number of hydrogen bonds in the modified base pair plays a lesser role in determining the kinetics of duplex dissociation.

  9. [Analysis of several containment measures of pharmaceutical expenditure in an Ambulatory Surgery Centre].

    PubMed

    Esteban, J L; León, A; Porras, I

    2013-11-01

    In the context of the current crisis, sustainability of National Health Service must be considered a priority issue. To compare several cost saving measures in drug expenditure due to outpatient drug treatment after surgery in an Ambulatory Surgical Centre. Pharmaco-economic analysis of cost minimization of ambulatory pharmaceutical services during the year 2011. A total of 3,346 patients were operated on and discharged on the same day, were included. Treatments were collected from the discharge report of each patient. We compared changes in real outpatient drug spending after separately applying each of the following measures: 1) increasing the co-payment; 2) improving the quality of prescribing; 3) dispensing by units of drugs through pharmacies, and 4) dispensing through the hospital pharmacy service. The real outpatient pharmaceutical expenditure was 29,454.21€. Increasing the co-payment mean a transfer of 2,091.82€ from the funding institutions to users. Improving the quality of prescriptions, dispensing through units of drugs in the pharmacy, and dispensing through the hospital pharmacy service led to a pharmaceutical expenditure of 24,215.14€, 21,766.24€ and 7,827.71€, respectively. Only considering co-payment to contain pharmaceutical expenditure arising from prescribing in an Ambulatory Surgical Centre is the least effective measure. The most effective measure, for this purpose, is the supply of drugs through the hospital pharmacy service. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  10. Microbiological Contamination of Drinking Water Associated with Subsequent Child Diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Luby, Stephen P; Halder, Amal K; Huda, Tarique Md; Unicomb, Leanne; Islam, M Sirajul; Arnold, Benjamin F; Johnston, Richard B

    2015-11-01

    We used a prospective, longitudinal cohort enrolled as part of a program evaluation to assess the relationship between drinking water microbiological quality and child diarrhea. We included 50 villages across rural Bangladesh. Within each village field-workers enrolled a systematic random sample of 10 households with a child under the age of 3 years. Community monitors visited households monthly and recorded whether children under the age of 5 years had diarrhea in the preceding 2 days. Every 3 months, a research assistant visited the household and requested a water sample from the source or container used to provide drinking water to the child. Laboratory technicians measured the concentration of Escherichia coli in the water samples using membrane filtration. Of drinking water samples, 59% (2,273/3,833) were contaminated with E. coli. Of 12,192 monthly follow-up visits over 2 years, mothers reported that their child had diarrhea in the preceding 2 days in 1,156 (9.5%) visits. In a multivariable general linear model, the log10 of E. coli contamination of the preceding drinking water sample was associated with an increased prevalence of child diarrhea (prevalence ratio = 1.14, 95% CI = 1.05, 1.23). These data provide further evidence of the health benefits of improved microbiological quality of drinking water.

  11. Microbiological Contamination of Drinking Water Associated with Subsequent Child Diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Luby, Stephen P.; Halder, Amal K.; Huda, Tarique Md.; Unicomb, Leanne; Sirajul Islam, M.; Arnold, Benjamin F.; Johnston, Richard B.

    2015-01-01

    We used a prospective, longitudinal cohort enrolled as part of a program evaluation to assess the relationship between drinking water microbiological quality and child diarrhea. We included 50 villages across rural Bangladesh. Within each village field-workers enrolled a systematic random sample of 10 households with a child under the age of 3 years. Community monitors visited households monthly and recorded whether children under the age of 5 years had diarrhea in the preceding 2 days. Every 3 months, a research assistant visited the household and requested a water sample from the source or container used to provide drinking water to the child. Laboratory technicians measured the concentration of Escherichia coli in the water samples using membrane filtration. Of drinking water samples, 59% (2,273/3,833) were contaminated with E. coli. Of 12,192 monthly follow-up visits over 2 years, mothers reported that their child had diarrhea in the preceding 2 days in 1,156 (9.5%) visits. In a multivariable general linear model, the log10 of E. coli contamination of the preceding drinking water sample was associated with an increased prevalence of child diarrhea (prevalence ratio = 1.14, 95% CI = 1.05, 1.23). These data provide further evidence of the health benefits of improved microbiological quality of drinking water. PMID:26438031

  12. The aftermath of the Fukushima nuclear accident: Measures to contain groundwater contamination.

    PubMed

    Gallardo, Adrian H; Marui, Atsunao

    2016-03-15

    Several measures are being implemented to control groundwater contamination at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Plant. This paper presents an overview of work undertaken to contain the spread of radionuclides, and to mitigate releases to the ocean via hydrological pathways. As a first response, contaminated water is being held in tanks while awaiting treatment. Limited storage capacity and the risk of leakage make the measure unsustainable in the long term. Thus, an impervious barrier has been combined with a drain system to minimize the discharge of groundwater offshore. Caesium in seawater at the plant port has largely dropped, although some elevated concentrations are occasionally recorded. Moreover, a dissimilar decline of the radioactivity in fish could indicate additional sources of radionuclides intake. An underground frozen shield is also being constructed around the reactors. This structure would reduce inflows to the reactors and limit the interaction between fresh and contaminated waters. Additional strategies include groundwater abstraction and paving of surfaces to lower water levels and further restrict the mobilisation of radionuclides. Technical difficulties and public distrust pose an unprecedented challenge to the site remediation. Nevertheless, the knowledge acquired during the initial work offers opportunities for better planning and more rigorous decisions in the future.

  13. Measurements of Relative BCl Density in BCl_3-containing Inductively-Coupled rf Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleddermann, C. B.; Hebner, G. A.

    1997-10-01

    The relative density of BCl radicals in inductively-coupled plasmas has been studied using laser induced fluorescence and plasma induced emission. Measurements were made as a function of input power, reactor pressure, position in the reactor, and as a function of gas ratio for metal etch gas mixtures containing BCl_3, Cl_2, Ar, and N_2. The LIF and PIE intensities varied differently as the plasma parameters were changed. Between 150 and 400 W input power, there was no variation in BCl density, indicating that the dissociation fraction for BCl3 to BCl was constant with power. No significant interactions between BCl3 and Cl2 or Ar were evident in the LIF measurements. However, the BCl density decreased with addition of nitrogen. The BCl density was radially uniform for all gas mixtures. After running the reactor with a BCl_3/N2 mixture, BCl was observable for up to an hour after the discharge was switched to Cl_2, attributed to buildup of BN films on reactor surfaces.

  14. Dynamic XPS measurements of ultrathin polyelectrolyte films containing antibacterial Ag–Cu nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Taner-Camcı, Merve; Suzer, Sefik

    2014-03-15

    Ultrathin films consisting of polyelectrolyte layers prepared by layer-by-layer deposition technique and containing also Ag and Cu nanoparticles exhibit superior antibacterial activity toward Escherichia coli. These films have been investigated with XPS measurements under square wave excitation at two different frequencies, in order to further our understanding about the chemical/physical nature of the nanoparticles. Dubbed as dynamical XPS, such measurements bring out similarities and differences among the surface structures by correlating the binding energy shifts of the corresponding XPS peaks. Accordingly, it is observed that the Cu2p, Ag3d of the metal nanoparticles, and S2p of cysteine, the stabilizer and the capping agent, exhibit similar shifts. On the other hand, the C1s, N1s, and S2p peaks of the polyelectrolyte layers shift differently. This finding leads us the claim that the Ag and Cu atoms are in a nanoalloy structure, capped with cystein, as opposed to phase separated entities.

  15. Measurement of fissile mass in large-size containers with a transportable linear accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romeyer Dherbey, Jacques; Lyoussi, A.; Buisson, A.

    1997-02-01

    The quantification of transuranic material (TRU) in waste packages is a common problem of countries working in the field of nuclear nondestructive inspection. The direct measurement of TRU mass inside large size closed containers is difficult due to several effects, mainly the matrix attenuation and uncertainty on the localization of the radioactive mass. The present document describes the method being developed to assay conditioned waste packages using a transportable linear accelerator which is called Mini- Linatron. The system uses a pulsed electron beam from the Mini-Linatron to produce high energy bremsstrahlung photon bursts from thin metallic converter. The transportable linear accelerator operates at 6, 9 and 11 MeV with a repetition rate between 10 to 300 Hz and a 4.5 microsecond(s) pulse duration. The maximum gamma dose rate is about 23 Gy/mn at 1 m. The photons induce fission in fissile and fertile nuclei. We counted delayed neutrons emitted after each pulse by using Sequential Photon Interrogation and Neutron Counting Signatures technique which has ben developed in this framework. Results of measurements on an experimental active gamma interrogation facility for embedded intermediate and low level wastes are presented. Finally, the advantages and performances of the photofission interrogation technique, the use of a transportable electron linear accelerator as a particle source, and the experimental and electronic details will be discussed.

  16. [The concept of microbiological safety of a piloted Martian expedition].

    PubMed

    Novikova, N D

    2003-01-01

    It is the peculiar evolution of the microbial association aboard long-operating space vehicles that lends additional medical, technical and technological risks that may impact crew safety and orbital systems performance. Based on the experience of the Russian space stations, a concept of microbiological safety of a piloted expedition to Mars has been proposed comprising preventive measures, methods, means and technologies to control the microbiological environment in transport vehicles, lander and Martian habitation module.

  17. Microbiological quality of non-sterile pharmaceutical products

    PubMed Central

    Ratajczak, M.; Kubicka, M.M.; Kamińska, D.; Sawicka, P.; Długaszewska, J.

    2014-01-01

    In microbiological terms, pharmaceutical products can be divided into two groups: sterile and non-sterile. Non-sterile drugs must satisfy the appropriate microbiological purity criteria which are included in pharmacopoeial monographs. Pharmacopoeial studies are prepared specifically with a view to ensuring that the medicinal product is therapeutically effective and safe for the patient. The analysis comprised the results of microbiological purity tests performed before the products are marketed. Total of 1285 samples of non-sterile drugs manufactured by different pharmaceutical plants in Polish were taken into study. The microbiological quality of drugs was assessed in accordance with the criteria included in the European Pharmacopoeia (EP). An analysis of test results demonstrated that the percentage of non-compliant samples was 1.87%. The groups of drugs, which the most often did not satisfy EPs’ requirements, were drugs containing raw materials of natural origin (5.7%). The samples of studied drugs that did not meet the criteria contained in EP, exceed the maximum allowable microbiological count limits and contained microbes whose presence is prohibited. The most common non-compliance was the excessive levels of the maximum acceptable fungal count (n = 12) and the excessive the maximum acceptable aerobic microbial count (n = 10). PMID:26106278

  18. Through-container measurement of acoustic signatures for classification/discrimination of liquid explosives (LEs) and precursor threat liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz, Aaron A.; Samuel, Todd J.; Tucker, Brian J.; Cinson, Anthony D.; Valencia, Juan D.; Gervais, Kevin L.; Thompson, Jason S.

    2008-03-01

    Work at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has demonstrated that ultrasonic property measurements can be effectively employed for the rapid and accurate classification/discrimination of liquids in small, carry-on, standard "stream-of-commerce" containers. This paper focuses on a set of laboratory measurements acquired with the PNNL prototype device as applied to several types of liquids (including threat liquids and precursor chemicals) to the manufacture of LEs in small commercially available plastic containers.

  19. Superresolution microscopy for microbiology

    PubMed Central

    Coltharp, Carla; Xiao, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Summary This review provides a practical introduction to superresolution microscopy from the perspective of microbiological research. Because of the small sizes of bacterial cells, superresolution methods are particularly powerful and suitable for revealing details of cellular structures that are not resolvable under conventional fluorescence light microscopy. Here we describe the methodological concepts behind three major categories of super-resolution light microscopy: photoactivated localization microscopy (PALM) and stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM), structured illumination microscopy (SIM) and stimulated emission-depletion (STED) microscopy. We then present recent applications of each of these techniques to microbial systems, which have revealed novel conformations of cellular structures and described new properties of in vivo protein function and interactions. Finally, we discuss the unique issues related to implementing each of these superresolution techniques with bacterial specimens and suggest avenues for future development. The goal of this review is to provide the necessary technical background for interested microbiologists to choose the appropriate super-resolution method for their biological systems, and to introduce the practical considerations required for designing and analysing superresolution imaging experiments. PMID:22947061

  20. Microbiology of Lebanon Bologna

    PubMed Central

    Smith, James L.; Palumbo, Samuel A.

    1973-01-01

    Various aspects of the microbiology of the Lebanon bologna process were studied. Manufacture of Lebanon bologna appeared to be similar to that of summer sausage and other fermented sausages and consisted of a lactic acid fermentation by lactobacilli accompanied by the production of cured meat color from the reduction of nitrate by micrococci. The traditional process consists of aging coarse ground beef at 5 C for several days. Aging the beef for about 10 days was necessary to allow development of lactic acid bacteria; for successful fermentation, the concentration of lactic acid producers must be 104/g or more. At least 3% NaCl was necessary to suppress the development of pseudomonads during the aging period; higher concentrations of salt suppress the development of the lactic acid-producing flora. During aging, in the presence of salt, the predominant flora developing on the meat consisted of catalase-positive, gram-positive rods and cocci; during fermentation at 35 C, the predominant flora became catalase-negative, gram-positive rods with characteristics of lactobacilli. Lebanon bologna could be made from frozen beef if the meat was thawed, salted, and aged. However, bolognas could not be made from unaged beef unless a lactic acid starter culture was used. The microflora of several commercial bolognas is reported also. PMID:4796166

  1. [Nanobacteria--microbiological characteristics].

    PubMed

    Wilk, Iwona; Martirosian, Gayane

    2004-03-03

    We have reviewed recent publications regarding the microbiological characteristic and pathogenicity of a novel infectious agent, the mineral-forming, sterile-filterable, slow-growing Gram-negative Nanobacteria, detected in bovine/human blood, kidney cyst fluid, urine and kidney stones. According to their 16S rDNA structure, nanobacteria belong to the alpha-2 Proteobacteria, subgroup, which includes the Brucella and Bartonella species. Their cell diameter is 0.2-0.5 microm (the smallest known cell-walled bacteria). Their most remarkable characteristic is the formation of carbonate apatite crystals of neutral pH and at physiologic phosphate and calcium concentrations. The extracellular mineralization forms a hard protective shelter for these hardy microorganisms, and enables them to survive conditions of physical stress that would be lethal to most other bacterial species. The Olavi Kajander group (Finland) suggests that the apatite produced by nanobacteria may play a key role in the formation of all kidney stones, by providing a central calcium phosphate deposit around which other crystalline components can collect. Nanobacteria seems to be a causative agent of diseases related to biomineralization processes.

  2. Periodontal diseases: microbiological considerations.

    PubMed

    Liébana, José; Castillo, Ana María; Alvarez, Marta

    2004-01-01

    The location of plaque-associated gingivitis at the gingival portion of the tooth plays an essential role in its genesis. However, at times local and other host response modifying factors also have an influence. The pathogeny of periodontitis is more complex. The microorganisms that comprise subgingival plaque are capable of acting directly on periodontal tissues or of modifying the host response, whereas the participation of the plaque per se (normal, decreased, or increased) is as decisive as the action of the bacteria themselves in the emergence of the disease. Different types of periodontitis are associated with specific microorganisms. The most periodontopathogenic are A. actinomycetemcomitans, P. gingivalis, and T. forsythensis. Periodontitis as a whole, represent the source of complications such as root caries, endoperiodontal processes and periodontal abscesses. They are associated with various illnesses such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, and respiratory infections, amongst others, as well as pathological oral halitosis. The different modalities of PCR are particularly important in the microbiological diagnosis of periodontitis, although on the negative side of things, it must be pointed out that in vitro sensitivity studies cannot be performed using this technique. First line antibiotic treatment of periodontitis includes amoxicillin/ clavulanic acid, metronidazole (associated or not with amoxicillin) and clindamycin.

  3. Colloquium and Report on Systems Microbiology: Beyond Microbial Genomics

    SciTech Connect

    Merry R. Buckley

    2004-12-13

    range from improvements in the management of bacterial infections to the development of commercial-scale microbial hydrogen generation. A number of technical challenges must be met to realize the potential of systems microbiology. Development of a new, comprehensive systems microbiology database that would be available to the entire research community was identified as the single most critical need. Other challenges include difficulties in measuring single-cell parameters, limitations in identifying and measuring metabolites and other products, the inability to cultivate diverse microbes, limits on data accessibility, computational limitations associated with data integration, the lack of sufficient functional gene annotations, needs for quantitative proteomics, and the inapplicability of current high throughput methods to all areas of systems microbiology. Difficulties have also been encountered in acquiring the necessary data, assuring the quality of that data, and in making data available to the community in a useful format. Problems with data quality assurance and data availability could be partially offset by launching a dedicated systems microbiology database. To be of greatest value to the field, a database should include systems data from all levels of analysis, including sequences, microarray data, proteomics data, metabolite measurements, data on protein-protein or protein-nucleic interactions, carbohydrate and small RNA profiles, information on cell surface markers, and appropriate supporting data. Regular updates of these databases and adherence to agreed upon data format standards are critical to the success of these resources. It was recommended that educational requirements for undergraduate and graduate students in microbiology be amended to better prepare the next generation of researchers for the quantitative requirements of applying systems microbiology methods in their work. Systems microbiology research is too complex to be the sole property of any

  4. [Microbiological diagnosis of HIV infection].

    PubMed

    López-Bernaldo de Quirós, Juan Carlos; Delgado, Rafael; García, Federico; Eiros, José M; Ortiz de Lejarazu, Raúl

    2007-12-01

    Currently, there are around 150,000 HIV-infected patients in Spain. This number, together with the fact that this disease is now a chronic condition since the introduction of antiretroviral therapy, has generated an increasing demand on the clinical microbiology laboratories in our hospitals. This increase has occurred not only in the diagnosis and treatment of opportunistic diseases, but also in tests related to the diagnosis and therapeutic management of HIV infection. To meet this demand, the Sociedad de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clinica (Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology) has updated its standard Procedure for the microbiological diagnosis of HIV infection. The main advances related to serological diagnosis, plasma viral load, and detection of resistance to antiretroviral drugs are reviewed in this version of the Procedure.

  5. Medical Microbiology: Deficits and Remedies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabridge, Michael G.

    1974-01-01

    Microbiology is a typical medical science in which basic information can have direct application. Yet, surveys and questionnaires of recent medical school graduates indicate a serious lack of retentiion in regard to basic biological science. (Author)

  6. Internal audit in a microbiology laboratory.

    PubMed Central

    Mifsud, A J; Shafi, M S

    1995-01-01

    AIM--To set up a programme of internal laboratory audit in a medical microbiology laboratory. METHODS--A model of laboratory based process audit is described. Laboratory activities were examined in turn by specimen type. Standards were set using laboratory standard operating procedures; practice was observed using a purpose designed questionnaire and the data were analysed by computer; performance was assessed at laboratory audit meetings; and the audit circle was closed by re-auditing topics after an interval. RESULTS--Improvements in performance scores (objective measures) and in staff morale (subjective impression) were observed. CONCLUSIONS--This model of process audit could be applied, with amendments to take local practice into account, in any microbiology laboratory. PMID:7665701

  7. Microbiological Defacement of Navy Buildings.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-10-01

    microbiology, 3rd. edition, Society of Microbiology. W. B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia and London, 1980 , pp. 533-668. 3. T. B. O’Neill and R. W. Drisko...34Performance of mildewcides in a semi- transparent stain wood finish," Forest Products Journal, vol 30, no. 5, May 1980 , pp 43-46. 14. P. Whitely...Spielvogel, and C. W. Griffin. Gloucester, N.J., ARMM Consultants, Inc., Apr 1980 . 19. Naval Civil Engineering Laboratory. Technical Note N-1480

  8. Effects of Different Containers on Radioactivity Measurements using a Dose Calibrator with Special Reference to (111)In and (123)I.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Yusuke; Abe, Yutaka; Kikuchi, Kei; Miyatake, Hiroki; Watanabe, Atsushi

    2017-01-01

    Low-energy characteristic x-rays emitted by (111)In and (123)I sources are easily absorbed by the containers of the sources, affecting radioactivity measurements using a dose calibrator. We examined the effects of different containers on the estimated activities. The radioactivities of (111)In, (123)I, (201)Tl, and (99m)Tc were measured in containers frequently employed in clinical practice in Japan. The (111)In measurements were performed in the vials A and B of the (111)In-pentetreotide preparation kit and in the plastic syringe. The activities of (123)I-metaiodobenzylguanidine and (201)Tl chloride were measured in the prefilled glass syringes and plastic syringes. The milking vial, vial A, vial B, and plastic syringe were used to assay (99m)Tc. For (111)In and (123)I, measurements were performed with and without a copper filter. The filter was inserted into the well of the dose calibrator to absorb low-energy x-rays. The relative estimate was defined as the ratio of the activity estimated with the dose calibrator to the standard activity. The estimated activities varied greatly depending on the container when (111)In and (123)I sources were assayed without the copper filter. The relative estimates of (111)In were 0.908, 1.072, and 1.373 in the vial A, vial B, and plastic syringe, respectively. The relative estimates of (123)I were 1.052 and 1.352 in the glass syringe and plastic syringe, respectively. Use of the copper filter eliminated the container-dependence in (111)In and (123)I measurements. Container-dependence was demonstrated in neither (201)Tl nor (99m)Tc measurements. The activities of (111)In and (123)I estimated with a dose calibrator differ greatly among the containers. Accurate estimation may be attained using the container-specific correction factor or using the copper filter.

  9. 21 CFR 866.2540 - Microbiological incubator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Microbiological incubator. 866.2540 Section 866.2540 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2540 Microbiological...

  10. 21 CFR 866.2540 - Microbiological incubator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Microbiological incubator. 866.2540 Section 866.2540 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2540 Microbiological...

  11. 21 CFR 866.2540 - Microbiological incubator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Microbiological incubator. 866.2540 Section 866.2540 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2540 Microbiological...

  12. 21 CFR 866.2540 - Microbiological incubator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Microbiological incubator. 866.2540 Section 866.2540 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2540 Microbiological...

  13. Microbiological components in mainstream and sidestream cigarette smoke

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Research has shown that tobacco smoke contains substances of microbiological origin such as ergosterol (a fungal membrane lipid) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria). The aim of the present study was to compare the amounts of ergosterol and LPS in the tobacco and mainstream (MS) and sidestream (SS) smoke of some popular US cigarettes. Methods We measured LPS 3-hydroxy fatty acids and fungal biomass biomarker ergosterol in the tobacco and smoke from cigarettes of 11 popular brands purchased in the US. University of Kentucky reference cigarettes were also included for comparison. Results The cigarette tobacco of the different brands contained 6.88-16.17 (mean 10.64) pmol LPS and 8.27-21.00 (mean 14.05) ng ergosterol/mg. There was a direct correlation between the amounts of ergosterol and LPS in cigarette tobacco and in MS smoke collected using continuous suction; the MS smoke contained 3.65-8.23% (ergosterol) and 10.02-20.13% (LPS) of the amounts in the tobacco. Corresponding percentages were 0.30-0.82% (ergosterol) and 0.42-1.10% (LPS) for SS smoke collected without any ongoing suction, and 2.18% and 2.56% for MS smoke collected from eight two-second puffs. Conclusions Tobacco smoke is a bioaerosol likely to contain a wide range of potentially harmful bacterial and fungal components. PMID:22898193

  14. Smartphone apps in microbiology--is better regulation required?

    PubMed

    Visvanathan, A; Hamilton, A; Brady, R R W

    2012-07-01

    Increasing diversity of available medical applications (apps) has led to their widespread use in healthcare delivery. However, app involvement in diagnosis and patient management has raised concerns, specifically regarding accuracy and reliability of content. Here, we report on the contemporary range of microbiology-themed apps and prevalence of medical professional involvement in app development. Of 94 microbiology-themed apps identified, only 34% had stated medical professional involvement. The lack of such involvement in app design is concerning and undermines consumers' ability to be informed regarding quality of content. We propose that increased regulatory measures are introduced to safeguard patient welfare. © 2012 The Authors. Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2012 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  15. Microbiological Methodology in Astrobiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abyzov, S. S.; Gerasimenko, L. M.; Hoover, R. B.; Mitskevich, I. N.; Mulyukin, A. L.; Poglazova, M. N.; Rozanov, A. Y.

    2005-01-01

    Searching for life in astromaterials to be delivered from the future missions to extraterrestrial bodies is undoubtedly related to studies of the properties and signatures of living microbial cells and microfossils on Earth. As model terrestrial analogs of Martian polar subsurface layers are often regarded the Antarctic glacier and Earth permafrost habitats where alive microbial cells preserved viability for millennia years due to entering the anabiotic state. For the future findings of viable microorganisms in samples from extraterrestrial objects, it is important to use a combined methodology that includes classical microbiological methods, plating onto nutrient media, direct epifluorescence and electron microscopy examinations, detection of the elemental composition of cells, radiolabeling techniques, PCR and FISH methods. Of great importance is to ensure authenticity of microorganisms (if any in studied samples) and to standardize the protocols used to minimize a risk of external contamination. Although the convincing evidence of extraterrestrial microbial life will may come from the discovery of living cells in astromaterials, biomorphs and microfossils must also be regarded as a target in search of life evidence bearing in mind a scenario that alive microorganisms had not be preserved and underwent mineralization. Under the laboratory conditions, processes that accompanied fossilization of cyanobacteria were reconstructed, and artificially produced cyanobacterial stromatolites resembles by their morphological properties those found in natural Earth habitats. Regarding the vital importance of distinguishing between biogenic and abiogenic signatures and between living and fossil microorganisms in analyzed samples, it is worthwhile to use some previously developed approaches based on electron microscopy examinations and analysis of elemental composition of biomorphs in situ and comparison with the analogous data obtained for laboratory microbial cultures and

  16. Microbiological Methodology in Astrobiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abyzov, S. S.; Gerasimenko, L. M.; Hoover, R. B.; Mitskevich, I. N.; Mulyukin, A. L.; Poglazova, M. N.; Rozanov, A. Y.

    2005-01-01

    Searching for life in astromaterials to be delivered from the future missions to extraterrestrial bodies is undoubtedly related to studies of the properties and signatures of living microbial cells and microfossils on Earth. As model terrestrial analogs of Martian polar subsurface layers are often regarded the Antarctic glacier and Earth permafrost habitats where alive microbial cells preserved viability for millennia years due to entering the anabiotic state. For the future findings of viable microorganisms in samples from extraterrestrial objects, it is important to use a combined methodology that includes classical microbiological methods, plating onto nutrient media, direct epifluorescence and electron microscopy examinations, detection of the elemental composition of cells, radiolabeling techniques, PCR and FISH methods. Of great importance is to ensure authenticity of microorganisms (if any in studied samples) and to standardize the protocols used to minimize a risk of external contamination. Although the convincing evidence of extraterrestrial microbial life will may come from the discovery of living cells in astromaterials, biomorphs and microfossils must also be regarded as a target in search of life evidence bearing in mind a scenario that alive microorganisms had not be preserved and underwent mineralization. Under the laboratory conditions, processes that accompanied fossilization of cyanobacteria were reconstructed, and artificially produced cyanobacterial stromatolites resembles by their morphological properties those found in natural Earth habitats. Regarding the vital importance of distinguishing between biogenic and abiogenic signatures and between living and fossil microorganisms in analyzed samples, it is worthwhile to use some previously developed approaches based on electron microscopy examinations and analysis of elemental composition of biomorphs in situ and comparison with the analogous data obtained for laboratory microbial cultures and

  17. Fully automatic measuring system for assessing masticatory performance using β-carotene-containing gummy jelly.

    PubMed

    Nokubi, T; Yasui, S; Yoshimuta, Y; Kida, M; Kusunoki, C; Ono, T; Maeda, Y; Nokubi, F; Yokota, K; Yamamoto, T

    2013-02-01

    Despite the importance of masticatory performance in health promotion, assessment of masticatory performance has not been widely conducted to date because the methods are labour intensive. The purpose of this study is to investigate the accuracy of a novel system for automatically measuring masticatory performance that uses β-carotene-containing gummy jelly. To investigate the influence of rinsing time on comminuted jelly pieces expectorated from the oral cavity, divided jelly pieces were treated with two types of dye solution and then rinsed for various durations. Changes in photodiode (light receiver) voltages from light emitted through a solution of dissolved β-carotene from jelly pieces under each condition were compared with those of unstained jelly. To investigate the influence of dissolving time, changes in light receiver voltage resulting from an increase in division number were compared between three dissolving times. For all forms of divided test jelly and rinsing times, no significant differences in light receiver voltage were observed between any of the stain groups and the control group. Voltages decreased in a similar manner for all forms of divided jelly as dissolving time increased. The highest coefficient of determination (R(2)  = 0·979) between the obtained voltage and the increased surface area of each divided jelly was seen at the 10 s dissolving time. These results suggested that our fully automatic system can estimate the increased surface area of comminuted gummy jelly as a parameter of masticatory performance with high accuracy after rinsing and dissolving operations of 10 s each.

  18. In situ measurements of oxide particles in boron-containing diffusion flames

    SciTech Connect

    Turns, S.R.; Funari, M.J.; Khan, A.

    1989-02-01

    Particulate matter in axisymmetric laminar diffusion flames produced by burning mixtures of either CO and trimethylborate (TMB) or CH/sub 4/ and TMB with air were investigated using laser light-scattering techniques. Boron oxide particle sizes and number densities were determined at various heights in the flames using polarization ratio and relative intensity measurements, respectively. In the CO/TMB flames, two distinct particle-laden regions were found. The first region was located on the rich side of the luminous flame zone and initially appeared as a narrow annulus, which grew in width downstream until the particles filled the core. A second thin annular zone appeared on the air side of the flame zone, starting approximately at the height of the luminous green flame tip and continuing to grow downstream. Particle sizes did not vary significantly with location in the flames, with diameters of approximately 0.09 and 0.15 ..mu..m in the 95% CO/5% TMB and 90% CO/10% TMB flames, respectively. Corresponding peak number densities were approximately 1.5 X 10/sup 10/ and 6 X 10/sup 9/ cm/sup -3/. The CH/sub 4//TMB flames were considerably different than the CO/TMB flames. The presence of significant quantities of water vapor presumably contributed to the formation of HBO/sub 2/(g) in favor of condensed-phase B/sub 2/O/sub 3/. At locations where oxide particles did form, they were closer to the flame centerline than the soot-containing regions. Computations of equilibrium yields of condensed-phase oxide were in qualitative agreement with the experimental results.

  19. Microbiological assay using bioluminescent organism

    SciTech Connect

    Stiffey, A.V.

    1987-12-21

    This invention relates to testing processes for toxicity involving microorganisms and, more particularly, to testing processes for toxicity involving bioluminescent organisms. The present known method of testing oil-well drilling fluids for toxicity employs the mysid shrimp (Mysidopsis bahia) as the assay organism. The shrimp are difficult to raise and handle as laboratory assay organisms. This method is labor-intensive, because it requires a assay time of about 96 hours. Summary of the Invention: A microbiological assay in which the assay organism is the dinoflagellate, Pyrocystis lunula. A sample of a substance to be assayed is added to known numbers of the bioluminescent dinoflagellate and the mixture is agitated to subject the organisms to a shear stress causing them to emit light. The amount of light emitted is measured and compared with the amount of light emitted by a known non-toxic control mixture to determine if there is diminution or non-diminution of light emitted by the sample under test which is an indication of the presence or absence of toxicity, respectively. Accordingly, an object of the present invention is the provision of an improved method of testing substances for toxicity. A further object of the invention is the provision of an improved method of testing oil-well drilling fluids for toxicity using bioluminescent dinoflagellate (Pyrocystis lunula).

  20. Quality in the molecular microbiology laboratory.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Paul S; MacKay, William G

    2013-01-01

    In the clinical microbiology laboratory advances in nucleic acid detection, quantification, and sequence analysis have led to considerable improvements in the diagnosis, management, and monitoring of infectious diseases. Molecular diagnostic methods are routinely used to make clinical decisions based on when and how to treat a patient as well as monitor the effectiveness of a therapeutic regime and identify any potential drug resistant strains that may impact on the long term patient treatment program. Therefore, confidence in the reliability of the result provided by the laboratory service to the clinician is essential for patient treatment. Hence, suitable quality assurance and quality control measures are important to ensure that the laboratory methods and service meet the necessary regulatory requirements both at the national and international level. In essence, the modern clinical microbiology laboratory ensures the appropriateness of its services through a quality management system that monitors all aspects of the laboratory service pre- and post-analytical-from patient sample receipt to reporting of results, from checking and upholding staff competency within the laboratory to identifying areas for quality improvements within the service offered. For most European based clinical microbiology laboratories this means following the common International Standard Organization (ISO9001) framework and ISO15189 which sets out the quality management requirements for the medical laboratory (BS EN ISO 15189 (2003) Medical laboratories-particular requirements for quality and competence. British Standards Institute, Bristol, UK). In the United States clinical laboratories performing human diagnostic tests are regulated by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) following the requirements within the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments document 1988 (CLIA-88). This chapter focuses on the key quality assurance and quality control requirements within the

  1. Chamber leakage effects on measured gas concentrations during contained demilitarization tests at NTS X-Tunnel

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher R. Shadix; Joel Lipkin

    1999-11-01

    A series of contained explosive detonation and propellant burn experiments was conducted during 1996 and 1997 using a specially constructed, large, underground chamber located in the X-tunnel complex at Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS).

  2. Interference of chlorofluorocarbon (CFC)-containing inhalers with measurements of volatile compounds using selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Epton, Michael J; Ledingham, Katherine; Dummer, Jack; Hu, Wan-Ping; Rhodes, Bronwen; Senthilmohan, Senti T; Scotter, Jennifer M; Allardyce, Randall; Cook, Julie; Swanney, Maureen P

    2009-02-01

    Selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS) is a sensitive technique capable of measuring volatile compounds (VCs) in complex gas mixtures in real time; it is now being applied to breath analysis. We investigated the effect of inhalers containing chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) on the detection and measurement of haloamines in human breath. SIFT-MS mass scans (MS) and selected ion monitoring (SIM) scans were performed on three healthy non-smoking volunteers before and after inhalation of the following medications: Combiventtrade mark metered-dose inhaler (MDI) (CFC-containing); Ventolintrade mark MDI (CFC-free); Atroventtrade mark MDI (CFC-free), Beclazonetrade mark MDI (CFC-containing); Duolintrade mark nebuliser. In addition, the duration of the persistence of the mass/charge ratios was measured for 20 h. Inhalers containing CFCs generated large peaks at m/z 85, 87, 101, 103 and 105 in vitro and in vivo, consistent with the predicted product ions of CFCs 12, 114 and 11. No such peaks were seen with Duolintrade mark via nebuliser, or CFC-free MDIs. We conclude that measurement of VCs, such as haloamines, with product ions of similar m/z values to the ions found for CFCs would be significantly affected by the presence of CFCs in inhalers. This issue needs to be accounted for prior to the measurement of VCs in breath in people using inhalers containing CFCs. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. 7 CFR 58.648 - Microbiological requirements for ice cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Microbiological requirements for ice cream. 58.648 Section 58.648 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... requirements for ice cream. The finished product shall contain not more than 50,000 bacteria per gram...

  4. Using Learning-Styles Data To Design a Microbiology Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buxeda, Rosa J.; Moore, Deborah A.

    2000-01-01

    Introduces a study that identifies which learning styles are prevalent in biology majors. Uses the findings of the study to design a microbiology course. Presents activities that address the different learning styles. Uses self-assessment and portfolios for student evaluation. Includes recommendations for instructional improvement. (Contains 19…

  5. [Quality control in molecular microbiology].

    PubMed

    Orta Mira, Nieves; Guna Serrano, María Remedio; Gimeno Cardona, Concepción; Pérez, José L

    2008-07-01

    The term quality assurance (QA) refers to the quality control activities related to analytical procedures performed in the clinical microbiology laboratory. QA should include both external and internal quality assessment. Application of quality control tools in molecular microbiology assays is crucial to ensure the accuracy of results and appropriate patient management. External quality control is used for laboratory intercomparisons, detection of random and systematic errors, evaluation of the suitability of some reagents or commercial diagnostic kits, and continuing education. The External Quality Control Program of the Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology includes quality control procedures for molecular microbiology, as well as specific programs for quantitative determination of the viral load of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and hepatitis C virus (HCV), two highly important molecular markers in clinical settings due to their prognostic value and utility as a treatment guide. Internal quality control allows random and systematic errors to be detected through the inclusion of quality control samples in the assays performed in the laboratory, equipment monitoring, and audit. Evaluation of all molecular microbiology assays before their inclusion in the daily routine work of the laboratory is of utmost importance.

  6. Feasibility Study of Non-Destructive Techniques to Measure Corrosion in SAVY Containers

    SciTech Connect

    Davenport, Matthew Nicholas

    2016-07-15

    Stainless Steel SAVY containers are used to transport and store nuclear material. They are prone to interior corrosion in the presence of certain chemicals and a low-oxygen environment. SAVY containers also have relatively thin walls to reduce their weight, making their structural integrity more vulnerable to the effects of corrosion. A nondestructive evaluation system that finds and monitors corrosion within containers in use would improve safety conditions and preclude hazards. Non-destructive testing can determine whether oxidation or corrosion is occurring inside the SAVY containers, and there are a variety of non-destructive testing methods that may be viable. The feasibility study described will objectively decide which method best fits the requirements of the facility and the problem. To improve efficiency, the containers cannot be opened during the non-destructive examination. The chosen technique should also be user-friendly and relatively quick to apply. It must also meet facility requirements regarding wireless technology and maintenance. A feasibility study is an objective search for a new technology or product to solve a particular problem. First, the design, technical, and facility feasibility requirements are chosen and ranked in order of importance. Then each technology considered is given a score based upon a standard ranking system. The technology with the highest total score is deemed the best fit for a certain application.

  7. Establishing molecular microbiology facilities in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Salman S; Alp, Emine; Ulu-Kilic, Aysegul; Doganay, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    Microbiology laboratories play an important role in epidemiology and infection control programs. Within microbiology laboratories, molecular microbiology techniques have revolutionized the identification and surveillance of infectious diseases. The combination of excellent sensitivity, specificity, low contamination levels and speed has made molecular techniques appealing methods for the diagnosis of many infectious diseases. In a well-equipped microbiology laboratory, the facility designated for molecular techniques remains indiscrete. However, in most developing countries, poor infrastructure and laboratory mismanagement have precipitated hazardous consequences. The establishment of a molecular microbiology facility within a microbiology laboratory remains fragmented. A high-quality laboratory should include both conventional microbiology methods and molecular microbiology techniques for exceptional performance. Furthermore, it should include appropriate laboratory administration, a well-designed facility, laboratory procedure standardization, a waste management system, a code of practice, equipment installation and laboratory personnel training. This manuscript lays out fundamental issues that need to be addressed when establishing a molecular microbiology facility in developing countries.

  8. Microbiological quality and bacterial diversity of the tropical oyster Crassostrea rhizophorae in a monitored farming system and from natural stocks.

    PubMed

    Silva Neta, M T; Maciel, B M; Lopes, A T S; Marques, E L S; Rezende, R P; Boehs, G

    2015-12-02

    Microbiological evaluation is one of the most important parameters for analyzing the viability of an oyster farming system, which addresses public health and ecological concerns. Here, the microbiological quality of the oyster Crassostrea rhizophorae cultivated in a monitored environment and from natural beds in Bahia, northeastern Brazil, was determined. Bacterial diversity in oysters was measured by polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Sequence analysis revealed that most bacterial species showed similarity with uncultured or unidentified bacteria from environmental samples, and were clustered into the phylum Proteobacteria. Diverse bacteria from cultivated (monitored) oyster samples were grouped in the same cluster with a high similarity index (above 79%). Microbiological analyses revealed that these oysters did not contain pathogens. These results reflect the natural balance of the microbial communities essential to the maintenance of health and in inhibiting pathogen colonization in the oyster. On the other hand, bacterial diversity of samples from native stocks in extractive areas displayed a similarity index varying between 55 and 77%, and all samples were clustered separately from each other and from the cluster of samples derived from the cultivation area. Microbiological analyses showed that oysters from the extractive area were not fit for human consumption. This reflected a different composition of the microbial community in this area, probably resulting from anthropic impact. Our study also demonstrated that low temperatures and high rainfall limits the bacterial concentration in tropical oysters. This is the first study analyzing the total bacterial community profiles of the oyster C. rhizophorae.

  9. Multimedia Programs in Microbiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirschbrown, Lita, Ed.

    This is a catalog of films, filmstrips, slides, video tapes, and audio cassettes. Most of the materials listed are for college or adult levels. The entries contain the following information: title, format, date released, distributor, running time, costs, author, consultants, and producer. Some of the entries bear recommendations or reviews. The…

  10. Multimedia Programs in Microbiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirschbrown, Lita, Ed.

    This is a catalog of films, filmstrips, slides, video tapes, and audio cassettes. Most of the materials listed are for college or adult levels. The entries contain the following information: title, format, date released, distributor, running time, costs, author, consultants, and producer. Some of the entries bear recommendations or reviews. The…

  11. [Post-mortem microbiology analysis].

    PubMed

    Fernández-Rodríguez, Amparo; Alberola, Juan; Cohen, Marta Cecilia

    2013-12-01

    Post-mortem microbiology is useful in both clinical and forensic autopsies, and allows a suspected infection to be confirmed. Indeed, it is routinely applied to donor studies in the clinical setting, as well as in sudden and unexpected death in the forensic field. Implementation of specific sampling techniques in autopsy can minimize the possibility of contamination, making interpretation of the results easier. Specific interpretation criteria for post-mortem cultures, the use of molecular diagnosis, and its fusion with molecular biology and histopathology have led to post-mortem microbiology playing a major role in autopsy. Multidisciplinary work involving microbiologists, pathologists, and forensic physicians will help to improve the achievements of post-mortem microbiology, prevent infectious diseases, and contribute to a healthier population.

  12. Imaging mass spectrometry in microbiology

    PubMed Central

    Watrous, Jeramie D.; Dorrestein, Pieter C.

    2013-01-01

    Mass spectrometry tools which allow for the 2-D visualization of the distribution of trace metals, metabolites, surface lipids, peptides and proteins directly from biological samples without the need for chemical tagging or antibodies are becoming increasingly useful for microbiology applications. These tools, comprised of different imaging mass spectrometry techniques, are ushering in an exciting new era of discovery by allowing for the generation of chemical hypotheses based on of the spatial mapping of atoms and molecules that can correlate to or transcend observed phenotypes. In this review, we explore the wide range of imaging mass spectrometry techniques available to microbiologists and describe their unique applications to microbiology with respect to the types of microbiology samples to be investigated. PMID:21822293

  13. Validation of rapid microbiological methods.

    PubMed

    Peris-Vicente, Juan; Carda-Broch, Samuel; Esteve-Romero, Josep

    2015-06-01

    Classical microbiological methods currently have unacceptably long cycle times. Rapid microbiological methods have been available on the market for decades and have been applied by the clinical and food industries. However, their implementation in the pharmaceutical industry has been hampered by stringent regulations on validation and comparison with classical methods. To encourage the implementation of these methodologies, they must be validated to assess that the results are straightforward. A comparison with traditional methods should be also performed. In this review, information about the validation of rapid microbiological methods reported in the literature is provided as well as an explanation of the difficulty of validation of these methods. A comparison with traditional methods is also discussed. This information is useful for industries and laboratories that can potentially implement these methods. © 2014 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  14. Ecotoxicological and microbiological characterization of soils from heavy-metal- and hydrocarbon-contaminated sites.

    PubMed

    Płaza, Grazyna A; Nałecz-Jawecki, Grzegorz; Pinyakong, Onruthai; Illmer, Paul; Margesin, Rosa

    2010-04-01

    The aims of this study were to characterize soils from industrial sites by combining physicochemical, microbiological, and ecotoxicological parameters and to assess the suitability of these assays for evaluation of contaminated sites and ecological risk assessment. The soil samples were taken from long-term contaminated sites containing high amounts of heavy metals (sites 1 and 2) or petroleum hydrocarbons (site 3) located in the upper Silesia Industrial Region in southern Poland. Due to soil heterogeneity, large differences between all investigated parameters were measured. Microbiological properties revealed the presence of high numbers of viable hetrotrophic microorganisms. Soil enzyme activities were considerably reduced or could not be detected in contaminated soils. Activities involved in N turnover (N mineralization and nitrification) were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in samples from the metal-contaminated sites than in samples from the hydrocarbon-contaminated site, whereas the opposite was observed for phosphatase activity. The Microtox test system appeared to be the most appropriate to detect toxicity and significant differences in toxicity between the three sites. The Ostracodtoxkit test was the most appropriate test system to detect toxicity in the hydrocarbon-contaminated soil samples. Correlation analysis between principal components (obtained from factor analysis) determined for physicochemical, microbiological, and ecotoxicological soil properties demonstrated the impact of total and water-extractable contents of heavy metals on toxicity.

  15. Combined chemical and microbiological removal of organic sulfur from coal

    SciTech Connect

    Raphaelian, L.A.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this work is to investigate techniques for chemically converting the sulfur containing organic compounds in coal to compounds that can be treated microbiologically to remove the organically bound sulfur. The goal is to achieve an economically feasible mild chemical oxidation of the organic sulfur in a representative Illinois Basin coal by converting the sulfur to sulfoxides and sulfones; the carbon sulfur bond in the sulfoxides and sulfones would then be broken microbiologically and the sulfur removed from the coal as sulfate.

  16. Documentation and analysis for packaging for surface moisture measurement system 7A containers

    SciTech Connect

    Clem, D.K.

    1996-06-17

    This documentation and analysis for packaging documents that two, procured, carbon steel 5-gal drums meet all applicable U.S.Department of Transportation-7A requirements. One container will be used to transport a 0.009 Ci 252 Cf source and the other to transport a 1.7 Ci Am-Be source to and from various 200 Area tank farms.

  17. High temperature volatility and oxidation measurements of titanium and silicon containing ceramic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Quynhgiao N.

    Titanium (Ti) containing materials are of high interest to the aerospace industry due to its high temperature capability, strength, and light weight. As with most metals an exterior oxide layer naturally exists in environments that contain oxygen (i.e. air). At high temperatures, water vapor plays a key role in the volatility of materials including oxide surfaces. This study first evaluates several hot-pressed Ti-containing compositions at high temperatures as a function of oxidation resistance. This study will also evaluate cold pressed titanium dioxide (TiO2) powder pellets at a temperature range of 1400°C--1200°C in water containing environments to determine the volatile hydoxyl species using the transpiration method. The water content ranged from 0-76 mole % and the oxygen content range was 0-100 mole % during the 20-250 hour exposure times. Preliminary results indicate that oxygen is not a key contributor at these temperatures and the following reaction is the primary volatile equation at all three temperatures: TiO 2 (s) + H2O (g) = TiO(OH)2 (g).

  18. 16 CFR 500.16 - Measurement of container type commodities, how expressed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... permanent container. (Example: Garbage Can Liners: “10 liners, 2 ft. 6 in. × 3 ft. 1 in., fits up to 30 gallon cans (76.2 × 93.9 cm, fits up to 113 L cans”.) (c) Notwithstanding the above requirements, the...

  19. 16 CFR 500.16 - Measurement of container type commodities, how expressed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... permanent container. (Example: Garbage Can Liners: “10 liners, 2 ft. 6 in. × 3 ft. 1 in., fits up to 30 gallon cans (76.2 × 93.9 cm, fits up to 113 L cans”.) (c) Notwithstanding the above requirements, the...

  20. 16 CFR 500.16 - Measurement of container type commodities, how expressed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... permanent container. (Example: Garbage Can Liners: “10 liners, 2 ft. 6 in. × 3 ft. 1 in., fits up to 30 gallon cans (76.2 × 93.9 cm, fits up to 113 L cans”.) (c) Notwithstanding the above requirements, the...

  1. 16 CFR 500.16 - Measurement of container type commodities, how expressed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... permanent container. (Example: Garbage Can Liners: “10 liners, 2 ft. 6 in. × 3 ft. 1 in., fits up to 30 gallon cans (76.2 × 93.9 cm, fits up to 113 L cans”.) (c) Notwithstanding the above requirements, the...

  2. 16 CFR 500.16 - Measurement of container type commodities, how expressed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... permanent container. (Example: Garbage Can Liners: “10 liners, 2 ft. 6 in. × 3 ft. 1 in., fits up to 30 gallon cans (76.2 × 93.9 cm, fits up to 113 L cans”.) (c) Notwithstanding the above requirements, the...

  3. [The modern microbiology in the clinical managing].

    PubMed

    Casal Román, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    The tuberculosis is one of the most important and mortal diseases of the world. The microbiological confirmatory diagnosis and the microbiological therapeutic orientation are fundamental nowadays in the tuberculosis in AIDS and in the Resistant tuberculosis. They are described throughout the time by the classic Microbiology: From 1882 to final 20th century (130 years). With the modern current Microbiology: In the beginning of the 21st century (20-30 years). And as will be done with the future Microbiology: From the years 2020-30. The important advances are outlined in the modern and future clinical microbiology, for the control of the Tuberculosis.

  4. [Optimization of microbiological diagnosis of endocarditis].

    PubMed

    Boukadida, Jalel

    2002-11-01

    The endocarditis stays a dangerous illness. The positive microbiological diagnosis has a precious contribution for a successful hold in charge of the patient. To optimise the microbiological diagnosis of the endocarditis, essentially it comes back to respect the maximum rules of good practice of the blood cultures and the microbiological cardiac valve exams. During the last decades, techniques of molecular biology came to remedy insufficiencies of the conventional microbiology. We arrange rich microbiological data to guide the therapist while waiting the current microbiological data of the patient.

  5. Microbiology Learning and Education Online.

    PubMed

    Guarner, Jeannette; Niño, Silvia M

    2016-05-01

    The ubiquity of devices that connect to the Internet has exploded, allowing for easy dissemination of information. Many teachers from kindergarten to universities use the information obtained online or post material they want their students to access. Online media readily places articles, books, videos, and games at our fingertips. The public in general also gathers health information from the Internet. The following review will explore what has been published regarding microbiology education and learning online and the use of electronic media by microbiologists for scientific purposes. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  6. Kinetic Modeling of Microbiological Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Chongxuan; Fang, Yilin

    2012-08-26

    Kinetic description of microbiological processes is vital for the design and control of microbe-based biotechnologies such as waste water treatment, petroleum oil recovery, and contaminant attenuation and remediation. Various models have been proposed to describe microbiological processes. This editorial article discusses the advantages and limiation of these modeling approaches in cluding tranditional, Monod-type models and derivatives, and recently developed constraint-based approaches. The article also offers the future direction of modeling researches that best suit for petroleum and environmental biotechnologies.

  7. Microbiological Monitoring in Geothermal Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alawi, M.; Lerm, S.; Linder, R.; Vetter, A.; Vieth-Hillebrand, A.; Miethling-Graff, R.; Seibt, A.; Wolfgramm, M.; Wuerdemann, H.

    2010-12-01

    In the scope of the research projects “AquiScreen” and “MiProTherm” we investigated geothermally used groundwater systems under microbial, geochemical, mineralogical and petrological aspects. On one side an enhanced process understanding of engineered geothermal systems is mandatory to optimize plant reliability and economy, on the other side this study provides insights into the microbiology of terrestrial thermal systems. Geothermal systems located in the North German Basin and the Molasse Basin were analyzed by sampling of fluids and solid phases. The investigated sites were characterized by different temperatures, salinities and potential microbial substrates. The microbial population was monitored by the use of genetic fingerprinting techniques and PCR-cloning based on PCR-amplified 16S rRNA and dissimilatory sulfite reductase (DSR) genes. DNA-sequences of fingerprints and cloned PCR-products were compared to public databases and correlated with metabolic classes to provide information about the biogeochemical processes. In all investigated geothermal plants, covering a temperature range from 5° to 120°C, microorganisms were found. Phylogenetic gene analyses indicate a broad diversity of microorganisms adapted to the specific conditions in the engineered system. Beside characterized bacteria like Thermus scotoductus, Siderooxidans lithoautotrophicus and the archaeon Methanothermobacter thermoautotrophicus a high number of so far uncultivated microorganisms was detected. As it is known that - in addition to abiotic factors - microbes like sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are involved in the processes of corrosion and scaling in plant components, we identified SRB by specific analyses of DSR genes. The SRB detected are closely related to thermotolerant and thermophilic species of Desulfotomaculum, Thermodesulfovibrio, Desulfohalobium and Thermodesulfobacterium, respectively. Overall, the detection of microbes known to be involved in biocorrosion and the

  8. Examination of microbiological quality of pharmaceutical raw materials.

    PubMed

    Bomblies, L; Weiss, C; Beckmann, G

    2007-09-01

    With the ICH harmonisation of the chapters 'Microbiological examination of non-sterile products: microbial enumeration tests' 'Test for specified micro-organisms' and 'Microbiological quality of pharmaceutical preparations' between Ph. Eur., USP and JP, altered specifications and test methods for pharmaceutical preparations are applicable in Europe since 2007 From this results the necessity to check and, where appropriate, adapt microbiological limit values in the individual monographs of the Ph. Eur.- provided that they contain such values. The present examination, which gives an evaluation of 3387 examinations in the period from 1997 to 2006 of the microbiological quality of 40 different pharmaceutical raw materials, is to provide a database for this purpose. It was shown that the existing limit values were not exceeded for 93% of the examined raw materials. 5.5% of the examinations were within the specification after using the valid tolerance factor of 5 of the old methods. Only 1.5% of all examinations led to OOS results. In comparison an evaluation of these data against the new, harmonised limits is leading to an increase in OOS results to a total of 6%. Most raw materials were of the required microbiological quality but a few, predominantly of plant origin, exceeded the limits. Regular incoming goods inspections are indispensable here.

  9. [Rapid antibiotic susceptibility test in Clinical Microbiology].

    PubMed

    March Rosselló, Gabriel Alberto; Bratos Pérez, Miguel Ángel

    2016-01-01

    The most widely used antibiotic susceptibility testing methods in Clinical Microbiology are based on the phenotypic detection of antibiotic resistance by measuring bacterial growth in the presence of the antibiotic being tested. These conventional methods take typically 24hours to obtain results. A review is presented here of recently developed techniques for the rapid determination of antibiotic susceptibility. Data obtained with different methods such as molecular techniques, flow cytometry, chemiluminescence, mass spectrometry, commercial methods used in routine work, colorimetric methods, nephelometry, microarrays, microfluids, and methods based on cell disruption and sequencing, are analyzed and discussed in detail.

  10. Microbiology and Epidemiology of Legionnaire's Disease.

    PubMed

    Burillo, Almudena; Pedro-Botet, María Luisa; Bouza, Emilio

    2017-03-01

    Legionnaire's disease (LD) is the pneumonic form of legionellosis caused by aerobic gram-negative bacilli of the genus Legionella. Individuals become infected when they inhale aerosolized water droplets contaminated with Legionella species. Forty years after the identification of Legionella pneumophila as the cause of the 1976 pneumonia outbreak in a hotel in Philadelphia, we have non-culture-based diagnostic tests, effective antibiotics, and preventive measures to handle LD. With a mortality rate still around 10%, underreporting, and sporadic outbreaks, there is still much work to be done. In this article, the authors review the microbiology, laboratory diagnosis, and epidemiology of LD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. CYSTIC FIBROSIS: MICROBIOLOGY AND HOST RESPONSE

    PubMed Central

    Zemanick, Edith T.

    2016-01-01

    THE EARLIEST DESCRIPTIONS OF LUNG DISEASE IN PEOPLE WITH CYSTIC FIBROSIS (CF) DEMONSTRATED THE INVOLVEMENT OF THREE INTERACTING PATHOPHYSIOLOGICAL ELEMENTS IN CF AIRWAYS: MUCUS OBSTRUCTION, INFLAMMATION, AND INFECTION. OVER THE PAST 7 DECADES, OUR UNDERSTANDING OF CF RESPIRATORY MICROBIOLOGY AND INFLAMMATION HAS EVOLVED WITH THE INTRODUCTION OF NEW TREATMENTS, WITH INCREASED LONGEVITY, AND WITH INCREASINGLY SOPHISTICATED LABORATORY TECHNIQUES. IN THIS CHAPTER, WE WILL REVIEW THE CURRENT STATE OF UNDERSTANDING OF THE ROLES OF INFECTION AND INFLAMMATION AND THEIR ROLES IN DRIVING LUNG DISEASE. WE WILL ALSO DISCUSS HOW THIS CONSTANTLY EVOLVING INFORMATION IS USED TO INFORM CURRENT THERAPEUTIC STRATEGIES, MEASURES AND PREDICTORS OF DISEASE SEVERITY, AND RESEARCH PRIORITIES. PMID:27469179

  12. Peak radiated power measurement of the DOE Mark II container tag with integrated ST-676 sensor radio frequency identification device.

    SciTech Connect

    Jursich, Mark

    2010-04-01

    The total peak radiated power of the Department of Energy Mark II container tag was measured in the electromagnetic reverberation chamber facility at Sandia National Laboratories. The tag's radio frequency content was also evaluated for possible emissions outside the intentional transmit frequency band. No spurious emissions of any significance were found, and the radiated power conformed to the manufacturer's specifications.

  13. Microbiological quality of ready-to-eat food served in schools in Wales, United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Meldrum, R J; Mannion, P T; Garside, J

    2009-01-01

    A survey of the general microbiological quality of ready-to-eat food served in schools was undertaken across Wales, United Kingdom. Of the 2,351 samples taken, four were identified as containing unsatisfactory counts of Escherichia coli, four contained unsatisfactory counts of Staphylococcus aureus, and one contained an unacceptable count of Bacillus cereus when compared with guidelines for the microbiological quality of ready-to-eat food published by the United Kingdom Public Health Laboratory Service in 2000. No samples contained detectable levels of Salmonella, Listeria species, or Clostridium perfringens. When compared with data on the general microbiological quality of food available in Wales, the food sampled from schools was of relatively better microbiological quality.

  14. Microbiological Production of Carotenoids

    PubMed Central

    Ciegler, Alex; Nelson, George E. N.; Hall, Harlow H.

    1962-01-01

    Synthesis of β-carotene by mated strains of Blakeslea trispora in shaken-flask culture was considerably enhanced by adding either 5% kerosene after 2 days of fermentation or acid-refined kerosene at the start of fermentation to a grain-based medium that also contained a natural lipid, nonionic detergent, and β-ionone; average yields of 17,500 μg per g of dry fermentation solids (86,000 μg per 100 ml of medium) were attained when refined kerosene was used. Almost all of the carotene was retained within the mycelium. Peak yields were achieved in 5 days. PMID:13879500

  15. Microbiological Interactions with Cold Plasma.

    PubMed

    Bourke, Paula; Zuizina, Dana; Han, Lu; Cullen, P J; Gilmore, Brendan F

    2017-02-28

    There is a diverse range of microbiological challenges facing the food, healthcare and clinical sectors. The increasing and pervasive resistance to broad-spectrum antibiotics and health related concerns with many biocidal agents drives research for novel and complementary antimicrobial approaches. Biofilms display increased mechanical and antimicrobial stability and are the subject of extensive research. Cold plasmas (CP) have rapidly evolved as a technology for microbial decontamination, wound healing and cancer treatment, owing to the chemical and bio-active radicals generated known collectively as reactive oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen species (RONS). This review outlines the basics of CP technology and discusses interactions with a range of microbiological targets. Advances in mechanistic insights are presented and applications to food and clinical issues are discussed. The possibility of tailoring CP to control specific microbiological challenges is apparent. This review focuses on microbiological issues in relation to food and health care associated human infections, the role of CP in their elimination and the current status of plasma mechanisms of action. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  16. Veterinary Microbiology, 3rd Edition

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Veterinary Microbiology, Third Edition is organized into four sections and begins with an updated and expanded introductory section on infectious disease pathogenesis, diagnosis and clinical management. The second section covers bacterial and fungal pathogens, and the third section describes viral d...

  17. Environmental Microbiology Modules. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walke, Raymond H.; Walke, Jayne G.

    This publication is the result of a project to develop microbiology instructional materials for vocational college students. These materials are a series of self-paced modules. Each module includes a pre-test, an introduction and historical packet, an organizational packet to set the framework for in-depth study, one or more in-depth packets, a…

  18. Soil Microbiology, Ecology, and Biochemistry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The 4th edition of Soil Microbiology, Ecology, and Biochemistry Edited by Eldor Paul continues in the vein of the 3rd edition by providing an excellent, broad-reaching introduction to soil biology. The new edition improves on the previous by providing extensive supplementary materials, links to outs...

  19. An Option in Applied Microbiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, William E., III

    1988-01-01

    Describes a program option for undergraduate chemical engineering students interested in biotechnology. Discusses how this program is deployed at the University of Southern Florida. Lists courses which apply to this program. Discusses the goals of teaching applied microbiology to engineering majors. (CW)

  20. Ultrasonic time-of-flight shift measurements in carbon composite laminates containing matrix microcracks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramanian, Ajith; Dayal, Vinay; Barnard, Daniel J.

    2014-02-01

    Time-of-flight (TOF) shifts are calculated from the fundamental A0 Lamb mode using air-coupled ultrasound. The technique is applied to carbon/bismaleimide samples containing varying microcrack density along the length of the sample. The phase and group velocity reduction is inferred from the TOF shift data. The relation between group velocity and crack density is presented. Approximate microcrack densities over several segments of the sample are calculated using a simple constant thresholding algorithm applied to X-ray MicroCT data.

  1. [Microbiological characteristics of selected liquid soaps for hands washing].

    PubMed

    Tyski, Stefan; Bocian, Ewa; Zawistowska, Anna; Mrówka, Agnieszka; Kruszewska, Hanna; Grzybowska, Wanda; Zareba, Tomasz

    2013-01-01

    According to common belief, supported by the authority of the World Health Organization - WHO, the common (social) hand washing is the simplest, cheapest and the most effective way of reduction the hospital-acquired infections. For this purpose products of"liquid soaps", present in a large number on the market, are most often applied. Microbiological status (microbiological purity and antimicrobial activity) of"liquid soaps" available on the Polish market is not known, because relevant routinely studies have not been performed. Only the antibacterial and / or antifungal activity of certain formulations is sometimes assessed, especially when the manufacturer suggests the standardized application of the products for surgical or hygienic procedures. The aim of this study was to determine the microbiological quality, especially microbiological purity and antimicrobial activity of the selected hands washing products, presents on the Polish market. The 12 selected commercial products, available on the market in Poland, dedicated for hands washing were included into study. Microbiological purity test was carried out in accordance with the Polish Pharmacopoeia (FP) monograph (FP monograph numbers correspond to numbers of the European Pharmacopoeia monograph- Ph. Eur.) No 2.6.12 "Microbiological examination of non-sterile products: microbial enumaration tests", and the monograph of FP No. 2.6.13 "Microbiological examination of non-sterile products: test for specified microorganisms". The following physico-chemical properties of soaps were examined: the pH of the formulations was measured according to the monograph FP No. 2.2.3. "Potentiometric determination of pH", the density of products was assayed according to the monograph FPNo. 2.2.5. "Relative density" and determination the water activity was performed by monograph FP No 2.9.39 "Water-solid interactions: determination of sorption-desorption isotherms and of water activity". Next, antibacterial and antifungal

  2. [Infection control team (ICT) in cooperation with microbiology laboratories].

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Mitsuhiro

    2012-10-01

    Infection control as a medical safety measure is an important issue in all medical facilities. In order to tackle this measure, cooperation between the infection control team (ICT) and microbiological laboratory is indispensable. Multiple drug-resistant bacteria have shifted from Gram-positive bacteria to Gram-negative bacilli within the last ten years. There are also a variety of bacilli, complicating the examination method and test results further. Therefore, cooperation between the ICT and microbiological laboratory has become important to understand examination results and to use them. In order to maintain functional cooperation, explanatory and communicative ability between the microbiological laboratory and ICT is required every day. Such positive information exchange will develop into efficient and functional ICT activity.

  3. Lectins and their application to clinical microbiology.

    PubMed Central

    Slifkin, M; Doyle, R J

    1990-01-01

    Lectins are generally associated with plant or animal components, selectively bind carbohydrates, and interact with procaryotic and eucaryotic cells. Lectins have various specificities that are associated with their ability to interact with acetylaminocarbohydrates, aminocarbohydrates, sialic acids, hexoses, pentoses, and as other carbohydrates. Microbial surfaces generally contain many of the sugar residues that react with lectins. Lectins are presently used in the clinical laboratory to type blood cells and are used in a wide spectrum of applications, including, in part, as carriers of chemotherapeutic agents, as mitogens, for fractionation of animal cells, and for investigations of cellular surfaces. Numerous studies have shown that lectins can be used to identify rapidly certain microorganisms isolated from a clinical specimen or directly in a clinical specimen. Lectins have been demonstrated to be important diagnostic reagents in the major realms of clinical microbiology. Thus, they have been applied in bacteriology, mycology, mycobacteriology, and virology for the identification and/or differentiation of various microorganisms. Lectins have been used successfully as epidemiologic as well as taxonomic markers of specific microorganisms. Lectins provide the clinical microbiologist with cost-effective and potential diagnostic reagents. This review describes the applications of lectins in clinical microbiology. Images PMID:2200603

  4. In-line measurements of chlorine containing polymers in an industrial waste sorting plant by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, N.; Eschlböck-Fuchs, S.; Scherndl, H.; Freimund, A.; Heitz, J.; Pedarnig, J. D.

    2014-05-01

    We report on laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) of chlorine containing waste polymers in-line of an industrial materials sorting plant. Material from municipal waste plastic collection containing different types of plastic pieces and impurities is measured without pre-treatment directly on the conveyor belt (conveyor speed 2 m/s). The encapsulated LIBS system mounted to the conveyor comprises a fast Nd:YAG laser and spectrometer with charge-coupled device (CCD) detector, a distance sensor, and a software for quasi real-time evaluation of measured LIBS spectra. Approximately 800,000 spectra are collected during the in-line measurement series using one laser pulse per spectrum. The optical plasma emission of Cl I at 837.6 nm is detected to identify waste polymers with high Cl content such as polyvinylchloride (PVC). The LIBS spectra are evaluated employing a fast linear correlation algorithm. The correlation histogram for more than 20,000 spectra shows three distinct peaks that are associated to different materials containing high amount of Chlorine (>20 wt %), Titanium, and low amount of Cl (<20 wt%). Signals of the LIBS sensor and a commercial near-infrared (NIR) optical reflection sensor were found to deviate for some samples. Such deviations might be caused by dark PVC samples that are detected by LIBS but missed by NIR reflection. Our results show that fast in-line identification of Cl containing waste polymer by LIBS is feasible under industrial conditions.

  5. Microbiology of Borrelia burgdorferi.

    PubMed

    Rosa, P A

    1997-03-01

    This article reviews the natural history, taxonomy, physical structure, growth requirements, and molecular structure of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, the causative agent of Lyme disease. These spirochetal bacteria are maintained in nature through an infectious cycle between wild mammals and ticks. Borreliae are fastidious, slow-growing bacteria, found only in association with their arthropod or mammalian hosts in nature, and propagatable in the laboratory in a rich growth medium. The characteristic shape of borreliae is imposed by periplasmic flagella, located beneath the outer membrane and attached to the protoplasmic cylinder. The outer membrane of borreliae contains a number of abundant lipoproteins that are of serodiagnostic utility and currently under consideration as vaccine targets. The borrelial genome is unique in structure, organization, and copy number. Recent experiments demonstrate the feasibility of specific gene inactivation as a means with which to study the biology of borreliae and the pathogenesis of Lyme disease.

  6. 42 CFR 493.821 - Condition: Microbiology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Condition: Microbiology. 493.821 Section 493.821 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... These Tests § 493.821 Condition: Microbiology. The specialty of microbiology includes, for purposes...

  7. 42 CFR 493.909 - Microbiology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Microbiology. 493.909 Section 493.909 Public Health... Proficiency Testing Programs by Specialty and Subspecialty § 493.909 Microbiology. The subspecialties under the specialty of microbiology for which a program may offer proficiency testing are...

  8. 42 CFR 493.909 - Microbiology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Microbiology. 493.909 Section 493.909 Public Health... Proficiency Testing Programs by Specialty and Subspecialty § 493.909 Microbiology. The subspecialties under the specialty of microbiology for which a program may offer proficiency testing are...

  9. 42 CFR 493.821 - Condition: Microbiology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Condition: Microbiology. 493.821 Section 493.821 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... These Tests § 493.821 Condition: Microbiology. The specialty of microbiology includes, for purposes...

  10. 42 CFR 493.909 - Microbiology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Microbiology. 493.909 Section 493.909 Public Health... Proficiency Testing Programs by Specialty and Subspecialty § 493.909 Microbiology. The subspecialties under the specialty of microbiology for which a program may offer proficiency testing are...

  11. 42 CFR 493.821 - Condition: Microbiology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Condition: Microbiology. 493.821 Section 493.821 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... These Tests § 493.821 Condition: Microbiology. The specialty of microbiology includes, for purposes...

  12. 42 CFR 493.909 - Microbiology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Microbiology. 493.909 Section 493.909 Public Health... Proficiency Testing Programs by Specialty and Subspecialty § 493.909 Microbiology. The subspecialties under the specialty of microbiology for which a program may offer proficiency testing are bacteriology...

  13. 42 CFR 493.909 - Microbiology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Microbiology. 493.909 Section 493.909 Public Health... Proficiency Testing Programs by Specialty and Subspecialty § 493.909 Microbiology. The subspecialties under the specialty of microbiology for which a program may offer proficiency testing are bacteriology...

  14. 42 CFR 493.821 - Condition: Microbiology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition: Microbiology. 493.821 Section 493.821 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... These Tests § 493.821 Condition: Microbiology. The specialty of microbiology includes, for purposes of...

  15. 42 CFR 493.821 - Condition: Microbiology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Condition: Microbiology. 493.821 Section 493.821 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... These Tests § 493.821 Condition: Microbiology. The specialty of microbiology includes, for purposes of...

  16. Colorimetric pH Measurement of Pressurized Groundwater Containing CO2.

    PubMed

    Mito, Saeko; Okamura, Kei; Kimoto, Hideshi

    2016-01-01

    A gas-tight pH measurement is needed to monitor water chemistry at a CO2 geological storage site. In the CO2 reservoirs, the temperature and pressure are generally more than the critical point of CO2 (31.2°C and 7.38 MPa). In this study, a colorimetric pH measurement method was examined up to 20 MPa for future application to various CO2 reservoirs. A mixture of two color indicators, bromocresol green (BCG) and metacresol purple (mCP), was considered to be a suitable measurement method between pH 3 and 9. The uncertainty up to 20 MPa was less than 0.12 pH units without any correction of pressure effects. We demonstrated a pH measurement of formation water at the Nagaoka CO2 post-injection site. The pH measurement was successfully accomplished under a high-pressure condition (ca. 11 MPa) and without degassing of CO2.

  17. Dosimetric and spectrometric neutron measurements around an annular vessel containing a plutonium nitrate fissile solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tournier, B.; Itié, C.; Médioni, R.; Rich, C.; Mussoni, F.; Camus, L.; Pichenot, G.; Crovisier, Ph.; Cutarella, D.; Asselineau, B.; Groetz, J. E.

    2002-01-01

    The new ICPR60 recommendations and the consideration of the ALARA principle have led the operators of nuclear facilities to evaluate with a higher care, the doses received by workers. The aim of this paper is to present a recent study concerning mixed field characterisation at a workplace located in a reprocessing laboratory. As a first step, neutron spectrum determination was achieved by two ways: simulation using MCNP code and experimental measurements with Bonner spheres and recoil proton counters. Neutron spectrum allowed the evaluation of dosimetric quantities. Measurements were then performed with different devices routinely used in radioprotection. The authors describe the measurement techniques, present the results obtained, and finally compare and discuss them.

  18. Predictive Microbiology in Hydrothermal Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shock, E. L.; Holland, M. E.; Meyer-Dombard, D.; Amend, J. P.

    2004-12-01

    Metabolisms of high-temperature microorganisms are not revealed by molecular phylogenies, but, if known, could connect microbial and geochemical processes in hydrothermal ecosystems. Disequilibria among oxidation-reduction reactions, established by kinetic barriers to electron-transfer reactions, provide energy, and life provides the catalyst. In more-or-less closed systems, such as slowly-accumulating detrital sediments, life taps as much energy as conversion efficiency will allow, and many redox couples are driven to near-equilibrium states. In contrast, open systems like hot springs maintain persistent states of redox disequilibria that support highly diverse communities of microorganisms. In Yellowstone National Park hot springs, the magnitude of these redox disequilibria can be predicted based solely on pH, guided by past measurements of hot spring geochemistry. Geochemical diversity at Yellowstone National Park produces hydrothermal ecosystems over a pH range from less than 2 to greater than 8, with associated major and trace element concentration changes. We have assessed the supply of chemical energy in the form of redox reactions that are far from equilibrium in the Fe-S-C-O-H-N system. Field measurements of temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, total sulfide, nitrate, nitrite, total ammonia, ferrous iron, and bicarbonate alkalinity are combined with lab analyses of sulfate, iron mineralogy, and gas composition (hydrogen, carbon dioxide, methane, carbon monoxide) in a thermodynamic analysis of the state of redox disequilibria in more than 50 hot spring habitats. Initial results (using only inorganic forms of C) yield nearly 200 reactions that are out of redox equilibrium, and which could supply energy if catalyzed. Some of these reactions, such as hydrogen oxidation, are pH independent, and the energy supply is nearly constant at about 24 kcal per mole of electrons over the entire pH range. Other reactions, which are pH dependent, show greater or lesser

  19. Fiber optic strain measurements in filament-wound graphite-epoxy tubes containing embedded fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogowski, R. S.; Heyman, J. S.; Holben, M. S., Jr.; Egalon, C.; Dehart, D. W.

    1989-01-01

    Filament-wound graphite-epoxy tubes fabricated with embedded fiber optic sensors were tested at NASA Langley Research Center to evaluate the feasibility of monitoring stress with a fiber optic technique. Resistance strain gauges were attached to the tubes to measure strain at four locations along the tubes. Both static and dynamic strain measurements were made with an excellent agreement between the embedded fiber optic strain sensor and the strain gauges. The results indicate that fiber optic sensors embedded in composites may be useful as the sensing component of smart structures.

  20. Fiber optic strain measurements in filament-wound graphite-epoxy tubes containing embedded fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogowski, R. S.; Heyman, J. S.; Holben, M. S., Jr.; Egalon, C.; Dehart, D. W.

    1989-01-01

    Filament-wound graphite-epoxy tubes fabricated with embedded fiber optic sensors were tested at NASA Langley Research Center to evaluate the feasibility of monitoring stress with a fiber optic technique. Resistance strain gauges were attached to the tubes to measure strain at four locations along the tubes. Both static and dynamic strain measurements were made with an excellent agreement between the embedded fiber optic strain sensor and the strain gauges. The results indicate that fiber optic sensors embedded in composites may be useful as the sensing component of smart structures.

  1. Measurements of BC-Containing Aerosol and Ice Nucleation Active Residuals in Colorado.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katich, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    A recent ice nucleation (IN) chamber inter-comparison study (FIN-3) provided an opportunity to deploy two single particle soot photometers (SP2s) to the Stormpeak Laboratory in the mountains of Colorado in September of 2015. Aerosol was sampled from ambient air, as well as from behind both a coarse-mode aerosol concentrator and an ice nucleation chamber providing ice residuals. The SP2s characterized the size and mixing state of refractory black carbon-containing particles. Initial analyses of laboratory and ambient data collected over 3 weeks will be presented, with an emphasis on both coarse mode BC observations and BC contributions to ice residuals. The results will help constrain the role of BC from local and regional sources on heterogeneous ice nucleation.

  2. Self-Contained Compressed-Flow Generation Device for Use in Making Differential Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    England, John Dwight (Inventor); Kelley, Anthony R. (Inventor); Cronise, Raymond J. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A device used in making differential measurements of a flow includes a flow obstruction and a support arm. The flow obstruction's forward portion is a nose cone. The flow obstruction's aft portion is coupled to the nose cone. The support arm's first end is coupled to an exterior wall of a conduit, and its second end is coupled to the forward portion of the flow obstruction. The support arm positions the flow obstruction in the conduit such that a flow region is defined around its nose cone, and such that the support arm's first and second end are separated from one another with respect to a length dimension of the conduit. Measurement ports are provided in the support arm and flow obstruction. Manifolds extending through the flow obstruction and support arm couple the ports to points at the exterior wall of the conduit.

  3. Recommended methods for statistical analysis of data containing less-than-detectable measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Atwood, C.L.; Blackwood, L.G.; Harris, G.A.; Loehr, C.A.

    1990-09-01

    This report is a manual for statistical workers dealing with environmental measurements, when some of the measurements are not given exactly but are only reported as less than detectable. For some statistical settings with such data, many methods have been proposed in the literature, while for others few or none have been proposed. This report gives a recommended method in each of the settings considered. The body of the report gives a brief description of each recommended method. Appendix A gives example programs using the statistical package SAS, for those methods that involve nonstandard methods. Appendix B presents the methods that were compared and the reasons for selecting each recommended method, and explains any fine points that might be of interest. This is an interim version. Future revisions will complete the recommendations. 34 refs., 2 figs., 11 tabs.

  4. Recommended methods for statistical analysis of data containing less-than-detectable measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Atwood, C.L.; Blackwood, L.G.; Harris, G.A.; Loehr, C.A.

    1991-09-01

    This report is a manual for statistical workers dealing with environmental measurements, when some of the measurements are not given exactly but are only reported as less than detectable. For some statistical settings with such data, many methods have been proposed in the literature, while for others few or none have been proposed. This report gives a recommended method in each of the settings considered. The body of the report gives a brief description of each recommended method. Appendix A gives example programs using the statistical package SAS, for those methods that involve nonstandard methods. Appendix B presents the methods that were compared and the reasons for selecting each recommended method, and explains any fine points that might be of interest. 7 refs., 4 figs.

  5. Self-contained Tubular Compressed-flow Generation Device for Use in Making Differential Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    England, John D. (Inventor); Kelley, Anthony R. (Inventor); Cronise, Raymond J. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A device used in making differential measurements of a flow includes an open-ended tubular flow obstruction and a support arm. The flow obstruction has an outer annular wall and an inner annular wall. The support arm has a first end coupled to an exterior wall of a conduit and a second end coupled to the flow obstruction. The support arm positions the flow obstruction in the conduit such that a first flow region is defined around the flow obstruction's outer annular wall and a second flow region is defined by the flow obstruction's inner annular wall. The support arm's first end and second end are separated from one another with respect to a length dimension of the conduit. Measurement ports provided in the flow obstruction are coupled to points at the exterior wall of the conduit by manifolds extending through the flow obstruction and support arm.

  6. Effective Henry's Law constant measurements for glyoxal in model aerosols containing sulfate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kampf, C. J.; Waxman, E.; Slowik, J. G.; Dommen, J.; Prevot, A. S.; Noziere, B.; Hoffmann, T.; Volkamer, R.

    2011-12-01

    Traditional models represent secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation based on the gas-phase oxidation of a limited set of precursor molecules. However, these models tend to under-estimate the amounts and degree of oxygenation of actual SOA, indicating missing processes. One such source that has become increasingly important in recent years is glyoxal (CHOCHO, the smallest alpha-dicarbonyl). Unlike traditional SOA precursors, glyoxal forms SOA by partitioning to the aqueous phase according to Henry's Law. This work presents an analysis of Henry's Law constants for glyoxal uptake to laboratory-generated aerosols in a dynamically coupled gas-aerosol system. We combine CU LED-CE-DOAS measurements of gas-phase glyoxal with online HR-Tof-AMS and time-resolved HPLC ESI MS/MS particle-phase measurements to characterize the time resolved evolution of glyoxal partitioning, and relate molecular-specific measurements to AMS mass spectra. The experiments were performed in the simulation chamber facility at PSI, Switzerland, and investigate ammonium sulfate (AS), and mixed AS / fulvic acid seed aerosols under relative humidity conditions ranging from 50 to 85% RH. The Henry's Law and effective Henry's Law constants are compared with other values reported in the literature.

  7. Effective Henry's Law constant measurements for glyoxal in model aerosols containing sulfate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kampf, C.; Waxman, E.; Slowik, J.; Dommen, J.; Prevot, A.; Baltensperger, U.; Noziere, B.; Hoffmann, T.; Volkamer, R.

    2012-04-01

    Traditional models represent secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation based on the gas-phase oxidation of a limited set of precursor molecules. However, these models tend to under-estimate the amounts and degree of oxygenation of actual SOA, indicating missing processes. One such source that has become increasingly important in recent years is glyoxal (CHOCHO, the smallest alpha-dicarbonyl). Unlike traditional SOA precursors, glyoxal forms SOA by partitioning to the aqueous phase according to Henry's Law. This work presents an analysis of Henry's Law constants for glyoxal uptake to laboratory-generated aerosols in a dynamically coupled gas-aerosol system. We combine CU LED-CE-DOAS measurements of gas-phase glyoxal with online HR-Tof-AMS and time-resolved HPLC ESI MS/MS particle-phase measurements to characterize the time resolved evolution of glyoxal partitioning, and relate molecular-specific measurements to AMS mass spectra. The experiments were performed in the simulation chamber facility at PSI, Switzerland, and investigate ammonium sulfate (AS), and mixed AS / fulvic acid seed aerosols under relative humidity conditions ranging from 50 to 85% RH. The Henry's Law and effective Henry's Law constants are compared with other values reported in the literature.

  8. Position Measurement of a Crane Spreader using an Image Sensor for Efficient Container Handling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawai, Hideki; Tanaka, Shoichi; Kim, Young-Bok; Choi, Yongwoon; Kubota, Yuzuru

    An image sensor that can accurately measure the position and height of a crane spreader has been proposed for suppressing the sway motion generated in the process of manually operating a crane. The image sensor consists of a pair of landmarks attached to the upper surface of the spreader, a CCD camera installed in the trolley on the top of the crane, and a PC, and has the following several advantages. (1) The image sensor is safe for the operators handling cranes due to the passive measurement method. (2) It employs a specific landmark. (3) It uses a robust template matching method “Vector Code Correlation method”, which is suitable for the landmark detection under outdoor light conditions. We verified these features through the fundamental experiments such as the position change of a crane spreader using a moving stage and the illumination condition change. As in the results, we estimated that the absolute error of the image sensor is within 3.3mm in sway motion and within 0.5% while moving from 5m to 20m in height. In addition, we also confirmed the usefulness of the image sensor by applying the measured data to an anti-sway controller on a model crane.

  9. Intelligent Composites Containing Measuring Fibre Optic Networks For Continuous Self Diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sansonetti, Pierre; Lequime, Michel; Engrand, D.; Ferdinand, Pierre; Plantey, J.; Bowen, Dennis H.; Davidson, Roger; Roberts, Scott S.; Crowther, Margaret F.; Pleydell, Mark E.; Culshaw, Brian; Michie, W. Craig; Martinelli, Mario; Escobar Rojo, Priscilla; Fornari, B.

    1990-02-01

    This paper describes a collaborative European Programme No. RI IB-0173-C(CD) under the auspices of BRITE (Basic Research in Industrial Technologies for Europe) which is jointly sponsored by the Commission of the European Communities and by European industry. The programme aims to explore the use of optical sensing techniques in composites. Several sensor methods (microbending, phase, polarimetric and multiplexing schemes) have been considered. The fabrication issues relating to moulding and filament winding of composite samples containing embedded sensors with emergent pigtails have been addressed. The effects of embedded fibre optics on the structural integrity of the composites have been investigated by both mechanical testing and by the use of two mathematical modelling techniques, a homogenization method based on continuum mechanics and finite element techniques. Through a suitable choice of sensor dimension, jacketing type and thickness the detrimental effects of the embedded inclusions on mechanical properties can be minimized. This has been verified by the experimental determination of deformation fields around optical fibres embedded in composite laminates.

  10. Measuring interactions of FERM domain-containing sorting Nexin proteins with endosomal lipids and cargo molecules.

    PubMed

    Ghai, Rajesh; Mobli, Mehdi; Collins, Brett M

    2014-01-01

    Endosomal recycling pathways regulate cellular homeostasis via the transport of internalized material back to the plasma membrane. Phox homology (PX) and band 4.1/ezrin/radixin/moesin (FERM) domain-containing proteins are a recently identified subfamily of PX proteins that are critical for the recycling of numerous transmembrane cargo molecules. The PX-FERM subfamily includes three endosome-associated proteins called sorting nexin (SNX) 17, SNX27, and SNX31. These are modular peripheral membrane proteins that act as central scaffolds mediating protein-lipid interactions, cargo binding, and regulatory protein recruitment. This chapter outlines the methodology employed to classify the PX-FERM family using combined bioinformatics and structure prediction tools. It further details the application of isothermal titration calorimetry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to understand the mechanisms that underpin their endosomal membrane recruitment and subsequent recognition of NPxY/NxxY peptide sorting motifs, present in many cargo receptors and required for their trafficking. It is now increasingly recognized that the formation of a stable trafficking complex is dictated by a multitude of coordinated protein-protein and protein-lipid interactions, and the approaches highlighted here will be useful for future studies aimed at understanding these biomolecular interactions in greater detail.

  11. Measurement and modelling of reactive transport in geological barriers for nuclear waste containment.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Qingrong; Joseph, Claudia; Schmeide, Katja; Jivkov, Andrey P

    2015-11-11

    Compacted clays are considered as excellent candidates for barriers to radionuclide transport in future repositories for nuclear waste due to their very low hydraulic permeability. Diffusion is the dominant transport mechanism, controlled by a nano-scale pore system. Assessment of the clays' long-term containment function requires adequate modelling of such pore systems and their evolution. Existing characterisation techniques do not provide complete pore space information for effective modelling, such as pore and throat size distributions and connectivity. Special network models for reactive transport are proposed here using the complimentary character of the pore space and the solid phase. This balances the insufficient characterisation information and provides the means for future mechanical-physical-chemical coupling. The anisotropy and heterogeneity of clays is represented using different length parameters and percentage of pores in different directions. Resulting networks are described as mathematical graphs with efficient discrete calculus formulation of transport. Opalinus Clay (OPA) is chosen as an example. Experimental data for the tritiated water (HTO) and U(vi) diffusion through OPA are presented. Calculated diffusion coefficients of HTO and uranium species are within the ranges of the experimentally determined data in different clay directions. This verifies the proposed pore network model and validates that uranium complexes are diffusing as neutral species in OPA. In the case of U(vi) diffusion the method is extended to account for sorption and convection. Rather than changing pore radii by coarse grained mathematical formula, physical sorption is simulated in each pore, which is more accurate and realistic.

  12. Use of Generics—A Critical Cost Containment Measure for All Healthcare Professionals in Europe?

    PubMed Central

    Godman, Brian; Shrank, William; Wettermark, Bjorn; Andersen, Morten; Bishop, Iain; Burkhardt, Thomas; Garuolienè, Kristina; Kalaba, Marija; Laius, Ott; Joppi, Roberta; Sermet, Catherine; Schwabe, Ulrich; Teixeira, Inês; Tulunay, F. Cankat; Wendykowska, Kamila; Zara, Corinne; Gustafsson, Lars L.

    2010-01-01

    Pharmaceutical expenditures in ambulatory care rose rapidly in Europe in the 1990s and early 2000s. This was typically faster than other components of healthcare spending, leading to reforms to moderate future growth. A number of these centered on generic medicines with measures to lower reimbursed prices as well as enhance their prescribing and dispensing. The principal objective of this paper is to review additional measures that some European countries can adopt to further reduce reimbursed prices for generics. Secondly, potential approaches to address concerns with generics when they arise to maximize savings. Measures to enhance the prescribing of generics will also briefly be discussed. A narrative review of the extensive number of publications and associated references from the co-authors was conducted supplemented with known internal or web-based articles. In addition, health authority and health insurance databases, principally from 2001 to 2007, were analyzed to assess the impact of the various measures on price reductions for generic omeprazole and generic simvastatin vs. pre-patent loss prices, as well as overall efficiency in Proton Pump Inhibitor (PPI) and statin prescribing. The various initiatives generally resulted in considerable lowering of the prices of generics as well as specifically for generic omeprazole and generic simvastatin vs. pre-patent loss prices. At one stage in the UK, generic simvastatin was just 2% of the originator price. These measures also led to increased efficiency for PPI and statin prescribing with reimbursed expenditure for the PPIs and statins either falling or increasing at appreciably lower rates than increases in utilization. A number of strategies have also been introduced to address patient and physician concerns with generics to maximize savings. In conclusion, whilst recent reforms have been successful, European countries must continue learning from each other to fund increased volumes and new innovative drugs as

  13. Use of Generics-A Critical Cost Containment Measure for All Healthcare Professionals in Europe?

    PubMed

    Godman, Brian; Shrank, William; Wettermark, Bjorn; Andersen, Morten; Bishop, Iain; Burkhardt, Thomas; Garuolienè, Kristina; Kalaba, Marija; Laius, Ott; Joppi, Roberta; Sermet, Catherine; Schwabe, Ulrich; Teixeira, Inês; Tulunay, F Cankat; Wendykowska, Kamila; Zara, Corinne; Gustafsson, Lars L

    2010-08-05

    Pharmaceutical expenditures in ambulatory care rose rapidly in Europe in the 1990s and early 2000s. This was typically faster than other components of healthcare spending, leading to reforms to moderate future growth. A number of these centered on generic medicines with measures to lower reimbursed prices as well as enhance their prescribing and dispensing. The principal objective of this paper is to review additional measures that some European countries can adopt to further reduce reimbursed prices for generics. Secondly, potential approaches to address concerns with generics when they arise to maximize savings. Measures to enhance the prescribing of generics will also briefly be discussed. A narrative review of the extensive number of publications and associated references from the co-authors was conducted supplemented with known internal or web-based articles. In addition, health authority and health insurance databases, principally from 2001 to 2007, were analyzed to assess the impact of the various measures on price reductions for generic omeprazole and generic simvastatin vs. pre-patent loss prices, as well as overall efficiency in Proton Pump Inhibitor (PPI) and statin prescribing. The various initiatives generally resulted in considerable lowering of the prices of generics as well as specifically for generic omeprazole and generic simvastatin vs. pre-patent loss prices. At one stage in the UK, generic simvastatin was just 2% of the originator price. These measures also led to increased efficiency for PPI and statin prescribing with reimbursed expenditure for the PPIs and statins either falling or increasing at appreciably lower rates than increases in utilization. A number of strategies have also been introduced to address patient and physician concerns with generics to maximize savings. In conclusion, whilst recent reforms have been successful, European countries must continue learning from each other to fund increased volumes and new innovative drugs as

  14. [Current panorama of the teaching of microbiology and parasitology in Spain].

    PubMed

    Cantón, Rafael; Sánchez-Romero, María Isabel; Gómez-Mampaso, Enrique

    2010-10-01

    The training program of residents in microbiology and parasitology in Spain includes clinical skills, ranging from the diagnostic approach to the patient and adequate sample collection for diagnosis of infectious diseases to antimicrobial therapy and infection control measures. Training also includes new challenges in clinical microbiology that ensure residents' participation in infection control programs of health-care associated infections, training in the resolution of public health problems, and application of new molecular microbiology methods. Specialization in clinical microbiology may be undertaken by graduates in Medicine, Biology, Biochemistry and Chemistry. The training is performed in accredited microbiology laboratories at different hospitals (n = 61) across the country through 4-year residency programs. In the last few years, there has been a major imbalance between the number of intended residents (0.17 per 100,000 inhabitants) and those graduating as specialists in clinical microbiology (0.13 per 100,000 inhabitants), with wide variations across the country. The current tendency in Europe is to strengthen the role of clinical microbiologists as key figures in the diagnosis of infectious diseases and in public health microbiology. Training programs have been hampered by the practice of sending samples for microbiological tests to external, centralized multipurpose laboratories with few clinical microbiologists and without a core curriculum. Essential elements in the training of specialists in clinical microbiology are a close relationship between the laboratory and the clinical center and collaboration with other specialists. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier España S.L. All rights reserved.

  15. Cost and schedule control systems criteria for contract performance measurement. Implementation guide. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-05-01

    This document provides uniform guidance for implementation of the DOE Order 2250.1, Cost and Schedule Control Systems Criteria (CSCSC) for Contract Performance Measurement. Its purpose is to assist both DOE and contractor representatives in fulfilling their responsibilities for meeting CSCSC requirements. Compliance with the contractual requirements for work definition, cost and schedule control, and performance reporting should provide increased assurance that a contractor's progress is sufficiently visible to indicate status reliably and to provide the basis for timely and meaningful management decisions. 8 figures. (RWR)

  16. Subjective evaluations and objective measurements of the ischial-ramal containment prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Hachisuka, K; Umezu, Y; Ogata, H; Ohmine, S; Shinkoda, K; Arizono, H

    1999-06-01

    We examined 12 transfemoral amputees, 6 using the IRC socket and 6 the QL socket, to confirm whether the ischial-ramal containment (IRC) socket is truly superior to the quadrilateral (QL) socket. In subjective evaluation, the IRC group was significantly better in the total score and in items of comfort, that is, to sit on a chair and lumbar lordosis at heel off (Mann-Whitney test, P < 0.05), better but not significant in the items of comfortable to wear, comfortable to go up and down stairs, and truncal sway during stance phase. By computed tomography, the femur of the IRC group was kept in a position significantly more medial than that of the QL group (Mann-Whitney test, P < 0.05); but no significant difference in gluteal medial muscle atrophy ratios between the two groups was found (Mann-Whitney test, P > 0.05). By X-ray, the stump of the IRC group was maintained significantly more adducted during one foot standing on the prosthesis (Mann-Whitney test, P < 0.05), but the lateral force ratio during mid-stance of the IRC group was smaller, but not significantly, than that of the QL group. Physiological cost index (PCI), an indirect simple method for evaluating oxygen consumption of gait, had no significant difference between the two groups (Mann-Whitney test, P > 0.05), and a multiple regression analysis revealed that the stump length ratio and lateral force ratio during mid-stance were significant explanatory variables for predicting PCI (adjusted R square: 0.87, F-value: 11.85, P < 0.05). The results of this study have revealed that the advantage of the IRC socket is a tender feeling of the stump, but that the metabolic efficiency is not superior to the QL socket at the most comfortable speed.

  17. Development of an FBG-based low temperature measurement system for cargo containment of LNG tankers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, D. G.; Yoo, W.; Swinehart, P.; Jiang, B.; Haber, T.; Mendez, A.

    2007-09-01

    Given the growing demand for oil and natural gas to meet the world's energy needs, there is nowadays renewed interest in the use of liquefied natural gas (LNG) systems. For LNG to remain in its liquid phase, the gas has to be kept at cryogenic temperatures (< 160°C). And, as part of the LNG supply process, it becomes necessary to transport it using massive carrier tankers with cargo hulls operating at low temperatures and using special insulating double-wall construction. The safe and reliable storage and transportation of LNG products calls for low temperature monitoring of said containers to detect the onset of any potential leaks and possible thermal insulation degradation. Because of the hazardous nature of this cargo, only intrinsically-safe, explosion proof devices can be used. Optical fiber sensors-- such as fiber Bragg gratings-- are ideal for this application given their dielectric nature and multi-point sensing telemetry capability. In this paper, we describe the development of an on-line, multi-point FBG-based low temperature monitoring system based on a network of specially packaged FBG temperature and strain sensors mounted at critical locations within the inner hull, cofferdam and secondary barriers of a LNG carrier tanker. Given the stringent cryogenic operating temperature conditions, pertinent FBG designs, coatings and packaging approaches were formulated along with adequate installation techniques and integration of the interrogating FBG electronics into the tanker's overall SCADA monitoring system. FBG temperature sensors were demonstrated to be stable and sensitive over the 80-480K range. Stability is +/- 0.25K or better with repeated calibrations, and long term stability at 480K is ~0.2mK/hour.

  18. A PFG NMR experiment for translational diffusion measurements in low-viscosity solvents containing multiple resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simorellis, Alana K.; Flynn, Peter F.

    2004-10-01

    Pulsed gradient simulated-echo (PGSE) NMR diffusion measurements provide a facile and accurate means for determining the self-diffusion coefficients for molecules over a wide range of sizes and conditions. The measurement of diffusion in solvents of low intrinsic viscosity is particularly challenging, due to the persistent presence of convection. Although convection can occur in most solvent systems at elevated temperatures, in lower viscosity solvents (e.g., short chain alkanes), convection may manifest itself even at ambient laboratory temperatures. In most circumstances, solvent suppression will also be required, and for solvents that have multiple resonances, effective suppression can likewise represent a substantial challenge. In this article, we report an NMR experiment that combines a double-stimulated echo PFG approach with a WET-based solvent suppression scheme that effectively and simultaneously address the issues of dynamic range and the deleterious effects of convection. The experiment described will be of general benefit to studies aimed at the characterization of diffusion of single molecules directly dissolved in low-viscosity solvents, and should also be of substantial utility in studies of supramolecular assemblies such as reverse-micelles dissolved in apolar solvents.

  19. Microbiological Testing of Skylab Foods

    PubMed Central

    Heidelbaugh, N. D.; Rowley, D. B.; Powers, E. M.; Bourland, C. T.; McQueen, J. L.

    1973-01-01

    The Skylab manned space flight program presented unique food microbiology problems. This challenge was successfully met by careful evaluation of the total Skylab food system by considering the nature of Skylab foods, their processing and handling, and Skylab food safety requirements. Some of the unique problems encountered with the Skylab foods involved: extended storage times, variations in storage temperatures, no opportunity to resupply or charge foods after launch of the Skylab Workshop, first use of frozen foods in space, first use of a food-warming device in weightlessness, relatively small size of production lots requiring statistically valid sampling plans, and use of the food as an accurately controlled segment of sophisticated life science experiments. Consideration of all of these situations generated the need for definitive microbiological tests and test limits. These tests are described in this paper along with the rationale for their selection. Test results are reported which show successful compliance with the test limits. Images PMID:4346978

  20. Microbiological Spoilage of Cereal Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Frederick K.; Johnson, Billie L.

    A wide range of cereal products, including bakery items, refrigerated dough, fresh pasta products, dried cereal products, snack foods, and bakery mixes, are manufactured for food consumption. These products are subject to physical, chemical, and microbiological spoilage that affects the taste, aroma, leavening, appearance, and overall quality of the end consumer product. Microorganisms are ubiquitous in nature and have the potential for causing food spoilage and foodborne disease. However, compared to other categories of food products, bakery products rarely cause food poisoning. The heat that is applied during baking or frying usually eliminates pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms, and low moisture contributes to product stability. Nevertheless, microbiological spoilage of these products occurs, resulting in substantial economic losses.

  1. Clinical microbiology of coryneform bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Funke, G; von Graevenitz, A; Clarridge, J E; Bernard, K A

    1997-01-01

    Coryneform bacteria are aerobically growing, asporogenous, non-partially-acid-fast, gram-positive rods of irregular morphology. Within the last few years, there has been a massive increase in the number of publications related to all aspects of their clinical microbiology. Clinical microbiologists are often confronted with making identifications within this heterogeneous group as well as with considerations of the clinical significance of such isolates. This review provides comprehensive information on the identification of coryneform bacteria and outlines recent changes in taxonomy. The following genera are covered: Corynebacterium, Turicella, Arthrobacter, Brevibacterium, Dermabacter. Propionibacterium, Rothia, Exiguobacterium, Oerskovia, Cellulomonas, Sanguibacter, Microbacterium, Aureobacterium, "Corynebacterium aquaticum," Arcanobacterium, and Actinomyces. Case reports claiming disease associations of coryneform bacteria are critically reviewed. Minimal microbiological requirements for publications on disease associations of coryneform bacteria are proposed. PMID:8993861

  2. Microbiological testing of Skylab foods.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heidelbaugh, N. D.; Mcqueen, J. L.; Rowley, D. B.; Powers , E. M.; Bourland, C. T.

    1973-01-01

    Review of some of the unique food microbiology problems and problem-generating circumstances the Skylab manned space flight program involves. The situations these problems arise from include: extended storage times, variations in storage temperatures, no opportunity to resupply or change foods after launch of the Skylab Workshop, first use of frozen foods in space, first use of a food-warming device in weightlessness, relatively small size of production lots requiring statistically valid sampling plans, and use of food as an accurately controlled part in a set of sophisticated life science experiments. Consideration of all of these situations produced the need for definite microbiological tests and test limits. These tests are described along with the rationale for their selection. Reported test results show good compliance with the test limits.

  3. Microbiological testing of Skylab foods.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heidelbaugh, N. D.; Mcqueen, J. L.; Rowley, D. B.; Powers , E. M.; Bourland, C. T.

    1973-01-01

    Review of some of the unique food microbiology problems and problem-generating circumstances the Skylab manned space flight program involves. The situations these problems arise from include: extended storage times, variations in storage temperatures, no opportunity to resupply or change foods after launch of the Skylab Workshop, first use of frozen foods in space, first use of a food-warming device in weightlessness, relatively small size of production lots requiring statistically valid sampling plans, and use of food as an accurately controlled part in a set of sophisticated life science experiments. Consideration of all of these situations produced the need for definite microbiological tests and test limits. These tests are described along with the rationale for their selection. Reported test results show good compliance with the test limits.

  4. Outbreaks and factors influencing microbiological contamination of fresh produce.

    PubMed

    Wadamori, Yukiko; Gooneratne, Ravi; Hussain, Malik A

    2017-03-01

    Fresh fruits and vegetables are nutritionally well-recognised as healthy components in diets. The microbiological foodborne outbreaks associated with the consumption of fresh produce have been increasing. Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli O157:H7, Staphylococcus aureus, Campylobacter spp. and Listeria monocytogenes are the most common pathogens that contaminate fresh produce. This review discusses recent foodborne outbreaks linked to fresh produce, factors that affect microbiological contamination and measures that could be adopted to reduce the foodborne illnesses. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Recent advances of flow cytometry in fundamental and applied microbiology.

    PubMed

    Fouchet, P; Jayat, C; Héchard, Y; Ratinaud, M H; Frelat, G

    1993-01-01

    This review focuses on the recent applications of flow cytometry (FCM) in microbiological research (1987-mid 1992). It tries to give a scope of the important breakthroughs which occurred in this field during this period. The technical difficulties of microorganism analysis by flow cytometry is briefly appraised. The significance and the limits of the different microbial cell parameters attainable by flow analyses are systematically evaluated: light scatter for cell size and structure, fluorescence measurements for quantification of cellular components, microbial antigen detection and cell physiological activity estimation. Emphasis is given on the new technological advances which appeared in the last two years. The second part of the review is devoted to the analysis of the usefulness of flow cytometric approach in the different fields of microbiology: fundamental studies in microbial physiology, differentiation, microbial ecology and aquatic sciences, medical microbiology, parasitology, microbial pharmacology and biotechnology.

  6. Quantitative microbiological risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Hoornstra, E; Notermans, S

    2001-05-21

    The production of safe food is being increasingly based on the use of risk analysis, and this process is now in use to establish national and international food safety objectives. It is also being used more frequently to guarantee that safety objectives are met and that such guarantees are achieved in a cost-effective manner. One part of the overall risk analysis procedure-risk assessment-is the scientific process in which the hazards and risk factors are identified, and the risk estimate or risk profile is determined. Risk assessment is an especially important tool for governments when food safety objectives have to be developed in the case of 'new' contaminants in known products or known contaminants causing trouble in 'new' products. Risk assessment is also an important approach for food companies (i) during product development, (ii) during (hygienic) process optimalization, and (iii) as an extension (validation) of the more qualitative HACCP-plan. This paper discusses these two different types of risk assessment, and uses probability distribution functions to assess the risks posed by Escherichia coli O157:H7 in each case. Such approaches are essential elements of risk management, as they draw on all available information to derive accurate and realistic estimations of the risk posed. The paper also discusses the potential of scenario-analysis in simulating the impact of different or modified risk factors during the consideration of new or improved control measures.

  7. Fiber Optic Strain Measurements In Filament-Wound Graphite-Epoxy Tubes Containing Embedded Fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogowski, R. S.; Heyman, J. S.; Holben, M. S.; Egalon, C.; Dehart, D. W.; Doederlein, T.; Koury, J.

    1989-01-01

    analysis on LSS. Advanced composite materials have been fabricated for the last seven years, consisting mostly of rocket components such as: nozzles, payload shrouds, exit cones, and nose cones. Recently, however, AFAL has been fabricating composite components such as trusses, tubes and flat panels for space applications. Research on fiber optic sensors at NASA Langley Research Center (NASA LaRC) dates back to 1979. Recently an optical phase locked loop (OPLL) has been developed that can be used to make strain and temperature measurements. Static and dynamic strain measurements have been demonstrated using this device.' To address future space requirements, AFAL and NASA have initiated a program to design, fabricate, and experimentally test composite struts and panels with embedded sensors, actuators, and microprocessors that can be used to control vibration and motion in space structures.

  8. Measurement of Ar resonance and metastable level number densities in argon containing plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiebrandt, Marcel; Hillebrand, Bastian; Spiekermeier, Stefan; Bibinov, Nikita; Böke, Marc; Awakowicz, Peter

    2017-09-01

    The resonance 1s_4~({\\hspace{0pt}}^3P_1), ~1s_2~({\\hspace{0pt}}^1P_1) and metastable 1s_5~({\\hspace{0pt}}^3P_2), ~1s_3~({\\hspace{0pt}}^3P_0) level number densities of argon are determined by means of the branching fraction method in an inductively coupled plasma at 5 Pa and 10 Pa in argon with admixture of hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen. The 1s_5~({\\hspace{0pt}}^3P_2) densities are compared to laser absorption spectroscopy measurements to evaluate the reliability of the branching fraction method and its limitations. The results are in good agreement and the use of a compact, low cost, low resolution spectrometer (Δλ = 1.3 nm) is sufficient to reliably determine the first four excited states of argon in argon-hydrogen and argon-oxygen mixtures. The addition of nitrogen results in unreliable densities, as the observed argon lines overlap with emission of the N_2(B^3\\Pi_g-A^3Σ_u^+) transition.

  9. Empty alcohol containers and breath alcohol analysis measures of alcohol consumption at a college volleyball championship.

    PubMed

    Podstawski, Robert; Wesołowska, Elżbieta; Choszcz, Dariusz

    2015-01-01

    This article provides information on the amount of alcohol consumed by students during college sports events. It examines the relationship between alcohol consumption and the rank of the match, sex of the players (male vs. female league), and sex of the spectators. The study was carried out during an interdepartmental volleyball championship (cup system) at the University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn (Poland), which included 16 matches (in both male and female leagues). The research sample consisted of 2,683 students between ages 19 and 24 years (including 1,768 men and 915 women) who came to cheer on their peers at the matches. Two objective measurements of alcohol consumption were used: (a) the number of empty alcohol packages left behind by the spectators at the sports facilities after each match and (b) breath alcohol analysis tests given to volunteering spectators after each match (in which 323 persons consented to participate). Male league games were accompanied by more alcohol consumption than were female league games, and male spectators drank more than female spectators. The most drinking occurred among men watching the male league, and the least amount of drinking occurred among women watching the female league. Alcohol intoxication increased with the rank of the match mostly among men watching the male league. The sex of players and spectators seems to be a mediating factor in the relationship between the rank of a match and the amount of alcohol consumed.

  10. Measurement of hydrogen peroxide in biological samples containing high levels of ascorbic acid.

    PubMed

    Bleau, G; Giasson, C; Brunette, I

    1998-10-01

    The physiological concentration of hydrogen peroxide in the aqueous humor was reported to range between 25 and 60 microM, and conditions leading to elevated levels could have important damaging effects such as cataract formation. However, the high concentration of ascorbic acid in aqueous humor, which is 20 times that of plasma, was recently shown to interfere in the dichlorophenol-indophenol assay for hydrogen peroxide. The actual concentration of hydrogen peroxide in this fluid has become a controversial issue. In the present study, we used the method of ferrous oxidation of xylenol orange (FOX1 assay) performed in a nitrogen atmosphere to accurately measure low levels of hydrogen peroxide, even in the presence of ascorbic acid at concentrations normally found in aqueous humor. Contrary to values reported in the literature, we observed that the concentration of hydrogen peroxide in the rabbit aqueous humor is less than 5 microM, which is the detection limit of the method. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  11. Gaseous mercury from curing concretes that contain fly ash: laboratory measurements.

    PubMed

    Golightly, Danold W; Sun, Ping; Cheng, Chin-Min; Taerakul, Panuwat; Walker, Harold W; Weavers, Linda K; Golden, Dean M

    2005-08-01

    Total gaseous mercury in headspace air was measured for enclosed concretes dry curing at 40 degrees C for intervals of 2, 28, and 56 days. Release of mercury was confirmed for ordinary Portland cement concrete (OPC) and three concretes in which class F fly ash substituted for a fraction of the cement: (a) 33% fly ash (FA33), (b) 55% fly ash (FA55), and (c) 33% fly ash plus 0.5% mercury-loaded powdered activated carbon (HgPAC). Mean rates of mercury release (0.10-0.43 ng/day per kg of concrete) over the standard first 28 days of curing followed the order OPC < FA33 approximately FA55 < HgPAC. The mercury flux from exposed surfaces of these concretes ranged from 1.9 +/- 0.5 to 8.1 +/-2.0 ng/m(2)/h, values similar to the average flux for multiple natural substrates in Nevada, 4.2 +/- 1.4 ng/m(2)/h, recently published by others. Air sampling extending for 28 days beyond the initial 28-day maturation for OPC, FA55, and HgPAC suggested that the average Hg release rate by OPC is constant over 56 days and that mercury release rates for FA55 and HgPAC may ultimately diminish to levels exhibited by OPC concrete. The release of mercury from all samples was less than 0.1% of total mercury content over the initial curing period, implying that nearly all of the mercury was retained in the concrete.

  12. Energy measurements of single-family houses with attics containing radiant barriers

    SciTech Connect

    Levins, W.P.; Karnitz, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    Radiant barriers were tested in attics of three unoccupied research houses which are located near Knoxville, Tennessee. The prime purpose of the testing was to determine the interaction, if any, between two types of radiant barriers, horizontal (barrier laid on top of attic insulation) and truss (barrier attached to underside of roof trusses), and three levels of fiberglass-batt attic insulation, R-11, R-19, and R-30. Testing of radiant barriers with R-19 fiberglass-batt attic insulation was done at the houses in the summer of 1985 and in the winter of 1985-86. The R-11 and R-30 testing was done in the summer of 1986. These results showed that horizontal barriers were more effective than truss barriers in reducing house cooling and heating loads. The summer of 1986 testing showed that increasing the attic insulation from R-11 to R-30 reduced the house cooling load (Btu) by approximately 16%. Adding a horizontal barrier to R-11 also reduced the cooling load compared to R-11 with no barrier by about 16%, while a truss barrier reduced it by 11%. A horizontal barrier with R-30 only reduced the cooling load by 2% compared to R-30 with no barrier, while an increase in the cooling load of 0.7% was measured with a truss barrier and R-30. Radiant barriers were not effective in reducing house cooling loads when R-30 attic insulation was present. The results from the summer of 1985 were integrated into the latest work through the use of a modeling effort using the building load simulation program, DOE-2.1B. This showed that R-19 insulation in conjunction with a horizontal barrier was (for Knoxville) the most effective barrier/insulation combination and could reduce the house cooling load by 25.1% compared to R-11 with no barrier.

  13. Cooling-energy measurements of unoccupied single-family houses with attics containing radiant barriers

    SciTech Connect

    Levins, W.P.; Karnitz, M.A.

    1986-07-01

    Tests were conducted by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to determine the magnitude of the energy savings brought about by installing radiant barriers in the attics of single-family houses. The radiant barrier used for this test is a product with two reflective aluminum surfaces on a kraft paper base. The purpose of the radiant barrier is to reduce the radiant heat transfer component impinging on the fiberglass attic insulation. The radiant barrier works as a system in conjunction with an air space and can theoretically block up to 95% of far-infrared radiation heat transfer. The experiment was conducted in three unoccupied research houses that are operated by ORNL. Two variations on the installation of radiant barriers were studied. One house was used as the control house (no barrier was installed), while the other two were used to test the two different methods for installing the radiant barriers. In one house the barrier was laid on top of the attic fiberglass batt insulation, and in the other house, the barrier was attached to the underside of the roof trusses. The attics of all three houses were insulated with kraft-paper-faced R-19 fiberglass batt insulation. The results showed a savings in the cooling loads of 21% when the radiant barrier was laid on top of the attic fiberglass insulation and 13% with the radiant barrier attached to the underside of the roof trusses. The savings in electrical consumption were 17% and 9%, respectively. The electrical consumption data and the cooling load data indicate that the most effective way of installing the foil is to lay it on top of the fiberglass insulation. The radiant barriers reduced the measured peak ceiling heat fluxes by 39% for the case where the barrier was laid on top of the fiberglass insulation. The radiant barrier reduced the integrated heat flows from the attic to the house by approximately 30 to 35% over a 7-day time period.

  14. [Automated measurement of reticulocyte count by flow cytometry. II: Analysis of the blood containing abnormal erythrocytes or giant platelets].

    PubMed

    Oyamatsu, T; Shimizu, N; Takeuchi, K; Yamamoto, M; Kawai, Y; Watanabe, K; Iri, H

    1989-07-01

    We have examined the influence of erythrocytes containing inclusion bodies, nucleated red cells or giant platelets on the measurement of reticulocyte count by automated machine, R-1000. Correlation of the reticulocyte count between automated and conventional method was extremely good in the blood containing red cells with Jolly bodies, Pappenheimer bodies or basophilic stippling . However, correlation was poor when the sample contained the nucleated red cells. Reticulocyte count was decreased in the blood with significant amounts of nucleated red cells. Since nucleated red cells themselves are not counted as reticulocytes in the machine, this was considered to be due to increased young reticulocytes which frequently appeared with nucleated red cells. Both cold agglutinated red cells and giant platelets apparently influenced the reticulocyte count by the R-1000. These results suggest that red cells with Jolly bodies, Pappenheimer bodies or basophilic stippling do not influence the automatic counting of reticulocytes. Although nucleated red cells, cold agglutinated red cells and giant platelets affected the reticulocyte count, the machine shows abnormal flags in most of above cases (except highly agglutinated red cells), so that one can recount reticulocytes by conventional method. We conclude the machine can safely count the reticulocytes even in the blood containing abnormal red cells or platelets.

  15. Microbiological effects of an antiseptic mouthrinse in irradiated cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Lanzós, Isabel; Herrera, David; Santos, Sagrario; O'Connor, Ana; Peña, Carmen; Lanzós, Eduardo; Sanz, Mariano

    2011-11-01

    To assess the microbiological effects of an antiseptic, non-alcohol based mouth-rinse containing chlorhexidine and cetylpyridinium chloride, in patients undergoing radiation therapy for head-and-neck cancer. This was a parallel, double-blind, prospective, randomized clinical trial, including patients irradiated as part of the therapy of head-and-neck cancer, aged 18-75, with at least 10 teeth, and willing to sign an informed consent. Cancer patients were randomly assigned to one of the two treatments (test mouth-rinse or a placebo). Three visits were scheduled (baseline, 14 and 28 days). Microbiological findings were evaluated in tongue, mucosa and subgingival samples, by means of culture. Microbiological variables were assessed by means of the Mann-Whitney, Wilcoxon and chi-square tests. 70 patients were screened and 36 were included. The detection of Candida species in mucosa and tongue samples showed significant reductions in the test group. Total bacterial counts decreased in both groups from baseline to the 2-week visit, while minor changes occurred between 2 and 4 weeks (effects on P. gingivalis, P. intermedia, C. rectus, E. corrodens). Within the limitations of the small sample size, this study suggests that the use of the tested mouth-rinse may lead to improvements in microbiological parameters in patients irradiated for head-and-neck cancer.

  16. Level of chemical and microbiological contaminations in chili bo (paste).

    PubMed

    Zaini, Nurul Aqilah Mohd; Harith, Hanis Hazeera; Olusesan, Akanbi Taiwo; Zulkifli, Anwarul Hidayah; Bakar, Fatimah Abu; Osman, Azizah; Hamid, Azizah Abd; Saari, Nazamid

    2010-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the level of preservatives and microbiological loads in various brands of commercially available chili bo (paste). Fifteen different brands of chili bo obtained from the local market and hypermarkets were analyzed for pH, moisture and benzoic acid content, microbiological loads (aerobic, anaerobic, aerobic spores, and fungi), and thermophilic microorganisms. Results showed that both moisture content and pH vary among samples. The concentrations of benzoic acid detected in chili bo were found to be in the range of 537 to 5,435 mg/kg. Nine of fifteen brands were found to exceed the maximum level permitted by the Malaysian Food Law in accordance with the Codex Alimentarius (1,000 mg/kg for benzoic acid). An apparent correlation between benzoic acid concentration and microbiological loads present in the chili bo was observed. The microbiological loads were found to be relatively low in the end products containing high amounts of benzoic acid. The heat-resistant (70 to 80 degrees C) microorganisms present in chili bo were identified as Ochrobacterum tritici, Stenotrophomonas rhizophila, Microbacterium maritypicum, Roseomonas spp., CDC group II-E subgroup A, Flavimonas oryzihabitans, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, with M. maritypicum being the most frequently found (in 9 of 15 samples) microorganism. Most of these identified microorganisms were not known to cause foodborne illnesses.

  17. A randomised clinical study to measure the anti-erosion benefits of a stannous-containing sodium fluoride dentifrice

    PubMed Central

    West, Nicola; Seong, Joon; Macdonald, Emma; He, Tao; Barker, Matthew; Hooper, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Background: To compare the enamel protection efficacy of stannous-containing sodium fluoride and sodium monofluorophosphate (MFP)/triclosan dentifrices marketed in India in an in situ erosion model with acidic challenge. Materials and Methods: This randomised and controlled, in situ, supervised, double-blind clinical trial employed a two-treatment, four-period crossover design, wherein subjects wore an appliance fitted with human enamel samples 6 h/day during each 10 day treatment period and swished twice daily with their assigned dentifrice slurry: Oral-B® Pro-Health (maximum 1,000 ppm F as sodium fluoride with stannous chloride) or Colgate® Strong Teeth with Cavity Protection (maximum 1,000 F as sodium MFP and triclosan). Subjects swished with 250 ml of orange juice over a 10 min period after each treatment and twice daily for the acidic erosive challenge. Enamel samples were measured for tooth surface loss using contact profilometry at baseline and day 10. Results: A total of 34 subjects were randomised to treatment; 32 subjects completed the final visit. Baseline profilometry measurements of the specimen surfaces were near zero within ± 0.3 μm, and no statistically significant difference (P > 0.48) on average was observed between the two test dentifrices. At day 10, the stannous-containing dentifrice demonstrated 88% less erosion (P < 0.0001) relative to the MFP/triclosan dentifrice. Estimated medians (95% confidence intervals) were 0.21 μm (0.17, 0.25) for the stannous-containing dentifrice versus 1.66 μm (1.39, 1.99) for the MFP/triclosan dentifrice. Both dentifrices were well-tolerated. Conclusions: Compared with MFP/triclosan toothpaste, a stabilised stannous-containing sodium fluoride dentifrice gave statistically significantly greater protection against tooth enamel surface loss in situ following repeated acid erosive challenge. PMID:26015669

  18. Near-road modeling and measurement of cerium-containing particles generated by nanoparticle diesel fuel additive use.

    PubMed

    Gantt, Brett; Hoque, Shamia; Willis, Robert D; Fahey, Kathleen M; Delgado-Saborit, Juana Mari; Harrison, Roy M; Erdakos, Garnet B; Bhave, Prakash V; Zhang, K Max; Kovalcik, Kasey; Pye, Havala O T

    2014-09-16

    Cerium oxide nanoparticles (nCe) are used as a fuel-borne catalyst in diesel engines to reduce particulate emissions, yet the environmental and human health impacts of the exhaust particles are not well understood. To bridge the gap between emission measurements and ambient impacts, size-resolved measurements of particle composition and mass concentration have been performed in Newcastle-upon-Tyne, United Kingdom, where buses have used an nCe additive since 2005. These observations show that the noncrustal cerium fraction thought to be associated with the use of nCe has a mass concentration ∼ 0.3 ng m(-3) with a size distribution peaking at 100-320 nm in aerodynamic diameter. Simulations with a near-roadway multicomponent sectional aerosol dynamic model predict that the use of nCe additives increases the number concentration of nuclei mode particles (<50 nm in diameter) while decreasing the total mass concentration. The near-road model predicts a downwind mass size distribution of cerium-containing particles peaking at 150 nm in aerodynamic diameter, a value similar to that measured for noncrustal cerium in Newcastle. This work shows that both the emission and atmospheric transformation of cerium-containing particles needs to be taken into account by regional modelers, exposure scientists, and policymakers when determining potential environmental and human health impacts.

  19. Measurement and Modeling of Mean Activity Coefficients of NaCl in an Aqueous Mixed Electrolyte Solution Containing Glycine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheikholeslami, Paniz; Dehghani, M. R.; Safahieh, Tina

    2016-08-01

    An electrochemical cell with two ion-selective electrodes (Na+ glass) and (Cl- solid state) was used to measure the mean ionic activity coefficient of NaCl in an aqueous mixture containing NaCl, glycine, and NaNO3 at 308.15 K. The experiments were conducted at fixed molality of NaNO3 (0.1 m) and various molalities of glycine (0-1 m) and NaCl (up to 0.8 m). The experimental data were modeled using a modified version of the Pitzer equation. Finally the activity coefficient ratio of glycine was determined based on the Maxwell equation.

  20. Microbiological quality of Argentinian paprika.

    PubMed

    Melo González, María G; Romero, Stella M; Arjona, Mila; Larumbe, Ada G; Vaamonde, Graciela

    2017-05-29

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbiological quality of paprika produced in Catamarca, Argentina. Microbiological analyses were carried out for the enumeration of total aerobic mesophilic bacteria, coliforms, yeasts and molds, and the detection of Salmonella in samples obtained from different local producers during three consecutive years. The mycobiota was identified paying special attention to the mycotoxigenic molds. Standard plate counts of aerobic mesophilic bacteria ranged from 2.7×10(5) to 3.7×10(7)CFU/g. Coliform counts ranged from <10 to 8.1×10(4)CFU/g. Salmonella was not detected in any of the samples tested. Fungal counts (including yeasts and molds) ranged between 2×10(2) and 1.9×10(5)CFU/g. These results showed a high level of microbial contamination, exceeding in several samples the maximum limits set in international food regulations. The study of the mycobiota demonstrated that Aspergillus was the predominant genus and Aspergillus niger (potential producer of ochratoxin A) the most frequently isolated species, followed by Aspergillus flavus (potential producer of aflatoxins). Other species of potential toxigenic fungi such as Aspergillus ochraceus, Aspergillus westerdijkiae, Penicillium chrysogenum, Penicillium crustosum, Penicillium commune, Penicillium expansum and Alternaria tenuissima species group were encountered as part of the mycobiota of the paprika samples indicating a risk of mycotoxin contamination. A. westerdijkiae was isolated for the first time in Argentina. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. [Microbiology in acute otitis media].

    PubMed

    Bingen, E

    1998-04-15

    Acute otitis media is the most common bacterial infection in the child under 5 years of age and the leading reason for antibiotic prescriptions in Western countries. The choice of optimal antibiotic treatment is based essentially on microbiologic epidemiologic studies. The bacteria most often responsible for otitis belong to the commensal flora of the nasopharynx. French studies using paracentesis show that the main bacteria responsible for acute otitis media are H. influenzae, S. pneumoniae and M. catarrhalis. The epidemiology of resistance to antibiotics has recently changed, with the appearance of pneumococcal strains having reduced sensitivity to penicillin, and which have played a major role in treatment failures.

  2. Microbiology Learning and Education Online

    PubMed Central

    Niño, Silvia M.

    2016-01-01

    The ubiquity of devices that connect to the Internet has exploded, allowing for easy dissemination of information. Many teachers from kindergarten to universities use the information obtained online or post material they want their students to access. Online media readily places articles, books, videos, and games at our fingertips. The public in general also gathers health information from the Internet. The following review will explore what has been published regarding microbiology education and learning online and the use of electronic media by microbiologists for scientific purposes. PMID:26935727

  3. Microbiological examination of sebeel water.

    PubMed Central

    Hammad, Z H; Dirar, H A

    1982-01-01

    Water samples from clay storage jugs ("zeers") located in homes and at public watering stands ("sebeels") at streets, mosques, and schools were examined. Coliforms, fecal coliforms, and fecal streptococci were detected in 100, 69, 88, and 91.56% of the samples, respectively. The general microbiology of the water and some factors affecting microbial load were studied. The predominant bacterial genera of sebeel water were found to be Staphylococcus. Aerococcus, Micrococcus, Streptococcus, Bacillus, Listeria, Lactobacillus, and Arthrobacter. A simple modification of zeer construction was suggested to help improve sanitation. Images PMID:7103483

  4. Issues in the design of a clinical microbiology database within an integrated hospital information system.

    PubMed Central

    Nussbaum, B. E.

    1991-01-01

    The LASTWORD hospital information system contains a clinical microbiology database which permits both review of patient reports and retrospective data searches using clinical and/or demographic criteria. The elements supporting this database are dictionary tables of coded phrases, a general purpose query language (Tandem ENFORM), an HL7 interface to a laboratory computer system, and long-term data storage of demographic, microbiology and other clinical data in a relational database. PMID:1807616

  5. In vivo Stability of Ester- and Ether-Linked Phospholipid-Containing Liposomes as Measured by Perturbed Angular Correlation Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derksen, Johannes T.; Baldeschwieler, John D.; Scherphof, Gerrit L.

    1988-12-01

    To evaluate liposome formulations for use as intracellular sustained-release drug depots, we have compared the uptake and degradation in rat liver and spleen of liposomes of various compositions, containing as their bulk phospholipid an ether-linked phospholipid or one of several ester-linked phospholipids, by perturbed angular correlation spectroscopy. Multilamellar and small unilamellar vesicles (MLVs and SUVs), composed of egg phosphatidylcholine, sphingomyelin, distearoyl phosphatidylcholine (DSPC), dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) or its analog dihexadecylglycerophosphorylcholine (DHPC), and cholesterol plus phosphatidylserine, and containing 111In complexed to nitrilotriacetic acid, were injected intravenously in rats. Recovery of 111In-labeled liposomes in blood, liver, and spleen was assessed at specific time points after injection and the percentage of liposomes still intact in liver and spleen was determined by measurement of the time-integrated angular perturbation factor 111In of the [G22(∞ )] label. We found that MLVs but not SUVs, having DHPC as their bulk phospholipid, showed an increased resistance against lysosomal degradation as compared to other phospholipid-containing liposomes. The use of diacyl phospholipids with a high gel/liquid-crystalline phase-transition temperature, such as DPPC and DSPC, also retarded degradation of MLV, but not of SUV in the dose range tested, while the rate of uptake of these liposomes by the liver was lower.

  6. In vivo stability of ester- and ether-linked phospholipid-containing liposomes as measured by perturbed angular correlation spectroscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Derksen, J T; Baldeschwieler, J D; Scherphof, G L

    1988-01-01

    To evaluate liposome formulations for use as intracellular sustained-release drug depots, we have compared the uptake and degradation in rat liver and spleen of liposomes of various compositions, containing as their bulk phospholipid an ether-linked phospholipid or one of several ester-linked phospholipids, by perturbed angular correlation spectroscopy. Multilamellar and small unilamellar vesicles (MLVs and SUVs), composed of egg phosphatidylcholine, sphingomyelin, distearoyl phosphatidylcholine (DSPC), dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) or its analog dihexadecylglycerophosphorylcholine (DHPC), and cholesterol plus phosphatidylserine, and containing 111In complexed to nitrilotriacetic acid, were injected intravenously in rats. Recovery of 111In-labeled liposomes in blood, liver, and spleen was assessed at specific time points after injection and the percentage of liposomes still intact in liver and spleen was determined by measurement of the time-integrated angular perturbation factor [G22(infinity)] of the 111In label. We found that MLVs but not SUVs, having DHPC as their bulk phospholipid, showed an increased resistance against lysosomal degradation as compared to other phospholipid-containing liposomes. The use of diacyl phospholipids with a high gel/liquid-crystalline phase-transition temperature, such as DPPC and DSPC, also retarded degradation of MLV, but not of SUV in the dose range tested, while the rate of uptake of these liposomes by the liver was lower. PMID:3200855

  7. Microbiological findings in prepubertal girls with vulvovaginitis.

    PubMed

    Sikanić-Dugić, Nives; Pustisek, Nives; Hirsl-Hećej, Vlasta; Lukić-Grlić, Amarela

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to define the most common causes, symptoms and clinical features of vulvovaginitis in prepubertal girls, and to evaluate treatment success depending on the causative agent involved. The study included 115 girls aged 2-8 (mean 4.8) years, presenting with vulvovaginitis to the Outpatient Clinic for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology, Zagreb Children's Hospital, between September 2006 and July 2007. Medical history data were obtained from parents. Vaginal samples were collected for microbiological culture by using cotton-tipped swabs moistened with saline. All samples were referred to microbiology laboratory, where standard microbiological diagnostic procedures were performed. Selective and non-selective media were used. Of 115 study patients, 43 (37.4%) had received antibiotic therapy more than one month prior to their visit to the Clinic, mainly for upper respiratory tract infection. The most common presenting symptom was increased vaginal discharge usually noticed on the pants or diaper, found in 26 of 115 (22.6%) patients, followed by vulvar redness in 16 (13.9%), burning in seven (6.1%), itching in the vulvovaginal area in seven (6.1%), soreness in six (5.2%), odor in three (2.6%) patients, and two or more of these symptoms in another 50 (43.5%) patients. Fifty-nine of 115 children had normal clinical finding on gynecologic examination. Among the remaining 56 children, the most common finding was erythema observed in 19, vaginal discharge in ten, and a combination of discharge and erythema in 13 patients. Of 115 study patients, causative agents were isolated from vaginal culture in 38 (33%) cases. Of these, 21 grew group A beta hemolytic streptococcus, five patients Haemophilus influenzae, three Escherichia coli, two Enterococcus spp., and one each Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus mirabilis, and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Antibiotic therapy was administered in 31 of these 38 patients, except for those cases where intestinal bacteria and

  8. Container Routes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dagnall, W.

    1974-01-01

    On a triangular grid of equilateral triangles an analytical procedure is presented for solving puzzles that require one to measure out a specified amount of liquid from containers of various volumes. (JP)

  9. Recent advances in the study of microbiologically influenced corrosion. (Reannouncement with new availability information)

    SciTech Connect

    Little, B.; Wagner, P.

    1993-12-31

    The study of microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) has progressed from phenomenological case histories to a mature interdisciplinary science including electrochemical, metallurgical, surface analytical, microbiological, biotechnological and biophysical techniques. With gene probes and microelectrodes it is now possible to measure interfacial dissolved oxygen, dissolved sulfide and pH and to further determine the microbial species responsible for the localized chemistry. Biofilms can be tailored to contain consortia of specific microorganisms and naturally occurring biofilms can be dissected into cellular and extracellular constituents. Scanning vibrating electrodes can be used to map the distribution of anodes and cathodes so that localized corrosion can be correlated with the location of microorganisms. The development of environmental scanning electron, atomic force, and laser confocal microscopy makes it possible to image cells on surfaces and to accurately determine the spatial relationship between microorganisms and corrosion. Transport of nutrients through biofilms is being modeled using techniques including optical density measurements to precisely locate the water/biofilm interface and nuclear magnetic resonance imaging to visualize flow characteristics near surfaces colonized with microorganisms. The way in which these now techniques can be used to understand fundamental mechanisms and to discriminate critical issues of MIC will be discussed.

  10. Menstrual blood loss measurement: validation of the alkaline hematin technique for feminine hygiene products containing superabsorbent polymers.

    PubMed

    Magnay, Julia L; Nevatte, Tracy M; Dhingra, Vandana; O'Brien, Shaughn

    2010-12-01

    To validate the alkaline hematin technique for measurement of menstrual blood loss using ultra-thin sanitary towels that contain superabsorbent polymer granules as the absorptive agent. Laboratory study using simulated menstrual fluid (SMF) and Always Ultra Normal, Long, and Night "with wings" sanitary towels. Keele Menstrual Disorders Laboratory. None. None. Recovery of blood, linearity, and interassay variation over a range of SMF volumes applied to towels. Because of the variable percentage of blood in menstrual fluid, blood recovery was assessed from SMF constituted as 10%, 25%, 50%, and 100% blood. The lower limit of reliable detection and the effect of storing soiled towels for up to 4 weeks at 15°C-20°C, 4°C, and -20°C before analysis were determined. Ninety percent recovery was reproducibly achieved up to 30 mL applied volume at all tested SMF compositions, except at low volume or high dilution equivalent to <2 mL whole blood. Samples could be stored for 3 weeks at all tested temperatures without loss of recovery. The technique was suitable for processing towels individually or in batches. The alkaline hematin technique is a suitable and validated method for measuring menstrual blood loss from Always Ultra sanitary towels that contain superabsorbent polymers. Copyright © 2010 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Microbiology on Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, Duane L. (Editor); Mcginnis, Michael R. (Editor); Mishra, S. K. (Editor); Wogan, Christine F. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    This panel discussion convened in Houston, Texas, at the Lunar and Planetary Institute, on November 6 to 8, 1989, to review NASA's plans for microbiology on Space Station Freedom. A panel of distinguished scientists reviewed, validated, and recommended revisions to NASA's proposed acceptability standards for air, water, and internal surfaces on board Freedom. Also reviewed were the proposed microbiology capabilities and monitoring plan, disinfection procedures, waste management, and clinical issues. In the opinion of this advisory panel, ensuring the health of the Freedom's crews requires a strong goal-oriented research effort to determine the potential effects of microorganisms on the crewmembers and on the physical environment of the station. Because there are very few data addressing the fundamental question of how microgravity influences microbial function, the panel recommended establishing a ground-based microbial model of Freedom, with subsequent evaluation using in-flight shuttle data. Sampling techniques and standards will be affected by both technological advances in microgravity-compatible instrumentation, and by changes in the microbial population over the life of the station.

  12. Technological Microbiology: Development and Applications

    PubMed Central

    Vitorino, Luciana C.; Bessa, Layara A.

    2017-01-01

    Over thousands of years, modernization could be predicted for the use of microorganisms in the production of foods and beverages. However, the current accelerated pace of new food production is due to the rapid incorporation of biotechnological techniques that allow the rapid identification of new molecules and microorganisms or even the genetic improvement of known species. At no other time in history have microorganisms been so present in areas such as agriculture and medicine, except as recognized villains. Currently, however, beneficial microorganisms such as plant growth promoters and phytopathogen controllers are required by various agricultural crops, and many species are being used as biofactories of important pharmacological molecules. The use of biofactories does not end there: microorganisms have been explored for the synthesis of diverse chemicals, fuel molecules, and industrial polymers, and strains environmentally important due to their biodecomposing or biosorption capacity have gained interest in research laboratories and in industrial activities. We call this new microbiology Technological Microbiology, and we believe that complex techniques, such as heterologous expression and metabolic engineering, can be increasingly incorporated into this applied science, allowing the generation of new and improved products and services. PMID:28539920

  13. Technological Microbiology: Development and Applications.

    PubMed

    Vitorino, Luciana C; Bessa, Layara A

    2017-01-01

    Over thousands of years, modernization could be predicted for the use of microorganisms in the production of foods and beverages. However, the current accelerated pace of new food production is due to the rapid incorporation of biotechnological techniques that allow the rapid identification of new molecules and microorganisms or even the genetic improvement of known species. At no other time in history have microorganisms been so present in areas such as agriculture and medicine, except as recognized villains. Currently, however, beneficial microorganisms such as plant growth promoters and phytopathogen controllers are required by various agricultural crops, and many species are being used as biofactories of important pharmacological molecules. The use of biofactories does not end there: microorganisms have been explored for the synthesis of diverse chemicals, fuel molecules, and industrial polymers, and strains environmentally important due to their biodecomposing or biosorption capacity have gained interest in research laboratories and in industrial activities. We call this new microbiology Technological Microbiology, and we believe that complex techniques, such as heterologous expression and metabolic engineering, can be increasingly incorporated into this applied science, allowing the generation of new and improved products and services.

  14. Artificial Surfaces in Phyllosphere Microbiology.

    PubMed

    Doan, Hung K; Leveau, Johan H J

    2015-08-01

    The study of microorganisms that reside on plant leaf surfaces, or phyllosphere microbiology, greatly benefits from the availability of artificial surfaces that mimic in one or more ways the complexity of foliage as a microbial habitat. These leaf surface proxies range from very simple, such as nutrient agars that can reveal the metabolic versatility or antagonistic properties of leaf-associated microorganisms, to the very complex, such as silicon-based casts that replicate leaf surface topography down to nanometer resolution. In this review, we summarize the various uses of artificial surfaces in experimental phyllosphere microbiology and discuss how these have advanced our understanding of the biology of leaf-associated microorganisms and the habitat they live in. We also provide an outlook into future uses of artificial leaf surfaces, foretelling a greater role for microfluidics to introduce biological and chemical gradients into artificial leaf environments, stressing the importance of artificial surfaces to generate quantitative data that support computational models of microbial life on real leaves, and rethinking the leaf surface ('phyllosphere') as a habitat that features two intimately connected but very different compartments, i.e., the leaf surface landscape ('phylloplane') and the leaf surface waterscape ('phyllotelma').

  15. Analysis of microbiological and chemical quality of poultry meat in the vicinity of the Mbeubeuss landfill in Malika (Senegal).

    PubMed

    Missohou, Ayao; Mbodj, Malick; Zanga, Donatien; Niang, Seydou; Sylla, Kkalifa Serigne Babacar; Seydi, Malang; Cissé, Oumar; Seck, Salimata Wone

    2011-06-01

    A total of 100 samples of poultry meat were collected in poultry farms in the vicinity of the Mbeubeuss landfill in the Niayes (Senegal) for microbiological and chemical analysis. Fifty-four (54) samples were collected in farms located less than 1 km from the landfill and 46 samples were collected in farms located a bit further (more than 1 km from the landfill). Microbiological quality was determined using techniques recommended by Association Française de Normalisation (AFNOR). Lead and cadmium concentration in poultry meat was measured by flame spectrometry while total mercury was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. Three percent (3%) of the samples' quality were unsatisfactory for E. coli, 1% for Staphylococci and 7% for Salmonella spp. Poor meat quality was found either in farms located less than 1 km of the landfill or in farms located at more than 1 km of the landfill. Except for Salmonella, only meat samples from poultry receiving drinking water from well showed unsatisfactory microbiological quality. The samples were free of cadmium and lead but were contaminated by mercury. Sixty-eight percent (68%) of the samples contained mercury with a high contamination level (>0.011 mg/kg) in 20% of the samples. No significant difference was found between the farms that were nearest to and further away from the landfill while the source of drinking water seemed to be the main cause of contamination of poultry meat by mercury.

  16. Microbiological influences in 'blue water' copper corrosion.

    PubMed

    Critchley, M M; Pasetto, R; O'Halloran, R J

    2004-01-01

    To investigate the influence of micro-organisms associated with copper corrosion on 'blue water' corrosion in drinking water. Laboratory rigs comprising of polycarbonate containers attached to annealed copper plumbing tubes were filled with Melbourne drinking water and sterilized by autoclaving. The copper tubes were inoculated with sterile or nonsterile extracts obtained from corroding copper and allowed to stand for 7 days. The extracts were drained and the tubes flushed and filled with sterile water from the rig. The water within the tubes was removed weekly for analysis and the tubes were refilled with freshly aerated water. The tube water sampled was analysed for pH, total copper and the presence of micro-organisms. Sterile rigs and rigs containing nonsterile water, both without tube inoculums, were used as controls. The results demonstrated that tubes inoculated with nonsterile corrosion extracts showed statistically higher copper release compared with the other rigs. Copper release as blue water was only observed after a lag period of 9 weeks. The internal surfaces of tubes releasing copper showed significant amounts of corrosion products and the presence of biofilm. Bacteria isolated from the corroding tubes included Acidovorax spp. and Sphingomonas sp. The results demonstrate a microbial role in blue water, as corrosion was induced in new copper tubes by exposure to nonsterile copper corrosion products. The potential for micro-organisms present in corrosion products to initiate blue water corrosion presents significant implications for the management of corrosion in distribution systems. Copyright 2004 The Society for Applied Microbiology

  17. A new fast neutron collar for safeguards inspection measurements of fresh low enriched uranium fuel assemblies containing burnable poison rods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Louise G.; Swinhoe, Martyn T.; Menlove, Howard O.; Schwalbach, Peter; Baere, Paul De; Browne, Michael C.

    2013-11-01

    Safeguards inspection measurements must be performed in a timely manner in order to detect the diversion of significant quantities of nuclear material. A shorter measurement time can increase the number of items that a nuclear safeguards inspector can reliably measure during a period of access to a nuclear facility. In turn, this improves the reliability of the acquired statistical sample, which is used to inform decisions regarding compliance. Safeguards inspection measurements should also maintain independence from facility operator declarations. Existing neutron collars employ thermal neutron interrogation for safeguards inspection measurements of fresh fuel assemblies. A new fast neutron collar has been developed for safeguards inspection measurements of fresh low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel assemblies containing gadolinia (Gd2O3) burnable poison rods. The Euratom Fast Collar (EFC) was designed with high neutron detection efficiency to make a fast (Cd) mode measurement viable whilst meeting the high counting precision and short assay time requirements of the Euratom safeguards inspectorate. A fast mode measurement reduces the instrument sensitivity to burnable poison rod content and therefore reduces the applied poison correction, consequently reducing the dependence on the operator declaration of the poison content within an assembly. The EFC non-destructive assay (NDA) of typical modern European pressurized water reactor (PWR) fresh fuel assembly designs have been simulated using Monte Carlo N-particle extended transport code (MCNPX) simulations. Simulations predict that the EFC can achieve 2% relative statistical uncertainty on the doubles neutron counting rate for a fast mode measurement in an assay time of 600 s (10 min) with the available 241AmLi (α,n) interrogation source strength of 5.7×104 s-1. Furthermore, the calibration range of the new collar has been extended to verify 235U content in variable PWR fuel designs in the presence of up to 32

  18. Monitoring the Effectiveness of Measures to Contain the Primary Sources of Mercury Pollution on the Site of a Former Chlor-Akali Plant in Kazakhstan

    EPA Science Inventory

    An extensive sampling campaign was conducted in 2005-2007 to monitor the effectiveness of remedial measures to contain mercury pollution at the site of a former mercury cell chlor-alkali plant in Pavlodar, Kazakhstan. Containment measures consisted of cutoff walls and capping of ...

  19. Monitoring the Effectiveness of Measures to Contain the Primary Sources of Mercury Pollution on the Site of a Former Chlor-Akali Plant in Kazakhstan

    EPA Science Inventory

    An extensive sampling campaign was conducted in 2005-2007 to monitor the effectiveness of remedial measures to contain mercury pollution at the site of a former mercury cell chlor-alkali plant in Pavlodar, Kazakhstan. Containment measures consisted of cutoff walls and capping of ...

  20. Microbiological monitoring in geothermal plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alawi, M.; Lerm, S.; Vetter, A.; Vieth, A.; Seibt, A.; Wolfgramm, M.; Würdemann, H.

    2009-12-01

    In times of increasing relevance of alternative energy resources the utilization of geothermal energy and subsurface energy storage gains importance and arouses increasing interest of scientists. The research project “AquiScreen” investigates the operational reliability of geothermally used groundwater systems under microbial, geochemical, mineralogical and petrological aspects. Microbiological analyses based on fluid and solid phases of geothermal systems are conducted to evaluate the impact of microbial populations on these systems. The presentation focuses on first results obtained from microbiological monitoring of geothermal plants located in two different regions of Germany: the North German Basin and the Molasse Basin in the southern part characterized by different salinities and temperatures. Fluid and filter samples taken during regular plant operation were investigated using genetic fingerprinting based on PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes to characterize the microbial biocenosis of the geothermal aquifer. Sequencing of dominant bands of the fingerprints and the subsequent comparison to 16S rRNA genes from public databases enables a correlation to metabolic classes and provides information about the biochemical processes in the deep biosphere. The genetic profiles revealed significant differences in microbiological community structures of geothermal aquifers investigated. Phylogenetic analyses indicate broad metabolical diversity adapted to the specific conditions in the aquifers. Additionally a high amount of so far uncultivated microorganisms was detected indicating very specific indigenous biocenosis. However, in all geothermal plants bacteria were detected despite of fluid temperatures from 45° to 120°C. The identified microorganisms are closely related to thermophilic and hyperthermophilic species detectable in hot wells and hot springs, like Thermus scotoductus and Thermodesulfovibrio yellowstonii, respectively. Halophilic species were detected in

  1. Manual of Environmental Microbiology - Literature Review.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The field of environmental microbiology has made tremendous strides since the original microscopic observations of Antony van Leeuwenhock in 1677. The Manual of Environmental Microbiology, 3rd edition embraces these technological advances and is perhaps the most comprehensive and informative book s...

  2. 21 CFR 866.2540 - Microbiological incubator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Microbiological incubator. 866.2540 Section 866.2540 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... incubator. (a) Identification. A microbiological incubator is a device with various chambers or water-filled...

  3. Microbiology Teaching in American Dental Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Clay A.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Results of a national dental school survey on microbiology instruction are presented, including data on the integration of microbiology with other courses, placement in the curriculum, class attendance policies, availability of advanced courses, and National Board reviews. Trends are discussed. (MSE)

  4. [Methods of microbiological diagnosis in periodontal disease].

    PubMed

    Stîngu, Cătilina Suzana; Turcu, Tatiana; Dimitriu, St

    2004-01-01

    Microbiological findings together with clinical and radiological diagnosis are essential for rationale use of antibiotics in periodontal disease. Methods used for microbiological diagnosis are: microscopy, cultivation, gas liquid chromatography, PCR, immuno-assays (ELISA, immunofluorescence), FISH. Each of them has some advantages and disadvantages related to cost, accessibility, sensitivity, duration. The most used today are cultivation and PCR techniques.

  5. Microbiology Teaching in American Dental Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Clay A.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Results of a national dental school survey on microbiology instruction are presented, including data on the integration of microbiology with other courses, placement in the curriculum, class attendance policies, availability of advanced courses, and National Board reviews. Trends are discussed. (MSE)

  6. [Microbiological methods for surveillance of carrier status of multiresistant bacteria].

    PubMed

    Oteo, Jesús; Bou, Germán; Chaves, Fernando; Oliver, Antonio

    2016-02-08

    The presence of colonised patients is one of the main routes for the spread of multiresistant bacteria, and its containment is a clinical and public health priority. Surveillance studies are essential for early detection of colonisation by these bacteria. This article discusses the different microbiological methods, both based on culturing and molecular methods, for detection of carriers of multiresistant bacteria. Those species with a high clinical/epidemiological impact or generating therapeutic difficulties are included: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus spp. resistant to glycopeptides, enterobacteriaceae producing extended spectrum β-lactamases and plasmid-mediated AmpC, carbapenemases producing enterobacteriaceae, Acinetobacter baumannii and multiresistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The information in this document should be considered as a structure matrix to be tailored to the specific needs of each centre. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  7. Microbiological quality of grey-mullet roe.

    PubMed

    Voidarou, C; Alexopoulos, A; Plessas, S; Noussias, H; Stavropoulou, E; Fotou, K; Tzora, A; Skoufos, I; Bezirtzoglou, E; Demertzi-Akrida, K

    2011-12-01

    The Greek grey-mullet roe is produced from the fully developed gonads of the female mullet (Mugil cephalus) couth in lagoons during their reproductive migration. The traditional processing method of the roe includes, air drying, salting, shape formation and covering with multiple layers of natural beeswax for preservation and distribution. Fish Roe brands have been a staple in local diet and is increasingly becoming popular in the international market. As a ready-to-eat food it's microbial quality should be of concern for the protection of consumers health. In this study, 48 samples of fish roe, just before waxing, were collected from various local processors for microbiological examination by using selective media and incubated under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The identification of the bacteria was carried out according to the Bergey's manual. Microscopic examination of Gram stained cells, catalase, oxidase and biochemical tests were performed when necessary to further identify. V. parahaemolyticus, Vibrio spp., Salmonella spp., and Aeromonas hydrophila were detected in one sample (2%). Shigella spp., and Flavobacterium spp. in two samples (4%), Clotriduim perfringens (vegetative forms), E. coli, and spores of Bacillus spp., were detected in three samples (6%), Staphylococcus aureus in four samples (8%). Various Micrococcus spp., and spores of C. perfringens in 16% and 35% of the samples respectively. From the Listeria genus, only the species Listeria innocua, Listeria welshimeri, Listeria seeligeri Listeria ivanovii and Listeria grayi were recovered from 2 to 10% of the samples. Microbiological analyses revealed the presence of a small number of pathogens in grey-mullet roe samples which are in accordance with the findings of similar studies. Traditional processing of the fish roe, seems inadequate to ensure the food safety and even waxing isn't expected to fully protect them against facultative anaerobes with salt tolerance. Therefore, additional measures

  8. The development of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for measuring the potency of vaccines containing Clostridium chauvoei antigens.

    PubMed

    Crichton, R; Solomon, J; Barton, A M

    1990-01-01

    Current standards (British Pharmacopeia (Veterinary) 1985) for vaccines containing Clostridium chauvoei require a potency test based on a challenge assay in guinea-pigs. Animal welfare and cost considerations favour the development of alternatives. Most veterinary clostridial vaccines are multi component, requiring assays in rabbits to test the potency of components other than C. chauvoei. We describe the application of an ELISA to measure the response to C. chauvoei vaccines in rabbits. The antigen is a sonicated extract of C. chauvoei strain CH4, intended to include a mixture of cellular and soluble antigens. The rabbit response to more than 70 vaccines containing C. chauvoei has been assessed against a reference serum which has been assigned an arbitrary potency of 100 units ml-1. The antibody titres of rabbit sera have been compared with the results of guinea-pig challenge potency tests on the same vaccines. The pass level in the guinea-pig potency test is equivalent to a rabbit ELISA titre of 50 units ml-1.

  9. A Liquid Level Measurement Technique Outside a Sealed Metal Container Based on Ultrasonic Impedance and Echo Energy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bin; Wei, Yue-Juan; Liu, Wen-Yi; Zhang, Yan-Jun; Yao, Zong; Zhao, Li-Hui; Xiong, Ji-Jun

    2017-01-01

    The proposed method for measuring the liquid level focuses on the ultrasonic impedance and echo energy inside a metal wall, to which the sensor is attached directly, not on ultrasonic waves that penetrate the gas–liquid medium of a container. Firstly, by analyzing the sound field distribution characteristics of the sensor in a metal wall, this paper proposes the concept of an "energy circle" and discusses how to calculate echo energy under three different states in detail. Meanwhile, an ultrasonic transmitting and receiving circuit is designed to convert the echo energy inside the energy circle into its equivalent electric power. Secondly, in order to find the two critical states of the energy circle in the process of liquid level detection, a program is designed to help with calculating two critical positions automatically. Finally, the proposed method is evaluated through a series of experiments, and the experimental results indicate that the proposed method is effective and accurate in calibration of the liquid level outside a sealed metal container. PMID:28106857

  10. A Liquid Level Measurement Technique Outside a Sealed Metal Container Based on Ultrasonic Impedance and Echo Energy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bin; Wei, Yue-Juan; Liu, Wen-Yi; Zhang, Yan-Jun; Yao, Zong; Zhao, Li-Hui; Xiong, Ji-Jun

    2017-01-19

    The proposed method for measuring the liquid level focuses on the ultrasonic impedance and echo energy inside a metal wall, to which the sensor is attached directly, not on ultrasonic waves that penetrate the gas-liquid medium of a container. Firstly, by analyzing the sound field distribution characteristics of the sensor in a metal wall, this paper proposes the concept of an "energy circle" and discusses how to calculate echo energy under three different states in detail. Meanwhile, an ultrasonic transmitting and receiving circuit is designed to convert the echo energy inside the energy circle into its equivalent electric power. Secondly, in order to find the two critical states of the energy circle in the process of liquid level detection, a program is designed to help with calculating two critical positions automatically. Finally, the proposed method is evaluated through a series of experiments, and the experimental results indicate that the proposed method is effective and accurate in calibration of the liquid level outside a sealed metal container.

  11. Microbiological Food Safety Surveillance in China.

    PubMed

    Pei, Xiaoyan; Li, Ning; Guo, Yunchang; Liu, Xiumei; Yan, Lin; Li, Ying; Yang, Shuran; Hu, Jing; Zhu, Jianghui; Yang, Dajin

    2015-08-28

    Microbiological food safety surveillance is a system that collects data regarding food contamination by foodborne pathogens, parasites, viruses, and other harmful microbiological factors. It helps to understand the spectrum of food safety, timely detect food safety hazards, and provide relevant data for food safety supervision, risk assessment, and standards-setting. The study discusses the microbiological surveillance of food safety in China, and introduces the policies and history of the national microbiological surveillance system. In addition, the function and duties of different organizations and institutions are provided in this work, as well as the generation and content of the surveillance plan, quality control, database, and achievement of the microbiological surveillance of food safety in China.

  12. Microbiological Food Safety Surveillance in China

    PubMed Central

    Pei, Xiaoyan; Li, Ning; Guo, Yunchang; Liu, Xiumei; Yan, Lin; Li, Ying; Yang, Shuran; Hu, Jing; Zhu, Jianghui; Yang, Dajin

    2015-01-01

    Microbiological food safety surveillance is a system that collects data regarding food contamination by foodborne pathogens, parasites, viruses, and other harmful microbiological factors. It helps to understand the spectrum of food safety, timely detect food safety hazards, and provide relevant data for food safety supervision, risk assessment, and standards-setting. The study discusses the microbiological surveillance of food safety in China, and introduces the policies and history of the national microbiological surveillance system. In addition, the function and duties of different organizations and institutions are provided in this work, as well as the generation and content of the surveillance plan, quality control, database, and achievement of the microbiological surveillance of food safety in China. PMID:26343705

  13. Microbiologic assay of space hardware.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Favero, M. S.

    1971-01-01

    Review of the procedures used in the microbiological examination of space hardware. The general procedure for enumerating aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms and spores is outlined. Culture media and temperature-time cycles used for incubation are reviewed, along with assay systems designed for the enumeration of aerobic and anaerobic spores. The special problems which are discussed are involved in the precise and accurate enumeration of microorganisms on surfaces and in the neutralization of viable organisms buried inside solid materials that could be released to a planet's surface if the solid should be fractured. Special attention is given to sampling procedures including also the indirect techniques of surface assays of space hardware such as those using detachable or fallout strips. Some data on comparative levels of microbial contamination on lunar and planetary spacecraft are presented.

  14. Expert Systems in Clinical Microbiology

    PubMed Central

    Winstanley, Trevor; Courvalin, Patrice

    2011-01-01

    Summary: This review aims to discuss expert systems in general and how they may be used in medicine as a whole and clinical microbiology in particular (with the aid of interpretive reading). It considers rule-based systems, pattern-based systems, and data mining and introduces neural nets. A variety of noncommercial systems is described, and the central role played by the EUCAST is stressed. The need for expert rules in the environment of reset EUCAST breakpoints is also questioned. Commercial automated systems with on-board expert systems are considered, with emphasis being placed on the “big three”: Vitek 2, BD Phoenix, and MicroScan. By necessity and in places, the review becomes a general review of automated system performances for the detection of specific resistance mechanisms rather than focusing solely on expert systems. Published performance evaluations of each system are drawn together and commented on critically. PMID:21734247

  15. Dental abscess: A microbiological review

    PubMed Central

    Shweta; Prakash, S Krishna

    2013-01-01

    Dental abscess is a frequently occurring infectious process known to the health practice. The fate of the infection depends on the virulence of the bacteria, host resistance factors, and regional anatomy. Serious consequences arising from the spread of a dental abscess lead to significant morbidity and mortality. Acute dental abscess is polymicrobial, comprising of strict anaerobes, such as anaerobic cocci, Prevotella, Fusobacterium species, and facultative anaerobes, such as viridans group streptococci and the Streptococcus anginosus group. Numerous novel, uncultivable and fastidious organisms have been identified as potential pathogens with the use of non-culture techniques. The majority of localized dental abscesses respond to surgical treatment while the use of antimicrobials is limited to severe spreading infections. There is a need for good-quality clinical trials of sufficient size to identify the ideal treatment. The microbiology of the acute dentoalveolar abscess and its treatment in the light of improved culture and diagnostic methods are reviewed. PMID:24348613

  16. Microbiologic assay of space hardware.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Favero, M. S.

    1971-01-01

    Review of the procedures used in the microbiological examination of space hardware. The general procedure for enumerating aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms and spores is outlined. Culture media and temperature-time cycles used for incubation are reviewed, along with assay systems designed for the enumeration of aerobic and anaerobic spores. The special problems which are discussed are involved in the precise and accurate enumeration of microorganisms on surfaces and in the neutralization of viable organisms buried inside solid materials that could be released to a planet's surface if the solid should be fractured. Special attention is given to sampling procedures including also the indirect techniques of surface assays of space hardware such as those using detachable or fallout strips. Some data on comparative levels of microbial contamination on lunar and planetary spacecraft are presented.

  17. [Development of a record-keeping strategy for improvement of information retention in microbiological processing].

    PubMed

    López, Jaime Alberto; Cuartas, Mónica Cecilia; Molina, Olga Lucía; Restrepo, Ana Cristina; Maya, Claudia Yarely; Jaramillo, Sergio

    2004-09-01

    The improvement of microbiological information processing in clinical laboratories depends on retention of information concerning who, what, when, how, and why each process was performed, the implementation of quality control procedures, and finally, its evaluation. The four objectives to be addressed are as follows: (1) to improve the collection of information concerned with microbiological processes, (2) to evaluate results of implemented strategies, (3) to offer a model data base to be used in research projects, and (4) to propose an evaluation model for comparative studies. To do this, microbiological cultures were collected from hospitalized patients from June 1997 to June 2003. Data for the analytical matrix were obtained from lab requests, medical history and the microbiological data. Statistical analyses were performed in Epi-Info 6. The laboratory records for 46,072 microbiological cultures were analyzed. Completion levels in data collection were compared between years 1997 and 2003. Samples from 1997 and 2003 showed 11% and 99% of the request forms specifically requesting microbiological culture, 11% and 99% were completed in 1997 and 2003, respectively. For the same years, 9% and 85% specifically stated the time of the request. Ten percent and 68%, respectively, provided complete information. Zero and 83% respectively stated who had collected the sample. Zero and 77%, respectively, specified the time of sample collection. Forms containing all relevent microbiological data were most complete with 78% and 96%, respectively. A database with 44 variables related to microbiological processes was created. In conclusion, improvement of microbiological data processing depends not only on the method of collection and completion of recorded information, but also on constant quality control and evaluation.

  18. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Measurements of Plutonium-bearing Oxide in DOE-STD-3013-2000 Containers Using Calorimetry and Gamma Isotopic Analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Dearborn, D M; Keeton, S C

    2004-06-23

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) routinely uses calorimetry and gamma isotopic analyses (Cal/Iso) for the accountability measurement of plutonium (Pu) bearing items. In the past 15 years, the vast majority of those items measured by Cal/Iso were contained in a thin-walled convenience can enclosed in another thin-walled outer container. However, LLNL has recently begun to use DOE-STD-3013-2000 containers as well. These DOE-STD-3013-2000 containers are comprised of a stainless steel convenience can enclosed in welded stainless steel primary and secondary containers. In addition to the fact that the wall thickness of the DOE-STD-3013-2000 containers is much greater than that of other containers in our experience, the DOE-STD-3013-2000 containers appear to have larger thermal insulation characteristics. To date, we have derived Pu-mass values from Cal/Iso measurements of 74 different DOE-STD-3013-2000 containers filled with Pu-bearing oxide or mixed uranium-plutonium (U-Pu) oxide material. Both water-bath and air-bath calorimeters were used for these measurements and both use software to predict when thermal equilibrium is attained. Our experience has shown that after apparent equilibrium has been attained, at least one more complete cycle, and sometimes two or three more complete cycles, is required to gain a measure of true thermal equilibrium. Otherwise, the derived Pu-mass values are less than would be expected from a combination of previously measured Pu-bearing items and would contribute to increased loss in our inventory difference determinations. Conclusions and recommendations drawn from LLNL experience with measurements of Pu mass in Pu-bearing oxide or mixed U-Pu oxide in DOE-STD-3013-2000 containers using the Cal/Iso technique are included.

  19. Microbiology of the Space Shuttle water system.

    PubMed

    Koenig, D W; Pierson, D L

    1997-01-01

    The Space Shuttle has a once-through water system that is initially filled on the ground, partially drained before launch and then refilled with fuel-cell generated water on orbit. The microbiological standard for the Space Shuttle potable water system during this study period allowed only 1 microbe of any kind per l00mL and no detectable coliforms. Contamination episodes in more than 15 years of Shuttle operation have been rare; however, for the past 24 missions, bacterial contamination has been detected in 33% of the samples collected 3d before launch. These samples have had on average 55CFU/100mL of bacteria, with the median less than 1CFU/100mL. Burkholderia cepacia has been the primary contaminant of the Shuttle water supply system both before and after flight. Water samples assessed during the STS-70 mission aboard the Space Shuttle Discovery were found to be contaminated (<20CFU/100mL) with B. cepacia and B. pickettii. In 1991, waste and water lines were removed from the Space Shuttle Columbia and the waste lines were found to harbor biofilms containing Bacillus spp. Nevertheless, the water systems of the four Space Shuttle vehicles provide extremely pure water.

  20. Microbiological Quality of Fresh Nopal Juice

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Anguiano, Ana María; Landa-Salgado, Patricia; Eslava-Campos, Carlos Alberto; Vargas-Hernández, Mateo; Patel, Jitendra

    2016-01-01

    The consumption of fresh nopal cactus juice is widely popular among health-conscious consumers in Mexico. The juice is prepared from fresh cladodes that have only been rinsed with tap water and are not subjected to a pasteurization or terminal bacterial reduction process. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbial quality of commercially available fresh juices (n = 162) made with nopal in Texcoco, State of Mexico, during the summer and spring season. Standard microbiological methods, the PCR technique and the serological method were used for isolation and identification of bacteria. All samples contained total coliforms and 91% were positive for Escherichia coli. Although total coliforms and E. coli were detected throughout the study, their populations were significantly lower (p < 0.05) in winter and spring, respectively. Citrobacter youngae was found in 20% of the samples, an unidentified species of Citrobacter in 10%, C. freundii and Proteus mirabilis in 3%, and Salmonella Javiana in 1%. The presence of these microorganisms, especially Salmonella, in the nopal juices is unacceptable due to its health significance. The information generated in this study is relevant for human health risk assessment associated with the consumption of unpasteurized nopal juices and potential interventions to minimize pathogen contamination. PMID:27973398

  1. Microbiological Quality of Fresh Nopal Juice.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Anguiano, Ana María; Landa-Salgado, Patricia; Eslava-Campos, Carlos Alberto; Vargas-Hernández, Mateo; Patel, Jitendra

    2016-12-10

    The consumption of fresh nopal cactus juice is widely popular among health-conscious consumers in Mexico. The juice is prepared from fresh cladodes that have only been rinsed with tap water and are not subjected to a pasteurization or terminal bacterial reduction process. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbial quality of commercially available fresh juices (n = 162) made with nopal in Texcoco, State of Mexico, during the summer and spring season. Standard microbiological methods, the PCR technique and the serological method were used for isolation and identification of bacteria. All samples contained total coliforms and 91% were positive for Escherichia coli. Although total coliforms and E. coli were detected throughout the study, their populations were significantly lower (p < 0.05) in winter and spring, respectively. Citrobacter youngae was found in 20% of the samples, an unidentified species of Citrobacter in 10%, C. freundii and Proteus mirabilis in 3%, and Salmonella Javiana in 1%. The presence of these microorganisms, especially Salmonella, in the nopal juices is unacceptable due to its health significance. The information generated in this study is relevant for human health risk assessment associated with the consumption of unpasteurized nopal juices and potential interventions to minimize pathogen contamination.

  2. Microbiological and Corrosivity Characterizations of Biodiesels and Advanced Diesel Fuels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    nature and extent of microbial contamination and the potential for microbiologically influenced corrosion in biodiesel (B100), ultra-low sulfur diesel...ULSD) and mixtures of the two (B5 and B20). In experiments with additions of distilled water, B100 has the highest propensity for biofouling while...the highest corrosion rates were measured in ultra-low-sulfur diesel. 15. SUBJECT TERMS corrosion, diesel, biodiesel, biofouling, MIC 16. SECURITY

  3. Maternal consumption of a DHA-containing functional food benefits infant sleep patterning: an early neurodevelopmental measure.

    PubMed

    Judge, Michelle P; Cong, Xiaomei; Harel, Ofer; Courville, Amber B; Lammi-Keefe, Carol J

    2012-07-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) is highly important during pregnancy for optimal development and functioning of fetal neural tissue. Infant ability to organize sleep and wake states following parturition is highly associated with later developmental outcomes. The impact of maternal DHA intake on sleep organization has not been previously investigated. To examine the effect of a DHA-containing functional food consumed during pregnancy on early neurobehavioral development as assessed by infant sleep patterning in the first 48 postnatal hours. A longitudinal, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled design was used. Women (18-35 y) with no pregnancy complications consumed a cereal-based functional food (92 kcal) containing 300 mg DHA an average of 5 d/week or placebo bars (n=27 DHA, n=21 Placebo). The intervention began at 24 weeks gestation and continued until delivery (38-40 weeks). Infant sleep/wake states were measured on postnatal days 1 (D1) and 2 (D2) using a pressure sensitive mattress recording respiration and body movements. Using ANCOVA and controlling for ethnic variation, there were significant group differences in arousals in quiet sleep on D1 (P=0.006) and D2 (P=0.011) with fewer arousals in the DHA intervention group compared to the placebo group. Similarly, arousals in active sleep on D1 were significantly lower in the DHA-intervention group (P=0.012) compared to the placebo group. We conclude that increased prenatal supply of dietary DHA has a beneficial impact on infant sleep organization. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Microbiological profile of selected mucks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dąbek-Szreniawska, M.; Wyczółkowski, A. I.

    2009-04-01

    INTRODUCTION Matyka-Sarzynska and Sokolowska (2000) emphasize that peats and peat soils comprise large areas of Poland. The creation of soil begins when the formation of swamp has ended. Gawlik (2000) states that the degree of influence of the mucky process of organic soils on the differentiations of the conditions of growth and development of plants is mainly connected with the changes of moisture-retentive properties of mucks which constitute the material for these soils, and the loss of their wetting capacities. The above-mentioned changes, which usually occur gradually and show a clear connection with the extent of dehydration and, at times, with its duration, intensify significantly when the soils are under cultivation. The mucky process of peat soils leads to transformations of their physical, chemical and biological properties. The main ingredient of peat soils is organic substance. The substance is maintained inside them by the protective activity of water. The process of land improvement reduces the humidity of the environment, and that Intensifies the pace of the activity of soil microorganisms which cause the decay of organic substance. The decay takes place in the direction of two parallel processes: mineralization and humification. All groups of chemical substances constituting peat undergo mineralization. Special attention should be called to the mineralization of carbon and nitrogen compounds, which constitute a large percentage of theorganic substance of the peat organic mass. Okruszko (1976) has examined scientificbases of the classification of peat soils depending on the intensity of the muck process. The aim of this publication was to conduct a microbiological characteristic of selected mucky material. METHODS AND MATERIALS Soil samples used in the experiments were acquired from the Leczynsko-Wlodawski Lake Region, a large area of which constitutes a part of the Poleski National Park, which is covered to a large extent with high peat bogs. It was

  5. Automation in the clinical microbiology laboratory.

    PubMed

    Novak, Susan M; Marlowe, Elizabeth M

    2013-09-01

    Imagine a clinical microbiology laboratory where a patient's specimens are placed on a conveyor belt and sent on an automation line for processing and plating. Technologists need only log onto a computer to visualize the images of a culture and send to a mass spectrometer for identification. Once a pathogen is identified, the system knows to send the colony for susceptibility testing. This is the future of the clinical microbiology laboratory. This article outlines the operational and staffing challenges facing clinical microbiology laboratories and the evolution of automation that is shaping the way laboratory medicine will be practiced in the future.

  6. Microbiological diagnosis of nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    van Ingen, Jakko

    2015-03-01

    Pulmonary disease is by far the most frequent disease caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). To diagnose NTM pulmonary disease (NTM-PD), patients should have symptoms and radiologic signs suggestive of NTM-PD, and cultures of multiple respiratory tract samples must grow the same NTM species. Thus, the microbiological laboratory has a central role in the diagnosis of NTM-PD. This review summarizes currently available data on techniques involved in the microbiological diagnosis of NTM-PD, and aims to provide a framework for optimal microbiological diagnosis.

  7. Microbiological toxicity of tilmicosin on human colonic microflora in chemostats.

    PubMed

    Hao, Haihong; Yao, Junping; Wu, Qinghua; Wei, Yajing; Dai, Menghong; Iqbal, Zahid; Wang, Xu; Wang, Yulian; Huang, Lingli; Chen, Dongmei; Tao, Yanfei; Liu, Zhenli; Yuan, Zonghui

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the microbiological safety of tilmicosin on human intestinal microflora, four chemostat models of healthy human colonic ecosystems were exposed to tilmicosin (0, 0.436, 4.36, and 43.6 μg/mL) for 7 days. Prior to and during drug exposure, three microbiological endpoints were monitored daily including short-chain fatty acids, bacterial counts and macrolide susceptibility. Colonization resistance of each community was determined by 3 successive daily challenges of Salmonella typhimurium. Genes associated with virulence and macrolide resistance in Enterococcus faecalis were determined by PCR. Transcriptional expression of the virulence gene (gelE) in E. faecalis was determined by real-time RT-PCR. Our results showed that different concentrations of tilmicosin did not disrupt the colonization resistance in each chemostat. During exposure to 4.36 and 43.6 μg/mL tilmicosin, the Bacteroides fragilis population was significantly decreased while the proportion of resistant Enterococci increased. After long-term exposure to the highest concentration (43.6 μg/mL) of tilmicosin, the gelE gene was significantly up-regulated in the high-level macrolide resistant strains that also contained the ermB resistance gene. This study was the first of its kind to evaluate the microbiological toxicity of tilmicosin using a chemostat model. These findings also provide new insight into the co-occurrence of macrolide resistance and virulence in E. faecalis under tilmicosin selective pressure.

  8. Semiautomated Method for Microbiological Vitamin Assays

    PubMed Central

    Berg, T. M.; Behagel, H. A.

    1972-01-01

    A semiautomated method for microbiological vitamin assays is described, which includes separate automated systems for the preparation of the cultures and for the measurement of turbidity. In the dilution and dosage unit based on the continuous-flow principle, vitamin samples were diluted to two different dose levels at a rate of 40 per hr, mixed with the inoculated test broth, and dispensed into culture tubes. After incubation, racks with culture tubes were placed on the sampler of an automatic turbidimeter. This unit, based on the discrete-sample system, measured the turbidity and printed the extinction values at a rate of 300 per hr. Calculations were computerized and the results, including statistical data, are presented in an easily readable form. The automated method is in routine use for the assays of thiamine, riboflavine, pyridoxine, cyanocobalamin, calcium pantothenate, nicotinic acid, pantothenol, and folic acid. Identical vitamin solutions assayed on different days gave variation coefficients for the various vitamin assays of less than 10%. Images PMID:4553802

  9. Microbiology of wheat and flour milling in Australia.

    PubMed

    Berghofer, Lana K; Hocking, Ailsa D; Miskelly, Di; Jansson, Edward

    2003-08-15

    A survey was undertaken to determine the microbiological status of Australian wheat and the distribution of microorganisms in the flour milling fractions and end products. A total of 650 milling process and end product samples was obtained from nine flour mills located in New South Wales (4), Queensland (2), Victoria (2) and Western Australia (1) during the 1997-1998 and 1998-1999 wheat seasons. Most frequent (modal) counts in wheat and flour were, respectively, as follows: aerobic mesophilic plate count, 10(5) and 10(2) colony forming units/gram (cfu/g); coliforms, 10 and 1 most probable number/gram (MPN/g); Bacillus spp., 10(4) and 10(2) cfu/g; B. cereus, 1 and 0.1 MPN/g; mesophilic aerobic spores, 10 and 1 cfu/g; aerobic thermophiles, both 10 cfu/g; yeasts, 10(3) and 10(2) cfu/g, and moulds, 10(3) and 10(2) cfu/g. Bacillus spp., coliforms, yeasts and moulds were the most frequently detected microorganisms throughout the survey. The most common moulds isolated were Aspergillus, Penicillium, Cladosporium and Eurotium spp. Environmental serovars of Salmonella were isolated from two samples. Escherichia coli and B. cereus were present at very low levels, a majority of positive samples being at the minimum level of detection (3 and 0.3 MPN/g, respectively). As wheat grain layers are separated, surface-adhering contaminants are concentrated in end product bran, wheat germ and pollard, which comprise the outer layers of the grain. Consequently, the inner endosperm fraction contains lower microbial counts, and flour is the cleanest end product of the milling process. Higher microbiological counts midstream in the milling process indicate that equipment contamination may contribute to microbiological contamination; however, the microbiological quality of incoming wheat has a strong influence on the ultimate quality of milling end products.

  10. Evaluation of rheological behavior of 10W40 lubricant containing hybrid nano-material by measuring dynamic viscosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadi Nadooshan, Afshin; Hemmat Esfe, Mohammad; Afrand, Masoud

    2017-08-01

    In the present paper, the dynamic viscosity of 10W40 lubricant containing hybrid nano-materials has been examined. Hybrid nano-materials were composed of 90% of silica (SiO2) with 20-30 nm mean particle size and 10% of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with inner diameter of 2-6 nm and outer diameter of 5-20 nm. Nano-lubricant samples were prepared by two-step method with solid volume fractions of 0.05%, 0.1%, 0.25%, 0.5%, 0.75% and 1%. Dynamic viscosity of the samples was measured at temperatures between 5 and 55 °C and at shear rates of 666.5 s-1 up to 11,997 s-1. Experimental results indicated that the nano-lubricant had non-Newtonian behavior at all temperatures, while 10w40 oil was non-Newtonian only at high temperatures. With the use of the curve fitting technique of experimental data, power law and consistency indexes were obtained; furthermore, these coefficients were assessed by shear stress and viscosity diagram.

  11. Experimental measurements and evaluation of the expanded water repellent perlite used for the cargo containment system of LNG carrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Manfeng; Ju, Yonglin

    2017-10-01

    To minimize the water absorption and to improve the thermal insulated properties of the insulation materials used for the cargo containment systems (CCSs) of LNG carrier, a kind of expanded water-repellent perlite has been developed by coating hydrophobic membrane onto the outer surface of the expanded perlite to change its physical and chemical characteristics. Considering the CCSs operated in a wide temperature range from environmental temperature to cryogenic temperature, the thermal analysis has been conducted to quantitatively determine the thermal insulted properties of the insulation materials. Furthermore, a double-sided guarded hot plate apparatus (GHP) is specifically designed and fabricated for the measurement of the thermal conductivities of the insulation specimens operated down to liquid nitrogen temperature. The breakage ratio associated with the water absorption and the thermal conductivity of the expanded water-repellent perlite is firstly proposed, and then a series of experiments are carried out to determine the thermal conductivity of the expanded water-repellent perlite ranging from room temperature to cryogenic temperature based on the different breakage ratios.

  12. [Diabetic foot infections: microbiological aspects].

    PubMed

    Noviello, Silvana; Esposito, Isabella; Pascale, Renato; Esposito, Silvano; Zeppa, Pio

    2012-01-01

    The diagnosis of wound infection is based on clinical signs and local and/or systemic inflammation. Therefore, the examination has a major role in the diagnosis of infected lesions of the foot. Once the clinical diagnosis of infection is made, the next step is to determine the etiology with the aim to undertake a rational and appropriate treatment. The most reliable method for assessing microbiological etiology is the specimen of material from infected lesion to perform a bacterioscopic examination and culture. The microorganisms involved in the etiology of diabetic foot depends on the type of injury and on specific patient features (antibiotic therapy, previous hospitalization). The most frequently detected pathogen is Staphylococcus aureus. Mild infections are mostly caused by Gram positive cocci, with a prevalence of S. aureus. Moderate infections are mostly supported by pyogenic Gram positive cocci, but also Gram-negative bacteria can be involved. In severe infections the etiology is polymicrobial. As regards the involvement of fungi in diabetic foot infections data are few and mostly conflicting.

  13. Microbiology in Schools Advisory Committee (MISAC)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bainbridge, B. W.

    1972-01-01

    Summarizes the work of the committee, lists its membership, and provides the addresses of (English) suppliers of microbiological equipment and (British) sources of microbial cultures, including bacteria, fungi, and freshwater plankton. (AL)

  14. Microbiology puts food on the table.

    PubMed

    2011-12-01

    Microbiological processes have important roles in nearly all stages of food production. Therefore, microbiologists will be key players in making the improvements to food production that are required to feed the growing world population.

  15. Experiments with Writing to Teach Microbiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannon, Robert E.

    1990-01-01

    Described are the experiences of one teacher with the teaching of writing in college level microbiology, virology, and immunology courses. Assignments, methods, evaluation, and student responses are discussed. (CW)

  16. Applications of optical DNA mapping in microbiology.

    PubMed

    Bogas, Diana; Nyberg, Lena; Pacheco, Rui; Azevedo, Nuno F; Beech, Jason P; Gomila, Margarita; Lalucat, Jorge; Manaia, Célia M; Nunes, Olga C; Tegenfeldt, Jonas O; Westerlund, Fredrik

    2017-06-01

    Optical mapping (OM) has been used in microbiology for the past 20 years, initially as a technique to facilitate DNA sequence-based studies; however, with decreases in DNA sequencing costs and increases in sequence output from automated sequencing platforms, OM has grown into an important auxiliary tool for genome assembly and comparison. Currently, there are a number of new and exciting applications for OM in the field of microbiology, including investigation of disease outbreaks, identification of specific genes of clinical and/or epidemiological relevance, and the possibility of single-cell analysis when combined with cell-sorting approaches. In addition, designing lab-on-a-chip systems based on OM is now feasible and will allow the integrated and automated microbiological analysis of biological fluids. Here, we review the basic technology of OM, detail the current state of the art of the field, and look ahead to possible future developments in OM technology for microbiological applications.

  17. Microbiology as a High-School Elective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Priscilla

    1973-01-01

    Describes a course in microbiology offered as a high school science elective. The laboratory-oriented course has proved to be very popular and provides students with the basic techniques for handling equipment and working safely with bacteria. (JR)

  18. Microbiology in Schools Advisory Committee (MISAC)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bainbridge, B. W.

    1972-01-01

    Summarizes the work of the committee, lists its membership, and provides the addresses of (English) suppliers of microbiological equipment and (British) sources of microbial cultures, including bacteria, fungi, and freshwater plankton. (AL)

  19. Experiments with Writing to Teach Microbiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannon, Robert E.

    1990-01-01

    Described are the experiences of one teacher with the teaching of writing in college level microbiology, virology, and immunology courses. Assignments, methods, evaluation, and student responses are discussed. (CW)

  20. Microbiological assessment of honey in México.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Quiñones, Carlos Ramón; Moreno-Terrazas, Rúben; Natividad-Bonifacio, Iván; Quiñones-Ramírez, Elsa Irma; Vázquez-Salinas, Carlos

    2017-08-16

    Honey is a product used as a natural sweetener and in several regions of Mexico and other countries it is also used as a therapeutic agent. Microbiological contamination of honey can occur during its extraction and handling. Due to the use and consumption of honey we highlighted here the importance of the assessment of its microbiological quality. One thousand nine hundred twenty samples obtained from 8 honey-producing states from Mexico were analyzed. From these samples, 40.5% (777/1920) did not comply with the NMX-036-NORMEX-2006 specification. Forty five percent (777/1920) of the samples did not comply with the mesophilic aerobic microorganism specification, neither did 17% (327/1920) of the samples with the specification for molds and 18.1% (348/1920) with the specification for yeasts. With regard to coliform bacteria, the samples contained less than 3 NMP/g. Two percent of the samples contained lactic acid bacteria (LAB), Clostridium perfringens was observed in amounts of more than 100CFU/g. None of the samples from the different states contained more than 100CFU/g of Staphylococcus aureus; Salmonella spp. was absent in all samples. It is important to avoid contamination sources and implement good hygienic practices in order to maintain and improve the quality of Mexican honeys since a large percentage of them are intended for export. If these honeys are intended for therapeutic use, it is necessary to ensure that they comply with all quality parameters and to apply specific treatments that guarantee the removal of any pathogen that may represent a risk to the patients's health. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Proceedings of the U.S. Geological Survey Interdisciplinary Microbiology Workshop, Estes Park, Colorado, October 15-17, 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    : Briggs, Kay Marano

    2010-01-01

    Preface A U.S. Geological Survey Interdisciplinary Microbiology Workshop was held in Estes Park, Colorado, on October 15-17, 2008. Participants came from all USGS regions and disciplines. This report contains abstracts from 36 presentations and 35 poster sessions and notes from 5 breakout sessions. The seven presentation topics follow: Ecology of wildlife and fish disease Mechanisms of fish and wildlife disease Microbial ecology Geographic patterns/visualization Public health and water quality Geomicrobiology Ecosystem function The six poster session topics follow: Wildlife disease Disease detection methods Water quality Microbial ecology Metabolic processes Tools and techniques Five working groups met in breakout sessions on October 16, 2008. The highlights for each working group are summarized in this report, and their goals are listed below: Working Group I: to plan a Fact Sheet on interdisciplinary microbiology in the USGS Working Group II: to plan a USGS interdisciplinary microbiology Web site Working Group III: to suggest ways to broadcast and publicize the types of microbiology conducted at the USGS Working Group IV: to identify emerging issues in USGS interdisciplinary microbiology research Working Group V: to identify potential opportunities for interdisciplinary microbiology work at the USGS After the workshop, the USGS interdisciplinary microbiology Web site was activated in June 2009 at http://microbiology.usgs.gov/.

  2. Microbiology facilities aboard Space Station Freedom (SSF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cioletti, L. A.; Mishra, S. K.; Richard, Elizabeth E.; Taylor, R.

    1990-01-01

    A comprehensive microbiological facility is being designed for use on board Space Station Freedom (SSF). Its purpose will be to conduct microbial surveillance of the SSF environment and to examine clinical specimens. Air, water, and internal surfaces will be periodically monitored to satisfy requirements for a safe environment. Crew health will remain a principle objective for every mission. This paper will review the Microbiology Subsystem capabilities planned for SSF application.

  3. BAR-CODE BASED WEIGHT MEASUREMENT STATION FOR PHYSICAL INVENTORY TAKING OF PLUTONIUM OXIDE CONTAINERS AT THE MINING AND CHEMICAL COMBINE RADIOCHEMICAL REPROCESSING PLANT NEAR KRASNOYARSK, SIBERIA.

    SciTech Connect

    SUDA,S.

    1999-09-20

    This paper describes the technical tasks being implemented to computerize the physical inventory taking (PIT) at the Mining and Chemical Combine (Gorno-Khimichesky Kombinat, GKhK) radiochemical plant under the US/Russian cooperative nuclear material protection, control, and accounting (MPC and A) program. Under the MPC and A program, Lab-to-Lab task agreements with GKhK were negotiated that involved computerized equipment for item verification and confirmatory measurement of the Pu containers. Tasks under Phase I cover the work for demonstrating the plan and procedures for carrying out the comparison of the Pu container identification on the container with the computerized inventory records. In addition to the records validation, the verification procedures include the application of bar codes and bar coded TIDs to the Pu containers. Phase II involves the verification of the Pu content. A plan and procedures are being written for carrying out confirmatory measurements on the Pu containers.

  4. Medical microbiology training needs and trainee experience.

    PubMed

    Seale, Josephine; Elamin, Wael; Millar, Michael

    2014-02-01

    Training in microbiology is continuing to evolve. Standardisation of this process has, in part, been achieved through the development of a training curriculum by the Royal College of Pathologists (RCPath). A substantial proportion of microbiology training occurs through telephone consultations. To ascertain the content of these interactions and the extent to which the necessary skills outlined by the curriculum are attainable via these consultations. Records of telephone consultations made by microbiology registrars (SpR) on the Laboratory Information Management System (LIMS) over a 6 month period were analysed with regard to who initiated contact and the type of advice provided. An average of 426 SpR entries per month were made on the LIMS following telephone consultations. These consultations were predominantly initiated by fellow clinicians as opposed to the SpR. The majority (79%) of advice entailed guidance as to the use of antimicrobials which resulted in an alteration of the current regimen in 54% of cases. This study represents the first attempt to quantify the telephone consultations of microbiology trainees. It is concluded that although such interactions provide a means of attaining some of the competencies outlined by the RCPath curriculum, the bias towards antimicrobial advice reflects a discrepancy between the needs of the service users and the broad skill set advocated by the current microbiology training programme. Future modifications will need to take this into account to ensure both the training of SpRs and the microbiology service is fit for purpose.

  5. Microbiological quality of rabbit meat.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Calleja, Jose M; Santos, Jesús A; Otero, Andrés; García-López, María-Luisa

    2004-05-01

    World rabbit meat production is estimated to be over 1 million tons, and Spain is the third largest producer. Although rabbit meat is marketed and consumed worldwide, information on microbiological quality is very scarce. Here, we report indicator organisms, spoilage flora, sensory quality, and some physicochemical traits of 24 h postmortem chilled rabbit carcasses and prepackaged rabbit meat stored chilled in air for 0 to 3 days at the retail level. The mean total bacterial count (4.01 +/- 0.48 log CFU/g) for carcasses dressed at a small abattoir by a manual process was significantly lower (P < 0.05) than that (4.96 +/- 0.90 log CFU/g) for carcasses dressed at a large abattoir in automated slaughter lines. Both groups of carcasses had mean pH values of 5.98. The dominant contaminants on carcasses from the small abattoir were Pseudomonas, lactic acid bacteria, and yeasts. These microorganisms and Brochothrix thermosphacta were dominant on carcasses from the large abattoir. On prepacked hind legs (pH 6.26 +/- 0.18) stored at -1 to +1 degree C (supermarket 1), mean aerobic mesophilic count was 5.87 +/- 1.03 log CFU/g, and the major microbial groups were Pseudomonas, yeasts, lactic acid bacteria, and B. thermosphacta. On prepacked whole carcasses (pH 6.37 +/- 0.18) displayed at -1 to +5 degrees C (supermarket 2), mean aerobic mesophilic count was 6.60 +/- 1.18 and the same microbial groups were dominant. Relative Escherichia coli incidence was supermarket 2 > large abattoir > supermarket 1 > small abattoir. Overall, low numbers of coliforms, Enterobacteriaceae, psychrotrophic clostridia, coagulase-positive staphylococci, and molds were found. Sensory scores, pH values, and L-lactic acid content differentiated fresh carcasses from retail samples. Data obtained suggest that the microflora of chilled rabbit meat are different from those found on the meat of other animals.

  6. Microbiological contamination in peanut confectionery processing plants.

    PubMed

    Carminati, J de A; Amorim Neto, D P; Morishita, K N; Takano, L V; Olivier Bernardi, A; Copetti, M V; do Nascimento, M da S

    2016-10-01

    In order to investigate Enterobacteriaceae, coliforms, Escherichia coli and Salmonella contamination, a survey was conducted at three peanut confectionery processing companies (A, B and C) in Brazil. Samples of different peanut confectionery products (n = 59), peanut raw material (n = 30), manufacturing environment (n = 116) and workers' hand surfaces (n = 12) were analysed. Salmonella and E. coli were not detected in any final product or raw material analysed. Enterobacteriaceae was isolated from 15% of final products. Coliforms were detected in only one sample. Referring to the raw material, six samples showed contamination by Enterobacteriaceae and three samples by coliforms. For the process environment, 19% and 11% of samples presented Enterobacteriaceae and coliforms. Escherichia coli was detected in 5% of samples, and one of these samples tested positive for Salmonella; this strain was serotyping as S. Heidelberg. All food handlers surveyed in Company C showed Enterobacteriaceae and coliforms on their hands. Escherichia coli was isolated from one food worker's hand. The results showed that the manufacturing environment, including food handlers were considered the main sources for possible contamination of peanut confectionery products. This has been the first study to investigate the occurrence of Salmonella and other Enterobacteriaceae throughout peanut confectionery processing lines. The results might be used to assist risk assessment studies and to establish more effective control measures. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  7. Patterns of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) Infestation and Container Productivity Measured Using Pupal and Stegomyia Indices in Northern Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Garelli, F. M.; Espinosa, M. O.; Weinberg, D.; Coto, H. D.; Gaspe, M. S.; Gürtler, R. E.

    2011-01-01

    A citywide control program of Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) mainly based on the use of larvicides reduced infestations but failed to achieve the desired target levels in Clorinda, northeastern Argentina, over 5 yr of interventions. To understand the underlying causes of persistent infestations and to develop new control tactics adapted to the local context, we conducted two pupal surveys in a large neighborhood with ≈2,500 houses and recorded several variables for every container inspected in fall and spring 2007. In total, 4,076 lots and 4,267 containers were inspected over both surveys, and 8,391 Ae. aegypti pupae were collected. Large tanks used for potable water storage were the most abundant and the most productive type of container, accounting for 65–84% of all the pupae collected. Therefore, large tanks were key containers and candidates for improved targeted interventions. Multivariate analysis showed that containers located in the yard, at low sun exposure, unlidded, filled with rain water, and holding polluted water were all more likely to be infested by larvae or pupae. When only infested containers were considered, productivity of pupae was most closely associated with large tanks and rain water. A stochastic simulation model was developed to calculate the expected correlations between pupal and Stegomyia indices according to the characteristics of the distribution of larvae and pupae per container and the spatial scale at which the indices were computed. The correlation between pupal and Stegomyia indices is expected to increase as infestation levels decline. PMID:19769052

  8. [Microbiologic depuration of Anadara tuberculosa (Mollusca: Arcidae)].

    PubMed

    Wong, E; Antillón, F; Glenn, E; González, M I

    1997-12-01

    In Costa Rica the mollusk Anadara tuberculosa represents a risk for human health due to the contamination of the growing waters and the fact that its is consumed raw. The families depending on the income obtained through commercialization of these animals have a low education and economic status. Therefore, it is of great importance to develop and evaluate simple methods of depuration that could be easily used by these families to make these mollusks safe for consumption. Bottles containing 11 of saline solution (25g/l) were prepared in duplicates to test the bactericidal effect of acetic acid. The solution in each bottle was adjusted to ph 4.5, 5.0 or 5.5 or held at ph of 7.0 or 8.0 for the controls. The solution in each bottle was then inoculated with approximately 1 X 104 cfu/ml of coliforms. Counts of coliforms were determined for each bottle 0, 1, 2, 4 and 8 hours after inoculation. For the depuration studies, specimens with diameters ranging from 4.0 to 4.5 cm were collected from a harvester at the estuary of Puntarenas, Gulf of Nicoya. Fifty specimens each were depurated in separate tanks containing 25 1 of oxygenated saline solution adjusted with acetic acid to an initial ph of 4.5 (treatment) or non adjusted ph of 8.0 (control). Counts of Enterobacteriaceae were determined, in duplicates, every 12 hr for 48 hr. An additional fifty animals were depurated using the defined method and tested to determine if they met international standards of microbiological quality for aerobic plate count, Enterobacteriaceae count, Escherichia coli count and presence of Salmonella. A sensory evaluation using a triangle test was performed to compare a typical dish prepared with depurated or non-depurated animals. A significant coliform reduction was determined in a saline solution (25 g/l) at a pH range of 4.5 to 5.5. This reduction, during 8 hr, was higher in the acid treatments compared to the controls. During depuration, the elimination of Enterobacteriaceae bacteria was

  9. Public Health Microbiology of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Caprioli, Alfredo; Scavia, Gaia; Morabito, Stefano

    2014-12-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains are the only pathogenic group of E. coli that has a definite zoonotic origin, with ruminants and, in particular, cattle being recognized as the major reservoir. Most human STEC infections are food borne, but the routes of transmission include direct contact with animals and a variety of environment-related exposures. Therefore, STEC public health microbiology spans the fields of medical, veterinary, food, water, and environmental microbiology, requiring a "One Health" perspective and laboratory scientists with the ability to work effectively across disciplines. Public health microbiology laboratories play a central role in the surveillance of STEC infections, as well as in the preparedness for responding to outbreaks and in providing scientific evidence for the implementation of prevention and control measures. This article reviews (i) how the integration of surveillance of STEC infections and monitoring of these pathogens in animal reservoirs and potential food vehicles may contribute to their control; (ii) the role of reference laboratories, in both the public health and veterinary and food sectors; and (iii) the public health perspectives, including those related to regulatory issues in both the European Union and the United States.

  10. Microbiological culture broth designed from food waste.

    PubMed

    Chalón, Miriam C; Terán, Victoria; Arena, Mario E; Oliszewki, Rubén; González, Silvia N

    2013-01-30

    The current trend of increasing air, water, and soil pollution is, in part, due to inadequate management of municipal solid waste (MSW). The relationship between public health and the collection, storage and improper disposal of solid waste has encouraged several studies and the results were attributed to the spread of over twenty human and animal diseases due to this interrelationship. The term "single cell protein" (SCP) refers to microbial biomass used as a dietary additive. It has high nutritional value because of its high content of vitamins, lipids, and proteins of biological quality (the presence of all essential amino acids) (Lal, 2005). The aim of this work was to design a culture media for microbiological assays and to produce SCP for animal feeding, using nutrients contained in organic waste. In order to compare the effectiveness of food waste (FW) and LAPTg media, different strains of Lactobacillus, Enterococcus, Staphylococcus, Shigella, Salmonella, Saccharomyces and Schizosaccharomyces were studied. In all cases, the growth obtained from FW and LAPTg culture media were not significantly different (p > 0.05). In addition, the growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was studied in order to produce SCP for animal feeding. Comparative experiments involving molasses broth, FW broth, and basal broth were carried out. The biomass yield calculated at 24 h from FW broth was 13% lower than from molasses broth. The FW broth provided a significantly lower biomass yield; however, it can be very useful in areas where molasses are not available. FW broth can be elaborated at low cost, in any populated region of the world because its ingredients are wastes generated by humans. It has great versatility, allowing the development of a wide variety of microorganisms, both Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria as well as yeasts. The production of safe protein additives, with high biological quality and low cost, is necessary due to the increasing global demand for food

  11. The value of cultures to modern microbiology.

    PubMed

    Austin, Brian

    2017-02-06

    Since the late nineteenth century, pure cultures have been regarded as the cornerstone of bacteriology. However, not all bacteria will multiply sufficiently to produce visible colonies on solid media; some cells will produce micro-colonies that are invisible to the naked eye. Moreover, the proportion of culturable cells that produce visible growth will vary according to the species and the state of the cells-are they actively growing or comparatively inactive? The latter have a poorer rate of recovery in terms of cultivability. It is unclear whether or not an individual colony is always derived from a single cell; it is possible that organisms in close proximity to each other may multiply and come together to produce single colonies. Then, the resultant growth will most certainly be derived from more than one initial cell. Although it is generally assumed that streaking and re-streaking on fresh media will purify any culture, there is evidence for microbial consortia interacting to form what appear to be single pure cultures. As so-called pure cultures underpin traditional microbiology, it is relevant to understand that the culture does not necessarily contain clones of identical bacteria, but that there may be variation in the genetic potential of the component cells, i.e. the cells are not homogeneous. Certainly, many bacteria change rapidly upon culturing, with some becoming bigger and less active. It is difficult to be sure if these changes reflect a loss or change of DNA or whether standard culturing methods select faster growing cells that are effectively not representative of the environment from which they were derived. These concepts are reviewed with an emphasis on bacterial fish pathogens.

  12. Magnetic separation techniques in diagnostic microbiology.

    PubMed Central

    Olsvik, O; Popovic, T; Skjerve, E; Cudjoe, K S; Hornes, E; Ugelstad, J; Uhlén, M

    1994-01-01

    The principles of magnetic separation aided by antibodies or other specific binding molecules have been used for isolation of specific viable whole organisms, antigens, or nucleic acids. Whereas growth on selective media may be helpful in isolation of a certain bacterial species, immunomagnetic separation (IMS) technology can isolate strains possessing specific and characteristic surface antigens. Further separation, cultivation, and identification of the isolate can be performed by traditional biochemical, immunologic, or molecular methods. PCR can be used for amplification and identification of genes of diagnostic importance for a target organism. The combination of IMS and PCR reduces the assay time to several hours while increasing both specificity and sensitivity. Use of streptavidin-coated magnetic beads for separation of amplified DNA fragments, containing both biotin and a signal molecule, has allowed for the conversion of the traditional PCR into an easy-to-read microtiter plate format. The bead-bound PCR amplicons can also easily be sequenced in an automated DNA sequencer. The latter technique makes it possible to obtain sequence data of 300 to 600 bases from 20 to 30 strains, starting with clinical samples, within 12 to 24 h. Sequence data can be used for both diagnostic and epidemiologic purposes. IMS has been demonstrated to be a useful method in diagnostic microbiology. Most recent publications describe IMS as a method for enhancing the specificity and sensitivity of other detection systems, such as PCR, and providing considerable savings in time compared with traditional diagnostic systems. The relevance to clinical diagnosis has, however, not yet been fully established for all of these new test principles. In the case of PCR, for example, the presence of specific DNA in a food sample does not demonstrate the presence of a live organism capable of inducing a disease. However, all tests offering increased sensitivity and specificity of detection

  13. Microbiology and Geochemistry of Antarctic Paleosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahaney, W. C.; Malloch, D.; Hancock, R. G. V.; Campbell, I. B.; Sheppard, D.

    2000-08-01

    Samples of ancient soils from horizons in paleosols from the Quartermain Mountains (Aztec and New Mountain areas of the Antarctic Dry Valleys) were analyzed for their chemical composition and microbiology to determine the accumulation and movement of salts and other soluble constituents. The salt concentrations are of special interest because they are considered to be a function of age, derived in part from nearby oceanic and high altitude atmospheric sources. The geochemistry of ancient Miocene-age paleosols in these areas is the direct result of the deposition and weathering of till, derived principally from dolerite and sandstone source rock, in association with airborne-influxed salts. Paleosols nearer the coast have greater contents of chlorine, and farther inland near the Inland Ice Sheet, nitrogen tends to increase on a relative basis. The accumulation and vertical distribution of salts and other soluble chemical elements indicate relative amounts of movement in the profile over long periods of time, to the order of several million years. Iron, both in total concentration and in the form of various extracts, indicates it can be used as a geochronometer to assess the buildup of goethite plus hematite over time in the paleosols. Trends for ferrihydrite, a partially soluble Fe-hydroxide, shows limited profile translocation that might be related to the movement of salt. Six of the eight selected subsamples from paleosol horizons in three soil profiles contained nil concentrations of bacteria and fungi. However, two horizons at depths of between three to eight centimeters yielded several colonies of the fungi Beauveria bassiana and Penicillium spp., indicating some input of organic carbon. Beauveria bassiana is often reported in association with insects and is used commercially for the biological control of some insect pests. Penicillium species are commonly isolated from Arctic, temperate and tropical soils and are known to utilize a wide variety of organic

  14. Evaluation of oral microbiology lab curriculum reform.

    PubMed

    Nie, Min; Gao, Zhen Y; Wu, Xin Y; Jiang, Chen X; Du, Jia H

    2015-12-07

    According to the updated concept of oral microbiology, the School of Stomatology, Wuhan University, has carried out oral microbiology teaching reforms during the last 5 years. There was no lab curriculum before 2009 except for a theory course of oral microbiology. The school has implemented an innovative curriculum with oral medicine characteristics to strengthen understanding of knowledge, cultivate students' scientific interest and develop their potential, to cultivate the comprehensive ability of students. This study was designed to evaluate the oral microbiology lab curriculum by analyzing student performance and perceptions regarding the curriculum from 2009 to 2013. The lab curriculum adopted modalities for cooperative learning. Students collected dental plaque from each other and isolated the cariogenic bacteria with selective medium plates. Then they purified the enrichment culture medium and identified the cariogenic strains by Gram stain and biochemical tests. Both quantitative and qualitative data for 5 years were analysed in this study. Part One of the current study assessed student performance in the lab from 2009 to 2013. Part Two used qualitative means to assess students' perceptions by an open questionnaire. The 271 study students' grades on oral microbiology improved during the lab curriculum: "A" grades rose from 60.5 to 81.2 %, and "C" grades fell from 28.4 to 6.3 %. All students considered the lab curriculum to be interesting and helpful. Quantitative and qualitative data converge to suggest that the lab curriculum has strengthened students' grasp of important microbiology-related theory, cultivated their scientific interest, and developed their potential and comprehensive abilities. Our student performance and perception data support the continued use of the innovative teaching system. As an extension and complement of the theory course, the oral microbiology lab curriculum appears to improve the quality of oral medicine education and help to

  15. Mathematical modelling methodologies in predictive food microbiology: a SWOT analysis.

    PubMed

    Ferrer, Jordi; Prats, Clara; López, Daniel; Vives-Rego, Josep

    2009-08-31

    Predictive microbiology is the area of food microbiology that attempts to forecast the quantitative evolution of microbial populations over time. This is achieved to a great extent through models that include the mechanisms governing population dynamics. Traditionally, the models used in predictive microbiology are whole-system continuous models that describe population dynamics by means of equations applied to extensive or averaged variables of the whole system. Many existing models can be classified by specific criteria. We can distinguish between survival and growth models by seeing whether they tackle mortality or cell duplication. We can distinguish between empirical (phenomenological) models, which mathematically describe specific behaviour, and theoretical (mechanistic) models with a biological basis, which search for the underlying mechanisms driving already observed phenomena. We can also distinguish between primary, secondary and tertiary models, by examining their treatment of the effects of external factors and constraints on the microbial community. Recently, the use of spatially explicit Individual-based Models (IbMs) has spread through predictive microbiology, due to the current technological capacity of performing measurements on single individual cells and thanks to the consolidation of computational modelling. Spatially explicit IbMs are bottom-up approaches to microbial communities that build bridges between the description of micro-organisms at the cell level and macroscopic observations at the population level. They provide greater insight into the mesoscale phenomena that link unicellular and population levels. Every model is built in response to a particular question and with different aims. Even so, in this research we conducted a SWOT (Strength, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats) analysis of the different approaches (population continuous modelling and Individual-based Modelling), which we hope will be helpful for current and future

  16. [Publication rates of Turkish medical specialty and doctorate theses on Medical Microbiology, Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases disciplines in international journals].

    PubMed

    Sipahi, Oğuz Reşat; Caglayan Serin, Derya; Pullukcu, Hüsnü; Tasbakan, Meltem; Köseli Ulu, Demet; Yamazhan, Tansu; Arda, Bilgin; Sipahi, Hilal; Ulusoy, Sercan

    2014-04-01

    Writing a thesis is mandatory for getting a postgraduate medical degree in Turkey. Publication of the results of the thesis in an indexed journal makes the results available to researchers, however publication rate is usually low. The aim of this retrospective observational study was to investigate the publication rate of Turkish Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology, Medical Microbiology specialty theses and Microbiology doctorate theses in international peer-review journals. On August 17th 2007, the thesis database of the Council of Higher Education of the Republic of Turkey (YOK) where all specialization and doctorate theses are recorded obligatorily, was searched for Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology and Medical Microbiology specialty and Microbiology doctorate theses. Assuming that publication of a thesis would last at least six months, theses dated to February 2007 and after were excluded. The publication rate of those theses was found out by searching Science Citation Index-Expanded database for thesis author and supervisor between August 17-September 12, 2007. Chi-square test was used for statistical analysis. Our search yielded a total of 834 theses dated from 1997 to 2007, however 10 of them were excluded, since they were dated to February 2007 or after. It was found that the overall publication rate was 11.4% (94/824). The publication rates for Microbiology doctorate, Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology specialty theses were 13.7% (34/249), 10.7% (33/309) and 10.2% (27/266), respectively, with no statistical significance (p> 0.05). It was determined that nine (9.6%) of the 94 published theses belonged to 1997-2001 period, whereas 85 (80.4%) were in 2002-2007 period (p< 0.05). The probable reason for this increase was thought to be related with the updated criteria of YOK carried out in 2000 for academic promotions, nevertheless the publication rate of the investigated theses in international peer

  17. Relaxometry, luminescence measurements, electrophoresis, and animal biodistribution of lanthanide(III) complexes of some polyaza macrocyclic acetates containing pyridine

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, W.D.; Sherry, A.D.; Kiefer, G.E.; McMillan, K.; Maton, F.; Muller, R.N.

    1995-04-12

    Four Gd{sup 3+} complexes [Gd(BP2A){sup +}, Gd(PC2A){sup +}, Gd(PCTA){sup 0}, and Gd(BPO4A){sup {minus}}] with polyazamacrocyclic ligands that contain a pyridine moiety were prepared and examined for possible use as MRI contrast enhancement agents. The authors estimated the number of inner sphere water molecules (q{sub Gd}) for the Gd{sup 3+} complexes from the values of q found for the Tb{sup 3+} and/or Eu{sup 3+} complexes by luminescence lifetime measurements. It was estimated that q{sub Gd} = 3.5, 3.3, 2.4, and 0.2 for Gd(BP2A){sup +}, Gd(PC2A){sup +}, Gd(PCTA){sup 0}, and Gd(BPO4A){sup {minus}}, respectively. The inner sphere relaxivities (r{sub 1,inner}) of these tetraaza macrocyclic complexes were higher than that of Gd(DOTA){sup {minus}} [i.e. 6.79 for Gd(BP2A){sup +}, 6.21 for Gd(PC2A){sup +}, and 4.60 for Gd(PCTA){sup 0} mM{sup {minus}1}s{sup {minus}1} at 40 MHz and 25{degrees}C], but the normalized relaxivities per q{sub Gd} (1.94, 1.88, and 1.92 mM{sup {minus}1}s{sup {minus}1}, respectively) were comparable to that of Gd(DOTA){sup {minus}}. A quantitative treatment of the NMRD profiles based on Solomon-Bloembergen-Morgan theory, using the NMRD profile of Gd(BPO4A){sup {minus}} to correct for an outer sphere contribution, showed that the complexes exhibit characteristics similar to that of Gd(DOTA){sup {minus}} but with shorter electronic relaxation times. Tissue biodistribution results using radioactive {sup 153}Sm and {sup 159}Gd complexes in rats indicate that the cationic [{sup 153}Sm-(BP2A){sup +} and {sup 153}Sm(PC2A){sup +}] complexes accumulate preferably in the bone tissue while the neutral [{sup 153}Sm-(PCTA){sup 0}] and anionic [{sup 153}Sm(BPO4A){sup {minus}}] complexes appear to have renal clearances similar to those of other low molecular weight contrast agents [i.e. Gd(DTPA){sup 2{minus}} and Gd(DOTA){sup {minus}}].

  18. Microbiological analysis of bovine lymph nodes for the detection of Salmonella enterica

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bovine peripheral lymph nodes (LNs) have been identified as a potential source of Salmonella when trim containing these nodes is incorporated into ground beef. Studies examining the prevalence of Salmonella in peripheral LNs of cattle are few in number and the microbiological methods used for these ...

  19. [Bacterial identification methods in the microbiology laboratory].

    PubMed

    Bou, Germán; Fernández-Olmos, Ana; García, Celia; Sáez-Nieto, Juan Antonio; Valdezate, Sylvia

    2011-10-01

    In order to identify the agent responsible of the infectious process and understanding the pathogenic/pathological implications, clinical course, and to implement an effective antimicrobial therapy, a mainstay in the practice of clinical microbiology is the allocation of species to a microbial isolation. In daily routine practice microbiology laboratory phenotypic techniques are applied to achieve this goal. However, they have some limitations that are seen more clearly for some kinds of microorganism. Molecular methods can circumvent some of these limitations, although its implementation is not universal. This is due to higher costs and the level of expertise required for thei implementation, so molecular methods are often centralized in reference laboratories and centers. Recently, proteomics-based methods made an important breakthrough in the field of diagnostic microbiology and will undoubtedly have a major impact on the future organization of the microbiology services. This paper is a short review of the most noteworthy aspects of the three bacterial identification methods described above used in microbiology laboratories. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  20. Cost analysis in a clinical microbiology laboratory.

    PubMed

    Brezmes, M F; Ochoa, C; Eiros, J M

    2002-08-01

    The use of models for business management and cost control in public hospitals has led to a need for microbiology laboratories to know the real cost of the different products they offer. For this reason, a catalogue of microbiological products was prepared, and the costs (direct and indirect) for each product were analysed, along with estimated profitability. All tests performed in the microbiology laboratory of the "Virgen de la Concha" Hospital in Zamora over a 2-year period (73192 tests) were studied. The microbiological product catalogue was designed using homogeneity criteria with respect to procedures used, workloads and costs. For each product, the direct personnel costs (estimated from workloads following the method of the College of American Pathologists, 1992 version), the indirect personnel costs, the direct and indirect material costs and the portion of costs corresponding to the remaining laboratory costs (capital and structural costs) were calculated. The average product cost was 16.05 euros. The average cost of a urine culture (considered, for purposes of this study, as a relative value unit) reached 13.59 euros, with a significant difference observed between positive and negative cultures (negative urine culture, 10.72 euros; positive culture, 29.65 euros). Significant heterogeneity exists, both in the costs of different products and especially in the cost per positive test. The application of a detailed methodology of cost analysis facilitates the calculation of the real cost of microbiological products. This information provides a basic tool for establishing clinical management strategies.

  1. The importance of microbiological testing for establishing cause of death in 42 forensic autopsies.

    PubMed

    Christoffersen, S

    2015-05-01

    Microorganisms have always been one of the great challenges of humankind, being responsible for both high morbidity and mortality throughout history. In a forensic setting microbiological information will always be difficult to interpret due to lack of antemortem information and changes in flora postmortem. With this study we aim to review the use of microbiological procedures at our forensic institute. In a retrospective study including 42 autopsies performed at our Institute, where microbiological test had been applied, analyses were made with regard to: type of microbiological tests performed, microorganisms found, histological findings, antemortem information, C-reactive protein measurement and cause of death. Fiftyone different microorganisms were found distributed among 37 cases, bacteria being the most abundant. Nineteen of the cases were classified as having a microbiological related cause of death. C-reactive protein levels were raised in 14 cases of the 19 cases, histological findings either supported or were a decisive factor for the classification of microbiologically related cause of death in 14 cases. As a multitude of abundant microorganisms are able to cause infection under the right circumstances, all findings should be compared to anamnestic antemortem information, before conclusions are drawn. A definite list of true pathogens is nearly impossible to compile.

  2. Quantitative measurement of lipoprotein particles containing both apolipoprotein AIV and apolipoprotein B in human plasma by a noncompetitive ELISA.

    PubMed

    Ferrer, Fanny; Bigot-Corbel, Edith; N'Guyen, Patrick; Krempf, Michel; Bard, Jean-Marie

    2002-06-01

    A reliable method for plasma would be useful to investigate the role of apolipoprotein (apo) AIV when associated with apo B-containing or triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. We used a sandwich ELISA to quantify lipoprotein B:AIV particles (Lp B:AIVf; lipoproteins containing at least apo B and apo AIV) in plasma. The method used microtiter plates coated with purified anti-apo B immunoglobulins that selectively retained apo B-containing particles. Lipoproteins containing both apo B and apo AIV were distinguished from those containing only apo B by use of a peroxidase-labeled anti-apo AIV antibody. These subspecies were revealed by ABTS reagent and further quantified by spectrophotometry. Results were expressed in mg/L apo AIV associated with apo B. This method was applied to samples with different cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations. The developed sandwich ELISA method identified and quantified Lp B:AIVf in plasma samples. Within- and between-run CVs were approximately 10%, and analytical recoveries were 95-107%. Results were not significantly influenced by addition of triglycerides or by storage at -20 degrees C (up to 9 months). Under these conditions, plasma Lp B:AIVf concentrations were statistically higher in hypercholesterolemic and mixed hyperlipidemic individuals (53 +/- 13 mg/L; P <0.001 and 70 +/- 18 mg/L; P <0.001, respectively) than in normolipidemic individuals (43 +/- 12 mg/L). Lp B:AIVf concentration appeared to be well correlated with total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol, and apo B. These results were in contrast to total apo AIV, which was not different between dyslipidemic and normolipidemic individuals. The developed ELISA method for Lp B:AIVf in plasma combines specificity, reliability, and speed. The increase in Lp B:AIVf concentrations in various dyslipidemic states, together with a lack of change in total apo AIV concentrations, suggests a redistribution of apo AIV toward apo B-containing lipoproteins when these lipoproteins

  3. Emerging Technologies for the Clinical Microbiology Laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Buchan, Blake W.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY In this review we examine the literature related to emerging technologies that will help to reshape the clinical microbiology laboratory. These topics include nucleic acid amplification tests such as isothermal and point-of-care molecular diagnostics, multiplexed panels for syndromic diagnosis, digital PCR, next-generation sequencing, and automation of molecular tests. We also review matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight (MALDI-TOF) and electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry methods and their role in identification of microorganisms. Lastly, we review the shift to liquid-based microbiology and the integration of partial and full laboratory automation that are beginning to impact the clinical microbiology laboratory. PMID:25278575

  4. Transforming clinical microbiology with bacterial genome sequencing.

    PubMed

    Didelot, Xavier; Bowden, Rory; Wilson, Daniel J; Peto, Tim E A; Crook, Derrick W

    2012-09-01

    Whole-genome sequencing of bacteria has recently emerged as a cost-effective and convenient approach for addressing many microbiological questions. Here, we review the current status of clinical microbiology and how it has already begun to be transformed by using next-generation sequencing. We focus on three essential tasks: identifying the species of an isolate, testing its properties, such as resistance to antibiotics and virulence, and monitoring the emergence and spread of bacterial pathogens. We predict that the application of next-generation sequencing will soon be sufficiently fast, accurate and cheap to be used in routine clinical microbiology practice, where it could replace many complex current techniques with a single, more efficient workflow.

  5. Summary of research on microbiological processes

    SciTech Connect

    Winters, A.L.

    1992-09-01

    Storage of thermal energy in aquifers has obvious benefits of saving energy and decreasing the consumption of fossil fuels. However, aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES), which involves groundwater aquifers as the storage medium for heat or chill, impinges on the environment. A literature review of pertinent microbiology publications (Hicks and Stewart, 1988) identified the potential for the interaction of ATES systems and microbiological processes to create a source of infectious diseases and the potential for damage to the environment. In addition, the review identified a potential for microbiological processes to develop conditions that would interfere with the operation of an ATES system. As a result of this research effort, investigators from Finland, Germany, Switzerland, and the United States have examined several ATES systems in operation and have observed that the ATES systems studied do not contribute to infectious disease transmission, do not adversely affect the environment, and do not contribute significantly to biofouling or biocorrosion.

  6. Transforming clinical microbiology with bacterial genome sequencing

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Whole genome sequencing of bacteria has recently emerged as a cost-effective and convenient approach for addressing many microbiological questions. Here we review the current status of clinical microbiology and how it has already begun to be transformed by the use of next-generation sequencing. We focus on three essential tasks: identifying the species of an isolate, testing its properties such as resistance to antibiotics and virulence, and monitoring the emergence and spread of bacterial pathogens. The application of next-generation sequencing will soon be sufficiently fast, accurate and cheap to be used in routine clinical microbiology practice, where it could replace many complex current techniques with a single, more efficient workflow. PMID:22868263

  7. The microbiological quality of drinking water supplies of Izmir City: the incidence of Yersinia enterocolitica.

    PubMed

    Gönül, S A; Karapinar, M

    1991-05-01

    A total of 100 water samples collected from piped public supplies, wells with and without motor pumps, springs and commercially bottled spring waters were microbiologically examined. In order to determine microbiological quality, aerobic bacterial and coliform counts were estimated and the presence of Escherichia coli and Yersinia enterocolitica was investigated. Of the samples tested, 85 of them met the specifications set by TFR (Turkish Food Regulation) for coliforms, whereas 72 of them met the specifications for aerobic bacteria. The number of samples containing Y. enterocolitica and E. coli were found to be 6 and 5, respectively.

  8. [Microbiological degradation of asymmetrical dimethylhydrazine--a toxic component of rocket fuel].

    PubMed

    Chugunov, V A; Martovetskaia, I I; Mironova, R I; Fomchenkov, V M; Kholodenko, V P

    2000-01-01

    A possibility of microbiological cleaning of water and soil polluted with asymmetric dimethylhydrazine (ADMH), a highly toxic rocket fuel ingredient (RFI), was studied. Several isolates (bacteria, yeast, and micromycetes) capable of utilizing ADMH as the only source of nitrogen, carbon, and energy were isolated from RFI-polluted tundra soil. Acceleration of RFI biodegradation was achieved using a biosorbent that involved cells of the degrader strain immobilized on granulated activated carbon. Biological testing in Escherichia coli and cereals (wheat and barley) demonstrated that biodegradation significantly decreased the integral toxicity of solutions containing ADMH, suggesting its utility for microbiological cleaning of polluted territories.

  9. Point-Counterpoint: Consolidated Clinical Microbiology Laboratories

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The manner in which medical care is reimbursed in the United States has resulted in significant consolidation in the U.S. health care system. One of the consequences of this has been the development of centralized clinical microbiology laboratories that provide services to patients receiving care in multiple off-site, often remote, locations. Microbiology specimens are unique among clinical specimens in that optimal analysis may require the maintenance of viable organisms. Centralized laboratories may be located hours from patient care settings, and transport conditions need to be such that organism viability can be maintained under a variety of transport conditions. Further, since the provision of rapid results has been shown to enhance patient care, effective and timely means for generating and then reporting the results of clinical microbiology analyses must be in place. In addition, today, increasing numbers of patients are found to have infection caused by pathogens that were either very uncommon in the past or even completely unrecognized. As a result, infectious disease specialists, in particular, are more dependent than ever on access to high-quality diagnostic information from clinical microbiology laboratories. In this point-counterpoint discussion, Robert Sautter, who directs a Charlotte, NC, clinical microbiology laboratory that provides services for a 40-hospital system spread over 3 states in the southeastern United States explains how an integrated clinical microbiology laboratory service has been established in a multihospital system. Richard (Tom) Thomson of the NorthShore University HealthSystem in Evanston, IL, discusses some of the problems and pitfalls associated with large-scale laboratory consolidation. PMID:25253793

  10. Applications of Digital PCR for Clinical Microbiology.

    PubMed

    Kuypers, Jane; Jerome, Keith R

    2017-03-15

    Digital PCR (dPCR) is an important new tool for use in the clinical microbiology laboratory. Its advantages over quantitative PCR (qPCR), including absolute quantification without a standard curve, improved precision, improved accuracy in the presence of inhibitors, and more accurate quantitation when amplification efficiency is low, make dPCR the assay of choice for several specimen testing applications. This mini-review will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of dPCR compared to qPCR, its applications in clinical microbiology and the considerations for implementation of the method in a clinical laboratory.

  11. Models and microbiology: Pasteur and the body.

    PubMed

    Hanley, James G

    2003-01-01

    Louis Pasteur developed a model of the body as a culture vessel in the late 1870s as an explanation of both natural and acquired immunity, and other investigators quickly applied the model in the explanation of other microbiological phenomena, principally the tissue tropism seen in the normal and the pathological flora. This paper will argue that although Pasteur quickly abandoned the model, it persisted as an explanation of tissue tropism for nearly 70 years, structuring the interpretation of data by and guiding the research of a diverse group of microbiological researchers.

  12. [Microbiological quality of spices consumed in Cuba].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, M; Alvarez, M; Zayas, M

    1991-01-01

    The microbiological quality of some widely consumed spices in Cuba was evaluated by means of aerobic mesophilic microorganisms count, filamentous fungi, yeasts, coliforms, thermophilic and thermoresistant microorganisms. Salmonella spp was looked for too. Black pepper and cumin resulted the most contaminated spices with values of total count and thermoresistant microorganisms at levels of 10(6) per gram, and coliform values up to 10(5) per gram. Oregano and cinnamon showed satisfactory microbiological quality; the contamination detected in these spices was lower than 10(4) per gram. Salmonella spp and yeasts were not detected.

  13. A review of microbiology service learning.

    PubMed

    Webb, Ginny

    2017-02-01

    Service learning is a teaching method that incorporates community engagement into the curriculum of a course. Service learning is becoming increasingly popular on college campuses and across disciplines. Studies have shown many benefits to service learning for the students and the community they serve. Service learning has been incorporated into science courses, including microbiology. This review will address the benefits to service learning and provide an overview of the various types of service-learning projects that have been completed in microbiology courses. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Mitigated membrane fouling of anammox membrane bioreactor by microbiological immobilization.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zuotao; Liu, Sitong; Miyoshi, Taro; Matsuyama, Hideto; Ni, Jinren

    2016-02-01

    In this study, membrane fouling behavior of anammox MBR with or without carriers made by magnetic porous carbon microspheres was investigated. The results show that Trans Membrane Pressure was an order of magnitude lower after 50days due to use of carriers, which did not directly contact with membrane surface. Scanning Electron Microscope analysis indicates that abundance of anammox bacteria formed biofilm on membrane surface. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy combined with amino acids contents analysis for membrane surface deposition show that metabolite released by anammox bacteria contains more hydrophobic groups than hydrophilic, which was considered as important reason for its abundant existence on hydrophobic membrane surface. Microbiological immobilization not only reduces biological membrane fouling, but also mitigates organic fouling including organic matter containing COO, hydrophobic groups (CH3, CH2 and CH etc), as well as inorganic deposition. Our finding provides an effective method for mitigating MBR membrane fouling in anammox process.

  15. Microbiology of the aquatic environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greeson, Phillip E.

    1981-01-01

    This is the third of several compilations of briefing papers on water quality by the U.S. Geological Survey. Each briefing paper is prepared in a simple, nontechnical, easy-to-understand manner. This U.S. Geological Survey Circular contains papers on selected organic substances in water. Briefing papers are included on ' Why study organic substances in water. ', ' Taste and odor in water ', and ' Classification and fractionation of organic solutes in natural waters'. (USGS)

  16. [Microbiological studies of beef tartar].

    PubMed

    Beumer, R R; Tamminga, S K; Kampelmacher, E H

    1982-11-15

    Two hundred lots of 'filet américain' (a mixture of minced meat, acid sauce, condiments, salt, etc., meant to be eaten raw) were sampled from retailers and examined for several types of micro-organism; 185 lots had been prepared by the retailer, fifteen on an 'industrial' scale. Pork had been used in seventy-three lots (including fourteen 'industrial' lots); beef was present in all lots, horse meat in none of them. On the whole, the bacterial state of the meats in which pork had been used was found to be considerably inferior to that of samples not containing this ingredient. The aerobic bacterial count and number of yeasts, as well as Enterobacteriaceae and group D. streptococci were at least 10 times higher on an average in this case than they were in lots not containing pork. In the case of Lactobacillus, Staphylococcus aureus and Clostridium perfringens the picture was similar, though the counts of the two lastnamed species were smaller. Salmonella was detected in 84 per cent of the pork-containing lots and in 13 per cent of the other lots. For Yersinia enterocolitica, these figures were 44 per cent and 5 per cent, and for Campylobacter fetus, subsp, jejuni 18 per cent and 6 per cent. The pH varied from 5 to 6. Lots containing pork averaged a higher pH. Addition of acid sauce had only a slight effect on pH levels. A number of these results were related to each other. It is concluded that the use of raw pork in meat products meant for raw consumption should be avoided.

  17. Microbiological quality of packaged ice from various sources in Georgia.

    PubMed

    Mako, Stephanie L; Harrison, Mark A; Sharma, Vijendra; Kong, Fanbin

    2014-09-01

    This study determined the microbiological and chemical quality of ice produced and bagged on premises in retail establishments and in free-standing self-service ice vending machines in the state of Georgia and compared the results with that from ice produced by manufacturing companies monitored by the International Packaged Ice Association. Two hundred fifty bags of packaged ice samples were obtained from retail locations and self-service ice vending machines, along with 25 bags of packaged manufactured ice. Ice samples were melted within 24 h of collection and heterotrophic plate count SimPlates were used to detect heterotrophic bacteria present. Colisure and Enterolert assays were used to enumerate coliforms, nonpathogenic Escherichia coli, and enterococci. Membrane filtration coupled with enrichment was used to detect Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes. Confirmation tests were done for presumptive-positive pathogens. None of the manufactured ice had unacceptable microbial levels. Six percent of the ice samples bagged at retail sites and from ice vending machines contained unsatisfactory levels of heterotrophs compared with the limits set by the International Packaged Ice Association (≥ 500 most probable number [MPN]/100 ml). Thirty-seven percent of these samples contained an unsatisfactory level of coliforms (≥ 1.0 MPN/100 ml), 1% contained nonpathogenic E. coli, and 13% contained enterococci (≥ 1.0 MPN/100 ml). One sample tested positive for the presence of Salmonella and another tested positive for Enterobacter agglomerans. Ninety-five samples of packaged ice from retail establishments and vending machines (38%) had pH levels outside the acceptable range that can affect product flavor. Turbidity of three samples exceeded the acceptable level. No samples had unacceptable nitrate levels. Manufactured ice had better microbiological and chemical quality than ice packaged on the premises of retail locations and from self-serve ice vending machines.

  18. A microbiological and clinical study of the safety and efficacy of baking-soda dentifrices.

    PubMed

    Zambon, J J; Mather, M L; Gonzales, Y

    1997-01-01

    This article reports the results of a study that examined the clinical and microbiological changes associated with regular use of baking-soda dentifrices. Two dentifrice formulations were examined in a 6-month longitudinal study of 101 adult subjects with assessments for plaque, gingival inflammation, and stain at baseline and 3 and 6 months during the active phase of the study, and at 3 months after cessation of product use. One dentifrice contained 52% baking soda and 3% sodium percarbonate (Arm & Hammer PeroxiCare) while the other dentifrice contained 65% baking soda (Arm & Hammer Dental Care). Both dentifrices resulted in statistically significant reductions in dental plaque, gingival inflammation, and stain at all time periods compared to baseline. Dental plaque and buccal soft-tissue samples were obtained for microbiological analysis from a 50-subject subset. Microbiological assays, including bacterial culture, phase-contrast microscopy, and immunofluorescence microscopy, confirmed the safety of both formulations. Beneficial alterations in dental plaque bacteria were noted, including significant reductions in the levels of Actinomyces species. The data from this study indicate that dentifrices containing high levels of baking soda are clinically effective and microbiologically safe.

  19. A microbiological and clinical study of the safety and efficacy of baking-soda dentifrices.

    PubMed

    Zambon, J J; Mather, M L; Gonzales, Y

    1996-01-01

    This article reports the results of a study that examined the clinical and microbiological changes associated with regular use of baking-soda dentifrices. Two dentifrice formulations were examined in a 6-month longitudinal study of 101 adult subjects with assessments for plaque, gingival inflammation, and stain at baseline and 3 and 6 months during the active phase of the study, and at 3 months after cessation of product use. One dentifrice contained 52% baking soda and 3% sodium percarbonate (Arm & Hammer PeroxiCare) while the other dentifrice contained 65% baking soda (Arm & Hammer Dental Care). Both dentifrices resulted in statistically significant reductions in dental plaque, gingival inflammation, and stain at all time periods compared to baseline. Dental plaque and buccal soft-tissue samples were obtained for microbiological analysis from a 50-subject subset. Microbiological assays, including bacterial culture, phase-contrast microscopy, and immunofluorescence microscopy, confirmed the safety of both formulations. Beneficial alterations in dental plaque bacteria were noted, including significant reductions in the levels of Actinomyces species. The data from this study indicate that dentifrices containing high levels of baking soda are clinically effective and microbiologically safe.

  20. The influence of a taurine containing drink on cardiac parameters before and after exercise measured by echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Baum, M; Weiss, M

    2001-01-01

    To determine the effect of the taurine containing drink "Red Bull" on cardiac parameters thirteen endurance trained subjects performed an exhaustive bout of endurance exercise at three different times. Prior to the exercise the original "Red Bull" drink, a similar drink without taurine, containing caffeine, and a "placebo" drink without caffeine and without taurine were ingested by the subjects in a double-blind cross-over design. Echocardiographic examinations were performed before the drinks, 40 minutes after the drinks prior to the exercise and in the regeneration period after exercise. Stroke volume was significantly influenced only in the "Red Bull group" (80,4+/-21,4 ml before drink vs. 97,5+/-26,2 ml in the regeneration period), mainly due to a reduced endsystolic diameter and volume. Furthermore in this group the peak late diastolic inflow (V(A)) in the regeneration period was significantly higher compared with the pre-exercise levels. This observation was also made in the caffeine group but without any consequences on ventricular function. The results of the present study show an influence of the original caffeine and taurine containing drink (Red Bull) on parameters of the cardiac contractility.

  1. Development of homogeneous assay for simultaneous measurement of apoE-deficient, apoE-containing, and total HDL-cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Yuji; Ito, Yasuki; Wada, Norio; Nagasaka, Atsushi; Fujikawa, Masato; Sakurai, Toshihiro; Shrestha, Rojeet; Hui, Shu-Ping; Chiba, Hitoshi

    2016-02-15

    Pathophysiological role for high-density lipoprotein (HDL) subclasses remains to be elucidated. Homogeneous assay for simultaneous measurements of apoE-deficient HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), apoE-containing HDL-C, and total HDL-C is desired, because apoE plays important roles in lipid metabolism. The proposed assay consists of a primary reaction to remove non-HDL-C, a secondary reaction to measure apoE-deficient HDL-C, and a tertiary reaction to measure apoE-containing HDL-C. The assay is completed within 10 min. For control study, 13% polyethylene glycol precipitation assay and phosphotungstate-dextran sulfate-magnesium precipitation assay were carried out. Good correlations between the control assays and the proposed assay was obtained in serum samples from patients without liver disease (n=33): r=0.987, 0.957, and 0.991 for apoE-deficient, apoE-containing, and total HDL-C, respectively. ApoE-containing HDL-C by the proposed method in healthy individuals (n=12) and patients with hyper-HDL-cholesterolemia (n=5) were 0.11±0.03 and 0.26±0.05 mmol/l (4.1±1.3 and 10.1±2.0 mg/dl), respectively. ApoE-containing HDL-C increased rapidly at >2.59 mmol/l (100 mg/dl) of total HDL-C, suggesting a unique regulating mechanism of apoE-containing HDL-C. The established homogeneous assay might be useful for clinical and epidemiological studies on apoE-deficient and apoE-containing HDL subclasses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluation of the operator protection factors offered by positive pressure air suits against airborne microbiological challenge.

    PubMed

    Steward, Jackie A; Lever, Mark S

    2012-08-01

    Laboratories throughout the world that perform work with Risk Group 4 Pathogens generally adopt one of two approaches within BSL-4 environments: either the use of positive pressure air-fed suits or using Class III microbiological safety cabinets and isolators for animal work. Within the UK at present, all laboratories working with Risk Group 4 agents adopt the use of Class III microbiological safety cabinet lines and isolators. Operator protection factors for the use of microbiological safety cabinets and isolators are available however; there is limited published data on the operator protection factors afforded by the use of positive pressure suits. This study evaluated the operator protection factors provided by positive pressure air suits against a realistic airborne microbiological challenge. The suits were tested, both intact and with their integrity compromised, on an animated mannequin within a stainless steel exposure chamber. The suits gave operator protection in all tests with an intact suit and with a cut in the leg. When compromised by a cut in the glove, a very small ingress of the challenge was seen as far as the wrist. This is likely to be due to the low airflow in the gloves of the suit. In all cases no microbiological penetration of the respiratory tract was observed. These data provide evidence on which to base safety protocols for use of positive pressure suits within high containment laboratories.

  3. Making microbiology of the built environment relevant to design.

    PubMed

    Brown, G Z; Kline, Jeff; Mhuireach, Gwynne; Northcutt, Dale; Stenson, Jason

    2016-02-16

    Architects are enthusiastic about "bioinformed design" as occupant well-being is a primary measure of architectural success. However, architects are also under mounting pressure to create more sustainable buildings. Scientists have a critical opportunity to make the emerging field of microbiology of the built environment more relevant and applicable to real-world design problems by addressing health and sustainability in tandem. Practice-based research, which complements evidence-based design, represents a promising approach to advancing knowledge of the indoor microbiome and translating it to architectural practice.

  4. Area-wide management of Aedes albopictus: II. Gauging the efficacy of traditional integrated pest control measures against urban container mosquitoes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse), the Asian tiger mosquito, is an introduced invasive species in the U.S. responsible for a significant proportion of service requests to local mosquito control programs. This container-utilizing mosquito is refractory to standard mosquito abatement measures in th...

  5. Lessons from the organization of a proficiency testing program in food microbiology by interlaboratory comparison: analytical methods in use, impact of methods on bacterial counts and measurement uncertainty of bacterial counts.

    PubMed

    Augustin, Jean-Christophe; Carlier, Vincent

    2006-02-01

    The proficiency testing program in food microbiology RAEMA (Réseau d'Analyses et d'Echanges en Microbiologie des Aliments), created in 1988, currently includes 450 participating laboratories. This interlaboratory comparison establishes proficiency in detection of Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes, as well as enumeration of aerobic micro-organisms, Enterobacteriaceae, coliforms, beta-glucuronidase-positive Escherichia coli, anaerobic sulfito-reducing bacteria, Clostridium perfringens, coagulase-positive staphylococci, and L. monocytogenes. Twice a year, five units samples are sent to participants to assess their precision and trueness for enumeration and detection of micro-organisms. Most of participating laboratories use standard or validated alternative methods, they were 50-70% in 1994 and, for 5 years, they are 95%. An increasing use of alternative methods was also observed. This phenomenon is all the more significant as standard methods are laborious and time consuming; thus, 50% of the laboratories use alternative methods for the detection of Salmonella and L. monocytogenes. More and more laboratories use ready-to-use media and although the percentage is variable according to the microflora, we can consider that, today, 50-60% of the laboratories participating to the proficiency program only use ready-to-use media. The internal quality assurance programs lead also to an increasing use of media quality controls. The impact of analytical methods on bacterial counts was assessed by grouping together the results obtained by participating laboratories during the 10 last testing schemes from 1999 to 2003. The identified significant factors influencing enumeration results are variable from one microflora to another. Some of them significantly influence many microflora: the plating method (spiral plating or not) is influential for aerobic micro-organisms, Enterobacteriaceae, coliforms, and staphylococci, the type of culture medium and the medium manufacturer is

  6. [The opportunities, challenges and trends in the rejuvenation of microbiology].

    PubMed

    Shen, Ping; Chen, Xiangdong

    2010-01-01

    In history, the development of microbiology had undergone two golden ages and some depression time as well. In the last two decades, the application of many physiochemical technologies including genomics, structural biology, bioinformatics, PCR, and high-resolution microscopy has led to a series of breakthroughs in microbiology. Microbiology has now awakened and entered its third golden age for development. This review discusses our view of the opportunities, challenges, and trends in the current advancement of microbiology. The topics include: (1) The two golden ages for microbiology in history. (2) The opportunities and challenges in the rejuvenation of microbiology. (3) The characteristics and trends of the current development of microbiology. (4) Integral microbiology--the hallmark of the third golden age.

  7. A Cartoon History of Soil Microbiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyne, M. S.

    1996-01-01

    Describes the use of cartoons in presenting a historical perspective of soil microbiology that makes this information more entertaining to introductory students. Presents basic historical facts and major accomplishments of the pioneering soil microbiologists in a factual but tongue-in-cheek survey. (Author/JRH)

  8. A Selected Bibliography on Microbiological Laboratory Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laboratory Design Notes, 1967

    1967-01-01

    Reference sources on microbiological laboratory design are cited. Subjects covered include--(1) policies and general requirements, (2) ventilated cabinets, (3) animal isolation equipment, (4) air handling, ventilation, and filtration, (5) germicidal ultraviolet irradiation, (6) aerosol test facilities, (7) process production of microorganisms, and…

  9. Reasons for Suboptimal Learning in Medical Microbiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Struwig, Magdalena C.; Beylefeld, Adriana A.; Joubert, Georgina

    2016-01-01

    Medical microbiology presents a challenge to undergraduate students, mostly due to its extensive content and complexity of unfamiliar terminology. In addition to a narrative review of the literature, we report findings on students' motivation for and approach to learning in the Infections module of an undergraduate medical curriculum, and their…

  10. A Selected Bibliography on Microbiological Laboratory Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laboratory Design Notes, 1967

    1967-01-01

    Reference sources on microbiological laboratory design are cited. Subjects covered include--(1) policies and general requirements, (2) ventilated cabinets, (3) animal isolation equipment, (4) air handling, ventilation, and filtration, (5) germicidal ultraviolet irradiation, (6) aerosol test facilities, (7) process production of microorganisms, and…

  11. Writing To Facilitate Learning in Microbiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Linda E.

    This paper describes a microbiology course that utilizes writing to facilitate learning of complex concepts, for communicating experimental results, and as a diagnostic tool for the instructor in monitoring the students' understanding of material on an on-going basis. In-class writing assignments that summarize subject units are accompanied by a…

  12. Predictive microbiology in food packaging applications

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Predictive microbiology including growth, inactivation, surface transfer (or cross-contamination), and survival, plays important roles in understanding microbial food safety. Growth models may involve the growth potential of a specified pathogen under different stresses, e.g., temperature, pH, wate...

  13. Developing virtual patients for medical microbiology education.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, David; O'Gorman, Ciaran; Gormley, Gerry J

    2013-12-01

    The landscape of medical education is changing as students embrace the accessibility and interactivity of e-learning. Virtual patients are e-learning resources that may be used to advance microbiology education. Although the development of virtual patients has been widely considered, here we aim to provide a coherent approach for clinical educators. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Predictive Microbiology and Food Safety Applications

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Mathematical modeling is the science of systematic study of recurrent events or phenomena. When models are properly developed, their applications may save costs and time. For microbial food safety research and applications, predictive microbiology models may be developed based on the fact that most ...

  15. Microbiology in Scotland and Northern England.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hottle, George A.

    This document presents a report of medical microbiological research at the universities of Edinburgh, Glasgow, Aberdeen and Newcastle. The article further stresses the difficulties of the scientists as they face their three-fold responsibilities of teaching, diagnostic work and research. (HS)

  16. Reasons for Suboptimal Learning in Medical Microbiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Struwig, Magdalena C.; Beylefeld, Adriana A.; Joubert, Georgina

    2016-01-01

    Medical microbiology presents a challenge to undergraduate students, mostly due to its extensive content and complexity of unfamiliar terminology. In addition to a narrative review of the literature, we report findings on students' motivation for and approach to learning in the Infections module of an undergraduate medical curriculum, and their…

  17. Applications for predictive microbiology to food packaging

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Predictive microbiology has been used for several years in the food industry to predict microbial growth, inactivation and survival. Predictive models provide a useful tool in risk assessment, HACCP set-up and GMP for the food industry to enhance microbial food safety. This report introduces the c...

  18. A Cartoon History of Soil Microbiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyne, M. S.

    1996-01-01

    Describes the use of cartoons in presenting a historical perspective of soil microbiology that makes this information more entertaining to introductory students. Presents basic historical facts and major accomplishments of the pioneering soil microbiologists in a factual but tongue-in-cheek survey. (Author/JRH)

  19. Microbiology and Safety of Table Eggs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This chapter describes the microbiology of table eggs, effects of processing, regulatory influences, relative risk of egg-borne disease, and the role of retail and consumer practices in outbreaks. Effects of washing, refrigeration, and facility sanitation in US commercial facilities will be describe...

  20. The first experimental confirmation of the fractional kinetics containing the complex-power-law exponents: Dielectric measurements of polymerization reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nigmatullin, R. R.; Arbuzov, A. A.; Salehli, F.; Giz, A.; Bayrak, I.; Catalgil-Giz, H.

    2007-01-01

    For the first time we achieved incontestable evidence that the real process of dielectric relaxation during the polymerization reaction of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) is described in terms of the fractional kinetic equations containing complex-power-law exponents. The possibility of the existence of the fractional kinetics containing non-integer complex-power-law exponents follows from the general theory of dielectric relaxation that has been suggested recently by one of the authors (R.R.N). Based on the physical/geometrical meaning of the fractional integral with complex exponents there is a possibility to develop a general theory of dielectric relaxation based on the self-similar (fractal) character of the reduced (averaged) microprocesses that take place in the mesoscale region. This theory contains some essential predictions related to existence of the non-integer power-law kinetics and the results of this paper can be considered as the first confirmation of existence of the kinetic phenomena that are described by fractional derivatives with complex-power-law exponents. We want to stress here that with the help of a new complex fitting function for the complex permittivity it becomes possible to describe the whole process for real and imaginary parts simultaneously throughout the admissible frequency range (30 Hz-13 MHz). The fitting parameters obtained for the complex permittivity function for three temperatures (70, 90 and 110 °C) confirm in general the picture of reaction that was known qualitatively before. They also reveal some new features, which improve the interpretation of the whole polymerization process. We hope that these first results obtained in the paper will serve as a good stimulus for other researches to find the traces of the existence of new fractional kinetics in other relaxation processes unrelated to the dielectric relaxation. These results should lead to the reconsideration and generalization of irreversibility and kinetic phenomena that

  1. The stopped-drop method: a novel setup for containment-free and time-resolved measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Schiener, Andreas; Seifert, Soenke; Magerl, Andreas

    2016-03-01

    A novel setup for containment-free time-resolved experiments at a free-hanging drop is reported. Within a dead-time of 100 ms a drop of mixed reactant solutions is formed and the time evolution of a reaction can be followed from thereon by various techniques. As an example, a small-angle X-ray scattering study on the formation mechanism of EDTA-stabilized CdS both at a synchrotron and a laboratory X-ray source is presented here. While the evolution can be followed with one drop only at a synchrotron source, a stroboscopic mode with many drops is preferable for the laboratory source.

  2. Microbiological Horticultural Internship Final Abstract

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, Shane R.; Spencer, Lashelle (Editor)

    2017-01-01

    GMO dwarf plum (Prunus domestica) is being evaluated as a candidate food crop for long duration space flight missions. A project was undertaken to develop a protocol for transferring selected genetic lines of GMO plum (previously maintained in pots and propagated by cuttings at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida) into in vitro tissue culture. In vitro culture may reduce the space, materials, and labor required to maintain the current lines of GMO plum and better preserve them for future study. Fresh plant material from three selected GMO plum lines (NASA-5, NASA-10, and NASA-11) and a non-modified control line (Control-5) were processed aseptically into in vitro culture on four separate occasions. The impact of multiple treatments on the successful growth of GMO plum tissue in vitro were tested: Parent explant tissue type (leaf petioles, stem nodes containing buds and internodes without buds), tissue sterilization method [soaking in 10 bleach only (5 min for petioles or 10 min for nodesinternodes), or soaking in 70 EtOH (30 sec) followed by 10 bleach (5 min for petioles and 10 min for nodesinternodes)], and media type [three Murashige and Skoog-based medias (SGM, SRM, and SRM+2,4-D) and one recipe containing woody plant media (WPM)]. 22.2 of the plates containing tissue sterilized with bleach alone developed microbial contamination after two weeks, while only 11.8 of plates containing tissue sterilized sequentially with EtOH and bleach developed contamination. Node bud tissue from all four genetic lines of plum produced leafy plantlets on SGM and SRM media after 4-6 weeks. The most numerous and well-developed plantlets were present on SGM. Upon reaching suitable size, plantlets were transferred to larger media containers for further growth. Some node bud growth occurred on SRM+2,4-D and WPM 2.5 weeks after plating, however as of yet no pieces on SRM+2,4-D have adequate development for transferring. Tissue pieces from NASA-5 plated on WPM are developing leaves

  3. Solid waste containing persistent organic pollutants in Serbia: From precautionary measures to the final treatment (case study).

    PubMed

    Stevanovic-Carapina, Hristina; Milic, Jelena; Curcic, Marijana; Randjelovic, Jasminka; Krinulovic, Katarina; Jovovic, Aleksandar; Brnjas, Zvonko

    2016-07-01

    Sustainable solid waste management needs more dedicated attention in respect of environmental and human health protection. Solid waste containing persistent organic pollutants is of special concern, since persistent organic pollutants are persistent, toxic and of high risk to human health and the environment. The objective of this investigation was to identify critical points in the Serbian system of solid waste and persistent organic pollutants management, to assure the life cycle management of persistent organic pollutants and products containing these chemicals, including prevention and final destruction. Data were collected from the Serbian competent authorities, and led us to identify preventive actions for solid waste management that should reduce or minimise release of persistent organic pollutants into the environment, and to propose actions necessary for persistent organic pollutants solid waste. The adverse impact of persistent organic pollutants is multidimensional. Owing to the lack of treatment or disposal plants for hazardous waste in Serbia, the only option at the moment to manage persistent organic pollutants waste is to keep it in temporary storage and when conditions are created (primarily financial), such waste should be exported for destruction in hazardous waste incinerators. Meanwhile, it needs to be assured that any persistent organic pollutants management activity does not negatively impact recycling flows or disturb progress towards a more circular economy in Serbia. © The Author(s) 2016.

  4. Assessment of the Microbiological Quality of Groundwater in Three Regions of the Valencian Community (Spain)

    PubMed Central

    Llopis-González, Agustín; Sánchez, Adriana L.; Requena, Pedro Martí; Suárez-Varela, María Morales

    2014-01-01

    Urban groundwater development was traditionally constrained by concerns about its quality. This study was conducted in the regions of La Ribera Alta and Ribera Baja and La Plana de Requena-Utiel of the Valencian Community (Valencia, Spain) where population density, demand for drinking water and agricultural activities are high. Groundwater bodies (GWBs) are regarded as management areas within each territory, and were used to establish protection policies. This study analyzed eleven GWBs. We used two databases with microbiological measurements from 154 wells over a 7-year period (2004–2011), risk factors and groundwater information. Wells were grouped according to frequency of microbiological contamination using E. coli measurements, category <1, or wells with low-frequency microbiological contamination and high-frequency wells or category 1–100, according to World Health Organization (WHO) quality criteria of drinking water. Of all wells, 18.12% showed high-frequency microbiological contamination with a majority distribution in the Ribera Alta region (26.98%, p < 0.001). No significant differences were found between the two risk categories for flow, static level, well depth and distance from population centres. This paper reveals that the vulnerability classes established by the Geological and Mining Institute of Spain (IGME) do not match the microbiological results, and that only eight wells with high-frequency contamination coincide with the high vulnerability areas. PMID:24859678

  5. Commutability of food microbiology proficiency testing samples.

    PubMed

    Abdelmassih, M; Polet, M; Goffaux, M-J; Planchon, V; Dierick, K; Mahillon, J

    2014-03-01

    Food microbiology proficiency testing (PT) is a useful tool to assess the analytical performances among laboratories. PT items should be close to routine samples to accurately evaluate the acceptability of the methods. However, most PT providers distribute exclusively artificial samples such as reference materials or irradiated foods. This raises the issue of the suitability of these samples because the equivalence-or 'commutability'-between results obtained on artificial vs. authentic food samples has not been demonstrated. In the clinical field, the use of noncommutable PT samples has led to erroneous evaluation of the performances when different analytical methods were used. This study aimed to provide a first assessment of the commutability of samples distributed in food microbiology PT. REQUASUD and IPH organized 13 food microbiology PTs including 10-28 participants. Three types of PT items were used: genuine food samples, sterile food samples and reference materials. The commutability of the artificial samples (reference material or sterile samples) was assessed by plotting the distribution of the results on natural and artificial PT samples. This comparison highlighted matrix-correlated issues when nonfood matrices, such as reference materials, were used. Artificially inoculated food samples, on the other hand, raised only isolated commutability issues. In the organization of a PT-scheme, authentic or artificially inoculated food samples are necessary to accurately evaluate the analytical performances. Reference materials, used as PT items because of their convenience, may present commutability issues leading to inaccurate penalizing conclusions for methods that would have provided accurate results on food samples. For the first time, the commutability of food microbiology PT samples was investigated. The nature of the samples provided by the organizer turned out to be an important factor because matrix effects can impact on the analytical results. © 2013

  6. [Validation and verfication of microbiology methods].

    PubMed

    Camaró-Sala, María Luisa; Martínez-García, Rosana; Olmos-Martínez, Piedad; Catalá-Cuenca, Vicente; Ocete-Mochón, María Dolores; Gimeno-Cardona, Concepción

    2015-01-01

    Clinical microbiologists should ensure, to the maximum level allowed by the scientific and technical development, the reliability of the results. This implies that, in addition to meeting the technical criteria to ensure their validity, they must be performed with a number of conditions that allows comparable results to be obtained, regardless of the laboratory that performs the test. In this sense, the use of recognized and accepted reference methodsis the most effective tool for these guarantees. The activities related to verification and validation of analytical methods has become very important, as there is continuous development, as well as updating techniques and increasingly complex analytical equipment, and an interest of professionals to ensure quality processes and results. The definitions of validation and verification are described, along with the different types of validation/verification, and the types of methods, and the level of validation necessary depending on the degree of standardization. The situations in which validation/verification is mandatory and/or recommended is discussed, including those particularly related to validation in Microbiology. It stresses the importance of promoting the use of reference strains as controls in Microbiology and the use of standard controls, as well as the importance of participation in External Quality Assessment programs to demonstrate technical competence. The emphasis is on how to calculate some of the parameters required for validation/verification, such as the accuracy and precision. The development of these concepts can be found in the microbiological process SEIMC number 48: «Validation and verification of microbiological methods» www.seimc.org/protocols/microbiology.

  7. Sampling and Data Analysis for Environmental Microbiology

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, Christopher J.

    2001-06-01

    A brief review of the literature indicates the importance of statistical analysis in applied and environmental microbiology. Sampling designs are particularly important for successful studies, and it is highly recommended that researchers review their sampling design before heading to the laboratory or the field. Most statisticians have numerous stories of scientists who approached them after their study was complete only to have to tell them that the data they gathered could not be used to test the hypothesis they wanted to address. Once the data are gathered, a large and complex body of statistical techniques are available for analysis of the data. Those methods include both numerical and graphical techniques for exploratory characterization of the data. Hypothesis testing and analysis of variance (ANOVA) are techniques that can be used to compare the mean and variance of two or more groups of samples. Regression can be used to examine the relationships between sets of variables and is often used to examine the dependence of microbiological populations on microbiological parameters. Multivariate statistics provides several methods that can be used for interpretation of datasets with a large number of variables and to partition samples into similar groups, a task that is very common in taxonomy, but also has applications in other fields of microbiology. Geostatistics and other techniques have been used to examine the spatial distribution of microorganisms. The objectives of this chapter are to provide a brief survey of some of the statistical techniques that can be used for sample design and data analysis of microbiological data in environmental studies, and to provide some examples of their use from the literature.

  8. [Structural requirements and conditions for effective microbiological diagnostics in disease outbreak].

    PubMed

    Allerberger, F

    2013-01-01

    After the International Health Regulations of 2005, 194 states agreed to minimal standards to assure health; accordingly, the obligation for safeguarding appropriate laboratory diagnostic capacities has existed under international law since 15 June 2007. Basically, developing and optimizing faster and more innovative testing methods should be the main aim of public health reference laboratories in order to guarantee optimal outbreak detection, control measures, and patient management. All these measures can only be successfully implemented if microbiological primary diagnostics remain comprehensive and do not fall victim to apparent budgetary restrictions. Effective microbiological diagnostics not only help the patient who is directly affected, but also have an effect on the efforts of public health services in controlling infectious disease. In this respect, microbiological routine diagnostics differ substantially from medical-chemical laboratory diagnostics.

  9. Brewing for Students: An Inquiry-Based Microbiology Lab †

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Brian K.; Alam, Usman; Dacanay, Samantha J.; Lee, Amanda K.; Shaffer, Justin F.

    2015-01-01

    In an effort to improve and assess student learning, there has been a push to increase the incorporation of discovery-driven modules and those that contain real-world relevance into laboratory curricula. To further this effort, we have developed, implemented, and assessed an undergraduate microbiology laboratory experiment that requires students to use the scientific method while brewing beer. The experiment allows students to brew their own beer and characterize it based on taste, alcohol content, calorie content, pH, and standard reference method. In addition, we assessed whether students were capable of achieving the module learning objectives through a pre-/posttest, student self-evaluation, exam-embedded questions, and an associated worksheet. These objectives included describing the role of the brewing ingredients and predicting how altering the ingredients would affect the characteristics of the beer, amongst others. By completing this experimental module, students accomplished the module objectives, had greater interest in brewing, and were more likely to view beer in scientific terms. Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education PMID:26753030

  10. Brewing for Students: An Inquiry-Based Microbiology Lab.

    PubMed

    Sato, Brian K; Alam, Usman; Dacanay, Samantha J; Lee, Amanda K; Shaffer, Justin F

    2015-12-01

    In an effort to improve and assess student learning, there has been a push to increase the incorporation of discovery-driven modules and those that contain real-world relevance into laboratory curricula. To further this effort, we have developed, implemented, and assessed an undergraduate microbiology laboratory experiment that requires students to use the scientific method while brewing beer. The experiment allows students to brew their own beer and characterize it based on taste, alcohol content, calorie content, pH, and standard reference method. In addition, we assessed whether students were capable of achieving the module learning objectives through a pre-/posttest, student self-evaluation, exam-embedded questions, and an associated worksheet. These objectives included describing the role of the brewing ingredients and predicting how altering the ingredients would affect the characteristics of the beer, amongst others. By completing this experimental module, students accomplished the module objectives, had greater interest in brewing, and were more likely to view beer in scientific terms. Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education.

  11. [Microbiological evaluation of some commercial brands of Chamomillae floss].

    PubMed

    Mircea, Cornelia; Poiată, Antonia; Tuchiluş, Cristina; Manoliu, A; Agoroaei, Luminiţa; Butnaru, Elena; Stănescu, Ursula

    2009-01-01

    Different strains of microorganisms contaminate medicinal herb, and theirs, enzymes could modify the normal composition of herbal products. We evaluated the microbiological quality of 12 samples of Chamomillae floss commercialized in, markets and specific stores. Microbiological quality has been evaluated according European Pharmacopoeia rules. In all samples we determined the total number of germs, total number of fungi and we evaluated the presence of coliform bacilli, respectively Staphylococcus species. For all samples, the total number of germs was under the limits with variation between 320 CFU/g (P 4) and 14000 CFU/g (P 11). The total number of fungi was under the limits; in most of samples, we detected Penicillium sp. and Aspergillus sp. In 4 samples the total number of Escherichia coli strains was over the limits (100 CFU/g). An important decrease of total number of coliform bacilli was observed after boiling water has been added but the total number of germs was decreased insignificantly, so these extracts are not very safe for patient especially when vegetal products contain a great number of germs.

  12. Microbiological quality of desiccated coconut.

    PubMed Central

    Kinderlerer, J. L.; Clark, R. A.

    1986-01-01

    A microbial survey of Sri Lankan desiccated coconut has been made on material purchased in supermarkets in Sheffield or on material obtained directly from the processing company. The total viable count (TVC) was reduced by spoilage and pasteurization from 10(4)/g to 10(3)/g. Most samples contained low levels of coagulase-positive Staphylococcus aureus suggesting that this commodity had been handled during production. One focus of contamination with Aspergillus flavus was found for each 8.34 g of desiccated coconut (mean contamination). The number of bacteria and moulds in spoiled coconut was significantly lower than that in coconut obtained from the processor or purchased from retail outlets. It is suggested that the accumulation of free fatty acids, aliphatic methyl ketones and secondary alcohols produced during fungal spoilage has had a bactericidal and fungicidal effect. The use of microbial specifications for foods is questioned in situations where there is evidence of microbial spoilage having taken place. PMID:3081627

  13. The microbiology of Lascaux Cave.

    PubMed

    Bastian, F; Jurado, V; Nováková, A; Alabouvette, C; Saiz-Jimenez, C

    2010-03-01

    Lascaux Cave (Montignac, France) contains paintings from the Upper Paleolithic period. Shortly after its discovery in 1940, the cave was seriously disturbed by major destructive interventions. In 1963, the cave was closed due to algal growth on the walls. In 2001, the ceiling, walls and sediments were colonized by the fungus Fusarium solani. Later, black stains, probably of fungal origin, appeared on the walls. Biocide treatments, including quaternary ammonium derivatives, were extensively applied for a few years, and have been in use again since January 2008. The microbial communities in Lascaux Cave were shown to be composed of human-pathogenic bacteria and entomopathogenic fungi, the former as a result of the biocide selection. The data show that fungi play an important role in the cave, and arthropods contribute to the dispersion of conidia. A careful study on the fungal ecology is needed in order to complete the cave food web and to control the black stains threatening the Paleolithic paintings.

  14. Geltape method for measurement of work related surface contamination with cobalt containing dust: correlation between surface contamination and airborne exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Poulsen, O M; Olsen, E; Christensen, J M; Vinzent, P; Petersen, O H

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--The geltape method is a new method for optical measurement of total amount of dust on surfaces. The objectives were to study the potential applicability of this method to measurements of work related cobalt exposure during painting of plates with cobalt dye. METHODS--Consecutive series of work related geltape prints were taken from surfaces inside and outside the ventilation cabins of two plate painters during two full working days. The amount of dust picked up by the geltapes was measured optically with a field monitor. Also, personal air samples were collected on filters at the different work processes. In the laboratory the contents of cobalt on the geltape prints and the filters were measured with inductive coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. RESULTS--The key results were: (a) when the geltape prints were taken from surfaces inside the cabins the optically measured area of the geltapes covered with total dust (area (%)) correlated well with the chemically measured amount of cobalt present on the geltapes. Linear correlation coefficient (R2) was 0.91 for geltape prints taken on the floor and 0.94 for prints taken on the ceiling; (b) the cumulative airborne cobalt exposure, calculated from data on work related exposure by personal sampling, correlated with the area (%) of geltape prints taken from the ceiling of the cabin (R2 = 0.98); (c) the geltape method could be used to distinguish both between work processes with different levels of cobalt exposure, and between plate painters subjected to significant differences in airborne cobalt exposure. CONCLUSION--The geltape method could produce measures of the work related exposures as well as whole day exposure for cobalt. The geltape results correlated with measurements of personal airborne cobalt exposure. In this industry the profile of exposure is well-defined in time, and it seems reasonable to apply this fast and low cost method in routine exposure surveillance to obtain a more detailed

  15. Undergraduate Laboratory Exercises Specific to Food Spoilage Microbiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Abigail B.; Worobo, Randy W.; Orta-Ramirez, Alicia

    2016-01-01

    Food spoilage has an enormous economic impact, and microbial food spoilage plays a significant role in food waste and loss; subsequently, an equally significant portion of undergraduate food microbiology instruction should be dedicated to spoilage microbiology. Here, we describe a set of undergraduate microbiology laboratory exercises that focus…

  16. Practical microbiology in schools: a survey of UK teachers.

    PubMed

    Redfern, James; Burdass, Dariel; Verran, Joanna

    2013-11-01

    A survey of secondary school teachers investigated practical microbiology in the classroom. The results were heartening (practical microbiology was common), but concerns were expressed regarding equipment, time, cost, and expertise. Microbiologists should engage more with school education to support teachers and maintain the health of microbiology for future generations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. 21 CFR 866.2350 - Microbiological assay culture medium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Microbiological assay culture medium. 866.2350 Section 866.2350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Microbiological assay culture medium. (a) Identification. A microbiological assay culture medium is a device...

  18. 21 CFR 866.2350 - Microbiological assay culture medium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Microbiological assay culture medium. 866.2350 Section 866.2350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Microbiological assay culture medium. (a) Identification. A microbiological assay culture medium is a device...

  19. 21 CFR 866.2350 - Microbiological assay culture medium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Microbiological assay culture medium. 866.2350 Section 866.2350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2350...

  20. 21 CFR 866.2350 - Microbiological assay culture medium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Microbiological assay culture medium. 866.2350 Section 866.2350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2350...

  1. Undergraduate Laboratory Exercises Specific to Food Spoilage Microbiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Abigail B.; Worobo, Randy W.; Orta-Ramirez, Alicia

    2016-01-01

    Food spoilage has an enormous economic impact, and microbial food spoilage plays a significant role in food waste and loss; subsequently, an equally significant portion of undergraduate food microbiology instruction should be dedicated to spoilage microbiology. Here, we describe a set of undergraduate microbiology laboratory exercises that focus…

  2. CW laser strategies for multi-parameter measurements of high-speed flows containing either NO or O2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dirosa, M. D.; Chang, A. Y.; Davidson, D. F.; Hanson, R. K.

    1991-01-01

    Measurements of gasdynamic quantities were performed using a rapid-tuning CW dye laser to resolve Doppler-shifted spectral features in either the O2 Schumann-Runge bands or the NO gamma band near 225 nm. With the rapid-tuning capability, spectral features were acquired at a repetition rate of 4 kHz. Monitoring O2 transitions provided estimates of velocities while monitoring collision-broadened NO line pairs provided simultaneous measurements of velocity, temperature and pressure. Experiments were first performed in absorption within the transient one-dimensional flows generated in a shock tube. Agreement between measured and theoretical values, as calculated from one-dimensional shock relations, was typically better than 5 percent. The method was extended to fluorescence detection of NO in a static cell. Temperature and pressure were extracted from recorded profiles, and the results agreed well with expected values.

  3. Comparison of sampling procedures and microbiological and non-microbiological parameters to evaluate cleaning and disinfection in broiler houses.

    PubMed

    Luyckx, K; Dewulf, J; Van Weyenberg, S; Herman, L; Zoons, J; Vervaet, E; Heyndrickx, M; De Reu, K

    2015-04-01

    Cleaning and disinfection of the broiler stable environment is an essential part of farm hygiene management. Adequate cleaning and disinfection is essential for prevention and control of animal diseases and zoonoses. The goal of this study was to shed light on the dynamics of microbiological and non-microbiological parameters during the successive steps of cleaning and disinfection and to select the most suitable sampling methods and parameters to evaluate cleaning and disinfection in broiler houses. The effectiveness of cleaning and disinfection protocols was measured in six broiler houses on two farms through visual inspection, adenosine triphosphate hygiene monitoring and microbiological analyses. Samples were taken at three time points: 1) before cleaning, 2) after cleaning, and 3) after disinfection. Before cleaning and after disinfection, air samples were taken in addition to agar contact plates and swab samples taken from various sampling points for enumeration of total aerobic flora, Enterococcus spp., and Escherichia coli and the detection of E. coli and Salmonella. After cleaning, air samples, swab samples, and adenosine triphosphate swabs were taken and a visual score was also assigned for each sampling point. The mean total aerobic flora determined by swab samples decreased from 7.7±1.4 to 5.7±1.2 log CFU/625 cm2 after cleaning and to 4.2±1.6 log CFU/625 cm2 after disinfection. Agar contact plates were used as the standard for evaluating cleaning and disinfection, but in this study they were found to be less suitable than swabs for enumeration. In addition to measuring total aerobic flora, Enterococcus spp. seemed to be a better hygiene indicator to evaluate cleaning and disinfection protocols than E. coli. All stables were Salmonella negative, but the detection of its indicator organism E. coli provided additional information for evaluating cleaning and disinfection protocols. Adenosine triphosphate analyses gave additional information about the

  4. Near-road modeling and measurement of cerium-containing particles generated by nanoparticle diesel fuel additive use

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cerium oxide nanoparticles (nCe) are used as a fuel-borne catalyst in diesel engines to reduce particulate emissions, yet the environmental and human health impacts of the exhaust particles are not well understood. To bridge the gap between emission measurements and ambient impac...

  5. Near-road modeling and measurement of cerium-containing particles generated by nanoparticle diesel fuel additive use

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cerium oxide nanoparticles (nCe) are used as a fuel-borne catalyst in diesel engines to reduce particulate emissions, yet the environmental and human health impacts of the exhaust particles are not well understood. To bridge the gap between emission measurements and ambient impac...

  6. Advances in the hydrogeochemistry and microbiology of acid mine waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nordstrom, D. Kirk

    2000-01-01

    The last decade has witnessed a plethora of research related to the hydrogeochemistry and microbiology of acid mine waters and associated tailings and waste-rock waters. Numerous books, reviews, technical papers, and proceedings have been published that examine the complex bio-geochemical process of sulfide mineral oxidation, develop and apply geochemical models to site characterization, and characterize the microbial ecology of these environments. This review summarizes many of these recent works, and provides references for those investigating this field. Comparisons of measured versus calculated Eh and measured versus calculated pH for water samples from several field sites demonstrate the reliability of some current geochemical models for aqueous speciation and mass balances. Geochemical models are not, however, used to predict accurately time-dependent processes but to improve our understanding of these systems and to constrain possible processes that contribute to actual or potential water quality issues. Microbiological studies are demonstrating that there is much we have yet to learn about the types of different microorganisms and their function and ecology in mine-waste environments. A broad diversity of green algae, bacteria, archaea, yeasts, and fungi are encountered in acid mine waters, and a better understanding of their ecology and function may potentially enhance remediation possibilities as well as our understanding of the evolution of life.

  7. Dose response effects of a caffeine-containing energy drink on muscle performance: a repeated measures design.

    PubMed

    Del Coso, Juan; Salinero, Juan José; González-Millán, Cristina; Abián-Vicén, Javier; Pérez-González, Benito

    2012-05-08

    Energy drinks have become the most used caffeine-containing beverages in the sport setting. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of two doses of a caffeine-containing energy drink on muscle performance during upper- and lower-body power-load tests. In a randomized order, twelve active participants ingested 1 and 3 mg of caffeine per kg of body weight using a commercially available energy drink (Fure®, ProEnergetics) or the same drink without caffeine (placebo; 0 mg/kg). After sixty minutes, resting metabolic rate, heart rate and blood pressure were determined. Then, half-squat and bench-press power production with loads from 10 to 100% of 1 repetition maximum was determined using a rotator encoder. In comparison to the placebo, the ingestion of the caffeinated drink increased mean arterial pressure (82 ± 7 < 88 ± 8 ≈ 90 ± 6 mmHg for 0 mg/kg, 1 mg/kg, 3 mg/kg of caffeine, respectively; P < 0.05) and heart rate (57 ± 7 < 59 ± 8 < 62 ± 8 beats/min, respectively; P < 0.05) at rest in a dose response manner, though it did not affect resting metabolic rate. While the ingestion of 1 mg/kg of caffeine did not affect maximal power during the power-load tests with respect to the placebo, 3 mg/kg increased maximal power in the half-squat (2554 ± 167 ≈ 2549 ± 161 < 2726 ± 167 W, respectively; P < 0.05) and bench-press actions (349 ± 34 ≈ 358 ± 35 < 375 ± 33 W, respectively; P < 0.05). A caffeine dose of at least 3 mg/kg in the form of an energy drink is necessary to significantly improve half-squat and bench-press maximal muscle power.

  8. Studies on the activation energy from the ac conductivity measurements of rubber ferrite composites containing manganese zinc ferrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashim, Mohd.; Alimuddin; Kumar, Shalendra; Shirsath, Sagar E.; Mohammed, E. M.; Chung, Hanshik; Kumar, Ravi

    2012-11-01

    Manganese zinc ferrites (MZF) have resistivities between 0.01 and 10 Ω m. Making composite materials of ferrites with either natural rubber or plastics will modify the electrical properties of ferrites. The moldability and flexibility of these composites find wide use in industrial and other scientific applications. Mixed ferrites belonging to the series Mn(1-x)ZnxFe2O4 were synthesized for different ‘x’ values in steps of 0.2, and incorporated in natural rubber matrix (RFC). From the dielectric measurements of the ceramic manganese zinc ferrite and rubber ferrite composites, ac conductivity and activation energy were evaluated. A program was developed with the aid of the LabVIEW package to automate the measurements. The ac conductivity of RFC was then correlated with that of the magnetic filler and matrix by a mixture equation which helps to tailor properties of these composites.

  9. Microbiology: lessons from a first attempt at Lake Ellsworth.

    PubMed

    Pearce, D A; Magiopoulos, I; Mowlem, M; Tranter, M; Holt, G; Woodward, J; Siegert, M J

    2016-01-28

    During the attempt to directly access, measure and sample Subglacial Lake Ellsworth in 2012-2013, we conducted microbiological analyses of the drilling equipment, scientific instrumentation, field camp and natural surroundings. From these studies, a number of lessons can be learned about the cleanliness of deep Antarctic subglacial lake access leading to, in particular, knowledge of the limitations of some of the most basic relevant microbiological principles. Here, we focus on five of the core challenges faced and describe how cleanliness and sterilization were implemented in the field. In the light of our field experiences, we consider how effective these actions were, and what can be learnt for future subglacial exploration missions. The five areas covered are: (i) field camp environment and activities, (ii) the engineering processes surrounding the hot water drilling, (iii) sample handling, including recovery, stability and preservation, (iv) clean access methodologies and removal of sample material, and (v) the biodiversity and distribution of bacteria around the Antarctic. Comparisons are made between the microbiology of the Lake Ellsworth field site and other Antarctic systems, including the lakes on Signy Island, and on the Antarctic Peninsula at Lake Hodgson. Ongoing research to better define and characterize the behaviour of natural and introduced microbial populations in response to deep-ice drilling is also discussed. We recommend that future access programmes: (i) assess each specific local environment in enhanced detail due to the potential for local contamination, (ii) consider the sterility of the access in more detail, specifically focusing on single cell colonization and the introduction of new species through contamination of pre-existing microbial communities, (iii) consider experimental bias in methodological approaches, (iv) undertake in situ biodiversity detection to mitigate risk of non-sample return and post-sample contamination, and (v

  10. The evaluation of Zataria multiflora Boiss. essential oil effect on biogenic amines formation and microbiological profile in Gouda cheese.

    PubMed

    Es'haghi Gorji, M; Noori, N; Nabizadeh Nodehi, R; Jahed Khaniki, G; Rastkari, Noushin; Alimohammadi, M

    2014-12-01

    The effect of Zataria multiflora Boiss. (Z. multiflora) essential oils (EO) on biogenic amines (BAs) production and microbial counts in Gouda cheese has been investigated. Zataria multiflora was added to milk in different concentrations (0·05, 0·1, 0·2 and 0·4% (v/v)). The BAs (tyramine and histamine) were measured by RP-HPLC, following extraction from the cheese. Various microbiological analyses (aerobic mesophilic bacteria, enterococci, mesophilic lactobacilli, Enterobacteriaceae, lactococci and yeasts) were performed during ripening using the viable plate count method on specific culture media. The overall acceptability of cheeses was investigated by seven panellists. All the samples containing different concentrations of EO were acceptable to the panellists. Also, Gouda cheeses with 0·2% Z. multiflora EO showed the highest acceptability among all the samples. At the end of maturation period, 0·1, 0·2 and 0·4% Z. multiflora EO reduced tyramine and histamine significantly to 5%, 22% and 44% for tyramine and 14%, 29% and 46% for histamine, respectively, when compared to the control group. The increase of Z. multiflora EO concentrations led to further decrease in BAs content and microbial counts. The maximum microbiological reduction was observed in yeasts, and minimum microbiological reduction was seen in Enterobacteriaceae counts. Zataria multiflora EO could be used for reduction of BAs and also as a flavouring agent in Gouda cheese and could contribute to consumers' health. The presence of biogenic amines in cheese has a serious impact on public health. Besides, there is growing concern about the use of chemical preservatives and the food industry is looking for new natural preservation methods. Zataria multiflora Boiss. essential oil is well known for its antimicrobial effects, and we attempted to reduce biogenic amines formation in Gouda cheese using Z. multiflora Boiss. essential oil as a natural additive. Furthermore, the desirable organoleptic

  11. Mitigation measures to contain the environmental impact of urban areas: a bibliographic review moving from the life cycle approach.

    PubMed

    Belussi, Lorenzo; Barozzi, Benedetta

    2015-12-01

    The global environmental impact of urban areas has greatly increased over the years, due to the growth of urbanisation and the associated increase in management costs. There are several measures aimed at mitigating this impact that affect in different ways the environmental, economic and societal spheres. This article has analysed a selection of different mitigation measures, related to the built environment, according to the life cycle approach, aimed at identifying the procedural features chosen by the different authors and defining a common way to deal with this issue. In particular, all the individual single steps of a Life Cycle Assessment/Life Cycle Costing of the different studies are analysed and the results of the individual measures are highlighted. The analysis has shown how the scientific literature is mainly focused on the evaluation of the impact of technological solutions related to individual buildings (cool/green roof). Less interest is shown in the solutions for urban areas, while, as far as the impact on greenhouse gas emissions is concerned, some studies are shifting the target to a global scale. Due to the accuracy whereby the calculation of the impact indicators deals with and structures the life cycle methods, opportunities to compare studies developed by different authors are quite rare and hard to find. Hence the need to find a simple, intuitive and flexible scheme to combine some of the most useful results of the bibliographical studies, in a comparative outline of different technological solutions, which can support the decision-making phase through a rough assessment.

  12. Does competition by health maintenance organizations affect the adoption of cost-containment measures by fee-for-service plans?

    PubMed

    Joesch, J M; Wickizer, T M; Feldstein, P J

    1998-06-01

    How groups insured by fee-for-service health plans react to increased competition from health maintenance organizations (HMOs) is an unresolved question. We investigated whether groups insured by indemnity plans respond to HMO market competition by changing selected health insurance features, such as deductible amounts, stop loss levels, and coinsurance rates, or by adopting utilization management or preferred provider organization (PPO) benefit options. We collected benefit design data for the years 1985 through 1992 from 95 insured groups in 62 US metropolitan statistical areas. Multivariate hazard analysis showed that groups located in markets with higher rates of change in HMO enrollment were less likely to increase deductibles or stop loss levels. Groups located in markets with higher HMO enrollment were more likely to adopt utilization management or PPO benefit options. A group located in a market with an HMO penetration rate of 20% was 65% more likely to have included a PPO option as part of its insurance benefit plan than a group located in a market with an HMO penetration rate of 15% (p < 0.05). Concern about possible adverse selection effects may deter some fee-for-service groups from changing their health insurance coverage. Under some conditions, however, groups insured under fee-for-service plans do respond to managed care competition by changing their insurance benefits to achieve greater cost containment.

  13. Effectiveness of quenchers to reduce radiolysis of (111)In- or (177)Lu-labelled methionine-containing regulatory peptides. Maintaining radiochemical purity as measured by HPLC.

    PubMed

    de Blois, Erik; Chan, Ho Sze; Konijnenberg, Mark; de Zanger, Rory; Breeman, Wouter A P

    2012-01-01

    An overview how to measure and to quantify radiolysis by the addition of quenchers and to maintain Radio-Chemical Purity (RCP) of vulnerable methionine-containing regulatory peptides is presented. High RCP was only achieved with a combination of quenchers. However, quantification of RCP is not standardized, and therefore comparison of radiolabelling and RCP of regulatory peptides between different HPLC-systems and between laboratories is cumbersome. Therefore we suggest a set of standardized requirements to quantify RCP by HPLC for radiolabelled DTPA- or DOTA-peptides. Moreover, a dosimetry model was developed to calculate the doses in the reaction vials during radiolabelling and storage of the radiopeptides, and to predict RCP in the presence and absence of quenchers. RCP was measured by HPLC, and a relation between radiation dose and radiolysis of RCP was established. The here described quenchers are tested individually as ƒ(concentration) to investigate efficacy to reduce radiolysis of radiolabelled methionine-containing regulatory peptides.

  14. Microbiological performance of a food safety management system in a food service operation.

    PubMed

    Lahou, E; Jacxsens, L; Daelman, J; Van Landeghem, F; Uyttendaele, M

    2012-04-01

    The microbiological performance of a food safety management system in a food service operation was measured using a microbiological assessment scheme as a vertical sampling plan throughout the production process, from raw materials to final product. The assessment scheme can give insight into the microbiological contamination and the variability of a production process and pinpoint bottlenecks in the food safety management system. Three production processes were evaluated: a high-risk sandwich production process (involving raw meat preparation), a medium-risk hot meal production process (starting from undercooked raw materials), and a low-risk hot meal production process (reheating in a bag). Microbial quality parameters, hygiene indicators, and relevant pathogens (Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella, Bacillus cereus, and Escherichia coli O157) were in accordance with legal criteria and/or microbiological guidelines, suggesting that the food safety management system was effective. High levels of total aerobic bacteria (>3.9 log CFU/50 cm(2)) were noted occasionally on gloves of food handlers and on food contact surfaces, especially in high contamination areas (e.g., during handling of raw material, preparation room). Core control activities such as hand hygiene of personnel and cleaning and disinfection (especially in highly contaminated areas) were considered points of attention. The present sampling plan was used to produce an overall microbiological profile (snapshot) to validate the food safety management system in place.

  15. Simple method for quantifying microbiologically assisted chloramine decay in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Sathasivan, Arumugam; Fisher, Ian; Kastl, George

    2005-07-15

    In a chloraminated drinking water distribution system, monochloramine decays due to chemical and microbiological reactions. For modeling and operational control purposes, it is necessary to know the relative contribution of each type of reaction, but there was no method to quantify these contributions separately. A simple method was developed to do so. It compares monochloramine decay rates of processed (0.2 microm filtered or microbiologically inhibited by adding 100 microg of silver/L as silver nitrate) and unprocessed samples under controlled temperature conditions. The term microbial decay factor (Fm) was defined and derived from this method, to characterize the relative contribution of microbiologically assisted monochloramine decay to the total monochloramine decay observed in bulk water. Fm is the ratio between microbiologically assisted monochloramine decay and chemical decay of a given water sample measured at 20 degrees C. One possible use of the method is illustrated, where a service reservoir's bulk and inlet waters were sampled twice and analyzed for both the traditional indicators and the microbial decay factor. The microbial decay factor values alone indicated that more microbiologically assisted monochloramine decay was occurring in one bulk water than the other. In contrast, traditional nitrification indicators failed to show any difference. Further analysis showed that the microbial decay factor is more sensitive and that it alone can provide an early warning.

  16. Low-temperature positron lifetime and Doppler-broadening measurements for single-crystal nickel oxide containing cation vacancies

    SciTech Connect

    Waber, J.T.; Snead, C.L. Jr.; Lynn, K.G.

    1985-01-01

    Lifetime and Doppler-broadening measurements for positron annihilation in substoichiometric nickelous oxide have been made concomitantly from liquid-helium to room temperature. The concentration of cation vacancies is readily controlled by altering the ambient oxygen pressure while annealing the crystals at 1673/sup 0/K. It was found that neither of the three lifetimes observed or their relative intensities varied significantly with the oxygen pressure, and the bulk rate only increased slightly when the specimen was cooled from room to liquid-helium temperatures. These results are interpreted as indicating that some of the positrons are trapped by the existing cation vacancies and a smaller fraction by vacancy clusters.

  17. [Microbiology laboratory as a base of information sending].

    PubMed

    Komori, Toshiaki; Fujita, Naohisa; Hirose, Yuri; Kimura, Takeshi; Kyotani, Noriko; Kurahashi, Satoko; Yamada, Yukiji; Ushiyama, Masaji; Yasumoto, Towa; Yuasa, Soh-ichi

    2007-10-01

    The goal of our microbiology laboratory is to provide an accurate microbiological result and a useful information for every healthcare workers (HCWs). For this purpose, we were trying to do several activities, such as improving the work-flow of microbiology testings, starting 365-day-open microbiology tests, providing some training courses of microbiology and sending many useful informations about infectious diseases and infection control. Before these activities, we needed another 5 microbiology technicians beside 3 technicians and had started the program to educate them. We have successfully finished it and enabled all plans begin in April, 2005. Since then we are open for 365 days and also sending HCWs many newsletters for performing effective microbiological testings via the intra-network system and having lectures for both doctors and nurses, especially for new resident doctors at the orientation. We had also the training course for certified infection control nurses and accepted two technicians from Africa, who came to study a basic microbiology via JICA. These activities have enabled every technician not only to report and analyze microbiological test result effectively but also to improve writing and presentation skills. Through these activities all technicians have realized that accurate and rapid information from a microbiology laboratory is a key to treat patients with infectious diseases and improve their prognosis. It is suggested that skill-up of technicians lead to report an accurate result in microbiology and at the same time improve the attitude for their job.

  18. Recent Advances in Petroleum Microbiology

    PubMed Central

    Van Hamme, Jonathan D.; Singh, Ajay; Ward, Owen P.

    2003-01-01

    Recent advances in molecular biology have extended our understanding of the metabolic processes related to microbial transformation of petroleum hydrocarbons. The physiological responses of microorganisms to the presence of hydrocarbons, including cell surface alterations and adaptive mechanisms for uptake and efflux of these substrates, have been characterized. New molecular techniques have enhanced our ability to investigate the dynamics of microbial communities in petroleum-impacted ecosystems. By establishing conditions which maximize rates and extents of microbial growth, hydrocarbon access, and transformation, highly accelerated and bioreactor-based petroleum waste degradation processes have been implemented. Biofilters capable of removing and biodegrading volatile petroleum contaminants in air streams with short substrate-microbe contact times (<60 s) are being used effectively. Microbes are being injected into partially spent petroleum reservoirs to enhance oil recovery. However, these microbial processes have not exhibited consistent and effective performance, primarily because of our inability to control conditions in the subsurface environment. Microbes may be exploited to break stable oilfield emulsions to produce pipeline quality oil. There is interest in replacing physical oil desulfurization processes with biodesulfurization methods through promotion of selective sulfur removal without degradation of associated carbon moieties. However, since microbes require an environment containing some water, a two-phase oil-water system must be established to optimize contact between the microbes and the hydrocarbon, and such an emulsion is not easily created with viscous crude oil. This challenge may be circumvented by application of the technology to more refined gasoline and diesel substrates, where aqueous-hydrocarbon emulsions are more easily generated. Molecular approaches are being used to broaden the substrate specificity and increase the rates and

  19. HD-SP2 Measurements of Black Carbon Containing Aerosols in South Korea during KORUS-AQ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamb, K. D.; Perring, A. E.; Ahn, J.; Schwarz, J. P.

    2016-12-01

    Black carbon (BC) is a light-absorbing aerosol with strong anthropogenic sources that has important climatic and health impacts, both regionally and globally. Materials internally mixed with BC, including water, affect its optical properties and lifetime in the atmosphere, and thus are critical to determining BC's ultimate impacts. The NASA KORUS-AQ campaign during the spring/summer of 2016 was a multi-platform research campaign focused on air quality over South Korea, in a region with particularly high BC emissions and loadings. The NOAA Humidified-Dual Single Particle Soot Photometer (HD-SP2) was deployed on the NASA DC-8 aircraft to measure the optical size and refractory BC content of individual particles under dry and humidified conditions as well as the BC mass mixing ratio. We focus on evaluating BC MMR in the free troposphere up to 400 hPa in the context of previous measurements; assessing the optical impacts of observed internal mixtures with BC at different times of day; and evaluating the contribution of water uptake on BC absorption and atmospheric lifetime over Korea in ambient conditions.

  20. Microbiological decontamination of natural honey by irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migdał, W.; Owczarczyk, H. B.; K ȩdzia, B.; Hołderna-K ȩdzia, E.; Madajczyk, D.

    2000-03-01

    Degree of microbiological decontamination, organoleptic and physico-chemical properties of natural honeys were investigated after radiation treatment. Seven kinds of honeys were irradiated with the beams of 10 MeV electrons from a 10 kW linear accelerator "Elektronika 10-10" at the dose 10 kGy. It was shown, that after irradiation, the total count of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and moulds decrease by 99%. The antibiotic value in investigated honeys increased in turn from 1.67 to 2.67 after irradiation. Such factors and parameters of investigated honeys as their consistency, content of water and saccharose, acidity, the diastase and 5-HMF values were not changed significantly after irradiation. Decontamination by irradiation is a process which allows us to obtain high microbiological purity of honeys. It is especially needed, when honeys are used in surgical treatment of injuries and in nutrition of babies with food deficiency.