Science.gov

Sample records for microelectrodes current status

  1. Evaluation of microelectrode materials for direct-current electrocorticography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chunyan; Narayan, Raj K.; Wu, Pei-Ming; Rajan, Neena; Wu, Zhizhen; Mehan, Neal; Golanov, Eugene V.; Ahn, Chong H.; Hartings, Jed A.

    2016-02-01

    Objective. Direct-current electrocorticography (DC-ECoG) allows a more complete characterization of brain states and pathologies than traditional alternating-current recordings (AC-ECoG). However, reliable recording of DC signals is challenging because of electrode polarization-induced potential drift, particularly at low frequencies and for more conducting materials. Further challenges arise as electrode size decreases, since impedance is increased and the potential drift is augmented. While microelectrodes have been investigated for AC-ECoG recordings, little work has addressed microelectrode properties for DC-signal recording. In this paper, we investigated several common microelectrode materials used in biomedical application for DC-ECoG. Approach. Five of the most common materials including gold (Au), silver/silver chloride (Ag/AgCl), platinum (Pt), Iridium oxide (IrOx), and platinum-iridium oxide (Pt/IrOx) were investigated for electrode diameters of 300 μm. The critical characteristics such as polarization impedance, AC current-induced polarization, long-term stability and low-frequency noise were studied in vitro (0.9% saline). The two most promising materials, Pt and Pt/lrOx were further investigated in vivo by recording waves of spreading depolarization, one of the most important applications for DC-ECoG in clinical and basic science research. Main results. Our experimental results indicate that IrOx-based microelectrodes, particularly with composite layers of nanostructures, are excellent in all of the common evaluation characteristics both in vitro and in vivo and are most suitable for multimodal monitoring applications. Pt electrodes suffer high current-induced polarization, but have acceptable long-term stability suitable for DC-ECoG. Major significance. The results of this study provide quantitative data on the electrical properties of microelectrodes with commonly-used materials and will be valuable for development of neural recordings inclusive of

  2. Evaluation of microelectrode materials for direct-current electrocorticography.

    PubMed

    Li, Chunyan; Narayan, Raj K; Wu, Pei-Ming; Rajan, Neena; Wu, Zhizhen; Mehan, Neal; Golanov, Eugene V; Ahn, Chong H; Hartings, Jed A

    2016-02-01

    Direct-current electrocorticography (DC-ECoG) allows a more complete characterization of brain states and pathologies than traditional alternating-current recordings (AC-ECoG). However, reliable recording of DC signals is challenging because of electrode polarization-induced potential drift, particularly at low frequencies and for more conducting materials. Further challenges arise as electrode size decreases, since impedance is increased and the potential drift is augmented. While microelectrodes have been investigated for AC-ECoG recordings, little work has addressed microelectrode properties for DC-signal recording. In this paper, we investigated several common microelectrode materials used in biomedical application for DC-ECoG. Five of the most common materials including gold (Au), silver/silver chloride (Ag/AgCl), platinum (Pt), Iridium oxide (IrOx), and platinum-iridium oxide (Pt/IrOx) were investigated for electrode diameters of 300 μm. The critical characteristics such as polarization impedance, AC current-induced polarization, long-term stability and low-frequency noise were studied in vitro (0.9% saline). The two most promising materials, Pt and Pt/lrOx were further investigated in vivo by recording waves of spreading depolarization, one of the most important applications for DC-ECoG in clinical and basic science research. Our experimental results indicate that IrOx-based microelectrodes, particularly with composite layers of nanostructures, are excellent in all of the common evaluation characteristics both in vitro and in vivo and are most suitable for multimodal monitoring applications. Pt electrodes suffer high current-induced polarization, but have acceptable long-term stability suitable for DC-ECoG. Major significance. The results of this study provide quantitative data on the electrical properties of microelectrodes with commonly-used materials and will be valuable for development of neural recordings inclusive of low frequencies.

  3. Hot microelectrodes.

    PubMed

    Baranski, Andrzej S

    2002-03-15

    Heat generation at disk microelectrodes by a high-amplitude (few volt) and high-frequency (0.1-2 GHz) alternating voltage is described. This method allows changing electrode temperature very rapidly and maintaining it well above the boiling point of solution for a very long time without any indication of boiling. The size of the hot zone in solution is determined by the radius of the electrode. There is no obvious limit in regard to the electrode size, so theoretically, by this method, it should be possible to create hot spots that are much smaller than those created with laser beams. That could lead to potential applications in medicine and biology. The heat-generating waveform does not electrically interfere with normal electroanalytical measurements. The noise level at hot microelectrodes is only slightly higher, as compared to normal microelectodes, but diffusion-controlled currents at hot microelectrodes may be up to 7 times higher, and an enhancement of kinetically controlled currents may be even larger. Hot microelectrodes can be used for end-column detection in capillary electrophoresis and for in-line or in vivo analyses. Temperature gradients at hot microelectrodes may exceed 1.5 x 10(5) K/cm, which makes them useful in studies of Soret diffusion and thermoelectric phenomena.

  4. AUTO FIB Current Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parry, I.; Sharples, R. M.

    The current status of the automated fibre positioner, Autofib, is reviewed including the positioning performance and the set-up speed. Future plans to build another Autofib for the 4.2 m William Herschel Telescope are also briefly discussed.

  5. Microelectrode for energy and current control of nanotip field electron emitters

    SciTech Connect

    Lüneburg, S.; Müller, M. Paarmann, A. Ernstorfer, R.

    2013-11-18

    Emerging experiments and applications in electron microscopy, holography, and diffraction benefit from miniaturized electron guns for compact experimental setups. We present a highly compact microelectrode integrated field emitter that consists of a tungsten nanotip coated with a few micrometers thick polyimide film followed by a several nanometers thick gold film, both positioned behind the exposed emitter apex by approximately 10–30 μm. The control of the electric field strength at the nanometer scale tip apex allows suppression, extraction, and energy tuning of field-emitted electrons. The performance of the microelectrode is demonstrated experimentally and supported by numerical simulations.

  6. CBI2: Current Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sievers, Jonathan L.; CBI Collaboration

    2006-12-01

    The Cosmic Background Imager is a sensitive 13-element radio interferometer operating at 5070m in the Chilean Andes (the future ALMA site). We have upgraded the CBI's 0.9m dishes with 1.4m dishes, effectively doubling the sensitivity. CBI2's primary science goal is a better measurement of the CMB power spectrum in the ell 2000-3000 range, where previous CBI measurements found an excess of power at 30 GHz over what was expected. We will also observe galaxy clusters and diffuse emission in the Milky Way with CBI2. We present the current status of CBI2, the errors on the CMB spectrum we expect to achieve, and hopefully early results. The CBI is a collaboration between Caltech, CITA, NRAO, MPI-Radioastronomie, Oxford, Manchester, Universidad de Chile, and Universidad de Concepcion.

  7. COHERENT Experiment: current status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akimov, D.; Albert, J. B.; Awe, C.; Barbeau, P. S.; Becker, B.; Belov, V.; Bolozdynya, A.; Burenkov, A.; Cabrera-Palmer, B.; Cervantes, M.; Collar, J. I.; Cooper, R. J.; Cooper, R. L.; Cuesta, C.; Dean, D.; del Valle Coello, M.; Detwiler, J.; Dolgolenko, A. G.; D'Onofrio, M.; Eberhardt, A.; Efremenko, Y.; Elliott, S. R.; Etenko, A.; Fabris, L.; Fields, N.; Fox, W.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Green, M.; Heath, M.; Hedges, S.; Iverson, E. B.; Kaufman, L. J.; Klein, S. R.; Khromov, A.; Konovalov, A.; Kovalenko, A.; Kumpan, A.; Li, L.; Lu, W.; Mann, K.; Melikyan, Y.; Markoff, D.; Miller, K.; Mueller, P.; Naumov, P.; Newby, J.; Parno, D.; Penttila, S.; Perumpilly, G.; Radford, D.; Ray, H.; Raybern, J.; Reyna, D.; Rich, G. C.; Rimal, D.; Rudik, D.; Scholberg, K.; Scholz, B.; Sinev, G.; Snow, W. M.; Sosnovtsev, V.; Shakirov, A.; Suchyta, S.; Suh, B.; Tayloe, R.; Thornton, R. T.; Tolstukhin, I.; Vanderwerp, J.; Vetter, K.; Virtue, C.; Yu, C. H.; Zettlemoyer, J.; Zderic, A.; COHERENT Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The COHERENT Collaboration is realizing a long term neutrino physics research program. The main goals of the program are to detect and study elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering (CEνNS). This process is predicted by Standard Model but it has never been observed experimentally because of the very low energy of the recoil nucleus. COHERENT is using different detector technologies: CsI[Na] and NaI scintillator crystals, a single-phase liquid Ar and a Ge detectors. The placement of all the detector setups is in the basement of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The current status of the COHERENT experimental program is presented.

  8. Biosimilar drugs: Current status.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rajiv; Singh, Jagjit

    2014-07-01

    Biologic products are being developed over the past three decades. The expiry of patent protection for many biological medicines has led to the development of biosimilars in UK or follow on biologics in USA. This article reviews the literature on biosimilar drugs that covers the therapeutic status and regulatory guidelines. Appraisal of published articles from peer reviewed journals for English language publications, search from PubMed, and guidelines from European Medicines Agency, US Food Drug Administration (FDA) and India were used to identify data for review. Literature suggest that biosimilars are similar biological products, i.e., comparable but not identical to the reference product, are not generic version of innovator product and do not ensure therapeutic equivalence. Biosimilars present more challenges than conventional generics and marketing approval is also more complicated. To improve access, US Congress passed the Biologics Price Competition and Innovation act 2009 and US FDA allowed "abbreviated pathway" for their approval. U.S law has defined new standards and terms and EMA scientific guidelines have also set detailed approval standards. India being one of the most preferred manufacturing destinations of biosimilars, there is a need for stringent safety and regulatory guidelines. The New India Guidelines "Draft Guidelines on Similar Biologics were announced in June 2012, by Department of Biotechnology at Boston bio and available online.

  9. Bioartificial liver: current status.

    PubMed

    Pless, G; Sauer, I M

    2005-11-01

    Liver failure remains a life-threatening syndrome. With the growing disparity between the number of suitable donor organs and the number of patients awaiting transplantation, efforts have been made to optimize the allocation of organs, to find alternatives to cadaveric liver transplantation, and to develop extracorporeal methods to support or replace the function of the failing organ. An extracorporeal liver support system has to provide the main functions of the liver: detoxification, synthesis, and regulation. The understanding that the critical issue of the clinical syndrome in liver failure is the accumulation of toxins not cleared by the failing liver led to the development of artificial filtration and adsorption devices (artificial liver support). Based on this hypothesis, the removal of lipophilic, albumin-bound substances, such as bilirubin, bile acids, metabolites of aromatic amino acids, medium-chain fatty acids, and cytokines, should be beneficial to the clinical course of a patient in liver failure. Artificial detoxification devices currently under clinical evaluation include the Molecular Adsorbent Recirculating System (MARS), Single-Pass Albumin Dialysis (SPAD), and the Prometheus system. The complex tasks of regulation and synthesis remain to be addressed by the use of liver cells (bioartificial liver support). The Extracorporeal Liver Assist Device (ELAD), HepatAssist, Modular Extracorporeal Liver Support system (MELS), and the Amsterdam Medical Center Bioartificial Liver (AMC-BAL) are bioartificial systems. This article gives a brief overview on these artificial and bioartificial devices and discusses remaining obstacles.

  10. Current Status of Infrared Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsunawaki, Yoshiaki; Hangyo, Masanori; Hiromoto, Norihisa; Horinaka, Hiromichi

    Infrared sience and technology has been contributing to the four important national priority researches which are nano-, bio-, information- and environmental technologies. In this manuscript we discuss the current status of the infrared science and technology as well as its crucial role in the four technologies.

  11. The WIMP Paradigm: Current Status

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Jonathan

    2011-03-23

    The WIMP paradigm is the glue that joins together much of the high energy and cosmic frontiers. It postulates that most of the matter in the Universe is made of weakly-interacting massive particles, with implications for a broad range of experiments and observations. I will review the WIMP paradigm's underlying motivations, its current status in view of rapid experimental progress on several fronts, and recent theoretical variations on the WIMP paradigm theme.

  12. Experimentally Determining the IR Drop in Solution at Carbon Fiber Microelectrodes with Current Interruption and Application to Single-Cell Electroporation

    PubMed Central

    Lambie, Bradley A.; Brennan, Carrie; Olofsson, Jessica; Orwar, Owe; Weber, Stephen G.

    2008-01-01

    Single-cell electroporation uses microelectrodes, capillaries or micropipets positioned near single, adherent cells to increase transiently the membrane permeability of the cell. The increased permeability permits, for example, transfection without chemical reagents. When using microelectrodes for applying an electric field to the cell, there is a question of how much voltage to apply. Unlike in bulk electroporation where hundreds of volts may be applied between electrodes, a rather small voltage is applied to a microelectrode in single-cell electroporation. In the single-cell experiment with microelectrodes, a substantial fraction of the voltage is lost at the interface, and does not therefore exist in solution. This problem is the same as the classical electrochemist's problem of knowing the ‘iR’ drop in solution and correcting for it to obtain true interfacial potential differences. Therefore, we have used current interruption to determine the iR drop in solution near microcylinder electrodes. As the field is inhomogeneous, calculations are required to understand the field distribution. Results of the current interruption are validated by comparing two independent measurements of the resistance in solution: one value results from the measured iR drop in conjunction with the known applied current. The other value results from a measured solution conductivity and a computed cell constant. We find substantial agreement in the range of resistances from about 2 to 50 kΩ, but not at higher resistances. We propose a simple, four-step plan which takes a few minutes to calculate the approximate current required to electroporate a cell with an electrode of a particular size, shape and distance from the cell. We validate the approach with electroporation of single A549 cells. PMID:17411009

  13. The current status of psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Gureje, Oye

    2004-01-01

    Psychotherapy has a long history but its practice has always been strewn with controversy. In this review, the current status of psychotherapy is examined by setting its development in historical perspective. While previous practice was often based on the pronouncements of "masters", current approaches are almost always embedded in both rigorous theoretical formulations and frequently also in empirically derived data on efficacy. A fundamental understanding about the mechanisms of action of psychotherapy is a promising new development that is emanating from modern techniques of neurosciences and neuroimaging. Whether such understanding will lead to a renaissance in the clinical utility of psychotherapy is still early to say. However, there is little doubt that the provision of a holistic care for patients with psychological and mental disorders in particular, and most physical conditions in general, should be informed by an appreciation of the bi-directional nature of the relationship between the mind and the body and should therefore include the provision of appropriate psychotherapeutic interventions.

  14. Sinoprobe Datacenter Development: Current Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Y.; Dong, S.; Chen, Z.; Chen, G.; Cheng, M.

    2011-12-01

    The project of the Sinoprobe datacenter development is to build new IT infrastructures needed to store, visualize and manage all the data acquired by SinoProbe program.The SinoProbe data center is designed using service-oriented architecture (SOA) principles. More specifically, service component architecture (SCA) is used to implement sinoprobe data services. It also uses various advanced technologies such as Java/JEE for the platform, PostgresSQL/PostGIS for the data storage, ApacheDS for LDAP, CoachDB for the medadata storage, GeoServer for the GIS services, ExtJs and OpenLayer for the Ajax framework, and Apache Shiro for the security framework. Through the integration and development of various technologies used, the major services of the datacenter system are implemented including the security infrastructure services (user authentication and authorization), metadata services, data warehouse stores, data services, GIS services, and web portal. There are also visualization components including the development of a virtual globe to replace the currently used Google Earth. This poster presents the current status of the SinoProbe data center development, and the detailed discussion of the system.

  15. Current status of zirconia restoration.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Takashi; Nakamura, Takashi; Matsumura, Hideo; Ban, Seiji; Kobayashi, Taira

    2013-10-01

    During the past decade, zirconia-based ceramics have been successfully introduced into the clinic to fabricate fixed dental prostheses (FDPs), along with a dental computer-aided/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) system. In this article (1) development of dental ceramics, (2) the current status of dental CAD/CAM systems, (3) CAD/CAM and zirconia restoration, (4) bond between zirconia and veneering ceramics, (5) bond of zirconia with resin-based luting agents, (6) surface finish of zirconia restoration and antagonist enamel wear, and (7) clinical evaluation of zirconia restoration are reviewed. Yttria partially stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystalline (Y-TZP) showed better mechanical properties and superior resistance to fracture than other conventional dental ceramics. Furthermore, ceria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystalline and alumina nanocomposites (Ce-TZP/A) had the highest fracture toughness and had resistance to low-temperature aging degradation. Both zirconia-based ceramics have been clinically available as an alternative to the metal framework for fixed dental prostheses (FDPs). Marginal adaptation of zirconia-based FDPs is acceptable for clinical application. The most frequent clinical complication with zirconia-based FDPs was chipping of the veneering porcelain that was affected by many factors. The mechanism for the bonding between zirconia and veneering ceramics remains unknown. There was no clear evidence of chemical bonding and the bond strength between zirconia and porcelain was lower than that between metal and porcelain. There were two alternatives proposed that might avoid chipping of veneering porcelains. One was hybrid-structured FDPs comprising CAD/CAM-fabricated porcelain parts adhering to a CAD/CAM fabricated zirconia framework. Another option was full-contour zirconia FDPs using high translucent zirconia. Combined application of silica coating and/or silane coupler, and 10-methacryloyloxydecyl dihydrogen phosphate is

  16. [Current status of autism studies].

    PubMed

    Kurita, H

    2001-01-01

    The current status of autism studies was reviewed based on English articles published during the 1990s. Although the concepts of autism and pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) are established, diagnostic criteria of PDDNOS or atypical autism, which is frequently difficult to differentiate from autism, need to be established. The prevalence of autism has been estimated as about 0.05% in the U.S and many European countries, while it was reported to be 0.1% or higher in Japan and some European countries, though the reasons for this difference are unclear. High-functioning (IQ > or = 70) autism may not be as rare a condition as previously thought and both its difference from and similarity to Asperger's syndrome, the highest functioning PDD subtype, need clarification. About 20 to 40% of children with autism lose meaningful words by the age of 2 years and display autistic symptoms thereafter. Such autism, called the setback type in Japan, has been demonstrated to have a poorer adolescent/adult outcome compared to autism without setback and its relationship with childhood disintegrative disorder, which displays a clearer regression after normal development for at least the first 2 years of life, needs to be addressed. The etiology of autism is now considered mostly genetic for reasons, such as the significantly higher concordance rate of autism in identical twin pairs (60-80%) than in fraternal twin pairs (0-10%) and an 3-5% incidence of autism among sibs of an autism proband, 30 to 100 times higher than that in the general population. The involvement of several genes is implicated to create susceptibility for autism, yet the responsible genes have not been identified. Although there is no medication to cure autism, some psychotropic drugs, such as antipsychotics and SSRIs, seem effective for behavior problems in autism patients. Psychosocial treatments are the main therapeutic approach to autism, though they are yet to be well systematized. It is important to

  17. Neuronal loss due to prolonged controlled-current stimulation with chronically implanted microelectrodes in the cat cerebral cortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCreery, Douglas; Pikov, Victor; Troyk, Philip R.

    2010-06-01

    Activated iridium microelectrodes were implanted for 450-1282 days in the sensorimotor cortex of seven adult domestic cats and then pulsed for 240 h (8 h per day for 30 days) at 50 Hz. Continuous stimulation at 2 nC/phase and with a geometric charge density of 100 µC cm-2 produced no detectable change in neuronal density in the tissue surrounding the microelectrode tips. However, pulsing with a continuous 100% duty cycle at 4 nC/phase and with a geometric charge density of 200 µC cm-2 induced loss of cortical neurons over a radius of at least 150 µm from the electrode tips. The same stimulus regimen but with a duty cycle of 50% (1 s of stimulation, and then 1 s without stimulation repeated for 8 h) produced neuronal loss within a smaller radius, approximately 60 µm from the center of the electrode tips. However, there also was significant loss of neurons surrounding the unpulsed electrodes, presumably as a result of mechanical injury due to their insertion into and long-term residence in the tissue, and this was responsible for most of the neuronal loss within 150 µm of the electrodes pulsed with the 50% duty cycle.

  18. Progress Towards Biocompatible Intracortical Microelectrodes for Neural Interfacing Applications

    PubMed Central

    Jorfi, Mehdi; Skousen, John L.; Weder, Christoph; Capadona, Jeffrey R.

    2015-01-01

    To ensure long-term consistent neural recordings, next-generation intracortical microelectrodes are being developed with an increased emphasis on reducing the neuro-inflammatory response. The increased emphasis stems from the improved understanding of the multifaceted role that inflammation may play in disrupting both biologic and abiologic components of the overall neural interface circuit. To combat neuro-inflammation and improve recording quality, the field is actively progressing from traditional inorganic materials towards approaches that either minimizes the microelectrode footprint or that incorporate compliant materials, bioactive molecules, conducting polymers or nanomaterials. However, the immune-privileged cortical tissue introduces an added complexity compared to other biomedical applications that remains to be fully understood. This review provides a comprehensive reflection on the current understanding of the key failure modes that may impact intracortical microelectrode performance. In addition, a detailed overview of the current status of various materials-based approaches that have gained interest for neural interfacing applications is presented, and key challenges that remain to be overcome are discussed. Finally, we present our vision on the future directions of materials-based treatments to improve intracortical microelectrodes for neural interfacing. PMID:25460808

  19. Progress towards biocompatible intracortical microelectrodes for neural interfacing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorfi, Mehdi; Skousen, John L.; Weder, Christoph; Capadona, Jeffrey R.

    2015-02-01

    To ensure long-term consistent neural recordings, next-generation intracortical microelectrodes are being developed with an increased emphasis on reducing the neuro-inflammatory response. The increased emphasis stems from the improved understanding of the multifaceted role that inflammation may play in disrupting both biologic and abiologic components of the overall neural interface circuit. To combat neuro-inflammation and improve recording quality, the field is actively progressing from traditional inorganic materials towards approaches that either minimizes the microelectrode footprint or that incorporate compliant materials, bioactive molecules, conducting polymers or nanomaterials. However, the immune-privileged cortical tissue introduces an added complexity compared to other biomedical applications that remains to be fully understood. This review provides a comprehensive reflection on the current understanding of the key failure modes that may impact intracortical microelectrode performance. In addition, a detailed overview of the current status of various materials-based approaches that have gained interest for neural interfacing applications is presented, and key challenges that remain to be overcome are discussed. Finally, we present our vision on the future directions of materials-based treatments to improve intracortical microelectrodes for neural interfacing.

  20. Revealing neuronal function through microelectrode array recordings

    PubMed Central

    Obien, Marie Engelene J.; Deligkaris, Kosmas; Bullmann, Torsten; Bakkum, Douglas J.; Frey, Urs

    2015-01-01

    Microelectrode arrays and microprobes have been widely utilized to measure neuronal activity, both in vitro and in vivo. The key advantage is the capability to record and stimulate neurons at multiple sites simultaneously. However, unlike the single-cell or single-channel resolution of intracellular recording, microelectrodes detect signals from all possible sources around every sensor. Here, we review the current understanding of microelectrode signals and the techniques for analyzing them. We introduce the ongoing advancements in microelectrode technology, with focus on achieving higher resolution and quality of recordings by means of monolithic integration with on-chip circuitry. We show how recent advanced microelectrode array measurement methods facilitate the understanding of single neurons as well as network function. PMID:25610364

  1. Status of current IPH applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kearney, D. W.

    1981-03-01

    The US Department of Energy has funded a series of field tests since 1977 to gain operational experience in the application of solar energy to industrial process heat requirements. To date, 34 design studies or actual installations have been funded utilizing technologies ranging from flat plates to line-focus concentrators to central receiver industrial systems. The types of solar systems include hot air, hot water, and steam production applied to a broad spectrum of industrial processes. The program elements are identified and put in perspective relative to transport fluid, temperature level, and size of the solar field. The status of these programs ranges from design studies to operational systems. Solar enhanced oil recovery and repowering have been studied. The chronological history of each program is tabulated. (LEW)

  2. Transungual drug delivery: current status.

    PubMed

    Elkeeb, Rania; AliKhan, Ali; Elkeeb, Laila; Hui, Xiaoying; Maibach, Howard I

    2010-01-15

    Topical therapy is highly desirable in treating nail disorders due to its localized effects, which results in minimal adverse systemic events and possibly improved adherence. However, the effectiveness of topical therapies is limited by minimal drug permeability through the nail plate. Current research on nail permeation that focuses on altering the nail plate barrier by means of chemical treatments, penetration enhancers as well as physical and mechanical methods is reviewed. A new method of nail sampling is examined. Finally limitations of current ungual drug permeability studies are briefly discussed.

  3. Current Status of Laboratory Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liberty, Paul; And Others

    General information on the studies currently underway by the Southwestern Cooperative Educational Laboratory (SECEL) is presented in this report. Module A is concerned with investigating the relationships between a variety of cultural-psychological factors and language development in grade 1. Testing and home interviews play a major part in this…

  4. Stemless shoulder arthroplasty: current status.

    PubMed

    Churchill, R Sean

    2014-09-01

    Since the original Neer humeral replacement in the 1950s, the standard primary anatomic total shoulder arthroplasty design has slowly evolved. Most recently, the humeral stem has become progressively shorter to help combat stem-related complications. Currently, there are several companies who have developed and marketed a stemless humeral arthroplasty component. Manufacturers' data for 5 stemless shoulder arthroplasty components currently on the market were analyzed and reviewed. A literature review of short-term results for stemless shoulder arthroplasty was completed. Of the stemless shoulder arthroplasty systems available on the market, 3 are currently undergoing clinical trials in the United States. The Tornier Simpliciti (Tornier, Edina, MN, USA) clinical trial began in 2011. The study with 2-year minimum follow-up results is scheduled for completion in November 2014. The Arthrex Eclipse (Arthrex, Naples, FL, USA) clinical trial was started in January 2013. The tentative study completion date is 2017. The Biomet Nano (Biomet, Warsaw, IN, USA) clinical trial began in October 2013 and also has a tentative completion date of 2017. No other clinical trial is currently under way in the United States. Early results for stemless shoulder arthroplasty indicate clinical results similar to standard stemmed shoulder arthroplasty. Radiographic analysis indicates implant stability without migration or subsidence at 2- to 3-year minimum follow-up.. Several stemless shoulder arthroplasty implants are available outside the United States. Early clinical and radiographic results are promising, but well-designed clinical studies and midterm results are lacking. Three clinical trials are currently under way in the United States with initial availability for use anticipated in 2015. Copyright © 2014 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Current status of viroid taxonomy.

    PubMed

    Di Serio, F; Flores, R; Verhoeven, J Th J; Li, S-F; Pallás, V; Randles, J W; Sano, T; Vidalakis, G; Owens, R A

    2014-12-01

    Viroids are the smallest autonomous infectious nucleic acids known so far. With a small circular RNA genome of about 250-400 nt, which apparently does not code for any protein, viroids replicate and move systemically in host plants. Since the discovery of the first viroid almost forty-five years ago, many different viroids have been isolated, characterized and, frequently, identified as the causal agents of plant diseases. The first viroid classification scheme was proposed in the early 1990s and adopted by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) a few years later. Here, the current viroid taxonomy scheme and the criteria for viroid species demarcation are discussed, highlighting the main taxonomic questions currently under consideration by the ICTV Viroid Study Group. The impact of correct taxonomic annotation of viroid sequence variants is also addressed, taking into consideration the increasing application of next-generation sequencing and bioinformatics for known and previously unrecognized viroids.

  6. Current status of transarterial radioembolization

    PubMed Central

    Mahnken, Andreas H

    2016-01-01

    Unresectable primary and secondary liver malignancies present a major problem in the treatment of solid tumors. Transarterial radioembolization (TARE) is an increasingly used technique for treating various types of malignant liver tumors. This approach is appealing, as the mechanism of action is independent from other loco-regional treatments and potentially complementary to systemic therapies. There are two commercially available products in use for TARE: 90Y-resin and 90Y-glass microspheres. Currently available data indicates TARE so be safe and effective in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and metastatic liver disease. In HCC the results compare well with chemoembolization, while the role of TARE in combination with kinase inhibitors has yet to be established. Current data on TARE in metastatic liver disease is promising, but there is a strong need for prospective randomized trials comparing TARE and modern chemotherapeutic regimen to support the growing role of TARE in metastatic liver disease. PMID:27247711

  7. The Current Status of Japanese Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endo, Russell

    A study of the current status of Japanese Americans is divided into three sections. Following a brief introduction, a background section provides an overview of Japanese American history, population size and socioeconomic measures, and selected social characteristics. A second section looks in greater depth at socioeconomic status as reported in…

  8. Sepsis and cytokines: current status.

    PubMed

    Blackwell, T S; Christman, J W

    1996-07-01

    Sepsis is a constellation of clinical signs and symptoms resulting from excessive systemic host inflammatory response to infection. This inflammatory response is largely mediated by cytokines, which are released into the systemic circulation. Plasma concentrations of specific cytokines, TNF alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-6 and IL-8 are frequently elevated in human sepsis and cytokine concentrations correlate with severity and outcome of sepsis. In addition to pro-inflammatory cytokines, soluble cytokine receptors, cytokine receptor antagonists and counter-inflammatory cytokines are also produced in large quantities in patients with sepsis; however, the specific role of these molecules in sepsis remains undefined. A complex interaction of cytokines and cytokine-neutralizing molecules probably determines the clinical presentation and course of sepsis. Intervening in this sequence of events to modify the host inflammatory responses may prove to be a beneficial treatment strategy for sepsis, but currently tested anticytokine therapies have been largely unsuccessful.

  9. Microelectrodes for Studying Neurobiology

    PubMed Central

    Kita, Justin M.; Wightman, R. Mark

    2008-01-01

    Summary of recent advances Microelectrodes have emerged as an important tool used by scientists to study biological changes in the brain and in single cells. This review briefly summarizes the ways in which microelectrodes as chemical sensors have furthered the field of neurobiology by reporting on changes that occur on the sub-second time scale. Microelectrodes have been used in a variety of fields including their use by electrophysiologists to characterize neuronal action potentials and development of neural prosthetics. Here we restrict our review to microelectrodes that have been used as chemical sensors. They have played a major role in many important neurobiological findings. PMID:18675377

  10. Current status of lung transplantation.

    PubMed

    Lau, C L; Patterson, G A

    2003-11-01

    Two decades have passed since the first successful clinical lung transplant was performed in 1983, and, in the interim, lung transplantation has become the preferred treatment option for a variety of end-stage pulmonary diseases. Remarkable progress has been made in the field through refinement of technique and improved understanding of transplant immunology and microbiology. Unfortunately, donor shortages continue to limit the more widespread application of lung transplantation. In order to address this issue, marginal donors, living lobar and split lung donor techniques, and nonheartbeating donors have been used clinically to increase the number of donor lungs available. Chronic rejection of the lung allograft is currently the major hurdle limiting longterm survival. To date, prevention of known risk factors and treatment strategies have not lessened the devastating toll this process has on lung transplant survival. Better understanding of the cause of chronic rejection is needed in order to develop novel strategies for its treatment. Promotion of immune tolerance is a promising area that could potentially eliminate chronic rejection. The present article discusses recent advances in lung transplantation. It also details the major issues facing the field today. Only through continued clinical and experimental investigation will lung transplantation eventually reach its full potential.

  11. Nanodosimetry: Principle and Current Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulte, Reinhard W.

    2011-05-01

    Due to the success of theoretical track structure Monte Carlo simulations, showing that features of ionization patterns on the nanometer level are important for the biological effectiveness of ionizing radiation, several new methods for experimental track structure investigations have been developed in recent years. These methods all use the principle of density scaling in low-pressure gas to probe track structure in macroscopic dimensions, ideally with single-ionization resolution. The new field of experimental track structure investigation, which has been called nanodosimetry, can be approached in two ways: (1) the number of ionizations in a defined, ideally wall-less, sensitive volume is registered per single primary particle and cluster size distributions are obtained, or (2) the full track structure of an ion track segment is "imaged". Existing nanodosimetric methods are based on the first approach, but a track structure imaging detector is currently under development at Loma Linda University. This contribution will review the principle and existing technical approaches to nanodosimetry and will give an outlook on future developments and applications.

  12. rasdaman Array Database: current status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merticariu, George; Toader, Alexandru

    2015-04-01

    rasdaman (Raster Data Manager) is a Free Open Source Array Database Management System which provides functionality for storing and processing massive amounts of raster data in the form of multidimensional arrays. The user can access, process and delete the data using SQL. The key features of rasdaman are: flexibility (datasets of any dimensionality can be processed with the help of SQL queries), scalability (rasdaman's distributed architecture enables it to seamlessly run on cloud infrastructures while offering an increase in performance with the increase of computation resources), performance (real-time access, processing, mixing and filtering of arrays of any dimensionality) and reliability (legacy communication protocol replaced with a new one based on cutting edge technology - Google Protocol Buffers and ZeroMQ). Among the data with which the system works, we can count 1D time series, 2D remote sensing imagery, 3D image time series, 3D geophysical data, and 4D atmospheric and climate data. Most of these representations cannot be stored only in the form of raw arrays, as the location information of the contents is also important for having a correct geoposition on Earth. This is defined by ISO 19123 as coverage data. rasdaman provides coverage data support through the Petascope service. Extensions were added on top of rasdaman in order to provide support for the Geoscience community. The following OGC standards are currently supported: Web Map Service (WMS), Web Coverage Service (WCS), and Web Coverage Processing Service (WCPS). The Web Map Service is an extension which provides zoom and pan navigation over images provided by a map server. Starting with version 9.1, rasdaman supports WMS version 1.3. The Web Coverage Service provides capabilities for downloading multi-dimensional coverage data. Support is also provided for several extensions of this service: Subsetting Extension, Scaling Extension, and, starting with version 9.1, Transaction Extension, which

  13. Electrical Characterization of 3D Au Microelectrodes for Use in Retinal Prostheses

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sangmin; Ahn, Jae Hyun; Seo, Jong-Mo; Chung, Hum; Cho, Dong-Il “Dan”

    2015-01-01

    In order to provide high-quality visual information to patients who have implanted retinal prosthetic devices, the number of microelectrodes should be large. As the number of microelectrodes is increased, the dimensions of each microelectrode must be decreased, which in turn results in an increased microelectrode interface impedance and decreased injection current dynamic range. In order to improve the trade-off envelope between the number of microelectrodes and the current injection characteristics, a 3D microelectrode structure can be used as an alternative. In this paper, the electrical characteristics of 2D and 3D Au microelectrodes were investigated. In order to examine the effects of the structural difference, 2D and 3D Au microelectrodes with different base areas but similar effective surface areas were fabricated and evaluated. Interface impedances were measured and similar dynamic ranges were obtained for both 2D and 3D Au microelectrodes. These results indicate that more electrodes can be implemented in the same area if 3D designs are used. Furthermore, the 3D Au microelectrodes showed substantially enhanced electrical durability characteristics against over-injected stimulation currents, withstanding electrical currents that are much larger than the limit measured for 2D microelectrodes of similar area. This enhanced electrical durability property of 3D Au microelectrodes is a new finding in microelectrode research, and makes 3D microelectrodes very desirable devices. PMID:26091397

  14. Status epilepticus. Current concepts and management.

    PubMed Central

    Starreveld, E.; Starreveld, A. A.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To inform primary care physicians about current issues around generalized convulsive status epilepticus (GCSE) emphasizing definition, pathophysiology, treatment, and prognosis. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: MEDLINE (1994 to 1999) provided 479 references using the MeSH terms "status epilepticus" and "treatment." From these we selected 30 English-language articles covering clinical aspects, treatment, and animal research. Key source documents from previous years and information from modern textbooks and recent symposia were also included. MAIN MESSAGE: Generalized convulsive status epilepticus continues to be a medical emergency with high morbidity and mortality. It must be managed promptly and effectively. The operational definition of GCSE is a seizure that lasts longer than 5 minutes or two or more seizures between which patients do not recover. Main differential diagnosis is nonepileptic status. Intravenous therapy with combined lorazepam and phenytoin is the initial treatment of choice. Other preferred medications are diazepam, midazolam, and propofol. Some of these medications should be considered before arrival at hospital. Prognosis of GCSE is determined by underlying cause, delay in adequate treatment, and comorbidity. Patients with GCSE lasting longer than 30 minutes require intensive care and electroencephalogram monitoring. CONCLUSION: Intravenous lorazepam and phenytoin are currently the most effective drugs for initial management of GCSE. Timely administration of antiepileptic medication can prevent development of GCSE in some patients with known epilepsy. Main differential diagnosis is nonepileptic status. PMID:11013800

  15. Design, theoretical analysis, and experimental verification of a CMOS current integrator with 1.2 × 2.05 µm2 microelectrode array for high-sensitivity bacterial counting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamo, Kohei; Nakazato, Kazuo; Niitsu, Kiichi

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present the design and experimental verification of an amperometric CMOS-based sensor with a current integrator and a 1.2 × 2.05 µm2 bacterial-sized microelectrode array for high-sensitivity bacterial counting. For high-sensitivity bacterial counting with a sufficient signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), noise must be reduced because bacterial-sized microelectrodes can handle only a low current of the order of 100 pA. Thus, we implement a current integrator that is highly effective for noise reduction. Furthermore, for the first time, we use the current integrator in conjunction with the bacterial-sized microelectrode array. On the basis of the results of the proposed current integration, we successfully reduce noise and achieve a high SNR of 30.4 dB. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed CMOS-based sensor, we perform two-dimensional counting of microbeads, which are almost of the same size as bacteria. The measurement results demonstrate successful high-sensitivity two-dimensional (2D) counting of microbeads with a high SNR of 27 dB.

  16. Emergency treatment of status epilepticus: current thinking.

    PubMed

    Millikan, Dan; Rice, Brian; Silbergleit, Robert

    2009-02-01

    Current thinking about the acute treatment of status epilepticus (SE) emphasizes a more aggressive clinical approach to this common life-threatening neurologic emergency. In this review, the authors consider four concepts that can accelerate effective treatment of SE. These include (1) updating the definition of SE to make it more clinically relevant, (2) consideration of faster ways to initiate first-line benzodiazepine therapy in the prehospital environment, (3) moving to second-line agents more quickly in refractory status in the emergency department, and (4) increasing detection and treatment of unrecognized nonconvulsive SE in comatose neurologic emergency patients.

  17. Cancer pain management-current status

    PubMed Central

    Thapa, Deepak; Rastogi, V; Ahuja, Vanita

    2011-01-01

    Cancer pain is still one of the most feared entities in cancer and about 75% of these patients require treatment with opioids for severe pain.The cancer pain relief is difficult to manage in patients with episodic or incidental pain, neuropathic pain, substance abuse and with impaired cognitive or communication skills. This non-systematic review article aims to discuss reasons for under treatment, tools of pain assessment, cancer pain and anxiety and possibly carve new approaches for cancer pain management in future. The current status of World Health Organization analgesic ladder has also been reviewed. A thorough literature search was carried out from 1998 to 2010 for current status in cancer pain management in MEDLINE, WHO guidelines and published literature and relevant articles have been included. PMID:21772673

  18. Current Status on Cholangiocarcinoma and Gallbladder Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ebata, Tomoki; Ercolani, Giorgio; Alvaro, Domenico; Ribero, Dario; Di Tommaso, Luca; Valle, Juan W.

    2016-01-01

    Background Cholangiocarcinomas (CC) as well as gallbladder cancers are relatively rare and intractable diseases. Clinical, pathological, and epidemiological studies on these tumors have been under investigation. The current status and/or topics on biliary tract cancers have been reported in the East West Association of Liver Tumor (EWALT), held in Milano, Italy in 2015. Summary All the authors, herein, specifcally reported the current status and leading-edge findings on biliary tract cancers as the following sequence: epidemiology of CC, surgical therapy for intrahepatic CC, surgical therapy for perihilar CC, surgical therapy for gallblad der cancer, chemotherapy for biliary tract cancers, and new histological features in CC. Key Message The present review article will update the knowledge on biliary tract cancers, en hancing the quality of daily clinical practice. However, many features about these cancers remain unknown; further studies are required to establish disease-specific optimal treatment strategies. PMID:27995089

  19. Current status of iron-based superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamihara, Yoichi

    2012-03-01

    Current status of iron-based superconductors is summarized. Although short range magnetic ordering and magnetic phase separation of Fe are controversial, (long range) magnetic and electronic phase diagrams of iron based superconductors can be classified into two-type. Antiferromagnetic ordering of itinerant Fe does not coexist with superconducting phase of SmFeAsO1 - xFx. The very large H c2 of iron-based superconductors attract us to attempts at applications.

  20. Lung xenotransplantation: recent progress and current status.

    PubMed

    Harris, Donald G; Quinn, Kevin J; Dahi, Siamak; Burdorf, Lars; Azimzadeh, Agnes M; Pierson, Richard N

    2014-01-01

    Xenotransplantation has undergone important progress in controlling initial hyperacute rejection in many preclinical models, with some cell, tissue, and organ xenografts advancing toward clinical trials. However, acute injury, driven primarily by innate immune and inflammatory responses, continues to limit results in lung xenograft models. The purpose of this article is to review the current status of lung xenotransplantation--including the seemingly unique challenges posed by this organ-and summarize proven and emerging means of overcoming acute lung xenograft injury.

  1. Current status of domino heart transplantation.

    PubMed

    Shudo, Yasuhiro; Ma, Michael; Boyd, Jack H; Woo, Yiping Joseph

    2017-03-01

    Domino heart transplant, wherein the explanted heart from the recipient of an en-bloc heart-lung is utilized for a second recipient, represents a unique surgical strategy for patients with end-stage heart failure. With a better understanding of the potential advantages and disadvantages of this procedure, its selective use in the current era can improve and maximize organ allocation in the United States. In this report, we reviewed the current status of domino heart transplantation. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Current Status of Biomarkers for Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Velonas, Vicki M.; Woo, Henry H.; dos Remedios, Cristobal G.; Assinder, Stephen J.

    2013-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is a leading cause of cancer-related death of men globally. Since its introduction, there has been intense debate as to the effectiveness of the prostate specific antigen (PSA) test as a screening tool for PCa. It is now evident that the PSA test produces unacceptably high rates of false positive results and is not prognostic. Here we review the current status of molecular biomarkers that promise to be prognostic and that might inform individual patient management. It highlights current efforts to identify biomarkers obtained by minimally invasive methods and discusses current knowledge with regard to gene fusions, mRNA and microRNAs, immunology, and cancer-associated microparticles. PMID:23708103

  3. Screening metal nanoparticles using boron-doped diamond microelectrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Ivandini, Tribidasari A. Rangkuti, Prasmita K.; Einaga, Yasuaki

    2016-04-19

    Boron-doped diamond (BDD) microelectrodes were used to observe the correlation between electrocatalytic currents caused by individual Pt nanoparticle (Pt-np) collisions at the electrode. The BDD microelectrodes, ∼20 µm diameter and ∼2 µm particle size, were fabricated at the surface of tungsten wires. Pt-np with a size of 1 to 5 nm with agglomerations up to 20 nm was used for observation. The electrolytic currents were observed via catalytic reaction of 15 mM hydrazine in 50 mM phosphate buffer solution at Pt-np at 0.4 V when it collides with the surface of the microelectrodes. The low current noise and wider potential window in the measurements using BDD microelectrode produced a better results, which represents a better correlation to the TEM result of the Pt-np, compared to when gold microelectrodes was used.

  4. Current Status of Interventional Endoscopic Ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Ryozawa, Shomei; Fujita, Naotaka; Irisawa, Atsushi; Hirooka, Yoshiki; Mine, Tetsuya

    2017-03-20

    Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) is being used increasingly in the management of pancreatic fluid collection, biliary and pancreatic duct drainage in cases of failed endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, drainage of the gallbladder, and other conditions. The role of interventional EUS is rapidly expanding and new interventions are continuously emerging. The development of devices could be a major breakthrough in the field of interventional EUS. New devices would enable the expansion of its role even further and prompt its widespread use in clinical practice. This review focuses on the current status of interventional EUS, especially highlighting the topics that are drawing endoscopists' interest at present. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  5. Current status of the CALET mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Masaki

    2017-01-01

    The CALorimeteric Electron Telescope (CALET) is a Japanese-led international mission being developed as part of the utilization plan for the International Space Station (ISS). CALET was launched by an H-II B rocket utilizing the Japanese developed HTV (H-II Transfer Vehicle) in August 2015, and has been measuring high-energy electrons, cosmic rays as well as gamma rays above 10 GeV to about 10 TeV with high accuracy. In this paper we describe the current status of the CALET mission focused on gamma-ray observations.

  6. [Current status of medical education in Chile].

    PubMed

    2009-05-01

    The Chilean Academy of Medicine published a "Report on the Current Status of Medical Education in Chile". This report reviews the history of medical education in this country and its close relationship with the Health Care System, public and private; highlights the main changes that took place during the last 25 years in superior and medical education; provides information on the 26 currently existing Medical Schools; refers to the availability of medical doctors and specialists; discusses the mechanisms that control the quality of institutions involved and their programs; and summarizes the results of the Annual National Medical Examination. The members of the Committee on Superior Education of the Academy provided a critical analysis of medical education in Chile and recommendations on how to improve it.

  7. MIRI telescope simulator (MTS) current status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrada, F. J.; Eiriz, V.; Alcacera, M. A.; Aricha, A.; Balado, A.; Barandiaran, J.; Berenguer, T.; Diaz, E.; Figueroa, I.; Gonzalez, L. M.; Lopez, R.; Menendez, M.; Bernardo, A. M.; Reina, M.; Sanchez, A.; Garcia, G.; Jimenez, A.; Colombo, M.; Canchal, M. R.; Rodriguez, J. A.

    2007-09-01

    MTS (MIRI telescope simulator) is the Spanish contribution to the JWST Project. MTS is a part of the Optical Ground Support Equipment (OGSE) for the Assembly Integration and Verification (AIV) and Calibration phase of the MIRI instrument at the RAL (Rutherford Appleton Laboratory) facilities. Briefly, MTS main objetive consists on delivering a diffraction-limited test beam, including the obscuration and mask pattern, to the MIRI instrument that reproduces the output beam of the JWST in environmental conditions similar to those corresponding to the flight. In this work, the current status of the project is reported on. Mainly, after a description of the whole instrument and the optomechanical performances required, the paper will be focused on the current status of the purchase and characterization of certain critical elements belonging to the different subsystems. The first step has been the verification of the thermoelastic behaviour of its structure, employing a mass prototype. Both extensometer measurements and optical measurements with alignment mirror cubes have been carried out during a thermal vacuum test of this MTS prototype. The correlation of the measurements, optically and mechanically, will provide a better knowledge of the structure behavior and will be used to define the integration process.

  8. Quantile Regression Models for Current Status Data.

    PubMed

    Ou, Fang-Shu; Zeng, Donglin; Cai, Jianwen

    2016-11-01

    Current status data arise frequently in demography, epidemiology, and econometrics where the exact failure time cannot be determined but is only known to have occurred before or after a known observation time. We propose a quantile regression model to analyze current status data, because it does not require distributional assumptions and the coefficients can be interpreted as direct regression effects on the distribution of failure time in the original time scale. Our model assumes that the conditional quantile of failure time is a linear function of covariates. We assume conditional independence between the failure time and observation time. An M-estimator is developed for parameter estimation which is computed using the concave-convex procedure and its confidence intervals are constructed using a subsampling method. Asymptotic properties for the estimator are derived and proven using modern empirical process theory. The small sample performance of the proposed method is demonstrated via simulation studies. Finally, we apply the proposed method to analyze data from the Mayo Clinic Study of Aging.

  9. Gravitational wave astronomy: the current status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blair, David; Ju, Li; Zhao, ChunNong; Wen, LinQing; Chu, Qi; Fang, Qi; Cai, RongGen; Gao, JiangRui; Lin, XueChun; Liu, Dong; Wu, Ling-An; Zhu, ZongHong; Reitze, David H.; Arai, Koji; Zhang, Fan; Flaminio, Raffaele; Zhu, XingJiang; Hobbs, George; Manchester, Richard N.; Shannon, Ryan M.; Baccigalupi, Carlo; Gao, Wei; Xu, Peng; Bian, Xing; Cao, ZhouJian; Chang, ZiJing; Dong, Peng; Gong, XueFei; Huang, ShuangLin; Ju, Peng; Luo, ZiRen; Qiang, Li'E.; Tang, WenLin; Wan, XiaoYun; Wang, Yue; Xu, ShengNian; Zang, YunLong; Zhang, HaiPeng; Lau, Yun-Kau; Ni, Wei-Tou

    2015-12-01

    In the centenary year of Einstein's General Theory of Relativity, this paper reviews the current status of gravitational wave astronomy across a spectrum which stretches from attohertz to kilohertz frequencies. Sect. 1 of this paper reviews the historical development of gravitational wave astronomy from Einstein's first prediction to our current understanding the spectrum. It is shown that detection of signals in the audio frequency spectrum can be expected very soon, and that a north-south pair of next generation detectors would provide large scientific benefits. Sect. 2 reviews the theory of gravitational waves and the principles of detection using laser interferometry. The state of the art Advanced LIGO detectors are then described. These detectors have a high chance of detecting the first events in the near future. Sect. 3 reviews the KAGRA detector currently under development in Japan, which will be the first laser interferometer detector to use cryogenic test masses. Sect. 4 of this paper reviews gravitational wave detection in the nanohertz frequency band using the technique of pulsar timing. Sect. 5 reviews the status of gravitational wave detection in the attohertz frequency band, detectable in the polarisation of the cosmic microwave background, and discusses the prospects for detection of primordial waves from the big bang. The techniques described in sects. 1-5 have already placed significant limits on the strength of gravitational wave sources. Sects. 6 and 7 review ambitious plans for future space based gravitational wave detectors in the millihertz frequency band. Sect. 6 presents a roadmap for development of space based gravitational wave detectors by China while sect. 7 discusses a key enabling technology for space interferometry known as time delay interferometry.

  10. Flare models. [solar physics current status review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sturrock, P. A.

    1980-01-01

    The current status of solar flare modeling is reviewed. Primary and secondary observational features that a proposed flare model should be capable of explaining are discussed, including energy storage and release, particle acceleration, mass ejection, heating of the temperature minimum region, X-ray, EUV, UV, visible and radio emission and mass flow. Consideration is then given to the twisted flux tube paramagnetic recombination model of Gold and Hoyle (1960), the current model of Alfven and Carlqvist (1967), closed current-sheet models such as those of Syrovatskii (1966, 1969, 1977) and Uchida and Sakurai (1977), open-field models such as those of Carmichael (1964) and Barnes and Sturrock (1972), the emerging flux model of Heyvaerts and Priest (1974, 1977, 1978) and the loop-flare models of Spicer (1977) and Colgate (1978). It is noted that no one model can yet account for all the observational features, and that there may turn out to be several types of flare, each requiring its own explanation.

  11. Colletotrichum – current status and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Cannon, P.F.; Damm, U.; Johnston, P.R.; Weir, B.S.

    2012-01-01

    A review is provided of the current state of understanding of Colletotrichum systematics, focusing on species-level data and the major clades. The taxonomic placement of the genus is discussed, and the evolution of our approach to species concepts and anamorph-teleomorph relationships is described. The application of multilocus technologies to phylogenetic analysis of Colletotrichum is reviewed, and selection of potential genes/loci for barcoding purposes is discussed. Host specificity and its relation to speciation and taxonomy is briefly addressed. A short review is presented of the current status of classification of the species clusters that are currently without comprehensive multilocus analyses, emphasising the orbiculare and destructivum aggregates. The future for Colletotrichum biology will be reliant on consensus classification and robust identification tools. In support of these goals, a Subcommission on Colletotrichum has been formed under the auspices of the International Commission on Taxonomy of Fungi, which will administer a carefully curated barcode database for sequence-based identification of species within the BioloMICS web environment. PMID:23136460

  12. Flare models. [solar physics current status review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sturrock, P. A.

    1980-01-01

    The current status of solar flare modeling is reviewed. Primary and secondary observational features that a proposed flare model should be capable of explaining are discussed, including energy storage and release, particle acceleration, mass ejection, heating of the temperature minimum region, X-ray, EUV, UV, visible and radio emission and mass flow. Consideration is then given to the twisted flux tube paramagnetic recombination model of Gold and Hoyle (1960), the current model of Alfven and Carlqvist (1967), closed current-sheet models such as those of Syrovatskii (1966, 1969, 1977) and Uchida and Sakurai (1977), open-field models such as those of Carmichael (1964) and Barnes and Sturrock (1972), the emerging flux model of Heyvaerts and Priest (1974, 1977, 1978) and the loop-flare models of Spicer (1977) and Colgate (1978). It is noted that no one model can yet account for all the observational features, and that there may turn out to be several types of flare, each requiring its own explanation.

  13. MGEX data analysis at CODE - current status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prange, Lars; Dach, Rolf; Lutz, Simon; Schaer, Stefan; Jäggi, Adrian

    2013-04-01

    The Center for Orbit Determination in Europe (CODE) is contributing as an analysis center to the International GNSS Service (IGS) since many years. The processing of GPS and GLONASS data is well established in CODE's ultra-rapid, rapid, and final product lines. In 2012 the IGS started its "Multi GNSS EXperiment" (MGEX). Meanwhile (status end of 2012) about 50 new or upgraded MGEX tracking stations offer their data to the user community meeting the IGS standards (e.g., correct equipment information, calibrated antennas, RINEX data format). MGEX supports the RINEX3 data format, new signal types for the established GNSS (e.g., L5 for GPS), and new GNSS, such as Galileo, Compass, and QZSS. It is therefore well suited as a testbed for future developments in GNSS processing. CODE supports MGEX by providing a three-system orbit solution (GPS+GLONASS+Galileo) on a non-operational basis. The CODE MGEX products are freely available at ftp://cddis.gsfc.nasa.gov/gnss/products/mgex (solution ID "com" stands for CODE-MGEX). The current status of the MGEX processing at CODE will be presented focusing on the consistency of GNSS-derived results based on different frequencies/signals. An outlook about CODE's future multi-GNSS activities will be given.

  14. Interventional Radiology of Male Varicocele: Current Status

    SciTech Connect

    Iaccarino, Vittorio Venetucci, Pietro

    2012-12-15

    Varicocele is a fairly common condition in male individuals. Although a minor disease, it may cause infertility and testicular pain. Consequently, it has high health and social impact. Here we review the current status of interventional radiology of male varicocele. We describe the radiological anatomy of gonadal veins and the clinical aspects of male varicocele, particularly the physical examination, which includes a new clinical and ultrasound Doppler maneuver. The surgical and radiological treatment options are also described with the focus on retrograde and antegrade sclerotherapy, together with our long experience with these procedures. Last, we compare the outcomes, recurrence and persistence rates, complications, procedure time and cost-effectiveness of each method. It clearly emerges from this analysis that there is a need for randomized multicentre trials designed to compare the various surgical and percutaneous techniques, all of which are aimed at occlusion of the anterior pampiniform plexus.

  15. Clinical development and current status: Europe.

    PubMed

    Wirz, Dieter; Daniels, A U; Göpfert, Beat; Morscher, Erwin W

    2005-01-01

    This article reviews the development and current status of cemented fixation in total hip replacement in Europe. Key points include the wide country-to-country variation in use of cemented vs. non-cemented fixation and the largely overlooked importance of the choice of bone cement as a factor highly correlated with clinical outcome. Laboratory studies by the authors are also reviewed. Results suggest that the type of acrylic bone cement used affects wear phenomena at the implant/cement interface. Further studies by microcalorimetry suggest that certain aspects of acrylic starting materials (low molecular weight and use of radiation sterilization) affect long-term physico-chemical stability and may thus influence clinical outcomes.

  16. Current Status of Concentrator Photovoltaic (CPV) Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Philipps, Simon P.; Bett, Andreas W.; Horowitz, Kelsey; Kurtz, Sarah

    2015-12-01

    This report summarizes the status of the concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) market and industry as well as current trends in research and technology. This report is intended to guide research agendas for Fraunhofer ISE, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), and other R&D organizations. Version 1.1 of this report includes recent progress in CPV. The recent record module efficiency of 38.9% at Concentrator Standard Test Conditions (CSTC) is an impressive result, demonstrating the continuing opportunity for CPV technology to improve. 38.9% at Concentrator Standard Test Conditions (CSTC) is an impressive result, demonstrating the continuing opportunity for CPV technology to improve. 38.9% at Concentrator Standard Test Conditions (CSTC) is an impressive result, demonstrating the continuing opportunity for CPV technology to improve. 38.9% at Concentrator Standard Test Conditions (CSTC) is an impressive result, demonstrating the continuing opportunity for CPV technology to improve.

  17. Spaceborne GPS: Current Status and Future Visions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, Frank H.; Hartman, Kate; Lightsey, E. Glenn

    1998-01-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS), developed by the Department of Defense is quickly revolutionizing the architecture of future spacecraft and spacecraft systems. Significant savings in spacecraft life cycle cost, in power, and in mass can be realized by exploiting GPS technology in spaceborne vehicles. These savings are realized because GPS is a systems sensor--it combines the ability to sense space vehicle trajectory, attitude, time, and relative ranging between vehicles into one package. As a result, a reduced spacecraft sensor complement can be employed and significant reductions in space vehicle operations cost can be realized through enhanced on-board autonomy. This paper provides an overview of the current status of spaceborne GPS, a description of spaceborne GPS receivers available now and in the near future, a description of the 1997-2000 GPS flight experiments, and the spaceborne GPS team's vision for the future.

  18. Spaceborne GPS Current Status and Future Visions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, Frank H.; Hartman, Kate; Lightsey, E. Glenn

    1998-01-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS), developed by the Department of Defense, is quickly revolutionizing the architecture of future spacecraft and spacecraft systems. Significant savings in spacecraft life cycle cost, in power, and in mass can be realized by exploiting Global Positioning System (GPS) technology in spaceborne vehicles. These savings are realized because GPS is a systems sensor-it combines the ability to sense space vehicle trajectory, attitude, time, and relative ranging between vehicles into one package. As a result, a reduced spacecraft sensor complement can be employed on spacecraft and significant reductions in space vehicle operations cost can be realized through enhanced on- board autonomy. This paper provides an overview of the current status of spaceborne GPS, a description of spaceborne GPS receivers available now and in the near future, a description of the 1997-1999 GPS flight experiments and the spaceborne GPS team's vision for the future.

  19. Current Status of Vaccines for Schistosomiasis

    PubMed Central

    McManus, Donald P.; Loukas, Alex

    2008-01-01

    Schistosomiasis, caused by trematode blood flukes of the genus Schistosoma, is recognized as the most important human helminth infection in terms of morbidity and mortality. Infection follows direct contact with freshwater harboring free-swimming larval (cercaria) forms of the parasite. Despite the existence of the highly effective antischistosome drug praziquantel (PZQ), schistosomiasis is spreading into new areas, and although it is the cornerstone of current control programs, PZQ chemotherapy does have limitations. In particular, mass treatment does not prevent reinfection. Furthermore, there is increasing concern about the development of parasite resistance to PZQ. Consequently, vaccine strategies represent an essential component for the future control of schistosomiasis as an adjunct to chemotherapy. An improved understanding of the immune response to schistosome infection, both in animal models and in humans, suggests that development of a vaccine may be possible. This review considers aspects of antischistosome protective immunity that are important in the context of vaccine development. The current status in the development of vaccines against the African (Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium) and Asian (S. japonicum) schistosomes is then discussed, as are new approaches that may improve the efficacy of available vaccines and aid in the identification of new targets for immune attack. PMID:18202444

  20. The Current Status of the Kenya Capsian.

    PubMed

    Wilshaw, Alex

    East Africa is home to a rich array of stone-tool traditions that span human prehistory. It is unsurprising, therefore, that the region attracted pioneer prehistorians in the early twentieth century, including L. S. B. Leakey, E. J. Wayland and T. P. O'Brien, who created the first cultural framework for East African prehistory during the 1930s. Although aspects of this framework remain relevant today, others have become misunderstood relics of an old classification system that hinders current research. This is particularly evident in the classification of a Later Stone Age (LSA) culture - the Kenya (East African) Aurignacian, later known as Kenya (East African) Capsian. Although this cultural entity was redressed during the 1970s and 1980s and redefined as the Eburran industry, there is still mystique surrounding the current status of the Kenya Capsian, its original scope and definition, the relationship with the Eburran and its position within a modern understanding of the East African LSA. This is largely due to paradigmatic shifts in researcher attitudes, leading to the use of the Eburran as a false proxy. It is necessary now to completely remove the term Kenya Capsian as an indication of similarity among the different LSA technologies. However, there also needs to be less emphasis on the importance of the Eburran and recognition that it is just one example of a multitude of diverse localised LSA industries. This will open the way for future research into the LSA and facilitate our greater understanding of recent prehistory in East Africa.

  1. Edible vaccines: current status and future.

    PubMed

    Lal, P; Ramachandran, V G; Goyal, R; Sharma, R

    2007-04-01

    Edible vaccines hold great promise as a cost-effective, easy-to-administer, easy-to-store, fail-safe and socioculturally readily acceptable vaccine delivery system, especially for the poor developing countries. It involves introduction of selected desired genes into plants and then inducing these altered plants to manufacture the encoded proteins. Introduced as a concept about a decade ago, it has become a reality today. A variety of delivery systems have been developed. Initially thought to be useful only for preventing infectious diseases, it has also found application in prevention of autoimmune diseases, birth control, cancer therapy, etc. Edible vaccines are currently being developed for a number of human and animal diseases. There is growing acceptance of transgenic crops in both industrial and developing countries. Resistance to genetically modified foods may affect the future of edible vaccines. They have passed the major hurdles in the path of an emerging vaccine technology. Various technical obstacles, regulatory and non-scientific challenges, though all seem surmountable, need to be overcome. This review attempts to discuss the current status and future of this new preventive modality.

  2. Current hepatitis A status in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jun; Zou, Shimian; Giulivi, Antonio

    2001-01-01

    Hepatitis A, caused by the hepatitis A virus, occurs most frequently in developing countries, but also causes sporadic cases or outbreaks in industrialized countries. The most common route of transmission is fecal-oral. The incidence of hepatitis A varies with geography, and economic and environmental conditions. The epidemiological pattern of the disease has changed with improvements in hygiene and economic conditions. The incidence and prevalence of hepatitis A has decreased, while the average age of exposure and subsequent infection has increased. The present report describes the current status of hepatitis A in Canada. The incidence rate of reported cases in Canada varies from over 10/100,000 (1991) to 3.6/100,000 (1998), and is higher in males, 4.7/100,000 (1998), than in females, 2.5/100,000 (1998). The highest reported hepatitis A rates are in age groups 30 to 39 years and 40 to 59 years, and in British Columbia. Such information is important for assessing current immunization approaches and for decision-making about new preventive strategies against hepatitis A in Canada. PMID:18159360

  3. Current status of human papillomavirus vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Seokjae

    2014-01-01

    Cervical cancer is a malignant neoplasm arising from cells that originate in the cervix uteri. It is the second most prevalent cancer among women. It can have several causes; an infection with some type of human papillomavirus (HPV) is the greatest risk factor for cervical cancer. Over 100 types of HPVs have been identified, and more than 40 types of HPVs are typically transmitted through sexual contact and infect the anogenital region. Among these, a number of HPVs types, containing types 16 and 18, are classified as "high-risk" HPVs that can cause cervical cancer. The HPVs vaccine prevents infection with certain species of HPVs associated with the development of cervical cancer, genital warts, and some less common cancers. Two HPVs vaccines are currently on the global market: quadrivalent HPVs vaccine and bivalent HPV vaccine that use virus-like particles as a vaccine antigen. This review discusses the current status of HPVs vaccines on the global market, clinical trials, and the future of HPVs vaccine development. PMID:25003090

  4. The Global Ecosystem Dynamics Investigation: Current Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubayah, R.

    2016-12-01

    Spaceborne lidar has been identified as a key technology by the international ecosystem science community because it enables accurate estimates of canopy structure and biomass, forms the basis for fusion approaches with existing and planned missions, such as the NASA's ICESat2, ECOSTRESS and OCO3 missions, and extends the capabilities of radar missions such as the NASA-ISRO SAR, Tandem-X and the ESA BIOMASS missions. The Global Ecosystem Dynamics Investigation (GEDI) is a space-based lidar instrument scheduled for launch in late 2018. From its vantage point on the International Space Station, GEDI will provide high-resolution observations of forest vertical structure. These data will be used to address three core science questions: What is the aboveground carbon balance of the land surface? What role will the land surface play in mitigating atmospheric CO2 in the coming decades? How does ecosystem structure affect habitat quality and biodiversity? GEDI informs these science questions by making billions of lidar waveform observations per year. These canopy measurements are then used to estimate biomass and in fusion with radar and other remote sensing data to quantify changes in biomass resulting from disturbance and recovery. GEDI further marries ecosystem structure from lidar with ecosystem and habitat modeling to evaluate the impact of changes in land use and climate on carbon sequestration and biodiversity. In this talk we present an overview of the GEDI mission and its current implementation status. We first review its major science objectives and planned data sets. We then summarize GEDI algorithms and our approach to calibration and validation. Lastly, we provide the status of the instrument hardware build, as well as expected technical performance details.

  5. The current status of panoramic radiography.

    PubMed

    Hirschmann, P N

    1987-03-01

    The current status of dental panoramic tomography (rotational panoramic radiography) is reviewed. This technique is based on a combination of tomography and slit-beam radiography to provide an image of both jaws on a single film. There is a greater degree of image degradation when compared with conventional radiographic techniques due to tomographic blurring, magnification and distortion, secondary images and burn-out. Meticulous patient position is essential to accommodate their jaws to the image layer determined by the manufacturers. The absorbed doses from panoramic radiography are of a similar order to that from bitewing radiography and lower than those from a full-mouth periapical series. The individual risk of 1.3 X 10(-6) is compared with that from other radiographic examinations and smoking. The collective risk, 1.04 deaths in the UK in 1981, is relatively insignificant as is the genetic dose. The risk to the dentist and his staff is also low compared to other risks. The methods of dose limitation currently available are reviewed. The clinical indications are considered in relation to the guidelines of the American Dental Association and the Dental Estimates Board in the UK. The problems associated with attempts to measure diagnostic yield are considered. In view of the world-wide public concern at the potential dangers of ionising radiation, dentists are urged to maximize the diagnostic yield from their panoramic radiography by taking such radiographs only when clinically necessary, ensuring meticulous positioning and processing, followed by scrupulous assessment of the radiography for any sign of pathological change.

  6. Edible Vaccine: Current Status and Future Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Sohrab, Sayed Sartaj; Suhail, Mohd; Kamal, Mohammad A; Husen, Azamal; Azhar, Esam I

    2017-07-11

    Growing world population and continuous disease emergence have invited the development of more efficient new vaccines against a range of diseases. Conventional vaccines are being wildly used in the world but their production requires higher cost, more time and better infrastructure. Thus, the idea of plant-based edible vaccine technology has emerged and showed promising results with strong and effective protection against many diseases. Plants have been utilized since more than two decades as pharmaceuticals against many diseases. Plant-based technology has great potential to express genes and produce clinically important compounds in the desired tissue. Plant biotechnology has played important role in the production of pharmaceutical compounds like vaccines, antibodies, antigens, sub-units, growth hormones and enzymes by utilizing genetic modification. It has also been opened a new approach for developing an edible vaccine as an oral delivery. Edible vaccines have been shown to induce both mucosal as well as systemic immunity. Currently, many pharmaceuticals proteins as an edible vaccine have been developed in different plant expression systems and evaluated against various life-threatening diseases and some of them have reached advanced phase of the clinical trial and exhibited promising results. In this review, we have discussed about the molecular pharming, edible vaccine plant base technology and current status of developed edible vaccines in the different plant tissue expression system, mechanism of action and clinical applications with clinical trials stage, significance, requirements, advantage and disadvantage of edible vaccines. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  7. Current status of onchocerciasis in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Corredor, A; Nicholls, R S; Duque, S; Munoz de Hoyos, P; Alvarez, C A; Guderian, R H; Lopez, H H; Palma, G I

    1998-05-01

    To assess the current epidemiologic status of onchocerciasis in Colombia two surveys were undertaken in 1995 in a suspected new focus on the border between Colombia and Ecuador and in the known focus located on the Micay River. No new focus was found along the Colombia-Ecuador border. In the known focus, communities along the upper Micay River and its tributaries were surveyed; 655 adults underwent physical examinations and skin biopsies. Infected individuals were found almost exclusively in the community of Naiciona, where prevalence of infection was 40% (36 of 91). Polymerase chain reaction detection of onchocercal DNA in skin snips correlated with the skin-snip biopsy results. The prevalence of punctate keratitis, the only ocular manifestation found, was 33%. A rapid entomologic assessment demonstrated Simulium exiguum infected with Onchocerca volvulus. This is the first finding in Colombia of naturally infected black flies and confirms S. exiguum as a vector species. These data will be used for implementing a control program using periodic ivermectin distribution.

  8. The Power Systems Development Facility -- Current status

    SciTech Connect

    Pinkston, T.E.; Maxwell, J.D.; Leonard, R.F.; Vimalchand, P.

    1995-11-01

    Southern Company Services, Inc. (SCS) has entered into a cooperative agreement with the US Department of Energy (DOE) to build and operate the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF), currently under construction in Wilsonville, Alabama, 40 miles southeast of Birmingham. The objectives of the PSDF are to develop advanced coal-fired power generation technologies through testing and evaluation of hot gas cleanup systems and other major components at the pilot scale. The performance of components will be assessed and demonstrated in an integrated mode of operation and at a component size readily scaleable to commercial systems. The facility will initially contain five modules: (1) a transport reactor gasifier and combustor, (2) an advanced pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (APFBC) system, (3) a particulate control module, (4) an advanced burner-gas turbine module, and (5) a fuel cell. The five modules will initially be configured into two separate test trains, the transport reactor train (2 tons/hour of coal feed) and the APFBC train (3 tons/hour of coal feed). In addition to a project description, the project design and construction status, preparations for operations, and project test plans are reported in this paper.

  9. Current status of mini-gastric bypass

    PubMed Central

    Mahawar, Kamal K.; Kumar, Parveen; Carr, William RJ; Jennings, Neil; Schroeder, Norbert; Balupuri, Shlok; Small, Peter K.

    2016-01-01

    Mini-gastric bypass (MGP) is a promising bariatric procedure. Tens of thousands of this procedure have been performed throughout the world since Rutledge performed the first procedure in the United States of America in 1997. Several thousands of these have even been documented in the published scientific literature. Despite a proven track record over nearly two decades, this operation continues to polarise the bariatric community. A large number of surgeons across the world have strong objections to this procedure and do not perform it. The risk of symptomatic (bile) reflux, marginal ulceration, severe malnutrition, and long-term risk of gastric and oesophageal cancers are some of the commonly voiced concerns. Despite these expressed fears, several advantages such as technical simplicity, shorter learning curve, ease of revision and reversal, non-inferior weight loss and comorbidity resolution outcomes have prompted some surgeons to advocate a wider adoption of this procedure. This review examines the current status of these controversial aspects in the light of the published academic literature in English. PMID:27251826

  10. Current Status of the Large Millimeter Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavez, M.; LMT Team

    2014-03-01

    I will briefly describe the current status of the Large Millimeter Telescope (LMT), the near-term plans for the telescope and the initial suite of instrumentation. I will also summarize some of the results of the Early Science Phase that took place in the summer of 2013. The LMT is a bi-national collaboration between Mexico and the USA, led by the Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica (INAOE) and the University of Massachusetts at Amherst, to construct, commission and operate a 50m-diameter millimeter-wave radio telescope. Construction activities are complete at the 4600m LMT site on the summit of Volcan Sierra Negra, an extinct volcano in the Mexican state of Puebla. First light with the LMT (inner 32mdiameter) was successfully conducted in June and July of 2011, as well as the Early Science Phase in May-July 2013 with observations at both the 3 and 1.1mm wave-bands. The LMT antenna, outfitted with its initial complement of scientific instruments, will be a world-leading scientific research facility for millimeter-wave astronomy.

  11. Digital pathology: current status and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Al-Janabi, Shaimaa; Huisman, André; Van Diest, Paul J

    2012-07-01

    During the last decade pathology has benefited from the rapid progress of image digitizing technology. The improvement in this technology had led to the creation of slide scanners which are able to produce whole slide images (WSI) which can be explored by image viewers in a way comparable to the conventional microscope. The file size of the WSI ranges from a few megabytes to several gigabytes, leading to challenges in the area of image storage and management when they will be used routinely in daily clinical practice. Digital slides are used in pathology for education, diagnostic purposes (clinicopathological meetings, consultations, revisions, slide panels and, increasingly, for upfront clinical diagnostics) and archiving. As an alternative to conventional slides, WSI are generally well accepted, especially in education, where they are available to a large number of students with the full possibilities of annotations without the problem of variation between serial sections. Image processing techniques can also be applied to WSI, providing pathologists with tools assisting in the diagnosis-making process. This paper will highlight the current status of digital pathology applications and its impact on the field of pathology.

  12. Epilepsy Surgery: Current Status and Ongoing Challenges

    PubMed Central

    KAWAI, Kensuke

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews the current status of surgical treatment of epilepsy and introduces the ongoing challenges. Seizure outcome of resective surgery for focal seizures associated with focal lesions is satisfactory. Particularly for mesial temporal lobe epilepsy, surgical treatment should be considered from the earlier stage of the disease. Meanwhile, surgical outcome in nonlesional extratemporal lobe epilepsy is still to be improved using various approaches. Disconnective surgeries reduce surgical complications of extensive resections while achieving equivalent or better seizure outcomes. Multiple subpial transection is still being modified expecting a better outcome by transection to the vertical cortices along the sulci- and multi-directional transection from a single entry point. Hippocampal transection is expected to preserve memory function while interrupting the abnormal epileptic synchronization. Proper selection or combination of subdural and depth electrodes and a wide-band analysis of electroencephalography may improve the accurate localization of epileptogenic region. Patients for whom curative resective surgery is not indicated because of generalized or bilateral multiple nature of their epilepsies, neuromodulation therapies are options of treatment which palliate their seizures. PMID:25925752

  13. Current status and prospects of HIV treatment.

    PubMed

    Cihlar, Tomas; Fordyce, Marshall

    2016-06-01

    Current antiviral treatments can reduce HIV-associated morbidity, prolong survival, and prevent HIV transmission. Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) containing preferably three active drugs from two or more classes is required for durable virologic suppression. Regimen selection is based on virologic efficacy, potential for adverse effects, pill burden and dosing frequency, drug-drug interaction potential, resistance test results, comorbid conditions, social status, and cost. With prolonged virologic suppression, improved clinical outcomes, and longer survival, patients will be exposed to antiretroviral agents for decades. Therefore, maximizing the safety and tolerability of cART is a high priority. Emergence of resistance and/or lack of tolerability in individual patients require availability of a range of treatment options. Development of new drugs is focused on improving safety (e.g. tenofovir alafenamide) and/or resistance profile (e.g. doravirine) within the existing drug classes, combination therapies with improved adherence (e.g. single-tablet regimens), novel mechanisms of action (e.g. attachment inhibitors, maturation inhibitors, broadly neutralizing antibodies), and treatment simplification with infrequent dosing (e.g. long-acting injectables). In parallel with cART innovations, research and development efforts focused on agents that target persistent HIV reservoirs may lead to prolonged drug-free remission and HIV cure.

  14. Current Status of Therapy for Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Corey, Kathleen E.

    2009-01-01

    The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is increasing worldwide. A multi-disciplinary approach is required for its management. Screening high-risk patients allows for earlier diagnosis and the use of potentially curative therapies. Current recommendations for HCC screening for patients with cirrhosis are an abdominal ultrasound and serum alpha fetoprotein level every 6 to 12 months. Treatment choice depends on tumor stage, liver function and the patient's overall functional status. Curative therapies include surgical resection, liver transplantation (LT), transarterial chemoembolization, and radiofrequency ablation (RFA). Surgical resection, either primary resection or LT, is the treatment most likely to result in cure of HCC. Which option to pursue is based on multiple factors. LT has the potential benefit of treating both HCC and the underlying cirrhosis; however, long wait times incur the risk of tumor progression. Firm recommendations regarding the role of living donor LT for HCC are not yet possible because of conflicting data. HCC recurrence after LT is 8–11% and several adjuvant therapies have been investigated to reduce this. Bridging therapy and tumor downsizing are techniques that also may be considered to deal with long waiting periods and qualification for LT, respectively. If neither LT nor primary resection is possible, loco-regional therapies such as RFA and TACE should be considered. Systemic chemotherapies have proved disappointing for the treatment of HCC; however, newer targeted therapies such as sorafenib and cetuximab have provided new hope for the future. PMID:21180533

  15. Genetic cancer vaccines: current status and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Aurisicchio, Luigi; Ciliberto, Gennaro

    2012-08-01

    The recent approval of the first therapeutic cancer vaccine by the US Regulatory Agency represents a breakthrough event in the history of cancer treatment. The past scepticism towards this type of therapeutic intervention is now replaced by great expectations. The field is now moving towards the development of alternative vaccination technologies, which are capable of generating stronger, more durable and efficient immune responses against specific tumour-associated antigens (TAAs) in combination with cheaper and more standardised manufacturing. In this context, genetic vaccines are emerging among the most promising methodologies. Several evidences point to combinations of different genetic immunisation modalities (heterologous prime/boost) as a powerful approach to induce superior immune responses and achieve greater clinical efficacy. In this review, we provide an overview of the current status of development of genetic cancer vaccines with particular emphasis on adenoviral vector prime/DNA boost vaccination schedules. We believe that therapeutic genetic cancer vaccines have the strong potential to become an established therapeutic modality for cancer in next coming years, in a manner similar to what have now become monoclonal antibodies.

  16. Beagle 2: Mission to Mars - Current Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, E. K., Jr.; Pillinger, C. T.; Wright, I. P.; Morgan, G. H.; Yau, D.; Stewart, J. L. C.; Leese, M. R.; Praine, I. J.; Sheridan, S.

    2004-01-01

    Beagle 2 is a 72 kg probe (with a 32 kg lander) developed in the United Kingdom for inclusion on the European Space Agency's 2003 Mars Express. Beagle 2 was launched on June 2, 2003 with Mars Express on a Soyuz-Fregat rocket from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan. Beagle 2 landed on Mars on December 25th, 2003 in Isidis Planitia (approx. 10.7 N and 268.6 W), a large sedimentary basin that overlies the boundary between ancient highlands and northern plains. Isidis Planitia, the third largest impact basin on Mars, which is possibly filled with sediment deposited at the bottom of long-standing lakes or seas, offers an ideal environment for preserving traces of life. The team is awaiting signals from the Beagle 2 lander at the time when this abstract was written. Current status of the mission will be reported. Beagle 2 was developed to search for organic material and other volatiles on and below the surface of Mars in addition to the study of the inorganic chemistry and mineralogy. Several fundamental properties can be used to determine the existence of an active or past biology on any planet, Earth or Mars. Beagle 2's targets for investigation included: (a) The presence of water, or the existence of minerals deposited from water to show that water was present, even if only transiently; (b) The detection of carbonaceous debris, the remains of organisms that might have lived in water or were washed to a final resting place by the action of water; (c) The structure of organic matter, to demonstrate that it might have been synthesized for a biological purpose; (d) The recognition of isotopic fractionation between carbonaceous phases (organic vs inorganic carbon phases), a condition which on Earth suggests that life emerged nearly 4 billion years ago.

  17. Semiconductor plasmonic nanolasers: current status and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwo, Shangjr; Shih, Chih-Kang

    2016-08-01

    Scaling down semiconductor lasers in all three dimensions holds the key to the development of compact, low-threshold, and ultrafast coherent light sources, as well as integrated optoelectronic and plasmonic circuits. However, the minimum size of conventional semiconductor lasers utilizing dielectric cavity resonators (photonic cavities) is limited by the diffraction limit. To date, surface plasmon amplification by stimulated emission of radiation (spaser)-based plasmonic nanolaser is the only photon and plasmon-emitting device capable of this remarkable feat. Specifically, it has been experimentally demonstrated that the use of plasmonic cavities based on metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) nanostructures can indeed break the diffraction limit in all three dimensions. In this review, we present an updated overview of the current status for plasmonic nanolasers using the MIS configuration and other related metal-cladded semiconductor microlasers. In particular, by using composition-varied indium gallium nitride/gallium nitride core-shell nanorods, it is possible to realize all-color, single-mode nanolasers in the full visible wavelength range with ultralow continuous-wave (CW) lasing thresholds. The lasing action in these subdiffraction plasmonic cavities is achieved via a unique auto-tuning mechanism based on the property of weak size dependence inherent in plasmonic nanolasers. As for the choice of metals in the plasmonic structures, epitaxial silver films and giant colloidal silver crystals have been shown to be the superior constituent materials for plasmonic cavities due to their low plasmonic losses in the visible and near-infrared (NIR) spectral regions. In this review, we also provide some perspectives on the challenges and opportunities in this exciting new research frontier.

  18. Beagle 2: Mission to Mars - Current Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, E. K., Jr.; Pillinger, C. T.; Wright, I. P.; Morgan, G. H.; Yau, D.; Stewart, J. L. C.; Leese, M. R.; Praine, I. J.; Sheridan, S.

    2004-01-01

    Beagle 2 is a 72 kg probe (with a 32 kg lander) developed in the United Kingdom for inclusion on the European Space Agency's 2003 Mars Express. Beagle 2 was launched on June 2, 2003 with Mars Express on a Soyuz-Fregat rocket from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan. Beagle 2 landed on Mars on December 25th, 2003 in Isidis Planitia (approx. 10.7 N and 268.6 W), a large sedimentary basin that overlies the boundary between ancient highlands and northern plains. Isidis Planitia, the third largest impact basin on Mars, which is possibly filled with sediment deposited at the bottom of long-standing lakes or seas, offers an ideal environment for preserving traces of life. The team is awaiting signals from the Beagle 2 lander at the time when this abstract was written. Current status of the mission will be reported. Beagle 2 was developed to search for organic material and other volatiles on and below the surface of Mars in addition to the study of the inorganic chemistry and mineralogy. Several fundamental properties can be used to determine the existence of an active or past biology on any planet, Earth or Mars. Beagle 2's targets for investigation included: (a) The presence of water, or the existence of minerals deposited from water to show that water was present, even if only transiently; (b) The detection of carbonaceous debris, the remains of organisms that might have lived in water or were washed to a final resting place by the action of water; (c) The structure of organic matter, to demonstrate that it might have been synthesized for a biological purpose; (d) The recognition of isotopic fractionation between carbonaceous phases (organic vs inorganic carbon phases), a condition which on Earth suggests that life emerged nearly 4 billion years ago.

  19. The Copernicus Sentinel-3 Mission: Current Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donlon, C.; Berruti, B.; Mavrocordatos, C.; Nieke, J.; Seitz, B.; Frerrick, J.; Vuilleumier@esa int, P.; Rebhan, H.; Mecklenburg, S.; Goryl, P.; Féménias, P.

    2016-02-01

    Sentinel-3 is an operational mission in high-inclination, low earth orbit for the provision of observational data to Copernicus services. Products include ocean, ice and land surface altimetry, complemented by thermal and visible wavelength multi-spectral image data. The operational character of the mission implies a high level of availability of the data products and fast delivery time, which have been important design drivers for the mission. In terms of ocean applications, the Sentinel-3 payload is designed to monitor open-ocean, coastal and inland waters using a suite of contemporaneous measurements. The spacecraft accommodates a topography payload consisting of a SAR Radar Altimeter (SRAL) and a Microwave Radiometer (MWR) plus a suite of instruments for precise orbit determination (POD). In addition, two large optical instruments - the Ocean and Land Colour Instrument (OLCI) and the Sea and Land Surface Temperature Radiometer instrument (SLSTR) have been developed as part of the mission. Full performance will be achieved with a constellation of two identical satellites, separated by 180 degrees in the same orbital plane. Together, the optical and topography instruments of Sentinel-3 will ensure the continuation of important data streams established with ESA's ERS and ENVISAT satellites. Four Sentinel-3 satellites are in development with Sentinel-3A planned for launch in late 2015 and the Sentinel-3B satellite launch expected in 2017. Procurement of the C and D satellites is ongoing. The overall service duration is planned to be 20 years and is expected to be fulfilled by a series of several satellites. This paper reports the current status of the Sentinel-3 Mission and presets some first results from the instrument payload.

  20. Slings in iatrogenic male incontinence: Current status

    PubMed Central

    Gallo, Fabrizio; Schenone, M.; Giberti, C.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: The increasing number of prostatectomies entails an increasing number of patients suffering from iatrogenic incontinence despite improved surgical techniques. The severity of this problem often requires invasive treatments such as periurethral injection of bulking agents, artificial urinary sphincter (AUS) implantation, and sub-urethral sling positioning. The artificial urethral sphincter has represented, until today, the gold standard but, in the recent years, sling systems have been investigated as minimally invasive alternative options. Today, three different sling procedures are commonly performed: bone-anchored, readjustable, and trans-obturator slings systems. The aim of this review is to critically report the current status of sling systems in the treatment of iatrogenic male incontinence. Materials and Methods: MEDLINE and PubMed databases were searched and all articles between 1974 and 2009 were evaluated. Results: With regard to bone-anchored, readjustable, and trans-obturator slings systems, cure rates ranged between 58.0% and 86.0%, 55.5% and 73.0%, and 40.0% and 63.0%, respectively, while major complication rates ranged between 0 and 14.5%, 10.0 and 22.2%, and 0 and 10.0%, respectively. Conclusions: Suburethral slings are the only alternative techniques which can be favorably compared with the AUS, showing more advantages with respect to AUS implantations which are mainly represented by a quick and less invasive approach, low morbidity, and low costs. In spite of the difficulty in identifying the most effective sling procedure, overall, sling systems can be recommended for patients with persistent mild or moderate incontinence. However, the indication can also be extended to patients with severe incontinence, after appropriate counseling, allowing AUS implantation in the event of sling failure. PMID:20877609

  1. Current Status of Nuclear Physics Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertulani, Carlos A.; Hussein, Mahir S.

    2015-12-01

    In this review, we discuss the current status of research in nuclear physics which is being carried out in different centers in the world. For this purpose, we supply a short account of the development in the area which evolved over the last nine decades, since the discovery of the neutron. The evolution of the physics of the atomic nucleus went through many stages as more data became available. We briefly discuss models introduced to discern the physics behind the experimental discoveries, such as the shell model, the collective model, the statistical model, the interacting boson model, etc., some of these models may be seemingly in conflict with each other, but this was shown to be only apparent. The richness of the ideas and abundance of theoretical models attests to the important fact that the nucleus is a really singular system in the sense that it evolves from two-body bound states such as the deuteron, to few-body bound states, such as 4He, 7Li, 9Be, etc. and up the ladder to heavier bound nuclei containing up to more than 200 nucleons. Clearly, statistical mechanics, usually employed in systems with very large number of particles, would seemingly not work for such finite systems as the nuclei, neither do other theories which are applicable to condensed matter. The richness of nuclear physics stems from these restrictions. New theories and models are presently being developed. Theories of the structure and reactions of neutron-rich and proton-rich nuclei, called exotic nuclei, halo nuclei, or Borromean nuclei, deal with the wealth of experimental data that became available in the last 35 years. Furthermore, nuclear astrophysics and stellar and Big Bang nucleosynthesis have become a more mature subject. Due to limited space, this review only covers a few selected topics, mainly those with which the authors have worked on. Our aimed potential readers of this review are nuclear physicists and physicists in other areas, as well as graduate students interested in

  2. Critical Consciousness: Current Status and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Roderick J.; Diemer, Matthew A.; Voight, Adam M.

    2011-01-01

    In this chapter, the authors consider Paulo Freire's construct of critical consciousness (CC) and why it deserves more attention in research and discourse on youth political and civic development. His approach to education and similar ideas by other scholars of liberation aims to foster a critical analysis of society--and one's status within…

  3. Critical Consciousness: Current Status and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Roderick J.; Diemer, Matthew A.; Voight, Adam M.

    2011-01-01

    In this chapter, the authors consider Paulo Freire's construct of critical consciousness (CC) and why it deserves more attention in research and discourse on youth political and civic development. His approach to education and similar ideas by other scholars of liberation aims to foster a critical analysis of society--and one's status within…

  4. The Current Status of Statewide Networks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, Deneen; Kurshan, Barbara

    1994-01-01

    Describes the status of educational telecommunications networks operated and funded by state government agencies to support K-12 programs. Summaries of a 1993 survey and other recent studies are presented together with recommendations for network infrastructure, instruction, transport, funding, and evaluation development. (Contains 12 references.)…

  5. The Current Status of STEM Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Josh

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the current Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) education research base through an analysis of articles from eight journals focused on the STEM disciplines. Analyzed are both practitioner and research publications to determine the current scope of STEM education research, where current STEM education…

  6. Counselling International Students in Turkish Universities: Current Status and Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bektas, Dilek Yelda

    2008-01-01

    In the present study, the current status of international students and counselling services provided at Turkish universities is addressed. Firstly, a brief history of counselling and counselling services in Turkish universities is examined, leading to a consideration of the current status of international students and counselling services.…

  7. Potential for unreliable interpretation of EEG recorded with microelectrodes

    PubMed Central

    Stacey, William C.; Kellis, Spencer; Greger, Bradley; Butson, Christopher R.; Patel, Paras R.; Assaf, Trevor; Mihaylova, Temenuzhka; Glynn, Simon

    2013-01-01

    , and sharp edges. SIGNIFICANCE Microelectrodes should not be used with low impedance (< 1GΩ) amplifiers due to severe signal attenuation and variability that changes clinical interpretations. The current method of preparing microelectrodes can leave sharp edges and nonuniform amounts of exposed wire. Even when recorded with higher impedance amplifiers, microelectrode data is highly prone to artifacts that are difficult to interpret. Great care must be taken when analyzing iEEG from high impedance microelectrodes. PMID:23647099

  8. Mapping the human genome: Current status

    SciTech Connect

    Stephens, J.C. ); Gradie, M.I.; Mador, M.L.; Kidd, K.K. ); Cavanaugh, M.L.

    1990-10-12

    The human genome has already been the subject of extensive research activity even though the Human Genome Project is only just officially starting. This review attempts to provide an integrated, quantitative, and detailed summary of the status of knowledge on the human genome in mid-1990. The analysis has highlighted the rudimentary nature of many of the information links needed for the task. While this overview could not be fully comprehensive and required simplifying assumptions, the results have provided estimates of relative progress on a region-by-region basis throughout the genome.

  9. The proton spin contents'': Current status perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Ta-Pei . Dept. of Physics); Li, Ling-Fong . Dept. of Physics)

    1990-01-01

    The present status of the phenomenological and theoretical interpretation of the EMC result on the polarized deep elastic scattering is reviewed. We focus our discussion on the possibility of a significant gluonic contribution to the proton spin via the axial anomaly. We contrast the variant perspectives on this question: the viewpoint that stresses the interpretation in terms of the parton distributions vs the one that concentrates on the matrix elements of local operators. Some remarks concerning the validity of OZI rule for the strange quark are also included. 53 refs.

  10. Current status of herbal product: Regulatory overview.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    A review of the regulatory status of herbal drugs/products was done for few countries forming part of Asia, Africa, America, Europe, and Australia, to understand various categories under which the trade of herbal products is permitted and their premarketing requirements. A critical assessment was done, to know the hindrances in the process of harmonization of herbal products. It has been found that there is a lack of harmonization in the regulatory requirements of herbal products internationally, besides the issues of availability of herbs and their conservation. These are hindering the international trade and growth of the herbal products segment.

  11. Current status of herbal product: Regulatory overview

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    A review of the regulatory status of herbal drugs/products was done for few countries forming part of Asia, Africa, America, Europe, and Australia, to understand various categories under which the trade of herbal products is permitted and their premarketing requirements. A critical assessment was done, to know the hindrances in the process of harmonization of herbal products. It has been found that there is a lack of harmonization in the regulatory requirements of herbal products internationally, besides the issues of availability of herbs and their conservation. These are hindering the international trade and growth of the herbal products segment. PMID:26681886

  12. Radiation Metabolomics: Current Status and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Menon, Smrithi S.; Uppal, Medha; Randhawa, Subeena; Cheema, Mehar S.; Aghdam, Nima; Usala, Rachel L.; Ghosh, Sanchita P.; Cheema, Amrita K.; Dritschilo, Anatoly

    2016-01-01

    Human exposure to ionizing radiation (IR) disrupts normal metabolic processes in cells and organs by inducing complex biological responses that interfere with gene and protein expression. Conventional dosimetry, monitoring of prodromal symptoms, and peripheral lymphocyte counts are of limited value as organ- and tissue-specific biomarkers for personnel exposed to radiation, particularly, weeks or months after exposure. Analysis of metabolites generated in known stress-responsive pathways by molecular profiling helps to predict the physiological status of an individual in response to environmental or genetic perturbations. Thus, a multi-metabolite profile obtained from a high-resolution mass spectrometry-based metabolomics platform offers potential for identification of robust biomarkers to predict radiation toxicity of organs and tissues resulting from exposures to therapeutic or non-therapeutic IR. Here, we review the status of radiation metabolomics and explore applications as a standalone technology, as well as its integration in systems biology, to facilitate a better understanding of the molecular basis of radiation response. Finally, we draw attention to the identification of specific pathways that can be targeted for the development of therapeutics to alleviate or mitigate harmful effects of radiation exposure. PMID:26870697

  13. Critical consciousness: current status and future directions.

    PubMed

    Watts, Roderick J; Diemer, Matthew A; Voight, Adam M

    2011-01-01

    In this chapter, the authors consider Paulo Freire's construct of critical consciousness (CC) and why it deserves more attention in research and discourse on youth political and civic development. His approach to education and similar ideas by other scholars of liberation aims to foster a critical analysis of society--and one's status within it--using egalitarian, empowering, and interactive methods. The aim is social change as well as learning, which makes these ideas especially relevant to the structural injustice faced by marginalized youth. From their review of these ideas, the authors derive three core CC components: critical reflection, political efficacy, and critical action. They highlight promising research related to these constructs and innovative applied work including youth action-research methodology. Their conclusion offers ideas for closing some of the critical gaps in CC theory and research. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  14. Current Status of the GBM Project

    SciTech Connect

    Lichti, Giselher G.; Diehl, R.; Greiner, J.; Steinle, H.; Kienlin, A. von; Bhat, N.; Briggs, M.; Connaughton, V.; Paciesas, W.; Preece, R.; Fishman, G.; Kouveliotou, C.; Meegan, C.

    2007-05-01

    One of the scientific goals of the Large-Area Telescope (LAT) on GLAST is the study of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) in the energy range from {approx}20 MeV to {approx}300 GeV. In order to extend the energy measurement towards lower energies a secondary instrument, the GLAST Burst Monitor (GBM), will measure GRBs from {approx}10 keV to {approx}30 MeV and will therefore allow the investigation of the relation between the keV and the MeV-GeV emission from GRBs over more than six energy decades. These unprecedented measurements will furthermore permit the exploration of the unknown aspects of the high-energy burst emission. The status of the GBM project approximately one year before launch is reported here.

  15. Status of the current parabolic dish technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sumrall, C.

    1981-01-01

    Vu-graphs are presented that show that point focus distributed receiver distributed generation systems are cost competitive with current utilities. System cost caveats and typical power module costs are described. Major problems inhibiting commercialization of the parabolic dish technology were reviewed.

  16. Current Status of Astrophysics of Cosmic Rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moskalenko, Igor

    2016-03-01

    I will review the current instrumentation and recent results. I will discuss which measurements have to be done in the near future to significantly advance our knowledge about the phenomenon of cosmic rays, their sources, and their interactions with the interstellar medium. A support from NASA APRA Grant No. NNX13AC47G is greatly acknowledged.

  17. The Current Status of the WARP Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szelc, A. M.; Benetti, P.; Calligarich, E.; Calaprice, F.; Cambiaghi, M.; Carbonara, F.; Cavanna, F.; Cocco, A. G.; Dipompeo, F.; Ferrari, N.; Fiorillo, G.; Galbiati, C.; Grandi, L.; Mangano, G.; Montanari, C.; Palamara, O.; Pandola, L.; Rappoldi, A.; Raselli, G. L.; Roncadelli, M.; Rossella, M.; Rubbia, C.; Santorelli, R.; Vignoli, C.; Zhao, Y.

    2006-07-01

    The WARP detector is a new idea in Dark Matter detection using liquid noble gases, specifically argon. We believe that argon is the medium best suited to detect nuclear recoils coming from interactions with the so called WIMPs (Weakly Interacting Massive Particles). The detection technique, using two different discrimination methods, is capable of an identification power as high as one event in 108. During the second half of the year 2006 the next, 100 liter, detector will be constructed with an active veto shield to further suppress the background, while currently a 2.3 liter prototype, installed in the Gran Sasso Laboratory (Italy), has been taking data since May 2004. The small version of the detector is able to not only provide insight on the operation of a two-phase liquid argon chamber but is also able to provide physics results competitive with the current leading edge experiments.

  18. Aurora Kinase Inhibitors: Current Status and Outlook.

    PubMed

    Bavetsias, Vassilios; Linardopoulos, Spiros

    2015-01-01

    The Aurora kinase family comprises of cell cycle-regulated serine/threonine kinases important for mitosis. Their activity and protein expression are cell cycle regulated, peaking during mitosis to orchestrate important mitotic processes including centrosome maturation, chromosome alignment, chromosome segregation, and cytokinesis. In humans, the Aurora kinase family consists of three members; Aurora-A, Aurora-B, and Aurora-C, which each share a conserved C-terminal catalytic domain but differ in their sub-cellular localization, substrate specificity, and function during mitosis. In addition, Aurora-A and Aurora-B have been found to be overexpressed in a wide variety of human tumors. These observations led to a number of programs among academic and pharmaceutical organizations to discovering small molecule Aurora kinase inhibitors as anti-cancer drugs. This review will summarize the known Aurora kinase inhibitors currently in the clinic, and discuss the current and future directions.

  19. Aurora Kinase Inhibitors: Current Status and Outlook

    PubMed Central

    Bavetsias, Vassilios; Linardopoulos, Spiros

    2015-01-01

    The Aurora kinase family comprises of cell cycle-regulated serine/threonine kinases important for mitosis. Their activity and protein expression are cell cycle regulated, peaking during mitosis to orchestrate important mitotic processes including centrosome maturation, chromosome alignment, chromosome segregation, and cytokinesis. In humans, the Aurora kinase family consists of three members; Aurora-A, Aurora-B, and Aurora-C, which each share a conserved C-terminal catalytic domain but differ in their sub-cellular localization, substrate specificity, and function during mitosis. In addition, Aurora-A and Aurora-B have been found to be overexpressed in a wide variety of human tumors. These observations led to a number of programs among academic and pharmaceutical organizations to discovering small molecule Aurora kinase inhibitors as anti-cancer drugs. This review will summarize the known Aurora kinase inhibitors currently in the clinic, and discuss the current and future directions. PMID:26734566

  20. An independent Cepheid distance scale: Current status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, T. G., III

    1980-01-01

    An independent distance scale for Cepheid variables is discussed. The apparent magnitude and the visual surface brightness, inferred from an appropriate color index, are used to determine the angular diameter variation of the Cepheid. When combined with the linear displacement curve obtained from the integrated radial velocity curve, the distance and linear radius are determined. The attractiveness of the method is its complete independence of all other stellar distance scales, even though a number of practical difficulties currently exist in implementing the technique.

  1. Health Status of Current National Guard Members

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-08-01

    will permit comparison to other population norms (e.g., Medical Outcomes Study Short Form Health Survey, SF36 (Ware 1993, 1994); SF36V (Kazis et al...Respondents should be aware that notwithstanding any other provision of law, no person shall be subject to any penalty for failing to comply with a...collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT

  2. Supersymmetry: Current status and future prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Baer, H. . Dept. of Physics); White, A. . Dept. of Physics); Amos, N.; Beretvas, A. ); Barnett, R.M. ); Bhattacharya, G. . Dept. of Physics); De, K. . Dept. of Physi

    1990-11-01

    We review the most recent data from e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} and p{bar p} colliders and discuss the resulting constraints on the parameters of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model, and their implications for future supersymmetry searches. We review the patterns of cascade decays of squarks and gluinos and discuss the present status of supersymmetry event generators for hadron colliders. We present the results of detailed simulations of E{sub T} and same sign dilepton events from supersymmetry at the Tevatron. Although the E{sub T} signal continues to be viable, it is concluded that the same sign dilepton signal may be too small unless squarks and gluinos are approximately degenerate. The E{sub T} and the same-sign dilepton signals from supersymmetry and the Standard Model backgrounds at the SSC are also discussed in detail. We also discuss other promising ways of searching for supersymmetry at the SSC including events containing Z{degree} bosons, and events containing n isolated leptons (n {ge} 3). Finally, we discuss how supersymmetry searches might be modified if the Higgs sectors is more complicated or if R-parity is not conserved due to baryon number violating interactions. 49 refs., 12 figs.

  3. Cacao biotechnology: current status and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Wickramasuriya, Anushka M; Dunwell, Jim M

    2017-10-06

    Theobroma cacao - The Food of the Gods, provides the raw material for the multi-billion dollar chocolate industry, and is also the main source of income for about 6 million smallholders around the world. Additionally, cocoa beans have a number of other non-food uses in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Specifically, the potential health benefits of cocoa have received increasing attention as it is rich in polyphenols, particularly flavonoids. At present, the demand for cocoa and cocoa-based products in Asia is growing particularly rapidly and chocolate manufacturers are increasing investment in this region. However, in many Asian countries, cocoa production is hampered due to many reasons including technological, political and socio-economic issues. This review provides an overview of the present status of global cocoa production and recent advances in biotechnological applications for cacao improvement, with special emphasis on genetics/genomics, in vitro embryogenesis and genetic transformation. In addition, in order to obtain an insight into the latest innovations in the commercial sector, a survey was conducted on granted patents relating to T. cacao biotechnology. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  4. SOFIA: Science Vision and Current Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horner, Scott D.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation details the science and status of the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA). SOFIA is a 2.5 m Telescope designed to fit into a modified Boeing 747SP aircraft. It will have imaging and spectroscopy from .03 micron to 1.6 mm, emphasizing the obscured infrared spectrum (i.e., 30-300 micron). It will fly between 39,000 to 45,000 feet, above over 99.8 % of the water vapor which obscures the infrared from other ground based telescopes. Since it is on a ground based airplane, the instrumentation can be interchangeable between flights, it can fly anywhere and anytime. Diagrams show an overview of the observatory, the optical layout, and a comparison of SOFIA with the other major IR Imaging spectroscopic Space Observatories. Pictures include a shot of the installation of the primary mirror, and the Telescope instrument interface. Charts show the first generation instruments, and their ranges of spectral observation. Also the presentation reviews the science questions that SOFIA's instruments will assist in reviewing.

  5. Current Status of Hybrid Bearing Damage Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dempsey, Paula J.; Certo, Joseph M.; Morales, Wilfredo

    2004-01-01

    Advances in material development and processing have led to the introduction of ceramic hybrid bearings for many applications. The introduction of silicon nitride hybrid bearings into the high pressure oxidizer turbopump, on the space shuttle main engine, led NASA to solve a highly persistent and troublesome bearing problem. Hybrid bearings consist of ceramic balls and steel races. The majority of hybrid bearings utilize Si3N4 balls. The aerospace industry is currently studying the use of hybrid bearings and naturally the failure modes of these bearings become an issue in light of the limited data available. In today s turbine engines and helicopter transmissions, the health of the bearings is detected by the properties of the debris found in the lubrication line when damage begins to occur. Current oil debris sensor technology relies on the magnetic properties of the debris to detect damage. Since the ceramic rolling elements of hybrid bearings have no metallic properties, a new sensing system must be developed to indicate the system health if ceramic components are to be safely implemented in aerospace applications. The ceramic oil debris sensor must be capable of detecting ceramic and metallic component damage with sufficient reliability and forewarning to prevent a catastrophic failure. The objective of this research is to provide a background summary on what is currently known about hybrid bearing failure modes and to report preliminary results on the detection of silicon nitride debris, in oil, using a commercial particle counter.

  6. Electrical neuromuscular stimulation in dysphagia: current status.

    PubMed

    Ludlow, Christy L

    2010-06-01

    To assess current information regarding the physiological effects of transcutaneous electrical stimulation (TES) on the neck and current evidence regarding the clinical effects of adding TES to dysphagia rehabilitation. Physiological studies have demonstrated that when electrical stimulation is applied on the throat it will lower the hyo-laryngeal complex and resist elevation needed for airway protection during swallowing. Submental TES has not been found to effectively elevate the hyo-laryngeal complex. Recent controlled clinical trials have had mixed results. Most indicate that TES is beneficial in the treatment of dysphagia; however, studies differ on whether these effects are greater than, equal to, or less than traditional therapy alone for the rehabilitation of swallowing. Currently TES for dysphagia is one of several tools available to the clinician for the rehabilitation of dysphagia. The two controlled clinical trials demonstrate that use of TES in dysphagia therapy is equivalent to traditional dysphagia therapy and of greater benefit only on one of several measures in one study. TES should be used only in patients who can overcome the resistive lowering of the hyo-laryngeal complex induced by TES which could place severely affected patients at greater risk of penetration.

  7. Thyroid status and diabetes modulate regional differences in potassium currents in rat ventricle.

    PubMed Central

    Shimoni, Y; Severson, D; Giles, W

    1995-01-01

    1. The rate dependence and recovery kinetics of the Ca(2+)-independent transient (I(t)) and steady-state or 'pedestal' (Iss) outward potassium (K+) currents were studied in single myocytes isolated from epicardial and endocardial regions of rat left ventricles. The whole-cell, suction microelectrode method was used to measure baseline (fully reactivated) I(t), as well as its rate-dependent attenuation. Results from a group of control animals were compared with data from three other groups having an experimentally altered hormonal status. 2. I(t) was significantly smaller in endocardial cells than in epicardial cells, in part due to a very large difference in the recovery kinetics of this current in endocardial cells. This was reflected in a pronounced rate-dependent prolongation of endocardial action potentials. In contrast, the non-inactivating 'pedestal' current, Iss, was very similar in magnitude and showed comparable rate dependence in cells from both epicardium and endocardium. 3. Changing the thyroid status had selective, differential actions on the amplitude and rate dependence of It in epicardial and endocardial cells. Under hypothyroid conditions there was a more pronounced reduction of baseline I(t) in epicardial than in endocardial cells. Moreover, a slowing of the recovery kinetics in epicardial cells resulted in an enhanced attenuation of this current at high rates. Changing thyroid status had no effect on the magnitude or rate dependence of Iss in cells from either region of the left ventricle. 4. Following establishment of hyperthyroid conditions, there was no significant change in I(t) magnitude at baseline. However, when compared with control data, the recovery of I(t) was considerably faster in endocardial cells, and marginally faster in epicardial cells. 5. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic conditions resulted in a much greater attenuation of I(t) in epicardial cells than in endocardial cells. Epicardial action potentials in these conditions showed

  8. Family therapy in Brazil: current status.

    PubMed

    Picon, Felipe

    2012-04-01

    In the last three decades there has been a noticeable trend in the redefinition of the nuclear family in Brazil. A recent increase in the rates of divorces and paradoxically also in the rates of marriages, the legalization of same-sex unions and adoption by these couples, and the phenomenon of teenage pregnancy are some of the aspects that reflect on the current Brazilian family. This review highlights these changes and describes how family therapists in Brazil are facing the challenge of assisting these families, in a continental-sized country with uneven distribution of training courses and healthcare assistance.

  9. Space law - Current status and issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hosenball, S. N.

    1983-01-01

    The evolution of space law over the past 25 years is surveyed, with attention also given to the procedures that were followed. The treaties now in existence are given, as are issues currently before the United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space. Projections that were made 25 years ago are discussed in the light of subsequent developments. It is noted that nearly all the technological advances in space activities forecast 25 years ago have come to pass. Various provisions of the 1967 Outer Space Principles Treaty relating to stricture against weapons and the militarization of space are discussed.

  10. Endoscopic full-thickness resection: Current status

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Arthur; Meier, Benjamin; Caca, Karel

    2015-01-01

    Conventional endoscopic resection techniques such as endoscopic mucosal resection or endoscopic submucosal dissection are powerful tools for treatment of gastrointestinal neoplasms. However, those techniques are restricted to superficial layers of the gastrointestinal wall. Endoscopic full-thickness resection (EFTR) is an evolving technique, which is just about to enter clinical routine. It is not only a powerful tool for diagnostic tissue acquisition but also has the potential to spare surgical therapy in selected patients. This review will give an overview about current EFTR techniques and devices. PMID:26309354

  11. Growth Standards for Blacks: Current Status

    PubMed Central

    Schutte, James E.

    1980-01-01

    Growth standards specific to black boys and girls are necessary because genetically determined patterns of growth in black children are significantly different from those of white children. Such standards have only recently become available, and they need further refinement. The required improvements include: (1) adjusting the standards to reflect the range of variation in growth of middle-to-upper income blacks; (2) expanding the lower age range of the standards to include children of preschool age; and (3) periodic revaluation and reformulation of the standards to keep them current with secular increases in size and maturity among black children. ImagesFigure 1 PMID:7420440

  12. The STIS MAMA status: Current detector performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danks, A. C.; Joseph, C.; Bybee, R.; Argebright, V.; Abraham, J.; Kimble, R.; Woodgate, B.

    1992-01-01

    The STIS (Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph) is a second generation Hubble instrument scheduled to fly in 1997. Through a variety of modes, the instrument will provide spectral resolutions from R approximately 50 in the objective spectroscopy mode to 100,000 in the high resolution echelle mode in the wavelength region from 115 to 1000 nm. In the UV the instrument employs two MAMA (Multimode Anode Microchannel plate Arrays) 1024 by 1024 pixel detectors, which provide high DQE (Detective Quantum Efficiency), and good dynamic range and resolution. The current progress and performance of these detectors are reported, illustrating that the technology is mature and that the performance is very close to flight requirements.

  13. Atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis: Current status

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Soon Hyo; Lerman, Lilach O.

    2014-01-01

    Atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis (ARAS) remains a major cause of secondary hypertension and renal failure. Randomized, prospective trials show that medical treatment should constitute the main therapeutic approach in ARAS. Regardless of intensive treatment and adequate blood pressure control, however, renal and extra-renal complications are not uncommon. Yet, the precise mechanisms, accurate detection, and optimal treatment in ARAS remain elusive. Strategies oriented to early detection and targeting these pathogenic pathways might prevent development of clinical endpoints. Here, we review the results of recent clinical trials, current understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms, novel imaging techniques to assess renal damage in ARAS, and treatment options. PMID:25908472

  14. Current status of the implantable LVAD.

    PubMed

    Kadakia, Sagar; Moore, Ryan; Ambur, Vishnu; Toyoda, Yoshiya

    2016-09-01

    With the ongoing shortage of available organs for heart transplantation, mechanical circulatory support devices have been increasingly utilized for managing acute and chronic heart failure that is refractory to medical therapy. In particular, the introduction of the left ventricular assist devices (LVAD) has revolutionized the field. In this review, we will discuss a brief history of the LVAD, available devices, current indications, patient selection, complications, and outcomes. In addition, we will discuss recent outcomes and advancements in the field of noncardiac surgery in the LVAD patient. Finally, we will discuss several topics for surgical consideration during LVAD implantation.

  15. [Current status and future of lung transplantation].

    PubMed

    Date, Hiroshi

    2011-10-01

    Lung transplantation has been a widely accepted treatment modality for patients with end-stage chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD). COPD is the most frequent indication for lung transplantation according to the report from International Society for Lung and Heart Transplantation. However, it is a minor population in Japan. A total of 204 lung transplants have been performed in Japan to date. Among them, 10 patients were suffering from severe COPD. Nine of them received cadaveric lung transplantation and one received living-donor lobar lung transplantation. All are currently alive during follow-up period of 3-87 months.

  16. [Accuracy limits in IOL calculation: current status].

    PubMed

    Preussner, P-R

    2007-12-01

    Overview over the single independent error contributions of IOL power calculation and their currently achievable lower limits. Analysis of the reasons of avoidable and unavoidable single errors which contribute to the overall error: measuring errors of axial length and corneal radii; errors due to neglecting of relevant influences such as pupil width, asphericity of cornea and IOL and IOL geometry; calculation errors from inadequate calculation methods; estimation errors of postoperative IOL position; IOL manufacturing errors. The said error contributions are to be compared with the reproducibility error of the refraction. All calculations use a numerical raytracing based on the geometric-optical IOL manufacturing data. Axial eye length with an error of approximately 0.2 D is no longer the dominating error if the measurements are performed by interferometry, the same is true for corneal readii in normal eyes. The latter, however, causes the dominant error in eyes after corneal refractive surgery ( approximately 1.5 D) if measured only by keratometry. This error can be avoided if a topographic measurement is included into the raytracing, and in some cases also the measurement of posterior corneal surface has to be included. Currently the dominant unavoidable error contribution results from the uncertainty of postoperative IOL position ( approximately 0.35 D). Some errors of classical IOL formulae can be avoided by raytracing. But if the total error threshold shall be below the error of refraction, the prediction accuracy of postoperative IOL position must be improved.

  17. Esophageal tissue engineering: Current status and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Poghosyan, T; Catry, J; Luong-Nguyen, M; Bruneval, P; Domet, T; Arakelian, L; Sfeir, R; Michaud, L; Vanneaux, V; Gottrand, F; Larghero, J; Cattan, P

    2016-02-01

    Tissue engineering, which consists of the combination and in vivo implantation of elements required for tissue remodeling toward a specific organ phenotype, could be an alternative for classical techniques of esophageal replacement. The current hybrid approach entails creation of an esophageal substitute composed of an acellular matrix and autologous epithelial and muscle cells provides the most successful results. Current research is based on the use of mesenchymal stem cells, whose potential for differentiation and proangioogenic, immune-modulator and anti-inflammatory properties are important assets. In the near future, esophageal substitutes could be constructed from acellular "intelligent matrices" that contain the molecules necessary for tissue regeneration; this should allow circumvention of the implantation step and still obtain standardized in vivo biological responses. At present, tissue engineering applications to esophageal replacement are limited to enlargement plasties with absorbable, non-cellular matrices. Nevertheless, the application of existing clinical techniques for replacement of other organs by tissue engineering in combination with a multiplication of translational research protocols for esophageal replacement in large animals should soon pave the way for health agencies to authorize clinical trials. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Current Status of Adult Spinal Deformity

    PubMed Central

    Youssef, J. A.; Orndorff, D. O.; Patty, C. A.; Scott, M. A.; Price, H. L.; Hamlin, L. F.; Williams, T. L.; Uribe, J. S.; Deviren, V.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To review the current literature for the nonoperative and operative treatment for adult spinal deformity. Recent Findings With more than 11 million baby boomers joining the population of over 60 years of age in the United States, the incidence of lumbar deformity is greatly increasing. Recent literature suggests that a lack of evidence exists to support the effectiveness of nonoperative treatment for adult scoliosis. In regards to operative treatment, current literature reports a varying range of improved clinical outcomes, curve correction, and complication rates. The extension of fusion to S1 compared with L5 and lower thoracic levels compared with L1 remains a highly controversial topic among literature. Summary Most adult deformity patients never seek nonoperative or operative treatment. Of the few that seek treatment, many can benefit from nonoperative treatment. However, in selected patients who have failed nonoperative treatment and who are candidates for surgical intervention, the literature reflects positive outcomes related to surgical intervention as compared with nonoperative treatment despite varying associated ranges in morbidity and mortality rates. If nonoperative therapy fails in addressing a patient's complaints, then an appropriate surgical procedure that relieves neural compression, corrects excessive sagittal or coronal imbalance, and results in a solidly fused, pain-free spine is warranted. PMID:24436852

  19. Current status of intestinal and multivisceral transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Bharadwaj, Shishira; Tandon, Parul; Gohel, Tushar D.; Brown, Jill; Steiger, Ezra; Kirby, Donald F.; Khanna, Ajai

    2017-01-01

    Clinical-nutritional autonomy is the ultimate goal of patients with intestinal failure (IF). Traditionally, patients with IF have been relegated to lifelong parenteral nutrition (PN) once surgical and medical rehabilitation attempts at intestinal adaptation have failed. Over the past two decades, however, outcome improvements in intestinal transplantation have added another dimension to the therapeutic armamentarium in the field of gut rehabilitation. This has become possible through relentless efforts in the standardization of surgical techniques, advancements in immunosuppressive therapies and induction protocols and improvement in postoperative patient care. Four types of intestinal transplants include isolated small bowel transplant, liver-small bowel transplant, multivisceral transplant and modified multivisceral transplant. Current guidelines restrict intestinal transplantation to patients who have had significant complications from PN including liver failure and repeated infections. From an experimental stage to the currently established therapeutic modality for patients with advanced IF, outcome improvements have also been possible due to the introduction of tacrolimus in the early 1990s. Studies have shown that intestinal transplant is cost-effective within 1–3 years of graft survival compared with PN. Improved survival and quality of life as well as resumption of an oral diet should enable intestinal transplantation to be an important option for patients with IF in addition to continued rehabilitation. Future research should focus on detecting biomarkers of early rejection, enhanced immunosuppression protocols, improved postoperative care and early referral to transplant centers. PMID:28130374

  20. Current status of data on cangrelor.

    PubMed

    Qamar, Arman; Bhatt, Deepak L

    2016-03-01

    P2Y12 receptor inhibition in addition to aspirin is the cornerstone of treatment in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) and those undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Despite advances in contemporary antithrombotic therapy, periprocedural thrombotic complications such as myocardial infarction and stent thrombosis remain a major concern in patients treated with PCI. Current practice guidelines recommend treatment with a P2Y12 receptor inhibitor as early as possible in patients with ACS. Existing oral P2Y12 receptors inhibitors (clopidogrel, prasugrel, or ticagrelor) have several limitations such as delayed onset and offset of action, interindividual variation, and only oral availability. Cangrelor, an intravenous, fast-onset, direct-acting P2Y12 receptor inhibitor offers potent platelet inhibition that is rapidly reversible. In large randomized trials, cangrelor has shown substantial reduction in ischemic events with no increase in severe bleeding compared with clopidogrel among patients undergoing PCI. Cangrelor is approved as an adjunct to PCI to reduce the risk of periprocedural MI, repeat coronary revascularization, and stent thrombosis in patients who have not been pretreated with a P2Y12 receptor inhibitor and are not receiving a glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor. This review aims at providing a comprehensive analysis of the current evidence pertaining to the role of cangrelor in contemporary practice.

  1. Treatment of follicular lymphoma: current status.

    PubMed

    Tilly, Hervé; Zelenetz, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    With the recent proliferation of treatment options for patients with follicular lymphoma (FL), median survival has been shown to have improved, from 84 months between 1983 and 1989 to 93 months between 1993 and 1999. Nevertheless, relapse is common in this patient group, and treatment options that extend the duration of remission without increased toxicity are still required. Rituximab has made a major contribution to the treatment of patients with FL, improving outcomes and making new treatment schedules possible. It is now a standard practice to administer rituximab with first-line combination chemotherapy in patients with FL. In addition, a number of current trials are examining the potential role of rituximab maintenance therapy in improving outcomes in FL. However, at present it is not clear which schedules or combinations are the most effective, and further randomised controlled trials of treatment strategies incorporating rituximab are needed to provide the evidence that will allow clinicians to maximise the potential of this drug. Second-line options for the treatment of FL include allogeneic stem cell transplantation, radioimmunotherapy targeted to CD20 and, in selected patients, autologous stem cell transplantation. New treatment approaches for FL currently being investigated in the second-line setting include the proteasome inhibitor, bortezomib and novel anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies.

  2. Scaffolds in vascular regeneration: current status

    PubMed Central

    Thottappillil, Neelima; Nair, Prabha D

    2015-01-01

    An ideal vascular substitute, especially in <6 mm diameter applications, is a major clinical essentiality in blood vessel replacement surgery. Blood vessels are structurally complex and functionally dynamic tissue, with minimal regeneration potential. These have composite extracellular matrix (ECM) and arrangement. The interplay between ECM components and tissue specific cells gives blood vessels their specialized functional attributes. The core of vascular tissue engineering and regeneration relies on the challenges in creating vascular conduits that match native vessels and adequately regenerate in vivo. Out of numerous vascular regeneration concerns, the relevance of ECM emphasizes much attention toward appropriate choice of scaffold material and further scaffold development strategies. The review is intended to be focused on the various approaches of scaffold materials currently in use in vascular regeneration and current state of the art. Scaffold of choice in vascular tissue engineering ranges from natural to synthetic, decellularized, and even scaffold free approach. The applicability of tubular scaffold for in vivo vascular regeneration is under active investigation. A patent conduit with an ample endothelial luminal layer that can regenerate in vivo remains an unanswered query in the field of small diameter vascular tissue engineering. Besides, scaffolds developed for vascular regeneration, should aim at providing functional substitutes for use in a regenerative approach from the laboratory bench to patient bedside. PMID:25632236

  3. Landsat sensor performance: history and current status

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Markham, B.L.; Storey, James C.; Williams, Darrel L.; Irons, J.R.

    2004-01-01

    The current Thematic Mapper (TM) class of Landsat sensors began with Landsat-4, which was launched in 1982. This series continued with the nearly identical sensor on Landsat-5, launched in 1984. The final sensor in the series was the Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+), which was carried into orbit in 1999. Varying degrees of effort have been devoted to the characterization of these instruments and data over the past 22 years. Extensive short-lived efforts early in the history, very limited efforts in the middle years, and now a systematic program for continuing characterization of all three systems are apparent. Currently, both the Landsat-5 TM and the Landsat-7 ETM+ are operational and providing data. Despite 20+ years of operation, the TM on Landsat-5 is fully functional, although downlinks for the data are limited. Landsat-7 ETM+ experienced a failure of its Scan Line Corrector mechanism in May 2003. Although there are gaps in the data coverage, the data remain of equivalent quality to prefailure data. Data products have been developed to fill these gaps using other ETM+ scenes.

  4. Current status of diagnostic methods for henipavirus.

    PubMed

    Tamin, A; Rota, P A

    2013-01-01

    Hendra virus (HeV) and Nipah virus (NiV) are the causative agents of emerging transboundary animal disease in pigs and horses. They also cause fatal disease in humans. NiV has a case fatality rate of 40 - 100%. In the initial NiV outbreak in Malaysia in 1999, about 1.1 million pigs had to be culled. The economic impact was estimated to be approximately US$450 million. Worldwide, HeV has caused more than 60 deaths in horses with 7 human cases and 4 deaths. Since the initial outbreak, HeV spillovers from Pteropus bats to horses and humans continue. This article presents a brief review on the currently available diagnostic methods for henipavirus infections, including advances achieved since the initial outbreak, and a gap analysis of areas needing improvement.

  5. Stuttering: Current Status of Theory and Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Boberg, Einer; Webster, William G.

    1990-01-01

    When people become concerned about stuttering, either their own or their child's, they typically seek help from their family physician or pediatrician. Characteristics and effects of stuttering can help the physician determine whether the child's speech patterns are within normal range or could be early warning signs of stuttering. Referral to a speech-language pathologist should be considered when any of the following are noted: excessive part-word repetitions or sound prolongations; signs of tension, such as lip tremors, facial grimaces, or breath holding associated with speech; indications of embarrassment or apprehension; and a tendency to withdraw from speech opportunities. The authors briefly review theories on the causes of stuttering, describe current therapy, and identify some specialized treatment centres. PMID:21233985

  6. Lasers in Cardiovascular Surgery—Current Status

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, John G.; Dixon, John A.

    1985-01-01

    The argon, carbon dioxide and neodymium-YAG lasers have been proposed as effective instruments for surgical procedures of the intact cardiovascular system. While argon and CO2 lasers cause superficial (0 to 1 mm) thermal injury, the Nd:YAG laser is better suited for effecting deep thermal necrosis (3 to 4 mm). Microsurgical vessel anastomoses can be done by “tissue welding” with any of the three clinical lasers. Myocardial revascularization may be accomplished by drilling “neocapillaries” in ischemic myocardium. Endocardial resection for destroying arrhythmic pathways and removing hypertrophied septal muscle has also been successfully accomplished with laser phototherapy. Last, laser-mediated vaporization of atherosclerotic plaque in the coronary arteries and peripheral circulation may offer a percutaneous approach to the treatment of arterial occlusive disease. Cardiovascular uses of lasers are purely investigational at the current time. Much more needs to be known before widespread clinical use of lasers in the cardiovascular system can occur. PMID:3160168

  7. Lasers in cardiovascular surgery--current status.

    PubMed

    Hunter, J G; Dixon, J A

    1985-04-01

    The argon, carbon dioxide and neodymium-YAG lasers have been proposed as effective instruments for surgical procedures of the intact cardiovascular system. While argon and CO(2) lasers cause superficial (0 to 1 mm) thermal injury, the Nd:YAG laser is better suited for effecting deep thermal necrosis (3 to 4 mm). Microsurgical vessel anastomoses can be done by "tissue welding" with any of the three clinical lasers. Myocardial revascularization may be accomplished by drilling "neocapillaries" in ischemic myocardium. Endocardial resection for destroying arrhythmic pathways and removing hypertrophied septal muscle has also been successfully accomplished with laser phototherapy. Last, laser-mediated vaporization of atherosclerotic plaque in the coronary arteries and peripheral circulation may offer a percutaneous approach to the treatment of arterial occlusive disease. Cardiovascular uses of lasers are purely investigational at the current time. Much more needs to be known before widespread clinical use of lasers in the cardiovascular system can occur.

  8. RICH upgrade: Current status and future perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pistone, A.; LHCb RICH Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The LHCb experiment is dedicated to precision measurements of CP violation and rare decays of B hadrons at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN (Geneva). The second long shutdown of the LHC is currently scheduled to begin in 2018. During this period the LHCb experiment with all its sub-detectors will be upgraded in order to run at an instantaneous luminosity of 2 × 10^{33} cm-2s-1 and to read out data at a rate of 40MHz into a flexible software-based trigger. The Ring Imaging CHerenkov (RICH) system will require new photon detectors and modifications of the optics of the upstream detector. Tests of the prototype of the smallest constituent of the new RICH system have been performed during testbeam sessions at the Test Beam Facility SPS North Area (CERN) in Autumn 2014.

  9. Current Status of Biliary Metal Stents

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Hyeong Seok; Kang, Dae Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Many advances have been achieved in biliary stenting over the past 30 years. Endoscopic stent placement has become the primary management therapy to relieve obstruction in patients with benign or malignant biliary tract diseases. Compared with plastic stents, a self-expandable metallic stent (SEMS) has been used for management in patients with malignant strictures because of a larger lumen and longer stent patency. Recently, SEMS has been used for various benign biliary strictures and leaks. In this article, we briefly review the characteristics of SEMS as well as complications of stent placement. We review the current guidelines for managing malignant and benign biliary obstructions. Recent developments in biliary stenting are also discussed. PMID:26911896

  10. Anaerobic biorefinery: Current status, challenges, and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Sawatdeenarunat, Chayanon; Nguyen, Duc; Surendra, K C; Shrestha, Shilva; Rajendran, Karthik; Oechsner, Hans; Xie, Li; Khanal, Samir Kumar

    2016-09-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) has been in use for many decades. To date, it has been primarily aimed at treating organic wastes, mainly manures and wastewater sludge, and industrial wastewaters. However, with the current advancements, a more open mind is required to look beyond these somewhat restricted original applications of AD. Biorefineries are such concepts, where multiple products including chemicals, fuels, polymers etc. are produced from organic feedstocks. The anaerobic biorefinery concept is now gaining increased attention, utilizing AD as the final disposal step. This review aims at evaluating the potential significance of anaerobic biorefineries, including types of feedstocks, uses for the produced energy, as well as sustainable applications of the generated residual digestate. A comprehensive analysis of various types of anaerobic biorefineries has been developed, including both large-scale and household level applications. Finally, future directives are highlighted showing how anaerobic biorefinery concept could impact the bioeconomy in the near future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Current status and future potential of nuclide discoveries.

    PubMed

    Thoennessen, M

    2013-05-01

    Currently about 3000 different nuclei are known with about another 3000-4000 predicted to exist. A review of the discovery of the nuclei, the present status and the possibilities for future discoveries are presented.

  12. Current Status of On-Site Wastewater Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senn, Charles L.

    1978-01-01

    Wastewater management is becoming an important environmental issue nationally. This article reports the history and current status of wastewater management. Regulatory programs are discussed with specific state examples. Needs assessment is also included. (MA)

  13. Current Status of On-Site Wastewater Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senn, Charles L.

    1978-01-01

    Wastewater management is becoming an important environmental issue nationally. This article reports the history and current status of wastewater management. Regulatory programs are discussed with specific state examples. Needs assessment is also included. (MA)

  14. Current Status of Satellite PMC Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deland, M. T.

    2006-05-01

    Satellite observations of polar mesospheric clouds (PMCs) are extremely valuable because they typically have daily coverage to characterize seasonal variations, sufficient detections for each season to give good statistics, quantitative information for physical analysis, and coverage of both hemispheres to evaluate global behavior. The first measurements of PMCs from space were made in 1969, and regular measurements have been made since 1978. Since current satellite instruments are not designed to measure PMCs, a variety of observing techniques have been used, each with specific advantages and disadvantages. Satellite data provide a comprehensive picture of PMC characteristics and variability over a wide range of latitudes in both hemispheres, and on time scales ranging from daily to decadal. At least 10 different satellite instruments have observed PMCs in the last five years alone, and six instruments are currently operating. These measurements have produced many interesting results, including the following topics: altitude, occurrence frequency, brightness, particle size and shape, planetary waves, rocket exhaust effects, diurnal variations, latitudinal variations, hemispheric differences, interannual variations, and long-term variations. An important goal for future PMC work is the ability to understand the relative importance of major forcing mechanisms in the mesosphere, such as water vapor, temperature, and dynamics. The NASA Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere (AIM) mission, scheduled to launch in September 2006, will provide satellite PMC data with unprecedented spatial resolution as well as simultaneous measurements of some of these key parameters. Our challenge will be to understand the information in these data, so that we can better interpret the extensive PMC database that will continue into the future.

  15. Molecular Imaging: Current Status and Emerging Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Pysz, Marybeth A.; Gambhir, Sanjiv S.; Willmann, Jürgen K.

    2011-01-01

    In vivo molecular imaging has a great potential to impact medicine by detecting diseases in early stages (screening), identifying extent of disease, selecting disease- and patient-specific therapeutic treatment (personalized medicine), applying a directed or targeted therapy, and measuring molecular-specific effects of treatment. Current clinical molecular imaging approaches primarily use PET- or SPECT-based techniques. In ongoing preclinical research novel molecular targets of different diseases are identified and, sophisticated and multifunctional contrast agents for imaging these molecular targets are developed along with new technologies and instrumentation for multimodality molecular imaging. Contrast-enhanced molecular ultrasound with molecularly-targeted contrast microbubbles is explored as a clinically translatable molecular imaging strategy for screening, diagnosing, and monitoring diseases at the molecular level. Optical imaging with fluorescent molecular probes and ultrasound imaging with molecularly-targeted microbubbles are attractive strategies since they provide real-time imaging, are relatively inexpensive, produce images with high spatial resolution, and do not involve exposure to ionizing irradiation. Raman spectroscopy/microscopy has emerged as a molecular optical imaging strategy for ultrasensitive detection of multiple biomolecules/biochemicals with both in vivo and ex vivo versatility. Photoacoustic imaging is a hybrid of optical and ultrasound modalities involving optically-excitable molecularly-targeted contrast agents and quantitative detection of resulting oscillatory contrast agent movement with ultrasound. Current preclinical findings and advances in instrumentation such as endoscopes and microcatheters suggest that these molecular imaging modalities have numerous clinical applications and will be translated into clinical use in the near future. PMID:20541650

  16. ILRS: Current Status and Future Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearlman, M. R.; Bianco, G.; Merkowitz, S.; Noll, C. E.; Pavlis, E. C.; Shargorodsky, V.; Zhongping, Z.

    2016-12-01

    The International Laser Ranging Service (ILRS) is expanding its ground tracking capability with new stations and upgrades to current stations. Our Russian colleagues have installed new stations in Brasilia and South Africa, and have several other sites in process or in planning. The NASA Space Geodesy Program is preparing equipment for U.S. sites (McDonald and Haleakala) and with the Norwegian National Mapping Agency in Ny Ålesund; further deployments are planned. Upgrades continue at sites in China, and new sites are underway or planned in Europe and India. Stations are moving to higher repetition rates and more efficient detection to enhance satellite interleaving capability; some stations have already implemented automated processes that could lead to around-the-clock operation to increase temporal coverage and to make more efficient use of personnel. The ILRS roster of supported satellites continues to grow with the addition of the LARES satellite to augment tracking for the improvement of the ITRF. New GNSS constellations and geosynchronous satellites now bring the total roster to over 80 satellites - so much so, that new tracking strategies and time and location multiplexing are under consideration. There continues to be strong interest in Lunar Ranging. New applications of one-way and two-way laser ranging include ps-accurate time transfer, laser transponders for interplanetary ranging, and tracking of space debris. New laser ranging data products are being developed, including satellite orbit products, satellite orientation, gravity field products, and products to characterize the quality of data and station performance. This talk will give a brief summary of recent progress, current challenges and a view of the path ahead.

  17. Current status of endovascular stroke treatment.

    PubMed

    Meyers, Philip M; Schumacher, H Christian; Connolly, E Sander; Heyer, Eric J; Gray, William A; Higashida, Randall T

    2011-06-07

    interventional methods. Few would challenge neurologists over the responsibility for emergency evaluation and triage of stroke victims for intra intravenous fibrinolysis, even though emergency physicians are most commonly the first to evaluate these patients. There are many unanswered questions about the role of imaging in defining best treatment. Perfusion imaging with CT or MRI appears to have relevance even though its role remains undefined and is the subject of ongoing research. Meanwhile, investigators are exploring new, and perhaps more specific,imaging methods with cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen and cellular acid-base imbalance. There are currently 6 ongoing trials of stroke intervention, many with proprietary technologies and private funding, competing for the same patient population as multicenter trials funded by the NIH. At the same time, much of the interventional stroke treatment currently occurs outside of trials in the community and academic settings without the collection of much-needed data. Market forces will certainly shape future stroke therapy, but it is unclear whether the current combination of private and public funding for these endeavors is the best method of development.

  18. [Plasma fractionation in the world: current status].

    PubMed

    Burnouf, T

    2007-05-01

    From 22 to 25 million liters of plasma are fractionated yearly in about 70 fractionation plants, either private or government-owned, mainly located in industrialized countries, and with a capacity ranging from 50000 to three million liters. In an increasingly global environment, the plasma industry has recently gone through a major consolidation phase that has seen mergers and acquisitions, and has led to the closure of a number of small plants in Europe. Currently, some fifteen countries are involved into contract plasma fractionation programs to ensure a supply of plasma-derived medicinal products. The majority of the plasma for fractionation is obtained by automated plasmapheresis, the remaining (recovered plasma) being prepared from whole blood as a by-product of red cell production. Plasma for fractionation should be produced, and controlled following well established procedures to meet the strict quality requirements set by regulatory authorities and fractionators. The plasma fractionation technology still relies heavily on the cold ethanol fractionation process, but has been improved by the introduction of modern chromatographic purification methods, and efficient viral inactivation and removal treatments, ensuring quality and safety to a large portfolio of fractionated plasma products. The safety of these products with regards to the risk of transmission of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease seems to be provided, based on current scientific data, by extensive removal of the infectious agent during certain fractionation steps. The leading plasma product is now the intravenous immunoglobulin G, which has replaced factor VIII and albumin in this role. The supply of plasma products (most specifically coagulation products and immunoglobulin) at an affordable price and in sufficient quantity remains an issue; the problem is particularly acute in developing countries, as the switch to recombinant factor VIII in rich countries has not solved the supply issue and has

  19. Sagebrush ecosystems: current status and trends.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beever, E.A.; Connelly, J.W.; Knick, S.T.; Schroeder, M.A.; Stiver, S. J.

    2004-01-01

    The sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) biome has changed since settlement by Europeans. The current distribution, composition and dynamics, and disturbance regimes of sagebrush ecosystems have been altered by interactions among disturbance, land use, and invasion of exotic plants. In this chapter, we present the dominant factors that have influenced habitats across the sagebrush biome. Using a large-scale analysis, we identified regional changes and patterns in “natural disturbance”, invasive exotic species, and influences of land use in sagebrush systems. Number of fires and total area burned has increased since 1980 across much of the sagebrush biome. Juniper (Juniperus spp.) and pinyon (Pinus spp.) woodlands have expanded into sagebrush habitats at higher elevations. Cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum), an exotic annual grass, has invaded much of lower elevation, more xeric sagebrush landscapes across the western portion of the biome. Consequently, synergistic feedbacks between habitats and disturbance (natural and human-caused) have altered disturbance regimes, plant community dynamics and contributed to loss of sagebrush habitats and change in plant communities. Habitat conversion to agriculture has occurred in the highly productive regions of the sagebrush biome and influenced up to 56% of the Conservation Assessment area. Similarly, urban areas, and road, railroad, and powerline networks fragment habitats, facilitate predator movements, and provide corridors for spread of exotic species across the entire sagebrush biome. Livestock grazing has altered sagebrush habitats; the effects of overgrazing combined with drought on plant communities in the late 1880s and early 1900s still influences current habitats. Management of livestock grazing has influenced sagebrush ecosystems by habitat treatments to increase forage and reduce sagebrush and other plant species unpalatable to livestock. Fences, roads, and water developments to manage livestock movements have further

  20. Radiation protectants: current status and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Seed, Thomas M

    2005-11-01

    In today's heightened nuclear/biological/chemical threat environment, there is an increased need to have safe and effective means to protect not only special high-risk service groups, but also the general population at large, from the health hazards of unintended ionizing radiation exposures. An unfulfilled dream has been to have a globally effective pharmacologic that could be easily taken orally without any undue side effects prior to a suspected or impending nuclear/radiological event; such an ideal radioprotective agent has yet to be identified, let alone fully developed and approved for human use. No one would argue against the fact that this is problematic and needs to be corrected, but where might the ultimate solution to this difficult problem be found? Without question, representative species of the aminothiol family [e.g., Amifostine (MedImmune, Gaithersburg, Maryland)] have proven to be potent cytoprotectants for normal tissues subjected to irradiation or to radiomimetic chemicals. Although Amifostine is currently used clinically, drug toxicity, limited times of protection, and unfavorable routes of administration, all serve to limit the drug's utility in nonclinical settings. A full range of research and development strategies is being employed currently in the hunt for new safe and effective radioprotectants. These include: (1) large scale screening of new chemical classes or natural products; (2) restructuring/reformulating older protectants with proven efficacies but unwanted toxicities; (3) using nutraceuticals that are only moderately protective but are essentially nontoxic; (4) using low dose combinations of potentially toxic but efficacious agents that protect through different routes to foster radioprotective synergy; and (5) accepting a lower level of drug efficacy in lieu of reduced toxicity, banking on the premise that the protection afforded can be leveraged by post-exposure therapies. Although it is difficult to predict which of these

  1. Current status of adrenalectomy for Cushing's disease

    SciTech Connect

    Brunicardi, F.C.; Rosman, P.M.; Lesser, K.L.; Andersen, D.K.

    1985-12-01

    To evaluate the current use of adrenalectomy in the treatment of Cushing's disease, we reviewed seven consecutive patients who have undergone adrenalectomy for Cushing's disease at this medical center during 1983 to 1984. Seventy-one percent (5/7) had pituitary, or type I, Cushing's disease, while 29% (2/7) had adrenal, or type II, Cushing's disease from either an adenoma or an adrenocortical carcinoma. Presenting signs and symptoms, either initially or at the time of recurrence, were typical of Cushing's syndrome. Four of five patients with type I disease had recurrent disease after transphenoidal hypophysectomy, bilateral adrenalectomy, or unilateral adrenalectomy. In three of five patients, medical therapy of hypercortisolism was abandoned because of adverse side effects. Preoperative evaluation in all patients included cortisol and ACTH levels, dexamethasone suppression tests, and computerized tomography (both abdominal and head). In patients with a prior history of adrenalectomy, radiocholesterol scans were also performed and were useful. Angiographic procedures were not required in these patients. In patients with type I disease, posterior operative approaches were used. In patients with type II disease, an anterolateral approach was used. Posterolateral incisions are preferred over Hugh-Young incisions and provide better exposure with a reduced risk of poor wound healing. Morbidity and mortality included one death and three nonhealing wounds. In the six surviving patients, symptoms resolved with variable frequency. Findings suggestive of Nelson's syndrome (hyperpigmentation) have occurred in two patients; serial computerized tomographic scans fail to reveal evidence of pituitary tumors.

  2. Current status of silicon solar cell technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandhorst, H. W., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Recent advances in solar cell technology have led to the development of laboratory cells with efficiencies above 15% and production cells with efficiencies in the area of 13%. The increased output is largely the result of increases in the short-circuit current. The most significant gain in the amount of light entering the cell has been obtained through surface texturing by chemical etching techniques. Sheet resistances resulting from phosphorus diffusion in the 800 C temperature range yield junction depths on the order of 0.1 micrometer, leading to significant increases in the blue region of the cell spectral response. The inclusion of a back surface field in 10 ohm-cm cells has produced an increase in open-circuit voltage of about 50 mV and an increase in the minority carrier lifetime. It appears that a low emitter efficiency of the diffused region is the cause of poor voltages. Future research will be primarily directed toward correcting this deficiency and toward the development of low cost production methods.

  3. Current status of gene therapy for cancer.

    PubMed

    Walther, Wolfgang; Schlag, Peter M

    2013-11-01

    In recent years, remarkable progress has been made in the development of cancer gene therapy into an applicable treatment modality for immunogene, suicide, gene correction and oncolytic therapies. New exciting developments for gene suppression or miRNA therapies are under way. The efforts are focused on more efficient and specific attack at known and novel targets, improvement of vector delivery and therapeutic efficacy. In this review, promising and new gene therapy approaches and clinical studies are briefly discussed to highlight important future directions of preclinical and clinical efforts. Apart from progress for vector development and even more important, improvements for suicide, T-cell-based, oncolytic virus therapies were achieved. In addition, new emerging therapies are successfully developed, which are particularly promising for siRNA-based technologies applied to gene suppression therapy. Novel approaches, such as transcription factor ODN-based decoy, complement the spectrum of current cancer gene therapy. In summary, cancer gene therapy has made remarkable progress in the improvement/refinement of existing strategies and delivery systems. The field is moving toward a therapeutic option, which will also be applicable for the treatment of disseminated metastases. Furthermore, numerous new approaches are about to be translated in clinical trials.

  4. Current status of tritium calorimetry at TLK

    SciTech Connect

    Buekki-Deme, A.; Alecu, C.G.; Kloppe, B.; Bornschein, B.

    2015-03-15

    Inside a tritium facility, calorimetry is an important analytical method as it is the only reference method for accountancy (it is based on the measurement of the heat generated by the radioactive decay). Presently, at Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe (TLK), 4 calorimeters are in operation, one of isothermal type and three of inertial guidance control type (IGC). The volume of the calorimeters varies between 0.5 and 20.6 liters. About two years ago we started an extensive work to improve our calorimeters with regard to reliability and precision. We were forced to upgrade 3 of our 4 calorimeters due to the outdated interfaces and software. This work involved creating new LabView programs driving the devices, re-tuning control loops and replacing obsolete hardware components. In this paper we give a review on the current performance of our calorimeters, comparing it to recently available devices from the market and in the literature. We also show some ideas for a next generation calorimeter based on experiences with our IGC calorimeters and other devices reported in the literature. (authors)

  5. Counterfeit pharmaceuticals: current status and future projections.

    PubMed

    Wertheimer, Albert I; Chaney, Nicole M; Santella, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    To examine the problem of counterfeit drugs and its effects around the world, to consider the likely directions the problem will take, and to propose options for controlling or mitigating the problem. Recently published clinical literature identified through review of articles abstracted at MEDLINE. Search terms were counterfeiting, counterfeit drugs, substandard drugs, fake drugs, world counterfeiting, and counterfeit pharmaceuticals. Further information was abstracted from an array of informational sources, including magazines such as Business Week, newspapers such as the International Herald Tribune, National Public Radio news reports, pharmaceutical company press releases, and information from the World Health Organization. Multiple reviewers were used to retrieve relevant and current data. Relevant data were extracted independently by multiple reviewers. Traditionally, the problem of counterfeit pharmaceuticals has been limited to developing nations in Asia and Africa. Now, drug counterfeiting is rapidly becoming a worldwide concern, and counterfeit drugs are reaching the U.S. market. This article defines the problem of counterfeit drugs in its many forms and discusses the extent of the problem, with particular attention to the respective rates of counterfeiting across the globe and the origins of counterfeit drugs. Technologic advances have worsened the counterfeit drug problem. Because drug counterfeiting is a worldwide concern, worldwide action is needed to combat the problem.

  6. Current Status of VHTR Technology Development

    SciTech Connect

    David Petti; Hans Gougar; Richard Wright; William Windes; Steve Herring; Richard Schultz; Paul Humrickhouse

    2010-10-01

    Abstract – High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactors (HTGRs) featuring particle fuel reached the stage of commercial deployment in the mid-1980s with the Fort St.Vrain and Thorium HochTemperatur Reaktor feeding electricity to the grids in the United States and West Germany, respectively. The technology was then adopted by Japan and China with the operation of the High Temperature Test Reactor in Oarai, Japan and the High Temperature Reactor (HTR-10) in China. Increasing the outlet temperature of the HTGR to even higher temperatures above 900°C will improve the thermodynamic efficiency of the system and enable application of a new class of gas reactor, the very high temperature reactor, to provide process heat, electricity, and hydrogen to chemical industries with the attendant benefits of improved energy security and reduced CO2 emissions. However, the increase in coolant outlet temperature presents a number of technical challenges associated with fuel, materials, power conversion, and analysis methods for the reactor and hydrogen production. The U.S. Department of Energy is sponsoring a broad program of research and development with a goal of addressing the technical challenges over a broad range of outlet temperatures as part of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project. This paper describes the research and development activities that are currently underway to realize the technologies needed for an HTGR that features outlet temperatures of 750 to 950°C.

  7. Current status of silicon solar cell technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandhorst, H. W., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Recent advances in solar cell technology have led to the development of laboratory cells with efficiencies above 15% and production cells with efficiencies in the area of 13%. The increased output is largely the result of increases in the short-circuit current. The most significant gain in the amount of light entering the cell has been obtained through surface texturing by chemical etching techniques. Sheet resistances resulting from phosphorus diffusion in the 800 C temperature range yield junction depths on the order of 0.1 micrometer, leading to significant increases in the blue region of the cell spectral response. The inclusion of a back surface field in 10 ohm-cm cells has produced an increase in open-circuit voltage of about 50 mV and an increase in the minority carrier lifetime. It appears that a low emitter efficiency of the diffused region is the cause of poor voltages. Future research will be primarily directed toward correcting this deficiency and toward the development of low cost production methods.

  8. Current status of dentin adhesive systems.

    PubMed

    Leinfelder, K F

    1998-12-01

    Undoubtedly, dentin bonding agents have undergone a major evolution during the last several years. The shear bond strength of composite resin to the surface of dentin is actually greater than the inherent strength of the dentin itself under well-controlled conditions. No longer must the clinician depend only upon the bonding to enamel as the sole bonding mechanism. Bonding to both types of dental structure permits even better reinforcement of the tooth itself. Perhaps even more important than the high level of bonding exhibited by the current dentin adhesives is their ability to seal the dentin. So effective is this sealing capability that it is now possible to protect the pulpal tissue from microbial invasion through the dentinal tubules. Further, by enclosing the odontoblastic processes and preventing fluid flow, the potential for postoperative sensitivity is diminished considerably. In fact, so evolutionary is the concept of bonding that the procedures associated with the restoration of teeth has changed dramatically. Undoubtedly, far greater improvements can be anticipated in the future.

  9. [Cellular phones and cancer: current status].

    PubMed

    Colonna, Anne

    2005-07-01

    Evaluation of the impact of new technologies on the human body is essential in order to impose regulations to limit health risks. The appearance and evolution of cellular phones have been one of the fastest in the history of innovation. Research reported worldwide has tried to evaluate any potential link between adverse health effects and the mobile phone and its broadcasting stations. This article gives an overview of current research knowledge on the impact of radiofrequency waves on health. Epidemiologic, cellular and animal studies have been carried out, but none of them have reached definitive conclusions. Although some biological effects on cell culture have been observed, their link with human cancer development is far from established. Most of the animal studies show negative results. Epidemiologic studies lack a sufficient perspective to be able to evaluate the effect of evolving technologies used today. High levels of concern by the public have urged mobile phone operators, manufacturers and governmental authorities to finance a number of scientific projects aimed at defining adapted and effective regulations.

  10. Single port radical prostatectomy: current status.

    PubMed

    Martín, Oscar Darío; Azhar, Raed A; Clavijo, Rafael; Gidelman, Camilo; Medina, Luis; Troche, Nelson Ramirez; Brunacci, Leonardo; Sotelo, René

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the current literature on single port radical prostatectomy (LESS-RP). Single port radical prostatectomy laparoendoscopic (LESS-RP) has established itself as a challenge for urological community, starting with the proposal of different approaches: extraperitoneal, transperitoneal and transvesical, initially described for laparoscopy and then laparoscopy robot-assisted. In order to improve the LESS-RP, new instruments, optical devices, trocars and retraction mechanisms have been developed. Advantages and disadvantages of LESS-RP are controversial, while some claim that it is a non-trustable approach, regarding the low cases number and technical difficulties, others acclaim that despite this facts some advantages have been shown and that previous described difficulties are being overcome, proving this is novel proposal of robotics platform, the Da Vinci SP, integrating the system into "Y". The LESS-RP approach gives us a new horizon and opens the door for rapid standardization of this technique. The few studies and short series available can be result of a low interest in the application of LESS-RP in prostate, probably because of the technical complexity that it requires. The new robotic platform, the da Vinci SP, shows that it is clear that the long awaited evolution of robotic technologies for laparoscopy has begun, and we must not lose this momentum.

  11. Current status of robotic surgery in Japan

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The da Vinci S surgical system (Intuitive Surgical) was approved as a medical device in 2009 by the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. Robotic surgery has since been used in gastrointestinal, thoracic, gynecological, and urological surgeries. In April 2012, robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALP) was first approved for insurance coverage. Since then, RALP has been increasingly used, with more than 3,000 RALP procedures performed by March 2013. By July 2014, 183 institutions in Japan had installed the da Vinci surgical system. Other types of robotic surgeries are not widespread because they are not covered by public health insurance. Clinical trials using robotic partial nephrectomy and robotic gastrectomy for renal and gastric cancers, respectively, have recently begun as advanced medical treatments to evaluate health insurance coverage. These procedures must be evaluated for efficacy and safety before being covered by public health insurance. Other types of robotic surgery are being evaluated in clinical studies. There are several challenges in robotic surgery, including accreditation, training, efficacy, and cost. The largest issue is the cost-benefit balance. In this review, the current situation and a prospective view of robotic surgery in Japan are discussed. PMID:25763120

  12. Current status of screening for colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Garborg, K; Holme, Ø; Løberg, M; Kalager, M; Adami, H O; Bretthauer, M

    2013-08-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer morbidity and mortality. A well-defined precursor lesion (adenoma) and a long preclinical course make CRC a candidate for screening. This paper reviews the current evidence for the most important tests that are widely used or under development for population-based screening. In this narrative review, we scrutinized all papers we have been aware of, and carried out searches in PubMed and Cochrane library for relevant literature. Two screening methods have been shown to reduce CRC mortality in randomised trials: repetitive faecal occult blood testing (FOBT) reduces CRC mortality by 16%; once-only flexible sigmoidoscopy (FS) by 28%. FS screening also reduces CRC incidence (by 18%), FOBT does not. Colonoscopy screening has a potentially larger effect on CRC incidence and mortality, but randomised trials are lacking. New screening methods are on the horizon but need to be tested in large clinical trials before implementation in population screening. FS screening reduces CRC incidence and CRC mortality by removal of adenomas; FOBT reduces CRC mortality by early detection of cancer. Several other tests are available, but none has been evaluated in randomised trials. Screening strategies differ considerably across countries.

  13. Zoological pharmacology: current status, issues, and potential.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Robert P; Isaza, Ramiro

    2002-10-04

    Lack of approved pharmaceutical agents and/or pharmacokinetic data in the literature for exotic, wildlife, and zoo species is a major issue for veterinarians. These practitioners must take approved agents (veterinary or human) and extrapolate their use to non-approved species with little or no scientific basis to support this decision. There is little information concerning pharmacokinetic parameters for drugs in non-domestic species. Zoo veterinarians often have to formulate the medication(s) into a meal, hoping that the animal will ingest it. Due to lack of patient compliance, the veterinarian may have to resort to other means of drug administration. Additionally, due to the value of these animals, the traditional method of 'trial and error' for treatment selection and resulting compliance is often inappropriate, and lends itself to a mentality where no zoo veterinarian wants to be the first to administer an agent/formulation in an untested species. This review intends to present the current state of zoological pharmacology and the direction it may be heading.

  14. Current status of PHOBOS{at}RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Betts, R.R. |; PHOBOS Collaboration

    1996-05-01

    Four experiments are currently approved for the first measurements with colliding heavy ion beams from the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) which is scheduled to come into operation in Spring 1999. These experiments are named STAR, Phoenix, PHOBOS and Brahms. It is expected that central collisions of 100 GeV/u Au + Au at RHIC will lead to energy densities far above any so far attained in the laboratory and it is suspected and hoped that this situation will lead to qualitatively new physics perhaps associated with the creation of a large volume containing a plasma of deconfined quarks and gluons. All four experiments attempt to search for signatures of new physics through combinations of measurements of quantities such as the multiplicity of produced particles, the average transverse momentum of these particles, fluctuations in their multiplicity distribution, their flavor composition, the size scales of the volume from which they are emitted, mass shifts and changes in the decay widths of resonances which decay inside the high energy density volume etc. The PHOBOS detector addresses these issues with a Multiplicity Array which covers the pseudo-rapidity region {minus}5.3 {le} {eta} {le} 5.3 with a coverage of 85% of 4{pi} and also incorporates a Vertex Detector. The Multiplicity Array is complemented by two Multi-Particle Spectrometers, each of which cover the range 0.5 {le} {eta} {le} 1.5 and azimuthal angle range {Delta}{phi} = 11{degree}. Various trigger and monitor detectors complete PHOBOS.

  15. Epilepsy and driving: current status of research.

    PubMed

    L Devlin, Anna; Odell, Morris; L Charlton, Judith; Koppel, Sjaanie

    2012-12-01

    In many parts of the world, licensing guidelines state that drivers with medical conditions such as epilepsy are restricted or prohibited from driving. These guidelines are sometimes subjective and not strongly evidence-based, rendering the task of assessing fitness to drive a complex one. Determining fitness to drive is not only essential for maintaining the safety of individual drivers but has implications for the community at large. It is therefore important to review the current state of knowledge regarding epilepsy and driving in order to aid health professionals required to assess fitness to drive and to guide future research directions. This review outlines the functional impairments related to epilepsy and driving, treatment and management issues, motor vehicle crash risk for drivers with epilepsy, estimates of predicted seizure occurrence and concludes with a discussion of the international licensing guidelines and relevant legal issues. More comprehensive research, including investigation into the effects of antiepileptic medication on driving, could aid in the development of policies and guidelines for assessing fitness to drive.

  16. Current status of measles in Japan.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Tetsuo; Zhou, Jianhui; Fujino, Motoko

    2003-03-01

    Approximately 20,000 to 30,000 cases of measles are reported annually in Japan, although the actual number of measles infections is considered to be five to ten times higher than the number of reported cases. Despite the availability of effective and safe live attenuated vaccines, regional outbreaks in Okinawa, transmission in adults, and secondary vaccine failures continue. Recent advances in molecular technology have contributed to molecular epidemiological studies, new concepts of asymptomatic infection, and the identification of different characteristics among measles virus genotypes. Measles virus strains isolated in Japan since 1984 were classified into the genotypes C1 (-1985), D3 (1985-1990), D5 (1990-1997), and Chicago-type D3 (1997-1999) from the results of sequencing the hemagglutinin gene. After 2000, the D5 genotype emerged, and, recently, the H1 genotype, which is now dominant, was introduced from Korea. Some of the currently circulating wild-types have different characteristics (high growth rate at 39 degrees C-40 degrees C). The cumulative vaccine coverage has reached 81%, but most measles cases involved unvaccinated individuals. Measles is a preventable disease and can be eradicated by increasing the vaccine coverage, and promoting the motivation for vaccination, in accordance with the worldwide measles strategy.

  17. Isobar Separator for Anions: Current status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alary, Jean-François; Javahery, Gholamreza; Kieser, William; Zhao, Xiao-Lei; Litherland, Albert; Cousins, Lisa; Charles, Christopher

    2015-10-01

    The Isobar Separator for Anions (ISA) is an emerging separation technique of isobars applied first to the selective removal of 36S from 36Cl, achieving a relative suppression ratio of 6 orders of magnitude. Using a radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) column incorporating low energy gas cells, this innovative technique enables the use of a wide range of low energy ion-molecule reactions and collisional-induced dissociation processes for suppressing specific atomic of molecular anions with a high degree of selectivity. Other elemental pairs (analyte/isobar) successfully separated at AMS level include Ca/K, Sr/(Y, Zr), Cs/Ba, Hf/W and Pu/U. In view of these initial successes, an effort to develop a version of the ISA that can be used as a robust technique for routine AMS analysis has been undertaken. We will discuss the detailed layout of a practical ISA and the functional requirements that a combined ISA/AMS should meet. These concepts are currently being integrated in a pre-commercial ISA system that will be installed soon at the newly established A.E. Lalonde Laboratory in Ottawa, Canada.

  18. Current status of neuronal cell xenotransplantation.

    PubMed

    Vadori, Marta; Aron Badin, Romina; Hantraye, Philippe; Cozzi, Emanuele

    2015-11-01

    Neural cell transplantation has long been considered as an option for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. To date, several patients with Parkinson's and Huntington's diseases have been treated with human fetal-derived neurons with disparate results. However, the limited efficacy to date combined with the scarce availability of human fetal tissues and ethical concerns render this procedure inapplicable to a wide population scale. With a view to overcoming these shortcomings, transplantation of pig-derived cell precursors has been proposed and applied in preclinical and clinical trials. Recently long-term survival (more than 18 months) associated with clinical efficacy has been reported following transplantation of genetically engineered porcine neural precursors in fully immunosuppressed primate recipients. Despite the promising results obtained to date, several questions remain unanswered. In particular, the ideal xenogeneic cell-products to transplant, the extent of the immune response against the implanted xenograft and the most suitable therapeutic strategies to improve engraftment are all issues that still need to be thoroughly addressed. The present review describes the current knowledge in the pig-to-primate xenotransplantation field. In this context, recent data on human-to-nonhuman primate xenogeneic stem cell-based treatments for neurological disorders are discussed. Copyright © 2015 IJS Publishing Group Limited. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. LOFAR: current status and observing opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabater, J.; Verdes-Montenegro, L.; Best, P. N.; Lofar Collaboration

    2013-05-01

    LOFAR ({http://www.lofar.org/}{LOw Frequency ARray}) is a distributed network of multipurpose sensors. It is composed mainly of a networked radio telescope operating between 15 and 250 MHz but also hosts geophysical and agricultural sensors. Designed and constructed by {http://www.astron.nl}{ASTRON}, it has facilities in several countries that are owned by various parties (each with their own funding sources). These facilities are collectively operated by the International LOFAR Telescope (ILT) foundation under a joint scientific policy. Currently (July 2012), the {http://www.astron.nl/radio-observatory/lofar-msss/lofar-msss}{ Multifrequency Snapshot Sky Survey (MSSS)} is producing the first sky model that is needed for data calibration. MSSS will cover all the northern hemisphere with a minimum resolution of 120 arcsec and a sensitivity between 5 and 15 mJy/beam. The first proposal cycle was opened to the international comunity in July 2012. LOFAR is one of the {http://www.skatelescope.org/}{Square Kilometer Array (SKA)} pathfinders, the new global project to build a new generation radio-interferometer with a collecting area of 1 km^2.

  20. Current status of sexing mammalian spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Seidel, George E; Garner, Duane L

    2002-12-01

    Thousands of offspring have now been produced via artificial insemination with spermatozoa sexed by flow cytometry and cell sorting. We are unaware of any other practical approach to sexing spermatozoa that maintains fertility. Accuracy of sexing usually is 85-95% in most species, but somewhat lower with human spermatozoa. Spermatozoa are sexed in series, one at a time, at routine rates of about 3000 live spermatozoa of each sex per second for most species, and nearly twice that rate under optimal conditions for some species. Owing to various constraints and statistical considerations, there appears to be an upper theoretical limit to sexing spermatozoa of about 10,000 live spermatozoa of each sex per second with current methodology. About a quarter of the spermatozoa processed are sexed; the rest are discarded in the process or lost due to logistical constraints. Spermatozoa undergo some damage during sorting, although much less in terms of viability than with routine cryopreservation; fertility is lower with sexed than control spermatozoa. Offspring from sexed spermatozoa appear to have no more abnormalities than do controls, and both groups grow and thrive similarly. Despite high costs and complex procedures, sexing spermatozoa, usually followed by cryopreservation, is being used commercially for cattle and horse production in several countries, and is used to produce girls to avoid X-chromosome-linked genetic diseases.

  1. Pharmacotherapy of Sexual Dysfunctions : Current Status

    PubMed Central

    Avasthi, Ajith; Biswas, Parthasarathy

    2004-01-01

    The sexual dysfunctions are one of the most prevalent conditions. Sexual dysfunctions can have profound effect on the psychological well-being of an individual and the psychosexual relationship of a couple. Management of the sexual dysfunction should be preceded by an accurate diagnosis reached after a complete medical and sexual history and physical examination. Current focus of researchers has been on understanding the pathophysiology of erectile dysfunction, premature ejaculation and other sexual dysfunctions that can help in developing newer pharmacological cures for these conditions. Recently, a number of clinical trials have studied the potential effectiveness of the phosphodiesterase (PDE)-5 inhibitor sildenafil in the treatment of Erectile Dysfunction (ED) and Premature Ejaculation (PME). The introduction of PDE-5 inhibitors like sildenafil, vardenafil and tadalafil has revolutionized the treatment of sexual dysfunctions. This review focuses on the recent pharmacological advances in the treatment of common sexual dysfunctions like ED and PME with special focus on the role of PDE-5 inhibitors. Also discussed is the pharmacological treatment of other less prevalent and recognized disorders like female sexual dysfunction, drug induced sexual dysfunction etc. PMID:21224902

  2. Current status of permanent total artificial hearts.

    PubMed

    Davis, P K; Rosenberg, G; Snyder, A J; Pierce, W S

    1989-01-01

    Pneumatic total artificial heats, although demonstrating utility as temporary mechanical circulatory support devices, have not demonstrated a great deal of promise as permanent cardiac replacements. The increasing number of patients who would be candidates for total heart replacement suggests a large role for a permanent implantable total artificial heart. To that end, the Pennsylvania State University is developing an electric motor-driven total artificial heart; the results with implants in calves are encouraging. In this device, a roller-screw mechanism is used to translate the rotation of a brushless direct-current motor into rectilinear motion of a pusher-plate assembly, which in turn empties the blood sacs. The total artificial heart of the future will function under automatic control without percutaneous leads, and this should provide the patient with a nearly normal life-style. Although further experimental efforts are necessary to prepare the device for clinical trials, the technology to provide a safe and reliable electric blood-pump system is at hand.

  3. HPV vaccine: Current status and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sushil; Biswas, Manash; Jose, Tony

    2015-01-01

    HPV Vaccine was introduced to prevent cervical cancer known to be caused by infection with one or more of the high risk subtypes of the Human papilloma virus (HPV). Since introduction, trials have proven its efficacy in preventing Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) beyond doubt and its effectiveness in preventing cervical cancer though presumptive is reasonably certain as per mathematical modelling. It also prevents other HPV related anogenital and oropharyngeal malignancies in both sexes. HPV vaccines have courted many controversies related to its efficacy, safety, ideal age of vaccination, use in HPV infected individuals and use in males. The currently available vaccines are based on L1 Viral like particles (VLP) and hence highly species specific, thermolabile, costly and are purely prophylactic. The quest for a cheaper, thermostable and broad spectrum vaccine has led to many newer prophylactic vaccines. Therapeutic vaccines were born out of the inescapable necessity considering high HPV related morbidity projected in the non HPV naïve population. Therapeutic vaccines would immediately reduce this burden and also help in the management of HPV related cancers alone or as part of combination strategies. Ongoing research is aimed at a total control over HPV related malignancies in the near future. PMID:25859081

  4. Current status of robotic surgery in Japan.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Kazuo

    2015-03-01

    The da Vinci S surgical system (Intuitive Surgical) was approved as a medical device in 2009 by the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. Robotic surgery has since been used in gastrointestinal, thoracic, gynecological, and urological surgeries. In April 2012, robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALP) was first approved for insurance coverage. Since then, RALP has been increasingly used, with more than 3,000 RALP procedures performed by March 2013. By July 2014, 183 institutions in Japan had installed the da Vinci surgical system. Other types of robotic surgeries are not widespread because they are not covered by public health insurance. Clinical trials using robotic partial nephrectomy and robotic gastrectomy for renal and gastric cancers, respectively, have recently begun as advanced medical treatments to evaluate health insurance coverage. These procedures must be evaluated for efficacy and safety before being covered by public health insurance. Other types of robotic surgery are being evaluated in clinical studies. There are several challenges in robotic surgery, including accreditation, training, efficacy, and cost. The largest issue is the cost-benefit balance. In this review, the current situation and a prospective view of robotic surgery in Japan are discussed.

  5. Antisense therapeutics in oncology: current status

    PubMed Central

    Farooqi, Ammad Ahmad; Rehman, Zia ur; Muntane, Jordi

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing progress in translational oncology and tremendous breakthroughs have been made as evidenced by preclinical and clinical trials. Data obtained from high-throughput technologies are deepening our understanding about the molecular and gene network in cancer cells and rapidly emerging in vitro and in vivo evidence is highlighting the role of antisense agents as specific inhibitors of the expression of target genes, thus modulating the response of cancer cells to different therapeutic strategies. Much information is continuously being added into various facets of molecular oncology and it is now understood that overexpression of antiapoptotic proteins, oncogenes, oncogenic microRNAs (miRNA), and fusion proteins make cancer cells difficult to target. Delivery of antisense oligonucleotides has remained a challenge and technological developments have helped in overcoming hurdles by improving the ability to penetrate cells, effective and targeted binding to gene sequences, and downregulation of target gene function. Different delivery systems, including stable nucleic acid lipid particles, have shown potential in enhancing the delivery of cargo to the target site. In this review, we attempt to summarize the current progress in the development of antisense therapeutics and their potential in medical research. We partition this multicomponent review into introductory aspects about recent breakthroughs in antisense therapeutics. We also discuss how antisense therapeutics have shown potential in resensitizing resistant cancer cells to apoptosis by targeted inhibition of antiapoptotic proteins, oncogenic miRNAs, and BCR-ABL. PMID:25395862

  6. Current status of laser applications in urology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knipper, Ansgar; Thomas, Stephen; Durek, C.; Jocham, Dieter

    1993-05-01

    The overall development of laser use in urology is recessing. The reasons are the refinement of methods of radical surgery and the continuing development of alternative technologies involving electric current. Taking the cost factor into account, are lasers still opportune in medicine? The answer is definitely yes. Cost reduction in medical practice without quality loss is only possible with effective methods of minimally invasive surgery. Continuing investigation of cutting, welding, coagulating and ablating instruments is justified. Competition of lasers to other technologies can only be beneficial to the cause. But where are the highlights of laser applications? The unsurpassed utilization of optical properties of lasers lie in the concept of photodynamic therapies and in optical feedback mechanisms for laser applications. The combination of lasers with three dimensional visualization of the treatment area by ultrasound (TULIP-procedure for benign prostatic hyperplasia) is a novel approach in laser application. The further development of these treatment modalities will reveal the true benefit of laser technology in urological applications.

  7. [Current status of cardiac rehabilitation in Chile].

    PubMed

    Santibáñez, Claudio; Pérez-Terzic, Carmen; López-Jiménez, Francisco; Cortés-Bergoderi, Mery; Araya, María Virginia; Burdiat, Gerard

    2012-05-01

    Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) programs play an important role in the control and prevention of new cardiac events. A survey was performed to evaluate the current situation of CR programs in Chile. A questionnaire evaluating the structure of rehabilitation centers, characteristics of the rehabilitation programs and patients, management of risk factors, reimbursement methods, human resources and potential barriers for an efficient rehabilitation, was mailed to centers dedicated to CR in Chile. Eight centers were contacted and seven responded. Coronary heart disease is the most common underlying disease of attended patients and CR is carried out mainly during phases II and III. All CR centers perform an initial assessment, stratify patients, plan and provide tips on physical activity and nutrition. Only three centers provide help to quit smoking. Lipid profile and blood sugar are assessed in 62% of centers. Most practitioners involved are cardiologists, nurses, physiotherapists and nutritionists, all trained in cardiopulmonary resuscitation. The main barrier for their development is the lack of patient referral from practitioners. Despite the recognized value of CR in the care of patients after a cardiac event, this study reveals the need for further development of such programs and improvement of patient referrals.

  8. Current status of robot-assisted surgery.

    PubMed

    Ng, Ada T L; Tam, P C

    2014-06-01

    The introduction of robot-assisted surgery, and specifically the da Vinci Surgical System, is one of the biggest breakthroughs in surgery since the introduction of anaesthesia, and represents the most significant advancement in minimally invasive surgery of this decade. One of the first surgical uses of the robot was in orthopaedics, neurosurgery, and cardiac surgery. However, it was the use in urology, and particularly in prostate surgery, that led to its widespread popularity. Robotic surgery, is also widely used in other surgical specialties including general surgery, gynaecology, and head and neck surgery. In this article, we reviewed the current applications of robot-assisted surgery in different surgical specialties with an emphasis on urology. Clinical results as compared with traditional open and/or laparoscopic surgery and a glimpse into the future development of robotics were also discussed. A short introduction of the emerging areas of robotic surgery were also briefly reviewed. Despite the increasing popularity of robotic surgery, except in robot-assisted radical prostatectomy, there is no unequivocal evidence to show its superiority over traditional laparoscopic surgery in other surgical procedures. Further trials are eagerly awaited to ascertain the long-term results and potential benefits of robotic surgery.

  9. Current status of surgery in dermatology.

    PubMed

    Hanke, C William; Moy, Ronald L; Roenigk, Randall K; Roenigk, Henry H; Spencer, James M; Tierney, Emily P; Bartus, Cynthia L; Bernstein, Robert M; Brown, Marc D; Busso, Mariano; Carruthers, Alastair; Carruthers, Jean; Ibrahimi, Omar A; Kauvar, Arielle N B; Kent, Kathryn M; Krueger, Nils; Landau, Marina; Leonard, Aimee L; Mandy, Stephen H; Rohrer, Thomas E; Sadick, Neil S; Wiest, Luitgard G

    2013-12-01

    An article titled "Current issues in dermatologic office-based surgery" was published in the JAAD in October 1999 (volume 41, issue 4, pp. 624-634). The article was developed by the Joint American Academy of Dermatology/American Society for Dermatologic Surgery Liaison Committee. A number of subjects were addressed in the article including surgical training program requirements for dermatology residents and selected advances in dermatologic surgery that had been pioneered by dermatologists. The article concluded with sections on credentialing, privileging, and accreditation of office-based surgical facilities. Much has changed since 1999, including more stringent requirements for surgical training during dermatology residency, and the establishment of 57 accredited Procedural Dermatology Fellowship Training Programs. All of these changes have been overseen and approved by the Residency Review Committee for Dermatology and the Accreditation Committee for Graduate Medical Education. The fertile academic environment of academic training programs with interaction between established dermatologic surgeons and fellows, as well as the inquisitive nature of many of our colleagues, has led to the numerous major advances in dermatologic surgery, which are described herein.

  10. International Shock-Wave Database: Current Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levashov, Pavel

    2013-06-01

    Shock-wave and related dynamic material response data serve for calibrating, validating, and improving material models over very broad regions of the pressure-temperature-density phase space. Since the middle of the 20th century vast amount of shock-wave experimental information has been obtained. To systemize it a number of compendiums of shock-wave data has been issued by LLNL, LANL (USA), CEA (France), IPCP and VNIIEF (Russia). In mid-90th the drawbacks of the paper handbooks became obvious, so the first version of the online shock-wave database appeared in 1997 (http://www.ficp.ac.ru/rusbank). It includes approximately 20000 experimental points on shock compression, adiabatic expansion, measurements of sound velocity behind the shock front and free-surface-velocity for more than 650 substances. This is still a useful tool for the shock-wave community, but it has a number of serious disadvantages which can't be easily eliminated: (i) very simple data format for points and references; (ii) minimalistic user interface for data addition; (iii) absence of history of changes; (iv) bad feedback from users. The new International Shock-Wave database (ISWdb) is intended to solve these and some other problems. The ISWdb project objectives are: (i) to develop a database on thermodynamic and mechanical properties of materials under conditions of shock-wave and other dynamic loadings, selected related quantities of interest, and the meta-data that describes the provenance of the measurements and material models; and (ii) to make this database available internationally through the Internet, in an interactive form. The development and operation of the ISWdb is guided by an advisory committee. The database will be installed on two mirrored web-servers, one in Russia and the other in USA (currently only one server is available). The database provides access to original experimental data on shock compression, non-shock dynamic loadings, isentropic expansion, measurements of sound

  11. Torque teno virus (TTV): current status.

    PubMed

    Hino, Shigeo; Miyata, Hironori

    2007-01-01

    Torque teno virus (TTV), currently classified into the family Circoviridae, genus Anellovirus, was first found in a patient with non-A-E hepatitis. TTV has a single stranded circular DNA of approximately 3.8 kb. TTVs are extraordinarily diverse, spanning five groups including SANBAN and SEN viruses. Torque teno mini virus (TTMV) with approximately 2.9 kb genome also has wide variants. Recently, two related 2.2- and 2.6-kb species joined this community. Recombinations between variants are frequent. This extensive TTV diversity remains unexplained; it is unclear how TTVs could be viable, and why they require such genetic variation. An unequivocal culture system is still not available. TTVs are ubiquitous in > 90% of adults worldwide but no human pathogenicity of TTV has been fully established. Epidemiological surveys need to specify the variants being studied and clinical targets, and must calibrate the sensitivity of the assay used. Potentially interesting observations include a higher viral load in patients with severe idiopathic inflammatory myopathies, cancer and lupus. Active replication was also found in infants with acute respiratory diseases. TTV/TTMV-related viruses were found in chimpanzees, apes, African monkeys and tupaias, and also in chickens, pigs, cows, sheep and dogs. Experimentally, rhesus monkeys were persistently infected by TTV, but only 1/53 chimpanzees. TTV transcribes three species of mRNAs, 3.0-, 1.2- and 1.0-kb in the ratio of 60:5:35. Recently, at least three mRNAs were shown in chicken anaemia virus. The genomic region -154/-76 contains a critical promoter. TTV seems to have at least three proteins; however, the definite functions of these proteins await further research work.

  12. Current radiological status of Utirik Atoll

    SciTech Connect

    Robison, W L

    1998-08-01

    A preliminary radiological survey was conducted at Utirik Atoll in 1978 as part of the Northern Marshall Islands Radiological Survey (NMIRS). A dose assessment based on these limited data indicated a relatively low dose of about 0.12 mSv to people living on Utirik in 1978 (Robison et al., 1982). A much more detailed radiological survey was conducted in April of both 1993 and 1994. Aerial photos of the islands of Utirik Atoll were taken as part of the 1978 NMIRS. The sampling grids for the 1993 and 1994 surveys are shown overlaid on these aerial photos in Figures 1, 2, 3, and 4. External gamma measurements and a collection of either drinking coconuts or copra coconuts were made at each location. Pandanus, breadfruit, lime, and banana were collected where available. Ground water was collected in 1993/94 from four wells on Utirik Island and two wells on Aon Island. Surface soil and soil profiles were collected at some of the grid points on each of the islands at the atoll in 1993/94. A comparison of the number of samples collected in 1978 and 1993/94 are shown in Table 1. A detailed listing of the samples collected in the 1993/94 radiological survey at Utirik Atoll is given in Table 2. The number of vegetation samples collected in 1993/94 is nearly a factor of 7 greater than in 1978. Soil samples collected in 1993/94 exceeded the number collected in 1978 by more than a factor of 4. Consequently, extensive data are now available for the islands at Utirik Atoll and form the basis for the current dose assessment for the atoll.

  13. Congenital hyperinsulinism: current status and future perspectives

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The diagnosis and treatment of congenital hyperinsulinism (CHI) have made a remarkable progress over the past 20 years and, currently, it is relatively rare to see patients who are left with severe psychomotor delay. The improvement was made possible by the recent developments in the understanding of the molecular and pathological basis of CHI. Known etiologies include inactivating mutations of the KATP channel genes (ABCC8 and KCNJ11) and HNF4A, HNF1A, HADH, and UCP2 or activating mutations of GLUD1, GCK, and SLC16A1. The understanding of the focal form of KATP channel CHI and its detection by 18F-fluoro-L-DOPA positron emission tomography have revolutionized the management of CHI, and many patients can be cured without postoperative diabetes mellitus. The incidence of the focal form appears to be higher in Asian countries; therefore, the establishment of treatment systems is even more important in this population. In addition to diazoxide or long-term subcutaneous infusion of octreotide or glucagon, long-acting octreotide or lanreotide have also been used successfully until spontaneous remission. Because of these medications, near-total pancreatectomy is less often performed even for the diazoxide-unresponsive diffuse form of CHI. Other promising medications include pasireotide, small-molecule correctors such as sulfonylurea or carbamazepine, GLP1 receptor antagonists, or mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors. Unsolved questions in this field include the identification of the remaining genes responsible for CHI, the mechanisms leading to transient CHI, and the mechanisms responsible for the spontaneous remission of CHI. This article reviews recent developments and hypothesis regarding these questions. PMID:25077087

  14. Anthelmintic treatment strategies: current status and future.

    PubMed

    Williams, J C

    1997-11-01

    Despite the array of anthelmintics and endectocides and delivery systems available for use in the prevention and control of nematode parasites of ruminants, the number of highly effective control programs that have been developed and even the number of such programs that have been successfully implemented in commercial animal production, there have been no recent innovations or discoveries in regard to strategies, new anthelmintics, or systems for controlling nematode parasites through anthelmintic use. In the traditional sense of chemotherapy-chemoprophylaxis, we have probably achieved the maximum effect of what is possible from excellent anthelmintics developed by the pharmaceutical industry over the last 35 years, i.e. from thiabendazole through levamisole and morantel tartrate, to more advanced benzimidazoles and to the avermectins and milbemycins. At the core of all anthelmintic treatment-related problems is the lingering conception among a large body of animal producers that anthelmintic treatment is the only effort needed to control parasitism and its effects on host animals. This concept has given rise to the long-standing difficulty of drug resistance in sheep nematodes and the not remote possibility of its development in nematodes of cattle. Along with this are serious concerns over environmental toxicity, tissue residues and enormous financial investment to develop new and novel anthelmintic compounds. Progress is being made in current and intensive searches for development and testing of control approaches alternative to anthelmintics, e.g. helminth vaccines, biological control agents such as fungi, selection of resistant sires, alternative chemicals and nematode growth regulators. A timetable for when alternative controls can be developed fully and put into practical use cannot be predicted. It is universally acknowledged among parasitologists that existing anthelmintics must be preserved and utilized judiciously to ensure continued effectiveness. A

  15. Current Status of Intestinal Transplantation in Children

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, Jorge; Bueno, Javier; Kocoshis, Samuel; Green, Mike; Abu-Elmagd, Kareem; Furukawa, Hiro; Barksdale, Edward M.; Strom, Sharon; Fung, John J.; Todo, Satoru; Irish, William; Starzl, Thomas E.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose A clinical trial of intestinal transplantation (Itx) under tacrolimus and prednisone immunosuppression was initiated in June 1990 in children with irreversible intestinal failure and who were dependent on total parenteral nutrition (TPN). Methods Fifty-five patients (28 girls, 27 boys) with a median age of 3.2 years (range, 0.5 to 18 years) received 58 intestinal transplants that included isolated small bowel (SB) (n = 17), liver SB (LSB) (n = 33), and multivisceral (MV) (n = 8) allografts. Nine patients also received bone marrow infusion, and there were 20 colonic allografts. Azathioprine, cyclophosphamide, or mycophenolate mofetil were used in different phases of the series. Indications for Itx included: gastroschisis(n = 14), volvulus (n = 13), necrotizing enterocolitis (n = 6), intestinal atresia (n = 8), chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction (n = 5), Hirschsprung’s disease (n = 4), microvillus inclusion disease (n = 3), multiple polyposis (n = 1), and trauma (n = 1). Results Currently, 30 patients are alive (patient survival, 55%; graft survival, 52%). Twenty-nine children with functioning grafts are living at home and off TPN, with a mean follow-up of 962 (range, 75 to 2,424) days. Immunologic complications have included liver allograft rejection (n = 18), intestinal allograft rejection (n = 52), posttransplant lymphoproliferative disease (n = 16), cytomegalovirus (n = 16) and graft-versus-host disease (n = 4). A combination of associated complications included intestinal perforation (n = 4), biliary leak (n = 3), bile duct stenosis (n = 1), intestinal leak (n = 6), dehiscence with evisceration (n = 4), hepatic artery thrombosis (n = 3), bleeding (n = 9), portal vein stenosis (n = 1), intraabdominal abscess (n = 11), and chylous ascites (n = 4). Graft loss occurred as a result of rejection (n = 8), infection (n = 12), technical complications (n = 8), and complications of TPN after graft removal (n = 3). There were four retransplants (SB, n = 1; LSB n

  16. Current Status of NASA's Heavy Lift Plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creech, Steve

    2010-01-01

    Numerous studies since the Apollo Program of the 1960s have highlighted the benefits of - and the need for - a national heavy lift launch capability to support human exploration, science, national security, and commercial development of space. NASA's most recent and most refined effort to develop that heavy lift capability is the Ares V. Ares V is a key element of NASA's Constellation Program. It s overall goal s part of approved national space policy is to retire the Space Shuttle and develop its successor, complete the International Space Station, and resume human exploration beyond low Earth orbit (LEO), beginning with exploration of the Moon as a step to other destinations in the Solar System. Ares V s first role is that of cargo vehicle to carry a lunar lander into Earth orbit, rendezvous with astronauts launched on the smaller Ares I crew launch vehicle, and perform the trans lunar injection (TLI) mission to send the mated crew and lander vehicles to the Moon. The design reference missions (DRMs) envisioned for it also include direct lunar cargo flights and a human Mars mission. Although NASA's priority from the start of the Constellation Program to the present has been development of the Ares I and Orion crew vehicle to replace the retiring Shuttle fleet, the Ares team has made significant progress in understanding the performance, design trades, technology needs, mission scenarios, ground and flight operations, cost, and other factors associated with heavy lift development. The current reference configuration was selected during the Lunar Capabilities Concept Review (LCCR) in fall 2008. That design has served since then as a point of departure for further refinements and trades among five participating NASA field centers. Ares V development to date has benefited from progress on the Ares I due to commonality between the vehicles. The Ares I first stage completed a successful firing of a 5-segment solid rocket motor. The Ares I-X launch Numerous studies

  17. Lung cancer: Current status and prospects for the future

    SciTech Connect

    Mountain, C.F.; Carr, D.T.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains 32 papers. Some of the titles are: Activation of cellular ras genes in human neoplasms; The valve of definitive radiation therapy of unresectable squamous cell carcinoma, large cell carcinoma, and adenocarcinoma of the lung; Current concepts of chemotherapy and radiotherapy for small cell lung cancer, and Current status of immunotherapy for lung cancer.

  18. ACRF Ingest Software Status: New, Current, and Future - February 2007

    SciTech Connect

    AS Koontz; S Choudhury; BD Ermold; KL Gaustad

    2007-02-28

    The purpose of this report is to provide status of the ingest software used to process instrument data for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF). The report is divided into 4 sections: (1) for news about ingests currently under development, (2) for current production ingests, (3) for future ingest development plans, and (4) for information on retired ingests.

  19. Power and sample size calculations for current status survival analysis.

    PubMed

    Williamson, John M; Lin, Hung-Mo; Kim, Hae-Young

    2009-07-10

    Although sample size calculations have become an important element in the design of research projects, such methods for studies involving current status data are scarce. Here, we propose a method for calculating power and sample size for studies using current status data. This method is based on a Weibull survival model for a two-group comparison. The Weibull model allows the investigator to specify a group difference in terms of a hazards ratio or a failure time ratio. We consider exponential, Weibull and uniformly distributed censoring distributions. We base our power calculations on a parametric approach with the Wald test because it is easy for medical investigators to conceptualize and specify the required input variables. As expected, studies with current status data have substantially less power than studies with the usual right-censored failure time data. Our simulation results demonstrate the merits of these proposed power calculations. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Wind-Wave-Current Tank Research Facility usage and status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bliven, L. F.; Long, S. R.

    1988-01-01

    This summary is to provide information as to: (1) research activities, and (2) facilities status of the wind-wave-current tank research facility located at the GSFC/WFF. Research Activities include: (1) Wave-Turbulence Interaction; (2) Velocity Structure Below Waves; (3) Short-Wave Modification by Long-Waves; (4) Wind-Wave Generation Time Scale; (5) Wave-Current Interaction; (6) Rain Effects on Microwave Scattering from the Sea-Surface; and (7) Gas Exchange Rates versus Scatterometer Power.

  1. Intracoronary optical diagnostics current status, limitations, and potential.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Harry C; Narula, Jagat; Fujimoto, James G; Jang, Ik-Kyung

    2011-12-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT), is a novel intravascular imaging modality analogous to intravascular ultrasound but uses light instead of sound. This review details the background, development, and status of current investigation using OCT, and discusses advantages, limitations, and likely future developments. It provides indications for possible future clinical use, and places OCT in the context of current intravascular imaging in what is a rapidly changing field of investigation. Copyright © 2011 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A 96-channel neural stimulation system for driving AIROF microelectrodes.

    PubMed

    Hu, Z; Troyk, P; Cogan, S

    2004-01-01

    We present the design and testing of a 96-channel stimulation system to drive activated iridium oxide (AIROF) microelectrodes within safe charge-injection limits. Our system improves upon the traditional capacitively coupled, symmetric charge-balanced biphasic stimulation waveform so as to maximize charge-injection capacity without endangering the microelectrodes. It can deliver computer-controlled cathodic current pulse for to up to 96 AIROF microelectrodes and positively bias them during the inter-pulse interval. The stimulation system is comprised of (1) 12 custom-designed PCB boards each hosting an 8-channel ASIC chip, (2) a motherboard to communicate between these 12 boards and the PC, (3) the PC interface equipped with a DIO card and the corresponding software. We plan to use this system in animal experiments for intracortical neural stimulation of implanted electrodes within our visual prosthesis project.

  3. Current Status of Holland's Theory of Careers: Another Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, John L.

    1987-01-01

    Responds to Brown's critique of author's (Holland) theory of vocational choice. Discusses validation of theories in general and the validation of this theory in particular. Discusses common complaints about and current status of this theory. Evaluates and responds to Brown's advice. Speculates about future of career theory. (ABL)

  4. Current status of quantitative rotational spectroscopy for atmospheric research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drouin, Brian J.; Wlodarczak, Georges; Colmont, Jean-Marcel; Rohart, Francois

    2004-01-01

    Remote sensing of rotational transitions in the Earth's atmosphere has become an important method for the retrieval of geophysical temperatures, pressures and chemical composition profiles that requires accurate spectral information. This paper highlights the current status of rotational data that are useful for atmospheric measurements, with a discussion of the types the rotational lineshape measurements that are not generally available in either online repository.

  5. Chemical Reaction Engineering: Current Status and Future Directions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dudukovic, M. P.

    1987-01-01

    Describes Chemical Reaction Engineering (CRE) as the discipline that quantifies the interplay of transport phenomena and kinetics in relating reactor performance to operating conditions and input variables. Addresses the current status of CRE in both academic and industrial settings and outlines future trends. (TW)

  6. Hardwood lumber supply chain: current status and market opportunities

    Treesearch

    Urs Buehlmann; Matthew Bumgardner; Al Schuler; Mark Barford

    2007-01-01

    The membership of the Appalachian Hardwood Manufacturers Association was surveyed in 2005 to determine the current status of large Appalachian sawmills. The primary focus was to assess the impacts of globalization on primary manufacturing, but attention was also paid to general issues affecting the hardwood lumber supply chain-from concerns over forest health and log...

  7. Current status of quantitative rotational spectroscopy for atmospheric research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drouin, Brian J.; Wlodarczak, Georges; Colmont, Jean-Marcel; Rohart, Francois

    2004-01-01

    Remote sensing of rotational transitions in the Earth's atmosphere has become an important method for the retrieval of geophysical temperatures, pressures and chemical composition profiles that requires accurate spectral information. This paper highlights the current status of rotational data that are useful for atmospheric measurements, with a discussion of the types the rotational lineshape measurements that are not generally available in either online repository.

  8. Current Backpack Weight Status for Primary Schoolchildren in Colima, Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olmedo-Buenrostro, Bertha Alicia; Delgado-Enciso, Iván; Sánchez-Ramírez, Carmen Alicia; Cruz, Sergio Adrián Montero; Vásquez, Clemente; Mora-Brambila, Ana Bertha; Rodríguez-Sánchez, Iram P.; Martínez-Fierro, Margarita L.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify the current status of backpack weight in primary schoolchildren in Colima, Mexico, in relation to gender, school grade level, and body mass index. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 240 randomly selected children from 20 primary schools. The participating children's parents signed statements of…

  9. Advanced Standing Revisited: Current Status, Structure, and Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bremner, Judith; Zastrow, Charles

    2008-01-01

    A 2004 national survey of CSWE-accredited MSW programs addresses three major questions. (1) Do advanced standing students perform as well as (or better than) traditional social work graduate students? (2) What should be the educational continuum between undergraduate and graduate programs? (3) What is the current status and structure of advanced…

  10. Special Education History, Current Status and Future: India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antony, Pavan John

    2013-01-01

    Education of all children in public schools, including those with disabilities, continues to be an unresolved issue in many countries around the globe. While education of all children is mandated by law and considered a basic human right in many countries, the current status of implementation varies. India, for example, is an ancient country that…

  11. Current Status of the General College's Career Development Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hixson, Bruce, Ed.

    1982-01-01

    These articles review the current status of General College's 11 career development programs: (1) Certificate in Aging Studies, an extension program geared toward those working with the elderly or seeking entry to the field of aging; (2) Aviation, consisting of seven one-level aviation courses which are applicable to all General College degrees;…

  12. Optical Coherence Tomography: History, Current Status, and Laboratory Work

    PubMed Central

    Gabriele, Michelle L.; Wollstein, Gadi; Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Kagemann, Larry; Xu, Juan; Folio, Lindsey S.

    2011-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging has become widespread in ophthalmology over the past 15 years, because of its ability to visualize ocular structures at high resolution. This article reviews the history of OCT imaging of the eye, its current status, and the laboratory work that is driving the future of the technology. PMID:21493951

  13. Current Backpack Weight Status for Primary Schoolchildren in Colima, Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olmedo-Buenrostro, Bertha Alicia; Delgado-Enciso, Iván; Sánchez-Ramírez, Carmen Alicia; Cruz, Sergio Adrián Montero; Vásquez, Clemente; Mora-Brambila, Ana Bertha; Rodríguez-Sánchez, Iram P.; Martínez-Fierro, Margarita L.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify the current status of backpack weight in primary schoolchildren in Colima, Mexico, in relation to gender, school grade level, and body mass index. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 240 randomly selected children from 20 primary schools. The participating children's parents signed statements of…

  14. Counseling in Malaysia: History, Current Status, and Future Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    See, Ching Mey; Ng, Kok-Mun

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the history of counseling in Malaysia, provides an update of its current status, and discusses some anticipated future trends for the profession in light of recent developments in the country. Counseling in Malaysia began with school guidance in the 1960s and has now achieved recognition as a profession in…

  15. Auditing Public Education. Current Status and Future Potential.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMickle, Peter L.; Elrod, Gene

    This book examines the audit and accountability environment of public education. It provides the reader with an assessment of the current status and future potential of audits of State and local education agencies (SEAs/LEAs) and makes suggestions and recommendations for both auditors and educators. An in-depth review of the development of…

  16. Chemical Reaction Engineering: Current Status and Future Directions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dudukovic, M. P.

    1987-01-01

    Describes Chemical Reaction Engineering (CRE) as the discipline that quantifies the interplay of transport phenomena and kinetics in relating reactor performance to operating conditions and input variables. Addresses the current status of CRE in both academic and industrial settings and outlines future trends. (TW)

  17. Counseling in Malaysia: History, Current Status, and Future Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    See, Ching Mey; Ng, Kok-Mun

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the history of counseling in Malaysia, provides an update of its current status, and discusses some anticipated future trends for the profession in light of recent developments in the country. Counseling in Malaysia began with school guidance in the 1960s and has now achieved recognition as a profession in…

  18. Special Education History, Current Status and Future: India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antony, Pavan John

    2013-01-01

    Education of all children in public schools, including those with disabilities, continues to be an unresolved issue in many countries around the globe. While education of all children is mandated by law and considered a basic human right in many countries, the current status of implementation varies. India, for example, is an ancient country that…

  19. Current status and future research in motion planning

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Y.K.

    1995-07-01

    There have been numerous research efforts in the field of motion planning, resulting in many theoretical and practical results. We review the current status of existing motion planning algorithms, evaluate their completeness and efficiencies on modern computers, and suggest fruitful future research directions.

  20. Corporate Blended Learning in Portugal: Current Status and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcal, Julia; Caetano, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to characterize the current status of blended learning in Portugal, given that b-learning has grown exponentially in the Portuguese market over recent years. 38 organizations (representing 68% of all institutions certified to provide distance training by the Government Labour Office--DGERT-) participated in this study. The…

  1. Structural Learning Theory: Current Status and New Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scandura, Joseph M.

    This paper discusses the current status of and new perspectives on the Structural Learning Theory (SLT). Special consideration is given to how SLT has been influenced by recent research in software engineering, and the range of possibilities it opens for instructional research and practice in the 21st century. Starting with fundamental precepts of…

  2. Structural Learning Theory: Current Status and New Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scandura, Joseph M.

    2001-01-01

    Presents the current status and new perspectives on the Structured Learning Theory (SLT), with special consideration given to how SLT has been influenced by recent research in software engineering. Topics include theoretical constructs; content domains; structural analysis; cognition; assessing behavior potential; and teaching and learning issues,…

  3. Current status of high conversion pressurized water reactor design studies

    SciTech Connect

    Umeoka, T.; Kono, T.; Toyoda, Y.; Ogino, M.; Iwai, S.; Hishida, H.

    1988-01-01

    Preliminary design studies on high conversion pressurized water reactors (HCPWRs) have been completed, and plant design studies are currently being performed to improve the feasibility of HCPWRs. The present status of the feasibility studies is covered, and the related validation tests to be conducted in the coming years are reviewed.

  4. Current Status of the WArP Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Szelc, A. M.

    2009-04-17

    The WArP Collaboration is getting ready to run the WArP 100 liter detector in the Underground laboratory in Gran Sasso, Italy. The new detector, scheduled to run in 2008, should improve the current sensitivity limits by a factor of 10. Meanwhile, an active R and D program is being conducted. The highlights of this program, namely the runs with Argon depleted in the radioactive isotope {sup 39}Ar currently in preparation and the measurements of the effects of contamination with Nitrogen and Oxygen on the Liquid Argon effective light yield will be presented as well as the current status of the 100 liter detector.

  5. Highly doped polycrystalline silicon microelectrodes reduce noise in neuronal recordings in vivo.

    PubMed

    Saha, Rajarshi; Jackson, Nathan; Patel, Chetan; Muthuswamy, Jit

    2010-10-01

    The aims of this study are to 1) experimentally validate for the first time the nonlinear current-potential characteristics of bulk doped polycrystalline silicon in the small amplitude voltage regimes (0-200 μV) and 2) test if noise amplitudes ( 0-15 μV ) from single neuronal electrical recordings get selectively attenuated in doped polycrystalline silicon microelectrodes due to the above property. In highly doped polycrystalline silicon, bulk resistances of several hundred kilo-ohms were experimentally measured for voltages typical of noise amplitudes and 9-10 kΩ for voltages typical of neural signal amplitudes ( > 150-200 μV). Acute multiunit measurements and noise measurements were made in n=6 and n=8 anesthetized adult rats, respectively, using polycrystalline silicon and tungsten microelectrodes. There was no significant difference in the peak-to-peak amplitudes of action potentials recorded from either microelectrode (p > 0.10). However, noise power in the recordings from tungsten microelectrodes (26.36 ±10.13 pW) was significantly higher than the corresponding value in polycrystalline silicon microelectrodes (7.49 ±2.66 pW). We conclude that polycrystalline silicon microelectrodes result in selective attenuation of noise power in electrical recordings compared to tungsten microelectrodes. This reduction in noise compared to tungsten microelectrodes is likely due to the exponentially higher bulk resistances offered by highly doped bulk polycrystalline silicon in the range of voltages corresponding to noise in multiunit measurements.

  6. The Fermilab Main Injector: current status and future

    SciTech Connect

    Bhat, C.M.

    1996-09-01

    The Fermilab Main Injector is a 8-150 GeV proton synchrotron being built as a high intensity injector to the Tevatron. The design incorporates many novel features to achieve {ital p{anti p}} luminosity in the Tevatron exceeding 8 x 10{sup 31} cm{sup -2}sec{sup -1}. An overview of the Main Injector project, current status and future prospects will be discussed.

  7. Current Status of Protein Force Fields for Molecular Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Pedro E.M.; Guvench, Olgun

    2015-01-01

    Summary The current status of classical force fields for proteins is reviewed. These include additive force fields as well as the latest developments in the Drude and AMOEBA polarizable force fields. Parametrization strategies developed specifically for the Drude force field are described and compared with the additive CHARMM36 force field. Results from molecular simulations of proteins and small peptides are summarized to illustrate the performance of the Drude and AMOEBA force fields. PMID:25330958

  8. The current status of Zika virus in Southeast Asia

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Zika virus currently poses a global threat and is a major public health issue throughout Latin America and the Caribbean. However, Zika virus infections in humans have also been observed in other regions, including Southeast Asia, where arboviral diseases are very common. In this study, we summarize the current status of Zika virus in Southeast Asia. This review aims to provide an overview of the current situation and also to suggest ways of adequately managing the emergence of Zika virus in Southeast Asia. METHODS: The literature searching for the reports on Zika virus in Southeast Asia was done using standard database PubMed and the re-analysis and summarization on the reports was done. RESULTS: A limited number of reports have addressed Zika virus disease in Southeast Asia, but it is has been confirmed that a problem already exists. Individual case reports and outbreaks of Zika virus have been confirmed in Southeast Asia. Several reports have also described patients becoming infected after visiting Southeast Asia. In addition, the concurrent circulation of Zika virus with other arboviruses has been confirmed. CONCLUSIONS: As a tropical region with a high prevalence of arboviral diseases, the emergence of Zika virus in Southeast Asia is a major concern. It is essential for local medical personnel to recognize this disease. Given the status of Southeast Asia as a globally important tourist destination, continuous updates on the status of Zika virus in Southeast Asia are required and should be incorporated into global health advisories regarding travel. PMID:27336445

  9. The current status of Zika virus in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Wiwanitkit, Viroj

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus currently poses a global threat and is a major public health issue throughout Latin America and the Caribbean. However, Zika virus infections in humans have also been observed in other regions, including Southeast Asia, where arboviral diseases are very common. In this study, we summarize the current status of Zika virus in Southeast Asia. This review aims to provide an overview of the current situation and also to suggest ways of adequately managing the emergence of Zika virus in Southeast Asia. The literature searching for the reports on Zika virus in Southeast Asia was done using standard database PubMed and the re-analysis and summarization on the reports was done. A limited number of reports have addressed Zika virus disease in Southeast Asia, but it is has been confirmed that a problem already exists. Individual case reports and outbreaks of Zika virus have been confirmed in Southeast Asia. Several reports have also described patients becoming infected after visiting Southeast Asia. In addition, the concurrent circulation of Zika virus with other arboviruses has been confirmed. As a tropical region with a high prevalence of arboviral diseases, the emergence of Zika virus in Southeast Asia is a major concern. It is essential for local medical personnel to recognize this disease. Given the status of Southeast Asia as a globally important tourist destination, continuous updates on the status of Zika virus in Southeast Asia are required and should be incorporated into global health advisories regarding travel.

  10. Current Status and Perspectives of Cysticercosis and Taeniasis in Japan

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This mini-review describes recent epidemiological trends in cysticercosis and taeniasis in Japan. Some of the topics discussed herein were presented at the first symposium on "Current perspectives of Taenia asiatica researches", that was held in Osong in Chungbuk Province, South Korea, in October 2011 and organized by Prof. K. S. Eom, Chungbuk National University School of Medicine. To better understand the trends in the occurrence of cysticercosis and taeniasis in Japan, clinical cases reported in 2005 have been updated. In addition, the current status of Taenia asiatica infections successively occurring in Japan since 2010 is also discussed. PMID:23467264

  11. Low-frequency sonophoresis: current status and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Ogura, Makoto; Paliwal, Sumit; Mitragotri, Samir

    2008-06-30

    Application of ultrasound enhances skin permeability to drugs, a phenomenon referred to as sonophoresis. Significant strides have been made in sonophoresis research in recent years, especially under low-frequency conditions (20 kHzcurrent status of sonophoresis under low-frequency conditions. Several therapeutic macromolecules including insulin, low-molecular weight heparin, and vaccines have been delivered using low-frequency sonophoresis in vivo. Clinical trials have been performed with several drugs including lidocaine and cyclosporin. Novel theoretical and experimental approaches have provided insights into the mechanisms of low-frequency sonophoresis. Current understanding of these mechanisms is presented.

  12. Current status of percutaneous coronary intervention of chronic total occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Jun-bo

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the current status of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for totally occluded coronary arteries. Chronic total occlusion is associated with 10%–20% of all PCI procedures. Results show that opening an occluded vessel, especially one supplying a considerable area of myocardium, may be beneficial for a patient’s angina relief and heart function. We describe the devices used currently in re-canalization such as new wires, microcatheters (including Tonus and Cosair) and intravascular ultrasound guidance. Different techniques to improve the success rate and reduce complications are discussed in detail. PMID:22843178

  13. Current status and perspectives of cysticercosis and taeniasis in Japan.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, Hiroshi

    2013-02-01

    This mini-review describes recent epidemiological trends in cysticercosis and taeniasis in Japan. Some of the topics discussed herein were presented at the first symposium on "Current perspectives of Taenia asiatica researches", that was held in Osong in Chungbuk Province, South Korea, in October 2011 and organized by Prof. K. S. Eom, Chungbuk National University School of Medicine. To better understand the trends in the occurrence of cysticercosis and taeniasis in Japan, clinical cases reported in 2005 have been updated. In addition, the current status of Taenia asiatica infections successively occurring in Japan since 2010 is also discussed.

  14. ACRF Ingest Software Status: New, Current, and Future (September 2007)

    SciTech Connect

    Koontz, AS; Choudhury, S; Ermold, BD; Gaustad, KL

    2007-04-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide status of the ingest software used to process instrument data for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF). The report is divided into 4 sections: (1) for news about ingests currently under development, (2) for current production ingests, (3) for future ingest development plans, and (4) for information on retired ingests. Please note that datastreams beginning in “xxx” indicate cases where ingests run at multiple ACRF sites, which results in a datastream(s) for each location.

  15. ACRF Ingest Software Status: New, Current, and Future - March 2008

    SciTech Connect

    AS Koontz; S Choudhury; BD Ermold; NN Keck; KL Gaustad; RC Perez

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide status of the ingest software used to process instrument data for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ACRF). The report is divided into four sections: (1) news about ingests currently under development, (2) current production ingests, (3) future ingest development plans, and (4) information on retired ingests. Please note that datastreams beginning in “xxx” indicate cases where ingests run at multiple ACRF sites, which results in a datastream(s) for each location.

  16. ACRF Ingest Software Status: New, Current, and Future - May 2008

    SciTech Connect

    AS Koontz; S Choudhury; BD Ermold; N N Keck; KL Gaustad; RC Perez

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide status of the ingest software used to process instrument data for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF). The report is divided into 4 sections: (1) for news about ingests currently under development, (2) for current production ingests, (3) for future ingest development plans, and (4) for information on retired ingests. Please note that datastreams beginning in “xxx” indicate cases where ingests run at multiple ACRF sites, which results in a datastream(s) for each location.

  17. ACRF Ingest Software Status: New, Current, and Future (November 2007)

    SciTech Connect

    Koontz, AS; Choudhury, S; Ermold, BD: Gaustad, KL

    2007-11-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide status of the ingest software used to process instrument data for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF). The report is divided into 4 sections: (1) for news about ingests currently under development, (2) for current production ingests, (3) for future ingest development plans, and (4) for information on retired ingests. Please note that datastreams beginning in “xxx” indicate cases where ingests run at multiple ACRF sites, which results in a datastream(s) for each location.

  18. ACRF Ingest Software Status: New, Current, and Future - June 2008

    SciTech Connect

    AS Koontz; S Choudhury; BD Ermold; NN Keck; KL Gaustad; RC Perez

    2008-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide status of the ingest software used to process instrument data for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF). The report is divided into 4 sections: (1) for news about ingests currently under development, (2) for current production ingests, (3) for future ingest development plans, and (4) for information on retired ingests. Please note that datastreams beginning in “xxx” indicate cases where ingests run at multiple ACRF sites, which results in a datastream(s) for each location.

  19. ACRF Ingest Software Status: New, Current, and Future - April 2008

    SciTech Connect

    AS Koontz; S Choudhury; BD Ermold; NN Keck; KL Gaustad; RC Perez

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide status of the ingest software used to process instrument data for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF). The report is divided into 4 sections: (1) for news about ingests currently under development, (2) for current production ingests, (3) for future ingest development plans, and (4) for information on retired ingests. Please note that datastreams beginning in “xxx” indicate cases where ingests run at multiple ACRF sites, which results in a datastream(s) for each location.

  20. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - January 2008

    SciTech Connect

    AS Koontz; S Choudhury; BD Ermold; KL Gaustad

    2008-01-31

    The purpose of this report is to provide status of the ingest software used to process instrument data for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF). The report is divided into 4 sections: (1) for news about ingests currently under development, (2) for current production ingests, (3) for future ingest development plans, and (4) for information on retired ingests. Please note that datastreams beginning in “xxx” indicate cases where ingests run at multiple ACRF sites, which results in a datastream(s) for each location.

  1. Chronic intracortical neural recordings using microelectrode arrays coated with PEDOT-TFB.

    PubMed

    Charkhkar, Hamid; Knaack, Gretchen L; McHail, Daniel G; Mandal, Himadri S; Peixoto, Nathalia; Rubinson, Judith F; Dumas, Theodore C; Pancrazio, Joseph J

    2016-03-01

    Microelectrode arrays have been extensively utilized to record extracellular neuronal activity for brain-machine interface applications. Modifying the microelectrodes with conductive polymers such as poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) has been reported to be advantageous because it increases the effective surface area of the microelectrodes, thereby decreasing impedance and enhancing charge transfer capacity. However, the long term stability and integrity of such coatings for chronic recordings remains unclear. Previously, our group has demonstrated that use of the smaller counter ion tetrafluoroborate (TFB) during electrodeposition increased the stability of the PEDOT coatings in vitro compared to the commonly used counter ion poly(styrenesulfonate) (PSS). In the current work, we examined the long-term in vivo performance of PEDOT-TFB coated microelectrodes. To do so, we selectively modified half of the microelectrodes on NeuroNexus single shank probes with PEDOT-TFB while the other half of the microelectrodes were modified with gold as a control. The modified probes were then implanted into the primary motor cortex of rats. Single unit recordings were observed on both PEDOT-TFB and gold control microelectrodes for more than 12 weeks. Compared to the gold-coated microelectrodes, the PEDOT-TFB coated microelectrodes exhibited an overall significantly lower impedance and higher number of units per microelectrode specifically for the first four weeks. The majority of PEDOT-TFB microelectrodes with activity had an impedance magnitude lower than 400 kΩ at 1 kHz. Our equivalent circuit modeling of the impedance data suggests stability in the polymer-related parameters for the duration of the study. In addition, when comparing PEDOT-TFB microelectrodes with and without long-term activity, we observed a distinction in certain circuit parameters for these microelectrodes derived from equivalent circuit modeling prior to implantation. This observation may prove

  2. The global HIV epidemic: current status and challenges.

    PubMed

    Abdool Karim, Quarraisha

    2013-06-01

    Three decades after the first reported cases of AIDS we have within our reach sufficient evidence to substantially alter the HIV epidemic at a country level regardless of mode of transmission of HIV. There are a growing number of countries demonstrating control of the epidemic. Human rights violations and/or legislation relating to sexual orientation, status of minors, injecting drug use and sex work together with stigma and discrimination remain key barriers to knowledge of HIV status and access to appropriate services. The use of anti-retrovirals prophylactically to reduce sexual and vertical transmission and systemically to treat infected infants and adults is central to the optimism in responses to the epidemic. In the current fiscal climate careful thought needs to be given to how to efficiently optimise combinations of what is available to have the biggest impact in the context of limited human and infrastructure resources.

  3. Current status and challenge of Human Parasitology teaching in China.

    PubMed

    Peng, Hong-Juan; Zhang, Chao; Wang, Chun-Mei; Chen, Xiao-Guang

    2012-11-01

    Parasitic infection profile in China has been changed greatly with the rapid economic development in China since the 1980s, such as the tremendous decreased infection rate of the soil-borne helminthiasis, the elimination of filariasis, the control of malaria, and the initiation to eradicate malaria in 2020. Some food-borne parasitic infections have increased such as Clonorchiasis, Cysticercosis, and Echinococcosis, probably because of the increased chances of eating out. This trend directly affected the status of Human Parasitology teaching in medical universities, such as the shorten length of this course, re-adjusted contents structure and teaching manners, even the change of the name of this course. In this paper, we analyzed the current status and challenges of Human Parasitology teaching in medical universities, and discussed the requisite contents and manners in course delivery and measures to improve the quality of Human Parasitology teaching in China.

  4. Current status and challenge of Human Parasitology teaching in China

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Hong-Juan; Zhang, Chao; Wang, Chun-Mei; Chen, Xiao-Guang

    2012-01-01

    Parasitic infection profile in China has been changed greatly with the rapid economic development in China since the 1980s, such as the tremendous decreased infection rate of the soil-borne helminthiasis, the elimination of filariasis, the control of malaria, and the initiation to eradicate malaria in 2020. Some food-borne parasitic infections have increased such as Clonorchiasis, Cysticercosis, and Echinococcosis, probably because of the increased chances of eating out. This trend directly affected the status of Human Parasitology teaching in medical universities, such as the shorten length of this course, re-adjusted contents structure and teaching manners, even the change of the name of this course. In this paper, we analyzed the current status and challenges of Human Parasitology teaching in medical universities, and discussed the requisite contents and manners in course delivery and measures to improve the quality of Human Parasitology teaching in China. PMID:23265609

  5. Andrology in China: current status and 10 years' progress

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Kai; Xu, Qing-Quan; Zhao, Yong-Ping; Gu, Yi-Qun; Jiang, Hui; Wang, Xiao-Feng; Zhu, Ji-Chuan

    2011-01-01

    Andrology has a long history in traditional Chinese medicine. There are records of male sexual health, male sexual dysfunction and male infertility from over thousands of years ago. Modern andrology in China had a late start, with the Chinese Andrology Association founded in 1995. Within last decade, andrology in China has grown rapidly. In this review article, we summarized the progress of andrology in last 10 years and outlined the current status of Chinese andrology with a special focus on progress in male erectile dysfunction, prostate diseases, male infertility and male hormonal contraception. PMID:21642997

  6. Current status of single-molecule spectroscopy: Theoretical aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, YounJoon; Barkai, Eli; Silbey, Robert J.

    2002-12-01

    We survey the current status of single-molecule spectroscopy in the view point of theoretical aspects. After an explanation of basic concepts in single-molecule spectroscopy, we focus on the following topics: (1) line shape phenomena in disordered media, (2) photon counting statistics for time-dependent fluctuations in single-molecule spectroscopy, (3) fluorescence intensity fluctuations for nonergodic systems, (4) time-resolved single-molecule fluorescence for conformational dynamics of single biomolecules, (5) single-molecule reaction dynamics at room temperature, and (6) quantum jump method of single quantum system. We conclude this paper with some open questions and perspectives of single-molecule spectroscopy.

  7. Current status of nuclear cardiology: a limited review

    SciTech Connect

    Botvinick, E.H.; Dae, M.; Hattner, R.S.

    1985-11-01

    To summarize the current status of nuclear cardiology, the authors will focus on areas that the emphasize the specific advantages of nuclear cardiology methods: (a) their benign, noninvasive nature, (b) their pathophysiologic nature, and (c) the ease of their computer manipulation and analysis, permitting quantitative evaluation. The areas covered include: (a) blood pool scintigraphy and parametric imaging, (b) pharmacologic intervention for the diagnosis of ischemic heart disease, (c) scintigraphic studies for the diagnosis and prognosis of coronary artery disease, and (d) considerations of cost effectiveness.

  8. Current Status of Operation and Management of Dental School Clinics.

    PubMed

    Reinhardt, John W

    2017-08-01

    This article summarizes the current status of the operation and management of dental school clinics as schools strive to provide excellent patient-centered care in an environment that is educationally sound, efficient, and financially strong. Clinical education is a large component of dental education and an area in which many dental schools have an opportunity to enhance revenue. Clinical efficiencies and alternative models of clinical education are evolving in U.S. dental schools, and this article describes some of those evolutionary changes. This article was written as part of the project "Advancing Dental Education in the 21(st) Century."

  9. Block-structured grids for complex aerodynamic configurations: Current status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vatsa, Veer N.; Sanetrik, Mark D.; Parlette, Edward B.

    1995-01-01

    The status of CFD methods based on the use of block-structured grids for analyzing viscous flows over complex configurations is examined. The objective of the present study is to make a realistic assessment of the usability of such grids for routine computations typically encountered in the aerospace industry. It is recognized at the very outset that the total turnaround time, from the moment the configuration is identified until the computational results have been obtained and postprocessed, is more important than just the computational time. Pertinent examples will be cited to demonstrate the feasibility of solving flow over practical configurations of current interest on block-structured grids.

  10. The MAO NASU Plate Archive Database. Current Status and Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pakuliak, L. K.; Sergeeva, T. P.

    2006-04-01

    The preliminary online version of the database of the MAO NASU plate archive is constructed on the basis of the relational database management system MySQL and permits an easy supplement of database with new collections of astronegatives, provides a high flexibility in constructing SQL-queries for data search optimization, PHP Basic Authorization protected access to administrative interface and wide range of search parameters. The current status of the database will be reported and the brief description of the search engine and means of the database integrity support will be given. Methods and means of the data verification and tasks for the further development will be discussed.

  11. Current Status and Perspective of Immunotherapy in Gastrointestinal Cancers.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung Hoon; Kim, Bum Jun; Kim, Hyeong Su; Kim, Jung Han

    2016-01-01

    Cancer immunotherapy is at dawn of the Renaissance after the Medieval Dark Ages. Recent advances of understanding tumor immunology and molecular drug development are leading us to the epoch of cancer immunotherapy. Some types of immunotherapy have shown to provide survival benefit for patients with solid tumors such as malignant melanoma, renal cell carcinoma, or non-small cell lung cancer. Several studies have suggested that immune checkpoint inhibition might be effective in some patients with gastrointestinal cancers. However, the era of cancer immunotherapy in gastrointestinal cancers is still in an inchoate stage. Here we briefly review the current status and perspective of immunotherapeutic approaches in patients with gastrointestinal cancers.

  12. Current Status of Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors in Gastrointestinal Cancers.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bum Jun; Jang, Hyun Joo; Kim, Hyeong Su; Kim, Jung Han

    2017-01-01

    The expansion of our understanding of tumor immunity and the recent success of new cancer immunotherapy has reignited the hope that we can treat cancer effectively with immunotherapeutic approaches. Immune checkpoint inhibitors have shown significant efficacy in the treatment of some solid and hematologic malignancies. Encouraged by recent success in some other types of malignancies, many clinical trials are ongoing to evaluate the efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitors in gastrointestinal (GI) malignancies. In this review, we briefly discuss theoretical background and current status of immune checkpoint inhibitors in GI cancers. We summarize the key studies and present the ongoing clinical trials involving immune checkpoint inhibitors in GI cancers.

  13. Current status of the PSG Monte Carlo neutron transport code

    SciTech Connect

    Leppaenen, J.

    2006-07-01

    PSG is a new Monte Carlo neutron transport code, developed at the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT). The code is mainly intended for fuel assembly-level reactor physics calculations, such as group constant generation for deterministic reactor simulator codes. This paper presents the current status of the project and the essential capabilities of the code. Although the main application of PSG is in lattice calculations, the geometry is not restricted in two dimensions. This paper presents the validation of PSG against the experimental results of the three-dimensional MOX fuelled VENUS-2 reactor dosimetry benchmark. (authors)

  14. Current Status and Perspective of Immunotherapy in Gastrointestinal Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jung Hoon; Kim, Bum Jun; Kim, Hyeong Su; Kim, Jung Han

    2016-01-01

    Cancer immunotherapy is at dawn of the Renaissance after the Medieval Dark Ages. Recent advances of understanding tumor immunology and molecular drug development are leading us to the epoch of cancer immunotherapy. Some types of immunotherapy have shown to provide survival benefit for patients with solid tumors such as malignant melanoma, renal cell carcinoma, or non-small cell lung cancer. Several studies have suggested that immune checkpoint inhibition might be effective in some patients with gastrointestinal cancers. However, the era of cancer immunotherapy in gastrointestinal cancers is still in an inchoate stage. Here we briefly review the current status and perspective of immunotherapeutic approaches in patients with gastrointestinal cancers. PMID:27698896

  15. The current status of women in physics in Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammed, Najat K.; Kazmili, Brenda

    2015-12-01

    Women's representation in physics in Tanzania is generally low. Various studies have shown that Tanzanian girls face obstacles to realizing their educational and intellectual capabilities. The situation is even worse in the field of physics because of the perception that the subject is too difficult. The number of women in physics at the university level is highly associated with their number in secondary school level as well as their performance. This paper analyzes the current status of women engaged in physics in Tanzania in the academic and research institutions.

  16. Cardiovascular diseases in China: Current status and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Li, Hua; Ge, Junbo

    2015-03-01

    Despite revolutionary advancement in medicine over the past century, cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains the leading cause of death and disability in the world. Likewise, the morbidity and mortality of CVD in China are increasing persistently, although the government has taken an active part in the prevention and control of CVD. Here we present an overview regarding the current CVD status in China with respect to various disease phenotypes, as well as the anticipated future trend in accordance with the dynamics and distribution of pathogenesis in Chinese actual situations.

  17. The current status of primary prevention in coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Pater, Cornel

    2001-01-01

    During the second part of the twentieth century, research advances caused a substantial decline in the rate of coronary heart disease. The decline lasted from the mid-1960s until the early 1990s and occurred primarily in Western countries. However, an unfavourable trend in coronary heart disease related mortality has gradually developed during the 1990s, with cardiovascular diseases anticipated to remain the main cause of overall mortality for the foreseeable future. The present paper aims at analyzing the current status of the main determinants of population-wide coronary heart disease prevention.

  18. Community-based dental education: history, current status, and future.

    PubMed

    Formicola, Allan J; Bailit, Howard L

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the history, current status, and future direction of community-based dental education (CBDE). The key issues addressed include the reasons that dentistry developed a different clinical education model than the other health professions; how government programs, private medical foundations, and early adopter schools influenced the development of CBDE; the societal and financial factors that are leading more schools to increase the time that senior dental students spend in community programs; the impact of CBDE on school finances and faculty and student perceptions; and the reasons that CBDE is likely to become a core part of the clinical education of all dental graduates.

  19. Current status of endoscopic simulation in gastroenterology fellowship training programs.

    PubMed

    Jirapinyo, Pichamol; Thompson, Christopher C

    2015-07-01

    Recent guidelines have encouraged gastroenterology and surgical training programs to integrate simulation into their core endoscopic curricula. However, the role that simulation currently has within training programs is unknown. This study aims to assess the current status of simulation among gastroenterology fellowship programs. This questionnaire study consisted of 38 fields divided into two sections. The first section queried program directors' experience on simulation and assessed the current status of simulation at their institution. The second portion surveyed their opinion on the potential role of simulation on the training curriculum. The study was conducted at the 2013 American Gastroenterological Association Training Directors' Workshop in Phoenix, Arizona. The participants were program directors from Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education accredited gastroenterology training programs, who attended the workshop. The questionnaire was returned by 69 of 97 program directors (response rate of 71%). 42% of programs had an endoscopic simulator. Computerized simulators (61.5%) were the most common, followed by mechanical (30.8%) and animal tissue (7.7%) simulators, respectively. Eleven programs (15%) required fellows to use simulation prior to clinical cases. Only one program has a minimum number of hours fellows have to participate in simulation training. Current simulators are deemed as easy to use (76%) and good educational tools (65%). Problems are cost (72%) and accessibility (69%). The majority of program directors believe that there is a need for endoscopic simulator training, with only 8% disagreeing. Additionally, a majority believe there is a role for simulation prior to initiation of clinical cases with 15% disagreeing. Gastroenterology fellowship program directors widely recognize the importance of simulation. Nevertheless, simulation is used by only 42% of programs and only 15% of programs require that trainees use simulation prior to

  20. China's natural wetlands: past problems, current status, and future challenges.

    PubMed

    An, Shuqing; Li, Harbin; Guan, Baohua; Zhou, Changfang; Wang, Zhongsheng; Deng, Zifa; Zhi, Yingbiao; Liu, Yuhong; Xu, Chi; Fang, Shubo; Jiang, Jinhui; Li, Hongli

    2007-06-01

    Natural wetlands, occupying 3.8% of China's land and providing 54.9% of ecosystem services, are unevenly distributed among eight wetland regions. Natural wetlands in China suffered great loss and degradation (e.g., 23.0% freshwater swamps, 51.2% costal wetlands) because of the wetland reclamation during China's long history of civilization, and the population pressure and the misguided policies over the last 50 years. Recently, with an improved understanding that healthy wetland ecosystems play a vital role in her sustainable economic development, China started major efforts in wetland conservation, as signified by the policy to return reclaimed croplands to wetlands, the funding of billions of dollars to restore degraded wetlands, and the national plan to place 90% of natural wetlands under protection by 2030. This paper describes the current status of the natural wetlands in China, reviews past problems, and discusses current efforts and future challenges in protecting China's natural wetlands.

  1. [Current status and future of surgical robotic systems].

    PubMed

    Esumi, G; Tomikawa, M; Hashizume, M; Konishi, K; Shimada, M; Sugimachi, K

    2001-09-01

    In this review, we are commenting the current status and the future of surgical robotic systems. AESOP is a voice-controlled laparoscope manipulator that enables the "Solo-surgery". ZEUS is a master-slave manipulator that is characterized by its simplicity and lightness. da Vinci is another master-slave manipulator that has more range of freedom, therefore a surgeon can perform the operation with fewer difficulties. The technological development of high-quality and real-time 3D simulation, minimization of scopes and power saving techniques made these surgical robots realized. Although many pending matters such as lack of safety guideline or lack of accuracy of sensor/monitor have been raised in current surgical robotics, the development of the technologies may promise to resolve such matters in the future.

  2. The ILLIAC IV memory system: Current status and future possibilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevenson, D. K.

    1978-01-01

    The future needs of researchers who will use the Illiac were examined and the requirements they will place on the memory system were evaluated. Various alternatives to replacing critical memory components were considered with regard to cost, risk, system impact, software requirements, and implementation schedules. The current system, its performance and status, and the limitations it places on possible enhancements are discussed as well as the planned enhancements to the Illiac processor. After a brief technology survey, different implementations are presented for each system memory component. Three different memory systems are proposed to meet the identified needs of the Illiac user community. These three alternatives differ considerably with respect to storage capacity and accessing capabilities, but they all offer significant improvements over the current system. The proposed systems and their relative merits are analyzed.

  3. Current status of the measurement of the anapole moment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Dong; Perez Galvan, Adrian; Hood, Jonathan; Orozco, Luis

    2009-05-01

    We present the current status of the experimental effort towards the measurement of the anapole moment in different isotopes of francium. The anapole is a parity-violating, time-reversal conserving nuclear moment that arises from the weak interaction among nucleons. Due to the electromagnetic interaction between electrons and nucleons, atomic physics gives the unique possibility to probe the weak interaction in the low energy regime. Our experimental scheme involves driving a parity forbidden E1 transition between hyperfine ground states in a series of francium isotopes inside a blue detuned dipole trap at the electric antinode of a microwave cavity. The experiment will make use of the ISAC radioactive beam facility at TRIUMF. The system is currently being tested with rubidium.

  4. Polycystic ovary syndrome: current status and future perspective

    PubMed Central

    Barthelmess, Erin K.; Naz, Rajesh K.

    2015-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a widespread reproductive disorder that encompasses many associated health conditions and has an impact on various metabolic processes. PCOS is depicted by hyperandrogenism, polycystic ovaries, and anovulation. It increases the risk of insulin resistance (IR), type 2 diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease. The etiology of the disease remains unclear, and the subjective phenotype makes a united diagnosis difficult among physicians. It seems to be a familial genetic syndrome caused by a combination of environmental and genetic factors. It can be linked with metabolic disorders in first-degree family members. PCOS is the cause of up to 30% of infertility in couples seeking treatment. Currently, there is no cure for PCOS. Despite the growing incidence of this syndrome, limited research has been done that encompasses the entirety of PCOS spectrum. In this review, the current status and possible future perspective will be discussed. PMID:24389146

  5. Recombinant DNA in Japan: current status and future prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    The goals of the report are to evaluate the current status of Japanese Recombinant DNA Biotechnology, and to suggest ways to improve the use of the Japanese biotechnology literature. Abstracts and titles of papers presented at Japanese scientific meetings held from November 1987 to November 1988 were evaluated and translated to give the reader an overall idea of the areas in which Japanese researchers are active. In general, Japanese recombinant DNA technology is on a par with that in the U.S. - there is no technology lead on either side. The author recommends that U.S. bio-researchers should read the Japanese language literature, particularly in applied areas, since the abstracts of meetings held in Japan in Japanese are a good source of current, concise information.

  6. Current status of low-temperature radiator thermophotovoltaic devices

    SciTech Connect

    Charache, G.W.; Egley, J.L.; Danielson, L.R.; DePoy, D.M.; Baldasaro, P.F.; Campbell, B.C.; Hui, S.; Fraas, L.M.; Wojtczuk, S.J.

    1996-05-01

    The current performance status of low-temperature radiator (< 1,000 C) thermophotovoltaic (TPV) devices is presented. For low-temperature radiators, both power density and efficiency are equally important in designing an effective TPV system. Comparisons of 1 cm x 1 cm, 0.55 eV InGaAs and InGaAsSb voltaic devices are presented. Currently, InGaAs lattice-mismatched devices offer superior performance in comparison to InGaAsSb lattice-matched devices, due to the former`s long-term development for numerous optoelectronic applications. However, lattice-matched antimony-based quaternaries offer numerous potential advantages.

  7. Antigen-based immunotherapy for autoimmune disease: current status

    PubMed Central

    Hirsch, Darren Lowell; Ponda, Punita

    2015-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases are common chronic disorders that not only have a major impact on the quality of life but are also potentially life-threatening. Treatment modalities that are currently favored have conferred significant clinical benefits, but they may have considerable side effects. An optimal treatment strategy for autoimmune disease would specifically target disease-associated antigens and limit systemic side effects. Similar to allergen-specific immunotherapy for allergic rhinitis, antigen-specific immunotherapy for autoimmune disease aims to induce immune deviation and promote tolerance to specific antigens. In this review, we present the current status of studies and clinical trials in both human and animal hosts that use antigen-based immunotherapy for autoimmune disease. PMID:27471707

  8. Research experience in psychiatry residency programs across Canada: current status.

    PubMed

    Shanmugalingam, Arany; Ferreria, Sharon G; Norman, Ross M G; Vasudev, Kamini

    2014-11-01

    To determine the current status of research experience in psychiatry residency programs across Canada. Coordinators of Psychiatric Education (COPE) resident representatives from all 17 psychiatry residency programs in Canada were asked to complete a survey regarding research training requirements in their programs. Among the 17 COPE representatives, 15 completed the survey, representing 88% of the Canadian medical schools that have a psychiatry residency program. Among the 15 programs, 11 (73%) require residents to conduct a scholarly activity to complete residency. Some of these programs incorporated such a requirement in the past 5 years. Ten respondents (67%) reported availability of official policy and (or) guidelines on resident research requirements. Among the 11 programs that have a research requirement, 10 (91%) require residents to complete 1 scholarly activity; 1 requires completion of 2 scholarly activities. Eight (53%) residency programs reported having a separate research track. All of the programs have a research coordinator and 14 (93%) programs provide protected time to residents for conducting research. The 3 most common types of scholarly activities that qualify for the mandatory research requirement are a full independent project (10 programs), a quality improvement project (8 programs), and assisting in a faculty project (8 programs). Six programs expect their residents to present their final work in a departmental forum. None of the residency programs require publication of residents' final work. The current status of the research experience during psychiatry residency in Canada is encouraging but there is heterogeneity across the programs.

  9. Current status of multichannel electrogastrography and examples of its use

    PubMed Central

    Murakami, Haruaki; Matsumoto, Hideo; Ueno, Daisuke; Kawai, Akimasa; Ensako, Takaaki; Kaida, Yuko; Abe, Toshiya; Kubota, Hisako; Higashida, Masaharu; Nakashima, Hiroshi; Oka, Yasuo; Okumura, Hideo; Tsuruta, Atsushi; Nakamura, Masafumi; Hirai, Toshihiro

    2013-01-01

    Electrogastrography (EGG) is a non-invasive diagnostic motility for recording gastric myoelectrical activity. Gastric myoelectrical activity was first recorded in 1922. Advances in recording equipment enabled widespread use of cutaneous EGG after 1985. Later, introduction of multichannel EGG (M-EGG) enabled measurement of electrical activity transmission. At present, M-EGG findings are used as objective indicators of gastric motility disorders caused by various diseases. EGG measures two categories of gastric electrical activity: electrical response activity, or spike potentials; and electrical control activity, or slow waves. The appearance of abnormal rhythmic electrical activity is indicative of abnormalities in gastric motility. The normal frequency range of gastric electrical activity (normogastria) is around 3 cycles per min. Multiple EGG parameters assist in the assessment of gastric myoelectrical activity, and significant correlations between EGG and other gastric motility tests have been demonstrated in many studies. In Japan, however, EGG remains in the exploratory stage, and its clinical use is limited. There are large variations in procedures and systems used in previous studies, thus there is a need for standardization of EGG procedures and technical terminology. Here, we outline the current status of EGG and report the M-EGG procedures used in our department in addition to our M-EGG findings. The abstract of this manuscript was presented during an educational seminar titled "Current status of gastrointestinal motility tests and keys for immediate implementation" at the 54th Annual Meeting of the Japan Society of Smooth Muscle Research PMID:24662473

  10. Parametric overdispersed frailty models for current status data.

    PubMed

    Abrams, Steven; Aerts, Marc; Molenberghs, Geert; Hens, Niel

    2017-03-27

    Frailty models have a prominent place in survival analysis to model univariate and multivariate time-to-event data, often complicated by the presence of different types of censoring. In recent years, frailty modeling gained popularity in infectious disease epidemiology to quantify unobserved heterogeneity using Type I interval-censored serological data or current status data. In a multivariate setting, frailty models prove useful to assess the association between infection times related to multiple distinct infections acquired by the same individual. In addition to dependence among individual infection times, overdispersion can arise when the observed variability in the data exceeds the one implied by the model. In this article, we discuss parametric overdispersed frailty models for time-to-event data under Type I interval-censoring, building upon the work by Molenberghs et al. () and Hens et al. (). The proposed methodology is illustrated using bivariate serological data on hepatitis A and B from Flanders, Belgium anno 1993-1994. Furthermore, the relationship between individual heterogeneity and overdispersion at a stratum-specific level is studied through simulations. Although it is important to account for overdispersion, one should be cautious when modeling both individual heterogeneity and overdispersion based on current status data as model selection is hampered by the loss of information due to censoring.

  11. Current status, crisis and trends in Chinese dental technicians.

    PubMed

    Chaoyi, Ma; Liwei, Zheng; Li, Yue; Min, Zhou; Haiyang, Yu

    2012-04-01

    Chinese dental technicians play a significant role in the globalised market of dental prosthesis fabrication, but this subject has not been investigated in detail. The demand for dental prostheses increases as individuals pay increasing attention to their oral health. Therefore, it is important to investigate the status of Chinese dental technicians. To evaluate the current status of Chinese dental technicians. Dental technicians' resumés, which reveal information regarding dental technician manpower, degrees, working age and salary, etc., were analysed and compared with those abroad. We also estimated the future demands of dental technician manpower, and discussed some potential solutions. There are fewer dental technicians in China than in other developed countries; they are also of a lower standard. Male technicians outnumber females. The education level of technicians is insufficient, and the education programme is still in its exploratory stage. The development of dental technician teams in China represents both an opportunity and a challenge. It is important to move forward from the current situation to yield long-term development. This article provides information on the Chinese dental technology industry, identifies the problems and offers solutions for its development. © 2012 FDI World Dental Federation.

  12. Research Experience in Psychiatry Residency Programs Across Canada: Current Status

    PubMed Central

    Shanmugalingam, Arany; Ferreria, Sharon G; Norman, Ross M G; Vasudev, Kamini

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the current status of research experience in psychiatry residency programs across Canada. Method: Coordinators of Psychiatric Education (COPE) resident representatives from all 17 psychiatry residency programs in Canada were asked to complete a survey regarding research training requirements in their programs. Results: Among the 17 COPE representatives, 15 completed the survey, representing 88% of the Canadian medical schools that have a psychiatry residency program. Among the 15 programs, 11 (73%) require residents to conduct a scholarly activity to complete residency. Some of these programs incorporated such a requirement in the past 5 years. Ten respondents (67%) reported availability of official policy and (or) guidelines on resident research requirements. Among the 11 programs that have a research requirement, 10 (91%) require residents to complete 1 scholarly activity; 1 requires completion of 2 scholarly activities. Eight (53%) residency programs reported having a separate research track. All of the programs have a research coordinator and 14 (93%) programs provide protected time to residents for conducting research. The 3 most common types of scholarly activities that qualify for the mandatory research requirement are a full independent project (10 programs), a quality improvement project (8 programs), and assisting in a faculty project (8 programs). Six programs expect their residents to present their final work in a departmental forum. None of the residency programs require publication of residents’ final work. Conclusions: The current status of the research experience during psychiatry residency in Canada is encouraging but there is heterogeneity across the programs. PMID:25565474

  13. Current status of Paragonimus and paragonimiasis in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Calvopiña, Manuel; Romero, Daniel; Castañeda, Byron; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa; Sugiyama, Hiromu

    2014-11-01

    A review of national and international publications on paragonimiasis in Ecuador, epidemiological records from the Ministry of Public Health and unpublished research data was conducted to summarise the current status of the parasite/disease. The purpose of the review is to educate physicians, policy-makers and health providers on the status of the disease and to stimulate scientific investigators to conduct further research. Paragonimiasis was first diagnosed in Ecuador 94 years ago and it is endemic to both tropical and subtropical regions in 19 of 24 provinces in the Pacific Coast and Amazon regions. Paragonimus mexicanus is the only known species in the country, with the mollusc Aroapyrgus colombiensis and the crabs Moreirocarcinus emarginatus, Hypolobocera chilensis and Hypolobocera aequatorialis being the primary and secondary intermediate hosts, respectively. Recent studies found P. mexicanus metacercariae in Trichodactylus faxoni crabs of the northern Amazon. Chronic pulmonary paragonimiasis is commonly misdiagnosed and treated as tuberculosis and although studies have demonstrated the efficacy of praziquantel and triclabendazole for the treatment of human infections, neither drug is available in Ecuador. Official data recorded from 1978-2007 indicate an annual incidence of 85.5 cases throughout the 19 provinces, with an estimated 17.2% of the population at risk of infection. There are no current data on the incidence/prevalence of infection, nor is there a national control programme.

  14. Current status of Paragonimus and paragonimiasis in Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Calvopiña, Manuel; Romero, Daniel; Castañeda, Byron; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa; Sugiyama, Hiromu

    2014-01-01

    A review of national and international publications on paragonimiasis in Ecuador, epidemiological records from the Ministry of Public Health and unpublished research data was conducted to summarise the current status of the parasite/disease. The purpose of the review is to educate physicians, policy-makers and health providers on the status of the disease and to stimulate scientific investigators to conduct further research. Paragonimiasis was first diagnosed in Ecuador 94 years ago and it is endemic to both tropical and subtropical regions in 19 of 24 provinces in the Pacific Coast and Amazon regions. Paragonimus mexicanus is the only known species in the country, with the mollusc Aroapyrgus colombiensis and the crabs Moreirocarcinus emarginatus, Hypolobocera chilensis and Hypolobocera aequatorialis being the primary and secondary intermediate hosts, respectively. Recent studies found P. mexicanus metacercariae in Trichodactylus faxoni crabs of the northern Amazon. Chronic pulmonary paragonimiasis is commonly misdiagnosed and treated as tuberculosis and although studies have demonstrated the efficacy of praziquantel and triclabendazole for the treatment of human infections, neither drug is available in Ecuador. Official data recorded from 1978-2007 indicate an annual incidence of 85.5 cases throughout the 19 provinces, with an estimated 17.2% of the population at risk of infection. There are no current data on the incidence/prevalence of infection, nor is there a national control programme. PMID:25410987

  15. Active Debris Removal: Current Status of Activities in CNES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnal, Christophe; Ruault, Jean-Marc; Desjean, Marie-Christine

    2013-08-01

    Most of the ongoing studies led at worldwide level, mainly through IADC Actions, conclude that in order to keep a stable Low Earth Orbit environment in the coming decades, it may be necessary to retrieve some 5 to 10 large objects annually. These operations, known as Active Debris Removal (ADR), raise a huge amount of difficulties in numerous domains: political, legal, insurance, defense, financing and, last but not least, technical questions. The current paper aims at reviewing the current status of the ADR activities led by CNES both at National and Multi-lateral level. The first question which is raised is that of the high level requirements to be applied. What are the requirements coming from the operators; do we want to stabilize the environment, decrease it or could we accept some increase over the years; when do we have to act; can we baseline random reentry of such large objects or do we have to stick to controlled destructive reentries?… There may not yet be clear answers to these points, so efforts at international level are required. The second part of the paper deals with the potential solutions at system level. Numerous possibilities can be identified, depending on the size of the launcher and of the strategy selected to de-orbit the debris. Large space tugs visiting some 10 debris or small dedicated chasers launched as piggyback are among the solutions which have been traded. The currently preferred solution is described in details. The third part of the paper is devoted to the chaser-debris operations themselves, following five key functions; - the long range rendezvous, - the short range rendezvous up to contact, - the mechanical interfacing of the debris, - its control by the chaser, when required, - the de-orbiting maneuver itself. For each of these functions, the current status of available technologies is described, enabling the identification of the most critical ones requiring additional R&T effort and subsequent demonstrations. Among them

  16. Robotic technology in surgery: current status in 2008.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Declan G; Hall, Rohan; Tong, Raymond; Goel, Rajiv; Costello, Anthony J

    2008-12-01

    There is increasing patient and surgeon interest in robotic-assisted surgery, particularly with the proliferation of da Vinci surgical systems (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, CA, USA) throughout the world. There is much debate over the usefulness and cost-effectiveness of these systems. The currently available robotic surgical technology is described. Published data relating to the da Vinci system are reviewed and the current status of surgical robotics within Australia and New Zealand is assessed. The first da Vinci system in Australia and New Zealand was installed in 2003. Four systems had been installed by 2006 and seven systems are currently in use. Most of these are based in private hospitals. Technical advantages of this system include 3-D vision, enhanced dexterity and improved ergonomics when compared with standard laparoscopic surgery. Most procedures currently carried out are urological, with cardiac, gynaecological and general surgeons also using this system. The number of patients undergoing robotic-assisted surgery in Australia and New Zealand has increased fivefold in the past 4 years. The most common procedure carried out is robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy. Published data suggest that robotic-assisted surgery is feasible and safe although the installation and recurring costs remain high. There is increasing acceptance of robotic-assisted surgery, especially for urological procedures. The da Vinci surgical system is becoming more widely available in Australia and New Zealand. Other surgical specialties will probably use this technology. Significant costs are associated with robotic technology and it is not yet widely available to public patients.

  17. Stretchable Micro-Electrode Array

    SciTech Connect

    Maghribi, M; Hamilton, J; Polla, D; Rose, K; Wilson, T; Krulevitch, P

    2002-03-08

    This paper focuses on the design consideration, fabrication processes and preliminary testing of the stretchable micro-electrode array. We are developing an implantable, stretchable micro-electrode array using polymer-based microfabrication techniques. The device will serve as the interface between an electronic imaging system and the human eye, directly stimulating retinal neurons via thin film conducting traces and electroplated electrodes. The metal features are embedded within a thin ({approx}50 micron) substrate fabricated using poly (dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS), a biocompatible elastomeric material that has very low water permeability. The conformable nature of PDMS is critical for ensuring uniform contact with the curved surface of the retina. To fabricate the device, we developed unique processes for metalizing PDMS to produce robust traces capable of maintaining conductivity when stretched (5%, SD 1.5), and for selectively passivating the conductive elements. An in situ measurement of residual strain in the PDMS during curing reveals a tensile strain of 10%, explaining the stretchable nature of the thin metalized devices.

  18. Electrochemical measurements on a droplet using gold microelectrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenabi, Amin; Souri, Asma; Rastkhadiv, Ali

    2016-03-01

    Facile methods of ion recognition are important for the fabrication of electronic tongue systems. In this work, we demonstrate performing pulsed conductometry on microliter electrolyte droplets dropped on gold microelectrodes vapor deposited on soda lime glass slides. A droplet is dropped between two microelectrodes when a voltage waveform from a preprogramed power supply is applied on them. The temporal variation of the electric current passing through the droplet is recorded, digitized and stored. The obtained data are compared with the database formed out of the previous experiences for the classification of the sample electrolytes. It is shown that the shape of the voltage waveform is the important parameter of the process. We devised a method for the optimization of the voltage waveform profile for obtaining the maximum of discriminating information from the recorded current variations.

  19. The current status of environmental health research in Australia.

    PubMed

    Gowland, Angela; Cook, Angus; Heyworth, Jane

    2012-01-01

    At present, the extent of environmental health research in Australia is unclear and there are no recent overarching reviews of national publications on the subject. This study investigates the current status of environmental health research in Australia using a bibliometric analysis. Three databases (Medline, Web of Science, and AUSTHealth) were used to access original, peer-reviewed journal articles with Australian data published between 1 January 2001 and 11 June 2010. A total of 337 articles from 174 different journal titles were used in the analysis and were classified according to 15 pre-determined environmental health areas. The highest number of articles related to water health and resources (66 articles), exposure to hazardous chemicals (57 articles), and air pollution including indoor air (58 articles). These areas made up 54% of the total publication output over the past 10 years. The amount of environmental health research published in Australia over the past 10 years, and the topics explored in these studies, is comparable to that of other countries of similar socio-economic status.

  20. Penalized estimation for proportional hazards models with current status data.

    PubMed

    Lu, Minggen; Li, Chin-Shang

    2017-09-05

    We provide a simple and practical, yet flexible, penalized estimation method for a Cox proportional hazards model with current status data. We approximate the baseline cumulative hazard function by monotone B-splines and use a hybrid approach based on the Fisher-scoring algorithm and the isotonic regression to compute the penalized estimates. We show that the penalized estimator of the nonparametric component achieves the optimal rate of convergence under some smooth conditions and that the estimators of the regression parameters are asymptotically normal and efficient. Moreover, a simple variance estimation method is considered for inference on the regression parameters. We perform 2 extensive Monte Carlo studies to evaluate the finite-sample performance of the penalized approach and compare it with the 3 competing R packages: C1.coxph, intcox, and ICsurv. A goodness-of-fit test and model diagnostics are also discussed. The methodology is illustrated with 2 real applications. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Microbiological risk factors in dentistry. Current status of knowledge.

    PubMed

    Szymańska, Jolanta

    2005-01-01

    Dentists belong to a professional group potentially exposed to harmful biological factors which most often are infectious microorganisms, less frequently - allergenic or toxic microorganisms. The fundamental routes of spreading harmful microorganisms in a dental surgery are: blood-borne, saliva-droplet, direct contact with a patient and with infected equipment, and water-droplet infections. In this paper, the current status of knowledge on microbiological hazards in a dentist's work is presented. Groups of microorganisms, such as prions, viruses, bacteria, fungi and protozoa, to which a dentist is, or may be exposed, are discussed. Epidemiological assessment of microbiological hazards in a dentist's work was performed and the basic principles of prevention formulated. Special attention was given to microflora in dental unit waterlines, and the biofilm persisting in them, as a source of occupational hazards specific for a dentist's workplace.

  2. The current status of haemoglobin-based blood substitutes.

    PubMed

    Cohn, S M

    1997-10-01

    Haemoglobin-based red cell substitutes have recently passed a myriad of safety studies and are now undergoing efficacy evaluation. There are numerous potential benefits with use of these solutions: they are readily available and have a long shelf-life; do not require typing and cross-matching; are free of viral or bacterial contamination; lack the immunosuppressive effects of blood; and have a much lower viscosity than blood. One-third of the 10 million units of blood transfused in the United States each year is utilized in the emergency setting. Therefore, a safe, effective substitute for blood should have significant impact upon the way we resuscitate bleeding patients. In this article, the current status of the various haemoglobin-based red cell substitutes is reviewed.

  3. The Observatorio Astrofsico de Javalambre: current status and future developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cenarro, A. J.; Moles, M.; Cristóbal-Hornillos, D.; Marín-Franch, A.; Chueca, S.; Ederoclite, A.; Varela, J.; Gruel, N.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; López-Sanjuan, C.; Viironen, K.; Valdivielso, L.; Yanes, A.; Díaz-García, L. A.; Gracia-Gracia, S.

    2013-05-01

    The Observatorio Astrofísico de Javalambre (OAJ) is a new Spanish astronomical facility particularly conceived for carrying out large sky surveys, making use of two unprecedented telescopes of unusually large fields of view (FoV): the JST/T250, a 2.55 m telescope of 3 deg FoV, and the JAST/T80, an 83 cm telescope of 2 deg FoV. After two years of project development, JAST/T80 is already installed at the OAJ undergoing the first performance tests, and JST/T250 is fully assembled in the factory awaiting for the completion of the optics. We here provide an overall description of the project, indicating the current status of the main work packages and the next future developments.

  4. Current Status of High Voltage Engineering in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidayat, Syarif; Hidayat, Suwarno; Zoro, Reynaldo

    This paper reports current status of research activities in the field of high voltage engineering and its application in Indonesia. In general, the activities were driven by the application of high voltage (HV) and extra high voltage (EHV) transmission systems in the country. The operation and maintenance of HV and EHV equipments are greatly affected by the tropical climate of the country. This attracts researchers to investigate the effects of tropical climate on HV and EHV equipments. Other researches concentrated on the investigation of physics of tropical lightning and lightning protection. In this paper, applications and problems of high voltage engineering, research activities in universities, as well as in research institutes and utilities are briefly introduced.

  5. Current Status and Future Prospect of Endovascular Neurosurgery

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Young Il

    2008-01-01

    Recently, due to the evolution of technology, the field of neurosurgery is receiving spotlight. In particular endovascular neurosurgery has gained a great interest along with the advancement of the modern neurosurgery. The most remarkable advances were made in embolization of the cerebral aneurysms, arteriovenous malformations and intracranial stenosis during the past 10 years. These advances will further change the role of neurosurgeons in treating cerebrovascular disease. Because interventional neuroradiologists have performed most of procedures in the past, neurosurgeons have been deprived of chances to learn endovascular procedure. This article discusses the development of technological aspect of endovascular neurosurgery in chronological order. By understanding the history and current status of the endovascular surgery, the future of neurosurgery will be promising. PMID:19096608

  6. Nano-JASMINE: current status and data output

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Yukiyasu; Yano, Taihei; Gouda, Naoteru; Niwa, Yoshito; Murooka, Jyunpei; Yamada, Yoshiyuki; Sako, Nobutada; Nakasuka, Shin'ichi

    2010-07-01

    The current status of the Nano-JASMINE project is reported. Nano-JASMINE is a very small-sized (50 cm cubic form) satellite that is expected to carry out astrometric observations of nearby bright stars. The satellite will determine distances of more than 8000 stars by performing annual parallax measurements, which is the only direct method to measure the distance of an astronomical object. The mission is required to continue for more than two years to obtain reliable annual parallax measurements. In addition, Nano-JASMINE will serve as a preliminary to the main JASMINE mission. We expect that Nano-JASMINE will be launched in August 2011 from the Alcantara Space Center in Brazil using the Cyclone-4 rocket.

  7. Targeted radiotherapy with gold nanoparticles: current status and future perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Ngwa, Wilfred; Kumar, Rajiv; Sridhar, Srinivas; Korideck, Houari; Zygmanski, Piotr; Cormack, Robert A; Berbeco, Ross; Makrigiorgos, G Mike

    2014-01-01

    Radiation therapy (RT) is the treatment of cancer and other diseases with ionizing radiation. The ultimate goal of RT is to destroy all the disease cells while sparing healthy tissue. Towards this goal, RT has advanced significantly over the past few decades in part due to new technologies including: multileaf collimator-assisted modulation of radiation beams, improved computer-assisted inverse treatment planning, image guidance, robotics with more precision, better motion management strategies, stereotactic treatments and hypofractionation. With recent advances in nanotechnology, targeted RT with gold nanoparticles (GNPs) is actively being investigated as a means to further increase the RT therapeutic ratio. In this review, we summarize the current status of research and development towards the use of GNPs to enhance RT. We highlight the promising emerging modalities for targeted RT with GNPs and the corresponding preclinical evidence supporting such promise towards potential clinical translation. Future prospects and perspectives are discussed. PMID:24978464

  8. Current status of SK-Gd project and EGADS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Chenyuan; Super-Kamiokande Collaboration

    2016-05-01

    Supernova Relic Neutrino (SRN) has not been observed yet because of its low event rate and high background. By adding gadolinium into water Cherenkov detector, inverse beta decay will have two signals, the prompt one is positron signal and the delayed one is a ~8 MeV gamma cascade from neutron capture on gadolinium. By this way, background for SRN can be largely reduced by detecting prompt and delayed signals coincidently, and Super-K will also have the ability to distinguish neutrino and anti-neutrino. SK-Gd is a R&D project proposed to dissolve gadolinium into Super-K. As a part of it, EGADS, a 200 ton water Cherenkov detector was built in Kamioka mine. Current status of SK-Gd project and the physics work being performed in EGADS will be presented here.

  9. Current Status of Lumbar Interbody Fusion for Degenerative Spondylolisthesis

    PubMed Central

    TAKAHASHI, Toshiyuki; HANAKITA, Junya; OHTAKE, Yasufumi; FUNAKOSHI, Yusuke; OICHI, Yuki; KAWAOKA, Taigo; WATANABE, Mizuki

    2016-01-01

    Instrumented lumbar fusion can provide immediate stability and assist in satisfactory arthrodesis in patients who have pain or instability of the lumbar spine. Lumbar adjunctive fusion with decompression is often a good procedure for surgical management of degenerative spondylolisthesis (DS). Among various lumbar fusion techniques, lumbar interbody fusion (LIF) has an advantage in that it maintains favorable lumbar alignment and provides successful fusion with the added effect of indirect decompression. This technique has been widely used and represents an advancement in spinal instrumentation, although the rationale and optimal type of LIF for DS remains controversial. We evaluated the current status and role of LIF in DS treatment, mainly as a means to augment instrumentation. We addressed the basic concept of LIF, its indications, and various types including minimally invasive techniques. It also has acceptable biomechanical features, and offers reconstruction with ideal lumbar alignment. Postsurgical adverse events related to each LIF technique are also addressed. PMID:27169496

  10. Current status of minimally invasive endoscopic management for Zenker diverticulum.

    PubMed

    Aiolfi, Alberto; Scolari, Federica; Saino, Greta; Bonavina, Luigi

    2015-02-16

    Surgical resection has been the mainstay of treatment of pharyngoesophageal (Zenker) diverticula over the past century. Developments in minimally invasive surgery and new endoscopic devices have led to a paradigm change. The concept of dividing the septum between the esophagus and the pouch rather than resecting the pouch itself has been revisited during the last three decades and new technologies have been investigated to make the transoral operation safe and effective. The internal pharyngoesophageal myotomy accomplished through the transoral stapling approach has been shown to effectively relieve outflow obstruction and restore physiological bolus transit in patients with medium size diverticula. Transoral techniques, either through a rigid device or by flexible endoscopy, are gaining popularity over the open surgical approach due the low morbidity, the fast recovery time and the fact that the procedure can be safely repeated. We provide an analysis of the the current status of minimally invasive endoscopic management of Zenker diverticulum.

  11. Current status of minimally invasive endoscopic management for Zenker diverticulum

    PubMed Central

    Aiolfi, Alberto; Scolari, Federica; Saino, Greta; Bonavina, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Surgical resection has been the mainstay of treatment of pharyngoesophageal (Zenker) diverticula over the past century. Developments in minimally invasive surgery and new endoscopic devices have led to a paradigm change. The concept of dividing the septum between the esophagus and the pouch rather than resecting the pouch itself has been revisited during the last three decades and new technologies have been investigated to make the transoral operation safe and effective. The internal pharyngoesophageal myotomy accomplished through the transoral stapling approach has been shown to effectively relieve outflow obstruction and restore physiological bolus transit in patients with medium size diverticula. Transoral techniques, either through a rigid device or by flexible endoscopy, are gaining popularity over the open surgical approach due the low morbidity, the fast recovery time and the fact that the procedure can be safely repeated. We provide an analysis of the the current status of minimally invasive endoscopic management of Zenker diverticulum. PMID:25685264

  12. Health Inequalities Policy in Korea: Current Status and Future Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang-il

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, health inequalities have become an important public health concern and the subject of both research and policy attention in Korea. Government reports, as well as many epidemiological studies, have provided evidence that a wide range of health outcomes and health-related behaviors are socioeconomically patterned, and that the magnitude of health inequalities is even increasing. However, except for the revised Health Plan 2010 targets for health equity, few government policies have explicitly addressed health inequalities. Although a number of economic and social policies may have had an impact on health inequalities, such impact has scarcely been evaluated. In this review, we describe the current status of research and policy on health inequalities in Korea. We also suggest future challenges of approaches and policies to reduce health inequalities and highlight the active and intensive engagement of many policy sectors and good evidence for interventions that will make meaningful reduction of health inequalities possible. PMID:22661869

  13. Current management of status asthmaticus in the pediatric ICU.

    PubMed

    Marcoux, Kelly Keefe

    2005-12-01

    Status asthmaticus (SA) in the pediatric ICU (PICU) can progress to a life-threatening emergency. The goal of management is to improve hypoxemia, improve bronchoconstriction, and decrease airway edema through the administration of continuous nebulized beta2 adrenergic agonist with intermittent anticholinergics, corticosteroids, and oxygen. Adjunctive therapies, such as magnesium, methylxanthines, intravenous beta-agonists, heliox, and noninvasive ventilation should be considered in the child who fails to respond to initial therapies. The restoration of adequate pulmonary functions, resolution of airway obstruction, and avoidance of mechanical ventilation should guide management. This article reviews the pathophysiology, assessment, and management of the child who has SA in the PICU to provide the critical care nurse with current information to facilitate optimal care.

  14. Intracardiac flow visualization: current status and future directions.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez Muñoz, Daniel; Markl, Michael; Moya Mur, José Luis; Barker, Alex; Fernández-Golfín, Covadonga; Lancellotti, Patrizio; Zamorano Gómez, José Luis

    2013-11-01

    Non-invasive cardiovascular imaging initially focused on heart structures, allowing the visualization of their motion and inferring its functional status from it. Colour-Doppler and cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) have allowed a visual approach to intracardiac flow behaviour, as well as measuring its velocity at single selected spots. Recently, the application of new technologies to medical use and, particularly, to cardiology has allowed, through different algorithms in CMR and applications of ultrasound-related techniques, the description and analysis of flow behaviour in all points and directions of the selected region, creating the opportunity to incorporate new data reflecting cardiac performance to cardiovascular imaging. The following review provides an overview of the currently available imaging techniques that enable flow visualization, as well as its present and future applications based on the available literature and on-going works.

  15. The current status of world protection for mangrove forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhengyun, Zhang; Zhixian, Su; Qiaoying, Zhang; Aiying, Shen

    2003-09-01

    Mangrove forests occur extensively in the tropic areas rich in wildlife and other nonforestry resources and provide a wide array of raw materials for livelihood and production processes and have been a major source of income generation and subsistence for the local people. Exploitation of timber, fuel wood, poles, industrial raw material, and many other non-wood produets from the mangrove forests give rise to large scale economic activity and income generation. At present, mangrove forests are facing great peril. Reckless exploitation and swampland reclamation result in their gradual degradation. This article deals with the world’s mangrove forest resources and their benefit to people; describes the current status, points out the main causes of the destruction of these forests, presents proposals for protecting mangrove forests, and discusses international cooperation in protecting the world’s mangrove forests.

  16. Intracardiac flow visualization: current status and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez Muñoz, Daniel; Markl, Michael; Moya Mur, José Luis; Barker, Alex; Fernández-Golfín, Covadonga; Lancellotti, Patrizio; Zamorano Gómez, José Luis

    2013-01-01

    Non-invasive cardiovascular imaging initially focused on heart structures, allowing the visualization of their motion and inferring its functional status from it. Colour-Doppler and cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) have allowed a visual approach to intracardiac flow behaviour, as well as measuring its velocity at single selected spots. Recently, the application of new technologies to medical use and, particularly, to cardiology has allowed, through different algorithms in CMR and applications of ultrasound-related techniques, the description and analysis of flow behaviour in all points and directions of the selected region, creating the opportunity to incorporate new data reflecting cardiac performance to cardiovascular imaging. The following review provides an overview of the currently available imaging techniques that enable flow visualization, as well as its present and future applications based on the available literature and on-going works. PMID:23907342

  17. Health inequalities policy in Korea: current status and future challenges.

    PubMed

    Khang, Young-Ho; Lee, Sang-il

    2012-05-01

    In recent years, health inequalities have become an important public health concern and the subject of both research and policy attention in Korea. Government reports, as well as many epidemiological studies, have provided evidence that a wide range of health outcomes and health-related behaviors are socioeconomically patterned, and that the magnitude of health inequalities is even increasing. However, except for the revised Health Plan 2010 targets for health equity, few government policies have explicitly addressed health inequalities. Although a number of economic and social policies may have had an impact on health inequalities, such impact has scarcely been evaluated. In this review, we describe the current status of research and policy on health inequalities in Korea. We also suggest future challenges of approaches and policies to reduce health inequalities and highlight the active and intensive engagement of many policy sectors and good evidence for interventions that will make meaningful reduction of health inequalities possible.

  18. Current status of small specimen technology in Charpy impact testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurishita, H.; Kayano, H.; Narui, M.; Yamazaki, M.

    1994-09-01

    The current status of small-scale specimen technology in Charpy impact testing for ferritic steels is presented, with emphasis on the effect of the notch dimensions (notch depth, notch root radius and notch angle) on the upper shelf energy (USE) and ductile-to-brittle transition temperature (DBTT). The USE for miniaturized specimens, normalized by Bb2 or ( Bb{3}/{2} ( B is the specimen thickness, b the ligament size), is essentially independent of notch geometry and has a linear relationship with the USE of full size specimens, regardless of irradiation and alloy conditions. The DBTT of miniaturized specimens depends strongly on the notch dimensions; this dependence of the DBTT decreases as the DBTT of full size specimens increase due to neutron irradiation or thermal aging. These results may be useful in determining the USE and DBTT for full size specimens from those for miniaturized specimens.

  19. Cobalt 60 gamma irradiation current status, trends and insights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corley, John T.

    1998-06-01

    This paper discusses the current status, trends and insights into the continued, safe use of cobalt 60 gamma irradiation. Also presented are some of the many initiatives undertaken at MDS Nordion. Topics covered include our investment for the future supply of raw materials and the latest news from source production. Briefly presented are the tasks associated with the safe transport of cobalt 60 around the world. Discussed is cobalt 60 usage at the customer site; more specifically maintaining source integrity, source utilization and irradiator design trends. Highlighted are industry trends for North America, Europe and the rest of the world. Finally presented are the challenges and opportunities for the industry. Stressed in the paper is the need to work together.

  20. Inhomogeneous cosmology and backreaction: Current status and future prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolejko, Krzysztof; Korzyński, Mikołaj

    Astronomical observations reveal hierarchical structures in the universe, from galaxies, groups of galaxies, clusters and superclusters, to filaments and voids. On the largest scales, it seems that some kind of statistical homogeneity can be observed. As a result, modern cosmological models are based on spatially homogeneous and isotropic solutions of the Einstein equations, and the evolution of the universe is approximated by the Friedmann equations. In parallel to standard homogeneous cosmology, the field of inhomogeneous cosmology and backreaction is being developed. This field investigates whether small scale inhomogeneities via nonlinear effects can backreact and alter the properties of the universe on its largest scales, leading to a non-Friedmannian evolution. This paper presents the current status of inhomogeneous cosmology and backreaction. It also discusses future prospects of the field of inhomogeneous cosmology, which is based on a survey of 50 academics working in the field of inhomogeneous cosmology.

  1. Characterization of a light switchable microelectrode array for retinal prosthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xinyi; Xiong, Tao; Chiou, Pei-Yu; Li, Zhihong

    2011-12-01

    A light switchable microelectrode array for retinal prosthesis, which is performed with the photosensitive conductivity of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) and of more advantages over the two major current retinal prosthetic categories, is characterized. Sensitivity to different visible wavelengths and light intensities are verified as well. Preliminary impedance test invitro shows appropriate impedance for neuron stimulation applications. It is indicated that such device provides a promising potential to restore a certain degree of visual function.

  2. Current Status of the Nitrogen Oxygen Recharge System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dick, Brandon

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the Nitrogen Oxygen Recharge System (NORS) to date and the current development status of the system. NORS is an element of the International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) used to resupply the ISS with Nitrogen and Oxygen following the impending retirement of the Space Shuttle. The paper will discuss why NASA is developing NORS, including a summary of other concepts considered, and other related concepts currently being developed by NASA. The current system architecture will be described, along with a summary of the current design of the NORS. The overall programmatic schedule of the NORS in the context of the upcoming shuttle retirement and future launch vehicle development will also be presented. Finally, the paper will examine the significant technical challenges encountered during the requirements and preliminary design phase of NORS development. A key challenge to the development of NORS is the international shipment - and associated regulations - of pressurized Oxygen, which is necessary due to the use of launch vehicles based in Japan and French Guiana to send NORS gasses to the ISS. The storage and use of relatively large quantities of high pressure (41,000 kPa) Oxygen and Nitrogen within the ISS, which is unprecedented both on the ISS and other space vehicles, has had a significant impact on the design and architecture of the system. The high pressure of the system also poses unique thermal considerations, which has led to the development of a heater system for thermal conditioning of high pressure gas to avoid thermal impacts on downstream hardware. The on-orbit envelope allocated to the NORS has changed (gotten smaller) and has impacted both the design and architecture of the system. Finally, the balance of safety considerations associated with these high pressure gasses, particularly high pressure Oxygen, with the functionality of the system has profoundly impacted the form

  3. Current status of robot-assisted gastric surgery

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Se-Jin; Lee, Dong-Woo; Park, Sung-Soo; Kim, Seon-Hahn

    2011-01-01

    In an effort to minimize the limitations of laparoscopy, a robotic surgery system was introduced, but its role for gastric cancer is still unclear. The objective of this article is to assess the current status of robotic surgery for gastric cancer and to predict future prospects. Although the current study was limited by its small number of patients and retrospective nature, robot-assisted gastrectomy with lymphadenectomy for the treatment of gastric cancer is a feasible and safe procedure for experienced laparoscopic surgeons. Most studies have reported satisfactory results for postoperative short-term coutcomes, such as: postoperative oral feeding, gas out, hospital stay and complications, compared with laparoscopic surgery; the difference is a longer operation time. However, robotic surgery showed a shallow learning curve compared with the familarity of conventional open surgery; after the accumulation of several cases, robotic surgery could be expected to result in a similar operation time. Robotic-assisted gastrectomy can expand the indications of minimally invasive surgery to include advanced gastric cancer by improving the ability to perform lymphadenectomy. Moreover, ”total” robotic gastrectomy can be facilitated using a robot-sewing technique and gastric submucosal tumors near the gastroesophageal junction or pylorus can be resected safely by this novel technique. In conclusion, robot-assisted gastrectomy may offer a good alternative to conventional open or laparoscopic surgery for gastric cancer, provided that long-term oncologic outcomes can be confirmed. PMID:22046490

  4. Development of improved vaccines against whooping cough: current status.

    PubMed

    Marzouqi, Ibrahim; Richmond, Peter; Fry, Scott; Wetherall, John; Mukkur, Trilochan

    2010-07-01

    Prior to the introduction of killed whole cell pertussis vaccine [wP] in the 1940s, whooping cough was a major cause of infant death worldwide. Widespread vaccination of children with this vaccine caused a significant reduction in mortality. However in the 1990s and now more recently, there has been a resurgence of pertussis in several countries even in populations previously vaccinated with an acellular pertussis vaccine [aP]. In this review, we describe the epidemiology of whooping cough, the vast array of virulence factors produced by this pathogen potentially contributing to the resurgence of pertussis even in previously vaccinated populations of infants and children, history of whooping cough prophylaxis, possible mechanisms of immunity, lack of availability of a suitable non-toxic adjuvant capable of inducing both arms of the immune response, and the current status of development of improved vaccines with potential to induce longer-lasting protection, than is currently possible with the wP or aP vaccines, against whooping cough.

  5. IAA multilingual space dictionary, current status and future prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshimitsu, Tetsuo; McKenna-Lawlor, Susan; Candel, Danielle; Ninomiya, Keiken; Contant, Jean-Michel

    2015-12-01

    Terminology is a key issue for a better understanding among people using various languages. Since 1986, when the International Academy of Astronautics (IAA) multilingual terminology database committee on astronautics was formed, the committee and its successor IAA study groups on the IAA multilingual space dictionary have made a continuous effort to construct a multilingual dictionary database on astronautical terms. In 2002, the dictionary was computerized using a database server and some recent internet technologies. The database is accessible from all over the world via the internet. You can search for terms at your home and office using a web browser installed on the computer with an internet connection. Since then, the number of terms and languages included in the database has increased. The current version includes about 3500 terms in 22 languages. The flexibility of the database enables the addition and the revision of new terms without much effort. The computerization has also demonstrated another possibility to utilize the database. When total of four paper books about the multilingual space terminology were published on the 50th anniversary of IAA in 2010, one of the lexicon books was edited by a computer program which accessed to the database. In this paper, the authors present the current status of the IAA multilingual database as well as the future possibilities on the utilization of the database.

  6. Current Status and Research into Overcoming Limitations of Capsule Endoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Kwack, Won Gun; Lim, Yun Jeong

    2016-01-01

    Endoscopic investigation has a critical role in the diagnosis and treatment of gastrointestinal (GI) diseases. Since 2001, capsule endoscopy (CE) has been available for small-bowel exploration and is under continuous development. During the past decade, CE has achieved impressive improvements in areas such as miniaturization, resolution, and battery life. As a result, CE is currently a first-line tool for the investigation of the small bowel in obscure gastrointestinal bleeding and is a useful alternative to wired enteroscopy. Nevertheless, CE still has several limitations, such as incomplete examination and limited diagnostic and therapeutic capabilities. To resolve these problems, many groups have suggested several models (e.g., controlled CO2 insufflation system, magnetic navigation system, mobile robotic platform, tagging and biopsy equipment, and targeted drug-delivery system), which are in development. In the near future, new technological advances will improve the capabilities of CE and broaden its spectrum of applications not only for the small bowel but also for the colon, stomach, and esophagus. The purpose of this review is to introduce the current status of CE and to review the ongoing development of solutions to address its limitations. PMID:26855917

  7. Drugs in development for toxoplasmosis: advances, challenges, and current status

    PubMed Central

    Alday, P Holland; Doggett, Joseph Stone

    2017-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii causes fatal and debilitating brain and eye diseases. Medicines that are currently used to treat toxoplasmosis commonly have toxic side effects and require prolonged courses that range from weeks to more than a year. The need for long treatment durations and the risk of relapsing disease are in part due to the lack of efficacy against T. gondii tissue cysts. The challenges for developing a more effective treatment for toxoplasmosis include decreasing toxicity, achieving therapeutic concentrations in the brain and eye, shortening duration, eliminating tissue cysts from the host, safety in pregnancy, and creating a formulation that is inexpensive and practical for use in resource-poor areas of the world. Over the last decade, significant progress has been made in identifying and developing new compounds for the treatment of toxoplasmosis. Unlike clinically used medicines that were repurposed for toxoplasmosis, these compounds have been optimized for efficacy against toxoplasmosis during preclinical development. Medicines with enhanced efficacy as well as features that address the unique aspects of toxoplasmosis have the potential to greatly improve toxoplasmosis therapy. This review discusses the facets of toxoplasmosis that are pertinent to drug design and the advances, challenges, and current status of preclinical drug research for toxoplasmosis. PMID:28182168

  8. Current status and strategies for viral hepatitis control in Korea.

    PubMed

    Sinn, Dong Hyun; Cho, Eun Ju; Kim, Ji Hoon; Kim, Do Young; Kim, Yoon Jun; Choi, Moon Seok

    2017-09-01

    Viral hepatitis is one of major global health challenges with increasing disease burden worldwide. Hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus infections are major causes of chronic liver diseases. They can lead to cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and death in significant portion of affected people. Transmission of hepatitis B virus can be blocked by vaccination. Progression of hepatitis B virus-related liver diseases can be prevented by long-term viral suppression with effective drugs. Although vaccine for hepatitis C virus is currently unavailable, hepatitis C virus infection can be eradicated by oral direct antiviral agents. To eliminate viral hepatitis, World Health Organization (WHO) has urged countries to develop national goals and targets through reducing 90% of new infections and providing universal access to key treatment services up to 80%. This can lead to 65% reduction of viral hepatitis-related mortality. Here, we discuss some key features of viral hepatitis, strategies to control viral hepatitis suggested by WHO, and current status and strategies for viral hepatitis control in South Korea. To achieve the goal of viral hepatitis elimination by 2030 in South Korea, an independent 'viral hepatitis sector' in Centers for Disease Control & Prevention (CDC) needs to be established to organize and execute comprehensive strategy for the management of viral hepatitis in South Korea.

  9. Current status and future trends in telepathology and digital pathology.

    PubMed

    Chordia, Trupti Dinesh; Vikey, Ashok; Choudhary, Anuraag B; Samdariya, Yashpal; Chordia, Dipti Samdariya

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the current status and future trends in telepathology (TP) and digital pathology (DP) in central India. A self-constructed questionnaire including 12 questions was designed with five specialists, to improve the design ambiguity. The study was conducted through postal and online survey consisting of 12 questions and sent to 300 histopathologists. A total of 247 histopathologists answered the survey. The overall response rate was 81%. 98% pathologists felt the need for TP and DP. 34% pathologists used digital photomicrographic images in routine practice. Utilization of DP in most efficient way was observed by 48% pathologists mainly for the purpose of teaching in academic institutions. 82% believed that TP is helpful to take an expert opinion whereas only26% believed that a second opinion has to be taken. With respect to limitations, 67% pathologists believed that its cost-effective whereas 51% revealed high use of TP in next 5 years. Our survey shows that as the field evolves, pathologists are more towards welcoming TP and DP, provided frequent workshops and training programs are conducted. The results of this survey indicates that pathology staff across central India currently utilize gross digital images for educational or academic purposes. They also revealed that technology will be required in near future applications in academics, consultation and for medico-legal purposes.

  10. Wind turbines: current status, obstacles, trends and technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konstantinidis, E. I.; Botsaris, P. N.

    2016-11-01

    The last decade the installation of wind farms around the world is spreading rapidly and wind energy has become a significant factor for promoting sustainable development. The scope of the present study is to indicate the present status of global wind power expansion as well as the current state of the art in the field of wind turbine technology. The RAM (reliability/availability/maintenance) section is also examined and the Levelized Cost of Energy for onshore/ offshore electricity production is presented. Negative consequences that go with the rapid expansion of wind power like accidents, environmental effects, etc. are highlighted. Especially visual impact to the landscape and noise pollution are some factors that provoke social reactions. Moreover, the complicated and long permitted process of a wind power plant, the high capital cost of the investment and the grid instability due to the intermittent nature of wind, are also significant obstacles in the development of the wind energy production. The current trends in the field of research and development of onshore and offshore wind power production are analyzed. Finally the present study is trying to achieve an estimation of where the wind industry targets for the years to come.

  11. LOFAR: Current Status and Opportunities for Early Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wise, Michael W.

    2012-01-01

    LOFAR, the Low Frequency Array, is a new and innovative radio telescope designed to open up the relatively unexplored low frequency radio regime from 30-240 MHz to a broad range of astrophysical studies. As one of the first of a new generation of radio instruments, the International LOFAR Telescope (ILT) will provide a number of unique capabilities for the astronomical community. These include wide-field, high dynamic range imaging, high time resolution, dynamic real-time system response, buffered retrospective all-sky imaging and the ability to support multiple, simultaneous observing programs. LOFAR is moving steadily through its commissioning phase towards early science results and its first open international call for observing proposals. In this presentation, I will give an overview of the current status of the array as well as its current and planned scientific capabilities. I will summarize the ongoing commissioning process and conclude with a discussion of the upcoming Announcement of Opportunity for observing proposals in early 2012.

  12. Drugs in development for toxoplasmosis: advances, challenges, and current status.

    PubMed

    Alday, P Holland; Doggett, Joseph Stone

    2017-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii causes fatal and debilitating brain and eye diseases. Medicines that are currently used to treat toxoplasmosis commonly have toxic side effects and require prolonged courses that range from weeks to more than a year. The need for long treatment durations and the risk of relapsing disease are in part due to the lack of efficacy against T. gondii tissue cysts. The challenges for developing a more effective treatment for toxoplasmosis include decreasing toxicity, achieving therapeutic concentrations in the brain and eye, shortening duration, eliminating tissue cysts from the host, safety in pregnancy, and creating a formulation that is inexpensive and practical for use in resource-poor areas of the world. Over the last decade, significant progress has been made in identifying and developing new compounds for the treatment of toxoplasmosis. Unlike clinically used medicines that were repurposed for toxoplasmosis, these compounds have been optimized for efficacy against toxoplasmosis during preclinical development. Medicines with enhanced efficacy as well as features that address the unique aspects of toxoplasmosis have the potential to greatly improve toxoplasmosis therapy. This review discusses the facets of toxoplasmosis that are pertinent to drug design and the advances, challenges, and current status of preclinical drug research for toxoplasmosis.

  13. Current Status and Research into Overcoming Limitations of Capsule Endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Kwack, Won Gun; Lim, Yun Jeong

    2016-01-01

    Endoscopic investigation has a critical role in the diagnosis and treatment of gastrointestinal (GI) diseases. Since 2001, capsule endoscopy (CE) has been available for small-bowel exploration and is under continuous development. During the past decade, CE has achieved impressive improvements in areas such as miniaturization, resolution, and battery life. As a result, CE is currently a first-line tool for the investigation of the small bowel in obscure gastrointestinal bleeding and is a useful alternative to wired enteroscopy. Nevertheless, CE still has several limitations, such as incomplete examination and limited diagnostic and therapeutic capabilities. To resolve these problems, many groups have suggested several models (e.g., controlled CO2 insufflation system, magnetic navigation system, mobile robotic platform, tagging and biopsy equipment, and targeted drug-delivery system), which are in development. In the near future, new technological advances will improve the capabilities of CE and broaden its spectrum of applications not only for the small bowel but also for the colon, stomach, and esophagus. The purpose of this review is to introduce the current status of CE and to review the ongoing development of solutions to address its limitations.

  14. Uas for Geo-Information Current Status and Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haarbrink, R. B.

    2011-09-01

    Recent and ongoing developments of state-of-the-art sensor technologies have resulted in smaller and lighter photogrammetric cameras with IMU, lidar scanners and other sensors that can now be integrated with and mounted on the larger Light UAS. This paper describes as an example the successful automatic flight of the 50-megapixel DigiCAM with AEROcontrol IMU developed by IGI flown on Geocopter's GC-201 unmanned helicopter system. The operational and technical requirements of UAS defined in new legislation remain however the safeguard to protect people and costly sensor payload assets. The current prospects of UAS-g face additional challenges related to end-user awareness and the return on investment. The current status of UAS legislation is given in this paper. This legislation justifies UAS-g operations of mapping coastal zones, forests, agricultural fields, and open mines. Sooner return on investment happens when the UAS legislation will be opening up airspace over urban areas (Class 2 approved UAS-g), to longer distances (BLOS operations), and to higher altitudes. UAS-g flights then become feasible to the maximum extent for cadastral mapping of larger areas, oil and gas pipeline monitoring, power line surveys, dike inspection, and highway and railway mapping.

  15. The current status of GOSAT and GOSAT-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsunaga, T.; Yokota, T.; Nakajima, M.; Imasu, R.; Inoue, G.

    2016-12-01

    Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) and its successor, GOSAT-2, are Japanese earth observing satellites for greenhouse gases measurements from space. Both satellite projects are joint efforts among Ministry of the Environment (MOE), Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), and National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES). GOSAT was launched in January 2009, already finished its design lifetime (five years), and is currently in its extended operation period. It has a Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) for the measurements of columnar abundances of greenhouse and other gases and a UV-VIS-NIR-SWIR imager (CAI) for cloud and aerosol detection. Its data have been used to calculate whole-atmosphere monthly mean carbon dioxide concentration and to identify locations with large anthoropogenic emissions of CO2 and methane. GOSAT-2 will be launched in FY2017. GOSAT-2 instruments (FTS-2 and CAI-2) will be modified or improved based on the experiences of GOSAT instruments. FTS-2 will have the extended spectral coverage for carbon monoxide measurement and the intelligent pointing capability to avoid cloud contamination. CAI-2 will have multiple UV bands for more precise land aerosol monitoring and the forward/backward viewing capability to avoid sun glint over oceans. Critical design reviews of GOSAT-2 spacecraft, earth observing instruments, and ground systems have been completed. Current status of GOSAT and GOSAT-2, including recent operation and achievements of GOSAT and developments of GOSAT-2 spacecraft, instruments, and ground data systems, will be presented.

  16. Current Status of Postdoctoral and Graduate Programs in Dentistry.

    PubMed

    Assael, Leon

    2017-08-01

    Advanced dental education has evolved in the context of societal needs and economic trends to its current status. Graduate programs have positioned their role in the context of health systems and health science education trends in hospitals, interprofessional clinical care teams, and dental schools and oral health care systems. Graduate dental education has been a critical factor in developing teams in trauma care, craniofacial disorders, pediatric and adult medicine, and oncology. The misalignment of the mission of graduate dental programs and the demands of private practice has posed a challenge in the evolution of programs as educational programs have been directed towards tertiary and indigent care while the practice community focuses on largely healthy affluent patients for complex clinical interventions. Those seeking graduate dental education today are smaller in number and include more international dental graduates than in the past. Graduate dental education in general dentistry and in the nine recognized dental specialties now includes Commission on Dental Accreditation (CODA) recognition of training standards as part of its accreditation process and a CODA accreditation process for areas of clinical education not recognized as specialties by the American Dental Association. Current types of programs include fellowship training for students in recognized specialties. This article was written as part of the project "Advancing Dental Education in the 21(st) Century."

  17. Excursion of vibrating microelectrodes in tissue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanabus, E. W.; Feldstein, C.; Crawford, D. W.

    1980-01-01

    The paper deals with a vibrating microelectrode holder consisting of a support rod attached to the cone of a miniature loudspeaker. This holder facilitates a microelectrode penetration into arterial wall tissue, eliminates surface dimpling, and relieves polarographic artifacts believed to be due to tissue compression. The paper presents construction and performance details of the electrode holder, and evaluates the extent of possible damage incurred during such vibration by measuring electrode motion relative to surrounding tissue in an excised segment of femoral artery in the rabbit. It is concluded that under proper vibratory conditions microelectrodes can be easily inserted into the arterial wall with minimum tissue disturbance.

  18. Pediatric neurology training in Canada: current status and future directions.

    PubMed

    Doja, Asif

    2012-05-01

    Child neurology training in Canada has changed considerably over time, with increasing requirements for standardized teaching of the fundamentals of child neurology and the CanMEDS competencies. We sought to determine the current status of child neurology training in Canada as well future directions for training. A web-based survey was sent to program directors (PD's) of active pediatric neurology training programs. General questions about the programs were asked, as well as about success at the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada (RCPSC) exam, breakdown of rotations, views on CanMEDS roles and questions on the future of pediatric neurology. 9/9 PD's completed the survey. 96.5% of all trainees successfully passed their RCPSC exam from 2001-2006. Breakdowns of the number and type of rotations for each year of training were provided. All CanMEDS roles were deemed to be important by PD's and programs have developed unique strategies to teach and assess these roles.92.6% of trainees chose to go into academic practice, with the most popular subspecialty being epilepsy. All PD's favour joint training sessions particularly for neurogenetics and neuromuscular disease. Overall, PD's suggest recruitment for future child neurologists at the medical student level but are divided as to whether we are currently training too few or too many child neurologists. This survey provides a view of the current state of pediatric neurology training in Canada and suggestions for further development of post-graduate training. In particular, attention should be given to joint educational programs as well as urgently assessing the manpower needs of child neurologists.

  19. Status report on Corsica modeling for current drive scenario development

    SciTech Connect

    Casper, T. A.; Crotinger, J.; Moller, J.M.; Pearlstein, L.D.

    1996-09-01

    This milestone report covers the progress and status of Corsica modeling for DIII-D experiments over the past year, since our previous report in September, 1995. During this time, we have concentrated on improvements to the code in support of our ability to do self-consistent, predictive modeling of DIII-D discharges. Our interest is in obtaining a tool, benchmarked with experimental data, for developing advanced tokamak operations scenarios including simulation and analysis of high performance negative central shear (NCS) discharges and control of the current profile evolution. Our major focus has been on installing and improving the neutral beam current drive mode in Corsica; this element is critical to modeling the evolution of DIII-D discharges. The NFREYA neutral beam deposition code was installed (starting with a version consistent with GA`s ONETWO code) and the capability for following particle orbits, including the effects of drifts, was added for determining the current driven by neutral beam -injection. In addition, improved methods for more easily integrating experimental profile measurements into the code operation and for calculating Z{sub eff} either from models or from impurity density measurements have been added. We have recently begun to turn on various transport models in our simulation of discharge evolution. We have concentrated on the NCS configuration and have simulated the evolution of two different high neutron reactivity discharges; an NCS discharge with L-mode edge and a single- null, weak NCS discharge from the JET/ITER/DIII-D equivalent shape experiments. Corsica simulation results for these discharges were presented at the EPS meeting in Kiev, Ukraine in June, 1996.

  20. Pulse voltammetry wine defects identification by means of miniaturized microelectrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francioso, L.; Bjorklund, R.; Siciliano, P.; Rulcker, T. K.

    2007-05-01

    Pulse voltammetry was employed to discriminate among different concentrations of defects in wine. The microelectrodes were fabricated as patterned platinum thin films on silicon wafers by means of silicon fabrication technology. The film pattern was as interdigitated fingers having a 2 μm fingers gap and active area of 100x100 μm2 a silicon nitride passivation permits a selective exposure of microelectrodes to electrolyte. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of the current responses indicated that concentrations of acetaldehyde and L-ascorbic acid could be discriminated in a white wine electrolyte. Finally the capability of defects concentrations detection in two-defects solutions (acetaldehyde + L-ascorbic acid) has been investigated.

  1. General properties of antimony microelectrode in comparison with glass microelectrode for pH measurement.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, M; Matsumura, Y; Satake, N

    1980-01-01

    Two kinds of pH-sensitive microelectrodes were constructed: 1) glass microelectrode with a pH-sensitive tip of 50--100 micrometers in length, and 2) antimony (Sb) microelectrode with a tip of 1--5 micrometers in outside diameter. Comparisons of the two were made on the change in the electromotive force (EMF) in response to various pHs and biological applicability. The pH sensitivity (slope constant) at 20 degrees C of the glass and Sb-microelectrodes averaged 51.7 and 51.9 (-mV/pH), respectively. Over the pH range of 2 to 9, both electrodes responded linearly to the change of pH. The pH-dependent EMF of the Sb-microelectrode was influenced by phosphate buffers, but not by Tris-HCl buffers. Through the glass microelectrode showed a linear response to all the buffers tested, its slope constant tended to be limited by the surface area of the pH-sensitive tip. The stability of the EMFs was well within 1 mV for 12 hr with the glass microelectrode but more than 10 mV with the Sb-microelectrode. One the other hand, the 95% response time was about 1 min with the glass microelectrode, whereas it was less than a few seconds with the Sb-microelectrode. Blood pH was measured with the two electrodes and reasonable values were obtained with both methods, although the values by use of the Sb-microelectrode were slightly higher than those of the other. In view of the practical ease of manufacturing, maintenance and durability, the use of the Sb-microelectrode in biological measurement should also be re-evaluated, but several restrictions must be imposed on it.

  2. A VOLTAMMETRIC FLAVIN MICROELECTRODE FOR USE IN BIOFILMS

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Hung Duc; Renslow, Ryan; Babauta, Jerome; Ahmed, Bulbul; Beyenal, Haluk

    2011-01-01

    Biofilms used in bioelectrochemical systems are expected to transfer electrons using electron transfer mediators. One mediator type, flavins, which includes flavin mononucleotide, riboflavin, and flavin adenine dinucleotide, has been found to be endogenously produced by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1. However, the presence and concentration of flavins inside a S. oneidensis MR-1 biofilm have never been reported. The goal of this study was to develop a flavin microelectrode capable of measuring flavins inside a living biofilm and apply it to a biofilm which produces flavins. Because flavins are electrochemically active molecules, the flavin microelectrode was based on detection via square-wave voltammetry. The microelectrode consisted of a carbon working electrode with a 10–30 μm tip diameter, a built-in platinum counter electrode, and a Ag/AgCl reference electrode, all enclosed in a glass outer case. The microelectrode was calibrated between 0.1 μM and 10 μM flavins and showed a linear correlation between flavin concentration and peak currents located at −424 mVAg/AgCl on a square-wave voltammogram. We also developed a model to explain the electrochemical mechanism of flavin detection, and to determine the effective surface area of the microelectrode, the standard reduction potential, and the transfer coefficient. We found that the effective surface area of the microelectrode was close to 100 times the projected surface area. The model predicted a standard reduction potential for RF/RFH2 of −419 mVAg/AgCl at 20 °C and a transfer coefficient of 0.45. Lastly, we measured flavin concentration inside a S. oneidensis MR-1 biofilm grown on a glass surface using oxygen as the electron acceptor. The flavin concentration reached 0.7 μM, increasing near the bottom of the biofilm, where no oxygen was present. This shows the possibility that flavins are produced in the anaerobic zone to act as intermediate electron acceptors in the deeper parts of the biofilm, where

  3. Current status of assisted reproductive technology in Korea, 2009.

    PubMed

    Choi, Young Min; Chun, Sang Sik; Han, Hyuck Dong; Hwang, Jung Hye; Hwang, Kyung Joo; Kang, In Soo; Kim, Dong Won; Kim, Ki Chul; Kim, Tak; Kwon, Hyuck Chan; Lee, Won Don; Lee, Jung Ho; Lee, Kyu Sup; Lee, Gyoung Hoon; Lee, Sang-Hoon; Lee, Yu Il; Min, Eung Gi; Moon, Hwa Sook; Moon, Shin Yong; Roh, Sung Il; Yoon, Tae Ki

    2013-11-01

    Great advances have been made in the field of assisted reproductive technology (ART) since the first in vitro fertilization (IVF) baby was born in Korea in the year of 1985. However, it deserve to say that the invaluable data from fertility centers may serve as a useful source to find out which factors affect successful IVF outcome and to offer applicable information to infertile patients and fertility clinics. This article intended to report the status of ART in 2009 Korean Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology surveyed. The current survey was performed to assess the status and success rate of ART performed in Korea, between January 1 and December 31, 2009. Reporting forms had been sent out to IVF centers via e-mail, and collected by e-mail as well in 2012. With International Committee Monitoring Assisted Reproductive Technologies recommendation, intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and non-ICSI cases have been categorized and also IVF-ET cases involving frozen embryo replacement have been surveyed separately. Seventy-four centers have reported the treatment cycles initiated in the year of 2009, and had performed a total of 27,947 cycles of ART treatments. Among a total of 27,947 treatment cycles, IVF and ICSI cases added up to 22,049 (78.9%), with 45.3% IVF without ICSI and 54.7% IVF with ICSI, respectively. Among the IVF and ICSI patients, patients confirmed to have achieved clinical pregnancy was 28.8% per cycle with oocyte retrieval, and 30.9% per cycle with embryo transfer. The most common number of embryos transferred in 2009 is three embryos (40.4%), followed by 2 embryos (28.4%) and a single embryo transferred (13.6%). Among IVF and ICSI cycles that resulted in multiple live births, twin pregnancy rate was 45.3% and triple pregnancy rate was 1.1%. A total of 191 cases of oocyte donation had been performed to result in 25.0% of live birth rate. Meanwhile, a total of 5,619 cases of frozen embryo replacement had been performed with 33.7% of clinical

  4. Current status of PET imaging in Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Pagano, Gennaro; Niccolini, Flavia; Politis, Marios

    2016-06-01

    To review the developments of recent decades and the current status of PET molecular imaging in Huntington's disease (HD). A systematic review of PET studies in HD was performed. The MEDLINE, Web of Science, Cochrane and Scopus databases were searched for articles in all languages published up to 19 August 2015 using the major medical subject heading "Huntington Disease" combined with text and key words "Huntington Disease", "Neuroimaging" and "PET". Only peer-reviewed, primary research studies in HD patients and premanifest HD carriers, and studies in which clinical features were described in association with PET neuroimaging results, were included in this review. Reviews, case reports and nonhuman studies were excluded. A total of 54 PET studies were identified and analysed in this review. Brain metabolism ([(18)F]FDG and [(15)O]H2O), presynaptic ([(18)F]fluorodopa, [(11)C]β-CIT and [(11)C]DTBZ) and postsynaptic ([(11)C]SCH22390, [(11)C]FLB457 and [(11)C]raclopride) dopaminergic function, phosphodiesterases ([(18)F]JNJ42259152, [(18)F]MNI-659 and [(11)C]IMA107), and adenosine ([(18)F]CPFPX), cannabinoid ([(18)F]MK-9470), opioid ([(11)C]diprenorphine) and GABA ([(11)C]flumazenil) receptors were evaluated as potential biomarkers for monitoring disease progression and for assessing the development and efficacy of novel disease-modifying drugs in premanifest HD carriers and HD patients. PET studies evaluating brain restoration and neuroprotection were also identified and described in detail. Brain metabolism, postsynaptic dopaminergic function and phosphodiesterase 10A levels were proven to be powerful in assessing disease progression. However, no single technique may be currently considered an optimal biomarker and an integrative multimodal imaging approach combining different techniques should be developed for monitoring potential neuroprotective and preventive treatment in HD.

  5. Current Status and Perspectives of the Space Stations Program: Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feustel-Büechl, J.

    2002-01-01

    Europe became formally Partner of the International Space Station Programme together with Japan and ISS In-Orbit Configuration - April 2002 Canada in 1988 through the signature of the Intergovernmental Agreement following an invitation by US President Reagan to join Programme. In 1993 Russia joined the partnership and the International Partners adopted the current ISS configuration. The International Space Station is today reality with more than 16 assembly flights completed and more than 1/3 of the ISS infrastructure already assembled in orbit. The first European elements operate in-orbit and some early utilisation projects have been successfully completed. The transition from the ISS development to utilisation phase has started. More than 250 future European ISS utilisation projects are today (June 2002) in preparation and an utilisation plan of the European Columbus laboratory, which will be connected to ISS in October 2004, has been established for its first 3 years in orbit. ISS. Achievements of these past Astronauts missions andColumbus Integration at ASTRIUM plans for future missions are summarised. The implementation of the cooperative International Space Station programme is based on the principle of `no exchange of funds between the Partners'. Following this principle ESA has concluded barter agreements with the Partner Agencies to obtain ISS services from the International Partners, in particular the launch of Columbus by the American Space Shuttle, in return for development of elements for the International Partners including infrastructure elements and laboratory support equipment. The paper summarises the current implementation status of existing barter and cooperation agreements and provides an outlook on future cooperation opportunities. With the development of ISS nearing its completion and the demand for its utilisation increasing, Europe is preparing for the future evolution of ISS. The paper presents Europe's vision for future ISS utilisation

  6. Robotic hepatobiliary surgery: update on the current status.

    PubMed

    Carr, A D; Ali, M R; Khatri, V P

    2013-10-01

    An update on the current status of robotic hepatobiliary surgery based on a review of the available literature. A literature search was performed using the PubMed database with search phrases "robotic hepatectomy", "robotic liver resection", "robotic liver surgery", "robotic hepatobiliary surgery", and "robotic biliary reconstruction". We selected articles with high volume case series or case controlled series. As a result of our literature search we will focus on the 9 major articles on robotic liver resection (RLR) with 235 patients undergoing RLR for a total of 244 liver resections. In addition a brief update on robotic biliary reconstruction will also be presented based on the above articles and recent review articles. Indications for robotic liver resection included both benign (N.=72, 29.5%) and malignant disease (N.=172, 70.5%). The most common indication was colorectal liver metastasis (N.=87, 50.6%) and hepatocellular carcinoma (N.=57, 33%). The most common type of resection was subsegmental (N.=55, 22.5%), with a significant number of major hepatectomies (N.=80, 32.8%). Overall conversion rate was 7.8%, with majority converted to open (N.=18) and one converted to hand assisted. The overall complication rate was 11.8% (N.=29). No perioperative mortality was reported. Preliminary results show that robotic assisted laparoscopic hepatobiliary surgery has materialized as a new technique that combines the advantages of laparoscopy with the dissection, suturing and articulation of robotics. This more closely approximates open surgery. The preliminary data demonstrates that RLR can be applied in major hepatobiliary centers safely. Future comparative studies are needed to determine if this is of significant benefit over current open techniques.

  7. Current status of the UCSF second-generation PACS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, H. K.; Arenson, Ronald L.; Wong, Albert W. K.; Bazzill, Todd M.; Lou, Shyhliang A.; Andriole, Katherine P.; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Jianguo; Wong, Stephen T. C.

    1996-05-01

    This paper describes the current status of the second generation PACS at UCSF commenced in October 1992. The UCSF PACS is designed in-house as a hospital-integrated PACS based on an open architecture concept using industrial standards including UNIX operating system, C programming language, X-Window user interface, TCP/IP communication protocol, DICOM 3.0 image standard and HL7 health data format. Other manufacturer's PACS components which conform with these standards can be easily integrated into the system. Relevant data from HIS and RIS is automatically incorporated into the PACS using HL7 data format and TCP/IP communication protocol. The UCSF system also takes advantage of state-of-the-art communication, storage, and software technologies in ATM, multiple storage media, automatic programming, multilevel processes for a better cost-performance system. The primary PACS network is the 155 Mbits/sec OC3 ATM with the Ethernet as the back-up. The UCSF PACS also connects Mt. Zion Hospital and San Francisco VA Medical Center in the San Francisco Bay area via an ATM wide area network with a T1 line as the back-up. Currently, five MR and five CT scanners from multiple sites, two computed radiography systems, two film digitizers, one US PACS module, the hospital HIS and the department RIS have been connected to the PACS network. The image data is managed by a mirrored database (Sybase). The PACS controller, with its 1.3 terabyte optical disk library, acquires 2.5 gigabytes digital data daily. Four 2K, five, 1,600-line multiple monitor display workstations are on line in neuroradiology, pediatric radiology and intensive care units for clinical use. In addition, the PACS supports over 100 Macintosh users in the department and selected hospital sites for both images and textual retrieval through a client/server mechanism. We are also developing a computation and visualization node in the PACS network for advancing radiology research.

  8. Current status of the IGT RENUGAS{reg_sign} process

    SciTech Connect

    Lau, F.S.; Carty, R.H.

    1994-09-01

    The RENUGAS process was specifically developed for pressurized fluidized bed gasification of biomass to produce either an industrial fuel gas or a chemical synthesis gas depending on air- or oxygen-blown operation. The RENUGAS gasifier is a single state fluidized bed reactor with a deep bed of inert solids that provide stable fluidization behavior and needed heat capacity for efficient transfer of energy released by the combustion to the endothermic devolatilization and gasification reactions. The use of a deep single-stage bed of inert solids yields high carbon conversion and low production of oils and tars. The 11 metric tons per day RENUGAS process development unit built at IGT under a USDOE program, has been tested under various operating conditions with a variety of feedstocks from RdF to woody and herbaceous biomass. Currently, the PDU is being used to test hot gas cleanup for power turbines in support of the Hawaii demonstration gasifier. Biomass conversions of over 95% were achieved for most biomass tested. The successful demonstration of the PDU tests resulted in RENUGAS being selected for further scaleup a 91 metric ton per day demonstration gasifier being constructed in Hawaii by the Pacific International Center for High Technology Research (PICHTR); a research program being conducted by Westinghouse Electric to validate a hot gas cleanup system for operation of the RENUGAS gasifier with a gas turbine; and the feasibility study of a 70-80 Megawatt combined cycle power plant using an air blown RENUGAS gasifier with alfalfa stems as the feedstock. In this paper, the development of the IGT RENUGAS process from a concept in 1977 to its status in three current programs is discussed.

  9. Current status of the mechanical valve and bioprosthesis in Japan.

    PubMed

    Tokunaga, Shigehiko; Tominaga, Ryuji

    2008-01-01

    The American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines for the management of patients with valvular heart disease were revised in 2006. These guidelines are introduced in this review, and the current status of the mechanical valve, bioprosthesis, and treatment of valvular heart disease are described based on the new guidelines as compared with the guidelines of 1998. The trend in valve selection in aortic valve replacement in the United States has been toward bioprosthesis, away from the mechanical valve. The reasons are: 1) current bioprostheses appear to have lower rates of structural valve deterioration, 2) the risks of reoperation have continued to decrease, 3) patients undergoing AVR today represent an older population than those in studies in randomized trials, 4) young patients undergoing AVR are often reluctant to accept warfarin therapy, 5) some large comparative trials have shown apparent survival benefit for patients receiving bioprostheses. In Japan, the use of tissue valves has been increasing and may continue to increase owing to the nation's aging population and to the reasons mentioned above. However, more patients received mechanical valves than bioprostheses for mitral valve replacement both in the United States and in Japan. The number of mitral valve repair cases has increased more than that of valve replacement. In selection of valve prosthesis for valve surgery, it is important that patients should decide by themselves based on mutual respect and trust between patient and doctor, with thorough discussion of the possibility of redo surgery and its risks, life-long warfarin intake, quality of life, and the patient's lifestyle and outlook on life.

  10. SaudiVeg ecoinformatics: Aims, current status and perspectives.

    PubMed

    El-Sheikh, Mohamed A; Thomas, Jacob; Alfarhan, Ahmed H; Alatar, Abdulrahman A; Mayandy, Sivadasan; Hennekens, Stephan M; Schaminėe, Joop H J; Mucina, Ladislav; Alansari, Abdulla M

    2017-02-01

    During the last decade many electronic databases of vegetation plots were established in many countries around the world. These databases contain valuable phytosociological information assisting both governmental and NGO (Non-governmental organizations) agencies to formulate strategies and on-ground plans to manage and protect nature resources. This paper provides an account on aims, current status and perspectives of building of a vegetation database for the Central Region (Najd) of Saudi Arabia - the founding element of the Saudi Vegetation Database (SVD). The data stored by the database are sample plots (vegetation relevés) collected according to the field techniques of the Braun-Blanquet approach (lists of taxa accompanied by semi-quantitative cover assessment), and are accompanied by general vegetation characteristics such as vegetation layering and cover, information on life-form of the recorded species, geographical coordinates, altitude, soil typology, topography and many more. More than 2900 vegetation-plot records (relevés) have so far been collected in the Najd region; of these more than 2000 have already been stored using the Turboveg database platform. These field records cover many habitats such as depressions, wadis (dry river beds), agricultural lands, sand dunes, sabkhas, and ruderal habitats. The ecological information collected in the database is currently the largest set of vegetation data collated into a database in the Middle East. These data are of great importance for biodiversity studies in Saudi Arabia, since the region is recording a loss of biodiversity at a fast rate due to environmental problems such as global warming and land-use changes. We envisage that this database would catalyze further data collection on vegetation of the entire Arabian Peninsula, and shall serve as one of the most important datasets for classification and mapping of the vegetation of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

  11. The current status of orbital experiments for UHECR studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panasyuk, M. I.; Casolino, M.; Garipov, G. K.; Ebisuzaki, T.; Gorodetzky, P.; Khrenov, B. A.; Klimov, P. A.; Morozenko, V. S.; Sakaki, N.; Saprykin, O. A.; Sharakin, S. A.; Takizawa, Y.; Tkachev, L. G.; Yashin, I. V.; Zotov, M. Yu

    2015-08-01

    Two types of orbital detectors of extreme energy cosmic rays are being developed nowadays: (i) TUS and KLYPVE with reflecting optical systems (mirrors) and (ii) JEM-EUSO with high- transmittance Fresnel lenses. They will cover much larger areas than existing ground-based arrays and almost uniformly monitor the celestial sphere. The TUS detector is the pioneering mission developed in SINP MSU in cooperation with several Russian and foreign institutions. It has relatively small field of view (±4.5°), which corresponds to a ground area of 6.4 • 103 km2. The telescope consists of a Fresnel-type mirror-concentrator (∼ 2 m2) and a photo receiver (a matrix of 16 x 16 photomultiplier tubes). It is to be deployed on the Lomonosov satellite, and is currently at the final stage of preflight tests. Recently, SINP MSU began the KLYPVE project to be installed on board of the Russian segment of the ISS. The optical system of this detector contains a larger primary mirror (10 m2), which allows decreasing the energy threshold. The total effective field of view will be at least ±14° to exceed the annual exposure of the existing ground-based experiments. Several configurations of the detector are being currently considered. Finally, JEM-EUSO is a wide field of view (±30°) detector. The optics is composed of two curved double-sided Fresnel lenses with 2.65 m external diameter, a precision diffractive middle lens and a pupil. The ultraviolet photons are focused onto the focal surface, which consists of nearly 5000 multi-anode photomultipliers. It is developed by a large international collaboration. All three orbital detectors have multi-purpose character due to continuous monitoring of various atmospheric phenomena. The present status of development of the TUS and KLYPVE missions is reported, and a brief comparison of the projects with JEM-EUSO is given.

  12. Highly Doped Polycrystalline Silicon Microelectrodes Reduce Noise in Neuronal Recordings In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Rajarshi; Jackson, Nathan; Patel, Chetan; Muthuswamy, Jit

    2013-01-01

    The aims of this study are to 1) experimentally validate for the first time the nonlinear current-potential characteristics of bulk doped polycrystalline silicon in the small amplitude voltage regimes (0–200 μV) and 2) test if noise amplitudes (0–15 μV) from single neuronal electrical recordings get selectively attenuated in doped polycrystalline silicon microelectrodes due to the above property. In highly doped polycrystalline silicon, bulk resistances of several hundred kilo-ohms were experimentally measured for voltages typical of noise amplitudes and 9–10 kΩ for voltages typical of neural signal amplitudes (>150–200 μV). Acute multiunit measurements and noise measurements were made in n = 6 and n = 8 anesthetized adult rats, respectively, using polycrystalline silicon and tungsten microelectrodes. There was no significant difference in the peak-to-peak amplitudes of action potentials recorded from either microelectrode (p > 0.10). However, noise power in the recordings from tungsten microelectrodes (26.36 ± 10.13 pW) was significantly higher (p < 0.001) than the corresponding value in polycrystalline silicon microelectrodes (7.49 ± 2.66 pW). We conclude that polycrystalline silicon microelectrodes result in selective attenuation of noise power in electrical recordings compared to tungsten microelectrodes. This reduction in noise compared to tungsten microelectrodes is likely due to the exponentially higher bulk resistances offered by highly doped bulk polycrystalline silicon in the range of voltages corresponding to noise in multiunit measurements. PMID:20667815

  13. Soil contamination in China: current status and mitigation strategies.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Fang-Jie; Ma, Yibing; Zhu, Yong-Guan; Tang, Zhong; McGrath, Steve P

    2015-01-20

    China faces great challenges in protecting its soil from contamination caused by rapid industrialization and urbanization over the last three decades. Recent nationwide surveys show that 16% of the soil samples, 19% for the agricultural soils, are contaminated based on China’s soil environmental quality limits, mainly with heavy metals and metalloids. Comparisons with other regions of the world show that the current status of soil contamination, based on the total contaminant concentrations, is not worse in China. However, the concentrations of some heavy metals in Chinese soils appear to be increasing at much greater rates. Exceedance of the contaminant limits in food crops is widespread in some areas, especially southern China, due to elevated inputs of contaminants, acidic nature of the soil and crop species or cultivars prone to heavy metal accumulation. Minimizing the transfer of contaminants from soil to the food chain is a top priority. A number of options are proposed, including identification of the sources of contaminants to agricultural systems, minimization of contaminant inputs, reduction of heavy metal phytoavailability in soil with liming or other immobilizing materials, selection and breeding of low accumulating crop cultivars, adoption of appropriate water and fertilizer management, bioremediation, and change of land use to grow nonfood crops. Implementation of these strategies requires not only technological advances, but also social-economic evaluation and effective enforcement of environmental protection law.

  14. Organ donation in China: current status, challenges, and future development.

    PubMed

    Sui, Weiguo; Zheng, Can; Yang, Ming; Dai, Yong

    2014-12-01

    Development of effective immunosuppressive agents and advances in surgical practice are the main reasons for the success of transplantation in China. In some key areas such as liver, lung, and kidney transplants, Chinese transplant success rates are similar to the rates in developed countries. Organ donation also has developed rapidly. However, China is facing a serious organ shortage that restricts clinical treatment and medical research. This shortage is due to imperfect laws and improper management of organ donation, as well as Chinese traditional ethics. Finding an efficient way to make the number of donated organs keep pace with the need for organ transplants and to optimize allocation of organ resources is a long-term and arduous task. In some ways, Chinese organ donation nowadays is constrained more by legal issues than by medical issues. The current status of and challenges facing organ donation in China are analyzed with respect to ethics, management, laws, and policy, and the future development of transplantation in China is discussed.

  15. Development and Current Status of Clinical Pharmacy Education in China

    PubMed Central

    Yee, Gary; Zhou, Naitong; Yang, Nan; Jiang, Xuehua; Klepser, Donald

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To describe the current status and developing trend of clinical pharmacy education in China. Methods. Descriptive analysis of data and information about the clinical pharmacy specialty, pharmacy colleges, and curriculum from literature, college websites, and statistics from the Ministry of Health (MOH) and Ministry of Education (MOE) websites was conducted. Results. Clinical pharmacy programs were established in China in 1989 but developed more fully after 2006. In 2012, there were 30 pharmacy colleges with clinical pharmacy undergraduate programs, which included a bachelor’s degree in clinical pharmacy and a clinical pharmacy concentration within the BS programs of pharmacy or medicine. More than 40 colleges within the university system offer 4 types of master’s degree programs in clinical pharmacy. Five universities offer a PhD program in clinical pharmacy. Three postgraduate programs exist, which train hospital pharmacists and clinical pharmacists: the 3+2 year Hospital Pharmacist Standardized Training Program at Peking hospitals; the 1-year Clinical Pharmacist Training Program sponsored by the MOH; and the 2-year Clinical Pharmacist Residency Program provided by West China Hospital at Sichuan University. Conclusion. A growing clinical pharmacy education system has been established and has become an important subfield in Chinese pharmacy education. Measures should be taken to further promote the development of clinical pharmacy education in China. PMID:25386022

  16. Current status of animal welfare and animal rights in China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jiaqi; Bayne, Kathryn; Wang, Jianfei

    2013-11-01

    In the past few years, new social passions have sparked on the Chinese mainland. At the centre of these burgeoning passions is a focus on animal welfare, animal treatment, and even animal rights, by the public and academic sectors. With China's rapid economic changes and greater access to information from around the world, societal awareness of animal issues is rising very fast. Hastening this paradigm shift were several highly public incidents involving animal cruelty, including exposés on bear bile harvesting for traditional Chinese medicine, the thousands of dogs rescued from China's meat trade, and the call to boycott shark fin soup and bird nest soup. This article outlines the current status of campaigning by animal advocates in China (specifically the animal rights movement) from three interlinked perspectives: wildlife conservation, companion animal protection, and laboratory animal protection. By reviewing this campaigning, we attempt to present not only the political and social impact of the concept of animal rights, but also the perceptions of, and challenges to, animal rights activities in China.

  17. Malaria at Parturition in Nigeria: Current Status and Delivery Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Mokuolu, Olugbenga A.; Falade, Catherine O.; Orogade, Adeola A.; Okafor, Henrietta U.; Adedoyin, Olanrewaju T.; Oguonu, Tagbo A.; Dada-Adegbola, Hannah O.; Oguntayo, O. A.; Ernest, Samuel K.; Hamer, Davidson H.; Callahan, Michael V.

    2009-01-01

    Background. To evaluate the current status of malaria at parturition and its impact on delivery outcome in Nigeria. Methods. A total of 2500 mother-neonate pairs were enrolled at 4 sites over a 12-month period. Maternal and placental blood smears for malaria parasitaemia and haematocrit were determined. Results. Of the 2500 subjects enrolled, 625 were excluded from analysis because of breach in study protocol. The mean age of the remaining 1875 mothers was 29.0 ± 5.1 years. The prevalence of parasitaemia was 17% and 14% in the peripheral blood and placenta of the parturient women, respectively. Peripheral blood parasitaemia was negatively associated with increasing parity (P < .0001). Maternal age <20 years was significantly associated with both peripheral blood and placental parasitaemia. After adjusting for covariates only age <20 years was associated with placental parasitaemia. Peripheral blood parasitaemia in the women was associated with anaemia (PCV ≤30%) lower mean hematocrit (P < .0001). lower mean birth weight (P < .001) and a higher proportion of low birth weight babies (LBW), (P = .025). Conclusion. In Nigeria, maternal age <20 years was the most important predisposing factor to malaria at parturition. The main impacts on pregnancy outcome were a twofold increase in rate of maternal anaemia and higher prevalence of LBW. PMID:19639046

  18. Estimating Tissue Iron Burden: Current Status and Future Prospects

    PubMed Central

    Wood, John C.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Iron overload is becoming an increasing problem as haemoglobinopathy patients gain greater access to good medical care and as therapies for myelodysplastic syndromes improve. Therapeutic options for iron chelation therapy have increased and many patients now receive combination therapies. However, optimal utilization of iron chelation therapy requires knowledge not only of the total body iron burden but the relative iron distribution among the different organs. The physiological basis for extrahepatic iron deposition is presented in order to help identify patients at highest risk for cardiac and endocrine complications. This manuscript reviews the current state of the art for monitoring global iron overload status as well as its compartmentalization. Plasma markers, computerized tomography, liver biopsy, magnetic susceptibility devices and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques are all discussed but MRI has come to dominate clinical practice. The potential impact of recent pancreatic and pituitary MRI studies on clinical practice are discussed as well as other works-in-progress. Clinical protocols are derived from experience in haemoglobinopathies but may provide useful guiding principles for other iron overload disorders, such as myelodysplastic syndromes. PMID:25765344

  19. Current status and progress of pancreatic cancer in China

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Quan-Jun; Yang, Feng; Jin, Chen; Fu, De-Liang

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is currently one of the most important public health problems in the world. Pancreatic cancer is a fatal disease with poor prognosis. As in most other countries, the health burden of pancreatic cancer in China is increasing, with annual mortality rates almost equal to incidence rates. The increasing trend of pancreatic cancer incidence is more significant in the rural areas than in the urban areas. Annual diagnoses and deaths of pancreatic cancer in China are now beyond the number of cases in the United States. GLOBOCAN 2012 estimates that cases in China account for 19.45% (65727/337872) of all newly diagnosed pancreatic cancer and 19.27% (63662/330391) of all deaths from pancreatic cancer worldwide. The population’s growing socioeconomic status contributes to the rapid increase of China’s proportional contribution to global rates. Here, we present an overview of control programs for pancreatic cancer in China focusing on prevention, early diagnosis and treatment. In addition, we describe key epidemiological, demographic, and socioeconomic differences between China and developed countries. Facts including no nationwide screening program for pancreatic cancer, delay in early detection resulting in a late stage at presentation, lack of awareness of pancreatic cancer in the Chinese population, and low investment compared with other cancer types by government have led to backwardness in China’s pancreatic cancer diagnosis and treatment. Finally, we suggest measures to improve health outcomes of pancreatic cancer patients in China. PMID:26185370

  20. High-density matter: current status and future challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, J. R.

    2015-05-01

    There are many fascinating processes in the Universe which we observe in more and more in detail thanks to increasingly sophisticated technology. One of the most interesting phenomena is the life cycle of stars, their birth, evolution and death. If the stars are massive enough, they end their lives in the core-collapse supernova explosion, the one of the most violent events in the Universe. As the result, the densest objects in the Universe, neutron stars and/or black holes are created. Naturally, the physical basis of these events should be understood in line with observation. The current status of our knowledge of processes in the life of stars is far from adequate for their true understanding. We show that although many models have been constructed their detailed ability to describe observations is limited or non-existent. Furthermore the general failure of all models means that we cannot tell which are heading in the right direction. A possible way forward in modeling of high-density matter is outlined, exemplified by the quark-meson-coupling model (QMC). This model has a natural explanation for the saturation of nuclear forces and depends on very few adjustable parameters, strongly constrained by the underlying physics. Latest QMC results for compact objects and finite nuclei are presented.

  1. Current Status and Tasks in Development of Cable Recycling Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ezure, Takashi; Goto, Kazuhiko

    This paper shows current status and tasks in development of cable recycling technology and it’s items to be solved. Electric cable recycle system has been activated especially for copper conductor recycle in Japan. Previously removed cable coverings materials were mainly land filled. But landfill capacity is decreased and limited in recent years, at the same time, recycle technology was highly developed. A cable recycle technology has 4 tasks. (1) Applying new high efficiency separation system instead of electrostatic and gravity methods to classify mixed various kind of plastics materials including recently developed ecological material (ex PE, PVC, Rubber), (2) Removing heavy metal, especially lead from PVC material, (3) Treatment of optical glass fiber core, which has possibility going to be harmful micro particles, and (4) Establishment of social recycle system for electric wire and cable. Taking action for these tasks shall be proceeded under environmentally sensitive technology together with local government, user, manufacturer, and waste-disposal company on cost performance basis.

  2. Current status and perspectives of the LUCIFER experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orio, F.

    2016-04-01

    The quest for Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay (0νDBD) represents one of the most promising ways to investigate the neutrino mass nature, Dirac or Majorana. A convincing detection claim demands for detectors with excellent energy resolution and almost zero background in the energy region of interest. These features can be obtained with the approach of the LUCIFER project, funded by an European grant, which is based on the double readout of the heat and scintillation light produced by ZnSe scintillating bolometers. The resulting identification and rejection of the α interactions, as well as the large Q-value of the emitter, will guarantee a background lower than 10-3 counts/keV/kg/y in the energy region of the 0νDBD of 82Se, an order of magnitude lower with respect to the present generation experiments. Despite the small mass of ˜17 kg, LUCIFER will reach a 90% CL sensitivity of 0.6 ×1026 y on the half-life of the decay. We describe the current status of the project, including results of the recent R&D activity.

  3. Current Status of Carl Sagan Observatory in Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Ibarra, A.

    The current status of Observatory "Carl Sagan" (OCS) of University of Sonora is presented. This project was born in 1996 focused to build a small solar-stellar observatory completely operated by remote control. The observatory will be at "Cerro Azul", a 2480 m peak in one of the best regions in the world for astronomical observation, at the Sonora-Arizona desert. The OCS, with three 16 cm solar telescopes and a 55 cm stellar telescope is one of the cheapest observatories, valuated in US200,000 Added to its scientific goals to study solar coronal holes and Supernovae Type 1A, the OCS has a strong educative and cultural program in Astronomy to all levels. At the end of 2001, we started the Program "Constelacion", to build small planetariums through all the countries with a cost of only US80,000. Also, the webcast system for transmission of the solar observations from the prototype OCS at the campus, was expanded to webcast educational programs in Astronomy since July of this year, including courses and diplomats for Latin American people. All of these advances are exposed here.

  4. Current Status on Resource and Recycling Technology for Rare Earths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeda, Osamu; Okabe, Toru H.

    2014-06-01

    The development of recycling technologies for rare earths is essential for resource security and supply stability because high-quality rare earth mines are concentrated in China and the demand for rare earth metals such as neodymium and dysprosium, used as raw materials in permanent magnets (neodymium magnet), is expected to increase rapidly in the near future. It is also important to establish a recycling-based society from the perspective of the conservation of finite and valuable mineral resources and the reduction of the environmental load associated with mining and smelting. In this article, the current status of rare earth resource as well as that of recycling technology for the magnets is reviewed. The importance of establishing an efficient recycling process for rare earths is discussed from the characteristics of supply chain of rare earths, and the technological bases of the recycling processes for the magnet are introduced. Further, some fundamental researches on the development of new recycling processes based on pyrometallurgical process are introduced, and the features of the recycling processes are evaluated.

  5. Current status and future trends of medical physics in Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azorin Nieto, J.

    2015-01-01

    Medical Physics is an area that applies the principles of physics to medicine, particularly in the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of diseases using ionizing and nonionizing radiation. The main attractive of medical physics is that it has a direct impact on the quality and safety of medical care in humans; this social component with direct implications for the population is of high value for Mexico. This paper describes the concepts of medical physics, trends and the current status of this discipline as a profession, which is directly related to the efforts of clinical research. It is also described what is, in my opinion, the future of medical physics in Mexico, emphasizing the fact that this field requires a substantial boost from universities and hospitals to recruit highly qualified young medical physicists and the support from government agencies such as Secretaria de Salud, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social and Instituto de Seguridad y Servicios Sociales para los Trabajadores del Estado through clinical research projects that allow the necessary evolution of medical physics into the hospital setting.

  6. Computational modeling of cardiac hemodynamics: Current status and future outlook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittal, Rajat; Seo, Jung Hee; Vedula, Vijay; Choi, Young J.; Liu, Hang; Huang, H. Howie; Jain, Saurabh; Younes, Laurent; Abraham, Theodore; George, Richard T.

    2016-01-01

    The proliferation of four-dimensional imaging technologies, increasing computational speeds, improved simulation algorithms, and the widespread availability of powerful computing platforms is enabling simulations of cardiac hemodynamics with unprecedented speed and fidelity. Since cardiovascular disease is intimately linked to cardiovascular hemodynamics, accurate assessment of the patient's hemodynamic state is critical for the diagnosis and treatment of heart disease. Unfortunately, while a variety of invasive and non-invasive approaches for measuring cardiac hemodynamics are in widespread use, they still only provide an incomplete picture of the hemodynamic state of a patient. In this context, computational modeling of cardiac hemodynamics presents as a powerful non-invasive modality that can fill this information gap, and significantly impact the diagnosis as well as the treatment of cardiac disease. This article reviews the current status of this field as well as the emerging trends and challenges in cardiovascular health, computing, modeling and simulation and that are expected to play a key role in its future development. Some recent advances in modeling and simulations of cardiac flow are described by using examples from our own work as well as the research of other groups.

  7. Current status and perspectives of brachytherapy for breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Polgár, Csaba; Major, Tibor

    2009-02-01

    Before the era of breast-conserving therapy, brachytherapy implants were used to treat large inoperable breast tumors. In later years, interstitial brachytherapy with rigid needles or multiple flexible catheters has been used to deliver an additional (boost) dose to the tumor bed after breast-conserving surgery and whole-breast irradiation. Reexcision followed by reirradiation using interstitial breast implants has also been implemented as an alternative to mastectomy to treat ipsilateral breast local recurrence after previous breast-conserving therapy. In the past two decades, the new concept of accelerated partial breast irradiation opened a new perspective for breast brachytherapy. The first technique utilized in early accelerated partial breast irradiation studies was multicatheter interstitial brachytherapy. Beyond classical interstitial brachytherapy, recently, new intracavitary applicators have been developed in the United States to decrease the existing barriers against the widespread use of multicatheter brachytherapy. Furthermore, interstitial low-dose-rate seed implants have also been implemented as an alternative for stepping-source multicatheter brachytherapy. In this article, we give an overview of the past achievements, current status, and future perspectives of breast brachytherapy.

  8. Veterinary public health in India: current status and future needs.

    PubMed

    Ghatak, S; Singh, B B

    2015-12-01

    Veterinary public health (VPH) assumes huge significance in developing countries such as India. However, the implementation of VPH services throughout the country is still in its infancy. From 1970 onwards, many institutes, national and international organisations, professional societies, policies and personalities have contributed towards the development of VPH in India. Nevertheless, there is an urgent need to develop VPH still further as there are many issues, such as high population density, the re-emergence of zoonotic pathogens, environmental pollution and antimicrobial resistance, that require attention. The time has surely come to involve all stakeholders, ranging from primary producers (e.g., farmers) to policy-makers, so as to garner support for the holistic implementation of VPH services in India. To improve VPH activities and services, science-based policies enforced through stringent regulation are required to improve human, animal and environmental health. The emergence of the 'One Health' concept has ushered in new hopes for the resurrection of VPH in India. Applying tools such as the World Organisation for Animal Health (OlE) Day One Competencies and the OlE Tool for the Evaluation of Performance of Veterinary Services (PVS Tool) is essential to improve the quality of national Veterinary Services and to identify gaps and weaknesses in service provision, which can be remedied to comply with the OlE international standards. VPH initiatives started modestly but they continue to grow. The present review is focused on the current status and future needs of VPH in India.

  9. Robot-assisted urological surgery: Current status and future perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Ghani, Khurshid R.; Trinh, Quoc-Dien; Sammon, Jesse; Jeong, Wooju; Dabaja, Ali; Menon, Mani

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To discuss the current status of robot-assisted urological surgery. Methods We searched PubMed for articles published from 2008 using the search terms ‘advances’, ‘robotic surgery equipment’ and ‘instrumentation’. We also searched PubMed for articles describing the latest developments in reconstructive techniques for lower and upper urinary tract procedures. Finally, we searched PubMed for original articles containing the terms ‘robotic surgery training’ and ‘credentialing’. Results With each release of hardware or ancillary instrumentation, the reconstructive abilities of the da Vinci surgical system (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, CA, USA) improve. Recent developments in reconstructive capabilities of robotic urological surgery include posterior reconstruction during robot-assisted radical prostatectomy, barbed sutures for urethrovesical anastomosis, sliding-clip renorrhaphy for robot-assisted partial nephrectomy, and repair of pelvic organ prolapse. The safe implementation of robotic surgery is aided by new guidelines in credentialing and proctoring, and the introduction of virtual reality simulators for training. Conclusion Robotic urological surgery is rapidly developing and expanding globally. To achieve the highest levels of safety for patients, surgeons must ensure that the implementation of robotic surgery is an integrative and effective process. PMID:26558000

  10. Robot-assisted urological surgery: Current status and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Ghani, Khurshid R; Trinh, Quoc-Dien; Sammon, Jesse; Jeong, Wooju; Dabaja, Ali; Menon, Mani

    2012-03-01

    To discuss the current status of robot-assisted urological surgery. We searched PubMed for articles published from 2008 using the search terms 'advances', 'robotic surgery equipment' and 'instrumentation'. We also searched PubMed for articles describing the latest developments in reconstructive techniques for lower and upper urinary tract procedures. Finally, we searched PubMed for original articles containing the terms 'robotic surgery training' and 'credentialing'. With each release of hardware or ancillary instrumentation, the reconstructive abilities of the da Vinci surgical system (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, CA, USA) improve. Recent developments in reconstructive capabilities of robotic urological surgery include posterior reconstruction during robot-assisted radical prostatectomy, barbed sutures for urethrovesical anastomosis, sliding-clip renorrhaphy for robot-assisted partial nephrectomy, and repair of pelvic organ prolapse. The safe implementation of robotic surgery is aided by new guidelines in credentialing and proctoring, and the introduction of virtual reality simulators for training. Robotic urological surgery is rapidly developing and expanding globally. To achieve the highest levels of safety for patients, surgeons must ensure that the implementation of robotic surgery is an integrative and effective process.

  11. Veterinary pharmacology: history, current status and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Lees, P; Fink-Gremmels, J; Toutain, P L

    2013-04-01

    Veterinary therapeutics, based on the art of Materia Medica, has been practised for countless centuries, but the science of veterinary pharmacology is of very recent origin. This review traces the contribution of Materia Medica to veterinary therapeutics from the Egyptian period through to the Age of Enlightenment. The first tentative steps in the development of the science of veterinary pharmacology were taken in the 18th century, but it was not until the mid 20th century that the science replaced the art of Materia Medica. This review traces the 20th century developments in veterinary pharmacology, with emphasis on the explosion of knowledge in the 35 year period to 2010. The range of factors which have influenced the current status of the discipline are reviewed. Future developments are considered from the perspectives of what might be regarded as desirable and those innovations that might be anticipated. We end with words of encouragement for young colleagues intent upon pursuing a career in veterinary pharmacology. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Current status of extracorporeal ventricular assist devices in Japan.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Takashi

    2014-09-01

    Extracorporeal VADs are less expensive, their prices reimbursable by the health insurance being about one-sixth of those of implantable VADs in Japan. However, a disadvantage is that, in Japan, their use is restricted to hospitals, necessitating prolonged hospitalization, reducing the patients' quality of life. According to the Japanese registry for Mechanically Assisted Circulatory Support, the survival rate does not differ significantly between patients with extracorporeal and implantable VADs. As in Europe and North America, extracorporeal VADs in Japan are commonly used as Bridge to Decision or Bridge to Recovery. Extracorporeal VADs are switched to implantable VADs as a Bridge-to-Bridge strategy after stabilization or when cardiac function recovery fails. They are also used as right ventricular assist devices (RVADs) in patients with right heart failure. A special characteristic of extracorporeal VADs in Japan is their frequent use as a Bridge to Candidacy. In Japan, indications for implantable VADs are restricted to patients registered for heart transplantation. Therefore, in patients who cannot be registered for transplantation because of transient renal dysfunction, etc., due to heart failure, extracorporeal VADs are used first, and then replaced by implantable VADs after transplant registry is done. Here, we describe the current status of extracorporeal VADs in Japan, focusing on the environmental backgrounds, along with a review of the relevant literature.

  13. The current status of theory evaluation in nursing.

    PubMed

    Im, Eun-Ok

    2015-10-01

    To identify the current status of theory evaluation in nursing and provide directions for theory evaluation for future development of theoretical bases of nursing discipline. Theory evaluation is an essential component in development of nursing knowledge, which is a critical element in development of nursing discipline. Despite earlier significant efforts for theory evaluation in nursing, a recent decline in the number of theory evaluation articles was noted and there have been few updates on theory evaluation in nursing. Discussion paper. A total of 58 articles published from 2003-2014 were retrieved through searches using the PUBMED, PsyInfo and CINAHL. The articles were sorted by the area of evaluation and analysed to identify themes reflecting the theory evaluation process. Diverse ways of theory evaluation need to be continuously used in future theory evaluation efforts. Six themes reflecting the theory evaluation process were identified: (a) rarely using existing theory evaluation criteria; (b) evaluating specifics; (c) using various statistical analysis methods; (d) developing instruments; (e) adopting in practice and education; and (f) evaluating mainly middle-range theories and situation-specific theories. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Search for biomarkers in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: current status.

    PubMed

    Nicholas, Benjamin L

    2013-03-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a condition principally defined by airflow limitation that is not fully reversible. The main trigger, inhalation of noxious gases or particles (usually smoke) leads to complex pathology, including inflammation of the large and small airways, and destruction of the lung parenchyma. Overlap in pathophysiology with other chronic airways diseases leads to challenges in differential diagnosis, and furthermore, periodic exacerbations of disease symptoms also increase the complexity of the disease diagnosis and prediction of outcome. There is recognized need for biomarkers to aid in the determination of disease diagnosis, progression and response to intervention. This review describes the current status of biomarker identification in COPD. Biomarkers of disease can take many forms other than the classical protein in serum, and their utility is dependent upon the clinical question to be addressed. No single protein marker has been adopted for routine clinical use to date. This review addresses the key issues around biomarker identification and utility in both stable and exacerbating COPD. Biomarker identification in COPD is still a developing field, with increasing interest in patient phenotyping probably reflecting the challenges of biomarker development in a complex disease.

  15. Current Status of Mimosa pigra L. Infestation in Peninsular Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Mansor, Asyraf; Crawley, Micheal J.

    2011-01-01

    The status and distribution of Mimosa pigra L., a semi-aquatic invasive species in Peninsular Malaysia, were continuously assessed between 2004 and 2007. This assessment investigated its population stand density and related weed management activities. In total, 106 sites of 6 main habitat types i.e., construction site (CS), dam/ reservoir (DM), forest reserve (FR), plantation (PL), river bank/waterway (RB) and roadside (RD) were assessed, and 55 sites were recorded with M. pigra populations. A CS is the most likely habitat to be infested with M. pigra (16 out of 18 assessed sites have this weed), whereas none of the FR visited were found to harbour M. pigra. In terms of population stand density, 41 populations were in the low range of stand density (individual plant of ≤5 m−2), compared to only 9 populations in the high range of stand density (individual plant of >10 m−2). In general, the current impact of M. pigra infestation on natural habitats is relatively low, as its distribution is only confined to disturbed areas. However, continuous monitoring of this weed species is highly recommended, especially in the riparian zone and wetland habitats. PMID:24575208

  16. Tissue engineering of functional articular cartilage: the current status.

    PubMed

    Kock, Linda; van Donkelaar, Corrinus C; Ito, Keita

    2012-03-01

    Osteoarthritis is a degenerative joint disease characterized by pain and disability. It involves all ages and 70% of people aged >65 have some degree of osteoarthritis. Natural cartilage repair is limited because chondrocyte density and metabolism are low and cartilage has no blood supply. The results of joint-preserving treatment protocols such as debridement, mosaicplasty, perichondrium transplantation and autologous chondrocyte implantation vary largely and the average long-term result is unsatisfactory. One reason for limited clinical success is that most treatments require new cartilage to be formed at the site of a defect. However, the mechanical conditions at such sites are unfavorable for repair of the original damaged cartilage. Therefore, it is unlikely that healthy cartilage would form at these locations. The most promising method to circumvent this problem is to engineer mechanically stable cartilage ex vivo and to implant that into the damaged tissue area. This review outlines the issues related to the composition and functionality of tissue-engineered cartilage. In particular, the focus will be on the parameters cell source, signaling molecules, scaffolds and mechanical stimulation. In addition, the current status of tissue engineering of cartilage will be discussed, with the focus on extracellular matrix content, structure and its functionality.

  17. Plague in Iran: its history and current status.

    PubMed

    Hashemi Shahraki, Abdolrazagh; Carniel, Elizabeth; Mostafavi, Ehsan

    2016-01-01

    Plague remains a public health concern worldwide, particularly in old foci. Multiple epidemics of this disease have been recorded throughout the history of Iran. Despite the long-standing history of human plague in Iran, it remains difficult to obtain an accurate overview of the history and current status of plague in Iran. In this review, available data and reports on cases and outbreaks of human plague in the past and present in Iran and in neighboring countries were collected, and information was compiled regarding when, where, and how many cases occurred. This paper considers the history of plague in Persia (the predecessor of today's Iran) and has a brief review of plague in countries in the World Health Organization Eastern Mediterranean Region, including a range of countries in the Middle East and North Africa. Since Iran has experienced outbreaks of plague for several centuries, neighboring countries have reported the disease in recent years, the disease can be silent for decades, and the circulation of Yersinia pestis has been reported among rodents and dogs in western Iran, more attention should be paid to disease monitoring in areas with previously reported human cases and in high-risk regions with previous epizootic and enzootic activity.

  18. Plague in Iran: its history and current status

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Plague remains a public health concern worldwide, particularly in old foci. Multiple epidemics of this disease have been recorded throughout the history of Iran. Despite the long-standing history of human plague in Iran, it remains difficult to obtain an accurate overview of the history and current status of plague in Iran. METHODS: In this review, available data and reports on cases and outbreaks of human plague in the past and present in Iran and in neighboring countries were collected, and information was compiled regarding when, where, and how many cases occurred. RESULTS: This paper considers the history of plague in Persia (the predecessor of today’s Iran) and has a brief review of plague in countries in the World Health Organization Eastern Mediterranean Region, including a range of countries in the Middle East and North Africa. CONCLUSIONS: Since Iran has experienced outbreaks of plague for several centuries, neighboring countries have reported the disease in recent years, the disease can be silent for decades, and the circulation of Yersinia pestis has been reported among rodents and dogs in western Iran, more attention should be paid to disease monitoring in areas with previously reported human cases and in high-risk regions with previous epizootic and enzootic activity. PMID:27457063

  19. The current status and future perspectives of CSPOR-BC.

    PubMed

    Aihara, Tomohiko; Mukai, Hirofumi

    2013-10-01

    The Comprehensive Support Project for Oncology Research in Breast Cancer (CSPOR-BC) was initiated in 2000 as part of the investigation project of the Stress Science Research Institute, which was founded by the Public Health Research Foundation. The main objective of CSPOR-BC is to comprehensively support investigator-initiated clinical trials, research related to health-related quality of life (HR-QOL), and epidemiological research for breast cancer. After its initiation, 6 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on adjuvant therapy for breast cancer and 2 RCTs on metastatic breast cancer have been conducted. To date, patient recruitment has been completed in 3 trials on adjuvant therapy and 1 trial on metastatic breast cancer. In addition to the assessment of efficacy and quality of life, treatment-related side effects have been evaluated. Large cohort studies have been accompanied by some RCTs to evaluate the effect of lifestyle, use of complementary and alternative medicine, sociopsychological factors, and supportive therapies on prognoses of patients with primary breast cancer. These subanalyses are unique to clinical trials conducted by CSPOR-BC. In this report, the current status and future perspectives of CSPOR-BC are described.

  20. Current status of immunotherapy for gastrointestinal stromal tumor.

    PubMed

    Tan, Y; Trent, J C; Wilky, B A; Kerr, D A; Rosenberg, A E

    2017-03-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) contain tumor-infiltrating immune cells and their presence provides an opportunity and rationale for developing effective forms of immunotherapy. The types of tumor-infiltrating inflammatory cells and relevant immune checkpoint inhibitors are the focus of active investigation. The most numerous tumor-infiltrating inflammatory cells are tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) and CD3+ T cells. Studies have shown that patients with GISTs that harbor increased numbers of CD3+ T cells have better outcomes. However, the clinical behavior of GIST has not been shown to correlate with the number of TAMs. The biological significance of other less frequent tumor-infiltrating immune cells including tumor-infiltrating neurtrophils (TINs), natural killer cells (NKs), B cells, dendritic cells (DCs) remains unclear. The immune checkpoint inhibitors CTLA-4, PD1/PDL1 and TIM3/galectin-9 are molecules that can be targeted by synthesized antibodies. Clinical and pre-clinical trials using this approach against immune checkpoint inhibitors, anti-KIT antibody and the generation of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cells have shown promising results. The treatment of GIST with immunotherapy is complex and evolving; this article reviews its current status for patients with GISTs.

  1. Engineering plants for aphid resistance: current status and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiudao; Wang, Genping; Huang, Siliang; Ma, Youzhi; Xia, Lanqin

    2014-10-01

    The current status of development of transgenic plants for improved aphid resistance, and the pros and cons of different strategies are reviewed and future perspectives are proposed. Aphids are major agricultural pests that cause significant yield losses of crop plants each year. Excessive dependence on insecticides for aphid control is undesirable because of the development of insecticide resistance, the potential negative effects on non-target organisms and environmental pollution. Transgenic plants engineered for resistance to aphids via a non-toxic mode of action could be an efficient alternative strategy. In this review, the distribution of major aphid species and their damages on crop plants, the so far isolated aphid-resistance genes and their applications in developments of transgenic plants for improved aphid resistance, and the pros and cons of these strategies are reviewed and future perspectives are proposed. Although the transgenic plants developed through expressing aphid-resistant genes, manipulating plant secondary metabolism and plant-mediated RNAi strategy have been demonstrated to confer improved aphid resistance to some degree. So far, no aphid-resistant transgenic crop plants have ever been commercialized. This commentary is intended to be a helpful insight into the generation and future commercialization of aphid-resistant transgenic crops in a global context.

  2. Neuroendoscopy in Kuwait: Evolution, Current Status, and Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Azab, Waleed A; Abdelrahman, Ahmed Y; Alsheikh, Tarik M; Najibullah, Mostafa M

    2016-08-01

    An overview of the development of neuroendoscopy at the neurosurgery department, Ibn Sina Hospital in Kuwait, is presented with an outline of difficulties and obstacles faced by the field until it reached its current status. The factors and solutions that helped us overcome these problems are also elaborated on. After a modest beginning few years ago, endoscopic skull base procedures, intraventricular neuroendoscopy, and spinal endoscopy are regularly performed in the department. Although neuroendoscopy is not per se a neurosurgical subspecialty, it is an area that requires special training. Achieving an appropriate level of care necessitates these highly trained neurosurgeons to collaborate together and with other specialties to create teamsgeared towards offering such treatment options topatients. Importantly, a multitude of essential facilities should be available to make such a pattern of practice possible. In our experience, this was made possible through continued efforts that have finally paid off and gradually led to a complete shift of the face of neuroendoscopic practice in our department. Our future endeavors aim at further development of neuroendoscopy in the department to create a center of excellence.

  3. Neural Synchrony in Cortical Networks: History, Concept and Current Status

    PubMed Central

    Uhlhaas, Peter J.; Pipa, Gordon; Lima, Bruss; Melloni, Lucia; Neuenschwander, Sergio; Nikolić, Danko; Singer, Wolf

    2009-01-01

    Following the discovery of context-dependent synchronization of oscillatory neuronal responses in the visual system, the role of neural synchrony in cortical networks has been expanded to provide a general mechanism for the coordination of distributed neural activity patterns. In the current paper, we present an update of the status of this hypothesis through summarizing recent results from our laboratory that suggest important new insights regarding the mechanisms, function and relevance of this phenomenon. In the first part, we present recent results derived from animal experiments and mathematical simulations that provide novel explanations and mechanisms for zero and nero-zero phase lag synchronization. In the second part, we shall discuss the role of neural synchrony for expectancy during perceptual organization and its role in conscious experience. This will be followed by evidence that indicates that in addition to supporting conscious cognition, neural synchrony is abnormal in major brain disorders, such as schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorders. We conclude this paper with suggestions for further research as well as with critical issues that need to be addressed in future studies. PMID:19668703

  4. Astrocyte transplantation for spinal cord injury: current status and perspective.

    PubMed

    Chu, Tianci; Zhou, Hengxing; Li, Fuyuan; Wang, Tianyi; Lu, Lu; Feng, Shiqing

    2014-08-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) often causes incurable neurological dysfunction because axonal regeneration in adult spinal cord is rare. Astrocytes are gradually recognized as being necessary for the regeneration after SCI as they promote axonal growth under both physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Heterogeneous populations of astrocytes have been explored for structural and functional restoration. The results range from the early variable and modest effects of immature astrocyte transplantation to the later significant, but controversial, outcomes of glial-restricted precursor (GRP)-derived astrocyte (GDA) transplantation. However, the traditional neuron-centric view and the concerns about the inhibitory roles of astrocytes after SCI, along with the sporadic studies and the lack of a comprehensive review, have led to some confusion over the usefulness of astrocytes in SCI. It is the purpose of the review to discuss the current status of astrocyte transplantation for SCI based on a dialectical view of the context-dependent manner of astrocyte behavior and the time-associated characteristics of glial scarring. Critical issues are then analyzed to reveal the potential direction of future research.

  5. Current Status of Radiopharmaceuticals for the Theranostics of Neuroendocrine Neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Fani, Melpomeni; Kolenc Peitl, Petra; Velikyan, Irina

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear medicine plays a pivotal role in the management of patients affected by neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs). Radiolabeled somatostatin receptor analogs are by far the most advanced radiopharmaceuticals for diagnosis and therapy (radiotheranostics) of NENs. Their clinical success emerged receptor-targeted radiolabeled peptides as an important class of radiopharmaceuticals and it paved the way for the investigation of other radioligand-receptor systems. Besides the somatostatin receptors (sstr), other receptors have also been linked to NENs and quite a number of potential radiolabeled peptides have been derived from them. The Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor (GLP-1R) is highly expressed in benign insulinomas, the Cholecystokinin 2 (CCK2)/Gastrin receptor is expressed in different NENs, in particular medullary thyroid cancer, and the Glucose-dependent Insulinotropic Polypeptide (GIP) receptor was found to be expressed in gastrointestinal and bronchial NENs, where interestingly, it is present in most of the sstr-negative and GLP-1R-negative NENs. Also in the field of sstr targeting new discoveries brought into light an alternative approach with the use of radiolabeled somatostatin receptor antagonists, instead of the clinically used agonists. The purpose of this review is to present the current status and the most innovative strategies for the diagnosis and treatment (theranostics) of neuroendocrine neoplasms using a cadre of radiolabeled regulatory peptides targeting their receptors. PMID:28295000

  6. Current status of robotic gastrectomy for gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Obama, Kazutaka; Sakai, Yoshiharu

    2016-05-01

    Although over 3000 da Vinci Surgical System (DVSS) devices have been installed worldwide, robotic surgery for gastric cancer has not yet become widely spread and is only available in several advanced institutions. This is because, at least in part, the advantages of robotic surgery for gastric cancer remain unclear. The safety and feasibility of robotic gastrectomy have been demonstrated in several retrospective studies. However, no sound evidence has been reported to support the superiority of a robotic approach for gastric cancer treatment. In addition, the long-term clinical outcomes following robotic gastrectomy have yet to be clarified. Nevertheless, a robotic approach can potentially overcome the disadvantages of conventional laparoscopic surgery if the advantageous functions of this technique are optimized, such as the use of wristed instruments, tremor filtering and high-resolution 3-D images. The potential advantages of robotic gastrectomy have been discussed in several retrospective studies, including the ability to achieve sufficient lymphadenectomy in the area of the splenic hilum, reductions in local complication rates and a shorter learning curve for the robotic approach compared to conventional laparoscopic gastrectomy. In this review, we present the current status and discuss issues regarding robotic gastrectomy for gastric cancer.

  7. [Current status of robotic surgery for gastric cancer].

    PubMed

    Suda, Koichi; Ishida, Yoshinori; Uyama, Ichiro

    2014-11-01

    Robotic surgery was launched in Japan in 2000.In particular, the development of the da Vinci S Surgical System was a major breakthrough. It was introduced in Japan for the first time through our hospital in January 2009. Since then, the number of surgical robots used has been dramatically increasing, with up to approximately 160 robots all over the country. To date, we have performed more than 500 robotic surgeries, including 180 gastrectomies, at our hospital. Our data suggest that compared with the conventional laparoscopic approach, the use of the da Vinci Surgical System in minimally invasive gastrectomy for gastric cancer might improve short-term outcomes, particularly in terms of preventing postoperative local complications. Thus, we believe that use of surgical robots become increasingly beneficial for more extensive resections and operations that require more advanced skills, even though a couple of issues remain to be solved, such as long operative time, high cost, and limited experience and evidence. In this article, the current status and future perspectives regarding robotic gastrectomy for gastric cancer are presented based on our experience and a review of the literature.

  8. The Current Status and Future Prospects for the GRACE Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tapley, Byron; Flechtner, Frank; Watkins, Michael; Bettadpur, Srinivas; Boening, Carmen

    2016-04-01

    The twin satellites of the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) were launched on March 17, 2002 and have operated for over 13 years. The mission objectives are to sense the spatial and temporal variations of the Earth's mass through its effects on the gravity field at the GRACE satellite altitude. The major cause of the time varying mass is water motion and the GRACE mission has provided a continuous decade long measurement sequences which characterizes the seasonal cycle of mass transport between the oceans, land, cryosphere and atmosphere; its inter-annual variability; and the climate driven secular, or long period, mass transport signals. In 2012, the RLO5 solution, based on a complete reanalysis of the mission data, data release, was initiated. The monthly solutions from this effort were released in mid-2013 with the mean fields following in 2014 and 2015. The mission is entering the final phases of operations. The current mission operations strategy emphasizes extending the mission lifetime to achieve mission overlap with the GRACE Follow On Mission. This presentation will review the mission status and the projections for mission lifetime, summarize plans for the RL 06 data re-analysis, describe the issues that influence the operations philosophy and discuss the impact the operations may have on the scientific data products.

  9. Medical telerobotic systems: current status and future trends.

    PubMed

    Avgousti, Sotiris; Christoforou, Eftychios G; Panayides, Andreas S; Voskarides, Sotos; Novales, Cyril; Nouaille, Laurence; Pattichis, Constantinos S; Vieyres, Pierre

    2016-08-12

    Teleoperated medical robotic systems allow procedures such as surgeries, treatments, and diagnoses to be conducted across short or long distances while utilizing wired and/or wireless communication networks. This study presents a systematic review of the relevant literature between the years 2004 and 2015, focusing on medical teleoperated robotic systems which have witnessed tremendous growth over the examined period. A thorough insight of telerobotics systems discussing design concepts, enabling technologies (namely robotic manipulation, telecommunications, and vision systems), and potential applications in clinical practice is provided, while existing limitations and future trends are also highlighted. A representative paradigm of the short-distance case is the da Vinci Surgical System which is described in order to highlight relevant issues. The long-distance telerobotics concept is exemplified through a case study on diagnostic ultrasound scanning. Moreover, the present review provides a classification into short- and long-distance telerobotic systems, depending on the distance from which they are operated. Telerobotic systems are further categorized with respect to their application field. For the reviewed systems are also examined their engineering characteristics and the employed robotics technology. The current status of the field, its significance, the potential, as well as the challenges that lie ahead are thoroughly discussed.

  10. Bonded permanent magnets: Current status and future opportunities (invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ormerod, John; Constantinides, Steve

    1997-04-01

    Permanent magnets play a vital role in modern society as a component in a wide range of devices utilized by many industries and consumers. In 1995, the world production of permanent magnets was estimated to be valued at 3.6 billion and growing at an annual rate of 12%. Bonded permanent magnets are the fastest growing segment of this market. Bonded magnet technology enables a wide variety of magnetic powders to be combined with several polymer and binder systems to produce magnetic components utilizing several processing options. In this article, we review the development of bonded magnet technology. The major classes of magnetic powders, binder systems, and processing technologies are described. Recent developments in magnetic material grades, e.g., anisotropic NdFeB, rare earth lean NdFeB, SmFe(N,C) are outlined. The current status of processing and binder options aimed at increasing the upper application temperature limit of these materials is highlighted. Finally, the improvements and future opportunities for bonded magnets are discussed.

  11. Current status of fasciolosis in Vietnam: an update and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Bui, T D; Doanh, P N; Saegerman, C; Losson, B

    2016-09-01

    Vietnam is recognized to be endemic for fasciolosis. However, most of the available publications have not been published in international journals. This review is based on national and international Vietnamese publications and highlights the current status of fasciolosis in Vietnam. It also provides some information available for neighbouring countries. Updated data on responsible species, distribution, transmission and control aspects are summarized. The central region of Vietnam is reported as being highly endemic for fasciolosis, with a high number of human patients (more than 20,000 in 2011). Fasciola gigantica is reported to be the main species in Vietnam. However, hybrids between F. gigantica and F. hepatica were identified. Both humans and animals are infected by the ingestion of raw vegetables and possibly contaminated drinking water. Three lymnaeid snail species (Austropeplea viridis, Radix auricularia and Radix rubiginosa) may act as intermediate hosts of Fasciola spp. However, due to the likely misidentification of snail species and cercariae during the past decade the critical analysis of published data is difficult. A better understanding of transmission aspects of fasciolosis would allow the implementation of preventive measures of this important neglected zoonotic disease.

  12. Ultrasensitive electrochemical biomolecular detection using nanostructured microelectrodes.

    PubMed

    Sage, Andrew T; Besant, Justin D; Lam, Brian; Sargent, Edward H; Kelley, Shana O

    2014-08-19

    Electrochemical sensors have the potential to achieve sensitive, specific, and low-cost detection of biomolecules--a capability that is ever more relevant to the diagnosis and monitored treatment of disease. The development of devices for clinical diagnostics based on electrochemical detection could provide a powerful solution for the routine use of biomarkers in patient treatment and monitoring and may overcome the many issues created by current methods, including the long sample-to-answer times, high cost, and limited prospects for lab-free use of traditional polymerase chain reaction, microarrays, and gene-sequencing technologies. In this Account, we summarize the advances in electrochemical biomolecular detection, focusing on a new and integrated platform that exploits the bottom-up fabrication of multiplexed electrochemical sensors composed of electrodeposited noble metals. We trace the evolution of these sensors from gold nanoelectrode ensembles to nanostructured microelectrodes (NMEs) and discuss the effects of surface morphology and size on assay performance. The development of a novel electrocatalytic assay based on Ru(3+) adsorption and Fe(3+) amplification at the electrode surface as a means to enable ultrasensitive analyte detection is discussed. Electrochemical measurements of changes in hybridization events at the electrode surface are performed using a simple potentiostat, which enables integration into a portable, cost-effective device. We summarize the strategies for proximal sample processing and detection in addition to those that enable high degrees of sensor multiplexing capable of measuring 100 different analytes on a single chip. By evaluating the cost and performance of various sensor substrates, we explore the development of practical lab-on-a-chip prototype devices. By functionalizing the NMEs with capture probes specific to nucleic acid, small molecule, and protein targets, we can successfully detect a wide variety of analytes at

  13. Theoretical analysis of intracortical microelectrode recordings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lempka, Scott F.; Johnson, Matthew D.; Moffitt, Michael A.; Otto, Kevin J.; Kipke, Daryl R.; McIntyre, Cameron C.

    2011-08-01

    Advanced fabrication techniques have now made it possible to produce microelectrode arrays for recording the electrical activity of a large number of neurons in the intact brain for both clinical and basic science applications. However, the long-term recording performance desired for these applications is hindered by a number of factors that lead to device failure or a poor signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The goal of this study was to identify factors that can affect recording quality using theoretical analysis of intracortical microelectrode recordings of single-unit activity. Extracellular microelectrode recordings were simulated with a detailed multi-compartment cable model of a pyramidal neuron coupled to a finite-element volume conductor head model containing an implanted recording microelectrode. Recording noise sources were also incorporated into the overall modeling infrastructure. The analyses of this study would be very difficult to perform experimentally; however, our model-based approach enabled a systematic investigation of the effects of a large number of variables on recording quality. Our results demonstrate that recording amplitude and noise are relatively independent of microelectrode size, but instead are primarily affected by the selected recording bandwidth, impedance of the electrode-tissue interface and the density and firing rates of neurons surrounding the recording electrode. This study provides the theoretical groundwork that allows for the design of the microelectrode and recording electronics such that the SNR is maximized. Such advances could help enable the long-term functionality required for chronic neural recording applications.

  14. Theoretical analysis of intracortical microelectrode recordings

    PubMed Central

    Lempka, Scott F; Johnson, Matthew D; Moffitt, Michael A; Otto, Kevin J; Kipke, Daryl R; McIntyre, Cameron C

    2011-01-01

    Advanced fabrication techniques have now made it possible to produce microelectrode arrays for recording the electrical activity of a large number of neurons in the intact brain for both clinical and basic science applications. However, the long-term recording performance desired for these applications is hindered by a number of factors that lead to device failure or a poor signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The goal of this study was to identify factors that can affect recording quality using theoretical analysis of intracortical microelectrode recordings of single-unit activity. Extracellular microelectrode recordings were simulated with a detailed multi-compartment cable model of a pyramidal neuron coupled to a finite element volume conductor head model containing an implanted recording microelectrode. Recording noise sources were also incorporated into the overall modeling infrastructure. The analyses of this study would be very difficult to perform experimentally; however, our model-based approach enabled a systematic investigation of the effects of a large number of variables on recording quality. Our results demonstrate that recording amplitude and noise are relatively independent of microelectrode size, but instead are primarily affected by the selected recording bandwidth, impedance of the electrode-tissue interface, and the density and firing rates of neurons surrounding the recording electrode. This study provides the theoretical groundwork that allows for the design of the microelectrode and recording electronics such that the SNR is maximized. Such advances could help enable the long-term functionality required for chronic neural recording applications. PMID:21775783

  15. Emerging memories: resistive switching mechanisms and current status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Doo Seok; Thomas, Reji; Katiyar, R. S.; Scott, J. F.; Kohlstedt, H.; Petraru, A.; Hwang, Cheol Seong

    2012-07-01

    The resistance switching behaviour of several materials has recently attracted considerable attention for its application in non-volatile memory (NVM) devices, popularly described as resistive random access memories (RRAMs). RRAM is a type of NVM that uses a material(s) that changes the resistance when a voltage is applied. Resistive switching phenomena have been observed in many oxides: (i) binary transition metal oxides (TMOs), e.g. TiO2, Cr2O3, FeOx and NiO; (ii) perovskite-type complex TMOs that are variously functional, paraelectric, ferroelectric, multiferroic and magnetic, e.g. (Ba,Sr)TiO3, Pb(Zrx Ti1-x)O3, BiFeO3 and PrxCa1-xMnO3 (iii) large band gap high-k dielectrics, e.g. Al2O3 and Gd2O3; (iv) graphene oxides. In the non-oxide category, higher chalcogenides are front runners, e.g. In2Se3 and In2Te3. Hence, the number of materials showing this technologically interesting behaviour for information storage is enormous. Resistive switching in these materials can form the basis for the next generation of NVM, i.e. RRAM, when current semiconductor memory technology reaches its limit in terms of density. RRAMs may be the high-density and low-cost NVMs of the future. A review on this topic is of importance to focus concentration on the most promising materials to accelerate application into the semiconductor industry. This review is a small effort to realize the ambitious goal of RRAMs. Its basic focus is on resistive switching in various materials with particular emphasis on binary TMOs. It also addresses the current understanding of resistive switching behaviour. Moreover, a brief comparison between RRAMs and memristors is included. The review ends with the current status of RRAMs in terms of stability, scalability and switching speed, which are three important aspects of integration onto semiconductors.

  16. Emerging memories: resistive switching mechanisms and current status.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Doo Seok; Thomas, Reji; Katiyar, R S; Scott, J F; Kohlstedt, H; Petraru, A; Hwang, Cheol Seong

    2012-07-01

    The resistance switching behaviour of several materials has recently attracted considerable attention for its application in non-volatile memory (NVM) devices, popularly described as resistive random access memories (RRAMs). RRAM is a type of NVM that uses a material(s) that changes the resistance when a voltage is applied. Resistive switching phenomena have been observed in many oxides: (i) binary transition metal oxides (TMOs), e.g. TiO(2), Cr(2)O(3), FeO(x) and NiO; (ii) perovskite-type complex TMOs that are variously functional, paraelectric, ferroelectric, multiferroic and magnetic, e.g. (Ba,Sr)TiO(3), Pb(Zr(x) Ti(1-x))O(3), BiFeO(3) and Pr(x)Ca(1-x)MnO(3); (iii) large band gap high-k dielectrics, e.g. Al(2)O(3) and Gd(2)O(3); (iv) graphene oxides. In the non-oxide category, higher chalcogenides are front runners, e.g. In(2)Se(3) and In(2)Te(3). Hence, the number of materials showing this technologically interesting behaviour for information storage is enormous. Resistive switching in these materials can form the basis for the next generation of NVM, i.e. RRAM, when current semiconductor memory technology reaches its limit in terms of density. RRAMs may be the high-density and low-cost NVMs of the future. A review on this topic is of importance to focus concentration on the most promising materials to accelerate application into the semiconductor industry. This review is a small effort to realize the ambitious goal of RRAMs. Its basic focus is on resistive switching in various materials with particular emphasis on binary TMOs. It also addresses the current understanding of resistive switching behaviour. Moreover, a brief comparison between RRAMs and memristors is included. The review ends with the current status of RRAMs in terms of stability, scalability and switching speed, which are three important aspects of integration onto semiconductors.

  17. Electric potential microelectrode for studies of electrobiogeophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damgaard, Lars Riis; Risgaard-Petersen, Nils; Nielsen, Lars Peter

    2014-09-01

    Spatially separated electron donors and acceptors in sediment can be exploited by the so-called "cable bacteria." Electric potential microelectrodes (EPMs) were constructed to measure the electric fields that should appear when cable bacteria conduct electrons over centimeter distances. The EPMs were needle-shaped, shielded Ag/AgCl half-cells that were rendered insensitive to redox-active species in the environment. Tip diameters of 40 to 100 µm and signal resolution of approximately 10 μV were achieved. A test in marine sediments with active cable bacteria showed an electric potential increase by approximately 2 mV from the sediment-water interface to a depth of approximately 20 mm, in accordance with the location and direction of the electric currents estimated from oxygen, pH, and H2S microprofiles. The EPM also captured emergence and decay of electric diffusion potentials in the upper millimeters of artificial sediment in response to changes in ion concentrations in the overlying water. The results suggest that the EPM can be used to track electric current sources and sinks with submillimeter resolution in microbial, biogeochemical, and geophysical studies.

  18. Current status of insecticide resistance among malaria vectors in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Ondeto, Benyl M; Nyundo, Christopher; Kamau, Luna; Muriu, Simon M; Mwangangi, Joseph M; Njagi, Kiambo; Mathenge, Evan M; Ochanda, Horace; Mbogo, Charles M

    2017-09-19

    Insecticide resistance has emerged as one of the major challenges facing National Malaria Control Programmes in Africa. A well-coordinated national database on insecticide resistance (IRBase) can facilitate the development of effective strategies for managing insecticide resistance and sustaining the effectiveness of chemical-based vector control measures. The aim of this study was to assemble a database on the current status of insecticide resistance among malaria vectors in Kenya. Data was obtained from published literature through PubMed, HINARI and Google Scholar searches and unpublished literature from government reports, research institutions reports and malaria control programme reports. Each data source was assigned a unique identification code and entered into Microsoft Excel 2010 datasheets. Base maps on the distribution of insecticide resistance and resistance mechanisms among malaria vectors in Kenya were generated using ArcGIS Desktop 10.1 (ESRI, Redlands, CA, USA). Insecticide resistance status among the major malaria vectors in Kenya was reported in all the four classes of insecticides including pyrethroids, carbamates, organochlorines and organophosphates. Resistance to pyrethroids has been detected in Anopheles gambiae (s.s.), An. arabiensis and An. funestus (s.s.) while resistance to carbamates was limited to An. gambiae (s.s.) and An. arabiensis. Resistance to the organochlorine was reported in An. gambiae (s.s.) and An. funestus (s.s.) while resistance to organophosphates was reported in An. gambiae (s.l.) only. The mechanisms of insecticide resistance among malaria vectors reported include the kdr mutations (L 1014S and L 1014F) and elevated activity in carboxylesterase, glutathione S-transferases (GST) and monooxygenases. The kdr mutations L 1014S and L 1014F were detected in An. gambiae (s.s.) and An. arabiensis populations. Elevated activity of monooxygenases has been detected in both An. arabiensis and An. gambiae (s.s.) populations while

  19. Development of impedance/external field potential dual measurement system for evaluation of electrophysiological properties of cells on microelectrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomura, Fumimasa; Matsuura, Kenji; Hattori, Akihiro; Odaka, Masao; Sugio, Yoshihiro; Kurotobi, Hiromi; Terazono, Hideyuki; Yasuda, Kenji

    2015-06-01

    A combination of extracellular field potential (FP) and impedance measurement technologies for multielectrode array (MEA) chip architecture is developed for the simultaneous evaluation of information on the ion current and resistance of cells and microelectrodes. The simultaneous measurement system can not only evaluate the time course changes of characteristics in the MEAs but also clarification of the origin of the difference in the waveform of the field potentials of each cell on an microelectrode whether it is caused by the changes in the electrophysiological properties of cells or by the changes in the performance of an microelectrode (and cell-to-electrode contacts). The automatic impedance measurement technology in the system exploited the swiping of the wide frequency range of impedances of microelectrodes and calculated the true impedance of each microelectrode without significant effects on the cells on the MEA chip. Hence, the system can give us invisible cell-to-electrode contact information and its change, and also information on the degradation of the performance of microelectrodes during long-term cultivation and after the application of compounds into the MEA chip. The impedance spectrum measurement showed that (1) the increase in the impedance of microelectrodes correlated with its area decrease from 10-7 to 10-10 m2, (2) even the area of microelectrodes decreased from 10-8 to 10-10 m2, the noise level of field potential signals was independent and did not change, and (3) the attachment of cells on the microelectrode surface can be determined by a significant increase in impedance at 1 kHz corresponding to the width of the depolarization peak on the field potential recordings. These results indicate the potential to evaluate the cell-to-electrode contact and degradation of microelectrodes, which was not evaluated in conventional FP measurements only. These results also indicate that this method should be used for the evaluation of the changes in

  20. Anatomy of the human mammary gland: Current status of knowledge.

    PubMed

    Hassiotou, Foteini; Geddes, Donna

    2013-01-01

    Mammary glands are unique to mammals, with the specific function of synthesizing, secreting, and delivering milk to the newborn. Given this function, it is only during a pregnancy/lactation cycle that the gland reaches a mature developmental state via hormonal influences at the cellular level that effect drastic modifications in the micro- and macro-anatomy of the gland, resulting in remodeling of the gland into a milk-secretory organ. Pubertal and post-pubertal development of the breast in females aids in preparing it to assume a functional state during pregnancy and lactation. Remarkably, this organ has the capacity to regress to a resting state upon cessation of lactation, and then undergo the same cycle of expansion and regression again in subsequent pregnancies during reproductive life. This plasticity suggests tight hormonal regulation, which is paramount for the normal function of the gland. This review presents the current status of knowledge of the normal macro- and micro-anatomy of the human mammary gland and the distinct changes it undergoes during the key developmental stages that characterize it, from embryonic life through to post-menopausal age. In addition, it discusses recent advances in our understanding of the normal function of the breast during lactation, with special reference to breastmilk, its composition, and how it can be utilized as a tool to advance knowledge on normal and aberrant breast development and function. Finally, anatomical and molecular traits associated with aberrant expansion of the breast are discussed to set the basis for future comparisons that may illuminate the origin of breast cancer.

  1. CURRENT STATUS OF INDIVIDUAL DOSIMETRIC MONITORING IN UKRAINE.

    PubMed

    Chumak, V; Deniachenko, N; Makarovska, O; Mihailescu, L-C; Prykhodko, A; Voloskyi, V; Vanhavere, F

    2016-09-01

    About 50 000 workers are being occupationally exposed to radiation in Ukraine. Individual dosimetric monitoring (IDM) is provided by 77 dosimetry services and laboratories of very different scale with a number of monitored workers ranging from several persons to ∼9000. In the present work, the current status of personal dosimetry in Ukraine was studied. The First National Intercomparison (FNI) of the IDM labs was accompanied by a survey of the laboratory operation in terms of coverage, types of dosimetry provided, instrumentation and methodologies used, metrological support, data recording, etc. Totally, 34 laboratories responded to the FNI call, and 18 services with 19 different personal dosimetry systems took part in the intercomparison exercise providing 24 dosimeters each for blind irradiation to photons of 6 different qualities (ISO N-series X-rays, S-Cs and S-Co sources) in a dose range of 5-60 mSv. Performance of the dosimetry labs was evaluated according to ISO 14146 criteria of matching trumpet curves with H0 = 0.2 mSv. The test revealed that 8 of the 19 systems meet ISO 14146 criteria in full, 5 other labs show marginal performance and 6 laboratories demonstrated catastrophic quality of dosimetric results. Altogether, 18 participating labs provide dosimetric monitoring to 37 477 workers (about three-fourths of all occupationally exposed workers), usually on monthly (nuclear industry) or quarterly (rest of applications) basis. Of this number, 20 664 persons (55 %) receive completely adequate individual monitoring, and the number of personnel receiving IDM of inadequate quality counts 3054 persons. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Current Status of Nursing Informatics Education in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Eunjoo; Kim, Jeongeun; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Kim, Jungha; Jin, Meiling; Ahn, Shinae; Jun, Jooyeon; Song, Healim; On, Jeongah; Jung, Hyesil; Hong, Yeong Joo; Yim, Suran

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study presents the current status of nursing informatics education, the content covered in nursing informatics courses, the faculty efficacy, and the barriers to and additional supports for teaching nursing informatics in Korea. Methods A set of questionnaires consisting of an 18-item questionnaire for nursing informatics education, a 6-item questionnaire for faculty efficacy, and 2 open-ended questions for barriers and additional supports were sent to 204 nursing schools via email and the postal service. Nursing schools offering nursing informatics were further asked to send their syllabuses. The subjects taught were analyzed using nursing informatics competency categories and other responses were tailed using descriptive statistics. Results A total of 72 schools (35.3%) responded to the survey, of which 38 reported that they offered nursing informatics courses in their undergraduate nursing programs. Nursing informatics courses at 11 schools were taught by a professor with a degree majoring in nursing informatics. Computer technology was the most frequently taught subject (27 schools), followed by information systems used for practice (25 schools). The faculty efficacy was 3.76 ± 0.86 (out of 5). The most frequently reported barrier to teaching nursing informatics (n = 9) was lack of awareness of the importance of nursing informatics. Training and educational opportunities was the most requested additional support. Conclusions Nursing informatics education has increased during the last decade in Korea. However, the proportions of faculty with degrees in nursing informatics and number of schools offering nursing informatics courses have not increased much. Thus, a greater focus is needed on training faculty and developing the courses. PMID:27200224

  3. Livestock in biomedical research: history, current status and future prospective.

    PubMed

    Polejaeva, Irina A; Rutigliano, Heloisa M; Wells, Kevin D

    2016-01-01

    Livestock models have contributed significantly to biomedical and surgical advances. Their contribution is particularly prominent in the areas of physiology and assisted reproductive technologies, including understanding developmental processes and disorders, from ancient to modern times. Over the past 25 years, biomedical research that traditionally embraced a diverse species approach shifted to a small number of model species (e.g. mice and rats). The initial reasons for focusing the main efforts on the mouse were the availability of murine embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and genome sequence data. This powerful combination allowed for precise manipulation of the mouse genome (knockouts, knockins, transcriptional switches etc.) leading to ground-breaking discoveries on gene functions and regulation, and their role in health and disease. Despite the enormous contribution to biomedical research, mouse models have some major limitations. Their substantial differences compared with humans in body and organ size, lifespan and inbreeding result in pronounced metabolic, physiological and behavioural differences. Comparative studies of strategically chosen domestic species can complement mouse research and yield more rigorous findings. Because genome sequence and gene manipulation tools are now available for farm animals (cattle, pigs, sheep and goats), a larger number of livestock genetically engineered (GE) models will be accessible for biomedical research. This paper discusses the use of cattle, goats, sheep and pigs in biomedical research, provides an overview of transgenic technology in farm animals and highlights some of the beneficial characteristics of large animal models of human disease compared with the mouse. In addition, status and origin of current regulation of GE biomedical models is also reviewed.

  4. Current status of genome editing in vector mosquitoes: A review.

    PubMed

    Reegan, Appadurai Daniel; Ceasar, Stanislaus Antony; Paulraj, Michael Gabriel; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah

    2017-01-16

    Mosquitoes pose a major threat to human health as they spread many deadly diseases like malaria, dengue, chikungunya, filariasis, Japanese encephalitis and Zika. Identification and use of novel molecular tools are essential to combat the spread of vector borne diseases. Genome editing tools have been used for the precise alterations of the gene of interest for producing the desirable trait in mosquitoes. Deletion of functional genes or insertion of toxic genes in vector mosquitoes will produce either knock-out or knock-in mutants that will check the spread of vector-borne diseases. Presently, three types of genome editing tools viz., zinc finger nuclease (ZFN), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALEN) and clustered regulatory interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and CRISPR associated protein 9 (Cas9) are widely used for the editing of the genomes of diverse organisms. These tools are also applied in vector mosquitoes to control the spread of vector-borne diseases. A few studies have been carried out on genome editing to control the diseases spread by vector mosquitoes and more studies need to be performed with the utilization of more recently invented tools like CRISPR/Cas9 to combat the spread of deadly diseases by vector mosquitoes. The high specificity and flexibility of CRISPR/Cas9 system may offer possibilities for novel genome editing for the control of important diseases spread by vector mosquitoes. In this review, we present the current status of genome editing research on vector mosquitoes and also discuss the future applications of vector mosquito genome editing to control the spread of vectorborne diseases.

  5. Current status of assisted reproductive technology in Korea, 2010.

    PubMed

    Lee, Gyoung Hoon; Song, Hyun Jin; Lee, Kyu Sup; Choi, Young Min

    2015-03-01

    Great advances have been made in the field of assisted reproductive technology (ART) since the first in vitro fertilization (IVF) baby was born in Korea. This study was designed to report on the current status of ART therapy in South Korea between January 1 and December 31 of 2010. A revised survey, originally developed by the International Committee Monitoring Assisted Reproductive Technologies, was sent to all available ART centers via email in 2013. Fresh embryo transfer (FET) cases were categorized into standard IVF or intracytoplasmic sperm injections. These cases, the thawing embryo transfer (TET) cases, and other related procedures were surveyed. Data from 30,785 ART procedures were provided by 78 clinics. Of the 28,200 cycles in which oocytes were retrieved, 92.2% of these cycles were completely transferred. In addition, 8,075 cycles were confirmed to be clinical pregnancies in the FET cycles, which represent a pregnancy rate of 28.6% per oocyte pick-up and 31.1% per embryo transfer. The most common number of embryos transferred in the FET was three embryos (37.3%) followed by two embryos (36.3%) and one embryo (14.0%). Of the 6,648 TET cycles transferred, 2,356 clinical pregnancies were confirmed by ultrasonography. The most common number of embryos in the TET group was two embryos (43.4%) followed by three embryos (25.4%) and one embryo (18.9%). The clinical pregnancy rate per transfer in the FET cycles was similar in 2009 and 2010. Among the FET cycles where one or two embryos were transferred, the clinical pregnancy rate per transfer slightly increased from 2009 (28.7%) to 2010 (32.9%).

  6. Current Status of Nursing Informatics Education in Korea.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Eunjoo; Kim, Jeongeun; Park, Hyeoun-Ae; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Kim, Jungha; Jin, Meiling; Ahn, Shinae; Jun, Jooyeon; Song, Healim; On, Jeongah; Jung, Hyesil; Hong, Yeong Joo; Yim, Suran

    2016-04-01

    This study presents the current status of nursing informatics education, the content covered in nursing informatics courses, the faculty efficacy, and the barriers to and additional supports for teaching nursing informatics in Korea. A set of questionnaires consisting of an 18-item questionnaire for nursing informatics education, a 6-item questionnaire for faculty efficacy, and 2 open-ended questions for barriers and additional supports were sent to 204 nursing schools via email and the postal service. Nursing schools offering nursing informatics were further asked to send their syllabuses. The subjects taught were analyzed using nursing informatics competency categories and other responses were tailed using descriptive statistics. A total of 72 schools (35.3%) responded to the survey, of which 38 reported that they offered nursing informatics courses in their undergraduate nursing programs. Nursing informatics courses at 11 schools were taught by a professor with a degree majoring in nursing informatics. Computer technology was the most frequently taught subject (27 schools), followed by information systems used for practice (25 schools). The faculty efficacy was 3.76 ± 0.86 (out of 5). The most frequently reported barrier to teaching nursing informatics (n = 9) was lack of awareness of the importance of nursing informatics. Training and educational opportunities was the most requested additional support. Nursing informatics education has increased during the last decade in Korea. However, the proportions of faculty with degrees in nursing informatics and number of schools offering nursing informatics courses have not increased much. Thus, a greater focus is needed on training faculty and developing the courses.

  7. Epilepsy misconceptions and stigma reduction: Current status in Western countries.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Lynn K; Welter, Elisabeth; Berg, Anne T; Perzynski, Adam T; Van Doren, Jamie R; Sajatovic, Martha

    2016-07-01

    This systematized literature review identified reports describing epilepsy misconceptions in the developed Western countries and research interventions focused on reducing these misconceptions. English language publications from January 2004 to January 2015 that described original research conducted in Europe, North/Central/South America, or Australia on misconceptions about epilepsy among the general public were used for this review. Eighty-one publications were selected. Most studies were conducted in the Americas (N=30) and Europe (N=31). Misconceptions and attitudes about epilepsy were assessed among clinical providers (N=9), family members of people with epilepsy (PWE) (N=5), teachers (N=11), students (N=22), and the general public (N=25). Most studies used structured questionnaires, sometimes adding open-ended questions. Misconceptions reflected socially exclusionary attitudes directed at PWE, ignorance about treatment, and overgeneralizations that are stigmatizing when applied to all PWE. Misconceptions were more prevalent in those with less education, lower socioeconomic status, and no exposure to PWE. There were only 12 intervention studies. While intervention studies were generally effective in improving attitudes, many were targeted to healthcare and education settings, were time-intensive, and impractical for broad general population implementation. None incorporated newer technology-based strategies regarding effective health communication approaches. Types of epilepsy misconceptions were similar in reports published over the last decade, although most referred to misconceptions that have already been previously described. Existing questionnaires may fail to identify more subtle forms of current misconceptions and negative attitudes. Few interventional studies specifically target epilepsy stigma. Practical and broad scalable approaches to destigmatize epilepsy may help reduce misconceptions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Applicability of RNA interference in cancer therapy: Current status.

    PubMed

    Maduri, S

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is a manifestation of dysregulated gene function arising from a complex interplay of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes present in our body. Cancer has been constantly chased using various therapies but all in vain as most of them are highly effective only in the early stages of cancer. Recently, RNA interference (RNAi) therapy, a comparatively new entrant is evolving as a promising player in the battle against cancer due to its post-transcriptional gene silencing ability. The most alluring feature of this non-invasive technology lies in its utility in the cancer detection and the cancer treatment at any stage. Once this technology is fully exploited it can bring a whole new era of therapeutics capable of curing cancer at any stage mainly due to its ability to target the vital processes required for cell proliferation such as response to growth factors, nutrient uptake/synthesis, and energy generation. This therapy can also be used to treat stage IV cancer, the most difficult to treat till date, by virtue of its metastasis inhibiting capability. Recent research has also proved that cancer can even be prevented by proper modulation of physiological RNAi pathways and researchers have found that many nutrients, which are a part of routine diet, can effectively modulate these pathways and prevent cancer. Even after having all these advantages the potential of RNAi therapy could not be fully tapped earlier, due to many limitations associated with the administration of RNAi based therapeutics. However, recent advancements in this direction, such as the development of small interfering RNA (siRNA) tolerant to nucleases and the development of non-viral vectors such as cationic liposomes and nanoparticles, can overcome this obstacle and facilitate the clinical use of RNAi based therapeutics in the treatment of cancer. The present review focuses on the current status of RNAi therapeutics and explores their potential as future diagnostics and therapeutics against

  9. Autocollimators for Deflectometry: Current Status and Future Progress

    SciTech Connect

    Geckeler, Ralf; Just, Andreas; Krause, Michael; Yashchuk, Valeriy V.

    2009-06-15

    The proliferation of autocollimator-based surface profilometers at synchrotron metrology laboratories worldwide necessitates a detailed understanding of the parameters influencing their angular response. A comprehensive overview of the current status of autocollimator characterization and calibration at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) and its implications for their optimal application are provided, as well as information on future challenges and expected progress. Autocollimator-based deflectometric profilometers are in operation at the PTB, the Advanced Light Source (ALS), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, USA, the BESSY II, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie GmbH, Germany, and the Diamond Light Source Ltd (DLS), UK. A continuous topic of research at the PTB is to investigate the factors influencing the angular response of autocollimators and to provide the most accurate calibration of the instruments to aid users in their application and manufacturers in their improvements [1-3]. At the PTB, the calibration of autocollimators is realized by a direct comparison of the devices with the primary angle reference standard [1]. With highly stable autocollimators, calibrations with standard measurement uncertainties of u = 0.003 arcsec (15 nrad) have been achieved [2,3]. The influence of a number of parameters on the angle measurement with autocollimators have been investigated in detail, such as the reflectivity of the surface under test (SUT), the diameter and shape of the aperture stop, its position both along the autocollimator's optical axis and perpendicular to it [2], as well as the optical path length of the autocollimator beam [3]. Extensive information on these errors and their minimization will be presented.

  10. The current status of forensic science laboratory accreditation in Europe.

    PubMed

    Malkoc, Ekrem; Neuteboom, Wim

    2007-04-11

    Forensic science is gaining some solid ground in the area of effective crime prevention, especially in the areas where more sophisticated use of available technology is prevalent. All it takes is high-level cooperation among nations that can help them deal with criminality that adopts a cross-border nature more and more. It is apparent that cooperation will not be enough on its own and this development will require a network of qualified forensic laboratories spread over Europe. It is argued in this paper that forensic science laboratories play an important role in the fight against crime. Another, complimentary argument is that forensic science laboratories need to be better involved in the fight against crime. For this to be achieved, a good level of cooperation should be established and maintained. It is also noted that harmonization is required for such cooperation and seeking accreditation according to an internationally acceptable standard, such as ISO/IEC 17025, will eventually bring harmonization as an end result. Because, ISO/IEC 17025 as an international standard, has been a tool that helps forensic science laboratories in the current trend towards accreditation that can be observed not only in Europe, but also in the rest of the world of forensic science. In the introduction part, ISO/IEC 17025 states that "the acceptance of testing and calibration results between countries should be facilitated if laboratories comply with this international standard and if they obtain accreditation from bodies which have entered into mutual recognition agreements with equivalent bodies in other countries using this international standard." Furthermore, it is emphasized that the use of this international standard will assist in the harmonization of standards and procedures. The background of forensic science cooperation in Europe will be explained by using an existing European forensic science network, i.e. ENFSI, in order to understand the current status of forensic

  11. Support for international agricultural research: current status and future challenges.

    PubMed

    Zeigler, Robert S; Mohanty, Samarendu

    2010-11-30

    The success of the first Green Revolution in the form of abundant food supplies and low prices over the past two decades has diverted the world's attention from agriculture to other pressing issues. This has resulted in lower support for the agricultural research work primarily undertaken by the 15 research centers of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR). The total support in real dollars for most of the last three decades has been more or less flat although the number of centers increased from 4 to 15. However, since 2000, the funding situation has improved for the CGIAR centers, with almost all the increase coming from grants earmarked for specific research projects. Even for some centers such as the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), the downward trend continued as late as 2006 with the budget in real dollars reaching the 1978 level of support. The recent food crisis has renewed the call for a second Green Revolution by revitalizing yield growth to feed the world in the face of growing population and a shrinking land base for agricultural use. The slowdown in yield growth because of decades of neglect in agricultural research and infrastructure development has been identified as the underlying reason for the recent food crisis. For the second Green Revolution to be successful, the CGIAR centers will have to play a complex role by expanding productivity in a sustainable manner with fewer resources. Thus, it is crucial to examine the current structure of support for the CGIAR centers and identify the challenges ahead in terms of source and end use of funds for the success of the second Green Revolution. The objective of this paper is to provide a historical perspective on the support to the CGIAR centers and to examine the current status of funding, in particular, the role of project-specific grants in rebuilding capacity of these centers. The paper will also discuss the nature of the support (unrestricted vs. project

  12. Development and regulation of biosimilars: current status and future challenges.

    PubMed

    Tsiftsoglou, Asterios S; Ruiz, Sol; Schneider, Christian K

    2013-06-01

    provided through several Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) guidelines as well as individual scientific advice requested from the European Medicines Agency (EMA) by various companies for the development and regulation of biosimilars. This review is mainly focused on the current status of regulation of biosimilars in the EU as well as on future challenges lying ahead for the improvement of the requirements needed for the marketing authorization of biosimilars. Emphasis is given on the quality requirements concerning these medicinal products (biologics).

  13. [Multiple Myeloma - Current Status in Diagnostic Testing and Therapy].

    PubMed

    Kehrer, Michael; Koob, Sebastian; Strauss, Andreas; Wirtz, Dieter Christian; Schmolders, Jan

    2017-08-14

    Background Multiple myeloma is a haematological blood cancer of the bone marrow and is classified by the World Health Organisation (WHO) as a plasma cell neoplasm. In multiple myeloma, normal plasma cells transform into malignant myeloma cells and produce large quantities of an abnormal immunoglobulin called monoclonal protein or M protein. This ultimately causes multiple myeloma symptoms such as bone damage or kidney problems. The annual worldwide incidence of multiple myeloma is estimated to be 6 - 7/100,000 and accounts for 1% of all cancer. In Germany, there are about 6,000 cases of newly diagnosed multiple myeloma per annum. In the current era of new agents, such as immunomodulatory drugs and proteasome inhibitors and antibodies, enormous progress has been achieved in the therapy of multiple myeloma. In orthopaedics, it is essential to be able to recognise the of alarming symptoms of multiple myeloma in clinical routine and to be aware of basic diagnostic features to confirm this disease. Surgical treatment of myeloma-related bone lesions - such as stabilisation of pathological fractures - is an important domain of tumour orthopaedic surgery. Methods A comprehensive literature search was performed in PubMed using the keywords "multiple myeloma" and "diagnostic" or "therapy". This served to evaluate the available primary and secondary literature on the current status of the diagnostic testing and therapy of multiple myeloma. Systematic reviews, meta-analyses and clinical studies as well as international recommendations in therapy were included until the spring of 2016. Results There are now very sensitive screening methods for the diagnosis of multiple myeloma. Accurate diagnosis is generally based on several factors, including physical evaluation, patient history, symptoms, and diagnostic testing results. The standards for initial diagnostic tests are determined by blood and urine tests as well as a bone marrow biopsy and skeletal imaging, such as X

  14. 21 CFR 210.1 - Status of current good manufacturing practice regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Status of current good manufacturing practice... SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN MANUFACTURING, PROCESSING, PACKING, OR HOLDING OF DRUGS; GENERAL § 210.1 Status of current good manufacturing practice...

  15. 21 CFR 210.1 - Status of current good manufacturing practice regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Status of current good manufacturing practice... SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN MANUFACTURING, PROCESSING, PACKING, OR HOLDING OF DRUGS; GENERAL § 210.1 Status of current good manufacturing practice...

  16. 21 CFR 210.1 - Status of current good manufacturing practice regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Status of current good manufacturing practice... SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN MANUFACTURING, PROCESSING, PACKING, OR HOLDING OF DRUGS; GENERAL § 210.1 Status of current good manufacturing practice...

  17. 21 CFR 210.1 - Status of current good manufacturing practice regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Status of current good manufacturing practice... SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN MANUFACTURING, PROCESSING, PACKING, OR HOLDING OF DRUGS; GENERAL § 210.1 Status of current good manufacturing practice...

  18. 21 CFR 210.1 - Status of current good manufacturing practice regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Status of current good manufacturing practice... SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN MANUFACTURING, PROCESSING, PACKING, OR HOLDING OF DRUGS; GENERAL § 210.1 Status of current good manufacturing practice...

  19. 32 CFR 1621.1 - Reporting by registrants of their current status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reporting by registrants of their current status... SYSTEM DUTY OF REGISTRANTS § 1621.1 Reporting by registrants of their current status. Until otherwise... that he provided on his registration form: name, current mailing address and permanent residence...

  20. 32 CFR 1621.1 - Reporting by registrants of their current status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reporting by registrants of their current status... SYSTEM DUTY OF REGISTRANTS § 1621.1 Reporting by registrants of their current status. Until otherwise... that he provided on his registration form: name, current mailing address and permanent residence...

  1. 32 CFR 1621.1 - Reporting by registrants of their current status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reporting by registrants of their current status... SYSTEM DUTY OF REGISTRANTS § 1621.1 Reporting by registrants of their current status. Until otherwise... that he provided on his registration form: name, current mailing address and permanent residence...

  2. 32 CFR 1621.1 - Reporting by registrants of their current status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reporting by registrants of their current status... SYSTEM DUTY OF REGISTRANTS § 1621.1 Reporting by registrants of their current status. Until otherwise... that he provided on his registration form: name, current mailing address and permanent residence...

  3. 32 CFR 1621.1 - Reporting by registrants of their current status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reporting by registrants of their current status... SYSTEM DUTY OF REGISTRANTS § 1621.1 Reporting by registrants of their current status. Until otherwise... that he provided on his registration form: name, current mailing address and permanent residence...

  4. Oilfield microseismic monitoring - current status, challenges and opportunties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jupe, A.

    2011-12-01

    Over the last 5-10 years microearthquake (microseismic) imaging has become an important diagnostic technique in the hydrocarbons industry. It is most commonly used for the 3D time-lapse imaging of fracture system development during high-pressure and flowrate hydraulic-fracturing operations, where it is commonly referred to as "frac-mapping". The technique has also seen less wide-spread, but increasing, usage in the long-term monitoring of primary-recovery (ie pressure depletion), the injection of water/steam/gas for secondary-recovery and also for subsurface disposal/storage (eg water/drill-cuttings/H2S/CO2). A significant turning point for microseismic monitoring was the successful imaging of the complex fracturing resulting from the stimulation of the Barnet Shale, Fort Worth Basin, Texas. Microseismic imaging was quickly recognized as the only technology that could provide detailed spatial-temporal information on the fracturing process, and significantly aided the development of sophisticated horizontal well completions. The commercial value of microseismic derived fracture properties, such as growth direction, height and length, has subsequently been recognized in shale and coal-seam gas developments throughout North America, and the rest of the world. The initial uptake and early development of this geophysical technology is however somewhat unusual in that it was largely driven by reservoir engineers, and is typically applied in non-ideal geophysical (wellsite) conditions, and also necessitates near real-time processing and interpretation. The geophysical problems typically faced in frac-mapping include limited network geometry, relatively poor data quality (due to small event magnitudes and ambient noise), automated processing requirements, velocity model uncertainty and incomplete geomechanical understanding of the source mechanism. Nonetheless it is an important and widely used technique. The paper considers the current status of microseismic monitoring in

  5. Current Status of the New Antiepileptic Drugs in Chronic Pain.

    PubMed

    Sidhu, Harpreet S; Sadhotra, Akshay

    2016-01-01

    Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are extensively used worldwide to treat a wide range of disorders other than epilepsy, such as neuropathic pain, migraine, and bipolar disorder. Due to this situation more than 20 new third-generation AEDs have been introduced in the market recently. The future design of new AEDs must also have potential to help in the non-epileptic disorders. The wide acceptance of second generation AEDs for the management of various non-epileptic disorders has caused the emergence of generics in the market. The wide use of approved AEDs outside epilepsy is based on both economic and scientific reasons. Bipolar disorders, migraine prophylaxis, fibromyalgia, and neuropathic pain represent the most attractive indication expansion opportunities for anticonvulsant developers, providing blockbuster revenues. Strong growth in non-epilepsy conditions will see Pfizer's Lyrica become the market leading brand by 2018. In this review, we mainly focus on the current status of new AEDs in the treatment of chronic pain and migraine prophylaxis. AEDs have a strong analgesic potential and this is demonstrated by the wide use of carbamazepine in trigeminal neuralgia and sodium valproate in migraine prophylaxis. At present, data on the new AEDs for non-epileptic conditions are inconclusive. Not all AEDs are effective in the management of neuropathic pain and migraine. Only those AEDs whose mechanisms of action are match with pathophysiology of the disease, have potential to show efficacy in non-epileptic disorder. For this better understanding of the pathophysiology of the disease and mechanisms of action of new AEDs are essential requirement before initiating pre-clinical and clinical trials. Many new AEDs show good results in the animal model and open-label studies but fail to provide strong evidence at randomized, placebo-controlled trials. The final decision regarding the clinical efficacy of the particular AEDs in a specific non-epileptic disorder should be

  6. Current status of the HIBMC and results of representative diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Murakami, Masao; Demizu, Yusuke; Niwa, Yasue; Miyawaki, Daisuke; Terashima, Kazuki; Arimura, Takeshi; Mima, Masayuki; Maeda, Takuya; Akagi, Takashi; Hishikawa, Yoshio; Abe, Mitsuyuki; Nagayama, Shinichi; Baba, Masashi

    2009-07-25

    The proton radiotherapy (PRT) has been spreading, since 1990 when 250 MeV proton beams with rotation gantry was developed for medical use. On the other hand, carbon-ion radiotherapy (CRT) that has both physical and biological features is available at 4 facilities in the world. HIBMC is the only facility to be able to use both particles. From Apr 2001 to Dec 2008, 2486 patients were treated with PRT in 2030 patients or with CRT in 456. Treatment to the Head and Neck (H and N: in 405 patients), the lung (245), the liver (371), and the prostatic carcinoma (1059) was a major subject. The 2-year local control rates is 72% in H and N (n = 163, T1:9, T2:18, T3:36, T4:79, malignant melanoma 48, adenoid cystic carcinoma 35, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) 32, adenocarcinoma 14, others 34), 88% in lung (n = 116, T1:59, T2:42, T3:4, T4:6, SCC 30, adenocarcinoma 59, others 27), and 89% in liver cancer (n = 153, Proton: 130, carbon: 23). Biochemical disease free 3-year survival of 291 prostate cancer is 100% in 9 patients with initial prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level < = 4 ng/ml, 99% in 140 with PSA 4.1-10 ng/ml, 90% in 71 with PSA 10.1-20 ng/ml, and 79% in 71 with PSA>20 ng/ml. These results are excellent comparable or superior to those of surgery. Thus, particle therapy is sophisticated radiotherapy, however the only problem to prohibit the progress is high costs for construction and maintenance. Facilities at which both proton and carbon ion beams can be used, including the HIBMC, have to investigate the differential use. We started clinical randomized trial to compare both ion beams, and started biological examinations in a project aiming at the development of a laser driven proton radiotherapy. We stated about the current status of the HIBMC and the results of representative diseases.

  7. Current and Future Status of Diversity in Ophthalmologist Workforce.

    PubMed

    Xierali, Imam M; Nivet, Marc A; Wilson, M Roy

    2016-09-01

    Increasing the level of diversity among ophthalmologists may help reduce disparities in eye care. To assess the current and future status of diversity among ophthalmologists in the workforce by sex, race, and ethnicity in the context of the available number of medical students in the United States. Data from the Association of American Medical Colleges, the American Medical Association, and US Census were used to evaluate the differences and trends in diversity among ophthalmologists, all full-time faculty except ophthalmology, ophthalmology faculty, ophthalmology residents, medical school students, and the US population between 2005 and 2015. For 2014, associations of sex, race, and ethnicity with physician practice locations were assessed. Proportions of ophthalmologists stratified by sex, race, and ethnicity between 2005 and 2015. Women and minority groups traditionally underrepresented in medicine (URM)-black, Hispanic, American Indian, Alaskan Native, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander-were underrepresented as practicing ophthalmologists (22.7% and 6%, respectively), ophthalmology faculty (35.1% and 5.7%, respectively), and ophthalmology residents (44.3% and 7.7%, respectively), compared with the US population (50.8% and 30.7%, respectively). During the past decade, there had been a modest increase in the proportion of female practicing ophthalmologists who graduated from US medical schools in 1980 or later (from 23.8% to 27.1%; P < .001); however, no increase in URM ophthalmologists was identified (from 7.2% to 7.2%; P = .90). Residents showed a similar pattern, with an increase in the proportion of female residents (from 35.6% to 44.3%; P = .001) and a slight decrease in the proportion of URM residents (from 8.7% to 7.7%; P = .04). The proportion of URM groups among ophthalmology faculty also slightly decreased during the study period (from 6.2% to 5.7%; P = .01). However, a higher proportion of URM ophthalmologists practiced in

  8. Current Status of Suomi NPP VIIRS Aerosol Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondragunta, S.; Laszlo, I.; Liu, H.; Zhang, H.; Huang, J.; Remer, L. A.; Ciren, P.; Huang, H.

    2013-12-01

    The Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument was launched on October 28, 2011. It provides Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT) at two different spatial resolutions: a pixel level (~750 m at nadir) product called the Intermediate Product (IP) and an aggregated (~6 km at nadir) product called the Environmental Data Record (EDR). The VIIRS AOT is expected to provide continuity to the 10-km Aqua and Terra MODIS (Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) AOT products that the air quality and public health community has been using. The VIIRS aerosol product suite also includes less mature products such as Suspended Matter (SM) and Aerosol Particle Size Parameter (APSP). An extensive validation of VIIRS best quality aerosol products with ground based L1.5 AERONET data shows that the AOT EDR product has an accuracy/precision of -0.01/0.11 and 0.01/0.08 over land and ocean respectively. Globally, VIIRS mean AOT EDR (0.20) is similar to Aqua MODIS (0.16) with some important regional and seasonal differences. Analysis of SM shows that the algorithm predominantly picks smoke both over land and ocean which is not in agreement with retrievals from Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) and Cloud Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Space Observations (CALIPSO). Similarly, the Angstrom Exponent (AE) retrieval used as a proxy for particle size has no skill over land and only a marginal skill over ocean when compared to AERONET; although a bias of ~0.2 for over ocean retrievals meets specification (0.3), the correlation is low and the standard deviation is ~0.6 and does not meet specification (0.3). This evaluation places the VIIRS AOT product at the provisional maturity level (product is validated, may contain some errors, and ready for operational evaluation). However, several algorithm updates which include a better approach to retrieve surface reflectance are forthcoming. Current status of the aerosol

  9. Current Status of the New Antiepileptic Drugs in Chronic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Sidhu, Harpreet S.; Sadhotra, Akshay

    2016-01-01

    Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are extensively used worldwide to treat a wide range of disorders other than epilepsy, such as neuropathic pain, migraine, and bipolar disorder. Due to this situation more than 20 new third-generation AEDs have been introduced in the market recently. The future design of new AEDs must also have potential to help in the non-epileptic disorders. The wide acceptance of second generation AEDs for the management of various non-epileptic disorders has caused the emergence of generics in the market. The wide use of approved AEDs outside epilepsy is based on both economic and scientific reasons. Bipolar disorders, migraine prophylaxis, fibromyalgia, and neuropathic pain represent the most attractive indication expansion opportunities for anticonvulsant developers, providing blockbuster revenues. Strong growth in non-epilepsy conditions will see Pfizer’s Lyrica become the market leading brand by 2018. In this review, we mainly focus on the current status of new AEDs in the treatment of chronic pain and migraine prophylaxis. AEDs have a strong analgesic potential and this is demonstrated by the wide use of carbamazepine in trigeminal neuralgia and sodium valproate in migraine prophylaxis. At present, data on the new AEDs for non-epileptic conditions are inconclusive. Not all AEDs are effective in the management of neuropathic pain and migraine. Only those AEDs whose mechanisms of action are match with pathophysiology of the disease, have potential to show efficacy in non-epileptic disorder. For this better understanding of the pathophysiology of the disease and mechanisms of action of new AEDs are essential requirement before initiating pre-clinical and clinical trials. Many new AEDs show good results in the animal model and open-label studies but fail to provide strong evidence at randomized, placebo-controlled trials. The final decision regarding the clinical efficacy of the particular AEDs in a specific non-epileptic disorder should be

  10. Current status of the HIBMC and results of representative diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakami, Masao; Demizu, Yusuke; Niwa, Yasue; Miyawaki, Daisuke; Terashima, Kazuki; Arimura, Takeshi; Mima, Masayuki; Nagayama, Shinichi; Maeda, Takuya; Baba, Masashi; Akagi, Takashi; Hishikawa, Yoshio; Abe, Mitsuyuki

    2009-07-01

    The proton radiotherapy (PRT) has been spreading, since 1990 when 250 MeV proton beams with rotation gantry was developed for medical use. On the other hand, carbon-ion radiotherapy (CRT) that has both physical and biological features is available at 4 facilities in the world. HIBMC is the only facility to be able to use both particles. From Apr 2001 to Dec 2008, 2486 patients were treated with PRT in 2030 patients or with CRT in 456. Treatment to the Head and Neck (H&N: in 405 patients), the lung (245), the liver (371), and the prostatic carcinoma (1059) was a major subject. The 2-year local control rates is 72% in H&N (n = 163, T1:9, T2:18, T3:36, T4:79, malignant melanoma 48, adenoid cystic carcinoma 35, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) 32, adenocarcinoma 14, others 34), 88% in lung (n = 116, T1:59, T2:42, T3:4, T4:6, SCC 30, adenocarcinoma 59, others 27), and 89% in liver cancer (n = 153, Proton: 130, carbon: 23). Biochemical disease free 3-year survival of 291 prostate cancer is 100% in 9 patients with initial prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level < = 4 ng/ml, 99% in 140 with PSA 4.1-10 ng/ml, 90% in 71 with PSA 10.1-20 ng/ml, and 79% in 71 with PSA>20 ng/ml. These results are excellent comparable or superior to those of surgery. Thus, particle therapy is sophisticated radiotherapy, however the only problem to prohibit the progress is high costs for construction and maintenance. Facilities at which both proton and carbon ion beams can be used, including the HIBMC, have to investigate the differential use. We started clinical randomized trial to compare both ion beams, and started biological examinations in a project aiming at the development of a laser driven proton radiotherapy. We stated about the current status of the HIBMC and the results of representative diseases.

  11. MELiSSA Food Characterization general approach and current status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weihreter, Martin; Chaerle, Laury; Secco, Benjamin; Molders, Katrien; van der Straeten, Dominique; Duliere, Eric; Pieters, Serge; Maclean, Heather; Dochain, Denis; Quinet, Muriel; Lutts, Stanley; Graham, Thomas; Stasiak, Michael; Rondeau Vuk, Theresa; Zheng, Youbin; Dixon, Mike; Laniau, Martine; Larreture, Alain; Timsit, Michel; Aronne, Giovanna; Barbieri, Giancarlo; Buonomo, Roberta; Veronica; Paradiso, Roberta; de Pascale, Stafania; Galbiati, Massimo; Troia, A. R.; Nobili, Matteo; Bucchieri, Lorenzo; Page, Valérie; Feller, Urs; Lasseur, Christophe

    . Available MELiSSA closed environment crop growth data were used to develop a first photosynthetic model representing the basic carbon fixation mechanisms. This model will be further elaborated in the course of this study to predict yield, oxygen production and transpi-ration. As an ultimate goal the model is intended to simulate the composition of the different plant organs (root, shoot, fruit/seed or tuber) for each crop under various conditions. For the validation of this model an extensive amount of data sets are needed. Current plant growth bench test setups will provide part of the required data. To gain more precise and detailed datasets, a highly closed plant growth chamber (Plant Characterization Unit, PCU) is under development. The PCU will provide accurate mass balances for carbon, water, oxygen and other elements with statistical reliability. This reliability is achieved through a high degree of closure and environment homogeneity. The PCU will also provide data for the above described plant characterization studies. The general work approach, the current status and future steps will be illustrated.

  12. Weight status and body image perceptions in adolescents: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Voelker, Dana K; Reel, Justine J; Greenleaf, Christy

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence represents a pivotal stage in the development of positive or negative body image. Many influences exist during the teen years including transitions (eg, puberty) that affect one’s body shape, weight status, and appearance. Weight status exists along a spectrum between being obese (ie, where one’s body weight is in the 95th percentile for age and gender) to being underweight. Salient influences on body image include the media, which can target adolescents, and peers who help shape beliefs about the perceived body ideal. Internalization of and pressures to conform to these socially prescribed body ideals help to explain associations between weight status and body image. The concepts of fat talk and weight-related bullying during adolescence greatly contribute to an overemphasis on body weight and appearance as well as the development of negative body perceptions and dissatisfaction surrounding specific body parts. This article provides an overview of the significance of adolescent development in shaping body image, the relationship between body image and adolescent weight status, and the consequences of having a negative body image during adolescence (ie, disordered eating, eating disorders, and dysfunctional exercise). Practical implications for promoting a healthy weight status and positive body image among adolescents will be discussed. PMID:26347007

  13. Weight status and body image perceptions in adolescents: current perspectives.

    PubMed

    Voelker, Dana K; Reel, Justine J; Greenleaf, Christy

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence represents a pivotal stage in the development of positive or negative body image. Many influences exist during the teen years including transitions (eg, puberty) that affect one's body shape, weight status, and appearance. Weight status exists along a spectrum between being obese (ie, where one's body weight is in the 95th percentile for age and gender) to being underweight. Salient influences on body image include the media, which can target adolescents, and peers who help shape beliefs about the perceived body ideal. Internalization of and pressures to conform to these socially prescribed body ideals help to explain associations between weight status and body image. The concepts of fat talk and weight-related bullying during adolescence greatly contribute to an overemphasis on body weight and appearance as well as the development of negative body perceptions and dissatisfaction surrounding specific body parts. This article provides an overview of the significance of adolescent development in shaping body image, the relationship between body image and adolescent weight status, and the consequences of having a negative body image during adolescence (ie, disordered eating, eating disorders, and dysfunctional exercise). Practical implications for promoting a healthy weight status and positive body image among adolescents will be discussed.

  14. Carbon Nanotube-based microelectrodes for enhanced detection of neurotransmitters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Christopher B.

    Fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) is one of the common techniques used for rapid measurement of neurotransmitters in vivo. Carbon-fiber microelectrodes (CFMEs) are typically used for neurotransmitter detection because of sub-second measurement capabilities, ability to measure changes in neurotransmitter concentration during neurotransmission, and the small size electrode diameter, which limits the amount of damage caused to tissue. Cylinder CFMEs, typically 50 -- 100 microm long, are commonly used for in vivo experiments because the electrode sensitivity is directly related to the electrode surface area. However the length of the electrode can limit the spatial resolution of neurotransmitter detection, which can restrict experiments in Drosophila and other small model systems. In addition, the electrode sensitivity toward dopamine and serotonin detection drops significantly for measurements at rates faster than 10 Hz, limiting the temporal resolution of CFMEs. While the use of FSCV at carbon-fiber microelectrodes has led to substantial strides in our understanding of neurotransmission, techniques that expand the capabilities of CFMEs are crucial to fully maximize the potential uses of FSCV. This dissertation introduces new methods to integrate carbon nanotubes (CNT) into microelectrodes and discusses the electrochemical enhancements of these CNT-microelectrodes. The electrodes are specifically designed with simple fabrication procedures so that highly specialized equipment is not necessary, and they utilize commercially available materials so that the electrodes could be easily integrated into existing systems. The electrochemical properties of CNT modified CFMEs are characterized using FSCV and the effect of CNT functionalization on these properties is explored in Chapter 2. For example, CFME modification using carboxylic acid functionalized CNTs yield about a 6-fold increase in dopamine oxidation current, but modification with octadecylamine CNTs results in a

  15. [Development of antituberculous drugs: current status and future prospects].

    PubMed

    Tomioka, Haruaki; Namba, Kenji

    2006-12-01

    and drug regimens for anti-TB chemotherapy. There are a number of difficulties in drug-design for the development of new drug formulations with increased potential for antimycobacterial effects, excellent pharmacokinetics, and tolerability. It should be emphasized that the most urgent goal of chemotherapy of TB and MAC infections, especially that associated with HIV infection, is to develop highly active, low-cost drugs which can be used not only in industrialized countries but also in developing countries, since the incidences of AIDS-associated intractable TB and MAC infections are rapidly increasing in the latter. We strongly wish a great advance of fundametal and practical studies in developing such kinds of new anti-TB drugs in the near future. 1. Prospects for non-clinical or clinical development of new antituberculous drugs in relation to corporate strategy: Kenji NAMBA (New Product Research Laboratories I, Daiichi Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd.) Tuberculosis (TB) remains one of the deadliest threats to public health. No new anti-TB drugs have been brought into the clinic in the past 40 years. Current non-clinical works with progressed technology and Global Alliance for TB Drug Development, a non-profit organization established in 2000, accelerate research and development of faster-acting anti-TB compounds. We reviewed the status of new types of compounds which are being developed as anti-TB drug, such as diarylquinoline (TMC 207), nitroimidazole (PA-824 and OPC-67683), and moxifloxacin (MFLX). We also discussed the best clinical development plans for new-TB drugs in relation to corporate strategy. 2. Exploring novel drug targets through the chemical genomics approach and its possible application to the development of anti-tuberculosis drugs: Yorimasa SUWA (Reverse Proteomics Research Institute Co., Ltd.), Yohji SUZUKI (Teijin Ltd.) Recently, chemical genomics approach has been focused as an emerging technology for the drug discovery. In advance to a very large scale

  16. Magnetron sputtered diamond-like carbon microelectrodes for on-chip measurement of quantal catecholamine release from cells.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yuanfang; Chen, Xiaohui; Gupta, Sanju; Gillis, Kevin D; Gangopadhyay, Shubhra

    2008-10-01

    Carbon electrodes are widely used in electrochemistry due to their low cost, wide potential window, and low and stable background noise. Carbon-fiber electrodes (CFE) are commonly used to electrochemically measure "quantal" catecholamine release via exocytosis from individual cells, but it is difficult to integrate CFEs into lab-on-a-chip devices. Here we report the development of nitrogen doped diamond-like carbon (DLC:N) microelectrodes on a chip to monitor quantal release of catecholamines from cells. Advantages of DLC:N microelectrodes are that they are batch producible at low cost, and are harder and more durable than graphite films. The DLC:N microelectrodes were prepared by a magnetron sputtering process with nitrogen doping. The 30 microm by 40 microm DLC:N microelectrodes were patterned onto microscope glass slides by photolithography and lift-off technology. The properties of the DLC:N microelectrodes were characterized by AFM, Raman spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. Quantal catecholamine release was recorded amperometrically from bovine adrenal chromaffin cells on the DLC:N microelectrodes. Amperometric spikes due to quantal release of catecholamines were similar in amplitude and area as those recorded using CFEs and the background current and noise levels of microchip DLC:N electrodes were also comparable to CFEs. Therefore, DLC:N microelectrodes are suitable for microchip-based high-throughput measurement of quantal exocytosis with applications in basic research, drug discovery and cell-based biosensors.

  17. Application of hot platinum microelectrodes for determination of flavonoids in flow injection analysis and capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Magnuszewska, Jolanta; Krogulec, Tadeusz

    2013-07-05

    The determination of quercetin and rutin by flow injection analysis (FIA) and capillary electrophoresis (CE) using electrochemical detection was described. These flavonoids were determined at normal (unheated) and hot platinum microelectrodes using cyclic voltammetry. When quercetin or rutin is reaching the platinum electrode, a change of the current in the region of the platinum oxide formation is observed. Integration of the current changes in this in this region creates analytical signals in the form of peaks. An increase of temperature to about 76°C in a small zone adjacent to the microelectrode causes an increase of the analytical signal by more than 6 times under FIA conditions. This method enables the use of hot microelectrodes as detectors in HPLC or CE. In CE the improvement of the analytical signal at hot microelectrodes is smaller than in FIA and increase only 1.3-3.4 times. Heated microelectrodes were used for analysis of the flavonoids in natural samples of the plant (extract of sea buckthorn) and a pharmaceutical preparation (Cerutin). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Microelectrode-based technology for the detection of low levels of bacteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Tom D.; Hitchens, G. D.; Mishra, S. K.; Pierson, D. L.

    1992-01-01

    A microelectrode-based electrochemical detection method was used for quantitation of bacteria in water samples. The redox mediator, benzoquinone, was used to accept electrons from the bacterial metabolic pathway to create a flow of electrons by reducing the mediator. Electrochemical monitoring electrodes detected the reduced mediator as it diffused out of the cells and produced a small electrical current. By using a combination of microelectrodes and monitoring instrumentation, the cumulative current generated by a particular bacterial population could be monitored. Using commercially available components, an electrochemical detection system was assembled and tested to evaluate its potential as an emerging technology for rapid detection and quantitation of bacteria in water samples.

  19. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - February 2008

    SciTech Connect

    JW Voyles

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  20. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - March 2008

    SciTech Connect

    JW Voyles

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  1. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future May 2007

    SciTech Connect

    JC Liljegren

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  2. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future January 2007

    SciTech Connect

    Liljegren, JC

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  3. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future May 2007

    SciTech Connect

    JC Liljegren

    2007-04-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  4. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future October 2006

    SciTech Connect

    JC Liljegren

    2006-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  5. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future February 2007

    SciTech Connect

    JC Liljegren

    2007-02-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development

  6. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future June 2007

    SciTech Connect

    JC Liljegren

    2007-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  7. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future March 2007

    SciTech Connect

    JC Liljegren

    2007-03-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  8. Keyboarding and Speech Recognition: Current Status and Future Direction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Glenn A.; Erthal, Margaret J.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the status and trends of instruction in both keyboarding and speech recognition among public schools in a Midwestern state. A survey was sent to 490 members of the state business education association who returned 213 (62.5%) usable responses. The subjects represented schools from kindergarten to college.…

  9. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future July 2007

    SciTech Connect

    JC Liljegren

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of ACRF instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) SBIR instrument development.

  10. Current Status of Teacher Shortage in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capa, Yesim; Loadman, William E.; Bryant, B. J.

    Every year the American Association of Employment in Education (AAEE) conducts a survey of the status of teacher supply and demand in the United States. In 2001, the 25th annual survey sent a survey instrument to 1,265 teacher preparation institutions to study the supply side of teacher availability, and responses were received from 494…

  11. Current Status of Domestic Satellites for Television Network Distribution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Daniel R.

    Since the previous status report in November of 1970, there has been little progress made in the actual implementation of domestic satellite television systems, because comprehensive technical specifications had not been provided by the three broadcast networks, ABC, NBC, and CBS. When the requirements were submitted to the interested vendors, PBS…

  12. Current Status of Teacher Shortage in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capa, Yesim; Loadman, William E.; Bryant, B. J.

    Every year the American Association of Employment in Education (AAEE) conducts a survey of the status of teacher supply and demand in the United States. In 2001, the 25th annual survey sent a survey instrument to 1,265 teacher preparation institutions to study the supply side of teacher availability, and responses were received from 494…

  13. Current status and perspectives of synchrotron radiation in medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Thomlinson, W.

    1996-11-01

    The high flux and brightness, tunable beams, time structure and polarization of synchrotron radiation provide an ideal x-ray source for many medical applications. The present status of synchrotron angiography, multiple energy computed tomography, mammography and radiation therapy at laboratories around the world is reviewed and some future projections for these applications are addressed.

  14. 20 CFR 404.120 - How we determine currently insured status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...-quarter period ending with the quarter in which you— (1) Die; (2) Most recently became entitled to... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false How we determine currently insured status... § 404.120 How we determine currently insured status. (a) What the period is for determining...

  15. 20 CFR 404.120 - How we determine currently insured status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...-quarter period ending with the quarter in which you— (1) Die; (2) Most recently became entitled to... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How we determine currently insured status... § 404.120 How we determine currently insured status. (a) What the period is for determining...

  16. 20 CFR 404.120 - How we determine currently insured status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...-quarter period ending with the quarter in which you— (1) Die; (2) Most recently became entitled to... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false How we determine currently insured status... § 404.120 How we determine currently insured status. (a) What the period is for determining...

  17. 20 CFR 404.120 - How we determine currently insured status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...-quarter period ending with the quarter in which you— (1) Die; (2) Most recently became entitled to... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false How we determine currently insured status... § 404.120 How we determine currently insured status. (a) What the period is for determining...

  18. 20 CFR 404.120 - How we determine currently insured status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...-quarter period ending with the quarter in which you— (1) Die; (2) Most recently became entitled to... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false How we determine currently insured status... § 404.120 How we determine currently insured status. (a) What the period is for determining...

  19. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - December 2008

    SciTech Connect

    JW Voyles

    2009-01-15

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  20. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - November 2008

    SciTech Connect

    JW Voyles

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  1. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - September 2008

    SciTech Connect

    JW Voyles

    2008-10-15

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  2. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - August 2008

    SciTech Connect

    JW Voyles

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  3. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future March 2009

    SciTech Connect

    JW Voyles

    2009-03-15

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  4. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future February 2009

    SciTech Connect

    JW Voyles

    2009-02-15

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  5. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - July 2008

    SciTech Connect

    JW Voyles

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  6. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - June 2008

    SciTech Connect

    JW Voyles

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  7. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - October 2008

    SciTech Connect

    JW Voyles

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  8. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - May 2008

    SciTech Connect

    JW Voyles

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  9. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - April 2008

    SciTech Connect

    JW Voyles

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  10. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future July 2006

    SciTech Connect

    JC Liljegren

    2006-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development. New information is highlighted in blue text.

  11. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future August 2006

    SciTech Connect

    JC Liljegren

    2006-08-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development. New information is highlighted in blue text.

  12. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future September 2006

    SciTech Connect

    JC Liljegren

    2006-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development. New information is highlighted in blue text.

  13. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - January 2009

    SciTech Connect

    JW Voyles

    2009-03-02

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  14. [Wireless medical monitoring--current status and developments].

    PubMed

    Yan, Zhuang-zhi; Zhang, Jing; Shi, Jun; Jiang, Jie-Hui

    2006-09-01

    Wireless medical monitoring overcomes the limitations of conventional wired-monitoring, enabling people to get their physiological and pathological informations anytime and anywhere. This review summarizes the basic components and principles of wireless medical monitoring, including the techniques for measuring and transmitting vital signs. Its status,developments in R&D and applications are presented with a series of examples. Limitations and potential uses of wireless medical monitoring are also discussed.

  15. Teaching Current Events: Its Status in Social Studies Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haas, Mary E.; Laughlin, Margaret A.

    A study addressed specific topics related to the teaching of current events through a teacher survey asking the more general question: How do social studies teachers who are members of the National Council for the Social Studies (NCSS) teach current events in their classrooms? Questionnaires were mailed to a random, national sample of 598 members…

  16. CURRENT STATUS OF ADVACATE PROCESS FOR FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The following report discusses current bench- and pilot-plant advances in preparation of ADVAnced siliCATE (ADVACATE) calcium silicate sorbentsfor flue gas desulfurization. It also discusses current bench- and pilot-plant advances in sorbent preparation. Fly ash was ground in a l...

  17. CURRENT STATUS OF ADVACATE PROCESS FOR FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The following report discusses current bench- and pilot-plant advances in preparation of ADVAnced siliCATE (ADVACATE) calcium silicate sorbentsfor flue gas desulfurization. It also discusses current bench- and pilot-plant advances in sorbent preparation. Fly ash was ground in a l...

  18. Single dose treatment of malaria - current status and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Mischlinger, Johannes; Agnandji, Selidji T; Ramharter, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Despite increased international efforts for control and ultimate elimination, malaria remains a major health problem. Currently, artemisinin-based combination therapies are the treatment of choice for uncomplicated malaria exhibiting high efficacy in clinical trial settings in sub-Saharan Africa. However, their administration over a three-day period is associated with important problems of treatment adherence resulting in markedly reduced effectiveness of currently recommended antimalarials under real world settings. Antimalarial drug candidates and antimalarial drug combinations currently under advanced clinical development for the indication as single dose antimalarial therapy. Expert commentary: Several new drug candidates and combinations are currently undergoing pivotal proof-of-concept studies or clinical development programmes. The development of a single dose combination therapy would constitute a breakthrough in the control of malaria. Such an innovative treatment approach would simultaneously close the effectiveness gap of current three-day therapies and revolutionize population based interventions in the context of malaria elimination campaigns.

  19. Spirally oriented Au microelectrode array sensor for detection of Hg (II).

    PubMed

    Huan, Tran Ngoc; Hung, Le Quoc; Ha, Vu Thi Thu; Anh, Nguyen Hoang; Van Khai, Tran; Shim, Kwang Bo; Chung, Hoeil

    2012-05-30

    A simple and reproducible carbon microelectrode array (CMA), designed to eliminate diffusive interference among the microelectrodes, has been fabricated and used as a frame to build a gold (Au) microelectrode array (GMA) sensor. To prepare the CMA initially, rather than use an uncontrollable large number of carbon fibers, only 60 carbon fibers of regular size were used to ensure manageable and reproducible arrangement for array construction. In addition, for efficient spatial arrangement of the microelectrode and easy sensor preparation, carbon fibers were oriented in a spiral fashion by rolling around a Cu wire. The distance between carbon fibers was carefully determined to avoid overlap among individual diffusion layers, one of the important factors governing steady-state current response and sensor-to-sensor reproducibility. After the preparation of a spirally arranged CMA, Au was electrochemically deposited on the surface of individual carbon electrodes to build a final GMA sensor. Then, the GMA sensor was used to measure Hg(2+) in a low concentration range. Simultaneously, multiple GMA sensors were independently prepared to examine reproducibility in sensor fabrication as well as electrochemical measurement (sensor-to-sensor reproducibility). Overall, highly sensitive detection of Hg(2+) was possible using the proposed GMA sensor due to efficient arrangement of microelectrodes and the sensor-to-sensor reproducibility was superior owing to simplicity in sensor fabrication.

  20. Current Status and Future Technical Challenges for Tokamak Magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Martovetsky, N; Minervini, J; Okuno, K; Salpiero, E; Filatov, O

    2002-11-11

    Magnet technology for fusion in the last decade has been focusing mostly on the development of magnets for tokamaks--the most advanced fusion concept at the moment. The largest and the most complex tokamak under development is ITER. To demonstrate adequate design approaches to large magnets for ITER and to develop industrial capabilities, two large model coils and three insert coils, all using full-scale conductor, were built and tested by the international collaboration during 1994-2002. The status of the magnet technology and directions of future developments are discussed in this paper.

  1. The current status of the U.S. MTBE industry

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, G.M.

    1995-12-31

    This paper reviews the status of the MTBE industry from its beginnings as a result of the Clean Air Act Amendments and the need for the use of oxygenates in non-attainment areas. During 1990--93 three world scale merchant plants were constructed and in 1994 two more were brought on stream. The paper tabulates reasons why MTBE gained the lion`s share of the oxygenates market. Finally the paper discusses the problems that now plague the industry and their causes.

  2. Biofuel production from microalgae as feedstock: current status and potential.

    PubMed

    Han, Song-Fang; Jin, Wen-Biao; Tu, Ren-Jie; Wu, Wei-Min

    2015-06-01

    Algal biofuel has become an attractive alternative of petroleum-based fuels in the past decade. Microalgae have been proposed as a feedstock to produce biodiesel, since they are capable of mitigating CO2 emission and accumulating lipids with high productivity. This article is an overview of the updated status of biofuels, especially biodiesel production from microalgae including fundamental research, culture selection and engineering process development; it summarizes research on mathematical and life cycle modeling on algae growth and biomass production; and it updates global efforts of research and development and commercialization attempts. The major challenges are also discussed.

  3. Fermilab’s Accelerator Complex: Current Status, Upgrades and Outlook

    SciTech Connect

    Convery, M. E.

    2016-10-31

    We report on the status of the Fermilab accelerator complex, including recent performance, upgrades in progress, and plans for the future. Beam delivery to the neutrino experiments surpassed our goals for the past year. The Proton Improvement Plan is well underway with successful 15 Hz beam operation. Beam power of 700 kW to the NOvA experiment was demonstrated and will be routine in the next year. We are also preparing the Muon Campus to commission beam to the g-2 experiment.

  4. Current Status of Dengue Therapeutics Research and Development

    PubMed Central

    Ooi, Eng Eong; Vasudevan, Subhash G.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Dengue is a significant global health problem. Even though a vaccine against dengue is now available, which is a notable achievement, its long-term protective efficacy against each of the 4 dengue virus serotypes remains to be definitively determined. Consequently, drugs directed at the viral targets or critical host mechanisms that can be used safely as prophylaxis or treatment to effectively ameliorate disease or reduce disease severity and fatalities are still needed to reduce the burden of dengue. This review will provide a brief account of the status of therapeutics research and development for dengue. PMID:28403438

  5. Current status of GW experiment and multi-messenger astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudenko, V. N.

    2016-06-01

    A limited review of the status of advanced gravitational wave interferometers is presented. In addition, a new opto-acoustical gravitational detector OGRAN in the deep underground of BNO INR RAS is described. The second part of the paper contains a short description of the "multi-messenger astronomy" approach in the context of the GW detection. Various scenarios of such strategy proposed by different authors are discussed. Special attention is paid to the "neutrino-gravity correlation" which looks more or less realistic in respect of supernova events in the Milky Way and near-by galaxies.

  6. BASS2000-Tarbes: current status and THEMIS data processing .

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meunier, N.; Lafon, M.; Maeght, P.; Grimaud, F.; Roudier, Th.

    I will review the history and status of the data archive BASS2000 and will concentrate my presentation on the BASS2000-Tarbes data base, which contains a very large volume of THEMIS data, i.e. spectropolarimetric data. I will insist the implementation of the processing of MTR-THEMIS (multi-line spectropolarimetry) data by the BASS2000 team, which has been our main project in 2006. New data levels are Stokes profiles and clean spectra, maps of continuum intensity and line-center intensity, Dopplergrams, magnetograms and vector magnetic field maps. I will also present the tools and services that we are providing.

  7. Current Status of Dengue Therapeutics Research and Development.

    PubMed

    Low, Jenny G H; Ooi, Eng Eong; Vasudevan, Subhash G

    2017-03-01

    Dengue is a significant global health problem. Even though a vaccine against dengue is now available, which is a notable achievement, its long-term protective efficacy against each of the 4 dengue virus serotypes remains to be definitively determined. Consequently, drugs directed at the viral targets or critical host mechanisms that can be used safely as prophylaxis or treatment to effectively ameliorate disease or reduce disease severity and fatalities are still needed to reduce the burden of dengue. This review will provide a brief account of the status of therapeutics research and development for dengue. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  8. Advanced Aerospace Tribological Systems - Current Status and Future Technology Needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fusaro, Robert L.

    1993-01-01

    The state of the art of space and aeronautics tribology, the current and future technology problems, and perceived needs for future missions are discussed. Mechanisms of liquid and solid lubrication, and liquid- and solid-lubrication factors are examined. Such current and future tribological problem areas as aerospace plane, space simulation, and accelerated testing are addressed. Consideration is also given to the following novel lubrication technologies: inerted lubrication systems, mist lubrication, vapor deposition, catalytically gas-generated carbon, dense thin films of solid lubricants, powder lubrication, and gas and magnetic bearings. Recommendations for ensuring the success of current and future space and aeronautics missions are presented.

  9. Advanced aerospace tribological systems - Current status and future technology needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fusaro, Robert L.

    The state of the art of space and aeronautics tribology, the current and future technology problems, and perceived needs for future missions are discussed. Mechanisms of liquid and solid lubrication, and liquid- and solid-lubrication factors are examined. Such current and future tribological problem areas as aerospace plane, space simulation, and accelerated testing are addressed. Consideration is also given to the following novel lubrication technologies: inerted lubrication systems, mist lubrication, vapor deposition, catalytically gas-generated carbon, dense thin films of solid lubricants, powder lubrication, and gas and magnetic bearings. Recommendations for ensuring the success of current and future space and aeronautics missions are presented.

  10. Current Trends in Treatment of Status Epilepticus and Refractory Status Epilepticus.

    PubMed

    Betjemann, John P

    2015-12-01

    Status epilepticus is a heterogeneous disorder with varied definitions and presentations. Taken together, all forms of status epilepticus carry significant morbidity and mortality, much of which is dictated by the underlying etiology. Generalized convulsive status epilepticus, which represents a common form, is a true neurologic emergency that requires emergent management. Treatment focuses on stabilizing the patient and aggressive medical management to achieve the timely termination of seizures. For other forms of status epilepticus including nonconvulsive and focal status epilepticus, the goal remains early seizure termination, but the use of intravenous medications should be weighed against the risks associated with these therapies. The diagnostic evaluation of status epilepticus is guided by the patient's history and should be broad, including a screen for toxins, electrolytes, structural abnormalities, and central nervous system infectious and autoimmune/inflammatory etiologies. Considerable research is still needed to improve our understanding of the mechanisms, consequences, and therapy of status epilepticus. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  11. A new moving-coil microelectrode puller.

    PubMed

    Ensor, D R

    1979-03-01

    This paper describes an improved electrode puller for the manufacture of glass microelectrodes or micropipettes. The instrument resembles a conventional horizontal two-stage, solenoid-powered electrode puller but the pull is now developed by a light moving-coil and a fixed permanent magnet, using the principle of the moving-coil loudspeaker. In a conventional puller the force is generated by a solenoid with a massive moving-iron core. In this new puller the moving-coil solenoid responds much more rapidly to changing currents because of its greatly reduced inductance, and a substantial reduction in mass to 25 g, gives more acceleration from a comparable force. The sudden discharge of a capacitor bank through the coil accelerates the glass quickly during the last stage of the pull. This rapid acceleration is of importance in the formation of good electrodes with fine tips. For the prototype, an electronic control unit was constructed which allows the parameters necessary for the manufacture of electrodes to be set and regulated accurately and repeatedly, so that series of electrodes of constant shapes can be made. The length of the electrode shank may be predetermined over a wide range and tip diameters down to 0.08 micron have already been measured. The angle of the taper that supports the tip may be varied from less than 1 to over 6 degrees. The mechanical design of the instrument is comparatively simple, as it has only one moving part, while the relative complexity of the electronic control section should not present any manufacturing difficulties. Although this puller has been used mainly to make single-barrel fine electrodes from borosilicate glass, it is adaptable for other purposes. The extent of the control over the shape of the shank of the electrode renders it particularly suitable for the manufacture of composite, ion-sensitive electrodes.

  12. Fast wave current drive: Experimental status and reactor prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Ehst, D.A.

    1988-03-01

    The fast wave is one of the two possible wave polarizations which propagate according to the basic theory of cold plasmas. It is distinguished from the other (slow wave) branch by having an electric field vector which is mainly orthogonal to the confining magnetic field of the plasma. The plasma and fast wave qualitatively assume different behavior depending on the frequency range of the launched wave. The high frequency fast wave (HFFW), with a frequency (..omega..2..pi.. )approximately) GHz) much higher than the ion cyclotron frequency (..cap omega../sub i/), suffers electron Landau damping and drives current by supplying parallel momentum to superthermal electrons in a fashion similar to lower hybrid (slow wave) current drive. In the simple theory the HFFW should be superior to the slow wave and can propagate to very high density and temperature without impediment. Experiments, however, have not conclusively shown that HFFW current drive can be achieved at densities above the slow wave current drive limit, possibly due to conversion of the launched fast waves into slow waves by density fluctuations. Alternatively, the low frequency fast wave (LFFW), with frequencies ()approxreverse arrowlt) 100 MHz) only a few times the ion cyclotron frequency, is damped by electron Landau damping and, in a hot plasma ()approxreverse arrowgt) 10 keV), by electron transit time magnetic pumping; current drive is achieved by pushing superthermal electrons, and efficiency is prediocted to be slightly better than for lower hybrid current drive. Most significantly, the slow wave does not propagate in high density plasma when ..omega.. )approximately) ..cap omega../sub i/, so parasitic coupling to the slow wave can be avoided, and no density and temperture limitations are foreseen. Experiments with fast wve current drive invariably find current drive efficiency as good as obtained in lower hybrid experiments at comparable, low temperatures. 45 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  13. BVD control in Europe: current status and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Moennig, Volker; Houe, Hans; Lindberg, Ann

    2005-06-01

    For several decades after the first description of bovine viral diarrhea and its causative agent (BVDV) the economic impact of the infection was underestimated and in addition there were no suitable diagnostics and procedures for a systematic control at hand. Today, there are several estimates on the real economic impact of the infection and during the last 15 years the serological and virological laboratory diagnosis of BVDV infections has improved. Also, successful procedures aimed at eradicating BVDV infections by using a strict test and removal policy for animals persistently infected (PI) with BVDV accompanied by movement restrictions for infected herds have been implemented in the Scandinavian countries. The success of these efforts has encouraged other European countries to follow the same procedures. However, the Scandinavian control strategy might-for a number of reasons-not be acceptable for all European countries. In such cases, the test and removal strategy, with its fundamental elements of biosecurity, removal of PI animals and monitoring of herd status, in combination with systematic vaccination, might be an acceptable compromise. The impact of the BVDV-free status of regions and nations on international trade is not yet clear. In any case, biosecurity measures will be of utmost importance for individual control programs as well as multiple control programs to co-exist in Europe.

  14. Current Status of Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation for MDS

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Feng; Deeg, H. Joachim

    2011-01-01

    Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) offers potentially curative therapy for patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). However, as most patients with MDS are in the 7th or 8th decade of life, only few of these were transplanted in the past, using high-dose conditioning regimens. The development of reduced-intensity conditioning has allowed to offer HCT also to older patients and those with clinically relevant comorbid conditions. Dependent upon disease status and the type of clonal chromosomal abnormalities present at the time of HCT, some 25%–75% of patients will be cured of their disease and survive long-term. Recent results with HLA matched unrelated donors are comparable to those with HLA genotypically identical siblings. The increasing use of cord blood and HLA haploidentical donors is expected to make HCT available to a growing number of patients. However, post-transplant relapse and graft-versus-host disease remain problems requiring further investigation. PMID:22571701

  15. Targeting to the hair follicles: current status and potential.

    PubMed

    Wosicka, Hanna; Cal, Krzysztof

    2010-02-01

    The pilosebaceous unit is a complex structure that undergoes a specific growth cycle and comprises a few important drug targeting sites. For example, drugs can be targeted to the bulge region with stem cells or to the sebaceous glands. Interest in pilosebaceous units is directed towards their utilization as reservoirs for localized therapy and also as a transport pathway for systemic drug delivery. Improved investigative methods, such as differential stripping, are being developed in order to determine follicular penetration. This article reviews relevant aspects of effective follicle-targeting formulations and delivery systems as well as the activity status of hair follicles, and variations in follicle size and distribution throughout various body regions. Each of these factors strongly affects follicular permeation. We provide examples of improved penetration of particle-based formulations and of a size-dependent manner of follicular penetration. Contradictions are also discussed, indicating the need for detailed future investigations.

  16. A reference system for urinary albumin: current status.

    PubMed

    Lieske, John C; Bondar, Olga; Miller, W Greg; Bachmann, Lorin M; Narva, Andrew S; Itoh, Yoshihisa; Zegers, Ingrid; Schimmel, Heinz; Phinney, Karen; Bunk, David M

    2013-05-01

    Increased urinary excretion of albumin reflects kidney damage and is a recognized risk factor for progression of renal and cardiovascular disease. Considerable inter-method differences have been reported for both albumin and creatinine measurement results, and therefore the albumin-to-creatinine ratio. Measurement accuracy is unknown and there are no independent reference measurement procedures for albumin and no reference materials for either measurand in urine. The National Kidney Disease Education Program (NKDEP) Laboratory Working Group and the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (IFCC) have initiated joint projects to facilitate standardization of urinary albumin and creatinine measurement. A candidate LC-MS/MS reference measurement procedure for urinary albumin and candidate reference materials for urinary albumin and creatinine has been developed. The status of validations of these reference system components is reported. The development of certified reference materials and reference measurement procedures for urinary albumin will enable standardization of this important measurand.

  17. Captive breeding of pangolins: current status, problems and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Hua, Liushuai; Gong, Shiping; Wang, Fumin; Li, Weiye; Ge, Yan; Li, Xiaonan; Hou, Fanghui

    2015-01-01

    Pangolins are unique placental mammals with eight species existing in the world, which have adapted to a highly specialized diet of ants and termites, and are of significance in the control of forest termite disaster. Besides their ecological value, pangolins are extremely important economic animals with the value as medicine and food. At present, illegal hunting and habitat destruction have drastically decreased the wild population of pangolins, pushing them to the edge of extinction. Captive breeding is an important way to protect these species, but because of pangolin's specialized behaviors and high dependence on natural ecosystem, there still exist many technical barriers to successful captive breeding programs. In this paper, based on the literatures and our practical experience, we reviewed the status and existing problems in captive breeding of pangolins, including four aspects, the naturalistic habitat, dietary husbandry, reproduction and disease control. Some recommendations are presented for effective captive breeding and protection of pangolins.

  18. Captive breeding of pangolins: current status, problems and future prospects

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Liushuai; Gong, Shiping; Wang, Fumin; Li, Weiye; Ge, Yan; Li, Xiaonan; Hou, Fanghui

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Pangolins are unique placental mammals with eight species existing in the world, which have adapted to a highly specialized diet of ants and termites, and are of significance in the control of forest termite disaster. Besides their ecological value, pangolins are extremely important economic animals with the value as medicine and food. At present, illegal hunting and habitat destruction have drastically decreased the wild population of pangolins, pushing them to the edge of extinction. Captive breeding is an important way to protect these species, but because of pangolin’s specialized behaviors and high dependence on natural ecosystem, there still exist many technical barriers to successful captive breeding programs. In this paper, based on the literatures and our practical experience, we reviewed the status and existing problems in captive breeding of pangolins, including four aspects, the naturalistic habitat, dietary husbandry, reproduction and disease control. Some recommendations are presented for effective captive breeding and protection of pangolins. PMID:26155072

  19. Results and current status of the NPARC alliance validation effort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Towne, Charles E.; Jones, Ralph R.

    1996-01-01

    The NPARC Alliance is a partnership between the NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) and the USAF Arnold Engineering Development Center (AEDC) dedicated to the establishment of a national CFD capability, centered on the NPARC Navier-Stokes computer program. The three main tasks of the Alliance are user support, code development, and validation. The present paper is a status report on the validation effort. It describes the validation approach being taken by the Alliance. Representative results are presented for laminar and turbulent flat plate boundary layers, a supersonic axisymmetric jet, and a glancing shock/turbulent boundary layer interaction. Cases scheduled to be run in the future are also listed. The archive of validation cases is described, including information on how to access it via the Internet.

  20. Current status of IMS plasma wave research. [International Magnetospheric Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, R. R.

    1982-01-01

    The present investigation is concerned with a review of the status of magnetospheric plasma wave science as a result of the International Magnetospheric Study (IMS). The presence of an international effort has supported the development and completion of the numerous magnetospheric science spacecraft launched during the IMS, including GEOS, ISEE, and EXOS B. Ground-based VLF observations are considered along with coordinated ground-based and satellite observations. During the IMS, plasma wave research using satellite data has covered a wide range of subjects. Attention is given to magnetospheric electrostatic emissions, magnetospheric electromagnetic plasma waves, continuum radiation, auroral kilometric radiation, auroral zone plasma waves, plasma waves in the magnetosheath and near the mangetopause, and plasma waves at the bow shock.

  1. Current status of the MPEG-4 standardization effort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anastassiou, Dimitris

    1994-09-01

    The Moving Pictures Experts Group (MPEG) of the International Standardization Organization has initiated a standardization effort, known as MPEG-4, addressing generic audiovisual coding at very low bit-rates (up to 64 kbits/s) with applications in videotelephony, mobile audiovisual communications, video database retrieval, computer games, video over Internet, remote sensing, etc. This paper gives a survey of the status of MPEG-4, including its planned schedule, and initial ideas about requirements and applications. A significant part of this paper is summarizing an incomplete draft version of a `requirements document' which presents specifications of desirable features on the video, audio, and system level of the forthcoming standard. Very low bit-rate coding algorithms are not described, because no endorsement of any particular algorithm, or class of algorithms, has yet been made by MPEG-4, and several seminars held concurrently with MPEG-4 meetings have not so far provided evidence that such high performance coding schemes are achievable.

  2. STS operations planning - Current status and outlook for the future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, C. M.

    1981-01-01

    Consideration is given to the status of Space Shuttle operations planning and outlook for the period 1982-94, with some speculations on Shuttle-related space operations early in the next century. Attention is given to the evolution of Shuttle payload capabilities over the next five years. The following list of near-earth environment factors to be exploited by the Space Shuttle is given: (1) easy control of gravity; (2) absence of atmosphere; (3) a comprehensive view of the earth's surface and atmosphere; (4) isolation of hazardous processes from earth biosphere; (5) freely available light, heat and photovoltaic power; (6) an infinite natural reservoir for the disposal of radioactive waste products; and (7) a super-cold heat sink.

  3. The current status of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Morocco.

    PubMed

    Tlamçani, Zineb; Er-Rami, Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a public health problem on a global level because it affects the population of 88 countries. In Morocco, it is widely distributed, caused by Leishmania tropica, Leishmania major and Leishmania infantum rarely. The geographical distribution of different forms of leishmaniasis in Morocco is linked to well described bioclimatic zones. Over the past two decades, the epidemiological situation of CL has changed significantly. It acquire an increasingly epidemic status with geographic expansion to previously free areas and the emergence of overlapping foci of cutaneous leishmaniasis and visceral leishmaniasis in several provinces of Morocco. In this review the evolution of the epidemiological situation and epidemiological factors which influenced the course of it in the past two decades will be reported.

  4. Current Status of the GRACE Follow-On Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, F.; Watkins, M. M.; Flechtner, F.; Landerer, F. W.; Grunwaldt, L.

    2016-12-01

    The GRACE Follow-On Mission has now advanced to the Assembly and Test Phase with the delivery of essentially all satellite subsystems and science instruments. As of the time of this abstract submission, the team continues to plan launch in late 2017. The project team is conducting tests of satellite and instrument operation and performance and putting together updated simulations of expected performance on-orbit, including intersatellite ranging (both microwave and laser), accelerometer, thermal variability and deformation, and other errors. In addition, all required ground analysis software of the Science Data System is in development and testing at JPL, The UTCSR, and GFZ, in preparation for fully integrated end-to-end (international) testing from Level-1 through Level-3 data in the coming year. In this presentation, we will provide the detailed status of project integration and test, the latest simulations of science performance, and schedule for remaining project milestones.

  5. The MiMeS Project: Overview and Current Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wade, G. A.; Mimes Collaboration

    The Magnetism in Massive Stars (MiMeS) Project is a consensus collaboration among many of the foremost international researchers of the physics of hot, massive stars, with the basic aim of understanding the origin, evolution and impact of magnetic fields in these objects. At the time of writing, MiMeS Large Programs have acquired over 1250 high-resolution polarized spectra of about 150 individual stars with spectral types from B5 - O4, discovering new magnetic fields in over a dozen hot, massive stars. Notable results include the detection of magnetic fields in the two most rapidly-rotating known magnetic stars, and in the most massive known magnetic star. In this paper we review the structure of the MiMeS observing programs and report the status of observations, data modeling and development of related theory, and review important results obtained so far.

  6. Bacterial Wilt in China: History, Current Status, and Future Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Gaofei; Wei, Zhong; Xu, Jin; Chen, Huilan; Zhang, Yong; She, Xiaoman; Macho, Alberto P.; Ding, Wei; Liao, Boshou

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial wilt caused by plant pathogenic Ralstonia spp. is one of the most important diseases affecting the production of many important crops worldwide. In China, a large scientific community has been dedicated to studying bacterial wilt and its causative agent, Ralstonia pseudosolanacearum and R. solanacearum. Most of their work was published in Chinese, which has hindered international communication and collaboration in this field. In this review, we summarize the status of knowledge on geographical distribution, diversity, and host range of Ralstonia spp., as well as, the impact of bacterial wilt on important crops and disease control approaches, in China. We present areas of research and publications by Chinese scientists and propose the promotion of collaborative research within China and with the international community. PMID:28955350

  7. Management of Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Current Status and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Au, Jennifer S.; Frenette, Catherine T.

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the second most common cause of cancer death worldwide. This cancer commonly arises against a background of chronic liver disease. As a result, a patient with HCC requires multidisciplinary care. Treatment options vary widely based on tumor burden and metastases. The most widely utilized staging system is the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer staging system, which recommends treatments based on tumor size and the underlying liver disease and functional status of the patient. Treatment options range from surgical resection or transplantation to locoregional therapies with modalities such as radiofrequency ablation and transarterial chemoembolization to systemic chemotherapies. Future care involves the development of combination therapies that afford the best tumor response, further clarification of the patients best suited for therapies and the development of new oral chemotherapeutic agents. PMID:26087860

  8. Current status of therapeutic plasma exchange in Korea.

    PubMed

    Song, Eun Young; Kwon, Seog Woon; Kim, Dal Sik; Kim, Dae Won; Kim, Dong Wook; Kim, Hyun Ok; Park, Chong Won; Suh, Jang Soo; Ryang, Dong Wook; Lee, Jeong Nyeo; Lee, Jong Wook; Lim, Young Ae; Lim, Chae Seung; Jeon, Dong Seok; Han, Chi Wha; Han, Tae Hee; Han, Kyou Sup

    2004-04-01

    A nationwide survey on the status of plasma exchange in Korea was performed during the 2 year period 2001-02. Data from 496 patients were collected from 15 major hospitals. The most common indication was myasthenia gravis (15.3%), followed by thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (14.5%) and hemolytic uremic syndrome (9.7%). Clinical improvement was noted in 70.1% of the 415 cases. Plasma exchange by centrifugation alone accounted for 92.4%. Postcentrifugal filtration was carried out in 5.6% and double filtration in 2.0% of treatments. The most common instruments for the centrifugation were Cobe Spectra (71.3%) and Fenwal CS3000 (15.8%). Filtration was performed by either Kuraray KM8300 or Kuraray KM8800. The overall frequency of complications was 11.1% (293/2647 cases), of which symptomatic hypocalcemia was the most common (2.3%).

  9. Hepatitis B virus infection. Current status in dentistry.

    PubMed

    Cottone, J A; Puttaiah, R

    1996-04-01

    HBV is a serious threat to members of the dental team. Dental personnel who are carriers of HBV, many of whom may not be aware of their status, are also at risk for hepatitis delta infection. In 1991, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration issued an instruction (in the Federal Register Part II, 29 CFR Part 1910.1030, 56-235)64175-64182) on Occupational Exposure to Bloodborne Pathogens--Final Rule, mandating that HBV vaccine be offered by employers free of charge to all at-risk employees. From a public and professional health perspective, such a mandate was a significant step forward. It is hoped that this update will assist employers to understand better their role in providing HBV vaccine and will assist employees in understanding why acceptance of vaccination is of prime importance to practitioners and staff, their families, and their patients.

  10. Helicopter noise prediction - The current status and future direction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brentner, Kenneth S.; Farassat, F.

    1992-01-01

    The paper takes stock of the progress, assesses the current prediction capabilities, and forecasts the direction of future helicopter noise prediction research. The acoustic analogy approach, specifically, theories based on the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings equations, are the most widely used for deterministic noise sources. Thickness and loading noise can be routinely predicted given good plane motion and blade loading inputs. Blade-vortex interaction noise can also be predicted well with measured input data, but prediction of airloads with the high spatial and temporal resolution required for BVI is still difficult. Current semiempirical broadband noise predictions are useful and reasonably accurate. New prediction methods based on a Kirchhoff formula and direct computation appear to be very promising, but are currently very demanding computationally.

  11. Helicopter noise prediction - The current status and future direction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brentner, Kenneth S.; Farassat, F.

    1992-01-01

    The paper takes stock of the progress, assesses the current prediction capabilities, and forecasts the direction of future helicopter noise prediction research. The acoustic analogy approach, specifically, theories based on the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings equations, are the most widely used for deterministic noise sources. Thickness and loading noise can be routinely predicted given good plane motion and blade loading inputs. Blade-vortex interaction noise can also be predicted well with measured input data, but prediction of airloads with the high spatial and temporal resolution required for BVI is still difficult. Current semiempirical broadband noise predictions are useful and reasonably accurate. New prediction methods based on a Kirchhoff formula and direct computation appear to be very promising, but are currently very demanding computationally.

  12. CURRENT STATUS OF THE IAEA'S NET ENABLED WASTE MANAGEMENT DATABASE

    SciTech Connect

    Csullog, G.W.; Pozdniakov, I.; Bellag, M.J.

    2003-02-27

    The International Atomic Energy Agency's Net Enabled Waste Management Database (NEWMDB) contains information on national radioactive waste management programs and organizations, plans and activities, relevant laws and regulations, policies and radioactive waste inventories. The NEWMDB, which was launched on the Internet July 6, 2001, is the successor to the Agency's Waste Management Database (WMDB), which was in use during the 1990's. The NEWMDB's first data collection cycle took place from July 2001 to March 2002. Agency Member State participation in the first data collection cycle was low--only 22 submissions were received. However, the first data collection cycle demonstrated that: the NEWMDB could be used to collect information on national radioactive waste management programs and radioactive waste inventories annually, the NEWMDB data can support the routine reporting of status and trends in radioactive waste management based on quantitative data, the NEWMDB can support the compilation of a consolidated, international radioactive waste inventory based on a unified waste classification scheme, the data needed to compute an indicator of sustainable development for radioactive waste management are available at the national level, NEWMDB data can be used to assess the development and implementation of national systems for radioactive waste management, and the NEWMDB can support the reporting requirements of the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management. Agency Member States that had not made data submissions in the first cycle were asked to submit data during an extension of the first cycle (July 2002--January 2003). When this paper was written, the Agency had conducted two of three international workshops to provide training for future NEWMDB data collection cycles and to compile lessons learned for the first data collection cycle. A third workshop was scheduled for January 2003. This paper provides

  13. Current status of cadmium as an environmental health problem

    SciTech Connect

    Jaerup, Lars Akesson, Agneta

    2009-08-01

    Cadmium is a toxic metal occurring in the environment naturally and as a pollutant emanating from industrial and agricultural sources. Food is the main source of cadmium intake in the non-smoking population. The bioavailability, retention and toxicity are affected by several factors including nutritional status such as low iron status. Cadmium is efficiently retained in the kidney (half-time 10-30 years) and the concentration is proportional to that in urine (U-Cd). Cadmium is nephrotoxic, initially causing kidney tubular damage. Cadmium can also cause bone damage, either via a direct effect on bone tissue or indirectly as a result of renal dysfunction. After prolonged and/or high exposure the tubular injury may progress to glomerular damage with decreased glomerular filtration rate, and eventually to renal failure. Furthermore, recent data also suggest increased cancer risks and increased mortality in environmentally exposed populations. Dose-response assessment using a variety of early markers of kidney damage has identified U-Cd points of departure for early kidney effects between 0.5 and 3 {mu}g Cd/g creatinine, similar to the points of departure for effects on bone. It can be anticipated that a considerable proportion of the non-smoking adult population has urinary cadmium concentrations of 0.5 {mu}g/g creatinine or higher in non-exposed areas. For smokers this proportion is considerably higher. This implies no margin of safety between the point of departure and the exposure levels in the general population. Therefore, measures should be put in place to reduce exposure to a minimum, and the tolerably daily intake should be set in accordance with recent findings.

  14. Status of the Neutral Current Detector Array at SNO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, Adam

    2003-05-01

    The third phase of data taking at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) is currently scheduled to begin in the autumn of 2003 with the installation of the Neutral Current Detectors (NCD). The NCDs, an array of ^3He proportional counters, will make an independent measurement of the flux of ^8B solar neutrinos at SNO. The latest results in experimental neutrino physics have given the SNO collaboration the opportunity to maximize the physics capabilities of SNO by deploying just half of the initially proposed NCD array. In order to minimize backgrounds, only the best counters with the lowest intrinsic radioactivity have been selected for deployment into the SNO detector.

  15. The current status of high temperature superconducting wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhailov, B. P.; Burkhanov, G. S.

    1991-12-01

    The principal technological difficulties associated with the manufacture of high temperature superconducting (HTSC) wires based on yttrium and lanthanum ceramics are briefly reviewed. It is noted that the superconducting and mechanical properties of HTSC wires or ribbons are largely determined by their microstructure. Particular attention is given to the currently used method of producing HTSC wires whereby the ceramic powder is encased in a pipe shell and then deformed by different methods, such as rolling, drawing, or pressing. The requirements for the shell material are examined, and current densities are presented for HTSC wires produced in shells of copper, silver, aluminum, nickel, stainless steel, and zirconium.

  16. Implicit theories of smoking and association with current smoking status.

    PubMed

    Thai, Chan L; Coa, Kisha I; Kaufman, Annette R

    2016-05-01

    Implicit theories of smoking refer to people's beliefs about whether smoking behavior is something that is changeable (incremental belief) or fixed (entity belief). This study examines implicit theories of smoking and its association with smoking behavior in a nationally representative sample of US adults using data from the Health Information National Trends Survey. The current results show that implicit theories of smoking are associated with smoking. Among former smokers, 90 percent endorsed an incremental belief about smoking compared to 70 percent of current smokers. Our study provides initial evidence for the role of implicit theories of smoking as a psychological factor associated with smoking behavior.

  17. Pharmacotherapy for alcohol dependence: status of current treatments.

    PubMed

    Franck, Johan; Jayaram-Lindström, Nitya

    2013-08-01

    The efficacy of medications for alcohol dependence remains modest, and there are no strong clinical predictors of treatment response. Approved medications include acamprosate (an N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDA) modulator), disulfiram (an acetaldehyde dehydrogenase inhibitor) and naltrexone (an opioid antagonist) while nalmefene (an opioid antagonist) is currently under review for approval in Europe. Clinical trials suggest that baclofen (a GABA-B agonist) and topiramate (an anticonvulsant) may be promising candidates, while several other drug candidates are currently evaluated at early clinical stages.

  18. Current knowledge of US metal and nonmetal miner health: Current and potential data sources for analysis of miner health status

    PubMed Central

    Yeoman, K. M.; Halldin, C. N.; Wood, J.; Storey, E.; Johns, D.; Laney, A. S.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Little is known about the current health status of US metal and nonmetal (MNM) miners, in part because no health surveillance systems exist for this population. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) is developing a program to characterize burden of disease among MNM miners. This report discusses current knowledge and potential data sources of MNM miner health. Recent national surveys were analyzed, and literature specific to MNM miner health status was reviewed. No robust estimates of disease prevalence were identified, and national surveys did not provide information specific to MNM miners. Because substantial gaps exist in the understanding of MNM miners' current health status, NIOSH plans to develop a health surveillance program for this population to guide intervention efforts to reduce occupational and personal risks for chronic illness. PMID:25658684

  19. Measles: Current Status and Outbreak Control on Campus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amler, Robert W.; Orenstein, Walter A.

    1984-01-01

    The current effort to eliminate measles in the United States has caused record low levels of the disease. This strategy must continue to be applied in order to break the transmission of measles on college campuses through high immunization levels, promotion of rapid reporting of cases, and quick responses to outbreaks. (Author/DF)

  20. San Juan Fracture Characterization Project: Status and current results

    SciTech Connect

    Majer, E.L.; Daley, T.M.; Myer, L.R.; Nihei, K.; Queen, J.; Sinton, J.; Murphy, J.; Fortuna, M.; Lynn, H.B.; Imhoff, M.A.; Wilson, R.

    2001-02-26

    The overall objectives of this report are to extend current state-of-the-art 3-D imaging to extract the optimal information for fracture quantification and to develop next generation capability in fracture imaging for true 3-D imaging of the static and dynamic fracture properties.

  1. 42 CFR 411.104 - Current employment status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... orders and members of clergy—(1) Members of religious orders who have not taken a vow of poverty. A member of a religious order who has not taken a vow of poverty is considered to have current employment... orders who have taken a vow of poverty. A member of a religious order whose members are required to take...

  2. Child Care in Kentucky: Current Status and Future Improvements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childress, Michael T.

    This report is designed to inform the Kentucky Governor, the General Assembly, and the public about the quality of child care in the state. Chapter 1 presents data suggesting that at least one third of Kentucky preschoolers are currently in child care, more children are likely to enter childcare as female labor force participation increases and…

  3. Current Status of Renal Biopsy for Small Renal Masses

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Seung Beom

    2014-01-01

    Small renal masses (SRMs) are defined as radiologically enhancing renal masses of less than 4 cm in maximal diameter. The incidence of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has increased in recent years, which is mainly due to the rise in incidental detection of localized SRMs. However, the cancer-specific mortality rate is not increasing. This discrepancy may be dependent on the indolent nature of SRMs. About 20% of SRMs are benign, and smaller masses are likely to have pathologic characteristics of low Fuhrman grade and clear cell type. In addition, SRMs are increasingly detected in elderly patients who are likely to have comorbidities and are a high-risk group for active treatment like surgery. As the information about the nature of SRMs is improved and management options for SRMs are expanded, the current role of renal mass biopsy for SRMs is also expanding. Traditionally, renal mass biopsy has not been accepted as a standard diagnostic tool in the clinical scenario because of several issues about safety and accuracy. However, current series on SRM biopsy have reported high diagnostic accuracy with rare complications. Studies of modern SRM biopsy have reported diagnostic accuracy greater than 90% with very high specificity. Also, current series have shown very rare morbid cases caused by renal mass biopsy. Currently, renal biopsy of SRMs can be recommended in most cases except when patients have imaging or clinical characteristics indicative of pathology and in cases in which conservative management is not considered. PMID:25237457

  4. Business Education at Catholic Universities: Current Status and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porth, Stephen J.; McCall, John J.; DiAngelo, Joseph A.

    2009-01-01

    Is business education at Catholic colleges and universities different than business education at secular institutions? This study assesses the current state of business education at Catholic colleges and universities based on a national survey of business school deans and faculty members and an audit of business unit web sites. Results suggest…

  5. Measles: Current Status and Outbreak Control on Campus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amler, Robert W.; Orenstein, Walter A.

    1984-01-01

    The current effort to eliminate measles in the United States has caused record low levels of the disease. This strategy must continue to be applied in order to break the transmission of measles on college campuses through high immunization levels, promotion of rapid reporting of cases, and quick responses to outbreaks. (Author/DF)

  6. Business Education at Catholic Universities: Current Status and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porth, Stephen J.; McCall, John J.; DiAngelo, Joseph A.

    2009-01-01

    Is business education at Catholic colleges and universities different than business education at secular institutions? This study assesses the current state of business education at Catholic colleges and universities based on a national survey of business school deans and faculty members and an audit of business unit web sites. Results suggest…

  7. Antidotes for novel oral anticoagulants: current status and future potential.

    PubMed

    Crowther, Mark; Crowther, Mark A

    2015-08-01

    The direct thrombin inhibitor dabigatran and the anti-Xa agents rivaroxaban, edoxaban, and apixaban are a new generation of oral anticoagulants. Their advantage over the vitamin K antagonists is the lack of the need for monitoring and dose adjustment. Their main disadvantage is currently the absence of a specific reversal agent. Dabigatran's, unlike the anti-Xa agents, absorption can be reduced by activated charcoal if administered shortly after ingestion and it can be removed from the blood with hemodialysis. Prothrombin complex concentrate, activated prothrombin complex concentrate, and recombinant factor VIIa all show some activity in reversing the anticoagulant effect of these drugs but this is based on ex vivo, animal, and volunteer studies. It is unclear, which, if any, of these drugs is the most suitable for emergency reversal. Three novel molecules (idarucizumab, andexanet, and PER977) may provide the most effective and safest way of reversal. These agents are currently in premarketing studies.

  8. Robotic bariatric surgery: A general review of the current status.

    PubMed

    Jung, Minoa K; Hagen, Monika E; Buchs, Nicolas C; Buehler, Leo H; Morel, Philippe

    2017-05-23

    While conventional laparoscopy is the gold standard for almost all bariatric procedures, robotic assistance holds promise for facilitating complex surgeries and improving clinical outcomes. Since the report of the first robotic-assisted bariatric procedure in 1999, numerous publications, including those reporting comparative trials and meta-analyses across bariatric procedures with a focus on robotic assistance, can be found. This article reviews the current literature and portrays the perspectives of robotic bariatric surgery. While there are substantial reports on robotic bariatric surgery currently in publication, most studies suffer from low levels of evidence. As such, although robotics technology is without a doubt superior to conventional laparoscopy, the precise role of robotics in bariatric surgery is not yet clear. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Medical education in Spain: current status and new challenges.

    PubMed

    Palés, Jorge; Gual, Arcadi

    2008-01-01

    As in other countries, medical education in Spain is structured across three distinct stages: undergraduate or basic medical education; postgraduate specialized training; and continuing medical education. The aim of this article is to give an overview of the current state of these three stages, discussing the strengths and weaknesses and the challenges facing each one in the coming years, and how Spain can look to the international community to support change. We suggest that the undergraduate medical education system should be adapted to Spain's new social requirements and requires to be increasingly aligned with postgraduate training. We suggest that continuing medical education should develop its Continuous Professional Development programmes to ensure the permanent competence of Spanish medical professionals. The European Higher Education arena, as defined by the Bologna Declaration, provides many opportunities as well as a challenging situation for improving any current weaknesses in the Spanish medical education system.

  10. [Current Status of Translational Research on Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease].

    PubMed

    Jeong, In Du; Park, Moo In

    2016-09-25

    The prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and the incidence of some of its complications have risen strikingly over the last few decades. With the increase in our understanding of the pathophysiology of GERD along with the development of proton pump inhibitors, the diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to GERD have changed dramatically over the past decade. However, GERD still poses a problem to many clinicians since the spectrum of the disease has evolved to encompass more challenging presentations such as refractory GERD and extra-esophageal manifestations. The aim of this article is to provide a review of available current translational research on GERD. This review includes acid pocket, ambulatory pH monitoring, impedance pH monitoring, mucosa impedance, and high resolution manometry. This article discusses current translational research on GERD.

  11. Current status of the recirculator project at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Ahle, L; Autrey, D; Barnard, J; Craig, G; Debeling, A; Eylon, S; Friedman, A; Fritz, W; Grote, D P; Halaxa, E; Logan, B G; Lund, S M; Mant, G; Molvik, A W; Sangster, T C; Sharp, W M

    1999-03-23

    The Heavy Ion Fusion Group at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has for several years been developing the world's first circular ion induction accelerator designed to transport space charge dominated beams. Currently, the machine extends to 90 degrees, or 10 half-lattice periods (HLP) with induction cores for acceleration placed on every other HLP. Full current transport with acceptable emittance growth without acceleration has been achieved. Recently, a time stability measurement revealed a 2% energy change with time due to a source heating effect. Correcting for this and conducting steering experiments has ascertained the energy to an accuracy of 0.2%. In addition, the charge centroid is maintained to within 0.6-mm throughout the bend section. Initial studies of matches dependencies on beam quality indicate significant effects.

  12. Therapeutic Cancer Vaccines: Current Status and Moving Forward

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Concurrent with US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval of the first therapeutic cancer vaccine, a wide spectrum of other cancer vaccine platforms that target a diverse range of tumor-associated antigens is currently being evaluated in randomized phase II and phase III trials. The profound influence of the tumor microenvironment and other immunosuppressive entities, however, can limit the effectiveness of these vaccines. Numerous strategies are currently being evaluated both preclinically and clinically to counteract these immunosuppressive entities, including the combined use of vaccines with immune checkpoint inhibitors, certain chemotherapeutics, small-molecule targeted therapies, and radiation. The potential influence of the appropriate patient population and clinical trial endpoint in vaccine therapy studies is discussed, as well as the potential importance of biomarkers in future directions of this field. PMID:22395641

  13. [Robotic colorectal surgery: current status and future developments].

    PubMed

    Jayne, D

    2013-08-01

    Robotic assistance has the potential to compensate for the limitations inherent in standard laparoscopic surgery. The daVinci® surgical system remains the only currently available commercial robotic system. It has found popularity in rectal cancer surgery where its application has consistently been shown to reduce the need to convert to open surgery. With this exception, the technological advances of the robotic system have not so far translated into any reproducible patient benefit. The first part of this manuscript presents an overview of the current daVinci® platform, its applications, the evidence base and future developments in colorectal surgery. The second part of the manuscript looks at other robot systems in development and the different innovations and strategies taken to advance minimally invasive surgery.The English full-text version of this article is available at SpringerLink (under supplemental).

  14. Zinc and Diarrheal Disease: Current Status and Future Perspectives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    similar studies have been conducted on adults. Thus, carefully conducted clinical trials are necessary to ascertain the efficacy ofzine in prevention of...Tel; +1508 233 5155; c-mail: angus.scrimgcou.@us.army.mi Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care 2008, 11 :711 -717 Purpose of...review To evaluate clinical data indicating the benefits of oral zinc supplementation to prevent and/or treat diarrhea in children and extend Ihese

  15. Antithrombotic Strategies in Endovascular Interventions: Current Status and Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Shishehbor, Mehdi H; Katzen, Barry T

    2013-10-01

    Despite increasing numbers of endovascular interventions to treat arterial and venous disease, scant level 1 evidence is available regarding the role of antithrombotic and antiplatelet therapy in patients undergoing these procedures. The current practice in this regard is heterogeneous and has mainly been driven by data from coronary artery disease and percutaneous coronary intervention. This article discusses the role of antithrombotic and antiplatelet agents for endovascular intervention. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Early detection of age related macular degeneration: current status.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Roy; Loewenstein, Anat

    2015-01-01

    Early diagnosis and treatment of choroidal neovascularization (CNV), a main cause of severe vision loss in age related macular degeneration (AMD), is crucial in order to preserve vision and the quality of life of patients. This review summarizes current literature on the subject of early detection of CNV, both in the clinic setting and mainly in the patient's home. New technologies are evolving to allow for earlier detection and thus vision preservation in AMD patients.

  17. [Clinical research training in dentistry: analysis of the current status].

    PubMed

    Sosa Martínez, J; Deister Mateos, E

    1990-06-01

    The collegiate and university realms--which include lectures, students, clinical and scientific sessions--is open to growth. Furthermore, it has opened gates for new currents of thought and planted hopes for the growth and development of professors who, apart from mastering their specialty, may be familiar with didactics and directly or indirectly engage in full-time research, so that their lecturing and promotions may partially depend on the number and quality of their published works, preferably on scientific research.

  18. The Chernobyl NPP decommissioning: Current status and alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Mikolaitchouk, H.; Steinberg, N.

    1996-08-01

    After the Chernobyl accident of April 26, 1986, many contradictory decisions were taken concerning the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (NPP) future. The principal source of contradictions was a deadline for a final shutdown of the Chernobyl NPP units. Alterations in a political and socioeconomic environment resulted in the latest decision of the Ukrainian Authorities about 2000 as a deadline for a beginning of the Chernobyl NPP decommissioning. The date seems a sound compromise among the parties concerned. However, in order to meet the data a lot of work should be done. First of all, a decommissioning strategy has to be established. The problem is complicated due to both site-specific aspects and an absence of proven solutions for the RBMK-type reactor decommissioning. In the paper the problem of decommissioning option selection is considered taking into account an influence of the following factors: relevant legislative and regulatory requirements; resources required to carry out decommissioning (man-power, equipment, technologies, waste management infrastructure, etc.); radiological and physical status of the plant, including structural integrity and predictable age and weather effects; impact of planned activities at the destroyed unit 4 and within the 30-km exclusion zone of the Chernobyl NPP; planed use of the site; socio-economic considerations.

  19. Prostate cancer chemoprevention: Current status and future prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Sanjay

    2007-11-01

    Chemoprevention is a strategy that aims to reduce the incidence and burden of cancer through the development of agents to prevent, reverse or delay the carcinogenic process. Prostate cancer is a suitable target for prevention because it has a high incidence and prevalence, as well as a long latency and disease-related mortality, and furthermore it is a disease in which lifestyle and environmental factors may play critical roles. The development of chemoprevention strategies against prostate cancer will have a huge impact, both medically and economically. Large-scale clinical trials suggest that some agents such as selenium, lycopene, soy, green tea, vitamins D and E, anti-inflammatory and inhibitors of 5{alpha}-reductase are effective in preventing prostate cancer. Although each agent has the potential to affect the natural history of the disease, it is important to develop strategies to strategically proceed for the design and selection of test agents in order to demonstrate clinical benefit with the minimum of adverse effects. Appropriate selection of agent(s), disease stage, trial design and endpoints is critical in selecting the most promising regimens to accomplish these goals. This review highlights the present status of prostate cancer chemoprevention and discusses future prospects for chemopreventive strategies that are safe and clinically beneficial.

  20. Current status of HIV/AIDS in the ART era.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Kazuhisa

    2017-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) spread to humans from chimpanzees (HIV-1 groups M and N), gorillas (HIV-1 groups P and O), and sooty mangabeys (HIV-2). HIV is spread mainly through blood or body fluids. Subjects can become infected with HIV by sexual contact, needle sharing, blood transfusions, or maternal transmissions as a blood-borne virus or via breast-milk. The incubation period of HIV-1 from infection to the development of AIDS ranges from 8 to 11 years. In the past 3 decades, HIV has caused a great burden to global wealth and health. According to the WHO global health survey, 36.7 million people were infected with HIV, causing 1.1 million deaths in 2015. Since the discovery of HIV-1, many anti-retroviral drugs have been developed. Following the discovery and wide-spread use of anti-retroviral therapy (ART) the life expectancy of HIV infected individuals has substantially increased. By 2015, all major guidelines recommended treating all HIV-infected adults regardless of their CD4 count. Despite effective ART with virological suppression, HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND), cardiovascular diseases (CVD), metabolic syndrome (MS), bone abnormalities and non-HIV-associated malignancies remain a major complication associated with HIV infection. In this review article, I would like to describe recent ART status and problems in the ART-era.