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Sample records for microgravity flame spread

  1. Triple flames in microgravity flame spread

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wichman, Indrek S.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to examine in detail the influence of the triple flame structure on the flame spread problem. It is with an eye to the practical implications that this fundamental research project must be carried out. The microgravity configuration is preferable because buoyancy-induced stratification and vorticity generation are suppressed. A more convincing case can be made for comparing our predictions, which are zero-g, and any projected experiments. Our research into the basic aspects will employ two models. In one, flows of fuel and oxidizer from the lower wall are not considered. In the other, a convective flow is allowed. The non-flow model allows us to develop combined analytical and numerical solution methods that may be used in the more complicated convective-flow model.

  2. Ignition, Transition, Flame Spread in Multidimensional Configurations in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kashiwagi, Takashi; Mell, William E.; McGrattan, Kevin B.; Baum, Howard R.; Olson, Sandra L.; Fujita, Osamu; Kikuchi, Masao; Ito, Kenichi

    1997-01-01

    Ignition of solid fuels by external thermal radiation and subsequent transition to flame spread are processes that not only are of considerable scientific interest but which also have fire safety applications. A material which undergoes a momentary ignition might be tolerable but a material which permits a transition to subsequent flame spread would significantly increase the fire hazard in a spacecraft. Therefore, the limiting condition under which flame cannot spread should be calculated from a model of the transition from ignition instead of by the traditional approach based on limits to a steady flame spread model. However, although the fundamental processes involved in ignition have been suggested there have been no definitive experimental or modeling studies due to the flow motion generated by buoyancy near the heated sample surface. In this study, microgravity experiments which required longer test times such as in air and surface smoldering experiment were conducted in the space shuttle STS-75 flight; shorter experimental tests such as in 35% and 50% oxygen were conducted in the droptower in the Japan Microgravity Center, JAMIC. Their experimental data along with theoretically calculated results from solving numerically the time-dependent Navier-Stokes equations are summarized in this paper.

  3. Ignition, Transition, Flame Spread in Multidimensional Configurations in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kashiwagi, Takashi; Mell, William E.; McGrattan, Kevin B.; Baum, Howard R.; Olson, Sandra L.; Fujita, Osamu; Kikuchi, Masao; Ito, Kenichi

    1997-01-01

    Ignition of solid fuels by external thermal radiation and subsequent transition to flame spread are processes that not only are of considerable scientific interest but which also have fire safety applications. A material which undergoes a momentary ignition might be tolerable but a material which permits a transition to subsequent flame spread would significantly increase the fire hazard in a spacecraft. Therefore, the limiting condition under which flame cannot spread should be calculated from a model of the transition from ignition instead of by the traditional approach based on limits to a steady flame spread model. However, although the fundamental processes involved in ignition have been suggested there have been no definitive experimental or modeling studies due to the flow motion generated by buoyancy near the heated sample surface. In this study, microgravity experiments which required longer test times such as in air and surface smoldering experiment were conducted in the space shuttle STS-75 flight; shorter experimental tests such as in 35% and 50% oxygen were conducted in the droptower in the Japan Microgravity Center, JAMIC. Their experimental data along with theoretically calculated results from solving numerically the time-dependent Navier-Stokes equations are summarized in this paper.

  4. Effect of Wind Velocity on Flame Spread in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prasad, Kuldeep; Olson, Sandra L.; Nakamura, Yuji; Fujita, Osamu; Nishizawa, Katsuhiro; Ito, Kenichi; Kashiwagi, Takashi; Simons, Stephen N. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A three-dimensional, time-dependent model is developed describing ignition and subsequent transition to flame spread over a thermally thin cellulosic sheet heated by external radiation in a microgravity environment. A low Mach number approximation to the Navier Stokes equations with global reaction rate equations describing combustion in the gas phase and the condensed phase is numerically solved. The effects of a slow external wind (1-20 cm/s) on flame transition are studied in an atmosphere of 35% oxygen concentration. The ignition is initiated at the center part of the sample by generating a line-shape flame along the width of the sample. The calculated results are compared with data obtained in the 10s drop tower. Numerical results exhibit flame quenching at a wind speed of 1.0 cm/s, two localized flames propagating upstream along the sample edges at 1.5 cm/s, a single line-shape flame front at 5.0 cm/s, three flames structure observed at 10.0 cm/s (consisting of a single line-shape flame propagating upstream and two localized flames propagating downstream along sample edges) and followed by two line-shape flames (one propagating upstream and another propagating downstream) at 20.0 cm/s. These observations qualitatively compare with experimental data. Three-dimensional visualization of the observed flame complex, fuel concentration contours, oxygen and reaction rate isosurfaces, convective and diffusive mass flux are used to obtain a detailed understanding of the controlling mechanism, Physical arguments based on lateral diffusive flux of oxygen, fuel depletion, oxygen shadow of the flame and heat release rate are constructed to explain the various observed flame shapes.

  5. The Effect of Microgravity on Flame Spread over a Thin Fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, Sandra L.

    1987-01-01

    A flame spreading over a thermally thin cellulose fuel was studied in a quiescent microgravity environment. Flame spread over two different fuel thicknesses was studied in ambient oxygen-nitrogen environments from the limiting oxygen concentration to 100 percent oxygen at 1 atm pressure. Comparative normal-gravity tests were also conducted. Gravity was found to play an important role in the mechanism of flame spread. In lower oxygen environments, the buoyant flow induced in normal gravity was found to accelerate the flame spread rate as compared to the microgravity flame spread rates. It was also found to stabilize the flame in oxidizer environments, where microgravity flames in a quiescent environment extinguish. In oxygen-rich environments, however, it was determined that gravity does not play an important role in the flame spread mechanism. Fuel thickness influences the flame spread rate in both normal gravity and microgravity. The flame spread rate varies inversely with fuel thickness in both normal gravity and in an oxygen-rich microgravity environment. In lower oxygen microgravity environments, however, the inverse relationship breaks down because finite-rate kinetics and heat losses become important. Two different extinction limits were found in microgravity for the two thicknesses of fuel. This is in contrast to the normal-gravity extinction limit, which was found to be independent of fuel thickness. In microgravity the flame is quenched because of excessive thermal losses, whereas in normal gravity the flame is extinguished by blowoff.

  6. Multidimensional Effects on Ignition, Transition, and Flame Spread in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kashiwagi, T.; Mell, W. E.; Nakamura, Y.; Olson, S. L.; Baum, H. R.; McGrattan, K. B.

    2001-01-01

    Localized ignition is initiated by an external radiant source at the middle of a thermally thin sample under external slow flow, simulating fire initiation in a spacecraft with a slow ventilation flow. Two ignition configurations are simulated, one across the sample surface creating a line shaped flame front (two-dimensional, 2-D, configuration) and the other a small circular ignition (three-dimensional, 3-D, configuration). Ignition, subsequent transition to simultaneously upstream and downstream flame spread, and flame growth behavior are studied experimentally and theoretically. Details of our theoretical models and numerical techniques can be found in previous publications. The effects of the sample width on the transition and subsequent flame spread, and flame spread along open edges of a thermally thin paper sample are determined. Experimental observations of flame spread phenomena were conducted in the 10 s drop tower and also on the space shuttle STS-75 flight to determine the effects of oxygen concentration and external flow velocity on flame spread rate and flame growth pattern. Finally, effects of confinement in a small test chamber on the transition and subsequent flame spread are examined. The results of these studies are briefly reported.

  7. Microgravity flame spread over thick solids in low velocity opposed flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shuangfeng; Zhu, Feng

    2016-07-01

    Motivated primarily by fire safety of spacecraft, a renewed interest in microgravity flame spread over solid materials has arisen. With few exceptions, however, research on microgravity flame spread has been focused on thermally thin fuels due to the constraint on available test time. In this study, two sets of experiments are conducted to examine the flame spread and extinction behavior over thick PMMA in simulated and actual microgravity environments. The low-gravity flame spread environment is produced by a narrow channel apparatus in normal gravity. Extinction limits using flow velocity and oxygen concentration as coordinates are presented, and flame spread rates are determined as a function of the velocity and oxygen concentration of the gas flow. The microgravity experiments are also performed with varying low-velocity flow and varying ambient oxygen concentration. The important observations include flame behavior and appearance as a function of oxygen concentration and flow velocity, temperature variation in gas and solid phases, and flame spread rate. A comparison between simulated and actual microgravity data is made, and general agreement is found. Based on the experimental observations, mechanisms for flame spread and extinction in low velocity opposed flows are discussed.

  8. Solid surface combustion experiment flame spread in a quiescent, microgravity environment implications of spread rate and flame structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bundy, Matthew; West, Jeff; Thomas, Peter C.; Bhattacharjee, Subrata; Tang, Lin; Altenkirch, Robert A.; Sacksteder, Kurt

    1995-01-01

    A unique environment in which flame spreading, a phenomenon of fundamental, scientific interest, has importance to fire safety is that of spacecraft in which the gravitational acceleration is low compared with that of the Earth, i.e., microgravity. Experiments aboard eight Space Shuttle missions between October 1990 and February 1995 were conducted using the Solid Surface Combustion Experiment (SSCE) payload apparatus in an effort to determine the mechanisms of gas-phase flame spread over solid fuel surfaces in the absence of any buoyancy induced or externally imposed oxidizer flow. The overall SSCE effort began in December of 1984. The SSCE apparatus consists of a sealed container, approximately 0.039 cu m, that is filled with a specified O2/N2 mixture at a prescribed pressure. Five of the experiments used a thin cellulosic fuel, ashless filter paper, 3 cm wide x 10 cm long, 0.00825 cm half-thickness, ignited in five different ambient conditions. Three of the experiments, the most recent, used thick polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) samples 0.635 cm wide x 2 cm long, 0.32 cm half-thickness. Three experiments, STS 41, 40 and 43, were designed to evaluate the effect of ambient pressure on flame spread over the thin cellulosic fuel while flights STS 50 and 47 were at the same pressure as two of the earlier flights but at a lower oxygen concentration in order to evaluate the effect of ambient oxygen level on the flame spread process at microgravity. For the PMMA flights, two experiments, STS 54 and 63, were at the same pressure but different oxygen concentrations while STS 64 was at the same oxygen concentration as STS 63 but at a higher pressure. Two orthogonal views of the experiments were recorded on 16 mm cine-cameras operating at 24 frames/s. In addition to filmed images of the side view of the flames and surface view of the burning samples, solid- and gas-phase temperatures were recorded using thermocouples. The experiment is battery powered and follows an automated

  9. Flame Spread Along Free Edges of Thermally Thin Samples in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mell, W E; Olson, S L; Kashiwagi, T

    2000-01-01

    The effects of imposed flow velocity on flame spread along open edges of a thermally thin cellulosic sample in microgravity were studied experimentally and theoretically. In this study, the sample was ignited locally at the middle of the 4 cm wide sample, and subsequent flame spread reached both open edges of the sample along the direction of the flow. The following flame behaviors were observed in the experiments and predicted by the numerical calculation, in order of increased imposed flow velocity: (1) ignition but subsequent flame spread was not attained, (2) flame spread upstream (opposed mode) without any downstream flame, and (3) the upstream flame and two separate downstream flames traveled along the two open edges (concurrent mode). Generally, the upstream and downstream edge flame spread rates were faster than the central flame spread rate for an imposed flow velocity of up to 5 cm/s. This was due to greater oxygen supply from the outer free stream to the edge flames and more efficient heat transfer from the edge flames to the sample surface than the central flames. For the upstream edge flame, flame spread rate was nearly independent of, or decreased gradually with, the imposed flow velocity. The spread rate of the downstream edge, however, increased significantly with the imposed flow velocity.

  10. An Investigation of Flame Spread over Shallow Liquid Pools in Microgravity and Nonair Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Howard D.; Sotos, Raymond G.

    1989-01-01

    Experiments of interest to combustion fundamentals and spacecraft fire safety investigated flame spread of alcohol fuels over shallow, 15 cm diameter pools in a 5.2 sec free-fall, microgravity facility. Results showed that, independent O2 concentration, alcohol fuel, and diluent types, microgravity flame spread rates were nearly identical to those corresponding normal-gravity flames for conditions where the normal gravity flames spread uniformly. This similarity indicated buoyancy-related convection in either phase does not affect flame spread, at least for the physical scale of the experiments. However, microgravity extinction coincided with the onset conditions for pulsating spread in normal gravity, implicating gas phase, buoyant flow as a requirement for pulsating spread. When the atmospheric nitrogen was replaced with argon, the conditions for the onset of normal-gravity pulsating flame spread and microgravity flame extinction were changed, in agreement with the expected lowering of the flash point through the thermal properties of the diluent. Helium-diluted flames, however, showed unexpected results with a shift to apparently higher flash-point temperatures and high normal gravity pulsation amplitudes.

  11. Flame Spread Along Free Edges of Thermally Thin Samples in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mell, W. E.; Olson, S. L.; Kashiwagi, T.

    2000-01-01

    The effects of imposed flow velocity on flame spread along open edges of a thermally thin cellulosic sample in microgravity are studied experimentally and theoretically. In this study, the sample is ignited locally at the middle of the 4 cm wide sample and subsequent flame spread reaches both open edges of the sample. The following flame behaviors are observed in the experiments and predicted by the numerical calculation; in order of increased imposed flow velocity: (1) ignition but subsequent flame spread is not attained, (2) flame spreads upstream (opposed mode) without any downstream flame, and (3) the upstream flame and two separate downstream flames traveling along the two open edges (concurrent mode). Generally, the upstream and downstream edge flame spread rates are faster than the central flame spread rate for an imposed flow velocity of up to 5 cm/s. This is due to greater oxygen supply from the outer free stream to the edge flames than the central flames, For the upstream edge flame, the greater oxygen supply results in a flame spread rate that is nearly independent of, or decreases gradually, with the imposed flow velocity. The spread rate of the downstream edge, however, increases significantly with the imposed flow velocity.

  12. Opposed-flow Flame Spread Over Solid Fuels in Microgravity: the Effect of Confined Spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shuangfeng; Hu, Jun; Xiao, Yuan; Ren, Tan; Zhu, Feng

    2015-09-01

    Effects of confined spaces on flame spread over thin solid fuels in a low-speed opposing flow is investigated by combined use of microgravity experiments and computations. The flame behaviors are observed to depend strongly on the height of the flow tunnel. In particular, a non-monotonic trend of flame spread rate versus tunnel height is found, with the fastest flame occurring in the 3 cm high tunnel. The flame length and the total heat release rate from the flame also change with tunnel height, and a faster flame has a larger length and a higher heat release rate. The computation analyses indicate that a confined space modifies the flow around the spreading flame. The confinement restricts the thermal expansion and accelerates the flow in the streamwise direction. Above the flame, the flow deflects back from the tunnel wall. This inward flow pushes the flame towards the fuel surface, and increases oxygen transport into the flame. Such a flow modification explains the variations of flame spread rate and flame length with tunnel height. The present results suggest that the confinement effects on flame behavior in microgravity should be accounted to assess accurately the spacecraft fire hazard.

  13. Microgravity Flame Spread in Exploration Atmospheres: Pressure, Oxygen, and Velocity Effects on Opposed and Concurrent Flame Spread

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, Sandra L.; Ruff, Gary A.; Fletcher, J. Miller

    2008-01-01

    Microgravity tests of flammability and flame spread were performed in a low-speed flow tunnel to simulate spacecraft ventilation flows. Three thin fuels were tested for flammability (Ultem 1000 (General Electric Company), 10 mil film, Nomex (Dupont) HT90-40, and Mylar G (Dupont) and one fuel for flame spread testing (Kimwipes (Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc.). The 1g Upward Limiting Oxygen Index (ULOI) and 1g Maximum Oxygen Concentration (MOC) are found to be greater than those in 0g, by up to 4% oxygen mole fraction, meaning that the fuels burned in 0g at lower oxygen concentrations than they did using the NASA Standard 6001 Test 1 protocol. Flame spread tests with Kimwipes were used to develop correlations that capture the effects of flow velocity, oxygen concentration, and pressure on flame spread rate. These correlations were used to determine that over virtually the entire range of spacecraft atmospheres and flow conditions, the opposed spread is faster, especially for normoxic atmospheres. The correlations were also compared with 1g MOC for various materials as a function of pressure and oxygen. The lines of constant opposed flow agreed best with the 1g MOC trends, which indicates that Test 1 limits are essentially dictated by the critical heat flux for ignition. Further evaluation of these and other materials is continuing to better understand the 0g flammability of materials and its effect on the oxygen margin of safety.

  14. Mechanisms of microgravity flame spread over a thin solid fuel - Oxygen and opposed flow effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, S. L.

    1991-01-01

    Microgravity tests varying oxygen concentration and forced flow velocity have examined the importance of transport processes on flame spread over very thin solid fuels. Flame spread rates, solid phase temperature profiles and flame appearance for these tests are measured. A flame spread map is presented which indicates three distinct regions where different mechanisms control the flame spread process. In the near-quenching region (very low characteristic relative velocities) a new controlling mechanism for flame spread - oxidizer transport-limited chemical reaction - is proposed. In the near-limit, blowoff region, high opposed flow velocities impose residence time limitations on the flame spread process. A critical characteristic relative velocity line between the two near-limit regions defines conditions which result in maximum flammability both in terms of a peak flame spread rate and minimum oxygen concentration for steady burning. In the third region, away from both near-limit regions, the flame spread behavior, which can accurately be described by a thermal theory, is controlled by gas-phase conduction.

  15. Ignition, Transition, Flame Spread in Multidimensional Configurations in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kashiwagi, Takashi; Mell, William E.; Baum, Howard R.; Olson, Sandra

    1999-01-01

    In the inhabited quarters of orbiting spacecraft, fire is a greatly feared hazard. Thus, the fire safety strategy in a spacecraft is (1) to keep any fire as small as possible, (2) to detect any fire as early as possible, and (3) to extinguish any fire as quickly as possible. This suggests that a material which undergoes a momentary ignition might be tolerable but a material which permits a transition from a localized ignition to flame spread would significantly increase the fire hazard in a spacecraft. If the transition does not take place, fire growth does not occur. Therefore, it is critical to understand what process controls the transition. Many previous works have studied ignition and flame spread separately or were limited to a two-dimensional configuration. In this study, time-dependent phenomena of the transition over a thermally thin sample is studied experimentally and theoretically in two- and three-dimensional (2D,3D) configurations. Furthermore, localized ignition can be initiated at the center portion of thermally thin paper sample instead of at one end of the sample. Thus, the transition to flame spread could occur either toward upstream or downstream or both directions simultaneously with an external flow. In this presentation, the difference in the transition between the 3D and 2D configurations is explained with the numerically calculated data. For sufficiently narrow samples edge effects exist. Some results on this issue are presented. New analysis of the surface smoldering experiments conducted in the space shuttle STS-75 flight is also described.

  16. Ignition, Transition, Flame Spread in Multidimensional Configurations in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kashiwagi, Takashi; Mell, William E.; Baum, Howard R.; Olson, Sandra

    1999-01-01

    In the inhabited quarters of orbiting spacecraft, fire is a greatly feared hazard. Thus, the fire safety strategy in a spacecraft is (1) to keep any fire as small as possible, (2) to detect any fire as early as possible, and (3) to extinguish any fire as quickly as possible. This suggests that a material which undergoes a momentary ignition might be tolerable but a material which permits a transition from a localized ignition to flame spread would significantly increase the fire hazard in a spacecraft. If the transition does not take place, fire growth does not occur. Therefore, it is critical to understand what process controls the transition. Many previous works have studied ignition and flame spread separately or were limited to a two-dimensional configuration. In this study, time-dependent phenomena of the transition over a thermally thin sample is studied experimentally and theoretically in two- and three-dimensional (2D,3D) configurations. Furthermore, localized ignition can be initiated at the center portion of thermally thin paper sample instead of at one end of the sample. Thus, the transition to flame spread could occur either toward upstream or downstream or both directions simultaneously with an external flow. In this presentation, the difference in the transition between the 3D and 2D configurations is explained with the numerically calculated data. For sufficiently narrow samples edge effects exist. Some results on this issue are presented. New analysis of the surface smoldering experiments conducted in the space shuttle STS-75 flight is also described.

  17. Effect Of Low External Flow On Flame Spreading Over ETFE Insulated Wire Under Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishizawa, Katsuhiro; Fujita, Osamu; Ito, Kenichi; Kikuchi, Masao; Olson, Sandra L.; Kashiwagi, Takashi

    2003-01-01

    Fire safety is one of the most important issues for manned space missions. A likely cause of fires in spacecraft is wire insulation combustion in electrical system. Regarding the wire insulation combustion it important to know the effect of low external flow on the combustion because of the presence of ventilation flow in spacecraft. Although, there are many researches on flame spreading over solid material at low external flows under microgravity, research dealing with wire insulation is very limited. An example of wire insulation combustion in microgravity is the Space Shuttle experiments carried out by Greenberg et al. However, the number of experiments was very limited. Therefore, the effect of low flow velocity is still not clear. The authors have reported results on flame spreading over ETFE (ethylene - tetrafluoroetylene) insulated wire in a quiescent atmosphere in microgravity by 10 seconds drop tower. The authors also performed experiments of polyethylene insulated nichrom wire combustion in low flow velocity under microgravity. The results suggested that flame spread rate had maximum value in low flow velocity condition. Another interesting issue is the effect of dilution gas, especially CO2, which is used for fire extinguisher in ISS. There are some researches working on dilution gas effect on flame spreading over solid material in quiescent atmosphere in microgravity. However the research with low external flow is limited and, of course, the research discussing a relation of the appearance of maximum wire flammability in low flow velocity region with different dilution gas cannot be found yet. The present paper, therefore, investigates the effect of opposed flow with different dilution gas on flame spreading over ETFE insulated wire and change in the presence of the maximum flammability depending on the dilution gas type is discussed within the limit of microgravity time given by ground-based facility.

  18. A Characterization Of Alcohol Fuel Vapor For Wavelength Modulation Spectroscopy Applied To Microgravity Flame Spread

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulis, Michael J.; Perry, David S.; Miller, Fletcher; Piltch, Nancy

    2003-01-01

    A diode laser diagnostic is being developed for use in an ongoing investigation of flame spread in microgravity at NASA Glenn Research Center. Flame spread rates through non-homogenous gas mixtures are significantly different in a microgravity environment because of buoyancy and possibly hydrostatic pressure effects. These effects contribute to the fuel vapor concentration ahead of the flame being altered so that flame spread is more rapid in microgravity. This paper describes spectral transmission measurements made through mixtures of alcohol, water vapor, and nitrogen in a gas cell that was designed and built to allow measurements at temperatures up to 500 C. The alcohols considered are methanol, ethanol, and n-propanol. The basic technique of wavelength modulation spectroscopy for gas species measurements in microgravity was developed by Silver et al. For this technique to be applicable, one must carefully choose the spectral features over which the diode laser is modulated to provide good sensitivity and minimize interference from other molecular lines such as those in water. Because the methanol spectrum was not known with sufficient resolution in the wavelength region of interest, our first task was to perform high-resolution transmission measurements with an FTIR spectrometer for methanol vapor in nitrogen, followed recently by ethanol and n-propanol. A computer program was written to generate synthesized data to mimic that expected from the experiment using the laser diode, and results from that simulation are also presented.

  19. Radiation-Driven Flame Spread Over Thermally-Thick Fuels in Quiescent Microgravity Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Honda, Linton K.; Son, Youngjin; Ronney, Paul D.; Olson, Sandra (Technical Monitor); Gokoglu, Suleyman (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Microgravity experiments on flame spread over thermally thick fuels were conducted using foam fuels to obtain low density and thermal conductivity, and thus large spread rate (Sf) compared to dense fuels such as PMMA. This scheme enabled meaningful results to lie obtained even in 2.2 second drop tower experiments. It was found that, in contrast conventional understanding; steady spread can occur over thick fuels in quiescent microgravity environments, especially when a radiatively active diluent gas such as CO2 is employed. This is proposed to be due to radiative transfer from the flame to the fuel surface. Additionally, the transition from thermally thick to thermally thin behavior with decreasing bed thickness is demonstrated.

  20. Computation of radiative fields in opposed-flow flame spread in a microgravity environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villaraza, Jeanie Ray P.

    The purpose of this thesis is to perform radiation computations in opposed-flow flame spread in a microgravity environment. In this work, the flame spread simulations consider a thermally thin, PMMA fuel in a quiescent, microgravity environment or facing low opposed-flow velocities at ambient conditions of 1 atm and 50-50 volumetric mixture of oxygen and nitrogen. The flame spread model, which is a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model, is used for numerical simulations in combination with a radiation model. The CFD code is written in FORTRAN language, and a Matlab code is developed for plotting results. The temperature and species fields from CFD computations are used as inputs into the radiation model. Radiative quantities are calculated by using a global balance method along with the total transmittance non-homogeneous model. Radiation effect on thermocouple temperature measurement is investigated. Although this topic is well known, performing radiation correction calculations usually considers surface radiation only and not gas radiation. The inclusion of gas radiation is utilized in predicting the gas temperature that a thermocouple would measure. A narrow bed radiation model is used to determine the average incident radiative flux at a specified location from which a thermocouple temperature measurement is predicted. This study focuses on the quiescent microgravity environment only. The effect of parameters such as thermocouple surface emissivity and bead diameter are also studied. For the main part of this thesis, the effect of gas radiation on the mechanism of flame spread over a thermally thin, solid fuel in microgravity is investigated computationally. Generated radiative fields including thermal and species fields are utilized to investigate the nature of the influence of gas radiation on flame structure as well as its role in the mechanism of opposed-flow flame spread. The opposed-flow configuration considers low flow velocities including a quiescent

  1. Retrieval of Temperature and Species Distributions from Multispectral Image Data of Surface Flame Spread in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Annen, K. D.; Conant, John A.; Weiland, Karen J.

    2001-01-01

    Weight, size, and power constraints severely limit the ability of researchers to fully characterize temperature and species distributions in microgravity combustion experiments. A powerful diagnostic technique, infrared imaging spectrometry, has the potential to address the need for temperature and species distribution measurements in microgravity experiments. An infrared spectrum imaged along a line-of-sight contains information on the temperature and species distribution in the imaged path. With multiple lines-of-sight and approximate knowledge of the geometry of the combustion flowfield, a three-dimensional distribution of temperature and species can be obtained from one hyperspectral image of a flame. While infrared imaging spectrometers exist for collecting hyperspectral imagery, the remaining challenge is retrieving the temperature and species information from this data. An initial version of an infrared analysis software package, called CAMEO (Combustion Analysis Model et Optimizer), has been developed for retrieving temperature and species distributions from hyperspectral imaging data of combustion flowfields. CAMEO has been applied to the analysis of multispectral imaging data of flame spread over a PMMA surface in microgravity that was acquired in the DARTFire program. In the next section of this paper, a description of CAMEO and its operation is presented, followed by the results of the analysis of microgravity flame spread data.

  2. Ignition and subsequent transition to flame spread in a microgravity environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kashiwagi, Takashi; Mcgrattan, Kevin; Baum, Howard

    1995-01-01

    The fire safety strategy in a spacecraft is (1) to detect any fire as early as possible, (2) to keep any fire as small as possible, and (3) to extinguish any fire as quickly as possible. This suggests that a material which undergoes a momentary, localized ignition might be tolerable but a material which permits a transition to flame spread would significantly increase the fire hazard. Therefore, it is important to understand how the transition from localized ignition to flame spread occurs and what parameters significantly affect the transition. The fundamental processes involved in ignition and flame spread have been extensively studied, but they have been studied separately. Some of the steady state flame models start from ignition to reach a steady state, but since the objective of such a calculation is to obtain the steady state flame spread rate, the calculation through the transition process is made without high accuracy to save computational time. We have studied the transition from a small localized ignition at the center of a thermally thin paper in a microgravity environment. The configuration for that study was axisymmetric, but more general versions of the numerical scheme have been developed by including the effects of a slow, external flow in both two and three dimensions. By exploiting the non-buoyant nature of the flow, it is possible to achieve resolution of fractions of millimeters for 3D flow domains on the order of 10 centimeters. Because the calculations are time dependent, we can study the evolution of multiple flame fronts originating from a localized ignition source. The interaction of these fronts determines whether or not they will eventually achieve steady state spread. Most flame spread studies in microgravity consider two-dimensional flame spread initiated by ignition at one end of a sample strip with or against a slow external flow. In this configuration there is only one flame front. A more realistic scenario involves separate

  3. Flame spread over thick polymethylmethacrylate samples in a simulated and actual microgravity environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Tirthesh Jayesh

    The NASA Burning and Suppression of Solids-II (BASS II) experiment examines the combustion of different solid materials and material geometries in microgravity. While flames in microgravity are driven by diffusion and weak advection due to crew movements and ventilation, the current NASA spacecraft material selection test method (NASA-STD- 6001 Test 1) is driven by buoyant forces as gravity is present. The overall goal of this project is to understand the burning of intermediate and thick fuels in microgravity, and devise a normal gravity test to apply to future materials. Clear cast polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) samples 10 cm long by 1 or 2 cm wide with thicknesses ranging from 1-5 mm were investigated. PMMA is the ideal choice since it is widely used and we know its stoichiometric chemistry. Tests included both one sided and two sided burns. Samples are ignited by heating a wire behind the sample. The samples are burned in a flow duct within the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) on the International Space Station (ISS) to ensure true microgravity conditions. The experiment takes place in opposed flow with varying Oxygen concentrations and flow velocities. Flames are recorded on two cameras and later tracked to determine spread rate. Currently we are modeling combustion of PMMA using Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS 5.5.3) and Smokeview. The entire modelling for BASS-II is done in DNS mode because of the laminar conditions and small domain. In DNS mode the Navier Stokes equations are solved without the Turbulence model. The model employs the same test sample and MSG geometry as the experiment; but in 2D. The experimental data gave upstream velocity at several points using an anemometer. A flow profile for the inlet velocity is obtained using Matlab and input into the model. The flame spread rates obtained after tracking are then compared with the experimental data and the results follow the trends but the spread rates are higher.

  4. Extinction Criteria for Opposed-Flow Flame Spread in a Microgravity Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhattacharjee, Subrata; Paolini, Chris; Wakai, Kazunori; Takahashi, Shuhei

    2003-01-01

    A simplified analysis is presented to extend a previous work on flame extinction in a quiescent microgravity environment to a more likely situation of a mild opposing flow. The energy balance equation, that includes surface re-radiation, is solved to yield a closed form spread rate expression in terms of its thermal limit, and a radiation number that can be evaluated from the known parameters of the problem. Based on this spread rate expression, extinction criterions for a flame over solid fuels, both thin and thick, have been developed that are qualitatively verified with experiments conducted at the MGLAB in Japan. Flammability maps with oxygen level, opposing flow velocity and fuel thickness as independent variables are extracted from the theory that explains the well-established trends in the existing experimental data.

  5. Transport and Chemical Effects on Concurrent and Opposed-Flow Flame Spread at Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Honda, L. K.; Ronney, P. D.

    1999-01-01

    With support from a previous NASA grant, NAG3-161 1, the PI studied the effects of diluent type, the addition of sub-flammability-limit concentrations of combustible gases, and the effects of concurrent buoyant flow on flame spread processes. The results of these studies are reported and directions for the current grant outlined. Most experiments were conducted in a 20 liter combustion chamber. Exactly the same apparatus was used for 1 g and microgravity tests. The effect of inert gases He, Ar, N2, CO2 and SF6 on flame spread were tested since they provide a variety of radiative properties and oxygen Lewis numbers. CO and CH4 were used for the gaseous fuels in partially-premixed atmosphere tests, plus H2, C3H8 and NH3 for 1 g tests only. In most experiments 5 cm wide Kimwipe samples 15 cm long were used and were held by aluminum quenching plates. The samples were ignited by an electrically-heated Kanthal wire. The flame spread process was imaged via three video cameras and a laser shearing interferometer.

  6. Flame spread across liquids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Howard D.; Miller, Fletcher; Schiller, David; Sirignano, William

    1995-01-01

    Recent reviews of our understanding of flame spread across liquids show that there are many unresolved issues regarding the phenomenology and causal mechanisms affecting ignition susceptibility, flame spread characteristics, and flame spread rates. One area of discrepancy is the effect of buoyancy in both the uniform and pulsating spread regimes. The approach we have taken to resolving the importance of buoyancy for these flames is: (1) normal gravity (1g) and microgravity (micro g) experiments; and (2) numerical modeling at different gravitational levels. Of special interest to this work, as discussed at the previous workshop, is the determination of whether, and under what conditions, pulsating spread occurs in micro g. Microgravity offers a unique ability to modify and control the gas-phase flow pattern by utilizing a forced air flow over the pool surface.

  7. Heat Transfer to a Thin Solid Combustible in Flame Spreading at Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhattacharjee, S.; Altenkirch, R. A.; Olson, S. L.; Sotos, R. G.

    1991-01-01

    The heat transfer rate to a thin solid combustible from an attached diffusion flame, spreading across the surface of the combustible in a quiescent, microgravity environment, was determined from measurements made in the drop tower facility at NASA-Lewis Research Center. With first-order Arrhenius pyrolysis kinetics, the solid-phase mass and energy equations along with the measured spread rate and surface temperature profiles were used to calculate the net heat flux to the surface. Results of the measurements are compared to the numerical solution of the complete set of coupled differential equations that describes the temperature, species, and velocity fields in the gas and solid phases. The theory and experiment agree on the major qualitative features of the heat transfer. Some fundamental differences are attributed to the neglect of radiation in the theoretical model.

  8. Heat Transfer to a Thin Solid Combustible in Flame Spreading at Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhattacharjee, S.; Altenkirch, R. A.; Olson, S. L.; Sotos, R. G.

    1991-01-01

    The heat transfer rate to a thin solid combustible from an attached diffusion flame, spreading across the surface of the combustible in a quiescent, microgravity environment, was determined from measurements made in the drop tower facility at NASA-Lewis Research Center. With first-order Arrhenius pyrolysis kinetics, the solid-phase mass and energy equations along with the measured spread rate and surface temperature profiles were used to calculate the net heat flux to the surface. Results of the measurements are compared to the numerical solution of the complete set of coupled differential equations that describes the temperature, species, and velocity fields in the gas and solid phases. The theory and experiment agree on the major qualitative features of the heat transfer. Some fundamental differences are attributed to the neglect of radiation in the theoretical model.

  9. Sounding Rocket Microgravity Experiments Elucidating Diffusive and Radiative Transport Effects on Flame Spread over Thermally-Thick Solids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, Sandra L.; Hegde, U.; Bhattacharjee, S.; Deering, J. L.; Tang, L.; Altenkirch, R. A.

    2003-01-01

    A series of 6-minute microgravity combustion experiments of opposed flow flame spread over thermally-thick PMMA has been conducted to extend data previously reported at high opposed flows to almost two decades lower in flow. The effect of flow velocity on flame spread shows a square root power law dependence rather than the linear dependence predicted by thermal theory. The experiments demonstrate that opposed flow flame spread is viable to very low velocities and more robust than expected from the numerical model, which predicts that at very low velocities (less than 5 centimeters per second), flame spread rates fall off more rapidly as flow is reduced. It is hypothesized that the enhanced flame spread observed in the experiments may be due to three- dimensional hydrodynamic effects, which are not included in the zero-gravity, two-dimensional hydrodynamic model. The effect of external irradiation was found to be more complex that the model predicted over the 0-2 Watts per square centimeter range. In the experiments, the flame compensated for the increased irradiation by stabilizing farther from the surface. A surface energy balance reveals that the imposed flux was at least partially offset by a reduced conductive flux from the increased standoff distance, so that the effect on flame spread was weaker than anticipated.

  10. Concurrent Flame Growth, Spread and Extinction over Composite Fabric Samples in Low Speed Purely Forced Flow in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhao, Xiaoyang; T'ien, James S.; Ferkul, Paul V.; Olson, Sandra L.

    2015-01-01

    As a part of the NASA BASS and BASS-II experimental projects aboard the International Space Station, flame growth, spread and extinction over a composite cotton-fiberglass fabric blend (referred to as the SIBAL fabric) were studied in low-speed concurrent forced flows. The tests were conducted in a small flow duct within the Microgravity Science Glovebox. The fuel samples measured 1.2 and 2.2 cm wide and 10 cm long. Ambient oxygen was varied from 21% down to 16% and flow speed from 40 cm/s down to 1 cm/s. A small flame resulted at low flow, enabling us to observe the entire history of flame development including ignition, flame growth, steady spread (in some cases) and decay at the end of the sample. In addition, by decreasing flow velocity during some of the tests, low-speed flame quenching extinction limits were found as a function of oxygen percentage. The quenching speeds were found to be between 1 and 5 cm/s with higher speed in lower oxygen atmosphere. The shape of the quenching boundary supports the prediction by earlier theoretical models. These long duration microgravity experiments provide a rare opportunity for solid fuel combustion since microgravity time in ground-based facilities is generally not sufficient. This is the first time that a low-speed quenching boundary in concurrent spread is determined in a clean and unambiguous manner.

  11. Ignition and Wind Effects on the Transition to Flame Spread in a Microgravity Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGrattan, Kevin B.; Kashiwagi, Takashi; Baum, Howard R.; Olson, Sandra L.

    1994-01-01

    The fundamental processes involved in ignition and flame spread have been extensively studied, they are generally studied separately without combining ignition and flame spread through the transition process. Moreover, the majority of the flame spread studies assume steady state flame spread. To study the transient aspects of ignition and the transition to flame spread, a time-dependent numerical model has been developed in which a thin strip is ignited along its width with either a pilot wire, radiative source, or both. For this configuration, the model is two-dimensional. Ignition is initiated away from either end of the sample, and two different flame fronts spread in opposite directions; one flows with and the other against a prescribed external flow. Usually, the flame spread is initiated by ignition at one end of the sample with or against a slow external flow, yielding one flame front. The present configuration is more realistic than the one flame front case because there is interaction between the two flames during the ignition and transition stages.

  12. Candle Flames in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietrich, D. L.; Ross, H. D.; T'ien, J. S.; Chang, P.; Shu, Y.

    1999-01-01

    This work is a study of a candle flame in a microgravity environment. The purpose of the work is to determine if a steady (or quasi-steady) flame can exist in a microgravity environment, study the characteristics of the steady flame, investigate the pre-extinction flame oscillations observed in a previous experiment in more detail, and finally, determine the nature of the interactions between two closely spaced candle flames. The candle flame in microgravity is used as a model of a non-propagating, steady-state, pure diffusion flame. The present work is a continuation of two small-scale, space-based experiments on candle flames, one on the Shuttle and the other on the Mir OS. The previous studies showed nearly steady dim blue flames with flame lifetimes as high as 45 minutes, and 1 Hz spontaneous flame oscillations prior to extinction. The present paper summarizes the results of the modeling efforts to date.

  13. Flame Spread Across Liquids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Howard D.; Miller, Fletcher J.; Sirignano, William A.; Schiller, David

    1997-01-01

    The principal goal of our recent research on flame spread across liquid pools is the detailed identification of the mechanisms that control the rate and nature of flame spread when the liquid pool is initially at an isothermal bulk temperature that is below the fuel's flash point temperature. In our project, we specialize the subject to highlight the roles of buoyancy-related processes regarding the mechanisms of flame spread, an area of research cited recently by Linan and Williams as one that needs further attention and which microgravity (micro-g) experiments could help to resolve. Toward resolving the effects of buoyancy on this flame spread problem, comparisons - between 1-g and micro-g experimental observations, and between model predictions and experimental data at each of these gravitational levels - are extensively utilized. The present experimental and computational foundation is presented to support identification of the mechanisms that control flame spread in the pulsating flame spread regime for which long-duration, micro-g flame spread experiments have been conducted aboard a sounding rocket.

  14. Transport And Chemical Effects On Concurrent And Opposed-Flow Flame Spread At Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Son, Y.; Zouein, G.; Ronney, P. D.; Gokoglu, S.

    2003-01-01

    Flame spread over flat solid fuel beds is a useful means of understanding more complex two-phase non-premixed spreading flames, such as those that may occur due to accidents in inhabited buildings and orbiting spacecraft. The role of buoyant convection on flame spread is substantial, especially for thermally-thick fuels. With suitable assumptions, deRis showed that the spread rate (S(sub f)) is proportional to the buoyant or forced convection velocity (U) and thus suggests that S(sub f) is indeterminate at mu g (since S(sub f) = U) unless a forced flow is applied. (In contrast, for thermally thin fuels, the ideal S(sub f) is independent of U.) The conventional view, as supported by computations and space experiments, is that for quiescent g conditions, S(sub f) must be unsteady and decreasing until extinction occurs due to radiative losses. However, this view does not consider that radiative transfer to the fuel surface can enhance flame spread. In recent work we have found evidence that radiative transfer from the flame itself can lead to steady flame spread at mu g over thick fuel beds. Our current work focuses on refining these experiments and a companion modeling effort toward the goal of a space flight experiment called Radiative Enhancement Effects on Flame Spread (REEFS) planned for the International Space Station (ISS) c. 2007.

  15. Candle Flames in Microgravity Video

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This video of a candle flame burning in space was taken by the Candle Flames in Microgravity (CFM) experiment on the Russian Mir space station. It is actually a composite of still photos from a 35mm camera since the video images were too dim. The images show a hemispherically shaped flame, primarily blue in color, with some yellow early int the flame lifetime. The actual flame is quite dim and difficult to see with the naked eye. Nearly 80 candles were burned in this experiment aboard Mir. NASA scientists have also studied how flames spread in space and how to detect fire in microgravity. Researchers hope that what they learn about fire and combustion from the flame ball experiments will help out here on Earth. Their research could help create things such as better engines for cars and airplanes. Since they use very weak flames, flame balls require little fuel. By studying how this works, engineers may be able to design engines that use far less fuel. In addition, microgravity flame research is an important step in creating new safety precautions for astronauts living in space. By understanding how fire works in space, the astronauts can be better prepared to fight it.

  16. Candle flames in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietrich, D. L.; Ross, H. D.; Tien, J. S.

    1995-01-01

    The candle flame in both normal and microgravity is non-propagating. In microgravity, however, the candle flame is also non-convective where (excepting Stefan flow) pure diffusion is the only transport mode. It also shares many characteristics with another classical problem, that of isolated droplet combustion. Given their qualitatively similar flame shapes and the required heat feedback to condensed-phase fuels, the gas-phase flow and temperature fields should be relatively similar for a droplet and a candle in reduced gravity. Unless the droplet diameter is maintained somehow through non-intrusive replenishment of fuel, the quasi-steady burning characteristics of a droplet can be maintained for only a few seconds. In contrast, the candle flame in microgravity may achieve a nearly steady state over a much longer time and is therefore ideal for examining a number of combustion-related phenomena. In this paper, we examine candle flame behavior in both short-duration and long-duration, quiescent, microgravity environments. Interest in this type of flame, especially 'candle flames in weightlessness', is demonstrated by very frequent public inquiries. The question is usually posed as 'will a candle flame burn in zero gravity', or, 'will a candle burn indefinitely (or steadily) in zero gravity in a large volume of quiescent air'. Intuitive speculation suggests to some that, in the absence of buoyancy, the accumulation of products in the vicinity of the flame will cause flame extinction. The classical theory for droplet combustion with its spherically-shaped diffusion flame, however, shows that steady combustion is possible in the absence of buoyancy if the chemical kinetics are fast enough. Previous experimental studies of candle flames in reduced and microgravity environments showed the flame could survive for at least 5 seconds, but did not reach a steady state in the available test time.

  17. Candle Flames in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietrich, Daniel L.; Ross, Howard D.; Frate, David T.; Tien, James S.; Shu, Yong

    1997-01-01

    This work is a study of a candle flame in a microgravity environment. The purpose of the work is to determine if a steady (or quasi-steady) flame can exist in a microgravity environment, study the characteristics of the steady flame, investigate the pre-extinction flame oscillations observed in a previous experiment in more detail, and finally, determine the nature of the interactions between two closely spaced candle flames. The candle flame is used as a model combustion system, in that in microgravity it is one of the only examples of a non-propagating, steady-state, pure diffusion flame. Others have used the candle to study a number of combustion phenomena including flame flicker, flame oscillations, electric field effects and enhanced and reduced gravitational effects in flames. The present work is a continuation of a small-scale Shuttle experiment on candle flames. That study showed that the candle flame lifetimes were on the order of 40 seconds, the flames were dim blue after a transient ignition period, and that just prior to extinction the flames oscillated spontaneously for about five seconds at a frequency of 1 Hz. The authors postulated that the gas phase in the immediate vicinity of the flame was quasi-steady. Further away from the flame, however, the assertion of a quasi-steady flame was less certain, thus the authors did not prove that a steady flame could exist. They also speculated that the short lifetime of the candle flame was due to the presence of the small, weakly perforated box that surrounded the candle. The Candle Flames in Microgravity (CFM) experiment, with revised hardware, was recently flown aboard the Mir orbiting station, and conducted inside the glovebox facility by Dr. Shannon Lucid. In addition to the purposes described above, the experiments were NASA's first ability to ascertain the merits of the Mir environment for combustion science studies. In this article, we present the results of that experiment. We are also in the process

  18. Quantitative Infrared Image Analysis Of Simultaneous Upstream and Downstream Microgravity Flame Spread over Thermally-Thin Cellulose in Low Speed Forced Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, S. L.; Lee, J. R.; Fujita, O.; Kikuchi, M.; Kashiwagi, T.

    2013-01-01

    The effect of low velocity forced flow on microgravity flame spread is examined using quantitative analysis of infrared video imaging. The objective of the quantitative analysis is to provide insight into the mechanisms of flame spread in microgravity where the flame is able to spread from a central location on the fuel surface, rather than from an edge. Surface view calibrated infrared images of ignition and flame spread over a thin cellulose fuel were obtained along with a color video of the surface view and color images of the edge view using 35 mm color film at 2 Hz. The cellulose fuel samples were mounted in the center of a 12 cm wide by 16 cm tall flow duct and were ignited in microgravity using a straight hot wire across the center of the 7.5 cm wide by 14 cm long samples. Four cases, at 1 atm. 35%O2 in N2, at forced flows from 2 cm/s to 20 cm/s are presented here. This flow range captures flame spread from strictly upstream spread at low flows, to predominantly downstream spread at high flow. Surface temperature profiles are evaluated as a function of time, and temperature gradients for upstream and downstream flame spread are measured. Flame spread rates from IR image data are compared to visible image spread rate data. IR blackbody temperatures are compared to surface thermocouple readings to evaluate the effective emissivity of the pyrolyzing surface. Preheat lengths and pyrolysis lengths are evaluated both upstream and downstream of the central ignition point. A surface energy balance estimates the net heat flux from the flame to the fuel surface along the length of the fuel. Surface radiative loss and gas-phase radiation from soot are measured relative to the net heat feedback from the flame. At high surface heat loss relative to heat feedback, the downstream flame spread does not occur.

  19. Localized Ignition And Subsequent Flame Spread Over Solid Fuels In Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kashiwagi, T.; Nakamura, Y.; Prasad, K.; Baum, H.; Olson, S.; Fujita, O.; Nishizawa, K.; Ito, K.

    2003-01-01

    Localized ignition is initiated by an external radiant source at the middle of a thin solid sheet under external slow flow, simulating fire initiation in a spacecraft with a slow ventilation flow. Ignition behavior, subsequent transition simultaneously to upstream and downstream flame spread, and flame growth behavior are studied theoretically and experimentally. There are two transition stages in this study; one is the first transition from the onset of the ignition to form an initial anchored flame close to the sample surface, near the ignited area. The second transition is the flame growth stage from the anchored flame to a steady fire spread state (i.e. no change in flame size or in heat release rate) or a quasi-steady state, if either exists. Observations of experimental spot ignition characteristics and of the second transition over a thermally thin paper were made to determine the effects of external flow velocity. Both transitions have been studied theoretically to determine the effects of the confinement by a relatively small test chamber, of the ignition configuration (ignition across the sample width vs spot ignition), and of the external flow velocity on the two transitions over a thermally thin paper. This study is currently extending to two new areas; one is to include a thermoplastic sample such poly(methymethacrylate), PMMA, and the other is to determine the effects of sample thickness on the transitions. The recent results of these new studies on the first transition are briefly reported.

  20. Candle Flames in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietrich, D. L.; Ross, H. D.; Chang, P.; T'ien, J. S.

    2001-01-01

    The goal of this work is to study both experimentally and numerically the behavior of a candle flame burning in a microgravity environment. Two space experiments (Shuttle and Mir) have shown the candle flame in microgravity to be small (approximately 1.5 cm diameter), dim blue, and hemispherical. Near steady flames with very long flame lifetimes (up to 45 minutes in some tests) existed for many of the tests. Most of the flames spontaneously oscillated with a period of approximately 1 Hz just prior to extinction). In a previous model of candle flame in microgravity, a porous sphere wetted with liquid fuel simulated the evaporating wick. The sphere, with a temperature equal to the boiling temperature of the fuel, was at the end of an inert cone that had a prescribed temperature. This inert cone produces the quenching effect of the candle wax in the real configuration. Although the computed flame shape resembled that observed in the microgravity experiment, the model was not able to differentiate the effect of wick geometry, e.g., a long vs. a short wick. This paper presents recent developments in the numerical model of the candle flame. The primary focus has been to more realistically account for the actual shape of the candle.

  1. Radiative Ignition and the Transition to Flame Spread Investigated in the Japan Microgravity Center's 10-sec Drop Shaft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Radiative Ignition and Transition to Spread Investigation (RITSI) is a shuttle middeck Glovebox combustion experiment developed by the NASA Lewis Research Center, the National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST), and Aerospace Design and Fabrication (ADF). It is scheduled to fly on the third United States Microgravity Payload (USMP-3) mission in February 1996. The objective of RITSI is to experimentally study radiative ignition and the subsequent transition to flame spread in low gravity in the presence of very low speed air flows in two- and three-dimensional configurations. Toward this objective, a unique collaboration between NASA, NIST, and the University of Hokkaido was established to conduct 15 science and engineering tests in Japan's 10-sec drop shaft. For these tests, the RITSI engineering hardware was mounted in a sealed chamber with a variable oxygen atmosphere. Ashless filter paper was ignited during each drop by a tungsten-halogen heat lamp focused on a small spot in the center of the paper. The flame spread outward from that point. Data recorded included fan voltage (a measure of air flow), radiant heater voltage (a measure of radiative ignition energy), and surface temperatures (measured by up to three surface thermocouples) during ignition and flame spread.

  2. Forced Flow Flame-Spreading Test (FFFT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The Forced Flow Flame-Spreading Test was designed to study flame spreading over solid fuels when air is flowing at a low speed in the same direction as the flame spread. Previous research has shown that in low-speed concurrent airflows, some materials are more flammable in microgravity than earth. This image shows a 10-cm flame in microgravity that burns almost entirely blue on both sides of a thin sheet of paper. The glowing thermocouple in the lower half of the flame provides temperature measurements.

  3. Candle Flames in Microgravity Experiment

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1992-07-09

    Closeup view inside glovebox showing a candle flame. The Candle Flames in Microgravity experiment is carried onboard Columbia to examine whether candle flames can be sustained in space; to study the interaction and physical properties of diffusion flames. In space, where buoyancy-driven convection is reduced, the role diffusion plays in sustaining candle flames can be isolated. Results have implications for other diffusion flame studies. Diffusion flames are the most common type of flame on Earth.

  4. Flame spread across liquid pools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Howard; Miller, Fletcher; Schiller, David; Sirignano, William A.

    1993-01-01

    For flame spread over liquid fuel pools, the existing literature suggests three gravitational influences: (1) liquid phase buoyant convection, delaying ignition and assisting flame spread; (2) hydrostatic pressure variation, due to variation in the liquid pool height caused by thermocapillary-induced convection; and (3) gas-phase buoyant convection in the opposite direction to the liquid phase motion. No current model accounts for all three influences. In fact, prior to this work, there was no ability to determine whether ignition delay times and flame spread rates would be greater or lesser in low gravity. Flame spread over liquid fuel pools is most commonly characterized by the relationship of the initial pool temperature to the fuel's idealized flash point temperature, with four or five separate characteristic regimes having been identified. In the uniform spread regime, control has been attributed to: (1) gas-phase conduction and radiation; (2) gas-phase conduction only; (3) gas-phase convection and liquid conduction, and most recently (4) liquid convection ahead of the flame. Suggestions were made that the liquid convection was owed to both vuoyancy and thermocapillarity. Of special interest to this work is the determination of whether, and under what conditions, pulsating spread can and will occur in microgravity in the absence of buoyant flows in both phases. The approach we have taken to resolving the importance of buoyancy for these flames is: (1) normal gravity experiments and advanced diagnostics; (2) microgravity experiments; and (3) numerical modelling at arbitrary gravitational level.

  5. The Forced Flow Flame-Spreading Test (FFFT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The Forced Flow Flame-Spreading Test was designed to study flame spreading over solid fuels when air is flowing at a low speed concurrent airflows, some materials are more flammable in microgravity than earth. 1.5 cm flame in microgravity that melts a polyethylene cylinder into a liquid ball.

  6. Quantitative Infrared Image Analysis Of Thermally-Thin Cellulose Surface Temperatures During Upstream and Downstream Microgravity Flame Spread from A Central Ignition Line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, Sandra L.; Lee, J. R.; Fujita, O.; Kikuchi, M.; Kashiwagi, T.

    2012-01-01

    Surface view calibrated infrared images of ignition and flame spread over a thin cellulose fuel were obtained at 30 Hz during microgravity flame spread tests in the 10 second Japan Microgravity Center (JAMIC). The tests also used a color video of the surface view and color images of the edge view using 35 millimeter 1600 Kodak Ektapress film at 2 Hz. The cellulose fuel samples (50% long fibers from lumi pine and 50% short fibers from birch) were made with an area density of 60 grams per square meters. The samples were mounted in the center of a 12 centimeter wide by 16 centimeter tall flow duct that uses a downstream fan to draw the air through the flow duct. Samples were ignited after the experiment package was released using a straight hot wire across the center of the 7.5 centimeter wide by 14 centimeter long samples. One case, at 1 atmosphere 35%O2 in N2, at a forced flow of 10 centimeters per second, is presented here. In this case, as the test progresses, the single flame begins to separate into simultaneous upstream and downstream flames. Surface temperature profiles are evaluated as a function of time, and temperature gradients for upstream and downstream flame spread are measured. Flame spread rates from IR image data are compared to visible image spread rate data. IR blackbody temperatures are compared to surface thermocouple readings to evaluate the effective emissivity of the pyrolyzing surface. Preheat lengths are evaluated both upstream and downstream of the central ignition point. A surface energy balance estimates the net heat flux from the flame to the fuel surface along the length of the fuel.

  7. Studies of Flame Structure in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Law, C. K.; Sung, C. J.; Zhu, D. L.

    1997-01-01

    The present research endeavor is concerned with gaining fundamental understanding of the configuration, structure, and dynamics of laminar premixed and diffusion flames under conditions of negligible effects of gravity. Of particular interest is the potential to establish and hence study the properties of spherically- and cylindrically-symmetric flames and their response to external forces not related to gravity. For example, in an earlier experimental study of the burner-stabilized cylindrical premixed flames, the possibility of flame stabilization through flow divergence was established, while the resulting one-dimensional, adiabatic, stretchless flame also allowed an accurate means of determining the laminar flame speeds of combustible mixtures. We have recently extended our studies of the flame structure in microgravity along the following directions: (1) Analysis of the dynamics of spherical premixed flames; (2) Analysis of the spreading of cylindrical diffusion flames; (3) Experimental observation of an interesting dual luminous zone structure of a steady-state, microbuoyancy, spherical diffusion flame of air burning in a hydrogen/methane mixture environment, and its subsequent quantification through computational simulation with detailed chemistry and transport; (4) Experimental quantification of the unsteady growth of a spherical diffusion flame; and (5) Computational simulation of stretched, diffusionally-imbalanced premixed flames near and beyond the conventional limits of flammability, and the substantiation of the concept of extended limits of flammability. Motivation and results of these investigations are individually discussed.

  8. Unsteady Spherical Diffusion Flames in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atreya, Arvind; Berhan, S.; Chernovsky, M.; Sacksteder, Kurt R.

    2001-01-01

    The absence of buoyancy-induced flows in microgravity (mu-g) and the resulting increase in the reactant residence time significantly alters the fundamentals of many combustion processes. Substantial differences between normal gravity (ng) and (mu-g) flames have been reported in experiments on candle flames, flame spread over solids, droplet combustion, and others. These differences are more basic than just in the visible flame shape. Longer residence times and higher concentration of combustion products in the flame zone create a thermochemical environment that changes the flame chemistry and the heat and mass transfer processes. Processes such as flame radiation, that are often ignored in ng, become very important and sometimes even controlling. Furthermore, microgravity conditions considerably enhance flame radiation by: (i) the build-up of combustion products in the high-temperature reaction zone which increases the gas radiation, and (ii) longer residence times make conditions appropriate for substantial amounts of soot to form which is also responsible for radiative heat loss. Thus, it is anticipated that radiative heat loss may eventually extinguish the "weak" (low burning rate per unit flame area) mu-g diffusion flame. Yet, space shuttle experiments on candle flames show that in an infinite ambient atmosphere, the hemispherical candle flame in mu-g will burn indefinitely. This may be because of the coupling between the fuel production rate and the flame via the heat-feedback mechanism for candle flames, flames over solids and fuel droplet flames. Thus, to focus only on the gas-phase phenomena leading to radiative extinction, aerodynamically stabilized gaseous diffusion flames are examined. This enables independent control of the fuel flow rate to help identify conditions under which radiative extinction occurs. Also, spherical geometry is chosen for the mu-g experiments and modeling because: (i) It reduces the complexity by making the problem one

  9. Numerical Model of Flame Spread Over Solids in Microgravity: A Supplementary Tool for Designing a Space Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, Hsin-Yi; Tien, James S.; Ferkul, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The recently developed numerical model of concurrent-flow flame spread over thin solids has been used as a simulation tool to help the designs of a space experiment. The two-dimensional and three-dimensional, steady form of the compressible Navier-Stokes equations with chemical reactions are solved. With the coupled multi-dimensional solver of the radiative heat transfer, the model is capable of answering a number of questions regarding the experiment concept and the hardware designs. In this paper, the capabilities of the numerical model are demonstrated by providing the guidance for several experimental designing issues. The test matrix and operating conditions of the experiment are estimated through the modeling results. The three-dimensional calculations are made to simulate the flame-spreading experiment with realistic hardware configuration. The computed detailed flame structures provide the insight to the data collection. In addition, the heating load and the requirements of the product exhaust cleanup for the flow tunnel are estimated with the model. We anticipate that using this simulation tool will enable a more efficient and successful space experiment to be conducted.

  10. Flame Spread Across Liquids: Experimental Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, H. D.; Miller, F. J.

    1999-01-01

    The goal of our research on flame spread across a pool of liquid fuel is the quantitative identification of the mechanisms that control the rate and nature of flame spread when the initial temperature of the liquid pool is below the fuel's flash point temperature. Besides numerous experiments in drop towers and 1 g laboratories, we have flown five microgravity (mu-g) experiments on sounding rockets. As described in earlier papers, the first three flights examined the effect of forced opposed airflow over a 2.5 cm deep x 2 cm wide x 30 cm long pool of 1-butanol in mu-g. It was found that the flame spread is much slower and steadier than in 1 g where flame spread has a pulsating character. It was speculated that the flame spread in mu-g resembled the character of pseudo-uniform spread in 1 g; Ito et al later confirmed this conclusively in 1 g experiments. Much of the mu-g flame is also farther from the surface, dimmer, and with less soot, when compared to the 1 g flame. Three-dimensional liquid-phase flow patterns that control the liquid preheating were discovered in both 1 g and mu-g. Our numerical model, restricted to two dimensions, had predicted faster, pulsating flame spread in mu-g for opposed airflow. In examining the differences in the dimensionality of the model and experiment, it was noted that the experiment allowed gas expansion in the lateral direction (across the width of the pool), for which the model could not account. Such lateral expansion could reduce the expansion in the forward and upward directions. Because only these latter directions could be modeled, it was decided to artificially reduce the gas thermal expansion in the predictions. When this was done, satisfactory agreement could be obtained between the predicted and observed spread rates and the steadiness of the spread in microgravity. In 1 g, however, the predicted flame spread character also changed to pseudo-uniform, which disagreed with our 1 g experiments where the spread is pulsating

  11. Flame Spread Across Liquids: Experimental Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, H. D.; Miller, F. J.

    1999-01-01

    The goal of our research on flame spread across a pool of liquid fuel is the quantitative identification of the mechanisms that control the rate and nature of flame spread when the initial temperature of the liquid pool is below the fuel's flash point temperature. Besides numerous experiments in drop towers and 1 g laboratories, we have flown five microgravity (mu-g) experiments on sounding rockets. As described in earlier papers, the first three flights examined the effect of forced opposed airflow over a 2.5 cm deep x 2 cm wide x 30 cm long pool of 1-butanol in mu-g. It was found that the flame spread is much slower and steadier than in 1 g where flame spread has a pulsating character. It was speculated that the flame spread in mu-g resembled the character of pseudo-uniform spread in 1 g; Ito et al later confirmed this conclusively in 1 g experiments. Much of the mu-g flame is also farther from the surface, dimmer, and with less soot, when compared to the 1 g flame. Three-dimensional liquid-phase flow patterns that control the liquid preheating were discovered in both 1 g and mu-g. Our numerical model, restricted to two dimensions, had predicted faster, pulsating flame spread in mu-g for opposed airflow. In examining the differences in the dimensionality of the model and experiment, it was noted that the experiment allowed gas expansion in the lateral direction (across the width of the pool), for which the model could not account. Such lateral expansion could reduce the expansion in the forward and upward directions. Because only these latter directions could be modeled, it was decided to artificially reduce the gas thermal expansion in the predictions. When this was done, satisfactory agreement could be obtained between the predicted and observed spread rates and the steadiness of the spread in microgravity. In 1 g, however, the predicted flame spread character also changed to pseudo-uniform, which disagreed with our 1 g experiments where the spread is pulsating

  12. Premixed Turbulent Flame Propagation in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menon, S.; Disseau, M.; Chakravarthy, V. K.; Jagoda, J.

    1997-01-01

    Papers included address the following topics: (1) Turbulent premixed flame propagation in microgravity; (2) The effect of gravity on turbulent premixed flame propagation - a preliminary cold flow study; and (3) Characteristics of a subgrid model for turbulent premixed combustion.

  13. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1997-01-01

    The Forced Flow Flame-Spreading Test was designed to study flame spreading over solid fuels when air is flowing at a low speed in the same direction as the flame spread. Previous research has shown that in low-speed concurrent airflows, some materials are more flammable in microgravity than earth. This image shows a 10-cm flame in microgravity that burns almost entirely blue on both sides of a thin sheet of paper. The glowing thermocouple in the lower half of the flame provides temperature measurements.

  14. Large Scale Flame Spread Environmental Characterization Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clayman, Lauren K.; Olson, Sandra L.; Gokoghi, Suleyman A.; Brooker, John E.; Ferkul, Paul V.; Kacher, Henry F.

    2013-01-01

    Under the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Spacecraft Fire Safety Demonstration Project (SFSDP), as a risk mitigation activity in support of the development of a large-scale fire demonstration experiment in microgravity, flame-spread tests were conducted in normal gravity on thin, cellulose-based fuels in a sealed chamber. The primary objective of the tests was to measure pressure rise in a chamber as sample material, burning direction (upward/downward), total heat release, heat release rate, and heat loss mechanisms were varied between tests. A Design of Experiments (DOE) method was imposed to produce an array of tests from a fixed set of constraints and a coupled response model was developed. Supplementary tests were run without experimental design to additionally vary select parameters such as initial chamber pressure. The starting chamber pressure for each test was set below atmospheric to prevent chamber overpressure. Bottom ignition, or upward propagating burns, produced rapid acceleratory turbulent flame spread. Pressure rise in the chamber increases as the amount of fuel burned increases mainly because of the larger amount of heat generation and, to a much smaller extent, due to the increase in gaseous number of moles. Top ignition, or downward propagating burns, produced a steady flame spread with a very small flat flame across the burning edge. Steady-state pressure is achieved during downward flame spread as the pressure rises and plateaus. This indicates that the heat generation by the flame matches the heat loss to surroundings during the longer, slower downward burns. One heat loss mechanism included mounting a heat exchanger directly above the burning sample in the path of the plume to act as a heat sink and more efficiently dissipate the heat due to the combustion event. This proved an effective means for chamber overpressure mitigation for those tests producing the most total heat release and thusly was determined to be a feasible mitigation

  15. Diffusion Flame Tip Instabilities of a Wide Sample in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oravecz, Lisa; Wichman, Indrek

    1999-01-01

    This work is a study of diffusion flame tip instabilities of a wide thermally thin sample in a microgravity environment. The purpose of this work is to determine the thermodiffusive and hydrodynamic instability mechanisms which cause a spreading diffusion flame to become corrugated and later fragment into smaller separate flames that we call flamelets. These thermodiffusive and hydrodynamic mechanisms are prominent forces in the near limit because buoyancy is quashed in the microgravity environment. A fundamental knowledge of the underlying mechanisms controlling the extinction limit of a diffusion flame can be applied to any real world device involving a spreading diffusion flame as well as fire safety applications on earth and in space. Our work, which combines microgravity experiments, theoretical models, and numerical computation, is a joint effort between NASA and Michigan State University. Experiments in the 2.2 second drop tower at NASA Lewis Research Center in the Microgravity Combustion Branch have been a preliminary step in locating a region where these instabilities are prevalent. These positive results will be discussed as well as the second phase of our project and future plans and recommendations.

  16. Transitional Gas Jet Diffusion Flames in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agrawal, Ajay K.; Alammar, Khalid; Gollahalli, S. R.; Griffin, DeVon (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Drop tower experiments were performed to identify buoyancy effects in transitional hydrogen gas jet diffusion flames. Quantitative rainbow schlieren deflectometry was utilized to optically visualize the flame and to measure oxygen concentration in the laminar portion of the flame. Test conditions consisted of atmospheric pressure flames burning in quiescent air. Fuel from a 0.3mm inside diameter tube injector was issued at jet exit Reynolds numbers (Re) of 1300 to 1700. Helium mole percentage in the fuel was varied from 0 to 40%. Significant effects of buoyancy were observed in near field of the flame even-though the fuel jets were momentum-dominated. Results show an increase of breakpoint length in microgravity. Data suggest that transitional flames in earth-gravity at Re<1300 might become laminar in microgravity.

  17. Effect of Longitudinal Oscillations on Downward Flame Spread over Thin Solid Fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nayagam, Vedha; Sacksteder, Kurt

    2013-01-01

    Downward flame spread rates over vertically vibrated thin fuel samples are measured in air at one atmospheric pressure under normal gravity. Unlike flame spread against forced-convective flows, the present results show that with increasing vibration acceleration the flame spread rate increases before being blown off at high acceleration levels causing flame extinction. A simple scaling analysis seems to explain this phenomenon, which may have important implications to flammability studies including in microgravity environments.

  18. Quantitative Species Measurements In Microgravity Combustion Flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Shin-Juh; Pilgrim, Jeffrey S.; Silver, Joel A.; Piltch, Nancy D.

    2003-01-01

    The capability of models and theories to accurately predict and describe the behavior of low gravity flames can only be verified by quantitative measurements. Although video imaging, simple temperature measurements, and velocimetry methods have provided useful information in many cases, there is still a need for quantitative species measurements. Over the past decade, we have been developing high sensitivity optical absorption techniques to permit in situ, non-intrusive, absolute concentration measurements for both major and minor flames species using diode lasers. This work has helped to establish wavelength modulation spectroscopy (WMS) as an important method for species detection within the restrictions of microgravity-based measurements. More recently, in collaboration with Prof. Dahm at the University of Michigan, a new methodology combining computed flame libraries with a single experimental measurement has allowed us to determine the concentration profiles for all species in a flame. This method, termed ITAC (Iterative Temperature with Assumed Chemistry) was demonstrated for a simple laminar nonpremixed methane-air flame at both 1-g and at 0-g in a vortex ring flame. In this paper, we report additional normal and microgravity experiments which further confirm the usefulness of this approach. We also present the development of a new type of laser. This is an external cavity diode laser (ECDL) which has the unique capability of high frequency modulation as well as a very wide tuning range. This will permit the detection of multiple species with one laser while using WMS detection.

  19. Flame Spread and Extinction in Partial-Gravity Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sacksteder, Kurt; Ferkul, P. V.; T'ien, J. S.

    1999-01-01

    Considerable progress has been made in understanding the mechanisms of spreading flames under certain conditions, nearly all under the influence of normal Earth gravity. Recently, several investigators have studied some aspects of flame spread in purely forced flows in microgravity. However, very few have considered (especially experimentally) purely-buoyant flow influences, using gravity as a variable. In addition to the scientific interest in understanding how variable gravity affects flame spread in purely-buoyant flow, prospective human exploration of the Moon and Mars provides an incentive to obtain practical knowledge for use in fire-safety related engineering and mission operations in those partial-gravity environments. The purpose of this research effort is to conduct a focused experimental effort to observe the behavior of flames spreading both upward (concurrent flow) and downward (opposed flow) over thin fuels in partial-gravity environments, and to extend an existing numerical model of flame spread to predict flammability and flame spread behavior in these two regimes. A significant aspect of the experimental effort is to use a special device to improve the simulated partial-gravity environment achievable aboard reduced-gravity aircraft facilities.

  20. Flame Spread and Extinction in Partial-Gravity Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sacksteder, Kurt; Ferkul, P. V.; T'ien, J. S.

    1999-01-01

    Considerable progress has been made in understanding the mechanisms of spreading flames under certain conditions, nearly all under the influence of normal Earth gravity. Recently, several investigators have studied some aspects of flame spread in purely forced flows in microgravity. However, very few have considered (especially experimentally) purely-buoyant flow influences, using gravity as a variable. In addition to the scientific interest in understanding how variable gravity affects flame spread in purely-buoyant flow, prospective human exploration of the Moon and Mars provides an incentive to obtain practical knowledge for use in fire-safety related engineering and mission operations in those partial-gravity environments. The purpose of this research effort is to conduct a focused experimental effort to observe the behavior of flames spreading both upward (concurrent flow) and downward (opposed flow) over thin fuels in partial-gravity environments, and to extend an existing numerical model of flame spread to predict flammability and flame spread behavior in these two regimes. A significant aspect of the experimental effort is to use a special device to improve the simulated partial-gravity environment achievable aboard reduced-gravity aircraft facilities.

  1. Opposed Flow Flame Spread in Normal, Enhanced and Reduced Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Altenkirch, Robert A.; Bhattacharjee, Subrata; West, Jeff; Olson, Sandra L.

    1991-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical aspects of opposed-flow flame spread over solid fuels are presented with emphasis on the microgravity environments of spacecraft. For high opposing flow velocities, spread rate decreases with increasing velocity eventually leading to flame blowoff due to kinetic effects. At low opposing flow velocities, where diffusional effects are slowed and radiation becomes important, flame spread rate increases with increasing flow velocity. Extinction at low velocities is due to radiative effects. Modeling efforts that include radiation, both solid surface radiation and gas-phase radiation, predict qualitatively the experimental trends observed. Computationally, gas-phase radiation is conveniently included in solution of the conservation equations by employing a Plank mean absorption coefficient, a fraction of radiation that is fed back to the surface, and a shape function that describes the radiative flux distribution along the surface.

  2. Flame Structure and Scalar Properties in Microgravity Laminar Fires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feikema, D. A.; Lim, J.; Sivathanu, Y.

    2006-01-01

    Recent results from microgravity combustion experiments conducted in the Zero Gravity Facility (ZGF) 5.18 second drop tower are reported. Emission mid-infrared spectroscopy measurements have been completed to quantitatively determine the flame temperature, water and carbon dioxide vapor concentrations, radiative emissive power, and soot concentrations in a microgravity laminar ethylene/air flame. The ethylene/air laminar flame conditions are similar to previously reported experiments including the Flight Project, Laminar Soot Processes (LSP). Soot concentrations and gas temperatures are in reasonable agreement with similar results available in the literature. However, soot concentrations and flame structure dramatically change in long duration microgravity laminar diffusion flames as demonstrated in this paper.

  3. Characteristics of Non-Premixed Turbulent Flames in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hegde, U.; Yuan, Z. G.; Stocker, D. P.; Bahadori, M. Y.

    2001-01-01

    This project is concerned with the characteristics of turbulent hydrocarbon (primarily propane) gas-jet diffusion flames in microgravity. A microgravity environment provides the opportunity to study the structure of turbulent diffusion flames under momentum-dominated conditions (large Froude number) at moderate Reynolds number which is a combination not achievable in normal gravity. This paper summarizes progress made since the last workshop. Primarily, the features of flame radiation from microgravity turbulent jet diffusion flames in a reduced gravity environment are described. Tests were conducted for non-premixed, nitrogen diluted propane flames burning in quiescent air in the NASA Glenn 5.18 Second Zero Gravity Facility. Measured flame radiation from wedge-shaped, axial slices of the flame are compared for microgravity and normal gravity flames. Results from numerical computations of the flame using a k-e model for the turbulence are also presented to show the effects of flame radiation on the thermal field. Flame radiation is an important quantity that is impacted by buoyancy as has been shown in previous studies by the authors and also by Urban et al. It was found that jet diffusion flames burning under microgravity conditions have significantly higher radiative loss (about five to seven times higher) compared to their normal gravity counterparts because of larger flame size in microgravity and larger convective heat loss fraction from the flame in normal gravity. These studies, however, were confined to laminar flames. For the case of turbulent flames, the flame radiation is a function of time and both the time-averaged and time-dependent components are of interest. In this paper, attention is focused primarily on the time-averaged level of the radiation but the turbulent structure of the flame is also assessed from considerations of the radiation power spectra.

  4. Turbulent Premixed Flames in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menon, Suresh

    1996-01-01

    The experimental cold-flow facility is now full operational and is currently being used to obtain baseline turbulence data in a Couette flow. The baseline turbulence data is necessary to confirm the capability of the chosen device to generate and maintain the required turbulence intensity. Subsequent reacting flow studies will assume that a similar turbulent flow field exists ahead of the premixed flame. Some modifications and refinements had to be made to enable accurate measurements. It consists of two rollers, one (driven by a motor) which drives a continuous belt and four smaller rollers used to set the belt spacing and tension to minimize belt flutter. The entire assemble is enclosed in a structure that has the dimensions to enable future drop tower experiments of the hot facility. All critical dimensions are the same as the original plans except for the pulley ratio which has been changed to enable a wider operating regime in terms of the Reynolds number. With the current setup, Reynolds numbers as low as 100 and as high as 14,000 can be achieved. This is because the in-between belt spacing can be varied from 1 cm to 7.6 cm, and the belt speed can be accurately varied from .15 m/sec to 3.1 m/sec.

  5. Fire safety in space - Investigating flame spread interaction over wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Citerne, Jean-Marie; Dutilleul, Hugo; Kizawa, Koki; Nagachi, Masashi; Fujita, Osamu; Kikuchi, Masao; Jomaas, Grunde; Rouvreau, Sébastien; Torero, Jose L.; Legros, Guillaume

    2016-09-01

    A new rig for microgravity experiments was used for the study flame spread of parallel polyethylene-coated wires in concurrent and opposed airflow. The parabolic flight experiments were conducted at small length- and time scales, i.e. typically over 10 cm long samples for up to 20 s. For the first time, the influence of neighboring spread on the mass burning rate was assessed in microgravity. The observations are contrasted with the influence characterized in normal gravity. The experimental results are expected to deliver meaningful guidelines for future, planned experiments at a larger scale. Arising from the current results, the issue of the potential interaction among spreading flames also needs to be carefully investigated as this interaction plays a major role in realistic fire scenarios, and therefore on the design of the strategies that would allow the control of such a fire. Once buoyancy has been removed, the characteristic length and time scales of the different modes of heat and mass transfer are modified. For this reason, interaction among spreading flames may be revealed in microgravity, while it would not at normal gravity, or vice versa. Furthermore, the interaction may lead to an enhanced spread rate when mutual preheating dominates or, conversely, a reduced spread rate when oxidizer flow vitiation is predominant. In more general terms, the current study supports both the SAFFIRE and the FLARE projects, which are large projects with international scientific teams. First, material samples will be tested in a series of flight experiments (SAFFIRE 1-3) conducted in Cygnus vehicles after they have undocked from the ISS. These experiments will allow the study of ignition and possible flame spread in real spacecraft conditions, i.e. over real length scale samples within real time scales. Second, concomitant research conducted within the FLARE project is dedicated to the assessment of new standard tests for materials that a spacecraft can be composed of

  6. Electrical Aspects of Flames in Microgravity Combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunn-Rankin, D.; Strayer, B.; Weinberg, F.; Carleton, F.

    1999-01-01

    A principal characteristic of combustion in microgravity is the absence of buoyancy driven flows. In some cases, such as for spherically symmetrical droplet burning, the absence of buoyancy is desirable for matching analytical treatments with experiments. In other cases, however, it can be more valuable to arbitrarily control the flame's convective environment independent of the environmental gravitational condition. To accomplish this, we propose the use of ion generated winds driven by electric fields to control local convection of flames. Such control can produce reduced buoyancy (effectively zero buoyancy) conditions in the laboratory in 1-g facilitating a wide range of laser diagnostics that can probe the system without special packaging required for drop tower or flight tests. In addition, the electric field generated ionic winds allow varying gravitational convection equivalents even if the test occurs in reduced gravity environments.

  7. Characteristics of transitional and turbulent jet diffusion flames in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bahadori, Yousef M.; Small, James F., Jr.; Hegde, Uday G.; Zhou, Liming; Stocker, Dennis P.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents the ground-based results obtained to date in preparation of a proposed space experiment to study the role of large-scale structures in microgravity transitional and turbulent gas-jet diffusion flames by investigating the dynamics of vortex/flame interactions and their influence on flame characteristics. The overall objective is to gain an understanding of the fundamental characteristics of transitional and turbulent gas-jet diffusion flames. Understanding of the role of large-scale structures on the characteristics of microgravity transitional and turbulent flames will ultimately lead to improved understanding of normal-gravity turbulent combustion.

  8. Premixed Flame-Vortex Interactions Imaged in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Driscoll, J. F.; Sichel, M.; Sinibaldi, J. O.

    1997-01-01

    A unique experiment makes it now possible to obtain detailed images in microgravity showing how an individual vortex causes the wrinkling, stretching, area increase, and eventual extinction of a premixed flame. The repeatable, controllable flame-vortex interaction represents the fundamental building block of turbulent combustion concepts. New information is provided that is central to turbulent flame models, including measurements of all components of flame stretch, strain, and vorticity. Simultaneous measurements of all components of these quantities are not possible in fully turbulent flames but are possible in the present axisymmetric, repeatable experiment. Advanced PIV diagnostics have been used at one-g and have been developed for microgravity. Numerical simulations of the interaction are being performed at NRL. It is found that microgravity conditions greatly augment the flame wrinkling process. Flame area and the amplitude of wrinkles at zero-g are typically twice that observed at one-g. It is inferred that turbulent flames in microgravity could have larger surface area and thus propagate significantly faster than those in one-g, which is a potential safety hazard. A new mechanism is identified by PIV images that shows how buoyancy retards flame wrinkling at one-g; buoyancy produces new vorticity (due to baroclinic torques) that oppose the wrinkling and the stretch imposed by the original vortex. Microgravity conditions remove this stabilizing mechanism and the amplitude of flame wrinkling typically is found to double. Microgravity also increases the flame speed by a factor of 1.8 to 2.2. Both methane and propane-air flames were studied at the NASA Lewis drop tower. Results indicate that it is important to add buoyancy to models of turbulent flames to simulate the correct flame wrinkling, stretch and burning velocity.

  9. Investigation of Diffusion Flame Tip Thermodiffusive and Hydrodynamic Instability under Microgravity Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wichman, I. S.; Olson, S. L.

    1999-01-01

    We employ the opposed flow flame-spread configuration in order to examine flame-front instability of diffusion flames near cold, solid boundaries. The thermo-diffusive and hydrodynamic instabilities can transform an initially planar flame front into an irregularly curved, corrugated, possibly fragmented front. Under ordinary 1-g conditions, the buoyancy-induced flow masks the thermo-diffusive and hydrodynamic instabilities and produces planar flames. Such stable spreading flames have been observed for decades in laboratory experiments. Experiments in zero gravity are necessary to produce unstable flame fronts. The thermo-diffusive/hydrodynamic microgravity instability appears in diffusion flames such as, for example: the candle flame oscillations observed by Dietrich et al.; smolder instabilities on a recent Space Shuttle flight. Drs. T. Kashiwagi and S. Olson have attributed the latter to a lowered oxygen transport rate to the hot, reactive surface. Consider a burning surface near the flame extinction limit. The flow, or stretch, induced by the diffusion flame is weak, hence buoyancy plays a small role, thereby enabling previously secondary mechanisms, such as differential thermo-diffusion, to become the most important mechanisms. The flame leading edge becomes unstable; and diffusion flame breakup, oscillation, and rejoining all occur at a measurable frequency of approximately O(1 Hz). This project has only begun in January of this year, 1999. To date, there have been no flight experiments on flame spread instabilities. However, we have made numerous experiments in the NASA 2.2 and 5 second drop towers on flame spread over very thin cellulosic fuels. We have been very fortunate through a combination of factors, to be explained, to obtain some interesting, perhaps even compelling, results on diffusion flame instability in the presence of heat losses to cold surfaces.

  10. Structure and dynamics of diffusion flames in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matalon, Moshe

    1995-01-01

    The objectives of this project are to gain insight into diffusion flames by modeling various configurations related to ongoing experimental investigations in the microgravity combustion science program. The emphasis of the work is to understand the structure and dynamics of diffusion flames. Improving our fundamental understanding of diffusion flames is most relevant to issues related to fire safety and fire prevention because most fires consist of diffusion flames.

  11. Studies of Premixed Laminar and Turbulent Flames at Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ronney, Paul D.

    1993-01-01

    The work of the Principal Investigator (PI) has encompassed four topics related to the experimental and theoretical study of combustion limits in premixed flames at microgravity, as discussed in the following sections. These topics include: (1) radiation effects on premixed gas flames; (2) flame structure and stability at low Lewis number; (3) flame propagation and extinction is cylindrical tubes; and (4) experimental simulation of combustion processes using autocatalytic chemical reactions.

  12. Computational Modeling of Radiative, Thermal, and Kinetic Regimes of Flame Spread

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simsek, Aslihan

    The purpose of this thesis presented is to analyze flame spread over thermally thin solid fuels in three regimes of flame spread process; radiative, thermal, and kinetic regimes. The analyses have been performed using a comprehensive two dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model written in Fortran language developed by Bhattacharjee. Flame spread over thermally thin fuels in quiescent and opposing flow microgravity environments is investigated. An extinction study is performed with different computational domain sizes for a set of fuel thicknesses to understand the effect of domain size on the extinction velocities in the radiative and kinetic regimes. The effect of development length boundary layer is studied in both radiative and kinetic regimes. It is found that flame spread rate, flame size, flame temperature, blow-off and radiative extinction velocities depend on the development length and the boundary layer created by the opposing flow. A correlation between the extinction development length and opposed flow velocity is established. Flame spread over open cell phenolic foam is investigated in detail in a quiescent microgravity environment. The critical fuel thickness is found at different oxygen concentrations and compared to those for PMMA. Pressure, oxygen concentration, and radiation studies are also performed to analyze the flame spread over foam. To understand the effect of radiation on flame spread, the CFD model is coupled with two different radiation models in a microgravity environment. The first radiation model includes gas to surface conduction, gas to environment radiation loss, gas to surface feedback radiation, and surface to environment radiation loss. The second model only excludes gas to surface radiation feedback. The results obtained using these two models are compared with the CFD results; one with radiation completely neglected, and one with only gas to surface radiation feedback neglected. Flame spread in downward

  13. Reaction Kernel Structure of a Slot Jet Diffusion Flame in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takahashi, F.; Katta, V. R.

    2001-01-01

    Diffusion flame stabilization in normal earth gravity (1 g) has long been a fundamental research subject in combustion. Local flame-flow phenomena, including heat and species transport and chemical reactions, around the flame base in the vicinity of condensed surfaces control flame stabilization and fire spreading processes. Therefore, gravity plays an important role in the subject topic because buoyancy induces flow in the flame zone, thus increasing the convective (and diffusive) oxygen transport into the flame zone and, in turn, reaction rates. Recent computations show that a peak reactivity (heat-release or oxygen-consumption rate) spot, or reaction kernel, is formed in the flame base by back-diffusion and reactions of radical species in the incoming oxygen-abundant flow at relatively low temperatures (about 1550 K). Quasi-linear correlations were found between the peak heat-release or oxygen-consumption rate and the velocity at the reaction kernel for cases including both jet and flat-plate diffusion flames in airflow. The reaction kernel provides a stationary ignition source to incoming reactants, sustains combustion, and thus stabilizes the trailing diffusion flame. In a quiescent microgravity environment, no buoyancy-induced flow exits and thus purely diffusive transport controls the reaction rates. Flame stabilization mechanisms in such purely diffusion-controlled regime remain largely unstudied. Therefore, it will be a rigorous test for the reaction kernel correlation if it can be extended toward zero velocity conditions in the purely diffusion-controlled regime. The objectives of this study are to reveal the structure of the flame-stabilizing region of a two-dimensional (2D) laminar jet diffusion flame in microgravity and develop a unified diffusion flame stabilization mechanism. This paper reports the recent progress in the computation and experiment performed in microgravity.

  14. Acoustic Flame Suppression Mechanics in a Microgravity Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beisner, Eryn; Wiggins, Nathanial David; Yue, Kwok-Bun; Rosales, Miguel; Penny, Jeremy; Lockridge, Jarrett; Page, Ryan; Smith, Alexander; Guerrero, Leslie

    2015-06-01

    The following paper deals with acoustic flame suppression mechanics in a microgravity environment with measurements taken from an Arduino-based sensor system and validation of the technique. A Zippo lighter is ignited in microgravity and then displaced from the base of the flame and suppressed using surface interactions with single tone acoustic waves to extinguished the flame. The analysis of data collected shows that the acoustic flame suppression measurementtechniques are effective to finding qualitative differences in extinguishing in microgravity and normal gravity. Further, the results suggest that the suppression may be more effective in a microgravity environment than in a normal (1g) environment and may be a viable method of extinguishing fires during space flight.

  15. Studies of premixed laminar and turbulent flames at microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ronney, Paul D.

    1993-01-01

    A two and one-half year experimental and theoretical research program on the properties of laminar and turbulent premixed gas flames at microgravity was conducted. Progress during this program is identified and avenues for future studies are discussed.

  16. Effects of Pressure on Microgravity Hydrocarbon Diffusion Flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bahadori, M. Yousef; Stocker, Dennis P.; Edelman, Raymond B.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of pressure on the propane diffusion flames burning in quiescent air under both normal-gravity and microgravity conditions (in the NASA's 2.2-Second Drop Tower at the Lewis Research Center) were studied at pressures of 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 atm, with three fuel mass-flow rates for each pressure. Compared to normal-gravity flames, the microgravity tests showed enhanced sooting, tip-opening, and soot escape, accompanied with changes in color, size, and luminosity of the flames. At low pressures, less-efficient burning and a broader flame zone was found to exist due to the kinetics effects, while at high pressures, where was more soot and longer soot-burning zones. Results show that there exist a particular intermediate pressure at which both the microgravity and normal-gravity flame heights are minimized.

  17. Opposed-Flow Flame Spread over Thin Solid Fuels in a Narrow Channel under Different Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xia; Yu, Yong; Wan, Shixin; Wei, Minggang; Hu, Wen-Rui

    Flame spread over solid surface is critical in combustion science due to its importance in fire safety in both ground and manned spacecraft. Eliminating potential fuels from materials is the basic method to protect spacecraft from fire. The criterion of material screening is its flamma-bility [1]. Since gas flow speed has strong effect on flame spread, the combustion behaviors of materials in normal and microgravity will be different due to their different natural convec-tion. To evaluate the flammability of materials used in the manned spacecraft, tests should be performed under microgravity. Nevertheless, the cost is high, so apparatus to simulate mi-crogravity combustion under normal gravity was developed. The narrow channel is such an apparatus in which the buoyant flow is restricted effectively [2, 3]. The experimental results of the horizontal narrow channel are consistent qualitatively with those of Mir Space Station. Quantitatively, there still are obvious differences. However, the effect of the channel size on flame spread has only attracted little attention, in which concurrent-flow flame spread over thin solid in microgravity is numerically studied[4], while the similarity of flame spread in different gravity is still an open question. In addition, the flame spread experiments under microgravity are generally carried out in large wind tunnels without considering the effects of the tunnel size [5]. Actually, the materials are always used in finite space. Therefore, the flammability given by experiments using large wind tunnels will not correctly predict the flammability of materials in the real environment. In the present paper, the effect of the channel size on opposed-flow flame spread over thin solid fuels in both normal and microgravity was investigated and compared. In the horizontal narrow channel, the flame spread rate increased before decreased as forced flow speed increased. In low speed gas flows, flame spread appeared the same trend as that in

  18. Fluid Management of and Flame Spread Across Liquid Pools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, H. D.; Miller, F. J.

    2001-01-01

    The goal of our research on flame spread across pools of liquid fuel remains the quantitative identification of the mechanisms that control the rate and nature of flame spread when the initial temperature of the liquid pool is below the fuel's flash point temperature. As described in, four microgravity (mu-g) sounding rocket flights examined the effect of forced opposed airflow over a 2.5 cm deep x 2 cm wide x 30 cm long pool of 1-butanol. Among many unexpected findings, it was observed that the flame spread is much slower and steadier than in 1g where flame spread has a pulsating character. Our numerical model, restricted to two dimensions, had predicted faster, pulsating flame spread in mu-g. In a test designed to achieve a more 2-D experiment, our investigation of a shallow, wide pool (2 mm deep x 78 mm wide x 30 cm long) was unsuccessful in mu-g, due to an unexpectedly long time required to fill the tray. As such, the most recent Spread Across Liquids (SAL) sounding rocket experiment had two principal objectives: 1) determine if pulsating flame spread in deep fuel trays would occur under the conditions that a state-of-the-art computational combustion code and short-duration drop tower tests predict; and 2) determine if a long, rectangular, shallow fuel tray could achieve a visibly flat liquid surface across the whole tray without spillage in the mu-g time allotted. If the second objective was met, the shallow tray was to be ignited to determine the nature of flame spread in mu-g for this geometry. For the first time in the experiment series, two fuel trays - one deep (30 cm long x 2 cm wide x 25 mm deep) and one shallow (same length and width, but 2 mm deep)-- were flown. By doing two independent experiments in a single flight, a significant cost savings was realized. In parallel, the computational objective was to modify the code to improve agreement with earlier results. This last objective was achieved by modifying the fuel mass diffusivity and adding a

  19. Spread Across Liquids: The World's First Microgravity Combustion Experiment on a Sounding Rocket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Spread Across Liquids (SAL) experiment characterizes how flames spread over liquid pools in a low-gravity environment in comparison to test data at Earth's gravity and with numerical models. The modeling and experimental data provide a more complete understanding of flame spread, an area of textbook interest, and add to our knowledge about on-orbit and Earthbound fire behavior and fire hazards. The experiment was performed on a sounding rocket to obtain the necessary microgravity period. Such crewless sounding rockets provide a comparatively inexpensive means to fly very complex, and potentially hazardous, experiments and perform reflights at a very low additional cost. SAL was the first sounding-rocket-based, microgravity combustion experiment in the world. It was expected that gravity would affect ignition susceptibility and flame spread through buoyant convection in both the liquid pool and the gas above the pool. Prior to these sounding rocket tests, however, it was not clear whether the fuel would ignite readily and whether a flame would be sustained in microgravity. It also was not clear whether the flame spread rate would be faster or slower than in Earth's gravity.

  20. Structure of Microgravity Transitional and Pulsed Jet Diffusion Flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bahadori, M. Yousef; Hegde, Uday; Stocker, Dennis P.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes results obtained in a study of pulsed gas jet diffusion flames to better characterize the recently observed vortex/flame interactions in microgravity transitional and turbulent diffusion flames, and to improve the understanding of large-scale structures in corresponding normal-gravity flames. In preparation for a space experiment, tests were conducted in the 5.18-Second Zero-Gravity Facility of the NASA Lewis Research Center. Both unpulsed and pulsed laminar flames were studied and numerical modeling of these flames was carried out for data comparison and model validation. In addition, complementary tests for a series of unpulsed flames were conducted on-board the NASA KC-135 research aircraft. The microgravity transitional and turbulent gas-jet diffusion flames have been observed to be dominated by large-scale disturbances, or structures. These structures first appear intermittently in the flame at Reynolds numbers (based on the cold jet injection properties) of about 2100. With increase in injection Reynolds number, the rate of intermittent disturbances increases until the generation becomes continuous at Reynolds numbers of 3000 and higher. The behavior of these structures depends upon the velocity and temperature characteristics of the jet/flame shear layer. These characteristics are different in normal gravity and microgravity.

  1. Candle Flames in Microgravity: USML-1 Results - 1 Year Later

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, H. D.; Dietrich, D. L.; Tien, J. S.

    1994-01-01

    We report on the sustained behavior of a candle flame in microgravity determined in the glovebox facility aboard the First United States Microgravity Labomtofy. In a quiescent, microgmvjfy environment, diffusive transport becomes the dominant mode of heat and mass transfer; whether the diffusive transport rate is fast enough to sustain low-gravity candle flames in air was unknown to this series of about 70 tests. After an initial transient in which soot is observed, the microgravity candle flame in air becomes and remains hemispherical and blue (apparently soot-Ne) with a large flame standoff distance. Near flame extinction, spontaneous flame oscillations are regularly observed; these are explained as a flashback of flame through a premixed combustible gas followed by a retreat owed to flame quenching. The frequency of oscillations can be related to diffusive transport rates, and not to residual buoyant convective flow. The fact that the flame tip is the last point of the flame to survive suggests that it is the location of maximum fuel reactivity; this is unlike normal gravity, where the location of maximum fuel reactivity is the flame base. The flame color, size, and shape behaved in a quasi-steady manner; the finite size of the glovebox, combined with the restricted passages of the candlebox, inhibited the observation of true steady-state burning. Nonetheless, through calculations, and inference from the series of shuttle tests, if is concluded that a candle can burn indefinitely in a large enough ambient of air in microgravity. After igniting one candle, a second candle in close pximity could not be lit. This may be due to wax coating the wick and/or local oxygen depletion around the second, unlit candle. Post-mission testing suggests that simultaneous ignition may overcome these behaviors and enable both candles to be ignited.

  2. Particle-Image Velocimetry in Microgravity Laminar Jet Diffusion Flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sunderland, P. B.; Greenberg, P. S.; Urban, D. L.; Wernet, M. P.; Yanis, W.

    1999-01-01

    This paper discusses planned velocity measurements in microgravity laminar jet diffusion flames. These measurements will be conducted using Particle-Image Velocimetry (PIV) in the NASA Glenn 2.2-second drop tower. The observations are of fundamental interest and may ultimately lead to improved efficiency and decreased emissions from practical combustors. The velocity measurements will support the evaluation of analytical and numerical combustion models. There is strong motivation for the proposed microgravity flame configuration. Laminar jet flames are fundamental to combustion and their study has contributed to myriad advances in combustion science, including the development of theoretical, computational and diagnostic combustion tools. Nonbuoyant laminar jet flames are pertinent to the turbulent flames of more practical interest via the laminar flamelet concept. The influence of gravity on these flames is deleterious: it complicates theoretical and numerical modeling, introduces hydrodynamic instabilities, decreases length scales and spatial resolution, and limits the variability of residence time. Whereas many normal-gravity laminar jet diffusion flames have been thoroughly examined (including measurements of velocities, temperatures, compositions, sooting behavior and emissive and absorptive properties), measurements in microgravity gas-jet flames have been less complete and, notably, have included only cursory velocity measurements. It is envisioned that our velocity measurements will fill an important gap in the understanding of nonbuoyant laminar jet flames.

  3. Flame Radiation, Structure, and Scalar Properties in Microgravity Laminar Fires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feikema, Douglas; Lim, Jongmook; Sivathanu, Yudaya

    2007-01-01

    Results from microgravity combustion experiments conducted in the Zero Gravity Research Facility (ZGF) 5.18 second drop facility are reported. The results quantify flame radiation, structure, and scalar properties during the early phase of a microgravity fire. Emission mid-infrared spectroscopy measurements have been completed to quantitatively determine the flame temperature, water and carbon dioxide vapor concentrations, radiative emissive power, and soot concentrations in microgravity laminar methane/air, ethylene/nitrogen/air and ethylene/air jet flames. The measured peak mole fractions for water vapor and carbon dioxide are found to be in agreement with state relationship predictions for hydrocarbon/air combustion. The ethylene/air laminar flame conditions are similar to previously reported results including those from the flight project, Laminar Soot Processes (LSP). Soot concentrations and gas temperatures are in reasonable agreement with similar results available in the literature. However, soot concentrations and flame structure dramatically change in long-duration microgravity laminar diffusion flames as demonstrated in this report.

  4. Spot Radiative Ignition and Subsequent Three Dimensional Flame Spread Over Thin Cellulose Fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, Sandra L.; Kashiwagi, T.; Kikuchi, M.; Fujita, O.; Ito, K.

    1999-01-01

    Spontaneous radiative ignition and transition to flame spread over thin cellulose fuel samples was studied aboard the USMP-3 STS-75 Space Shuttle mission, and in three test series in the 10 second Japan Microgravity Center (JAMIC). A focused beam from a tungsten/halogen lamp was used to ignite the center of the fuel sample while an external air flow was varied from 0 to 10 cm/s. Non-piloted radiative ignition of the paper was found to occur more easily in microgravity than in normal gravity. Ignition of the sample was achieved under all conditions studied (shuttle cabin air, 21%-50% O2 in JAMIC), with transition to flame spread occurring for all but the lowest oxygen and flow conditions. While radiative ignition in a quiescent atmosphere was achieved, the flame quickly extinguished in air. The ignition delay time was proportional to the gas-phase mixing time, which is estimated using the inverse flow rate. The ignition delay was a much stronger function of flow at lower oxygen concentrations. After ignition, the flame initially spread only upstream, in a fan-shaped pattern. The fan angle increased with increasing external flow and oxygen concentration from zero angle (tunneling flame spread) at the limiting 0.5 cm/s external air flow, to 90 degrees (semicircular flame spread) for external flows at and above 5 cm/s, and higher oxygen concentrations. The fan angle was shown to be directly related to the limiting air flow velocity. Despite the convective heating from the upstream flame, the downstream flame was inhibited due to the 'oxygen shadow' of the upstream flame for the air flow conditions studied. Downstream flame spread rates in air, measured after upstream flame spread was complete and extinguished, were slower than upstream flame spread rates at the same flow. The quench regime for the transition to flame spread was skewed toward the downstream, due to the augmenting role of diffusion for opposed flow flame spread, versus the canceling effect of diffusion

  5. Radiation from Gas-Jet Diffusion Flames in Microgravity Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bahadori, M. Yousef; Edelman, Raymond B.; Sotos, Raymond G.; Stocker, Dennis P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents the first demonstration of quantitative flame-radiation measurement in microgravity environments, with the objective of studying the influences and characteristics of radiative transfer on the behavior of gas-jet diffusion flames with possible application to spacecraft fire detection. Laminar diffusion flames of propane, burning in quiescent air at atmospheric pressure, are studied in the 5.18-Second Zero-Gravity Facility of NASA Lewis Research Center. Radiation from these flames is measured using a wide-view angle, thermopile-detector radiometer, and comparisons are made with normal-gravity flames. The results show that the radiation level is significantly higher in microgravity compared to normal-gravity environments due to larger flame size, enhanced soot formation, and entrapment of combustion products in the vicinity of the flame. These effects are the consequences of the removal of buoyancy which makes diffusion the dominant mechanism of transport. The results show that longer test times may be needed to reach steady state in microgravity environments.

  6. Radiative Enhancement Effects on Flame Spread (REEFS) Project Studied "Green House" Effects on Fire Spread

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gokoglu, Suleyman A.; Ronney, Paul

    2003-01-01

    The Radiative Enhancement Effects on Flame Spread (REEFS) project, slated for flight aboard the International Space Station, reached a major milestone by holding its Science Concept Review this year. REEFS is led by principal investigator Paul Ronney from the University of Southern California in conjunction with a project team from the NASA Glenn Research Center. The study is focusing on flame spread over flat solid fuel beds to improve our understanding of more complex fires, such as those found in manned spacecraft and terrestrial buildings. The investigation has direct implications for fire safety, both for space and Earth applications, and extends previous work with emphasis on the atmospheres and flow environments likely to be present in fires that might occur in microgravity. These atmospheres will contain radiatively active gases such as carbon dioxide (CO2) from combustion products, and likely gaseous fuels such as carbon monoxide (CO) from incomplete combustion of solid fuel, as well as flows induced by ventilation currents. During tests in the 2.2-Second Drop Tower and KC-135 aircraft at Glenn, the principal investigator introduced the use of foam fuels for flame spread experiments over thermally thick fuels to obtain large spread rates in comparison to those of dense fuels such as PMMA. This enables meaningful results to be obtained even in the 2.2 s available in drop tower experiments.

  7. Effect of Oxygen Enrichment in Propane Laminar Diffusion Flames under Microgravity and Earth Gravity Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatia, Pramod; Singh, Ravinder

    2017-06-01

    Diffusion flames are the most common type of flame which we see in our daily life such as candle flame and match-stick flame. Also, they are the most used flames in practical combustion system such as industrial burner (coal fired, gas fired or oil fired), diesel engines, gas turbines, and solid fuel rockets. In the present study, steady-state global chemistry calculations for 24 different flames were performed using an axisymmetric computational fluid dynamics code (UNICORN). Computation involved simulations of inverse and normal diffusion flames of propane in earth and microgravity condition with varying oxidizer compositions (21, 30, 50, 100 % O2, by mole, in N2). 2 cases were compared with the experimental result for validating the computational model. These flames were stabilized on a 5.5 mm diameter burner with 10 mm of burner length. The effect of oxygen enrichment and variation in gravity (earth gravity and microgravity) on shape and size of diffusion flames, flame temperature, flame velocity have been studied from the computational result obtained. Oxygen enrichment resulted in significant increase in flame temperature for both types of diffusion flames. Also, oxygen enrichment and gravity variation have significant effect on the flame configuration of normal diffusion flames in comparison with inverse diffusion flames. Microgravity normal diffusion flames are spherical in shape and much wider in comparison to earth gravity normal diffusion flames. In inverse diffusion flames, microgravity flames were wider than earth gravity flames. However, microgravity inverse flames were not spherical in shape.

  8. Effect of Oxygen Enrichment in Propane Laminar Diffusion Flames under Microgravity and Earth Gravity Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatia, Pramod; Singh, Ravinder

    2017-01-01

    Diffusion flames are the most common type of flame which we see in our daily life such as candle flame and match-stick flame. Also, they are the most used flames in practical combustion system such as industrial burner (coal fired, gas fired or oil fired), diesel engines, gas turbines, and solid fuel rockets. In the present study, steady-state global chemistry calculations for 24 different flames were performed using an axisymmetric computational fluid dynamics code (UNICORN). Computation involved simulations of inverse and normal diffusion flames of propane in earth and microgravity condition with varying oxidizer compositions (21, 30, 50, 100 % O2, by mole, in N2). 2 cases were compared with the experimental result for validating the computational model. These flames were stabilized on a 5.5 mm diameter burner with 10 mm of burner length. The effect of oxygen enrichment and variation in gravity (earth gravity and microgravity) on shape and size of diffusion flames, flame temperature, flame velocity have been studied from the computational result obtained. Oxygen enrichment resulted in significant increase in flame temperature for both types of diffusion flames. Also, oxygen enrichment and gravity variation have significant effect on the flame configuration of normal diffusion flames in comparison with inverse diffusion flames. Microgravity normal diffusion flames are spherical in shape and much wider in comparison to earth gravity normal diffusion flames. In inverse diffusion flames, microgravity flames were wider than earth gravity flames. However, microgravity inverse flames were not spherical in shape.

  9. Research on ignition and flame spread of solid materials in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ito, Kenichi; Fujita, Osamu

    1995-01-01

    Fire safety is one of the main concerns for crewed missions such as the space station. Materials used in spacecraft may burn even if metalic. There are severe restrictions on the materials used in spacecraft from the view of fire safety. However, such restrictions or safety standards are usually determined based on experimental results under normal gravity, despite large differences between the phenomena under normal and microgravity. To evaluate the appropriateness of materials for use in space, large amount of microgravity fire-safety combustion data is urgently needed. Solid material combustion under microgravity, such as ignition and flame spread, is a relatively new research field in Japan. As the other reports in this workshop describe, most of microgravity combustion research in Japan is droplet combustion as well as some research on gas phase combustion. Since JAMIC, the Japan Microgravity Center, (which offers 10 seconds microgravity time) opened in 1992, microgravity combustion research is robust, and many drop tests relating to solid combustion (paper combustion, cotton string combustion, metal combustion with Aluminium or Magnesium) have been performed. These tests proved that the 10 seconds of microgravity time at JAMIC is useful for solid combustion research. Some experiments were performed before JAMIC opened. For example, latticed paper was burned under microgravity by using a 50 m drop tower to simulate porous material combustion under microgravity. A 50 m tower provides only 2 seconds microgravity time however, and it was not long enough to investigate the solid combustion phenomena.

  10. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-04-26

    The first NASA Dropping In a Microgravity Environment (DIME) student competition pilot project came to a conclusion at the Glenn Research Center in April 2001. The competition involved high-school student teams who developed the concept for a microgravity experiment and prepared an experiment proposal. The two student teams - COSI Academy, sponsored by the Columbus Center of Science and Industry, and another team from Cincinnati, Ohio's Sycamore High School, designed a microgravity experiment, fabricated the experimental apparatus, and visited NASA Glenn to operate their experiment in the 2.2 Second Drop Tower. This is the interior of the Sycamore High School (Cincinnati, Ohio) students' experiment to observe the flame spreading on a 100 percent cotton T-shirt under low-g. This image is from a digital still camera; higher resolution is not available.

  11. Forced Flow Flame Spreading Test: Preliminary Findings From the USMP-3 Shuttle Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sacksteder, Kurt R.; Greenberg, Paul S.; Pettegrew, Richard D.; Tien, James S.; Ferkul, Paul V.; Shih, Hsin-Yi

    1998-01-01

    The Forced Flow Flame spreading Test (FFFT) is a study of flame spreading over solid fuels in very low-speed air flows. The FFFT experiment is part of research entitled Solid Inflammability Boundary at Low Speeds, (SIBAL) intended for operations on the Space Station. In the FFFT experiment, a series of 15 experiments conducted aboard the space shuttle during the United States Microgravity Payload (USMP-3) mission provided information about the structure and spreading characteristics of flames in low-speed, concurrent flows. The test samples included flat sheets of cellulose and cast cylinders of cellulose, burned in air at velocities of approximately 1 to 8 cm/sec. The test results have been successfully compared to theoretical predictions of the SIBAL program, a fundamentally based numerical simulation of concurrent flow flame spread. Additionally, some guidance for the design characteristics of the SIBAL flight experiment have been obtained including some verification of the theoretical predictions of flame size versus the required size of the SIBAL flow duct, and the effect of the presence of thermocouples in the vicinity of near-limit flames in microgravity.

  12. Forced Flow Flame Spreading Test: Preliminary Findings From the USMP-3 Shuttle Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sacksteder, Kurt R.; Greenberg, Paul S.; Pettegrew, Richard D.; Tien, James S.; Ferkul, Paul V.; Shih, Hsin-Yi

    1998-01-01

    The Forced Flow Flame spreading Test (FFFT) is a study of flame spreading over solid fuels in very low-speed air flows. The FFFT experiment is part of research entitled Solid Inflammability Boundary at Low Speeds, (SIBAL) intended for operations on the Space Station. In the FFFT experiment, a series of 15 experiments conducted aboard the space shuttle during the United States Microgravity Payload (USMP-3) mission provided information about the structure and spreading characteristics of flames in low-speed, concurrent flows. The test samples included flat sheets of cellulose and cast cylinders of cellulose, burned in air at velocities of approximately 1 to 8 cm/sec. The test results have been successfully compared to theoretical predictions of the SIBAL program, a fundamentally based numerical simulation of concurrent flow flame spread. Additionally, some guidance for the design characteristics of the SIBAL flight experiment have been obtained including some verification of the theoretical predictions of flame size versus the required size of the SIBAL flow duct, and the effect of the presence of thermocouples in the vicinity of near-limit flames in microgravity.

  13. Radiative Extinction of Gaseous Spherical Diffusion Flames in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santa, K. J.; Chao, B. H.; Sunderland, P. B.; Urban, D. L.; Stocker, D. P.; Axelbaum, R. L.

    2007-01-01

    Radiative extinction of spherical diffusion flames was investigated experimentally and numerically. The experiments involved microgravity spherical diffusion flames burning ethylene and propane at 0.98 bar. Both normal (fuel flowing into oxidizer) and inverse (oxidizer flowing into fuel) flames were studied, with nitrogen supplied to either the fuel or the oxygen. Flame conditions were chosen to ensure that the flames extinguished within the 2.2 s of available test time; thus extinction occurred during unsteady flame conditions. Diagnostics included color video and thin-filament pyrometry. The computations, which simulated flow from a porous sphere into a quiescent environment, included detailed chemistry, transport and radiation, and yielded transient results. Radiative extinction was observed experimentally and simulated numerically. Extinction time, peak temperature, and radiative loss fraction were found to be independent of flow rate except at very low flow rates. Radiative heat loss was dominated by the combustion products downstream of the flame and was found to scale with flame surface area, not volume. For large transient flames the heat release rate also scaled with surface area and thus the radiative loss fraction was largely independent of flow rate. Peak temperatures at extinction onset were about 1100 K, which is significantly lower than for kinetic extinction. One observation of this work is that while radiative heat losses can drive transient extinction, this is not because radiative losses are increasing with time (flame size) but rather because the heat release rate is falling off as the temperature drops.

  14. Development of PIV for Microgravity Diffusion Flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenberg, Paul S.; Wernet, Mark P.; Yanis, William; Urban, David L.; Sunderland, Peter B.

    2003-01-01

    Results are presented from the application of Particle Image Velocimetry(PIV) to the overfire region of a laminar gas jet diffusion flame in normal gravity. A methane flame burning in air at 0.98 bar was considered. The apparatus demonstrated here is packaged in a drop rig designed for use in the 2.2 second drop tower.

  15. Investigations of two-phase flame propagation under microgravity conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gokalp, Iskender

    2016-07-01

    Investigations of two-phase flame propagation under microgravity conditions R. Thimothée, C. Chauveau, F. Halter, I Gökalp Institut de Combustion, Aérothermique, Réactivité et Environnement (ICARE), CNRS, 1C Avenue de la Recherche Scientifique, 45071 Orléans Cedex 2, France This paper presents and discusses recent results on two-phase flame propagation experiments we carried out with mono-sized ethanol droplet aerosols under microgravity conditions. Fundamental studies on the flame propagation in fuel droplet clouds or sprays are essential for a better understanding of the combustion processes in many practical applications including internal combustion engines for cars, modern aircraft and liquid rocket engines. Compared to homogeneous gas phase combustion, the presence of a liquid phase considerably complicates the physico-chemical processes that make up combustion phenomena by coupling liquid atomization, droplet vaporization, mixing and heterogeneous combustion processes giving rise to various combustion regimes where ignition problems and flame instabilities become crucial to understand and control. Almost all applications of spray combustion occur under high pressure conditions. When a high pressure two-phase flame propagation is investigated under normal gravity conditions, sedimentation effects and strong buoyancy flows complicate the picture by inducing additional phenomena and obscuring the proper effect of the presence of the liquid droplets on flame propagation compared to gas phase flame propagation. Conducting such experiments under reduced gravity conditions is therefore helpful for the fundamental understanding of two-phase combustion. We are considering spherically propagating two-phase flames where the fuel aerosol is generated from a gaseous air-fuel mixture using the condensation technique of expansion cooling, based on the Wilson cloud chamber principle. This technique is widely recognized to create well-defined mono-size droplets

  16. Premixed turbulent flame propagation in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menon, S.; Jagoda, J.; Sujith, R.

    1995-01-01

    To reduce pollutant formation there is, at present, an increased interest in employing premixed fuel/air mixture in combustion devices. It is well known that greater control over local temperature can be achieved with premixed flames and with lean premixed mixtures, significant reduction of pollutants such as NO(x) can be achieved. However, an issue that is still unresolved is the predictability of the flame propagation speed in turbulent premixed mixtures, especially in lean mixtures. Although substantial progress has been made in recent years, there is still no direct verification that flame speeds in turbulent premixed flows are highly predictable in complex flow fields found in realistic combustors. One of the problems associated with experimental verification is the difficulty in obtaining access to all scales of motion in typical high Reynolds number flows, since, such flows contain scales of motion that range from the size of the device to the smallest Kolmogorov scale. The overall objective of this study is to characterize the behavior of turbulent premixed flames at reasonable high Reynolds number, Re(sub L). Of particular interest here is the thin flame limit where the laminar flame thickness is much smaller than the Kolmogorov scale. Thin flames occur in many practical combustion devices and will be numerically studied using a recently developed new formulation that is briefly described.

  17. Soot and Radiation Measurements in Microgravity Jet Diffusion Flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ku, Jerry C.

    1996-01-01

    The subject of soot formation and radiation heat transfer in microgravity jet diffusion flames is important not only for the understanding of fundamental transport processes involved but also for providing findings relevant to spacecraft fire safety and soot emissions and radiant heat loads of combustors used in air-breathing propulsion systems. Our objectives are to measure and model soot volume fraction, temperature, and radiative heat fluxes in microgravity jet diffusion flames. For this four-year project, we have successfully completed three tasks, which have resulted in new research methodologies and original results. First is the implementation of a thermophoretic soot sampling technique for measuring particle size and aggregate morphology in drop-tower and other reduced gravity experiments. In those laminar flames studied, we found that microgravity soot aggregates typically consist of more primary particles and primary particles are larger in size than those under normal gravity. Comparisons based on data obtained from limited samples show that the soot aggregate's fractal dimension varies within +/- 20% of its typical value of 1.75, with no clear trends between normal and reduced gravity conditions. Second is the development and implementation of a new imaging absorption technique. By properly expanding and spatially-filtering the laser beam to image the flame absorption on a CCD camera and applying numerical smoothing procedures, this technique is capable of measuring instantaneous full-field soot volume fractions. Results from this technique have shown the significant differences in local soot volume fraction, smoking point, and flame shape between normal and reduced gravity flames. We observed that some laminar flames become open-tipped and smoking under microgravity. The third task we completed is the development of a computer program which integrates and couples flame structure, soot formation, and flame radiation analyses together. We found good

  18. An experimental study of opposed flow diffusion flame extinction over a thin fuel in microgravity. M.S. Thesis. Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferkul, Paul V.

    1989-01-01

    The flame spread and flame extinction characteristics of a thin fuel burning in a low-speed forced convective environment in microgravity were examined. The flame spread rate was observed to decrease both with decreasing ambient oxygen concentration as well as decreasing free stream velocity. A new mode of flame extinction was observed, caused by either of two means: keeping the free stream velocity constant and decreasing the oxygen concentration, or keeping the oxygen concentration constant and decreasing the free stream velocity. This extinction is called quenching extinction. By combining this data together with a previous microgravity quiescent flame study and normal-gravity blowoff extinction data, a flammability map was constructed with molar percentage oxygen and characteristic relative velocity as coordinates. The Damkohler number is not sufficient to predict flame spread and extinction in the near quench limit region.

  19. Premixed Turbulent Flame Propagation in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menon, Suresh

    1999-01-01

    A combined numerical-experimental study has been carried out to investigate the structure and propagation characteristics of turbulent premixed flames with and without the influence of buoyancy. Experimentally, the premixed flame characteristics are studied in the wrinkled regime using a Couette flow facility and an isotropic flow facility in order to resolve the scale of flame wrinkling. Both facilities were chosen for their ability to achieve sustained turbulence at low Reynolds number. This implies that conventional diagnostics can be employed to resolve the smallest scales of wrinkling. The Couette facility was also built keeping in mind the constraints imposed by the drop tower requirements. Results showed that the flow in this Couette flow facility achieves full-developed turbulence at low Re and all turbulence statistics are in good agreement with past measurements on large-scale facilities. Premixed flame propagation studies were then carried out both using the isotropic box and the Couette facility. Flame imaging showed that fine scales of wrinkling occurs during flame propagation. Both cases in Ig showed significant buoyancy effect. To demonstrate that micro-g can remove this buoyancy effect, a small drop tower was built and drop experiments were conducted using the isotropic box. Results using the Couette facility confirmed the ability to carry out these unique reacting flow experiments at least in 1g. Drop experiments at NASA GRC were planned but were not completed due to termination of this project.

  20. Time-dependent Computational Studies of Premixed Flames in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kailasanath, K.; Patnaik, Gopal; Oran, Elaine S.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes the research performed at the Center for Reactive Flow and Dynamical Systems in the Laboratory for Computational Physics and Fluid Dynamics, at the Naval Research Laboratory, in support of NASA Microgravity Science and Applications Program. The primary focus of this research is on investigating fundamental questions concerning the propagation and extinction of premixed flames in earth gravity and in microgravity environments. Our approach is to use detailed time-dependent, multispecies, numerical models as tools to simulate flames in different gravity environments. The models include a detailed chemical kinetics mechanism consisting of elementary reactions among the eight reactive species involved in hydrogen combustion, coupled to algorithms for convection, thermal conduction, viscosity, molecular and thermal diffusion, and external forces. The external force, gravity, can be put in any direction relative to flame propagation and can have a range of values. Recently more advanced wall boundary conditions such as isothermal and no-slip have been added to the model. This enables the simulation of flames propagating in more practical systems than before. We have used the numerical simulations to investigate the effects of heat losses and buoyancy forces on the structure and stability of flames, to help resolve fundamental questions on the existence of flammability limits when there are no external losses or buoyancy forces in the system, to understand the interaction between the various processes leading to flame instabilities and extinguishment, and to study the dynamics of cell formation and splitting. Our studies have been able to bring out the differences between upward- and downward-propagating flames and predict the zero-gravity behavior of these flames. The simulations have also highlighted the dominant role of wall heat losses in the case of downward-propagating flames. The simulations have been able to qualitatively predict the

  1. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-01-01

    Gerard M. Faeth, University of Michigan, principal investigator in combustion science experiments, including Flow/Soot-Formation in Nonbuoyant Laminar Diffusion Flames, investigation of Laminar Jet Diffusion Flames in Microgravity: A Paradigm for Soot Processes in Turbulent Flames, and Soot Processes in Freely-Propagating Laminar Premixed Flames.

  2. Visualization and imaging methods for flames in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiland, Karen J.

    1993-01-01

    The visualization and imaging of flames has long been acknowledged as the starting point for learning about and understanding combustion phenomena. It provides an essential overall picture of the time and length scales of processes and guides the application of other diagnostics. It is perhaps even more important in microgravity combustion studies, where it is often the only non-intrusive diagnostic measurement easily implemented. Imaging also aids in the interpretation of single-point measurements, such as temperature, provided by thermocouples, and velocity, by hot-wire anemometers. This paper outlines the efforts of the Microgravity Combustion Diagnostics staff at NASA Lewis Research Center in the area of visualization and imaging of flames, concentrating on methods applicable for reduced-gravity experimentation. Several techniques are under development: intensified array camera imaging, and two-dimensional temperature and species concentrations measurements. A brief summary of results in these areas is presented and future plans mentioned.

  3. Time-dependent computational studies of flames in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oran, Elaine S.; Kailasanath, K.

    1989-01-01

    The research performed at the Center for Reactive Flow and Dynamical Systems in the Laboratory for Computational Physics and Fluid Dynamics, at the Naval Research Laboratory, in support of the NASA Microgravity Science and Applications Program is described. The primary focus was on investigating fundamental questions concerning the propagation and extinction of premixed flames in Earth gravity and in microgravity environments. The approach was to use detailed time-dependent, multispecies, numerical models as tools to simulate flames in different gravity environments. The models include a detailed chemical kinetics mechanism consisting of elementary reactions among the eight reactive species involved in hydrogen combustion, coupled to algorithms for convection, thermal conduction, viscosity, molecular and thermal diffusion, and external forces. The external force, gravity, can be put in any direction relative to flame propagation and can have a range of values. A combination of one-dimensional and two-dimensional simulations was used to investigate the effects of curvature and dilution on ignition and propagation of flames, to help resolve fundamental questions on the existence of flammability limits when there are no external losses or buoyancy forces in the system, to understand the mechanism leading to cellular instability, and to study the effects of gravity on the transition to cellular structure. A flame in a microgravity environment can be extinguished without external losses, and the mechanism leading to cellular structure is not preferential diffusion but a thermo-diffusive instability. The simulations have also lead to a better understanding of the interactions between buoyancy forces and the processes leading to thermo-diffusive instability.

  4. Computational predictions of flame spread over alcohol pools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schiller, D. N.; Ross, H. D.; Sirignano, W. A.

    1993-01-01

    The effects of buoyancy and thermocapillarity on pulsating and uniform flame spread above n-propanol fuel pools have been studied using a numerical model. Data obtained indicate that the existence of pulsating flame spread is dependent upon the formation of a gas-phase recirculation cell which entrains evaporating fuel vapor in front of the leading edge of the flame. The size of the recirculation cell which is affected by the extent of liquid motion ahead of the flame, is shown to dictate whether flame spread is uniform or pulsating. The amplitude and period of the flame pulsations are found to be proportional to the maximum extent of the flow head. Under conditions considered, liquid motion was not affected appreciably by buoyancy. Horizontal convection in the liquid is the dominant mechanism for transporting heat ahead of the flame for both the pulsating and uniform regimes.

  5. Effect of Slow External Flow on Flame Spreading over Solid Material: Opposed Spreading over Polyethylene Wire Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fujita, O.; Nishizawa, K.; Ito, K.; Olson, S. L.; Kashigawa, T.

    2001-01-01

    The effect of slow external flow on solid combustion is very important from the view of fire safety in space because the solid material in spacecraft is generally exposed to the low air flow for ventilation. Further, the effect of low external flow on fuel combustion is generally fundamental information for industrial combustion system, such as gas turbine, boiler incinerator and so on. However, it is difficult to study the effect of low external flow on solid combustion in normal gravity, because the buoyancy-induced flow strongly disturbs the flow field, especially for low flow velocity. In this research therefore, the effect of slow external flow on opposed flame spreading over polyethylene (PE) wire insulation have been investigated in microgravity. The microgravity environment was provided by Japan Microgravity Center (JAMIC) in Japan and KC-135 at NASA GRC. The tested flow velocity range is 0-30cm/s with different oxygen concentration and inert gas component.

  6. Diffusion flame extinction in slow convenctive flow under microgravity environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, C. H.

    1986-01-01

    A theoretical analysis is presented to study the extinction characteristics of a diffusion flame near the leading edge of a thin fuel plate in slow, forced convective flows in a microgravity environment. The mathematical model includes two-dimensional Navier-Stokes momentum, energy and species equations with one-step overall chemical reaction using second-order finite rate Arrhenius kinetics. Radiant heat loss on the fuel plate is applied in the model as it is the dominant mechanism for flame extinguishment in the small convective flow regime. A parametric study based on the variation of convective flow velocity, which varies the Damkohler number (Da), and the surface radiant heat loss parameter (S) simultaneously, is given. An extinction limit is found in the regime of slow convective flow when the rate of radiant heat loss from fuel surface outweighs the rate of heat generation due to combustion. The transition from existent envelope flame to extinguishment consists of gradual flame contraction in the opposed flow direction together with flame temperature reduction as the convective flow velocity decreases continuously until the extinction limit is reached. A case of flame structure subjected to surface radiant heat loss is also presented and discussed.

  7. Upward Flame Spread Over Thin Solids in Partial Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feier, I. I.; Shih, H. Y.; Sacksteder, K. R.; Tien, J. S.

    2001-01-01

    The effects of partial-gravity, reduced pressure, and sample width on upward flame spread over a thin cellulose fuel were studied experimentally and the results were compared to a numerical flame spread simulation. Fuel samples 1-cm, 2-cm, and 4-cm wide were burned in air at reduced pressures of 0.2 to 0.4 atmospheres in simulated gravity environments of 0.1-G, 0.16-G (Lunar), and 0.38-G (Martian) onboard the NASA KC-135 aircraft and in normal-gravity tests. Observed steady flame propagation speeds and pyrolysis lengths were approximately proportional to the gravity level. Flames spread more quickly and were longer with the wider samples and the variations with gravity and pressure increased with sample width. A numerical simulation of upward flame spread was developed including three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations, one-step Arrhenius kinetics for the gas phase flame and for the solid surface decomposition, and a fuel-surface radiative loss. The model provides detailed structure of flame temperatures, the flow field interactions with the flame, and the solid fuel mass disappearance. The simulation agrees with experimental flame spread rates and their dependence on gravity level but predicts a wider flammable region than found by experiment. Some unique three-dimensional flame features are demonstrated in the model results.

  8. Upward And Downward Flame Spreading And Extinction In Partial Gravity Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sacksteder, Kurt R.; Feier, Ioan I.; Ferkul, Paul V.; Kumar, Amit; T'ien, James S.

    2003-01-01

    The premise of this research effort has been to begin exploring the gap in the literature between studies of material flammability and flame spread phenomena in normal-gravity and those conducted in the microgravity environment, with or without forced flows. From a fundamental point of view, flame spreading in upward (concurrent) buoyant flow is considerably different from concurrent forced flow. The flow accelerates throughout the length of the buoyant flame bringing the streamlines and the flame closer to the fuel surface and strengthening the interaction between the flame and fuel. Forced flows are diverted around the flame and away from the fuel surface, except where the flow might be constrained by a finite duct. The differences may be most clearly felt as the atmospheric conditions, viz. pressure or oxygen content, approach the flammability limit. From a more practical point of view, flame spreading and material flammability behavior have not been studied under the partial gravity conditions that are the natural state in space exploration destinations such as the Moon and Mars. This effort constitutes the beginning of the research needed to engineer fire safety provisions for such future missions. In this program we have performed partial-gravity experiments (from 0.1 to 1 g/g(sub Earth)) considering both upward and downward flame spread over thin solid fuels aboard the NASA KC-135 aircraft. In those tests, the atmospheric pressure and the fuel sample width were varied. Steady flame spread rates and approximate extinction boundaries were determined. Flame images were recorded using video cameras and two-dimensional fuel surface temperature distributions were determined using an IR camera. These results are available, and complement our earlier work in downward spread in partial gravity varying oxygen content. In conjunction with the experiment, three-dimensional models of flame spreading in buoyant flow have been developed. Some of the computed results on

  9. Opposed-Flow Flame Spread in a Narrow Channel Apparatus over Thin PMMA Sheets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bornand, G. R.; Olson, Sandra L.; Miller, F. J.; Pepper, J. M.; Wichman, I. S.

    2013-01-01

    Flame spread tests have been conducted over polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) samples in San Diego State University's Narrow Channel Apparatus (SDSU NCA). The Narrow Channel Apparatus (NCA) has the ability to suppress buoyant flow in horizontally spreading flames, and is currently being investigated as a possible replacement or complement to NASA's current material flammability test standard for non-metallic solids, NASA-STD-(I)-6001B Test 1. The buoyant suppression achieved with a NCA allows for tests to be conducted in a simulated microgravity atmosphere-a characteristic that Test 1 lacks since flames present in Test 1 are buoyantly driven. The SDSU NCA allows for flame spread tests to be conducted with varying opposed flow oxidizer velocities, oxygen percent by volume, and total pressure. Also, since the test sample is placed symmetrically between two confining plates so that there is a gap above and below the sample, this gap can be adjusted. This gap height adjustment allows for a compromise between heat loss from the flame to the confining boundaries and buoyancy suppression achieved by those boundaries. This article explores the effect gap height has on the flame spread rate for 75 µm thick PMMA at 1 atm pressure and 21% oxygen concentration by volume in the SDSU NCA. Flame spread results from the SDSU NCA for thin cellulose fuels have previously been compared to results from tests in actual microgravity at various test conditions with the same sample materials and were found to be in good agreement. This article also presents results from the SDSU NCA for PMMA at 1 atm pressure, opposed oxidizer velocity ranging from 3 to 35 cm/s, oxygen concentration by volume at 21%, 30 %, and 50% and fuel thicknesses of 50 and 75 µm. These results are compared to results obtained in actual microgravity for PMMA obtained at the 4.5s drop tower of MGLAB in Gifu, Japan, and the 5.2s drop tower at NASA's Zero-Gravity Research Facility in Cleveland, OH. This comparison confirms

  10. Microgravity experiments and numerical studies on ethanol/air spray flames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thimothée, Romain; Chauveau, Christian; Halter, Fabien; Nicoli, Colette; Haldenwang, Pierre; Denet, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    Spray flames are known to exhibit amazing features in comparison with single-phase flames. The weightless situation offers the conditions in which the spray characteristics can be well controlled before and during combustion. The article reports on a joint experimental/numerical work that concerns ethanol/air spray flames observed in a spherical chamber using the condensation technique of expansion cooling (based on the Wilson cloud chamber principle), under microgravity. We describe the experimental set-up and give details on the creation of a homogeneous and nearly monosized aerosol. Different optical diagnostics are employed successfully to measure the relevant parameters of two-phase combustion. A classical shadowgraphy system is used to track the flame speed propagation and allow us to observe the flame front instability. The complete characterization of the aerosol is performed with a laser diffraction particle size analyser by measuring the droplet diameter and the droplet density number, just before ignition. A laser tomography device allows us to measure the temporal evolution of the droplet displacement during flame propagation, as well as to identify the presence of droplets in the burnt gases. The numerical modelling is briefly recalled. In particular, spray-flame propagation is schematized by the combustion spread in a 2-D lattice of fuel droplets surrounded by an initial gaseous mixture of fuel vapour and air. In its spherical expansion, the spray flame presents a corrugated front pattern, while the equivalent single-phase flame does not. From a numerical point of view, the same phenomena of wrinkles are also observed in the simulations. The front pattern pointed out by the numerical approach is identified as of Darrieus-Landau (DL) type. The droplets are found to trigger the instability. Then, we quantitatively compare experimental data with numerical predictions on spray-flame speed. The experimental results show that the spray-flame speed is of the

  11. Application of validated radiation model in flame spread rate over solid fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivisic, Ivan

    In this thesis the radiative effects of opposed flow flames spreading over solid fuels are discussed as well as the coupling of a radiation and CFD program. The coupled programs are used to show the radiative heat transfer mechanisms and how they affect the flame globally. A radiation program is used to calculate radiation properties of the flame such as the heat flux distribution, net heat flow, and mean Plank absorptivity constant for a particular flame. The radiation program imports the temperature fields from a CFD program. Trends in the mean Plank absorptivity constant with varying ambient conditions are analyzed and an application of the radiation program to simulate a physical radiometer is demonstrated for a test case. The CFD program can import radiation results to help improve the accuracy of the simulation. A script was written to automate the update process to produce more accurate results for flame simulations. Flux distributions, stability and relative error are analyzed to show the coupled programs are producing results within an acceptable error. Trends in error and stability are discussed and stable regions with low enough error are determined. The coupled programs are used to gather data on flame spread rate and find differences in flame structure and properties of neglecting certain radiation mechanisms. No radiation included produced the hottest fastest moving flame, while no gas to surface radiation produced the coolest flame. Including the gas to surface radiation produced a slightly hotter faster moving flame. This trend was studied across different opposed flow velocities and sample widths. The radiative heat fluxes are analyzed for the cases as well. All the flame simulations in this thesis were run for a microgravity, 21% oxygen, and PMMA fuel.

  12. Structure and dynamics of premixed flames in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kailasanath, K.; Patnaik, Gopal

    1993-01-01

    In this report we describe the research performed at the Naval Research Laboratory in support of the NASA Microgravity Science and Applications Program over the past three years with emphasis on the work performed since February 1992, the beginning of the current project. The focus of our research has been on investigating fundamental combustion questions concerning the propagation and extinction of gas-phase flames in microgravity and earth-gravity environments. Our approach to resolving these fundamental questions has been to use detailed time-dependent, multidimensional numerical models to perform carefully designed computational experiments. The basic questions we have addressed, a general description of the numerical approach, and a summary of the results are described in this report. More detailed discussions are available in the papers published which are referenced herein.

  13. Oxygen and Fuel Jet Diffusion Flame Studies in Microgravity Motivated by Spacecraft Oxygen Storage Fire Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sunderland, P. B.; Yuan, Z.-G.; Krishnan, S. S.; Abshire, J. M.; Gore, J. P.

    2003-01-01

    Owing to the absence of past work involving flames similar to the Mir fire namely oxygen-enhanced, inverse gas-jet diffusion flames in microgravity the objectives of this work are as follows: 1. Observe the effects of enhanced oxygen conditions on laminar jet diffusion flames with ethane fuel. 2. Consider both earth gravity and microgravity. 3. Examine both normal and inverse flames. 4. Compare the measured flame lengths and widths with calibrated predictions of several flame shape models. This study expands on the work of Hwang and Gore which emphasized radiative emissions from oxygen-enhanced inverse flames in earth gravity, and Sunderland et al. which emphasized the shapes of normal and inverse oxygen-enhanced gas-jet diffusion flames in microgravity.

  14. Computational And Experimental Studies Of Three-Dimensional Flame Spread Over Liquid Fuel Pools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Howard D. (Technical Monitor); Cai, Jinsheng; Liu, Feng; Sirignano, William A.; Miller, Fletcher J.

    2003-01-01

    and Miller, 1999). Regions of uniform and pulsating flame spread are mapped for the flow conditions of pool depth, opposed flow velocity, initial pool temperature, and air oxygen concentration under both normal and microgravity conditions. Details can be found in Cai et al. (2002, 2003). Experimental results recently performed at NASA Glenn of flame spread across a wide, shallow pool as a function of liquid temperature are also presented here.

  15. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-10-04

    Professor Gerard M. Faeth, Department of Aerospace Engineering, University of Michigan, Arn Arbor, MI, is a principal investigator in NASA combustion science directed by Glenn Research Center. His projects include: Soot Processes in Freely-Propagating Laminar Premixed Flames; Investigation of Laminar Jet Diffusion Flames in Microgravity: A Paradigm for Soot Processes in Turbulent Flames (scheduled to fly on the STS-107 mission); and Flow/Soot- Formation in Nonbuoyant Laminar Diffusion Flames.

  16. Thermal Characteristics and Structure of Fully-Modulated, Turbulent Diffusion Flames in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hermanson, J. C.; Johari, H.; Stocker, D. P.; Hegde, U. G.

    2003-01-01

    Turbulent jet diffusion flames are studied in microgravity and normal gravity under fully-modulated conditions for a range of injection times and a 50% duty cycle. Diluted ethylene was injected through a 2-mm nozzle at a Reynolds number of 5,000 into an open duct, with a slow oxidizer co-flow. Microgravity tests are conducted in NASA's 2.2 Second Drop Tower. Flames with short injection times and high duty cycle exhibit a marked increase in the ensemble-averaged flame length due to the removal of buoyancy. The cycle-averaged centerline temperature profile reveals higher temperatures in the microgravity flames, especially at the flame tip where the difference is about 200 K. In addition, the cycle-averaged measurements of flame radiation were about 30% to 60% greater in microgravity than in normal gravity.

  17. Flame-Vortex Interactions Imaged in Microgravity - To Assess the Theory Flame Stretch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Driscoll, James F.

    2001-01-01

    The goals of this research are to: 1) Assess the Theory of Flame Stretch by operating a unique flame-vortex experiment under microgravity conditions in the NASA Glenn 2.2 Second Drop Tower (drops to identify operating conditions have been completed); 2) Obtain high speed shadowgraph images (500-1000 frames/s) using the drop rig (images were obtained at one-g, and the NASA Kodak RO camera is being mounted on the drop rig); 3) Obtain shadowgraph and PIV images at 1-g while varying the effects of buoyancy by controlling the Froude number (completed); 4) Numerically model the inwardly-propagating spherical flame that is observed in the experiment using full chemistry and the RUN 1DL code (completed); 5) Send images of the flame shape to Dr. G. Patniak at NRL who is numerically simulating the entire flame-vortex interaction of the present experiment (data transfer completed); and 6) Assess the feasibility of obtaining PIV velocity field images in the drop rig, which would be useful (but not required) for our assessment of the Theory of Flame Stretch (PIV images were obtained at one-g using same low laser power that is available from fiber optic cable in drop tower). The motivation for the work is to obtain novel measurement needed to develop a physically accurate model of turbulent combustion that can help in the control of engine pollutants. The unique experiment allows, for the first time, the detailed study of a negatively-curved (negatively stretched) flame, which is one of the five fundamental types of premixed flames. While there have been studies of flat flames, positively-curved (outwardly-propagating) cases and positively-strained (counterflow) cases, this is the first detailed study of a negatively-curved (inwardly-propagating) flame. The first set of drops in the 2.2 Second Drop Tower showed that microgravity provides more favorable conditions for achieving inwardly-propagating flames (IPFs) than 1-g. A vortex interacts with a flame and creates a spherical

  18. Characteristics of Gaseous Diffusion Flames with High Temperature Combustion Air in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghaderi, M.; Gupta, A. K.

    2003-01-01

    The characteristics of gaseous diffusion flames have been obtained using high temperature combustion air under microgravity conditions. The time resolved flame images under free fall microgravity conditions were obtained from the video images obtained. The tests results reported here were conducted using propane as the fuel and about 1000 C combustion air. The burner included a 0.686 mm diameter central fuel jet injected into the surrounding high temperature combustion air. The fuel jet exit Reynolds number was 63. Several measurements were taken at different air preheats and fuel jet exit Reynolds number. The resulting hybrid color flame was found to be blue at the base of the flame followed by a yellow color flame. The length and width of flame during the entire free fall conditions has been examined. Also the relative flame length and width for blue and yellow portion of the flame has been examined under microgravity conditions. The results show that the flame length decreases and width increases with high air preheats in microgravity condition. In microgravity conditions the flame length is larger with normal temperature combustion air than high temperature air.

  19. Theory of flame spread above solids. [fuel exothermic surface reactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sirignano, W. A.

    1974-01-01

    A theory for flame spread above a solid fuel is presented. The special case is considered whereby the oxidation is an exothermic surface reaction. The spreading rate is predicted as a function of the thermochemical properties, fuel-bed thickness, and convective velocity. Also, the theory predicts temperature, mass fraction, and heat flux as a function of position.

  20. Flame-Vortex Interactions in Microgravity to Improve Models of Turbulent Combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Driscoll, James F.

    1999-01-01

    A unique flame-vortex interaction experiment is being operated in microgravity in order to obtain fundamental data to assess the Theory of Flame Stretch which will be used to improve models of turbulent combustion. The experiment provides visual images of the physical process by which an individual eddy in a turbulent flow increases the flame surface area, changes the local flame propagation speed, and can extinguish the reaction. The high quality microgravity images provide benchmark data that are free from buoyancy effects. Results are used to assess Direct Numerical Simulations of Dr. K. Kailasanath at NRL, which were run for the same conditions.

  1. Flame-Vortex Interactions in Microgravity to Improve Models of Turbulent Combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Driscoll, James F.

    1999-01-01

    A unique flame-vortex interaction experiment is being operated in microgravity in order to obtain fundamental data to assess the Theory of Flame Stretch which will be used to improve models of turbulent combustion. The experiment provides visual images of the physical process by which an individual eddy in a turbulent flow increases the flame surface area, changes the local flame propagation speed, and can extinguish the reaction. The high quality microgravity images provide benchmark data that are free from buoyancy effects. Results are used to assess Direct Numerical Simulations of Dr. K. Kailasanath at NRL, which were run for the same conditions.

  2. Trioxane-Air Counterflow Diffusion Flames in Normal and Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linteris, Gregory T.; Urban, David L.

    2001-01-01

    Trioxane, a weakly bound polymer of formaldehyde (C3H6O3, m.p. 61 C, b.p. 115 C), is a uniquely suited compound for studying material flammability. Like many of the more commonly used materials for such tests (e.g., delrin, polyethylene, acrylic sheet, wood, and paper), it displays relevant phenomena (internal heat conduction, melting, vaporization, thermal decomposition, and gas phase reaction of the decomposition products). Unlike the other materials, however, it is non-sooting and has simple and well-known chemical kinetic pathways for its combustion. Hence it should prove to be much more useful for numerical modeling of surface combustion than the complex fuels typically used. We have performed the first exploratory tests of trioxane combustion in the counterflow configuration to determine its potential as a surrogate solid fuel which allows detailed modeling. The experiments were performed in the spring and summer of 1998 at the National Institute of Standards and Technology in Gaithersburg, MD, and at NASA-GRC in Cleveland. Using counterflow flames at 1-g, we measured the fuel consumption rate and the extinction conditions with added N2 in the air; at mg conditions, we observed the ignition characteristics and flame shape from video images. We have performed numerical calculations of the flame structure, but these are not described here due to space limitations. This paper summarizes some burning characteristics of trioxane relevant to its use for studying flame spread and fire suppression.

  3. Gravity effects on flame spreading over solid surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andracchio, C. R.; Cochran, T. H.

    1976-01-01

    The effects of gravity on the spreading of a flame over a solid combustible surface were determined. Flame propagation rates were measured from specimens of thin cellulose acetate sheets burning in both normal gravity (1 g) and reduced gravity (0 g) environments; the specimens were burned in various quiescent mixtures of oxygen, helium, argon, and nitrogen. A correlation for normal gravity and reduced gravity burning was obtained based on theoretical models of previous investigators.

  4. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-07-29

    Dr. Richard DeLombard of NASA's Glenn Research Center, hands the relase line for the Microgravity Demonstrator to a visitor for her to start a short experiment showing the effects of microgravity on candle flames. Combustion physics will be a major line of investigation for NASA aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The Microgravity Demonstrator is frequently used at shows and schools to illustrate how phenomena change in microgravity. The exhibit was part of the NASA outreach activity at AirVenture 2000 sponsored by the Experimental Aircraft Association in Oshkosh, WI

  5. Effects of Structure and Hydrodynamics on the Sooting Behavior of Spherical Microgravity Diffusion Flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sunderland, P. B.; Axelbaum, Richard L.; Urban, D. L.

    2000-01-01

    We have examined the sooting behavior of spherical microgravity diffusion flames burning ethylene at atmospheric pressure in the NASA Glenn 2.2-second drop tower. In a novel application of microgravity, spherical flames allowed convection across the flame to be either from fuel to oxidizer or from oxidizer to fuel. Thus, microgravity flames are uniquely capable of allowing independent variation of convection direction across the flame and stoichiometric mixture fraction, Z(sub st). This allowed us to determine the dominant mechanism responsible for the phenomenon of permanently-blue diffusion flames -- flames that remain blue as strain rate approaches zero. Stoichiometric mixture fraction was varied by changing inert concentrations such that adiabatic flame temperature did not change. At low and high Z(sub st) nitrogen was supplied with the oxidizer and the fuel, respectively. For the present flames, structure (Z(sub st)) was found to have a profound effect on soot production. Soot-free conditions were observed at high Z(sub st) (Z(sub st) = 0.78) and sooting conditions were observed at low Z(sub st) (Z(sub st) = 0.064) regardless of the direction of convection. Convection direction was found to have a lesser impact on soot inception, with formation being suppressed when convection at the flame sheet was directed towards the oxidizer.

  6. Role of buoyant flame dynamics in wildfire spread

    PubMed Central

    Finney, Mark A.; Cohen, Jack D.; Forthofer, Jason M.; McAllister, Sara S.; Gollner, Michael J.; Gorham, Daniel J.; Saito, Kozo; Akafuah, Nelson K.; Adam, Brittany A.; English, Justin D.

    2015-01-01

    Large wildfires of increasing frequency and severity threaten local populations and natural resources and contribute carbon emissions into the earth-climate system. Although wildfires have been researched and modeled for decades, no verifiable physical theory of spread is available to form the basis for the precise predictions needed to manage fires more effectively and reduce their environmental, economic, ecological, and climate impacts. Here, we report new experiments conducted at multiple scales that appear to reveal how wildfire spread derives from the tight coupling between flame dynamics induced by buoyancy and fine-particle response to convection. Convective cooling of the fine-sized fuel particles in wildland vegetation is observed to efficiently offset heating by thermal radiation until convective heating by contact with flames and hot gasses occurs. The structure and intermittency of flames that ignite fuel particles were found to correlate with instabilities induced by the strong buoyancy of the flame zone itself. Discovery that ignition in wildfires is critically dependent on nonsteady flame convection governed by buoyant and inertial interaction advances both theory and the physical basis for practical modeling. PMID:26183227

  7. Studies of Premixed Laminar and Turbulent Flames at Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwon, O. C.; Abid, M.; Porres, J.; Liu, J. B.; Ronney, P. D.; Struk, P. M.; Weiland, K. J.

    2003-01-01

    Several topics relating to premixed flame behavior at reduced gravity have been studied. These topics include: (1) flame balls; (2) flame structure and stability at low Lewis number; (3) experimental simulation of buoyancy effects in premixed flames using aqueous autocatalytic reactions; and (4) premixed flame propagation in Hele-Shaw cells. Because of space limitations, only topic (1) is discussed here, emphasizing results from experiments on the recent STS-107 Space Shuttle mission, along with numerical modeling efforts.

  8. Dynamics and Structure of Weakly-Strained Flames In Normal- and Micro-Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Hai; Vagelopoulos, Christine M.; Egolfopoulos, Fokion N.

    1999-01-01

    Strained laminar flames have been systematically studied, as the understanding of their structure and dynamic behavior is of relevance to turbulent combustion. Most of these studies have been conducted in opposed-jet, stagnation-type flow configurations. Flame studies in stagnation flows also allow for the determination of fundamental flame properties such as laminar flame speeds and extinction states that can be also conveniently modeled in detail. Studies at high strain rates are important in quantifying and understanding the response of vigorously-burning flames under conditions in which the transport time scales become comparable to the chemical time scales. Studies of weakly-strained flames can be of particular interest for all stoichiometries. For example, the laminar flame speeds for any equivalence ratio, phi, can be accurately determined by using the counterflow technique only if measurements are obtained at very low strain rates. Furthermore, near-limit flames can be only stabilized by weak strain rates. Previous studies have shown that weakly-burning flames are particularly sensitive to chain mechanisms, thermal radiation, and unsteadiness. The stabilization and study of weakly-strained flames is complicated by the presence of buoyancy that can render the flames unstable to the point of extinction. Such instabilities are caused either by the induced natural convection or the fact that higher density fluid can find itself on top of a lower density fluid. Thus, the use of microgravity (mu-g) becomes essential in order to provide meaningful insight into this important combustion regime. In view of the foregoing considerations, the main objectives of the program are to: (1) Experimentally determine the laminar flame speed at near-zero strain rates; (2) Experimentally determine the extinction limits of near-limit flames; (3) Experimentally determine the response of near-limit flames to unsteadiness and heat loss; (4) Introduce Digital Particle Image

  9. Flame Propagation in Low-Intensity Turbulence under Microgravity Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aldredge, R. C.

    2001-01-01

    The goal of the research is to understand the influences of the hydrodynamic instability on premixed-flame propagation. It is known that coupling between flame and flow-field dynamics in association with the hydrodynamic instability may lead to flame-generated turbulence, flame acceleration and enhancement of burning rates. As a result of such hydrodynamic coupling the transition from initially planar or wrinkled laminar flames to fast turbulent flames or detonations is possible, even when diffusive-thermal effects associated with non-unity reactant Lewis numbers are not destabilizing. It is important to identify methods of suppressing the hydrodynamic instability so as to insure fire safety, particularly in space.

  10. Scalar measurements and analysis of hydrogen gas jet diffusion flames in normal and microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Ammar, Khalid Nasser

    The quantitative Rainbow Schlieren Deflectometry (RSD) technique was used for the first time to measure scalar profiles in laminar and transitional hydrogen gas-jet diffusion flames burning in quiescent air in normal and microgravity. The angular deflection data obtained across the field-of-view by the RSD technique were used with Abel inversion to find the refractive index of the reacting mixture. The refractive index was related to the temperature and oxygen mole using the conserved scalar approach, combined with chemical equilibrium. Probe measurements of temperature and oxygen mole fraction were taken to validate the RSD technique. Good agreement was reached between the probe and RSD measurements in the fuel-lean side of the flame surface. The RSD measurements in the fuel-rich side of the flame were less reliable, in part, because of the measurement uncertainty and the assumption of chemical equilibrium. Contour plots of angular deflection reveal higher radial gradients in normal gravity compared to those in microgravity. Temperature profiles during transition from normal to microgravity in the drop tower were obtained to determine the extent of steady-state microgravity conditions achieved in experiments. The results show that the high temperature regions e.g., the flame surface, reached steady-state prior to the lower temperature regions e.g., the schlieren boundary. The time to reach steady-state decreased as the jet exit Reynolds number was increased. The schlieren boundary did not reach steady-state at low jet exit Reynolds numbers because of the greater influence of gravity. Effects of burner diameter and jet exit Reynolds number on flame shape and scalar profiles in normal and microgravity were evaluated. It was confirmed that the flame height varies linearly with Reynolds number in the laminar cases. Further, the flame height was shown to be independent of gravity within the range of jet-exit Reynolds numbers used (40 to 70). At a given jet

  11. Extinction of Lifted Flames Under Normal and Micro-Gravity Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lock, Andrew; Puri, Ishwar; Aggarwal, Suresh; Hegde, Uday

    2005-11-01

    Inert diluents are commonly used to suppress fires in both normal- and microgravity conditions. While previous work has elucidated the effects of introducing an inert diluent into a flow in which nonpremixed flames are established, little work has been done on the effect these diluents have on partially premixed flames (PPFs). PPFs are hybrid flames that have characteristics of both premixed and nonpremixed flames. Herein, experimental measurements and numerical simulations of PPF and nonpremixed flames diluted by CO2 are conducted. Visual images are experimentally obtained in microgravity, while visual images, chemiluminescence, and radiation measurements are obtained in normal gravity . The resulting fluid dynamics and chemistry interactions are elucidated. PPFs and nonpremixed flames lift off as CO2 is added to the flame prior to blowout. The quantity of CO2 necessary for flame blowout decreases with increased partial premixing of the initial flow. The rich premixed reaction zone of a PPF is found to weaken as CO2 is added to the flow.

  12. Markstein Numbers of Negatively-Stretched Premixed Flames: Microgravity Measurements and Computations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ibarreta, Alfonso F.; Driscoll, James F.; Feikema, Douglas A.; Salzman, Jack (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The effect of flame stretch, composed of strain and curvature, plays a major role in the propagation of turbulent premixed flames. Although all forms of stretch (positive and negative) are present in turbulent conditions, little research has been focused on the stretch due to curvature. The present study quantifies the Markstein number (which characterizes the sensitivity of the flame propagation speed to the imposed stretch rate) for an inwardly-propagating flame (IPF). This flame is of interest because it is negatively stretched, and is subjected to curvature effects alone, without the competing effects of strain. In an extension of our previous work, microgravity experiments were run using a vortex-flame interaction to create a pocket of reactants surrounded by an IPF. Computations using the RUN-1DL code of Rogg were also performed in order to explain the measurements. It was found that the Markstein number of an inwardly-propagating flame, for both the microgravity experiment and the computations, is significantly larger than that of an outwardly-propagating flame. Further insight was gained by running the computations for the simplified (hypothetical) cases of one step chemistry, unity Lewis number, and negligible heat release. Results provide additional evidence that the Markstein numbers associated with strain and curvature have different values.

  13. A study of flame spread in engineered cardboard fuelbeds: Part I: Correlations and observations

    Treesearch

    Mark A. Finney; Jason Forthofer; Isaac C. Grenfell; Brittany A. Adam; Nelson K. Akafuah; Kozo Saito

    2013-01-01

    Wind tunnel laboratory fires spreading through laser-cut cardboard fuel beds were instrumented and analyzed for physical processes associated with spread. Flames in the span-wise direction appeared as a regular series of peaks-and-troughs that scaled directly with flame length. Flame structure in the stream-wise direction fluctuated with the forward advection of...

  14. Effect of CF3H and CF3Br on laminar diffusion flames in normal and microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanderwege, B. A.; Bush, Michael T.; Hochgreb, Simone; Linteris, Gregory T.

    1995-01-01

    Chemical inhibition of diffusion flames through addition of halogenated inhibitors is a problem of significant practical and scientific interest. Extensive studies on diffusion flames in microgravity have shown that these flames have significantly different characteristics than those under normal gravity. However, the mechanisms through which inhibitors reach the reaction zone to suppress combustion in diffusion flames and the effectiveness of these compounds under reduced gravity have yet to be investigated. This study reports preliminary results of investigations on the behavior of laminar jet diffusion flames upon the addition of bromotrifluoromethane (CF3Br) and trifluoromethane (CF3H) to the surroundings under normal and microgravity conditions. The results show that the flame structure in microgravity is significantly different from that under normal gravity conditions, and more importantly, that conditions for flame stability are less stringent under microgravity. Experiments show that flames that cannot be stabilized under normal gravity are quite stable under microgravity conditions. In addition, normal gravity experiments at reduced pressure (low buoyancy) did not reproduce the structure or stability limits of inhibited flames in microgravity.

  15. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1997-11-01

    The goal of the ELF investigation is to improve our fundamental understanding of the effects of the flow environment on flame stability. The flame's stability refers to the position of its base and ultimately its continued existence. Combustion research focuses on understanding the important hidden processes of ignitions, flame spreading, and flame extinction. Understanding these processes will directly affect the efficiency of combustion operations in converting chemical energy to heat and will create a more balanced ecology and healthy environment by reducing pollutants emitted during combustion.

  16. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-01-24

    The Water Mist commercial research program is scheduled to fly an investigation on STS-107 in 2002 in the updated Combustion Module (CM-2), a sophisticated combustion chamber plus diagnostic equipment. The Center for the Commercial Applications of Combustion in Space (CCACS), a NASA Commercial Space Center located at the Colorado School of Mines, is investigating the properties of mist fire suppression in microgravity with Industry Partner Environmental Engineering Concepts. These experiments consist of varying water droplet sizes and water mist concentrations applied to flame fronts of different propane/air mixtures. Observations from these tests will provide valuable information on the change of flame speed in the presence of water mist. Shown here is a flame front propagating through the Mist flame tube during 1-g testing at NASA/Glenn Research Center.

  17. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-08-30

    The Microgravity Science Glovebox Ground Unit, delivered to the Marshall Space Flight Center on August 30, 2002, will be used at Marshall's Microgravity Development Laboratory to test experiment hardware before it is installed in the flight glovebox aboard the International Space Station (ISS) U.S. Laboratory Module, Destiny. The glovebox is a sealed container with built in gloves on its sides and fronts that enables astronauts to work safely with experiments that involve fluids, flames, particles, and fumes that need to be safely contained.

  18. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-08-30

    This excellent shot of Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) Mark Whorton, testing experiment hardware in the Microgravity Science Glovebox Ground Unit delivered to MSFC on August 30, 2002, reveals a close look at the components inside of the Glovebox. The unit is being used at Marshall's Microgravity Development Laboratory to test experiment hardware before it is installed in the flight Glovebox aboard the International Space Station (ISS) U.S. Laboratory Module, Destiny. The glovebox is a sealed container with built in gloves on its sides and fronts that enables astronauts to work safely with experiments that involve fluids, flames, particles, and fumes that need to be safely contained.

  19. Quantitative Species Measurements in Microgravity Combustion Flames using Near-Infrared Diode Lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silver, Joel A.

    1999-01-01

    Understanding the physical phenomena controlling the ignition and spread of flames in microgravity has importance for space safety as well as for characterizing dynamical and chemical combustion processes which are normally masked by buoyancy and other gravity-related effects. Unfortunately, combustion is highly complicated by fluid mechanical and chemical kinetic processes, requiring the use of numerical modeling to compare with carefully designed experiments. More sophisticated diagnostic methods are needed to provide the kind of quantitative data necessary to characterize the properties of microgravity combustion as well as provide accurate feedback to improve the predictive capabilities of the models. Diode lasers are a natural choice for use under the severe conditions of low gravity experiments. Reliable, simple solid state operation at low power satisfies the operational restrictions imposed by drop towers, aircraft and space-based studies. Modulation wavelength absorption spectroscopy (WMS) provides a means to make highly sensitive and quantitative measurements of local gas concentration and, in certain cases, temperature. With near-infrared diode lasers, detection of virtually all major combustion species with extremely rapid response time is possible in an inexpensive package. Advancements in near-infrared diode laser fabrication technology and concurrent development of optical fibers for these lasers led to their use in drop towers. Since near-infrared absorption line strengths for overtone and combination vibrational transitions are weaker than the mid-infrared fundamental bands, WMS techniques are applied to increase detection sensitivity and allow measurement of the major combustion gases. In the first microgravity species measurement, Silver et al. mounted a fiber-coupled laser at the top of the NASA 2.2-sec drop tower and piped the light through a single-mode fiber to the drop rig. A fiber splitter divided the light into eight channels that directed

  20. Flame Chemiluminescence Rate Constants for Quantitative Microgravity Combustion Diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luque, Jorge; Smith, Gregory P.; Jeffries, Jay B.; Crosley, David R.; Weiland, Karen (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Absolute excited state concentrations of OH(A), CH(A), and C2(d) were determined in three low pressure premixed methane-air flames. Two dimensional images of chemiluminescence from these states were recorded by a filtered CCD camera, processed by Abel inversion, and calibrated against Rayleigh scattering, Using a previously validated 1-D flame model with known chemistry and excited state quenching rate constants, rate constants are extracted for the reactions CH + O2 (goes to) OH(A) + CO and C2H + O (goes to) CH(A) + CO at flame temperatures. Variations of flame emission intensities with stoichiometry agree well with model predictions.

  1. An Experimental Study of the Structure of Turbulent Non-Premixed Jet Flames in Microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boxx, Isaac; Idicheria, Cherian; Clemens, Noel

    2000-11-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate the structure of transitional and turbulent non-premixed jet flames under microgravity conditions. The microgravity experiments are being conducted using a newly developed drop rig and the University of Texas 1.5 second drop tower. The rig itself measures 16”x33”x38” and contains a co-flowing round jet flame facility, flow control system, CCD camera, and data/image acquisition computer. These experiments are the first phase of a larger study being conducted at the NASA Glenn Research Center 2.2 second drop tower facility. The flames being studied include methane and propane round jet flames at jet exit Reynolds numbers as high as 10,000. The primary diagnostic technique employed is emission imaging of flame luminosity using a relatively high-speed (350 fps) CCD camera. The high-speed images are used to study flame height, flame tip dynamics and burnout characteristics. Results are compared to normal gravity experimental results obtained in the same apparatus.

  2. Effects of Fuel Preheat on Soot Formation in Microgravity Laminar Diffusion Flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Konsur, Bogdan; Megaridis, Constantine M.; Griffin, DeVon W.

    1997-01-01

    Nonbuoyant flames offer themselves as an attractive and promising platform to gain a better understanding of soot mechanisms. The effects of buoyancy can be eliminated temporarily in drop towers which sustain brief intervals of reduced gravity-typically lower than 10(exp -3)g- extending up to several seconds at a time. Microgravity facilities have been employed to show that nonbuoyant flames are longer, wider and sootier than their normal-gravity counterparts. Sunderland et al. recently verified the existence of smoke point in laminar nonbuoyant flames. As reported, microgravity flames operating above their smoke point displayed a blunt tip and much broader soot-containing regimes in comparison to their buoyant counterparts. Mortazavi et al. established that residence times in microgravity laminar jet diffusion flames with Re=0(100) tend to be proportional to burner diameter and inversely proportional to burner exit velocity. This offers the capability to alter residence times in nonbuoyant laminar jet diffusion flames when varying the burner exit diameters and velocities. Megaridis et al. presented a quantitative definition of the soot-field structure within laminar microgravity jet diffusion flames which operated well above their smoke point. The experimental methodology involved a full-field laser-light extinction technique and jet diffusion flames of nitrogen-diluted (50% vol.) acetylene fuel burning in quiescent air at atmospheric pressure. The work was conducted at the 2.2s drop tower of the NASA Lewis Research Center (NASA-LeRC). Parallel work on 1-g flames was also presented in (6) to facilitate comparisons on the effect of gravity on the soot fields. As reported, the soot spatial distributions in 0-g flames did not change in a detectable manner after 1s within a typical 2.2s experiment. During that period, the soot field was shown to sustain a pronounced annular structure throughout the luminous nonbuoyant-flame zone. The maximum soot volume fraction

  3. Aspects of Cool-Flame Supported Droplet Combustion in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nayagam, Vedha; Dietrich, Daniel L.; Williams, Forman A.

    2015-01-01

    Droplet combustion experiments performed on board the International Space Station have shown that normal-alkane fuels with negative temperature coefficient (NTC) chemistry can support quasi-steady, low-temperature combustion without any visible flame. Here we review the results for n-decane, n-heptane, and n-octane droplets burning in carbon dioxidehelium diluted environments at different pressures and initial droplet sizes. Experimental results for cool-flame burning rates, flame standoff ratios, and extinction diameters are compared against simplified theoretical models of the phenomenon. A simplified quasi-steady model based on the partial-burning regime of Lin predicts the burning rate, and flame standoff ratio reasonably well for all three normal alkanes. The second-stage cool-flame burning and extinction following the first-stage hot-flame combustion, however, shows a small dependence on the initial droplet size, thus deviating from the quasi-steady results. An asymptotic model that estimates the oxygen depletion by the hot flame and its influence on cool-flame burning rates is shown to correct the quasi-steady results and provide a better comparison with the measured burning-rate results.This work was supported by the NASA Space Life and Physical Sciences Research and Applications Program and the International Space Station Program.

  4. Mechanisms of combustion limits in premixed gas flames at microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ronney, Paul D.

    1991-01-01

    A three-year experimental and theoretical research program on the mechanisms of combustion limits of premixed gasflames at microgravity was conducted. Progress during this program is identified and avenues for future studies are discussed.

  5. Characterization of a Laminate Flat Plate Diffusion Flame in Microgravity using PIV, Visible and CH Emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joulain, P.; Cordeiro, P.; Torero, J. L.

    2001-01-01

    Motivated by fire safety concerns and the advent of long-term micro-gravity facilities, a cooperative program has been developed to study the mechanisms and material properties that control flow assisted (co-current) flame spread. This program has used as a common fire scenario a reacting steady-state boundary layer. Preliminary studies explored the aerodynamics of a reacting boundary layer by simulating a condensed fuel by means of a gas burner. Stability curves for ethane air flames were obtained and different burning regimes were identified. An important feature of this study was the independent identification of the different mechanisms leading to the instability of the flow. It was observed that fuel injection velocity and thermal expansion independently contributed to the separation of the flow at the leading edge of the burner. The occurrence of separation resulted in complex three-dimensional flow patterns that have a dominant effect on critical fire safety parameters such as the stand-off distance and flame length. This work was extended to a solid fuel (PMMA) leading to a Sounding Rocket experiment (Mini-Texus-6). The solid phase showed similar flow patterns, mostly present at low flow velocities (<100 mm/s) but the results clearly demonstrated that the thermal balance at the pyrolyzing fuel surface is the dominant mechanism that controls both stand-off distance and flame length. This thermal balance could be described in a global manner by means of a total mass transfer or "B" number. This "B" number incorporates surface re-radiation, radiative feedback and in-depth heat conduction as first prescribed by Emmons. The mass transfer number becomes the single parameter that determines the evolution of these fire safety variables (flame length, stand-off distance) and therefore can be used as a ranking criterion to assess the flammability of materials. The particular configuration is representative of the NASA upward flame spread test (Test 1) therefore this

  6. Experimental analysis of high oxygen concentration influences on horizontal flame spread over PA6 and epoxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Ruichao; Yuen, Richard; Wang, Jian

    2017-05-01

    The combustion characteristic of material in high oxygen concentration is directly related to the safety of elevated oxygen environment similar to oxygen bombs and future spacecraft. In this study, flame front and flame spread rate in high oxygen concentration are discussed. Thermoplastic material polyamide (PA6) and thermosetting material epoxy are selected as comparison material. The variation of flame front over epoxy is more stable than PA6 which has dripping phenomenon during the flame spread process. The flame spread rate of both PA6 and epoxy have a power law with the increasing oxygen concentration.

  7. Spherical Ethylene/Air Diffusion Flames Subject to Concentric DC Electric Field in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuan, Z. -G.; Hegde, U.; Faeth, G. M.

    2001-01-01

    It is well known that microgravity conditions, by eliminating buoyant flow, enable many combustion phenomena to be observed that are not possible to observe at normal gravity. One example is the spherical diffusion flame surrounding a porous spherical burner. The present paper demonstrates that by superimposing a spherical electrical field on such a flame, the flame remains spherical so that we can study the interaction between the electric field and flame in a one-dimensional fashion. Flames are susceptible to electric fields that are much weaker than the breakdown field of the flame gases owing to the presence of ions generated in the high temperature flame reaction zone. These ions and the electric current of the moving ions, in turn, significantly change the distribution of the electric field. Thus, to understand the interplay between the electric field and the flame is challenging. Numerous experimental studies of the effect of electric fields on flames have been reported. Unfortunately, they were all involved in complex geometries of both the flow field and the electric field, which hinders detailed study of the phenomena. In a one-dimensional domain, however, the electric field, the flow field, the thermal field and the chemical species field are all co-linear. Thus the problem is greatly simplified and becomes more tractable.

  8. An Experimental and Computational Study on Soot Formation in a Coflow Jet Flame Under Microgravity and Normal Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ma, Bin; Cao, Su; Giassi, Davide; Stocker, Dennis P.; Takahashi, Fumiaki; Bennett, Beth Anne V.; Smooke, Mitchell D.; Long, Marshall B.

    2014-01-01

    Upon the completion of the Structure and Liftoff in Combustion Experiment (SLICE) in March 2012, a comprehensive and unique set of microgravity coflow diffusion flame data was obtained. This data covers a range of conditions from weak flames near extinction to strong, highly sooting flames, and enabled the study of gravitational effects on phenomena such as liftoff, blowout and soot formation. The microgravity experiment was carried out in the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) on board the International Space Station (ISS), while the normal gravity experiment was performed at Yale utilizing a copy of the flight hardware. Computational simulations of microgravity and normal gravity flames were also carried out to facilitate understanding of the experimental observations. This paper focuses on the different sooting behaviors of CH4 coflow jet flames in microgravity and normal gravity. The unique set of data serves as an excellent test case for developing more accurate computational models.Experimentally, the flame shape and size, lift-off height, and soot temperature were determined from line-of-sight flame emission images taken with a color digital camera. Soot volume fraction was determined by performing an absolute light calibration using the incandescence from a flame-heated thermocouple. Computationally, the MC-Smooth vorticity-velocity formulation was employed to describe the chemically reacting flow, and the soot evolution was modeled by the sectional aerosol equations. The governing equations and boundary conditions were discretized on an axisymmetric computational domain by finite differences, and the resulting system of fully coupled, highly nonlinear equations was solved by a damped, modified Newtons method. The microgravity sooting flames were found to have lower soot temperatures and higher volume fraction than their normal gravity counterparts. The soot distribution tends to shift from the centerline of the flame to the wings from normal gravity to

  9. Observations of Methane and Ethylene Diffusion Flames Stabilized Around a Blowing Porous Sphere Under Microgravity Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atreya, Arvind; Agrawal, Sanjay; Sacksteder, Kurt; Baum, Howard R.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents the experimental and theoretical results for expanding methane and ethylene diffusion flames in microgravity. A small porous sphere made from a low-density and low-heat-capacity insulating material was used to uniformly supply fuel at a constant rate to the expanding diffusion flame. A theoretical model which includes soot and gas radiation is formulated but only the problem pertaining to the transient expansion of the flame is solved by assuming constant pressure infinitely fast one-step ideal gas reaction and unity Lewis number. This is a first step toward quantifying the effect of soot and gas radiation on these flames. The theoretically calculated expansion rate is in good agreement with the experimental results. Both experimental and theoretical results show that as the flame radius increases, the flame expansion process becomes diffusion controlled and the flame radius grows as gamma t. Theoretical calculations also show that for a constant fuel mass injection rate a quasi-steady state is developed in the region surrounded by the flame and the mass flow rate at any location inside this region equals the mass injection rate.

  10. Quantitative Measurements of CH* Concentration in Normal Gravity and Microgravity Coflow Laminar Diffusion Flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giassi, D.; Cao, S.; Stocker, D. P.; Takahashi, F.; Bennett, B. A.; Smooke, M. D.; Long, M. B.

    2015-01-01

    With the conclusion of the SLICE campaign aboard the ISS in 2012, a large amount of data was made available for the analysis of the effect of microgravity on laminar coflow diffusion flames. Previous work focused on the study of sooty flames in microgravity as well as the ability of numerical models to predict its formation in a simplified buoyancy-free environment. The current work shifts the investigation to soot-free flames, putting an emphasis on the chemiluminescence emission from electronically excited CH (CH*). This radical species is of significant interest in combustion studies: it has been shown that the CH* spatial distribution is indicative of the flame front position and, given the relatively simple diagnostic involved with its measurement, several works have been done trying to understand the ability of CH* chemiluminescence to predict the total and local flame heat release rate. In this work, a subset of the SLICE nitrogen-diluted methane flames has been considered, and the effect of fuel and coflow velocity on CH* concentration is discussed and compared with both normal gravity results and numerical simulations. Experimentally, the spectral characterization of the DSLR color camera used to acquire the flame images allowed the signal collected by the blue channel to be considered representative of the CH* emission centered around 431 nm. Due to the axisymmetric flame structure, an Abel deconvolution of the line-of-sight chemiluminescence was used to obtain the radial intensity profile and, thanks to an absolute light intensity calibration, a quantification of the CH* concentration was possible. Results show that, in microgravity, the maximum flame CH* concentration increases with the coflow velocity, but it is weakly dependent on the fuel velocity; normal gravity flames, if not lifted, tend to follow the same trend, albeit with different peak concentrations. Comparisons with numerical simulations display reasonably good agreement between measured and

  11. Quantitative Measurements of Electronically Excited CH Concentration in Normal Gravity and Microgravity Coflow Laminar Diffusion Flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giassi, D.; Cao, S.; Stocker, D. P.; Takahashi, F.; Bennett, B. A. V.; Smooke, M. D.; Long, M. B.

    2015-01-01

    With the conclusion of the SLICE campaign aboard the ISS in 2012, a large amount of data was made available for the analysis of the effect of microgravity on laminar coflow diffusion flames. Previous work focused on the study of sooty flames in microgravity as well as the ability of numerical models to predict its formation in a simplified buoyancy-free environment. The current work shifts the investigation to soot-free flames, putting an emphasis on the chemiluminescence emission from electronically excited CH (CH*). This radical species is of significant interest in combustion studies: it has been shown that the electronically excited CH spatial distribution is indicative of the flame front position and, given the relatively simple diagnostic involved with its measurement, several works have been done trying to understand the ability of electronically excited CH chemiluminescence to predict the total and local flame heat release rate. In this work, a subset of the SLICE nitrogen-diluted methane flames has been considered, and the effect of fuel and coflow velocity on electronically excited CH concentration is discussed and compared with both normal gravity results and numerical simulations. Experimentally, the spectral characterization of the DSLR color camera used to acquire the flame images allowed the signal collected by the blue channel to be considered representative of the electronically excited CH emission centered around 431 nm. Due to the axisymmetric flame structure, an Abel deconvolution of the line-of-sight chemiluminescence was used to obtain the radial intensity profile and, thanks to an absolute light intensity calibration, a quantification of the electronically excited CH concentration was possible. Results show that, in microgravity, the maximum flame electronically excited CH concentration increases with the coflow velocity, but it is weakly dependent on the fuel velocity; normal gravity flames, if not lifted, tend to follow the same trend

  12. Soot Aerosol Properties in Laminar Soot-Emitting Microgravity Nonpremixed Flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Konsur, Bogdan; Megaridis, Constantine M.; Griffin, Devon W.

    1999-01-01

    The spatial distributions and morphological properties of the soot aerosol are examined experimentally in a series of 0-g laminar gas-jet nonpremixed flames. The methodology deploys round jet diffusion flames of nitrogen-diluted acetylene fuel burning in quiescent air at atmospheric pressure. Full-field laser-light extinction is utilized to determine transient soot spatial distributions within the flames. Thermophoretic sampling is employed in conjunction with transmission electron microscopy to define soot microstructure within the soot-emitting 0-g flames. The microgravity tests indicate that the 0-g flames attain a quasi-steady state roughly 0.7 s after ignition, and sustain their annular structure even beyond their luminous flame tip. The measured peak soot volume fractions show a complex dependence on burner exit conditions, and decrease in a nonlinear fashion with decreasing characteristic flow residence times. Fuel preheat by approximately 140 K appears to accelerate the formation of soot near the flame axis via enhanced fuel pyrolysis rates. The increased soot presence caused by the elevated fuel injection temperatures triggers higher flame radiative losses, which may account for the premature suppression of soot growth observed along the annular region of preheated-fuel flames. Electron micrographs of soot aggregates collected in 0-g reveal the presence of soot precursor particles near the symmetry axis at midflame height, The observations also verify that soot primary particle sizes are nearly uniform among aggregates present at the same flame location, but vary considerably with radius at a fixed distance from the burner. The maximum primary size in 0-g is found to be by 40% larger than in 1-g, under the same burner exit conditions. Estimates of the number concentration of primary particles and surface area of soot particulate phase per unit volume of the combustion gases are also made for selected in-flame locations.

  13. Cellular structure of lean hydrogen flames in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patnaik, G.; Kailasanath, K.

    1990-01-01

    Detailed, time-dependent, two-dimensional numerical simulations of premixed laminar flames have been used to study the initiation and subsequent development of cellular structures in lean hydrogen-air flames. The model includes detailed hydrogen-oxygen combustion with 24 elementary reactions of eight reactive species and a nitrogen diluent, molecular diffusion of all species, thermal conduction, viscosity, and convection. This model has been used to study the nonlinear evolution of cellular flame structure and shows that cell splitting, as observed in experiments, can be predicted numerically for sufficiently reactive mixtures. The structures that evolved also resembled the cellular structures observed in experiments. The present study shows that the 'cell-split limit' postulated from experimental observations is an intrinsic property of the mixture and that external factors such as heat losses are not necessary to cause this limit.

  14. Flame spread over aviation kerosene with an obstacle in liquid phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jin; Lu, Shouxiang; Li, Manhou; Wang, Changjian

    2011-12-01

    The phenomena of flame spread over aviation kerosene with an obstacle in liquid phase are investigated experimentally through surface temperature measurement by using infrared camera, schlieren images of subsurface flow in front of and behind obstacle and residence time of flame obtained from video recording. Experimental results reveal that obstacle has no effect on gas phase controlled flame spread. But for liquid phase controlled flame spread, flame can be stopped by an obstacle with its top edge flush with oil surface, and the residence time decreases with the increase of initial temperature of fuel. That conduction and radiation only play a subsidiary role in flame spread over liquid fuel was proved by schlieren images and surface temperature profiles.

  15. Numerical modelling of sooting laminar diffusion flames at elevated pressures and microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charest, Marc Robert Joseph

    Fully understanding soot formation in flames is critical to the development of practical combustion devices, which typically operate at high pressures, and fire suppression systems in space. Flames display significant changes under microgravity and high-pressure conditions as compared to normal-gravity flames at atmospheric pressure, but the exact causes of these changes are not well-characterized. As such, the effects of gravity and pressure on the stability characteristics and sooting behavior of laminar coflow diffusion flames were investigated. To study these effects, a new highly-scalable combustion modelling tool was developed specifically for use on large multi-processor computer architectures. The tool is capable of capturing complex processes such as detailed chemistry, molecular transport, radiation, and soot formation/destruction in laminar diffusion flames. The proposed algorithm represents the current state of the art in combustion modelling, making use of a second-order accurate finite-volume scheme and a parallel adaptive mesh refinement algorithm on body-fitted, multi-block meshes. An acetylene-based, semi-empirical model was used to predict the nucleation, growth, and oxidation of soot particles. Reasonable agreement with experimental measurements for different fuels and pressures was obtained for predictions of flame height, temperature and soot volume fraction. Overall, the algorithm displayed excellent strong scaling performance by achieving a parallel efficiency of 70% on 384 processors. The effects of pressure and gravity were studied for flames of two different fuels: ethylene-air flames between pressures of 0.5--5 atm and methane-air flames between 1--60 atm. Based on the numerical predictions, zero-gravity flames had lower temperatures, broader soot-containing zones, and higher soot concentrations than normal-gravity flames at the same pressure. Buoyant forces caused the normal-gravity flames to narrow with increasing pressure while the

  16. Numerical Simulation of an Enclosed Laminar Jet Diffusion Flame in Microgravity Environment: Comparison with ELF Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jia, Kezhong; Venuturumilli, Rajasekhar; Ryan, Brandon J.; Chen, Lea-Der

    2001-01-01

    been some research on the stability of laminar flames, but most studies have focused on turbulent flames. It is also well known that the airflow around the fuel jet can significantly alter the lift off, reattachment and blow out of the jet diffusion flame. Buoyant convection is sufficiently strong in 1-g flames that it can dominate the flow-field, even at the burner rim. In normal-gravity testing, it is very difficult to delineate the effects of the forced airflow from those of the buoyancy-induced flow. Comparison of normal-gravity and microgravity flames provides clear indication of the influence of forced and buoyant flows on the flame stability. The overall goal of the Enclosed Laminar Flames (ELF) investigation (STS-87/USMP-4 Space Shuttle mission, November to December 1997) is to improve our understanding of the effects of buoyant convection on the structure and stability of co-flow diffusion flame, e.g., see http://zeta.lerc.nasa.gov/expr/elf.htm. The ELF hardware meets the experiment hardware limit of the 35-liter interior volume of the glovebox working area, and the 180x220-mm dimensions of the main door. The ELF experiment module is a miniature, fan-driven wind tunnel, equipped with a gas supply system. A 1.5-mm diameter nozzle is located on the duct's flow axis. The cross section of the duct is nominally a 76-mm square with rounded corners. The forced air velocity can be varied from about 0.2 to 0.9 m/s. The fuel flow can be set as high as 3 std. cubic centimeter (cc) per second, which corresponds to a nozzle exit velocity of up to 1.70 m/s. The ELF hardware and experimental procedure are discussed in detail in Brooker et al. The 1-g test results are repeated in several experiments following the STS-87 Mission. The ELF study is also relevant to practical systems because the momentum-dominated behavior of turbulent flames can be achieved in laminar flames in microgravity. The specific objectives of this paper are to evaluate the use reduced model for

  17. An experimental study of the influence of elevated buoyancy levels on flame spread rate over thermally thin cellulosic materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shang, P. C.; Altenkirch, R. A.; Eichhorn, R.

    1978-01-01

    The role of buoyancy on the flame spread rate over paper and its effect on extinction was studied by changing the gravity level and pressure. It was found that the flame spread rate decreases as the buoyancy induced flow increases. A method for correlating flame spread data using dimensionless parameters is presented. The Damkohler number is shown to be the dependent variable.

  18. Effects of Structure and Hydrodynamics on the Sooting Behavior of Spherical Microgravity Diffusion Flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sunderland, P. B.; Axelbaum, R. L.; Urban, D. L.

    1999-01-01

    is invariably accompanied by yellow luminosity. Soot-particle inception, on the other hand, arises from gas-phase reactions and its dependence on flow direction is weak, similar to that of other gas-phase reactions in flames. For example, when the flame moves across the stagnation plane no significant changes in flame chemistry are observed. Furthermore, since the soot-inception zone has a finite thickness, soot has been produced in counterflow flames with (Z(sub st)) > 0.5. For large (Z(sub st)) the fuel concentration decreases and oxygen concentration increases in the soot forming regions of the flame. This yields a shift in the OH profile toward the fuel side of the flame, and this shift can dramatically influence soot inception because it essentially narrows the soot inception zone. Soot-free (permanently-blue) conditions can be realized when the structure of the flame is adjusted to the extent that significant oxidizing species exist on the fuel side of the flame at temperatures above the critical temperature for soot inception, ca. 1250 K. In previously considered flames it was impossible to independently vary flame structure and convection direction. In contrast, spherical diffusion flames (which generally require microgravity) allow both properties to be varied independently. We altered structure (Z(sub st)) by exchanging inert between the oxidizer and the fuel and we independently varied convection direction at the flame sheet by interchanging the injected and ambient gases. In this work we established four flames: (a) ethylene issuing into air, (b) diluted ethylene issuing into oxygen, (c) air issuing into ethylene, and (d) oxygen issuing into diluted ethylene. (Z(sub st)) is 0.064 in flames (a) and (c) and 0.78 in flames (b) and (d). The convection direction is from fuel to oxidizer in flames (a) and (b) and from oxidizer to fuel in flames (c) and (d). Under the assumption of equal diffusivities of all species and heat, the stoichiometric contours of these

  19. Effects of Structure and Hydrodynamics on the Sooting Behavior of Spherical Microgravity Diffusion Flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sunderland, P. B.; Axelbaum, R. L.; Urban, D. L.

    1999-01-01

    is invariably accompanied by yellow luminosity. Soot-particle inception, on the other hand, arises from gas-phase reactions and its dependence on flow direction is weak, similar to that of other gas-phase reactions in flames. For example, when the flame moves across the stagnation plane no significant changes in flame chemistry are observed. Furthermore, since the soot-inception zone has a finite thickness, soot has been produced in counterflow flames with (Z(sub st)) > 0.5. For large (Z(sub st)) the fuel concentration decreases and oxygen concentration increases in the soot forming regions of the flame. This yields a shift in the OH profile toward the fuel side of the flame, and this shift can dramatically influence soot inception because it essentially narrows the soot inception zone. Soot-free (permanently-blue) conditions can be realized when the structure of the flame is adjusted to the extent that significant oxidizing species exist on the fuel side of the flame at temperatures above the critical temperature for soot inception, ca. 1250 K. In previously considered flames it was impossible to independently vary flame structure and convection direction. In contrast, spherical diffusion flames (which generally require microgravity) allow both properties to be varied independently. We altered structure (Z(sub st)) by exchanging inert between the oxidizer and the fuel and we independently varied convection direction at the flame sheet by interchanging the injected and ambient gases. In this work we established four flames: (a) ethylene issuing into air, (b) diluted ethylene issuing into oxygen, (c) air issuing into ethylene, and (d) oxygen issuing into diluted ethylene. (Z(sub st)) is 0.064 in flames (a) and (c) and 0.78 in flames (b) and (d). The convection direction is from fuel to oxidizer in flames (a) and (b) and from oxidizer to fuel in flames (c) and (d). Under the assumption of equal diffusivities of all species and heat, the stoichiometric contours of these

  20. Three-Dimensional Upward Flame Spreading in Partial-Gravity Buoyant Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sacksteder, Kurt R.; Feier, Ioan I.; Shih, Hsin-Yi; T'ien, James S.

    2001-01-01

    Reduced-gravity environments have been used to establish low-speed, purely forced flows for both opposed- and concurrent-flow flame spread studies. Altenkirch's group obtained spacebased experimental results and developed unsteady, two-dimensional numerical simulations of opposed-flow flame spread including gas-phase radiation, primarily away from the flammability limit for thin fuels, but including observations of thick fuel quenching in quiescent environments. T'ien's group contributed some early flame spreading results for thin fuels both in opposed flow and concurrent flow regimes, with more focus on near-limit conditions. T'ien's group also developed two- and three-dimensional numerical simulations of concurrent-flow flame spread incorporating gas-phase radiative models, including predictions of a radiatively-induced quenching limit reached in very low-speed air flows. Radiative quenching has been subsequently observed in other studies of combustion in very low-speed flows including other flame spread investigations, droplet combustion and homogeneous diffusion flames, and is the subject of several contemporary studies reported in this workshop. Using NASA aircraft flying partial-gravity "parabolic" trajectories, flame spreading in purely buoyant, opposed-flow (downward burning) has been studied. These results indicated increases in flame spread rates and enhanced flammability (lower limiting atmospheric oxygen content) as gravity levels were reduced from normal Earth gravity, and were consistent with earlier data obtained by Altenkirch using a centrifuge. In this work, experimental results and a three-dimensional numerical simulation of upward flame spreading in variable partial-gravity environments were obtained including some effects of reduced pressure and variable sample width. The simulation provides physical insight for interpreting the experimental results and shows the intrinsic 3-D nature of buoyant, upward flame spreading. This study is intended to

  1. Flame Spread and Damaged Properties of RCD Cases by Tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Chung-Seog; Kim, Hyang-Kon; Shong, Kil-Mok; Kim, Dong-Woo

    In this paper, the flame spread and damaged properties of residual current protective devices (RCDs) by tracking were analyzed. Pictures of tracking process were taken by High Speed Imaging System (HSIS), and fire progression was observed by timeframe. During the tracking process of RCD, it seemed to explode just once in appearance, but in the results of HSIS analysis, a small fire broke out and disappeared repeatedly 35 times and a flash of light repeated 15 times. Finally, an explosion with a flash of light occurred and lots of particles were scattered. Electric muffle furnace was used for heat treatment of RCD cases. The surface characteristics of specimens due to heat treatment and tracking deterioration were taken by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Chemical and thermal properties of these deteriorated specimens were analyzed by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FT-IR) and Differential Thermal Analyzer (DTA). The carbonization characteristics showed different chemical properties due to energy sources, and the results could be applicable to judge the accident causes.

  2. An innovative approach to the development of a portable unit for analytical flame characterization in a microgravity environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dubinskiy, Mark A.; Kamal, Mohammed M.; Misra, Prabhaker

    1995-01-01

    The availability of manned laboratory facilities in space offers wonderful opportunities and challenges in microgravity combustion science and technology. In turn, the fundamentals of microgravity combustion science can be studied via spectroscopic characterization of free radicals generated in flames. The laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) technique is a noninvasive method of considerable utility in combustion physics and chemistry suitable for monitoring not only specific species and their kinetics, but it is also important for imaging of flames. This makes LIF one of the most important tools for microgravity combustion science. Flame characterization under microgravity conditions using LIF is expected to be more informative than other methods aimed at searching for effects like pumping phenomenon that can be modeled via ground level experiments. A primary goal of our work consisted in working out an innovative approach to devising an LIF-based analytical unit suitable for in-space flame characterization. It was decided to follow two approaches in tandem: (1) use the existing laboratory (non-portable) equipment and determine the optimal set of parameters for flames that can be used as analytical criteria for flame characterization under microgravity conditions; and (2) use state-of-the-art developments in laser technology and concentrate some effort in devising a layout for the portable analytical equipment. This paper presents an up-to-date summary of the results of our experiments aimed at the creation of the portable device for combustion studies in a microgravity environment, which is based on a portable UV tunable solid-state laser for excitation of free radicals normally present in flames in detectable amounts. A systematic approach has allowed us to make a convenient choice of species under investigation, as well as the proper tunable laser system, and also enabled us to carry out LIF experiments on free radicals using a solid-state laser tunable in the UV.

  3. Flame Spread and Extinction Over a Thick Solid Fuel in Low-Velocity Opposed and Concurrent Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Feng; Lu, Zhanbin; Wang, Shuangfeng

    2016-05-01

    Flame spread and extinction phenomena over a thick PMMA in purely opposed and concurrent flows are investigated by conducting systematical experiments in a narrow channel apparatus. The present tests focus on low-velocity flow regime and hence complement experimental data previously reported for high and moderate velocity regimes. In the flow velocity range tested, the opposed flame is found to spread much faster than the concurrent flame at a given flow velocity. The measured spread rates for opposed and concurrent flames can be correlated by corresponding theoretical models of flame spread, indicating that existing models capture the main mechanisms controlling the flame spread. In low-velocity gas flows, however, the experimental results are observed to deviate from theoretical predictions. This may be attributed to the neglect of radiative heat loss in the theoretical models, whereas radiation becomes important for low-intensity flame spread. Flammability limits using oxygen concentration and flow velocity as coordinates are presented for both opposed and concurrent flame spread configurations. It is found that concurrent spread has a wider flammable range than opposed case. Beyond the flammability boundary of opposed spread, there is an additional flammable area for concurrent spread, where the spreading flame is sustainable in concurrent mode only. The lowest oxygen concentration allowing concurrent flame spread in forced flow is estimated to be approximately 14 % O2, substantially below that for opposed spread (18.5 % O2).

  4. Microgravity Apparatus And Ground-Based Study Of The Flame Propagation And Quenching In Metal Dust Suspensions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goroshin, Sam; Kolbe, Massimilliano; Bellerose, Julie; Lee, John

    2003-01-01

    Due to particle sedimentation and relatively low laminar flame speeds in dust suspensions, microgravity environment is essential for the observation of laminar dust flames in a wide range of particle sizes and fuel concentrations [1]. The capability of a reduced-gravity environment to facilitate study of dust combustion was realized by researchers long before current microgravity programs were established by the various national Space Agencies. Thus, several experimentalists even built their own, albeit very short-duration, drop tower facilities to study flames in particle and droplet suspensions [2,3]. About ten years ago, authors of the present paper started their dust combustion reduced gravity research with the investigation of the constant volume dust flames in a spherical-bomb on board a parabolic flight aircraft [4]. However it was soon realized that direct observation of the constant-pressure flame might be more beneficial. Thus, microgravity apparatus, permitting examination of the freely propagating flames in open-end tubes, was tested in parabolic flights three years later [5]. The improved design of the newlyconstructed apparatus for the experiments on board the NASA KC-135 aircraft is also based on the observation of the dust flame propagating in semi-opened tubes with free expansion of the combustion products that are continuously vented overboard. The apparatus design and results of its extensive ground-based testing are presented below.

  5. Quantitative Analysis of a Turbulent Wind Tunnel with Obstructions for use in Liquid Flame Spread Experiments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    to a slight incline in the tunnel. This should have little impact on flame spread rate measurements since the incline is relatively small (< 1o) and...perforation, but that is because the holes placed in the fence seem to have little impact on the flow field. It would, therefore, not be worthwhile...have the most impact on flame spread. Therefore, the experimental matrix can be reduced to using the single original clutter element when measuring

  6. Measurements and Modeling of Soot Formation and Radiation in Microgravity Jet Diffusion Flames. Volume 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ku, Jerry C.; Tong, Li; Greenberg, Paul S.

    1996-01-01

    This is a computational and experimental study for soot formation and radiative heat transfer in jet diffusion flames under normal gravity (1-g) and microgravity (0-g) conditions. Instantaneous soot volume fraction maps are measured using a full-field imaging absorption technique developed by the authors. A compact, self-contained drop rig is used for microgravity experiments in the 2.2-second drop tower facility at NASA Lewis Research Center. On modeling, we have coupled flame structure and soot formation models with detailed radiation transfer calculations. Favre-averaged boundary layer equations with a k-e-g turbulence model are used to predict the flow field, and a conserved scalar approach with an assumed Beta-pdf are used to predict gaseous species mole fraction. Scalar transport equations are used to describe soot volume fraction and number density distributions, with formation and oxidation terms modeled by one-step rate equations and thermophoretic effects included. An energy equation is included to couple flame structure and radiation analyses through iterations, neglecting turbulence-radiation interactions. The YIX solution for a finite cylindrical enclosure is used for radiative heat transfer calculations. The spectral absorption coefficient for soot aggregates is calculated from the Rayleigh solution using complex refractive index data from a Drude- Lorentz model. The exponential-wide-band model is used to calculate the spectral absorption coefficient for H20 and C02. It is shown that when compared to results from true spectral integration, the Rosseland mean absorption coefficient can provide reasonably accurate predictions for the type of flames studied. The soot formation model proposed by Moss, Syed, and Stewart seems to produce better fits to experimental data and more physically sound than the simpler model by Khan et al. Predicted soot volume fraction and temperature results agree well with published data for a normal gravity co-flow laminar

  7. Imposed Radiation Effects on Flame Spread over Black PMMA in Low Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, S. L.; Hegde, U.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this work is to determine the effect of varying imposed radiation levels on the flame spread and burning characteristics of PMMA in low gravity. The NASA Learjet is used for these experiments; it provides an environment of 10(exp -2) g's for approximately 20 seconds. Flame spread rates are found to increase non-linearly with increased external radiant flux over the range studied. This range of imposed flux values is believed to be sufficient to compensate for the radiative loss from the flame and the surface.

  8. A Study of Flame Propagation on Water-Mist Laden Gas Mixtures in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbud-Madrid, A.; Riedel, E. P.; McKinnon, J. T.

    1999-01-01

    concentration and alters the droplet size by coalescence and agglomeration mechanisms. Experiments conducted in the absence of gravity provide an ideal environment to study the interaction of water mists and flames by eliminating these distorting effects. In addition, microgravity eliminates the complex flow patterns induced between the flame front and the water droplets. The long duration and quality of microgravity in space flights provide the required conditions to perform the setup and monitoring of flame suppression experiments. Consequently, a series of experiments have been identified to be performed on the Combustion Module (CM-2) in the Space Shuttle. These consist of measuring the extinguishing capability of a water mist on a premixed flame propagating along a tube. These experiments should provide the necessary data to obtain further understanding of the water mist suppression phenomena that can be later used to design and manufacture appropriate fire suppression systems. In preparation for the orbital flights, experiments have been conducted on low-gravity ground facilities to obtain the preliminary data necessary to define the scientific objectives and technical issues of the spacecraft experiments.

  9. A model of concurrent flow flame spread over a thin solid fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferkul, Paul V.

    1993-01-01

    A numerical model is developed to examine laminar flame spread and extinction over a thin solid fuel in lowspeed concurrent flows. The model provides a more precise fluid-mechanical description of the flame by incorporating an elliptic treatment of the upstream flame stabilization zone near the fuel burnout point. Parabolic equations are used to treat the downstream flame, which has a higher flow Reynolds number. The parabolic and elliptic regions are coupled smoothly by an appropriate matching of boundary conditions. The solid phase consists of an energy equation with surface radiative loss and a surface pyrolysis relation. Steady spread with constant flame and pyrolysis lengths is found possible for thin fuels and this facilitates the adoption of a moving coordinate system attached to the flame with the flame spread rate being an eigen value. Calculations are performed in purely forced flow in a range of velocities which are lower than those induced in a normal gravity buoyant environment. Both quenching and blowoff extinction are observed. The results show that as flow velocity or oxygen percentage is reduced, the flame spread rate, the pyrolysis length, and the flame length all decrease, as expected. The flame standoff distance from the solid and the reaction zone thickness, however, first increase with decreasing flow velocity, but eventually decrease very near the quenching extinction limit. The short, diffuse flames observed at low flow velocities and oxygen levels are consistent with available experimental data. The maximum flame temperature decreases slowly at first as flow velocity is reduced, then falls more steeply close to the quenching extinction limit. Low velocity quenching occurs as a result of heat loss. At low velocities, surface radiative loss becomes a significant fraction of the total combustion heat release. In addition, the shorter flame length causes an increase in the fraction of conduction downstream compared to conduction to the fuel

  10. Understanding Material Property Impacts on Co-Current Flame Spread: Improving Understanding Crucial for Fire Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruff, Gary (Technical Monitor); Rangwala, Ali S.; Buckley, Steven G.; Torero, Jose L.

    2004-01-01

    The prospect of long-term manned space flight brings fresh urgency to the development of an integrated and fundamental approach to the study of material flammability. Currently, NASA uses two tests, the upward flame propagation test and heat and visible smoke release rate test, to assess the flammability properties of materials to be used in space under microgravity conditions. The upward flame propagation test can be considered in the context of the 2-D analysis of Emmons. This solution incorporates material properties by a "mass transfer number", B in the boundary conditions.

  11. Temperature Field During Flame Spread over Alcohol Pools: Measurements and Modelling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Fletcher J.; Ross, Howard D.; Schiller, David N.

    1994-01-01

    A principal difference between flame spread over solid fuels and over liquid fuels is, in the latter case, the presence of liquid-phase convection ahead of the leading edge of the flame. The details of the fluid dynamics and heat transfer mechanisms in both the pulsating and uniform flame spread regimes were heavily debated, without resolution, in the 1960s and 1970s; recently, research on flame spread over pools was reinvigorated by the advent of enhanced diagnostic techniques and computational power. Temperature fields in the liquid, which enable determination of the extent of preheating ahead of the flame, were determined previously by the use of thermocouples and repetitive tests, and suggested that the surface temperature does not decrease monotonically ahead of the pulsating flame front, but that there exists a surface temperature valley. Recent predictions support this suggestion. However, others' thermocouple measurements and the recent field measurements using Holographic Interferometry (HI) did not find a similar valley. In this work we examine the temperature field using Rainbow Schlieren Deflectometry (RSD), with a measurement threshold exceeding that of conventional interferometry by a factor of 20:1, for uniform and pulsating flame spread using propanol and butanol as fuels. This technique was not applied before to flame spread over liquid pools, except in some preliminary measurements reported earlier. Noting that HI is sensitive to the refractive index while RSD responds to refractive index gradients, and that these two techniques might therefore be difficult to compare, we utilized a numerical simulation, described below, to predict and compare both types of field for the uniform and pulsating spread regimes. The experimental data also allows a validation of the model at a level of detail greater than has been attempted before.

  12. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-10-04

    The Water Mist commercial research program is scheduled to fly an investigation on STS-107 in 2002. This investigation will be flown as an Experimental Mounting Structure (EMS) insert into the updated Combustion Module (CM-2), a sophisticated combustion chamber plus diagnostic equipment. (The investigation hardware is shown here mounted in a non-flight frame similar to the EMS.) Water Mist is a commercial research program by the Center for Commercial Applications of Combustion in Space (CCACS), a NASA Commercial Space Center located at the Colorado School of Mines, in Golden, CO and Industry Partner Environmental Engineering Concepts. The program is focused on developing water mist as a replacement for bromine-based chemical fire suppression agents (halons). By conducting the experiments in microgravity, interference from convection currents is minimized and fundamental knowledge can be gained. This knowledge is incorporated into models, which can be used to simulate a variety of physical environments. The immediate objective of the project is to study the effect of a fine water mist on a laminar propagating flame generated in a propane-air mixture at various equivalence ratios. The effects of droplet size and concentration on the speed of the flame front is used as a measure of the effectiveness of fire suppression in this highly controlled experimental environment.

  13. Laminar Dust Flames: A Program of Microgravity and Ground Based Studies at McGill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goroshin, Sam; Lee, John

    1999-01-01

    Fundamental knowledge of heterogeneous combustion mechanisms is required to improve utilization of solid fuels (e.g. coal), safe handling of combustible dusts in industry, and solid propulsion systems. The objective of the McGill University research program on dust combustion is to obtain a reliable set of data on basic combustion parameters for dust suspensions (i.e. laminar burning velocity, flame structure, quenching distance, flammability limits, etc.) over a range of particle sizes, dust concentrations, and types of fuel. This set of data then permits theoretical models to be validated and, when necessary, new models to be developed to describe the detailed reaction mechanisms and transport processes. Microgravity is essential to the generation of a uniform dust suspension of arbitrary particle size and concentration. When particles with a characteristic size on the order of tens of microns are suspended, they rapidly settle in a gravitational field. To maintain a particulate in suspension for time duration adequate to carry out combustion experiments invariably requires continuous convective flow in excess of the gravitational settling velocity (which is comparable with and can even exceed the dust laminar burning velocity). This makes the experiments turbulent in nature and thus renders it impossible to study laminar dust flames. Even for small particle sizes on the order of microns, a stable laminar dust flow can be maintained only for relatively low dust concentrations at normal gravity conditions. High dust loading leads to gravitational instability of the dust cloud and to the formation of recirculation cells in the dust suspension in a confined volume, or to the rapid sedimentation of the dense dust cloud, as a whole, in an unconfined volume. Many important solid fuels such as carbon and boron also have low laminar flame speeds (of the order of several centimeters per second). Convection that occurs in combustion products due to buoyancy disrupts the

  14. Self Induced Buoyant Blow Off in Upward Flame Spread on Thin Solid Fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Michael C.; T'ien, James S.; Muff, Derek E.; Olson, Sandra L.; Ferkul, Paul V.

    2013-01-01

    Upward flame spread experiments were conducted on a thin fabric cloth consisting of 75% cotton and 25% fiberglass. The sample is sandwiched symmetrically with stainless steel plates with the exposed width varying between 2 to 8.8 cm from test to test and >1.5m tall. The bottom edge was ignited resulting in a symmetric two sided flame. For the narrower samples (. 5cm), two sided flame growth would proceed until reaching some limiting value (15-30 cm depending on sample width). Fluctuation or instability of the flame base on one side would initially become visible and then the flame base would retreat downstream and cause extinguishment on one side. Detailed examination of the still images shows that the fuel continues to vaporize from the extinguished side due to the thermally thin nature of the fuel. But, due to the remaining inert fiberglass mesh, which acts as a flashback arrestor, the extinguished side was not able to be reignited by the remaining flame. The remaining flame would then shrink in length due to the reduced heat transfer to the solid to a shorter length. The one-sided flame will spread stably with a constant speed and a constant flame length to the end of the sample. A constant length flame implies that the pyrolysis front and the burnt out fronts move at the same speed. For the wider samples (. 7cm), no one-sided extinction is observed. Two-sided flames spread all the way to the top of the sample. For these wider widths, the flames are still growing and have not reached their limiting length if it exists. Care was taken to minimize the amount of non-symmetries in the experimental configuration. Repeated tests show that blow-off can occur on either side of the sample. The flame growth is observed to be very symmetric during the growth phase and grew to significant length (>10cm) before extinction of the flame on one side. Our proposed explanation of this unusual phenomenon (i.e. stronger two ]sided flame cannot exist but weaker one-sided flame can

  15. Opposed-Flow Flame Spread Across Propanol Pools: Effect of Liquid Fuel Depth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Inchul; Sirignano, William A.

    1999-01-01

    This computational study examines the effect of liquid fuel depth on flame spread across propanol pools with and without forced, opposed air flow. The initial pool temperature is below its closed- cup flash point temperature T(sub cc); so the liquid fuel must be heated sufficiently to create a combustible mixture of fuel vapor before ignition and flame spread can occur. Furthermore, in order for the flame to spread, an approximate rule is that the liquid fuel surface temperature ahead of the flame must be heated above T(sub cc) so that a flammable mixture just above the lean limit exists ahead of the flame. The depth of a liquid fuel pool would affect the heating of the liquid fuel pool and thus the liquid fuel surface temperature ahead of the flame. It has been observed experimentally and numerically that, at normal gravity without forced gas-phase flow and with the initial pool temperature T(sub 0) in a range well below T(sub cc), the flame periodically accelerates and decelerates (pulsates) as it propagates. The depth of a liquid fuel pool would change this range of T(sub 0) since it would affect the heating of the pool.

  16. Effect of synthetic material on angle dependency of flame spread behavior over combined fabric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azahari, B. R. Mohd; Suzuki, M.; Masuda, W.; Hamidon, B. S.; Azwan, B. S.; Nizam, B. M. Akmal; Faisal, H. Mohd; Amir, B. K.

    2017-04-01

    Experiment has been conducted to study the flame spread behaviour over combined fabric of cotton/polyester and cotton/nylon. Samples are ignited from the top edge and spread to the downward direction. Experiment is conducted for several weft trade angles from 0° to 90°. For ϑ = 0°, a significant difference is seen between these two combined fabrics in the shape of burning front. However, the shape of the burning front is the same for both fabrics at ϑ = 90°. It is seen that the shrinking behaviour is different between polyester and nylon thread. The flame spread rate is measured, which is obtained from the position of the most preceding point of the burning front at each time, at different weft thread angle for both fabrics. It is found that both fabrics have similar angle dependency; the flame spread rate decreases as the angle increases.

  17. Experimental study on the characteristics of horizontal flame spread over XPS surface on plateau.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Huang, Xinjie; Wang, Qingsong; Ji, Jie; Sun, Jinhua; Yin, Yi

    2011-05-15

    A series of comparative laboratory-scale experiments were carried out in the Lhasa plateau and the Hefei plain respectively to investigate the characteristics of flame spread over the extruded polystyrene (XPS) foam, a typical thermal insulation material. Flame shape and the temperature profile in solid phase were monitored, and the effects of altitude on the heat transfer process were analyzed. The results show that the temperature rise with time undergoes three stages: the preheating stage, the melting stage and the pyrolysis stage. The durations of the melting and pyrolysis stages on plateau are longer than that in plain, which sequentially results in a lower flame spread rate on plateau. Comparing of the temperature change rate curve on plateau with that in plain, it is found that the peak characteristics of the curves in the pyrolysis stage changed from single peak to multi-peaks, which suggests that the altitude difference might change the pyrolysis mechanisms of XPS material. Moreover, the sample scale effects on flame spread are also explored. Two different regimes are found in flame spread behavior with sample scale at the both altitudes. The spread rate drops with sample scale in convection regime and rises in radiation regime. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Opposed-flow ignition and flame spread over melting polymers with Navier-Stokes gas flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Guanyu; Wichman, Indrek S.; Bénard, André

    2002-06-01

    A numerical model is constructed to predict transient opposed-flow flame spread behaviour in a channel flow over a melting polymer. The transient flame is established by initially applying a high external radiation heat flux to the surface. This is followed by ignition, transition and finally steady opposed-flow flame spread. The physical phenomena under consideration include the following: gas phase: channel flow, thermal expansion and injection flow from the pyrolyzed fuel; condensed phase: heat conduction, melting, and discontinuous thermal properties (heat capacity and thermal conductivity) across the phase boundary; gas-condensed phase interface: radiation loss. There is no in-depth gas radiation absorption in the gas phase. It is necessary to solve the momentum, species, energy and continuity equations in the gas along with the energy equation(s) in the liquid and solid. Agreement is obtained between the numerical spread rate and a flame spread formula. The influence of the gas flow is explored by comparing the Navier-Stokes (NS) and Oseen (OS) models. An energy balance analysis describes the flame-spread mechanism in terms of participating heat transfer mechanisms.

  19. Quantitative Studies on the Propagation and Extinction of Near-Limit Premixed Flames under Normal- and Micro-gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Egolfopoulos, F. N.; Dong, Y.; Spedding, G.; Cuenot, B.; Poinsot, T.

    2001-01-01

    Strained laminar flames have been systematically studied, as the understanding of their structure and dynamic behavior is of relevance to turbulent combustion.. Most of these studies have been conducted in opposed-jet, stagnation-type flow configurations. Studies at high strain rates are important in quantifying and understanding the response of vigorously burning flames and determine extinction states. Studies of weakly strained flames can be of particular interest for all stoichiometries. For example, the laminar flame speeds, S(sup o)(sub u), can be accurately determined by using the counterflow technique only if measurements are obtained at very low strain rates. Furthermore, near-limit flames are stabilized by weak strain rates. Previous studies have shown that near-limit flames are particularly sensitive to chain mechanisms, thermal radiation, and unsteadiness. The stabilization and study of weakly strained flames is complicated by the presence of buoyancy that can render the flames unstable to the point of extinction. Thus, the use of microgravity (mu-g) becomes essential in order to provide meaningful insight into this important combustion regime. In our past studies the laminar flame speeds and extinction strain rates were directly measured at ultra-low strain rates. The laminar flame speeds were measured by having a positively strained planar flame undergoing a transition to a negatively strained Bunsen flame and by measuring the propagation speed during that transition. The extinction strain rates of near-limit flames were measured in mu-g. Results obtained for CH4/air and C3H8/air mixtures are in agreement with those obtained by Maruta et al.

  20. Microgravity spreading of water spheres on hydrophobic capillary plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steub, Laura; Kollmer, Jonathan; Paxson, Derek; Sack, Achim; Pöschel, Thorsten; Bartlett, John; Berman, Douglas; Richardson, Yaateh; Louge, Michel Y.

    2017-06-01

    We create nearly perfect centimetric spheres of water by splitting a cavity consisting of two metal hemispheres coated with a hydrophobic paint and under-filled with liquid, while releasing the apparatus in free-fall. A high-speed camera captures how water spread on hydrophobic aluminum and polycarbonate plates perforated with cylindrical capillaries. We compare observations at the ZARM drop tower in Bremen with Lattice-Boltzmann numerical simulations of Frank, Perré and Li for the inertial phase of imbibition.

  1. Laser-Induced Incandescence in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanderWal, Randall L.

    1997-01-01

    Microgravity offers unique opportunities for studying both soot growth and the effect of soot radiation upon flame structure and spread. LII has been characterized and developed at NASA-Lewis for soot volume fraction determination in a wide range of 1-g combustion applications. Reported here are the first demonstrations of LII performed in a microgravity environment. Examples are shown for laminar and turbulent gas-jet diffusion flames in 0-g.

  2. A model for assessing ignition, flame spread, and burn hazard potential of a multilayered jacket.

    PubMed

    Ezekoye, Ofodike A; Diller, Kenneth R

    2006-01-01

    An analysis is presented of ignition, flame spread, and skin burn associated with the ignition and burning of a multilayered jacket. The important physical processes can all be detailed based on simple thermophysical modeling. The ignition process associated with proximity to a radiant heat source is analyzed to see how a change in external (outer) fabric could have diminished the likelihood of ignition. Once the composite jacket has been ignited, the flame spread process is responsible for the heat transfer to the skin that causes the burn. We analyze the effects of the jacket innermost material on flame spread and on possible burn damage. We show how available thermophysical property data can be used to estimate the effect of inner layer material on burn event duration. Finally, given best-available data on the heat transfer rates between a burning inner layer and skin, we examine the kinetics of skin burn damage to determine the most likely injury that would result.

  3. Sooting Limits Of Microgravity Spherical Diffusion Flames. [conducted in the NASA Glenn 2.2-second drop tower

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sunderland, P. B.; Urban, D. L.; Stocker, D. P.; Chao, B.-H.; Axelbaum, Richard L.; Salzman, Jack (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Limiting conditions for soot-particle inception were studied in microgravity spherical diffusion flames burning ethylene at atmospheric pressure. Nitrogen was supplied in the fuel and/or oxidizer to obtain the broadest range of stoichiometric mixture fraction. Both normal flames (oxygen in ambience) and inverted flames (fuel in ambience) were considered. Microgravity was obtained in the NASA Glenn 2.2-second drop tower. The flames were observed with a color video camera and sooting conditions were defined as conditions for which yellow emission was present throughout the duration of the drop. Sooting limit results were successfully correlated in terms of adiabatic flame temperature and stoichiometric mixture fraction. Soot free conditions were favored by increased stoichiometric mixture fractions. No statistically significant effect of convection direction on sooting limits was observed. The relationship between adiabatic flame temperature and stoichiometric mixture fraction at the sooting limits was found to be in qualitative agreement with a simple theory based on the assumption that soot inception can occur only where temperature and local C/O ratio exceed threshold values (circa 1250 K and 1, respectively).

  4. Buoyant downward diffusion flame spread and extinction in partial-gravity accelerations

    SciTech Connect

    Sacksteder, K.R.; Tien, J.S.

    1994-12-31

    This paper describes experimental observations of downward, opposed-flow flame spreading made under partial-gravity conditions aboard NASA research aircraft. Special apparatus and techniques for these tests are described, including schlieren imaging of dim near-limit flames. Flame-spreading and flammability limit behaviors of a thin cellulosic fuel, 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} g/cm{sup 2} tested at 1 atm of pressure in oxygen/nitrogen mixtures of 13-21% oxygen by volume, are described for effective acceleration levels ranging from 0.05 to 0.6 times normal earth gravity (1 g). Downward-burning flammability increases in partial gravity, with the limiting oxygen fraction falling from 15.6% oxygen in 1 g to 13--14% oxygen in 0.05--0.1 g. Flamespread rates are shown to peak in partial gravity, increasing by 20% over the 1-g value in air (21% oxygen). Partial-gravity flame-spreading results, corrected for fuel density and thickness, are consistent with results obtained at acceleration levels above 1 g in a centrifuge. The results compare qualitatively with predictions of flame spreading in buoyant flow by models that include finite-rate chemical kinetics and surface and gas-phase radiative loss mechanisms. A correlation of experimental buoyant downward flame-spread results is introduced that accounts for radiative heat losses using a dimensionless spread rate, a radiation/conduction number, and the Damkohler number, as parameters. The correlation includes data from 0.05 g to 4.25 g and oxygen-nitrogen mixtures from 14% to 50% oxygen.

  5. Combustion Characteristics in a Non-Premixed Cool-Flame Regime of n-Heptane in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takahashi, Fumiaki; Katta, Viswanath R.; Hicks, Michael C.

    2015-01-01

    A series of distinct phenomena have recently been observed in single-fuel-droplet combustion tests performed on the International Space Station (ISS). This study attempts to simulate the observed flame behavior numerically using a gaseous n-heptane fuel source in zero gravity and a time-dependent axisymmetric (2D) code, which includes a detailed reaction mechanism (127 species and 1130 reactions), diffusive transport, and a radiation model (for CH4, CO, CO2, H2O, and soot). The calculated combustion characteristics depend strongly on the air velocity around the fuel source. In a near-quiescent air environment (< or = 2 mm/s), with a sufficiently large fuel injection velocity (1 cm/s), a growing spherical diffusion flame extinguishes at ˜1200 K due to radiative heat losses. This is typically followed by a transition to the low-temperature (cool-flame) regime with a reaction zone (at ˜700 K) in close proximity to the fuel source. The 'cool flame' regime is formed due to the negative temperature coefficient in the low-temperature chemistry. After a relatively long period (˜18 s) of the cool flame regime, a flash re-ignition occurs, associated with flame-edge propagation and subsequent extinction of the re-ignited flame. In a low-speed (˜3 mm/s) airstream (which simulates the slight droplet movement), the diffusion flame is enhanced upstream and experiences a local extinction downstream at ˜1200 K, followed by steady flame pulsations (˜0.4 Hz). At higher air velocities (4-10 mm/s), the locally extinguished flame becomes steady state. The present axisymmetric computational approach helps in revealing the non-premixed 'cool flame' structure and 2D flame-flow interactions observed in recent microgravity droplet combustion experiments.

  6. Evidence of thermonuclear flame spreading on neutron stars from burst rise oscillations

    SciTech Connect

    Chakraborty, Manoneeta; Bhattacharyya, Sudip E-mail: sudip@tifr.res.in

    2014-09-01

    Burst oscillations during the rising phases of thermonuclear X-ray bursts are usually believed to originate from flame spreading on the neutron star surface. However, the decrease of fractional oscillation amplitude with rise time, which provides a main observational support for the flame spreading model, have so far been reported from only a few bursts. Moreover, the non-detection and intermittent detections of rise oscillations from many bursts are not yet understood considering the flame spreading scenario. Here, we report the decreasing trend of fractional oscillation amplitude from an extensive analysis of a large sample of Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer Proportional Counter Array bursts from 10 neutron star low-mass X-ray binaries. This trend is 99.99% significant for the best case, which provides, to the best of our knowledge, by far the strongest evidence of such a trend. Moreover, it is important to note that an opposite trend is not found in any of the bursts. The concave shape of the fractional amplitude profiles for all the bursts suggests latitude-dependent flame speeds, possibly due to the effects of the Coriolis force. We also systematically study the roles of low fractional amplitude and low count rate for non-detection and intermittent detections of rise oscillations, and attempt to understand them within the flame spreading scenario. Our results support a weak turbulent viscosity for flame spreading, and imply that burst rise oscillations originate from an expanding hot spot, thus making these oscillations a more reliable tool to constrain the neutron star equations of state.

  7. Material Properties Governing Co-Current Flame Spread: The Effect of Air Entrainment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coutin, Mickael; Rangwala, Ali S.; Torero, Jose L.; Buckley, Steven G.

    2003-01-01

    A study on the effects of lateral air entrainment on an upward spreading flame has been conducted. The fuel is a flat PMMA plate of constant length and thickness but variable width. Video images and surface temperatures have allowed establishing the progression of the pyrolyis front and on the flame stand-off distance. These measurements have been incorporated into a theoretical formulation to establish characteristic mass transfer numbers ("B" numbers). The mass transfer number is deemed as a material related parameter that could be used to assess the potential of a material to sustain co-current flame spread. The experimental results show that the theoretical formulation fails to describe heat exchange between the flame and the surface. The discrepancies seem to be associated to lateral air entrainment that lifts the flame off the surface and leads to an over estimation of the local mass transfer number. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) measurements are in the process of being acquired. These measurements are intended to provide insight on the effect of air entrainment on the flame stand-off distance. A brief description of the methodology to be followed is presented here.

  8. Effects of pressure, oxygen concentration, and forced convection on flame spread rate of Plexiglas, Nylon and Teflon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Notardonato, J. J.; Burkhardt, L. A.; Cochran, T. H.

    1974-01-01

    Experiments were conducted in which the burning of cylindrical materials in a flowing oxidant stream was studied. Plexiglas, Nylon, and Teflon fuel specimens were oriented such that the flames spread along the surface in a direction opposed to flowing gas. Correlations of flame spread rate were obtained that were power law relations in terms of pressure, oxygen concentration, and gas velocity.

  9. Heat transfer ahead of flame spreading over a cured epoxy resin surface in an opposed flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolesnikov, B. Ia.; Efremov, V. L.; Umarbekov, N. S.; Kolesnikov, A. B.

    The significance of the solid-phase heat conduction ahead of the flame, spreading horizontally, is investigated. The experimental method employed in this study permits the determination of the delay period of the flame skipping over an inert spacer which is flush with the sample surface and which is embedded in the epoxy sample normal to the flame propagation. An approximate solution of the one-dimensional solid-phase heat-transfer equation indicates that the delay period is directly proportional to the squared spacer thickness and inversely proportional to the thermal diffusivity of the spacer material. The experimental data obtained are in good agreement with the theoretical results. A mechanism of the flame skipping is proposed.

  10. A critical discussion of theories of flame spread across solid and liquid fuels.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sirignano, W. A.

    1972-01-01

    Mathematical descriptions of flames spreading over liquid and solid fuels are obtained, using basic assumptions derived from observations or physical reasoning. A review of existing theories shows that they are incomplete in that they either treat an uncoupled problem of the condensed phase where the spreading rate and heat flux at the surface are given, or they merely determine the spreading rate in terms of a new vaguely defined eigenvalue. An important difference between the liquid and solid cases, due to convection, is pointed out, and it is shown that solid-fuel flame-spread theories which claim to apply to the liquid case, in reality do not apply to it. A mathematical formulation and a method of solution are presented for the phenomenon of flame spread over solid fuels with forward heat conduction in both the solid and the gas. The method uses an energy integral over the field to determine the spreading rate in terms of the basic properties of the fuel and air.

  11. 24 CFR 3280.203 - Flame spread limitations and fire protection requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Flame spread limitations and fire protection requirements. 3280.203 Section 3280.203 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL...

  12. 24 CFR 3280.203 - Flame spread limitations and fire protection requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Flame spread limitations and fire protection requirements. 3280.203 Section 3280.203 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL...

  13. 24 CFR 3280.203 - Flame spread limitations and fire protection requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Flame spread limitations and fire protection requirements. 3280.203 Section 3280.203 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL...

  14. 24 CFR 3280.203 - Flame spread limitations and fire protection requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Flame spread limitations and fire protection requirements. 3280.203 Section 3280.203 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL...

  15. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-05-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center employees visited DuPont Manual High School in Louisville, Kentucky. NASA's Mini Drop Tower was used to demonstrate free fall and a presentation was given on microgravity and the science performed in a microgravity environment. The visit coincided with the Pan-Pacific Basin Workshop on Microgravity Sciences held in Pasadena, California. Materials engineer Chris Cochrane explains the basics of microgravity research. This image is from a digital still camera; higher resolution is not available.

  16. Role of buoyant flame dynamics in wildfire spread

    Treesearch

    Mark A. Finney; Jack D. Cohen; Jason M. Forthofer; Sara S. McAllister; Michael J. Gollner; Daniel J. Gorham; Kozo Saito; Nelson K. Akafuah; Brittany A. Adam; Justin D. English

    2015-01-01

    Large wildfires of increasing frequency and severity threaten local populations and natural resources and contribute carbon emissions into the earth-climate system. Although wildfires have been researched and modeled for decades, no verifiable physical theory of spread is available to form the basis for the precise predictions needed to manage fires more effectively...

  17. A Computational Study of Soot Formation in Methane Air Co-Flow Diffusion Flame Under Microgravity Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhowal, Arup Jyoti; Mandal, Bijan Kumar

    2016-08-01

    An in-house developed code has been used to predict soot formation in a methane air co flow diffusion flame at normal gravity and at lower gravity levels of 0.5 G, and 0.0001 G (microgravity). There is an augmentation of soot formation at lower gravity levels because of lower buoyancy induced acceleration leading to an increased residence time. The peak temperature at microgravity is reduced by about 50 K than that at normal gravity level. The axial velocity under normal gravity and reduced gravity show negative values (relatively small in magnitude) near the wall at axial height beyond 15 cm; but axial velocity is never negative in microgravity condition. Peak value of soot volume fraction at 0.5 G and microgravity multiplies by a factor of ˜3 and ˜7, respectively of that at normal gravity. The zone of peak soot volume fraction shifts away from the axis towards the wings, as gravity level is lowered. In comparison to soot volume fraction, the factors of amplification of soot number density at reduced gravity and at microgravity are comparatively lower at 1.2 and 1.5 of that at normal gravity respectively. On the other hand, mean soot particle sizes at reduced gravity and microgravity increase to 1.5 and 2 times of that at normal gravity respectively.

  18. Molten thermoplastic dripping behavior induced by flame spread over wire insulation under overload currents.

    PubMed

    He, Hao; Zhang, Qixing; Tu, Ran; Zhao, Luyao; Liu, Jia; Zhang, Yongming

    2016-12-15

    The dripping behavior of the molten thermoplastic insulation of copper wire, induced by flame spread under overload currents, was investigated for a better understanding of energized electrical wire fires. Three types of sample wire, with the same polyethylene insulation thickness and different core diameters, were used in this study. First, overload current effects on the transient one-dimensional wire temperature profile were predicted using simplified theoretical analysis; the heating process and equilibrium temperature were obtained. Second, experiments on the melting characteristics were conducted in a laboratory environment, including drop formation and frequency, falling speed, and combustion on the steel base. Third, a relationship between molten mass loss and volume variation was proposed to evaluate the dripping time and frequency. A strong current was a prerequisite for the wire dripping behavior and the averaged dripping frequency was found to be proportional to the square of the current based on the theoretical and experimental results. Finally, the influence of dripping behavior on the flame propagation along the energized electrical wire was discussed. The flame width, bright flame height and flame spreading velocity presented different behaviors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1997-01-01

    Image taken during a ground based investigation of a methane-fueled laminar flame surrounded by co-flowing air. The flame was enclosed in a chamber, and the pressure reduced. As the pressure decreased, the velocity of the flow increased, causing the flame to change from a stabilized condition to near blow-out or extinction.

  20. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1989-10-17

    Ground shaking triggered liquefaction in a subsurface layer of water-saturated sand, producing differential lateral and vertical movement in a overlying carapace of unliquified sand and slit, which moved from right to left towards the Pajaro River. This mode of ground failure, termed lateral spreading, is a principal cause of liquefaction-related earthquake damage caused by the Oct. 17, 1989, Loma Prieta earthquake. Sand and soil grains have faces that can cause friction as they roll and slide against each other, or even cause sticking and form small voids between grains. This complex behavior can cause soil to behave like a liquid under certain conditions such as earthquakes or when powders are handled in industrial processes. Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiments aboard the Space Shuttle use the microgravity of space to simulate this behavior under conditons that carnot be achieved in laboratory tests on Earth. MGM is shedding light on the behavior of fine-grain materials under low effective stresses. Applications include earthquake engineering, granular flow technologies (such as powder feed systems for pharmaceuticals and fertilizers), and terrestrial and planetary geology. Nine MGM specimens have flown on two Space Shuttle flights. Another three are scheduled to fly on STS-107. The principal investigator is Stein Sture of the University of Colorado at Boulder. Credit: S.D. Ellen, U.S. Geological Survey

  1. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-05-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center employees visited DuPont Manual High School in Louisville, Kentucky. NASA's Mini Drop Tower was used to demonstrate free fall and a presentation was given on microgravity and the science performed in a microgravity environment. The visit coincided with the Pan-Pacific Basin Workshop on Microgravity Sciences held in Pasadena, California. Materials engineer Chris Cochrane explains the operation of the mini-drop tower. This image is from a digital still camera; higher resolution is not available.

  2. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-05-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center employees visited DuPont Manual High School in Louisville, Kentucky. NASA's Mini Drop Tower was used to demonstrate free fall and a presentation was given on microgravity and the science performed in a microgravity environment. The visit coincided with the Pan-Pacific Basin Workshop on Microgravity Sciences held in Pasadena, California. Students experiment with the mini-drop tower. This image is from a digital still camera; higher resolution is not available.

  3. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-05-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center employees visited DuPont Manual High School in Louisville, Kentucky. NASA's Mini Drop Tower was used to demonstrate free fall and a presentation was given on microgravity and the science performed in a microgravity environment. The visit coincided with the Pan-Pacific Basin Workshop on Microgravity Sciences held in Pasadena, California. Students watch the playback of video from the mini-drop tower. This image is from a digital still camera; higher resolution is not available.

  4. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-04-25

    The arnual conference for the Educator Resource Center Network (ERCN) Coordinators was held at Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field in Cleveland, Ohio. The conference included participants from NASA's Educator Resource Centers located throughout the country. The Microgravity Science Division at Glenn sponsored a Microgravity Day for all the conference participants. Kathy Higgins of the National Center for Microgravity Research at GRC explains educational resources to teachers. This image is from a digital still camera; higher resolution is not available.

  5. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-04-14

    Jimmy Grisham of the Microgravity Program Plarning Integration Office at NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center, demonstrates the classroom-size Microgravity Drop Tower Demonstrator. The apparatus provides 1/6 second of microgravity for small experiments. A video camera helps teachers observe what happens inside the package. This demonstration was at the April 2000 conference of the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) in Chicago. Photo credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC)

  6. Prediction of Three-Dimensional Downward Flame Spread Characteristics over Poly(methyl methacrylate) Slabs in Different Pressure Environments.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Kun; Zhou, Xiao-Dong; Liu, Xue-Qiang; Lu, Lei; Wu, Zhi-Bo; Peng, Fei; Ju, Xiao-Yu; Yang, Li-Zhong

    2016-11-22

    The present study is aimed at predicting downward flame spread characteristics over poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) with different sample dimensions in different pressure environments. Three-dimensional (3-D) downward flame spread experiments on free PMMA slabs were conducted at five locations with different altitudes, which provide different pressures. Pressure effects on the flame spread rate, profile of pyrolysis front and flame height were analyzed at all altitudes. The flame spread rate in the steady-state stage was calculated based on the balance on the fuel surface and fuel properties. Results show that flame spread rate increases exponentially with pressure, and the exponent of pressure further shows an increasing trend with the thickness of the sample. The angle of the pyrolysis front emerged on sample residue in the width direction, which indicates a steady-burning stage, varies clearly with sample thicknesses and ambient pressures. A global non-dimensional equation was proposed to predict the variation tendency of the angle of the pyrolysis front with pressure and was found to fit well with the measured results. In addition, the dependence of average flame height on mass burning rate, sample dimension and pressure was proposed based on laminar diffusion flame theory. The fitted exponent of experimental data is 1.11, which is close to the theoretical value.

  7. Prediction of Three-Dimensional Downward Flame Spread Characteristics over Poly(methyl methacrylate) Slabs in Different Pressure Environments

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Kun; Zhou, Xiao-Dong; Liu, Xue-Qiang; Lu, Lei; Wu, Zhi-Bo; Peng, Fei; Ju, Xiao-Yu; Yang, Li-Zhong

    2016-01-01

    The present study is aimed at predicting downward flame spread characteristics over poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) with different sample dimensions in different pressure environments. Three-dimensional (3-D) downward flame spread experiments on free PMMA slabs were conducted at five locations with different altitudes, which provide different pressures. Pressure effects on the flame spread rate, profile of pyrolysis front and flame height were analyzed at all altitudes. The flame spread rate in the steady-state stage was calculated based on the balance on the fuel surface and fuel properties. Results show that flame spread rate increases exponentially with pressure, and the exponent of pressure further shows an increasing trend with the thickness of the sample. The angle of the pyrolysis front emerged on sample residue in the width direction, which indicates a steady-burning stage, varies clearly with sample thicknesses and ambient pressures. A global non-dimensional equation was proposed to predict the variation tendency of the angle of the pyrolysis front with pressure and was found to fit well with the measured results. In addition, the dependence of average flame height on mass burning rate, sample dimension and pressure was proposed based on laminar diffusion flame theory. The fitted exponent of experimental data is 1.11, which is close to the theoretical value. PMID:28774066

  8. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1995-09-12

    Two versions of (PCAM) Protein Crystallization Apparatus for Microgravity, (DCAM) Diffusion Controled Crystallization Apparatus is in the (STES) Single Locker Thermal Enclosure System. Principal Investigator was Dan Carter.

  9. Analytical model of flame spread in full-scale room/corner tests (ISO9705)

    Treesearch

    Mark. Dietenberger; Ondrej. Grexa

    1999-01-01

    A physical, yet analytical, model of fire growth has predicted flame spread and rate of heat release (RHR) for an ISO9705 test scenario using bench-scale data from the cone calorimeter. The test scenario simulated was the propane ignition burner at the comer with a 100/300 kW program and the specimen lined on the walls only. Four phases of fire growth were simulated....

  10. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-09-15

    A versatile experiment facility for the International Space Station moved closer to flight recently with delivery of the ground-test model to NASA's Marshall Flight Center. The Microgravity Science Glovebox Ground Unit was delivered to the Microgravity Development Laboratory will be used to test hardware and procedures for the flight model of the glovebox aboard the ISS's Laboratory Module, Destiny.

  11. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-09-13

    The first International Space Station experiment facility--the Microgravity Glovebox Ground Unit--has been delivered to Marshall Space Flight Center's Microgravity Development Laboratory. The glovebox is a facility that provides a sealed work area accessed by the crew in gloves. This glovebox will be used at the Marshall laboratory throughout the Space Station era.

  12. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-04-15

    Protein isolated from hen egg-white and functions as a bacteriostatic enzyme by degrading bacterial cell walls. First enzyme ever characterized by protein crystallography. It is used as an excellent model system for better understanding parameters involved in microgravity experiments with data from laboratory experiments to study the equilibrium rate of hanging drop experiments in microgravity.

  13. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-04-25

    The arnual conference for the Educator Resource Center Network (ERCN) Coordinators was held at Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field in Cleveland, Ohio. The conference included participants from NASA's Educator Resource Centers located throughout the country. The Microgravity Science Division at Glenn sponsored a Microgravity Day for all the conference participants. This image is from a digital still camera; higher resolution is not available.

  14. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-10-04

    Teachers, students, and parents listen as scientists explain what is different about the microgravity envirornment of space and why it is a valuable tool for research. This was part of the outreach session of the Pan Pacific Microgravity Conference on May 2, 2001, at the California Science Center.

  15. Influence of the Flow Rate of Oxidising Atmosphere on the Flame Spread Rate on the Surface of Organic Setlled Dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinka, Jozef; Balog, Karol; Hrušovský, Ivan; Valentová, Veronika

    2013-01-01

    The presented paper deals with determining the influence of the flow rate of oxidising atmosphere on the flame spread along the surface of the organic settled dust layer. We determined the rate of the flame spread on the surface of the organic settled dust layer (whole grain rye and spelt flour) with absolute moisture of 10 % wt., for the flow rates of oxidising atmosphere 1, 3, 5 and 10 cm/s. Pure oxygen was used as an oxidising atmosphere. The obtained results suggest that there exists a power relationship of the flame spread rate along the surface of organic settled dust layer to the flow rate of the oxidising mixture. The method described is suitable for the relative comparison of the organic settled dust layer from the point of its ability to spread the flame and the influence of the air flow rate on this process.

  16. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-04-26

    The first NASA Dropping In a Microgravity Environment (DIME) student competition pilot project came to a conclusion at the Glenn Research Center in April 2001. The competition involved high-school student teams who developed the concept for a microgravity experiment and prepared an experiment proposal. The two student teams - COSI Academy, sponsored by the Columbus Center of Science and Industry, and another team from Cincinnati, Ohio's Sycamore High School, designed a microgravity experiment, fabricated the experimental apparatus, and visited NASA Glenn to operate their experiment in the 2.2 Second Drop Tower. Sandi Thompson of the National Center for Microgravity Research GRC makes a final adjustment to the drop package. This image is from a digital still camera; higher resolution is not available.

  17. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-04-26

    The first NASA Dropping In a Microgravity Environment (DIME) student competition pilot project came to a conclusion at the Glenn Research Center in April 2001. The competition involved high-school student teams who developed the concept for a microgravity experiment and prepared an experiment proposal. The two student teams - COSI Academy, sponsored by the Columbus Center of Science and Industry, and another team from Cincinnati, Ohio's Sycamore High School, designed a microgravity experiment, fabricated the experimental apparatus, and visited NASA Glenn to operate their experiment in the 2.2 Second Drop Tower. Here students from Sycamore High School in Cincinnati, Ohio, talk with Dr. Dennis Stocker, one of Glenn's lead microgravity scientists, about the uses of the drop tower. This image is from a digital still camera; higher resolution is not available.

  18. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1995-10-20

    Onboard Space Shuttle Columbia (STS-73) Payload Commander Kathryn Thornton works with the Drop Physics Module (DPM) in the United States Microgravity Laboratory 2 (USML-2) Spacelab Science Module cleaning the experiment chamber of the DPM.

  19. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1998-12-01

    International Flavors and Fragrances Inc., Dr. Braja Mookherjee with the Overnight Scentsation rose plant after its flight aboard NASA's shuttle mission STS-95 for experimentation on scent in microgravity.

  20. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1995-10-20

    Onboard Space Shuttle Columbia (STS-73) Payload Commander Kathryn Thornton and Commander Ken Bowersox discuss the Drop Physics Module (DPM) experiment in the United States Microgravity Laboratory 2 (USML-2) spacelab science module.

  1. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-01-24

    Dr. Cila Herman, G.W.C. Whiting School of Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore. She is the principal investigator for the Experimental Investigation of Pool Boiling Heat Transfer Enhancement in Microgravity in the Presence of Electric Fields.

  2. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-04-26

    The first NASA Dropping In a Microgravity Environment (DIME) student competition pilot project came to a conclusion at the Glenn Research Center in April 2001. The competition involved high-school student teams who developed the concept for a microgravity experiment and prepared an experiment proposal. The two student teams - COSI Academy, sponsored by the Columbus Center of Science and Industry, and another team from Cincinnati, Ohio's Sycamore High School, designed a microgravity experiment, fabricated the experimental apparatus, and visited NASA Glenn to operate their experiment in the 2.2 Second Drop Tower. Here Carol Hodanbosi of the National Center for Microgravity Research and Jose Carrion, a lab mechanic with AKAC, prepare a student experiment package (inside the silver-colored frame) inside the orange-colored drag shield that encloses all experiment hardware. This image is from a digital still camera; higher resolution is not available.

  3. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1995-10-20

    Astronaut Kathryn C. Thornton, payload commander, works at the Drop Physics Module (DPM) on the portside of the science module supporting the U.S. Microgravity Laboratory (USML-2). Astronaut Kerneth D. Bowersox, mission commander, looks on.

  4. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1995-10-20

    Onboard Space Shuttle Columbia (STS-73) Mission Specialists Catherine Cady Coleman works at the glovebox facility in support of the Protein Crystal Growth Glovebox (PCG-GBX) experiment in the United States Microgravity Laboratory 2 (USML-2) Spacelab science module.

  5. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1995-10-20

    Onboard Space Shuttle Columbia (STS-73) Payload Specialist Albert Sacco loads autoclaves using a power screwdriver into the Zeolite Crystal Growth (ZCG) experiment in the middeck for the United States Microgravity Laboratory 2 (USML-2) Spacelab mission.

  6. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1992-06-25

    Space Shuttle Columbia (STS-50) astronaut Bornie Dunbar wears protective goggles to assemble a zeolite sample cartridge for the Crystal Growth Furnace (CGF) in the United States Microgravity Laboratory-1 (USML-1) science module.

  7. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1992-04-24

    Ampoule view of the Vapor Crystal Growth System (VCGS) Furnace. Used on IML-1 International Microgravity Laboratory Spacelab 3. Prinicipal Investigator and Payload Specialist was Lodewijk van den Berg.

  8. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1992-04-24

    Overall view of the Vapor Crystal Growth System (VCGS) Furnace. Used on IML-1 International Microgravity Laboratory Spacelab 3. Principal Investigator and Payload Specialist was Lodewijk van den Berg.

  9. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1995-10-20

    Interface Configuration Experiment on the Second United States Microgravity Laboratory (USML-2). Over time the photos show a change in the shape of the interface between a liquid and a gas in a sealed, slightly asymmetrical container. Under the force of Earth's gravity, the interface would remain nearly flat, but in microgravity, the interface shape and location changes significantly in the container, resulting in major shifts of liquid arising from small asymmetries in the container shape.

  10. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-08-08

    Students discuss fine points of their final design for the Drop Tower experiment during the second Dropping in a Microgravity Environment (DIME) competition held April 23-25, 2002, at NASA's Glenn Research Center. Competitors included two teams from Sycamore High School, Cincinnati, OH, and one each from Bay High School, Bay Village, OH, and COSI Academy, Columbus, OH. DIME is part of NASA's education and outreach activities. Details are on line at http://microgravity.grc.nasa.gov/DIME_2002.html.

  11. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-08-07

    Students prepare to load fluids in their experiment apparatus during the Dropping In a Microgravity Environment (DIME) competition held April 23-25, 2002, at NASA's Glenn Research Center. Competitors included two teams from Sycamore High School, Cincinnati, OH, and one each from Bay High School, Bay Village, OH, and COSI Academy, Columbus, OH. DIME is part of NASA's education and outreach activities. Details are on line at http://microgravity.grc.nasa.gov/DIME_2002.html.

  12. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-08-07

    Students prepare their experiment apparatus for free-fall during the second Dropping in a Microgravity Environment (DIME) competition held April 23-25, 2002, at NASA's Glenn Research Center. Competitors included two teams from Sycamore High School, Cincinnati, OH, and one each from Bay High School, Bay Village, OH, and COSI Academy, Columbus, OH. DIME is part of NASA's education and outreach activities. Details are on line at http://microgravity.grc.nasa.gov/DIME_2002.html.

  13. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-08-08

    Students discuss fine points of their final design for the drop tower experiment during the second Dropping in a Microgravity Environment (DIME) competition held April 23-25, 2002, at NASA's Glenn Research Center. Competitors included two teams from Sycamore High School, Cincinnati, OH, and one each from Bay High School, Bay Village, OH, and COSI Academy, Columbus, OH. DIME is part of NASA's education and outreach activities. Details are on line at http://microgravity.grc.nasa.gov/DIME_2002.html.

  14. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-08-07

    Students prepare to load fluids in their experiment apparatus during the Microgravity Environment (DIME) competition held April 23-25, 2002, at NASA's Glenn Research Center. Competitors included two teams from Sycamore High School, Cincinnati, OH, and one each from Bay High School, Bay Village, OH, and COSI Academy, Columbus, OH. DIME is part of NASA's education and outreach activities. Details are on line at http://microgravity.grc.nasa.gov/DIME_2002.html.

  15. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-10-04

    Dr. Timothy G. Hammond of the Department of Internal Medicine, Nephrology Section, Tulane University Medical Center, New Orleans, LA, is one of NASA's principal investigators conducting research with the NASA Bioreactor project directed by Johrnson Space Center. Hammond's investigations include Production of 1-25- diOH D3 by Renal Epithelial Cells in Simulated Microgravity Culture and Differentiation of Cultured Normal Human Renal Epithelial Cells in Microgravity. Photo credit: Tulane University.

  16. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1997-11-15

    High school students observe the progress of the Isothermal Dendritic Growth Experiment (IDGE) during the U.S. Microgravity Payload-4 mission (STS-87, Nov. 19 - Dec. 5, 1997) at the IDGE Remote Operations Control Center (ROCC) at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI) in Troy, NY. As part of the its outreach activity, the experiment team set up the center so students and the public could observe IDGE in progress and learn more about space and microgravity research. Photo credit: RPI

  17. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-08-08

    Students pause while waiting their turn at the 2.2-second Drop Tower during the second Dropping in a Microgravity Environment (DIME) competition held April 23-25, 2002, at NASA's Glenn Research Center. Competitors included two teams from Sycamore High School, Cincinnati, OH, and one each from Bay High School, Bay Village, OH, and COSI Academy, Columbus, OH. DIME is part of NASA's education and outreach activities. Details are on line at http://microgravity.grc.nasa.gov/DIME_2002.html.

  18. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-01-25

    Dan Carter and Charles Sisk center a Lysozyme Protein crystal grown aboard the USML-2 shuttle mission. Protein isolated from hen egg-white and functions as a bacteriostatic enzyme by degrading bacterial cell walls. First enzyme ever characterized by protein crystallography. It is used as an excellent model system for better understanding parameters involved in microgravity crystal growth experiments. The goal is to compare kinetic data from microgravity experiments with data from laboratory experiments to study the equilibrium.

  19. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-04-25

    The arnual conference for the Educator Resource Center Network (ERCN) Coordinators was held at Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field in Cleveland, Ohio. The conference included participants from NASA's Educator Resource Centers located throughout the country. The Microgravity Science Division at Glenn sponsored a Microgravity Day for all the conference participants. Dr. Wil Roberson and Marge Lehky prepare a demonstration with the mini-drop tower. This image is from a digital still camera; higher resolution is not available.

  20. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-08-07

    Student-designed and -built apparatus for the second Dropping in a Microgravity Environment (DIME) competition held April 23-25, 2002, at NASA's Glenn Research Center. Competitors included two teams from Sycamore High School, Cincinnati, OH, and one each from Bay High School, Bay Village, OH, and COSI Academy, Columbus, OH. DIME is part of NASA's education and outreach activities. Details are on line at http://microgravity.grc.nasa.gov/DIME_2002.html.

  1. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-04-14

    Don Gillies, a materials scientist at NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), demonstrates the classroom-size Microgravity Drop Tower Demonstrator. The apparatus provides 1/6 second of microgravity for small experiments. A video camera helps teachers observe what happens inside the package. This demonstration was at the April 2000 conference of the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) in Chicago. Photo credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC)

  2. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-04-26

    The first NASA Dropping In a Microgravity Environment (DIME) student competition pilot project came to a conclusion at the Glenn Research Center in April 2001. The competition involved high-school student teams who developed the concept for a microgravity experiment and prepared an experiment proposal. The two student teams - COSI Academy, sponsored by the Columbus Center of Science and Industry, and another team from Cincinnati, Ohio's Sycamore High School, designed a microgravity experiment, fabricated the experimental apparatus, and visited NASA Glenn to operate their experiment in the 2.2 Second Drop Tower. NASA and contractor personnel who conducted the DIME activity with the students. Shown (L-R) are: Eric Baumann (NASA, 2.2-second Drop Tower Facility manager), Daniel Dietrich (NASA) mentor for Sycamore High School team), Carol Hodanbosi (National Center for Microgravity Research; DIME staff), Richard DeLombard (NASA; DIME staff), Jose Carrion (GRC Akima, drop tower technician), Dennis Stocker (NASA; DIME staff), Peter Sunderland (NCMR, mentor for COSI Academy student team), Sandi Thompson (NSMR sabbatical teacher; DIME staff), Dan Woodard (MASA Microgravity Outreach Program Manager), Adam Malcolm (NASA co-op student; DIME staff), Carla Rosenberg (NCMR; DIME staff), and Twila Schneider (Infinity Technology; NASA Microgravity Research program contractor). This image is from a digital still camera; higher resolution is not available.

  3. X-Ray Burst Oscillations: From Flame Spreading to the Cooling Wake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmoodifar, Simin; Strohmayer, Tod E.

    2016-04-01

    Type I X-ray bursts are thermonuclear flashes observed from the surfaces of accreting neutron stars (NSs) in Low Mass X-ray Binaries. Oscillations have been observed during the rise and/or decay of some of these X-ray bursts. Those seen during the rise can be well explained by a spreading hot spot model, but large amplitude oscillations in the decay phase remain mysterious because of the absence of a clear-cut source of asymmetry. To date there have not been any quantitative studies that consistently track the oscillation amplitude both during the rise and decay (cooling tail) of bursts. In this talk I will discuss the results of our computations of the light curves and amplitudes of oscillations in X-ray burst models that realistically account for both flame spreading and subsequent cooling. I will present results for several such “cooling wake” models, a “canonical” cooling model where each patch on the NS surface heats and cools identically, or with a latitude-dependent cooling timescale set by the local effective gravity, and an “asymmetric” model where parts of the star cool at significantly different rates. We show that while the canonical cooling models can generate oscillations in the tails of bursts, they cannot easily produce the highest observed modulation amplitudes. Alternatively, a simple phenomenological model with asymmetric cooling can achieve higher amplitudes consistent with the observations. I will discuss how the combination of the light curve and fractional amplitude evolution can constrain the properties of the flame spreading, such as ignition latitude, the flame spreading geometry and speed, and its latitudinal dependence which would be important for measuring NSs masses and radii using X-ray burst oscillations.

  4. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-04-15

    Structure Of Flame Balls At Low Lewis-numbers (SOFBALL) Experiment Mounting Structure (EMS) was used to conduct the SOFBALL experiment on Combustion Module-1. The EMS was inserted into the CM-1 combustion chamber. The chamber was filled with a lean fuel/oxidizer mixture and a spark igniter on the EMS ignited the gas. Very small, weak flames, in the shape of spheres, were formed and studied.

  5. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-04-26

    The first NASA Dropping In a Microgravity Environment (DIME) student competition pilot project came to a conclusion at the Glenn Research Center in April 2001. The competition involved high-school student teams who developed the concept for a microgravity experiment and prepared an experiment proposal. The two student teams - COSI Academy, sponsored by the Columbus Center of Science and Industry, and another team from Cincinnati, Ohio's Sycamore High School, designed a microgravity experiment, fabricated the experimental apparatus, and visited NASA Glenn to operate their experiment in the 2.2 Second Drop Tower. Here Jose Carrion, a lab mechanic with AKAC, starts the orange-colored drag shield, and the experiment apparatus inside, on the hoist upward to the control station at the top of the drop tower. This image is from a digital still camera; higher resolution is not available.

  6. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-04-26

    The first NASA Dropping In a Microgravity Environment (DIME) student competition pilot project came to a conclusion at the Glenn Research Center in April 2001. The competition involved high-school student teams who developed the concept for a microgravity experiment and prepared an experiment proposal. The two student teams - COSI Academy, sponsored by the Columbus Center of Science and Industry, and another team from Cincinnati, Ohio's Sycamore High School, designed a microgravity experiment, fabricated the experimental apparatus, and visited NASA Glenn to operate their experiment in the 2.2 Second Drop Tower. Meredith Mendenhall of Sycamore High School, Cincinnati, Ohio, flips on a tape recorder in preparation for a drop. This image is from a digital still camera; higher resolution is not available.

  7. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-04-26

    The first NASA Dropping In a Microgravity Environment (DIME) student competition pilot project came to a conclusion at the Glenn Research Center in April 2001. The competition involved high-school student teams who developed the concept for a microgravity experiment and prepared an experiment proposal. The two student teams - COSI Academy, sponsored by the Columbus Center of Science and Industry, and another team from Cincinnati, Ohio's Sycamore High School, designed a microgravity experiment, fabricated the experimental apparatus, and visited NASA Glenn to operate their experiment in the 2.2 Second Drop Tower. Here, students from Sycamore High School in Cincinnati, Ohio, help a NASA technician prepare their experiment. This image is from a digital still camera; higher resolution is not available.

  8. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-04-15

    Researchers have found that as melted metals and alloys (combinations of metals) solidify, they can form with different arrangements of atoms, called microstructures. These microstructures depend on the shape of the interface (boundary) between the melted metal and the solid crystal it is forming. There are generally three shapes that the interface can take: planar, or flat; cellular, which looks like the cells of a beehive; and dendritic, which resembles tiny fir trees. Convection at this interface can affect the interface shape and hide the other phenomena (physical events). To reduce the effects of convection, researchers conduct experiments that examine and control conditions at the interface in microgravity. Microgravity also helps in the study of alloys composed of two metals that do not mix. On Earth, the liquid mixtures of these alloys settle into different layers due to gravity. In microgravity, the liquid metals do not settle, and a solid more uniform mixture of both metals can be formed.

  9. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-04-26

    The first NASA Dropping In a Microgravity Environment (DIME) student competition pilot project came to a conclusion at the Glenn Research Center in April 2001. The competition involved high-school student teams who developed the concept for a microgravity experiment and prepared an experiment proposal. The two student teams - COSI Academy, sponsored by the Columbus Center of Science and Industry, and another team from Cincinnati, Ohio's Sycamore High School, designed a microgravity experiment, fabricated the experimental apparatus, and visited NASA Glenn to operate their experiment in the 2.2 Second Drop Tower. Students from Sycamore High School in Cincinnati, Ohio (girls), and the COSI Academy, Columbus, Ohio (boys), participated. This image is from a digital still camera; higher resolution is not available.

  10. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-04-26

    The first NASA Dropping In a Microgravity Environment (DIME) student competition pilot project came to a conclusion at the Glenn Research Center in April 2001. The competition involved high-school student teams who developed the concept for a microgravity experiment and prepared an experiment proposal. The two student teams - COSI Academy, sponsored by the Columbus Center of Science and Industry, and another team from Cincinnati, Ohio's Sycamore High School, designed a microgravity experiment, fabricated the experimental apparatus, and visited NASA Glenn to operate their experiment in the 2.2 Second Drop Tower. Pictured are students from COSI Academy, Columbus, Ohio and their teacher. The other team was from Sycamore High School in Cincinnati, Ohio. This image is from a digital still camera; higher resolution is not available.

  11. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-04-26

    The first NASA Dropping In a Microgravity Environment (DIME) student competition pilot project came to a conclusion at the Glenn Research Center in April 2001. The competition involved high-school student teams who developed the concept for a microgravity experiment and prepared an experiment proposal. The two student teams - COSI Academy, sponsored by the Columbus Center of Science and Industry, and another team from Cincinnati, Ohio's Sycamore High School, designed a microgravity experiment, fabricated the experimental apparatus, and visited NASA Glenn to operate their experiment in the 2.2 Second Drop Tower. Here, students are briefed by NASA engineer Daniel Dietrich at the top of the drop tower. This image is from a digital still camera; higher resolution is not available.

  12. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1981-03-30

    Composite of Marshall Space Flight Center's Low-Gravity Free Fall Facilities.These facilities include a 100-meter drop tower and a 100-meter drop tube. The drop tower simulates in-flight microgravity conditions for up to 4.2 seconds for containerless processing experiments, immiscible fluids and materials research, pre-flight hardware design test and flight experiment simulation. The drop tube simulates in-flight microgravity conditions for up to 4.6 seconds and is used extensively for ground-based microgravity convection research in which extremely small samples are studied. The facility can provide deep undercooling for containerless processing experiments that require materials to remain in a liquid phase when cooled below the normal solidification temperature.

  13. Radiant extinction of gaseous diffusion flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atreya, Arvind; Agrawal, Sanjay; Shamim, Tariq; Pickett, Kent; Sacksteder, Kurt R.; Baum, Howard R.

    1995-01-01

    The absence of buoyancy-induced flows in microgravity significantly alters the fundamentals of many combustion processes. Substantial differences between normal-gravity and microgravity flames have been reported during droplet combustion, flame spread over solids, candle flames, and others. These differences are more basic than just in the visible flame shape. Longer residence time and higher concentration of combustion products create a thermochemical environment which changes the flame chemistry. Processes such as flame radiation, that are often ignored under normal gravity, become very important and sometimes even controlling. This is particularly true for conditions at extinction of a microgravity diffusion flame. Under normal-gravity, the buoyant flow, which may be characterized by the strain rate, assists the diffusion process to transport the fuel and oxidizer to the combustion zone and remove the hot combustion products from it. These are essential functions for the survival of the flame which needs fuel and oxidizer. Thus, as the strain rate is increased, the diffusion flame which is 'weak' (reduced burning rate per unit flame area) at low strain rates is initially 'strengthened' and eventually it may be 'blown-out'. Most of the previous research on diffusion flame extinction has been conducted at the high strain rate 'blow-off' limit. The literature substantially lacks information on low strain rate, radiation-induced, extinction of diffusion flames. At the low strain rates encountered in microgravity, flame radiation is enhanced due to: (1) build-up of combustion products in the flame zone which increases the gas radiation, and (2) low strain rates provide sufficient residence time for substantial amounts of soot to form which further increases the flame radiation. It is expected that this radiative heat loss will extinguish the already 'weak' diffusion flame under certain conditions. Identifying these conditions (ambient atmosphere, fuel flow rate, fuel

  14. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-08-03

    SPD representative Steve Lambing shows the PentaPure water purification unit to some EAA visitors. The Microgravity Research and the Space Product Development Programs joined with the Johnson Space Center (JSC) for a first time ever ISS/Microgravity Research space-focused exhibit at Oshkosh AirVenture'99 from July 28-August 3, 1999. The Space Product Development (SPD) display included the STS-95 ASTROCULTURE training hardware used by John Glenn and his crewmates, a PentaPure water purfication system, and a Ford engine block.

  15. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-08-07

    Members from all four teams were mixed into pairs to work on a Lego (TM) Challenge device to operate in the portable drop tower demonstrator (background). These two team members are about to try out their LEGO (TM) creation. This was part of the second Dropping in a Microgravity Environment (DIME) competition held April 23-25, 2002, at NASA's Glenn Research Center. Competitors included two teams from Sycamore High School, Cincinnati, OH, and one each from Bay High School, Bay Village, OH, and COSI Academy, Columbus, OH. DIME is part of NASA's education and outreach activities. Details are on line at http://microgravity.grc.nasa.gov/DIME_2002.html.

  16. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1998-05-01

    The Microgravity Science Glovebox is a facility for performing microgravity research in the areas of materials, combustion, fluids and biotechnology science. The facility occupies a full ISPR, consisting of: the ISPR rack and infrastructure for the rack, the glovebox core facility, data handling, rack stowage, outfitting equipment, and a video subsystem. MSG core facility provides the experiment developers a chamber with air filtering and recycling, up to two levels of containment, an airlock for transfer of payload equipment to/from the main volume, interface resources for the payload inside the core facility, resources inside the airlock, and storage drawers for MSG support equipment and consumables.

  17. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-04-15

    Fluid Physics is study of the motion of fluids and the effects of such motion. When a liquid is heated from the bottom to the boiling point in Earth's microgravity, small bubbles of heated gas form near the bottom of the container and are carried to the top of the liquid by gravity-driven convective flows. In the same setup in microgravity, the lack of convection and buoyancy allows the heated gas bubbles to grow larger and remain attached to the container's bottom for a significantly longer period.

  18. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-08-07

    A student assembles a Lego (TM) Challenge device designed to operate in the portable drop tower demonstrator as part of the second Dropping in a Microgravity Environment (DIME) competition held April 23-25, 2002, at NASA's Glenn Research Center. Competitors included two teams from Sycamore High School, Cincinnati, OH, and one each from Bay High School, Bay Village, OH, and COSI Academy, Columbus, OH. DIME is part of NASA's education and outreach activities. Details are on line at http://microgravity.grc.nasa.gov/DIME_2002.html.

  19. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-08-07

    Two students show the Lego (TM) Challenge device they designed and built to operate in the portable drop tower demonstrator as part of the second Dropping in a Microgravity Environment (DIME) competition held April 23-25, 2002, at NASA's Glenn Research Center. Competitors included two teams from Sycamore High School, Cincinnati, OH, and one each from Bay High School, Bay Village, OH, and COSI Academy, Columbus, OH. DIME is part of NASA's education and outreach activities. Details are on line at http://microgravity.grc.nasa.gov/DIME_2002.html.

  20. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-08-07

    A NASA test conductor at the top of the 2.2-second Drop Tower monitors a student lecture at a lower level. This was part of the Microgravity Environment (DIME) competition held April 23-25, 2002, at NASA's Glenn Research Center. Competitors included two teams from Sycamore High School, Cincinnati, OH, and one each from Bay High School, Bay Village, OH, and COSI Academy, Columbus, OH. DIME is part of NASA's education and outreach activities. Details are on line at http://microgravity.grc.nasa.gov/DIME_2002.html.

  1. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-08-07

    Students watch a test run on their experiment before the actual drop. They designed and built their apparatus to fit within a NASA-provided drop structure. This was part of the second Dropping in a Microgravity Environment (DIME) competition held April 23-25, 2002, at NASA's Glenn Research Center. Competitors included two teams from Sycamore High School, Cincinnati, OH, and one each from Bay High School, Bay Village, OH, and COSI Academy, Columbus, OH. DIME is part of NASA's education and outreach activities. Details are on line at http://microgravity.grc.nasa.gov/DIME_2002.html.

  2. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-07-29

    Paul Luz (right), an aerospace flight systems engineer at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), takes a question from a visitor as they discuss microgravity research at AirVenture 2000. Part of the NASA exhibits included demonstrations of knowledge gained from microgravity research aboard the Space Shuttle. These include liquid metal (liquid metal demonstrator is three plastic drop tubes at center) and dendritic growth (in front of Luz), both leading to improvements in processes of Earth. The exhibit was part of the NASA outreach activity at AirVenture 2000 sponsored by the Experimental Aircraft Association in Oshkosh, WI.

  3. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-08-07

    A Bay High School team member prepares the oil and water samples for their next drop operation as part of the second Dropping in a Microgravity Environment (DIME) competition held April 23-25, 2002, at NASA's Glenn Research Center. Competitors included two teams from Sycamore High School, Cincinnati, OH, and one each from Bay High School, Bay Village, OH, and COSI Academy, Columbus, OH. DIME is part of NASA's education and outreach activities. Details are on line at http://microgravity.grc.nasa.gov/DIME_2002.html.

  4. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-04-25

    The arnual conference for the Educator Resource Center Network (ERCN) Coordinators was held at Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field in Cleveland, Ohio. The conference included participants from NASA's Educator Resource Centers located throughout the country. The Microgravity Science Division at Glenn sponsored a Microgravity Day for all the conference participants. Twila Schneider of Infinity Technology, a NASA contractor, explains the basics of building a glovebox mockup from a copier paper box. This image is from a digital still camera; higher resolution is not available.

  5. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-08-07

    Test tubes to hold different types of fluids while in free-fall were among the student-designed items for the second Dropping in a Microgravity Environment (DIME) competition held April 23-25, 2002, at NASA's Glenn Research Center. Competitors included two teams from Sycamore High School, Cincinnati, OH, and one each from Bay High School, Bay Village, OH, and COSI Academy, Columbus, OH. DIME is part of NASA's education and outreach activities. Details are on line at http://microgravity.grc.nasa.gov/DIME_2002.html.

  6. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-08-07

    Students from the four teams pose in front of he NASA Glenn Administration Building alongside the NASA Glenn Time Capsule. The students participated in the second Dropping in a Microgravity Environment (DIME) competition held April 23-25, 2002, at NASA's Glenn Research Center. Competitors included two teams from Sycamore High School, Cincinnati, OH, and one each from Bay High School, Bay Village, OH, and COSI Academy, Columbus, OH. DIME is part of NASA's education and outreach activities. Details are on line at http://microgravity.grc.nasa.gov/DIME_2002.html.

  7. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-08-08

    In addition to drop tower activities, students assembled a plastic pipe structure underwater in a SCUBA exercise similar to training astronauts receive at NASA Johnson Space Center. This was part of the second Dropping in a Microgravity Environment (DIME) competition held April 23-25, 2002, at NASA's Glenn Research Center. Competitors included two teams from Sycamore High School, Cincinnati, OH, and one each from Bay High School, Bay Village, OH, and COSI Academy, Columbus, OH. DIME is part of NASA's education and outreach activities. Details are on line at http://microgravity.grc.nasa.gov/DIME_2002.html.

  8. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-03-15

    Cadmium sulfide -- a semiconductor material -- can be grown in nanoclusters. Small molecules of cadmium sulfide, shown here, can be prepared by traditional chemical methods. However, if larger, more uniform nanoparticles of cadmium sulfide could be fabricated, they may be used to improve electronic devices such as light emitting diodes and diode lasers. Using a NASA grant, Dr. Jimmy Mays of the University of Alabama at Birmingham is studying whether microgravity will enhance the size and shape of a nanoparticle. This experiment is managed by the Microgravity Research Program Office at NASA's Marshall Spce Flight Center in Huntsville, AL. Photo credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center

  9. Combustion in microgravity: The French contribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prud'homme, Roger; Legros, Guillaume; Torero, José L.

    2017-01-01

    Microgravity (drop towers, parabolic flights, sounding rockets and space stations) are particularly relevant to combustion problems given that they show high-density gradients and in many cases weak forced convection. For some configurations where buoyancy forces result in complex flow fields, microgravity leads to ideal conditions that correspond closely to canonical problems, e.g., combustion of a spherical droplet in a far-field still atmosphere, Emmons' problem for flame spreading over a solid flat plate, deflagration waves, etc. A comprehensive chronological review on the many combustion studies in microgravity was written first by Law and Faeth (1994) and then by F.A. Williams (1995). Later on, new recommendations for research directions have been delivered. In France, research has been managed and supported by CNES and CNRS since the creation of the microgravity research group in 1992. At this time, microgravity research and future activities contemplated the following: Droplets: the "D2 law" has been well verified and high-pressure behavior of droplet combustion has been assessed. The studies must be extended in two main directions: vaporization in mixtures near the critical line and collective effects in dense sprays. Flame spread: experiments observed blue flames governed by diffusion that are in accordance with Emmons' theory. Convection-dominated flames showed significant departures from the theory. Some theoretical assumptions appeared controversial and it was noted that radiation effects must be considered, especially when regarding the role of soot production in quenching. Heterogeneous flames: two studies are in progress, one in Poitiers and the other in Marseilles, about flame/suspension interactions. Premixed and triple flames: the knowledge still needs to be complemented. Triple flames must continue to be studied and understanding of "flame balls" still needs to be addressed.

  10. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1992-10-22

    Space Shuttle Endeavour (STS-47) onboard photo of Astronaut N. Jan Davis at work at the Continuous Heating Furnace (CHF) in the Spacelab-J Science Module. Spacelab-J is a combined National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) and NASA mission. The objectives included life sciences, microgravity and technology research.

  11. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1992-10-22

    Space Shuttle Endeavour (STS-47) onboard photo of Astronaut Mae Jemison working in Spacelab-J module. Spacelab-J is a combined National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) and NASA mission. The objectives included life sciences, microgravity and technology research.

  12. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-04-01

    The Equiaxed Dendritic Solidification Experiment (EDSE) is a material sciences investigation under the Formation of Microstructures/pattern formation discipline. The objective is to study the microstructural evolution of and thermal interactions between several equiaxed crystals growing dendritically in a supercooled melt of a pure and transparent substance under diffusion controlled conditions. Dendrite irritator control for the EDSE in the Microgravity Development Lab (MDL).

  13. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-04-26

    The first NASA Dropping In a Microgravity Environment (DIME) student competition pilot project came to a conclusion at the Glenn Research Center in April 2001. The competition involved high-school student teams who developed the concept for a microgravity experiment and prepared an experiment proposal. The two student teams - COSI Academy, sponsored by the Columbus Center of Science and Industry, and another team from Cincinnati, Ohio's Sycamore High School, designed a microgravity experiment, fabricated the experimental apparatus, and visited NASA Glenn to operate their experiment in the 2.2 Second Drop Tower. NASA and contractor personnel who conducted the DIME activity with the students. Shown (L-R) are: Daniel Dietrich (NASA) mentor for Sycamore High School team), Carol Hodanbosi (National Center for Microgravity Research; DIME staff), Jose Carrion (GRC Akima, drop tower technician), Dennis Stocker (NASA; DIME staff), Richard DeLombard (NASA; DIME staff), Sandi Thompson (NSMR sabbatical teacher; DIME staff), Peter Sunderland (NCMR, mentor for COSI Academy student team), Adam Malcolm (NASA co-op student; DIME staff). This image is from a digital still camera; higher resolution is not available.

  14. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1997-03-11

    The Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) is being developed by the European Space Agency (ESA) and NASA for use aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Scientists will use the MSG to carry out multidisciplinary studies in combustion science, fluid physics and materials science. The MSG is managed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Photo Credit: NASA/MSFC

  15. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1997-03-11

    This photo shows the interior reach in the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) being developed by the European Space Agency (ESA) and NASA for use aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Scientists will use the MSG to carry out multidisciplinary studies in combustion science, fluid physics and materials science. The MSG is managed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Photo Credit: NASA/MSFC

  16. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-05-31

    The Microgravity Science Glovebox is being developed by the European Space Agency and NASA to provide a large working volume for hands-on experiments aboard the International Space Station. Scientists will use the MSG to carry out multidisciplinary studies in combustion science, fluid physics and materials science. The MSG is managed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. (Credit: NASA/Marshall)

  17. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1992-09-12

    Space Shuttle Endeavour (STS-47) onboard photo of Astronaut Jan Davis inside the Spacelab-J module. Spacelab-J is a combined National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) and NASA mission. The objectives included life sciences, microgravity and technology research.

  18. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1995-10-20

    Astronaut Catherine G. Coleman, mission specialist, checks out an Astroculture sample on the mid-deck of the Earth-orbiting Space Shuttle Columbia. Coleman was joined by four other NASA astronauts and two guest researchers for 16 full days of in-space research in support of the United States Microgravity Laboratory (USML-2) mission.

  19. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1998-01-01

    Dr. Daniel Carter, president of New Century Pharmaceuticals in Huntsville, Al, is one of three principal investigators in NASA's microgravity protein crystal growth program. Dr. Carter's experties is in albumins. Albumins are proteins in the bloodstream that transport materials, drugs, nutrients, and wastes. Photo credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center

  20. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-04-15

    The shuttle is a reusable launch vehicle that can maintain a consistent orbit and provide up to 17 days of high-quality microgravity conditions. The shuttle, which can accomodate a wide range of experiment apparatus, provides a laboratory environment in which scientists can conduct long-term investigations.

  1. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1998-04-01

    During the STS-90 shuttle flight in April 1998, cultured renal cortical cells revealed new information about genes. Timothy Hammond, an investigator in NASA's microgravity biotechnology program was interested in culturing kidney tissue to study the expression of proteins useful in the treatment of kidney diseases. Protein expression is linked to the level of differentiation of the kidney cells, and Hammond had difficulty maintaining differentiated cells in vitro. Intrigued by the improvement in cell differentiation that he observed in rat renal cells cultured in NASA's rotating wall vessel (a bioreactor that simulates some aspects of microgravity) and during an experiment performed on the Russian Space Station Mir, Hammond decided to sleuth out which genes were responsible for controlling differentiation of kidney cells. To do this, he compared the gene activity of human renal cells in a variety of gravitational environments, including the microgravity of the space shuttle and the high-gravity environment of a centrifuge. Hammond found that 1,632 genes out of 10,000 analyzed changed their activity level in microgravity, more than in any of the other environments. These results have important implications for kidney research as well as for understanding the basic mechanism for controlling cell differentiation.

  2. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1997-11-19

    Onboard Space Shuttle Columbia (STS-87) mid-deck, Leonid Kadenyuk, Ukrainian payload specialist, works with the Brassica rapa plants being grown for the Collaborative Ukrainian Experiment (CUE). Kadenyuk joined five astronauts for 16-days in Earth-orbit in support of the United States Microgravity Payload 4 (USMP-4) mission.

  3. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1994-03-04

    Onboard Space Shuttle Columbia (STS-62) Mission specialist Charles D. (Sam) Gemar works with the Middeck 0-Gravity Dynamics Experiment (MODE). The reusable test facility is designed to study the nonlinear, gravity-dependent behavior of liquids and skewed space structures in the microgravity environment.

  4. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-04-15

    Manual activation of 8 FPAs in an earlier version of the Group Activation Pack. The Fluids Processing Apparatus is essentially a microgravity test tube that allows a variety of complex investigations to be performed in space. Developed by BioServe Space Technologies, a NASA Commercial Space Center. Flown on STS-95.

  5. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-11-03

    On the Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis' middeck, Astronaut Donald R. McMonagle, mission commander, works with the Heat Pipe Performance (HPP-2) experiment during STS-66 mission. HPP-2 was flown to investigate the thermal performance and fluid dynamics of heat pipes operating with asymmetric and multiple heating zones under microgravity condition.

  6. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1998-09-30

    The Electrostatic Levitator (ESL) Facility established at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) supports NASA's Microgravity Materials Science Research Program. NASA materials science investigations include ground-based, flight definition and flight projects. Flight definition projects, with demanding science concept review schedules, receive highest priority for scheduling experiment time in the Electrostatic Levitator (ESL) Facility.

  7. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-06-20

    Onboard Space Shuttle Columbia (STS-78) Mission Specialist Richard M. Lirnehan works out in the Life and Microgravity Spacelab (LMS-1) Science Module. With an almost 17-day mission away from Earth's gravity, crew members maintained an exercise regimen above and beyond their assigned LMS-1 duty assignments.

  8. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-04-15

    BioServe researcher Dr. Yi Li first flew plant experiments on board STS-63. Li discovered that exposure to microgravity increased a particular hormone concentration in plants. Since that time, Li has been able to manipulate this phenomenon and grow fruits, such as tomatoes, that overproduce the hormone, and these plants bear larger seedless fruit in the absence of pollination.

  9. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-01-24

    Exterior view of Combustion Module-2 with callouts to identify key sections. The original CM flew on the Microgravity Sciences Lab-1 and 1R in 1997. It has been refurbished and placed in new racks for flight on the STS-107 Research 1 mission in 2001. Glenn Research in Cleveland, OH, manages the project.

  10. Probing thermonuclear flame spreading on neutron stars using burst rise oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Manoneeta; Bhattacharyya, Sudip

    2016-07-01

    Intense X-ray bursts (type-I bursts), originated from runaway thermonuclear processes, are observed from the surfaces of many accreting neutron star Low Mass X-ray Binary (LMXB) systems and they provide an important tool to constrain the neutron star equation of state. Periodic intensity variations during these bursts, termed burst oscillations, are observed in about 10% of thermonuclear bursts. Oscillations during the rising phases of thermonuclear bursts are hypothesized to originate from an expanding hot-spot on the surface of the neutron star. We studied the evolution of oscillations during the rising phase of a large sample of thermonuclear bursts from 10 bursting neutron stars in order to probe the process of burning front propagation during an X-ray burst. Our results show observational evidences of expanding hot-spot with spin modulated flame speeds, possibly due to the effects of the Coriolis force present as a result of the high stellar spin (270-620 Hz). This implies that the flame propagation is latitude-dependent and we address the factors affecting the detection and non-detection of burst rise oscillations in the light of this Coriolis force modulated flame spreading scenario.

  11. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-01-24

    The potential for investigating combustion at the limits of flammability, and the implications for spacecraft fire safety, led to the Structures Of Flame Balls At Low Lewis-number (SOFBALL) experiment flown twice aboard the Space Shuttle in 1997. The success there led to reflight on STS-107 Research 1 mission plarned for 2002. All the combustion in a flame ball takes place in a razor-thin reaction zone that depends on diffusion to keep the ball alive. Such a fragile balance is impossible on Earth. The principal investigator is Dr. Paul Ronney of the University of Southern California, Los Angeles. Glenn Research in Cleveland, OH, manages the project.

  12. High-speed imaging of temporal thermal field in thermoplastic material during flame spread

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuoka, T.; Yamazaki, T.; Nakamura, Y.

    2017-02-01

    We have developed a real-time holographic interferometry system with high-speed camera in order to visualize two dimensional, time-dependent temperature distributions in gas and solid phases simultaneously during the combustion of transparent thermoplastic material. The ultimate goal of this study is to contribute to upgrade the flame spread modeling at which the complex physical processes (e.g., fuel regression, bubble formation, motion inside the molten layer) have been mostly ignored, although those effect are not so well-known and not well-studied. As first step, thermal response of thermoplastic material subjected to the disturbance in gas phase was investigated. Thick transparent PMMA slab was used as sample specimen and the thermal status in gas, molten and solid phases over spreading flame downwardly was examined. Whole optical set was carefully arranged and tuned to obtain satisfactory clear interference fringes appeared in gas and solid phases during the combustion event. Following the disturbance introduced in the system, the time change of refractive index in gas, molten and solid phases and the corresponding temperature distributions was recorded via a high-speed camera. Response delay time was carefully analyzed to discuss the potential role of the liquid phase on the burning character.

  13. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-01-01

    The Ring Flame Stabilizer has been developed in conjunction with Lewis Research Center. This device can lower pollutant emissions (which contribute to smog and air pollution) from natural-gas appliances such as furnaces and water heaters by 90 percent while improving energy efficiency by 2 percent.

  14. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-04-15

    Combustion Module-1 was one of the most complex and technologically sophisticated pieces of hardware ever to be included as a part of a Spacelab mission. Shown here are the two racks which comprised CM-1, the rack on the right shows the combustion chamber with the Structure Of Flame Balls at Low Lewis-numbers (SOFBALL) experiment inside.

  15. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-04-15

    The Laminar Soot Processes (LSP) Experiment Mounting Structure (EMS) was used to conduct the LSP experiment on Combustion Module-1. The EMS was inserted into the nozzle on the EMS and ignited by a hot wire igniter. The flame and its soot emitting properties were studied.

  16. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-01-24

    Dr. Alexander Chernov, of the Universities Space Research Association (USRA) and based at Marshall Space Flight Center, is investigating why protein crystals grown in space are, in about 20 percent of cases, better-ordered than those grown on the ground. They are testing the idea that the amount of impurities trapped by space-grown crystals may be different than the amount trapped by crystals grown on Earth because convection is negligible in microgravity. The concentrations or impurities in many space-grown crystals turned out to be several times lower than that in the terrestrial ones, sometimes below the detection limit. The ground-based experiment also showed that the amount of impurities per unit volume of the crystals was usually higher than the amount per unit volume of the solution. This means that a growing crystal actually purifies the solution in its immediate vicinity. Here, an impurity depletion zone is created around apoferritin crystals grown in gel, imitating microgravity conditions.

  17. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-12-15

    Paul Ducheyne, a principal investigator in the microgravity materials science program and head of the University of Pernsylvania's Center for Bioactive Materials and Tissue Engineering, is leading the trio as they use simulated microgravity to determine the optimal characteristics of tiny glass particles for growing bone tissue. The result could make possible a much broader range of synthetic bone-grafting applications. Bioactive glass particles (left) with a microporous surface (right) are widely accepted as a synthetic material for periodontal procedures. Using the particles to grow three-dimensional tissue cultures may one day result in developing an improved, more rugged bone tissue that may be used to correct skeletal disorders and bone defects. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research.

  18. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-05-02

    John Henson (grade 12) and Suzi Bryce (grade 10) from DuPont Manual High School in Louisville, Kentucky, conduct a drop with NASA's Microgravity Demonstrator. A camera and a TV/VCR unit let students play back recordings of how different physical devices behave differently during freefall as compared to 1-g. The activity was part of the education outreach segment of the Pan-Pacific Basin Workshop on Microgravity Sciences held in Pasadena, California. The event originated at the California Science Center in Los Angeles. The DuPont Manual students patched in to the event through the distance learning lab at the Louisville Science Center. This image is from a digital still camera; higher resolution is not available.

  19. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-05-02

    John Henson (grade 12) and Suzi Bryce (grade 10) conducted the drop from DuPont Manual High School in Louisville, Kentucky, conduct a drop with NASA's Microgravity Demonstrator. A camera and a TV/VCR unit let students play back recordings of how different physical devices behave differently during freefall as compared to 1-g. The activity was part of the education outreach segment of the Pan-Pacific Basin Workshop on Microgravity Sciences held in Pasadena, California. The event originated at the California Science Center in Los Angeles. The DuPont Manual students patched in to the event through the distance learning lab at the Louisville Science Center. This image is from a digital still camera; higher resolution is not available.

  20. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-01-31

    The Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF) is a modular, multi-user facility to accommodate microgravity science experiments on board Destiny, the U.S. Laboratory Module for the International Space Station (ISS). The FCF will be a permanet facility aboard the ISS, and will be capable of accommodating up to ten science investigations per year. It will support the NASA Science and Technology Research Plans for the International Space Station (ISS) which require sustained systematic research of the effects of reduced gravity in the areas of fluid physics and combustion science. From left to right are the Combustion Integrated Rack, the Shared Rack, and the Fluids Integrated Rack. The FCF is being developed by the Microgravity Science Division (MSD) at the NASA Glenn Research Center. (Photo Credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center)

  1. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-01-24

    Advanced finite element models are used to study three-dimensional, time-dependent flow and segregation in crystal growth systems. In this image of a prototypical model for melt and crystal growth, pathlines at one instant in time are shown for the flow of heated liquid silicon in a cylindrical container. The container is subjected to g-jitter disturbances along the vertical axis. A transverse magnetic field is applied to control them. Such computations are extremely powerful for understanding melt growth in microgravity where g-jitter drives buoyant flows. The simulation is part of the Theoretical Analysis of 3D, Transient Convection and Segregation in Microgravity Bridgman Crystal Growth investigation by Dr. Jeffrey J. Derby of the University of Mirnesota, Minneapolis.

  2. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1992-06-25

    Zeolites are crystalline aluminosilicates that have complex framework structures. However, there are several features of zeolite crystals that make unequivocal structure determinations difficult. The acquisition of reliable structural information on zeolites is greatly facilitated by the availability of high-quality specimens. For structure determinations by conventional diffraction techniques, large single-crystal specimens are essential. Alternatively, structural determinations by powder profile refinement methods relax the constraints on crystal size, but still require materials with a high degree of crystalline perfection. Studies conducted at CAMMP (Center for Advanced Microgravity Materials Processing) have demonstrated that microgravity processing can produce larger crystal sizes and fewer structural defects relative to terrestrial crystal growth. Principal Investigator: Dr. Albert Sacco

  3. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1994-02-03

    The objective of this facility is to investigate the potential of space grown semiconductor materials by the vapor transport technique and develop powdered metal and ceramic sintering techniques in microgravity. The materials processed or developed in the SEF have potential application for improving infrared detectors, nuclear particle detectors, photovoltaic cells, bearing cutting tools, electrical brushes and catalysts for chemical production. Flown on STS-60 Commercial Center: Consortium for Materials Development in Space - University of Alabama Huntsville (UAH)

  4. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-04-15

    These are images of CGEL-2 samples taken during STS-95. They show binary colloidal suspensions that have formed ordered crystalline structures in microgravity. In sample 5, there are more particles therefore, many, many crystallites (small crystals) form. In sample 6, there are less particles therefore, the particles are far apart and few, much larger crystallites form. The white object in the right corner of sample 5 is the stir bar used to mix the sample at the begirning of the mission.

  5. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-04-01

    The Equiaxed Dendritic Solidification Experiment (EDSE) is a material sciences investigation under the Formation of Microstructures/pattern formation discipline. The objective is to study the microstructural evolution of and thermal interactions between several quiaxed crystals growing dendritically in a supercooled melt of a pure and transparent substance under diffusion controlled conditions. George Myers, controls engineer, monitors the thermal environment of a ground test for the EDSE located in the Microgravity Development Laboratory (MDL).

  6. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-04-01

    The Equiaxed Dendritic Solidification Experiment (EDSE) is a material sciences investigation under the Formation of Microstructures/pattern formation discipline. The objective is to study the microstructural evolution of and thermal interactions between several equiaxed crystals growing dendritically in a supercooled melt of a pure and transparent substance under diffusion controlled conditions. This image shows the overview for the EDSE in the Microgravity Development Lab (MDL).

  7. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-04-01

    The Equiaxed Dendritic Solidification Experiment (EDSE) is a material sciences investigation under the Formation of Microstructures/pattern formation discipline. The objective is to study the microstructural evolution of and thermal interactions between several equiaxed crystals growing dendritically in a supercooled melt of a pure and transparent substance under diffusion controlled conditions. Video and power rack for the EDSE in the Microgravity Development Lab (MDL).

  8. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-04-01

    The Equiaxed Dendritic Solidification Experiment (EDSE) is a material sciences investigation under the Formation of Microstructures/pattern formation discipline. The objective is to study the microstructural evolution of and thermal interactions between several equiaxed crystals growing dendritically in a supercooled melt of a pure and transparent substance under diffusion controlled conditions. This image shows the isothermal bath and video system for the EDSE in the Microgravity Development Lab (MDL).

  9. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-01-24

    The Diffusion-Controlled Apparatus for Microgravity (DCAM) was developed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. A semi-permeable plug or fuse at the center controls the rate at which a precipitant diffuses from the reservoir chamber into the solution chamber , thus prompting protein molecules in the solution to form crystals. The principal investigator is Dr. Dan Carter of New Century Pharmaceuticals in Huntsville, AL.

  10. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-04-01

    The Equiaxed Dendritic Solidification Experiment (EDSE) is a material sciences investigation under the Formation of Microstructures/pattern formation discipline. The objective is to study the microstructural evolution of and thermal interactions between several equiaxed crystals growing dendritically in a supercooled melt of a pure and transparent substance under diffusion controlled conditions. EDSE/TDSE project engineer, Zena Hester, monitors a test run of the EDSE located in the Microgravity Development Laboratory (MDL).

  11. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-04-01

    The Equiaxed Dendritic Solidification Experiment (EDSE) is a material sciences investigation under the Formation of Microstructures/pattern formation discipline. The objective is to study the microstructural evolution of and thermal interactions between several equiaxed crystals growing dendritically in a supercooled melt of a pure and transparent substance under diffusion controlled conditions. Dendrites growing at .4 supercooling from a 2 stinger growth chamber for the EDSE in the Microgravity Development Lab (MDL).

  12. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1997-03-11

    This photo shows one of three arrays of air filters inside the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) being developed by the European Space Agency (ESA) and NASA for use aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Scientists will use the MSG to carry out multidisciplinary studies in combustion science, fluid physics and materials science. The MSG is managed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Photo Credit: NASA/MSFC

  13. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1997-03-11

    This photo shows a rubber glove and its attachment ring for the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) being developed by the European Space Agency (ESA) and NASA for use aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Scientists will use the MSG to carry out multidisciplinary studies in combustion science, fluid physics and materials science. The MSG is managed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Photo Credit: NASA/MSFC

  14. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1998-09-30

    Metal droplet levitated inside the Electrostatic Levitator (ESL). The ESL uses static electricity to suspend an object (about 2-3 mm in diameter) inside a vacuum chamber while a laser heats the sample until it melts. This lets scientists record a wide range of physical properties without the sample contacting the container or any instruments, conditions that would alter the readings. The Electrostatic Levitator is one of several tools used in NASA's microgravity materials science program.

  15. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1997-03-11

    Interior lights give the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) the appearance of a high-tech juke box. The European Space Agency (ESA) and NASA are developing the MSG for use aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Scientists will use the MSG to carry out multidisciplinary studies in combustion science, fluid physics and materials science. The MSG is managed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Photo Credit: NASA/MSFC

  16. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1998-09-30

    Electrostatic levitation system inside Electrostatic Levitator (ESL) vacuum chamber. The ESL uses static electricity to suspend an object (about 2-3 mm in diameter) inside a vacuum chamber while a laser heats the sample until it melts. This lets scientists record a wide range of physical properties without the sample contacting the container or any instruments, conditions that would alter the readings. The Electrostatic Levitator is one of several tools used in NASA's microgravity materials science program.

  17. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1998-09-30

    Schematic of Electrostatic Levitator (ESL) electrodes and controls system. The ESL uses static electricity to suspend an object (about 2-3 mm in diameter) inside a vacuum chamber while a laser heats the sample until it melts. This lets scientists record a wide range of physical properties without the sample contacting the container or any instruments, conditions that would alter the readings. The Electrostatic Levitator is one of several tools used in NASA's microgravity materials science program.

  18. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1998-09-30

    General oayout of Electrostatic Levitator (ESL). The ESL uses static electricity to suspend an object (about 2-3 mm in diameter) inside a vacuum chamber while a laser heats the sample until it melts. This lets scientists record a wide range of physical properties without the sample contacting the container or any instruments, conditions that would alter the readings. The Electrostatic Levitator is one of several tools used in NASA's microgravity materials science program.

  19. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1998-09-30

    Electrostatic Levitator (ESL) general layout with captions. The ESL uses static electricity to suspend an object (about 2-3 mm in diameter) inside a vacuum chamber while a laser heats the sample until it melts. This lets scientists record a wide range of physical properties without the sample contacting the container or any instruments, conditions that would alter the readings. The Electrostatic Levitator is one of several tools used in NASA's microgravity materials science program.

  20. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1997-03-11

    An array of miniature lamps will provide illumination to help scientists as they conduct experiments inside the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG). The European Space Agency (ESA) and NASA are developing the MSG for use aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Scientists will use the MSG to carry out multidisciplinary studies in combustion science, fluid physics and materials science. The MSG is managed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Photo Credit: NASA/MSFC

  1. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1997-03-11

    This photo shows the access through the internal airlock (bottom right) on the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) being developed by the European Space Agency (ESA) and NASA for use aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Scientists will use the MSG to carry out multidisciplinary studies in combustion science, fluid physics and materials science. The MSG is managed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Photo Credit: NASA/MSFC

  2. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-01-24

    The Protein Crystallization for Microgravity (DCAM) was developed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. A droplet of solution with protein molecules dissolved in it is isolated in the center of a small well. In orbit, an elastomer seal is lifted so the solution can evaporate and be absorbed by a wick material. This raises the concentration of the solution, thus prompting protein molecules in the solution to form crystals. The principal investigator is Dr. Dan Carter of New Century Pharmaceuticals in Huntsville, AL.

  3. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1994-07-08

    Onboard Space Shuttle Columbia (STS-65) Mission Specialist Leroy Chiao (top) and Mission Specialist Donald A. Thomas are seen at work in the International Microgravity Laboratory 2 (IML-2) spacelab science module. The two crewmembers are conducting experiments at the IML-2 Rack 5 Biorack (BR). Chiao places a sample in the BR incubator as Thomas handles another sample inside the BR glovebox. The glovebox is used to prepare samples for BR and slow rotating centrifuge microscope (NIZEMI) experiments.

  4. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-04-15

    Biomedical research offers hope for a variety of medical problems, from diabetes to the replacement of damaged bone and tissues. Bioreactors, which are used to grow cells and tissue cultures, play a major role in such research and production efforts. The objective of the research was to define a way to differentiate between effects due to microgravity and those due to possible stress from non-optimal spaceflight conditions.

  5. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1997-11-15

    Pratima Rao lectures students about materials science research in space during the U.S. Microgravity Payload-4 (USMP-4) mission (STS-87, Nov. 19 - Dec. 5, 1997) in the visitor's center set up by the Isothermal Dendritic Growth Experiment (IDGE) team at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI) in Troy, NY. IDGE, flown on three Space Shuttle missions, is yielding new insights into virtually all industrially relevant metal and alloy forming operations. Photo credit: RPI

  6. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1997-11-15

    Matthew Koss lectures middle-school students about materials science research in space during the U.S. Microgravity Payload-4 (USMP-4) mission (STS-87, Nov. 19 - Dec. 5, 1997) in the visitor's center set up by the Isothermal Dendritic Growth Experiment (IDGE) team at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI)in Troy, NY. IDGE, flown on three Space Shuttle missions, is yielding new insights into virtually all industrially relevant metal and alloy forming operations. Photo credit: RPI

  7. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-05-02

    Students from DuPont Manual High School in Louisville, Kentucky participated in a video-teleconference during the Pan-Pacific Basin Workshop on Microgravity Sciences held in Pasadena, California. The event originated at the California Science Center in Los Angeles. The DuPont Manual students patched in to the event through the distance learning lab at the Louisville Science Center. This image is from a digital still camera; higher resolution is not available.

  8. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1986-06-03

    Crystals grown in the hand-held Protein Crystallization Apparatus for Microgravity (PCAM) onboard STS-61C. The PCAM has a pedestal in the center of a circular chamber, the surrounding chamber holds an absorbent reservoir that contains a solution of the precipitant. Vapor pressure differences between the protein solution and the reservoir solution force water to move from the protein solution to the reservoir. As protein concentrations increase, protein crystals begin to nucleate and grow.

  9. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-01-24

    Exterior view of Combustion Module-2 with an Experiment Module partially extracted during a crew training session. The original CM flew on the Microgravity Sciences Lab-1 and 1R in 1997. It has been refurbished and placed in new racks for flight on the STS-107 Research 1 mission in 2001. See MSFC 0100158 for a view with callouts. Glenn Research in Cleveland, OH, manages the project.

  10. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-12-01

    Dr. Donald Gilles, the Discipline Scientist for Materials Science in NASA's Microgravity Materials Science and Applications Department, demonstrates to Carl Dohrman a model of dendrites, the branch-like structures found in many metals and alloys. Dohrman was recently selected by the American Society for Metals International as their 1999 ASM International Foundation National Merit Scholar. The University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign freshman recently toured NASA's materials science facilities at the Marshall Space Flight Center.

  11. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1997-11-15

    Paula Crawford (assisted by an American Sign Language interpreter) lectures students about materials science research in space during the U.S. Microgravity Payload-4 mission (STS-87, Nov. 19 - Dec. 5, 1997) in the visitor's center set up by the Isothermal Dendritic Growth Experiment (IDGE) team at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI) in Troy, NY. IDGE, flown on three Space Shuttle mission, is yielding new insights into virtually all industrially relevant metal and alloy forming operation. Photo credit: Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI)

  12. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1997-11-15

    Students at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI) in Troy, NY, monitor the progress of the Isothermal Dendritic Growth Experiment (IDGE) during the U.S. Microgravity Payload-4 (USMP-4) mission (STS-87, Nov. 19 - Dec. 5, 1997). Remote Operation Control Center (ROCC) like this one will become more common during operations with International Space Station. IDGE, flown on three Space Shuttle missions, is yielding new insights into virtually all industrially relevant metal and alloy forming operations. Photo credit: Renssenlaer Polythnic Institute (RPI)

  13. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1992-02-10

    The image shows a test cell of Crystal Growth experiment inside the Vapor Crystal Growth System (VCGS) furnace aboard the STS-42, International Microgravity Laboratory-1 (IML-1), mission. The goal of IML-1, a pressurized marned Spacelab module, was to explore in depth the complex effects of weightlessness of living organisms and materials processing. More than 200 scientists from 16 countires participated in the investigations.

  14. Soot Aerosol Properties in Laminar Soot-Emitting Microgravity Nonpremixed Flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Konsur, Bogdan; Megaridis, Constantine M.; Griffin, Devon W.

    1999-01-01

    The 0-g flame soot measurements reported in previous studies are extended by adding new 0-g data for different fuel flow rates and burner diameters. The new flame conditions allow more conclusive comparisons regarding the effect of characteristic flow residence times on soot field structure, the influence of fuel preheat on fuel pyrolysis rates near the flame centerline, and the premature cessation of soot growth along the soot annulus in 0-g when the fuel is preheated. The paper also reports on the implementation of thermophoretic soot sampling in a specific 0-g flame featuring burner exit velocities typical of buoyant flames and presents quantitative data on the radial variation of soot microstructure at a fixed height above the burner mouth.

  15. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1998-10-01

    Research with plants in microgravity offers many exciting opportunities to gain new insights and could improve products on Earth ranging from crop production to fragrances and food flavorings. The ASTROCULTURE facility is a lead commercial facility for plant growth and plant research in microgravity and was developed by the Wisconsin Center for Space Automation and Robotics (WSCAR), a NASA Commercial Space Center. On STS-95 it will support research that could help improve crop development leading to plants that are more disease resistant or have a higher yield and provide data on the production of plant essential oils---oils that contain the essence of the plant and provide both fragrance and flavoring. On STS-95, a flowering plant will be grown in ASTROCULTURE and samples taken using a method developed by the industry partner for this investigation. On Earth, the samples will be analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and the data used to evaluate both the production of fragrant oils in microgravity and in the development of one or more products. The ASTROCULTURE payload uses these pourous tubes with precise pressure sensing and control for fluid delivery to the plant root tray.

  16. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1998-10-01

    Research with plants in microgravity offers many exciting opportunities to gain new insights and could improve products on Earth ranging from crop production to fragrances and food flavorings. The ASTROCULTURE facility is a lead commercial facility for plant growth and plant research in microgravity and was developed by the Wisconsin Center for Space Automation and Robotics (WSCAR), a NASA Commercial Space Center. On STS-95 it will support research that could help improve crop development leading to plants that are more disease resistant or have a higher yield and provide data on the production of plant essential oils---oils that contain the essence of the plant and provide both fragrance and flavoring. On STS-95, a flowering plant will be grown in ASTROCULTURE and samples taken using a method developed by the industry partner for this investigation. On Earth the samples will be analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and the data used to evaluate both the production of fragrant oils in microgravity and in the development of one or more products.

  17. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-05-15

    John Marshall, an investigator at Ames Research Center and a principal investigator in the microgravity fluid physics program, is studying the adhesion and cohesion of particles in order to shed light on how granular systems behave. These systems include everything from giant dust clouds that form planets to tiny compressed pellets, such as the ones you swallow as tablets. This knowledge should help us control the grains, dust, and powders that we encounter or use on a daily basis. Marshall investigated electrostatic charge in microgravity on the first and second U.S. Microgravity Laboratory shuttle missions to see how grains aggregate, or stick together. With gravity's effects eliminated on orbit, Marshall found that the grains of sand that behaved ever so freely on Earth now behaved like flour. They would just glom together in clumps and were quite difficult to disperse. That led to an understanding of the prevalence of the electrostatic forces. The granules wanted to aggregate as little chains, like little hairs, and stack end to end. Some of the chains had 20 or 30 grains. This phenomenon indicated that another force, what Marshall believes to be an electrostatic dipole, was at work.(The diagram on the right emphasizes the aggregating particles in the photo on the left, taken during the USML-2 mission in 1995.)

  18. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-12-15

    Paul Ducheyne, a principal investigator in the microgravity materials science program and head of the University of Pernsylvania's Center for Bioactive Materials and Tissue Engineering, is leading the trio as they use simulated microgravity to determine the optimal characteristics of tiny glass particles for growing bone tissue. The result could make possible a much broader range of synthetic bone-grafting applications. Even in normal gravity, bioactive glass particles enhance bone growth in laboratory tests with flat tissue cultures. Ducheyne and his team believe that using the bioactive microcarriers in a rotating bioreactor in microgravity will produce improved, three-dimensional tissue cultures. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Credit: NASA and University of Pennsylvania Center for Bioactive Materials and Tissue Engineering.

  19. PIV Measurement of Transient 3-D (Liquid and Gas Phases) Flow Structures Created by a Spreading Flame over 1-Propanol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hassan, M. I.; Kuwana, K.; Saito, K.

    2001-01-01

    In the past, we measured three-D flow structure in the liquid and gas phases that were created by a spreading flame over liquid fuels. In that effort, we employed several different techniques including our original laser sheet particle tracking (LSPT) technique, which is capable of measuring transient 2-D flow structures. Recently we obtained a state-of-the-art integrated particle image velocimetry (IPIV), whose function is similar to LSPT, but it has an integrated data recording and processing system. To evaluate the accuracy of our IPIV system, we conducted a series of flame spread tests using the same experimental apparatus that we used in our previous flame spread studies and obtained a series of 2-D flow profiles corresponding to our previous LSPT measurements. We confirmed that both LSPT and IPIV techniques produced similar data, but IPIV data contains more detailed flow structures than LSPT data. Here we present some of newly obtained IPIV flow structure data, and discuss the role of gravity in the flame-induced flow structures. Note that the application of IPIV to our flame spread problems is not straightforward, and it required several preliminary tests for its accuracy including this IPIV comparison to LSPT.

  20. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-07-02

    Members of the Water Mist experiment team float in the NASA KC-135 low-g aircraft during preflight tests of the experiment. At center is J. Thomas McKirnon (principal investigator); at right is Angel Abbud-Madrid (co-PI and project scientist). They are with the Center for Commercial Applications of Combustion in Space at the Colorado School of Mines. Water Mist will investigate how best to extinguish flames by using ultrafine droplets of water.

  1. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-10-01

    Dr. Lisa E. Freed of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and her colleagues have reported that initially disc-like specimens tend to become spherical in space, demonstrating that tissues can grow and differentiate into distinct structures in microgravity. The Mir Increment 3 (Sept. 16, 1996 - Jan. 22, 1997) samples were smaller, more spherical, and mechanically weaker than Earth-grown control samples. These results demonstrate the feasibility of microgravity tissue engineering and may have implications for long human space voyages and for treating musculoskeletal disorders on earth. Final samples from Mir and Earth appeared histologically cartilaginous throughout their entire cross sections (5-8 mm thick), with the exception of fibrous outer capsules. Constructs grown on Earth (A) appeared to have a more organized extracellular matrix with more uniform collagen orientation as compared with constructs grown on Mir (B), but the average collagen fiber diameter was similar in the two groups (22 +- 2 nm) and comparable to that previously reported for developing articular cartilage. Randomly oriented collagen in Mir samples would be consistent with previous reports that microgravity disrupts fibrillogenesis. These are transmission electron micrographs of constructs from Mir (A) and Earth (B) groups at magnifications of x3,500 and x120,000 (Inset). The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Credit: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

  2. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1998-01-01

    Dr. Lisa E. Freed of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and her colleagues have reported that initially disc-like specimens of cartilage tend to become spherical in space, demonstrating that tissues can grow and differentiate into distinct structures in microgravity. The Mir Increment 3 (Sept. 16, 1996 - Jan. 22, 1997) samples were smaller, more spherical, and mechanically weaker than Earth-grown control samples. These results demonstrate the feasibility of microgravity tissue engineering and may have implications for long human space voyages and for treating musculoskeletal disorders on earth. Constructs grown on Mir (A) tended to become more spherical, whereas those grown on Earth (B) maintained their initial disc shape. These findings might be related to differences in cultivation conditions, i.e., videotapes showed that constructs floated freely in microgravity but settled and collided with the rotating vessel wall at 1g (Earth's gravity). In particular, on Mir the constructs were exposed to uniform shear and mass transfer at all surfaces such that the tissue grew equally in all directions, whereas on Earth the settling of discoid constructs tended to align their flat circular areas perpendicular to the direction of motion, increasing shear and mass transfer circumferentially such that the tissue grew preferentially in the radial direction. A and B are full cross sections of constructs from Mir and Earth groups shown at 10-power. C and D are representative areas at the construct surfaces enlarged to 200-power. They are stained red with safranin-O. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). Photo credit: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

  3. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-04-15

    Ecomaster, an affiliate of BioServe Space Technologies, this PentaPure technology has been used to purify water for our nation's Space Shuttle missions since 1981. WTC-Ecomaster of Mirneapolis, Minnesota manufactures water purification systems under the brand name PentaPure (TM). BioServe researcher Dr. George Marchin, of Kansas State University, first demonstrated the superiority of this technology and licensed it to WTC. Marchin continues to perform microgravity research in the development of new technologies for the benefit of life on Earth.

  4. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-10-01

    Students in the Young Astronaut Program at the Coca-Cola Space Science Center in Columbus, GA, constructed gloveboxes using the new NASA Student Glovebox Education Guide. The young astronauts used cardboard copier paper boxes as the heart of the glovebox. The paper boxes transformed into gloveboxes when the students pasted poster-pictures of an actual NASA microgravity science glovebox inside and outside of the paper boxes. The young astronauts then added holes for gloves and removable transparent top covers, which completed the construction of the gloveboxes. This image is from a digital still camera; higher resolution is not available.

  5. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-01-24

    Experiments with colloidal solutions of plastic microspheres suspended in a liquid serve as models of how molecules interact and form crystals. For the Dynamics of Colloidal Disorder-Order Transition (CDOT) experiment, Paul Chaikin of Princeton University has identified effects that are attributable to Earth's gravity and demonstrated that experiments are needed in the microgravity of orbit. Space experiments have produced unexpected dendritic (snowflake-like) structures. To date, the largest hard sphere crystal grown is a 3 mm single crystal grown at the cool end of a ground sample. At least two more additional flight experiments are plarned aboard the International Space Station. This image is from a video downlink.

  6. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1992-03-12

    The Advanced Automated Directional Solidification Furnace (AADSF) with the Experimental Apparatus Container (EAC) removed flew during the USMP-2 mission. During USMP-2, the AADSF was used to study the growth of mercury cadmium telluride crystals in microgravity by directional solidification, a process commonly used on earth to process metals and grow crystals. The furnace is tubular and has three independently controlled temperature zones . The sample travels from the hot zone of the furnace (1600 degrees F) where the material solidifies as it cools. The solidification region, known as the solid/liquid interface, moves from one end of the sample to the other at a controlled rate, thus the term directional solidification.

  7. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1991-09-01

    The Advanced Automated Directional Solidification Furnace (AADSF) flew during the USMP-2 mission. During USMP-2, the AADSF was used to study the growth of mercury cadmium telluride crystals in microgravity by directional solidification, a process commonly used on earth to process metals and grow crystals. The furnace is tubular and has three independently controlled temperature zones. The sample travels from the hot zone of the furnace (1600 degrees F) where the material solidifies as it cools. The solidification region, known as the solid/liquid interface, moves from one end of the sample to the other at a controlled rate, thus the term directional solidification.

  8. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1997-03-11

    Once the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) is sealed, additional experiment items can be inserted through a small airlock at the bottom right of the work volume. It is shown here with the door open. The European Space Agency (ESA) and NASA are developing the MSG for use aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Scientists will use the MSG to carry out multidisciplinary studies in combustion science, fluid physics and materials science. The MSG is managed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Photo Credit: NASA/MSFC

  9. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1995-04-06

    An experiment vehicle plunges into the deceleration pit at the end of a 5.18-second drop in the Zero-Gravity Research Facility at NASA's Glenn Research Center. The Zero-Gravity Research Facility was developed to support microgravity research and development programs that investigate various physical sciences, materials, fluid physcis, and combustion and processing systems. Payloads up to 1 meter in diameter and 455 kg in weight can be accommodated. The facility has a 145-meter evacuated shaft to ensure a disturbance-free drop. This is No. 2 of a sequence of 4 images. (Credit: NASA/Glenn Research Center)

  10. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1995-04-06

    An experiment vehicle plunges into the deceleration at the end of a 5.18-second drop in the Zero-Gravity Research Facility at NASA's Glenn Research Center. The Zero-Gravity Research Facility was developed to support microgravity research and development programs that investigate various physical sciences, materials, fluid physics, and combustion and processing systems. Payloads up to one-meter in diameter and 455 kg in weight can be accommodated. The facility has a 145-meter evacuated shaft to ensure a disturbance-free drop. This is No. 3 of a sequence of 4 images. (Credit: NASA/Glenn Research Center)

  11. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1997-03-11

    This photo shows the access through the internal airlock on the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) being developed by the European Space Agency (ESA) and NASA for use aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The airlock will allow the insertion or removal of equipment and samples without opening the working volume of the glovebox. Scientists will use the MSG to carry out multidisciplinary studies in combustion science, fluid physics and materials science. The MSG is managed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Photo Credit: NASA/MSFC

  12. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1998-09-30

    Dr. Jan Rogers and Dr. Michael Robinson operate the Electrostatic Levitator (ESL) at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The ESL uses static electricity to suspend an object (about 2-3 mm in diameter) inside a vacuum chamber while a laser heats the sample until it melts. This lets scientists record a wide range of physical properties without the sample contacting the container or any instruments, conditions that would alter the readings. The Electrostatic Levitator is one of several tools used in NASA's microgravity materials science program.

  13. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1995-04-06

    An experiment vehicle plunges into the deceleration pit at the end of a 5.18-second drop in the Zero-Gravity Research Facility at NASA's Glenn Research Center. The Zero-Gravity Research Facility was developed to support microgravity research and development programs that investigate various physical sciences, materials, fluid physics, and combustion and processing systems. Payloads up to one meter in diameter and 455 kg in weight can be accommodated. The facility has a 145-meter evacuated shaft to ensure a disturbance-free drop. This is No. 4 of a sequence of 4 images. (Credit: NASA/Glenn Research Center)

  14. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1995-04-06

    An experiment vehicle plunges into the deceleration pit at the end of a 5.18-second drop in the Zero-Gravity Research Facility at NASA's Glenn Research Center. The Zero-Gravity Research Facility was developed to support microgravity research and development programs that investigate various physical sciences, materials, fluid physics, and combustion and processing systems. Payloads up to 1 meter in diameter and 455 kg in weight can be accommodated. The facility has a 145-meter evacuated shaft to ensure a disturbance-free drop. This is No.1 of a sequence of 4 images. (Credit: NASA/Glenn Research Center)

  15. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1997-03-11

    This photo shows the access through the internal airlock (bottom right) on the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) being developed by the European Space Agency (ESA) and NASA for use aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The airlock will allow the insertion or removal of equipment and samples without opening the working volume of the glovebox. Scientists will use the MSG to carry out multidisciplinary studies in combustion science, fluid physics and materials science. The MSG is managed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Photo Credit: NASA/MSFC

  16. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1997-03-11

    Access ports, one on each side of the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG), will allow scientists to place large experiment items inside the MSG. The ports also provide additional glove ports (dark circle) for greater access to the interior. The European Space Agency (ESA) and NASA are developing the MSG for use aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Scientists will use the MSG to carry out multidisciplinary studies in combustion science, fluid physics and materials science. The MSG is managed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Photo Credit: NASA/MSFC

  17. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-04-15

    The manipulation of organic materials--cells, tissues, and even living organisms--offers many exciting possibilities for the future from organic computers to improved aquaculture. Commercial researchers are using the microgravity environment to produce large near perfect protein crystals Research on insulin has yielded crystals that far surpass the quality of insulin crystals grown on the ground. Using these crystals industry partners are working to develop new and improved treatments for diabetes. Other researchers are exploring the possibility of producing antibiotics using plant cell cultures which could lead to both orbital production and the improvement of ground-based antibiotic production.

  18. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-01-30

    Tim Broach (seen through window) of NASA/Marshall Spce Flight Center (MSFC), demonstrates the working volume inside the Microgravity Sciences Glovebox being developed by the European Space Agency (ESA) for use aboard the U.S. Destiny laboratory module on the International Space Station (ISS). This mockup is the same size as the flight hardware. Observing are Tommy Holloway and Brewster Shaw of The Boeing Co. (center) and John-David Bartoe, ISS research manager at NASA/John Space Center and a payload specialist on Spacelab-2 mission (1985). Photo crdit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC)

  19. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1997-03-11

    Access ports, one on each side of the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG), will allow scientists to place large experiment items inside the MSG. The ports also provide additional glove ports (silver disk) for greater access to the interior. The European Space Agency (ESA) and NASA are developing the MSG for use aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Scientists will use the MSG to carry out multidisciplinary studies in combustion science, fluid physics and materials science. The MSG is managed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Photo Credit: NASA/MSFC

  20. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-01-31

    The optical bench for the Fluids Integrated Rack section of the Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF) is shown extracted for servicing and with the optical bench rotated 90 degrees for access to the rear elements. The FCF will be installed, in phases, in the Destiny, the U.S. Laboratory Module of the International Space Station (ISS), and will accommodate multiple users for a range of investigations. This is an engineering mockup; the flight hardware is subject to change as designs are refined. The FCF is being developed by the Microgravity Science Division (MSD) at the NASA Glenn Research Center. (Photo credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center)

  1. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-01-31

    The optical bench for the Fluid Integrated Rack section of the Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF) is shown in its operational configuration. The FCF will be installed, in phases, in the Destiny, the U.S. Laboratory Module of the International Space Station (ISS), and will accommodate multiple users for a range of investigations. This is an engineering mockup; the flight hardware is subject to change as designs are refined. The FCF is being developed by the Microgravity Science Division (MSD) at the NASA Glenn Research Center. (Photo credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center)

  2. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-01-31

    The combustion chamber for the Combustion Integrated Rack section of the Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF) is shown extracted for servicing. The FCF will be installed, in phases, in the Destiny, the U.S. Laboratory Module of the International Space Station (ISS), and will accommodate multiple users for a range of investigations. This is an engineering mockup; the flight hardware is subject to change as designs are refined. The FCF is being developed by the Microgravity Science Division (MSD) at the NASA Glenn Research Center. (Photo credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center)

  3. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-01-31

    The optical bench for the Fluids Integrated Rack section of the Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF) is shown extracted for servicing. The FCF will be installed, in phases, in the Destiny, the U.S. Laboratory Module of the International Space Station (ISS), and will accommodate multiple users for a range of investigations. This is an engineering mockup; the flight hardware is subject to change as designs are refined. The FCF is being developed by the Microgravity Science Division (MSD) at the NASA Glenn Research Center. (Photo credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center)

  4. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-01-31

    The combustion chamber for the Combustion Integrated Rack section of the Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF) is shown in its operational configuration. The FCF will be installed, in phases, in the Destiny, the U.S. Laboratory Module of the International Space Station (ISS), and will accommodate multiple users for a range of investigations. This is an engineering mockup; the flight hardware is subject to change as designs are refined. The FCF is being developed by the Microgravity Science Division (MSD) at the NASA Glenn Research Center. (Photo credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center)

  5. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-01-31

    The optical bench for the Fluids Integrated Rack section of the Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF) is shown extracted for servicing and with the optical bench rotated 90 degrees to access the rear elements. The FCF will be installed, in phases, in the Destiny, the U.S. Laboratory Module of the International Space Station (ISS), and will accommodate multiple users for a range of investigations. This is an engineering mockup; the flight hardware is subject to change as designs are refined. The FCF is being developed by the Microgravity Science Division (MSD) at the NASA Glenn Research Center. (Photo credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center)

  6. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-01-31

    The combustion chamber for the Combustion Integrated Rack section of the Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF) is shown opened for installation of burn specimens. The FCF will be installed, in phases, in the Destiny, the U.S. Laboratory Module of the International Space Station (ISS), and will accommodate multiple users for a range of investigations. This is an engineering mockup; the flight hardware is subject to change as designs are refined. The FCF is being developed by the Microgravity Science Division (MSD) at the NASA Glenn Research Center. (Photo credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center)

  7. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-01-31

    The combustion chamber for the Combustion Integrated Rack section of the Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF) is shown extracted for servicing and with the optical bench rotated 90 degrees for access to the rear elements. The FCF will be installed, in phases, in the Destiny, the U.S. Laboratory Module of the International Space Station (ISS), and will accommodate multiple users for a range of investigations. This is an engineering mockup; the flight hardware is subject to change as designs are refined. The FCF is being developed by the Microgravity Science Division (MSD) at the NASA Glenn Research Center. (Photo credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center)

  8. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-04-15

    Marshall Space Flight Center's researchers have conducted suborbital experiments with ZBLAN, an optical material capable of transmitting 100 times more signal and information than silica fibers. The next step is to process ZBLAN in a microgravity environment to stop the formation of crystallites, small crystals caused by a chemical imbalances. Scientists want to find a way to make ZBLAN an amorphous (without an internal shape) material. Producing a material such as this will have far-reaching implications on advanced communications, medical and manufacturing technologies using lasers, and a host of other products well into the 21st century.

  9. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1997-11-15

    Undergraduate students Kristina Wines and Dena Renzo at Rensselaer Poloytech Institute (RPI) in Troy, NY, monitor the progress of the Isothermal Dendritic Growth Experiment (IDGE) during the U.S. Microgravity Payload-4 (USMP-4) mission (STS-87), Nov. 19 - Dec.5, 1997). Remote Operations Control Center (ROCC) like this one will become more common during operations with the International Space Station. The Isothermal Dendritic Growth Experiment (IDGE), flown on three Space Shuttle missions, is yielding new insights into virtually all industrially relevant metal and alloy forming operations. Photo credit: Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI)

  10. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1998-02-05

    Scarning electron microscope images of the surface of ZBLAN fibers pulled in microgravity (ug) and on Earth (1g) show the crystallization that normally occurs in ground-based processing. The face of each crystal will reflect or refract a portion of the optical signal, thus degrading its quality. NASA is conducting research on pulling ZBLAN fibers in the low-g environment of space to prevent crystallization that limits ZBLAN's usefulness in optical fiber-based communications. ZBLAN is a heavy-metal fluoride glass that shows exdeptional promise for high-throughput communications with infrared lasers. Photo credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center

  11. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1998-12-01

    The Magnetically Damped Furnace (MDF) breadboard is being developed in response to NASA's mission and goals to advance the scientific knowledge of microgravity research, materials science, and related technologies. The objective of the MDF is to dampen the fluid flows due to density gradients and surface tension gradients in conductive melts by introducing a magnetic field during the sample processing. The MDF breadboard will serve as a proof of concept that the MDF performance requirements can be attained within the International Space Station resource constraints.

  12. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-09-30

    A 3 mm drop of nickel-zirconium, heated to incandescence, hovers between electrically charged plates inside the Electrostatic Levitator (ESL). The ESL uses static electricity to suspend an object (about 2-3 mm in diameter) inside a vacuum chamber while a laser heats the sample until it melts. This lets scientists record a wide range of physical properties without the sample contacting the container or any instruments, conditions that would alter the readings. The Electrostatic Levitator is one of several tools used in NASA's microgravity materials science program.

  13. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-07-29

    Angie Jackman, a NASA project manager in microgravity research, demonstrates the enhanced resilience of undercooled metal alloys as compared to conventional alloys. Experiments aboard the Space Shuttle helped scientists refine their understanding of the physical properties of certain metal alloys when undercooled (i.e., kept liquid below their normal solidification temperature). This new knowledge then allowed scientists to modify a terrestrial production method so they can now make limited quantities marketed under the Liquid Metal trademark. The exhibit was a part of the NASA outreach activity at AirVenture 2000 sponsored by the Experimental Aircraft Association in Oshkosh, WI.

  14. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-05-31

    This diagram shows the general arrangement of the payloads to be carried by the multidisciplinary STS-107 Research-1 Space Shuttle mission in 2002. The Spacehab module will host experiments that require direct operation by the flight crew. Others with special requirements will be on the GAS Bridge Assembly sparning the payload bay. The Extended Duration Orbiter kit carries additional oxygen and hydrogen for the electricity-producing fuel cells. Research-1 experiments will cover space biology, life science, microgravity research, and commercial space product development, research sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. An alternative view without callouts is available at 0101765.

  15. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-05-31

    Thisdiagram shows the general arrangement of the payloads to be carried by the multidisciplinary STS-107 Research-1 Space Shuttle mission in 2002. The Spacehab module will host experiments that require direct operation by the flight crew. Others with special requirements will be on the GAS Bridge Assembly sparning the payload bay. The Extended Duration Orbiter kit carries additional oxygen and hydrogen for the electricity-producing fuel cells. Research-1 experiments will cover space biology, life science, microgravity research, and commercial space product development, research sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. An alternative view with callouts is available at 0101764.

  16. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-05-02

    Students from DuPont Manual High School in Louisville, Kentucky participated in a video-teleconference during the Pan-Pacific Basin Workshop on Microgravity Sciences held in Pasadena, California. The event originated at the California Science Center in Los Angeles. The DuPont Manual students patched in to the event through the distance learning lab at the Louisville Science Center. Education coordinator Twila Schneider (left) of Infinity Technology and NASA materials engineer Chris Cochrane prepare students for the on-line workshop. This image is from a digital still camera; higher resolution is not available.

  17. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-05-02

    Suzarne Nichols (12th grade) from DuPont Manual High School in Louisville, Kentucky, asks a question of on of the on-line lecturers during the Pan-Pacific Basin Workshop on Microgravity Sciences held in Pasadena, California. The event originated at the California Science Center in Los Angeles. The DuPont Manual students patched in to the event through the distance learning lab at the Louisville Science Center. NASA materials engineer Chris Cochrane prepare students for the on-line workshop helps two students prepare a drop demonstration. This image is from a digital still camera; higher resolution is not available.

  18. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-05-02

    Suzarne Nichols (12th grade) from DuPont Manual High School in Louisville, Kentucky, asks a question of on of the on-line lecturers during the Pan-Pacific Basin Workshop on Microgravity Sciences held in Pasadena, California. The event originated at the California Science Center in Los Angeles. The DuPont Manual students patched in to the event through the distance learning lab at the Louisville Science Center. Jie Ma (grade 10, at right) waits her turn to ask a question. This image is from a digital still camera; higher resolution is not available.

  19. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-05-02

    Sutta Chernubhotta (grade 10) from DuPont Manual High School in Louisville, Kentucky, asks a question of on of the on-line lecturers during the Pan-Pacific Basin Workshop on Microgravity Sciences held in Pasadena, California. The event originated at the California Science Center in Los Angeles. The DuPont Manual students patched in to the event through the distance learning lab at the Louisville Science Center. This image is from a digital still camera; higher resolution is not available.

  20. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-01-24

    The Critical Viscosity of Xenon Experiment (CVX-2) on the STS-107 Research 1 mission in 2002 will measure the viscous behavior of xenon, a heavy inert gas used in flash lamps and ion rocket engines, at its critical point. Because xenon near the critical point will collapse under its own weight, experiments on Earth (green line) are limited as they get closer (toward the left) to the critical point. CVX in the microgravity of space (red line) moved into unmeasured territory that scientists had not been able to reach.

  1. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-04-15

    Some of the earliest concerns about fluid behavior in microgravity was the management of propellants in spacecraft tanks as they orbited the Earth. On the ground, gravity pulls a fluid to a bottom of a tank (ig, left). In orbit, fluid behavior depends on surface tension, viscosity, wetting effects with the container wall, and other factors. In some cases, a propellant can wet a tank and leave a large gas bubbles in the center (ug, right). Similar probelms can affect much smaller experiments using fluids in small spaces. Photo credit: NASA/Glenn Research Center.

  2. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1997-04-01

    Apfel's excellent match: This series of photos shows a water drop containing a surfactant (Triton-100) as it experiences a complete cycle of superoscillation on U.S. Microgravity Lab-2 (USML-2; October 1995). The time in seconds appears under the photos. The figures above the photos are the oscillation shapes predicted by a numerical model. The time shown with the predictions is nondimensional. Robert Apfel (Yale University) used the Drop Physics Module on USML-2 to explore the effect of surfactants on liquid drops. Apfel's research of surfactants may contribute to improvements in a variety of industrial processes, including oil recovery and environmental cleanup.

  3. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-03-24

    Astronaut Michael Clifford places a liquid nitrogen Dewar containing frozen protein solutions aboard Russia's space station Mir during a visit by the Space Shuttle (STS-76). The protein samples were flash-frozen on Earth and will be allowed to thaw and crystallize in the microgravity environment on Mir Space Station. A later crew will return the Dewar to Earth for sample analysis. Dr. Alexander McPherson of the University of California at Riverside is the principal investigator. Photo credit: NASA/Johnson Space Center.

  4. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-04-15

    The Commercial Vapor Diffusion Apparatus will be used to perform 128 individual crystal growth investigations for commercial and science research. These experiments will grow crystals of several different proteins, including HIV-1 Protease Inhibitor, Glycogen Phosphorylase A, and NAD Synthetase. The Commercial Vapor Diffusion Apparatus supports multiple commercial investigations within a controlled environment. The goal of the Commercial Protein Crystal Growth payload on STS-95 is to grow large, high-quality crystals of several different proteins of interest to industry, and to continue to refine the technology and procedures used in microgravity for this important commercial research.

  5. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-09-20

    Astronaut Tom Akers places a liquid nitrogen Dewar containing frozen protein solutions aboard Russia's space Station Mir during a visit by the Space Shuttle (STS-79). The protein samples were flash-frozen on Earth and will be allowed to thaw and crystallize in the microgravity environment on Mir Space Station. A later crew will return the Dewar to Earth for sample analysis. Dr. Alexander McPherson of the University of California at Riverside is the principal investigator. Photo credit: NASA/Johnson Space Center.

  6. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-04-04

    One of NASA's newest education publications made its debut at the arnual National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) conference held in Orlando, Florida April 5-7. How High Is It? An Educator's Guide with Activities Focused on Scale Models of Distances was presented by Carla Rosenberg of the National Center for Microgravity Research at Glenn Research Center. Rosenberg, an author of the Guide, led teachers in several hands-on activities from the Guide. This image is from a digital still camera; higher resolution is not available.

  7. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1998-09-30

    Graph depicting Electrostatic Levitator (ESL) heating and cooling cycle to achieve undercooling of liquid metals. The ESL uses static electricity to suspend an object (about 3-4 mm in diameter) inside a vacuum chamber while a laser heats the sample until it melts. This lets scientists record a wide range of physical properties without the sample contracting the container or any instruments, conditions that would alter the readings. The electrostatic Levitator is one of several tools used in NASA's microgravity matierials sciences program.

  8. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-07-29

    Paul Luz (right), an aerospace flight system engineer at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), discusses microgravity research with a visitor at AirVenture 2000. Part of the NASA exhibits included demonstration of knowledge gained from micorgravity research aboard the Space Shuttle. These include liquid metal (Liquid metal demonstrator is three plastic drop tubes at center) and dendritic growth (in front of Luz), both leading to improvements in processes on Earth. The exhibit was part of the NASA outreach activity at AirVenture 2000 sponsored by the Experimental Aircraft Association in Oshkosh, WI.

  9. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1997-11-15

    Matthew Koss (forground) and Martin Glicksman (rear), principal investigator and lead scientist (respectively), review plans for the next step in the Isothermal Dendritic Growth Experiment (IDGE) during the U.S. Microgravity Payload-4 (USMP-4) mission (STS-87, Nov. 19 - Dec. 5, 1997). Remote Operations Control Center (ROCC) like this one, at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI) in Troy, NY, will become more common during operations with the International Space Station. IDGE, flown on three Space Shuttle missions, is yielding new insights into virtually all industrially relavent metal and alloy forming operations. Photo credit: Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI)

  10. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1995-10-20

    Payload specialist Albert Sacco Jr. inspects a crystal in a cylindrical autoclave on the mid-deck of the earth-orbiting space shuttle Columbia. This Zeolite Crystal Growth (ZCG) experiment was one of a few U.S. Microgravity Laboratory (USML-2) experiments that were conducted in both the Shuttle proper and its primary cargo's science module in the payload bay. Most of the experiments were conducted solely in the science module. Sacco was one of two guest researchers who joined five NASA astronauts for 16 days of Earth-orbit.

  11. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1992-02-21

    Vapor Crystal Growth System developed in IML-1, Mercuric Iodide Crystal grown in microgravity FES/VCGS (Fluids Experiment System/Vapor Crystal Growth Facility). During the mission, mercury iodide source material was heated, vaporized, and transported to a seed crystal where the vapor condensed. Mercury iodide crystals have practical uses as sensitive X-ray and gamma-ray detectors. In addition to their excellent optical properties, these crystals can operate at room temperature, which makes them useful for portable detector devices for nuclear power plant monitoring, natural resource prospecting, biomedical applications, and astronomical observing.

  12. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1998-09-30

    Optical ports ring the Electrostatic Levitator (ESL) vacuum chamber to admit light from the heating laser (beam passes through the window at left), positioning lasers (one port is at center), and lamps to allow diagnostic instruments to view the sample. The ESL uses static electricity to suspend an object (about 2-3 mm in diameter) inside a vacuum chamber while a laser heats the sample until it melts. This lets scientists record a wide range of physical properties without the sample contacting the container or any instruments, conditions that would alter the readings. The Electrostatic Levitator is one of several tools used in NASA's microgravity materials science program.

  13. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1997-08-01

    STS-94 Payload Specialist Roger K. Crouch is helped into his launch/entry suit by a suit technician in the Operations and Checkout (OC) building after the suit has been given a pressure test. He is the Chief Scientist of the NASA Microgravity Space and Applications Division. He also has served as a Program Scientist for previous missions and is an expert in semiconductor crystal growth. Crouch and six other crewmembers prepare to depart the OC and head for Launch Pad 39a, where the Space Shuttle Columbia will lift off.

  14. Temperature and Radiative Heat Flux Measurements in Microgravity Jet Diffusion Flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ku, Jerry C.; Greenberg, Paul S.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this project is to provide detailed measurements and modeling analyses of local soot concentration, temperature and radiation heat flux distributions in laminar and turbulent jet diffusion flames under normal (1-g) and reduced gravity (0-g) conditions. Results published to date by these co-PI's and their co-workers include: 1. thermophoretic sampling and size and morphological analyses of soot aggregates in laminar flames under normal and reduced gravity conditions; 2. full-field absorption imaging for soot volume fraction maps in laminar and turbulent flames under normal and reduced gravity conditions; 3. an accurate solver module for detailed radiation heat transfer in nongray nonhomogeneous media; 4. a complete model to include flame structure, soot formation and an energy equation to couple with radiation solver.

  15. Detailed Studies on Flame Extinction by Inert Particles in Normal- and Micro-gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andac, M. G.; Egolfopoulos, F. N.; Campbell, C. S.

    2001-01-01

    The combustion of dusty flows has been studied to lesser extent than pure gas phase flows and sprays. Particles can have a strong effect by modifying the dynamic response and detailed structure of flames through the dynamic, thermal, and chemical couplings between the two phases. A rigorous understanding of the dynamics and structure of two-phase flows can be attained in stagnation flow configurations, which have been used by others to study spray combustion as well as reacting dusty flows. In earlier studies on reacting dusty flows, the thermal coupling between the two phases as well as the effect of gravity on the flame response were not considered. However, in Ref. 6, the thermal coupling between chemically inert particles and the gas was addressed in premixed flames. The effects of gravity was also studied showing that it can substantially affect the profiles of the particle velocity, number density, mass flux, and temperature. The results showed a strong dynamic and thermal dependence of reacting dusty flows to particle number density. However, the work was only numerical and limited to twin-flames, stagnation, premixed flames. In Ref. 7 the effects of chemically inert particle clouds on the extinction of strained premixed and non-premixed flames were studied both experimentally and numerically at 1-g. It was shown and explained that large particles can cause more effective flame cooling compared to smaller particles. The effects of flame configuration and particle injection orientation were also addressed. The complexity of the coupling between the various parameters in such flows was demonstrated and it was shown that it was impossible to obtain a simple and still meaningful scaling that captured all the pertinent physics.

  16. Cool-flame Extinction During N-Alkane Droplet Combustion in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nayagam, Vedha; Dietrich, Daniel L.; Hicks, Michael C.; Williams, Forman A.

    2014-01-01

    Recent droplet combustion experiments onboard the International Space Station (ISS) have revealed that large n-alkane droplets can continue to burn quasi-steadily following radiative extinction in a low-temperature regime, characterized by negative-temperaturecoefficient (NTC) chemistry. In this study we report experimental observations of n-heptane, n-octane, and n-decane droplets of varying initial sizes burning in oxygen/nitrogen/carbon dioxide and oxygen/helium/nitrogen environments at 1.0, 0.7, and 0.5 atmospheric pressures. The oxygen concentration in these tests varied in the range of 14% to 25% by volume. Large n-alkane droplets exhibited quasi-steady low-temperature burning and extinction following radiative extinction of the visible flame while smaller droplets burned to completion or disruptively extinguished. A vapor-cloud formed in most cases slightly prior to or following the "cool flame" extinction. Results for droplet burning rates in both the hot-flame and cool-flame regimes as well as droplet extinction diameters at the end of each stage are presented. Time histories of radiant emission from the droplet captured using broadband radiometers are also presented. Remarkably the "cool flame" extinction diameters for all the three n-alkanes follow a trend reminiscent of the ignition delay times observed in previous studies. The similarities and differences among the n-alkanes during "cool flame" combustion are discussed using simplified theoretical models of the phenomenon

  17. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-07-01

    Engineering bench system hardware for the Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiment is tested on a lab bench at the University of Colorado in Boulder. This is done in a horizontal arrangement to reduce pressure differences so the tests more closely resemble behavior in the microgravity of space. Sand and soil grains have faces that can cause friction as they roll and slide against each other, or even cause sticking and form small voids between grains. This complex behavior can cause soil to behave like a liquid under certain conditions such as earthquakes or when powders are handled in industrial processes. MGM experiments aboard the Space Shuttle use the microgravity of space to simulate this behavior under conditions that carnot be achieved in laboratory tests on Earth. MGM is shedding light on the behavior of fine-grain materials under low effective stresses. Applications include earthquake engineering, granular flow technologies (such as powder feed systems for pharmaceuticals and fertilizers), and terrestrial and planetary geology. Nine MGM specimens have flown on two Space Shuttle flights. Another three are scheduled to fly on STS-107. The principal investigator is Stein Sture of the University of Colorado at Boulder. (Credit: University of Colorado at Boulder).

  18. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1998-01-01

    Dr. Lisa E. Freed of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and her colleagues have reported that initially disc-like specimens tend to become spherical in space, demonstrating that tissues can grow and differentiate into distinct structures in microgravity. The Mir Increment 3 (Sept. 16, 1996 - Jan. 22, 1997) samples were smaller, more spherical, and mechanically weaker than Earth-grown control samples. These results demonstrate the feasibility of microgravity tissue engineering and may have implications for long human space voyages and for treating musculoskeletal disorders on earth. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  19. Physics-based modeling of live wildland fuel ignition experiments in the Forced Ignition and Flame Spread Test apparatus

    Treesearch

    C. Anand; B. Shotorban; S. Mahalingam; S. McAllister; D. R. Weise

    2017-01-01

    A computational study was performed to improve our understanding of the ignition of live fuel in the forced ignition and flame spread test apparatus, a setup where the impact of the heating mode is investigated by subjecting the fuel to forced convection and radiation. An improvement was first made in the physics-based model WFDS where the fuel is treated as fixed...

  20. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1985-05-04

    A 16mm film frame shows convective regions inside silicone oil playing the part of a stellar atmosphere in the Geophysical Fluid Flow Cell (GFFC). An electrostatic field pulled the oil inward to mimic gravity's effects during the experiments. The GFFC thus produced flow patterns that simulated conditions inside the atmospheres of Jupiter and the Sun and other stars. Numbers of the frame indicate temperatures and other conditions. This image is from the Spacelab-3 flight in 1985. GFFC was reflown on U.S. Microgravity Laboratory-2 in 1995. The principal investigator was John Hart of the University of Colorado at Boulder. It was managed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. (Credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center)

  1. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1995-10-10

    This composite image depicts one set of flow patterns simulated in the Geophysical Fluid Flow Cell (GFFC) that flew on two Spacelab missions. Silicone oil served as the atmosphere around a rotating steel hemisphere (dotted circle) and an electrostatic field pulled the oil inward to mimic gravity's effects during the experiments. The GFFC thus produced flow patterns that simulated conditions inside the atmospheres of Jupiter and the Sun and other stars. GFFC flew on Spacelab-3 in 1985 and U.S. Microgravity Laboratory-2 in 1995. The principal investigator was John Hart of the University of Colorado at Boulder. It was managed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. (Credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center)

  2. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1992-07-15

    A steel hemisphere was at the core of the Geophysical Fluid Flow Cell (GFFC) that flew on two Spacelab missions. It was capped by a sapphire dome. Silicone oil between the two played the part of a steller atmosphere. An electrostatic field pulled the oil inward to mimic gravity's effects during the experiments. The GFFC thus produced flow patterns that simulated conditions inside the atmospheres of Jupiter and the Sun and other stars. GFFC flew on Spacelab-3 in 1985 and U.S. Microgravity Laboratory-2 in 1995. The principal investigator was John Hart of the University of Colorado at Boulder. It was managed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. (Credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center)

  3. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1995-10-20

    This drawing depicts one set of flow patterns simulated in the Geophysical Fluid Flow Cell (GFFC) that flew on two Spacelab missions. Silicone oil served as the atmosphere around a rotating steel hemisphere (dotted circle) and an electrostatic field pulled the oil inward to mimic gravity's effects during the experiments. The GFFC thus produced flow patterns that simulated conditions inside the atmospheres of Jupiter and the Sun and other stars. The principal investigator was John Hart of the University of Colorado at Boulder. It was managed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). An Acrobat PDF copy of this drawing is available at http://microgravity.nasa.gov/gallery. (Credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center)

  4. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1998-09-30

    Optical prots ring the Electrostatic Levitator (ESL) vacuum chamber to admit light from the heating laser (the beam passes through the window at left), poisitioning lasers (one port is at center), and lamps (such as the deuterium arc lamp at right), and to allow diagnostic instruments to view the sample. The ESL uses static electricity to suspend an object (about 2-3 mm in diameter) inside a vacuum chamber while a laser heats the sample until it melts. This lets scientists record a wide range of physical properties without the sample contacting the container or any instruments, conditions that would alter the readings. The Electrostatic Levitator is one of several tools used in NASA's microgravity materials science program.

  5. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-12-15

    NASA is looking to biological techniques that are millions of years old to help it develop new materials and technologies for the 21st century. Sponsored by NASA, Viola Vogel, director of Washington University's Center for Nanotechnology and a principal investigator for the microgravity biotechnology program, is researching a monorail on a nanoscale to learn how to control translational motion of motor proteins in nonbiological environments in order to transport cargo between user-specified locations. Shear-deposition of Teflon on glass (top) is used in Viola Vogel's lab to create a nanogrooved surface. The topography controls the path that microtubules take as they shuttle nano-sized cargo between user-defined destinations.

  6. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-04-15

    Researcher Dr. Yi Li developed a technique to manipulate certain characteristics of plant growth such as anit-senescence. For example, the tobacco leaf was clipped from a transgenic plant (right), and a wildtype plant (left). During ground-based laboratory studies, both leaves were left in a darkened area for 4 months. When retrieved, the wildtype plant leaf was dried-out and the transgenic leaf remained fresh and green. A variation of this technology that involves manipulating plant hormones has been conducted in space-based studies on tomato plants through BioServe Space Technologies. The transport and distribution of auxin, an important plant hormone has shown to be influenced by microgravity, which could lead to improving the quality of fruits and vegetables grown on Earth.

  7. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1992-06-25

    Space Shuttle Columbia (STS-50) onboard photo of astronauts working in United States Microgravity Laboratory (USML-1). USML-1 will fly in orbit for extended periods of time attached to the Shuttle, providing greater opportunities for research in materials science, fluid dynamics, biotechnology, and combustion science. The scientific data gained from the USML-1 missions will constitute a landmark in space science, pioneering investigations into the role of gravity in a wide array of important processes and phenomena. In addition, the missions will also provide much of the experience in performing research in space and in the design of instruments needed for Space Station Freedom and the programs to follow in the 21st Century.

  8. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-01-24

    An artist's concept of the Primary Atomic Clock Reference System (PARCS) plarned to fly on the International Space Station (ISS). PARCS will make even more accurate atomic time available to everyone, from physicists testing Einstein's Theory of Relativity, to hikers using the Global Positioning System to find their way. In ground-based atomic clocks, lasers are used to cool and nearly stop atoms of cesium whose vibrations are used as the time base. The microgravity of space will allow the atoms to be suspended in the clock rather than circulated in an atomic fountain, as required on Earth. PARCS is being developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory with principal investigators at the National Institutes of Standards and Technology and the University of Colorado, Boulder. See also No. 0103191

  9. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-04-15

    Biomedical research offers hope for a variety of medical problems, from diabetes to the replacement of damaged bone and tissues. Bioreactors, which are used to grow cells and tissue cultures, play a major role in such research and production efforts. The objective of the research was to define a way to differentiate between effects due to microgravity and those due to possible stress from non-optimal spaceflight conditions. These Jurkat cells, a human acute T-cell leukemia was obtained to evaluate three types of potential experimental stressors: a) Temperature elevation; b) Serum starvation; and c) Centrifugal force. The data from previous spaceflight experiments showed that actin filaments and cell shape are significantly different for the control. These normal cells serve as the baseline for future spaceflight experiments.

  10. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1994-02-16

    These Vapor Diffusion Apparatus (VDA) trays were first flown in the Thermal Enclosure System (TES) during the USMP-2 (STS-62) mission. Each tray can hold 20 protein crystal growth chambers. Each chamber contains a double-barrel syringe; one barrel holds protein crystal solution and the other holds precipitant agent solution. During the microgravity mission, a torque device is used to simultaneously retract the plugs in all 20 syringes. The two solutions in each chamber are then mixed. After mixing, droplets of the combined solutions are moved onto the syringe tips so vapor diffusion can begin. During the length of the mission, protein crystals are grown in the droplets. Shortly before the Shuttle's return to Earth, the experiment is deactivated by retracting the droplets containing protein crystals, back into the syringes.

  11. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-01-22

    One concern about human adaptation to space is how returning from the microgravity of orbit to Earth can affect an astronaut's ability to fly safely. There are monitors and infrared video cameras to measure eye movements without having to affect the crew member. A computer screen provides moving images which the eye tracks while the brain determines what it is seeing. A video camera records movement of the subject's eyes. Researchers can then correlate perception and response. Test subjects perceive different images when a moving object is covered by a mask that is visible or invisible (above). Early results challenge the accepted theory that smooth pursuit -- the fluid eye movement that humans and primates have -- does not involve the higher brain. NASA results show that: Eye movement can predict human perceptual performance, smooth pursuit and saccadic (quick or ballistic) movement share some signal pathways, and common factors can make both smooth pursuit and visual perception produce errors in motor responses.

  12. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1998-10-01

    CGBA, a facility developed by BioServe Space Technologies, a NASA Commercial Generic Bioprocessing Space Center, allows a variety of sophisticated bioprocessing research to be performed using a common device. The Fluids Processing Apparatus is essentially a microgravity test tube that allows a variety of complex investigations to be performed in space. This is a glass barrel containing several chambers separated by rubber stoppers. Eight FPAs are placed together in a Group Activation Pack (GAP), which allows all of the research to be started simultaneously by turning a single crank. Eight GAPs, or similar-sized payloads, can be stored in a single CGBA temperature controlled locker, which now uses motor drives to automatically turn the cranks to start and stop experiments. On STS-95, research efforts cover eight major areas that will benefit Earth-based products ranging from the production of pharmaceuticals to fish hatcheries.

  13. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-07-07

    The Transient Dentritic Solidification Experiment (TDSE) is being developed as a candidate for flight aboard the International Space Station. TDSE will study the growth of dentrites (treelike crystalline structures) in a transparent material (succinonitrile or SCN) that mimics the behavior of widely used iron-based metals. Basic work by three Space Shuttle flights (STS-62, STS-75, and STS-87) of the Isothermal Dendritic Growth Experiment (IDGE) is yielding new insights into virtually all industrially relevant metal and alloy forming operations. The TDSE is similar to IDGE, but will maintain a constant temperature while varying pressure on the dentrites. Shown here is a cutaway of the isothermal bath containing its growth cell at the heart of the TDSE. The principal investigator is Matthew Koss of College of the Holy Cross in Worcester, MA. Note: an Acrobat PDF version is available from http://microgravity.nasa.gov/gallery

  14. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-01-24

    As a liquefied metal solidifies, particles dispersed in the liquid are either pushed ahead of or engulfed by the moving solidification front. Similar effects can be seen when the ground freezes and pushes large particles out of the soil. The Particle Engulfment and Pushing (PEP) experiment, conducted aboard the fourth U.S. Microgravity Payload (USMP-4) mission in 1997, used a glass and plastic beads suspended in a transparent liquid. The liquid was then frozen, trapping or pushing the particles as the solidifying front moved. This simulated the formation of advanced alloys and composite materials. Such studies help scientists to understand how to improve the processes for making advanced materials on Earth. The principal investigator is Dr. Doru Stefanescu of the University of Alabama. This image is from a video downlink.

  15. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1998-05-15

    While the microgravity environment of orbit eliminates a number of effects that impede the formation of materials on Earth, the change can also cause new, unwanted effects. A mysterious phenomenon, known as detached solidification, apparently stems from a small hydrostatic force that turns out to be pervasive. The contact of the solid with the ampoule transfers stress to the growing crystal and causing unwanted dislocations and twins. William Wilcox and Liya Regel of Clarkson University theorize that the melt is in contact with the ampoule wall, while the solid is not, and the melt and solid are cornected by a meniscus. Their work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Researcxh, and builds on earlier work by Dr. David Larson of the State University of New York at Stony Brook.

  16. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-04-15

    This is an image of a colloidal crystal from the CDOT-2 investigation flown on STS-95. There are so many colloidal particles in this sample that it behaves like a glass. In the laboratory on Earth, the sample remained in an amorphous state, showing no sign of crystal growth. In microgravity the sample crystallized in 3 days, as did the other glassy colloidal samples examined in the CDOT-2 experiment. During the investigation, crystallization occurred in samples that had a volume fraction (number of particles per total volume) larger than the formerly reported glass transition of 0.58. This has great implications for theories of the structural glass transition. These crystals were strong enough to survive space shuttle re-entry and landing.

  17. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1998-09-30

    Optical prots ring the Electrostatic Levitator (ESL) vacuum chamber to admit light from the heating laser (the beam passes through the window at left), poisitioning lasers (one port is at center), and lamps (arc lamp at right), and to allow diagnostic instruments to view the sample. The ESL uses static electricity to suspend an object (about 2-3 mm in diameter) inside a vacuum chamber while a laser heats the sample until it melts. This lets scientists record a wide range of physical properties without the sample contacting the container or any instruments, conditions that would alter the readings. The Electrostatic Levitator is one of several tools used in NASA's microgravity materials science program.

  18. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-04-15

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), a natural bacteria found all over the Earth, has a fairly novel way of getting rid of unwanted insects. Bt forms a protein substance (shown on the right) that is not harmful to humans, birds, fish or other vertebrates. When eaten by insect larvae the protein causes a fatal loss of appetite. For over 25 years agricultural chemical companies have relied heavily upon safe Bt pesticides. New space based research promises to give the insecticide a new dimension in effectiveness and applicability. Researchers from the Consortium for Materials Development in Space along with industrial affiliates such as Abott Labs and Pern State University flew Bt on a Space Shuttle mission in the fall of 1996. Researchers expect that the Shuttle's microgravity environment will reveal new information about the protein that will make it more effective against a wider variety of pests.

  19. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1994-07-10

    TEMPUS, an electromagnetic levitation facility that allows containerless processing of metallic samples in microgravity, first flew on the IML-2 Spacelab mission. The principle of electromagnetic levitation is used commonly in ground-based experiments to melt and then cool metallic melts below their freezing points without solidification occurring. The TEMPUS operation is controlled by its own microprocessor system; although commands may be sent remotely from the ground and real time adjustments may be made by the crew. Two video cameras, a two-color pyrometer for measuring sample temperatures, and a fast infrared detector for monitoring solidification spikes, will be mounted to the process chamber to facilitate observation and analysis. In addition, a dedicated high-resolution video camera can be attached to the TEMPUS to measure the sample volume precisely.

  20. Particle Generation and Evolution in Silane/Acetylene Flames in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keil, D. G.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this new experimental program is to advance the understanding of the formation of particles from gas phase combustion processes. The work will utilize the unique SiH4/C2H2 combustion system which generates particulate products ranging from high purity, white SiC to carbonaceous soot depending on equivalence ratio. A key goal of this work is to identify gas phase or particle formation processes that provide the enthalpy release necessary to drive the combustion wave, and to locate the parts of the particle formation process that determine SiC stoichiometry and crystallinity. In a real sense, these SiH4/C2H2 flames act like "highly sooty" hydrocarbon flames, but with simpler chemistry. This simplification is expected to allow them to be used as surrogates to advance understanding of soot formation in such rich hydrocarbon flames. It is also expected that this improved understanding of SiC particle generation and evolution in these self-sustaining flames will advance the commercial potential of the flame process for the generation of high purity SiC powders.

  1. X-Ray Burst Oscillations: From Flame Spreading to the Cooling Wake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahmoodifar, Simin; Strohmayer, Tod

    2016-01-01

    Type I X-ray bursts are thermonuclear flashes observed from the surfaces of accreting neutron stars (NSs) in low mass X-ray binaries. Oscillations have been observed during the rise and/or decay of some of these X-ray bursts. Those seen during the rise can be well explained by a spreading hot spot model, but large amplitude oscillations in the decay phase remain mysterious because of the absence of a clear-cut source of asymmetry. To date there have not been any quantitative studies that consistently track the oscillation amplitude both during the rise and decay (cooling tail) of bursts. Here we compute the light curves and amplitudes of oscillations in X-ray burst models that realistically account for both flame spreading and subsequent cooling. We present results for several such "cooling wake" models, a "canonical" cooling model where each patch on the NS surface heats and cools identically, or with a latitude-dependent cooling timescale set by the local effective gravity, and an "asymmetric" model where parts of the star cool at significantly different rates. We show that while the canonical cooling models can generate oscillations in the tails of bursts, they cannot easily produce the highest observed modulation amplitudes. Alternatively, a simple phenomenological model with asymmetric cooling can achieve higher amplitudes consistent with the observations.

  2. X-RAY BURST OSCILLATIONS: FROM FLAME SPREADING TO THE COOLING WAKE

    SciTech Connect

    Mahmoodifar, Simin; Strohmayer, Tod

    2016-02-10

    Type I X-ray bursts are thermonuclear flashes observed from the surfaces of accreting neutron stars (NSs) in low mass X-ray binaries. Oscillations have been observed during the rise and/or decay of some of these X-ray bursts. Those seen during the rise can be well explained by a spreading hot spot model, but large amplitude oscillations in the decay phase remain mysterious because of the absence of a clear-cut source of asymmetry. To date there have not been any quantitative studies that consistently track the oscillation amplitude both during the rise and decay (cooling tail) of bursts. Here we compute the light curves and amplitudes of oscillations in X-ray burst models that realistically account for both flame spreading and subsequent cooling. We present results for several such “cooling wake” models, a “canonical” cooling model where each patch on the NS surface heats and cools identically, or with a latitude-dependent cooling timescale set by the local effective gravity, and an “asymmetric” model where parts of the star cool at significantly different rates. We show that while the canonical cooling models can generate oscillations in the tails of bursts, they cannot easily produce the highest observed modulation amplitudes. Alternatively, a simple phenomenological model with asymmetric cooling can achieve higher amplitudes consistent with the observations.

  3. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-01-24

    The potential for investigating combustion at the limits of flammability, and the implications for spacecraft fire safety, led to the Structures Of Flame Balls At Low Lewis-number (SOFBALL) experiment flown twice aboard the Space Shuttle in 1997. The success there led to reflight on STS-107 Research 1 mission plarned for 2002. Theory does not always predict behavior, thus the need for experiments. Three different published chemical reaction models (lines) for hydrogen-airflame balls proved to be quite different from what was observed (dots) during SOFBALL tests in space. The principal investigator is Dr. Paul Ronney of the University of Southern California, Los Angeles. Glenn Research in Cleveland, OH, manages the project.

  4. Demonstrating Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Dr. Richard DeLombard of NASA's Glenn Research Center, hands the relase line for the Microgravity Demonstrator to a visitor for her to start a short experiment showing the effects of microgravity on candle flames. Combustion physics will be a major line of investigation for NASA aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The Microgravity Demonstrator is frequently used at shows and schools to illustrate how phenomena change in microgravity. The exhibit was part of the NASA outreach activity at AirVenture 2000 sponsored by the Experimental Aircraft Association in Oshkosh, WI

  5. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1997-11-15

    The Isothermal Dendritic Growth Experiment (IDGE), flown on three Space Shuttle missions, is yielding new insights into virtually all industrially relevant metal and alloy forming operations. IDGE used transparent organic liquids that form dendrites (treelike structures) similar to those inside metal alloys. Comparing Earth-based and space-based dendrite growth velocity, tip size and shape provides a better understanding of the fundamentals of dentritic growth, including gravity's effects. Shalowgraphic images of pivalic acid (PVA) dendrites forming from the melt show the subtle but distinct effects of gravity-driven heat convection on dentritic growth. In orbit, the dendrite grows as its latent heat is liberated by heat conduction. This yields a blunt dendrite tip. On Earth, heat is carried away by both conduction and gravity-driven convection. This yields a sharper dendrite tip. In addition, under terrestrial conditions, the sidebranches growing in the direction of gravity are augmented as gravity helps carry heat out of the way of the growing sidebranches as opposed to microgravity conditions where no augmentation takes place. IDGE was developed by Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute and NASA/Glenn Research Center. Advanced follow-on experiments are being developed for flight on the International Space Station. Photo Credit: NASA/Glenn Research Center

  6. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-05-01

    The structure of the Satellite Tobacco Mosaic Viurus (STMV)--one of the smallest viruses known--has been successfully reduced using STMV crystals grown aboard the Space Shuttle in 1992 and 1994. The STMV crystals were up to 30 times the volume of any seen in the laboratory. At the time they gave the best resolution data ever obtained on any virus crystal. STMV is a small icosahedral plant virus, consisting of a protein shell made up of 60 identical protein subunits of molecular weight 17,500. Particularly noteworthy is the fact that, in contrast to the crystals grown on Earth, the crystals grown under microgravity conditions were visually perfect, with no striations or clumping of crystals. Furthermore, the x-ray diffraction data obtained from the space-grown crystals was of a much higher quality than the best data available at that time from ground-based crystals. This stylized ribbon model shows the protein coat in white and the nucleic acid in yellow. STMV is used because it is a simple protein to work with; studies are unrelated to tobacco. Credit: Dr. Alex McPherson, University of California at Irvin.

  7. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-05-01

    The structure of the Satellite Tobacco Mosaic Virus (STMV)--one of the smallest viruses known--has been successfully deduced using STMV crystals grown aboard the Space Shuttle in 1992 and 1994. The STMV crystals were up to 30 times the volume of any seen in the laboratory. At the same time they gave the best resolution data ever obtained on any virus crystal. STMV is a small icosahedral plant virus, consisting of a protein shell made up of 60 identical protein subunits of molecular weight 17,500. Particularly noteworthy is the fact that, in contrast to the crystal grown on Earth, the crystals grown under microgravity conditions were viusally perfect, with no striations or clumping of crystals. Furthermore, the X-ray diffraction data obtained from the space-grown crystals was of a much higher quality than the best data available at that time from ground-based crystals. This computer model shows the external coating or capsid. STMV is used because it is a simple protein to work with; studies are unrelated to tobacco. Credit: Dr. Alex McPherson, Univeristy of California at Irvin.

  8. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-01-24

    Close-up view of the Binary Colloidal Alloy Test during an experiment run aboard the Russian Mir space station. BCAT is part of an extensive series of experiments plarned to investigate the fundamental properties of colloids so that scientists can make colloids more useful for technological applications. Some of the colloids studied in BCAT are made of two different sized particles (binary colloidal alloys) that are very tiny, uniform plastic spheres. Under the proper conditions, these colloids can arrange themselves in a pattern to form crystals, which may have many unique properties that may form the basis of new classes of light switches, displays, and optical devices that can fuel the evolution of the next generation of computer and communication technologies. This Slow Growth hardware consisted of a 35-mm camera aimed toward a module which contained 10 separate colloid samples. To begin the experiment, one of the astronauts would mix the samples to disperse the colloidal particles. Then the hardware operated autonomously, taking photos of the colloidal samples over a 90-day period. The investigation proved that gravity plays a central role in the formation and stability of these types of colloidal crystal structures. The investigation also helped identify the optimum conditions for the formation of colloidal crystals, which will be used for optimizing future microgravity experiments in the study of colloidal physics. Dr. David Weitz of the University of Pennsylvania and Dr. Peter Pusey of the University of Edinburgh, United Kingdom, are the principal investigators.

  9. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1998-01-25

    Astronaut James Reilly uses a laptop computer monitor the Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiment during STS-89. Sand and soil grains have faces that can cause friction as they roll and slide against each other, or even cause sticking and form small voids between grains. This complex behavior can cause soil to behave like a liquid under certain conditions such as earthquakes or when powders are handled in industrial processes. Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiments aboard the Space Shuttle use the microgravity of space to simulate this behavior under conditons that carnot be achieved in laboratory tests on Earth. MGM is shedding light on the behavior of fine-grain materials under low effective stresses. Applications include earthquake engineering, granular flow technologies (such as powder feed systems for pharmaceuticals and fertilizers), and terrestrial and planetary geology. Nine MGM specimens have flown on two Space Shuttle flights. Another three are scheduled to fly on STS-107. The principal investigator is Stein Sture of the University of Colorado at Boulder. Credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC)

  10. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-07-01

    Key persornel in the Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiment at the University of Colorado at Boulder include Tawnya Ferbiak (software engineer), Susan Batiste (research assistant), and Christina Winkler (graduate research assistant). Sand and soil grains have faces that can cause friction as they roll and slide against each other, or even cause sticking and form small voids between grains. This complex behavior can cause soil to behave like a liquid under certain conditions such as earthquakes or when powders are handled in industrial processes. MGM experiments aboard the Space Shuttle use the microgravity of space to simulate this behavior under conditions that cannot be achieved in laboratory tests on Earth. MGM is shedding light on the behavior of fine-grain materials under low effective stresses. Applications include earthquake engineering, granular flow technologies (such as powder feed systems for pharmaceuticals and fertilizers), and terrestrial and planetary geology. Nine MGM specimens have flown on two Space Shuttle flights. Another three are scheduled to fly on STS-107. The principal investigator is Stein Sture of the University of Colorado at Boulder. (Credit: University of Colorado at Boulder).

  11. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-04-15

    Proteins are the building blocks of our bodies and the living world around us. Within our bodies proteins make it possible for red blood cells to carry oxygen throughout the body. Others help transmit nerve impulses so we can hear, smell and feel the world around us. While others play a crucial role in preventing or causing disease. If the structure of a protein is known, then companies can develop new or improved drugs to fight the disease of which the protein is a part. To determine protein structure, researchers must grow near-perfect crystals of the protein. On Earth convection currents, sedimentation and other gravity-induced phenomena hamper crystal growth efforts. In microgravity researchers can grow near-perfect crystals in an environment free of these effects. Because of the enormous potential for new pharmaceutical products the Center for Macromolecular Crystallography--the NASA Commercial Space Center responsible for commercial protein crystal growth efforts has more than fifty major industry and academic partners. Research on crystals of human insulin could lead to improved treatments for diabetes.

  12. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1998-01-05

    The Interferometer Protein Crystal Growth (IPCG) experiment was designed to measure details of how protein molecules move through a fluid. It was flown on the STS-86 mission for use aboard Russian Space Station Mir in 1998. It studied aspects of how crystals grow - and what conditions lead to the best crystals, details that remain a mystery. IPCG produces interference patterns by spilitting then recombining laser light. This let scientists see how fluid densities - and molecular diffusion - change around a crystal as it grows in microgravity. The heart of the IPCG apparatus is the interferometer cell comprising the optical bench, microscope, other optics, and video camera. IPCG experiment cells are made of optical glass and silvered on one side to serve as a mirror in the interferometer system that visuzlizes crystals and conditions around them as they grow inside the cell. This view shows a large growth cell. The principal investigator was Dr. Alexander McPherson of University of California, Irvine. Co-investigators are William Witherow and Dr. Marc Pusey of NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).

  13. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1998-01-05

    The Interferometer Protein Crstal Growth (IPCG) experiment was designed to measure details of how protein molecules move through a fluid. It was flown on the STS-86 mission for use aboard Russin Space Station Mir in 1998. It studied aspects of how crystals grow - and what conditions lead to the best crystals, details that remain a mystery. IPCG produces interference patterns by splitting then recombining laser light. This let scientists see how fluid densities - and molecular diffusion - change around a crystal as it grows in microgravity. The heart of the IPCG apparatus is the interferometer cell comprising the optical bench, microscope, other optics, and video camera. IPCG experiment cells are made of optical glass and silvered on one side to serve as a mirror in the interferometer system that visualizes crystals and conditions around them as they grow inside the cell. This view shows the complete apparatus. The principal investigator was Dr. Alexander McPherson of the University of California, Irvin. Co-investigators are William Witherow and Dr. Marc Pusey of NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center

  14. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1998-01-05

    The Interferometer Protein Crystal Growth (IPCG) experiment was designed to measure details of how protein molecules move through a fluid. It was flown on the STS-86 mission for use aboard Russian Space Station Mir in 1998. It studied aspects of how crystals grow - and what conditions lead to the best crystals, details that remain a mystery. IPCG produces interference patterns by spilitting then recombining laser light. This let scientists see how fluid densities - and molecular diffusion - change around a crystal as it grows in microgravity. The heart of the IPCG apparatus is the interferometer cell comprising the optical bench, microscope, other optics, and video camera. IPCG experiment cells are made of optical glass and silvered on one side to serve as a mirror in the interferometer system that visuzlizes crystals and conditions around them as they grow inside the cell. This diagram shows the optical layout. The principal investigator was Dr. Alexander McPherson of University of California, Irvine. Co-investigators are William Witherow and Dr. Marc Pusey of NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).

  15. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1998-01-05

    The Interferometer Protein Crystal Growth (IPCG) experiment was designed to measure details of how protein molecules move through a fluid. It was flown on the STS-86 mission for use aboard Russian Space Station Mir in 1998. It studied aspects of how crystals grow - and what conditions lead to the best crystals, details that remain a mystery. IPCG produces interference patterns by spilitting then recombining laser light. This let scientists see how fluid densities - and molecular diffusion - change around a crystal as it grows in microgravity. The heart of the IPCG apparatus is the interferometer cell comprising the optical bench, microscope, other optics, and video camera. IPCG experiment cells are made of optical glass and silvered on one side to serve as a mirror in the interferometer system that visuzlizes crystals and conditions around them as they grow inside the cell. This view shows interferograms produced in ground tests. The principal investigator was Dr. Alexander McPherson of University of California, Irvine. Co-investigators are William Witherow and Dr. Marc Pusey of NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).

  16. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1998-01-05

    The Interferometer Protein Crystal Growth (IPCG) experiment was designed to measure details of how protein molecules move through a fluid. It was flown on the STS-86 mission for use aboard Russian Space Station Mir in 1998. It studied aspects of how crystals grow - and what conditions lead to the best crystals, details that remain a mystery. IPCG produces interference patterns by spilitting then recombining laser light. This let scientists see how fluid densities - and molecular diffusion - change around a crystal as it grows in microgravity. The heart of the IPCG apparatus is the interferometer cell comprising the optical bench, microscope, other optics, and video camera. IPCG experiment cells are made of optical glass and silvered on one side to serve as a mirror in the interferometer system that visuzlizes crystals and conditions around them as they grow inside the cell. This diagram shows the growth cells. The principal investigator was Dr. Alexander McPherson of University of California, Irvine. Co-investigators are William Witherow and Dr. Marc Pusey of NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).

  17. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-06-01

    Cells cultured on Earth (left) typically settle quickly on the bottom of culture vessels due to gravity. In microgravity (right), cells remain suspended and aggregate to form three-dimensional tissue. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  18. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-05-31

    The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Cell constructs grown in a rotating bioreactor on Earth (left) eventually become too large to stay suspended in the nutrient media. In the microgravity of orbit, the cells stay suspended. Rotation then is needed for gentle stirring to replenish the media around the cells.

  19. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-05-05

    A test cell for Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiment is tested for long-term storage with water in the system as plarned for STS-107. This view shows the top of the sand column with the metal platten removed. Sand and soil grains have faces that can cause friction as they roll and slide against each other, or even cause sticking and form small voids between grains. This complex behavior can cause soil to behave like a liquid under certain conditions such as earthquakes or when powders are handled in industrial processes. Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiments aboard the Space Shuttle use the microgravity of space to simulate this behavior under conditons that cannot be achieved in laboratory tests on Earth. MGM is shedding light on the behavior of fine-grain materials under low effective stresses. Applications include earthquake engineering, granular flow technologies (such as powder feed systems for pharmaceuticals and fertilizers), and terrestrial and planetary geology. Nine MGM specimens have flown on two Space Shuttle flights. Another three are scheduled to fly on STS-107. The principal investigator is Stein Sture of the University of Colorado at Boulder. Credit: University of Colorado at Boulder

  20. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1998-01-25

    CT scans of the spcimens on STS-79 reveal internal cone-shaped features and radial patterns not seen in specimens processed on the ground. The lighter areas are the densest in these images. CT scans produced richly detailed images allowing scientists to build 3D models of the interior of the specimens that can be compared with microscopic examination of thin slices. This view is made from a series of horizontal slices. Sand and soil grains have faces that can cause friction as they roll and slide against each other, or even cause sticking and form small voids between grains. This complex behavior can cause soil to behave like a liquid under certain conditions such as earthquakes or when powders are handled in industrial processes. Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiments aboard the Space Shuttle use the microgravity of space to simulate this behavior under conditions that carnot be achieved in laboratory tests on Earth. MGM is shedding light on the behavior of fine-grain materials under low effective stresses. Applications include earthquake engineering, granular flow technologies (such as powder feed systems for pharmaceuticals and fertilizers), and terrestrial and planetary geology. Nine MGM specimens have flown on two Space Shuttle flights. Another three are scheduled to fly on STS-107. The principal investigator is Stein Sture of the University of Colorado at Boulder. Credit: Los Alamos National Laboratory and the University of Colorado at Boulder.

  1. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-09-18

    Astronaut Jay Apt installs Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM0 test cell on STS-79. Sand and soil grains have faces that can cause friction as they roll and slide against each other, or even cause sticking and form small voids between grains. This complex behavior can cause soil to behave like a liquid under certain conditions such as earthquakes or when powders are handled in industrial processes. MGM experiments aboard the Space Shuttle use the microgravity of space to simulate this behavior under conditions that carnot be achieved in laboratory tests on Earth. MGM is shedding light on the behavior of fine-grain materials under low effective stresses. Applications include earthquake engineering, granular flow technologies (such as powder feed systems for pharmaceuticals and fertilizers), and terrestrial and planetary geology. Nine MGM specimens have flown on two Space Shuttle flights. Another three are scheduled to fly on STS-107. The principal investigator is Stein Sture of the University of Colorado at Boulder. (Credit: NASA/John Space Center).

  2. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1998-01-25

    CT scans of the specimens on STS-79 reveal internal cone-shaped features and radial patterns not seen in specimens processed on the ground. The lighter areas are the densest in these images. CT scans produced richly detailed images allowing scientists to build 3D models of the interior of the specimens that can be compared with microscopic examination of thin slices. This view is made from three orthogonal slices. Sand and soil grains have faces that can cause friction as they roll and slide against each other, or even cause sticking and form small voids between grains. This complex behavior can cause soil to behave like a liquid under certain conditions such as earthquakes or when powders are handled in industrial processes. Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiments aboard the Space Shuttle use the microgravity of space to simulate this behavior under conditions that carnot be achieved in laboratory tests on Earth. MGM is shedding light on the behavior of fine-grain materials under low effective stresses. Applications include earthquake engineering, granular flow technologies (such as powder feed systems for pharmaceuticals and fertilizers), and terrestrial and planetary geology. Nine MGM specimens have flown on two Space Shuttle flights. Another three are scheduled to fly on STS-107. The principal investigator is Stein Sture of the University of Colorado at Boulder. (Credit: Los Alamos National Laboratory and the University of Colorado at Boulder).

  3. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1998-01-25

    A test cell for Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiment is shown approximately 20 and 60 minutes after the start of an experiment on STS-89. Sand and soil grains have faces that can cause friction as they roll and slide against each other, or even cause sticking and form small voids between grains. This complex behavior can cause soil to behave like a liquid under certain conditions such as earthquakes or when powders are handled in industrial processes. Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiments aboard the Space Shuttle use the microgravity of space to simulate this behavior under conditons that carnot be achieved in laboratory tests on Earth. MGM is shedding light on the behavior of fine-grain materials under low effective stresses. Applications include earthquake engineering, granular flow technologies (such as powder feed systems for pharmaceuticals and fertilizers), and terrestrial and planetary geology. Nine MGM specimens have flown on two Space Shuttle flights. Another three are scheduled to fly on STS-107. The principal investigator is Stein Sture of the University of Colorado at Boulder. Credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC)

  4. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-05-05

    A test cell for Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiment is tested for long-term storage with water in the system as plarned for STS-107. This view shows the compressed sand column with the protective water jacket removed. Sand and soil grains have faces that can cause friction as they roll and slide against each other, or even cause sticking and form small voids between grains. This complex behavior can cause soil to behave like a liquid under certain conditions such as earthquakes or when powders are handled in industrial processes. Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiments aboard the Space Shuttle use the microgravity of space to simulate this behavior under conditons that cannot be achieved in laboratory tests on Earth. MGM is shedding light on the behavior of fine-grain materials under low effective stresses. Applications include earthquake engineering, granular flow technologies (such as powder feed systems for pharmaceuticals and fertilizers), and terrestrial and planetary geology. Nine MGM specimens have flown on two Space Shuttle flights. Another three are scheduled to fly on STS-107. The principal investigator is Stein Sture of the University of Colorado at Boulder. Credit: University of Colorado at Boulder

  5. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1998-01-25

    CT scans of the spcimens on STS-79 reveal internal cone-shaped features and radial patterns not seen in specimens processed on the ground. The lighter areas are the densest in these images. CT scans produced richly detailed images allowing scientists to build 3D models of the interior of the specimens that can be compared with microscopic examination of thin slices. These views depict vertical slices from side to middle of a flight specimen. Sand and soil grains have faces that can cause friction as they roll and slide against each other, or even cause sticking and form small voids between grains. This complex behavior can cause soil to behave like a liquid under certain conditions such as earthquakes or when powders are handled in industrial processes. Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiments aboard the Space Shuttle use the microgravity of space to simulate this behavior under conditions that carnot be achieved in laboratory tests on Earth. MGM is shedding light on the behavior of fine-grain materials under low effective stresses. Applications include earthquake engineering, granular flow technologies (such as powder feed systems for pharmaceuticals and fertilizers), and terrestrial and planetary geology. Nine MGM specimens have flown on two Space Shuttle flights. Another three are scheduled to fly on STS-107. The principal investigator is Stein Sture of the University of Colorado at Boulder. Credit: Los Alamos National Laboratory and the University of Colorado at Boulder.

  6. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-07-01

    Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) flight hardware takes two twin double locker assemblies in the Space Shuttle middeck or the Spacehab module. Sand and soil grains have faces that can cause friction as they roll and slide against each other, or even cause sticking and form small voids between grains. This complex behavior can cause soil to behave like a liquid under certain conditions such as earthquakes or when powders are handled in industrial processes. MGM experiments aboard the Space Shuttle use the microgravity of space to simulate this behavior under conditions that carnot be achieved in laboratory tests on Earth. MGM is shedding light on the behavior of fine-grain materials under low effective stresses. Applications include earthquake engineering, granular flow technologies (such as powder feed systems for pharmaceuticals and fertilizers), and terrestrial and planetary geology. Nine MGM specimens have flown on two Space Shuttle flights. Another three are scheduled to fly on STS-107. The principal investigator is Stein Sture of the University of Colorado at Boulder. (Credit: NASA/MSFC).

  7. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-07-01

    What appear to be boulders fresh from a tumble down a mountain are really grains of Ottawa sand, a standard material used in civil engineering tests and also used in the Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiment. The craggy surface shows how sand grans have faces that can cause friction as they roll and slide against each other, or even causing sticking and form small voids between grains. This complex behavior can cause soil to behave like a liquid under certain conditions such as earthquakes or when powders are handled in industrial processes. MGM uses the microgravity of space to simulate this behavior under conditions that carnot be achieved in laboratory tests on Earth. MGM is shedding light on the behavior of fine-grain materials under low effective stresses. Applications include earthquake engineering, granular flow technologies (such as powder feed systems for pharmaceuticals and fertilizers), and terrestrial and planetary geology. Nine MGM specimens have flown on two Space Shuttle flights. Another three are scheduled to fly on STS-107. The principal investigator is Stein Sture of the University of Colorado at Boulder. These images are from an Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis (ESCA) study conducted by Dr. Binayak Panda of IITRI for Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). (Credit: NASA/MSFC)

  8. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1998-01-25

    CT scans of the spcimens on STS-79 reveal internal cone-shaped features and radial patterns not seen in specimens processed on the ground. The lighter areas are the densest in these images. CT scans produced richly detailed images allowing scientists to build 3D models of the interior of the specimens that can be compared with microscopic examination of thin slices. This view depict horizontal slices from top to bottom of a flight specimen. Sand and soil grains have faces that can cause friction as they roll and slide against each other, or even cause sticking and form small voids between grains. This complex behavior can cause soil to behave like a liquid under certain conditions such as earthquakes or when powders are handled in industrial processes. Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiments aboard the Space Shuttle use the microgravity of space to simulate this behavior under conditions that carnot be achieved in laboratory tests on Earth. MGM is shedding light on the behavior of fine-grain materials under low effective stresses. Applications include earthquake engineering, granular flow technologies (such as powder feed systems for pharmaceuticals and fertilizers), and terrestrial and planetary geology. Nine MGM specimens have flown on two Space Shuttle flights. Another three are scheduled to fly on STS-107. The principal investigator is Stein Sture of the University of Colorado at Boulder. Credit: Los Alamos National Laboratory and the University of Colorado at Boulder.

  9. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-11-24

    Lunar Orbiter 2 oblique northward view towards Copernicus crater on the Moon shows crater wall slumping caused by soil liquefaction following the impact that formed the crater. The crater is about 100 km in diameter. The central peaks are visible towards the top of the image, rising about 400 m above the crater floor, and stretching for about 15 km. The northern wall of the crater is in the background. Sand and soil grains have faces that can cause friction as they roll and slide against each other, or even cause sticking and form small voids between grains. This complex behavior can cause soil to behave like a liquid under certain conditions such as earthquakes or when powders are handled in industrial processes. MGM experiments aboard the Space Shuttle use the microgravity of space to simulate this behavior under conditions that carnot be achieved in laboratory tests on Earth. MGM is shedding light on the behavior of fine-grain materials under low effective stresses. Applications include earthquake engineering, granular flow technologies (such as powder feed systems for pharmaceuticals and fertilizers), and terrestrial and planetary geology. Nine MGM specimens have flown on two Space Shuttle flights. Another three are scheduled to fly on STS-107. The principal investigator is Stein Sture of the University of Colorado at Boulder. (Credit: University of Colorado at Boulder).

  10. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-09-18

    One of three Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) test cells after flight on STS-79 and before impregnation with resin. Note that the sand column has bulged in the middle, and that the top of the column is several inches lower than the top of the plastic enclosure. Sand and soil grains have faces that can cause friction as they roll and slide against each other, or even cause sticking and form small voids between grains. This complex behavior can cause soil to behave like a liquid under certain conditions such as earthquakes or when powders are handled in industrial processes. Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiments aboard the Space Shuttle use the microgravity of space to simulate this behavior under conditons that carnot be achieved in laboratory tests on Earth. MGM is shedding light on the behavior of fine-grain materials under low effective stresses. Applications include earthquake engineering, granular flow technologies (such as powder feed systems for pharmaceuticals and fertilizers), and terrestrial and planetary geology. Nine MGM specimens have flown on two Space Shuttle flights. Another three are scheduled to fly on STS-107. The principal investigator is Stein Sture of the University of Colorado at Boulder. Credit: University of Colorado at Boulder

  11. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-09-18

    Astronaut Carl Walz installs Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) test cell on STS-79. Sand and soil grains have faces that can cause friction as they roll and slide against each other, or even cause sticking and form small voids between grains. This complex behavior can cause soil to behave like a liquid under certain conditions such as earthquakes or when powders are handled in industrial processes. Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiments aboard the Space Shuttle use the microgravity of space to simulate this behavior under conditons that carnot be achieved in laboratory tests on Earth. MGM is shedding light on the behavior of fine-grain materials under low effective stresses. Applications include earthquake engineering, granular flow technologies (such as powder feed systems for pharmaceuticals and fertilizers), and terrestrial and planetary geology. Nine MGM specimens have flown on two Space Shuttle flights. Another three are scheduled to fly on STS-107. The principal investigator is Stein Sture of the University of Colorado at Boulder. Credit: NASA/John Space Center

  12. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1997-09-09

    A test cell for the Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiment is shown in its on-orbit configuration in Spacehab during preparations for STS-89. The twin locker to the left contains the hydraulic system to operate the experiment. Sand and soil grains have faces that can cause friction as they roll and slide against each other, or even cause sticking and form small voids between grains. This complex behavior can cause soil to behave like a liquid under certain conditions such as earthquakes or when powders are handled in industrial processes. Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiments aboard the Space Shuttle use the microgravity of space to simulate this behavior under conditons that carnot be achieved in laboratory tests on Earth. MGM is shedding light on the behavior of fine-grain materials under low effective stresses. Applications include earthquake engineering, granular flow technologies (such as powder feed systems for pharmaceuticals and fertilizers), and terrestrial and planetary geology. Nine MGM specimens have flown on two Space Shuttle flights. Another three are scheduled to fly on STS-107. The principal investigator is Stein Sture of the University of Colorado at Boulder. Note: Because the image on the screen was muted in the original image, its brightness and contrast are boosted in this rendering to make the test cell more visible. Credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC)

  13. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-07-01

    The packing of particles can change radically during cyclic loading such as in an earthquake or when shaking a container to compact a powder. A large hole (1) is maintained by the particles sticking to each other. A small, counterclockwise strain (2) collapses the hole, and another large strain (3) forms more new holes which collapse when the strain reverses (4). Sand and soil grains have faces that can cause friction as they roll and slide against each other, or even cause sticking and form small voids between grains. This complex behavior can cause soil to behave like a liquid under certain conditions such as earthquakes or when powders are handled in industrial processes. MGM experiments aboard the Space Shuttle use the microgravity of space to simulate this behavior under conditions that carnot be achieved in laboratory tests on Earth. MGM is shedding light on the behavior of fine-grain materials under low effective stresses. Applications include earthquake engineering, granular flow technologies (such as powder feed systems for pharmaceuticals and fertilizers), and terrestrial and planetary geology. Nine MGM specimens have flown on two Space Shuttle flights. Another three are scheduled to fly on STS-107. The principal investigator is Stein Sture of the University of Colorado at Boulder. (after T.L. Youd, Packing Changes and Liquefaction Susceptibility, Journal of the Geotechnical Engieering Division, 103: GT8,918-922, 1977)(Credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center.)(Credit: University of Colorado at Boulder).

  14. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1989-10-17

    An automobile lies crushed under the third story of this apartment building in the Marina District after the Oct. 17, 1989, Loma Prieta earthquake. The ground levels are no longer visible because of structural failure and sinking due to liquefaction. Sand and soil grains have faces that can cause friction as they roll and slide against each other, or even cause sticking and form small voids between grains. This complex behavior can cause soil to behave like a liquid under certain conditions such as earthquakes or when powders are handled in industrial processes. Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiments aboard the Space Shuttle use the microgravity of space to simulate this behavior under conditons that carnot be achieved in laboratory tests on Earth. MGM is shedding light on the behavior of fine-grain materials under low effective stresses. Applications include earthquake engineering, granular flow technologies (such as powder feed systems for pharmaceuticals and fertilizers), and terrestrial and planetary geology. Nine MGM specimens have flown on two Space Shuttle flights. Another three are scheduled to fly on STS-107. The principal investigator is Stein Sture of the University of Colorado at Boulder. Credit: J.K. Nakata, U.S. Geological Survey.

  15. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-07-01

    Key persornel in the Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiment are Mark Lankton (Program Manager at University Colorado at Boulder), Susan Batiste (research assistance, UCB), and Stein Sture (principal investigator). Sand and soil grains have faces that can cause friction as they roll and slide against each other, or even cause sticking and form small voids between grains. This complex behavior can cause soil to behave like a liquid under certain conditions such as earthquakes or when powders are handled in industrial processes. MGM experiments aboard the Space Shuttle use the microgravity of space to simulate this behavior under conditions that cannot be achieved in laboratory tests on Earth. MGM is shedding light on the behavior of fine-grain materials under low effective stresses. Applications include earthquake engineering, granular flow technologies (such as powder feed systems for pharmaceuticals and fertilizers), and terrestrial and planetary geology. Nine MGM specimens have flown on two Space Shuttle flights. Another three are scheduled to fly on STS-107. The principal investigator is Stein Sture of the University of Colorado at Boulder. (Credit: University of Colorado at Boulder).

  16. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1989-10-17

    Sand boil or sand volcano measuring 2 m (6.6 ft.) in length erupted in median of Interstate Highway 80 west of the Bay Bridge toll plaza when ground shaking transformed loose water-saturated deposit of subsurface sand into a sand-water slurry (liquefaction) in the October 17, 1989, Loma Prieta earthquake. Vented sand contains marine-shell fragments. Sand and soil grains have faces that can cause friction as they roll and slide against each other, or even cause sticking and form small voids between grains. This complex behavior can cause soil to behave like a liquid under certain conditions such as earthquakes or when powders are handled in industrial processes. Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiments aboard the Space Shuttle use the microgravity of space to simulate this behavior under conditions that carnot be achieved in laboratory tests on Earth. MGM is shedding light on the behavior of fine-grain materials under low effective stresses. Applications include earthquake engineering, granular flow technologies (such as powder feed systems for pharmaceuticals and fertilizers), and terrestrial and planetary geology. Nine MGM specimens have flown on two Space Shuttle flights. Another three are scheduled to fly on STS-107. The principal investigator is Stein Sture of the University of Colorado at Boulder. (Credit: J.C. Tinsley, U.S. Geological Survey)

  17. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1998-01-01

    On STS-89, three Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) test cells were subjected to five cycles of compression and relief (left) and three were subjected to shorter displacement cycles that simulate motion during an earthquake (right). In the compression/relief tests, the sand particles rearranged themselves and slightly re-expanded the column during relief. In the short displacement tests, the specimen's resistance to compression decreases, even though the displacement remains the same. The specimens were cycled up to 100 times or until the resistive force was less than 1% that of the previous cycle. Sand and soil grains have faces that can cause friction as they roll and slide against each other, or even cause sticking and form small voids between grains. This complex behavior can cause soil to behave like a liquid under certain conditions such as earthquakes or when powders are handled in industrial processes. Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiments aboard the Space Shuttle use the microgravity of space to simulate this behavior under conditons that carnot be achieved in laboratory tests on Earth. MGM is shedding light on the behavior of fine-grain materials under low effective stresses. Applications include earthquake engineering, granular flow technologies (such as powder feed systems for pharmaceuticals and fertilizers), and terrestrial and planetary geology. Nine MGM specimens have flown on two Space Shuttle flights. Another three are scheduled to fly on STS-107. The principal investigator is Stein Sture of the University of Colorado at Boulder. Credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC)

  18. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-07-01

    Key persornel in the Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiment include Khalid Alshibli, project scientist at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Sand and soil grains have faces that can cause friction as they roll and slide against each other, or even cause sticking and form small voids between grains. This complex behavior can cause soil to behave like a liquid under certain conditions such as earthquakes or when powders are handled in industrial processes. MGM experiments aboard the Space Shuttle use the microgravity of space to simulate this behavior under conditions that cannot be achieved in laboratory tests on Earth. MGM is shedding light on the behavior of fine-grain materials under low effective stresses. Applications include earthquake engineering, granular flow technologies (such as powder feed systems for pharmaceuticals and fertilizers), and terrestrial and planetary geology. Nine MGM specimens have flown on two Space Shuttle flights. Another three are scheduled to fly on STS-107. The principal investigator is Stein Sture of the University of Colorado at Boulder. (Credit: MSFC).

  19. Particle Effects On The Extinction And Ignition Of Flames In Normal- And Micro-Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andac, M. G.; Egolfopoulos, F. N.; Campbell, C. S.

    2003-01-01

    Reacting dusty flows have been studied to lesser extent than pure gas phase flows and sprays. Particles can significantly alter the ignition, burning and extinction characteristics of the gas phase due to the dynamic, thermal, and chemical couplings between the phases. The understanding of two-phase flows can be attained in stagnation flow configurations, which have been used to study spray combustion [e.g. 1] as well as reacting dusty flows [e.g. 2]. The thermal coupling between inert particles and a gas, as well as the effect of gravity, were studied in Ref. 3. It was also shown that the gravity can substantially affect parameters such as the particle velocity, number density, mass flux, and temperature. In Refs. 4 and 5, the effects of inert particles on the extinction of strained premixed and nonpremixed flames were studied both experimentally and numerically at 1-g and m-g. It was shown that large particles can cool flames more effectively than smaller particles. The effects of flame configuration and particle injection orientation were also addressed. It was shown that it was not possible to obtain a simple and still meaningful scaling that captured all the pertinent physics due to the complexity of the couplings between parameters. Also, the cooling by particles is more profound in the absence of gravity as gravity works to reduce the particle number density in the neighborhood of the flame. The efforts were recently shifted towards the understanding of the effects of combustible particles on extinction [6], the gas-phase ignition by hot particle injection [7], and the hot gas ignition of flames in the presence of particles that are not hot enough to ignite the gas phase by themselves.

  20. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-04-15

    The loss of productivity due to flu is staggering. Costs range as much as $20 billio a year. High mutation rates of the flu virus have hindered development of new drugs or vaccines. The secret lies in a small molecule which is attached to the host cell's surface. Each flu virus, no matter what strain, must remove this small molecule to escape the host cell to spread infection. Using data from space and earth grown crystals, researchers from the Center of Macromolecular Crystallography (CMC) are desining drugs to bind with this protein's active site. This lock and key fit reduces the spread of flu in the body by blocking its escape route. In collaboration with its corporate partner, the CMC has refined drug structure in preparation for clinical trials. Tested and approved relief is expected to reach drugstores by year 2004.

  1. A quantitative model and the experimental evaluation of the liquid fuel layer for the downward flame spread of XPS foam.

    PubMed

    Luo, Shengfeng; Xie, Qiyuan; Tang, Xinyi; Qiu, Rong; Yang, Yun

    2017-05-05

    The objective of this work is to investigate the distinctive mechanisms of downward flame spread for XPS foam. It was physically considered as a moving down of narrow pool fire instead of downward surface flame spread for normal solids. A method was developed to quantitatively analyze the accumulated liquid fuel based on the experimental measurement of locations of flame tips and burning rates. The results surprisingly showed that about 80% of the generated hot liquid fuel remained in the pool fire during a certain period. Most of the consumed solid XPS foam didn't really burn away but transformed as the liquid fuel in the downward moving pool fire, which might be an important promotion for the fast fire development. The results also indicated that the dripping propensity of the hot liquid fuel depends on the total amount of the hot liquid accumulated in the pool fire. The leading point of the flame front curve might be the breach of the accumulated hot liquid fuel if it is enough for dripping. Finally, it is suggested that horizontal noncombustible barriers for preventing the accumulation and dripping of liquid fuel are helpful for vertical confining of XPS fire.

  2. Cool Flames and Autoignition: Thermal-Ignition Theory of Combustion Experimentally Validated in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearlman, Howard; Chapek, Richard M.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this study at the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field is to hone our understanding of spontaneous chemical reactions and determine the various factors that influence when, where, and how cool flames and autoignitions develop. These factors include the molecular structure of the fuel, the pressure and temperature of the mixture, and the various ways in which heat can be lost - through conduction, convection, or radiation. Generally, radiation heat transfer is weak at low temperatures, and most of the heat is lost through convection or conduction.

  3. Radiant Extinction of Gaseous Diffusion Flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berhan, Sean; Atreya, Arvind; Everest, David; Sacksteder, Kurt R.

    1999-01-01

    The absence of buoyancy-induced flows in microgravity (mu-g) and the resulting increase in the reactant residence time significantly alters the fundamentals of many combustion processes. Substantial differences between normal gravity (ng) and mu-g flames have been reported in experiments on candle flames, flame spread over solids, droplet combustion, and others. These differences are more basic than just in the visible flame shape. Longer residence times and higher concentration of combustion products in the flame zone create a thermochemical environment that changes the flame chemistry and the heat and mass transfer processes. Processes such as flame radiation, that are often ignored in ng, become very important and sometimes even controlling. Furthermore, microgravity conditions considerably enhance flame radiation by: (1) the build-up of combustion products in the high-temperature reaction zone which increases the gas radiation; and (2) longer residence times make conditions appropriate for substantial amounts of soot to form which is also responsible for radiative heat loss. Thus, it is anticipated that radiative heat loss may eventually extinguish the "weak" (low burning rate per unit flame area) mu-g diffusion flame. Yet, space shuttle experiments on candle flames show that in an infinite ambient atmosphere, the hemispherical candle flame in mu-g will burn indefinitely. This may be because of the coupling between the fuel production rate and the flame via the heat-feedback mechanism for candle flames, flames over solids and fuel droplet flames. Thus, to focus only on the gas-phase phenomena leading to radiative extinction, aerodynamically stabilized gaseous diffusion flames are examined. This enables independent control of the fuel flow rate to help identify conditions under which radiative extinction occurs. Also, spherical geometry is chosen for the mu-g experiments and modeling because: (1) It reduces the complexity by making the problem one

  4. Radiant Extinction Of Gaseous Diffusion Flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berhan, S.; Chernovsky, M.; Atreya, A.; Baum, Howard R.; Sacksteder, Kurt R.

    2003-01-01

    The absence of buoyancy-induced flows in microgravity (mu:g) and the resulting increase in the reactant residence time significantly alters the fundamentals of many combustion processes. Substantial differences between normal gravity (ng) and :g flames have been reported in experiments on candle flames [1, 2], flame spread over solids [3, 4], droplet combustion [5,6], and others. These differences are more basic than just in the visible flame shape. Longer residence times and higher concentration of combustion products in the flame zone create a thermochemical environment that changes the flame chemistry and the heat and mass transfer processes. Processes such as flame radiation, that are often ignored in ng, become very important and sometimes even controlling. Furthermore, microgravity conditions considerably enhance flame radiation by: (i) the build-up of combustion products in the high-temperature reaction zone which increases the gas radiation, and (ii) longer residence times make conditions appropriate for substantial amounts of soot to form which is also responsible for radiative heat loss. Thus, it is anticipated that radiative heat loss may eventually extinguish the Aweak@ (low burning rate per unit flame area) :g diffusion flame. Yet, space shuttle experiments on candle flames show that in an infinite ambient atmosphere, the hemispherical candle flame in :g will burn indefinitely [1]. This may be because of the coupling between the fuel production rate and the flame via the heat-feedback mechanism for candle flames, flames over solids and fuel droplet flames. Thus, to focus only on the gas-phase phenomena leading to radiative extinction, aerodynamically stabilized gaseous diffusion flames are examined. This enables independent control of the fuel flow rate to help identify conditions under which radiative extinction occurs. Also, spherical geometry is chosen for the :g experiments and modeling because: (i) It reduces the complexity by making the problem

  5. Flammability Aspects of a Cotton-Fiberglass Fabric in Opposed and Concurrent Airflow in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferkul, Paul V.; Olson, Sandra; Johnston, Michael C.; T'ien, James

    2012-01-01

    Microgravity combustion tests burning fabric samples were performed aboard the International Space Station. The cotton-fiberglass blend samples were mounted inside a small wind tunnel which could impose air flow speeds up to 40 cm/s. The wind tunnel was installed in the Microgravity Science Glovebox which supplied power, imaging, and a level of containment. The effects of air flow speed on flame appearance, flame growth, and spread rates were determined in both the opposed and concurrent flow configuration. For the opposed flow configuration, the flame quickly reached steady spread for each flow speed, and the spread rate was fastest at an intermediate value of flow speed. These tests show the enhanced flammability in microgravity for this geometry, since, in normal gravity air, a flame self-extinguishes in the opposed flow geometry (downward flame spread). In the concurrent flow configuration, flame size grew with time during the tests. A limiting length and steady spread rate were obtained only in low flow speeds ( 10 cm/s) for the short-length samples that fit in the small wind tunnel. For these conditions, flame spread rate increased linearly with increasing flow. This is the first time that detailed transient flame growth data was obtained in purely forced flows in microgravity. In addition, by decreasing flow speed to a very low value (around 1 cm/s), quenching extinction was observed. The valuable results from these long-duration experiments validate a number of theoretical predictions and also provide the data for a transient flame growth model under development.

  6. Contributions of Microgravity Test Results to the Design of Spacecraft Fire Safety Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, Robert; Urban, David L.

    1993-01-01

    Experiments conducted in spacecraft and drop towers show that thin-sheet materials have reduced flammability ranges and flame-spread rates under quiescent low-gravity environments (microgravity) as compared to normal gravity. Furthermore, low-gravity flames may be suppressed more easily by atmospheric dilution or decreasing atmospheric total pressure than their normal-gravity counterparts. The addition of a ventilating air flow to the low-gravity flame zone, however, can greatly enhance the flammability range and flame spread. These results, along with observations of flame and smoke characteristics useful for microgravity fire-detection 'signatures', promise to be of considerable value to spacecraft fire-safety designs. The paper summarizes the fire detection and suppression techniques proposed for the Space Station Freedom and discusses both the application of low-gravity combustion knowledge to improve fire protection and the critical needs for further research.

  7. Microgravity research in NASA ground-based facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lekan, Jack

    1989-01-01

    An overview of reduced gravity research performed in NASA ground-based facilities sponsored by the Microgravity Science and Applications Program of the NASA Office of Space Science and Applications is presented. A brief description and summary of the operations and capabilities of each of these facilities along with an overview of the historical usage of them is included. The goals and program elements of the Microgravity Science and Applications programs are described and the specific programs that utilize the low gravity facilities are identified. Results from two particular investigations in combustion (flame spread over solid fuels) and fluid physics (gas-liquid flows at microgravity conditions) are presented.

  8. Large Lewis No. Edge-Flame Instabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckmaster, J.

    2001-01-01

    Edge-flames play an important role in a number of microgravity investigations, and in the general study of flames. Examples include the candle-flame experiments carried out on board both the Space Shuttle and the Mir Space Station; the flame-spread-over-liquid work carried out by H. Ross and W. Sirignano amongst others and lifted turbulent diffusion flames. In all of these configurations a local two-dimensional flame structure can be identified which looks like a flame-sheet with an edge, and these structures exhibit dynamical behavior which characterizes them and distinguishes them from ad hoc 2D flame structures. Edge-flames can exist in both a non-premixed context (edges of diffusion flames) and in a premixed context (edges of deflagrations), but the work reported here deals with the edges of diffusion flames. It is particularly relevant, we believe, to oscillations that have been seen in both the candle-flame context, and the flame-spread-over-liquid context. These oscillations are periodic edge-oscillations (in an appropriate reference frame), sans oscillation of the trailing diffusion flame. It is shown that if the Lewis number of the fuel is sufficiently large (the Lewis number of the oxidizer is taken to be 1), and the Damkohler number is sufficiently small, oscillating-edge solutions can be found. Oscillations are encouraged by an on-edge convective flow and the insertion of a cold probe, discouraged by an off-edge convective flow. In the present work, the nature of these oscillations is examined in more depth, using a variety of numerical strategies.

  9. Edge Diffusion Flame Propagation and Stabilization Studied

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takahashi, Fumiaki; Katta, Viswanath R.

    2004-01-01

    In most practical combustion systems or fires, fuel and air are initially unmixed, thus forming diffusion flames. As a result of flame-surface interactions, the diffusion flame often forms an edge, which may attach to burner walls, spread over condensed fuel surfaces, jump to another location through the fuel-air mixture formed, or extinguish by destabilization (blowoff). Flame holding in combustors is necessary to achieve design performance and safe operation of the system. Fires aboard spacecraft behave differently from those on Earth because of the absence of buoyancy in microgravity. This ongoing in-house flame-stability research at the NASA Glenn Research Center is important in spacecraft fire safety and Earth-bound combustion systems.

  10. Numerical Computation of Flame Spread over a Thin Solid in Forced Concurrent Flow with Gas-phase Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jiang, Ching-Biau; T'ien, James S.

    1994-01-01

    Excerpts from a paper describing the numerical examination of concurrent-flow flame spread over a thin solid in purely forced flow with gas-phase radiation are presented. The computational model solves the two-dimensional, elliptic, steady, and laminar conservation equations for mass, momentum, energy, and chemical species. Gas-phase combustion is modeled via a one-step, second order finite rate Arrhenius reaction. Gas-phase radiation considering gray non-scattering medium is solved by a S-N discrete ordinates method. A simplified solid phase treatment assumes a zeroth order pyrolysis relation and includes radiative interaction between the surface and the gas phase.

  11. Thickness and Fuel Preheating Effects on Material Flammability in Microgravity from the BASS Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferkul, Paul V.; Olson, Sandra L.; Takahashi, Fumiaki; Endo, Makoto; Johnson, Michael C.; T'ien, James S.

    2013-01-01

    The Burning and Suppression of Solids (BASS) experiment was performed on the International Space Station. Microgravity combustion tests burning thin and thick flat samples, acrylic spheres, and candles were conducted. The samples were mounted inside a small wind tunnel which could impose air flow speeds up to 40 cms. The wind tunnel was installed in the Microgravity Science Glovebox which supplied power, imaging, and a level of containment. The effects of air flow speed, fuel thickness, fuel preheating, and nitrogen dilution on flame appearance, flame growth, and spread rates were determined in both the opposed and concurrent flow configuration. In some cases, a jet of nitrogen was introduced to attempt to extinguish the flame. Microgravity flames were found to be especially sensitive to air flow speed in the range 0 to 5 cms. The gas phase response is much faster compared to the solid and so as the flow speed is changed, the flame responds with almost no delay. At the lowest speeds examined (less than 1 cms) all the flames tended to become dim blue and very stable. However, heat loss at these very low convective rates is small so the flames can burn for a long time. At moderate flow speeds (between about 1 and 5 cms) the flame continually heats the solid fuel resulting in an increasing fuel temperature, higher rate of fuel vaporization, and a stronger, more luminous flame as time progresses. Only the smallest flames burning acrylic slabs appeared to be adversely influenced by solid conductive heat loss, but even these burned for over 5 minutes before self-extinguishing. This has implications for spacecraft fire safety since a tiny flame might be undetected for a long time. While the small flame is not particularly hazardous if it remains small, the danger is that it might flare up if the air convection is suddenly increased or if the flame spreads into another fuel source.

  12. Spread Across Liquids Continues to Fly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Fletcher J.

    2001-01-01

    The physics and behavior of a flame spreading across a flammable liquid is an active area of research at the NASA Glenn Research Center. Spills of fuels and other liquids often result in considerable fire hazards, and much remains unknown about the details of how a flame, once ignited, moves across a pool. The depth of the liquid or size of the spill, the temperature, and wind, if any, can all complicate the combustion processes. In addition, with the advent of the International Space Station there may be fire hazards associated with cleaning, laboratory, or other fluids in space, and it is essential to understand the role that gravity plays in such situations. The Spread Across Liquids (SAL) experiment is an experimental and computational effort dedicated to understanding the detailed mechanisms of flame spread across a flammable liquid initially below its flashpoint temperature. The experimental research is being carried out in-house by a team of researchers from Glenn, the National Center for Microgravity Combustion, and Zin Technologies, with computer modeling being provided via a grant with the University of California, Irvine. Glenn's Zero Gravity Facility is used to achieve short microgravity periods, and normal gravity testing is done in the Space Experiments Laboratory. To achieve longer periods of microgravity, the showcase SAL hardware flies aboard a sounding rocket launched from White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico, approximately once per year. In addition to extended microgravity, this carrier allows the use of detailed diagnostics that cannot be employed in a drop tower.

  13. Spreading of thermonuclear flames on the neutron star in SAX J1808.4-3658: an observational tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhattacharyya, Sudip; Strohmayer, Tod E.

    2005-01-01

    We analyse archival Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) proportional counter array (PCA) data of thermonuclear X-ray bursts from the 2002 outburst of the accreting millisecond pulsar SAX 51808.4-3658. We present evidence of a complex frequency modulation of oscillations during burst rise, and correlations among the time evolution of the oscillation frequency, amplitude, and the inferred burning region area. We discuss these findings in the context of a model, based on thermonuclear flame spreading on the neutron star surface, that can qualitatively explain these features. From our model, we infer that for the 2002 Oct. 15 thermonuclear burst, the ignition likely occurred in the mid-latitudes, the burning region took approx. 0.2 s to nearly encircle the equatorial region of the neutron star, and after that the lower amplitude oscillation originated from the remaining asymmetry of the burning front in the same hemisphere where the burst ignited. We emphasize that studies of the evolution of burst oscillation properties during burst rise can provide a powerful tool to understand thermonuclear flame spreading on neutron star surfaces under extreme physical conditions.

  14. Fire spread in chaparral: comparison of data with flame-mass loss relationships

    Treesearch

    David R. Weise; Thomas H. Fletcher; Shankar Mahalingam; Xiangyang Zhou; Lulu Sun

    2017-01-01

    The relationships between flame length, mass loss rate, and the Froude number have become well-established for many different fuels over the past 60 years. Chaparral, a mixture of shrub plants from the Mediterranean climate zone of southwestern North America, represents a fuel type—living plants—that has seldom been included in the development of these relationships....

  15. A study of flame spread in engineered cardboard fuelbeds: Part II: Scaling law approach

    Treesearch

    Brittany A. Adam; Nelson K. Akafuah; Mark Finney; Jason Forthofer; Kozo Saito

    2013-01-01

    In this second part of a two part exploration of dynamic behavior observed in wildland fires, time scales differentiating convective and radiative heat transfer is further explored. Scaling laws for the two different types of heat transfer considered: Radiation-driven fire spread, and convection-driven fire spread, which can both occur during wildland fires. A new...

  16. Dropping In a Microgravity Environment (DIME) contest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The first NASA Dropping In a Microgravity Environment (DIME) student competition pilot project came to a conclusion at the Glenn Research Center in April 2001. The competition involved high-school student teams who developed the concept for a microgravity experiment and prepared an experiment proposal. The two student teams - COSI Academy, sponsored by the Columbus Center of Science and Industry, and another team from Cincinnati, Ohio's Sycamore High School, designed a microgravity experiment, fabricated the experimental apparatus, and visited NASA Glenn to operate their experiment in the 2.2 Second Drop Tower. This is the interior of the Sycamore High School (Cincinnati, Ohio) students' experiment to observe the flame spreading on a 100 percent cotton T-shirt under low-g. This image is from a digital still camera; higher resolution is not available.

  17. Dropping In a Microgravity Environment (DIME) contest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The first NASA Dropping In a Microgravity Environment (DIME) student competition pilot project came to a conclusion at the Glenn Research Center in April 2001. The competition involved high-school student teams who developed the concept for a microgravity experiment and prepared an experiment proposal. The two student teams - COSI Academy, sponsored by the Columbus Center of Science and Industry, and another team from Cincinnati, Ohio's Sycamore High School, designed a microgravity experiment, fabricated the experimental apparatus, and visited NASA Glenn to operate their experiment in the 2.2 Second Drop Tower. This is the interior of the Sycamore High School (Cincinnati, Ohio) students' experiment to observe the flame spreading on a 100 percent cotton T-shirt under low-g. This image is from a digital still camera; higher resolution is not available.

  18. Effects of buoyancy on lean premixed v-flames, Part II. VelocityStatistics in Normal and Microgravity

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, R.K.; Bedat, B.; Yegian, D.T.

    1999-07-01

    The field effects of buoyancy on laminar and turbulent premixed v-flames have been studied by the use of laser Doppler velocimetry to measure the velocity statistics in +1g, -1g and {micro}g flames. The experimental conditions covered mean velocity, Uo, of 0.4 to 2 m/s, methane/air equivalence ratio, f, of 0.62 to 0.75. The Reynolds numbers, from 625 to 3130 and the Richardson number from 0.05 to 1.34. The results show that a change from favorable (+1g) to unfavorable (-1g) mean pressure gradient in the plume create stagnating flows in the far field whose influences on the mean and fluctuating velocities persist in the near field even at the highest Re we have investigated. The use of Richardson number < 0.1 as a criterion for momentum dominance is not sufficient to prescribe an upper limit for these buoyancy effects. In {micro}g, the flows within the plumes are non-accelerating and parallel. Therefore, velocity gradients and hence mean strain rates in the plumes of laboratory flames are direct consequences of buoyancy. Furthermore, the rms fluctuations in the plumes of {micro}g flames are lower and more isotropic than in the laboratory flames to show that the unstable plumes in laboratory flames also induce velocity fluctuations. The phenomena influenced by buoyancy i.e. degree of flame wrinkling, flow acceleration, flow distribution, and turbulence production, can be subtle due to their close coupling with other flame flow interaction processes. But they cannot be ignored in fundamental studies or else the conclusions and insights would be ambiguous and not very meaningful.

  19. Particle Generation And Evolution In Silane (SiH4)/Acetylene (C2H2) Flames In Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keil, D. G.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this experimental program is to advance the understanding of the coupling of particle formation with gas phase combustion processes. The work utilizes the unique SiH4/C2H2 combustion system which generates particulate products ranging from high purity, white SiC to carbonaceous soot depending on equivalence ratio (Ref. 1). A goal of this work is to identify gas phase or particle formation processes that provide the enthalpy release needed to drive the combustion wave, and to locate the steps of the particle formation process that determine SiC stoichiometry and crystallinity. In a real sense, these SiH4/C2H2 flames act like highly sooty hydrocarbon flames, but with simpler chemistry. This simplification is expected to allow them to be used as surrogates to advance understanding of soot formation in such rich hydrocarbon flames. It is also expected that this improved understanding of SiC particle generation and evolution in these self-sustaining flames will advance the commercial potential of the flame process for the generation of high purity SiC powders.

  20. Gravitational Influences on Flame Propagation Through Non-Uniform, Premixed Gas Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Fletcher J.; Easton, John; Marchese, Anthony; Hovermann, Fred

    2003-01-01

    Flame propagation through non-uniformly premixed (or layered) gases has importance both in useful combustion systems and in unintentional fires. As summarized recently and in previous Microgravity Workshop papers, non-uniform premixed gas combustion receives scant attention compared to the more usual limiting cases of diffusion or uniformly premixed flames, especially regarding the role gravity plays. This paper summarizes our recent findings on gravitational effects on layered combustion along a floor, in which the fuel concentration gradient exists normal to the direction of flame spread. In an effort to understand the mechanism by which the flames spread faster in microgravity (and much faster, in laboratory coordinates, than the laminar burning velocity for uniform mixtures), we have begun making pressure measurements across the spreading flame front that are described here. Earlier researchers, testing in 1g, claimed that hydrostatic pressure differences could account for the rapid spread rates. Additionally, we present the development of a new apparatus to study flame spread in free (i.e., far from walls), non-homogeneous fuel layers formed in a flow tunnel behind an airfoil that has been tested in normal gravity.

  1. Microgravity Combustion Science: 1995 Program Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Howard D. (Editor); Gokoglu, Suleyman A. (Editor); Friedman, Robert (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    Microgravity greatly benefits the study of fundamental combustion processes. In this environment, buoyancy-induced flow is nearly eliminated, weak or normally obscured forces and flows can be isolated, gravitational settling or sedimentation is nearly eliminated, and temporal and spatial scales can be expanded. This document reviews the state of knowledge in microgravity combustion science with the emphasis on NASA-sponsored developments in the current period of 1992 to early 1995. The subjects cover basic research in gaseous premixed and diffusion-flame systems, flame structure and sooting, liquid droplets and pools, and solid-surface ignition and flame spread. They also cover applied research in combustion synthesis of ceramic-metal composites, advanced diagnostic instrumentation, and on-orbit fire safety. The review promotes continuing research by describing the opportunities for Principal Investigator participation through the NASA Research Announcement program and the available NASA Lewis Research Center ground-based facilities and spaceflight accommodations. This review is compiled by the members and associates of the NASA Lewis Microgravity Combustion Branch, and it serves as an update of two previous overview reports.

  2. A Numerical Investigation of the Extinction of Low Strain Rate Diffusion Flames by an Agent in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Puri, Ishwar K.

    2004-01-01

    Our goal has been to investigate the influence of both dilution and radiation on the extinction process of nonpremixed flames at low strain rates. Simulations have been performed by using a counterflow code and three radiation models have been included in it, namely, the optically thin, the narrowband, and discrete ordinate models. The counterflow flame code OPPDIFF was modified to account for heat transfer losses by radiation from the hot gases. The discrete ordinate method (DOM) approximation was first suggested by Chandrasekhar for solving problems in interstellar atmospheres. Carlson and Lathrop developed the method for solving multi-dimensional problem in neutron transport. Only recently has the method received attention in the field of heat transfer. Due to the applicability of the discrete ordinate method for thermal radiation problems involving flames, the narrowband code RADCAL was modified to calculate the radiative properties of the gases. A non-premixed counterflow flame was simulated with the discrete ordinate method for radiative emissions. In comparison with two other models, it was found that the heat losses were comparable with the optically thin and simple narrowband model. The optically thin model had the highest heat losses followed by the DOM model and the narrow-band model.

  3. Burning Candles in the Microgravity of Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietrich, Daniel; Ross, Howard; Tien, James

    1997-01-01

    The Candle Flames in Microgravity (CFM) experiment was designed to study how long candle flames can be sustained in microgravity, how the flames behave prior to extinction, and the how two closely spaced candle flames behave. The scientists hope that one day the results will help resolve age-old questions regarding the effects of gravity on certain types of flames (low momentum diffusion flames, or candle flames) and their ability to burn without the presence of gravity. This information will provide a better understanding of fires on spacecraft and could lead to advances in fire detection and extinction techniques.

  4. Quantitative Measurement of Oxygen in Microgravity Combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silver, Joel A.

    1997-01-01

    A low-gravity environment, in space or in ground-based facilities such as drop towers, provides a unique setting for studying combustion mechanisms. Understanding the physical phenomena controlling the ignition and spread of flames in microgravity has importance for space safety as well as for better characterization of dynamical and chemical combustion processes which are normally masked by buoyancy and other gravity-related effects. Due to restrictions associated with performing measurements in reduced gravity, diagnostic methods which have been applied to microgravity combustion studies have generally been limited to capture of flame emissions on film or video, laser Schlieren imaging and (intrusive) temperature measurements using thermocouples. Given the development of detailed theoretical models, more sophisticated diagnostic methods are needed to provide the kind of quantitative data necessary to characterize the properties of microgravity combustion processes as well as provide accurate feedback to improve the predictive capabilities of the models. When the demands of space flight are considered, the need for improved diagnostic systems which are rugged, compact, reliable, and operate at low power becomes apparent. The objective of this research is twofold. First, we want to develop a better understanding of the relative roles of diffusion and reaction of oxygen in microgravity combustion. As the primary oxidizer species, oxygen plays a major role in controlling the observed properties of flames, including flame front speed (in solid or liquid flames), extinguishment characteristics, flame size and flame temperature. The second objective is to develop better diagnostics based on diode laser absorption which can be of real value in both microgravity combustion research and as a sensor on-board Spacelab as either an air quality monitor or as part of a fire detection system. In our prior microgravity work, an eight line-of-sight fiber optic system measured

  5. Quantitative Measurement of Oxygen in Microgravity Combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silver, Joel A.

    1997-01-01

    A low-gravity environment, in space or in ground-based facilities such as drop towers, provides a unique setting for studying combustion mechanisms. Understanding the physical phenomena controlling the ignition and spread of flames in microgravity has importance for space safety as well as for better characterization of dynamical and chemical combustion processes which are normally masked by buoyancy and other gravity-related effects. Due to restrictions associated with performing measurements in reduced gravity, diagnostic methods which have been applied to microgravity combustion studies have generally been limited to capture of flame emissions on film or video, laser Schlieren imaging and (intrusive) temperature measurements using thermocouples. Given the development of detailed theoretical models, more sophisticated diagnostic methods are needed to provide the kind of quantitative data necessary to characterize the properties of microgravity combustion processes as well as provide accurate feedback to improve the predictive capabilities of the models. When the demands of space flight are considered, the need for improved diagnostic systems which are rugged, compact, reliable, and operate at low power becomes apparent. The objective of this research is twofold. First, we want to develop a better understanding of the relative roles of diffusion and reaction of oxygen in microgravity combustion. As the primary oxidizer species, oxygen plays a major role in controlling the observed properties of flames, including flame front speed (in solid or liquid flames), extinguishment characteristics, flame size and flame temperature. The second objective is to develop better diagnostics based on diode laser absorption which can be of real value in both microgravity combustion research and as a sensor on-board Spacelab as either an air quality monitor or as part of a fire detection system. In our prior microgravity work, an eight line-of-sight fiber optic system measured

  6. Microgravity Platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Del Basso, Steve

    2000-01-01

    The world's space agencies have been conducting microgravity research since the beginning of space flight. Initially driven by the need to understand the impact of less than- earth gravity physics on manned space flight, microgravity research has evolved into a broad class of scientific experimentation that utilizes extreme low acceleration environments. The U.S. NASA microgravity research program supports both basic and applied research in five key areas: biotechnology - focusing on macro-molecular crystal growth as well as the use of the unique space environment to assemble and grow mammalian tissue; combustion science - focusing on the process of ignition, flame propagation, and extinction of gaseous, liquid, and solid fuels; fluid physics - including aspects of fluid dynamics and transport phenomena; fundamental physics - including the study of critical phenomena, low-temperature, atomic, and gravitational physics; and materials science - including electronic and photonic materials, glasses and ceramics, polymers, and metals and alloys. Similar activities prevail within the Chinese, European, Japanese, and Russian agencies with participation from additional international organizations as well. While scientific research remains the principal objective behind these program, all hope to drive toward commercialization to sustain a long range infrastructure which .benefits the national technology and economy. In the 1997 International Space Station Commercialization Study, conducted by the Potomac Institute for Policy Studies, some viable microgravity commercial ventures were identified, however, none appeared sufficiently robust to privately fund space access at that time. Thus, government funded micro gravity research continues on an evolutionary path with revolutionary potential.

  7. Interferometer Development for Study of Interactions between Flames on Parallel Solid Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldmeer, J. S.; Urban, D. L.; Yuan, Z. G.

    1999-01-01

    The interactions between flames spreading over parallel solid sheets of paper are being studied in normal gravity and in microgravity. This geometry provides interesting opportunities to study the interaction of radiative and diffusive transport mechanisms on the spread process. These transport mechanisms are changed when the flame interacts with other flames. Most practical heterogeneous combustion processes involve interacting discrete burning fuel elements, consequently, the study of these interactions is of practical significance. Owing largely to this practical importance, flame interactions have been an area of active research, however microgravity research has been largely limited to droplets. Consideration of flame spread over parallel solid surfaces has been limited to 1-g studies. To study the conductive transport in these flames, an interferometer system has been developed for use in the drop tower. The system takes advantage of a single beam interferometer: Point Diffraction Interferometry (PDI) which uses a portion of the light through the test section to provide the reference beam. Like other interferometric and Schlieren systems, it is a line of sight measurement and is subject to the usual edge and concentration effects. The advantage over Schlieren and shearing interferometry systems is that the fringes are lines of constant index of refraction rather than of its gradient so the images are more readily interpreted. The disadvantage is that it is less able to accommodate a range of temperature gradients.

  8. Burning Laminar Jet Diffusion Flame

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Study of the downlink data from the Laminar Soot Processes (LSP) experiment quickly resulted in discovery of a new mechanism of flame extinction caused by radiation of soot. Scientists found that the flames emit soot sooner than expected. These findings have direct impact on spacecraft fire safety, as well as the theories predicting the formation of soot -- which is a major factor as a pollutant and in the spread of unwanted fires. This sequence was taken July 15, 1997, MET:14/10:34 (approximate) and shows the ignition and extinction of this flame. LSP investigated fundamental questions regarding soot, a solid byproduct of the combustion of hydrocarbon fuels. The experiment was performed using a laminar jet diffusion flame, which is created by simply flowing fuel -- like ethylene or propane -- through a nozzle and igniting it, much like a butane cigarette lighter. The LSP principal investigator was Gerard Faeth, University of Michigan, Arn Arbor. The experiment was part of the space research investigations conducted during the Microgravity Science Laboratory-1R mission (STS-94, July 1-17 1997). LSP results led to a reflight for extended investigations on the STS-107 research mission in January 2003. Advanced combustion experiments will be a part of investigations planned for the International Space Station. (518KB, 20-second MPEG, screen 160 x 120 pixels; downlinked video, higher quality not available) A still JPG composite of this movie is available at http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/ABSTRACTS/MSFC-0300182.html.

  9. Japan's research on gaseous flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niioka, Takashi

    1995-01-01

    Although research studies on gaseous flames in microgravity in Japan have not been one-sided, they have been limited, for the most part, to comparatively fundamental studies. At present it is only possible to achieve a microgravity field by the use of drop towers, as far as gaseous flames are concerned. Compared with experiments on droplets, including droplet arrays, which have been vigorously performed in Japan, studies on gaseous flames have just begun. Experiments on ignition of gaseous fuel, flammability limits, flame stability, effect of magnetic field on flames, and carbon formation from gaseous flames are currently being carried out in microgravity. Seven subjects related to these topics are introduced and discussed herein.

  10. Low velocity opposed-flow frame spread in a transport-controlled environment DARTFire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, Jeff; Thomas, Pete; Chao, Ruian; Bhattacharjee, Subrata; Tang, TI; Altenkirch, Robert A.; Olson, Sandra L.

    1995-01-01

    The overall objectives of the DARTFire project are to uncover the underlying physics and increase understanding of the mechanisms that cause flames to propagate over solid fuels against a low velocity of oxidizer flow in a low-gravity environment. Specific objectives are (1) to analyze experimentally observed flame shapes, measured gas-phase field variables, spread rates, radiative characteristics, and solid-phase regression rates for comparison with previously developed model prediction capability that will be continually extended, and (2) to investigate the transition from ignition to either flame propagation or extinction in order to determine the characteristics of those environments that lead to flame evolution. To meet the objectives, a series of sounding rocket experiments has been designed to exercise several of the dimensional, controllable variables that affect the flame spread process over PMMA in microgravity, i.e., the opposing flow velocity (1-20 cm/s), the external radiant flux directed to the fuel surface (0-2 W/cm(exp 2)), and the oxygen concentration of the environment (35-70%). Because radiative heat transfer is critical to these microgravity flame spread experiments, radiant heating is imposed, and radiant heat loss will be measured. These are the first attempts at such an experimental control and measurement in microgravity. Other firsts associated with the experiment are (1) the control of the low velocity, opposed flow, which is of the same order as diffusive velocities and Stefan flows; (2) state-of-the-art quantitative flame imaging for species-specific emissions (both infrared and ultraviolet) in addition to novel intensified array imaging to obtain a color image of the very dim, low-gravity flames.

  11. Experimental Measurements of Two-dimensional Planar Propagating Edge Flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Villa-Gonzalez, Marcos; Marchese, Anthony J.; Easton, John W.; Miller, Fletcher J.

    2007-01-01

    The study of edge flames has received increased attention in recent years. This work reports the results of a recent study into two-dimensional, planar, propagating edge flames that are remote from solid surfaces (called here, free-layer flames, as opposed to layered flames along floors or ceilings). They represent an ideal case of a flame propagating down a flammable plume, or through a flammable layer in microgravity. The results were generated using a new apparatus in which a thin stream of gaseous fuel is injected into a low-speed laminar wind tunnel thereby forming a flammable layer along the centerline. An airfoil-shaped fuel dispenser downstream of the duct inlet issues ethane from a slot in the trailing edge. The air and ethane mix due to mass diffusion while flowing up towards the duct exit, forming a flammable layer with a steep lateral fuel concentration gradient and smaller axial fuel concentration gradient. We characterized the flow and fuel concentration fields in the duct using hot wire anemometer scans, flow visualization using smoke traces, and non-reacting, numerical modeling using COSMOSFloWorks. In the experiment, a hot wire near the exit ignites the ethane air layer, with the flame propagating downwards towards the fuel source. Reported here are tests with the air inlet velocity of 25 cm/s and ethane flows of 967-1299 sccm, which gave conditions ranging from lean to rich along the centerline. In these conditions the flame spreads at a constant rate faster than the laminar burning rate for a premixed ethane air mixture. The flame spread rate increases with increasing transverse fuel gradient (obtained by increasing the fuel flow rate), but appears to reach a maximum. The flow field shows little effect due to the flame approach near the igniter, but shows significant effect, including flow reversal, well ahead of the flame as it approaches the airfoil fuel source.

  12. Experimental Measurements of Two-dimensional Planar Propagating Edge Flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Villa-Gonzalez, Marcos; Marchese, Anthony J.; Easton, John W.; Miller, Fletcher J.

    2007-01-01

    The study of edge flames has received increased attention in recent years. This work reports the results of a recent study into two-dimensional, planar, propagating edge flames that are remote from solid surfaces (called here, free-layer flames, as opposed to layered flames along floors or ceilings). They represent an ideal case of a flame propagating down a flammable plume, or through a flammable layer in microgravity. The results were generated using a new apparatus in which a thin stream of gaseous fuel is injected into a low-speed laminar wind tunnel thereby forming a flammable layer along the centerline. An airfoil-shaped fuel dispenser downstream of the duct inlet issues ethane from a slot in the trailing edge. The air and ethane mix due to mass diffusion while flowing up towards the duct exit, forming a flammable layer with a steep lateral fuel concentration gradient and smaller axial fuel concentration gradient. We characterized the flow and fuel concentration fields in the duct using hot wire anemometer scans, flow visualization using smoke traces, and non-reacting, numerical modeling using COSMOSFloWorks. In the experiment, a hot wire near the exit ignites the ethane air layer, with the flame propagating downwards towards the fuel source. Reported here are tests with the air inlet velocity of 25 cm/s and ethane flows of 967-1299 sccm, which gave conditions ranging from lean to rich along the centerline. In these conditions the flame spreads at a constant rate faster than the laminar burning rate for a premixed ethane air mixture. The flame spread rate increases with increasing transverse fuel gradient (obtained by increasing the fuel flow rate), but appears to reach a maximum. The flow field shows little effect due to the flame approach near the igniter, but shows significant effect, including flow reversal, well ahead of the flame as it approaches the airfoil fuel source.

  13. Microgravity Effects on Combustion of Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirsch, David; Williams, Jim; Beeson, Harold

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation describing various microgravity effects on the combustion of polymers is shown. The topics include: 1) Major combustion processes and controlling mechanisms in normal and microgravity environments; 2) Review of some buoyancy effects on combustion: melting of thermoplastics; flame strength, geometry and temperature; smoldering combustion; 3) Video comparing polymeric rods burning in normal and microgravity environments; and 4) Relation to spacecraft fire safety of current knowledge of polymers microgravity combustion.

  14. Laminar Jet Diffusion Flame Burning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Study of the downlink data from the Laminar Soot Processes (LSP) experiment quickly resulted in discovery of a new mechanism of flame extinction caused by radiation of soot. Scientists found that the flames emit soot sooner than expected. These findings have direct impact on spacecraft fire safety, as well as the theories predicting the formation of soot -- which is a major factor as a pollutant and in the spread of unwanted fires. This sequence, using propane fuel, was taken STS-94, July 4 1997, MET:2/05:30 (approximate). LSP investigated fundamental questions regarding soot, a solid byproduct of the combustion of hydrocarbon fuels. The experiment was performed using a laminar jet diffusion flame, which is created by simply flowing fuel-like ethylene or propane -- through a nozzle and igniting it, much like a butane cigarette lighter. The LSP principal investigator was Gerard Faeth, University of Michigan, Arn Arbor. The experiment was part of the space research investigations conducted during the Microgravity Science Laboratory-1R mission (STS-94, July 1-17 1997). LSP results led to a reflight for extended investigations on the STS-107 research mission in January 2003. Advanced combustion experiments will be a part of investigations planned for the International Space Station. (983KB, 9-second MPEG, screen 320 x 240 pixels; downlinked video, higher quality not available) A still JPG composite of this movie is available at http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/ABSTRACTS/MSFC-0300184.html.

  15. Real Time Quantitative 3-D Imaging of Diffusion Flame Species

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kane, Daniel J.; Silver, Joel A.

    1997-01-01

    A low-gravity environment, in space or ground-based facilities such as drop towers, provides a unique setting for study of combustion mechanisms. Understanding the physical phenomena controlling the ignition and spread of flames in microgravity has importance for space safety as well as better characterization of dynamical and chemical combustion processes which are normally masked by buoyancy and other gravity-related effects. Even the use of so-called 'limiting cases' or the construction of 1-D or 2-D models and experiments fail to make the analysis of combustion simultaneously simple and accurate. Ideally, to bridge the gap between chemistry and fluid mechanics in microgravity combustion, species concentrations and temperature profiles are needed throughout the flame. However, restrictions associated with performing measurements in reduced gravity, especially size and weight considerations, have generally limited microgravity combustion studies to the capture of flame emissions on film or video laser Schlieren imaging and (intrusive) temperature measurements using thermocouples. Given the development of detailed theoretical models, more sophisticated studies are needed to provide the kind of quantitative data necessary to characterize the properties of microgravity combustion processes as well as provide accurate feedback to improve the predictive capabilities of the computational models. While there have been a myriad of fluid mechanical visualization studies in microgravity combustion, little experimental work has been completed to obtain reactant and product concentrations within a microgravity flame. This is largely due to the fact that traditional sampling methods (quenching microprobes using GC and/or mass spec analysis) are too heavy, slow, and cumbersome for microgravity experiments. Non-intrusive optical spectroscopic techniques have - up until now - also required excessively bulky, power hungry equipment. However, with the advent of near-IR diode

  16. Real Time Quantitative 3-D Imaging of Diffusion Flame Species

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kane, Daniel J.; Silver, Joel A.

    1997-01-01

    A low-gravity environment, in space or ground-based facilities such as drop towers, provides a unique setting for study of combustion mechanisms. Understanding the physical phenomena controlling the ignition and spread of flames in microgravity has importance for space safety as well as better characterization of dynamical and chemical combustion processes which are normally masked by buoyancy and other gravity-related effects. Even the use of so-called 'limiting cases' or the construction of 1-D or 2-D models and experiments fail to make the analysis of combustion simultaneously simple and accurate. Ideally, to bridge the gap between chemistry and fluid mechanics in microgravity combustion, species concentrations and temperature profiles are needed throughout the flame. However, restrictions associated with performing measurements in reduced gravity, especially size and weight considerations, have generally limited microgravity combustion studies to the capture of flame emissions on film or video laser Schlieren imaging and (intrusive) temperature measurements using thermocouples. Given the development of detailed theoretical models, more sophisticated studies are needed to provide the kind of quantitative data necessary to characterize the properties of microgravity combustion processes as well as provide accurate feedback to improve the predictive capabilities of the computational models. While there have been a myriad of fluid mechanical visualization studies in microgravity combustion, little experimental work has been completed to obtain reactant and product concentrations within a microgravity flame. This is largely due to the fact that traditional sampling methods (quenching microprobes using GC and/or mass spec analysis) are too heavy, slow, and cumbersome for microgravity experiments. Non-intrusive optical spectroscopic techniques have - up until now - also required excessively bulky, power hungry equipment. However, with the advent of near-IR diode

  17. Partially Premixed Flame (PPF) Research for Fire Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Puri, Ishwar K.; Aggarwal, Suresh K.; Lock, Andrew J.; Hegde, Uday

    2004-01-01

    Incipient fires typically occur after the partial premixing of fuel and oxidizer. The mixing of product species into the fuel/oxidizer mixture influences flame stabilization and fire spread. Therefore, it is important to characterize the impact of different levels of fuel/oxidizer/product mixing on flame stabilization, liftoff and extinguishment under different gravity conditions. With regard to fire protection, the agent concentration required to achieve flame suppression is an important consideration. The initial stage of an unwanted fire in a microgravity environment will depend on the level of partial premixing and the local conditions such as air currents generated by the fire itself and any forced ventilation (that influence agent and product mixing into the fire). The motivation of our investigation is to characterize these impacts in a systematic and fundamental manner.

  18. Premixed Atmosphere and Convection Influences on Flame Inhibition and Combustion (Pacific)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Honda, Linton K.; Ronney, Paul D.

    1997-01-01

    Flame spread over flat solid fuel beds is a useful paradigm for studying the behavior of more complex two-phase nonpremixed flames. For practical applications, two of the most important elements of flame spreading are the effects of (1) the ambient atmosphere (e.g. pressure and composition) and (2) the flow environment on the spread rate and extinction conditions. Concerning (1), studies of flame spread in vitiated air and non-standard atmospheres such as those found in undersea vessels and spacecraft are particularly important for the assessment of fire hazards in these environments as well as determination of the effectiveness of fire suppressants. Concerning (2), the flow environment may vary widely even when no forced flow is present because of buoyancy effects. Consequently, the goal of this work is to employ microgravity (micro g) experiments to extend previous studies of the effects of ambient atmosphere and the flow environment on flame spread through the use of microgravity (micro g) experiments. Because of the considerable differences between upward (concurrent-flow) and downward (opposed-flow) flame spread at 1g (Williams, 1976, Fernandez-Pello, 1984), in this work both upward and downward 1g spread are tested. Two types of changes to the oxidizing atmosphere are considered in this work. One is the addition of sub-flammability-limit concentrations of a gaseous fuel ('partially premixed' atmospheres). This is of interest because in fires in enclosures, combustion may occur under poorly ventilated conditions, so that oxygen is partially depleted from the air and is replaced by combustible gases such as fuel vapors, H2 or CO. Subsequent fire spread over the solid fuel could occur under conditions of varying oxygen and gaseous fuel content. The potential significance of flame spread under vitiated or partially premixed conditions has been noted previously (Beyler, 1984). The second change is the diluent type, which affects the radiative properties of the

  19. A Theory of Oscillating Edge Flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckmaster, J.; Zhang, Yi

    1999-01-01

    It has been known for some years that when a near-limit flame spreads over a liquid pool of fuel, the edge of the flame can oscillate relative to a frame moving with the mean speed. Each period of oscillation is characterized by long intervals of modest motion during which the edge gases radiate like those of a diffusion flame, punctuated by bursts of rapid advance during which the edge gases radiate like those in a deflagration. Substantial resources have been brought to bear on this issue within the microgravity program, both experimental and numerical. It is also known that when a near-asphyxiated candle-flame burns at zero gravity, the edge of the (hemispherical) flame can oscillate violently prior to extinction. Thus a web-surfer, turning to the NASA web-site at http://microgravity.msfc.nasa.gov, and following the trail combustion science/experiments/experimental results/candle flame, will find photographs and a description of candle burning experiments carried out on board both the Space-shuttle and the Russian space station Mir. A brief report can also be found in the proceedings of the Fourth Workshop. And recently, in a third microgravity program, the leading edge of the flame supported by injection of ethane through the porous surface of a plate over which air is blown has been found to oscillate when conditions are close to blow-off. A number of important points can be made with respect to these observations: It is the edge itself which oscillates, advancing and retreating, not the diffusion flame that trails behind the edge; oscillations only occur under near limit conditions; in each case the Lewis number of the fuel is significantly larger than 1; and because of the edge curvature, the heat losses from the reacting edge structure are larger than those from the trailing diffusion flame. We propose a general theory for these oscillations, invoking Occam's 'Law of Parsimony' in an expanded form, to wit: The same mechanism is responsible for the

  20. Design and Fabrication of a Hele-Shaw Apparatus for Observing Instabilities of Diffusion Flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wichman, I. S.; Oravecz-Simpkins, L.; Olson, S.

    2001-01-01

    Examinations of flame fronts spreading over solid fuels in an opposed flow of oxidizer have shown that the flame front fragments into smaller (cellular) flames. These 'flamelets' will oscillate, recombine, or extinguish, indicating that they are in the near extinction limit regime (i.e., to one side of the quenching branch of the flammability map). Onset of unstable cellular flamelet formation for flame spread over thin fuels occurs when a heat-sink substrate is placed a small distance from the underside of the fuel. This heat-sink substrate (or backing) displaces the quenching branch of the flammability map in a direction that causes the instabilities to occur at higher air velocities. Similar near-limit behavior has been observed in other works using different fuels, thus suggesting that these dynamic mechanisms are fuel-independent and therefore fundamental attributes of flames in this near-limit flame spread regime. The objective of this project is to determine the contributions of the hydrodynamic and thermodiffusive mechanisms to the observed formation of flame instabilities. From this, a model of diffusion flame instabilities shall be generated. Previously, experiments were conducted in NASA drop towers, thereby limiting observation time to O(1-5 sec). The NASA tests exhibited flamelet survival for the entire drop time, suggesting that flamelets (i.e., small cellular flames) might exist, if permitted, for longer time periods. By necessity, experiments were limited to thermally thin cellulose fuels (approximately 0.001 in thick): instabilities could form by virtue of faster spread rates over thin fuels. Unstable behavior was unlikely in the short drop time for thicker fuels. In the International Space Station (ISS), microgravity time is unlimited, so both thin and thick fuels can be tested.